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Full text of "Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences"

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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



California Academy of Sciences 



FOURTH SERIES 



Vol. XXI 




SAN FRANCISCO 

PUBLISHED BY THE ACADEMY 

I933-I936 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

Dr. F. M. MacFarland, Chairman 

Dr. Charles R. Camp Dr. E. P. Meinecke 



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXI 

The Templeton Crocker Expeditions of the Cahfomia 
Academy of Sciences, 1932 and 1933 

PAGES 

No. 1. Grunsky, C. E. Foreword. Published March 14, 1933 1-2 

No. 2. Crocker, Templeton. Introductory Statement. The Expe- 
dition on the Yacht Zaca to the Galapagos Archipelago 
and Other Islands and to the Coast of Central America 
and Mexico, March 10 to September 1, 1932. (Plate 1). 
Published March 14, 1933 3-12 

No. 3. Howell, John Thomas. The Genus Mollugo in the Galapa- 
gos Islands. PubUshed March 14, 1933 13-23 

No. 4. Van Duzee, E. P. Characters of Twenty-Four New Species 
of Hemiptera from the Galapagos Islands and the Coast 
and Islands of Central America and Mexico. Published 
March 14, 1933 25-40 

No. 5. Howell, John Thomas. The Cactaceae of the Galapagos 
Islands. (4 text figs, and Plates 2-3). PubHshed March 14, 
1933 41-54 

No. 6. Wheeler, William Morton. Formicidae of the Templeton 

Crocker Expedition. Published March 22, 1933 57-64 

No. 7. Van Duzee, Millard C. Dolichopodidae and Phoridae. 

(Plate 4). Published April 17, 1933 65-74 

. 8. Bartram, Edwin B. Mosses of the Templeton Crocker 
Expedition collected by John Thomas Howell and Lists 
of the Mosses known from the Galapagos Islands and 
from Cocos Island. (3 text figs.). Published September 20, 
1933 75-86 

Vo. 9. Howell, John Thomas. The Amaranthaceae of the Galapa- 
gos Islands. Published September 20, 1933 87-116 

No. 10. Strong, A. M., Hanna, G. D., and Hertlein, L. G. Marine 
Mollusca from Acapulco, Mexico, with Notes on Other 
Species. (Plates 5-6). Published December 21, 1933. . . . 117-130 

No. 11. Bequeart, Joseph C. The Hippoboscidae of the Galapagos 
Archipelago (Notes on the Hippoboscidae. 8.) with an 
Appendix on the Tabanidae. Published December 21, 
1933 131-138 

No. 12. Van Duzee, E. P. The Diiunal Lepidoptera of the Expedi- 
tion. Published December 21, 1933 139-146 

No. 13. CuRRAN, C. H. Diptera. (4 text figs.). Published March 27, 

1934 147-172 



PAGES 

No. 14. Wheeler, William Morton. Formicidae of the Templeton 
Crocker Expedition, 1933. (1 text fig.). Published April 20, 
1934 173-181 

No. 15. Slevin, Joseph R. Notes on the Reptiles and Amphibians, 
with the Description of a New Species of Sea-Snake. 
Published October 16, 1934 183-188 

No. 16. Davidson, M. E. McLellan. Notes on the Birds. Published 

October 16, 1934 189-198 

No. 17. Howe, Marshall A. The Hepaticae (Chiefly Riccia and 
Anthocerotaceae) of the Galapagos Islands and the Coast 
and Islands of Central America and Mexico. (Plate 7). 
Published October 26, 1934 199-210 

No. 18. LiNDER, David H. Lichens. (1 text fig. and Plate 8). Pub- 
lished October 26, 1934. . . ' 211-224 

No. 19. Horsburgh, David B. A Revision of Two Species of Vinci- 
guenia, a Genus of Deep Sea Fishes. Published February 
6, 1935 225-232 

No. 20. Light, S. F. The Termites. (10 text figs, and Plates 9-10). 

Pubhshed April 3, 1935 233-258 

No. 21. Setchell, William Albert. Some Marine Plants of South- 
eastern Melanesia. (Plates 11-15). Published April 3, 1935. 259-276 

No. 22. Howell, John Thomas. The Vascular Plants from San 

Nicolas Island, CaUfomia. Pubhshed September 26, 1935. 277-284 

No. 23. Darbishire, Otto Vernon. The Roccellaceae with Notes 
on Specimens Collected During the Expedition of 1905-06 
to the Galapagos Islands. (Plates 16-17). Pubhshed 
September 26, 1935 285-294 

No. 24. Hitchcock, Albert Spear. New Species of Grasses from 
the Galapagos and the Revillagigedo Islands, Pubhshed 
September 26, 1935 295-300 

No. 25. Hertlein, Leo George. The Recent Pectinidae. (Plates 

18-19). Pubhshed September 26, 1935 301-328 

No. 26. Howell, John Thomas. New Flowering Plants from the 

Galapagos Islands. Pubhshed September 26, 1935 329-336 

No. 27. Seale, Alvin. Fishes. (Plates 20-23). Published October 23, 

1935 337-378 

No. 28. Cockerell, T. D. A. The Carpenter Bees of the Galapagos 

Islands. Pubhshed October 23, 1935 379-382 

No. 29. Clark, H. Walton. New and Noteworthy Fishes. Pub- 
lished August 12, 1936 383-396 

Index to Volume XXI 397-427 

Errata 427 




OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 1, pp. 1-2 March 14, 1933 

THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 1 

FOREWORD 

BY 

C. E. GRUNSKY 
President and Acting Director 
California Academy of Sciences 

Early in 1932, under auspices of the California Academy of 
Sciences, and in conformity with arrangements made with the late 
Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, Director of the Museum and Stein- 
hart Aquarium, and Executive Curator of the Academy, Mr. Tem- 
pleton Crocker's scientific expedition on his yacht Zaca left San 
Francisco for an extended cruise to the Galapagos Archipelago, and 
to other islands of the Pacific Ocean and to the coast of Central 
America and Mexico. The Zaca was thoroughly equipped for scien- 
tific work. The following members of the Academy's staff of 
scientists were detailed to accompany the expedition: Mr. H. S. 
§warth. Curator of the Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy, 
who, however, returned to San Francisco after the Galapagos Islands 
had been visited; Mr. H. Walton Clark, Assistant Curator of the 
Department of Ichthyology; Mr. John Thomas Howell, Assistant 
Curator of the Department of Botany; and Mr. Robert J. Lanier, 
Assistant Superintendent of the Academy's Steinhart Aquarium. 

To this scientific staff Mr. Crocker added an artist, Toshio Asaeda, 
to make water color records of birds, reptiles, crabs, fishes and other 
marine life. 



March 14, 1933 



M"' r 0-933 



2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The expedition departed from San Francisco on March 10, 1932, 
and returned to the same port on the following September 1st. It 
has come to be known as the "Templeton Crocker Expedition of 
the California Academy of Sciences, 1932." 

Volume No. XXI of the Proceedings of the Academy has been 
set apart for the publication of the results of this expedition. It is 
anticipated that the examination and study of the large amount of 
material which has been secured will extend through several years. 
There is, in the circumstances, uncertainty both as to the number 
of pages which will be covered by the reports which are looked for- 
ward to, as well as to the rate at which the Academy's financial 
resources will permit publication. It is, in consequence, not possible 
to indicate at the outset, whether a subdivision of this volume into 
parts, as now seems probable, will ultimately'' be found necessary. 
If this should prove to be the case provision will later be made for 
such subdivision. 

It remains to be noted that at a joint meeting of the Trustees 
and the Council of the Academy on September 19, 1932, ]\Ir. 
Crocker was declared to be a "Benefactor" of the Academy. To 
this honor he had become entitled by reason of the fact that the 
entire expense of the expedition had been borne by him as a contri- 
bution to the scientific research activities of the Academy. The 
distinction thus conferred upon Mr. Crocker appears particularly 
appropriate in view of the fact that his grandfather, the late Charles 
Crocker, had endowed the Academy with $20,000 to aid it in its 
scientific research activities, and that the late Colonel Charles 
Frederick Crocker, the father of Templeton Crocker, had been 
President of the Board of Trustees of the Academy for some years, 
continuing in this office to the time of his death in 1897. 



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PROCEEDINGS ^^^ ^'^^^ ^^^i'^^^ 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 2, pp. 3-f^ plate 1 March 14, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 2 

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT 

The Expedition on the Yacht Zaca to the Galapagos 

Archipelago and Other Islands and to the 

Coast of Central America and Mexico 

March 10 to September 1, 1932 

BY 

TEMPLETON CROCKER 



Having the desire to further the scientific work along lines of 
natural history which has been quietly pursued by the California 
Academy of Sciences, the facilities which were at my command in 
1932 for voyaging in the Pacific Ocean were offered to the late 
Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, then the Executive Curator of the 
Academy and Director of its scientific activities. This offer having 
been accepted, steps were at once taken to outfit my yacht Zaca for an 
extended scientific cruise. Not least among these preparations was 
the installation of tanks and a system of water circulation for the 
care of live fishes, as it was proposed to bring back as many as 
possible for the Academy's Steinhart Aquarium. 

The Zaca is a motor equipped schooner with average cruising 
speed of about seven knots. Her length over all is 118 feet. The 
officer in charge of navigation was Captain Garland Rotch; the 
Medical Officer was Dr. Albert E. Larsen. The crew consisted of 
thirteen men, namely: First and Second Mates, Radio Operator, 
Chief and Second Engineer, Cook and assistant, Steward and 
assistant, and four seamen. 

March 14, 1933 



4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

To the scientists who had been detailed for service on the expedi- 
tion there was added a Japanese artist, Toshio Asaeda, who proved 
exceptionally expert in reproducing in water colors the marvelous 
specimens of marine life which were encountered on the expedition. 
Within the five months and three weeks that we were afloat, he 
painted some 300 individual specimens of fishes, crabs and other 
marine life, besides some birds, reptiles and insects, with remarkable 
fidelity to shape and color. Asaeda was also the photographer of 
the expedition and at its termination had some 1,400 photographs 
to his credit. 

Cruising was uneventful. There were but ten hours of bad 
weather. Landings were made where desired without exceptional 
difficulties and explorations into the interior were arranged wherever 
there was promise of something unusual. We had quickly learned 
that it was not safe to let any one wander inland alone, so the rule 
was strictly enforced that any one off on an exploration must be 
accompanied by some one else. The members of the crew were 
always ready and soon became valuable aids as collectors. 

Briefly stated this cruise of more than five months took us from 
San Francisco to the west coast of Mexico and Central America, 
to Cocos Island, the Tres Marias Islands, the Revillagigedo Islands, 
Cedros Island, Guadalupe Island and San Nicolas Island. Two 
months were spent at the Galapagos Archipelago. At all these places 
collections of fauna and flora were made and deep-sea dredging was 
resorted to for specimens from the ocean floor. The 168 stations 
occupied for dredging operations yielded much valuable material. 
At some of these stations we were pioneer explorers. The collections 
were successful to a maximum depth of 210 fathoms. 

There were brought back 331 live fishes on the Zaca for exhibition 
in the Steinhart Aquarium. The extent of the collections of natural 
history specimens is indicated by the following preliminary state- 
ments furnished by the curators of the various departments of the 
California Academy of Sciences: 

Botany: About 3,000 specimens of plants (not including dupli- 
cates) were obtained. Some species of flowering plants from the 
Galapagos had not been collected since the visit of Charles Darwin 
in the Beagle. Over 100 specimens of ca'cti were obtained, 40 of 
which are from the Galapagos; these latter are expected to serve as 
a basis of a critical study of the species found there. Over 200 
specimens of marine algae were obtained at the Galapagos, and 
additional large collections were obtained from Lower California 
and other places where dredging was done. A large number of 
Hepaticae with smaller numbers of mosses and fungi were obtained 
in the tropical rain forests of the Galapagos Islands and Cocos 
Island. 

Entomology: Although no trained entomologist accompanied the 
expedition, over 2,400 insects were taken by Mr. Maurice Willows 



Vol. XXI] CROCKER— TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF 1032 5 

to,whom I assigned this duty. The collections of Hemiptera and 
Diptera from the Galapagos are of special interest because these 
groups were largely neglected by the Academy's expedition of 
1905-1906. 

Ichthyology: A large collection of fishes was obtained by all the 
usual means employed in such work except explosives. Special 
attention was paid to tide pools and the use of a submarine light. 
Some excellent species were obtained in deep water with the dredges 
and trawls. 

Herpetology: Since most of the localities visited had been previ- 
ously explored by herpetologists, less attention was given to this 
branch of study. However, a snake was obtained on Duncan Island 
of the Galapagos, the second ever taken there. Forty sea snakes 
were taken along the Central American coast. 

Paleontology: Investigations and collections for this department 
were made at numerous places and by most of the members of the 
expedition. Records of some of the raised beaches of the Galapagos 
show that extensive earth movements have taken place there within 
comparatively recent time. Fossils were collected at several points in 
the Galapagos Islands at localities additional to those which were made 
known by the Academy Expedition of 1905-1906. The large amount 
of dredging which was done resulted in the bringing together of a 
huge collection of marine shells. Excellent specimens of Xenophora 
were obtained along the Central American coast; the genus has 
apparently hitherto been obtained but once from western North 
America. Five specimens of a striking jet black Mitra (not helcheri) 
fully five inches long were dredged off the coast of Lower California. 
Brachiopoda, Echinoidea, Asteroidea, sponges, corals and many 
Crustacea were collected in large numbers and at maoy places. 

Ornithology: A collection of about 400 specimens of birds was 
brought back by the expedition. By far the greatest number were 
taken on the Galapagos Islands where special effort was made to 
select certain species or particular plumages to fill out the Academy's 
series. One species of finch not known since the time of Charles 
Darwin and supposed to be extinct was found to have survived on 
some of the islands. The birds of these islands are of exceptional 
interest, not only because of their many remarkable peculiarities, 
but because the study of them was largely responsible for the 
formulation of Darwin's theory of evolution. By the use of the 
freezing equipment installed aboard the ship, it was possible to 
bring back numerous birds in the flesh. 

Aquarium: The tanks on the deck of the Zaca were equipped for 
constant circulation of sea water. By heating this water from the 
exhaust of the motors it was possible to bring the tropical forms alive 



6 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

from as far south as the Galapagos to San Francisco. Many of the 
gaudily colored fishes from warm waters seem to lose some of their 
brilliance when placed in the aquarium, although otherwise they 
appear normal in every way. The transportation of the living fishes 
called for constant vigilance. The water circulation apparently im- 
posed no hardship on the fishes themselves, but its maintenance 
without interruption devolved on Mr. Lanier who was constantly 
giving these fishes his expert attention. No one else could have 
succeeded as he did. The live fish carried on the Zaca consumed 
640 pounds of food during the cruise. 

As one of the achievements of the expedition it is to be noted that 
an exploration of the fog belt or wet zone of the mountain on Inde- 
fatigable Island of the Galapagos group was undertaken, and its 
summit reached on May 9, 1932. Our party was the first to have 
ever made this ascent. 

It gives me particular pleasure to record the fact that the cour- 
tesies extended to the members of the expedition wherever a stay 
was made, were numerous and wholehearted. The cooperation and 
good will of the governments of the several countries visited and of 
their representatives were always manifest and are gratefully 
acknowledged. 

I wish to acknowledge also the resourcefulness of Captain Rotch 
and his splendid cooperation on all matters; the willingness and 
unselfishness of the crew, and above all the tolerance which every 
member of the cruise showed toward my authority. 

An itinerary of the expedition together with a list of those who 
participated is attached hereto. 



Vol. XXI] CROCKER— TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF 1932 7 

APPENDIX A 

Members of the Expedition: 

Mr. Templeton Crocker. 

Mr. Maurice Willows, Secretary to Mr. Crocker 
and collector of insects. 
Captain Garland Rotch. 
Mr. John Ozanne, First Mate. 
Mr. Garth Basford, Chief Engineer. 
Mr. Karl Elm, Second Mate. 
Mr. Arnold Wehlin, Second Engineer. 
Dr. Albert E. Larsen, Medical Officer. 
Rene Gasse, Radio Operator. 
H. Petersen. A/B. 
B. Bendiksen, A/B. 
Jack Ratikan, A/B. 
Frank Taiga, A/B. 
Henry Miller, First Cook. 
Merle L. McPherren, Second Cook. 
Pemassa Utu, Messboy. 
Basil Kalhimanis, Messboy. 



Scientific Staff: 



Mr. Harry S. Swarth, in charge, Curator of the 

Department of Mammalogy and Ornithology. 

(Left expedition from Punta Arenas on June 

27 for San Francisco.) 
Mr. H. Walton Clark, Assistant Curator of the 

Department of Ichthyology. 
Mr. John Thomas Howell, Assistant Curator of 

the Department of Botany. 
Mr. Robert J. Lanier, Assistant Superintendent 

of the Steinhart Aquarium. 
Mr. Toshio Asaeda, Artist and Photographer. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



APPENDIX B 

Itinerary of the Templeton Crocker Expedition of the 
California Academy of Sciences, 1932 

By Captain Garland Rotch 



Place Arrival 

San Francisco 

San Nicolas Island March 12 

San Diego March 14 

Ensenada March 15 

Guadalupe Island March 16 

Clarion Island March 22 

Socorro Island March 26 

Acapulco April 2 

Galapagos Islands 

Chatham (Wreck Bay) April 15 

Off Abingdon April 16 

Bindloe April 16 

Chatham (Wreck Bay) April 17 

Hood (Gardner Bay) April 19 

Charles (Post Office Bay) 

(Black Beach Road) 

(Cormorant Bay) April 23 

Albemarle (Villamil) 

(Santo Tomas) April 27 

Brattle April 30 

Off Grossman April 30 

Indefatigable (Academy Bay) May 1 

Charles (Black Beach Road) 

(Post Office Bay) May 14 

Albemarle (Iguana Cove) 

(West Coast) 

(Vicinity Elizabeth Bay) 

(Tagus Cove) May 21 

Narborough (Northeast Coast) May 28 

Albemarle (Vicinity Cape Marshall) May 29 

Narborough (Northeast Coast) May 31 

James (James Bay) June 3 

Jervis June 6 

Duncan June 7 

Indefatigable (Conway Bay) 

(North Coast) June 8 

Seymour (South) June 9 

(North) June 11 

James (Sullivan Bay) June 12 

Tower (Darwin Bay) June 15 

Punta Arenas June 22 

Cocos Island (Chatham Bay) 

(Wafer Bay) June 28 

Punta Arenas June 30 

BraxiHto Bay July 1 

Murcielago Bay July 2 

Port Parker July 3 



Departure 
March 10 
March 13 
March 14 
March 15 
March 18 
March 24 
March 29 
April 7 

April 15 

April 16 

April 16 

April 19 

April 22 



April 2 7 

April 30 

April 30 

April 30 

May 14 

May 20 



May 28 

May 29 

May 31 
June 2 
June 6 
June 7 
June 8 

June 9 

June 1 1 

June 12 

June 14 

June 16 

June 26 

June 28 

June 30 
July 2 
July 3 

July 4 



Vol. XXI] CROCKER— TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF 1932 

Place A rrival 

Corinto July 5 

Gulf of Fonseca July 6 

La Union July 9 

Manzanillo July 18 

Navidad Bay July 18 

Banderas Bay (Puerto Vallarta) 

(Punta Mita) July 20 

Maria Madre Island July 23 

San Juanito Island July 25 

Maria Madre Island July 25 

Isabel Island July 27 

Mazatlan July 30 

Cape San Lucas Aug. 5 

Magdalena Bay Aug. 8 

Santa Maria Bay Aug. 1 1 

San Bartolome Aug. 14 

Cedros Island (Southeast Coast) Aug. 15 

Natividad Island Aug. 1 7 

Cedros Island (South Bay) Aug. 17 

San Benito Islands Aug. 18 

San Martin Island Aug. 19 

Ensenada Aug. 22 

San Diego Aug. 23 

Cortes Bank Aug. 24 

San Nicolas Island Aug. 26 

San Francisco Sept. 1 



July 


5 


July 


9 


July 


9 


July 


18 


July 


19 


July 


22 


July 


25 


July 


25 


July 


27 


July 


28 


Aug. 


2 


Aug. 


7 


Aug. 


11 


Aug. 


12 


Aug. 


15 


Aug. 


17 


Aug. 


17 


Aug. 


18 


Aug. 


18 


Aug. 


21 


Aug. 


22 


Aug. 


23 


Aug. 


25 


Aug. 


28 




PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI.. 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 2 



CROCKER! Plate 1 



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OF TH£ 
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1932. 



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PROCEEDINGS ^^^"'V^j^ r,rur. 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 3, pp. 13-23 March 14, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 3 

THE GENUS MOLLUGO IN THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



JOHN THOMAS HOWELL 

Assistant Curator, Department of Botany 

California Academy of Sciences 

INTRODUCTION 

One of the genera early recognized in the midst of a strange 
insular flora was the genus Mollugo of the Carpetweed Family. At 
Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, the first locality in the Galapagos 
Islands visited by the Templeton Crocker Expedition of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, this genus was brought to special atten- 
tion by the discovery of a broad-leaved form and a narrow-leaved 
form growing on sandy flats near the shore. Henceforth Mollugo 
was watched and collected with critical attention. Until the later 
days of exploration in the archipelago little seemed to be gained 
from this special consideration other than new distributional data 
for species well known, but in the last few weeks in the Galapagos 
Islands, several forms of Mollugo were found which were recognized 
immediately as different, either as new records for the archipelago 
or as plants new to science. Because of this special interest taken 
in the genus, it has been the first in the botanical collections of the 
Crocker Expedition to be studied critically, the results of the study 
being given in the following paper. Since a number of forms are 
described as new it has seemed proper to recount all that is known 
of the genus in the Galapagos Islands. As a result, the genus will 
probably come to be counted among the other genera having a 
notable endemic development in the islands. 

The Galapagian species of Mollugo constitute a highly specialized 
group, perhaps most closely related to the North American species 

March 14, 1933 



W'^ ? '^T33 



^j 



14 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

M. verticillata. From that species, the insular species are readily- 
distinguished by the minutely but definitely tuberculate seeds. 
Although the island endemics are diverse in habit and floral char- 
acters, it is probable that they represent the differentiation and 
segregation of a single variable prototype, and hence are to be con- 
sidered closely related. Differentiation would seem to have followed 
two lines, originating in a glabrous annual form with three and five 
stamens, the one line developing a subshrubby perennial habit and 
large flowers, the other line developing a low woody caudex and 
strikingly glandular herbage. In both lines there is an increase in 
the number of stamens, approaching or equalling eight, the sum of 
the five stamens opposite the sepals and the three stamens alternate 
with the cells of the capsule, two staminal arrangements which occur 
in the M. verticillata type. The geographic separation of the several 
forms on the different islands has undoubtedly been an important 
factor in the segregation and maintenance of the specialized devel- 
opments. 

Besides the large collection in the Herbarium of the California 
Academy of Sciences, made on the Academy expedition to the 
Galapagos Islands in 1905 and 1906, the writer was privileged 
through the courtesy of Dr. B. L. Robinson of the Gray Herbarium 
and Dr. L. R. Abrams of the Dudley Herbarium to borrow the 
specimens in those institutions. The following symbols are used in 
citing specimens: C, herbarium of the California Academy of 
Sciences; D, Dudley Herbarium of Stanford University; G, Gray 
Herbarium of Harvard University. 

Key to the Species 
1. Plants Annual 
a. Seeds somewhat angular, microscopically ridged on back and reticulate 
on sides, very small; delicately branched glaucescent 

plants 1, M. Cerviana 

a. Seeds roundish-reniform or ovatish, not angled, finely tuberculate, 
sometimes ridged on back; plants more robust. 
b. Flowers small, sepals 1-2 mm. long. 

c. Seeds deeply ridged on back; style 0.5-0.75 mm. long; 

stamens 5-8 5. M. insularis 

c. Seeds not deeply ridged on back (somewhat ridged in 
M. striata and M. graciUima latijolia); style 
mostly less than 0.5 mm. long; stamens 3 (or 4). 
d. Seeds distinctly subreniform; annuals. 

e. Seeds generally brown and less than 0.5 mm. 
long; funiculus not prominent. . 

2. M. graciUima 

e. Seeds generally black, 0.5 mm. or more 
long; funiculus prominent (ex- 
cept in M. flavescens intermedia) 

3. M. flavescens 

d. Seeds subovate, striate-lineate, about 0.5 mm. 
long, the funiculus not prominent; prob- 
ably perennial 4. M. striata 

h. Flowers large, sepals 2-3 mm. long; stamens 8 7. M. floriana 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— THE GENUS MOLLUGO 15 

2. Plants Perennial 

f. Stems, leaves, pedicels, and sepals not glandular-hairy. 

g. Flowers 2 mm. long; herbaceous plants with spreading or pros- 
trate stems, 
h. Stamens 5-8; style 0.5-0.75 mm. long; seeds subreniform, 

deeply ridged, funiculus prominent. . . .5. M. insularis 
h. Stamens 3; style about 0.33 mm. long; seeds subovate, 
merely striate-lineate, funiculus short and not 

prominent 4. M. striata 

g. Flowers 3-4 mm. long (2-2.5 mm. long in var.); twiggy plants 
with erect stems 1-4 dm. tall; seeds lineate on back . . 

8. M. Snodgrassii 

f. Stems, leaves, pedicels, and sepals glandular-hair}^ 6. M. Crockeri 



1. Mollugo Cerviana (L.) Seringe in DC, Prodr. 
1: 392 (1824) 

Pharnacejim Cerviana L., Spec. PI. 1: 272 (1753). 

Delicate annual with erect, glabrous stems, 3-15 cm. long; leaves glaucous, 
linear; flowers 1-3 on divaricate pedicels at the summit of almost leafless branches; 
sepals 4, 1.5-2 mm. long, elliptic; stamens 4; seeds 0.25-0.33 mm. long, minutely 
reticulate, somewhat angular. 

Collections. — Albemarle Island: edge of lava flow at west base 
of Tagus Cove Mt., Howell No. 9588 (C) ; slopes just east of head 
of Tagus Cove, Howell No. 9603 (C). James Island: dunes, Sullivan 
Bay, Howell No. 10017 (C). South Seymour Island: sandy flat 
back of beach, middle western coast, Howell No. 9954 (C) ; Wheeler, 
Rose, and Beehe in 1923 (G). 

To find this small, widely distributed Mollugo so well established 
on the Galapagos Islands is of more than usual interest. The fact 
that the species has been found at some stations rarely visited by 
vessels would have it appear that this is a species not introduced 
by human agency, but rather one which has not been detected 
earlier because of its inconspicuous character. Its presence in the 
Galapagian flora adds a new note of strangeness to a distribution 
already remarkable. 



2. Mollugo gracillima Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 226 (1854) 

Root annual; stems mostly diffusely branched, spreading or suberect, generally 
1-4 dm. long, glabrous; leaves 2-5 at nodes, linear or linear-oblanceolate, to 2 cm. 
long, 0.5-5 (or 10) mm. wide, acute or mucronulate, rarely obtuse, glabrous, not 
notably fleshy; flowers 1-4 at nodes; pedicels erect, divaricate or reflexed, 2-7 
m_m. long, generally sparsely hairy; sepals 4 or 5, 1-2 mm. long, oblong, the center 
green- veined, the margin whitish; stamens generally 3 (or 4), a little shorter than 
the sepals; styles short, plumose, 0.2-0.3 mm. long; mature capsule shorter to 
slightly exceeding the sepals; seeds reniform, generally less than 0.5 mm. long, 
minutely tuberculate, more or less finely lineate on the rounded back, brown with 
coppery sheen or rarely blackish, the persistent portion of funiculus not prominent, 
sometimes almost none. 



16 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

Mollugo gracillima is one of the common, widely distributed herbs 
in the lower regions of the archipelago during and shortly following 
the short rainy period. It is most abundant and characteristic in 
sandy areas immediately inland from beaches but it also occurs in 
gravelly soil, or among rocks, or even in clay hollows, in the lower 
parts of the interior. It is variable in aspect and, to some extent, 
in technical characters, but it has not appeared best to segregate 
more than one of these variations taxonomically. Size and shape 
of leaves, length of pedicels, and size and color of seeds are variable, 
but the species can be rather readily distinguished from the closely 
related M. flavescens by the usually more diffusely branched spread- 
ing habit, by the tendency of the seeds to be lineate on the back, 
and by the less prominent funiculus. The figure of this species in 
Andersson's second work on the flora of the Galapagos Islands 
(Om Galap. Veg. t. 15, f. 3, — 1857) was misnamed M. gracilis. 

Key to Subspecies of M. gracillima 

Seeds minutely lineate on back; leaves 0.5-3 mm. wide 2a. typica 

Seeds rather prominently lineate on back; leaves 5-10 mm. wide 2b. lalifoUa 

2a. Mollugo gracillima typica Howell, nom. nov. 

Mollugo gracillima Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 226 (1854). 
M. gracilis Ands., Om Galap. Veg. t. 15, f. 3 (1857). 

Stems spreading or suberect; leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate, 0.5-3 mm. 
wide, generally acute; flowers 1-1.5 mm. long; seeds generally coppery-brown and 
less than 0.5 mm. long, minutely lineate on the back. 

Collections. — Albemarle Island: Villamil, Stewart No. 1469 (C, 
G), Howell No. 8965 (C); Iguana Cove, Stewart No. 1468 (C, G), 
Howell No. 9406 (C); Tagus Cove, Stewart No. 1470 (C, G), Howell 
No. 9511 (C). Bartholomew Island: crevices of stratified ash, 
Howell No. 10061 (C). Bindloe Island: volcanic sand on north- 
west coast, Howell No. 8557 (C). Charles Island: Andersson in 
1853 (type collection, G) ; Stewart No. 1472 (C) ; Post Office Bay, 
Howell No. 8803 (C); 2 or 3 miles south of Post Office Bay, Howell 
No. 9374 (C). Chatham Island: Wreck Bay, Howell No. 8588 (C). 
Indefatigable Island: Academy Bay, Howell No. 9053 (C); Con- 
way Bay, Howell No. 9877 (C). James Island: James Bay, Howell 
No. 9691, 9692 (C) ; Orchilla Bay, Baur No. 153, in part (G); Sulli- 
van Bay, Howell No. 10022 (C). Jervis Island: north end, only 
one plant seen, Howell No. 9772 (C). Narborough Island: north 
side on lava beds, Stewart No. 1476 (C, G). 

Several variants of subspecies typica are referred here and deserve 
mention. On Dtmcan Island {Stewart No. 1474, C, G, and Howell 
No. 9839, C), a form occurs with leaves shorter than usual and 
oblong-oblanceolate, and with the flowers glomerate at the nodes on 
very short pedicels. On South Seymour Island {Howell No. 9949, C) 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— THE GENUS MOLLUGO 17 

is a form with leaves broader than usual, thus approaching subspecies 
latifoUa which occurs on North Seymour Island, but in the southern 
plant the seeds are not conspicuously lineate. Rarely a plant 
assumes a perennial aspect, as not infrequently happens to annuals 
growing in desert regions, but such individuals are undoubtedly 
annuals affected by fluctuations of the seasonal rainfall. 

2b. Mollugo gracillima latifolia Howell, subspec. nov. 

Ramis patentibus vel prostratis; foliis oblanceolatis vel oblanceolato-spathulatis, 
5-10 mm. latis, obtusis; floribus 1.5-2 mm. longis; seminibus fuligineis, dorso striato- 
lineatis. 

Stems spreading or prostrate; leaves oblanceolate or oblanceolate-spathulate, 
5-10 mm. wide, obtuse; flowers 1.5-2 mm. long; seeds dark black-brown, 0.5 mm. 
long, the back striate-lineate. 

Collections. — North Seymour Island: marine bluffs, Crocker 
(type, C. A. S. Herb., No. 199033); crevices and shelves of marine 
bluff, Howell No. 10001 (C) ; beach sand, Howell No. 9980 (C). 

The ridges on the backs of the seeds are prominent enough to 
impress the pattern on the closely enclosing walls of the capsule. 
In this seed-character M. gracillima latifolia resembles M. verticillata 
but differs from that species in the characters of flowers and fruit, 
and in the dull luster and the tuberculate sides of the seeds. With 
its broad leaves it might be placed in M. flavescens but its seeds are 
smaller and the funiculus less prominent. A specimen from Brattle 
Island {Stewart No. 147 1, C) is old and nearly leafless but the seeds 
are rather prominently ridged so it is referred here until additional 
material can be studied. 

3. Mollugo flavescens Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 226 (1854) 

Root annual; stems erect or prostrate, rather sparsely branched, 1-3 dm. long, 
glabrous; leaves at nodes 2-5 (or 9), linear-oblanceolate or spathulate, 0.5-2 cm. 
long, 0.5-7 mm. wide, obtuse or acute, glabrous, somewhat fleshy-thickened; 
flowers 3-7 or more at nodes; pedicels generally spreading but some erect or reflexed, 
2-4 (or 5) mm. long, mostly glabrous; sepals generally 5, 2 mm. long or nearly, 
oblong, green-veined with whitish margin, sometimes brownish-tinged; stamens 3 
(or 4), slightly shorter than the sepals; style 0.3-0.5 mm. long; capsule shghtly 
shorter than the sepals; seeds turgid-reniform, a little more than 0.5 mm. long, 
scarcely lineate, black-brown or black, dull or with iridescent sheen, tuberculate, 
the persistent portion of the funiculus deflexed and prominent (except in subsp. 
intermedia) . 

As compared to M. gracillima, M. flavescens and its subspecies 
have a most limited distribution. The typical subspecies would 
seem to occur only on Chatham Island and on the north side of 
Indefatigable Island. The two variants described here as new are 
confined to one island each, subsp. angustifoUa being found on James 
Island and subsp. intermedia being found on Charles Island. The 
species as here defined seems to be a natural entity but one closely 
related to M. gracillima. 



18 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Key to Subspecies of M. flavescens 

a. Funciulus prominent. 

b. Stems spreading or prostrate; cauline leaves oblanceolate to 
oblanceolate-spathulate, mostly twice as long as the 

pedicels; style about 0.3 mm. long 3a. typica 

b. Stems strictly erect; cauline leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate, 
those subtending the upper flowers much-reduced; 

style 0.3-0.5 mm. long 3b. angustifolia 

a. Funciulus not prominent; stems erect but somewhat spreading; upper 

leaves reduced but generally equalling the flowers. . . .3c. intermedia 



3a. Mollugo flavescens typica Howell, nom. nov. 

MoUugo flavescens Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 226 (1854). 

Stems spreading or prostrate, 1-2 dm. tall; basal leaves subspathulate 1-2 cm. 
long, 2-5 mm. wide, cauline leaves oblanceolate to oblanceolate-spathulate, 0.4-1 
cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide; pedicels loosely spreading or deflexed, subglabrous; style 
about 0.3 mm. long; funiculus prominent. 

Collections.— Chatham Island: Andersson in 1853 (type collec- 
tion, G); southwest end, Baur No. 154 (G); Wreck Bay, Howell No. 
8574 (C). Indefatigable Island: north side, Snodgrass and Heller 
No. 667 (D, G), Howell No. 9904 (C). 



3b. Mollugo flavescens angustifolia Howell, subspec. nov. 

Caulibus erectis, 2-3.5 dm. altis, ramis paucis, substricte ascendentibus; foliis 
basi spathulato-obovatis, caulinis linearo-oblanceolatis, 1-1.5 cm. long, circa 1 mm. 
latis, supremis brevioribus quam 0.5 cm. longis; pedicellis erectis, glabris, floribus 
subcongestis; stylo 0.3-0.5 mm. longo; funiculo prominenti. 

Stems erect, 2-3.5 dm. tall, the few branches almost strictly ascending; the 
basal leaves spathulate-obovate but the cauline leaves linear-oblanceolate, 1-1.5 
cm. long and 1 mm. or less wide at the lower nodes, the uppermost reduced and 
mostly less than 0.5 cm. long; pedicels erect, glabrous, the flowers subcongested in 
small glomerules; style 0.3-0.5 mm. long; funciulus prominent. 

Collections. — James Island: in pockets and flats of volcanic sand 
on nearly barren lava flow, James Bay, Howell No. 9710 (type, 
C. A. S. Herb., No. 199031); cinder gravel on lower slopes of high 
cone at Sullivan Bay, Howell No. 10032 (C). 



3c. Mollugo flavescens intermedia Howell, subspec. nov. 

Cauhbus erectis, subpatentibus, 1.5-2.5 dm. altis; fohis radicalibus spathulatis, 
basi cuneatis, caulinis oblanceolatis vel linearo-oblanceolatis, 0.5-1.5 cm. longis, 
0.5-3 mm. latis; pedicellis patentibus, subglabris; stylo circa 0.3 mm. longo; funiculo 
brevi et non prominenti. 

Stems erect but somewhat spreading, 1.5-2.5 dm. tall; basal leaves spathulate 
with cuneate base, cauline leaves oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, 0.5-1.5 cm. 
long, 0.5-3 mm. wide; pedicels spreading, subglabrous; style about 0.3 mm. long; 
funiculus short and not prominent. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— THE GENUS MOLLUCO 19 

Collections. — Charles Island: near Black Beach, Howell No. 
9353 (type, C. A. S. Herb., No. 199030); Snodgrass and Heller No. 
441 (G). 

In appearance and in the technical characters of the seed, this 
plant is nearly intermediate between M. flavescens and M. gracillima. 
The plant is less diffusely branched than in M. gracillima and the 
leaves tend to be narrower than in typical M. flavescens. The per- 
sistent part of the funiculus is shorter and slenderer than that in 
most forms of M. flavescens but in the size and markings of the seed 
it is very near typical M. flavescens. 

4. Mollugo striata Howell, spec. nov. 

Herba perennis?; caulibus laxe patentibus vel adscendentibus, 1-2 dm. longis, 
subglabris, viridibus; foliis linearo-oblanceolatis, 1-2 cm. longis, 1-2 mm. latis, 
glabris, acutis obtusisve; floribus 1-4 nodis; pedicellis patentibus, 1-3 mm. longis, 
minute pubescentibus; sepalis 5, 1.5-2 mm. longis, virescentibus, oblongis, glabris; 
staminibus 3, inclusis; stylo circa 0.3 mm. longo; capsula inclusa; seminibus tumidis, 
subovatis, parte inferiore ventre obliqua, nigris, 0.6-0.7 mm. longis, dorso striatis, 
lateribus tuberculato-lineatis, partibus persistentibus funiculi brevibus, prope de- 
flexis, non prominentibus. 

Root probably perennial; stems laxly spreading or ascending, 1-2 dm. long, 
subglabrous, green; leaves linear-oblanceolate, 1-1.8 cm. long, 1-2 mm. broad, glab- 
rous, acute or obtuse; flowers 1-4 at nodes; pedicels spreading, 1-3 mm. long, 
minutely hairy; sepals 5, 1.5-2 mm. long, greenish, oblong, glabrous; stamens 3, 
included; style about 0.3 mm. long; capsule equalling the sepals, much-knobbed 
by the seeds; seeds turgid, subovate with the lower ventral part obUque, black, 
0.6-0.7 mm. long, striate on back, tuberculate-lineate on sides, the persistent part 
of the funiculus short, closely deflexed, not prominent. 

Collection. — Wenman Island: Stewart No. 1477 (type, C. A. S. 
Herb., No. 133519; G). 

From the rather poorly prepared specimens on which this species 
is based, it is not possible to state certainly whether the plant is 
perennial, but from the character of older stems which bear tufts 
of new growth near their ends as well as remains of dead twigs of 
earlier growth, it seems likely that the specimens are from a perennial 
plant. The character of the flower distinguishes it from M. insular is, 
and the large subovate seed marks it distinct from M. gracillima to 
which it is perhaps most nearly related. 

5. Mollugo insularis Howell, spec. nov. 

Herba annua vel perennis; caulibus 0.5-2 (vel 3) dm. longis, prostratis, glabris, 
viridibus; foliis oblanceolatis ad linearo-oblanceolatis, 0.5-2.5 cm. longis, 1-3.5 mrn. 
latis, succulento-crassis, glabris, obtusis acutisve; floribus 3-8 nodis; pedicellis 
erectis, patentibus vel deflexis, 1.5-3 mm. longis, minute pubescentibus; sepalis 5, 
albis, virescentibus vel subferrugineis, ellipticis, 1-2 mm. longis, glabris; starninibus 
5-8, inclusis; stylo 0.5-0.75 mm. longo; capsula inclusa vel sepalis aequilonga; 
seminibus subcompressis, nigris, 0.6 mm. longis, dorso costatis, lateribus sub- 
costatis, costis transverse rugosis, partibus persistentibus funiculi prominentibus, 
deflexis. 



20 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Annual or perennial herb; stems 0.5-3 dm. long, prostrate, glabrous, green; 
leaves oblanceolate to linear-oblanceolate, 0.5-2.5 cm. long, 1-3.5 mm. broad, 
fleshy-thickened, glabrous, obtuse or acute; flowers mostly 3-8 at nodes; pedicels 
erect, spreading, or deflexed, 1.5-3 mm. long, minutely hairy; sepals 5, white, 
greenish or Hght brownish, elliptic, 1-2 mm. long, glabrous; stamens 5-8, included; 
style 0.5-0.75 mm. long; capsule included or equaUing the sepals; seeds subreniform, 
thinnish, black, 0.6 mm. long, deeply ridged on back, shallowly ridged on the sides, 
the ridges transversely rugose, the persistent part of the funiculis prominent, 
deflexed. 

Collections. — Charles Island: Black Beach, Howell No. 9378 
(type, C. A. S. Herb., No. 199029). Chatham Island: Sappho 
Cove, Stewart No. 1466 (C, G) ; Bassa Point, Stewart No. 1473 (C). 

This species should be considered a perennial but plants growing 
in sandy or gravelly soil bloom the first year and do not persist, 
those growing in crevices of lava becoming perennial and developing 
a woody caudex similar to that in M. Crockeri. The lack of glandular 
pubescence and the peculiar seeds differentiate it from M. Crockeri, 
and the perennial base, flower, and seed mark it from M. flavescens 
and M. gracillima. 



6. MoUugo Crockeri Howell, spec. nov. 

Herba perennis; caulibus ligneis et persistentibus, ramis annuis, late patentibus, 
0.5-2 dm. longis, glanduloso-pubescentibus, ferrugineis vel virescentibus; foliis basi 
tenuiter oblanceolatis, 1-2 cm. longis, 1-3 mm. latis, glanduloso-pubescentibus in 
margine et infra in media costa, caulinis linearibus, 0.5-2 cm. longis, 0.5-1 mm. 
latis, dense glanduloso-pubescentibus, subacutis, margine subrevoluto; floribus 
paucis, 1-3 nodis; pedicellis patentibus vel deflexis, 0.5 cm. longis, glandulosis; 
sepalis 5, oblongo-lanceolatis, 2-3 mm. longis, carneis, exteriore glanduloso-pubes- 
centibus; staminibus 7, inclusis; stylo 0.6-0.7 mm. longo; capsula inclusa; seminibus 
circa 0.5 mm. longis, reniformibus, lateribus minute tuberculatis, dorso vix lineatis, 
partibus persistentibus funiculi prominentibus, deflexis. 

Perennial herb; lower part of stems woody and persistent, the branches of annual 
duration, loosely spreading, 0.5-2 dm. long, glandular-hairy, terra-cotta color or 
greenish; basal leaves slender-oblanceolate, 1-2 cm. long, 1-3 mm. wide, glandular- 
hairy on margins and lower side of midrib, cauline leaves of the same color as 
stems, linear, 0.5-2 cm. long, 0.5-1 mm. wide, densely glandular-hairy, acutish, the 
margin somewhat revolute; flowers rather few, 1-3 at nodes; pedicels spreading or 
deflexed, 0.5 cm. long, glandular; sepals 5, oblong-lanceolate, 2-3 mm. long, flesh- 
color, glandular-hairy outside; stamens 7, included in calyx; style 0.6-0.7 mm. 
long; capsule included; seeds about 0.5 mm. long, reniform, black, finely tuberculate 
on sides, scarcely lineate on back, the persistent part of the funiculus prominent 
and deflexed. 

Collection. — James Island: crevices of lava, Sullivan Bay, Howell 
No. 10094 (type, C. A. S. Herb., No. 199026). 

Mollugo Crockeri with its perennial woody base and highly glandu- 
lar herbage is one of the most distinctive species of this genus to be 
described from the Galapagos Islands. It was only found at a single 
station but there it was locally abundant on a lava flow of fairly 
recent age. The perennial part of the plant never grows beyond 
the lava crevices, the herbaceous stems forming a low, loosely 



Vol. XXII HOWELL— THE GENUS MOLLUGO 21 

•spreading plant above the surface of the flow. It is an honor and 
pleasure to dedicate this distinctive species to Mr. Templeton 
Crocker, patron and commander of the latest expedition of the 
California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands. 



7. Mollugo floriana (Rob.) Howell, comb. nov. 

Molliigo flavescens var. floriana Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 143 (1902). 

Root annual; stems erect or somewhat loosely branching, 1.5-4 dm. tall, glabrous 
or finely glandular-pubescent; leaves linear-oblong or linear-oblanceolate, 1-3 cm. 
long, 1-3 mm. wide, glabrous or finely glandular-pubescent, herbaceous, 2-5 at a 
node, obtuse or acute; flowers 2-11 at nodes; pedicels erect or slightly divaricate, 
0.4-1 cm. long, glabrous or glandular-pubescent; sepals 5, elliptic-oblong, 2-3 mm. 
long, glabrous or minutely puberulent, green-veined with white margins; stamens 8, 
nearly equalling or slightly exceeding the sepals; style 0.7-0.8 mm. long, stigmatic 
at the upper end; seeds turgid-reniform, nearly black, 0.4-0.7 mm. long, minutely 
tuberculate on sides, finely lineate on back, the persistent part of the funiculus 
deflexed and prominent. 

The size of the flower and the number of stamens are characters 
of the species which find a resemblance in M. Snodgrassii. But the 
annual habit, the difference of herbage, and the smaller size of most 
of the flower parts in M. floriana make it amply distinct from M. 
Snodgrassii. This species might be considered an intermediate in 
relationship between the M. flavescens-M. gracillima group and 
M. Snodgrassii. 



Key to Subspecies of M. floriana 

Stems, leaves, and pedicels glabrous; seeds a little more than 0.5 mm. long. .7a. typica 
Stems, leaves, and pedicels more or less finely glandular-pubescent; seeds a 

little less than 0.5 mm. long 7b. gypsophiloides 



7a. Mollugo floriana typica Howell, nom. nov. 

Mollugo flavescens var. floriana Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 143 (1902). 

Stems glabrous; leaves oblong-linear, glabrous; pedicels erect, glabrous; sepals 
glabrous; seeds about 0.6-0.7 mm. long. 

Collections. — Charles Island: Cormorant Bay, Baur No. 157 
(type, G), Stewart No. 1467 (C, G). 

7b. Mollugo floriana gypsophiloides Howell, subspec. nov. 

Radice annua; caulibus erectis, subglabris vel glanduloso-pubescentibus; foliis 
linearo-oblanceolatis; pedicellis erectis, divaricatis, vel raro deflexis, glanduloso- 
pubescentibus; sepalis sparse et tenuiter glanduloso-pubescentibus, 2-3 mm. longis; 
staminibus 8; stylo 0.7-0.8 mm. longo; seminibus circa 0.4 mm. longis. 

Stems subglabrous or finely glandular-pubescent; leaves linear-oblanceolate, 
subglabrous or finely pubescent; pedicels erect, divaricate, or rarely deflexed, 



22 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

glandular-pubescent, tending to be densely so; sepals sparsely and finely glandular- 
pubescent; seeds about 0.4 mm. long. 

Collections. — Duncan Island: crevices of rocks on east side, 
Howell No. 9828 (type, C. A. S. Herb., No. 199032); Stewart No. 
1475 (C). 

8. Mollugo Snodgrassii Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 
144 (1902) 

Suffrutescent perennial; stems erect, those near the base woody, the upper parts 
jointed and broom-like, green or brownish-tinged, 1-4 dm. tall, glabrous; leaves 
2-5 at nodes, linear-oblanceolate, somewhat fleshy-herbaceous, 0.5-2 cm. long, 
0.5-1 mm. wide, obtuse or acute, glabrous; flowers 1-3 at nodes; pedicels generally 
spreading, 0.5-2 cm. long, glabrous; sepals 5 or 6, 3-4 cm. long, oblong, greenish 
or brownish-tinged; stamens 7, nearly equalling or exceeding the sepals; style 1-2 
mm. long, plumose-stigmatic at the end; mature capsule a little shorter than the 
sepals, irregular over enclosed seeds; seeds turgid-reniform, about 0.5 mm. long, 
finely tuberculate on sides and lineate on back, dark brownish-black or black, the 
persistent portion of the funiculus deflexed and prominent. 

Collections. — Albemarle Island: Cowley Bay, Stewart No. 1478 
(C) ; east side of island 3 miles south of equator, Ratikan (C) ; 5 miles 
northeast of Webb Cove, Howell No. 9450 (C) ; Elizabeth Cove, 
Snodgrass and Heller No. 268 (D, G) ; Tagus Cove Mt., Howell No. 
9523 (C). Narborough Island: Mangrove Point, Snodgrass and 
Heller No. 309 (type collection, D, G). 



Mollugo Snodgrassii var. santacruziana Christophersen, 
Nyt. Mag. Naturvidenskab. 70: 75 (1931) 

Cauhne leaves to 3 cm. long; pedicels less than 1.5 cm. long; sepals 2-2.5 mm. 
long (ex char.) 

This variety was described from plants collected at Academy 
Bay, Indefatigable Island, (type, Christophersen No. 123, Herb. 
Mus. Bot. Oslo), but no specimen has been seen from the island 
which can be referred here. Although the plant is described as a 
perennial, it would seem that it might be nearer M. floriana as the 
species of Mollugo are treated here. The longer leaves, the shorter 
pedicels, and the smaller flowers are exactly the characters which 
mark M. floriana as distinct from M. Snodgrassii when the duration 
of the plant is not considered. And, as has been pointed out in a 
discussion of M. gracillima, it is not unusual in deserts with a uni- 
formly mild climate for an annual species to assume a temporary 
perennial aspect if the sporadic rains of the region are properly 
spaced. It is of particular interest that the very specimens of 
M. gracillima which provoked the earlier remark were plants with 
a perennial aspect collected at Academy Bay. It is noteworthy in 
this regard to mention that the vicinity of Academy Bay is one of 
the few localities in the lowlands of the Galapagos Islands where 



Vol. XXII HOWELL— THE GENUS MOLLUGO 23 

truly desert conditions do not prevail, for here the more luxuriant 
development of the vegetation indicates that moisture borne on the 
southeast trade winds during the long dry period is precipitated 
not only at higher elevations in the interior but also occasionally 
in the lowlands. Intermittent but properly spaced rainfall during 
the dry season would undoubtedly produce the perennial effect that 
is noted. In connection with the distribution of Mollugos in the 
archipelago, the occurrence of a variety of M. Snodgrassii is scarcely 
to be expected on the south side of Indefatigable Island, but the 
occurrence there of M. floriana might have been anticipated since 
Academy Bay lies between the station for M. floriana on Charles 
Island and the station for M. floriana gypsophiloides on Duncan 
Island. 



PROCEEDINGS ^'^^^!^0.\.,5 |<T-j -r^-^^'^^^''' 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 4, pp. 25-40 March 14, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 4 

CHARACTERS OF TWENTY-FOUR NEW SPECIES OF HEMIP- 

TERA FROM THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS AND 

THE COAST AND ISLANDS OF CENTRAL 

AMERICA AND MEXICO 



BY 

E. P. VAN DUZEE 

Curator, Department of Entomology 

California A cademy of Sciences 



A study of the Hemipterous Insects brought back by the Temple- 
ton Crocker Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences has 
brought to light a number of forms new to science, the descriptions 
of which are given in the following pages. Of most interest are the 
sixteen new species from the Galapagos Islands. 

The relationships of these are entirely with the American fauna. 
Some are very close to well-known continental species, while others 
have become more strongly differentiated in response to their insular 
environment. Notable among these latter forms is that described 
below as Diaphnidia crockeri which introduces striking coloration 
into a genus hitherto containing species that are only monochro- 
matic, or at most with a few fuscous or black markings. 

No trained entomologist accompanied this expedition, but Mr. 
Crocker very generously delegated his secretary, Mr. Maurice 
Willows Jr., to act as entomologist when not occupied with other 
duties. Mr. Willows' efforts resulted in the addition of 2,400 insects 
to the collection of the Academy, among which were many species 
new to the Academy collection in addition to a number of new 
species described here and to be described in later papers. 

March 14, 1933 



'•■"TO '033 



26 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Species from the Galapagos Islands 

1. Geotomus murinus Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Apparently allied to ohscttrus Sign.; piceous with the legs and 
antennee paler and the puncturation of the elytra reduced. Length 
5.5 mm. 

Head regularly rounded before; as long as its width immediately before the eyes; 
anterior margin a little recurved; tylus but slightly elevated, the cheeks scarcely 
meeting before it; surface but feebly wrinkled; marginal setae six in number with 
one below the margin either side the tylus, and another discal either side near 
the eye. Pronotum broader anteriorly, shaped as in Signoret's figure 161, the sides 
subparallel and narrowly recurved, with a few bristles within the anterior angles; 
disk with a median arc of confused punctures behind the ocelli and an irregular 
transverse row of coarse punctures behind the callosities, terminating either side 
in a field of more obscure punctures extending to near the anterior angle. Scutellum 
moderately convex with scattering punctures that omit the basal field. Elytra 
with a row of regular punctures either side of the claval suture and a partial second 
row on the corium; disk of corium with a few nearly obsolete punctures. Opaque 
area beneath shaped about as in Signoret's figure 155 but with its marginal extension 
shorter and broader and the angles of the posterior field more acute; osteolar canal 
flattened and opaque like the adjacent surface, sHghtly widened and rounded at tip, 
the opening forming a small notch. Rostrum attaining intermediate coxae; hind 
femora with a few minute teeth before the apex; hind tibiae terete, with their spines 
longer than their thickness. Antennal segments I, II and III subequal, the middle 
of II about reaching apex of head. Ocelli placed at about their own diameter from 
the eyes; tarsi pale. 

Holotype, a unique female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3625, taken by Mr. 
Willows at Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, May 27, 1932. This is 
close to a species from Arizona and northern Mexico, but the latter 
has the eyes much narrowed inferiorly, the osteolar canal broader 
and more oblique at apex and the pronotum broader interiorly. 

2. Thyanta similis Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Size and aspect of antiguensis Westwood and best distinguished 
from that species by comparative notes. Length 7 mm. 

Head a very little but obviously shorter proportionately than in antiguensis. 
Antennal segment III shorter than II, equal in the allied species. Sides of the pro- 
notum rectilinear in antiguensis, slightly emarginate in similis with the intra- 
humeral smooth vitta scarcely distinguished; the humeri a little more angled and 
marked with a slender black marginal line. Scutellum longer, the apex narrower 
and more angled. Membrane hyaline with a rather broad fuscous longitudinal vitta 
either side. Rostrum attaining apex of ventral II, a little shorter in antiguensis. 
Connexivum immaculate. Basal genital plates of female flat, convex or subtumid 
in antiguensis. 

Color dull green varied with paler and tinged with red in places as in antiguensis, 
the punctures concolorous or but little darker than the adjoining surface; pronotum 
and scutellum with a median pale line more or less distinct, 

Holotype, female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3626, taken on Jervis Island, 
June 6, 1932, by Mr. Maurice Willows. Paratype, one female taken 
on Charles Island at Post Office Bay, April 24, 1932, by Mr. Willows; 



Vol. XXI] VAN DUZEE— TWENTY-FOUR NEW SPECIES OF HEMIPTERA 27 

the latter specimen is more croceous, marked with reddish areas 
and apparently is not fully pigmented. The ultimate tergal segment 
seems to have a fringe of pale hairs in this species. 

3. Nysius (Ortholomus) naso Van Duzee, n. sp. 

A large species with the head porrect and strongly produced; 
testaceous to rufo-testaceous, with a vitta against each eye, a trans- 
verse band on the callosities and the disk of the scutellum black; 
elytra whitish veined with fuscous. Length 5 mm. 

Head as long as wide across the eyes, extended in the same plane as the pronotum, 
conically produced as far before the eyes as the width between the eyes. Antennae 
long, segment I scarcely attaining the apex of the tylus; II two and a half times as 
long as I; III two-thirds as long as II; IV as long as III, fusiform. Rostium attaining 
third ventral segment; segment I reaching the base of the head; segments I, II and 
III subequal, each about twice the length of IV. Pronotum twice as wide on hind 
margin as on anterior, one-half wider than long, but little depressed anteriorly; 
callosities forming a narrow elevated ruga, median line broadly, very feebly, 
depressed. Scutellum with the usual Y mark feebly elevated. Elytra milky sub- 
hyaline, the veins slightly prominent, surface minutely sericeous pubescent. 

Color testaceous, becoming rufo-testaceous on the head, pronotum anteriorly, 
sides of the scutellum, tergum and beneath; marked with black as follows: head, 
except a broad dorsal vitta, a transverse line on the callosities, not attaining the 
margins, disk of the scutellum, sternum, a large spot on each of the pleural pieces, 
a large mark of the basal disk of the venter which sends a vitta either side to connect 
with a band on the sixth ventral segment, and the base of the genital segment. 
Legs pale testaceous, the femora dotted with black, apical tarsal segment black; 
antennas rufo-testaceous, the basal segment with a dusky spot; elytral veins, includ- 
ing commissure and apical margin, blackish. Membrane hyaline with a median 
fuscous vitta over a black vitta on the tergum. 

Holotype, a unique male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3627, taken on Charles 
Island, May 14, 1932, by Maurice Willows. 



4. Creontiades castaneum Van Duzee, n. sp. 

A distinct chestnut-brown species with the pronotum and scu- 
tellum almost piceous; antennae and legs varied with paler, the hind 
margin of pronotum slenderly whitish. Length 5.5 mm. 

Male. Vertex between the eyes one-half the width of an eye, deeply sulcate; 
obUque frontal striae almost obsolete; clypeus prominent with a sHght transverse 
depression before its base. Antennae: segment I stout, sHghtly shorter than the 
pronotum; II twice the length of I; III a little less than twice the length of I (15:26) ; 
IV equal to I. Pronotum almost twice as wide as long, smooth and polished, without 
rugae, callosities moderately prominent. Scutellum nearly equilateral, minutely 
rugulose and depressed on disk at base, polished at apex and along the lateral 
margins. Elytra parallel, opaque, impunctate. Rostrum attaining apex of hind 
coxae. 

Color chestnut, becoming almost piceous on the pronotum, scutellum, pleurae, 
base of abdomen and apical one-half of hind femora, basal two-thirds of antennal 
II and narrow base of III and IV pale, as is also the rostrum, apex of coxae, trochan- 
ters and base of femora; tip of rostrum and of the last tarsal segment and the tibial 



28 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc. 4th Ser. 

spines black; hind tibise brown, becoming pale at apex; hind edge of pronotum 
slenderly whitish and there is an obscure pale spot within the basal angles of the 
scutellum and another either side of its apex; genital segment pale. Whole upper 
surface clothed with decumbent pale hairs. Basal antennal segment with a sub- 
apical black bristle on its inner face. Membrane fuscous. 

Holotype a unique male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3628, taken by Mr. 
Maurice Willows on Chatham Island, April 17, 1932. 

5. Creontiades willowsi Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Aspect of debilis V. D. but with larger eyes and much narrower 
vertex in the male, with segment I of antennae more slender and 
with the membrane enfumed about as in rubrinervis. Length 6 mm. 
to tip of membrane. 

Head small with very large prominent eyes, especially in the male; vertex narrow, 
but shghtly convex, its width between the eyes but one-half the width of an eye; 
median sulcus distinct, oblique rugae somewhat obscure; tylus narrower and more 
prominent than in debilis. Pronotum polished, about twice as wide as long (32:17) ; 
hind tibiae a little longer than the elytra to tip of cuneus (85:75). Vestiture very 
fine, pale and deciduous, fully matured examples being nearly glabrous. 

Color yellowish testaceous, about as in femoralis and rubrinervis, a little darker 
than in debilis; hind submargin of pronotum usually with a slender fuscous line; 
tips of tarsi and rostrum and a minute dot on extreme base of hind tibiae and the 
eyes black; apex of hind femora very slightly darker; membrane distinctly enfumed. 

Described from a series of 24 specimens taken on Jervis Island, 
June 6, and Sullivan Bay, James Island, June 13, 1932, all taken 
by Mr. Willows, to whom I take pleasure in dedicating this inter- 
esting addition to the Mirid fauna of these islands. 

Holotype, male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3629, and allotype, female, 
No. 3630, from Jervis Island. 



6. Pceciloscytus vegatus Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Allied to cuneatus; a little more slender with the second antennal 
segment longer, the basal segment black and the legs darker. 
Length 3 mm. 

Head longer than wide (11:7). Pronotum with the sides more deeply sinuate, 
the hind margin distinctly impressed behind the prominent humeri; collar broader 
than in cuneatus. Antennae longer than in the allied species; segment I as long as 
width of vertex between the eyes, distinctly surpassing apex of tylus; II nearly five 
times as long as I (5:24); III and IV subequal, together one-third the length of II. 
Rostrum attaining base of genital segment. 

Color fusco-testaceous as in cuneatus; basal segment of the antennae and the tylus 
piceous; the callosities and an indistinct ante-humeral spot infuscated; a median 
vitta on the vertex, bifurcate before, and the disk of the pronotum posteriorly 
shghtly embrowned; antennal segments III and IV and apex of II darker; collar 
and narrow hind edge of pronotum paler. Legs pale brown with a paler subapical 
spot on the femora beneath; apices of tibiae and tarsi infuscated; coxae and venter 
pale brown; genital segment yellowish; rostrum testaceous, black at tip; basal 



Vol. XXII VAN DUZEE— TWENTY-FOUR NEW SPECIES OF HEMIPTERA 29 

angles and narrow sides of scutellum brown and a brownish cloud covers the clavus 
and inner field of the corium; cuneus reddish, pale at base and tip; membrane lightly 
infuscated, with paler nervures. 

Holotype, a unique male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3631, taken at Tagus 
Cove, Albemarle Island, May 27, 1932, by Mr. Willows. 



7. Fulvius geniculatus Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Aspect of imbecilis Say but with shorter antennae, white coxae and 
fuscous legs with pale knees. Length 3.5 mm. 

Head as long as broad across the eyes. Eyes produced on the gula. Antennae 
short, segment I scarcely as long as width of head across the eyes; II twice as long 
as I, very slightly clavate at apex; III a little longer than I, linear (IV wanting); 
II nearly as long as posterior width of pronotum. Rostrum attaining fifth ventral 
segment. Pronotum nearly as long as head; shaped as in imbecilis, with similar 
prominent callosities. 

Color fuscous brown becoming piceous on pronotum anteriorly and on the head; 
basal lobe of scutellum with an obscure reddish mark either side; corium with a 
•transverse whitish band opposite middle of clavus which is extended along the 
costal margin; extreme tip of clavus touched with pale; base of cuneus with a yel- 
lowish white lunule; antennae rufo-fuscous; apical third of segment II white; ros- 
trum testaceous brown; coxae white, narrow base and apex of I and broader base 
of II and III brown; legs fuscous brown, paler on the tibiae and tarsi, the knees 
narrowly whitish; membrane moderately enfumed, darker in the cell, nervures 
brown, venter brown, more or less tinged with rufous. 

Chatham Island, April 18, 1932, one male {holotype, C. A. S. 
Ent. No. 3632); James Island, June 4, 2 males; Jervis Island, June 
6, 1 female; Narborough Island, May 28, one female {allotype, C. A. 
S. Ent. No. 3633). 

The shorter antennas, partly white anterior coxas and fuscous legs 
will distinguish this species from imbecilis Say. In Renter's key of 
1895 and in Poppius' key of 1909 this runs to quadristillatus Stal 
from Brazil, but the white anterior coxae will distinguish it. 



8. Diaphnidia crockeri Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Pale yellowish testaceous, polished, elytra faintly green, beauti- 
fully marked with red. Length 3 mm. 

Head half as wide as the pronotum; front and vertex together convex, polished; 
the front tumidly projecting above base of tylus, with a few erect pale bristles; 
viewed from above scarcely projecting before the eyes. Anterior margin of pro- 
notum one-half as long as the posterior; sides straight, sharp but scarcely carinate 
on posterior lobe; transverse sulcus distinct, not attaining the margins; hind edge 
broadly excavated. Scutellum large, the lobes but poorly differentiated, exposed 
portion of basal nearly as long as the posterior lobe. Elytra diaphanous, parallel, 
the costa but feebly arcuate posteriorly; cuneus as long as greatest width of corium. 
Basal segment of antennae short, stout, scarcely exceeding apex of tylus; II linear, 
four times the length of I (III and IV covered in mounting). 

Color pale yellowish testaceous, polished; elytra obviously tinged with bluish 
green, the costal and subcostal nervures green; commissure with a broad Y-shaped 
red mark the forks of which reach to the middle of the scutellar margin; corium 



30 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc. 4th Ser. 

with a row of three large red dots, one on basal third, another opposite apex of 
clavus, the third at middle of apical margin; a similar red dot occupies the basal 
angle of the membrane, and the apex of the membranal nervures are red; the male 
has a red mark behind the inner angle of the eye, and two divergent spots are 
indicated on the posterior lobe of the pronotum; antennal II slightly infuscated in 
male; tips of tarsi blackish. 

Described from one male (allotype) and one female (holotype) 
taken on James Island, June 4, 1932. Holotype, C. A. S. Ent. 
No. 3634, and allotype, No. 3635. 

This is the first brightly colored species known to me in this genus. 
It is a most beautiful insect under a lens and it gives me pleasure 
to dedicate it to Mr. Templeton Crocker whose generosity and per- 
sonal interest in the scientific aspects of the expedition made possible 
these large and valuable additions to the collections of the California 
Academy of Sciences. 



9. Platymetopius aequinoctialis Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Related to cinereus but with the colors darker, the lines of the 
vertex broad and continuous, the elytra tinged with fulvous, and 
the apical areoles mostly black. Length 4 mm. 

Vertex nearly twice as long as its basal width (12:7); depressed along the median 
line, anterior edge sharp, apex subacute. Pronotum as long as basal width of vertex, 
broadly arcuate behind. Median third of ultimate ventral segment produced for 
one-third the length of the segment, truncate at apex; pygofer with a few scattering 
short bristles. 

Color fulvo-testaceous becoming darker on elytra apically and more grey on 
pronotum and apex of vertex; median line of vertex anteriorly, an arcuate vitta 
either side attaining base of vertex and a slender line just behind the apical margin, 
briefly reflected on to the vertex above the ocelli, whitish. Pronotum with seven 
longitudinal lines, the median less distinct; scutellum with three such lines. Elytra 
greyish fulvous, deeper colored apically; round white dots wanting across middle 
of elytra, those adjacent to apical transverse veinlets edged with black, or mostly 
so, with a short white marginal vein beyond the costa; face and below pale yellow; 
dots at base of tibial spines a little darker and there is a brown cloud on the apex 
of the ultimate ventral segment. 

Holotype a unique female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3636, taken by 
Maurice Willows at Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, May 24. The 
percurrent pale lines of the vertex and the black apical areoles will 
roughly distinguish this from the many allied North American 
species. 

A single male from James Island, June 4, has the entire vertex 
eaten away so it cannot safely be placed. 

10. Deltocephalus insularis Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Allied to signatifrons V. D. but a little larger and darker with 
the apex of the head a little more rounded, and different markings 
on the vertex. Length 4 mm. 



Vol. XXI] VAN DU ZEE— TWENTY-FOUR NEW SPECIES OF HEMIPTERA 31 

Vertex a little shorter than its basal width (6:8); surface feebly convex, not at 
all depressed, apex in a blunt almost rounded angle; front slightly longer than 
wide (12:10); clypeus large, fiat, almost parallel-sided. Elytral venation essentially 
the same as that of obesus but with the nervures more prominent, the costal areole 
broader and the sutural areole of the clavus furnished with one or two transverse 
veinlets connecting the apex of the adjoining nervure with the suture. Ultimate 
ventral segment of the female essentially truncate across its entire width. Male 
valve small, obtuse at apex; plates scarcely longer than the valve, narrow, truncate 
at apex, hardly more than passing the middle of the pygofers, the latter heavily 
armed with stout bristles. 

Color testaceous-grey, becoming more yellowish on the head, anterior margin 
of the pronotum and scutellum; vertex with a transverse blackish vitta behind the 
ocelli that is notched at the middle anteriorly and before which are two subapical 
brown points; behind this vitta are two small brown dashes; pronotum with four 
or six brown points behind the pale anterior margin and showing five obscure pale 
longitudinal vittae; elytral nervures pale, mostly edged with fuscous, the transverse 
veinlets often thickened and white; scutellum with the basal angles, two points 
between them, and the impressed line fuscous; front slightly suffused with brown, 
with pale arcs; hind femora with one apical brown point beneath, the tibiae in the 
male about thrice annulate with fuscous; base and apex of tergum with a whitish 
band. 

Holotype, male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3637, taken April 17 on Chatham 
Island. Allotype, female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3638, taken April 24, 
on Charles Island. This species pertains to subgenus Hebecephalus 
of DeLong's Monograph of Deltocephalus. 



11. Scaphoideus discalis Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Size and form of neglectus Osb. but with the elytral markings 
nearly as in sanctus Say; face heavily marked with black. Length 
4 mm. 

Vertex about as in neglectus, its length one-fourth less than its basal width 
(7:10); eyes wider posteriorly than in any of our related species, not obviously 
narrowed there. Pronotum as long as basal width of vertex. Elytra shorter and 
less flaring at apex than in neglectus. Apex of last ventral segment of female truncate 
with a slight angle either side. Valve of male subacutely triangular; plates narrower 
and more acute at apex than in sanctus, the pygofers more heavily fringed with 
bristles. 

Color white slightly tinged with yellow; vertex mostly immaculate, the ocelli, 
a wide pair of minute points before the apex, a close pair on hind margin either side 
against the eyes and the incised median line basally, fuscous or black; pronotum 
immaculate but darkened by the black mesonotum showing through; scutellum 
tinged with yellow, the basal angles a little darker; elytra polished, subopalescent 
white, marked with a common broad transverse brown band the basal margin of 
which is parallel with the scutellar margin of the clavus, its apical margin slightly- 
concave; this band becomes obscure on the costal areole and. carries a large semi- 
circular white spot either side and a smaller median white spot divided by the com- 
missure and broken out slenderly either side to the claval suture; the margin above 
the white areas bordered with blackish; a narrow blackish band covers the apical 
transverse nervures and margins the outer apical areole, the apical nervures being 
pale; apical submargin with a narrow fuscous line; face tinged with yellow with a 
broad basal black band in which is a narrow sinuate white line; a narrow black band 
crosses the entire face at lower margin of the eyes; apex of clypeus and cheeks black 



32 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

and there may be a black line across the base of the clypeus; legs pale with the fore 
and middle femora and a series of minute dots at the base of the tibial spines fuscous; 
abdomen pale yellow with the tergum, a line on the base of the male plates, the 
base of the female pygofers, a mark on the apex of the connexival segments and the 
basal ventral segment, black; male valve, except its extreme edge, and the oviduct 
and apex of the last ventral segment of the female piceous. 

Described from two pairs taken on Chatham Island, April 17, by 
Mr. Willows. Holotype, male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3639, and allotype, 
female, No. 3640. This is a strongly marked species like cruciatus 
but the form of the elytral saddle recalls sanctus. 



12. Athysanus digressus Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Allied to ohscurinervis Stal but wanting the two round spots on 
the anterior margin of the head. Length 4 mm. 

Vertex more than twice broader than long (15:7), rounded before as in exitiosus; 
pronotum a little longer than the vertex (10:7); front as long as its basal width, 
its sides rather abruptly narrowed to the base of the clypeus, nearly rectilinear below 
in the related species; anterior femora with a series of short spines on basal two- 
thirds, terminating in two longer ones. In ohscurinervis the small spines are smaller 
and there are three longer ones on apical one-third. Ultimate ventral segment of 
female feebly sinuate, in the related species broadly subangularly emarginate. Valve 
of male subacutely triangular; plates long, exceeding the pygofers; sides sinuate 
before the middle, apex obtuse, about as in ohscurinervis. 

Color as in ohscurinervis but with elytral nervures paler; transverse black band 
of vertex produced anteriorly in a triangle, more or less developed; marginal round 
black spots wanting but certain dark individuals of digressus show a pale brown 
crescent on the front of the vertex superior to the location of the round black spots; 
front with the median line and lateral arcs brown; legs and beneath pale, the latter 
more or less infuscated in the darker males; pronotum with about six black dots on 
anterior submargin; basal angles of scutellum with the usual black marks. 

Described from nine males and nine females taken by Mr. Willows 
as follows: Chatham Island, April 17; James Island, June 4; Jervis 
Island, June 6; Sullivan Bay, James Island, June 13, and North 
Seymour Island, June 12. Holotype, male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3641, 
and allotype, female. No. 3642, from Chatham Island. 

This species seems to be widely distributed on the islands and to 
show the same variation in color as is found in ohscurinervis Stal. 
The want of the black spots on the front of the head, the abruptly 
narrowed frontal apex and the form of the ultimate ventral segment 
of the female are certainly of specific value and will, perhaps, best 
distinguish this species. For the purpose of comparison I have con- 
sidered the neotropical ohscurinervis and our well known exitiosus 
as specifically distinct as I do not feel entirely satisfied that they 
are identical. 



Vol. XXIJ VAN DU ZEE— TWENTY-FOUR NEW SPECIES OF HEMIPTERA 33 

13. Oliarus galapagensis Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Aspect of excelsus Fowl., smaller with longer and narrower vertex; 
elytra with heavy punctate veins; apical cross-veins bordered with 
fuscous. Length 5 mm. 

Vertex nearly twice as long as wide at base, its bounding carinae arcuate rather 
than angulate; front about as in franciscanus Stal, including the clypeus one-half 
longer than wide (22:14); frontal ocellus small but distinct. Mesonotum with five 
evident carinae. Elytra hyaline with strong punctate nervures; the transverse 
nervures and those separating the apical areoles bordered with fuscous; clavus 
with an irregular subbasal sutural brown spot and a smaller discal mark; costa 
slightly and evenly arcuate; wings feebly hyaline, with fuscous nervures; legs pale 
brown, lighter on the tibiae and tarsi, the coxae and incisures whitish, spines tipped 
with black; pleurae and ventral segments fuscous, the latter slenderly edged with 
pale; hind tibiae with one small spur before the middle. Apical angles of front, as 
in franciscanus, without pale spots. 

Holotype, a unique female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3643, taken by Mr. 
Willows seventeen miles northwest of Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, 
May 22, 1932. Apparently the Galapagos Islands show no such 
development of this genus as we find in the Hawaiian Islands. The 
relationships of the present species are entirely with those of the 
North American fauna, to some species of which it is quite closely 
allied. 



14. Philates breviceps Van Duzee, n. sp. 

A small species with short vertex, more broadly tumid meso- 
notum, and unicarinate front. Length 4 mm. 

Vertex two-thirds as long as wide at base (8:12); surface depressed, obliquely 
rugose, ecarinate; anterior margin sharp, but slightly reflexed, the sides more ele- 
vated posteriorly against the eyes. Front a little shorter than its greatest width 
(16:18); obviously carinate. Pronotum as long as the vertex, ecarinate. Meso- 
notum broadly tumid, not as abruptly depressed posteriorly as in the other species; 
carinate on basal one-half; the lateral carinae short, diverging posteriorly; commis- 
sural margin of elytra, viewed from the side, distinctly concavely arcuate. Hind 
edge of ultimate ventral segment with a small notch either side of the broad median 
lobe. 

Color lurid brown more or less irrorate and marked with blackish on either side 
the vertex at base and on the angles and base of the mesonotum; elytra with a 
broad whitish vitta above the bullae, bordered below by a blackish cloud that may 
be extended to the apical angles; apical margin with the usual brown dashes; 
femora, at least the posterior, infuscated; antennae and their sockets infuscated; 
extreme tip of the head with a pale spot. 

Holotype, female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3644, taken by Mr. Willows 
at Black Beach Road, Charles Island, April 25, 1932. A male taken 
at the same time is too immature to be made a type. Two nymphs 
also were taken. 



34 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

15. Philates servus Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Allied to productus but with the carinae of front and vertex obsolete 
or nearly so; notch of last ventral segment of female shallow and 
straight. Length, male 4-5 mm., female, 5-5.5 mm. 

Vertex almost as long as its basal width between the lateral carinae (11:12); 
median carina obsolete or slightly indicated anteriorly, the margins carinately 
elevated, obHque rugae obsolete. Front distinctly widened opposite the antennae, 
median carina obvious, at least below; lateral carinae obsolete. Pronotum little 
more than one-half the length of the vertex (7:12); scarcely carinate but with the 
disk depressed behind the vertex. Mesonotum distinctly tumid before the depressed 
apex; median carina strong, lateral slender, obsolete anteriorly. Elytra not quite 
twice as long as wide (7:4). Last ventral segment of female with a broad shallow 
median notch, its fundus or base rectilinear. 

Color testaceous-brown obscurely irrorate or varied with darker; apical margins 
of elytra with the usual brown dashes distinct; tibiae and tarsi more obscure, the 
tarsal claws and tip of rostrum black; hind femora dusky brown; male with a black 
subapical point either side the mesonotum and there is a blackish cloud from middle 
to apex, scarcely indicated in the female, with a suggestion at inner angle of clavus; 
there may also be black irrorations on sides of mesonotum, on the pleurae, sides of 
face and apex of front. In both sexes there is an impressed black point at base of 
elytra that apparently is characteristic of the genus. Hind femora of male dis- 
tinctly infuscated. 

Holotype, male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3645, and allotype, female, 
No. 3646, from Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, May 25. Two males 
taken on James Island, June 4, together with nymphs, may belong 
here but more material is needed to decide the matter. In all the 
species of this genus known to me the elytra of the males are dis- 
tinctly produced to the obtusely angled apex, not truncate as in 
the females, a character not mentioned by either Stal or Osborn, 
both of whom record males. 



16. Philates vicinus Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Allied to servus but with the apex of head a little more rounded 
and the surface of mesonotum between the lateral carinas polished. 
Length 6 mm. 

Vertex slightly longer than wide at base between the carinate edges (12:11); 
surface depressed, flat, obliquely rugose, the margins strongly acutely reflexed 
anteriorly, apex obtusely rounded; front distinctly carinate, its sides obtusely 
angled at the antennae, rectilinear either side, its apex tumidly produced leaving 
the profile somewhat arcuate. Pronotum long, but slightly shorter than the vertex 
(10:12) the obtuse lateral carinae distinguished by a deep groove exteriorly. Meso- 
notum with a very prominent median carina, the adjoining compartments polished. 
Ultimate ventral segment of female deeply notched, its fundus feebly arcuate. The 
hind tarsi in this genus are short and broad, in this type they are flattened and 
ragged, probably through some accident. 

Color testaceous-brown, obscurely irrorate with fuscous; subapical points on 
mesonotum and a dot near the basal angles black; antennae and anterior and inter- 
mediate tarsi brown, the latter and the rostrum tipped with black; on either side 



Vol. XXI] VAN DU ZEE— TWENTY-FOUR NEW SPECIES OF HEMIPTERA 35 

at base of clypeus with a brown line; apical elytral margin with the usual brown 
dashes; base of front slightly infuscated. 

Holotype, a unique female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3647, taken on Jervis 
Island, June 6. The extent of fuscous coloring varies much in this 
genus, one specimen of major taken by the expedition being almost 
black with a broad pale dorsal vitta. All the known species are 
represented in the present material and most of them show darkened 
specimens, while two males of productus are pale testaceous and one 
is a clear light green, these three perhaps immature. The subapical 
impressed points on the mesonotum may be infuscated or concol- 
orous. 

Key to the Known Species of Philates 

Vertex one-half as long as wide at anterior angle of eyes; distinctly obliquely 

striate; Charles Island breviceps n. sp. 

Vertex about two-thirds as long as wide at anterior angle of ej'es 1 

1. Ultimate ventral segment of female deeply notched either side of a 

rounded median lobe 2 

-. Otherwise 3 

2. Front and vertex with distinct median carina; lateral carinas of front 

distinct at base; tip only of tarsi black; North Seymour Island. pro</«c.'M5 
-. Carina; of front obsolete, of vertex nearly so; Tower Island cinerea 

3. Median notch of ultimate ventral segment of female deep, its fundus 

nearly straight; tarsi infuscated vicimis 

-. Median notch of ultimate ventral segment of female shallow 4 

4. Median notch of ultimate ventral segment of female with its fundus 

or base straight servus 

-. Median notch of ultimate ventral segment of female with its fundus 

minutely notched major 



vSpecies from the Islands and Coast of 
Central America and Mexico 

17. Parajalysus punctipes Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Honey-yellow with the pronotal spines, dots on legs and antennse 
and a line on apical margin of corium black. Length 5 mm. to tip 
of elytra. 

Head nearly vertical before; vertex convex, polished, with the median line and 
a spot either side obviously paler, anteriorly prominent above base of tylus. An- 
tennae as long as entire body from tip of tylus to apex of membrane; segment I 
longer than II and III together, slender, briefly clavate at apex; IV fusiform, equal 
to III but a httle shorter than II. Pronotum with a golden sheen; anterior lobe 
with four smooth pale granules either side; pronotal spines long, black, the median 
posterior spine preceded by a short pale carina. Scutellum small, smooth and 
tuberculate posteriorly. Elytra hyaline with a black line on the costal half of the 
apical margin. Beneath paler, the venter and a callous on each side of the pleural 
pieces whitish. Antennas and tibiae obscure castaneous, indistinctly dotted with 
black; femora pale distinctly dotted with black, their clavate apices pale castaneous; 
antennal incisures pale, apex of tarsi black. Rostrum attaining intermediate coxs. 



36 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Holotype, a unique male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3648, taken at Cose- 
guina, Nicaragua, July 7, 1932, by Mr. Maurice Willows. This seems 
to be nearest to P. concivis Horvath from Peru but it is smaller and 
the proportionate lengths of the antennal segments are different. 



18. Arphnus tripunctatus Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Soiled whitish testaceous with a point at tip of scutellum, one 
at apex of each elytron and apical segment of antennae black. 
Length 4 mm. 

Head one-half longer than its width at base of antennas; tylus short as in tristis, 
projecting before the bucculae as far as one-half the length of the bucculae. Segment 
I of antennae as long as one-half the width of vertex between the eyes; II one-half 
longer than I in female, a Uttle shorter in male (5:4), distinctly clavate, especially 
in the male; III equal to I and II together; IV scarcely longer than I, fusiform, its 
apical one-half clothed with minute pale hairs. Eyes small. Pronotum as long as 
head, a little shorter than its basal width (15:18); median carina distinct on anterior 
lobe. Rostrum scarcely attaining intermediate coxae in male, a little longer in 
female. 

Color whitish testaceous, paler on the elytra, coarsely, closely punctate, the 
punctures concolorous on the elytra, more luteous on the pronotum and pleurae; 
vertex with four longitudinal lines whitish farinose; median area of scutellum more 
fulvous; tip of clavus and of corium, the eyes and the apical segment of antennae 
black or nearly so; apex of membrane with three pale fuscous marks; venter ob- 
scurely punctate and rugulose; coxae castaneous; lower surface of head, a lateral 
vitta on the pleurae and a shorter one next the base of the elytra pale farinose. 

Holotype, male, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3649, and allotype, female. 
No. 3650, and two male paratypes taken on Isabel Island, Mexico, 
July 27, 1932, by Mr. Maurice Willows. The large size, short tylus 
and pale color will distinguish this species. 



19. Lygus keiferi Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Aspect of rubicundus but narrower with longer antennae and less 
opaque elytra. Length 4 mm. 

Vertex about one-fourth narrower than an eye (5:7), the eyes much more deeply 
notched for the reception of the antennae; apex of head less produced than in rubi- 
cundus, the tylus scarcely exceeding the cheeks. Segment I of antennae much longer 
than in rubicundus, a little longer than the width of an eye viewed from above 
(8:7); II as long as from front of head to tip of scutellum, three and one-half times 
as long as I; III one-half longer than I; IV equal to I. Pronotum not quite twice 
as wide as long (13:23); narrower anteriorly than in the allied species, the anterior 
angles broadly rounded; surface polished, obscurely rugose. Scutellum a fourth 
wider than long, feebly convex and minutely shagreened. Elytra about a fifth 
longer to tip of corium than their greatest combined width (32:26). Rostrum just 
passing hind coxae. Hind tibiae nearly a third longer than the corium (40:32). 
Whole upper surface clothed with short pale hairs. 

Color reddish testaceous, at times almost sanguineous or again subhyaline and 
tinged with green, especially along the costa; pronotum paler anteriorly; scutellum 



Vol. XXIJ VAN DUZEE— TWENTY-FOUR NEW SPECIES OF HEMIPTERA 37 

with an abbreviated pale vitta at apex; inner margin of cuneus and sometimes the 
apex of the corium narrowly sanguineous; antennae and legs testaceous, the apical 
half of hind femora more or less red, with an obscure pale subapical annulus; coxae 
and disk of venter whitish, sides more or less sanguineous including a pale longi- 
tudinal vitta; tip of rostrum and tarsi blackish; membrane faintly enfumed, a pale 
spot at apex of areoles, apex of veins sanguineous. 

Described from three females taken on Socorro Island, March 27, 
by Mr. Willows, a long series of both sexes taken on the same island. 
May 4-9, 1925, by Mr. H. H. Keifer, and two taken by Mr. Keifer, 
April 30, 1925, on Clarion Island. Holotype, male, C. A. S. Ent. 
No. 3651, and allotype, female, No. 3652, taken by Mr. Keifer at 
2,000 feet elevation on Socorro Island, May 9. The slender 
antennas and anteriorly strongly narrowed pronotum recall olivacetis 
Reuter. 



20. Aligia plena Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Aspect of jucunda Uhler, with the elytra strongly marked as in 
some Scaphoideus. Length 5.5 mm. 

Vertex as va. jucunda, its length one-third its width; transverse impression deeper 
than in its ally; margin subacute as in that species. Front broader than in jucunda, 
nearly as wide at base as long (15:18); clypeus scarcely widened at apex; cheeks 
broadly angled below the eye above which is a deep sinuation. Elytra much more 
than twice longer than broad (72:28); venation similar to that oi jucunda, the costal 
node with three recurved veins, the radial connected to the claval suture by about 
sixteen transverse veins; second transverse vein incomplete in the type. Last 
ventral segment of female obtusely angularly produced at apex. 

Color strongly contrasting, about as in Scaphoideus lobatus V. D.; vertex whitish, 
four marks on anterior margin, two dots against each eye and a basal dash either 
side the middle black, incised line brown, abbreviated before, basal field with a 
large fulvous spot on either side; face black; frontal arcs and disk of lorse fulvous; 
cheeks white varied with ferruginous. Pronotum fulvo-testaceous edged with 
whitish and varied with blackish, these marks leaving two white spots behind each 
eye. Scutellum white; lateral areas and median vitta of anterior lobe fulvous, two 
dots on anterior lobe and two marginal dots on posterior black, this posterior lobe 
with a discal yellowish cloud. Elytra pale fulvous becoming whitish hyaline on 
the costal and apical areas and on the scutellar margin; veins and some irregular 
marks on the clavus and disk of corium blackish; clavus with a large common 
median white spot and a smaller one on the suture on basal one-third; corium with 
a row of about four white spots along the disk; apical margin blackish. 

Wings smoky hyaline with fuscous veins. Abdomen and pectus black varied 
with yellowish on the disk of the venter, connexivum, disk of pygofers and margin 
of propleurae. Legs black; anterior and intermediate tibiae and tarsi, spines of hind 
tibiae and base of hind tarsi pale. 

Holotype, a unique female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3653, taken by Mr. 
Willows at Port Parker, Costa Rica, July 4, 1932. 



38 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

21. Acanalonia clarionensis Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Testaceous-brown, green when teneral, more or less irrorate and 
marked with fuscous; front with strong median carina; vertex very 
short, distinguished from front by a carina; costa strongly arcuate. 
Length, male 5, female, 7 mm. 

Male: vertex very short, its median length one-fifth its width; median carina 
about as wide as long; anterior edge distinctly carinate. Front scarcely longer 
than wide, its greatest width at the antennae is to its length either side the base of 
the clypeus as 20:22; median carina strong, not continued on the clypeus; sides 
parallel at the eyes, a little arcuate from there to the antennae, then abruptly 
converging to the clypeus. Pronotum about as long as the width of the vertex, 
ecarinate. Scutellum twice as long as the pronotum; median carina wanting, lateral 
more or less distinct; disk convex before the apex. Elytra not twice as long as wide 
(80:55), the costa broadly arcuate from base to apex of clavus. The females are 
longer and have the elytra more truncate at apex. Last ventral segment of female 
cut out nearly to its base either side of a broad Ungulate median tooth, this tooth 
nearly twice as long as wide (8:5) and rounded at apex. 

Color testaceous-brown, more or less irrorate with fuscous, especially on the 
inner and apical areas and in a wide longitudinal vitta below the bullae, the darker 
specimens showing a short whitish radial vitta just above the bullae and a more 
or less distinct pale dorsal vitta covering the vertex, the pro- and mesonotum 
between the lateral carinas, and the commissural areole; usually there are a few 
blackish marks along the outer two areoles on the corium, the apical dashes nearly 
obsolete in pale specimens. Immature individuals are green while adults vary 
much in the extent of infuscation. 

Described from two pairs taken by Mr. Willows on Clarion Island, 
March 22, 24, 1932, and a long series taken by Mr. H. H. Keifer 
on Clarion Island, April 26 to May 1, 1925. Among Mr. Willows' 
material is one male labeled Socorro Island, March 26. Holotype, 
female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3654, and allotype, male. No. 3655, taken 
on Clarion Island, March 24, by Mr. Willows. 



22. Acanalonia excavata Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Allied to conica Say but with shorter vertex and very distinct 
genital characters. Length 9 mm. to tip of elytra. 

Vertex one-half as long as wide between the eyes, flat, ecarinate, in the same 
plane as the pronotum, separated from the front by an obscure carina that does 
not reach the eyes. Front shghtly wider than its greatest length (23:20), ecarinate, 
sides parallel as far as the antennas, rectilinear from there to the apex; clypeus 
ecarinate. Pronotum as long as vertex, ecarinate and without impressed points. 
Mesonotum about four times as long as pronotum, median carina obsolete, lateral 
nearly so, as are the subapical impressed points. Elytra nearly twice as long as 
wide (140:75). Last ventral segment of female trisinuate, the median sinus broad 
and deeper than the lateral, and separated from them by a sharp black-tipped 
tooth. 

Color clear light green, irrorate with paler on dorsum and with a pale median 
area, narrowed to a line on the vertex. Mesonotum with four vague fulvous clouds 
anteriorly, the lateral carinas indicated by green lines; costal edge and veins in part 
paler; apical brown dashes nearly obsolete; beneath pale, the tarsi fulvo-testaceous; 
eyes castaneous. 



V^OL. XXI] VAN DU ZEE— TWENTY-FOUR NEW SPECIES OF HEMIPTERA 39 

Holotype, female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3656, taken July 7, 1932, by 
Maurice Willows, on Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua. 

This seems to be close to deceits Stal but that is larger with the 
vertex as long as its basal width according to Melichar. But he 
says the front has a distinct middle keel reaching to the clypeus 
while Stal in his original description says "front not longitudinally 
carinate." Following Stal this might well be deceits except for its 
much smaller size. It seems best for the present at least to consider 
it as distinct. 



23. Dascalia tumida Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Form nearly of edax V. D.; larger, with the pronotum tumidly 
elevated anteriorly and the elytra rounded at apex. Length 7 mm, 
to tip of elytra. 

Vertex at middle line about one-third its basal width (5:14); medially depressed. 
Front as long as broad, flat, ecarinate; sides feebly arcuate, base depressed, leaving 
the basal edge subacute medially; clypeus ecarinate, its base rectilinear. Pronotum 
ecarinate, as long as vertex, its edge slightly elevated. Mesonotum 5.5 times as 
long as pronotum, tumidly elevated anteriorly above the vertex to a height equal 
to the basal width of the clypeus; disk behind the prominence flattened and longi- 
tudinally feebly sulcate. Elytra a little more than twice longer than its greatest 
width (11:5); a little narrowed toward the rounded apex; clavus scarcely elevated 
at base, leaving the commissure straight; costal area opposite the buUas nearly 
one-third the total width of the elytra (15:50); venation heavy but obscured by 
the coriaceous texture of the elytra, with one prominent vein from the bulla, that 
curves out at the apex of the node and then in to join the apical series of transverse 
veins. Wings smoky hyaline with fuscous veins. Hind tibiae with two subapical 
teeth. 

Color dark yellowish varied with fuscous-brown, especially on the base of the 
clavus, on the costal margin below the bullae to the node, and on the inner apical 
field from before the apex of the clavus, the disk of the pronotum becoming piceous. 
Beneath pale with the coxae and clypeus, its base excepted, fuscous; legs varied 
with brown. 

Holotype, a unique female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3657, taken by Mr. 
Willows at Acapulco, Mexico, April 3, 1932. This runs to grisea 
Fabr. in Melichar's key but is quite a distinct species. It has much 
the aspect of my edax from Lower California but the longer and 
tumid pronotum and rounded apex of the elytra will at once dis- 
tinguish it. 

24. Euidella grossa Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Aspect of altamazonica Muir but much larger, more deeply colored 
and with longer basal segment of antennas. Length to tip of elytra 
6 mm. 

Macropterous fem.ale; vertex as in altamazonica, scarcely exceeding the eyes, its 
length to front of head as seen from above equal to its width between the eyes; 
carinae distinct. Front moderately convex, its length nearly twice its greatest 



40 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

width (15:8); its width at apex over one-half its greatest width (5:8), median carina 
distinct; clypeus flat, tricarinate. Antennae passing apex of front; segment I slender, 
about one-half the length of II, Pronotum not wider than head; lateral carinas 
diverging, straight, terminating at hind angle of eye far from hind margin; meso- 
notal carinae equally prominent, lateral rectilinear and slightly diverging. Elytra 
long, surpassing abdomen by one-third their length; wings fully developed. Basal 
segment of hind tarsi twice as long as II and III together; spur flat, the arcuate 
edge armed with very minute black teeth. 

Color testaceous-brown; pleurje with a pale area; elytra fuscous; clavus whitish, 
infuscated at base and apex; costal areole and outer two apical areoles whitish; 
veins obscurely granulate, with minute hairs; wings somewhat infuscated apically, 
with fuscous veins. 

Holotype, female, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3658, taken by Mr. Willows 
at Port Parker, Costa Rica, July 4, 1932. The large size and deep 
fuscous vitta covering the whole median area of the elytra, will dis- 
tinguish this species and will justify its description from a unique 
female. 



l&^ 



PROCEEDINGS ^\>'^/r> 7^^ ' /^ 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 5, pp. 41-54; plates 2-3, figs. 4 March 14, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 6 

THE CACTACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



BY 

JOHN THOMAS HOWELL 

Assistant Curator, Department of Botany 
California Academy of Sciences 



FOREWORD 

The Cactaceae of the Galapagos Islands are among the most inter- 
esting plants of the archipelago, not only scenically because of their 
size and aspect but also botanically because of their peculiar mor- 
phologic characters and local distribution. This study on their 
taxonomy has been based mainly on the collections obtained by the 
Templeton Crocker Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences 
and by Alban Stewart, botanist on the Academy Expedition of 
1905-1906. Through the kindness of Dr. J. M. Greenman, it has 
been possible to study critical specimens of the Galapagian Cactaceae 
in the Herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden. In the citation 
of specimens under each species, the specimen is in the Herbarium 
of the California Academy of Sciences unless otherwise indicated. 

. March 14, 1933 



P.^"' rO :933 



42 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

OPUNTIA 

Introduction. Although the members of the genus Opuntia are 
among the most conspicuous floral features in the lowlands of the 
Galapagos Islands, the group has been one of the least understood 
from a taxonomic point of view. The reason for this is, of course, 
the meagre material prepared for study by the earlier explorers in 
the islands, explorers who, with a single exception, were nonbotanical 
in their major interests and who cannot be criticized for neglecting 
so difficult and time-consuming a task as the preparation of cactus 
specimens. So it is that in Robinson's Flora of the Galapagos Islands 
(1902) only five specimens of Galapagian Opuntia were known on 
which studies in the genus could be based. Stewart, as botanist of 
the California Academy of Sciences Expedition of 1905-1906, ob- 
tained a series of eighteen specimens in the genus, and while it was 
by far the best collection that had been made, it is to be regretted 
that specimens were not prepared on every island where he observed 
and studied plants growing. In this collection only one new species 
was distinguished and, due to incomplete specimens, the true floral 
characters of 0. galapageia were confused and misinterpreted. This 
confusion was responsible in part for the course of Britton and Rose 
who recognized only a single species on the islands in their mono- 
graphic study of the Cactaceae (1919), reducing the other species to 
synonomy. During the visit of the Templeton Crocker Expedition 
to the Galapagos Islands in the past year, a second large series of 
Opuntia totaling forty-two specimens was obtained for the Academy 
collection. Due to exceptionally favorable rains, the desert lowlands 
were blooming as had never before been seen by a botanist, and 
one of the advantages reaped was Opuntia in abundant flower 
and fruit. 

As in the recent study of Galapagian Mollugos, what is attempted 
in this account of the genus Opuntia in the Galapagos Islands is as 
accurate and complete a taxonomic representation of this complex 
group as is possible at the present time. But as yet no collections 
are known from Bindloe, Chatham, Culpepper, Duncan, and Nar- 
borough islands (on all of which Opuntias have been recorded in field 
accounts), while from the large island of Albemarle, very inadequate 
collections have been made, so that with further exploration, a fuller 
picture of the genus will probably be attained. However a single 
specific complex as proposed by Britton and Rose is scarcely tenable 
in the light of the diverse floral and fruiting characters that have 
been disclosed, and the almost perfect geographic isolation afforded 
the several entities insures the relative morphologic stability which 
is believed to mark the species here presented. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— CACTACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 43 

Key to the Species of Opuntia 

a. Fruit 1.5-5 cm. long, mostly rounded at the base, the ovary-cavity 
extending nearly or quite throughout the fruit at maturity, 
b. Fruit without spines or with few, mostly inconspicuous spines; 
spines of branch- joints bristly or somewhat stiffish; north- 
central and northern islands, 
c. Arborescent; perianth-segments less than 1.5 cm. long; fruit 
1.5-2.5 cm. long; James, Jervis, and Abingdon islands. 

1. O. galapageia 

c. Shrubby; perianth-segments 2 cm. long; fruit 3-5 cm. long; 

Tower and Wenman islands 2. 0. Helleri 

b. Fruit conspicuously spiny; spines of branch-joints rigid and stiff; 
Albemarle Island, 
d. Perianth-segments 1-1.5 cm. long; areoles of branch- 
joints 1.5-2 cm. apart, very numerous; north- 
ern Albemarle Island 3. O. insular is 

d. Perianth-segments 2-2.5 cm. long; areoles of branch- 
joints 2-3 cm. apart; southern and south- 
western Albemarle Island 4. O. saxicola 

a. Fruit 5-17 cm. long, turbinate or obconic, the ovary-cavity filling only 
the upper part of the fruit at maturity. 

e. Seeds more than 5 mm. long; spines of the branch- 
joints mostly bristly; arborescent; southern 

islands 5. 0. megasperma 

e. Seeds less than 5 mm. long; spines stiff and gen- 
erally rigid; south-central islands, 
f. Shrubby; spines 1 cm. or less long; North 

Seymour Island 6. 0. Zacana 

f. Arborescent; spines of branch-joints 2-13 cm. 
long; southern Albemarle, Indefatiga- 
ble, Barrington, and South Seymour 
islands , .... 7. O. Echios 

1. Opuntia galapageia Hensl., Mag. Zool. and Bot. 
1:467(1837) 

Arborescent or subarborescent, 2.5-4 m. tall, always with a distinct trunk, the 
trunk to 2 m. tall and in mature specimens covered with flaky bark of ruddy- 
brown, the crown generally rather dense and rounded, the branches rarely drooping; 
branch-joints light green, eUiptic or elUptic-obovate to round, 2.5-4 dm. long, 
1.5-3 dm. wide; leaves not known; areoles 2-4.5 cm. apart, copiously filled with 
brown hairs and with very few or no glochids; spines varying from nonpungent 
bristles to acicular pungent spines, bright straw-yellow, generally more than 20 
but rarely almost lacking, 3.5-6 cm. long; flowers small, perianth-segments about 
1.3 cm. long (from Hensl., loc. cit., pi. 14); fruit oblongish or round, 1.5-2.5 cm. 
long, 1.5-2.5 cm. in diameter, the fruit-areoles generally not spiny but with glochids, 
the ovary-cavity almost completely filling the fruit at maturity; seeds 2.5-4 mm. 
long. 

Collections. — Abingdon Island: Stewart No. 3001. Bartholo- 
mew Island: Howell No. 10058. James Island: James Bay, the 
region of the type locality, Howell No. 9733; north side, Stewart No. 
3012; Sullivan Bay, Howell No. 10006 and 10009 (trunk-joint). 
Jervis Island: near north end, Howell No. 9783, 9784 (joints spine- 
less), 9785, and 9786 (trunk-joint); Stewart No. 3013. Galapagos 
Islands: L. Agassiz in 1872 (Herb. Mo. Bot. Gard.). 



44 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

Opuntia galapageia was not found in flower but from the very 
small size of the fruits it seems certain that the perianth-segments 
are small as they were originally described and figured by Henslow. 
In his studies in Galapagian Cactaceae (1911), Stewart confused 
0. galapageia, which he obtained neither in flower nor fruit, with 
the large-flowered species, 0. megasperma, here described as new. 
Britton and Rose (1919) follow Stewart in misinterpreting the orig- 
inal description. The Agassiz specimen cited above was obtained 
on either James or Jervis Island as can be determined from the 
account of the route of the Hassler in the Galapagos Islands (1875). 

2. Opuntia Helleri K. Sch. in Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 
38: 180 (1902) 

Shrub, 0.3-2.5 m. tall, forming thickets 3-7 m. across, mostly without a distinct 
trunk; branch-joints pale yellowish-green or glaucous blue-green, elliptic to broadly 
oblanceolate, rather narrowly obtuse above and somewhat cuneate at the base, 
2.5-3.5 dm. long, 1-1.8 dm. wide; leaves slender, 8-9 mm. long; areoles 2-3.5 cm. 
apart, with brown hairs and with few or no glochids; spines nonpungent bristles or 
stiflfer and somewhat acicular, brown or yellowish-brown, generally 20 or more but 
rarely almost lacking, to 3-5 cm. long; flowers large, perianth-segments about 
2 cm. long, yellow; fruit round to broadly oblong, 3-5.5 cm. long, 2-4 cm. in diam- 
eter, fruit-areoles with glochids and usually with 1, 2 or more spines, the ovary- 
cavity almost completely filling the fruit at maturity; seeds rather large, 4.5-6 mm, 
long. 

Collections. — Tower Island: Stewart No. 3005; near Darwin Bay, 
Howell No. 10099, 10100 (joints nearly spineless), 10101 (trunk- 
joints). Wenman Island: Stewart No. 3006 (type locality). 

Opuntia Helleri is mainly distinctive for its shrubby habit and 
bristly spines, large flowers and relatively small fruit. On Tower 
Island where the species was studied in the field, the plants grow 
in localized colonies, forming low dense thickets. When such thickets 
grow along the edge of rocky escarpments as they do on the east side 
of Darwin Bay, the stems hang in pendent masses 2 m. or more in 
length. On the bluffs of Wenman Island the species has the same 
pendent habit according to Stewart (1911, p. 113). 



3. Opuntia insularis Stewart, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
4th ser., 1: 113 (1911) 

Shrubby, 0.6-2 m. tall, or becoming arborescent and 3-4 m. tall, almost always 
with a distinct trunk, the trunk developing flaky ruddy-brown bark in age, the 
crown with few large joints; branch-joints dull green, ovate to oblong or oblong- 
elliptic, 3-5.5 dm. long, 2-3 dm. wide; leaves slender and pungently acute, 6-9 mm. 
long; areoles 1.5-2 cm. apart, prominently raised, copiously hairy, glochids numer- 
ous; spines rigid and pungent, sordid yellow, 2-4 cm. long, generally more than 25 
in number; flowers small, perianth-segments yellow, 0.8-1.5 cm. long; fruit roundish, 
2-4 cm. long, 2-3 cm. in diameter, the fruit-areoles with slender spines and glochids, 
the ovary-cavity almost completely filling the fruit at maturity; seeds 3-4 mm. 
long. 



Vol. XXI) HOWELL— CACTACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 45 

Collections. — Albemarle Island: Tagus Cove, Stewart No. 3041 
(type, C. A. S. Herb. No. 1275); Tagus Cove, Howell No. 9516, 9601 
(trunk-joints), and 9605; summit of Tagus Cove Mt., 4000 ft., 
Howell No. 9577, 9578 (young plant); east shore, 3 miles south of 
Equator, Howell No. 9626. 

Opuntia insular is is a well marked and distinctive species readily 
distinguished from all other Opuntias on the islands by its rigid 
spines and small flowers, fruits, and seeds. It is also remarkable in 
the large joints, numerous areoles, and very long slender cauducous 
leaves. The distribution of the species as it is now known on the 
northern part of Albemarle Island is a highly natural one. With 
future exploration to the southward it is not unlikely that forms 
intermediate between O. insularis and 0. saxicola might be found 
and might even be expected in the vicinity of the Perry Isthmus. 
South of the isthmus O. saxicola appears to be the dominant species, 
at least on the west side of the island, as O. insularis is to the north. 

An interesting phenomenon was observed in the orientation of the 
branch- joints of 0. insularis growing on the slopes of Tagus Cove 
Mt. The branch-joints of an individual almost always grow in one 
plane so that a fan-shaped plant-crown is developed; and further, 
the crowns of all the plants tend to develop along parallel planes, 
so that in looking across the mountain slope one looks on the broad 
side of the cactus crowns, while in looking up or down the mountain 
one sees crowns only slightly wider than the thickness of the joints. 
This development of the crowns is probably the effect of a constant 
wind on the branch-joints, which are among the largest in the genus 
Opuntia. Exceptions to the prevailing scheme do occur but the whole 
effect is generally noticeable and impressive. 



4. Opuntia saxicola Howell, spec. nov. 
Plate 2, fig. 1 

Fruticosa vel subarborescens, 1-3 ni. alta, corona rotunda, trunco semper dis- 
tincto, fere brevi, maturo cortice lamelliformi, ferruginea, ramis non pendulis; 
articulis ramorum viridibus vel griseo-viridibus, obovatis, ellipticis vel rotundis, 
2.0-3 dm. longis, 2-2.5 dm. latis; foliis caducis 3.5-4 mm. longis; areolis 2-3 cm. 
separatim, lanuginibus fuscis, glochidiis; spinis subrigidis, pungentibus, ochraceis, 
ad 9 cm. longis, interdum sparsis, fere pluribus quam 20; floribus magnis, segmentis 
perianthii 2-2.5 cm. longis, citrinis; fructu late turbinato, basi vix angusto, 3-4 cm. 
longo, 2.5-3 cm. diametro, areolis fructuum glochidiis et spinis gracilibus, maturo 
fructu prope complito cavema ovarii; seminibus 3-3.5 mm. longis. 

Shrubby or subarborescent, 1-3 m. tall, always with a distinct trunk but the 
trunk generally short, at maturity covered with flaky bark of ruddy-brown, the 
crown generally rounded, the branches not drooping; branch-joints light green or 
grey-green, obovate to elliptic and round, 2.5-3 dm. long, 2-2.5 dm. wide; leaves 
3.5-4 mm. long; areoles 2-3 cm. apart, brown-hairy, with glochids; spines subrigid, 
pungent, brownish-yellow, to 2 or 3 (or to 9) cm. long, sometimes sparse but gen- 
erally more than 20; flowers large, perianth-segments 2-2.5 cm. long, bright lemon- 



46 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

yellow; fruit broadly turbinate, only slightly narrowed at base, 3-4 cm. long, 2.5-3 
cm. in diameter, fruit-areoles with slender spines and glochids, the ovary-cavity 
almost completely filling the fruit at maturity; seeds 3-3.5 mm. long. 

Collections. — Albemarle Island: near the shore on rather recent 
lava flow, five miles northeast of Webb Cove, Howell No. 9453 (type, 
C. A. S. Herb., No. 200894), 9452 (joint with very long spines), 9454 
(joint with very short spines), 9455 (trunk-joints); Villamil, Howell 
No. 8963. 

Opuntia saxicola, with its small fruit filled with seeds at maturity, 
is probably nearest to 0. insularis and these two species should per- 
haps be closely related to 0. galapageia. On the coastal rocks of the 
southern part of Albemarle Island 0. saxicola is the most abundant 
cactus and it is probably the only Opuntia on the southwestern coast. 
At Villamil on the southeast coast it is associated with 0. Echios 
but on the lava pavements a short distance inland where specimens 
of the two species were obtained, plants of 0. saxicola were much 
more numerous. It is not unlikely that the Opuntia forest traversed 
by the trail to Santo Tomas was of O. Echios but no specimens were 
obtained to settle this question. Also there are no specimens at hand 
to name the Opuntia reported by Stewart as growing at an elevation 
of 2,700 ft. in the crater of Villamil Mt. (1911, p. 113). A specimen 
of a seedling three joints high, collected at Villamil, Howell No. 
8964, can be referred to 0. saxicola since it grew in a nearly pure 
stand of this species. One specimen from South Seymour Island, 
Howell No. 9918, seems referable to O. saxicola but is an anomaly 
in the distribution of the species. Only one such plant was seen on 
South Seymour Island. 



5. Opuntia megasperma Howell, spec. nov. 

Arborescens vel raro fruticosa, 1-5 m. alta, corona rotunda, ramis adscendentibus 
densis compactisque, trunco fere distincto, 2-3 m. alta, 1 m. diametro, maturo 
cortice lamelliformi ferruginea; articulis ramorum viridibus, obovatis vel late ob- 
lanceolatis, 2-4 dm. longis, 1.5-2 dm. latis; foliis caducis, 7 mm. longis, acuminato- 
triangularibus; areolis 2-4 cm. separatim, lanuginibus copiosis fuscis, glochidiis 
nullis; spinis stramineis vel ochraceis, capillaro-echinatis vel 1-5 subrigidis, 30-40 
vel spinis prope nullis, 2-3.5 cm. longis; floribus magnis, segmentis perianthii 2-3 
cm. longis; fructu oblanceolato-turbinato vel obovato-turbinato, 5-17 cm. longis, 
3-7.5 cm. diametro, areolis fructuum glochidiis nullis, caverna ovarii complenti 
solum superiore parte fructus maturi; seminibus 6-13 mm. longis, compressis vel 
crassiusculis et fere angularibus. 

Arborescent or shrubby, 1-5 m. tall, generally with a distinct trunk, the trunk 
to 2 or 3 m. high and to 1 m. in diameter, in mature specimens covered with flaky, 
checkered bark of ruddy-brown, the crown rounded, densely and compactly 
branched, the branches ascending; branch-joints light green, obovate to broadly 
oblanceolate, 2-4 dm. long, 1.5-2 dm. wide; leaves 7 mm. long, acuminate-tri- 
angular; areoles 2-4 cm. apart, copiously filled with brown hairs, glochids lacking; 
spines straw-yellow to brownish-yellow, all bristly or with 1-5 stiffer spines inter- 
mixed, the bristly spines 30-40 or sometimes almost none, 2-3.5 cm. long; flowers 
large, perianth-segments 2-3 cm. long; fruit oblanceolate- turbinate to obovate- 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— CACTACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 47 

turbinate, 5-17 cm. long, 3-7.5 cm. in diameter, fruit-areoles bristly but without 
glochids, the slender base of the fruit sterile at maturity; seeds 6-13 mm. long, 
compressed or thickened and somewhat angular. 

Type of Opuntia megasperma Howell: Black Beach, Charles 
Island, Howell No. 9360, C. A. S. Herb. No. 200889. 

Opuntia megasperma is remarkable in the genus Opuntia for the 
extreme sizes attained by diameter of trunk, length of fruit, and size 
of seed. The trunk of the largest specimen seen on Hood Island 
measured 2.9 m. in circumference or 0.92 m. in diameter, although 
Stewart (1911, p. Ill) reports that extreme sizes of "as much as 4.5 
ft." are reached. This is probably the thickest trunk attained by 
any Opuntia although it is approached by O. Echios gigantea in the 
cactus forests of Indefatigable Island in the vicinity of Academy 
Bay. The largest fruit seen is in the type of the species and measured 
17.5 cm. in length and 5.5 cm. in diameter when fresh. Two fruits 
somewhat smaller measured 13 x 7.5 cm. and 9.5 x 6.5 cm. The 
thickened seeds found in the type are probably the most massive 
seeds in the genus. Only two species of Opuntia are recorded by 
Britton and Rose with seeds attaining a length of 10 mm., while 
in the type of O. megasperma, seeds 11-12 mm. long are not uncom- 
mon and the average length is at least 10 mm. This extreme diam- 
eter and thickness of seeds found in subspecies typica are due to the 
unusual development of the bony marginal band, and the irregu- 
larities of shape result from the crowded packing of the seeds within 
the ovary-cavity. 



Key to the Subspecies of 0. megasperma 

Seeds 9-13 mm. broad, 5-9 mm. thick a. typica 

Seeds 6-8 mm. broad, 3-4 mm. thick b. orienlalis 



5a. Opuntia megasperma typica Howell, subspec. nov. 

Segmentis perianthii ad 3.5 cm. longis; fructu 8-17 cm. longis; seminibus 9-13 
mm. longis, 5-9 mm. crassis. 

Perianth-segments to 3.5 cm. long; fruit 8-17 cm. long; seeds 9-13 mm. long, 
5-9 mm. thick. 

Collections. — Champion Island: Stewart No. 2098. Charles 
Island: Neboux in 1838 (Herb. Mo. Bot. Gard.); Black Beach, 
Howell No. 9360 (type), 9361 (an old joint nearly spineless), 9362 
(possibly the first branch-joint at top of trunk, with stiff and bristly 
spines intermixed), 9363 (trunk-joint); Black Beach, Stewart No. 
2099; small crater south of Post Office Bay, Howell No. 8845 (trunk- 
joint), 8846; southeast side, Stewart No. 3000. 



48 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

5b. Opuntia megasperma orientalis Howell, subspec. nov. 

Segmentis perianthii ad 2.5 cm. longis; fructu 6-8 cm. longis; seminibus 6-8 mm. 
longis, 3-4 mm. crassis. 

Perianth-segments to 2.5 cm. long; fruit 6-8 cm. long; seeds 6-8 mm. long, 3-4 
mm. thick. 

Collections. — Gardner Island (near Hood Island): Howell Ne. 
8784; Stewart No. 3002. Hood Island: near Gardner Bay, Howell 
No. 8725, 8724 (trunk-joint); Stewart No. 3003 (type, C. A. S. Herb., 
No. 50219); Stewart No. 3004 (seedling). 



6. Opuntia Zacana Howell, spec. nov. 
Plate 2, fig. 2 

Frutex, 1-1.5 m. (raro 2.5 m.) altus, trunco nuUo, ramis patentibus et radicanti- 
bus; articulis ramorum viridibus, obovatis, basi nonnihil cuneatis, 3.5 dm. longis, 
2.5 dm. latis; foliis caducis ignotis; areolis 2.5 cm. separatim, lanuginibus fuscis, 
glochidiis paucis; spinis brevissimis, rigidis, flavescentibus, ad 1 cm. longis, circa 
10 paucioribusve; floribus ignotis; fructu turbinate, 5.5-8.5 cm. longis, 3.5-4.5 cm. 
diametro, areolis fructuum glochidiis sed spinis raris, paucissimis brevissimisque, 
caverna ovarii complenti parte solum superiore fructus maturi; seminibus 4 mm. 
longis. 

Shrub, 1-1.5 m. tall (rarely to 2.5 m.), without a trunk, the branches spreading 
and rooting along the ground; branch-joints light green, obovate, somewhat cuneate 
at base, 3.5 dm. long, 2.5 dm. wide; leaves not known; areoles 2.5 cm. apart, filled 
with brown hairs and with few glochids; spines very short and rigid, pale yellow, 
to 0.8 or 1 cm. long, about 10 or fewer; flowers unknown; fruit turbinate, 5.5-8.5 
cm. long, 3.5-4.5 cm. in diameter, fruit-areoles with glochids but only rarely with 
very few short spines, the cuneate base of the fruit sterile at maturity; seeds 4 mm. 
long. 

Collection. — North Seymour Island: Howell No. 9957 (type, 
C. A. S. Herb., No. 200890). 

This is the first truly shrubby Opuntia with stiff spines to be 
described from the Galapagos Islands. A short trunk is discernible 
only in very young plants but it is early concealed in the develop- 
ment of the bushy spreading habit. Opuntia Zacana is closely 
related to 0. Echios of which it might be considered a subspecies 
if there were not such great differences in habit, spines, and fruit. 
Furthermore the habit and the characters of joints, spines, and fruits 
are nearly without variation, the species everywhere presenting a 
more uniform aspect than is found in any other Galapagian Opuntia. 
It is remarkable that 0. Zacana on North Seymour Island is so very 
different from the Opuntia occurring on South Seymour Island and 
on the north side of Indefatigable Island. This new Opuntia further 
emphasizes the very local endemic cast which marks the florula of 
North Seymour Island. 

In naming this species it is a pleasure to associate with it the name 
of the Zaca, the yacht of Mr. Templeton Crocker which was such 
an agreeable home during the six months of scientific exploration. 



Vol. XXIJ HOWELL— CACTACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 49 

This also serves as an opportunity to express appreciation to the 
members of the party and especially to the crew of the Zaca for 
their helpful consideration of inconveniences attendant on the prep- 
aration of large botanical collections and especially their tolerance 
and cooperation during the trying preparation of the extensive series 
obtained in Cactaceae. 



7. Opuntia Echios Howell, nom. nov. 

Opuntia tnyriacantha Weber in Bois, Dictionn. d'Horticult. 894 (1898); Bull, du 
Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 313 (1899). Not O. myriacantha Link et Otto 
in Steud., Nom., ed. 2, 2: 221 (1841). 

Arborescent, 2-8 m. tall, always with a distinct trunk, the trunk to 4 m. tall, 
and in mature specimens covered with brown flaky bark, the crown rather irregu- 
larly and openly branched, the branches sometimes drooping; branch- joints light 
green, elliptic to narrowly obovate, 3-5 dm. long, 1.5-2.5 dm. wide; leaves 3 mm. 
long; areoles 2-3 cm. apart, filled with brown hairs and glochids; spines varying 
from acicular to slender-subulate and rigid, pungent, straw-yellow to brownish- 
yellow, generally 15-20 or rarely lacking, generally to 5 or 6 cm. long or to 13 cm. 
long; flowers large, perianth-segments 2.5 cm. long; fruit turbinate, 5-9 cm. long, 
3-4 cm. in diameter, fruit-areoles with acicular spines and glochids, the narrowed 
base of the fruit sterile at maturity; seeds 3-4 mm. long. 

Opuntia Echios is the arborescent Opuntia of the Galapagos 
Islands with stiff spines and large flowers and fruits. The original 
identity of Weber's species, 0. myriacantha, is not certain. His first 
description published in 1898 is obviously taken from a growing 
plant with no flowers and from the characters described it is not 
possible to distinguish the plant from the several species in the 
Galapagos Islands. Moreover no specimens were cited which can 
serve to identify the name. The second and more ample account 
published by Weber in 1899 is also taken from a growing plant 
which bore flowers and fruits, and two specimens are cited which 
were intended to be representative of the species. Because of the 
incompleteness of the first description, the second description which 
definitely places the species is here accepted as the one on which 
0. myriacantha Weber is established. 

The first specimen cited by Weber in the second description is the 
collection made by Neboux in 1838 which, according to Weber, was 
taken on Charles Island, but since O. myriacantha Weber has not 
since been detected on that island, the specimen would appear to 
have been either misdetermined or misplaced. The material of 
Neboux' collection in the Herbarium of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden which has been available for study through the kindness of 
Dr. J. M. Greenman consists only of fascicles of spines. Fragments 
of bark adhere to several of the fascicles so it is evident that the 
spine-bundles are from trunk-joints, and a close examination of the 
pad of copious brown hairs at the base of the spines discloses the 



50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

complete absence of glochids. This fact almost positively places the 
material as 0. megasperma, for, among the other unusual characters 
of that species, the nearly or quite complete suppression of glochids 
is to be counted. Examination of the trunk-joints of all the other 
species in the islands discloses the presence of glochids in the trunk- 
areoles of each. So in this work the Neboux collection is referred to 
typical O. megasperma of Charles Island. 

The second specimen cited by Weber in the later description, as 
well as the living plant on which the second description is based, 
were from the collection made by Louis Agassiz on the Hassler 
Expedition in 1872, material said to have been collected on Albe- 
marle Island. But an examination of the route of the Hassler while 
in the Galapagos Islands (1875) shows that the only stop made on 
Albemarle Island was at Tagus Cove where it is quite certain no 
Opuntia grows except 0. insularis Stewart. That O. insularis is not 
the same as 0. myriacantha Weber is apparent from the description 
of the flowers and fruit of the latter species, 0. insularis having small 
flowers and globular fruit, 0. myriacantha being described with large 
flowers and obconic fruit. Furthermore the narrative of the Hassler 
Expedition (1875) states that after leaving Jervis Island on June 16, 
the following days were spent on Indefatigable Island before sailing 
for Panama on June 19. This means that the Hassler Expedition 
visited Conway Bay on the northwest side of Indefatigable Island 
which, with Post Office Bay, Tagus Cove, and James Bay, was one 
of the usual anchorages. Undoubtedly it was at Conway Bay where 
Agassiz collected the specimens of 0. myriacantha Weber, the flowers 
and fruit of which according to Weber so well correspond to the 
flowers and fruits of the plants abundant near the shore of the 
anchorage. It is interesting however that the Agassiz specimen in 
the Herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden is a roundish joint 
9 cm. long, smaller than any normal joints seen from the islands, 
and the areoles are even nearer together than are the areoles in 
0. insularis. It would appear that Weber preserved no material 
from the living plant he described, a conjecture supported by a com- 
munication concerning some of Weber's material from Monsieur H. 
Humbert at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle of Paris. 

Because of the element of uncertainty which accompanies the 
cited specimens of 0. myriacantha Weber and because it seems 
desirable to establish beyond doubt the new name proposed here, 
a type is definitely named from Conway Bay on the northwest side 
of Indefatigable Island. The giant Opuntia of the south side of Inde- 
fatigable Island is indicated as a subspecies with the appropriate 
name gigantea. 

Type of Opuntia Echios Howell: Conway Bav, Indefatigable 
Island, Howell No. 9847, C. A. S. Herb., No. 200895 and 200896. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— CACTACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 51 

Key to the Subspecies of 0. Echios 

Branches not noticeably drooping; spines of branch- joints becoming 11-13 

cm. long, rigid a. typica 

Branches generally drooping; spines of branch-joints generally 2-3.5 cm. 

long, acicular b. gigantea 

7a. Opuntia Echios typica Howell, nom. iiov. 

Plate 3, fig. 3 

Opuntia myriacantha Weber, loc. cit. 

Opuntia sp. Stewart, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 1: 115 (1911). 

Crown not loosely or openly branched, the branches not noticeably pendant; 
branch-joints 3-5 dm. long, about 2 dm. wide; spines of branch-joints reaching 
11-13 cm. long, stiff or rigid. 

Collections. — Indefatigable Island: Conway Bay, Howell No. 
9847 and 9848; L. Agassiz in 1872 (perhaps a young trunk-joint, 
Herb. Mo. Bot. Gard.). South Seymour Island: Stewart No. 3015; 
middle western part, Howell No. 9919. 

Besides the collection cited above from South Seymour Island, a 
specimen representative of most of the plants of the island, two 
other collections were made on the island which deserve special 
mention. One, Howell No. 9920, has narrow oblongish joints and 
elongate fruit in which the ovary-cavity is centrally placed with 
sterile tissue above and below, the only fruit of the sort found on 
the Galapagos Islands. Until it can be studied further the form is 
referred to typical 0. Echios to which it is most nearly allied. Only 
a single plant of this variation was seen. The second collection from 
South Seymour Island deserving particular mention is Howell No. 
9918, from a plant which differed from all others seen on the island 
in its low shrubby habit, short spines, and short fruit in which the 
ovary-cavity extends nearly to the base of the fruit leaving almost 
no sterile tissue. These characters, which would be incongruous in 
0. Echios, definitely belong to 0. saxicola of Albemarle Island and 
the plant is tentatively referred to that species as an anomaly in 
distribution. 

7b. Opuntia Echios gigantea Howell, subspec. nov. 
Plate 3, fig. 4 

Ramis coronae fere patentibus, laxis, pendulisque; articulis ramorum circa 3 dm. 
longis, 2 dm. latis, spinis acicularibus, 2-3 cm. longis, fere sparsis vel nullis. 

Crown rather loosely and openly branched, the branches generally more or less 
pendant, sometimes drooping to the ground; branch- joints about 3 dm. long and 
2 dm. wide; spines of branch-joints acicular, 2-3 cm. long, generally sparse, some- 
times lacking. 

Collections. — Albemarle Island: Villamil, Stewart No. 3008; 
near Villamil, Howell No. 8962 (joints nearly spineless). Barring- 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

TON Island; Stewart No. 3007. Indefatigable Island: Academy 
Bay, Stewart No. 3009, 3010; Academy Bay, Howell No. 9112 (type, 
C. A.S. Herb., No. 200893), 9111 (trunk-joint), and 9113; southeast 
side, Stewart No. 3011 (young plants). 

This form of 0. Echios is to be counted among the tallest species 
in Opuntia. Plants are commonly 3-4 m. tall wherever they occur 
but at Academy Bay on the south side of Indefatigable Island, trees 
6-8 m. (or perhaps even 10 m.) tall are not infrequent. These trees 
are impressive and grotesque features of the landscape with their 
few ponderous and jointed branches pendant even to the ground. 



CEREUS 

Introduction. From the evidence at hand, which includes a series 
of fifteen specimens obtained on the Templeton Crocker Expedition, 
it would seem that the specific names used by Britton and Rose 
(1920) for the two Galapagian cacti of the C^r^w^-relationship are 
not correct. From the evidence obtained in the field supplemented 
by extensive collections, it has been possible to interpret the older 
and rather meager specimens and descriptions in a way which would 
not be possible except through a perfect intimacy bred in the field. 
Furthermore it seems evident that the two Cereus-like plants of the 
Galapagos Islands are representative of two distinct generic types, 
but without a wide and intensive study of the numerous genera 
segregated from Cereus, it is not possible here to confirm Jasmino- 
cereus and Brachycereus, the two monotypic and endemic genera 
proposed by Britton and Rose for the Galapagian species (1920). 
Since just now there is not time for as detailed a study as the situa- 
tion requires, the plants are again referred to the old and broadly 
conceived genus Cereus with the specific names believed to be correct. 

Key to the Species of Cereus 

Arborescent, plants generally with a distinct trunk, attaining a height of 
8-10 m.; stem with 12-18 ribs, generally 13-16; perianth-tube 
and fruit without spine-bundles; seeds finely tuberculate . . 1. C. Thouarsii 

Subcaespitose, the stems erect, 0.3-0.6 m. long, sometimes as many as 
300 in a colony; stem with 17-22 ribs, generally 20 or 21; peri- 
anth-tube and fruit stellate-spiny; seeds quite smooth. . . .2. C. nesiotictis 

1. Cereus Thouarsii Weber, Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 
5: 312 (1899) 

C. galapagensis Weber, loc. cit. 

C. sclerocarpus K. Sch. in Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 179 (1902). 
Jasminocereus galapagensis (Weber) B. & R., Cactaceae 2: 146 (1920). 
Not Brachycereus Thouarsii B. & R., Cactaceae 2: 120 (1920). 

Collections,— Galapagos Islands: L. Agassiz in 1872 (photo- 
graphs of specimen. Herb. Mo. Bot. Gard.). Albemarle Island: 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— CACTACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 53 

5 miles northeast of Webb Cove, Howell No. 9457 ; east side, 3 miles 
south of Equator, Howell No. 9628; Villamil, Stewart No. 2095. 
Charles Island: near Post Office Bay, Howell No. 8847; Black 
Beach, Howell No. 8916; Stewart No. 2090. Chatham Island: 
Wreck Bay, Stewart No. 2091. Indefatigable Island: Academy 
Bay, Howell No. 9296, Stewart No. 2096; Conway Bay, Howell No. 
9849. James Island: James Bay, Howell No. 9734, Stewart No. 
2097; Sullivan Bay, Howell No. 10007. 

Both the specimen cited by Weber and the data given by him 
from the record of Du Petit-Thouars indicate that Cereus Thouarsii 
is the arborescent Cereus of the Galapagos Islands. Weber's descrip- 
tion of the fruit (after Du Petit-Thouars, 1841) is exactly that of the 
arborescent Cereus. The Engelmann data mentioned by Weber are 
based on the specimen collected on the Hassler Expedition, photo- 
graphs of which have been available for study from the Herbarium 
of the Missouri Botanical Garden. These photographs show a rela- 
tively low cylindrical stem, clothed with stiff, somewhat divaricate 
spines which are not so dense but that the ribs are easily discernible 
between them. It is evident that there are only 7 rows of spines 
visible on the half of the stem exposed to view, or, at most, 14 rows 
of spines in the whole circumference. Since in C. nesioticus K. Sch. 
there are usually 20 or more rows of spines (very rarely 17 or 18), 
and since the spines are always so dense that ribs can never be seen 
in that species, it seems undeniable that the photographs are of a 
young specimen of C. Thouarsii Weber and not C. nesioticus K. Sch., 
names considered synonymous by Britton and Rose. This conclu- 
sion is borne out by a comparison of the photographs with Howell 
No. 8916, a specimen of a young plant of C. Thouarsii collected on 
Charles Island. No specimen of C. nesioticus in the large series seen 
from the islands resembles the photographs which, in the absence 
of other material, must serve as the basis for the identity of C. 
Thouarsii. 



2. Cereus nesioticus K. Sch. in Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 
38: 179 (1902) 

Brachycereus Thouarsii B. & R., Cactaceae 2: 120 (1920), not Cereus Thouarsii 
Weber, Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 5: 312 (1899). 

Collections. — Abingdon Island: south side, Stewart No. 2092. 
Albemarle Island: 5 miles northeast of Webb Cove, Howell No. 
9456. James Island: James Bay, Howell No. 9709; Sullivan Bay, 
Howell No. 10008. Narborough Island: northeast side, Howell 
No. 9607, 9608, Stewart No. 2093; southeast side, Howell No. 9630 
9631, 9631 A. Tower Island: Stewart No. 2094. 



54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1841. Voyage Autour du Monde sur la Fregate La Venus 

by Abel du Petit-Thouars. The visit to the Galapagos 
Islands is described in vol. 2, pages 279 to 322. 

1875. Voyage of the Steamer Hassler , by L. F. Pourtales 

in Report of Superintendent of U. S. Coast Survey for 
year 1872. The route of the Hassler in the Galapagos 
Islands is in Appendix 11, page 221. 

1902. Flora of the Galapagos Islands, by B. L. Robinson, Proc. 
Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., vol. 38. The genus Opuntia 
is treated on pages 180 and 181. 

1911. A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands, by Alban 
Stewart, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 1. The genus 
Opuntia is considered on pages 110 to 115. 

1919. The Cactaceae, by N. L. Britton and J. N. Rose, Carnegie 

Inst, of Wash. Publ. No. 248. Opuntia galapageia is given 
with synonyms and discussion in vol. 1, pages 150 to 152. 

1920. The Cactaceae, by N. L. Britton and J. N. Rose, Carnegie 

Inst, of Wash. Publ. No. 248. The genus Brachycereus is 
proposed in vol. 2, page 120, and the genus Jasminocereus 
in vol. 2, page 146. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 5 



[HOWELL] Plate 2 







■JW^^ 



Fig. 1. Opuntia saxicola Howell, spec. nov. Plant from which the type 
specimen was collected, 5 miles northeast of Webb Cove, Albemarle 
Island. Photographed by J. T. Howell. 








f*«'v - Jr 




^«i'^-A^'.--5! 



Fig. 2. Opuntia Zacana Howell, spec. nov. Plant from which type 
specimen was collected, North Seymour Island. Photographed by J. T. 
Howell. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 5 



[HOWELL] Plate 3 




o. o 

in r\ 












ttl 



i p o 

ctf ^ 
• o 

'^ <; T3 

s > g^ 

O t, 









PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



t 



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CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 6, pp. 57-64 March 22, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 6 

FORMICIDAE OF THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION 

BY 

WILLIAM MORTON WHEELER, Ph.D. 
Proj. of Entomology, Harvard University 

On the Templeton Crocker Expedition of the California Academy 
of Sciences, 1932, special attention was paid to the collection of 
insects by Mr. Maurice Willows, Private Secretary to Mr. Crocker. 
The ants here described were collected by him in various localities on 
the Galapagos and Revillagigedo Islands, Cocos Island and on the 
coasts of Central America and Mexico. Though the collection is 
small, Mr. Willows has added two new subspecies and two varieties 
to a rather well-known ant fauna. The most interesting find is a 
Crematogaster on one of the Galapagos Islands. For some unknown 
reason this cosmopolitan genus does not seem to be very fond of 
certain insular environments. It does not occur in the British Isles, 
New Zealand, Norfolk and Lord Howe islands, Hawaii and many 
small islands in the Pacific Ocean and is poorly represented even in 
the Antilles. Its occurrence in the Galapagos is therefore rather 
unexpected. 



March 22, 1933 



^': r9'^33 



58 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Galapagos Islands 

Odontomachus haematoda bauri Emery 

Two workers and two deiilated females from Chatham Island 
(IV. 18. '32). This subspecies is known to occur only on Charles 
Island and Chatham Island, where it was originally taken by 
Dr. George Baur. 



Crematogaster (Orthocrema) brevispinosa chathamensis 

subsp. nov. 

Worker: Length 2.5-3.3 mm. 

Head slightly broader than long in the largest specimens, with slightly concave 
posterior border. Eyes elongate, flattened, near the middle of the sides. Clypeus 
convex, with nearly straight, transverse anterior border. Antennal scapes not 
reaching to the posterior border of the head; funiculi with distinctly 2-jointed club; 
basal funicular joints, except the first, broader than long. Thorax short; pro- and 
mesonotum convex and hemispherical; mesoepinotal impression short and deep; 
base of epinotum short, anteriorly very convex and rising rather abruptly from the 
impression; decUvity much longer, sloping; spines suberect, much shorter than their 
distance apart at the base, their tips slender and acute, sometimes slightly recurved. 
Petiole somewhat longer than broad, subelliptical, as broad behind as in front, with 
rounded sides and distinctly dentate posterior corners, anteroventrally with a strong 
spine, directed forward and downward. Postpetiole short and convex, narrower 
than the petiole, without median dorsal groove. Legs rather short and stout. 

Mandibles, clypeus, front, gula and sides of head finely, longitudinally striate; 
posterior portion of head smooth and shining, with sparse piligerous punctures. 
Thorax subopaque, only the epinotal declivity shining; pronotum transversely, 
mesonotum and base of epinotum longitudinally striate; meso- and metapleurae 
evenly and densely punctate. Petiole and postpetiole shining, the former smooth 
above and coarsely reticulate below, the latter delicately longitudinally rugulose. 
Gaster subopaque, finely punctate-shagreened. 

Hairs pale, sparse, blunt and erect on the thorax, pedicel and gaster; head, scapes 
and gaster with long, sparse, appressed pubescence; legs with similar but finer 
pubescence. 

Large workers red, with the thorax and posterior portion of the gaster black; 
trochanters and tarsi yellow; smaller workers darker, blackish, with mandibles, 
antcnnze, tibiae and tarsi reddish; trochanters yellow. 

Described from ten workers taken on Chatham Island (IV. 17. '32). 
Lectotype, C. A. S. Ent. No. 3689. 

This is the first Crematogaster to be recorded from the Galapagos 
Islands. I believe I am not mistaken in attaching it to the common, 
widely distributed and very variable neotropical C. brevispinosa 
Mayr, though it differs from all the numerous described forms (10 
subspecies and 14 varieties) of which I have seen specimens or 
descriptions. Only one of these, the subsp. mancocapaci Santschi, 
has been described from Ecuador, but this is quite different from the 
Galapagos form. 



Vol. XXIJ WHEELER— FORMICI DAE OP THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 59 

Tetramorium guineense Fabr. 

A worker and winged female from Indefatigable Island (V.7.'32; 
V.5.'32) and a worker from Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island (V.27.'32). 
Previously recorded from Albemarle, Charles and Tower islands. 

Tetramorium (Tetroginus) simillimum F. Smith 

Six workers from James Island (VI. 4. '32). A common pan- 
tropical "tramp" species, previously recorded from Charles Island. 

Dorymyrmex pyramicus albemariensis Wheeler 

Two workers from Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island (V. 25. '32), one 
from Indefatigable Island (V.6,'32) and one from Jervis Island 

(V.25.'32). 

Camponotus (Myrmocladoecus) planus F. Smith 
var. peregrinus Emery 

A single minor worker (IV. 17. '32) from Chatham Island, the type 
locality of the variety. 

Camponotus (Myrmocladoecus) planus 
var. santacruzensis Wheeler 

Three minor workers and seven males from Indefatigable Island 
(V.l.'32; V.3.'32; V.5.'32; V.7.'32; VI. 8. '32). 

Camponotus (Myrmocladoecus) planus 
var. isabelensis Wheeler 

Four minor workers and a male from Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
Island (V.27.'32). 

Camponotus (Myrmocladoecus) planus var. hephaestus 
var. nov. 

Worker major. Differing from the var. isabelensis Wheeler and resembUng the 
var. fernandensis Wheeler in the shape of the head, which has the sides nearly 
straight and converging anteriorly, instead of convex and rounded. There are no 
erect hairs on the cheeks as in isabelensis. The mesoepinotal impression is deeper 
and the superior border of the petiolar scale is sharper and more rounded than in 
either of these varieties; the pilosity and pubescence on the gaster is longer and 
somewhat more abundant, the legs and antennae are distinctly darker red, the 
coxae, except at their tips, black. 

Worker minor. Differing from the minor worker of the var. isabelensis in having 
somewhat longer antennal scapes, in the darker red color of the legs and antennae 
and the more abundant gastric pile, which is like that of the major worker. 



60 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Described from four major workers (V.22.'32) and four minor 
workers (V.21.'32; V.22.'32) from Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island 
and six minor workers (IV. 28. '32) which are simply labelled "Albe- 
marle," but which, owing to their dark appendages, evidently belong 
to this variety. There are therefore two varieties of planus {isabel- 
ensis and hephastus) on Albemarle Island, just as there are two 
(indefessus and santacruzensis) on Indefatigable Island. Lectotype, 
C. A, S,, Ent. No. 3690, major worker. 



Camponotus (Pseudocolobopsis) macilentus F. Smith 
var. albemarlensis Wheeler 

A single male from Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island (V.27.'32), 
which I refer to this variety, measures 5.7 mm. and is pale honey 
yellow, with the posterior half of the gaster brown and a darker 
brown V-shaped spot on the ocellar region. The wings are distinctly 
tinged with yellow. 



Camponotus (Pseudocolobopsis) macilentus 
var. narboroensis Wheeler 

This variety was described from a single greasy and defective 
female specimen collected by the Albatross in 1899. I refer to the 
same variety three well-preserved females taken by Mr. Willows on 
Narborough Island (V.28.'32). They measure 8-8.5 mm. in length 
and are darker and more reddish than any of the other described 
varieties of macilentus . The dark brown bands on the gaster are 
broad. The head is slightly narrowed anteriorly, though less than 
in the var. saphirinus Wheeler from Indefatigable Island. The 
antennal scapes extend nearly twice their greatest diameter beyond 
the posterior border of the head. 



Paratrechina longicornis Latreille 

Six workers from Indefatigable (V.6.'32), Chatham (IV. 17. '32); 

Charles (IV.24.'32) and Gardner (near Hood) islands (IV. 22. '32). 
Previously recorded only from Charles. 



Nylanderia vividula guatemalensis Forel 
var. itinerans Forel 

A single worker from Indefatigable Island (V.7.'32). Previously 
known from this island and Chatham. 



Vol. XXI] WHEELER— FORMICIDAE OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 61 

Nylanderia fulva nesiotis Wheeler 

Four workers from Hood Island (IV. 20. '3 2), one from Iguana 
Cove, Albemarle Island (V.21.'32); two winged females from Tagus 
Cove, Albemarle (V.25.'32; V.27.'32) and one from James Island 
(VI. 4, '32). Previously known from James and Indefatigable islands. 

Revillagigedo Islands 

Solenopsis geminata Fabr. 

A single worker of the typical black form from Socorro Island 
(III. 26. '32) and a very small and more reddish specimen from 
Clarion Island (III.24.'32). 

Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) picipes Oliv. var. ? 

Two minima workers from Socorro Island, 2000 ft. (III. 7. '32). 
They probably represent an undescribed variety of the Mexican 
picipes, but further determination is impossible without the major 
worker. 

Cocos Island 
Camponotus (Myrmaphaenus) cocosensis Wheeler 

Seven workers, four females and six males (VI. 28. '32). 

The female (undescribed) measures 11-12 mm. and resembles the worker major, 
but the head is less narrowed anteriorly and the antennal scapes are longer. Thorax 
elongate-elliptical, slightly broader than the head; mesonotum as long as broad; 
base of epinotum convex, decidedly shorter than the subperpendicular, concave 
declivity. Superior border of petiolar node rather deeply and semicircularly 
excised. Surface of head and thorax much smoother and more shining than in the 
worker. Erect hairs on the head and thorax shorter and sparser. Head and 
appendages reddish yellow; thorax and petiole deep red. Wings long (12 mm.), 
yellow, with somewhat darker resin yellow veins and pterostigma. 

The male (undescribed) measures 6.5-7 mm. Head through the eyes very nearly 
as wide as long; cheeks straight; clypeus bluntly carinate; mandibles triangular, 
with well-developed but edentate apical border; eyes and ocelli large and prominent; 
antennas long and slender. Thorax stout, with large mesonotum, much broader than 
the head; epinotum short and convex, with subequal base and declivity. Petiolar 
node low and thick, its obtuse superior border broadly impressed in the middle. 
Legs long and slender. Pilosity pale, sparse and of uneven length as in the female. 
Head and thorax subopaque as in the worker; scutellum and epinotum smoother and 
more shining. Head, genitalia, appendages and sutures of thorax brownish or 
reddish yellow; remainder of thorax dark brown; gaster black. Wings yellow as in 
the female but both membranes and veins distinctly paler. 



62 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Mexico 

Ectatomma ruidum Roger 

Ten workers from Port Parker, Costa Rica (VI 1. 3. '3 2), Coseguina 
Slope, Nicaragua (VII. 6. '32) and Puerto Vallarta, Mexico (VII. 
21. '32). 

Holcoponera curtula Emery 

A worker from Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua (VII. 6. '32) and two 
from Maria Madre Island, Mexico (VII.26.'32). 

Pseudomyrma gracilis Fabr. var. mexicana Roger 
A single worker from Port Parker, Costa Rica (VII. 5. '32). 

Pseudomyrma pallida F. Smith 

A single small worker, apparently belonging to this species, from 
Port Parker, Costa Rica (VII.4.'32). 

Pseudomyrma sp. 

A single female from Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua (VIII. 7. '32) 
allied to Ps. filiformis Fabr., but specifically distinct. Owing to the 
difficulty of identifying female specimens of the genus Pseudomyrma, 
which is in need of revision, I refrain from introducing a new name. 



Crematogaster (Orthocrema) brevispinosa Mayr 
var. minutior Forel 

A number of workers from Acapulco, Mexico (IV. 3. '32), and 
Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua (VII. 8. '32), one poorly preserved 
worker from Isabel Island, Mexico (III. 27. '32), two females from 
Maria Madre Island, Mexico (VII. 23. '32) and one from Cape San 
Lucas, Baja California (VIII.4.'32). 



Solenopsis geminata Fabr. 

A single worker from Port Parker, Costa Rica (VII. 3. '32) and one 
from Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua (VI 1. 7. '3 2). 

Solenopsis sp. 

A single small black male, with whitish wings from Isabel Island, 
Mexico (VII. 27. '32). 



Vol. XXII WHEELER— FORMICIDAE OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 63 

Cryptocerus minutus Fabr. 

Two minor workers from Acapulco, Mexico (IV. 5. '32) and one 
from Port Parker, Costa Rica (VII.4.'32). 

Acromyrmex octospinosus Reich 

Three workers from Acapulco, Mexico (IV. 5. '32). 



Azteca velox Forel 
Three very small workers from Acapulco, Mexico (IV. 5. '32). 

Anopolepis longipes Jerdon 

Mazatlan, Mexico, one worker (VIII. 1. '32). 

Camponotus (Myrmothrix) sp. 

A winged female and a male from Isabel Island, Mexico (III. 27. '32) 
allied to C. (M.) ahdominalis Fabr, but with much less developed pile 
on the enlarged antennal scapes of the female. It is not advisable to 
name this form without major workers. 

Camponotus (Myrmobrachys) senex F. Smith 
A single minor worker from Acapulco, Mexico (IV. 5. '32). 

Camponotus (Myrmocladoecus) rectangularis Emery 

Four workers from Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua (VII. 7. '32) and 
one from Port Parker, Costa Rica (VII. 3. '32). 



Camponotus (Myrmocladoecus) rectangularis 
var. willowsi var. nov. 

Worker minor. Differing from the typical form of the species and its var. 
ruhroniger Forel in coloration, being deep black, with the exception of the posterior 
borders of the gastric segments and terminal tarsal joints, which are reddish, and 
the head, antennal scapes and first funicular joint, which are bright yellowish red. 
Cheeks, clypeus and mandibles yellow, mandibular teeth reddish. The dorsal 
surface of the gaster is less opaque and more glossy than in rectangularis and ruh- 
roniger, with distinctly longer and denser pubescence and even shorter hairs. 

A single specimen from Acapulco, Mexico (IV.5.'32). There is in 
my collection a second specimen taken by Frederick Knab in the 
same locality. I here insert a description of a second variety of 
rectangularis which I took in Guatemala in 1911. Type, C. A. S. Ent. 
No. 3683. 



64 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Camponotus (Myrmocladoecus) rectangularis 
var. aulicus var. nov. 

Worker major and minor. Resembling rubroniger, but the head, thorax and 
petiole are of a more vivid red, the base of the first gastric segment of the same color 
and each gastric segment reddish posteriorly, with the extreme border golden 
yellow. Appendages, especially the tibise and tarsi, somewhat darker red than the 
head and thorax; cheeks, clypeus and mandibles more yellowish, the funiculi beyond 
the first joint blackish as in the other forms of the species. Dorsal surface of gaster 
with the same short pubescence and pile as in the typical rectangularis and the var. 
rubroniger. 

Described from sixteen specimens, taken from a hollow twig at 
Zacapa, Guatemala, Dec. 13, 1911. Type in author's collection. 



Santa Barbara Islands, California 
Aphasnogaster patruelis Forel subsp. willowsi subsp. nov. 

Worker. Differing from the typical patruelis in having the base of the epinotum 
straight and horizontal, not convex, and in certain details of coloration. Head, 
pronotum, pedicel and gaster very smooth and shining, base of epinotum very 
finely and indistinctly transversely striate, especially on the sides; mandibles, 
clypeus, cheeks and meso- and metapleurae sharply, longitudinally rugulose. The 
epinotal teeth, though very small and resembling those of the much paler subspecies 
bakeri Wheeler from Catalina Island, are more slender and fully twice as long as 
broad at their bases. Deep reddish castaneous, almost black; mandibles, gula, the 
4-jointed clubs of the antennae, scapes, trochanters, tips of coxae and legs red, the 
femora and tibiae dark brown, except at their bases and tips. 

A single specimen from San Nicolas Island (III. 15. '32). Type, 
C. A. S. Ent., No. 3684. 




PROCEEDINCS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 7, pp. 65-74, plate 4 April 17, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 7 

DOLICHOPODIDAE AND PHORIDAE 



BY 



MILLARD C. VAN DUZEE 

Buffalo, New York 



Fifteen specimens of Dolichopods and two Phorids were sent me 
for determination. One Chrysosoma was taken on the western coast 
of Mexico on the return trip. This is the first species of this tropical 
genus to be described from Central or South America. One species 
of Condylostylus and three species of Chrysotus are here described 
as new, all from the Galapagos Islands. The two Phoridae represent 
two new forms of the rather small genus Dohrniphora and are 
described below. 

This is a very interesting little collection, being a part of the 
collection of insects made on the Crocker Expedition by Mr. Maurice 
Willows, Jr., Private Secretary to Mr. Crocker, who had been placed 
in charge of collecting insects. I was much pleased to have the 
opportunity of studying these specimens. 

April 17, 1933 



66 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

1. Condylostylus dentaticauda Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Male: Length 5 mm. Face wide, shining green, lower part with white pollen, 
longer than wide, rounded below; front shining green with long, deUcate, white 
hairs at vertex and along the orbits; palpi and proboscis black, the former with 
pale hairs and black bristles; antennae (Fig. 1) black, third joint small, a Httle 
conical, longest bristle on second joint nearly twice as long as antenna, arista 
slender, bare, black; beard white, not long or very abundant. 

Thorax and abdomen dark green with blue reflections; abdomen with rather 
wide, black incisures, last segment violet above, hind margin of segments with 
short bristles, venter with long, black, bristle-like hairs; dorsum of thorax with 
four pairs of long acrostichal bristles and four pairs of dorsocentrals ; scutellum 
with two pairs of large marginal bristles and a few small white hairs on the disk; 
hypopygium (Fig. 2) black, moderately large, rather slender, with quite short, 
slightly curved, black claspers that have a tooth-like corner on inner angle of tip 
and another near the middle of the inner edge. 

All coxae and femora black; front coxae with white hair on anterior surface and 
small black bristles at tip; femora with long white hair below; front and middle 
tibiae and fore basitarsi dark yellow; fore tarsi black from extreme tip of first joint; 
hind tibiae and tarsi wholly black; front tibiae with long, delicate, yellow hairs 
below; hind tibias with long bristly hairs on both upper and lower edges of posterior 
surface; hind tarsi with long black hair, all joints of nearly equal width, except 
last joint, which is a little narrower; length of front tibiae as 82, posterior as 165, 
joints of front tarsi as 65-22-13-7-7; of posterior as 88-23-19-11-9. Calypters, their 
cilia and the halteres black. 

Wings grayish with a slight brownish tinge in front of third vein to costa and 
from a little beyond tip of first vein to tip of second vein; first vein reaching nearly 
to the middle of the wing; costa with very short, recumbent hairs; second vein 
straight; third vein bent a little backwards towards tip; last section of fourth vein 
with its fork at nearly right angles, upper bend broadly rounded, beyond this bend 
running nearly straight to wing margin, fourth vein from cross- vein to fork as 35, 
from fork to wing margin as 26, but the vein ends slightly beyond the fork, being 
represented by a slight fold in the wing membrane; cross-vein a little sinuous, 
somewhat oblique, its length as 35; last section of fifth vein as 26, nearly reaching 
the wing margin. 

Holotype, male, (C. A. S., Ent., No. 3691) taken by Willows, 
June 4, 1932, on James Island, Galapagos Islands. 

This would run to erectus Becker in Abbe O. Parent's table of 
species of the American Condylostylus (Annales de la Societe Scien- 
tifique de Bruxelles, tome xlix, p. 7, couplet 26) and is also near 
aduncus Van Duzee, from these it may be separated by the following 
addition of O. Parent's table: 



Hypopygial lamellae yellow (Mexico) purpureus Aldricli 

Hypopygial lamellae (or claspers) black 27 

Hypopygium small, halteres yellow, (Paraguay) erectus Becker 

Hypopygium large, halteres black 28 

Claspers long, curved; first joint of front tarsi of nearly equal length with 

the remaining four joints taken together, (Guatemala), .aduncus Van Duze^ 
Claspers short, a little curved, with a sharp tooth on inner side near the 
middle and one at inner apical corner; first joint of front tarsi nearly 
one and one-half times as long as the remaining four joints taken together, 
(Galapagos Islands) dentaticauda Van Duzee 



Vol. XXI] VAN DUZBE—DOLICHOPODIDAE AND PHORIDAE 67 

2. Chrysosoma latiapicatum Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Male: Length 4.5 mm. Face wide, green, portion below the suture mostly blue, 
scarcely as long as wide, rounded below, covered with yellowish white tomentum 
(or coarse scales of pollen); front green, blue in the middle, orbits with a row of 
long white hairs; ocellar tubercle projecting; antennae (Fig. 3) black; second joint 
with longest bristle one and a half times as long as antenna, third joint conical, 
as long as wide, arista nearly as long as the abdomen, bare, black, very slender 
with the apex distinctly widened, curved, snow-white with a black spine-like tip; 
palpi and proboscis black; former with white hairs and black bristles, the black 
orbital cilia reaching nearly to lower margin of eyes; beard long and abundant, 
white with many black bristles above. 

Thorax and abdomen green with blue reflections, last abdominal segment blue; 
five pair of acrostichal bristles, last pair very long and slender; four pair of dorso- 
centrals; scutellum with one pair of large bristles and two pairs of long but slender 
hairs on the margin; bristles on hind margin of the abdominal segments very long 
and slender; hypopygium (Fig. 4) black with yellow appendages and two very 
long, more or less sinuous bristles composed of a number of hairs and projecting 
from the hypopygial appendages. 

All coxae and trochanters black; femora blue-black with long white hair below; 
all tibiae and front and middle tarsi yellow, hind tarsi wholly black; front and 
middle tibiae with three very long, slender bristles on posterior surface that are 
longer than the first joint of front tarsi; hind tibiae ciliated with a row of stiff, 
black hairs on lower posterior edge that are longer than the diameter of tibia, and 
one bristle above at basal fourth as large as the hairs below; front tarsi (Fig. 5) 
with a row of long slender bristles of increasing length on first joint, last two hairs 
very long; second joint with a long bristle at tip; last four joints with a row of long 
hairs above, last joint flattened and widened, seen from the side it is arched so as 
to be concave below; middle tarsi with a row of long hairs below, fourth joint 
slightly widened, black with a thorn formed of long hairs at tip, fifth joint with 
dense, snow-white hairs on one side; fore coxae with long white hair on anterior 
surface and black bristles; length of front tibias as 85, middle 116 and posterior as 
160; joints of front tarsi as 90-31-30-20-7; of middle as 119-35-26-12-8; and of 
posterior as 54-48-22-13-7. Calypters and their cilia black; stem of halteres black, 
knobs pale yellow. 

Wings grayish hyaline; costa with short recumbent hairs; first vein reaching 
nearly to the middle of the wing; second vein nearly straight; third vein bent back 
a little towards tip; fourth vein from cross- vein to fork as 35; from fork to wing 
margin as 17, fork forming less than a right angle with basal part of fourth vein, 
upper bend a little rounded, then running straight to wing margin. 

Holotype, male, (C. A. S., Ent., No. 3692) taken by Willows July 
21, 1932, at Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico. 

This is the only species of Chrysosoma known from South or 
Central America. In 1932 I described a species from Illinois as 
Chrysosoma plumosa, but Abbe 0. Parent wrote me he thought it 
should go in the genus Sciapus. However, I scarcely see how 
plumosa could be placed in Sciapus as the arista is apical, not at 
all subapical or dorsal. 

If we retain plumosa Van Duzee in Chrysosoma it would be the 
only species in the genus known from America before this new 
species was found by Mr. Willows. 



68 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

3. Chrysotus brevicornis Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Male: LcMigth 1.8 mm. Eyes broadly touching in the middle of the face; face 
and front dark blue, dulled with brownish-gray pollen; palpi small, black; proboscis 
black; antennas (Fig. 7) short, first joint yellow, second yellow at base, third black, 
very small, arista subapical; lower orbital cilia pale, with some black bristles below 
the head. 

Dorsum of thorax, scutellum and abdomen dark blue, front of thorax more 
green; pleurje black; dorsum of thorax with coarse brown pollen, the few acrostichal 
bristles placed in two rows; (I see but four pairs of dorsocentral bristles); abdomen 
a little depressed, its hairs mostly black; hypopygium black, small, with small 
yellow appendages, inner pair somewhat clavate with a small, curved, blackish 
spine at one apical corner, outer lamellae pale yellow. 

Front coxae wholly yellow with long, bristle-like, yellow hairs; middle and hind 
coxa; black; femora, tibiae and all basitarsi pale yellow, all tarsi black from tip of 
first joint; hairs on tarsi partly white, especially on apical part, and quite long; 
anterior femora (Fig. 8) with a row of about seventeen black bristles of about 
equal length, on lower posterior edge, their tibiae with a row of rather long yellow 
hairs on lower anterior edge, the basitarsi with a row of black hairs or spines below 
that are nearly as long as diameter of joint; last joint of fore tarsi a little widened; 
middle femora with a few long yellow hairs below, their tibiae with one long bristle 
at basal fourth of lower anterior surface; hind femora with three black bristles 
below near tip, otherwise bare below; hind tibiae on upper surface with pair of 
bristles near basal fourth and two single bristles on middle third, also a row of 
long, stiff, black hairs on lower posterior surface; length of front tibiae as 35, of 
middle ones 40 and of posterior pair 54; fore tarsi three-fourths as long as their 
tibia, middle and hind tarsi four- fifths as long as tibia; joints of front tarsi as 
19-9-7-5-5; of middle as 22-10-7-6-6; of posterior pair 15-13-8-6-6. Calypters and 
halteres pale yellow, cilia of former black. 

Wings grayish hyaline; third and fourth veins straight and parallel, fourth 
ending in apex of wing; last section of fifth vein slightly arched, its length as 30, 
cross-vein as 10; anal angle of wing prominent. 

Holotype, male, (C. A. S., Ent., No. 3693) taken by Willows, 
June 7, 1923, at Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Islands. 



4. Chrysotus brevispina Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Male: Length 1.5 mm. Eyes contiguous on the face, leaving a very small, white 
pollinose triangle below, and a larger dark blue triangle above; palpi whitish 
yellow with whitish hairs; proboscis black; front dark blue, not much shining; 
antennae (Fig. 9) with first joint yellow, second and third black, third a little yellow 
at base, arista subapical; lateral and inferior orbital cilia white. 

Dorsum of thorax and the scutellum dark blue, former with brown pollen, latter 
shining; five pairs of acrostichal bristles in two rows and five pairs of dorsocentrals; 
scutellum with one pair of stout but rather short bristles. Abdomen green with 
most of its hair rather long and yellow, but with quite a number of black hairs; 
abdomen depressed; hypopygium mostly concealed, its outer lamellae small black, 
a little yellowish at tip. 

Front coxae wholly pale yellow with long yellow hair; middle and hind coxae 
black; femora and tibiae pale yellow, tarsi yellow, shading into brown or black 
towards tip, hind tarsi brown nearly to base of second joint; front femora (Fig. 10) 
with a row of moderately long spines or little bristles, on lower anterior edge, that 
end in three longer bristles near tip, while some at base are very short; tibiae with 
a row of bristle-like, erect, yellow hairs on lower surface, these appear black in 
certain Ughts, their basitarsi with a row of white hairs below that are nearly as long 



Vol. XXI] VAN DUZEE—DOLICHOPODIDAE AND PHORIDAE 69 

as the diameter of the joint; middle tibiae with one large bristle below at basal third, 
(I cannot see any bristles above); hind tibiae with one rather small bristle at basal 
third of upper posterior edge and two near the middle above, and there seems to 
be one or two at tip, no bristles below but with a row of stout hairs on lower posterior 
edge that are not very long; middle femora with a row of bristle-hke hairs on lower 
posterior edge; hind femora with three bristles on lower anterior edge near tip; 
length of front tibiae as 31, middle as 35 and posterior as 40; joints of front tarsi 
as 16-7-5-4-4; of middle as 18-8-7-4-4; posterior pair as 15-11-8-5-6. Calypters 
and halteres pale yellow, ciHa of former black. Wings grayish (crumpled in type). 
Female: Colored as in the male; face quite wide with a little white pollen; 
palpi as in the male; front femora and tibiae without long hair or bristles. All 
females taken at Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island, Galapagos Islands, by Willows. 

Holotype, male, (C. A. S., Ent., No. 3694) taken by Willows, 
May 7, 1932, on Indefatigable Island; one male paratype, taken 
June 17, 1932, at the same place; allotype, female, two male and 
two female paratypes taken May 21, 1932, on Albemarle Island. 



5. Chrysotus latifacies Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Face moderately wide, its sides nearly parallel but a little wider above, with a 
suture at the middle; face and palpi black with coarse white pollen, that nearly 
conceals the ground-color; proboscis black; front dark blue; antennas (Fig. 11) with 
first joint reddish brown, second and third black, third nearly straight below, a 
little oblique above, arista subapical; lateral and inferior orbital cilia white. 

Dorsum of thorax blue with green and violet reflections and brown pollen; 
acrostichals in two rows; five pair of dorsocentrals. Abdomen green with bronze 
reflections, its hair largely black, but the hair on first and apical segments yellow; 
hypopygium mostly concealed, with a small black protuberance at lower posterior 
edge. 

Fore coxaj wholly yellow with long yellow hair; middle and hind coxae black, 
posterior pair with a large erect bristle on outer surface; femora and tibiae wholly 
yellow; tarsi yellow, more or less blackened toward their tips; all femora with 
small preapical bristles; fore tibije above with a small bristle at basal fourth and 
one near tip; middle tibiae with three or four bristles above, the largest one near 
basal fourth and next at middle, none below; tip with three bristles; hind tibiae 
with four bristles above, the last one at tip, also two on anterior surface, one at 
basal fourth and the other beyond the middle; length of front tibiae as 32, middle 
as 34 and posterior pair as 50; joints of fore tarsi as 15-6-6-4-4; of middle pair as 
22-5-4-5-4; posterior pair as 15-12-7-5-5. Calypters yellow with black cilia; halteres 
black. 

Wings grayish; third and fourth veins parallel, fourth ending in apex of wing; 
last section of fifth vein as 33, cross- vein as 7; anal angle of wing prominent. 

Holotype, male, (C. A. S., Ent., No. 3695) taken by Willows, 
May 7, 1932, on Indefatigable Island. 

Table of the Species of Chrysotus from the Galapagos Islands 

1. Face rather wide, its sides nearly parallel, but slightly wider above. . . .latifacies 
-. Face narrow, eyes almost touching in the middle of the face 2 

2. Hypopygial lamellae yellow; palpi blackish; bristles on lower surface of front 

femora of nearly equal length throughout brevicornis 

-. Hypopygial lamellae black; palpi whitish yellow; row of spines on lower sur- 
face of front femora rather short at base, longer at tip brevispina 



70 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

6. Dohrniphora willowsi Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Female: Length 1.2 mm. Head, dorsum of thorax and abdomen black; pleurae, 
legs, feet, base of sixth abdominal segment, palpi, haltei-es and ovipositor yellow; 
antennae, first abdominal segment and an elongated, narrow spot on each side at 
base of second abdominal segment reddish brown; front (Fig. 12) with a little gray 
pollen and three straight rows of four bristles and a pair of anterior frontal bristles 
about half as large, above and close to the antennae, these last a little reclinate; 
palpi large, thick, somewhat cylindrical with four or five stout black spines at tip; 
third antennal joint large, rounded, arista black with white hair, longer than the 
front; pleurae with one very small hair above middle coxae. Abdomen (Fig. 13) 
with second, third, fourth and fifth segments very narrowly white on hind margin; 
sixth segment broadly yellow at base, but considerably blackened in the middle as 
far as the base, leaving two large yellow spots. Ovipositor slender, of one segment 
(visible) and with long hairs; below sixth segment there is about the same large 
brown sack-Hke portion as in crockeri (Fig. 20). 

Coxje, femora, tibiae and tarsi yellow; middle tibiae (Fig. 15) with a pair of large 
bristles near base and a very long spur at tip below, their basitarsi with a small 
spine near base below; fore tibiae (Fig. 14) without bristles; hind tibiae (Fig. 16) 
somewhat fusiform, with a slender bristle near base above, a very small one near 
tip above, a very small spur at tip below, and before this spur a larger curved 
rather short spine; length of front and middle tibiae as 25, of posterior tibiae 30; 
joints of front tarsi as 7-6-6-5-6; of middle tarsi 12-6-5-4-4; of posterior basitarsi 
as 10. 

Wings (Fig. 17) grayish hyaline; costa reaching middle of wing, with short 
fringe of bristles, its sections as 25-6-3. 

Holotype, female, (C. A. S., Ent., No. 3696) taken by Willows, 
July 11, 1932, on South Seymour Island, Galapagos Islands. 



7. Dohrniphora crockeri Van Duzee, n. sp. 

Female: Length 1,5 mm. Head, dorsum of thorax and abdomen black, pleurae 
legs, feet, palpi, base of sixth abdominal segment, halteres and ovipositor yellow; 
antennae and first abdominal segment reddish brown; front (Fig. 18) with three 
rows of four bristles each in straight lines and one pair of anterior frontal bristles 
placed close together, above and between the reclinate antennae; antennae reddish 
yellow with a blackish tip, slightly pear-shaped, arista apical, black with white 
hair and longer than the front; palpi yellow, large, somewhat cylindrical with 
stout black spines at tip; each cheek with two large spines. 

Dorsum of thorax black, a little grayish poUinose, covered with dense, black 
minute hairs, one pair of dorsocentrals near the scutellum, which is a little reddish 
and has one pair of rather large marginal bristles and one pair of minute hairs. 
Abdomen (Fig. 19) colored and formed almost like that of willowsi new species, 
but second segment more wholly black and hind margins of all segments straight; 
ovipositor seen from above (Fig. 19) quite thick and showing two segments, viewed 
from the side (Fig. 20) still thicker and with a large sack-like portion on ventral 
side of sixth segment. 

Coxae, femora and tibiae yellow, tarsi yellow but appearing darker because of 
the very black hairs on them; femora with fine hairs below; front tibiae (Fig. 21) 
with four rather small bristles above, the last one at tip; their tarsi with a small 
spine at base below; middle tibiae (Fig. 22) with two large bristles near base above, 
two hair-like ones below near tip and a very long spur at tip below; hind tibiae 
(Fig. 23) long and curved, concave below, a little flattened and widened towards 
tip, without bristles, except the three large spurs at tip, their basitarsi long and 
thick, with two small slender bristles below near base; length of front tibiae as 25, 



Vol. XXI] VAN DUZEE—DOLICHOPODIDAE AND PHORIDAE 71 

middle as 31, and posterior as 43; joints of front tarsi as 13-5-5-4-6; of middle pair 
18-9-9-7-6; and of posterior pair as 23-13-13-9-9. Halteres yellow. 

Wings grayish hyaline, costa reaching the middle of the wing, fringed with short 
bristles, its sections as 35-6-3; fork of third vein slightly more divergent than in 
willowsi (Fig. 17) sixth vein scarcely reaching wing margin, being very thin towards 
tip. The wing is very much as figured for willowsi but is a little longer and of the 
same width, therefore appearing narrower. 

Holotype, female, (C. A. S., Ent., No. 3697) taken by Willows, 
July 11, 1932, on South Seymour Island. 

The two species of Phoridag described here are very much alike 
in general appearance, but have many structural characters to sep- 
arate them. They both belong to the genus Dohrniphora Dahl. In 
Mr. Malloch's table of species, in the United States National 
Museum Proceedings, Vol. 43, number 1938, page 430, crockeri 
would run to abhreviata von Rosser, an European species found in 
North America, but differing from the character given in the table 
by having fourth, fifth and sixth veins reaching the wing margin; 
it also differs in many other points; willowsi would run to couplet 3, 
but has the dorsum of the thorax and most of the upper surface of 
the abdomen black. 

These species differ from each other as follows: In willowsi the 
anterior frontal bristles are widely separated and placed above slight 
emarginations in the antennae and close to the antenna; the fore 
tibiae are without bristles; and the hind tibiae are slightly fusiform 
with a small bristle near base and a smaller one above close to tip; 
below with a very small spur at tip and a little before this a small 
curved bristle, their basitarsi slender, short, with one very small 
spine near base below. Crockeri has the pair of anterior frontal 
bristles placed close together, above and between the antennse; hind 
tibia without spines or bristles, except the three large spurs at tip, 
and are long, arched, widened, especially towards tip; their basitarsi 
thick, long and with two little bristles below on basal half. The 
ovipositor also shows two segments when viewed from above and is 
quite thick, while in willowsi the ovipositor is slender and the visible 
part has only one segment. 

Both of these species have a large chitinized sack or capsule on 
the ventral side of sixth segment, a little like that figured by Dr. 
Lundbeck in Diptera Danica, part vi, page 99, for the female of 
ChdBtoneurophora thoracica Meigen but in this case it does not show 
when the abdomen is viewed from above. 



72 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Explanation of Figures 

1, Condylostylus dentaticauda, antenna of male; 2, same, hypopygium of male; 
3, Chrysosoma latiapicatum, antennae of male; 4, same, hypopygium of male; 5, same, 
front tibiae and tarsi of male; 6, same, last four joints of hind tarsi of male; 7, Chryso- 
tus brevicornis, antenna of male; 8, same, front leg of male; 9, Chrysotus hrevispina, 
antenna of male; 10, same, front leg of male; 11, Chrysotus latifacies, antenna of 
male; 12, Dohrniphora willowsi, frons of female; 13, same, abdomen of female; 14, 
same, front leg of female; 15, same, middle leg of female; 16, same, hind femora and 
tibia of female; 17, same, wing of female; 18, Dohrniphora crockeri, frons of female; 
19, same, tip of abdomen of female, dorsal view; 20, same, apical part of abdomen 
of female, side view; 21, same, front tibiae and tarsi of female; 22, same, middle 
tibiae and tarsi of female; 23, same, posterior tibiae and tarsi of female. 



Vol. XXI] 



VAN DUZEE—DOLICHOPODIDAE AND PHORIDAE 



73 




Plate 4 



c^^ 



-v^ 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE ^ 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 8, pp. 75-86, figs. 3 " September 20, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 8 

MOSSES OF THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION 

Collected by John Thomas Howell 

and 

Lists of the Mosses Known from the Galapagos 

Islands and from Cocos Island 



BY 

EDWIN B. BARTRAM 
Bushkill, Pennsylvania 



Although Mr. Howell admittedly made no consistent effort to 
collect a complete series of mosses from the various localities in the 
Galapagos Islands and Cocos Island explored by the Expedition, his 
casual collections together with the scraps segregated from these 
and from the Hepatic collections make a surprisingly interesting 
record and add 17 species to the respective floras of these insular 
areas. This is a valuable addition to our meagre knowledge and 
suggests quite plainly that any thorough bryological exploration, 
especially in the Galapagos group, will surely increase the list of 
moss species by an appreciable number. 

September 20, 1933 



76 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

San Nicolas Island, California 
Barbula brachyphylla Sull. 
March 13, 1932, No. 10.^ 

Crossidium desertorum Holz. & Bartr. 

March 13, 1932, No. 11. While this is a common species in southern 
Arizona, it does not seem to have been collected before in California. 

Funaria Bolanderi (Lesq.) Holz. 
March 13, 1932, No. 12. 

Guadalupe Island, Lower California 

Weisia viridula Hedw. 
Slopes above Northeast Anchorage, Nov. 14, 1931, No. 51. 

Pottia Fosbergii Bartr. 

Mt. Augusta Trail, March 17, 1932, No. 4 in part. This unique 
little moss was described a few years ago^ from a collection made 
near Los Angeles. The plants from Guadalupe Island agree per- 
fectly with the original collection and are mixed with Tortula atro- 
virens. 

Tortula atrovirens (Sm.) Lindb. 

Slopes above Northeast Anchorage, Nov. 14, 1931, Nos. 44, 49 
in part, 52 in part. 

Tortula muralis Hedw. 

Mt. Augusta Trail, March 17, 1932, No. 5; slopes above North- 
east Anchorage, Nov. 14, 1931, Nos. 45, 46. 

Tortula ruralis (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. 

Mt. Augusta Trail, March 17, 1932, Nos. 2 in part, 41; slopes 
above Northeast Anchorage, Nov. 14, 1931, No. 43 in part. 

Grimmia calif ornica Sull. 
Mt. Augusta Trail, March 17, 1932, No. 8. 

' The numbers given to the dififerent collections were assigned by the author as he worked up the 
material. — Ed. 

■■ Bryologist 33: 18. 1930. 



Vol. XXI] BARTRAM— MOSSES OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 77 

Grimmia leucophaea Grev. 
North end of Island, Nov. 14, 1931, No. 47. 

Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. 
Mt. Augusta Trail, March 17, 1932, No. 7. 

Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. 
Mt. Augusta Trail, March 17, 1932, No. 3. 

Bryum argenteum Hedw. 
Mt. Augusta Trail, March 17, 1932, No. 1. 

Bryum caespiticum Hedw. 
Mt. Augusta Trail, March 17, 1932, No. 6 in part. 

Anacolia Menziesii (Turn.) Par. 
Slopes above Northeast Anchorage, Nov. 14, 1931, Nos. 42, 50. 

Camptothecium arenarium (Lesq.) Jaeg. 

Slopes above Northeast Anchorage, Nov. 14, 1931, No. 54. 

I have collected this species on Santa Catalina Island but its 
occurrence on Guadalupe Island is an interesting extension of its 
geographical range. 

Scleropodium illecebrum (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. 
Slopes above Northeast Anchorage, Nov. 14, 1931, No. 53. 

Galapagos Islands 

Sphagnum erythrocalyx Hampe 

Near the summit of Indefatigable Island on wet slope, May 10, 
1932, No. 23. 

Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. var serrulatum Schlieph. 

Near the summit of Indefatigable Island on wet slope, May 10, 
1932, No. 22. 

This variety seems to have a more austral distribution than the 
typical form. It has been recorded from South America but this 
seems to be the first record for the Galapagos Islands. 



78 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF. SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Fissidens (Semilimbidium) Howelli Bartr., spec. nov. 
Figure No. 1. 

Autoicous. Caulis procumbens, circa 1 cm. altus. Folia 20-30 juga, oblongo- 
lanceolata, acuminata, ad 1.5 mm. longa; lamina dorsali rotundata, inferne et 
superne immarginata, medio marginata, lamina apicali superne immarginata, 
inferne marginata, limbo laminae duplicatae e cellulis 4 seriatis composito; cellulis 
hexagonis, obscuris, papillosis; costa ante apicem evanescente. Seta rubella, 3-3.5 
mm. longa; capsula inclinata. 

Autoicous; male buds in the axils of the stem leaves; perigonial leaves few, 0.4 
mm. long, abruptly contracted to a short stout point. Rather robust pale green 
plants growing in dense mats. Stems procumbent, up to 1 cm. or more long with 
20-30 pairs of leaves, radiculose at base, 2 mm. wide with leaves, simple or inno- 
vating below the flowers. Leaves well spaced, not overlapping, slightly contorted 
with decurved points when dry, erect-spreading when moist, 1-1.5 mm. long by 
0.4 mm. wide, oblong-lanceolate, sharply acuminate, duplicate blades ending 
obliquely about half way up, dorsal blade ending abruptly in a rounded lobe at the 
insertion, border of elongated cells about 4 rows wide on the duplicate blades, 
irregular and narrower on the apical blade and ending abruptly about half way to 
the apex, variable on the dorsal blade but confined to the median portion of the 
leaf and never extending to either the base or the apex; margin distantly denticu- 
late on the bordered portion, erose-denticulate and crenulate with papillae on the 






Fig. 1. Fissidens Howelli Bartr.; a, b, plants X 2; c, leaf X 32; d, apex of leaf X 160; 
e, upper leaf cells and margin X 500;/, margin of duplicate blade X 500; g, capsule X 
32; /i, 2 perigonial leaves X 80. 



Vol. XXI] BARTRAM— MOSSES OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 79 

unbordered parts; costa pale, ending a few cells below the apex; leaf cells hexagonal, 
tip to 7 /t in diameter, thin walled, very dense and obscure, papillose. Perichaetial 
leaves scarcely differentiated; seta terminal, reddish, 3-3.5 mm. long; capsule 
inclined, ovoid-cylindric, reddish brown; urn about 0.7 mm. long. 

Type: above Fortuna, in the rain forest, Indefatigable Island, 
May 9, 1932, collected by John Thomas Howell, No. 21 (C. A. S. 
Herb. No. 203284). 

In spite of the fact that the apical and dorsal blades of this species 
are provided with a variable border of elongated cells I am inclined 
to think the dense, obscure, papillose areolation is a more weighty 
character and that the species belongs in the Section Semilimbidium 
near F. Ravenelii Sull. The border is quite variable, often entirely 
lacking on the apical and dorsal blades of the young leaves and 
when well developed is confined to the lower half or two thirds of 
the apical blade and to the middle portion of the dorsal blade. 

Campylopus subleucogaster (C. M.) Jaeg. 

First Camp, Mt. Crocker, Indefatigable Island, May 10, 193 2, 
No. 104. 

This species is recorded on the basis of a small tuft of plants that 
was segregated from a collection of Hepatics. The large, subquad- 
rate, juxtacostal basal cells are characteristic of this species. It is 
a common moss in Costa Rica and the range might naturally be 
extended to include the Galapagos. 

Campylopus Anderssonii (C. M.) Jaeg. 

First Camp, Mt. Crocker, Indefatigable Island, May 10, 1932, 
No. 102; on ground and rocks, Floreana Peak, Charles Island, May 
15, 1932, No. 103. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Reimers I have been able to examine 
a part of the type collection of this species from the Muller Herba- 
rium. The specimens cited above correspond exactly with the type 
material. 

This species is readily identified by the short cells of the leaf base 
which are subquadrate or even transversely elongated and not at 
all narrower at the margins. This distinctive basal areolation is of 
infrequent occurrence in the genus and assists materially in identi- 
fying the species. 

Campylopus (Eucampylopus) insularis Bartr., spec. nov. 

Figure No. 2. 

Caulis ad 6-7 cm. altus, simplex vel parce ramosus. Folia sicca et humida erecto- 
patula, flexuosa, subsecunda, anguste lanceolata, longe subulata, canaliculata, 
integerrima, 6-7 mm. longa, 0.4-0.5 mm. lata, auriculis distinctis; costa basi circa 
375 M lata, dorso laevi; cellulis alaribus numerosis, fuscis, supra-alaribus rectangu- 



80 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



laribus margines versus linearibus, caeteris minutis, oblongis vel subrhomboidali- 
bus. Caetera ignota. 

Sterile. Stems flexuose, tomentose, up to 6-7 cm. long, simple or sparingly 
branched. Leaves 6-7 mm. long by 0.4-0.5 mm. wide, narrowly lanceolate, subulate- 
acuminate, canaliculate, erect-spreading, flexuose, slightly secund; costa about 
375 /i wide below, smooth on the back, in cross-section showing a ventral row of 
large, empty cells and a dorsal stereid band with the cells differentiated on both 
sides; margins erect, entire; alar cells reddish brown, conspicuously auricled, ex- 
tending to the costa, supra-alar cells rectangular, narrower and linear at the mar- 
gins, becoming gradually shorter and rhomboidal upward, the upper lamina cells 
small, chlorophyllose, oblong and rhomboidal. 

Type: on ground and slopes at Second Camp, Mt. Crocker, alt. 
ca. 2000 ft., May 9, 1932, collected by John Thomas Howell, No. 
101 (C. A. S. Herb. No. 203283); Duncan Island: Alban Stewart 
No. 3323, 1905-1906 [det. by R. S. Williams as C. Anderssonii 
(C. M.)]. 

This species is similar in gross appearance to C. Anderssonii 
(C. M.) but quite distinct in the entire leaves with the costa smooth 
on the back above and, especially, in the elongate basal cells which 
are narrower and linear at the margins. 



a 




Fig. 2. Campylopus insularis Bartr.; o, plant X 1 J^; 6, leaf X 12; c, apex of leaf X 
80; d, one side of leaf base X 160; e, part of cross section of costa X 500. 



V -. XXI] BARTRAM— MOSSES OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 81 



Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.) Mitt. 

On rocks near Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, May 14, 1932, 
No. 16. 

Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. 

Rain forest near Fortuna, Indefatigable Island, May 12, 1932, 
No. 17. 

Syrrhopodon Guadichaudii Mont. 

First Camp, Mt. Crocker, Indefatigable Island, May 10, 1932, 
No. 105. 

Syrrhopodon parasiticus (Sw.) Besch. 

First Camp, Mt. Crocker, Indefatigable Island, May 10, 1932, 
No. 106. 

It is not surprising to find this species in the Galapagos Islands as 
Brotherus has recorded it from Ecuador. The plants average smaller 
than those from Florida and Yucatan, the narrow border of pale, 
elongated cells is better developed and extends further down the 
leaf but I doubt if these differences are either constant enough or 
of sufficient value to establish any distinct separation. 



Hyophila Tortula (Schwaegr.) Hampe 

On wet rocks at the spring east of Floreana Peak, Charles Island, 
April 25, 1932, No. 107. 

Only a few plants of this widely distributed tropical American 
species were found but they are sufficient to establish its occurrence 
here for the first time. 

Philonotis gracillima Aongstr. 

On wet rocks at the spring east of Floreana Peak, April 25, 1932, 
No. 108. 

Macromitrium mucronifolium (Hook. & Grev.) Schwaegr. 

On rocks near the spring, Charles Island, April 25, 1932, No. 14; 
on ground, north side of Floreana Peak, Charles Island, May 15, 
1932, No. 24. 

Squamidium leucotrichum (Tayl.) Broth. 
Rain forest above Fortuna, Indefatigable Island, No. 13. 



82 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Squamidium Caroli (C. M.) Broth, 

From trees of Villamil Mt., above Santo Tomas, Albemarle Island, 
April 29, 1932, Nos. 18, 19; First Camp, Mt. Crocker, Indefatigable 
Island, May 10, 1932, No. 109. 

Papillaria nigrescens (Sw.) Jaeg. 

On ground and rocks, Floreana Peak, Charles Island, May 15, 
1932, No. 110; near Fortuna, in rain forest, Indefatigable Island, 
May 12, 1932, No. 111. 

Sematophyllum galipense (C. M.) Mitt. 

Rain forest near Fortuna, Indefatigable Island, May 12, 1932, 
No. 20; on rocks near spring, Charles Island, April 25, 1932, No. 15. 

Isopterygium tenerum (Sw.) Mitt. 

First Camp, Indefatigable Island, May 10, 1932, No. 112. 

These plants represent a rather robust form but they seem clearly 
to belong here. This species does not seem to have been collected 
before in either the Galapagos Islands or Cocos Island. 

Cocos Island 
Calymperes Donnellii Aust. 

Chatham Bay, June 28, 1932, No. 122; Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, 
No. 37. 

The range of this species is from Florida through the West Indies 
to northern South America but it does not seem to have been noted 
before from the west coast except in Panama. As far as I can see 
the plants from Cocos Island agree perfectly with specimens from 
other regions. 

Rhizogonium spiniforme (Hedw.) Bruch. 
Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, No. 27. 

Squamidium leucotrichum (Tayl.) Broth. 
Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, No. 30. 

Meteoriopsis patula (Sw.) Broth. 

Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, Nos. 29, 32. 

These collections are certainly inseparable from M. patula. I have 
seen no specimens of this species from the Galapagos Islands but it 
seems likely that M. Anderssonii (C. M.) Broth, will prove to be 
nothing more than a form of this widely distributed species. 



Vol. XXI] 



BARTRAM— MOSSES OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 



83. 



Pilotrichum rugifolium CM. 

Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, Nos. 34, 36. Figure 3. 

These highly interesting collections seem to definitely establish 
the status of a moss that has never been recollected since the original 
gathering in 1794. 

The species was described by Muller in 1849' from a specimen in 
the Hooker Herbarium and the locality cited as "Insula Owyhee 
Australiae." One might infer that this is a phonetic spelling of 
Hawaii but in a recent critical study of the Hawaiian mosses I felt 
obliged to relegate this species to the list of "Uncertain Species." 
The genus Pilotrichum is an unusually compact one, confined exclu- 
sively to the American tropics, and the Hawaiian record seemed to 
be a rather dubious one. 

These collections from Cocos Island have the capsules immersed 
in the perichaetial leaves and immediately suggested a comparison 
with P. rugifolium. The agreement was complete and convincing. 
The sporophyte characters correspond exactly to the original descrip- 
tion and furthermore the vegetative features are in complete accord 
with a mount of several leaves taken from a scrap of the type col- 





Fi 
peric 



Vichum rugifolium C. M.; o, upper part of plant X ^Vz', b, leaf X 20; c, 
I X 20; d, capsule and perichaetium X 12. 



Frond, p. 177. 



84 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES |Proc. 4th Ser. 

lection which was sent to me along with a sketch of the entire plant 
by Dr. A. W. Evans some years ago. The packet from Yale was 
labelled as follows: "Herb. Kew, Menzies, 1794." Did Menzies ever 
collect on Cocos Island? 

This query is answered by the following extract from Mr. Howell's 
letter in response to inquiry. "It was of much interest to me to trace 
Vancouver, bound for home from his surveys in the Pacific North- 
west, down the coast of North America until on Jan. 23, 1795, he 
sighted the Island of Cocos. The vessels, the Discovery and Chatham, 
were in need of both fuel and water, so they put in at Cocos, prob- 
ably at Chatham Bay. By Jan. 27 refueling and watering the ships 
were accomplished and the two vessels sailed southward for Cape 
Horn. In this part of Vancouver's account no mention is given of 
Menzies, let alone word that he went ashore, but of course he was 
with the expedition at the time. However, to collect a moss, Menzies 
did not have to go ashore for wood was brought aboard for fuel and 
surely the wood was heavy with epiphytes." 

The following transcript of the label on the type collection in the 
Hooker Herbarium was very kindly made by Mr. H. N. Dixon, 
"N. hypnoides. Owyhee 1794. A. M. No. 96." 

As Menzies was notoriously rather careless about his localities 
I think we may safely assume that the collection was incorrectly 
labelled and that P. rugifolium is endemic to Cocos Island. 

Another endemic species, P. obtusatum Williams, has rugose leaves 
but the apex is more obtuse, the capsule exserted on a longer seta 
and the perichaetial leaves scarcely longer than the stem leaves and 
riot scabrous with spiculose papillae. 

The accompanying sketch of some of the characteristic features 
of P. rugifolium may be useful as the species is unrepresented in 
most herbaria. 



Pilotrichum obtusatum Williams 
Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, No. 35. 



Crossomitrium Oerstedianum C. M. 
Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, No. 121. 

This collection adds a new genus to Cocos Island. Tli' s are 

robust for the group with stems about 3 mm. wide j ves. 

The lateral leaves are not shrivelled when dry and th ters 

of the plants correspond very closely to the description o: 'di- 
anuiti from Costa Rica. 



Vol. XXI] BARTR.A.M— MOSSES OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 85 

Thuidiutn involvens (Hedw.) Mitt. 

Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, No. 25. 

Although meagre, the specimen is fortunately in fruit. The scab- 
rous setae identify it clearly with this well known species of the 
mainland. It seems to be the only Thuidium reported so far from 
either Cocos Island or the Galapagos. 



Sematophyllum galipense (C. M.) Mitt. 
Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, No. 31. 



Taxithelium planum (Brid.) Mitt. 
Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, Nos. 28, 38. 

Both of these collections are typical of this familiar species in all 
respects. I have seen a scrap of the type collection of T. laxiusculum 
R. & C. through the kindness of Mr. Williams and must confess my 
inability to separate it from the common T. planum which, like most 
widely distributed types, is subject to some variation within rea- 
sonable limits. 



Isopterygium tenerum (Sw.) Mitt. 
Wafer Bay, June 28, 1932, Nos. Zi, 120. 



Nicaragua 

Calymperes Richardi C. M. 

Near the shore of the Gulf of Fonseca, Coseguina Volcano, July 
7, 1932, No. 40. 



Stereophyllum leucostegium (Brid.) Mitt. 

East base of Coseguina Volcano on west shore of Gulf of Fonseca, 
July 6, 1932, No. 39. 



36 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



IProc. 4th Ser. 



A summary of the mosses of the Galapagos Islands and Cocos 
Island is given below. The additions to the flora found in Mr. 
Howell's collections are preceded by an asterisk. 



Galapagos Islands 



Sphagnum erythrocalyx Hampe 
*Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. var. ser- 

rulatum Schlieph. 
*Fissidens Howelli Bartr. 

Campylopus Anderssonii (C. M.) Jaeg. 

Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.) Mitt. 

(C. lamellatus Mont.) 
*Campylopus subleucogaster (C. M.) 

Jaeg. 
*Campylopus insularis Bartr. 

Campylopus Sprucei Mitt. 

Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. 

Syrrhopodon incompletus Schwaegr. 

Syrrhopodon Guadichaudii Mont. 
*Syrrhopodon parasiticus (Sw.) Besch. 

Tortella caespitosa (Schwaegr.) Limp. 
*Hyophila Tortula (Schwaegr.) Hampe 

Punaria calvescens Schwaegr. 

Orthodontium confine Hampe 

Brachymenium imbricatum Schp. 



*Philonotis gracillima Aongstr. 
Macromitrium mucronifoHum (Hook. 

& Grev.) Schwaegr. 
Macromitrium longifolium (Hook.) 

Brid. 
Micromitrium fragile (Mitt.) Jaeg. 
Schlotheimia Jamesoni (W. Arn.) Brid. 
Squamidium nigricans (Hook.) Broth. 
Squamidium leucotrichum (Tayl.) 

Broth. 
Squamidium Caroli C. M. 
Meteoriopsis Anderssonii (CM.) Broth. 
Papillaria nigrescens (Sw.) Jaeg. 
Daltonia longifolia Tayl. {D. rohusta 

Aongstr.) 
Daltonia Lindigiana Hampe {D. Stew- 

artii Williams) 
Cyclodictyon albicans (Sw.) Broth. 
*Sematophyllum galipense (C. M.) Mitt. 
*Isopterygium tenerum (Sw.) Mitt. 



Cocos Island 



Fissidens Garberi S. & L. 

Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. 

Syrrhopodon BernouUii C. M. 
*Calymperes Donnellii Aust. 

Rhizogonium spiniforme (Hedw.) 
Bruch. 

Philonotis gracillima Aongstr. 
*Squamidium leucotrichum (Tayl.) 

Broth. 
* Meteoriopsis patula (Sw.) Broth. 

Pilotrichum obtusatum Williams 
*Pilotrichum rugifolium C. M. 

Callicostella depressa (Sw.) Jaeg. 

Hookeriopsis diffusa (Wils.) Jaeg."* 

Lepidopilum crassisetum Williams 



*Crossomitrium Oerstedianum C. M. 
Leucomium cuspidatifolium (C. M.) 
Mitt. 
*Thudium involvens (Hedw.) Mitt. 
Sematophyllum galipense (C. M.) Mitt. 
*Taxithelium planum (Brid.) Mitt. (2". 

laxiusculum Ren. & Card.) 
Glossadelphus cocoensis (Williams) 
Bartr., comb, nov.^ {Hookeriopsis 
cocoensis Williams; Glossadelphus 
longisetus Bartr.) 
*Isopterygium tenerum (Sw.) Mitt. 
Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) 
Broth. 



* Collected by Mr. H. K. Svenson, in connection with the Aster Expedition, along brook flowing into 
Wafer Bay, alt. approx. 1000 ft., April 19, 1930. A rare species previously known only from Panama. 

^ I have seen a part of the type collection of Hookeriopsis cocoensis through the courtesy of Mr. Williams. 
It is evidently a Glossadelphus and seems to be identical with the plant I described from Costa Rica as 
C. longisetus. As Mr. Williams' name has priority the new combination will stand as noted above. This 
species will be readily separated from C truncatulus (C. M.) by the nearly smooth leaf cells with minute 
papillae over the upper ends. In G. truncatulus the leaf cells show several sharp salient papillae over the 
lumens giving the surface of the leaf a peculiar rasp-like appearance under the microscope. 



UC2^^ 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 9, pp. 87-116 September 20, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 9 

THE AMARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 

BY 

JOHN THOMAS HOWELL 

Assistant Curator, Department of Botany 
California Academy of Sciences 

INTRODUCTION 

Several months have been spent in the study of the Amaranthaceae 
of the Galapagos Islands; and, because of the difficulty encountered 
in the limitation of many of the species and because in nearly all of 
the genera new names are being proposed, it has appeared best to 
present the results in a synoptical study of the family as it occurs 
in the archipelago. Moreover, a special interest attaches itself to 
this family because of its highly endemic development in the islands. 
The study was begun when a determination of the extensive collec- 
tions made by the writer on the Templeton Crocker Expedition of 
the California Academy of Sciences was attempted. This collection 
and the material obtained by the expedition of the Academy to the 
Galapagos Islands in 1905 and 1906 formed the basis for the study. 
From the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, critical specimens 
of Galapagian Amaranthaceae, including numerous types and iso- 
types from the collections of Andersson, Baur, and Snodgrass and 
Heller, were available for study. From the United States National 

September 20, 1033 



88 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Herbarium and from the Field Museum, specimens of Amaranthus 
were borrowed; and from the Herbarium of the University of Cali- 
fornia specimens of Alternanthera ficoidea from South America were 
studied. Specimens obtained in the Galapagos Islands by Snodgrass 
and Heller on the Hopkins-Stanford Galapagos Expedition were 
available from the Dudley Herbarium of Stanford University. To 
the officers of these institutions, the writer expresses grateful appre- 
ciation for the privileges he has enjoyed in studying the specimens. 
Particular thanks are due to Dr. B. L. Robinson and to Mr. C. A. 
Weatherby of the Gray Herbarium who have been helpful in many 
ways, to Dr. Paul C. Standley of the Field Museum who determined 
several species of Amaranthus and answered questions concerning 
others, to Dr. H. K. Svenson of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden who 
loaned specimens and notes on Alternanthera, and to Miss Ruth D. 
Sanderson, Librarian, Gray Herbarium, who has sent transcripts of 
early descriptions and photographs of figures. Distributional data 
for species extending beyond the Galapagos Islands have been 
obtained almost entirely from Standley 's work on the Amaranthaceae 
in the North American Flora (21: 95-169. 1917). Except in the 
genus Alternanthera in which only type collections and specimens 
examined are cited, all collections that have been reported from the 
island for the family are listed. An exclamation point follows the 
collector's name if a specimen has been examined. 



Key to the Genera 

a. Leaves alternate; anthers 4-celled. 

b. Shrub, about 1 m. tall; fruit a many-seeded berry. . . 1. Pleuropetalum 
bb. Annual herbs; fruit a 1-seeded utricle 2. Amaranthus 

aa. Leaves opposite; anthers 2-celled; perennials. 

c. Perianth-segments distinct or nearly so, not becoming modified 

in fruit, 
d. Heads numerous and small, disposed in an open panicle; 

perianth terete; anthers 5; stigma 2-3-lobed 3. Iresine 

dd. Heads fewer and larger, these solitary or glomerate, ter- 
minal or axillary; perianth generally compressed. 
e. Leaves mostly basal, more or less crowded on the crown 
of the thick vertical root; anthers 2, stamin- 
odia 3, pseudostaminodia lacking; stigma 2- 

lobed 4. LiTHOPHiLA 

ee. Leaves cauline; stamens with anthers 5. 

f. Leaves rigid, pungently mucronate; pseudostam- 
inodia none; stigma 2-lobed 5. Philoxerus 

ff. Leaves herbaceous or coriaceous, not pungently 
mucronate; pseudostaminodia 5; stigma 

capitate 6. Alternanthera 

cc. Perianth-segments united at least to the middle into a tube, the 
tube becoming hardened and variously modified in 
fruit 7. Froelichia 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AMARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 89 

1. PLEUROPETALUM Hook. f. 

Pleuropetalum Darwinii Hook, f., 
London Jour. Bot. 5: 108 (1846) 

Type locality. James Island. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: Iguana Cove, Snodgrass & 
Heller; Villamil, Stewart! James: Darwin; Stewart! 
Endemic. 



2. AMARANTHUS L. 

Key to the Species 

Perianth- segments 1-5, generally 3, oblong to oblanceolate, never 
spathulate-expanded, rarely corky-thickened at base. 

b. Utricle dehiscent {Amaranthus proper). 

c. Spines lacking. 

d. Sepals shorter than utricle; bracts usually shorter than 
the sepals. 

e. Stems erect; flowers nearly confined to terminal 

inflorescence 1. A. dubius 

ee. Stems diffuse; flowers common in axillary clusters 

below the terminal inflorescence. .2. A. celosioides 

dd. Sepals longer than utricle; bracts longer than the 

sepals 3. A. quitensis 

cc. Spines present at nodes and in inflorescence 4. A. spinosus 

bb. Utricle indehiscent (Euxolus). 

f. Stems mostly erect or spreading; leaves broad. 

g. Utricle smooth; stems spreading : 5. A. viridis 

gg. Utricle rugulose; stems erect 6. A. gracilis 

ff . Stems prostrate, rarely ascending ; leaves linear. 

h. Sepals 3-5; utricle buff or brown 7. A. sclerantoides 

hh. Sepal 1; utricle black-brown 8. A. furcatus 

Perianth-segments spathulate, the blade largely scarious, in fruit 
becoming indurated at the base or coalescing below into a 
thickened spongy cushion (Amblogyna). 

i. Stems erect, glabrous; leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate; cy- 
mules becoming elongate; base of bracts becoming 
thickened in fruit; base of perianth-segments scarce- 
ly spongy-coalescing, more indurated and nearly dis- 
tinct 9. A. squamulatus 

ii. Stems spreading or erect, villous; leaves elliptic to obovate; cy- 
mules condensed, not elongating; bracts unchanged in 
fruit; base of perianth-segments coalescing to form an 
enlarged spongy base in fruit 10. A. Andersson 



90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 

1. Amaranthus dubius Mart., 
PL Hort. Erlang. 197 (1814) 

A. caracasanus of reports on the Galapagian flora, perhaps 
A. caracasanus HBK., Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 195 (1817). 

The species was named from cultivated plants originating in trop- 
ical America. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: southern part, Baur; Tagus 
Cove, Snodgrass & Heller; Villamil, Stewart! , Howell! ; Cowley Bay, 
Stewart! Charles : Darwin; Andersson; Snodgrass & Heller; Stewart! 
Chatham: Andersson; Snodgrass & Heller; Wreck Bay, Stewart!, 
Howell! Hood: Gardner Bay, Howell! Indefatigable: Andersson; 
Academy Bay, Stewart!; Conway Bay, Howell! James: James Bay, 
Howell! 

Further distribution. Widespread as a weed in tropical America. 



2. Amaranthus celosioides HBK., 

Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 194 (1817) 

This can be distinguished from A. dubius Mart, by the spreading 
habit, the stouter terminal inflorescence, and the axillary flower- 
clusters which extend to the base of the plant. In the Galapagos 
Islands, A. celosioides was reported by Hooker f. and by Andersson 
from Charles Island (Darwin, Andersson) and from Chatham Island 
(Andersson). No specimen of this species has been seen in the col- 
lections of Amaranthus from the islands, but, since the plant is one 
of the common species of northern South America, it is to be ex- 
pected on the islands as a weed about dwellings and in cultivated 
ground. Amaranthus celosioides was first described from plants 
collected at Cumana, Venezuela. 



3. Amaranthus quitensis HBK., 
Nov. Gen. & Spec. 2: 194 (1817) 

Type locality. Near Quito, Ecuador. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: Iguana Cove, Snodgrass & 
Heller!, Stewart!, Howell! Charles: Stewart!; Post Office Bay, 
Howell!; Black Beach, Howell! Indefatigable: Sierra la Jacres, 
Rorud; Turtle Bay, Rorud. 

Further distribution. Northern South America; introduced into 
Europe. 

Standley, who examined the specimens collected by the writer, 
and Blom, who examined the specimens collected by Rorud, refer 
the plants to a form of A. quitensis HBK. as that species is inter- 
preted by Thellung in Ascherson and Graebner's Synopsis der Mit- 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AMARANTH ACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 91 

teleuropaischen Flora, a form with bracts shorter than in the type. 
The collections by Snodgrass and Heller (No. 77 and 108) and by 
Stewart {No. 1355) are placed here, but the specimens are very 
immature and possibly should be referred to A. duhius Mart. 



4. Amaranthus spinosus L., 

Sp. PL 991 (1753) 

Type locality. India. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: Villamil, Howell! Charles: 
in cultivated ground, Anders son. 

Further distribution. Tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa, and 
North and South America. 



5. Amaranthus viridis L., 

Sp. PL, ed. 2, 1405 (1763) 

Type locality. Jamaica. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: Villamil, Stewart! 
Further distribution. Widespread in tropical and subtropical 
lands, occasionally adventive in temperate countries. 



6. Amaranthus gracilis Desf., 
Tabl. Bot. 43 (1804) 

Type locality. Guinea. 

Insular distribution. Barrington: Snodgrass & Heller! Chat- 
ham: Wreck Bay, Stewart! Indefatigable: Academy Bay, Howell! 

Further distribution. Common in tropical regions around the 
world, occasionally adventive in temperate regions. 

Here, too, probably belongs the collection of Snodgrass and Heller, 
made on Chatham Island and reported by Robinson as A. viridis L. 
The determination of the specimen from Academy Bay was con- 
firmed by Standley. 



7. Amaranthus sclerantoides (Ands.) Ands., 
Om Galap.-oarnes Veg. 59 (1857) 

This Amaranthus is one of the plants characteristic of the lowlands 
of the Galapagos Islands in the vicinity of the shore, commonly 
growing in the higher reaches of bright calcareous beaches or a bit 
farther inland on sandy coastal flats. Only rarely was the species 
seen in the interior away from the sea. 



92 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Amaranthus sclerantoides presents several marked aspects because 
of the variation in leaf-shape, the leaves varying from linear and 
scarcely expanded at the apex to cuneate and rather widely dilated 
at the apex. When names were originally proposed for these forms, 
they were believed to be variants geographically isolated and were 
named for the islands where they were first collected. More recent 
and extensive field studies and collections have not only shown that 
the several forms are not confined to certain islands, but that they 
are dispersed through the archipelago and that occasionally several 
forms grow together in one colony. Thus at Academy Bay a form 
with gray-green, linear leaves grew with one marked by red-purple, 
cuneate leaves; on Tower Island the same pair occurred not far 
distant from each other, and at each locality no intergrades were 
seen. 

There is also considerable variation in the development of spongy 
tissue at the base of the fruiting sepals and in the wrinkling of the 
utricle, variations which tend to be correlated. While all of the 
forms that have been named heretofore have been based on the 
striking foliar variations in the different plants, the form rugulosus 
is here proposed to take care of plants with sepals spongy at the 
base and with much-wrinkled utricles. There is some variation also 
in the length and width of the sepals, but generally the sepals equal 
or slightly exceed the utricle. 

The seemingly artificial and deliberate segregation of the forms 
of this species in the key that follows belies the naturalness of the 
arrangement and the distinctive appearance of the segregates. As 
always in a key of this sort, care must be taken to distinguish 
between senescent plants and mature plants, and between puny 
starved seedlings and vigorous robust seedlings. The measurements 
in the key have been taken from the primary leaves of plants just 
reaching maturity. 



Key to the Forms of A. sclerantoides 

a. Sepals not prominently corky- thickened at the base; utricle not prom- 
inently rugulose. 

b. Leaves dilated at the apex, the primary leaves more than 1 mm. 
wide at apex, frequently emarginate, obcordate, or 
truncate. 

c. Leaves 1-2 mm. wide, emarginate or obcordate 7a. f. typicus 

cc. Leaves 2-3 mm. wide, truncate or angularly obcordate .... 

7b. f. chathamensis 

bb. Leaves not dilated at apex, the primary leaves mostly 1 mm. or 
less wide at apex, generally obtuse or truncate, rarely 
emarginate 7c. f. abingdonensis 

aa. Sepals in fruit rather prominently corky-thickened at the base; utricle 

rugulose 7d. f . rugulosus 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AM ARAN THACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 93 

7a. Amaranthus sclerantoides f. typicus Howell, nom. nov. 

Euxolus sclerantoides Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 163 (1854). 
Amaranthus sclerantoides Ands., Om Galap.-oarnes Veg. 59 
(1857). A. sclerantoides f. hoodensis Rob. & Greenm., Amer. 
Jour. Sci. 50: 140 (1895). 

Type locality. Charles Island. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle : Villamil, Howell! ; southwestern 
coast, Howell! Charles: Andersson! , the original collection; Stew- 
art!; Post Office Bay, Howell!; Black Beach, Howell! Chatham: 
Wreck Bay, Howell! Gardner (near Hood) : Snodgrass & Heller! ; 
Stewart! Hood: Baur!, the original collection of f. hoodensis; Snod- 
grass & Heller! Indefatigable: Academy Bay, Svenson! , Howell!; 
Conway Bay, Howell! Narborough: east side, Snodgrass & Heller! 
South Seymour: Svenson!; Howell! 

Endemic. 

It does not appear that f. hoodensis can be well separated from 
the typical form, although f. hoodensis represents a variant with 
shorter and hence more obviously cuneiform leaves. 



7b. Amaranthus sclerantoides f. chathamensis Rob. & Greenm., 
Amer. Jour. Sci. 50: 140 (1895) 

A. sclerantoides f. albemarlensis Stewart, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 
4, 1: 55, pi. 2, fig. 2 (1911). 

Type locality. Southwestern end of Chatham Island. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle : Turtle Cove, Stewart!, type col- 
lection of f. albemarlensis. Chatham: southwestern end, Baur!, 
original collection of f. chathamensis; Wreck Bay, Stewart!, Howell! 
Hood: Gardner Bay, Howell! Indefatigable: Academy Bay, Sven- 
son!, Howell! Tower: Svenson!; Wheeler, Rose & Beehe!; Darwin 
Bay, Howell! 

Endemic. 

From an examination of the original collection of this form, it is 
believed to be a plant past maturity which in a younger state would 
be marked by leaves broadly dilated at the apex. The collections 
of the form obtained at Wreck Bay at the western end of Chatham 
Island add to the probability of this view. Stewart's form albe- 
marlensis represents the extreme aspect of leaf-dilation in the species, 
but can scarcely be segregated from the series of variations referred 
to f. chathamensis . 



04 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

7c. Amaranthus sclerantoides f. abingdonensis Stewart, 
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 1 : 54 (1911) 

Type locality. Abingdon Island. 

Insular distribution. Abindgon: Stewart!, type collection. 
Daphne: Wheeler, Rose & Beebe! Indefatigable: Seymour Bay 
(north side), Wheeler, Rose & Beebe! Tower: Wheeler, Rose & 
Beebe!; near Darwin Bay, Howell!, intergrade to f. rugulosus. 

Endemic. 

In the type collection the sepals are unchanged in fruit and the 
utricle is smooth; but, in the other specimens seen, there is a ten- 
dency for the sepals to become thickened at the base and for the 
utricles to become wrinkled. 



7d. Amaranthus sclerantoides f. rugulosus Howell, f. nov. 

Foliis linearibus, vix dilatis apice, truncatis emarginatisve, ad 3 cm. longis, 0.5-1 
mm. latis; sepalis basi suberoso-crassiusculis; utriculis rugulosis. 

Leaves linear, scarcely widened at the apex, truncate or emarginate, to 3 cm. 
long, 0.5-1 mm. wide; sepals becoming corky-thickened at the base; utricle rugulose. 

Type: Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, Howell No. 9062 
(C. A. S. Herb. No. 203292). Other collections. Barrington: 
Snodgrass & Heller! Tower: Arcturus Lake, Howell! 

This form is a nominal indication of a variable tendency found 
in A. sclerantoides. In those forms characterized by leaves broad- 
ened at the apex, the tendency is not marked; but, in the forms with 
linear leaves, the tendency reaches a development which, in other 
parts of the genus, is used as an indicator of specific limits. 



8. Amaranthus furcatus Howell, spec. nov. 

Annuus; caulibus prostratis, angularibus, 1-2 dm. longis, glabris; foliis distichis, 
cineraceo-viridibus, 1-3.5 cm. longis, ad 3 mm. latis, basi sensim attenuatis, apice 
dilato, furcato, lobis divergentibus, costa prominenti infra, costis lateralibus tenu- 
ibus vel nullis; fioribus monoeciis, in brevibus axillaribus spicis, rachibus suberoso- 
crassiusculis curvatisque fructu; bracteis lineari-lanceolatis, 1.5 mm. longis, longi- 
oribus quam flores; sepalo 1, 1 mm. longo, lineari-oblongo, breviore quam utriculus, 
viride, albo-marginato, acuto, immutabili fructu; stamine 1; stigmatibus 3; utriculis 
compressis, obovatis, rugulosis, fuliginosis, indehiscentibus, rostris acutis vel 3-den- 
tatis; semine biconvexo, rotundo, nigro, nitido, circa 1 mm. diametro. 

Annual; stems prostrate, angled, 1-2 dm. long, glabrous; leaves distichous, gray- 
green, 1-3.5 cm. long, to 3 mm. wide at the dilated apex, shallowly cleft with the 
lobes somewhat divergent, gradually attenuate below, midrib prominent below, 
the lateral veins inconspicuous or none; flowers monoecious, in short axillary spikes, 
the axes of which become corky-thickened and curved in fruit; bracts linear- 
lanceolate, 1.5 mm. long, exceeding the flowers; sepal 1, 1 mm. long, linear-oblong, 
shorter than the utricle, green, white-margined, acute; stamen 1; stigmas 3; utricle 
compressed, obovate, rugulose, dark brown, indehiscent, with pointed or shortly 
3-toothed beak; seed biconvex, round, black, shining, about 1 mm. in diameter. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AMARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 95 

Type: Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, Howell No. 9063 
(C. A. S. Herb. No. 203294). 

This species is clearly related to A. sclerantoides Ands. which it 
resembles in its prostrate habit and linear leaves. From that species 
it differs not only in the flowers with single sepals and stamens, but 
also in the peculiar divergent lobes at the ends of the leaves, the 
dark colored, much wrinkled utricles, and the thickened curved axes 
of the axillary flower-clusters. The fruit is not readily deciduous; 
it is frequently held fast in the enlarged curved axis which breaks 
off with the fruit and which might serve as a buoyant means for 
dispersal. The species is known from two plants collected on a 
sandy flat near the shore of Academy Bay. 

9. Amaranthus squamulatus (Ands.) Rob., 
Proc. Amer. Acad. 43: 22 (1907) 

Scleropus squamulatus Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 162 (1854). 
5. squarrulosus Ands. ace. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 169 (1861). 
Amhlogyne squarrulosa Gray, loc. cit. 
Amaranthus squarrulosus \J\ine & Bray, Bot. Gaz. 19: 270 (1894). 

Type locality. Chatham Island. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: Tagus Cove, Snodgrass & 
Heller!, Stewart!, Howell! Charles: Snodgrass & Heller; Black 
Beach Road, Howell! Chatham: Andersson. Duncan: Snodgrass 
& Heller; Howell! Indefatigable: northern part, Snodgrass & 
Heller!, Howell!; northeast side, Stewart!; Conway Bay, Howell! 
James: Sullivan Bay, Howell! Jervis: Baur; Howell! North Sey- 
mour: Snodgrass & Heller! 

Endemic. 

10. Amaranthus Anderssoni Howell, nom. nov. 
Key to the Forms of A. Anderssoni 

a. Stems spreading; bracts 1-2 mm. long; flowers about 2 mm. long, 

almost as broad, strongly urceolate 10a. f. typicus 

aa. Stems erect; bracts 1.5-2 mm. long; flowers 2-2.5 mm. long, tubular. 

10b. f. erectus 



10a. Amaranthus Anderssoni f. typicus Howell, nom. nov. 

Scleropus urceolatus Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 162 (1854). Amblo- 
gyna urceolata Ands., not Moq., Om. Galap.-oarnes Veg. 59 
(1857). Not Amaranthus urceolatus Benth., Bot. Sulph. 158 
(1844). 

Type locality. Indefatigable Island in the vicinity of Conway 
Bay. 



96 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Insular distribution. Indef atigab-l-e : Andersson. Hood: Gardner 
Bay, Howell! James: James Bay, Howell!; Sullivan Bay, Howell! 

Endemic. 

This plant, which was described as an endemic Galapagian species 
by Andersson, was considered by subsequent workers in the flora 
of the islands as synonymous with A. urceolatus Benth., a species 
described from Guayaquil, Ecuador. The island plant is even more 
distinct from the mainland species than is A. squamulatus (Ands.) 
Rob. which has always been considered endemic. The peculiar 
spongy cushion developing in fruit at the base of the pistillate calyx 
at once separates A. Anderssoni from the mainland plant in which 
the base of the calyx becomes indurated (ex char.); and a further 
essential difference between the two is found in the male flowers 
which are two-staminate in the island plant and five-staminate in 
the one on the mainland (ex char.). The misinterpretation of the 
island plant has resulted largely from the lack of material, the col- 
lections made on the Templeton Crocker Expedition being the only 
ones known of the island plant aside from Andersson's original 
collection. 



10b. Amaranthus Anderssoni f. erectus Howell, f. nov. 

Caulibus erectis; bracteis 1.5-2 mm. longis; floribus 2-2.5 mm. longis, tubulato- 
urceolatis, longioribus quam latiores. 

Stems erect; bracts 1.5-2 mm. long; flowers 2-2.5 mm. long, tubular-urceolate, 
longer than wide. 

Type: Duncan Island, Howell No. 9837 A (C. A. S. Herb. No. 
203293). 

This form was believed to be A. squamulatus (Ands.) Rob. when 
it was collected because in its erect slender habit it represents a 
marked change from typical A. Anderssoni. The flowers and bracts 
are also somewhat more elongated. The plant might represent a 
hybrid between the two species; but it can be properly placed in 
A. Anderssoni because of the hairy stem, broader leaves, and spongy 
tissue at the base of the fruiting perianth. 



3. IRESINE L. 

Iresine Edmonstonei Hook, f., 
Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 190 (1847) 

This plant, which with I. elatior Rich, is referred to the section 
Rosea of Iresine by both Moquin (DC. Prodr. 13, pt. 2: 313) and 
Schinz (Natur. Pflanz. III. la: 117), is known in the Galapagian 
flora only from a collection made by Darwin on Charles Island, the 
only collection cited by Hooker with the original description. Ac- 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AM ARAN THACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 97 

cording to Robinson (Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 137), there is a speci- 
men in the Gray Herbarium labelled "Iresine Edmonstonei Hook. f. 
Guayaquil? Mr. Edmonston," a specimen which agrees well with 
the description of the species. Hence, it is doubtful if the species is 
endemic to the Galapagos Islands, and there might be expressed 
some doubt as to the locality of the first collection. 



4. LITHOPHILA Sw. 

Key to the Species 

a. Basal leaves rush-like and subterete 1. L. radicata 

aa. Basal leaves linear-oblanceolate, foliaceous 2. L. subscaposa 

1. Lithophila radicata (Hook, f.) Standi., 
Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 396 (1915) 

Alternanthera radicata Hook, f.. Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 261, 262 (1847). 

A. acaulis Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 164 (1854). 

Iresine radicata (Hook, f.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 542 (1891). 

Type locality. Chatham Island. 

Insular distribution. Charles: Stewart!; Black Beach, Howell! 
Chatham: Darwin; Andersson!, the type collection of Alternanthera 
acaulis Ands. Hood: Snodgrass & Heller! 

Endemic. 

This striking plant inhabits very dry rocky places in the lowlands. 
It bears a generic resemblance to the species of Lithophila in northern 
South America and the West Indies, L. muscoides Sw., but differs 
in the larger size of all its parts as well as in other details. By Schinz 
(Die Natiir. Pfifam. III. lb: 117), the genus Lithophila is merged 
with Iresine; but the plants are incongruous in Iresine and can be 
properly separated from that genus by the two fertile stamens and 
the three staminodia and by the compressed perianth. 

2. Lithophila subscaposa (Hook, f.) Standi., 
Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 396 (1915) 

Alternanthera subscaposa Hook, f.. Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 189 (1847). 
Iresine subscaposa (Hook, f.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 542 (1891). 

Type locality. Charles Island. 

This endemic species is either very rare or else it is not easily 
detected as it grows in the moist uplands amid the abundant vege- 
tation of the wet zone. It is known from only two collections, the 
original one made by Darwin and a second one made by Stewart 
near the summit of Duncan Island at 1250 ft. The second collection 



98 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

differs in one or two minor details of inflorescence and flower from 
the original description by Hooker and from the description by 
Moquin (DC. Prod. 13, pt. 2: 353); but, until the original collection 
can be compared, the differences are scarcely noteworthy. 

5. PHILOXERUS R. Br. 

Philoxerus rigidus (Rob. & Greenm.) Howell, comb. nov. 

Alternanthera rigida Rob. & Greenm., Amer. Jour. Sci. 50: 143 

(1895). 
Lithophila rigida (Rob. & Greenm.) Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. 

Sci. 5: 396 (1915). 

Type locality. Orchilla Bay, James Island. 

Insular distribution. James: Orchilla Bay, Baur!; northeastern 
side, Stewart! 

This remarkable Galapagian endemic is readily placed in the 
genus Philoxerus by its compressed perianth with the base of sterile 
tissue, by the five fertile stamens united at the base to form a short 
tube, by the absence of interstaminal appendages, and by the two 
elongate-triangular stigmas. The two-lobed stigma and the unap- 
pendaged stamen-tube separate the plant from Alternanthera, and 
the five fertile stamens and the modified base of the perianth sepa- 
rate the plant from Lithophila. Schinz (Die Natiir. Pflfam. III. lb: 
117) merges Philoxerus and Lithophila in his section Philoxerus of 
Iresine; but it would seem that things are represented more nearly 
in the proper proportion to treat both Philoxerus and Lithophila as 
distinct genera: for not only are these several groups habitally 
dissimilar but they are rather readily distinguished by characters of 
the perianth and androecium. 

The development of a low shrubby habit and shortened hardened 
leaves in P. rigidus marks an abrupt departure from the more usual 
type of plant found in Philoxerus. This sclerocauly and sclerophylly 
are the result of the direct influence of the desert conditions of the 
Galapagos Islands, as these conditions would affect a mesophytic 
prototype. The same end has been effected in Mollugo Snodgrassii 
Rob., a remarkable switch plant of the islands, also believed to be 
rather closely allied to herbaceous annuals of the mesophytic type. 
But in P. rigidus certain vegetative peculiarities of the group are 
still discernible beneath the strange aspect, such as the disposition 
of the pubescence in the axils of the leaves and in the inflorescence 
and the attachment of the opposite leaves by broad bases which 
completely surround the stems at the nodes. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AMARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 99 

6. ALTERNANTHERA Forsk. 

The genus Alternanthera, which has received the most critical 
attention in this study, has a particularly high development in the 
Galapagos Islands, a development that is almost entirely endemic. 
Of the twenty species, subspecies, and forms that are accepted here, 
only one is considered not endemic, although there is a question 
about yet another. Most of the species are well marked and easily 
limited; but some of the species, especially those of the arid lowlands 
which have scoparious stems and linear leaves, are more intimately 
related and are not readily distinguished because of the variability 
of the plants. In the species of Alternanthera in the Galapagos 
Islands there are few instances where the morphology of the 
flower and the size of the flower-parts have been available for pur- 
poses of specific segregation. The type of foliage and its vesture 
and the position assumed by the flowers in the capitate inflorescences 
have been considered the most valuable structural features for a 
general grouping of species, and habit, as a character of secondary 
importance, has been very helpful. Some students may consider 
these characters too trivial to indicate acceptable species, but, 
nevertheless, they lend to the entities that they delimit a distinctive 
and specific aspect that is well correlated with insular distribution. 
It is believed that a much more accurate picture of the taxonomic 
status of the Galapagian Alter nanther as is given, not by combining 
these groups into broad aggregates where nice distinctions are lack- 
ing and where geographic distribution is of no significance, but by 
treating these entities as species, some of which are more complex 
and variable within themselves, others of which are very distinctive 
in appearance and local in occurrence. 

The generic name Alternanthera is taken for the group, replacing 
Telanthera to which most of the Galapagian species have been 
referred heretofore. Telanthera, established mainly on the relative 
lengths of the stamen-tube, filaments, and pseudostaminodia, is 
scarcely distinct from Alternanthera as a genus. Achyranthes, to 
which Standley referred most of the species, is to be returned to 
its generally accepted application with the designation of Achyran- 
thes aspera L. as the type species, according to the list of standard 
species of Linnean genera proposed at the International Botanical 
Congress at Cambridge in 1930. This fixes Alternanthera as the 
name of the genus for which Standley, under the then existing 
American Code of Botanical Nomenclature, assumed Achyranthes 
repens L. as type. 

Because of the confusion that has existed in the determination 
of many of the collections in the genus and because of differences 
of opinion on specimens, no specimens other than original collections 
have been cited unless they have been examined. 



100 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Key to the Species 

a. Leaves narrowly linear to linear-oblong or linear-oblanceolate, 0.5-3 
mm. wide (or 5 mm. wide in A . glaucescens and A . flavicoma). 

b. Stems and leaves glabrous or if minutely pubescent soon glabrate. 

c. Flowers closely and smoothly imbricated, densely covered 

with pale yellow hairs 1. A. nudicaulis 

cc. Flowers loosely imbricated or even subsquarrose, or if more 
closely adpressed, the head not smooth. 

d. Leaves not fleshy or glaucescent (except in A. filifolia 
glauca); flowers frequently erect or spreading 
at the top of the head, the tips standing free, 
the flowers whitish to straw-color 2. A. filifolia 

dd. Leaves somewhat fleshy when fresh, glaucescent; flow- 
ers more closely imbricated, the tips incurved 
at the top of the head or subadpressed, pale 
yellowish 3. A. glaucescens 

bb. Stems and leaves densely or conspicuously pubescent, the pubes- 
cence subpersistent. 

e. Leaves linear-oblanceolate or linear-oblong, 2-5 mm. wide 
or rarely wider; heads 4-5 mm. wide; flowers 3-3.5 
mm. long, roughly imbricated, the ti'ps free. .4. A. flavicoma 

ee. Leaves narrowly linear, 1-2 mm. wide; heads 3 mm. wide; 
flowers 2-2.5 mm. long, closely imbricated, the tips 
subadpressed 5. A. flosculosa 

aa. Leaves oblanceolate and elliptic to ovate or round, generally more 
than 5 mm. broad (the upper leaves of A. Snodgrassii are 
usually narrower and the smaller leaves of A. nesiotes are 
less than 5 mm. wide). 

f. Flowers more or less adpressed or closely imbricated. 

g. Stems and leaves glabrous and glaucous 6. A. galapagensis 

gg. Stems and leaves not glaucous, hirsutulose to tomentulose 
or subsericeous. 

h. Leaves at least twice as long as broad, oblong or 
elliptic to oblanceolate. 

i. Hairs on the stems much-branched, the pubescence 

hirsutulose and fulvous 7. A -vestita 

ii. Hairs on the stems nearly or quite simple, the 
pubescence subsericeous and pale straw- 
color 8. A. Snodgrassii 

hh. Leaves nearly as broad as long to broader than long, 
broadly ovate to round and even trans- 
versely elliptical. 

j. Bushy plants with erect or spreading stems; leaves 

to 4.5 cm. long 9. A. Helleri 

jj. Mat-like plant with stems prostrate from the top 
of a thick woody tap-root; leaves to 0.8 
cm. long 10. A. nesiotes 

ii. Flowers loosely imbricated to arcuate-spreading or squarrose. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AMARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 101 

k. Sepals subequal and similar, generally more than 5 mm. 
long; stamen-tube and pseudostaminodia 5-6 mm. 
long; anthers 2 mm. long; shrubs to 2.5 m. tall. . . 

11. A. echinocephala 

kk. Sepals not equal, dissimilar, less than 5 mm. long; stamen- 
tube and pseudostaminodia 3 mm. long; anthers 
1 mm. long or less. 

1. Arborescent shrub or low tree, 3-4 m. tall; leaves ob- 
long, rounded at the apex; heads terminal, 
oblong 12. A. rugulosa 

11. TraiHng or bushy perennials to 1.5 m. tall, becoming 
woody at the base; leaves elliptic or lanceolate 
to ovate, generally acute, sometimes obtuse; 
heads axillary, about as broad as long. 

m. Leaves elliptic to ovate-oblong, to 5.5 cm. long, 
3-5-nerved ; outer sepals spinose-acumin- 
ate 13. A. ficoidea 

mm. Leaves broadly elliptic to ovate, to 10 cm. long, 
5-8-nerved; outer sepals acute to acumi- 
nate 14, A. halimifolia macro phylla 



1. Alternanthera nudicaulis (Hook, f.) 
E. Christophersen, Nyt Mag. Naturvid. 70: 73 (1931) 

Bucholtzia nudicaulis Hook, f., Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 191 (1847). 
Telanthera nudicaulis Moq. in DC, Prodr. 13, pt. 2: 369 (1849). 
Achyranthes nudicaulis Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 74 (1915). 

Type locality. Charles Island. 

Insular distribution. Abingdon: Stewart! Charles: Darwin; 
Stewart!; Post Office Bay, Crocker!, Howell!; Black Beach, Howell! 

Endemic. 

Andersson's collection from Charles Island (Gray Herb.) which 
has been referred to this species has been examined and is not 
typical because the flowers are not closely adpressed in the heads. 
Hence, the plant may be more closely related to A. glaucescens as 
the species are limited here. In fact, a critical comparison of this 
specimen and Andersson's type collection of Telanthera strictiuscula 
discloses no essential difference; and the suggestion is made here 
that there might have been a confusing of labels or specimens, and 
that Andersson's specimen labelled T. nudicaulis from Charles Island 
is actually T. strictiuscula from Chatham Island, at least as far as 
the specimen in the Gray Herbarium is concerned. 

Also in the material in the Gray Herbarium is an excellent speci- 
men of A. nudicaulis from the "Galapagos Islands" with mature 
heads, but the specimen is without definite locality or name of col- 
lector. The heads are 4-5 mm. wide and as much as 2 cm. long, and 
the flowers are closely and evenly adpressed and imbricated. Al- 



102 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

though in young heads the bracts and sepals are densely yellowish- 
hairy, in these matured heads they are glabrate and light brown. 

Stewart's collection (No. 1405) from Abingdon Island is not 
typical in that the ends of the branches are pubescent and the 
leaves are broad, but the heads and flowers correspond almost 
exactly to those of typical A. nudicaulis from Charles Island. It is 
probable that the Abingdon plant will be recognized later as a dis- 
tinct form of A. nudicaulis when better vegetative specimens are 
obtained. 

2. Alternanthera filifolia (Hook, f.) Howell, comb. nov. 

Bucholtzia filifolia Hook, f.. Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 192 (1847). 
Telanther a filifolia Moq. in DC, Prodr. 13, pt. 2: 368 (1849). 
Achyranthes Hookeri Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 74 (1915). 

Key to the Subspecies of A. filifolia 

a. Heads 3-6 mm. wide, generally 3-7-glomerate at the ends of branch- 
lets or sometimes only 1 or 2; leaves mostly 1-2 mm. wide. 

b. Stems not glaucous. 

c. Heads 3-4 mm. wide; flowers erect, the tips free but scarcely 

divergent 2a. typica 

CO. Heads 4-6 mm. wide; flowers spreading or subsquarrose . . . . 

2b. subsquarrosa 

bb. Stems glaucous 2c. glauca 

aa. Heads 2.5-3 mm. wide, generally solitary, sometimes 2-3-glomerate. 

d. Leaves 1.5-4 mm. wide; heads 2.5-3 mm. wide, generally pearly- 
white; bracts and sepals acute 2d. margaritacea 

dd. Leaves 3 mm. wide; heads 3 mm. wide, straw-color; bracts and 

sepals subacuminate 2d. sylvaUca 

2a. Alternanthera filifolia typica Howell, nom. nov. 

Bucholtzia filifolia Hook, f., 1. c. Telanther a filifolia Moq., 1. c. 
Achyranthes Hookeri Standi., 1. c. 

Type locality. James Island. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: southern part (?), Baur No. 
293!; 5 miles ne. of Webb Cove, Howell! ; Cowley Bay, Baur! , Stew- 
art!; Tagus Cove Mt., Stewart!, Howell! Indefatigable: south- 
eastern side, Stewart!; Academy Bay, Howell! James: Darwin; Or- 
chilla Bay, Baur!; James Bay, Howell!; Sullivan Bay, Howell! 

Endemic. 

In localities not of the most arid sort, where the plants are shaded 
by brush or trees, the typical form with heads glomerate-congested 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AM ARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 103 

is frequently replaced by a form in which solitary heads are not 
infrequent. Since the aspect of such plants and the character of 
the leaves and heads are more like the typical form, such plants 
are referred here. The following specimens are of this character. 
Albemarle: southern part, Baur No. 302!; Villamil, Stewart!, Howell! 
Indefatigable: Academy Bay, Howell! Narborough: southern side, 
Stewart! 



2b. Alternanthera filifolia subsquarrosa Howell, subspec. nov. 

Caulibus divaricatis; foliis usque ad 5 cm. longis, 1-2.5 mm. latis; capitulis fere 
3-7-glomeratis, 4-6 mm. latis; floribus subpatentibus vel subsquarrosis; longioribus 
sepalis 3-3.5 mm. longis; staminibus 2.5 mm. longis. 

Stems divergently branched; leaves to 5 cm. long, 1-2.5 mm. wide; heads gen- 
erally 3-7-glomerate, 4-6 mm. wide; flowers somewhat spreading or subsquarrose; 
longer sepals 3-3.5 mm. long, stamens 2.5 mm. long. 

Type: James Bay, James Island, Stewart No. 1413 (C. A. S. Herb. 
No. 132894; isotype in Gray Herb.). Stewart notes that the plant 
was "fairly abundant to 1200 ft." A second collection was made 
by Stewart at James Bay, No. 1397 (!), and was reported as an occa- 
sional bush, 12 to 18 inches high, growing to an elevation of 2150 
ft. A foliose specimen with very young heads from relatively moist 
slopes above the southeastern end of James Bay, Howell No. 9685, 
may belong here. 



2c. Alternanthera filifolia glauca Howell, subspec. nov. 

Caulibus ligneis, glaucis, multiramosis supra, internodis brevibus; foliis crassi- 
usculis, subcoriaceis, leve pubescentibus, demum glabrescentibus, glaucescentibus, 
lineari-oblanceolatis, usque ad 2.5 cm. longis, 3 mm. latis, margine vix revolutis; 
capitulis 2-4-glomeratis, 8 mm. longis, 4 mm. latis, oblongo-conoideis, floribus in- 
aequaliter imbricatis; bracteis 2 mm. longis; longioribus sepalis circa 3 mm. longis; 
staminibus 2 mm. longis. 

Stems woody, glaucous, much-branched above, the internodes short; leaves 
thickish, subcoriaceous, lightly pubescent, becoming glabrate, glaucescent, linear- 
oblanceolate, to 2.5 cm. long, 3 mm. wide, margins scarcely revolute; heads gen- 
erally 2-4-glomerate, 8 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, the flowers roughly imbricated; 
bracts 2 mm. long; the longer sepals about 3 mm. long; stamens 2 mm. long. 

This distinctive plant, which is nearly specifically distinct as the 
species are accepted here, is known from only a single collection 
made on Brattle Island by Stewart, No. 1408 (type, C. A. S. Herb. 
No. 132898; isotype in Gray Herb.). The character of the heads 
definitely relates A. filifolia glauca to A. filifolia rather than to 
A. glaucescens or A. galapagensis, the other glaucescent species in 



104 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the Galapagos Islands. It appears to be a development resulting 
from maritime influence in the variable series here placed in A. 
filifoUa. 

2d. Alternanthera filifolia margaritacea Howell, subspec. nov. 

Caulibus divaricatis; foliis linearibus ad lineari-oblanceolatis, 1.5-4 mm. latis; 
capitulis globosis ad conicis, solitariis vel 2-3-glomeratis, margaritaceis, 2.5-3 mm. 
latis; floribus erectis, apicibus non adpressis; bracteis 1.5 mm. longis; longioribus 
sepalis circa 2 mm. longis; staminibus 1-1.5 mm. longis. 

Stems divergently branched; leaves linear to linear-oblanceolate, 1.5-4 mm. 
wide, heads solitary or 2-3-glomerate, pearly-white, 2.5-3 mm. wide; flowers erect, 
the tips not adpressed; bracts 1.5 mm. long; the longer sepals about 2 mm. long; 
stamens 1-1.5 mm. long. 

Type: Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island, Howell No. 9416 (C. A. S. 
Herb. No. 203288). Other collections have been made at Iguana 
Cove by Snodgrass & Heller (!) and by Stewart (!). A young speci- 
men was collected by Snodgrass & Heller (!) from southern Nar- 
borough Island at 2000 ft. and is perhaps referable here. In this 
the heads are a bit larger and the leaves broader than in the speci- 
mens from Iguana Cove. 



2e. Alternanthera filifolia sylvatica Howell, subspec. nov. 

Caulibus divaricatis; foliis angustato-oblanceolatis, 3-3.5 cm. longis, 3 rnm. 
latis; capitulis fere solitariis, 3 mm. latis, stramineis; floribus primo patentibus, 
tandem subadpressis; bracteis 1.5-2 mm. longis; longioribus sepalis 2.5 mm. longis; 
staminibus 1.5 mm. longis. 

Stems divergently branched; leaves slender-oblanceolate, 3-3.5 cm. long, 3 mm. 
wide; heads generally solitary, 3 mm. wide, straw-color; flowers spreading at first, 
later subadpressed; bracts 1.5-2 mm. long; the longer sepals 2.5 mm. long; stamens 
1.5 mm. long. 

Type: trail to Fortuna from Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, 
Howell No. 9140 (C. A. S. Herb. No. 203289). This was a much- 
branched shrub about 1 m. tall growing on a rocky slope in partial 
shade in the region between the dry lowlands and wet uplands. A 
collection by Svenson (!) from the shore of Academy Bay is referred 
here as a puberulent variant. In this collection, as in the type, the 
bracts and sepals are nearly acuminate. 



3. Alternanthera glaucescens (Hook, f.) Howell, comb. nov. 

BuchoUzia glaucescens Hook, f.. Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 191 (1847). 
Telanthera glaucescens Moq. in DC, Prodr. 13, pt. 2: 369 (1849). 
Achyranthes glaucescens Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 74 (1915). 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AMARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 105 



Key to the Forms of A. glaucescens 

Leaves 2-3 (or 5) mm. wide, linear-oblanceolate 3a. f. typica 

Leaves 1-1.5 mm. wide, linear 3b. f. strictiuscula 



3a. Alternanthera glaucescens f. typica Howell, nom. nov. 

Bucholtzia glaucescens Hook, f., 1. c. Telanthera glaucescens Moq., 
1. c. Achyranthes glaucescens Standi., 1. c. 

Type locality. Chatham Island. 

Insular distribution. Chatham: Darwin; Andersson! ; Wreck Bay, 
Stewart!, Howell!; Sappho Cove, Stewart! 

Endemic. 

Stewart's collections from Wreck Bay were reported by him as 
Telanthera flavicoma Ands. because of the pubescence on the branch- 
lets and young leaves. In spite of the emphasis placed on the char- 
acter of pubescence in A. flavicoma, it would seem that these speci- 
mens are more properly considered puberulent variants of A. glau- 
cescens, with which species they seem allied by the more rhombic- 
linear or elliptic-linear leaves, subcoriaceous in texture, and sparse 
on the branchlets. Baur's collection from the northern part of 
Chatham Island (!) is a specimen without leaves, but it is referred 
here on the character of the mature heads in which the flowers are 
not very closely and evenly adpressed. 



3b. Alternanthera glaucescens f. strictiuscula (Ands.) Howell, 

comb. nov. 

Telanthera strictiuscula Ands., Stock, Akad. Handl. 166 (1854). 
T. angustata Ands., Om. Galap.-oarnes Veg. 61, pi. 4, fig. 2 
(1857). Achyranthes strictiuscula Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. 
Sci. 5: 75 (1915). 

Type locality. Chatham Island. 

Insular distribution. Chatham: Andersson! , original collection of 
Telanthera strictiuscula Ands.; A. Agassis!; Snodgrass & Heller!, 
intergrading to typical A. glaucescens. 

Endemic. 

Telanthera strictiuscula Ands., interpreted from a specimen of the 
original collection in the Gray Herbarium, appears to be a narrow- 
leaved form of A. glaucescens, and it can be connected to that species 
by a series of intergrading specimens. In fact, if the material in the 
pocket on the sheet in the Gray Herbarium is from the same plant 
as the mounted specimen, there is no doubt of the close relationship 
of the two species because of the greater width of the leaf -fragments 
and the character of the more mature heads enclosed therein. Even 



106 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

if the pocket-material originated from a collection of typical A. 
glaucescens, wholly or in part, the mounted specimen with its nar- 
row leaves would still appear best treated as a form of A. glaucescens 
because of the similarity of the heads in the two forms. 

Altern anther a glaucescens through f. strictiuscula is closely related 
to A. filifolia. In fact, many of the collections cited in this work 
under A. filifolia have been referred by earlier students of the 
Galapagian flora to Telanthera strictiuscula Ands. Typical A. fili- 
folia has the flowers more or less spreading in the head, and even 
in less typical forms the flowers have an unadpressed or uneven 
appearance. The flowers in A. glaucescens f. typica and f. strictiuscula 
are more evenly adpressed and the heads have a different aspect 
from those of the more atypical forms of A . filifolia. Further study 
and more extensive collections of A. glaucescens will determine 
whether it can be maintained distinct from A. filifolia. 

After a critical study of the diagnoses of Telanthera strictiuscula 
Ands. and T. angustata Ands., names which Andersson considered 
synonymous, and after an examination of Andersson's figure of 
T. angustata, a question arose as to whether the names had been 
applied by Andersson to plants nearly enough alike to be considered 
the same, or whether two taxonomic entities were involved. The 
specimen of T. strictiuscula in the Gray Herbarium corresponds 
closely to the original description of the species as given by Anders- 
son in Stock. Akad. Handl. p. 66; but this specimen, principally 
the leaves and inflorescence, does not correspond to the figure of 
T. angustata Ands. in Andersson's second work on the flora of the 
Galapagos Islands, Om Galap.-oarnes Veg. pi. 4, fig. 2, nor to the 
statement, 1. c, p. 61, that the leaves are to 3 inches in length. 
On the mounted specimen referred to, there is no leaf over one inch 
in length and the heads are not on elongated "peduncles" as shown 
in the figure. Undoubtedly two collections from Chatham Island 
were used by Andersson, specimens unlike in appearance but prob- 
ably representing merely extremes of branching and of leaf varia- 
tion. The collection from Chatham Island by A. Agassiz (Gray 
Herb.) represents the form with more open branching and longer 
leaves. For a time it was thought that T. angustata Ands, might 
be A. fiosculosa Howell, but the absence of pubescence in the former 
species (ex char., as far as T. angustata Ands. is concerned) and its 
abundance in the latter species led to the conclusion that T. stricti- 
uscula Ands. and T. angustata Ands. are very nearly related forms, 
if not identical, and that to neither is A. fiosculosa referable. 

In his second work, Andersson was in undoubted error when he 
cites his collection from James Island instead of from Chatham 
Island (cf. Robinson, Fl. Galap. Is., p. 140). No reason for changing 
the name of the species from strictiuscula to angustata is given. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AMARANTH ACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 107 

4. Alternanthera flavicoma (Ands.) Howell, comb. nov. 

Telanihera flavicoma Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 166 (1854). 
Achyranthes flavicoma Standi., Jour. Wash, Acad. Sci. 5: 74 (1915). 

Type locality. Charles Island. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: Villamil, Stewart! Charles: 
Andersson; Stewart! Chatham: Bassa Point, Stewart! Duncan: 
Snodgrass & Heller! Gardner (near Hood) : Snodgrass & Heller!; 
Howell! Hood: Baur!; Snodgrass & Heller!; Stewart! Indefatig- 
able: Academy Bay, Stewart! Jervis: Stewart! 

Endemic. 

This species is closely related to A. filifolia and might be con- 
sidered a pubescent variant of it. However, besides the commonly 
golden hairs which envelop the young growth, there is a tendency 
for the leaves to be wider and for the tips of the flowers to be less 
sharply acute. It is not always easy to distinguish between the two 
species but usually specimens can be rather readily placed. 

Among the specimens that have been examined from the Gray 
Herbarium is a collection of Alternanthera labelled "S. Chili, J. G. 
Reynolds." Undoubtedly, it represents a plant closely related to 
the narrow-leaved species of Alternanthera of the Galapagos Islands 
and seems nearest to the present species. It is very improbable 
that a plant with the xerophytic characters which are found in 
this plant would occur in southern Chile, and it seems not impossible 
that the collection originated in the Galapagos Islands and has been 
mislabelled. This plant has been determined as Telanthera nudi- 
caulis but it cannot be that species because the flowers are not 
smoothly adpressed in the heads and the leaves and branchlets are 
rather conspicuously pubescent. 

From Abingdon Island come the collections most divergent from 
the usual type, Snodgrass & Heller No. 826, Stewart No. 1387 , and 
Stewart No. 1386. In the first two specimens the leaves vary to 
1 cm. wide, the flowers are a little more adpressed in the heads, 
and the anthers are only about 0.5 mm. long. In Stewart No. 1386 
the stems are noted as prostrate and there are roots at the nodes; 
and, although the leaves are as broad as in the other collections 
from Abingdon Island, the heads and flowers are more like the 
usual type and the anthers are 1 mm. long. For the present these 
are placed as atypical forms of A. flavicoma although they might 
be considered nearer to A. Snodgrassii. 

5. Alternanthera flosculosa Howell, spec. nov. 

Frutex multiramosus, 1-2 m. altus; ramulis pubescentibus; foliis angustato-lineari- 
bus, 1-6 cm. longis, 1-2 mm. latis, subsessilibus, dense et persistente flavescenti- 
pubescentibus subtus, subglabrescentibus supra; capitulis albidis, solitariis vel 
2-3-glomeratis, oblongo-ovatis, 4-7 mm. longis, 3 mm. latis, dense pilosis; bracteis 
1.5 mm. longis; longioribus sepalis circa 2 mm. longis, apicibus florum subadpressis; 
staminibus 1 mm. longis, breviter excedentibus pseudostaminodia. 



108 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Much-branched shrub, 1-2 m. tall; branchlets pubescent; leaves narrowly linear, 
1-6 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, subsessile, densely and persistently yellowish-hairy 
below, subglabrescent above; heads whitish, solitary or 2-3-glomerate, oblong- 
ovate, 4-7 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, densely pilose; bracts 1.5 mm. long; longer sepals 
2 mm. long, the tips of the flowers subadpressed; stamens 1 mm. long, barely 
exceeding the pseudostaminodia. 

Collections. Chatham: Wreck Bay near the shore, Howell No. 
8604 (type, C. A. S. Herb. No. 203290); southwestern end, Baur! 
(seedling); Wreck Bay at 500 ft., Stewart! 

Alternanthera flosculosa is most nearly related to A. flavicoma but 
appears amply distinct for specific recognition. Not only does the 
plant differ from A. flavicoma in its more slender heads and smaller 
flowers, but it is a definite shrub 1 to 2 m. tall instead of a scoparious 
herb from a woody base as is A. flavicoma. 



6. Alternanthera galapagensis (Stewart) Howell, comb. nov. 

Telanthera galapagensis Stewart, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 1: 

57 (1911). 
Achyranthes galapagensis Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 74 

(1915). 

This distinct species with its broad glaucous leaves is known only 
from the type specimen, collected on Gardner Island near Charles 
Island by J. R. Slevin (!), herpetologist on the Expedition of the 
California Academy of Sciences of 1905-1906. 



7. Alternanthera vestita (Ands.) Howell, comb. nov. 

Telanthera vestita Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 169 (1854). 
Achyranthes vestita Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 75 (1915). 

Type locality. Indefatigable Island. 

Insular distribution. Indefatigable: dry places in the middle 
regions, Andersson; south of Conway Bay, Baur!; north side, Stew- 
art!; Academy Bay, Stewart! 

Endemic. 

In his original account of the species, Andersson reported it from 
Charles Island, but in his second work the locality was changed to 
Indefatigable Island, on which the plant has been recollected and 
to which its distribution appears to be restricted. Without doubt, 
Andersson's collection was made in the vicinity of Conway Bay at 
the northwest side of the island. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— A MARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 109 

8. Alternanthera Snodgrassii (Rob.) Howell, comb. nov. 

Telanthera Snodgrassii Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 140 (1902). 
Achyranthes Snodgrassii Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 75 (1915). 

T3'pe locality. North Seymour Island. 

Insular distribution. Indefatigable: Seymour Bay, Wheeler, 
Rose & Beehe! ; north side, Howell! North Seymour: Snodgrass & 
Heller!, original collection; Howell! South Seymour: Howell!, only 
one plant seen. 

Endemic. 

Alternanthera Snodgrassii was very abundant on the grassy flats 
of northern Indefatigable Island and North Seymour Island, and 
was not unattractive as it formed broad, loosely spreading, much- 
branched bushes. The species is closely related to A. vestita in the 
character of inflorescence and flowers, but the two can be readily 
distinguished by the very different types of vesture with which the 
young shoots are clothed. It is not always easy to distinguish 
A. Snodgrassii from A. fiavicoma, especially in those forms of the 
latter where the leaves are somewhat broader than usual. But in 
A. fiavicoma the flowers usually end abruptly and the heads have a 
thatched appearance; in A. Snodgrassii the flowers are more closely 
adpressed and the heads are relatively smooth. Moreover, A. Snod- 
grassii is usually widely and loosely branched and bears many more 
heads. 



9. Alternanthera Helleri (Rob.) Howell, comb. nov. 

Telanthera Helleri Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 138 (1902). 
Achyranthes Helleri Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 74 (1915). 



Key to the Forms of A. Helleri 

Leaves ovate, acute 9a. f. typica 

Leaves ovate to broadly ovate, obtuse 9b. f . obhisior 



9a. Alternanthera Helleri f. typica Howell, nom. nov. 

Telanthera Helleri Rob., 1. c. Achyranthes Helleri Standi., 1. c. 

The typical form of this species is known only from Culpepper 
Island where it was originally collected by Snodgrass and Heller (!) 
and subsequently by F. X. Williams (!), entomologist on the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences Expedition of 1905-1906. 



110 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



9b. Alternanthera Helleri f. obtusior (Rob.) Howell, comb. nov. 

Telanthera Helleri var. obtusior Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 139 
(1902). 

This form is readily distinguished from the typical form by the 
broader obtuse leaves. It is known only from Wenman Island 
where two collections have been made, the first by Snodgrass and 
Heller (!), the second by Stewart (!). 



10. Alternanthera nesiotes Johnston, 
Contrib. Gray Herb. n. s. 68: 83 (1923) 

This rock-dweller, with its low trailing stems, small roundish 
leaves, and diminutive heads, is one of the most distinctive develop- 
ments in Alternanthera. It was originally mistaken for a Coldenia 
and was reported as C. fusca (Stewart, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 
4, 1: 126) so similar were the habital resemblances of the two plants. 
This remarkable species is known only from a single collection made 
by Stewart (!) at Cormorant Bay, Charles Island. 



11. Alternanthera echinocephala (Hook, f.) 
E. Christophersen, Nyt Mag. Naturvid. 70: 73 (1931) 

Brandesia echinocephala Hook, f.. Trans. Linn Soc. 20: 189 (1847). 
Telanthera echinocephala Moq. in DC, Prodr. 13, pt. 2: 373 (1849). 
T. argentea Ands., Stock. Akad. Handl. 168 (1854). T. argentea 

robustior Ands., 1. c. 168. T. argentea nudi flora Ands., 1. c. 

169. T. argentea bracteata Ands., 1. c. 169. 
T. echinocephala robustior Ands., Om Galap.-oarnes Veg. 63 (1857). 

T. echinocephala nudifiora Ands., 1. c. 63. T. echinocephala 

bracteata Ands., 1. c. 63. 
Achyranthes echinocephala Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 74 

(1915). 

Type locality. Charles Island. 

Insular distribution. Abingdon: Baur!; Snodgrass & Heller!; 
Stewart! Albemarle: southern part, Baur!; Villamil, Stewart!; trail 
to Santo Tomas, Howell!; Iguana Cove, Snodgrass & Heller!, Stew- 
art!; Cowley Bay, Stewart! Barrington: Snodgrass & Heller! 
Charles: Darwin; Snodgrass & Heller!; Black Beach, Howell!; Post 
Office Bay, Howell! Chatham: Andersson! ; Snodgrass & Heller!; 
southwestern end, Baur!; Wreck Bay, Stewart!, Howell! Duncan: 
A. Agassiz!; Baur!; Snodgrass & Heller!; Howell! Gardner (near 
Hood): Snodgrass & Heller!; Howell! Hood: Baur!; Stewart!; Gard- 
ner Bay, Howell! Indefatigable: northern part, Snodgrass & 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— A. MARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 111 

Heller!; Seymour Bay, Wheeler, Rose & Beehe! ; Conway Bay, 
Howell!; southeastern side, Stewart!; Academy Bay, Stewart!, Howell! 
James: Stewart!; James Bay, Baur!, Snodgrass & Heller!, Stewart!, 
Howell! 
Endemic. 



12. Alternanthera rugulosa (Rob.) Howell, comb. nov. 

Telanthera rugulosa Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 139 (1902). 
Achyranthes rugulosa Standi., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 74 (1915). 

Aside from its remarkable habit which is that of a low tree, 
A. rugulosa has excellent characters of foliage, inflorescence, and 
flowers which distinguish it from related species. It is known to 
us from only two collections, the original collected by Baur (!) and 
the second by Stewart (!), both from Chatham Island, the former 
from the southwestern end in the middle region, the latter from 
1800 ft. above Wreck Bay. 



13. Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) R. Br., Prodr. 1: 417 (1810) 

Gomphrena ficoidea L., Sp. PI. 225 (1753). 

Telanthera ficoidea Moq. in DC, Prodr. 13, pt. 2: 363 (1849). 

A plant, undoubtedly referable to this species, was collected by 
Svenson (!) on Indefatigable Island, about 3 miles west of Academy 
Bay, at an elevation of 300 ft. The plant was so different from 
other species in the islands that it was tentatively named as new 
by Svenson, but he later referred it to A. ficoidea. In a letter re- 
garding the plant, he points out that the main difference between 
his plant and the continental forms is found in the length of the 
stamens and the relative length of the stamens and the pseudo- 
staminodia. The anthers of the island plant are 0.5 to 0.75 mm. 
long and the pseudostaminodia are a little shorter than the tips of 
the anthers; in the continental material that has been examined the 
anthers are about 1 mm. long and the pseudostaminodia equal the 
stamens or exceed them by as much as 0.5 mm. These differences 
can probably be considered within the range of specific variation of 
A. ficoidea. Svenson notes his collection as "somewhat dimorphic" 
but the two specimens mounted on the sheet which has been exam- 
ined are not believed to be the same species. The small-leaved, 
flowering plant is what is here referred to A. ficoidea; the large- 
leaved, budding plant is what is placed with the lowland variants 
of A. halimifolia macrophylla. Further critical field study must be 
made to determine whether these two types of plants should be 
referred to the same or to two different species. 



112 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Alternanthera ficoidea was originally described from tropical Amer- 
ica, and is widely distributed from the West Indies and Mexico to 
Argentina. 



14. Alternanthera halimifolia (Lam.) Standi. 
macrophylla Howell, subspec. nov. 

Herba perennis, caulibus repentibus et radicantibus vel erectis suffruticosis, 
0.5-1.5 m. altis, hirsutulosis trichomis stellatis, glabrescentibus; foliis ellipticis ad 
ovatis, fere 2-10 cm. longis, 1-6 cm. latis, subhirsutulosis utrinque, densius infra, 
glabrescentibus supra, obtusis acutisve, nervis fere prominentibus, nervis lateralibus 
5-8, petiolis 0.3-2.5 cm. longis; capitulis axillaribus, saepe solitariis vel interdum 
glomeratis, 4-8 mm. longis, circa eodem latitudine, floribus laxe imbricatis vel 
subdivergentibus, non arcuatis, subfuscis, bracteis 3-3.5 mm. longis; sepalis exte- 
rioribus 4-5 mm. longis, glabris vel pubescentibus; staminibus 2.5-4 mm. longis, 
antheris 1 mm. longis, pseudostaminodiis filamentis vix longioribus vel staminibus 
longitudine fere aequalibus, laciniatis. 

Stems spreading and rooting or erect and forming bushes 0.5-1.5 m. tall, hir- 
sutulose with stellate hairs, becoming glabrate; leaves elliptic to ovate, generally 
2-10 cm. long, 1-6 cm. wide, subhirsutulose on both sides at first but denser below, 
above soon glabrate, obtuse or acute, the nerves generally prominent, the lateral 
nerves mostly 5-8, petioles 0.3-2.5 cm. long; heads frequently solitary or sometimes 
glomerate, nearly as broad as long, 4-8 mm. long, the flowers loosely imbricated or 
subdivergent, not arcuate, grayish-brown; bracts 3-3.5 mm. long; outer sepals 4-5 
mm. long, the pseudostaminodia equalling the filaments or nearly equalling the 
stamens, laciniate. 

Type: Villamil Mt. above Santo Tomas, Albemarle Island, Howell 
No. 8985 (C. A. S. Herb. No. 203286). 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: Villamil Mt., Stewart!, Howell! 
Chatham: Stewart! Indefatigable: southeastern side, Stewart!; 
northwestern side, Stewart! ; above Academy Bay, Stewart! , Svenson! , 
Howell! ; summit of Mt. Crocker, Howell! 

Endemic. 

After a critical comparison of the Galapagian material that has 
been referred to A. halimifolia with a number of specimens from the 
west coast of South America, it has appeared best to treat the island 
plant as a variable subspecies of the mainland plant. The leaves 
on the island plant average much larger, the stems are less branched, 
and the heads are always axillary. The flowers are more loosely 
arranged in the heads of the island plant although there is consid- 
erable variation in the compactness of the inflorescence in the conti- 
nental forms. The most constant difference is found in the pseudo- 
staminodia which in the mainland plant usually exceed the stamens 
by a considerable margin; in the island plant the pseudostaminodia 
equal the filaments but rarely reach the tips of the stamens. 

The variation of habit and aspect found in subspecies macrophylla 
is considerable, seemingly in direct response to the immediate envir- 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AMARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 113 

onment and available water supply. In the rain forests on the 
windward side of the higher islands, where the plant is especially 
abundant and characteristic, it becomes bushy and 1 to 1.5 m. tall 
and bears large ovate or ovate-lanceolate leaves with the blades as 
much as 10 cm. long and 6 cm. wide. The flower-parts are also 
larger in specimens from the rain forests. Above the rain forest in 
the more arid grassland of the island summits, the plant assumes a 
trailing habit, growing along the ground or clambering among low 
shrubs and bushy herbs. The stems and leaves of these plants are 
generally more densely pubescent and the leaves are not so large as 
those of the plants from the rain forest. The flowers are also smaller. 
The greatest reduction in leaf-size occurs along the lower edge of the 
forest belt where it approaches the lowland deserts or on the lee-side 
of the islands where the rainfall of the dry season tends to be inter- 
mittent. It is here that forms occur which in aspect and leaf-size 
most nearly correspond to the material which has been studied from 
the west coast of South America. The leaves are generally less than 
4 cm. long and about half as wide, and the dense pubescence of the 
young shoots is relatively persistent. Just as in the summit regions, 
the flowers of these lowland plants are smaller than are those of 
plants in the rain forest. These ranging variations, seemingly so 
dependent on edaphic and climatic factors and so evenly connected 
with one another in the series of island specimens which has been 
studied, have appeared best treated as a single variable entity. 

From the higher slopes of James Island above James Bay, Stewart 
obtained plants of this relationship with leaves narrower than is 
usual and somewhat elongated {Stewart Nos. 1396 and 1416!). The 
leaves are reminiscent of the wider type of leaves found in A. flavi- 
coma; but the heads and flowers of these specimens are not like those 
in A. flavicoma, nor are they like the heads and flowers in A. ficoidea 
which also has leaves narrower than those of typical A. halimifolia 
macrophylla. 

Although the name Alternanthera halimifolia (Lam.) Standi, is 
taken for the species, the concept is not believed to be identical 
with Achyranthes halimifolia Standley of the N. A. Fl. (21: 139) or 
with Alternanthera halimifolia Standley in Pittier's Man. PI. Usual. 
Venez. (145. 1926), where the combination was first made. If 
Telanthera Crucis (Vahl) Moq. and Telanthera flavogrisea Urb. 
(which are probably synonomous) of the West Indian region are 
properly interpreted by the writer, there would seem to be no place 
for them in Alternanthera halimifolia as the species is here accepted. 



114 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

7. FROELICHIA Moench 
Key to the Species 

a. Inflorescence rather strictly branched, the flowers in dense rounded 
or oblong clusters, the rhachis long-woolly. 

b. Inflorescence not interrupted; perianth 4 mm. long, the perianth- 
segments exceeding the stamen-tube by at least 1 mm.; 
lobes of the stamen-tube broadly oblong, more than half 
as broad as long, rounded at apex; in fruit the perianth- 
tube developing wings at least half as broad as the 
tube 1. F. nudicaulis 

bb. Inflorescence frequently interrupted; perianth 3-3.5 mm. long, 
the perianth-segments nearly equalled by the stamen- 
tube; lobes of the stamen-tube oblong, about half as 
broad as long, at the apex rounded or emarginate; in 
fruit the perianth-tube nearly or quite without wings 
2. F. lanigera 

aa. Inflorescence loosely branched, spicate, the flowers more or less scat- 
tered or if congested the end of the inflorescence acute, the 
rhachis not woolly or sparsely woolly in subspecies alata. . 3. F. juncea 



1. Froelichia nudicaulis Hook, f., 
Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 192 (1847) 

Key to the Subspecies of F. nudicaulis 

a. Stems subglabrous or weakly lanate; spike to 3 cm. long; longer 
bractlet 3-4 mm. long; perianth densely lanate. 

b. Stems slender, elongate, divergently branched, glabrous or nearly 
so; spike oblong, 1-3 mm. long; longer bractlet 3-3.5 
mm. long la. typica 

bb. Stems lower and stouter, more strictly erect and broom-like, some- 
what lanate; spike capitate, about 0.5 cm. long; longer 
bractlet 4 mm. long lb. curta 

aa. Stems pilose; spike to 6 cm. long; bractlets 2-2.5 mm. long; perianth 

almost glabrous Ic. longispicata 



la. Froelichia nudicaulis typica Howell, nom. nov. 

F. nudicaulis Hook, f., 1, c. 

Type locality. Charles Island. 

Insular distribution. Charles: Darwin; Andersson. Chatham: 
Andersson. James: James Bay, Stewart! 
Endemic. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— AMARANTHACEAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 115 



lb. Froelichia nudicaulis curta Howell, subspec. 



nov. 



Caulibus ad 3 dm. altis, substricte erectis et scopariis, sublanatis; spica capitata, 
circa 0.5 cm. longa; longiore bracteola 4 mm. longa. 

Stems to 3 dm. tall, substrictly erect, broom-like, sublanate; spike capitate, 
about 0.5 cm. long; longer bractlet 4 mm. long. 

Type: from the sides and top of Duncan Island, Stewart No. 1366 
(C. A. S. Herb. No. 133009). 

The superficial aspect of this plant is that of F. lanigera Ands., 
under which name it was reported by Stewart (Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci. ser. 4, 1: 56. 1911); but the technical characters of the flower 
and of the wings developed on the fruiting perianth-tube relate 
the plant definitely to F. nudicaulis. 



Ic. Froelichia nudicaulis longispicata (Christophersen) 
Howell, comb. nov. 

F. nudicaulis var. longispicata Christophersen, Nyt Mag. Naturvid. 
70: 74 (1930). 

This distinctive Froelichia is known only from the original collec- 
tion which was made by Miss Rorud at Turtle Bay, Indefatigable 
Island. Material has not been seen, the characters on which it is 
based in this work being taken from the original description. 



2. Froelichia lanigera Ands., 
Om Galap.-oarnes Veg. 63 (1857) 

Key to the Subspecies of F. lanigera 

a. Stems lower and stouter, erect and broom-like; spikes oblong-capitate 

or shorter, the flowers usually 10 or more 2a. typica 

aa. Stems more elongate and slender; spikes capitate, less than 10-flow- 

ered, mostly about 5-flowered 2b. scoparia 



2a. Froelichia lanigera typica Howell, nom. nov. 
F. lanigera Ands., 1. c. F. lanata Ands., 1. c, pi. 3, fig. 1. 

Type locality. Albemarle Island, probably in the vicinity of Tagus 
Cove. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: Andersson; Tagus Cove, Snod- 
grass & Heller; Tagus Cove Mt., Stewart!, Howell!; Cowley Bay, 
Stewart! 

Endemic. 



116 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

2b. Froelichia lanigera scoparia (Rob.) Howell, comb. nov. 
F. scoparia Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 136 (1902). 

Type locality. Narborough Island, southern part at 2000 ft. 

Insular distribution. Narborough: southern part, Snodgrass & 
Heller! ; northern side, Stewart! , perhaps nearer the typical subspecies 
because of the more numerous flowers in the spikes. 

Endemic. 

3. Froelichia juncea Rob. & Greenm., 
Amer. Jour. Sci. 50: 143 (1895) 

Key to the Subspecies of F. juncea 

a. Stems and rhachis sparsely hairy or subglabrous; perianth 2-3 mm. 
long, the lobes about 1.5 mm. long, glabrous or nearly so; 
stamen-tube 2 mm. long; in fruit the perianth-tube without 

wings or with thick narrow wings 3a. typica 

aa. Stems and rhachis somewhat hairy or subtomentulose; perianth 
4 mm. long, the lobes about 2 mm. long, tomentulose; 
stamen-tube 3 mm. long; in fruit the perianth-tube develop- 
ing wings about 1 mm. broad 3b. alata 

3a. Froelichia juncea typica Howell, nom. nov. 
F. juncea Rob. & Greenm., 1. c. 

Type locality. Southern part of Albemarle Island. 

Insular distribution. Albemarle: southern part, Baur; Cowley 
Bay Mt., Snodgrass & Heller; Tagus Cove Mt., Snodgrass & Heller, 
Howell!; Villamil near sea level, Stewart!; trail to Santo Tomas, 
Howell! 

Endemic. 

The type was said to have been "collected on South Albemarle 
and Barrington Islands," but the occurrence of the species on Bar- 
rington Island is probably to be considered an error. Barrington 
Island is omitted by Robinson from his list of localities for F. juncea 
in his Flora of the Galapagos Islands. 

3b. Froelichia juncea alata Howell, subspec. nov. 

Caulibus et rachibus subpubescentibus vel subtomentulosis; perianthio 4 mm. 
longo, lobis circa 2 mm. longis, tomentulosis ; tubo staminum 3 mm. longo; fructu 
tube perianthii alato, alis circa 1 mm. latis. 

Stems and rhachis somewhat hairy or subtomentulose; perianth 4 mm. long, 
the lobes about 2 mm. long, tomentulose; stamen-tube 3 mm. long; in fruit the 
perianth-tube developing wings about 1 mm. broad. 

Type: southeastern side of Indefatigable Island at 450 ft., Stewart 
No. 1363 (C. A. S. Herb. No. 203291). 



-cir 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 10, pp. 117-130, plates 5 and 6 December 21, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 10 

MARINE MOLLUSCA FROM ACAPULCO, MEXICO 
WITH NOTES ON OTHER SPECIES 



A. M. STRONG 
Los Angeles, California i 

G. D. HANNA ^"^^^ri c^e^ 

Curator, Department of Paleontology <:.J^^J^^^^^<::. 




AND 

L. G. HERTLEIN 
Assistant Curator, Department of Paleontology 

California A cademy of Sciences 

The following pages contain a list of the marine mollusca dredged 
in Acapulco Bay, Mexico, by the Templeton Crocker Expedition of 
the California Academy of Sciences in 1932.^ Several species of 
special interest secured by the Expedition at other places are in- 
cluded. A report upon the collection as a whole will require a 
considerable amount of additional time for completion because of 
the very large number of species and specimens obtained. 

This fine collection of shells, together with that made by the 
Hancock Expedition to the Galapagos Islands and the various 
expeditions of the Academy to west Mexican waters forms an 

1 For a general account of the Expedition see: Grunsky, C. E. The Templeton Crocker Expedition of 
the California Academy of Sciences, 1932. Foreword. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 4, vol. 2 1 , no. 1 , March 14 , 
1933, pp. 1-2. Introductory statement by Templeton Crocker, pp. 3-9, pi. 1. 

December 21, 1933 



118 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Sbr. 



excellent series for a study of the tropical American marine fauna. 
Many species secured by Mr. Crocker are new or little known to 
conchologists. The rare Xenophora robusta Verrill has heretofore 
been known only from the two original specimens and is one example 
of the nature of the collection as a whole. 

Much time is required for the research necessary to prepare a 
comprehensive report on all of the tropical American mollusca now 
available because of the lack of illustrations, poor descriptions and 
the many scattered references in the literature. 



List of Species from Acapulco, Mexico, Loc. 27,527 {C. A. S.) 



Area cf. aviculoides Reeve 
Area labiosa Sowerby 
Area nux Sowerby 
Area, (2 additional species) 
Callocardia citharia Dall 
Chione compta Broderip 
Chione kellettii Hinds 
Corbula ovulata Sowerby 
Cyclinella subquadrata Hanley 
Cardium (Laevicardium) cumingii 

Sowerby 
Cardium (Fragum) graniferum Broderip 

& Sowerby 
Cardium (Fragum) obovale Broderip 
Crassatellites gibbosus Sowerby 
Glycymeris tessellata Sowerby 
Macoma panamensis Dall 
Macrocallista squalida Sowerby 
Mactra goniocyma Pilsbry & Lowe 
Modiolus pallidus Dall 
Nuculana acapulcensis Pilsbry & Lowe 
Nuculana costellata Sowerby 
Nuculana gibbosa Sowerby 
Nuculana (Adrana) sowerbyana 

d'Orbigny 
Nuculana sp. 

Ostrea conchaphila Carpenter 
Pecten circularis Sowerby 
Pecten sericeus Hinds 
Pecten tumbezensis d'Orbigny 
Pitar callicomata Dall 
Pitar lenis Pilsbry & Lowe 
Semele incongrua Carpenter 
Tagelus violescens Carpenter 
Tellina (Eurytellina) panamaensis Li* 
Tellina pristiphora Dall 
Tellina rubescens Hanley 



Dentalium oerstedii Morch 

Architectonica granulata Lamarck 

Bursa albifasciata Sowerby 

Calliostoma bonita Strong, Hanna & 
Hertlein, new species 

Calliostoma leanus C. B. Adams 

Calliostoma rema Strong, Hanna & 
Hertlein, new species 

Cancellaria bullata Sowerby 

Cancellaria indentata Sowerby 

Cancellaria ventricosa Hinds 

Cantharus pallidus Broderip & Sowerby 

Cantharus vibex Broderip 

Cerithium stercus-muscarum Valen- 
ciennes 

Clathrodrilla nautica Pilsbry & Lowe 

Clathurella adria Dall 

Clava gemmata Hinds 

Clavatula (Knefastia) tuberculifera 
Broderip & Sowerby 

Clavus (Clathrodrillia) alcestis Dall 

Clavus (Clathrodrillia) alcestis Dall var. 

Clavus (Clathrodrillia) callianira Dall 

Clavus (Clathrodrillia) heUplexa Dall 

Clavus (Cymatosyrinx) ianthe Dall 

Clavus (Brachytoma) nigerrimus 
Sowerby 

Clavus (Cymatosyrinx) pallida Sowerby 

Clavus (Cymatosyrinx) pudica Hinds 

Clavus (Cymatosyrinx) rosea Sowerby 

Clavus (Cj^matosyrinx) rugifera 
Sowerby 

Crepidula nummaria Gould 

Crepidula cf . onyx Sowerby 

Conus archon Broderip 

Conus comptus Gould 

Conus emarginatus Reeve 



2 Tellina panamaensis Li, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 9, no. 3, 1930, p. 262, pi. 5, fig. 32. "Gatun forma- 
tion." Miocene. [Recent, according to Pilsbry, 1931.) 

Tellina {Eurytellina) panamaensis Li, Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. vol. 83, 1931, p. 436, pi. 41, figs. 4, 5, 
6. "Panama Bay, about 1 mile from mainland, off mouth of the Rio Grande, 10-40 ft." Also from Quar- 
antine Island, Panama. 



Vol. XXI] STRONG, HANNA &• HERTLEIN— MARINE MOLLUSCA FROM ACAPULCO 119 



Conus xi mines Gray 

Conus sp. 

Coralliophila hindsii Carpenter 

Cosmioconcha palmeri Dall 

Crassispira erebus Pilsbry & Lowe 

Crucibulum imbricatum Sowerby 

Crucibulum spinosum Sowerby 

Distortio decussata Valenciennes 

Enaeta barnesii Gray 

Eu pleura muriciformis Broderip 

Fusinus dupetit-thouarsii Kiener 

Harpa crenata Swainson 

Latirus sp. 

Hindsia acapulcana Pilsbry & Lowe 

Lioglyphostoma acapulcanum Pilsbry 

& Lowe 
Malea ringens Swainson 
Metula amosi Vanatta 
Mitra attenuata Reeve 
Mitra zaca Strong, Hanna & Hertlein, 

n. sp. 
Mitra sp. 

Murex rectirostris Sowerby 
Nassarius gemmulosus C. B. Adams 
Nassarius miser Dall 
Nassarius pagodus Reeve 
Nassarius versicolor C. B. Adams 



Natica broderipiana Recluz 

Oliva spicata Balten 

Phylloiiotus bicolor Valenciennes 

Polinices uber Valenciennes 

Phos gaudens Hinds 

Phos veraguensis Hinds 

Recluzia insignis Pilsbry & Lowe 

Strombina edentula Dall 

Strombina dorsata Sowerby 

Strombina gibberula Sowerby 

Strombina recurva Sowerby 

Terebra armillata Hinds 

Terebra aspera Hinds 

Terebra ligyrus Pilsbry & Lowe 

Terebra lingualis Hinds 

Terebra panamensis Dall 

Terebra paphia Bartsch 

Terebra varicosa Hinds 

Terebra sp. 

Turricula maura Sowerby 

Turricula (Pleurofusia) militaris Hinds 

Turricula sowerbyi Reeve 

Turris oxytropis Sowerby 

Turris picta Reeve 

Turris sp. 

Turritella mariana Dall 

Turritella nodulosa King 



Cancellaria bullata Sowerby 

Plate 5, figure 7 

Cancellaria bullata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 51. "Hab. ad 
littora Americae Meridionalis et Centralis. (Payta and Gulf of Nocoiya.)" 
— Sowerby, Conch. lUustr. Cancellaria, Dec. 7, 1832, p. 6, pi. 12, fig. 35. 
"Dredged in mud at a depth of twelve fathoms, at Payta, and in the Gulf 
of Nocoiyo. Mr. Cuming." — Reeve, Conch. Icon. vol. 10, 1856, 
Cancellaria, sp. 5, pi. 2, figs. 5a, 5b. Earlier record from Gulf of Nicoya 
cited. — Sowerby, Thes. Conch, vol. 2, 1855, p. 457, pi. 94, fig. 56. 
"Found in the Gulf of Nocoya." — Tryon, Manual Conch, vol. 7, 1885, 
p. 78, pi. 5, fig. 78. 

This species was dredged off Acapulco, Mexico. Tryon^ united it 
with Cancellaria tuberculosa Sowerby^ but Reeve's^ figure of that 
species shows a heavier, lighter colored shell with stronger sculpture. 
Both species are characterized by the very wide, open umbilicus. 



3 Manual Conch, vol. 7, 1885, p. 78, pi. 5, figs. 76, 77 (C. tuberculosa), fig. 78 (C. bullata). "Iquiqui, Peru, 
7 fms. (Cuming); Gulf of Nicoya, Central America, 12 fms. (Cuming)." 

* Cancellaria tuberculosa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 51. "Hab. ad littora Americae 
Meridionalis. (Iquiqui)." — Sowerby. Conch. Illustr., CanceWario, December 7, 1832, p. 6, pi. 13, fig. 36. 
"Dredged in sandy mud, at a depth of seven fathoms, at Iquiqui. Mr. Cuming." 

Cancellaria tuberculata Sowerby, Thes. Conch, vol. 2, 1855, p. 457, pi. 94, fig. 52. "From Iquiqui, in 
sandy mud, six to twelve fathoms water." 

6 Conch. Icon. vol. 10, 1856, Cancellaria, sp. 36, pi. 8, figs. 36a, 36b. Iquique, Peru. Dredged in seven 
fathoms; Cuming. 



120 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Centrifuga leeana Dall 

Plate 5, figure 11 

Murex (chicoreus) leeanus Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. 12, 1889, p. 329, pi. 7, 
fig. 1. "Off Cerros Island, Lower California, in 44 fathoms, mud." — 
Arnold, Mem. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 243, pi. 7, fig. 1. Pleisto- 
cene at San Pedro, Calif. 

Purpura (Centrifuga) leeana (Dall), Grant & Gale, Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. 
Hist. vol. 1, 1931, p. 707. Arnold's record from the Pleistocene cited; 
living from Guadalupe Island to Cedros Island, Lower California. 

Five young specimens were dredged near Cedros Island, off Lower 
California. This species seems to be closer to Trophon than to 
either Murex or Purpura; therefore we have considered Centrifuga 
as a separate genus in the present paper. The species, C. leeana, 
seems to be very restricted in its range. The type was dredged in 44 
fathoms oR Cedros Island, and most of the few specimens in Cali- 
fornia collections are from Scammon Lagoon and San Ignacio 
Lagoon, presumably collected by Captain Porter. 



Mitra zaca Strong, Hanna & Hertlein, new species 
Plate 5, figure 10 

Shell fusiform, heavy, very large, covered with a thin, blackish 
epidermis; whorls with a narrow, rounded shoulder occupying about 
one eighth of the width between the sutures, below which they are 
very slightly convex; surface smooth except for a few faint spiral 
threads on the shoulder and about 15 slightly stronger threads on 
the base; aperture long and narrow, about half the length of the 
shell, white within; outer lip not thickened; inner lip with a broad, 
slightly tinted callus covering the body of the shell; columella with 
three strong plaits and a smaller spiral ridge at the base; canal short, 
slightly recurved, forming a distinct fasciole. The type has nine 
whorls without the nucleus and measures: length, 130; maximum 
diameter, 34 mm. 

Holotype: No. 6061 (C. A. S. type coll.) from Loc. 27594 (C. A. S.) 
dredged in Santa Maria Bay, Lower California. Templeton Crocker, 
collector, August 11, 1932. Additional specimens were secured in 
the same place. 

This species probably reaches the largest size of any Mitra known 
from the west coast. In shape and color it is quite similiar to the 
well-known Mitra {Strigatella) idae Melvill from the California coast 
but it is much larger, the epidermis is much thinner and it entirely 
lacks the finely pitted spiral lines characteristic of that species. The 
unfigured Mitra (Strigatella) mexicana DalP dredged ofiE Guaymas 
is also similar but the type is only 72 mm. in length and is said to 

6 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 56, 1919, p. 309. "OfP Guaymas, Mexico, in 71 fathoms, sand." 



Vol. XXI] STRONG. HANNA if HERTLEIN— MARINE MOLLUSCA FROM ACAPULCO 121 

have moderately rounded whorls, sculptured with feeble, flattened, 
spiral cords. The new species can be referred to the subgenus 
Strigatella and to the section Atrimitra. 

The species is named for Mr. Crocker's yacht, Zaca. 

Calliostoma bonita Strong, Hanna & Hertlein, new species 
Plate 5, figures 5, 6 

Shell conical, brilliantly polished and highly colored; body whorl 
with two sharp spiral keels, one on the periphery and the other at 
about one third the distance between the periphery and the suture, 
angulating the whorls of the spire; in addition to these spiral keels 
the entire surface is marked with smooth spiral threads, of which, 
on the body whorl, there are eight between the suture and the upper 
keel, three between the keels, and twelve on the base; ground color 
of the shell white, the spiral threads with irregularly spaced bright 
brown dots, much closer on the spire than on the base, although not 
arranged in any definite pattern; the wider spacing at irregular 
intervals gives the appearance of white axial flames; umbilical region 
excavated, purple, bounded by a rounded carina, ending in a tooth- 
like projection at the base of the columella; aperture subquadrate, 
pearly within. The type has eight whorls and measures: height, 
21.5; maximum diameter, 22 mm. 

Holotype: No. 6044 (C. A. S. type coll.) from Loc. 27527 (C. A. S.), 
dredged in Acapulco Bay, Mexico. Twenty-one additional speci- 
mens were secured at the same place; Templeton Crocker, collector, 
April 4, 1932. 

This species is very similar in shape to Calliostoma palmeri DalF 
from the Gulf of California, which also has the excavated, purple 
umbilical region. The present species is more highly colored, with a 
different number of spiral threads, which are smooth instead of 
granular. 

Calliostoma rema Strong, Hanna & Hertlein, new species 

Plate 5, figures 3, 4 

Shell depressed, polished but with the colors rather dull; body 
whorl with two broad, spiral keels, one on the periphery and the 
other at about one third the distance between the periphery and the 
suture, angulating the whorls of the spire; in addition to the keels the 
entire surface is marked with granular spiral threads, of which on the 
body whorl there are three between the suture and the upper keel, 
one between the keels, and eight on the base, with, on the spire, faint 
indications of very fine intercalary threads ; ground color of the shell 
pale brown, with the spiral threads dotted here and there with 

' Dall, Amer. Jour. Conch., vol. 7, pt. 2, November 2, 1871, p. 125, pi. 15, fig. IS. "Guaymas, ten speci- 
mens. Dr. Palmer." 



122 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

darker spots, most noticeable on the base; the surface also painted 
with broad, indistinct, whitish patches and axial lines; umbilicus 
open, bordered by a rounded carina, the end of which forms a tooth- 
like projection at the base of the columella; columella curved, white, 
in the adult somewhat reflected over the umbilicus; aperture sub- 
quadrate, pearly. The type has 4H whorls and measures: height, 
11 mm.; maximum diameter, 16.6 mm. 

Holotype: No. 6045 and paratype no. 6046 (C. A. S. type coll.) 
from Loc. 23779 (C. A. S.), dredged in from 10 to 25 fms. off the 
penal settlement on Maria Madre Island of the Tres Marias Group, 
Mexico by G. D. Hanna and E. K. Jordan in 1925. Several addi- 
tional specimens, mostly young, were secured at the same place and a 
single specimen was dredged by the Crocker Expedition at Loc. 
27527 (C. A. S.) in Acapulco Bay, Mexico. 

This species is quite different from all the known west coast forms 
in the depressed shape and in the umbilicus, which in the young 
shells is entirely open and in the adult only partly covered by the 
reflected columella. 

Metula amosi Vanatta 

Plate 5, figure 12 

Metula amosi Vanatta, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 65, January, 1913, 
p. 22, figs. 1, 2. "Panama." 

Specimens dredged in Acapulco Bay agree in all the details shown 
in the figures given by Vanatta of the type of Metula amosi. Metula 
clathrata Adams & Reeve^ has been reported from Western Panama 
by Tomlin, but Tryon has given Cape of Good Hope, South Africa as 
the locality for the species. The name Metula hindsii H. & A. 
Adams^ has been definitely stated by Tryon'" to represent the same 
species as Buccinum metula Hinds," from western Panama. From 
the facts at hand, we see no reason for abandoning the name given 
by Hinds to the Panamanian species which would then be Metula 
metula (Hinds). A species doubtfully referred to the genus is 
"Fusus'' hellus C. B. Adams.'^ Carpenter'^ considered that this 
species might belong to Metula but Tryon stated that he was in- 
clined to think that it should be placed in Columbella, Woodring'* 
has given a discussion of the genus Metula and the problems con- 
nected with the selection of the type species. 

> Buccinum clalhralus Adams & Reeve, Voy. Samarang, Moll. 1850, p. 32, pi. 11, fig. 12. — Tryon, 
Manual Conch, vol. 3, 1881, p. 152, pi. 72, fig. 238. "Cape of Good Hope: 136 fathoms." 

' Melula hindsii H. & A. Adams, Genera Rec. Moll. vol. 1, 1858, p. 84. — Tryon, Manual Conch, vol. 3 
1881, p. 153, pi. 72, fig. 240. " West Coast of Veragua; in mud, at a few fathoms' depth." 

10 Manual Conch, vol. 3, 1881, p. 251. "Hindsii {Metula), H. & A. Adams' Genera, 1, Si.=Buc. metula, 
Hinds." 

» Buccinum metula Hinds, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, no. 7, (Moll. pt. 2), October 1844 [Date given on cover), 
p. 31, pi. 16, figs. 13, 14. "Inhab.west coast of Veragua. Obtained at a depth of a few fathoms, among mud." 

'2 Fusus bellus C. B. Adams, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 5, 1852, p. 353, 531. "Panama." 
— Tryon, Manual Conch, vol. 3, 1881, p. 153 (as Metula bella). 

" Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 9. Reprint in Smithsonian Miscell. Cell. no. 252, 1872, p. 183. 

" Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. no. 385, 1928, pp. 285-287. 



Vol. XXI] STRONG. HANNA bf HERTLEIN— MARINE MOLLUSCA FROM ACAPULCO 123 

Turritella mariana Dall 

Plate 6, figures 1-4 

Turritella mariana Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. vol. 43, no. 6, October, 1908, 
p. 327, pi. 11, fig. 14. "Near the Tres Marias Islands, in 80 fathoms, rocky 
bottom, temperature 51.2° F." 

Many specimens of this interesting species were dredged at the 
following localities; Loc. 27527 (C. A. S.), Acapulco Bay, Mexico; 
Loc. 27571 (C. A. S.), 20-45 fathoms in Lat. 16° 39' N, Long. 
99° 24' 30" W., to Lat. 16° 38' N., Long. 99° 27' 30" W.; Loc. 
27573 (C. A. S.), Lat. 18° 14' N., Long. 103° 23' W., in 60 fathoms; 
Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.) Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 109° 36' to 
109° 31' W., in 20-220 fathoms. 

The original specimen was only 25 mm. in length; large series of 
adults from the localities listed above show the pronounced tendency 
of the shell to develop two large spiral ridges on each whorl. These 
are sometimes noded and sometimes not on the later whorls. A 
selection has been made for illustration to show some of the variation 
in sculpture and shape. 

It is obvious from a study of this excellent series that the form 
described as Turritella imperialis from the Pliocene beds at Coyote 
Mountain, Imperial County, Calif ornia^^ is exceedingly close and 
may fall into synonymy. The similarity between the Pliocene and 
living forms is far greater than between the Pliocene and lower 
Miocene species. 

Woodring's^^ recent attempt to place the Imperial formation in the 
lower Miocene because of this last mentioned relationship might not 
have been made had it been recognized how closely the fossils are 
related to the living fauna of the Gulf of California and the waters 
to the southward. 

Mansfield^^ has shown the great similarity which exists between 
some of the fossils of the Imperial formation and those of certain 
Pliocene deposits of southern Florida. In view of the fact that the 
most trustworthy evidence furnished by paleontology indicates a 
comparatively late epoch of deposition in the region of Coyote 
Mountain, something far more convincing than has thus far been 
disclosed will need to be brought forward before a lower Miocene 
age can be accepted. 



" Hanna, G. D. Paleontology of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California. Proc. Calif. Acad^ 
Sci. ser. 4, vol. 14, no. 18, Mar. 23, 1926, pp. 427-503, pis. 20-29. 

16 Woodring, W. P. Distribution and age of the marine Tertiary deposits of the Colorado Desert. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash. Publ. no. 418, (Cont. to Palaeo. I) Jan. 1931, pp. 1-25. 

1' Mansfield, W. C. Pliocene fossils from limestone in southern Florida. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 
170-D, 1932, pp. 43-56, p!s. 14-18. 



124 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Turritella radula Kiener 

Plate 6, figures 7, 8 

Turritella radula Kiener, Spec. General et Icon. Coq. Viv., Turritella, p. 13, 1873, 
pi. 2, fig. 1 (two figures). [No locality cited.! — Reeve, Conch. Icon, 
vol. 5, Turritella, sp. 30, pi. 7, fig. 30. "Hah. Isle of Muerte, Bay of 
Guayaquil (found at the depth of eleven fathoms in sandy mud); Cum- 
ing."— Tryon, Manual Conch, vol. 8, 1886, p. 201, pi. 63, fig. 77. "Bay 
of Guayaquil." — Tomlin, Jour. Conch, vol. 18, no. 6, December, 1927, p. 
168. "Jicaron I. and Isla del Rey, on shore; Coiba, dredged in 10-12 f.; 
Gargona, very common in 15 f.; James I." 

Excellent specimens were dredged at Loc. 27573 (C. A. S.), Lat. 
18° 14' N., Long. 103° 23' W., off Acapulco, Mexico, 60 fms. The 
species is characterized by a strong, noded spiral ridge at the base of 
the whorl. The suture in the specimens available is not as deeply- 
impressed as is shown in Reeve's figure but otherwise agreement 
seems sufficiently close to justify the identification. 



Xenophora robusta Verrill 

Plate 5, figures 8, 9; plate 6, figures 5, 6 

Xenophora robusta Verrill, Amer. Jour. Sci. & Arts, ser. 2, vol. 49, no. 146, March, 
1870, p. 226. "Near La Paz, J. Pedersen. Two fresh specimens." 

Five living specimens were dredged by Mr. Crocker in Lat. 23° 
02' N., Long. 109° 32' W., in 25 fathoms; and one living and two 
dead specimens from Lat. 15° 40' N., Long. 93° 49' W., 28 fathoms. 
The species, previously unfigured, has been heretofore known only 
from the description and the two original specimens. It is the only 
living representative from the eastern Pacific and must be very 
locally distributed as well as rare. Four fossil species have been 
reported from the Tertiary of western North America.^^ 

The type of the species is No. 8882, Peabody Museum, Yale 
University and the label bears the following information: "La Paz, 
Lower Calif. Coll. James Pedersen, 1885." The date is an obvious 
error. We have been permitted to study and photograph the speci- 

"« Xenophora hawleyi Loel & Corey, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geo!. Sci. vol. 22, no. 3, 1932, p. 269, 
pi. 63, fig. 1 2. "From the green conglomerate near the base of the Vaqueros horizon, about 2.5 miles south- 
west of Buelton, western Santa Ynez Mountains, Santa Barbara County, Calif." Vaqueros, lower Miocene. 

Xenophora simiensis Nelson, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. vol. 15, no. 11, 1925, p. 422, pi. 55, 
figs. 7 a-c. From Loc. 422 (Calif. Acad. Sci.) "three miles west of Santa Susana; near base of Martinez, just 
north of contact." Maitinez, lower Eocene. 

Xenophora stocki Dickerson. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. vol. 9, no. 17, 1916, p. 502, pi. 37, figs. 
4 a-b. Loc. 2226 (Univ. Calif.), Tejon group, Rose Canyon, San Diego County, Calif. — Hanna, M. A., 
Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. vol. 16, no. 8, 1927, p. 306. La Jolla formation, San Diego County 
Calif. B. L. Clark is cited as authority that the species occurs in the Domengine foi-mation in Simi Valley 
and near Coalinga, Calif. Upper or middle Eocene. 

Xenophora zitleli Weaver, Univ. Calif. Publ. Dept. Geol. vol. 4, no. 5, 1905, p. 118, pi. 12, fig. 8. "Found 
southwest of Martinez on the west side of the Del Hambre Canon road. This species occurs only in the 
lower beds of the Martinez group."— Dickerson, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. vol. 8, no. 6, 1914, pp. 
111,151. "Martinez north of Mount Diablo." "Type locality, Benicia, Selby." "Solen slanloni zone." 
"Merelrix dnlli zone." 



Vol. XXI] STRONG, HANNA &• HERTLEIN— MARINE MOLLVSCA FROM ACAPULCO 125 

men through the kindness of Dr. Stanley C. Ball, Curator, Depart- 
ment of Zoology of the Peabody Museum. The specimen is a fresh 
but dead shell, with the apertural margin somewhat broken but 
with the basal characters well preserved. Diam., 56 mm., alt., 
45 mm. Most of the erratics have been dislodged but there remain 
several pebbles, mostly encrusted with corallines, and a few frag- 
ments of Glycymeris and Chione. The sides of the spire are slightly 
dome shaped at the apex and approximately six whorls can be made 
out. The erratics were mostly attached in a row, close to the suture 
line but numerous grains of coarse quartz and shell sand were in- 
discriminately scattered over the outer surface. The shell has 
once been attached to a brown paper card with glue and fragments 
of these materials adhere to one side. 

The specimens dredged by Mr. Crocker are in excellent state of 
preservation and agree in all essential respects with the type. 
Pecten, Glycymeris and Area are the most abundant erratics. The 
operculum is brown, horny, pyriform in shape and with the nucleus 
completely worn away from the side on which it was situated. 



126 ' CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 5 

Fig. 1. Calliostoma palmeri Dall. Alt., 24.5 mm., diam., 28 mm. Plesiotype, 
no. 6043 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27665, San Felipe at the head of the Gulf of 
California; H. N. Lowe, coll. Specimen illustrated for comparison with Calliostoma 
bonita, n.sp. P. 121. 

Fig. 2. Calliostoma palmeri Dall. Basal view of specimen shown in fig. 1. 

Fig. 3. CoWioi/owa rewa Strong, Hanna & Hertlein, n. sp. Alt., 11 mm., diam., 

16.4 mm. Paratype, no. 6046 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 23779 (C. A. S.) along 
east shore of Maria Madre Island, Revillagigedo group, west coast of Mexico. 
Dredged in 5 to 10 fathoms by G. D. Hanna and E. K. Jordan. 1925. P. 121. 

Fig. 4. Calliostoma rema Strong, Hanna & Hertlein, n. sp. Alt., 8.9 mm., diam., 

12.5 mm. Holotype, no. 6045 (C. A. S. type coll.), from same locality as fig. 3. 
P. 121. 

Fig. 5. Calliostoma bonita Strong, Hanna & Hertlein, n. sp. Alt., 21.1 mm., 
diam. 21.6 mm. Holotype, no. 6044 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27527 (C. A. S.), 
Acapulco Bay, Mexico. Dredged by Templeton Crocker, 1932. P. 121. 

Fig. 6. Calliostoma bonita Strong, Hanna & Hertlein, n. sp. Basal view of speci- 
men shown in fig. 5. P. 121. 

Fig. 7. Cancellaria bullata Sowerby. Alt., 32.8 mm., diam., 26 mm. Plesiotype, 
no. 6057 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27596 (C. A. S.) in channel near Cedros 
Island, off Lower California, Templeton Crocker, Coll., Aug. 15, 1932. P. 119. 

Fig. 8. Xenophora robusta Verrill. Alt., 45 mm., diam., 56 mm. Holotype, no. 8882 
(Peabody Museum, Yale University), plasto-holotype, no. 6054 (C. A. S. type colL), 
from near La Paz, Lower California. P. 124. 

Fig. 9. Xenophora robusta Verrill. Basal view of specimen shown in figure 8. 
P. 124. 

Fig. 10. Mitra zaca Strong, Hanna & Hertlein, n. sp. Alt. 132.2 mm., diam., 
36 mm. Holotype, no. 6061 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27594 (C. A. S.) Santa 
Maria Bay, Lower California, below Cape San Lazaro. Templeton Crocker, coll., 
1932. P. 120. 

Fig. 11. Centrifuga leeana Dall. Alt., 34 mm., diam., (including spines), 
29 mm. Plesiotype, no. 6056 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27596 (C. A. S.) in 
channel near Cedros Island, off Lower California, Templeton Crocker, coll., Aug. 15, 
1932. P. 120. 

Fig. 12. Mettila amosi Vanatta. Alt., 24.2 mm., diam., 9.5 mm. Plesiotype, 
no. 6058 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27527 (C. A. S.), Acapulco Bay, Mexico. 
Dredged by Templeton Crocker, April, 1932. P. 122. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 10 [S:R0NG, HANNA & HERTLEIN ] Plate 5 




128 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4tii Ser. 



Plate 6 

Fig. 1. Turritella mariana Ball. Alt., 66.6 mm., diam., 13 mm. Plesiotype, no. 
6050 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27571 (C. A. S.), Lat. 16° 39' N. to 16° 38' 
N., Long. 99° 24' 30" W. to 99° 27' 30" W., in 20 to 45 fathoms. Templeton 
Crocker, coll., July 15, 1932. P. 123. 

Fig. 2. Turritella mariana Dall. Alt., 77.8 mm., diam., 12.8 mm. Plesiotype, 
no. 6051 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.) Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., 
Long. 109° 36' to 109° 31' W. in 20 to 220 fathoms. Templeton Crocker, coll., 
Aug. 4, 1932. P. 123. 

Fig. 3. Turritella mariana Dall. Alt., 68 mm., diam., 11 mm. Plesiotype, no. 

6052 (C. A. S. type coll.), from same locality as specimen shown in fig. 1. P. 123. 

Fig. 4. Turritella mariana Dall. Alt., 50.2 mm., diam., 12 mm. Plesiotype, no. 

6053 (C. A. S. type coll.), from the same locality as specimen shown in fig. 2. P. 123. 

Fig. 5. Xenophora robusta Verrill. Alt. approximately 59 mm., diam. approxi- 
mately 105 mm. Plesiotype, no. 6055 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27585 (C. A. S.), 
Lat. 23° 02' N., Long. 109° 32' W., in 25 fathoms, Templeton Crocker, coll., Aug. 5, 
1932. P. 124. 

Fig. 6. Xenophora robusta Verrill. Basal view of specimen shown in fig. 5. P. 
124. 

Fig. 7. Turritella radula Kiener. Alt., 64.1 mm., diam., 12.1 mm. Plesiotype, 
no. 6048 (C. A. S. type coll.), from Loc. 27573 (C. A. S.), Lat. 18° 14' N., Long. 
103° 45' W., in 60 fathoms, Templeton Crocker, coll., July, 1932. P. 124. 

Fig. 8. Turritella radula Kiener. Alt. 61.1 mm., diam., 10 mm. Plesiotype, 
no. 6049 (C. A. S. type coll.), from same locality as specimen shown in fig. 7. P. 124. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 10 [STRONG, HANNA & HERTLEIN] Plate 6 






jjjssswmswff^ 



,<!S JAN 9 1^ 

PROCEEDINGS \\ 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 11, pp. 131-138 December 21, 1933 




THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 11 

THE HIPPOBOSCIDAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 

(NOTES ON THE HIPPOBOSCIDAE. 8.) 
WITH AN APPENDIX ON THE TABANIDAE. 

BY 

JOSEPH C. BEQUAERT 

Department of Tropical Medicine 
Harvard University Medical School, Boston, Mass. 

The Templeton Crocker Expedition obtained three of the six 
species of Hippoboscidas known to occur in the Galapagos Islands. 
Since the status of some of the names applied to these flies is as yet 
open to discussion, while I have had the opportunity to study 
material from the Galapagos from several sources, a review of the 
entire fauna may be useful. Three genera are represented thus 
far, viz., Olfersia, Lynchia, and Microlynchia, the first by three, the 
second by two, and the third by one species.^ 

Olfersia Wiedemann 

{Feronia Leach; Pseudolfersia CoquiUett) 

The genus is reviewed in a paper now being printed in Psyche 
(1933, XL.) The three species known from the Galapagos may 
be separated as follows: 

» I am much indebted to Mr. J. L. Peters, Assistant Curator of Ornithology, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, for valuable information concerning several of the birds pientioned in this paper. 

December 21, 1933 



132 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

1. Posterior orbits (above eyes) much shorter than the greatest v>ridth of 

the inner orbits; occipital margins of posterior orbits and of post- 
vertex scarcely produced and separated by shallow curves. 
Second basal cell long, the second section of the fourth longitudinal 
vein at most one and one-third times the length of the first sec- 
tion of the fifth (the two sections usually of about the same 
length). Third longitudinal vein bare or at most with a few 
minute set£e on apical portion. Postvertex forming one, un- 
divided smooth plate from occiput to frontoclypeus. . O.fossulata Macquart. 
Posterior orbits about as long as the greatest width of the inner orbits; 
occipital margins of posterior orbits and of postvertex strongly 
produced behind and separated from one another by deep curved 
notches. Postvertex divided by a slight transverse depression into 
two areas 2. 

2. Occipital margin of postvertex somewhat more produced behind than 

the posterior orbits. Third longitudinal vein setulose through- 
out. Cross-vein closing second basal cell very oblique, the upper 

outer angle of the cell acute 0. spinifera (Leach). 

Occipital margins of postvertex and of posterior orbits about equally 
produced behind. Third longitudinal vein bare or at most with a 
few set£e toward apex. Cross-vein closing second basal cell 
nearly vertical, the upper outer angle of the cell almost square. 
O. erythropsis Bigot. 



Olfersia fossulata Macquart 

Olfersia fossulata Macquart, 1843, M6m. Soc. Sci. Lille, (1842), p. 434 (no sex; 
Brazil, no host); 1843, Dipt. Exot., II, pt. 3, p. 277; C. W. Johnson, 1924, 
Zoologica, New York, V. No. 8, p. 91 (Daphne Major Island, off Pelecanus 
fuscus occidentalis) ; Curran, 1932, Nyt Mag. Naturvidenskab., LXXI, p. 
366; J. Bequaert, 1933, Psyche, XL. 

Pseudolfersia fossulata Coquillett, 1901, Proc. Washington (D. C.) Ac. Sci., Ill, p. 
379 (Wenman Island, no host). 

I have not seen the specimens recorded by Johnson and by 
Coquillett from the Galapagos, but there is no reason to doubt the 
identifications. 

0. fossulata is a common species along the coasts of western South 
America, where it is sometimes found in large numbers on young 
birds, especially on the Guanay, the White Gannet, Belcher's Gull, 
and Pelicans. 

Olfersia spinifera (Leach) 

Feronia spinifera Leach, 1817, On the Genera and Species of Eproboscideous 
Insects, p. 11, PL XXVI, figs. 1-3 (no sex, no locality, no host). 

Olfersia spinifera C. W. Johnson, 1924, Zoologica, New York, V. No. 8, p. 91 
(Tower Island, off Fregata aquila); Curran, 1932, Nyt Mag. Naturviden- 
skab., LXXI, p. 366 (Floreana or Charles Island, off Man-o'-war bird); 
J. Bequaert, 1933, Psyche, XL. 

Darwin Bay, Tower Island, without host, one specimen (M. 
Willows Jr. Coll. — Templeton Crocker Expedition, Calif. Acad. 
Sci.) ; Tower Island, off Frigate Bird, Fregata minor ridgwayi 



Vol. XXI] BEQUAERT—HIPPOBOSCIDAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 133 

Mathews, April 15, 1930 (J. P. Chapin Coll.— Astor Galapagos Exp., 
Am. M. N. H.), and off Frigate Bird, two males, April 15, 1928 
(W. S. Brooks Coll. — Mus. Comp. Zool.) In addition, I have seen 
three females and one male, part of the material recorded by C. W. 
Johnson from Tower Island, and some of the specimens recorded by 
C. H, Curran from Post Office Bay, Floreana (Charles) Island. 

0. spinifera is a common and widespread parasite of Frigate or 
Man-o'-war birds (species of Fregata), in the Pacific and Atlantic 
oceans. I have seen also a few specimens taken off Pelicans and 
Cormorants. 

Two specimens, collected by Dr. J. P. Chapin, bear interesting 
parasitic mites of the genus Myialges (see G. F. Ferris, 1928, Ent. 
News, XXXIX, pp. 137-140, PL III). In one fly a female mite is 
fixed in the first longitudinal vein, on the upper side and close to the 
base of the left wing. In the other specimen, a female mite, sur- 
rounded by numerous stalked eggs, is attached to the left meso- 
pleuron immediately behind the articulation of the fore leg. 



Oifersia erythropsis Bigot 

Olfersia erythropsis Bigot, 1885, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (6) V, p. 239 (no sex, New 
Caledonia, no host); J. Bequaert, 1933, Psyche, XL. 

Pseudolfersia diomedea Coquillett, 1901, Proc. Washington (D. C.) Acad. Sci., 
Ill, p. 379 (no sex, Albemarle Island, off Albatross, Diomedea irrorata), 

Olfersia diomedece Curran, 1932, Nyt Mag. Naturvidenskab., LXXI, p. 366. 

Pseudolfersia spinifera Ferris and Cole, 1922, Parasitology, XIV, pt. 2, p. 196 (in 
part), figs. 13 and 14 A-C (drawings of male paratype of P. diomedece). 
Not of Leach. 

Indefatigable Island, without host, one specimen (M. Willows Jr. 
Coll. — Templeton Crocker Exp., Calif. Acad. Sci.); Hood Island, 
off Diomedea irrorata, one specimen (F. X. Williams. — Calif. Acad. 
Sci.). I have also studied the types of P. diomedece, from Albemarle 
Island, at the U. S. National Museum and in Professor G. F. Ferris' 
collection. 

0. erythropsis I have seen also from the Bahamas, Desecheo Island 
(near Porto Rico), Clarion Island (off the western coast of Mexico), 
Laysan Island, the Marquesas, the Tahiti Islands, and the Caroline 
Islands. The hosts known to me are the Albatross, Diomedea 
irrorata Salvin, the Red-tailed Tropic-bird, Phaeton rubricauda 
Boddaert, the White-bellied Booby, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert), 
the Small Noddy, Anous minutus Boie, the Wedge-tailed Shear- 
water, Puffinus cuneatus Salvin, and the Sooty Tern, Sterna fuscata 
Linnsus. 



134 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser . 

Lynchia Weyenbergh 

(Olfersia of Authors; Icosta Speiser; Ornithoponus Aldrich) 

The two species of the Galapagos are very readily separated as 
follows : 

1. Large species. Wing 7.5 to 8.5 mm. long. Posterior fourth to third of 
anal cell (Cu + lst An) bare on the upper side. Inner orbital 
bristles of frons very numerous. Postvertex without anterior 

pit-like depression L. nigra (Perty). 

Small species. Wing 5 to 5.5 mm. long. Anal cell (Cu + lst An) en- 
tirely covered with setulse on the upper side. Inner orbital 
bristles of frons moderately numerous. Postvertex anteriorly 
with a more or less pronounced pit-like depression . . .L. alhipennis (Say). 

Lynchia nigra (Perty) 

Hippohosca nigra Perty, 1833, Delectus Anim. Artie. Brasil., Ill, p. 190, PI. 

XXXVII, fig. 15 (no sex, no host, State of Piauhy, Brazil). 
Lynchia nigra J. Bequaert, 1933, Psyche, XL, pp. 70 and 79. 
Ornithomyia intertropica Walker, 1849, List Dipt. Brit. Mus., IV, p. 1144 (no sex, 

no host, Galapagos). 
Ornithoponus americanus C. W. Johnson, 1924, Zoologica, New York, V, No. 8, 

p. 91 (off Buteo galapagoensis; Seymour Bay, Indefatigable Island); 

Curran, 1932, Nyt Mag. Naturvidenskab., LXXI, p. 366 Santa Cruz, 

(Indefatigable Island). Not of Leach. 

Indefatigable Island, three females, off Buteo galapagoensis 
(Gould) (J. P. Chapin Coll.— Astor Exp., Am. M. N. H.). I have 
also seen two of the specimens, from Indefatigable, erroneously 
referred to 0. americanus by Johnson. I assume that the specimen 
recorded by Curran belongs to the same species, but I have not 
studied it. I have never yet seen true L. americana (Leach) from 
south of Mexico. 

L. nigra probably occurs over most of North and South America, 
since I have seen it also from Quebec, British Columbia, Colorado, 
Montana, New Mexico, Texas, Mexico, Republic of Honduras, 
Panama, Brazil, and Bolivia, as well as from the Hawaiian Islands. 
The hosts are various diurnal birds of prey. I have fully discussed 
this species in a recent paper (1933). 

Lynchia alhipennis (Sa^O 

Olfersia alhipennis Say, 1823, Jl. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, III, p. 101 (no sex, 
off Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias Linnaeus, no locality); Swenk, 1916, 
Jl. New York Ent. Soc, XXIV, p. 126. 

Ornithoponus interlropicus C. W. Johnson, 1924, Zoologica, New York, V, No. 8, 
p. 91 (off Butorides sundevalli Reichenow, Seymour Bay, Indefatigable 
Island); Curran, 1932, Nyt Mag. Naturvidenskab., LXXI, p. 366. Not 
of Walker. 

Narborough Island, seven specimens, off Ardea herodias cognata 
Bangs, May 28, 1932 (M. Willows Jr. Coll.— Templeton Crocker 



Vol. XXI] BEQUAERT—HIPPOBOSCIDAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 135 

Exp., Calif. Acad. Sci.); James Island, one specimen, without host, 
June 4, 1932 (M. Willows Jr. Coll.— Templeton Crocker Exp., Calif. 
Acad. Sci.); North Seymour Island, two specimens, without host, 
June 12, 1932 (M. Willows Jr. Coll.— Templeton Crocker Expedi- 
tion, Calif. Acad. Sci.). Tower Island, one specimen, off Yellow- 
crowned Night Heron, Nyctanassa violacea pauper (Sclater and 
Salvin), April 15, 1928 (W. S. Brooks Coll.— Mus. Comp. Zool.). I 
have also seen one of the specimens recorded by Johnson from 
Indefatigable as *'Ormthoponus intertropicus.'^ 

The Galapagos flies listed above agree in every respect with 
North American specimens of L. alhipennis. I have also seen the 
species from the Republic of Honduras. It is, moreover, an open 
question whether this species is really distinct from the Old World 
L. ardecB (Macquart), which I have seen from Sicily (the type 
locality), the Island of Rhodus, and the Belgian Congo. A most 
careful comparison of Old World specimens of ardecB and New World 
specimens of alhipennis, fails to disclose reliable differences. 

In America, L. alhipennis is a frequent parasite of wading birds, 
especially of Herons. 

Microlynchia Ad. Lutz, Neiva and da Costa Lima 

Microlynchia agrees with Pseudolynchia in most particulars, 
except the following. (1) The sides of the scutellum are rounded off, 
not produced into flattened, strongly ciliate, right angles. (2) The 
second longitudinal vein ends freely in the costa, while in Pseudo- 
lynchia its apical portion runs for a long stretch side by side with the 
costa, the two veins gradually coalescing. (3) Ocelli are usually 
more or less developed, one, two, or three being visible; but they 
may be entirely lacking, so that this character has not the value 
that was originally given it. 

Only one species was known with certainty in the genus, but I 
have seen a second one, as yet undescribed. 

Microlynchia pusilla (Speiser) 

Lynchia pusilla Speiser, 1902, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt., II, p. 157 (no sex, no 

host, Cuba); 1907, Ent. News, XVIII, p. 104. 
Microlynchia pusilla Ad. Lutz, Neiva and da Costa Lima, 1915, Mem. Inst. Osw. 

Cruz, VII, p. 185, PI. XXVII, fig. 6, and PI. XXVIII, fig. 6; Ad. Lutz, 

1928, Est. Zool. Paras. Venezolanas, p. 9; Ferris, 1930, Can. Ent., 

LXII, p. 66, figs. 3-4 ( ? cf ). 

Hood Island, one specimen, off Buteo galapagoensis (Gould), 
April 5, 1929 (W\ S. Brooks Coll. — Mus. Comp. Zool.) 

The specific characters of M. pusilla will be discussed elsewhere. 
Meanwhile it will be readily recognized from Ferris' excellent draw- 
ings. This parasite seems to be very widely distributed in the New 
World. I have seen it also from Arizona and Texas, and there are 



136 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

published records from Cuba, Venezuela, and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 
Minas Geraes, and Espirito Santo). In the United States it has 
been found on Domestic Pigeon, on Quail, Callipepla squamata 
pallida Brewster (in Arizona), and on Roadrunner, Geococcyx cali- 
fornianus (Lesson) (in Texas). In South America it is recorded 
more particularly from wild pigeons, Scardafella squammata (Lesson) 
(= squamosa Temminck), Columhigallina talpacoti (Temminck), and 
Leptotila ruf axilla (Richard and Bernard). 

Appendix: Tabanid^ 

So far as known, only one species of horse-fly occurs in the 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

Tabanus (Neotabanus) vittiger Thomson 

Tabanus vittiger C. G. Thomson, 1868, Svensk. Freg. Eugenies Resa, Vet. lakttag., 
II, Zool., Pt. 1, Insekter, Heft 12, p. 451 ( 9 ; Galapagos Islands); Hunter, 
1901, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, XXVII, p. 144; Kertesz, 1900, Cat. Taban., 
p. 77; 1908, Cat. Dipt., Ill, p. 292; Coquillett, 1901, Proc. Washington 
(D. C.) Acad. Sci., Ill, p. 373 (James Island, Indefatigable Island, 
Albemarle Island); Surcouf, 1921, Gen. Insect., Taban., p. 88; C. W. 
Johnson, 1924, Zoologica, New York, V, No. 8, p. 87 (Conway and Sey- 
mour bays. Indefatigable Island); Curran, 1932, Nyt Mag. Naturviden- 
skab., LXXI, p. 349 ( 9, Floreana or Charles Island). 

Five females from Chatham Island, April 18, 1932 (M. Willows 
Jr. Coll. — Templeton Crocker Expedition, Calif. Acad. Sci.) I 
have also seen some of the specimens recorded by C. W. Johnson in 
1924 from Indefatigable, and in 1932 by Curran from Floreana. 
The species seems to be found throughout the Archipelago. Since 
the known dates of capture fall in January, April, August, October 
and November, this fly is probably on the wing most of the year. 
The male is as yet undescribed. 

T. vittiger belongs to the group of trivittate species, of which T. 
tcsniola is a common North American representative. If one wishes 
to segregate these species in a subgenus, the name Neotabanus Ad. 
Lutz should be used for the group. Neotabanus was validly estab- 
lished in 1909 by Ad. Lutz (in a publication entitled "Institute 
Oswaldo Cruz em Manguinhos," Rio de Janeiro, p. 29), two years 
before the homonym Neotabanus Ricardo (1911, Records Indian 
Mus., IV, p. 363, for an Indian species, Neotabanus ceylonicus 
Ricardo, 1911). In 1927 (Konowia, VI, pt. 1, p. 50), Enderlein 
designated as type of Neotabanus Ad. Lutz, Tabanus triangulum 
Wiedemann, one of the species originally included. The subgeneric 
name Tceniotahanus Krober (1932, Rev. de Entomologia, S. Paulo, 
II, pt. 2, p. 201, without species) is a synonym of Neotabanus Ad. 
Lutz, 1909. 

In the group of trivittate Tabanus, T. vittiger may be recognized 
by the following combination of characters: Frons very wide, about 



Vol. XXI] BEQUAERT—HIPPOBOSCIDAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 137 

two and a half times as long as wide at vertex, with the inner orbits 
markedly converging below, where the frons is about three-fourths 
the width of the vertex; frontal callosity russet, broad and short, 
pyriform or square, narrowly separated from inner orbits, connected 
with a fine, barely raised median line which reaches to about midway 
the frons; no trace of ocelli or ocellar callosity; subcallus pruinose. 
Antenna and palpi shaped and colored almost exactly as in T. 
carneus Bellardi. Fore femora blackish brown, mid and hind 
femora pale ferruginous or yellowish brown with infuscate bases; 
fore tibiae blackish brown with yellowish white basal third; mid and 
hind tibiae pale ferruginous; tarsi all black. Abdominal pattern 
much as in T. modestus Wiedemann or T. lineola Fabricius. Wings 
uniformly subhyaline with a slight grayish tinge, not darker nor 
yellowish along the costa; stigma narrow, amber-yellow; upper 
branch of third longitudinal vein without appendix (in all six 
specimens seen). Length 14 to 15 mm. The eyes appear to be 
banded like those of T. carneus. 

T. mttiger is evidently a near ally of T. carneus Bellardi, of Mexico 
and Central America; but it differs in the much wider frons, quite 
conspicuously narrowed toward the subcallus. 



I 



PROCEEDINGS '' — 



^ JAN 9 10" t< 



OF THE V 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SClEN^^^t^'^^"^'^ 
Fourth Series 
Vol. XXI, No. 12, pp. 139-146 December 21, 1933 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 12 

THE DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA OF THE EXPEDITION 



BY 

E. P. VAN DUZEE 

Curator, Department of Entomology 

California Academy of Sciences 



No special effort was made to secure Galapagos Lepidoptera on 
the Templeton Crocker Expedition of 1932 as that order of insects 
had been systematically collected b}'- F. X. Williams while on the 
Academy Expedition of 1905-06, However a few interesting things 
were taken, including three still undetermined. The present paper 
records the Diurnal Lepidoptera of the expedition, numbering 42 
species. All were taken under Mr. Crocker's direction by his 
secretary, Mr. Maurice Willows, Jr. 

PAPILIONIDiB 

1. Papilio philenor Linnaeus 

One male of the typical form of this species was taken at Acapulco, 
Mexico, April 5, and one female was found on Clarion Island. 

2. Papilio photinus Doubleday 

Another Central America butterfly of which one individual was 
taken on Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 6. 

December 21, 1933 



140 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

3. Papilio thoas autocles Rothschild and Jordan 

Three specimens of the Central American form of thoas were taken 
on Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 6-7. 

4. Papilio epidaus Doubleday 

One of the most beautiful of the white papilios. Two fresh speci- 
mens were taken on the Costa Rica coast July 2. 



PlERID^ 

5. Ascia monuste Linnaeus 

This large white butterfly was taken at Mazatlan, Mexico, July 
28, at Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, July 21, and on Isabel 
Island, Mexico, July 27. The latter a dark female. 

6. Itaballia calydonia Boisduval 

Costa Rica, July 3. This is a Central American form of the 
South American demophila Linn. 

7. Catopsilia eubule Linnaeus 

Indefatigable Island, May 3-8; Chatham Island, April 7; Iguana 
Cove, Albemarle Island, May 21; Villamil, Albemarle Island, 
April 28. Apparently common on the Galapagos Islands as it is in 
North and South America. Here we call it the cloudless sulphur. 

8. Catopsilia stetira Cramer 

Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, July 27. The paler outer half 
of the wings will serve to distinguish this from the preceding. 

9. Catopsilia argante Fabricius 

Two examples of this large bright orange butterfly were taken 
with the preceding. 

10. Gonepteryx maerula Fabricius 

Banderas Bay, Mexico, July 22. A large orange yellow butterfly 
with a conspicuo.us black dot on the wings. 

11. Gonepteryx chlorinde Godart 

Two individuals of this large white butterfly with a square lemon- 
yellow spot on the forewing, were taken in Costa Rica, July 2, and 
one on Isabel Island, Mexico, July 27. 



Vol. XXI] VAN DUZEE— DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA OF THE EXPEDITION 141 

12. Terias westwoodi Boisduval 
Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 7, four specimens. 

13. Terias lydia Felder 
Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 6. 

Danaid.e 

14. Danais berenice Cramer 

Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 7. A common species in 
tropical America. 

15. Mechanitis lycidice Bates 
Coseguina Slope, Mexico, July 7-8. 

Satyrid.e 
16. Eupytcha hermes Fabricius 
Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 6. 

Heliconid.«3 

17. Heliconius petiverena Doubleday 

Acapulco, Mexico, April 5. The broad orange band on the fore- 
wing and narrow lemon-yellow one on hind wing will distinguish 
this insect. 

NYMPHALIDiE 

18. Colaenis delila Fabricius 

Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 7. A bright orange narrow- 
winged butterfly. 

19. Agraulis vanillae galapagensis Holland 

Albemarle Island, April 28. This is a small dark form of our com- 
mon vanillcB that well deserves subspecific distinction. It seems to 
be common on the islands. 

20. Euptoita claudia Cramer 

Costa Rica, July 1; Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, July 21; 
Isabel Island, Mexico, July 27. Common in the southern United 
States. 



142 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

21. Chlosyne, sp. 

Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, July 21, two examples. This 
insect in wing form and style of marking seems nearest to tellias as 
figured in Seitz, but it is a narrower winged form and both specimens 
lack the white spot behind the cell of the forewing, while one wants 
the red on the hind wing above. 

22. Melitaea theona Menetres 
Acapulco, Mexico, April 3, one damaged specimen. 

23. Microtia elva Bates 
Costa Rica, July 2, one female. 

24. Vanessa caryae Hubner 

San Martin Island, Lower California, August 19. This is our 
common western painted lady. 

25. Anartia jatrophae Linnaeus? 

One small pale specimen, probably not distinct, was taken at 
Acapulco, Mexico, April 28. 

26. Anartia venusta Fruhstorfer 

Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, July 27. In this specimen the 
red band on the hind wings consists of about seven intervenular 
spots. 

27. Eunica modesta Bates 

Isabel Island, Mexico, July 27. A small black butterfly with 
about five white subapical spots on forewings. 

28. Victorina steneles biplagiata Fruhstorfer 
Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, July 21. 

29. Megalura chiron Fabricius 

Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, July 27, three examples; Punta 
Arenas, Costa Rica (H. S. Swarth). 



Vol. XXI] VAN DUZEE— DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA OF THE EXPEDITION 143 

30. Megalura peleus Sulzer 
Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, July 21, one male. 

31. Chlorippe kallima Staudinger 
Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 7, one example. 

32. Zaretes ellops Menetres 

Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 7, one large female much 
resembling Seitz' figure of strigosa female. 

LlBYTHIDiB 

a. Libythea carinenta Cramer 
Banderas Bay, Mexico. July 22, one specimen. 

Erycinid^ 
34. Nymphidium mycone Hewiston 
Acapulco, Mexico, April 5, one female. 

Lyc^nid^ 

35. Leptotes parrhasioides Wallengren 

Indefatigable Island, June 8, five examples. These are smaller and 
darker than our marina which they much resemble. Williams gives 
an interesting account of this insect in Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
(Ser. 4) I, p. 300, 1911. 

36. Thecla melinus clarionensis Heid, n. subsp. 

At my request Mr. Graham H. Heid has studied this insect. Two 
specimens were taken by the Templeton Crocker Expedition. The 
types, however, are selected from a series taken by Mr. H. H. Keifer 
on the Academy expedition to the Revillagigedo Islands in 1925, as 
some of these are in more perfect condition, Mr. Heid's description 
follows. 

Thecla melinus clarionensis Heid. Subsp. new 
Resembles melinus Hbn. except in following particulars: 

Ground color of both wings dorsally black-brown; ground color of both wings 
ventrally light cinnamon-brown. 



144 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Secondaries dorsally with a large, orange-red submarginal spot in area 2, this 
spot being carried over into area 3 as a red suffusion, often forming a distinct spot. 

Secondaries ventrally with a row of spots in the discal area forming a transverse 
line, as in typical melinus Hbn. However, with the row of red spots along the basal 
edge of this line, always broad and distinct. The spot in area 6 never nearer to the 
base than the others, so the line is nearly straight from vein 4 to vein 8. Submarginal 
red spots in areas la, lb, 2 and 3; those in 2 and 3 large and confluent. The spot 
in area 2 extends basally to meet the transverse line, which it partially obscures. 

The general appearance of the insect is more brownish than in 
typical melinus, with the red marking greatly exaggerated and 
tending toward confluence. 

Holotype, male (No. 3749, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci.) Clarion Island, 
Mexico, April 30, 1925, collector, H. H. Keifer. Allotype, female 
(No. 3750, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci.) Clarion Island, April 29, 1925, 
H. H. Keifer, collector. Paratype 1 cf (author's collection) Clarion 
Island, April 30, 1925. Paratype 2 9 (author's collection) Clarion 
Island, April 29, 1925, H. H. Keifer, collector. Paratypes 3-9, all 
males, April 29 to May 1st, 1925, collector, H. H. Keifer. Paratypes 
10-11, females. Clarion Island, April 29-30, H. H. Keifer, collector. 
Paratype 12, female. Clarion Island, March 24, 1932, Templeton 
Crocker Expedition, M. Willows, Jr., collector. The characters 
mentioned in the description above are constant throughout the 
entire series. 



Hesperid^ 
37. Eudamus galapagensis Williams 

Post Office Bay, Charles Island, April 24; Black Beach Road, 
Charles Island, April 25; Chatham Island, April 15-18; Tower Island, 
June 15; Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, May 21; Summit Mt. 
Crocker, 2000 ft., Indefatigable Island, May 10, nineteen specimens 
in all. 

In his description of this insect (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 
I, p. 303, 1911) Williams reports this as common, especially on 
Chatham and Albemarle islands. 

38. Heteropia sp. near imalena Butler 

Albemarle Island, April 28, 1 pair. This species has the blue 
blush on the base of the forewings found in imalena but the white 
markings consist of but two quadrate white spots representing the 
transverse band, one other distad of the second, and three minute 
white points near the apex. The female is labeled Puerto Vallarta, 
Jalisco, Mexico, July 21. One of these labels undoubtedly is wrong, 
but there is no way now of deciding which until more material has 
been secured. 



Vol. XXI] VAN DUZEE— DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA OP THE EXPEDITION 145 

39. Thanaos persius Scudder 

Chatham Island, April 15, one rubbed example. It is possible that 
this label is also in error. The determination of this and the follow- 
ing two species is subject to some uncertainty until fuller series have 
been secured. 



40. Thanaos sp. near funeralis 
Clarion Island, March 22, three examples. 

41. Camptopleura theramenes Mabe 
Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 6, one example. 

42. Pellicia licisca Platz. 

Coseguina Slope, Nicaragua, July 6; Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco 
Mexico, July 21. 



,o 



12^ 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 13, pp. 147-172; 4 text figures March 27, 1934 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 13 ^ 



DIPTERA "^ 



^^Ci:-,l*?'7o ^f A !.„ ^A V ' 



BY 

C. H. CURRAN 

American Museum of Natural History, New York City 



The Diptera collected by the Crocker Expedition to the Galapagos 
form a noteworthy addition to our knowledge of the insects from 
this interesting group of islands and it has been a pleasure to prepare 
this report on the collection. In 1932 a report on the Diptera of the 
Wollebffik Expedition^ was published and a list of all species known 
from the Islands included. In this report the Tipulidse and Culicidae 
were omitted and references to three species were overlooked. In 
April, 1933, Mr. M. C. Van Duzee'* published a report on the Dolicho- 
pidae and Phoridas of the Crocker Expedition, but all of the specimens 
of these families were not included, and additional records are in- 
cluded in the present report, together with references to the original 
descriptions of species from the Galapagos. Owing to the fact that 
I have so recently presented a review of the Diptera from this region 
I have not repeated all of the records and the student will find it 
necessary to use my two reports together in order to obtain a com- 
plete survey of the known Dipterous fauna of the Galapagos Islands. 

' Cuiran, Nyt Mag. f. Naturvidens., Ixxi, pp. 347-366, 1932. 
'Van Duzee, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., xxi, pp. 65-74, 1933. 

March 27, 1934 



148 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

While the Crocker Expedition secured a large number of specimens 
a glance at the present report will acquaint the reader with the fact 
that additional material in the California Academy of Sciences, the 
collection made by Dr. F. X. Williams in 1905 and 1906, constitutes 
no little part of the material studied. Dr. Williams secured a number 
of species not obtained by the Crocker Expedition, including two of 
the species described as new. Most of the material is in good condi- 
tion and as a result I am able to correct some errors in my previous 
report. 

I must express my appreciation to Mr. E. P. Van Duzee for the 
privilege of examining the collections upon which this report is based, 
to Messrs. Marston Bates and H. G. Barber for bringing to my notice 
descriptions of species which had been overlooked, and to Miss 
Daphne Aubertin and Mr. Tams for their assistance in the identifi- 
cation of Oxyna oesia Walker. 

The types of the new species and all uniques are in the California 
Academy of Sciences. Paratypes and duplicate specimens, where 
available, are in the American Museum of Natural History. 



Family Tipulid^ 

I am indebted to Dr. C. P. Alexander for the identification of the 
specimens belonging to this family. 

1. Limonia (Geranomyia) tibialis (Loew) 

Aporosa tibialis Loew, Linn. Ent., v, p. 397, 185L 

Seven specimens of both sexes: Black Beach Road, Charles Island, 
April 25 and Mav 14, 1932, and Chatham Island, April 18, 1932 
(M. Willows Jr.). 

According to Dr. Alexander this species has a wide range in the 
Neotropical region. Evidently the specimens reported by Coquillett 
and Johnson belong to this species. 



Family CHiRONOMiDi« 
Two species belong to this family. 

2. Galapagomyia longipes Johnson 

Galapagomyia longipes Johnson, Zoologica, v, p. 86, 1924 (f). 

Female, Indefatigable Island, May 6, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 
This specimen is much smaller than any of the others I have seen. 



Vol. XXI) CURRAN—DIPTERA 149 

3. Chironomus sp. 

A single male specimen in poor condition, Chatham Island, April 
17, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

A species of Chironomus has been recorded from the Island but 
no material in sufficiently good condition to be named has been 
secured. 



Family Culicid^ 

Only one species is represented in the collection and this has been 
identified by Dr. Stanley Freeborn. 

4. Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) 
Culex tcEniorhynchus Wiedemann, Dipt. Exot., p. 43, 1821. 

Nine females, Chatham Island, April 17, 1932; five females, 
Charles Island, April 23, 25, 1932; one female, Indefatigable Island, 
May 5, 1932; one female, James Island, June 4, 1932, and one female, 
Jervis Island, June 6, 1932 (M, Willows Jr.). Also two females, 
Charles Island, October 3, 1905 (F. X. Williams). 

In addition to the specimens enumerated above the Academy has 
additional material from Indefatigable, Charles and Chatham islands 
which was not forwarded. 



Family Ceratopogonid^ 
One species has been described from the Islands. 

5. Dasyhelea galapagensis (Coquillett) 

Ceratopogon galapagensis Coquillett, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 372, 1901. 

Nine males and three females, Gardner Island, April 22, 1932; 
one male. Indefatigable Island, May 7, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

Family Sciarid^ 

This family is represented by four females of a very small species 
of Sciara. Since the identification of females in this genus is very 
difficult, and little is known about the Neotropical species I have 
made no effort to name the specimens. 

The specimens are from South Seymour Island, July 11, 1932 
(M. Willows Jr.). 



150 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

Family Stratiomyid^e 

Two species were taken on the Islands by F. X. Williams, one of 
them undescribed. 

6. Pelagomyia dubia Curran 
Pelagomyia dubia Curran, Nyt Mag. Naturvidens., Ixxi, p. 348, 1932. 

Two females, Chatham Island, February 8, 1906; female, Tagus 
Cove, Albemarle Island, March, 1906; female, Indefatigable Island, 
November, 1905; female, South Seymour Island, July 25, 1906; 
female. Hood Island, October 1905; male, James Island, July 28, 
1906; male, Charles Island, October, 1905, all collected by F. X. 
Williams. 

The female from Hood Island was reared from pupa in cactus 
and a male from James Island is labelled "cactus fly." 



7. Merosargus insularis Curran, new species 

Related to elatus Curran but differs in having the posterior femora 
and tibiae wholly reddish. Length, 7 mm. 

Male. — Head black, the front and vertex metallic green; front yellow anteriorly, 
darker immediately above the antennae; hair black, yellowish on the vertex, whitish 
on the occiput. Proboscis and palpi yellow. Antennae reddish, black haired; arista, 
black. 

Thorax metallic green, the upper border of the sternopleura and most of the 
pteropleura yellowish; humeri, posterior calli and upper edge of the mesopleura 
yellow. Hair yellow, rather tawny on the disc of the mesonotum, becoming whitish 
on the pectus. 

Legs reddish, the apical four segments of the posterior tarsi brownish and bearing 
black hair; middle and posterior femora and the upper surface of the posterior 
tibiae with very short black hair, the hair otherwise yellow. 

Wings cinereous hyaline. Squamae pale yellowish. Halteres reddish yellow. 

Abdomen black, the incisures broadly yellowish, the first segment green laterally, 
the hair black, yellow on the apices of the segments and on the sides. Venter wholly 
reddish yellow. Genitalia reddish, the cerci brown. 

Holotype, male, No. 3795, C. A. S. Ent., Cocos Island, September 
3, 1905 (F. X. Williams). 



Family Tabanid^ 

Representatives of the single species known from the Islands were 
secured by F. X. Williams. 



8. Tabanus vittiger Thomson 

Tabanus vittiger Thomson, Eugenics Resa, p. 451, 1868. 

Four females, Chatham Island, January 24, 1906, and October 12, 
1906; female, Charles Island, October 3, 1905; two females, Albe- 



Vol. XXI CURRAN—DIPTERA 151 

marie Island, March and April 24, 1906; four females. Indefatigable 
Island, November, 1905, and July 11, 1906. 

One of the specimens bears a label "feeding on turtles," 



Family Bombyliid^ 

One species was collected by the Crocker Expedition and another 
by Dr. F. X. Williams. 

9. Lepidanthrax tincta (Thomson) 
Anthrax tincta Thomson, Eugenies Resa, p. 483, 1868. 

Female, Bartholomew Island, June 14, 1932. 

The specimen is in fairly good condition and there can be no doubt 
that the species belongs to Lepidanthrax. It is possible that Anthrax 
hrachialis Thomson also belongs to this genus. 

10. Villa primitiva (Walker) 

Anthrax primitiva Walker, List. Dipt. Brit. Mus., ii, p. 257, 1849. 

Five specimens collected by F. X. Williams on Harrington Island, 
October 20, 1905. 

Family Empid^ 

11. Drapetis zonalis (Curran) 
Drapetis zonalis Curran, Nyt Mag. Naturvidens., Ixxi, p. 351, 1932. 

Female, Indefatigable Island, May 5, 1932. 

The female differs from the male in having the basal three seg- 
ments reddish yellow with brown lateral spots, the apical segments 
black. 

Family Dolichopid^ 

Most of the material belonging to this family has been examined 
and reported upon by Mr. M. C. Van Duzee (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
xxi, pp. 65-69, 1933). However, the collection contains two species, 
one of them new to the Islands-. A list of the species known from 
the Galapagos is given for the convenience of students. 

Condylostylus dentaticauda Van Duzee (1933). 
Anchineura tibialis Thomson (1868). 
Chrysotus brevicornis Van Duzee (1933). 
Chrysotus brevispina Van Duzee (1933). 
Chrysotus latifacies Van Duzee (1933). 



152 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sbr. 

Asyndetus versicolor Johnson (1924). 

Asyndetus interruptus (Loew) (1861). 

Aphrosylus setosus Curran (1932). 

Paracleius pusillus (Macquart ?) Coquillett (1901). 

12. Chrysotus brevispina Van Duzee 
Chrysotus brevispina Van Duzee, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. xxi, p. 68, 1933. 
One male, Chatham Island, April 18, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

13. Asyndetus interruptus (Loew) 

Diaphorus interruptus Loew, Wien. Ent. Monatschr., v, p. 37, 1861. 

One male, Abingdon Island, September 18, 1906 (F. X. Williams). 

Family Phorid^ 

One specimen was overlooked when the material was sent to Mr. 
M. C. Van Duzee. In his report on this family Mr. Van Duzee 
described Dohrniphora willowsi and crockeri. The specimen in the 
collection agrees perfectly with crockeri Van Duzee and it also agrees 
perfectly with specimens of venusta Coquillett taken on my office 
windows in New York City. The venation is identical and I do not 
think there can be any doubt about the synonymy. 

14. Dohrniphora venusta (Coquillett) 

Phora venusta Coquillett, Can. Ent., xxvii, p. 107, 1895. 

Phora divaricata Aldrich, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 437, 1896. 

Dohrniphora crockeri Van Duzee, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., xxi, p. 70, 1933. 

Female, South Seymour Island, July 11, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

This specimen was taken at the same time as the type of crockeri. 
The species varies in color, the mesonotum and abdomen varying 
from reddish brown to black. I have previously recorded the species 
from the Galapagos. 

Family Pipunculid^ 

15. Pipunculus galapagensis Curran, new species 

A small, black species with partly yellowish legs, yellow third 
antennal segment and cleft hypopygium. Length, 2.25 mm. 

Male. — Face, frontal triangle and posterior orbits silvery white pollinose; ver- 
tical triangle and vertex shining black, the occiput thinly pale pollinose; labellce 
and palpi yellowish. Eyes touching for a distance equal to half the length of the 
frontal triangle. Basal antennal segments brown, the third yellow, acutely pointed 
below. 



Vol. xxij curilan—diptera 153 

Thorax black, the humeri yellow in ground color. Mesonotum and scutellum 
thinly brownish pollinose, the pleura with cinereous pollen; scutellum with fine, 
dark hair. 

Legs black; tips of femora and broad bases of the tibiae yellow, the apices of the 
tibiae and the tarsi reddish, the tarsi becoming brown apically; posterior four tibiae 
silvery in front from basal view. 

Wings cinereous hyaline, without stigma; fourth vein without appendage. 
Squamae whitish. Halteres yellow. 

Abdomen greenish black, thinly brown pollinose, the first segments and sides 
of the apical ones with rather thin whitish pollen, the bristly hairs on the sides of 
the first segment whitish, the hair otherwise inconspicuous. Genitalia rather small 
from dorsal view, broadly cleft toward the right, half as long as the abdomen from 
ventral view. 

Female. — Front moderately wide, shining black on the upper half; anterior eye 
facets very large; sixth abdominal segment almost all whitish poUinose, the genitalia 
small, the piercer about as long as the basal section and reddish in color. 

Holotype, male, No. 3796, C. A. S. Ent., Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
Island, May 25, 1932; allotype, female, No. 3797, C. A. S. Ent., 
Gardner Island, near Hood Island, April 22, 1932. Paratypes: 
two males, Charles Island, April 24 and May 14, 1932, and male, 
James Island, June 4, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

This species is perhaps related to acuticornis Malloch, from 
Panama, but the absence of pale abdominal fasciae will distinguish it. 



Family Syrphid^ 

The Crocker Expedition obtained three species, all previously 
recorded from the Islands. One of these is undescribed while a 
second has been erroneously placed in Sphcerophoria. 

Key to Genera 

1 . Abdomen elongate and spatulate Baccha Fabricius. 

Abdomen not spatulate, never narrowed basally 2. 

2. Face wholly black Xanthandrus Verrall. 

Face partly yellow 3. 

3. Mesonotum with a median cinereous or metallic vitta; face strongly 

produced in the middle Mesogramma Loew. 

Mesonotum shining black, without m.edian vitta; face weakly tubercu- 
late below the middle, almost straight to the tip of the tubercle 
Allograpta Osten Sacken. 

16. Allograpta splendens (Thomson) 

Syrphus splendens Thomson, Eugenics Resa, p. 501, 1868. 

Sphcerophoria splendens Coquillett, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 374, 1901. 

Four females, Chatham Island, April 17, 18, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 
One female, James Island, July 3, 1906 (F. X. Williams). 

This species agrees with obliqua Say in having a continuous yellow 
band on the pleura, the hypopleura being crossed by a yellow spot. 



154 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc. 4th Ser. 

It differs greatly from ohliqua in the abdominal markings, the black 
vittae being absent, the pale fasciae arched and more or less tridentate 
behind on the fourth and following segments, as well as in having a 
black vittate face. 



17. Baccha clavata (Fabriciiis) 
Syrphus clavatus Fabricius, Ent. Sj'st., iv, p. 298, 1794. 

Female, Chatham Island, April 17, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). Male, 
Albemarle Island, April 24, 1906 (F. X. Williams). 

This species is common over the whole of tropical America and is 
easily recognized. 



18. Mesogramma crockeri Curran, new species 

Mesogramma duplicata Coquillett, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci,, iii, p. 374, 1901 (not 
Wiedemann). 

Related to duplicata Wiedemann but with the mesonotum wholly 
black pilose and the black abdominal fasciae in the female strongly 
produced forward laterally. Differs from producta Curran in having 
the face much less strongly produced and in the shape of the abdom- 
inal fasciae in the female. Length, 5 to 6 mm. 

Male. — Face and frontal triangle yellowish; vertical triangle very long, black, 
thinly brownish poUinose in front of the ocelli, the pile black. Vertex brown pol- 
linose, the occiput yellowish pollinose on the upper half, white poUinose and pilose 
on the lower half. Cheeks black. Face rather strongly produced. Antennae reddish 
yellow, the third segment somewhat darkened above; arista blackish. 

Mesonotum dark in ground color, reddish brown pollinose, the sides broadly 
yellow on their whole length; a median vitta and one at either side bordering the 
yellow bright bluish or steel-blue. Scutellum yellowish, sometimes a little darkened 
basally. Pleura bluish black, with large yellow spots on the mesopleura and sterno- 
pleura and a small one above the front coxae. Pile black on the dorsum, yellow on 
the pleura. 

Legs yellowish; apical segment of the middle tarsi and the posterior tarsi brown, 
the posterior tarsi sometimes paler on the intermediate segments. Black hair on 
under surface of posterior femora extending almost to the base. 

Wings cinereous hyaline. Squamae whitish. Halteres yellow. 

Basal abdominal segment bluish black with the sides yellow. Second segment 
black with a little more than the median third reddish yellow or yellow. Third 
segment reddish, with a little less than the apical third black, the black expanding 
laterally to occupy about half the length of the segment, vary narrowly interrupted 
in the middle and emitting a pair of slender black vittae which are rather triangu- 
larly expanded in front. Fourth segment with similar markings to those on the 
third, the fifth with an oval or roundish opaque black spot in the middle basally. 
Genitalia reddish with a large shining black spot on the right side. Pile black, yellow 
ventrally. The lateral margins are wholly pale or nearly so and the dark markings 
vary greatly, often being almost absent on the third and following segments. 



Vol. XXI] CURRAN—DIPTERA 15S 

Female. — Front black or steel blue, the sides rather narrowly yellow to above 
the middle, thinly brownish polUnose, in some lights the median black stripe appears 
yellowish pollinose; pile black. Occiput cinereous yellow poUinose. Pale fascia on 
second abdominal segment more than half as wide as the length of the segment, 
the black on the following segments much more strongly produced forward at the 
sides and reaching the basal fourth of the segment, apex of fifth segment more or 
less blackish, the sixth shining brown. 

Holotype, No. 3798, and allotype, No. 3799, C. A. S. Ent., Charles 
Island, April 25, 1932. Paratypes, six males and four females, 
Charles Island, April 25 and May 14, 17, 1932; two females, Chat- 
ham Island, April 17, 1932; two males and two females, Tagus Cove, 
Albemarle Island, May 25, 1932; two males, James Island, June 4, 
1932, and one male. Indefatigable Island, May 7, 1932, all collected 
by Mr. M. Willows Jr. Also two males, Albemarle Island, March, 
1906 (F. X. Williams). 

One of the specimens collected by Dr. Williams is very dark, the 
yellow fasciae are mostly separated from the lateral margins and the 
posterior femora are brown apically. 



19. Xanthandrus species 

A single female of a small, undescribed species belonging to this 
genus was collected by Dr. F. X. Williams on Abingdon Island, 
September 8, 1906. The head is missing so it must remain nameless 
until perfect specimens are available. It cannot be the same as the 
following species. 



20. Syrphus albomaculatus Smith 
Syrphus albomaculatus Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 84. 

Originally described from Charles Island. 

This species evidently does not belong to Syrphus but I am unable 
to place it from the brief description although it appears to belong 
to the genus Xanthandrus. The name is preoccupied by albomacu' 
latus Loew, which was attributed to Wiedemann, stated to be the 
same as pyrastri Linnaeus. Unfortunately, I was unaware of the 
description of this species until long after I had sent specimens of 
Paroxyna crockeri to the British Museum and for this reason I have 
no definite information as to the generic position. 



156 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc. 4th Ser. 

Family Platystomid^ 

The collection contains two species of Euxesta, one of them 
undescribed. 

Genus Euxesta Loew 
The following key separates the species recorded from the Islands. 

Table of Species 

1. Femora blackish 2. 

Femora reddish nitidiventris Loew. 

2. Costal border with two blackish spots notata Wiedemann. 

Costal border brown on the whole length galapagensis , n. sp. 

21. Euxesta nitidiventris Loew 
Euxesta nitidiventris Loew, Mon. N. Amer. Dipt., ii, p. 157, 1873. 

Female, Indefatigable Island, May 6, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

22. Euxesta galapagensis Curran, new species 

Blackish green, the parafacials and front reddish; wings broadly 
brown along the anterior border. Length about 3.5 mm. 

Front reddish, the vertex blackish green, the dark color extending more than 
one- third the distance along the orbits and also over the ocellar triangle; hair mod- 
erately abundant. Vertex and occiput rather thinly cinereous poUinose. Cheeks, 
face and clypeus cinereous white pollinose. Palpi opaque black. Antennae dull 
black, the third segment only a little longer than wide; arista black. Frontal lunule 
dull brown, a dark triangle lying between the antennae. 

Thorax blackish green, thinly pale pollinose, black haired. 

Legs black; front coxae mostly reddish; trochanters, knees, tips of the tibiae and 
the tarsi reddish, the anterior tarsi becoming brown apically. 

Wings cinereous hyaline, brown in front of the second vein and on the broad 
apex in front of the fourth vein. Anal cell moderately produced posteriorly. 

Abdomen blackish green, thinly pale pollinose. The apical abdominal segments 
are missing so it is impossible to determine the color of the apical segments and the 
sex of the specimen. 

Holotype No. 3800, C. A. S. Ent., Hood Island, October 1905 
(F. X. Williams). 

This species is so distinct from any described that I do not hesitate 
to describe it despite the condition of the abdomen. 



Vol. XXI] CURRAN— DIPT ERA 157 

Family Trypaneid^ 

23. Paroxyna crockeri Curran, new species 

Black, thickly pale pollinose, the head and legs mostly yellowish. 
Length, about 3 mm. 




Figure 1 



Male. — Head reddish yellow, the occiput blackish on the upper half; parafrontals, 
parafacials, cheeks and lower half of the occiput white pollinose, the upper half of 
the occiput with cinereous pollen; bristles of the front black, the upper pair of 
reclinate frontals white; bristles of occiput and cheeks white. Proboscis and palpi 
reddish. Antennae reddish yellow, the arista black. 

Mesonotum rather yellowish pollinose, with three brownish yellow vittae which 
coalesce on the posterior half; scutellum brownish yellow, with darker border. 
Pleura cinereous pollinose. Hair whitish, the bristles black. Scutellum with one 
pair of strong marginals and a very weak apical pair. 

Legs reddish, the posterior four coxae and all the femora black, the femora 
cinereous pollinose and with the apices broadly reddish; apical tarsal segment 
somewhat brownish. 

Wings brown with about twenty clear spots as shown in the figure, the color 
somewhat variable; third vein bare. Squamae and halteres yellowish. 

Abdomen cinereous polUnose, the dorsum with two rows of very large, brownish 
spots which may cover most of the dorsum and form almost entire, narrowly 
separated, vittae, or the spots may be more or less orbicular and separated. Hair 
yellow. Genitalia brown. 

Female. — Brown abdominal vittce usually narrower; ovipositor shining black. 

Holotype, male, No. 3801, and allotype, female, No. 3802, C. A. S., 
Ent., Indefatigable Island, June 8, 1932. 

In the male the third and fourth abdominal segments have rather 
weak marginals laterally, in the female these are stronger and 
extend across the fourth segment. 

Three specimens, Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, May 24, 25, 1932; 
eleven specimens, Charles Island, May 14, 1932; seven specimens, 
James Island, June 4, 1932; female. South Seymour Island, July 
11, 1932; four specimens, Jervis Island, June 6, 1932; four specimens, 
Duncan Island, June 7, 8, 1932; eleven specimens. Indefatigable 
Island, Conway Bay, June 8, Sullivan Bay, June 13, 1932, all col- 
lected by M. Willows Jr. 



158 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser 

24. Paroxyna ? aesia Walker 

Oxyna asia Walker, List. Dipt. Brit. Mus., iv, p. 1006, 1849. 

This species was described from the Galapagos and the type is in 
the British Museum (Natural History). It is in poor condition and 
Miss Daphne Aubertin, who compared specimens of crockeri with 
it, was unable to decide the genus to which it belongs, so its exact 




Figure 2 



position must remain in doubt until additional material is obtained. 
It seems probable that (zsia is a true Paroxyna and it is at once 
evident that it differs markedly from the species described as crockeri. 
I am indebted to Mr. Marston Bates for the reference to the species 
and to Miss Aubertin and Mr. Tarns for examining the type and 
furnishing a photograph of the wing. 



Family Borborid^ 

In my report on the Diptera of the Wollebask Expedition I re- 
ported Leptocera discalis Malloch from St. Charles Island. This is 
the only species of Borboridae recorded up to the present time, but 
the collection contains an undescribed species of Sph^rocera. 



25. Sphaerocera galapagensis Curran, new species 

Related to binotata Williston but with the femora extensively 
black. Length, 2.25 mm. 

Female. — Head black, thinly pale pollinose; hair and bristles absent. Antennas 
situated in oval depressions, transverse, reddish, the depressions with thinned 
margins below and laterally. Face receding, the clypeus large and on a level with 
the posterior edge of the antennal pits. Proboscis brownish red. Eye-facets rather 
large. 

Thorax black, thinly yellowish brown pollinose; mesonotum with tiny brownish 
setulae forming two acrostical rows, dorsocentral rows and a wide row above the 
wings. Disc of scutellum with tiny setulae and a small tubercle on either side. 



Vol. XXI] CURRAN—DIPTERA 159 

Pleura without hairs. Hypopleura produced and terminating in a mammiform 
process. 

Legs reddish; coxae, basal two-thirds of the anterior and basal half of the posterior 
four femora black; tibiae darkened toward the apex. Hair pale and very short. 

Wings cinereous hyaHne, the veins yellowish basally; fifth vein reaching the 
wing margin; anal vein short. Squamas yellowish. Halteres yellow. 

Abdomen black, thinly brown poUinose, the dorsum with two large, yellow, 
membranous areas, that on the second segment subrectangular, widest behind, the 
corners rounded, the spot lying between the second and third segments, fully as 
large as the preceding one but more oval and with sharp outer ends. Venter 
yellowish, with only the apical sternites black and chitinized. 

Holotype, female, No. 3803, C. A. S. Ent., Chatham Island, April 
15, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

5. galapagensis belongs to a group of neotropical species in which 
the antennae are horizontal and situated in well defined pits. The 
abdomen in most of the species is black with yellow, membranous 
markings above and the sternites quite small or partly missing. The 
yellow markings on the dorsum of the abdomen vary in size and 
shape in hiniaculata Williston and perhaps in all the species. 5. pal- 
lipes Malloch, from Panama, differs from the remaining species in 
the group in lacking the ^^ellow markings. 5. bimacidata is widely 
distributed in the American tropics. 



Family Chloropid.4; 

This famil}^ is represented in the Islands by four species. The 
genera are separable as follows. 

1. Posterior tibiae with a long, ventral terminal spine 2. 

Posterior tibiae without apical spine Oscinella Becker. 

2. Scutellum long and flattened; frontal bristles strong. . . .Prohippelates Malloch. 
Scutellum shorter and convex; frontals hair-like, very poorly developed 

Hippelates Loew. 



26. Prohippelates pallidus (Loew) 

Hippelates pallidus Loew, Berl. Ent. Zeit., ix, p. 184, 1865. 

Four males and twelve females, South Seymour Island, June 11, 
1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

There is some variation in the color of the tarsi. In some speci- 
mens the posterior tarsi are black below or clothed with black hair, 
while the anterior tarsi may be brown and the tip of the anterior 
tibiae also darkened. 



160 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 

Family Canaceid.^ 

Coquillett described a species belonging to this family, of which 
there are two described genera. Before me is a third genus repre- 
sented by a species from the Panama Canal Zone and one from 
Albemarle Island. The genera are separable as follows. 

Key to Genera 

1. Antennae fully as long as the short, slightly convex face (Europe) .... 

Dinomyia Becker. 

Antennae much shorter than the face 2. 

2. Face convex Canace Haliday. 

Face concave below the middle Procanace, new genus. 

Genus Procanace Curran, new genus 

Front wide, the ocellar triangle dull but extending practically to the anterior 
margin of the front; three or four pairs of strong, divergent frontals with quite 
weak ones between; frontal vitta with a strong bristle toward either side opposite 
the anterior ocellus; ocellars strong, divergent; postocellars weak, parallel or sHghtly 
divergent; outer verticals divergent; cheeks about one-third as wide as eye-height, 
with two or three strong upturned bristles; face convex above, concave at or below 
the middle, the oral margin slightly projecting; clypeus prominent. Acrostical 
bristles and hairs absent; four pairs of dorsocentrals and an irregular row of hairs 
immediately inside each row; two pairs of marginal scutellars; one or two sterno- 
pleurals, the mesopleura with a downwardly directed bristle below the middle. 
Wings normal. Ovipositor of female with the apical lamellae diverging and with 
short, erect bristles apically. Genotype, P. panamensis, new species. 

I have named panamensis the genotype because the species should 
be more easily secured than galapagensis, the coast near Panama 
City being more accessible than the Galapagos Islands. I found 
the species in tide pools in the lava formation east of Panama City 
during low tide. Unfortunately the rising tide made further collect- 
ing impossible at the time but additional material should be secured 
without difficulty. 



27. Procanace galapagensis Curran, new species 

Black; wings brownish; face and cheeks gray pollinose. Length, 
3 mm. 

Female. — Front almost half as wide as the head anteriorly, greatly widening 
posteriorly; three pairs of strong, divergent frontals and weak ones between them; 
postocellars parallel; front and occiput dull blackish. Occiput with black hairs. 
Cheeks with a strong, upcurved bristle near the middle and another one anteriorly 
toward the oral margin, the vibrissae scarcely weaker than these. Face concave a 
little below the middle, prominent above; clypeus narrow but distinctly protruding. 
Proboscis thinly grayish pollinose. Palpi brown, with apical bristle. Antennae 
black; third segment somewhat longer than wide, rounded apically; arista pubescent. 



Vol. XXI] CURRAN—DIPTERA 161 

Thorax dull black, in some lights with pale brown tinge; scutellum bare except 
for the marginals; two pairs of sternopleurals; mesopleura with scattered short 
bristly hairs, with a strong bristle near the middle below and another near the 
posterior margin. 

Legs wholly black. 

Wings brownish. Squamae and halteres brown. 

Abdomen black, with dull greenish tinge; lamellae of the ovipositor moderately 
long and with three short, stout bristles on the outer side apically. 

Holotype, female, No. 3804, C. A. S. Ent., Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
Island, May 27, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 



28. Procanace panamensis Curran, new species 

Differs from galapagensis in its smaller size, lighter color, pale 
halteres, etc. Length, 1.75 mm. 

Male. — Front pale brownish, but in some lights appearing mostly dark grayish, 
the anterior border more or less gray pollinose; f rentals between the strong bristles 
rather strong; ocellars long; postocellars gently diverging; outer verticals strong. 
Cheeks with three strong upwardly curved bristles. Face and cheeks whitish 
pollinose; face concave well below the middle, the clypeus moderately projecting. 
Proboscis grayish pollinose; palpi yellowish, the apical bristle rather weak. Antennje 
black; third segment about as wide as long, obtusely rounded apically; arista 
pubescent. 

Thorax black, cinereous pollinose, the dorsum brownish. Scutellum with a pair 
of discal hairs. Mesopleura with a single downwardly directed bristle; only one 
sternopleural. 

Legs blackish, the femora rather paler and cinereous pollinose. 

Wings tinged with brown. Squamae brown. Halteres yellow. 

Abdomen greenish black, with pale brownish pollen, the hair appressed but 
moderately long. Genitalia small. 

Holotype, male, Patilla Point, Canal Zone, January 15, 1929 
(Curran), in American Museum of Natural History. 



Family Ephydrid.e 

There is a single representative of this family in the collection, 
representing an apparently undescribed species of Scatella. The only 
other species recorded from the Islands is Ephydra gilvipes Coquil- 
lett. 

29. Scatella galapagensis Curran, new species 

Related to stagnalis but with four pairs of dorsocentral bristles, 
the anterior two pairs much weaker than the others; front polished 
metallic black. Length, 3 mm. 

Male.— Face yellowish brown pollinose; the lowest and a median bristle in the 
facial rows strong and directed outward. Front shining metallic black, the lowest 
fourth with brown pollen, the middle very lightly and finely punctured; ocellars 



162 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

rather strong. Cheeks about one-sixth as wide as the eye-height, rather thickly 
poUinose and with the usual strong bristle behind the middle. Antennae black, the 
third segment obtusely rounded apically; arista pubescent. 

Thorax black, moderately brown pollinose, the pollen becoming grayish on the 
pectus, the dorsum somewhat shining. Two pairs of strong dorsocentrals and two 
much weaker pairs in front of the suture, the presutural acrosticals only a little 
stronger than the third pair of dorsocentrals. Four scutellars, the basal pair about 
half as long as the apicals. 

Legs blackish; femora grayish pollinose basally and brown pollinose on about the 
apical half. Coxae with grayish pollen. 

Wings light brown, with five whitish spots on the disc as in stagnalis. Squamae 
whitish. Halteres reddish yellow. 

Abdomen greenish basally and bronzed on the apical half and sides, rather 
thinly yellowish brown and cinereous pollinose. Venter blackish. 

Holotype, male, No. 3805, C. A. S. Ent., Chatham Island, April 
17, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 



Family Phyllomyzid^ 

This family has not been recorded from the Islands. One specimen 
is in the collection. 



30. Desmometopa M-nigrum (Zetterstedt) 

Agromyza M-nigrum Zetterstedt, Dipt. Scand., vii, p. 2743, 1848. 

Female, South Seymour Island, July 11, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 
This species occurs in Europe, North America and the West Indies. 

Family Drosophilid^ 

The two specimens in the collection represent species previously 
recorded from the Islands. 

31. Drosophila immigrans Sturtevant 

Drosophila immigrans Sturtevant, N. Amer. Sp. Drosophila, p. 83, 1921, (f). 
One specimen, James Island, June 4, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

32. Diastata costalis (Coquillett) 

Rhicno'essa costalis Coquillett, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 378, 1901. 
Male, Hood Island, October, 1905 (F. X. Williams). 



Vol. XXI] CURRAN—DIPTERA 163 

Family Agromyzid^ 
The collection contains two species belonging to this family. 

33. Cerodontha dorsalis (Loew) 

Odontocera dorsalis Loew, Berl. Ent. Zeit., vii, p. 54, 1863. 

Two Specimens, Charles Island, April 25, 1932, and Indefatigable 
Island, May 1, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

34. Odinia williamsi Johnson 
Odinia williamsi Johnson, Zoologica, v, p. 90, 1924. 

Male, Indefatigable Island, May 7, 1932; male, Jervis Island, 
June 6, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). Male and two females, Barrington 
Island, November 20, 1905, and female, Abingdon Island, April 8, 
JL906 (F. X. Williams), the last recorded as "ovipositing on cactus." 

Family Muscid^ 

Six species have previously been recorded from the Islands, and 
three additional ones are contained in the material before me. A 
key to the genera is presented. 

Key to Genera 

1. Arista pectinate; proboscis long and strongly broadened basally 

Stomoxys Geoffroy. 

Arista bare, pubescent or plumose; proboscis shorter and not broadened 

basally 2. 

2. One presutural dorsocentral Xenoccenosia Malloch. 

Two presutural dorsocentrals 3. 

3. Prosternum haired 4. 

Prosternuni bare 5. 

4. Arista bare Synthesiomyia Brauer & Bergenstamm. 

• Arista with long rays Musca Linnaeus. 

5. Anal vein short, the following vein curved so as to cut across its apex 

Fannia Desvoidy. 

Anal vein long 6. 

6. Pteropleura bare 7 • 

Pteropleura with hair Lispe Latreille- 

7. Body shining blackish Ophyra Desvoidy. 

Body pollinose and dull Limnophora Desvoidy. 



164 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sbr. 

35. Xenocoenosia devia Curran, new species 

Agrees with ovata Stein in having a median anteroventral bristle 
on the posterior tibiae but the base of the abdomen is broadly yellow. 
Length, 3.5 to 4 mm. 

Male. — Front rather wide, brownish, the orbits, a median vitta and the vertex 
dull yellowish; ocellars long; occiput, face and cheeks cinereous poUinose, the upper 
part of the occiput and face with yellowish tinge. Palpi reddish yellow; proboscis 
brown. Antennas blackish with almost the basal half of the second segment reddish; 
arista black, with moderately long rays. 

Thorax black, densely cinereous pollinose, the dorsum more or less brownish 
in the middle or almost wholly tinged with brownish yellow. Acrostical hairs paired, 
in four rows behind the suture. Scutellum with four equally strong bristles. 

Legs reddish yellow, the tarsi brownish. Anterior and middle tibiae with posterior 
bristle near the middle, the middle tibiae with anterior median bristle. Posterior 
femora with an entire row of anterodorsal bristles, three posteroventrals, three or 
four strong anteroventrals and as many very poorly differentiated ones basally, a 
preapical posterodorsal and another on the posterior surface. Posterior tibiae with 
a strong anterodorsal near the middle, a weak anteroventral below it, a strong dorsal 
bristle on the apical fourth and a slightly weaker anterodorsal near the apex. Apex 
of hind femora with brown spot. 

Wings cinereous hyaline; veins brownish, becoming reddish basally. Squamae 
white. Halteres pale yellow. 

Abdomen brownish in ground color, yellowish on about the basal half except in 
the middle, densely covered with cinereous pollen ventrally and cinereous yellow 
pollen above; dorsum with a narrow, median brown vitta on the apical three seg- 
ments and a round spot at the lateral third of the posterior border. First segment 
entirely yellow, the second with a broad black triangle extending to the base in the 
middle. Fourth segment with row of discals and marginals, third with marginals 
only, the basal two with only lateral bristles. 

Female. — Yellowish median vitta of the front in the form of a triangle extending 
two-thirds the distance from the ocelli to the anterior border of the front. Dorsal 
bristle on posterior tibiae situated half way between the anterodorsal and apex. 
Median dark vitta on abdomen less distinct. 

Holotype, male, No. 3806, and allotype, female, No. 3807, C. A. S. 
Ent., Chatham Island, April 17, 1932. Paratypes, three females, 
Chatham Island, April 17, and male and female, James Island, June 
4, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

36. Fannia species 

Two females, Chatham Island, April 17, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

As there is no male available I am unable to identify these speci- 
mens but think they are probably pusio Wiedemann. I have female 
examples of the same species from British Guiana and Panama 
Canal Zone, but have no males associated with them. 

37. Ophyra aenescens Wiedemann 
Anthomyia cenescens Wiedemann, Aussereur. Zweifl., ii, p. 435, 1830. 

Two females, South Seymour Island, June 11, 1932 (M. Willows 
Jr.). 



Vol. XXI] CURRAN—DIPTERA 165 

38. Lispe species 

A single female, in only fair condition, belongs to this genus. It is 
impossible to identify the species without a male and it is to be 
hoped that this sex may be secured. The specimen was taken by 
F. X. Williams on Charles Island, October, 1905. 



39. Musca domestica Linnaeus 

Musca domestica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., i, p. 596, 1758. 

One female, South Seymour Island, June 11, 1932 (M. Willows 
Jr.). 

40. Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus) 

Conops calcitrans Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., i, p. 604, 1758. 

Two females, South Seymour Island, June 11, 1932, and one 
female, Chatham Island, April 17, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

41. Morellia ochricornis (Wiedemann) 

Musca ochricornis Wiedemann, Aussereur. Zweifl., ii, p. 408, 1830; F. Smith, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, p. 84, 1877. 

This species was collected on Charles Island during the visit of 
H. M. S. "Peterel" in 1875. 

Family Metopiid^ 

I employ this name for the group which has been known as the 
Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Miltogramminae, and Muscidae (Town- 
send), since Metopia is the oldest included generic name. The family 
is fairly well represented on the Islands. 

Key to Genera 

1 . Arista plumose 2. 

Arista long pubescent above, very short below Opsophytopsis Townsend. 

2. Suprasquamal ridge bare ^^ 

Suprasquamal ridge with long hairs Viridinsula Shannon. 

3. Palpi long and more or less swollen apically 4. 

Palpi short and wholly slender; face and cheeks yellow in ground color 

Cochliomyia Townsend. 

4. Two sternopleurals; female with a single prochnate orbital 5. 

At least three sternopleurals; female with two proclinate orbitals . ... 

Sarcophaga Meigen. 

5. Posterior crossvein situated more than its length from the bend of the 

fourth vein Sarcophagula Wulp. 

Posterior crossvein situated much less than its length from the bend of 

the fourth vein Prosthetocirca Townsend. 



166 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sbr. 

42. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) 

Musca macellaria Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 776, 1775. 

Three females, Chatham Island, April 17, 18, 1932 (M. Willows 
Jr.). Six females, Charles Island, October, 1905; female, Barrington 
Island, October 20, 1905; two males and six females, Hood Island, 
October, 1905 (F. X. Williams). 



Genus Viridinsula Shannon 

At the time I examined the Diptera of the WoUebaek Expedition 
I had only alcoholic specimens belonging to this genus and I was 
misled into placing the material studied under the name pionia 
Walker. There are two species belonging to the genus and I am 
now describing the dark colored form. They are separable as follows. 

Bright green; eyes of male approximate above pionia Walker. 

Blackish with bronze and dull greenish reflections and rather thickly 

pollinose; eyes of male widely separated deceptor, n. sp. 



43. Viridinsula pionia (Walker) 

Musca (Lticilia) pionia Walker, List, Dipt. Brit. Mus., iv, p. 880, 1849. 

Female, Indefatigable Island, May 6, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 
Female, Charles Island (F. X. Williams). 

44. Viridinsula deceptor Curran, new species 

Viridinsula pionia Curran, Nyt Mag. Naturvidens., Ixxi, p. 361, (not of Walker). 

Dark green and bronzed but so thickly grayish pollinose that the 
insect appears blackish to the naked eye; front of male moderately 
wide. Length, 5 to 8 mm. 

Male. — Head black in ground color, thickly cinereous pollinose, the frontal pollen 
with brownish tinge. Front one-fifth of the head-width, the frontal vitta dull red- 
dish on the anterior half; seven or eight pairs of rather weak frontals; ocellars long; 
outer verticals moderately long. Occipital cilia black, the pile with yellowish tinge. 
Cheeks almost one-third as wide as the eye-height, yellowish haired below and 
posteriorly, with coarse black hair above and anteriorly. Parafacials about as wide 
as the antennae; oral margin produced. Palpi reddish yellow, the apices infuscated. 
Antennae brownish, the apex of the second segment and base of the third more or 
less reddish; arista black, with long rays above and short ones below. 

Thorax densely gray pollinose, the mesonotum with three poorly defined dark 
vittae, the ground color dull green beneath the pollen, on the mesonotum somewhat 
bronzed. Acrosticals 2-2; dorsocentrals 3-3; posterior sublateral absent; two intra- 
alars; sternopleurals 2-1; four pairs of marginal scutellars and a discal pair. Hair 
black. 



Vol. XXI] CURRAN—DIPTERA 167 

Legs blackish, the femora gray polUnose. Anterior femora with a row of strong 
posterodorsal bristles, a slightly weaker row immediately below them and a row 
of very strong postero ventral bristles ; middle femora with three or four anteroven- 
tral bristles on the basal half, a row of strong posteroventral bristles on the basal 
two-thirds and short fine bristles on the apical third; posterior femora with row of 
antero- and posteroventral bristles and a row on the anterodorsal surface. Anterior 
tibiae with a posterior bristle near the middle, the middle tibias with two short 
posterodorsal bristles, the posterior tibiae with a row of very short anterodorsal 
bristles. 

Wings cinereous hyaline. Squamae yellowish. Halteres reddish yellow. 

Abdomen mostly green in ground color, the dorsum bronzed, the apices of the 
segments and a median vitta on the second and third segments blackish, the 
cinereous pollen quite thick. Hair black, yellow on the venter. Third and fourth 
segments each with a row of marginals, the fourth with erect bristly hairs. Fifth 
sternite divided on practically its whole length, the lobes very broadly separated, 
2ong and conspicuous, with bristles apically. Genitalia blackish, grayish poUinose. 

Female. — Front about two-fifths as wide as the head; basal antennal segments 
sometimes reddish. Sternopleura with yellowish pile. Hair of fourth abdominal 
segment shorter and appressed; venter with black hair except basally. 

Holotype, male, No. 3808, North Seymour Island, June 12, 1932; 
allotype, female, No. 3809, C. A. S. Ent., Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
Island, May 27, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). Paratypes, male and female, 
Hood Island, October, 1905, January, 1906; two females, Cocos 
Island, September 3, 1905 (F. X. Williams); four males and ten 
females, Floreana or Charles Island (Wollebask Exp.). 



45. Opsophytopsis inoa (Walker) 

Sarcophaga inoa Walker, List. Dipt. Brit. Mus., iv, p. 832, 1849. 
Opsophytopsis insularis Townsend, Ins. Ins. Mens., v, p. 163, 1917. 
Wohlfahrtia inoa Johnson, Zoologica, v, p. 88, 1924. 

Female, James Island, July 28, 1906; female, Chatham Island, 
October 14, 1905, and female, Indefatigable Island, November, 1905, 
all collected by F. X. Williams. 



46. Sarcophagula occidua (Fabricius) 
Musca occidua Fabricius, Ent. Syst., iv, p. 315, 1794. 

Male and female, Charles Island, April 23 and May 14, 1932; 
female, James Island, June 4, 1932; seven males and the same num- 
ber of females, Chatham Island, April 17, 1932. All the specimens 
were collected by Mr. M. Willows Jr. 

The synonymy of this species is given in my previous paper on 
the Galapagos Diptera. 



168 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

47. Prosthetocirca cana Townsend 

Prosthetocirca cana, Townsend, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxx, p. 196, 1917. 
Sarothromyiops cincta Townsend, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxx, p. 196, 1917. 

Male, Hood Island, January, 1906 (F. X. Williams). Female, 
Indefatigable Island, May 5, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 

I am not certain that the female belongs here as it has black palpi 
while the male has these organs brownish red. However, it is not 
likely that there are two species on the Islands. The posterior forceps 
of the male are peculiar: basally there is a pair of transverse, foliate 
appendages, the basal half is thick while the apical half is in the 
form of a slender, tapering, slightly curved, cylinder. Despite its 
shape the forceps are not united and the lower edges of the thickened 
part bears abundant very short, fine hairs on the inner, surface. 



Genus Sarcophaga Meigen 

1. Fourth abdominal segment with golden yellow pollen taitensis Schiner. 

Fourth abdominal segment without yellowish pollen 2. 

2. Males 3. 

Females 7. 

3. Genital segments blackish williamsi, n. sp. 

At least the second genital segment reddish 4. 

4. Palpi mostly reddish; posterior forceps with four arms. . plinthopyga Wiedemann. 
Palpi blackish; posterior forceps with only a single arm on either side 5. 

5. First genital segment blackish; posterior forceps with stout, short setu- 

lae in the middle behind violenta Walker. 

First genital segment brownish only on apical half 6. 

6. Posterior forceps with tiny setulae on most of their length and without 

yellow pubescence on their inner margin reversa Aldrich. 

Posterior forceps without setulae, their inner margins with dense yellow 

pubescence on the basal half isla, n. sp. 

7. Fifth abdominal segment brownish, cinereous pollinose violens Walker. 

Fifth abdominal segment reddish 8. 

8. Bristles on fifth tergite almost equally strong and almost contiguous 

along the whole apex isla, n. sp. 

Bristles not all equally strong, those in the middle quite weak 

plinthopyga Wiedemann ?. 



48. Sarcophaga taitensis Schiner 

Sarcophaga taitensis Schiner, Novara Reise, Dipt., p. 314, 1868. 

Four males, Charles Island, April 17 and 25, 1932 and May 14, 
1932; male, James Island, June 1, 1932; two females, Chatham 
Island, April 17, 1932; female, Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island, May 
21, 1932; female, Duncan Island, May 7, 1932, all collected by Mr. 
M. Willows Jr. Two females, Albemarle Island, March, 1906 (F. X. 
Williams). 



Vol. XXr] CURRAN—DIPTERA 169 

49. Sarcophaga plinthopyga Wiedemann 

Sarcophaga plinthopyga Wiedemann, Aussereuropaische Zweiflugelige Insecten, ii, 
p. 360, 1830. 

S. robusta Aldrich, Sarc. & Allies., p. 207. 

S. quadriforceps Curran, Nyt Mag. Naturwisen., Ixxi, p. 363, 1932. 

A female collected by F. X. Williams on San Martin Island, off 
the coast of Lower California, July 2, 1905, is referred here with 
some doubt as I do not have available authentic females of this 
species. 



50. Sarcophaga violenta Walker 

Sarcophaga violenta Walker, List. Dipt. Brit. Mus., iv, p. 826, 1849. 
Cigantotheca galapagensis. Townsend, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxx, p. 195, 1917. 
S. violenta Aldrich. Proc. U. S. N. M., Ixxviii, Art. 12, p. 16, 1930, (fig.). 

Two males and one female, Indefatigable Island, November, 1905; 
male, Harrington Island, October 20, 1905 (F. X. Williams). 



51. Sarcophaga isla Curran, new species 

Resembling violenta Walker but the first genital segment is red 
with brownish apex and the genitalia are very different. Length, 
9 to 11 mm. 

Male. — Head white pollinose; front one-fifth as wide as the head; frontals 
diverging below; ocellars weak; outer verticals scarcely developed; an incomplete 
row of black hairs behind the occipital cilia; pile of occiput white; cheeks with fine 




Figure 3 



170 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

black hair; hair of parafacials rather fine. Palpi brown. Antennae brown, the basal 
segments reddish; arista brown, its rays of moderate length. 

Thorax cinereous pollinose, the three black vittae of moderate width. Prescu- 
tellar acrosticals weak; presutural dorsocentrals weak, the posterior series with 
only the posterior one strong, the anterior three or four very weak; apical scutellars 
absent; sternopleurals 1-1-1; propleura bare in middle. 

Legs black, the femora with cinereous pollen; middle femora with comb of short, 
stout bristles apically on posteroventral surface and with two preapical postero- 
dorsal bristles, villous on the basal half below; posterior femora villous below, their 
tibiae short villous on the apical half of ventral surface; claws and pulvilli elongate. 

Wings cinereous hyaline. Squamae white. Halteres mostly brownish. 

Abdomen cinereous pollinose, a median vitta and the apices of the segments 
black or brown, each segment toward the side with a blackish spot in some lights; 
no marginals except on the fourth segment and sides of the others. Genitalia red- 
dish, the basal segment with the apex brown above; posterior forceps expanded and 
red on the basal half, black and curved on the apical half, outer forceps narrow; 
posterior claspers long and rather narrow, the anterior claspers not developed; 
penis robust, the end expanded and very thin. 

Female. — Front one-fourth the head-width; normally two pairs of proclinate 
orbitals; ocellars rather weak; outer verticals weak. Dorsocentrals not longer but 
more conspicuous. Abdomen more tessellate, the median vitta narrower, the apices 
of the segments not clearly black or brown. Fifth tergite reddish, with a row of 
strong, almost contiguous apical bristles, its sternite bright red, with an irregular 
row of rather short, appressed bristles near the apical third, its apex rather trans- 
verse with a shallow U-shaped median emargination, the basal two-thirds convex; 
apex of ovipositor yellowish and with black bristles. 

Holotype, male, No. 3810, and allotype, female. No. 3811, C. A. S. 
Ent., Gardner Island, September, 1905. Paratypes, two males, 
Gardner Island, September, and four males and four females. Hood 
Island, October, 1905, all collected by F. X. Williams. 



52. Sarcophaga williamsi Curran, new species 

Hind tibiae villous; genitalia wholly blackish; two strong post- 
sutural dorsocentrals. Length, about 7.5 mm. 

Male. — Front two-elevenths of head- width; frontals diverging below; ocellars 
and outer verticals absent; two partial rows of black hairs behind the occipital 
cilia; occipital pile white; cheeks with black hairs, almost one-third as wide as the 
eye-height; parafacial hairs sparse; head white poUinose. Palpi brownish red, dark 
below. Antennas brownish, the basal segments brownish red. 

Thorax black, cinereous pollinose, the mesonotum with four moderately wide 
blackish vittae. Dorsocentrals weak, the two posterior pairs strong; sternopleurals 
1-1-1; no apical scutellars. 

Legs black, the femora with grayish pollen. Middle and posterior femora with 
long hair below, the middle pair with weak, comb-Hke row of bristles apically. 
Middle tibiae with the hair on the apical half of the lower surface hardly as long as 
the tibial thickness, the posterior tibias villous. 

Wings cinereous hyaline. Squamae whitish. Halteres yellowish with the base 
of the knob brownish. 



Vol. XXI] CURRAN— DIPT ERA 171 




Figure 4 

Abdomen black, with cinereous pollen, rather strongly tessellate, the black 
median vitta narrow. Lobes of fifth sternite very broadly separated, with very 
short black bristles along their inner edges, the base perpendicular and with a deep 
U-shaped incision in the middle. Posterior forceps reddish on the basal half, black 
apically, near their middle with short, coarse setulae along the inner side, and for 
some distance beyond the base with dense yellow pubescence on the inner margin. 

Holotype, male, No. 3812, C. A. S. Ent., Charles Island (F. X. 
Williams). 



Family TACHiNiOiS 

This family has not been recorded from the Islands and the single 
specimen in the collection represents an apparently undescribed 
genus. 

Genus Gaiapagosia Curran, new genus 

In Townsend's Key to Genera traces to Stomatodexia Brauer and 
Bergenstamm but the palpi are smaller, the arista quite bare, cheeks 
somewhat narrower, etc. 

Front almost one-fifth as wide as the head; with six pairs of frontals, the upper 
pair reclinate, the lower two pairs situated below the base of the antennae; ocellars 
of moderate length; verticals rather weak. The occipital cilia extend to the cheeks 
and the occiput is pale haired. Cheeks about one-seventh as wide as the eye-height, 
with coarse, sparse hairs. Face almost as long below as at the base of the antennae, 
gently receding, the oral margin somewhat produced; facial ridges bare; parafacials 
about half as wide as the third antennal segment, bare. Proboscis blackish, the apical 
section about three-fourths as long as the head-height; palpi rather slender, gently 
enlarged apically, of moderate length and bearing a few short, black bristly hairs 
below. Antennas reaching almost to the vibrissas, the third segment scarcely twice 



172 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

as long as the second, with parallel sides, the apex obtusely rounded; arista prac- 
tically bare, thickened on the basal fifth. Eyes bare. Acrosticals wholly absent 
although two of the presutural hairs are somewhat stronger than the others; dorso- 
centrals 3-3, although the anterior pair is very weak; posterior sublateral absent; 
posthumeral weak; two weak intra-alars; two pairs of marginal scutellars; three 
sternopleurals, the lower one very weak. Propleura and prosternum bare; infra- 
squamal setulae absent. Legs normal, the tibial bristles short. Wings with the 
apical cell ending a little in front of the wing tip, narrowly open; bend of fourth 
vein without appendage; base of third vein with one or two weak basal bristles; 
costal spine very short. Abdomen long, narrow, subcylindrical and tapering; first 
segment without dorsal bristles, the second with a pair of marginals, the third and 
fourth each with a row; discals absent; genitalia small, wholly concealed from dorsal 
view. Genotype: G. minuta, n. sp. 



53. Galapagosia minuta Curran, new species 

Black, the antennas, legs and abdomen partlj^ yellowish or reddish. 
Length, 3.5 mm. 

Male. — Head white pollinose; frontal vitta narrower than either parafrontal and 
brown in color. Antennae black with the basal segments yellowish; palpi yellow. 

Thorax cinereous pollinose, the mesonotum with four brown vittae, the median 
pair approximate, replaced a little behind the suture by a single median vitta, the 
outer ones short and broadly interrupted at the suture; behind the outer ends of 
the suture a short, brownish black stripe. Scutellum brown, with the base and broad 
sides cinereous. 

Legs brown; trochanters and tips of the femora reddish, the tibise more or less 
broadly reddish basally. 

Wings cinereous hyaline; squamae large, with yellowish tinge. Halteres yellow. 

First abdominal segment brown with the sides very broadly yellow except 
apically and basally on the dorsum, wholly yellow on the under side; second seg- 
ment broadly brown in the middle and posteriorly, the yellow in the form of large 
basal triangles and occupying the whole of the under side of the tergites; fourth 
segment much less extensively yellow, the posterior two-fifths black on the under 
side, the yellow triangles extending onto the dorsum narrow and reaching only about 
one-fourth the distance across; fourth segment wholly black. Basal half of the 
tergites thickly cinereous pollinose, the apical portion brownish, the brown extend- 
ing slightly forward on the median portion; on the fourth segment the gray pollen 
is more extensive and the apex is shining black. Genitalia quite small, brownish 
behind, reddish anteriorly, the brown area thickly cinereous pollinose. 

Holotype, male. No. 3813, C. A. S. Ent., Indefatigable Island, 
May 5, 1932 (M. Willows Jr.). 



> 0^1-^ 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 14, pp. 173-181; 1 text figure April 20, 1934 



No. 14 



\i^u^iAN lHSf[/^j^ 



FORMICIDAE OF THE TEMPLETON CROCKER^ AY 3 1S34 '^ 
EXPEDITION, 19331 




WILLIAM MORTON WHEELER 

Professor of Entomology, Harvard University 

The following ants collected by Mr. Maurice Willows Jr. in the 
Solomon, Santa Cruz and Danger islands comprise several forms 
not hitherto recorded from the Papuan region. One of the species 
represents a new and very interesting genus, Willowsiella, quite 
unlike any known Myrmicine ant. 



Family Formicid.^; 

Subfamily Ponerin^ 

Odontomachus haematoda (Linn.) 

Solomon Islands: Northwest end of Bellona Island (VI. 9. 33; 
VI. 19.33; VI. 23. 33) ^. 

Santa Cruz Islands: Nupani Island (V.8.33) g — Mohawk Bay, 
Matema Island (VII. 9.33; VII. 10.33) g — Anuda Island (VII. 15.33) 
S — Tevia Bay, Vanikoro Island (V.6.33) g . 

■ Note: Vol. XXI of Proceedings was originally planned to contain only the results of the Crocker 
Expedition of 1932. However, his expedition of 1933 (not solely in the interest of the Academy) has added 
more new material from places in the Pacific Ocean to the Academy's collections. It has seemed but 
natural to incorporate the reports upon this later material with the reports on that collected on the Expedi- 
tion of 1932i Consecutive numbering has been adhered to. — Editor. 

April 20. 1934 



174 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Odontomachus haematoda var. fuscipennis Forel 
Solomon Islands: Kungava Bay, Rennel Island (VI. 14.33) ^ 9. 

Numerous workers and three females, two of which are dealated. 
In this variety, originally described from Ceylon and Sumatra, the 
female has deeply infuscated wings, but the worker is indistinguish- 
able from that of the typical hoBmatoda. Perhaps, therefore, some 
or all of the workers above referred to the typical form of the species 
may really belong to this variety, which is not recorded by Mann 
from the Solomon Islands. 



Subfamily Myrmicin^ 

Pheidole megacephala (Fabr.) 

Santa Cruz Islands: Anuda Island (VII. 18.33) S —Mohawk Bay, 
Matema Island (VII.8.33) S . 

Danger Islands: Puka Puka Island (IV.9.33) y . 

This pantropical ant is not recorded by Mann from the Solomon 
Islands. 



Willowsiella Wheeler, gen. nov. 

Worker. Monomorphic; integument smooth, hard and thick. Head rather 
lar«^e; eyes well-developed, near the middle of the sides; ocelli absent. Mandibles 
rather small, triangular, with oblique m-asticatory border bearing a well-developed 
apical tooth and a few poorly developed basal teeth. Palpi very short, the maxillary 
pair apparently 3-jointed. Clypeus with a raised plate-like median portion which is 
marginate on each side, extending forward as a subrectangular lobe and backward 
between the frontal carinae as a blunt point. Posterior clypeal suture distinct; 
lateral portions of clypeus short and much depressed so that the anterior prolonga- 
tions of the antennal fovese are very deep. Frontal carinae well-developed but 
short, rather far apart and feebly diverging posteriorly. There are no scrobes for 
the antennae. Frontal area and groove absent. Antennae stout, 11-jointed; first 
funicular joint well-developed, joints 2-7 short and transverse, 8-10 forming an 
enlarged and very distinct 3-jointed club, which is longer than the remainder of the 
funiculus. Thorax high, evenly arcuate above, without any traces of promesonotal 
and mesoepinotal sutures. Epinotum sloping without distinct base and declivity, 
armed with a pair of broad spines which are placed very low; metasterna well- 
developed, auriculate and compressed. Petiole very large, with a short, stout 
peduncle provided on each side with a blunt rectangular protuberance. Postpetiole 
very small compared with the petiole, very broad and very short. Gaster lenticular, 
consisting very largely of the first segment which is as broad as long and constitutes 
the whole dorsal surface; remaining segments very small and retracted; sting very 
long, exserted. Legs stout, hind tibiae with delicate, hair-like, vestigial spurs; hind 
metatarsi as long as the tibiae. 

Genotype: Willowsiella dispar sp. nov. 



Vol. XXII 



WHEELER— FORMICI DAE OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 



175 



Willowsiella dispar Wheeler, sp. nov. (Fig. 1) 
Worker. Length very nearly 2.5 mm. 

Head trapezoidal, slightly longer than broad, with nearly straight, anteriorly 
converging sides and feebly and evenly convex posterior border; in profile mod- 
erately convex above and subtruncate behind, with concave occipital border. 
Eyes slightly in front of the middle of the sides, moderately large, convex, semi- 
circular, with straight inferior orbit. Mandibles with straight external borders and 
two or three blunt teeth in addition to the acute apical tooth. Antennal scapes 
reaching to the posterior fourth of the head, curved at their bases; first funicular 
joint one and one-half times as long as broad; joints 2-7 fully twice as broad as long; 
eighth nearly as long as the three preceding joints together; the ninth as long as 
broad, the terminal distinctly longer than the combined eighth and ninth. Thorax 
in profile convex and evenly rounded above; seen from above slightly more than 
twice as long as broad, broader in front than behind, with broadly arcuate anterior 
border, subrectangular humeri and straight sides which gradually converge pos- 
teriorly to the epinotal region where they become subparallel. Epinotal spines as 
broad at the base as long, acute, strongly compressed, subparallel, directed back- 
ward and slightly upward, the space between them sloping and feebly concave. 
Petiolar node in profile higher than long, truncated anteriorly and posteriorly and 




Fig. 1. Willowsiella dispar gen. et sp. nov. 
a, lateral aspect; b, head, dorsal aspect; 
c, thorax and abdomen, dorsal aspect. 



176 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

rounded doi sally; seen from above transversely subelliptical, broader than the 
epinotum, with very bluntly angulate sides, nearly one and one-half times as broad 
as long. The peduncle bears on each side a blunt rectangular projection and at its 
anteroventral border a blunt tooth. Postpetiole anteroposteriorly compressed and 
cuneate in profile, with straight anterior and posterior surfaces and blunt superior 
border; from above much narrower than the petiolar node, broadly trapezoidal, 
fully twice as broad as long, its anterior and lateral borders straight, the latter 
strongly converging posteriorly. First gastric segment subquadrate, with broadly 
rounded anterior and posterior corners and deeply excised anteiior border. 

Shining; body and legs regularly, very finely and delicately reticulate, with 
sparse umbilicate punctures, distinctly coarser on thte mandibles, head, thorax and 
petiole than on the postpetiole and gaster, which are smoother and more minutely 
and sparsely punctate. Frontal carinjE and clypeus granular, the raised median 
portion of the latter with a few longitudinal rugje on each side. Cheeks coarsely 
reticulate-rugose; lower portion of epinotal declivity with several transverse rugae. 

Hairs yellowish, very short, erect only on the clypeus and tip of the gaster, else- 
where appressed and arising from the umbilicate punctures. Pubescence short, 
even, appressed, confined to the antennas and legs. 

Black; mandibles, antennae, legs and terminal segments of gaster yellowish 
brown; femora dark brown, except at their bases and tips; median portion of 
antennal scapes somewhat infuscated. 

Described from a single specimen taken by Mr. Maurice Willows 
Jr. at the northwestern end of Bellona Island, Solomons (VI. 
23.33). 

The genus Willowsiella evidently belongs to Emery's tribe Mera- 
noplini, which has hitherto included only five genera: Promeranoplus 
Emery, Prodicroaspis Emery, Mayriella Forel, Calyptomyrmex 
Emery (with the subgenus Dicroaspis) and Meranoplus F. Smith. 
Mayriella, Calyptomyrmex and Meranoplus have deep scrobes for 
the accommodation of the antennas and a different number of an- 
tennal joints, except in certain species of Calyptomyrmex. Willowsi- 
ella is more closely related to Promeranoplus and Prodicroaspis, 
which are known only from New Caledonia, but both have 12-jointed 
antennae and a very differently shaped thorax and pedicel. The new 
genus is therefore more specialized than these two but much less so 
than the three other genera. Emery (Les Fourmis de la Nouvelle- 
Caledonie et des iles Royalty, 1914, p. 14, nota) expressed the fol- 
lowing opinion concerning the phylogeny of the Meranopline genera: 
"The two genera Promeranoplus and Prodicroaspis are apparently 
very closely allied. They arose from an unknown primitive type of 
the tribe Meranoplini and suggest transitions to two existing groups, 
one of which is represented by the single genus Meranoplus, the 
other by the genera Calyptomyrmex, Dicroaspis and Mayriella. 
The mesonotum is very prominent and armed with appendages in 
Promeranoplus and Meranoplus but unarmed in the others, and, 
since the epinotum tends to become abbreviated, the basal surface 
is very short and the spines (if present) are at half the height on 



Vol. XXI] WHEELER— FORMICI DAE OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 177 

the declivity." Willowsiella in all probability departed from the 
unknown ancestral Meranopline along a third independent line of 
phylogenetic development in which the head failed to develop an- 
tennal scrobes, the thorax acquired no appendages and the antennas 
retained a more primitive number of joints (eleven) than Mayriella, 
which has ten, and Meranoplus, which has only nine joints. 



Tetramorium guineense (Fabr.) 

Solomon Islands: Tai Lagoon, Malaita (V.30.33) y . 
Santa Cruz Islands: (Anuda Island (VII. 15.33) g . 
Danger Islands: Puka Puka Island (IV.9. 33) y . 
Palmyra Island (IV. 1.33) S . 

This ant is now widely distributed throughout tropical and sub- 
tropical countries. 



Tetramorium pacificum Mayr 

A single worker from the northwestern end of Bellona Island, 
Solomons (VI. 23. 33). Though common in Indonesia and Oceania 
this species is not recorded by Mann from the Solomons. 



Tetramorium melanogyna Mann var. pallidiventre Wheeler, 

var. nov. 

Worker. Differing from the typical melanogyna in having the gaster yellow 
instead of fuscous. The mandibles and legs are of the same yellow color as the 
gaster, the knees, however, are infuscated. The petiolar and postpetiolar nodes 
are as coarsely reticulate-rugose as the thorax and their lateral marginations are less 
distinct. 

A single specimen from the northwestern end of Bellona Island, 
Solomons (VI. 19.33). 



Xiphomyrmex costatus Emery subsp. willowsi Wheeler, 
subsp. nov. 

Worker. Resembling the subspecies flavescens Emery but the femora and abdo- 
men are yellow and paler than the rufotestaceous head and thorax, the antenna! 
scrobes are not continued beyond the eyes, there are six rather sinuous longitudinal 
rugae between the frontal carinae and the thoracic rugae are irregular and vermiculate. 
Antennal scapes extending fully one-fourth their length beyond the posterior 
corners of the head; funicular joints 3-5 as broad as long; epinotal spines shorter 
than in the typical costatus and either straight or slightly curved upward; meta- 
sternal spines two-fifths as long as the epinotal spines; petiolar peduncle only 
slightly longer than the node; postpetiole nearly twice as broad as long. 



178 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Two workers; one from Uras Cove, Malaita Island, Solomons 
(type locality, V. 28. 33) and one from Star Harbor, Cristoval Island 
(VII. 1.33) in the same group. Mann records only the subsp. 
flavescens from the Solomons and states that it lives in hollow twigs. 



Subfamily Dolichoderin^ 

Iridomyrmex myrmecodise Emery 

Solomon Islands: Uras Cove, Malaita Island (V. 28. 33) 9 cf^-Ugi 
Island (VI. 28. 33) 9. 

Iridomyrmex anceps Roger subsp. papuanus Emery 

Santa Cruz Islands: Matema Island (VII. 7.33) y — Mohawk Bay, 
Matema Island (VII. 8. 33) S . 

Turneria pacifica Mann 

A single worker from Matema Bay, Santa Cruz Island (VII. 8. 33). 
This species was originally described from a single specimen taken 
by Dr. Mann at Graciosa Bay on the same island. Only four other 
species of the singular genus Turneria are known, frenchi Forel and 
hidentata Forel from Queensland, Australia, dahli Forel from the 
Bismarck Archipelago and butteli Forel from Sumatra. These, too, 
seem to be known from very few worker specimens. 

Tapinoma melanocephalum Fabr. 

A single worker from Anuda Island, in the Santa Cruz group 
(VII. 15.33). A widely distributed pantropical species. 

Subfamily Formicid^ 
Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) 

Solomon Islands: Santa Catalina Island (VIL2.33) S — Kau Kau 
Plantation, Guadalcanar Island (V. 20.33; V.23.33) S 9 —Star Har- 
bor, San Cristoval Island (VII. 3. 33) S . 

Santa Cruz Islands: Nupani Island (V.8.33) U — Mohawk Bay, 
Matema Island (VII. 10.33) ^ —Matema Island (VII. 7.33) S . 

A well-known species widely distributed in Southern Asia, Indo- 
nesia and Oceania. It has even established itself in Mexico. 



Vol. XXII WHEELER— FORM ICI DAE OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 179 

Oecophylla smaragdina Fabr. subsp. subnitida Emery 

Solomon Islands: Star Harbor, San Cristoval Island (VII. 1.33) 
^ — Kau Kau Plantation, Guadalcanar Island (V. 20. 33) ^ . 

A rather smooth variety of the common East Indian "red tree 
ant," which uses its larvae in spinning the silken webs that form the 
sutures of its leafy nests. 



Camponotus (Myrmamblys) reticulatus Roger subsp. 
bedoti Emery 

Solomon Islands: Malaita Island (V.28. 33) ^ — northwestern end 
of Bellona Island (V.28. 33) y —Santa Catalina Island (VII. 2. 33) 5 
— Kau Kau Plantation, Guadalcanar Island (V. 20. 33) ^ — Kungava 
Bay, Rennell Island (VI. 14.33) S . 

Sikaiana Island, east of Solomons (V. 15.33) g . 

Santa Cruz Islands: Nupani Island (V.8.33) § — Anuda Island 
(VII.18.33) S. 

All the numerous specimens are minor workers and vary some- 
what in the sharpness of the fine striolation of the body. This ant 
was recorded by Mann from many localities in the Solomons and by 
Emery from Ternate, the Sula and Morty Islands. It also has a 
wide distribution in Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra). 



Polyrhachis (Myrma) relucens (Latr.) subsp. andromache 
F. Smith var. nesiotis Mann. 

Eight workers from Tevia Bay, Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz 
group (V.6.33). This variety was originally described from Graciosa 
Bay, Santa Cruz. 



Polyrhachis (Myrma) relucens subsp. ithonus F. Smith 

A single worker from Mohawk Bay, Matema Island, Santa Cruz 
Islands (VII. 2.33). Hitherto recorded only from the Moluccas. 



Polyrhachis (Myrma) labella F. Smith var. brunneipes Wheeler, 

var. nov. 

Worker. Like the var. ohliqua Stitz from Bougainville Island, 
Solomons, in the shape of the epinotum which has a more oblique 
declivity than in the typical labella. The pubescence on the thorax 



180 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

is grayish and not very long, abundant only on the pleuras, finer and 
rather sparse on the gaster. Legs, excluding the coxse, castaneous, 
the tibiae scarcely paler than the femora and not yellow as in the 
typical lobelia and the var. ohliqua. 

A single worker from the northwestern end of Bellona Island, 
Solomons (VI. 21. 33). 



Polyrhachis (Chariomyrma) rere Mann 

Six workers from Anuda Island in the Santa Cruz group (VII. 
18.33). Originally described from Rere, on Guadalcanar Island, 
Solomons. 



Polyrhachis (Chariomyrma) kaipi Mann 

A single worker from Anuda Island (VII. 15.33). Originally de- 
scribed from Malaita Island, Solomons. 



Polyrhachis (Chariomyrma) arcuata Le Guillou 
var. acutinoda Forel 

One worker from the Kau Kau Plantation, Guadalcanar Island, 
Solomons (V.23.33). This variety was originally described from the 
Bismarck Archipelago. 



Polyrhachis (Hedomyrma) annse Mann 

Solomon Islands: Northwestern end of Bellona Island (VI. 23.33) 
^. — Kau Kau Plantation, Guadalcanar Island (V. 20. 33) 9 — Kun- 
gava Bay, Rennell Island (VI. 14.33; VI. 16.33) S 9. 

Santa Cruz Islands: Mohawk Bay, Matema Island (VII. 9. 33) 
S 9. 

Female (undescribed) : Length 6-6.5 mm. 

Resembling the worker; pronotal teeth shorter than broad at their bases and less 
acute; epinotal spines shorter and subparallel, petiolar spines straight and less 
divergent. Mesonotum as long as broad, semicircular in front. The dense golden 
pubescence covering the body the same as in the worker but somewhat less silvery 
on the head and thorax, the pale erect hairs slightly more numerous on the thorax 
and gaster. 

Graciosa Bay, Santa Cruz Island is the type locality of this beau- 
tiful species, which was taken by Mann also in several localities in 
the Solomons. 



Vol. XXI] WHEELER— FORMICIDAE OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 181 

Polyrhachis (Myrmatopa) osae Mann 

A single worker from the Kau Kau Plantation, Guadalcanar 
Island, Solomons (V.20. 33). The species was originally described 
from Ugi Island and recorded from three localities on San Cristoval. 

Paratrechina longicornis (Latr.) 

A single worker from Puka Puka Island in the Danger group 
(IV. 19.33). Mann found this pantropical species in all the localities 
which he visited in the Solomons. 

Nylanderia vaga (Forel) 

Solomon Islands: Sikaina Island (V. 15.33) g — Santa Catalina 
Island (VII. 2.33) g —eastern end of Bellona Island (VI. 19.33) y . 

Nupani Reef Island, east of Solomons (V.8.33). 

Santa Cruz Islands: Matema Island (VII. 7. 33) t^ — Mohawk Bay, 
Matema Island (VII. 8. 33) g — Anuda Island (VII. 15.33) ^. 

The large number of specimens are rather uniform in color and 
pilosity and close to the form which Santschi has recently called 
subsp. crassipilis from Samoa, Fiji and Tahiti. 

Nylanderia obscura (Mayr) var. 

A single worker from Kungava Bay, Rennell Island, Solomons 
(VI. 14.33), which agrees well with the Australian type of the species 
except in its somewhat less robust stature and deep black coloration. 
Mandibles, antennse and legs reddish yellow, with the apical halves 
of the scapes and the femora and tibiae, except their bases and tips, 
black. I hesitate to introduce a new name for this form without 
additional material. 

Nylanderia dichroa Wheeler, sp. nov. 
Worker. Length about 2.7 mm. 

Closely resembling N. roses Forel of Australia in form and sculpture but of very- 
different color. Head broader, with more convex eyes and distinctly concave pos- 
terior border; antennal funiculi longer and more slender; base of epinotum more 
convex and rounded. Petiolar node with more rounded and less truncated superior 
border, inclined forward as in rosce. Gaster anteriorly with a deep concavity for the 
accommodation of the petiole. Yellow, with jet black gaster; anal segment reddish. 
Smooth and shining. Pilosity much as in roscB, with the erect hairs long and coarse, 
but longer and more numerous on the mesonotum and sides of the pronotum. The 
hairs are dark brown but appear partially pale in some lights. Pubescence on 
epinotum and legs rather conspicuous, white and appressed. 

A single specimen from the Kau Kau Plantation, Guadalcanar 
Island, Solomons (V.20. 33). 



r 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 15, pp. 183-188 October 16, 1934 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION TO WESTERN 
POLYNESIAN AND MELANESIAN ISLANDS, 1933 

No. 15 

NOTES ON THE REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS, WITH THE 
DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF SEA-SNAKE 



BY 

JOSEPH R. SLEVIN 

Curator, Department of Herpetology 

California Academy of Sciences 

The following paper is based on a collection of reptiles and am- 
phibians made on the Templeton Crocker Expedition to the Solomon 
Islands on board the yacht Zaca in 1933 and very generously donated 
by Mr. Crocker to the California Academy of Sciences. While the 
bulk of the collection is from the Solomon Islands the Santa Cruz 
Islands, Palmyra Island, lying to the south and west of the Hawa- 
iians, and Danger or Pukapuka Island, lying to the north and east 
of the Samoans, are also represented. 

The thanks of the author are due Mr. Crocker and the crew of the 
Zaca for the privilege of studying this interesting collection, and 
especially to Mr. Maurice Willows Jr. upon whom fell the work of 
caring for and preserving the specimens. 

The collections of Guppy and Woodford first brought to the 
notice of herpetologists the unique character of the reptile and 
amphibian fauna of the Solomons. At various times collectors have 
visited the group, the Whitney South Sea Expedition making in- 
vestigations on some thirty-five islands. Since the collections made 
by the Crane Pacific and the Whitney South Sea expeditions no new 
species have been discovered until the Templeton Crocker Expedi- 
tion secured a new species of sea-snake from Lake Tungano, Rennell 
Island. Several islands, from which there seem to be no records, in 

October 16, 1934 



184 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

both the Solomon and Santa Cruz groups were visited, thus in- 
creasing our knowledge of the distribution of the reptiles and am- 
phibians of this most interesting region. 

Like the previous collections made in the Solomon Islands the 
present one substantiates the theory that the reptile and am- 
phibian fauna shows a Papuan rather than an Australian origin. 

List of species from the Solomon and Santa Cruz groups, includ- 
ing additional records in distribution. 

Hyla thesaurensis Peters 
Malaita, 1 specimen. 

Ceratobatrachus guentheri Boulenger 
Malaita, 65 specimens. 

Rana bufoniformis Boulenger 
Ugi, 1 specimen. 

Rana guppyi Boulenger 
Malaita, 19 specimens. 

Rana solomonis (Boulenger) 
Malaita, 1 specimen. 

Rana krefftii Boulenger 
Guadalcanar, 1 specimen; Malaita, 4 specimens. 

Gonocephalus godeffroyi (Peters) 
Ugi, 2 specimens; Santa Anna, 1 specimen. 

Gehyra oceanica (Lesson) 
Bellona, 3 specimens; Guadalcanar, 1 specimen; Lomlom, 1. 

Gekko vittatus Houttuyn 

Bellona, 1 specimen; San Cristoval, 1; Ugi, 1; Rennell, 2 speci- 
mens. 



Vol. XXI] SLEVIN— NOTES ON REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS 185 

Lepidodactylus guppyi Boulenger 
Rennell, 1 specimen. 

Cryptoblepharus boutonii poecilopleurus (Wiegmann) 
Rennell, 5 specimens. 

Dasia smaragdina perviridis Barbour 
Lomlom, 1 specimen; Nupani, 1; Nalago, 1. 

Emoia cyanogaster (Lesson) 

San Cristoval, 5 specimens; Lomlom, 3; Malaita, 4; Anuda 2; 
Santa Anna, 1 specimen; Ugi, 1. 

Emoia cyanura (Lesson) 

Guadalcanal, 5 specimens; Bellona, 14; San Cristoval, 14; Ugi, 3; 
Rennell, 7; Malaita, 8; Anuda, 3; Matema, 6; Lomlom, 2; Vanikoro, 
1 specimen. 

Emoia nigra (Hombron and Guichenot) 

Guadalcanar, 7 specmens; Bellona, 16; Rennell, 14; Lomlom, 14; 
Malaita, 14; Anuda, 2; Matema, 13; Vanikoro, 2; Nupani, 2; 
Nalago, 1 specimen. 

Emoia atrocostata (Lesson) 
Bellona, 1 specimen. 

Emoia werneri (Vogt) 
San Cristoval, 2 specimens. 

Leiolopisma anolis (Boulenger) 

Ugi, 1 specimen. 

Leiolopisma noctua (Lesson) 
Guadalcanar, 1 specimen. 

Sphenomorphus concinnatus (Boulenger) 
Malaita, 3 specimens. 



186 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

Varanus indicus (Daudin) 
Rennell, 2 specimens; Guadalcanar, 1 specimen; Malaita, 1. 

Enygrus australis (Montrouzier) 
Lomlom, 10 specimens. 

Enygrus carinatus (Schneider) 
Malaita, 8 specimens; Bellona, 1 specimen. 

Boiga irregularis (Merrem) 
Guadalcanar, 2 specimens. 

Laticauda colubrina (Schneider) 
Malaita, 2 specimens; Lomlom, 1 specimen. 

Laticauda crockeri Slevin, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Body compressed, markedly so posteriorly; head scarcely distinct 
from neck; snout elongate, rounded at tip; nasal large, occupying most of the 
posterior part of the nasal plate; no azygous prefrontal present; tip of third labial 
touching the eye, the fourth broadly in contact; rostral as high as broad; genials 
equal in length, the posterior ones not broadly in contact; gastrosteges two and 
one-half times as broad as long, with lateral keel anteriorly. 

Scales smooth, in 21 rows; gastrosteges 199; urosteges 39; anal divided; upper 
labials 7-7; lower labials 8-8; preoculars 1-1; postoculars 2-2; sex cT. Color uniform 
dark-brown, with yellowish anal plate. Total length 479 mm.; tail 64 mm. 

Type: No. 72001 Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., Lake Tungano, Rennell Island, Solomon 
Islands. Collected by the crew of the yacht Zaca June 8, 1933 and named for Mr. 
Templeton Crocker, Patron of the Academy. 

This species may be readily distinguished from the other members 
of the genus by the elongate head, the uniform coloration and the 
more rounded snout. 

Lake Tungano, situated about two miles inland from the east 
point of Rennell Island, is described as a body of water about ten 
miles in length and entirely separated from the sea. Visitors to the 
island found the water too salty for drinking purposes though it is 
used for drinking by the natives. Soundings taken have shown no 
bottom at thirty fathoms. The elevation of the lake is supposed to 
be about sea-level. Mr. L. A. Penn, of the Associated Oil Company, 
very kindly examined a water sample from the lake and gives the 
following analysis: 



Vol. XXI] SLEVIN— NOTES ON REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS 187 

Radicles Parts per Million 

Sodium 1870.0 

Calcium 110.0 

Magnesium 230 . 

Sulphate 460. 

Chloride 3400.0 

Bicarbonate 110.0 

Colloids 

Silica 10.0 

Iron and Alumina 20 . 

Mineral Content 6210.0 

Total SoUds 6650.0 



Hydrophis ornatus (Gray) 
Guadalcanar, 1 specimen; Malaita, 1. 

Hydrophis faciatus atriceps (Smith) 
Malaita, 1 specimen. 

DANGER AND PALMYRA ISLANDS 
Danger Island 
Gehyra oceanica (Lesson) 
7 specimens. 

Peropus mutilatus (Wiegmann) 

1 specimen. 

Lepidodactylus lugubris (Dumeril and Bibron) 

2 specimens. 

Emoia cyanura (Lesson) 
21 specimens. 

Leiolopisma noctua (Lesson) 

4 specimens. 

Palmyra Island 
Lepidodactylus lugubris (Dumeril and Bibron) 

5 specimens. 



188 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser 

Those who are interested in the herpetology of the Solomon 
Islands should refer especially to the following papers : 

Barbour, T. 

1921. Reptiles and Amphibians from the British Solomon 
Islands. Proc. New England Zool. Club, Vol. VII, pp. 
91-112, pis. 2-6. 

Kinghorn, J. R. 

1928. Herpetology of the Solomon Islands. Records of the 
Australian Museum, Vol. XVI, No. 3, pp. 123-178, figs. 
1-35, pis. 13-15. 

Burt, Charles E. and May Danheim. 

1932. Herpetological Results of the Whitney South Sea 
Expedition. VI. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. 
LXIII, Art. 5. 



.zr 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 16, pp. 189-198 October 16, 1934 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION TO WESTERN 
POLYNESIAN AND MELANESIAN ISLANDS, 1933 

No. 16 

NOTES ON THE BIRDS 

BY 

M. E. McLELLAN DAVIDSON 
Assistant Curator, Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy 
California Academy of Sciences 

In the year 1933, Mr. Templeton Crocker, in his yacht Zaca, 
visited several groups of western Polynesian and Melanesian islands 
for the purpose of acquiring collections of natural history and eth- 
nological material. The natural history specimens were destined 
for the California Academy of Sciences, and included ornithological 
representations from several rarely visited islands. 

Bird skins secured by the expedition were taken on the following 
islands : 

Solomon Islands: 

Malaita Santa Catalina 

Guadalcanar Santa Ana 

San Cristoval Rennell 

Ugi Bellona 

Swallow Group, Santa Cruz Islands: 

Lomlom Nupani 

Anuda Matema 

Palmyra 

October 16, 1934 



190 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Adequate collections from certain of the more interesting of the 
Solomon Islands have not been available until recently. Material 
secured in recent years by the Whitney South Sea Expedition has 
aided in the consolidation of the work previously accomplished by 
Tristram, Ramsay, Rothschild, Hartert, Stresemann, and others, 
and made possible Mayr's several studies^ in distribution and 
differentiation. The avifauna of Rennell Island has been shown to 
be an important link in the distribution chain, and, although the 
material under examination appears to include no new forms, the 
California Academy of Sciences is fortunate in having such a valuable 
representation in its collections. 



Sula dactylatra personata Gould 

Nos. 38261-63: male and females, April 2; Palmyra Island. 
The bills of these specimens yield the following measurements: 

Length of culmen Breadth of culminicorn Depth of bill 
at base at base 

Male 107.0mm. 26.5 38.5 

Females 101.5-104.0 25.5-30.0 36.5-38.0 



Butorides striatus macrorhynchus (Gould) 

No. 38264: male, July 10; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom, Swallow Group, 
Santa Cruz Islands. 

From this example, a bird in fresh adult plumage, the following 
measurements were obtained: Wing, 180.0 mm.; tail, 63.0; culmen, 
64.0; tarsus, 48.5; middle toe, 42.0. 

White tips are absent from the primary coverts, and only faintly 
indicated on the inner primaries and secondaries. The elongated 
dorsal plumes are strongly suffused with gray. 

Demigretta sacra (Gmelin) 

Nos. 38265-66 : male and female, July 19 ; Bellona Island, Solomon 
Islands. 

Both birds are in white plumage and lack any indication of dark 
color. Plumage renewal is in progress in both examples, contour and 
flight feathers being involved. Much of the body plumage is new, 
but partially developed feathers are present on all the feather tracts. 
All the rectrices are newly acquired, and all but the second and third 
primaries have been replaced. 

The measurements are: Male. — Wing, 308.0 mm.; tail, 111.0; 
culmen, 88.0; tarsus, 79.0; middle toe, 61.0. Female.— Wing, 292.0; 
tail, 110.0; culmen, 83.5; tarsus, 76.0; middle toe, 58.5. 

1 Am. Mus. Novit. Nos. 469, 486, 488, 502, 504, 516, 522, 531. 



Vol. XXI] DAVIDSON— NOTES ON POLYNESIAN AND MELANESIAN BIRDS 191 

Threskiornis aethiopicus pygmseus Mayr 

Nos. 38267-70: males and females, June 18; Rennell Island, 
Solomon Islands. 

Unworn rectrices are Cinnamon Buff (Ridgway, XXIX)^, and the 
ruff feathers are also tinted with the same color. Elsewhere the 
white plumage is strongly suffused with Light Vinaceous-Cinnamon 
(Ridgway, XXIX). In all the examples the dark tips of the inner 
secondaries are much varied with white. 

The measurements of the series are: 

Male Male Female Female 
[Female?] 

Wing 336.0 mm. 316.0 311.0 330.0 

Tail 119.0 116.0 117.0 116.0 

Culmen 132.0 90.0 112.0 115.0 

Tarsus 83.0 65.0 72.0 79.0 

Middle toe 67.0 57.0 62.0 67.0 



Sterna bergii cristata Stephens 

No. 38271: male, July 1; Star Harbor, San Cristoval, Solomon 
Islands. 

The example is that of an immature bird, passing into adult 
plumage. The primaries have been newly acquired. The bird 
measures, as follows: Wing, 336.0 mm.; tail, worn; tarsus, 28.0; 
culmen, 59.0. 



Megalopterus minutus minutus (Boie) 

Nos. 38272-73: females, July 15; Anuda Island, Santa Cruz Is- 
lands. 

In both birds feather renewal is nearly complete. 



Heteractitis incanus (Gmelin) 

No, 38274: female, July 8; Nupani Island, Swallow Group, Santa 
Cruz Islands. 

The bird, in worn summer dress, is acquiring some of the feathers 
of winter plumage on the back and wings. 



Cirrepidesmus mongolus mongolus (Pallas) 

No. 38275: female, July 8; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom, Swallow Group, 
Santa Cruz Islands. 



2 Ridgway's Color Standards and Nomenclature, 1912. 



192 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Ptilinopus rhodostictus rhodostictus (Tristram) 

No. 38278: immature male, June 30; Santa Ana, Solomon 
Islands. 



Ptilinopus rhodostictus cyanopterus (Mayr) 

Nos. 38276-77: adult and immature males, June 18 and 19; Ren- 
nell Island, Solomon Islands. 

The older bird is just acquiring adult plumage. The measure- 
ments of this specimen are: Wing, 137.0 mm.; tail, 79.0; culmen, 
13.5. 



Coryphoenas crassirostris (Gould) 

No. 38279: male, July 1; Star Harbor, San Cristoval, Solomon 
Islands. 



Eos grayi Mathews & Iredale 

Nos. 38280-82: males. May 21; Kau Kau Harbor, Guadalcanar 
Island, Solomon Islands. 



Trichoglossus hasmatodus caeruleiceps D'Albertis & Salvadori 

Nos. 38286-89: males and female, July 8; female, July 10; Mo- 
hawk Bay, Lomlom, Swallow Group, Santa Cruz Islands. 

Birds from the Swallow Group are tentatively placed under this 
head. The blue of the forehead and crown covers but a slightly 
greater area than in aberrans, and there is little more blue on the 
cheeks. 

A renewal of the contour and flight feathers is complete or nearly 
so in all the individuals. 



Trichoglossus haematodus aberrans Reichenow 

Nos. 38283-85: males and female. May 21; Kau Kau Harbor, 
Guadalcanar Island, Solomon Islands. 

The plumage of the adult male and female is greatly abraded, 
but replacement has begun on the feather tracts of the head, and 
in the flight feathers. 



Eclectus pectoralis salcmonensis Rothschild & Hartert 

No. 38290: female, June 16; Tai Bay, Malaita, Solomon Islands. 

The plumage is greatly worn, especially the flight feathers, but 
inner primaries and outer secondaries are fresh and many new 
feathers are present among the interscapulars and on the rump. 



Vol. XXI] DAVIDSON— NOTES ON POLYNESIAN AND MELANESIAN BIRDS 193 

CoUocalia fuciphaga vainkorensis (Quoy & Gaimard) 

No_. 38291: female, May 31; Tai Bay, Malaita, Solomon Islands. 
This example is in almost fresh feather. 

Hemiprocne mystacea woodfordiana (Hartert) 

No. 38292: female [male], May 31; Tai Bay, Malaita, Solomon 
Islands. 

This bird wears the plumage of the male and probably has been 
incorrectly sexed. 

Halcyon chloris solomonis Ramsay 

No. 38299: male, July 6; Star Harbor, San Cristoval, Solomon 
Islands. 

This individual lacks any indication of the pale occipital spot 
which is present in a specimen, received previously, from Guadal- 
canar. 

Halcyon chloris amoena Mayr 

No. 38298: unsexed, June 20; Bellona Island, Solomon Islands. 
This is probably an example of a female not quite fully adult. 

Halcyon sancta Vigors & Horsfield 

Nos. 38293-97: males, June 20; Rennell Island, Solomon Islands. 
Males and one unsexed, June 21 ; Bellona Island, Solomon Islands. 

Two immatures are in badly abraded plumage, and feather renewal 
is only just commenced on the body feather tracts. Two older birds 
are in almost fresh feather. One example has newly acquired cen- 
tral rectrices, and the next pair and the outermost are not fully 
grown. 

Coracina luneata gracilis Mayr 

Nos. 38414-17: female, June 18; male, July 21; Rennell Island, 
Solomon Islands. Female and unsexed bird, July 21 ; Bellona Island, 
Solomon Islands. 

In all the examples the rectrices are narrowl}^ fringed with white, 
and the lateral ones tipped with that color. In one female the outer 
rectrix has a white shaft line extending 11 mm. from the apex. 

The measurements obtained from these specimens are: 

Male Female Female Unsexed 

Culmen 20.5mm. 21.0 20.0 20.0 

Wing 141.0 143.0 138.0 140.0 

Tail 109.0 107.0 99.0 105.0 

Tarsus 25.0 24.0 24.0 22.0 

Middletoe 20.0 21.0 20.0 20.0 



Wing 


Tail 


Tarsus 


Middle toe 


94.25 


61.50 


21.50 


19.00 


96.00 


65.25 


23.50 


19.00 



194 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Mino dumontii sanfordi Hartert 

No. 38299: female, May 31; Tai Bay, Malaita, Solomon Islands. 

This specimen measures: Length of culmen, 33.0 mm.; breadth of 
bill at nostril, 10,0; wing, 151.0; tail, 100.0; tarsus, 35.0; middle 
toe, 28.5. 



Aplonis cantorides cantorides (Gray) 

Nos. 38304-05: unsexed, May 26; Auki Bay, Malaita, Solomon 
Islands. Female, July 6; Star Harbor, San Cristoval, Solomon 
Islands. 

The museum is fortunate in having acquired specimens of this 
rather uncommon bird. The birds are in unworn plumage, and the 
second primary in the unsexed example is only partially developed. 
The wing formula of the female is3>4>2>5>6. 

The measurements of the specimens are: 

Culme7t 

Female 19.25 mm. 

Unsexed 19.75 



Aplonis tabuensis fortunae Layard 

Nos. 38306-09: female and males, July 7; Matema Island, Swallow 
Group, Santa Cruz Islands. 

The measurements obtained from this series are : Males. — Length 
of culmen, 20.0-21.0 (av. 20.5) mm.; breadth of bill at base, 7.0-7.5 
(7.25); wing, 109.5-112.5 (110.6); tail, 64.0-70.0 (66.3); tarsus, 
25.0-28.5 (27.0); middle toe, 20.0-20.0 (20.0). Female.— Length of 
culmen, 20.0; breadth of bill at base, 7.0; wing, 106.0; tail, 60.0; 
tarsus, 27.5; middle toe, 20.0. 

Aplonis metallica nitida (Gray) 

Nos. 38301-03: female. May 31; Tai Bay, Malaita, Solomon 
Islands. Males, June 28; Ugi Island, Solomon Islands. 

The moult of the two males is practically complete. The female 
wears the dress of an immature. 



Pinarolestes hamlini Mayr 

Nos. 38314-16: female, June 18; unsexed bird, June 20; male, 
June 21; Rennell Island, Solomon Islands. 

The examples are in fresh plumage. They seem to measure rather 
less than those in Mayr's^ series. 

' Am. Mus. Novit. No. 486. 1931. p. 24. 



Female 


Unsexed 


19.0 


21.5 


26.5 


29.0 


86.0 


89.5 


75.5 


76.5 


22.0 


20.0 


16.0 


16.5 



Tail 


Tarsus 


Middle toe 


77.5 


20.5 


14.0 


74.5 


21.5 


12.5 



Vol. XXI] DAVIDSON— NOTES ON POLYNESIAN AND MELANESIAN BIRDS 195 

Male 

Culmen, from nostril 20.5 

Culmen, exposed 28.5 

Wing 93 5 

Tail 77.5 

Tarsus 23 . 5 

Middle toe 16.5 



Monarcha ugiensis (Ramsay) 

Nos. 38310-11: male and female, June 30; Santa Ana Island, 
Solomon Islands. 

These specimens measure : 

Culmen Wing 

Male 20.75 mm. 83.25 

Female 2 1 . 00 83 . 00 

The female has the feathers of the lower abdomen and crissum 
narrowly tipped with rusty. 

This species has not been recorded previously save from Ugi Island. 

Monarcha vidua (Tristram) 

No. 38313: female, June 30; Santa Ana Island, Solomon Islands. 

The measurements are: Culmen, 14.5 mm.; wing, 74.0; tail, 67.0; 
tarsus, 18.0; middle toe, 11.5. 

This species is known from San Cristoval, but has not been re- 
ported before from Santa Ana Island. 

Myiagra ferrocyanea malaitae Mayr 

No. 38312: female. May 31; Tai Bay, Malaita, Solomon Islands. 
The specimen measures: Culmen, 15.0 mm.; wing, 72.5; tail, 62.5; 
tarsus, 15.5; middle toe, 12.5. 

Rhipidura leucophrys melaleuca (Quoy & Gaimard) 

Nos. 38317-18: female, June 28; Ugi Island, Solomon Islands. 
Male, July 3; Star Harbor, San Cristoval, Solomon Islands. 

Both birds are in somewhat worn plumage, but have a few un- 
developed feathers present on the occiput and nape. 

The measurements are as follows: Male. — Culmen, 17.0 mm.; 
wing, 102.0; tail, 101,5; tarsus, 26.5; middle toe, 15.5. Female.— 
Culmen, 16.5; wing, 98.0; tail, 99.0; tarsus, 25.5; middle toe, 14.75. 

Rhipidura rennelliana Mayr 

Nos. 38319, 38410-11: females, June 20 and 21; Rennell Island, 
Solomon Islands. 



196 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The measurements of the two adult birds are: Culmen, 13.50-13.75 
mm.; wing, 76.0-88.0; tail, 91.0-100.5; tarsus, 19.5-20.0; middle toe, 
11.0-12.0 

One adult is in almost fresh feather, the other is nearly so, but one 
lateral rectrix is still in the sheath. 

Rhipidura rufifrons kuperi Mayr 

Nos. 38412-13: male, July 2; Santa Catalina Island, Solomon 
Islands. Male, July 3; Santa Ana Island, Solomon Islands. 

The Santa Ana specimen is in almost fresh feather, but that from 
Santa Catalina has feather replacement still in progress on nearly all 
areas. 

The birds measure: Santa Ana. — Culmen, 11.75 mm.; wing, 70.5; 
tail, 81.0; tarsus, 19.0; middle toe, 11.0. Santa Catalina. — Culmen, 
11.5; wing, 66.0; tail, 77.5 ; tarsus, 19.0; middle toe, 10.5. 

In coloration both individuals appear to conform to Mayr's* de- 
scription of his new subspecies. 

Pachycephala pectoralis feminina Mayr 

No. 38418: male, June 18; Rennell Island, Solomon Islands. 

The specimen is a bird in unworn plumage, and yields the follow- 
ing measurements: Culmen, 18.0 mm.; wing, 85.5; tail, 57.0; tarsus, 
25.0; middle toe, 16.0. 

Pachycephala pectoralis ornata Mayr 

No. 38419.: female, July 8; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom, Swallow 
Group, Solomon Islands. 

This bird appears to correspond very closely to Mayr's^ descrip- 
tion, save that the middle of the abdomen is more nearly Buff- Yellow 
(Ridgway, IV) than Lemon Yellow. The edge of the wing is Lemon 
Yellow. 

The measurements are: Wing, 88.0 mm.; tail, 64.0; tarsus, 26.0; 
middle toe, 14.0 

Myzomela cardinalis sanfordi Mayr 

Nos. 38420-22: male, June 6; Kungava, Rennell Island, Solomon 
Islands. Alale and female, June 20 ; Rennell Island, Solomon Islands. 



Myzomela cardinalis pulcherrima Ramsay 
Nos. 38423-24: males, June 28; Ugi Island, Solomon Islands. 

^ Am. Mus. Novit. No. 502, 1931, p. 18. 
' Am. Mus. Novit. No. 531, 1932, p. 8. 



Vol. XXI] DAVIDSON— NOTES ON POLYNESIAN AND MELANESIAN BIRDS 197 

Myzomela cardinalis sanctaecrucis Sarasin 

Nos. 38425-28 : male May 8 ; Nupani Island, Swallow Group, Santa 
Cruz Islands. Male, July 7; Matema Island, Swallow Group, 
Santa Cruz Islands. Males, July 8; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom, Swallow 
Group, Santa Cruz Islands. 

Although the nomenclature employed by Mayr has been followed 
here, specimens of Myzomela cardinalis from Rennell, Ugi, and the 
Swallow Group fail to conform to his descriptions^ of the subspecies 
sanfordi, pulcherrima, and sanctcecrucis. Birds in the Crocker col- 
lection from Ugi have the reddish color of the under parts Scarlet 
(Ridgway, I), the scarlet margins are broader than those of the Swal- 
low Group and Rennell Island birds, and the reddish areas are quite 
as extended as those of sanfordi. In coloration, the reddish parts 
of the Rennell Island and Swallow Group series approach quite 
closely. The adult bird from Rennell Island is in worn plumage. In 
consequence, the reddish margins are somewhat narrow and the bird 
appears rather darker than the actual coloration of the feathers 
warrants. A specimen of sanctcecrucis, in fresh plumage, has broad 
Scarlet-Red (Ridgway, I) margins to the feathers, the basal black 
not being evident in the under parts. A female sanfordi has some of 
the interscapulars margined with reddish, and the bases of the 
feathers of the head slaty, not olive gray. 

The measurements of the birds under examination are as follows : 

M. c. pulcherrima (Ugi Island) 

Cultnen Wing Tail Tarsus Middle toe 

Males 18.00-18.25 68.0-68.5 45.0-46.0 17.0-18.5 13.0-13.0 

M. c. sanfordi (Rennell Island) 

Male, adult 18.25 69.0 47.5 19.00 13.5 

Male, immature 18.00 61.5 42.5 19.00 12.5 

Female, adult 18.00 64.0 43.0 19.25 12.5 

M. c. sanctcecrucis (Mohawk Bay, Lomlom, Swallow Group) 
Males 20.0-20.5 74.0-77.5 50.0-54.0 20.0-20.0 13.25-14.00 

M. c. sanctcecrucis (Nupani Island, Swallow Group) 
Male 20.5 75.25 53.5 20.75 13.0 

M. c. sanctcecrucis (Matema Island, Swallow Group) 
Male 19.0 71.0 50.0 20.0 13.5 

Myzomela nigrita tristrami Ramsay 

No. 38429: male, July 3; Santa Ana Island, Solomon Islands. 

From this specimen were obtained measurements, as follows: 
Culmen, 20.0 mm.; wing, 68.0; tail, 48.5; tarsus, 18.25; middle toe, 
12.0. 



•Am. Mus. Novit. No. 486, 1931, p. 27; No. 516, 1932, pp. 22-24. 



198 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

Woodfordia superciliosa North 

Nos. 38430-33: male and female, June 6; Kungava Bay, Rennell 
Island, Solomon Islands. Male and female, June 6; Rennell Island, 
Solomon Islands. 

Culmen Wing Tail Tarsus Middle toe 

Males 21.0-21.0 75.50-76.25 50.00-50.25 21.25-22.00 13.5-14.0 

Female, adult 20.5 77.25 48.75 23.0 15.0 

Female, 

immature.. 21.0 73.0 47.75 23.5 14.0 

The immature female is just commencing to moult, but replace- 
ment in the adult is practically complete. 



c ^ o 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 17, pp. 199-210; plate 7 October 26, 1934 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 17 

THE HEPATICAE (CHIEFLY RICCIA AND ANTHOCERO- 

TACEAE) OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS AND THE 

COAST AND ISLANDS OF CENTRAL AMERICA 

AND MEXICO 



BY 

MARSHALL A. HOWE 
Assistant Director, The New York Botanical Garden 



In a list of eighteen Hepaticae from the Galapagos Islands (in- 
cluding two referred to genus only), determined by Professor A. W. 
Evans and published in Dr. B. L. Robinson's "Flora of the Gala- 
pagos Islands"^, one was a Riccia, "sterile and indeterminable" 
from Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island, and another from Tagus Cove, 
Albemarle Island, was referred to the North American Notoihylas 
orbicularis (Schwein.) Sulliv. Of the 36 numbers of supposed 
Ricciae (including 3 collected on Guadalupe Island by Mr. John 
Thomas Howell in November, 1931) and Anthocerotaceae sent to 
the present writer for determination, one turned out to contain a 
sterile Plagiochasma. Following is the list of species collected: 

RiCCIACEAE 

Riccia sorocarpa Bisch. 

North end of Guadalupe Island, Howell No. 160; No. 145 (sterile), 
from slopes above N. E. Anchorage, Guadalupe Island, may be a 
very reduced condition of this species. 

» Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci. 38: 100. 101. Oct. 1902. 

October 26, 1934 



200 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Riccia nigrella DC. 

Guadalupe Island, Howell Nos. 142, 146, 164, and 168; Ensenada, 
Lower California, Howell No. 181. 



Riccia trichocarpa M. A, Howe 

Slopes above N. E. Anchorage, Guadalupe Island, Howell No. 138; 
Ensenada, Lower California, Howell No. 183. 



Riccia EUiottii Steph. 

Puerto Vallarta, State of Jalisco, Mexico, Howell No. 236. On 
moist shaded soil, Braxilito Bay, Costa Rica, Howell No. 238; same 
locality, Howell No. 239; on soil among rocks on steep bank, on 
largest island in Murcielago Bay, Costa Rica, Howell No. 240. 



Riccia sp. 

Three collections {Howell Nos. 174, 175, and 177) were made on 
Socorro Island, March 26, 1932, two of them in stream-bed above 
Braithwaite Bay. No spores have been found. The occasional or 
rather numerous purple papillae or short cilia on the thallus margins 
suggest affinity with a species of the Galapagos Islands and Mexico 
described below as new under the name Riccia iodocheila, but the 
thalli are usually broader, both actually and in relation to height, 
and the superficial cells are larger. 



Riccia sp, 

Howell No. 259, Camp 1, Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Islands, 
alt. 1700 ft., growing on decaying fragments of wood, presumably 
moist. The plants belong in the Ricciella section of the genus and 
bear some resemblance to the terrestrial condition of Riccia fluitans 
L., but are probably not referable to that species. They are ap- 
parently sterile and for that reason are not accurately determinable. 



Riccia iodocheila M. A, Howe, sp. nov. 

Thallis parvis, 3-6 mm. longis, plerumque 1-3-plo dichotomis, irregulariter 
gregariis aut radiantibus, viridibus, firmis, levibus, nigro-violaceis in marginibus 
et plus minusve infra; segmentis primariis oblongis aut oblongo-ellipticis, 0.4- 
1.2 mm. (saepius 0.6-0.8 mm.) latis; segmentis apicalibus similibus aut obovatis, 
obtusis; marginibus acutis aut subobtusis, erectis vel pauUum inflexis, papillas 
paucas violaceo-purpureas aut hyalinas vel cilias breves obtusas 25-60 n longas 



Vol. XXI] HOWE— THE HEPATICAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 201 

ferentibus; papillis apicali-dorsalibus raris; sulco in apice manifesto; squamis parvis, 
violaceis, cellulis paucis formatis; sectionibus transversalibus semiorbicularibus, 
plano-convexis, aut concavo-convexis, tam altis quam latis ad bis latioribus, in 
partibus mediis 18-25 cellulis crassis; epidermide dorsali e cellularum seriebus 
duobus contexta, cellulis primariis mammiformi-hemisphericis, cito coUapsis, 
nuUis eminentiis conspicuis relictis, cellulis subjacentibus 15-25 ju in diam. max.; 
monoica; ostiolis antheridiorum laeviter aut baud elevatis; sporis nigro-brunneis, 
cito opacis, 70-105 p in diam. max., rotundati-subangulatis vel interdum plane 
angulatis, non-alatis, facie exteriori lineis permultis irregularibus anastomosantibus 
notata, eis aliquando areolas parvas irregulares 3-5 n latas formantibus, faciebus 
interioribus similibus aut paulum minus fortiter notatis, marginibus laevibus aut 
subtiliter submammillatis. 

In solo argillaceo, in loco "Wreck Bay, Chatham Island" dicto, Insularum Gala- 
pagensium, Oceani Pacifici, specimen typicum (n. 201) John Thomas Howell, 
Apr. 18, 1932, legit. Species Ricciae violaceae M. A. Howe afhnis est, sed in spora- 
rum sculptura, probabiliter in characteri monoico, thalli ciliis marginalibus pauci- 
oribus, etc., differt. 

Typus: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 215005. 

Thallus small, 3-6 mm. long, mostly 1-3 times dichotomous, irregularly gre- 
garious or forming rosettes, green above, compact, firm, smooth, deep violet on 
margins and the higher ventral parts; main segments oblong or oblong-elliptic, 
0.4-1.2 mm. (mostly 0.6-0.8 mm.) wide; terminal segments similar or obovate, 
obtuse; margins acute or subobtuse, erect or slightly inflexed, bearing occasional 
violet-purple or hyaline papillae or short obtuse cilia 25-60 n long, rarely with 
papillae on dorsal surface in younger parts; median sulcus obscure except near 
apex; scales small, violet, few-celled; transverse sections as high as broad to one half 
as high, semi-orbicular, plano-convex, or concavo-convex, 18-25 cells thick in 
median parts; dorsal epidermis 2-stratose, the cells of the primary stratum mammi- 
form-hemispheric, soon collabent, leaving no conspicuous cusps, the cells of the 
succeeding stratum 15-25 n in maximum diameter, rather obscurely defined when 
seen from above; monoicous; antheridial ostioles slightly or not at all elevated; 
spores dark brown, soon opaque, obscurely or sometimes distinctly angled, desti- 
tute of margins, 70-105 n in maximum diameter, the outer face marked with very 
numerous low irregularly anastomosing ridges, these sometimes forming small 
irregular areolae 3-5 m wide, the inner faces similarly but a little less strongly 
marked, the spores appearing smooth or very minutely mammillate in profile. 

On moist clay flat, Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, Galapagos 
Islands, Howell No. 201 (holotype), April 18, 1932. 

Riccia iodocheila is evidently allied to Riccia violacea M. A. Howe, 
of the West Indies, type from Mona Island, off Porto Rico, but it 
differs in being apparently monoicous rather than dioicous, in having 
fewer and smaller marginal papillae or cilia, and in the smoother 
more angular spores, which have smaller and much less perfect 
areolae. The areolae of the spores of R. violacea, as stated by the 
present writer in The Bryologist (20: 36. 1917) are 7-11 n wide, 
while those of R. iodocheila, when formed, are 3-5 n wide. In the 
writer's treatment of R. violacea in North American Flora (14: 20, 
21. 1923), the measurements were reduced to include two Mexican 
collections (Lerdo, Jared G. Smith, Jan. 2, 1892, and Magdalena, 
Sonora, David Griffiths, Aug. 18, 1904). These two Mexican collec- 
tions are now identified with Riccia iodocheila, described above, with 
type from the Galapagos Islands. 



202 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Riccia Howellii M. A. Howe, sp. nov. 

Thallis parvis vel mediocribus, 3-10 mm. longis, plerumque 2-4-plo dichotomis, 
irregulariter gregariis aut aliquando radiantibus, pallidi-viridibus, glaucescentibus, 
vel albescentibus, supra minute reticulatis, in siccitate saepe aliquanto papyraceis 
aut rugulosis, infra pallidi-viridibus, saepius (marginibus quoque) violacei-brun- 
neis; segmentis primariis oblongis aut obovatis, 0.75-3 mm. (saepius 1-2 mm.) 
latis; segmentis primariis oblongis aut obovatis, 0.75-3 mm. (saepius 1-2 mm.) latis; 
segmentis apicalibus similibus, 0.6-1.5 mm. latis, obtusis aut subacutis; marginibus 
tenuibus et acutis aut latius membranaceis vel subpapyraceis, saepe albescentibus, 
ascendentibus aut aliquando deflexis, integris aut cellulis marginalibus saepe 
papilliformibus; sulco in partibus junioribus prof undo et acuto; squamis parvis, 
hyalinis aut brunnei-violaceis marginem attingentibus; sectionibus transversalibus 
semiorbicularibus, planoconvexis, aut arcuati-subfusiformibus, aliquando tam altis 
quam. latis, saepius duplo-triplo (-sextuple) latioribus quam altis, in partibus mediis 
12-20 cellulas crassis; epidermide dorsali e cellularum seriebus duobus contexta, 
cellulis primariis plerumque mammiformi-hemisphericis, cito collapsis, parietibus 
plerumque persistentibus et parietes exteriores cellularum subjacentium fortiores 
facientibus, rarius fugacibus et calyces humiles reliquentibus, cellulis subjacentibus 
25-30 M (-50 m) in diam. max., a superficie visis; monoica; ostiolis antheridiorum 
40-70 n altis aut aliquando aegre elevatis; capsulis plerumque multis; sporis brun- 
neis, interdum violaceis tinctis, deinde saepe fuscis et opacis, 75-130 ju (plerumque 
95-120 m) in diam. max., rotundati-subangulatis, ubique paene uniformiter foveo- 
lati-areolatis, faciei exterioris areolis plerumque 10-15 n latis, saepe papillas obtusas 
humiles vel trabeculas truncatas 3-5 n altas ostendentibus. 

In loco "Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island" dicto, Insularum Galapagensium, 
Oceani Pacifici, specimen tj'picum (n. 209) John Thomas Howell, Jun. 4, 1932, 
legit. Quoque in insulis alteris Archipelagi Galapagensis Howell legit. Species 
Ricciae Elliottii Steph. affinis est, sed in characteribus epidermalibus, etc. diflfert. 

Typus: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 215008. 

Thalli small to medium-sized, 3-10 mm. long, mostly 2-4 times dichotomous, 
irregularly gregarious or sometimes forming imperfect rosettes, light green, glau- . 
cescent, or albescent, minutely reticulate above, often somewhat wrinkled or papy- 
raceous when dried, concolorous or more often violet-brown below and on margins; 
main segments oblong or obovate, 0.75-3 mm. (mostly 1-2 mm.) wide; terminal 
segments similar, 0.6-1.5 mm. wide, rounded-obtuse or subacute; margins thin and 
acute or rather broadly membranous, subpapyraceous, or scarious-albescent, 
ascending or the edge sometimes deflexed, entire or marginal cells often papilliform; 
median sulcus deep and acute in younger parts; scales small, obscure, hyaline or 
brownish violet, reaching the margin; transverse sections semi-orbicular, plano- 
convex, to arcuate-subfusiform, sometimes as high as broad, more often 2-3 (-6) 
times as broad as high, 12-20 cells thick in median parts; dorsal epidermis 2-stratose, 
the cells of the primary stratum mammiform-hemispheric to cylindric-domeshaped, 
soon coUabent, their walls usually persistent and reinforcing the outer walls of the 
subjacent layer (secondary epidermis), rarely fugacious and leaving obscure cups, 
the cells of succeeding stratum 25-35 ^ (-50 /x) in maximum diameter in surface view; 
monoicous; antheridial ostioles 40-70 n high or sometimes scarcely elevated; cap- 
sules moderately abundant; spores brown, sometimes tinged with violet, often be- 
coming opaque, 75-130 m (mostly 95-120 n) in maximum diameter, obscurely angled, 
margins commonly wanting, outer and inner faces almost equally foveolate- 
areolate, the areolae mostly 10-15 m wide, commonly showing in profile obtuse or 
truncate processes or lamellae 3-5 ix high. 

Galapagos Islands: Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island, Howell 
Nos. 199 and 209 (holotype); shaded by rocks, west base of Tagus 
Cove Mountain, Albemarle Island, Howell Nos. 219 and 220; James 



Vol. XXI] HOWE— THE HEPATICAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 203 

Bay, Howell No. 187 (p. p. max.), June 4, 1932; on moist earth, 
James Bay, Howell No. 188; on moist surfaces of shaded rocks, 
Hood Island, Howell No. 184; Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, Howell 
Nos. 203, 204 and 205; on clay-gravel soil, about 500 ft. elevation, 
along trail, Charles Island, Howell No. 247. Type and cotypes 
divided between the California Academy of Sciences and The New- 
York Botanical Garden. 

Riccia Howellii is closely allied to the West Indian, Mexican, and 
Central American R. Elliottii Stephani^ but seems distinguishable 
by the closely reticulate rather than coarsely alveolate character of 
the dorsal epidermis, which shows itself in a cross section of the thal- 
lus by the essential absence of thickened cusps representing the 
walls of the collapsed cells of the primary epidermal layer. The 
cells of the final (secondary) epidermis average considerably smaller 
than those of Riccia Elliottii; and the plants themselves average 
smaller. The Galapagos Islands plants cited above vary in vegeta- 
tive characters, but are remarkably uniform in size, form, color, and 
markings of their spores and it is believed that they represent only 
one species. A peculiar feature of some of the specimens with con- 
spicuous albescent margins is that these margins become fuscous 
after being soaked out with New York tap-water. 



Marc HANTI ACE AE 

Plagiochasma sp. 

Socorro Island, Howell No. 176 — apparently sterile and unde- 
terminable. 



Anthocerotaceae 
Notothylas galapagensis M. A. Howe, sp. nov. 

Planta olivacea, parva, radianti, 5-10 mm. in diam., aliquanto tenui et levi, 
lobis paucis rotundatis aut truncatis instructa; cellulis paginae dorsalis irregulariter 
5- vel 6-gonis, oblongis, aut quadrati-suborbicularibus, 25-65 m in diam. max.; in- 
volucris 0.8-1.5 mm. altis, in longitudinem plicatis vel alatis, alis plus minusve 
cristatis aut ciliati-denticulatis, ore lacinulati-fimbriatulo vel irregulariter ciliato; 
capsulis brevi-cylindricis, 1.5-2 mm. longis, parietibus cellularum exteriorum 
maxime incrassatis; sporis pallidi-flavis, deinde paulum fuscis, levibus, 40-50 y. 
diam. max.; elateribus ca. 40-50 ii diam., aliquando obscure spira notatis; columella 
bene evoluta et persistenti. 

Cum Riccia Howellii in loco "James Bay" dicto, Insularum Galapagensium, 
Oceani Pacifici, John Thomas Howell (n. 187, p. p. min.) Jun. 4, 1932, legit. Species 
fortasse N. dissectae Steph. affinis, sed in sporis majoribus, elateribus paene sine 
spiris, etc., differt. 

Typus: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 215004. 

' Type from Dominica, B. W. I. Riccia Elliotii appears to be the legal name for a group of somewhat 
variable plants, including R. Breuielii Hampe, type from St. Jan, R. Brittonii M. A. Howe, type from Mona 
Islrnd, and R. Gaumeri Underwood Ms., type from Yucatan. 



204 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Thalli small, olivaceous, forming rosettes 5-10 mm. in diameter, rather thin and 
smooth, with a few truncate or rounded-obtuse marginal lobes; cells of dorsal sur- 
face irregularly 5- or 6-sided, oblong, or quadrate-suborbicular, 25-65 n in maximum 
diameter; involucre 0.8-1.5 mm. high, longitudinally plicate or alate, the wings more 
or less cristate or ciliate-denticulate, the mouth lacinulate-fimbriate or irregularly 
ciliate; capsule short-cylindric, 1.5-2 mm. long, abruptly constricted below to a 
pedicel 75-150 /x long, bivalved, the exterior cells very thick- walled, their walls (at 
least of the more elongated cells) mostly 10-16 n thick (i. e., the two collateral 
walls) commonly wider than the lumen of the cell, the valve-margins reddish brown; 
spores pale yellow, becoming more or less fuscous, 40-50 /t in maximum diameter, 
with cell wall finally 2-3 /n thick, smooth or very nearly so; elaters of about the same 
size, with traces of very irregular spiral thickening; columella well developed and 
persistent. 

Growing with Riccia Howellii at James Bay, Howell No. 187 (p. p. 
min.), type, June 4, 1932. Also, James Bay, Howell Nos. 193 and 
195, and Charles Island, Howell No. 197. 

Notothylas galapagensis is closel}'- allied to N. dissecta Steph., from 
Guatemala, in the thick-walled cells of its capsule and its essen- 
tially smooth spores, but its spores are larger (40-50 /i vs. "27 /x"), 
its elaters are nearly devoid of any spiral thickening instead of being 
trispiral, and its smaller thallus is sparingly round-lobed instead of 
being profoundly dissected. 

From the North American Notothylas orbicularis , it differs chiefly 
in the much thickened walls of the exterior cells of the capsule. 
There is considerable range in the thickness of the cell-walls in 
N . orbicularis , but no such thickness as is shown in our photograph 
of the valve surface of Notothylas galapagensis has ever been ob- 
served in the North American species. The specimen collected by 
the Hopkins-Stanford Expedition, at Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
Island, and referred by Evans to N. orbicularis, the writer has not 
been able to examine, but it is assumed that it would now be identi- 
fied in A^. galapagensis. 



Anthoceros simulans M. A. Howe, sp. nov. 

Thallis parvis, caespitosis, cavernosis, profunde laciniati-lobulatis, crispatis, 
superficie lamellati-cristata vel irregulariter proliferante, cellulis superficialibus 
plerumque 35-85 m in diam. max., marginalibus saepe mammiformi-hemisphericis; 
monoica (?); involucris cylindricis truncatis, 1-1.5 mm. altis, 0.3-0.45 mm. latis, 
levibus, aut sublevibus; capsulis numerosis, 1-3 cm. altis, fusco-nigris, valvis 
siccitate laeviter tortis aut rectis, stomatiferis; sporis fuscis, demum opacis, 44-51 n 
in diam. max., facie exteriori dense muricati-papillata, papillis conico-acutis aut 
subtruncatis, 1.5-3 n longis, faciebus interioribus sublaevibus aut papillis valde 
humilioribus praeditis; pseudo-elateribus fuscis, 40-150 /i longis, 5-16 ^ latis, plerum- 
que 1-3 cellulis constitutis, raro furcatis; columella levi. 

Terricola in loco umbroso humido, alt. 1,000 m., in monte "Tagus Cove" dicto 
insulae "Albemarle" Insularum Galapagensium, Oceani Pacifici, specimen typicum 
(n. 213) John Thomas Howell Maio 26, 1932, legit. 

A A. fusiformi Aust. involucris brevibus cylindricis (1-1.5 mm. longis et 0.3-0.45 
mm. latis vs. 2-9 mm. longis et 0.35-1.2 mm. latis), capsulis brevioribus tenuioribus 
(1-3 cm. longis et 0.12-0.175 mm. latis vs. 2-9 cm. longis et 0.25-0.5 mm. lat's), 



Vol. XXI] HOWE— THE HEPATICAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 205 

et papillis sporarum plus opacarum longioribus crassioribus minus acicularibus 
differt. 

A A. punctata L. et .4. crispulo (Mont.) Douin, A. simulans capsulis tenuioribus 
et papillis sporarum plus opacarum valde congestis, minus acutis, plerumque 
brevioribus differt. 

Typus: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 215006. 

Thalli small, cespitose, terricolous, cavernous, deeply laciniate-lobulate, crispate, 
the surface lamellate-cristate or very irregularly proliferate, the surface cells mostly 
35-80 M in maximum diameter, the marginal often dome-shaped or hemispheric- 
protuberant; monoicous^; involucre cylindric, truncate, 1-1.5 mm. high, 0.3-0.45 
mm. broad, smooth or nearly so, truncate; capsules numerous, 1-3 cm. long, 0.12- 
0.175 mm. broad, dark brown or black, the valves very slightly, if at all, twisted on 
drying, freely provided with stomata; spores fuscous, becoming opaque, 44-51 /z in 
maximum diameter, outer face densely muricate-papillate, the papillae conic-acute 
or subtruncate, 1.5-3 m long, the inner faces with much lower irregular papillae; 
pseudo-elaters fuscous, 40-150 m long, 5-15 ti wide, mostly of 1-3 cells, rarely branched; 
columella smooth. 

On ground in a moist shady spot, Tagus Cove Mountain, at eleva- 
tion of 3,300 feet, Albemarle Island, Galapagos Islands, Howell 
No. 213 (holotype), May 26, 1932. 

Anthoceros simulans is perhaps most nearly allied to A. fusiformis 
Aust., of the Pacific Coast of North America, from which it differs 
in its short-cylindric involucre (1-1.5 mm. long and 0.3-0.45 mm. 
wide vs. 2-9 mm. long and 0.35-1.2 mm. wide), in the shorter and 
slenderer capsules (1-3 cm. long and 0.12-0.175 mm. wide vs. 
2-9 cm. long and 0.25-0.5 mm. wide), and in the longer stouter less 
acicular papillae of the more opaque spores. 

From Anthoceros punctatus L. and A. crispulus (Mont.) Douin, 
A. simulans differs in the more slender capsules and especially in the 
much more crowded, less acute, and usually shorter papillae of the 
more opaque spores. 

Of the numerous species from tropical America described by F. 
Stephani, Anthoceros turbinatus of Mexico, if we may judge by 
description alone, may appear to be the most closely allied to the 
Galapagos plant, but there is nothing turbinate or carnose about the 
thallus of A. simulans. 



Anthoceros vegetans M. A. Howe, sp. nov. 

Thallo mediocri, olivaceo, cavernoso, terricola, aliquanto carnoso, dissecto vel 
laciniati-lobulato, lobis plerumque flabelliformibus aut sublinearibus, saepe lobulis 
pyriformibus vel subglobosis marginalibus, deinde ut propagulis disjunctis, praedi- 
tis; superficie vulgo rugosa vel canaliculata, cellulis paginae dorsalis plerumque 
30-50 n in diam. max.; monoica; androeciis saepe involucris approximatis; involu- 
cris brevi-cylindricis, interdum geminatis, carnosis, 1.4-2.1 mm. altis, 0.75-1.1 mm. 
latis, rotundati-truncatis, ore subintegro vel subcrenato, superficie fere cristas vel 
lamellas humiles ferente; capsulis paucis, 5.5-8 mm. longis, 0.2-0.35 mm. latis, 

' Antheridia have not been identified with certainty, but cavities, looking as if they had been occupied 
by antheridia occur on the same plant as the capsules. 



206 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

olivaceis, deinde brunneis, stomatibus passim paucis, oblongo-ellipticis, plerumque 
52-65 n longis, 31-47 ;u latis; sporis pallidi-flavis, translucentibus, 26-40 n in diam. 
max., facie exteriori dense et minute papillati-muriculata, papillis interdum lineas 
irregulares aut areolas imperfectas formantibus, faciebus interioribus similariter sed 
minus fortiter notatis aut paene levibus; pseudo-elateribus paucis et inconspicuis, 
plerumque cellula una constitutis; columella conspicue filis pluri-cellularibus ramen- 
taceis fibrillata, eis fortasse ofEiciis pseudo-elaterum fungentibus. 

In ripis humidis in loco "Wafer Bay, Cocos Island" dicto specimen unicum 
(n. 234) John Thomas Howell, Jun. 28, 1932, legit. 

Anthoceros vegetans A. laevi aflfinis est, sed habitu propagulifero, capsulis brevibus 
(5.5-8 mm. vs. 10-35 mm.), columella fibrillata, sculptura sporarum, defectu 
pseudo-elaterum veri simili, etc., facile distinguitur. 

Species fortasse A. propagulifero Staph, chilensi sterili affinis est, sed thallo non 
lamellifero. A Anthoceroti bulbifero Steph. peruviano in sculptura sporarum 
A. vegetans longe distat. 

Typus: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 215007. 

Thallus medium-sized, olivaceous, cavernous, terricolous, rather carnose, dis- 
sected or laciniate-lobulate, the lobes commonly fiabelliform or sublinear, often with 
pyriform or subglobose marginal lobules detachable as propagula; surface commonly 
rugose or canaliculate, the surface cells mostly 30-50 m in maximum diameter; 
monoicous; androecia often at base of involucre; involucres short-cylindric, some- 
times geminate, carnose, 1.4-2.1 mm. high, 0.75-1.1 mm. broad, rounded-truncate, 
the mouth subentire or somewhat crenate, the surface commonly bearing low 
crests or lamellae; capsules few, 5.5-8 mm. long, 0.2-0.35 mm. broad, olivaceous, 
becoming brown, rather few, oblong-elliptic, mostly 52-65 n long, 31-47 n wide; 
spores pale yellow, translucent, 26-40 m in max. diam., the outer face densely and 
minutely papillate-muriculate, the papillae sometimes forming irregular ridges or 
imperfect areolae, the inner faces similarly and less strongly' marked or nearly 
smooth; pseudo-elaters few and inconspicuous, mostly 1 -celled; columella con- 
spicuously fringed with pluricellular branching filaments, these perhaps taking the 
place of pseudo-elaters. 



On moist steep banks of a stream, Wafer Ba}^, Cocos Island, 
Howell No. 234 (holotype), June 28, 1932. 

Anthoceros vegetans belongs to the A. laevis group, but is easily 
distinguished from those species by its propaguliferous habit, its 
short capsules (5.5-8 mm. vs. 10-35 mm.), its fibrillate columella, 
its apparently almost deficient pseudo-elaters, and by the spore- 
markings, the papillae often showing a pronounced tendency to be 
confluent into ridges and imperfect areolae. The capsules as found 
are not dehiscing and it is probable that they are not fully mature. 

Of the numerous American species of this group proposed by 
Stephani, Anthoceros vegetans is possibly allied to the sterile A. 
propaguliferus from Chile but the thallus in that species is said to 
be "antice lamellifera, lamellis confertis", while in the Cocos Island 
plant, lamellae are very weakly developed or wanting. Anthoceros 
bulbiferus Steph., from Peru, has spores that are "grosse remoteque 
spinosae", words that could never be applied to the spores of A. 
vegetans. 



Vol. XXI] HOWE— THE HEPATICAE OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 207 

Dendroceros crispus (Sw.) Nees 

On decaying wood, with foliose Hepaticae, lichens, etc.. Inde- 
fatigable Island, Howell No. 255. 

The specimens have not the long smooth involucres attributed to 
this species by Stephani (Sp. Hep. 5: 1015), but in this respect they 
are very similar to West Indian specimens referred to D. crispus 
(type from Jamaica) by Evans and others. The involucres are 
4-4.5 mm. long and bear a moderate number of small irregular 
appendages. In West Indian specimens seen, the involucres are 3-5 
mm. long, although Stephani describes them as 8 mm. long. The 
capsules of the Indefatigable Island plant are about 1 cm. long, the 
spores are 40-50 ix in maximum diameter and minutely granulate, and 
the elaters are about 300 fx long. Possibh' the capsules average 
shorter than in typical D. crispus, but the writer does not find any 
reliable characters for specific distinction. Maii}^ species have been 
described in this genus without satisfactory diagnostic characters. 

In the Mitten Herbarium, now in the possession of The New York 
Botanical Garden, is a fragment of the type of Monoclea crispata 
Hook. [Dendroceros crispatus (Hook.) Nees], from the island of St. 
Vincent, and also what is apparently a part of the original of Antho- 
ceros brasiliensis Raddi [Dendroceros brasiliensis (Raddi) Nees]. The 
Raddi plant has immature capsules included in the involucres 
(which are about 6 mm. long), though Raddi's figures show mature 
dehiscing capsules. Stephani makes Dendroceros crispatus a synonym 
of D. brasiliensis and describes the involucres of the composite as 10 
mm. long, the spores 72 yu, and the elaters 360 /jl long. In the au- 
thentic specimen of Monoclea crispata Hook., the involucres are 4-5 
mm. long ("vix duas lineas longus", according to Hooker), the 
spores are 45-65 /x in maximum diameter and minutely muriculate, 
and the elaters are 160-300 /x long. The species of Dendroceros are 
in need of critical revision, with a reexamination of the type speci- 
mens, beginning with Anthoceros crispus Swartz. 



208 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 7 

Figures 1-4, Riccia Howellii M. A. Howe, sp. nov. 

1. Plants (James Bay, no. 187, p. p.). natural size. 

2. Cross section of holotype (Albemarle Island, no. 209), showing spores, etc., 

X38. 

3. Cross section of holotype (Albemarle Island, no. 209), showing epidermis, 

etc., X 70. 

4. Outer face of spore of holotype (Albemarle Island, no. 209), X 246. 

Figure 5, Riccia iodocheila M. A. Howe, sp. nov. 

5. Outer face of spore of holotype (Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, no. 201), X 246. 

Figures 6 and 7, Anthoceros vegetans M. A. Howe, sp. nov. 

6. A lobe of the thallus of holotype (Cocos Island, no. 234), somewhat more 

bulbiferous than is normal, X 25. 

7. Spores of holotype, X 319. Pseudo-elaters are scarcely recognizable. 

Figure 8, Anthoceros simulans M. A. Howe, sp. nov. 

8. Spores and pseudo-elaters of holotype (Albemarle Island, no. 213), X 246. 

Figure 9, Notothylas galapagensis M. A. Howe, sp. nov. 

9. A part of the capsule wall of holotype (James Bay, no. 187, p. p.), showing 

thickenings, X 246. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCl., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 17 



HOWE] Plate 7 




PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 18, pp. 211-224, plate 8, 1 text fig. October 26, 1934 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 



No. 18 



LICHENS* 



BY 

DAVID H. LINDER 
Curator, Farloiv Herbarhim 

During the course of an expedition to the Galapagos Islands in 
1932 and to Guadalupe Island in 1931, Mr. John Thomas Howell, 
botanist of the expeditions, made incidental collections of lichens 
to the extent of a little over fifty numbers, for the most part from the 
Guadalupe Island off the coast of Lower California and from the 
islands of the Revillagigedo group. 

Among the families represented, excluding the Rocellaceae which 
are being studied by Professor 0. V. Darbishire, members of the 
Usneaceae appear to be dominant. The family is represented by 
sixteen numbers which include eleven different species and among 
them are one species of Alectoria, seven species, one variety and one 
form of Ramalina, and two species of Usnea. The next largest 
family, so far as the number of species is concerned, is the Physiaceae 
which includes one new species of Anaptychia and six species of 
Physcia, in which genus one species is described as new. The third 
largest family is the Parmeliaceae, represented by eight numbers but 
with only one species of Cetraria and four species of Parmelia. 

The remainder of the families are represented by from one to three 
species. Among these is the interesting species Pertusaria bispora 
(Farlow) Linder which, originally named Pertusaria leioplara f. 

' Contribution from the Laboratories of Cryptogam ic Botany of Harvard University, No. 130. 

October 26. 1934 



212 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

hispora by Farlow^ but without a description, was listed from Tower 
Island of the Galapagos group. This second collection was made 
on Socorro Island, off the west coast of Mexico, nearly twenty 
degrees north of the type locality. 

The systematic portion of this paper, which follows immediately, 
is arranged according to the system of Zalbruckner in the "Natiir- 
lichen Pflanzenfamilien."^ 

Sphaerophoraceae 

Sphaerophorus coralloides Pers. 

Pine forest, Guadalupe Island, Lower California, Nov^ember 15, 
1931, /. T. Howell (34)*. Determined by Dr. D. N. Voigtlaender- 
Tetzner. 

Pyrenopsidaceae 
Psorotichia squamulosa Zalbr. 
Summit of Clarion Island, June 28, 1932, /. T. Howell (20). 

COLLEMACEAE 

Leptogium moUucanum (Pers.) Wainio 

Wafer Bay, Cocos Island, June 28, 1932, J. T. Howell (7). Deter- 
mined by Dr. J. Lowe. 

Leptogium sp. 

Lower limits of forest above Braithwaite Bav, Socorro Island, 
March 27, 1932, /. T. Howell (8). 

This specimen is sterile. The thallus, hov/ever, would seem to 
place the species near L. moUucanum. 

Lecideaceae 
Lecidea (Psora) crenata (Taylor) Nyl. 

On cypress, Guadalupe Island, Lower California, March 17, 1932, 
J. T. Howell (5). 

Although it is stated on the label that this specimen was growing 
"on cypress," the substratum is, in fact, reddish volcanic earth. 
There is apparently some doubt about the differences between this 
species and L. decipiens; for there is a fairly large series of both 
species which intergrade to such an extent as to cause Dr. Farlow to 
make a notation questioning the status of the species. 

- Farlow, W. G. in A. Stewart, Notes on the lichens of the Galapagos Islands. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 
Ser. IV. 1:431-446. 1912. 

' Zalbruckner, A. Lichens (Ascolichens, Hymenolichens) , in Engler & Prantl, Die Naturlichen Pflanzen- 
familien, 2nd ed. 8:61-263. figs. 32-127. 1926. 

* The numbers cited in parentheses are those assigned by the writer. 



Vol. XXI] 



LINDER— LICHENS 



213 



Lecidea (Psora) globifera Ach. 

Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 26, 1932, /. T. 
Howell (6, 45). Although the collection is sterile, number 45 is 
tentatively assigned to this species. 




Fig. 1. Pertusaria hispora (Farlow) Linder. On the left an ascus with two im- 
mature ascospores. Note the extreme thickening of the ascus wall. Upper middle: 
a mature ascospore with definitely thickened lateral walls. On the right a section 
through a verruca showing two locules, the distribution of the algal symbionts, 
and the thin cortex which becomes thicker above the verruca. 



PeRTU SARI ACE AE 

Pertusaria bispora (Farlow) Linder, comb. nov. 

Fig. 1; Plate 8, figs. 1 and 2. 

Pertusaria leioplaca f. hispora Farlow (1. c.) 

Thallus "Sea foam green" (Ridgway), laevis, demum parce fissuratus, KOHdb 
laeviter lutescens; cortice supero exili; apotheciis 1-5 in verrucis irregulariter hemi- 
sphericis, disculis parvis, punctiformibus, indistinctis; paraphysibus tenuissimis, 



214 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ramosis; ascis 150 m± longis, 30-38 m latis; hyalinis, parietibus crassis, bisporis vel 
interdum unisporis; sporis 47-65 fj. longis, 18.5-25.5 m latis, ellipsoidalibus, laevibus 
hyalinisque. 

Thallus "Sea foam green" (Ridgway), smooth, becoming sparsely fissured, 
KOH ± faintly yellowish, only the upper surface corticate and the cortex poorly 
developed; apothecia 1-5 in irregularly hemispherical elevated verrucae, the disc 
small, punctiform, indistinct; paraphyses slender (less than 1 n), branching; ascis 
thick-walled, hyaline, about 150 m long, 30-38 fi wide, 2-spored, occasionally 1-spored; 
spores 47-65 m long, 18.5-25.5 m wide, hyaline, smooth, ellipsoidal. 

Galapagos Islands: Tower Island, on trunks and branches of 
Bursera graveolens, Alban Stewart, 153, type, in the Farlow Her- 
barium, and cotype in the Herbarium of the California Academy of 
Sciences, No. 119734. Revillagigedo Islands: Socorro Island, March 
27, 1932,/. T.Howell (17). 

In contrast with P. leioplaca which produces from four to eight 
spores in an ascus, and of which the thallus, according to Hasse^, 
reacts positively to KOH, changing to yellow and then to pale violet, 
this species produces two spores, or occasionally one, in an ascus and 
gives but a faint ^^ellowish reaction with KOH. The extended range 
of the plant would also indicate that this lichen is more than a local 
variant of P. leioplaca. 



Lecanoraceae 
Lecanora Hageni Ach. 

On rocks, summit of Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 
23, 1932,7. T.Howell (38). 

The apothecia of this specimen are larger than are those of the 
majority of the specimens in the Farlow Herbarium, especially of 
those occurring on rock, but it agrees with material occurring on 
wood. The spore sizes agree with those given for the species. The 
reaction with KOH is positive, the thallus turning yellow. 



Parmeliaceae 

Cetraria scutata Poetsch 

Pine forest, Guadalupe Island, Lower California, November 15, 
1931,7. T. Howell (3). 



Parmelia conspersa (Ehrb.) Ach. 

South end of Guadalupe Island, Lower California, November 16, 
1931,7. T. Howell (9). 

5 Hasse, H. E. The lichen flora of Southern California. Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17(1):1-132. 1913. 



Vol. XXI] UNDER— LICHENS 215 

Parmelia perforata (Wulf.) Ach. 

Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 27, 1932, /. T. 
Howell (10). 



Parmelia perlata (L.) Ach. 

Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 26, 1932, /. T. 
Howell (13). 



Parmelia physodes (L.) Ach. 

Pine forest, Guadalupe Island, November 15, 1931, /. T. Howell 
(11, 14, 15); on cypress, Guadalupe Island, March 17, 1932, /. T. 
Howell (12); on the ground, Guadalupe Island, March 17, 1932, 
/. T. Howell (16). In specimen number 15, the laciniae are inflated 
and thus approach those of P. enteromorpha Ach. 



USNEACEAE 

Alectoria sarmentosa Ach. 

Near the village, Chatham Island, Galapagos Islands, April 18, 
1932, M. Willows (l). 



Ramalina calicaris (L.) Fr. 

Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 27, 1932, /. T. 
Howell (21). 



Ramalina calicaris var. canaliculata Fr. 

Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 27, 1932, /. T. 
Howell (22). 



Ramalina ceruchis (Ach.) DeNot. 

Pine forest, Guadalupe Island, Lower California, November 15, 
1931, J. T. Howell (23, 24). Collection number 24 was mixed with 
R. homalea and was apparently growing with that species. 



216 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Ramalina ceruchis forma cephalota Tuck. 

South end of Guadalupe Island, Lower California, November 16, 
1931, J. T. Howell (25). 



Ramalina combeoides Nyl. 

South Bay, Cedros Island, August 17, 1932, Templeton Crocker, 
(26). 

This specimen, which is fertile, shows variations in the thallus from 
smooth to shallowly concave-pitted, and from terete to slightly 
flattened. According to Howe^, the southernmost range of this 
species is San Diego. This specimen therefore represents a southerly 
extension of the range. 



Ramalina complanata (Sw.) Ach. 

Summit of Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 23, 1932, 
J. T. Howell (27). 



Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. 

On oak above Northeast Anchorage, Guadalupe Island, Lower 
California, November 14, 1931, /. T. Howell, (32). 

So far as the writer has been able to ascertain, this species has not 
been reported south of Santa Monica, and Santa Cruz Island, 
California, hence it would appear that this specimen represents 
another southern extension of species range. 



Ramalina homalea Ach. 

San Nicolas Island, California, March 13, 1932, /. T. Howell 
(31, 33); pine forest, Guadalupe Island, November 15, 1931, /. T. 
Howell, (28, 29); south end of Guadalupe Island, November 16, 
1931, /. T. Howell, (24, 30). 

According to Howe (/. c), Santa Barbara and San Diego are listed 
as the southernmost stations for this species. 



Ramalina usneoides Fr. 

Socorro Island, March 27, 1932, /. T. Howell (48). 

« Howe, R. H. North American Species of the genus Ramalina. The Bryologist 16:65-74. 1913. 



Vol. XXI] LINDER— LICHENS 217 

Usnea duriuscula J. Motyka 

Pine forest, Guadalupe Island, Lower California, November 15, 
1931, /. 7. Howell (36). 

Although this specimen is sterile, it agrees in thallus characters 
with material from Mexico which was determined by J. Motyka, and 
accordingly is so listed. 



Usnea florida (L.) Web. 

On oak above Northeast Anchorage, Guadalupe Island, Lower 
California, November 14, 1931, J. T. Howell (37). 



Caloplacaceae 
Caloplaca cirrochroa T. Fr. 

On rocks, Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 22, 1932, 
/. T. Howell (2). 

This specimen, growing with Physcia stellaris (which see) and the 
following species, is sterile but its general appearance and the re- 
action of the thallus to KOH would indicate that it belongs here. 



Caloplaca murorum (Hoffm.) T. Fr. 

On rocks, Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 22, 1932, 
J. T. Howell (2). 



Theloschistaceae 

Theloschistes flavicans Norm. 

Pine forests, Guadalupe Island, Lower California, November 15, 
1931, J. T. Howell (35). Determined by Dr. D. N. Voigtlaender- 
Tetzner. 



Physciaceae 
Anaptychia ciliatomarginata Linder, sp. nov. 

Plate 8, figs. 3 and 4. 

Thallus applanatus apice assurgens, usque 2-3 cm. radio, sursum albidus vel 
cinereo-albidus, infra albidus, laxe ramosus; laciniis angustis, raro 1.5 mm. latis, 
KOH+ luteis, utrinque corticatis, margine ciliatis, ciliis albis apice nigrescentibus; 



218 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

apotheciis usque 3 mm. diametro, breve stipitatis, discis planis vel concavis, atris vel 
pruinosis, excipulis albis integris, externe longe ciliatis, hypotheciis hyalinis; para- 
physibus 72-108 n longis, 3-3.5 n latis, simplicibus vel interdum apice breve ramosis, 
sursum fuscis, sensim inflatis et epithecium formantibus; ascis 48.5-75.5 n longis, 
9-14.5 n latis, clavatis, monostichis vel irregulariter distichis, octosporis; sporis 
14.5-16.5 M longis (vel raro 12-18 m longis), 7-8 ii latis, fuscis, ellipsoidalibus vel 
subinaequilateraliter ellipsoidalibus bilocularibus, parietibus crassis. 

Thallus up to 2-3 cm. in radius, spreading, the tips ascending, whitish to grayish- 
white above, whitish below, loosely branching, the laciniae narrow, seldom more 
than 1.5 mm. broad, KOH+ yellow, corticate on both sides, the medulla KOH-, 
the margin ciliate with long fibrils which are white but become dark at the ends; 
apothecia up to 3 m.m. in diameter, short-stipitate, the disc flat or concave, black or 
pruinose, the thalline exciple white and entire, the outer periphery long-ciliate; 
hypothecium hyaline; paraphyses 72-108 /x long, 3-3.5 n wide, simple or occasionally 
short-branched at the apex where they are slightly inflated and fuscous; asci 
clavate, 48.5-75.5 /j. long, 9-14.5 /x wide, 8-spored, monostichous or irregularly dis- 
tichous; the spores 14.5-16.5 p long (or rarely 12-18 ju long), 7-8 jj. wide, ellipsoidal or 
subinequilaterally ellipsoidal, biloculate, thick-walled. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 215010, co-type in Farlow Herb., 
Harvard University; south end of Guadalupe Island, Lower Califor- 
nia, November 16, 1931, /. T. Howell (47). 

This beautiful species resembles and is closely related to A. 
erinacea in its general lacy appearance, but differs from that species 
in its consistently lighter thallus, the narrower laciniae, and the long 
ciliations on the outer edge of the exciple, the last character suggest- 
ing the specific name. The spores also are somewhat smaller than 
those of A. erinacea since Herre^ states that those of the latter species 
measure 15-23 n long and 7.5-11 n wide, and Hasse (1. c.) that they 
measure 16-32 n long and 7.5-15 ix wide. Anaptychia comosa, 
although resembling this species in the ciliate margins of the thallus, 
lacks the ciliations on the outer periphery of the exciple. It may 
also be readily separated from this species by its much broader 
thallus which is conspicuously gray above. 



Physcia adscendens Fr. 

Physcia hispida var. adscendens Fr, 

On oak above Northeast Anchorage, Guadalupe Island, Lower 
California, November 14, 1931, /. T. Howell. 



Physcia aegilata (Ach.) Nyl. 

Summit of Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 23, 1932, 
/. T. Howell (18). 



' Herre, A. W. C. T. The lichen flora of the Santa Cruz Peninsula, California. Proc. Washington Acad. 
Sci. 12(2) :27-269. 1910. 



Vol. XXI UNDER— LICHENS 219 

Physcia aipolia (Ach.) Nyl. 

On twigs and bark, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 
27, 1932,7. T. Howell (44). 

This specimen appears to be young and poorly developed. The 
margins of the few apothecia that are present in the specimen are 
minutely crenulate, and the thallus is colored below and gives rise 
to dark rhizoids, hence the specimen would appear to belong in this 
species. 



Physcia (Euphyscia) Howellii Linder, sp. nov. 

Plate 8, fig. 3. 

Thallus parvus, usque 1-2 cm. radio, applanatus, sursum laevis, esorediatus, 
KOH+ luteus, irregulariter pauce ramosus, extremis rotundatis vel lobatis, infra 
albidus pauce rhizoidigerus, medulla KOH-; apotheciis usque 2.5 mm. diametro, 
sessilibus vel subsessilibus, discis planis vel laeviter concavis, atris; excipulis dis- 
tincte crenatis; hypotheciis hyalinis; paraphysibus 60-70 x 2 n, apice inflatis, 3.6 fi 
diam., fuscis et epithecium fuscum formantibus; ascis clavatis, 90 fx vel 99-128 )u 
longis, 27-35 m latis, 2-8 sporis, monostichis vel irregulariter distichis; sporis ellip- 
soidalibus vel late rotundato-biconicis, 25 /x vel 28-32.5 ju longis et 12-14.5 ju latis 
(vel raro 11-16.5 n latis) in ascis octosporis vel 29-34 n longis et 18-20 fi latis in ascis 
bi- vel quadrisporis, uniseptatis raro unicellularibus, fuscis, parietibus crassis. 

Thallus small, up to 1-2 cm. in radius, adnate, the upper surface smooth, esore- 
diate, greenish or greenish-gray, KOH + yellow, irregularly few- branched, the ends 
rounded or lobate, the under side whitish with few concolorous rhizoids, medulla 
KOH-; apothecia up to 2.5 mm. in diameter, sessile or subsessile, the disc flat or 
slightly concave, black, the margin distinctly crenate; hypothecium hyaline; para- 
physes 60-70 /x long, 2 /i wide, inflated and 3.6 ix in diameter at the tips where they 
are colored, forming a dark epithecium; asci clavate (90 n or) 99-128 n long, 27-35 m 
wide, 2-8-spored, irregularly distichous or monostichous; spores ellipsoidal or 
broadly rounded, biconical, nonseptate or 1-septate, in the eight-spored asci 28- 
32.5 M long, 12-14.5 n wide, or rarely 25 n long and 11-16.5 m wide, or in the two 
or four-spored asci the spores 29-34 n long and 18-20 m wide. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 215009, co-type in Farlow Herb., 
Harvard University; growing on bark among hepatics, lower limits 
of forest above Braithwaite Bay, Socorro Island, March 27, 1932, 
J. T. Howell (a). 

The dimensions of the spores of this species immediately separate 
it from the related species such as P. stellaris, P. aipolia, P. Leana, 
and P. crispa. Because of its broad thallus it resembles the last 
three species, and because of the crenate margin of the exciple, the 
second and last species. From P. aipolia, it is separated by the pale 
under surface and the concolorous rhizoids, while only the large 
spores separate P. Howellii from P. crispa. There are other char- 
acters to be found in the thallus, but the writer hesitates to stress 
them, since the scanty type material does not allow sufficient obser- 
vations on the range of variation to be found in this new species. 
Nevertheless, because of the spore-size and the distinctly crenate 
margin of the apothecium, the specimen is worthy of recognition 
under the new name. 



220 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Physcia picta (Sw.) Nyl. 

Summit of Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 22, 1932, 
/. T.Howell (19). 

The reaction of the thallus to KOH is positive, the color changing 
to yellow and then to yellowish-green. The hypothallus is black, 
and the spores are 10-15 ju long and 5-7 n wide. 



Physcia stellaris Nyl. 

Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 22, 1932, /. T. 
Howell (2). 

This specimen, grov/ing on rock with Caloplaca cirrochroa and 
C. murorum, is somewhat doubtfully referred to this species since 
the thallus is somewhat broader than the usual forms and is less 
well developed. In contrast to these characters, which appear to be 
more or less variable in the species, the reaction to KOH is positive, 
and the spores measure 13.5-16 yu long and 5-7.5 n wide. 



Hymenolichens 

Dictyonema sericeum (Fr.) Mont. 

Dichonema sericeum (Fr.) Mont. 

On wet slope near the summit of Indefatigable Island, Galapagos 
Islands, May 10, 1932, /. T. Howell (4). 

This species has not hitherto been reported from the Galapagos 
Islands although it is not uncommon in tropical or subtropical 
countries. 



The distribution and occurrence of the lichens of the Galapagos 
Islands has already been summarized by Stewart (1. c.) and hence 
little can be added by the writer, since among those specimens al- 
ready listed above, only Alectoria sarmentosa from Chatham Island 
and Dictyonema sericeum from Indefatigable Island were collected 
in the Galapagos group. However, in order that the lichen flora 
of the more northern islands may be compared with that of the 
Galapagos, there follows a tabulated list of species arranged alpha- 
betically according to genus and without regard to families. 



Guadalupe 


Cedros 


Clarion 


Socorro 


Island 


Island 


Island 


Island 


+ 


— 


— 





— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


+ 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


- 


- 


— 


+ 


— 


■ — 


— 


+ 



Vol. XXI] UNDER— LICHENS 221 



Anaptychia cilia tomarginata 

Caloplaca cirrochroa 

Caloplaca murorum 

Cetraria scutata , 

Lecanora Hageni 

Lecidea crenata 

Lecidea globifera , 

Leptogium moUucanum ? 

Parmelia conspersa 

Parmelia perforata 

Parmelia perlata , 

Parmelia physodes + — — 

Pertusaria bispora — — — 

Physcia adscendens -f- — — 

Physcia aegilata — — + 

Physcia aipolia — 

Physcia Howellii — 

Physcia picta — 

Physcia stellaris — 

Psorotichia squamulosa — 

Ramalina calicaris — 

R. calicaris v. canaliculata — 

Ramalina ceruchis + — — — 

R. ceruchis f. cephalota + — — — 

Ramalina combeoides — -(- — — 

Ramalina complanata — — + — 

Ramalina farinacea + — — — 

Ramalina homalea '• + — — — 

Ramalina usneoides — — — -f- 

Sphaerophorus corralloides -f- — — — 

Theloschistes flavicans + — — — 

Usnea duriuscula + — — — 

Usnea florida + — — — 



' Also collected on San Nicolas Island. 



— 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 


— 


+ 


— 


+ 


— 


— 


+ 


— 


+ 



222 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES IProC, 4tM Ser. 



Plate 8 



Fig. 1. Pertusaria bispora (Farlow) Linder. Photomicrograph to show the one- 
to four-pored hemispherical verrucae, and the slightly fissured thallus. X 9.2. 

Fig. 2. Pertusaria bispora (Farlow) Linder. Photograph to show the relatively 
even thallus and the distribution of the verrucae. X %. 

Fig. 3. Anaptychia ciliatomarginata Linder, spec. nov. Photograph to show the 
manner of branching of the thallus and the elongate-ciliate margin of the slender 
laciniae. The under surface of the plant is shown by the lower specimen. X %. 

Fig. 4. Anaptychia ciliatomarginata. Linder, spec. nov. Photomicrograph to 
show more clearly the elongate cilia on the margins of the apothecia, and the black, 
slightly granulose surface of the disc. X 9.2. 

Fig. 5. Physcia Howellii Linder, spec. nov. The upper specimen illustrates the 
characteristic type of branching of the thallus with its broad, inconspicuously lobed 
laciniae. X 2.5. The lower figure is a photomicrograph of a fruiting body to illus- 
trate the crenulate margin of the apothecium. X 10.2. 



PROG. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 18 



UNDER] Plate 8 








PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE '^^4>V^ ^ ^*A)"%^ 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES^ 
Fourth Series 
Vol. XXI, No. 19, pp. 225-232 February 6, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 19 

A REVISION OF TWO SPECIES OF VINCIGUERRIA, 
A GENUS OF DEEP SEA FISHES 



BY 

DAVID B. HORSBURGH 
Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California 



The genus Vinciguerria comprises at present six generally accepted 
species, namely, V. poweriae (Cocco); attenuata (Cocco) ; nimbaria 
(Jordan and Williams); lucetia (Garman); raoulensis (Waite); and 
sanzoi Jespersen and Taning. Of these, the first four species appear 
to be valid. On the other hand, V . raoulensis is somewhat doubtful, 
McCulloch suggesting its identity with V. lucetia. It was described 
from a single specimen, checking in all details with the latter species 
with the exception of the number of dorsal and anal rays. Consider- 
ing the fragility of these structures it is possible that an injury 
caused the loss of a few of the rays. Furthermore, V. sanzoi is 
identical with V . nimbaria, as will be demonstrated. 

In distinguishing the various species of this genus, a number of 
features have been used. A pronounced short-coming of most of 
these characters is that they exhibit wide ranges of variation and a 
striking degree of overlapping. Two exceptions to this general rule 
were apparently formed by the number of gill rakers on the first 
branchial arch, and by a pair of photophores occurring on the chin 

February 6, !<)35 



226 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

of certain species. These two characters have been carefully 
examined in the course of the present investigation. The result of 
this study shows the former character to be an excellent and reliable 
differentiating feature, while the latter is of questionable systematic 
value. These photophores are evidently the anterior members of the 
upper lateral rows of organs, separated by a relatively wide space 
from the second organs, but still an integral part of these rows. 
Therefore, no great importance can be attached to the presence or 
absence of these members, but such inconstancy must rather be 
considered as a simple numerical variation at the anterior end of a 
linear series. No comparable systematic significance has been 
attributed to similar variations commonly found posteriorly in these 
rows. The presence or absence of any single organ in such a varying 
series cannot be taken as a non-intergrading difference of any appre- 
ciable importance. This conclusion is based upon the fact that 
among the specimens of Vinciguerria lucetia examined, one indi- 
vidual had but one photophore, on the right side of the symphysis 
with no indication of any such member on the left, while an addi- 
tional two specimens entirely lacked these photophores at the sym- 
physis. These three specimens were mature individuals and were 
identical in every other respect with the other members of the 
species. 

Because of lack of material of Vinciguerria poweriae and V. 
attenuata it is impossible to venture a discussion of the status of these 
two forms. However, it was deemed advisable to give a redescrip- 
tion of V. lucetia and V. nimharia to clarify their relationships and 
status in the genus. It will be noticed in the following descriptions 
that V. nimharia possesses fewer gill rakers, a slightly greater number 
of photophores in the upper lateral row, and a slightly greater body 
depth than V . lucetia. 

For convenience the two lateral rows of photophores are divided 
into the following natural series: symphysis to pectorals, (S-P); 
isthmus to pectorals, (I-P) ; pectorals to ventrals, (P-V) ; ventrals to 
anal, (V-A) ; anal to caudal base, (A-C). 



Vol. XXIJ HORSBURGH—VINCICUERRIA 227 



Vinciguerria lucetia (Garman) 

Maurolicus lucetius Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 24, 1899, p. 242, pi. J, 
fig. 2. 

Zalarges lucetius Brauer, Wiss. Ergebnisse Deutsch. Tiefsee-Exp. "Valdivia," 
1906, 1, p. 96, fig. 40; 2,p. 186, taf. 36, fig. 9; Gilbert, Mem. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 26, 1908, p. 237; Weber and Beaufort, Fish. Indo-Austral. Arch., 
2, 1913, p. 119, fig. 44; Weber, "Siboge" Fische, 1913, p. 21; Regan, 
Larval Fish. "Terra Nova," 1916, p. 137, figs. 6, 7; Jesperson and 
Taning, Vid. Medd. Dansk. Nat. For., 70, 1919, p. 219; McCulloch, 
Rec. Austral. Mus., 14, 1923, p. 115; Jesperson and Taning, Rep. 
Danish Ocean. Exped. 1908-10, 2A, 12, 1926, pp. 22, 23, 27-30; Jordan, 
Evermann and Clark, Rep. U. S. Comm. Fish., 1928, 2 (1930), p. 73; 
Norman "Discovery" Reps., 2, 1930, p. 290-291; Parr, Bull. Bingham 
Ocean. Inst., 2, 4, p. 11. 

Description: Mature specimens, 25 mm. to 52 mm. standard length. Depth of 
body increasing with age, greatest depth immediately behind posterior margin of 
opercle, 5.9 (5.5-6.7) in standard length. Depth at anus 8.3 (7.7-9.1) in standard 
length. Least depth of caudal peduncle 2.8 (2.3-3.2) in greatest depth. Length of 
head 3.8 (3.3-4.2) in standard length. Horizontal diameter of orbit 0.7 (0.5-1.0) in 
length of snout, 3.0 (2.6-3.7) in head. Maxillary 1.4 (1.3-1.8) in head. Lower jaw 
extending slightly beyond upper. The entire edge of maxillary and dentary studded 
with subulate teeth which are compressed laterally and curved posteriorly; on the 
maxillary one or two short teeth, sometimes directed anteriorl3% occur between 
regularly spaced longer ones; those on dentaries irregularly unequal in length and 
crowded together. Four or five teeth on palatines. One tooth on each side of 
vomer. Snout to origin of dorsal fin 1.7 (1.6-1.8) in standard length; fin of 14-15 
rays; first ray 1.9 (1.7-2.1) in fourth, which is longest, being 2.1 (2.1-2.3) in head; 
succeeding rays decreasing regularly in length. Origin of anal fin vertically below 
eighth, ninth or tenth ray of dorsal; fin of 15 (14-16) rays; first ray 1.9 (1.8-2.0) in 
third or fourth, which is longest, being 2.9 (2.7-3.0) in head; remaining rays de- 
creasing evenly in length. Pectoral base vertically below posterior edge of opercle; 
fin of ten rays, one specimen with nine. Pelvics located about midway between tip 
of snout and base of caudal; fin of seven rays, with distal third of each split; longest 
ray 2.4 (1.6-3.0) in head. Adipose fin located vertically above last anal ray; its 
length from anterior edge of base to tip 1.9 (1.6-2.0) in horizontal diameter of orbit. 
Caudal lunate; the fragility of the caudal rays makes comparative measurements 
doubtful. 

The deciduous nature of the scales makes it improbable that a preserved specimen 
with complete squamation will be observed. On those specimens examined, how- 
ever, several scattered groups of cycloid scales indicate complete covering of body 
in life. 

All photophores are directed ventrally; the lens increasing in size with age and 
appearing as a silver sphere, its dorsal half surrounded by a layer of black pigment. 
A photophore on preorbital at lower anterior margin of orbit; one at lower posterior 
margin of orbit; a third immediately behind margin of preopercle, approximately 
on horizontal through center of orbit. Two rows of organs along each side of 
ventral part of body. Origin of lower row on vertical of anterior margin of orbit, 
extending to base of caudal. Upper row with origin at symphysis of dentary, ex- 
tending to base of anal fin. The S-P, I-P, and P-V series in the individual speci- 
mens are usually constant in the number of organs on the right and left sides. 

It is interesting to note that, in case the number of organs in one 
of the series varies from the average for the species, an equalizing 
variation is likely to occur in the following series. For example, if 



228 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc. 4th Ser. 

the V-A series has nine organs (one below average), the A-C series 
may have fifteen organs (one above average). The result is that the 
variation in any one series may be greater than that for the row. 

Measurements: The following table shows ray counts and 
measurements in hundredths of body length, representing twenty- 
two specimens. 

Length of head 26 (24-30) 

Depth of body 17 (15-18) 

Depth at anus 12 (11-13) 

Depth at caudal peduncle 6(5-7) 

Length of snout 7(5-8) 

Horizontal diameter of orbit 9 ( 7-10) 

Length of maxillary 19 (17-20) 

Snout to anal 72 (69-74) 

Snout to dorsal 59 (54-64) 

Snout to pelvics 50 (49-51) 

Length of pelvics 12 (10-15) 

Number of dorsal rays 15 (14-15) 

Number of anal rays 15 (15-16) 

Number of gill rakers 30 (27-35) 

Photophores: The following table shows the numbers and 
variations of the photophores of the same group : 

Series S-P I-P P-V V-A A-C Totals 

Lower 10(10-10) 12(11-13) 10(9-10) 14(12-16) 46(44-47) 

Upper... 11(10-11) 12(11-12) 11(10-11) 33(33-34) 

Material: Through the courtesy of the California Academy of 
Sciences, I have been able to study specimens of Vinciguerria lucetia, 
collected by the Templeton Crocker Expedition of 1932 to the 
Galapagos Islands, from the following locations: Guadalupe Island, 
10 specimens; Maria Madre Island, 8 specimens; Unknown locality, 
1 specimen. Also through the Hydrobiological Survey of Hopkins 
Marine Station, I have had access to collections made by Mr. E. C. 
Scofield containing the following specimens: 32° 42' N. Lat., 122° 
33' W. Long., 1 specimen; 32° 32' N. Lat., 117° 29' W. Long., 1 
specimen. One specimen examined from Galapagos Islands, Nat- 
ural History Museum, Stanford University, No. 8095. 

Juvenile Specimens: The specific determination of juvenile 
specimens of this genus is extremely difficult because the proportions 
of the body structures change markedly as maturity is reached. As 
Taning points out the onl}' infallible character for such a determina- 
tion is the number of gill rakers on the first branchial arch. A com- 
parison of measurements of the mature and the juvenile individuals 
as found in the tables will show the general bodily differences. The 
length of the head in the young specimens is proportionally shorter 



Vol. xxij horsbvrgh—vjncjcuerrja 229 

than that of the mature group. Even more distinct is the slender 
body of the juvenile individuals. 

The photophores increase in size with age, the lens and pigment 
each developing proportionally. These organs also increase in 
number, especially in the V-A series of the upper row. This increase 
continues until the specimen has reached approximately 25 mm. in 
length. The photophores in the head are generally the smallest. 
This is especially true of the organ on the preopercle, which is 
usually the last of the cephalic organs to develop. On two small 
specimens, this photophore was absent on both sides of the head while 
on another it was present on one side and absent on the other. 
These specimens were typical in all other respects. 

Measurements: The following table shows ray counts and 
measurements in hundredths of body length, representing nine 
juvenile specimens: 

Length of head 24 (20-26) 

Depth of body 14 (10-15) 

Depth at anus 10 ( 9-10) 

Depth at caudal peduncle 5(4-5) 

Length of snout 5(4-5) 

Horizontal diameter of orbit 6(3-8) 

Length of maxillary 14 (10-18) 

Snout to anal 70 (68-75) 

Snout to dorsal 55 (52-69) 

Snout to pelvics 47 (45-50) 

Length of pelvics 10 (10-11) 

Number of dorsal rays 14 (14-15) 

Number of anal rays 14 (13-16) 

Photophores: Table showing number and variation of photo- 
phores of juvenile group: 

Series S-P 
Lower 



I-p 


P-V 


V-A 


A-C Totals 


10 (9-10) 


12 (11-13) 
12 (11-12) 


10 (9-10) 
9 (7-10) 


14 (12-15) 45 (43-46) 
32 (30-33) 



Upper... 11 (9-12) 

Material: The Hydrobiological Survey collection contained 
eight juvenile specimens from the following locations: 33>° 42' N. 
Lat., 122° 2>2,' W. Long., 1 specimen; W 42' N. Lat., 121° 24' W. 
Long., 1 specimen; 32° 32' N. Lat., 117° 20' W. Long., 2 speci- 
mens; 23° 45' N. Lat., 111° 10' W. Long., 2 specimens; 28° 25' 
N. Lat., 117° 17' W. Long., 2 specimens. One specimen, No. 20199, 
Albatross Hyd. Station 3798, Marquesas Islands, Natural History 
Museum of Stanford University. 



230 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 



Vinciguerria nimbaria (Jordan and Williams) 

Zalarges nimbarius Jordan and Williams, in Jordan and Starks, Proc. Calif. Acad. 

Sci., (2) 5, 1896, p. 793, pi. 76; Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. 

Sci., 6, 1905, p. 349; Jordan and Scale, Bull. U. S. Bur. Fish. 15, 1906, 

p. 189. 
Vinciguerria nimbaria Gilbert, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 26, 1908, p. 237; Jordan, 

Evermann and Clark, Rep. U. S. Comm. Fish., 1928, 2 (1930), p. 73; 

Norman, "Discovery" Reps., 2, 1930, p. 292. 
Vinciguerria sanzoi Jesperson and Taning, Rep. Danish Ocean. Exped., 1908-10, 

2A, 12, 1926, p. 22-30. 

Description: Greatest depth of body 5.5 (5.0-6.2) in standard length. Depth 
at anus 7.1 (6.7-7.7) in standard length. Least depth of caudal peduncle 2.8 
(2.5-3.3) in greatest depth. Length of head 3.8 (3.4-4.2) in standard length. 
Horizontal diameter of orbit 0.7 (0.6-0.7) in snout, 3.1 (2.1-3.3) in head. Maxillary 
1.4 (1.2-1.3) in head. Lower jaw extending beyond upper. Maxillary and dentary 
studded with subulate teeth as in Vinciguerria lucetia. Snout to origin of dorsal 
fin 1.7 (1.6-1.8) in standard length; fin of 15 (13-15) rays. Origin of anal fin ver- 
tically below ninth or tenth ray of dorsal; fin of 15 (13-15) rays. Pectoral base 
vertically below posterior edge of opercle; fin of 10-11 rays. Pelvics located at a 
point slightly posterior of a line midway between tip of snout and base of caudal; 
fin of seven rays. Adipose fin located vertically above base of anal fin. 

The photophores arranged on body as in Vinciguerria lucetia. However, the 
number of organs in the upper row is greater, the average being 35 instead of 2)i. 
This is largely due to the increase in number of organs in the P-V series. 

Measurements: Ray counts and measurements in hundredths 
of body length based on seven specimens of Vinciguerria nim- 
baria: 

Length of head 26 (24-29) 

Depth at body 18 (16-20) 

Depth at anus 14 (13-15) 

Depth at caudal peduncle 6(6-7) 

Length of snout 6(6-6) 

Horizontal diameter of orbit 9(8-9) 

Length of maxillary 18 (17-20) 

Snout to anal 72 (70-72) 

Snout to dorsal 58 (55-61) 

Snout to pelvics 53 (52-54) 

Length of pelvics 10(10-12) 

Number of dorsal rays 15 (13-15) 

Number of anal rays 15 (13-15) 

Number of gill rakers 20 (18-22) 

Photophores: Number and variations of photophores of the 
above group: 

Series S-P I-P P-V V-A A-C Totals 

Lower 10(10-10) 13(12-14) 10(9-10) 14(13-15) 46(45-47) 

Upper... 11(11-11) 13(12-14) 11(10-11) 35(34-35) 

Material: Dr. A. Vedel Taning of the Marinbiologisk Labora- 
torium in Copenhagen kindly sent me five representative specimens 



Vol. XXI] HORSBURGH—VINCIGUERRIA 231 

of this species from the following localities: 28° 48' N. Lat., 20° 45' 
W. Long., 3 specimens; 14° 38' N. Lat., 61° 16' W. Long., 2 speci- 
mens. In the Natural History Museum of Stanford University I 
have examined the two syntypes from the open Pacific, No. 3125. 

Remarks: In the course of my study of Vinciguerria lucetia 
the desirability of a reexamination of the original material of V. 
nimharia became apparent. This inquiry revealed that at least 
three important errors had been made in the type description of this 
species. Jordan and Williams record "dorsal fin of nine rays," their 
figure shows fifteen; however, examination of the two syntypes 
reveals that one has thirteen and the other fourteen rays. This error 
was pointed out by Gilbert (1908). While the type description states 
"adipose fin not evident, perhaps obliterated," a complete and 
evident adipose fin is present on both specimens, as was pointed out 
by Snodgrass and Heller (1905). Finally, two teeth are found on 
the vomer of each specimen, instead of "no teeth on vomer" as 
recorded. In view of these errors the identification of a specimen of 
this species was impossible without recourse to the syntypes. 

As the study of specimens and of literature progressed the similarity 
between Vinciguerria nimharia and V. sanzoi became very evident. 
After receiving specimens labeled V. sanzoi from Dr. Taning, a care- 
ful comparison revealed these to be identical with V. nimharia. 
The errors of the type description of V. nimharia left Jespersen and 
Taning no other course than to describe their specimens as repre- 
senting a new species. It is, indeed, unfortunate that the rules of 
priority necessitate the substitution of the obscure name V. nim- 
haria for the much better known one of V. sanzoi, which has been 
applied to the large number of Atlantic specimens upon which the 
species has been so well characterized. 

I am greatly indebted to Dr. Rolf L. Bolin and Dr. Tage Skogs- 
berg of the Hopkins Marine Station for their active interest and 
helpful suggestions during the writing of this report. 



L^l 



PROCEEDINGS / 

\ 



OF THE 



i.^«^ 



Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 20, pp. 233-258, pis. 9and 10; 10 text figs. April 3, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 20 

THE TERMITES 



BY 

S. F. LIGHT 

Department of Zoology 

University of California, Berkeley 



The termites taken by the Zaca Expedition of the California 
Academy of Sciences, under Captain Templeton Crocker, represent 
44 colonies belonging to 16 species. The most extensive collections 
were made in the Galapagos Islands but various islands visited and 
the ports of call on the western coast of Mexico and Costa Rica are 
represented. Lists of the species in systematic order and by localities 
are given below. Discussions of the species in systematic order 
complete the report. 

Most of the collections were made by Dr. A. E. Larsen, physician 
of the expedition. The unusually complete records of locality and 
habits are due to his interest. Some collections were made by Mr. 
Templeton Crocker, leader and sponsor of the expedition and some 
by Mr. M. Willows in charge of entomological collections as noted in 
the specific discussions. 

Types are in the Museum of the California Academy of Sciences, 
paratypes in the U. S. National Museum and in the author's collec- 
tion, 

April 3, 1935 



234 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Systematic List of Species with Localities 

1. Zootermopsis angusticollis (Hagen), Guadalupe Island. 

2. Kaloternies (Kalotermes) hubbardi Banks, Socorro Island. 

3. Kalotermes (Kalotermes) immigrans Snyder, Galapagos Islands. 

4. Kalotermes {Kalotermes) jouteli Banks, Socorro Island. 

5. Kalotermes (Kalotermes) marginipennis (Latreille), Socorro Island. 

6. Kalotermes (Kalotermes) minor Hagen, Ensefiada, Lower California. 

7. Kalotermes (Kalotermes) pacificus Banks, Galapagos Islands. ( = K. tabogae 

Snyder) 

8. Kalotermes (Neotermes) larseni Light, new species, Cocos Islands. 

9. Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) darwini Light, new species, Galapagos Islands. 

10. Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) fatulus Light, new name, Galapagos Islands. (New 

name for Cryptotermes occidentalis Light.) 
IL Heterotermes pallidus Light, new species, Puentarenas, Costa Rica. 

12. Heterotermes orthognathus Light, Puerto Vallarta and Acapulco, Mexico; Bat 

Island and Braxilito Bay, Costa Rica; Galapagos Islands. 

13. Nasutitermes (Nasutitermes) guatemalae (Holmgren), Maria Madre and Puerto 

Vallarta, Mexico; Port Parker and BraxiUto Bay, Costa Rica. 

14. Mirotermes (Mirotermes) panamaensis Snyder, Port Parker, Costa Rica. 

15. Microcerotermes struncki (Sorensen) (?), Puentarenas, Costa Rica. 

16. Microcerotermes bouveri (Desneux) (?), Acapulco, Mexico. 



List by Localities 
Mexico 

Ensefiada, Lower California. 

1. Kalotermes minor Hagen. 
Maria Madre, Tres Marias Islands, State of Nayarit. 

1. Nasutitermes (Nasutitermes) guatemalae (Holmgren). 
Acapulco. 

1. Heterotermes orthognathus Light. 

2. Microcerotermes bouveri (Desneux) (?). 
Puerto Vallarta. 

1. Heterotermes orthognathus Light. 

2. Nasutitermes (Nasutitermes) guatemalae (Holmgren). 
Guadalupe Island. 

1. Zootermopsis angusticollis (Hagen). 
Socorro Island. 

1. Kalotermes (Kalotermes) hubbardi Banks. 

2. Kalotermes (Kalotermes) jouteli Banks. 

3. Kalotermes (Kalotermes) marginipennis (Latreille). 

Costa Rica 

Bat Island. 

1. Heterotermes orthognathus Light. 

Braxilito Bay. 

1. Heterotermes orthognathus Light. 

2. Nasutitermes (Nasutitermes) guatemalae (Holmgren). 

Puentarenas. 

1. Heterotermes pallidus Light, new species. 

2. Microcerotermes struncki (Sorensen) (?). 

Port Parker. 

1. Nasutitermes (Nasutitermes) guatemalae (Holmgren). 

2. Mirotermes (Mirotermes) panamaensis Snyder. 



Vol.. XXI; LIGHT— TERMITES 235 

Cocos Island 
1. Kalotermgs (Neotermes) larseni Light, new species. 

Galapagos Islands 

1. Kalotermes (Kalotermes) immigrans Snyder, Chatham, Indefatigable, 

James, Albemarle, Jarvis, Narborough, South Seymour and 
Tower Islands. 

2. Kalotermes {Kalotermes) pacificus Banks, Albemarle and James 

Islands. 

3. Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) darwini Light, new species, Albemarle, 

Charles and James Islands. 

4. Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) fatulus Light, new name, Albemarle and 

James Islands. 

5. Heterotermes ortkognathus Light, Indefatigable Island. 

Only two species of termites have been reported from the Gala- 
pagos Islands (Banks 1901), Kalotermes pacificus Banks and K. 
galapagoensis Banks. The descriptions of these two species are 
exceedingly inadequate, the illustrations of little value, if not actually 
misleading, and the types which were deposited in the California 
Academy of Sciences were destroyed in the fire of 1906. K. galapa- 
goensis, based on alates only, is reported as having a length of only 
9.5 millimeters with the wings, and is smaller by nearly 1.5 milli- 
meters, therefore, than K. per parvus Light (1933), the smallest 
known species of the subgenus. Also, if Banks' drawing has any 
significance, it indicates a relatively long, narrow pronotum. It 
seems possible, indeed probable, therefore, that K. galapagoensis 
is not a species of Kalotermes s. str., but is based on the alate of the 
species described below as K. (Cr.) darwini n. sp. This seems more 
probable since the median does run to the tip of the wing in that 
species which is true of Banks' description and figure. 

There remains the possibility that Banks may have had the alates 
of K. immigrans Snyder (see p. 236) but the smallest alates I have 
seen are considerably larger than Banks' measurements indicate 
unless this be thought to be due to the use of dried specimens. It 
seems probable that K. galapagoensis will remain a species inquirenda, 
at least until the termite fauna of the Galapagos Islands is very 
thoroughly known, when, by the process of elimination, it may be 
possible to determine what species Banks really had. 

As brought out in the discussion under that name, Banks' Kalo- 
termes pacificus is considered to be the same as K. tabogae Snyder 
from Panama, necessitating the reduction of that species to syn- 
onymy. 

Three of the species taken in the Galapagos occur also -on the 
American mainland, Kalotermes pacificus Banks {= K. tabogae 
Snyder) in Panama, Heterotermes ortkognathus in Mexico and Central 
America, and Kalotermes immigrans in Ecuador. The other two, 
while new species, are related to American species. K. immigrans is 



236 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sbr. 

found also in the Marquesas, on Fanning and Jarvis islands and in 
the Hawaiian Islands. Its presence in the Marquesas and Hawaii 
may be explained on the basis of distribution by ocean currents but 
it seems almost certain that it must have been introduced by man 
on Fanning and Jarvis. 

Genus ZOOTERMOPSIS Emerson 1933 

Zootermopsis angusticollis (Hagen) 

Termopsis angusticollis Hagen 

Material. — Three soldiers from Guadalupe Island collected by 
Mr. Willows from a fallen dead tree at an elevation of 2,500 ft. 

Discussion. — While the posterior enlargement of the head is almost 
lacking in these soldiers and the head is narrower than in most 
soldiers of the species from California the head-mandible index is 
0.71 and the head index 0.85, well within the range of these values for 
Z. angusticollis (Sumner 1933). Two stout spines are present on the 
front of the fore tibia as in other Z. angusticollis soldiers examined 
and in contrast to the single spine present in the Z. nevadensis 
soldiers examined. 

It seems probable that a reexamination of the earlier collections 
of the termites of this genus from Guadalupe Island (Light 1933) 
will show them to agree in the above characters. 

Genus KALOTERMES Hagen, sensu latiore 

Subgenus Kalotermes sensu strictiore Holmgren 

Kalotermes hubbardi Banks 

Three collections of this species were made on Socorro Island. 
Two by Mr. Crocker were from dead trees, one a mile inland and the 
other only about 100 yards from the shore. The third collection was 
made by Mr. Larsen only a quarter of a mile from the shore. 

This is the first record of this species from Socorro since the 
original report (Light 1930a) on the basis of a collection by T. T. 
Craig. It is apparently abundant there as it is on the west coast of 
Mexico. 

Kalotermes immigrans Snyder 

Material. — Ten collections from the following eight islands of the 
Galapagos: Albemarle, Chatham, Narborough, James, Jarvis, 
Tower, Indefatigable and South Seymour. 

K. immigrans was first known from the Hawaiian Islands (Snyder 
1924) where it was believed to be an introduced species, hence 
the specific name. Later it was taken by Kirby on Fanning Island 



Vol. XXI] LIGHT— TERMITES 237 

(Light 1932) and a collection taken from the wood of a wrecked 
schooner on Jarvis Island was found to be of this species (Light 
1932). Still later the Pacific Entomological Survey found it in 
the Marquesas (Light 1932) and the Zaca Expedition took it as 
noted above in the Galapagos Islands. Earlier, as material received 
from Dr. Alfred E. Emerson shows, it was taken by Beebe in the 
Galapagos. Finally it appears in collections just received from Dr. 
Wolfgang von Hagen taken on the coast of Ecuador together with 
my Metaneotermes athertoni, a new subgenus (1932) from the 
Marquesas. 

The question therefore of the center of origin of K. immigrans and 
the means whereby it attained so wide a range is a tangled one. 
Being a wood-dwelling termite it may have been distributed in part 
by human agencies as seems very probable in the case on Jarvis, 
Ocean currents may well be invoked in the case of the Marquesas 
and the Hawaiian Islands but not in that of Fanning which lies in the 
counter equatorial current. 

Kalotermes jouteli Banks 

This species was reported from Socorro Island for the first time 
on the basis of its presence in the collection made by T. T. Craig 
(Light 1930a). It is represented in the Zaca collection by a single 
soldier present with the collection of K. hubbardi made by Dr. Larsen 
in a dead tree about a quarter of a mile from the shore of that island. 

Kalotermes marginipennis (Latreille), Light 1933 

Termes mexicanus Walker. 

Kalotermes montanus Snyder. 

Kalotermes tuberculifrons Snyder. 

not K. marginipennis Banks and Snyder. 

This species is abundant in the higher altitudes in Mexico (Light 
1933) but absent near the coast. It is surprising therefore to find it 
in Socorro Island. The collection consists of the two queens and a 
king taken by Mr. Willows at an elevation of 1000 feet in the in- 
terior of the island. 

Kalotermes minor Hagen 

This species is represented by a single collection taken from an 
unused railroad tie at Ensenada, west coast of Lower California. 

Kalotermes pacificus Banks 
Kalotermes tabogae Snyder 1924, 1926. 

Material. — Two collections both containing numerous soldiers and 
nymphs, one from a dead branch on a living tree 100 yards inland on 
James Bay, James Island, Galapagos Island, and one from a similar 
location at Vilaville, Albemarle Island. 



238 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser 

Discussion. — This species has been taken previously only from 
Panama and was described by Snyder (1924, 1926) as Kalotermes 
tabogae. It becomes necessary to consider K. tabogae synonymous 
with Banks' very poorly described K. pacificus for the following 
reasons. K. pacificus is clearly a species of Kalotermes s. str. as 
brought out by Banks' descriptions of both alates and soldiers. It 
was fairly common as Banks had "a number of specimens from Albe- 
marle Island" "and from Narboro Island." Now the only two species 
of the subgenus found by the Zaca Expedition were K. immigrans 
and the species here identified with K. pacificus and agreeing with 
K. tabogae Snyder. K. pacificus Banks must be either K. immigrans 
Snyder or K. tabogae Snyder. If no other evidence were available, 
the smaller size and greater abundance of K. immigrans would point 
to it. Fortunately a collection, supposedly from the Galapagos, and 
given by Banks to Silvestri, is available for study, due to the kind- 
ness of Emerson. This collection contains both an alate and a soldier 
which rules out K. galapagoensis of which only the alates were known 
to Banks. It is assumed, therefore, that these must be paratypes of 
K. pacificus Banks. The soldier of this collection agrees perfectly 
with those in the Zaca collections, which in turn agree perfectly with 
autotypes of K. tabogae Snyder from Panama. The alate in Banks' 
collection also agrees exactly with an autotype alate of K. tabogae 
from Snyder. 

The status of the alates associated directly or indirectly with the 
soldiers of this species in the Zaca collection is less satisfactory. 
With one collection of soldiers and nymphs are two pale, incom- 
pletely pigmented alates. With the other is a dealate male and 
taken in the same branch were a dealate female and a physo-gastric, 
completely apterous (third form) male. Now all of these reproduc- 
tives agree in size with K. immigrans and not with K. tabogae as 
described by Snyder and as exemplified by the Banks' collection and 
Snyder's autotype from Panama. Further, the color of the two 
dealates agrees with K. immigrans and not with K. pacificus { = K. 
tabogae) and no consistent difference has been found. We face the 
dilemma, therefore, of assuming either that the alates of the two 
species intergrade or that these reproductives do not belong with the 
soldiers of K. pacificus. These two possibilities will be considered 
separately. 

First of course must be kept in mind the complete agreement of 
Banks' Galapagos specimen and that of Snyder from Panama. That 
the specimens are from the Galapagos, although listed with a ques- 
tion mark by Silvestri, seems certain since Banks knew the Panama 
species and Snyder, who was familiar with Banks' material, described 
K. tabogae much later (1924, 1926) and since the soldier agrees per- 
fectly with soldiers from the Galapagos in the Zaca collection. 

The next question is as to the distinguishing characters of the 
soldiers of the two species, if any. It must be said that the two spe- 
cies are very close together as to soldier characters. They agree as 



Vol. XXI] LIGHT— TERMITES 239 

to the shape of the gula, length, shape and size of mandibles, number 
and location of teeth, number and size of antennal segments, shape 
and location of eye, details of sculpture in region of the rim of the an- 
tennal foveolae and anterior margin of head capsule. A prolonged 
and careful comparison of all soldiers of both species from all regions 
represented brings out, however, the following slight but consistent 
differences : 

1. Pigmentation of K. tabogae is always lighter than in K. immigrans and usually 

much lighter. 

2. The eye is white in K. tabogae even when the head is darkly pigmented while it is 

typically blackish in K. immigrans (one small individual from Hawaii 
is an exception). 

3. The teeth of K. tabogae, especially the anterior two of the left mandible, project 

more strongly, the first being directed more anteriorly and the second 
being pointed and medially directed. 

4. The anterior margin of the pronotum of K. tabogae is only faintly biconvex and 

the antero-lateral comers are sharp and projecting, forming the most 
anterior portion of the pronotum, while in K. immigrans the anterior 
margin is strongly biconvex and the corners strongly rounded, the most 
anterior part being some distance mediad to them. 

5. The sides of the pronotum are strongly convergent in K. tabogae with broadly 

rounded postero-lateral corners and shallowly but definitely emarginate 
posterior margin, while in K. immigrans the sides are much less strongly 
receding, the postero-lateral corners squarely rounded and the posterior 
margin very faintly emarginate if not straight. 

For these reasons it seems impossible to consider these variants 
of one species. On the other hand the presence of K. immigrans 
reproductives in close association with K. tabogae soldiers and 
nymphs does not seem an unlikely situation since K. immigrans was 
very abundant and particularly since incipient colonies were abun- 
dant. For example, one vial of K. immigrans soldiers and nymphs 
contains a number of reproductives evidently representing several 
incipient colonies. It seems reasonable to suppose, therefore, that 
the collection before me contains no K. pacificus reproductives. 

Subgenus Neotermes Holmgren 
Kalotermes (Neotermes) larseni Light, new species 

Figs. 1-4 and Plate 9, fig. 3. 

Material. — A single collection including alates, soldiers and 
nymphs collected by Mr. Crocker on June 26 in a dead fallen tree 
one-half mile from the shore of Wafer Bay, Cocos Island. 

Diagnosis 

Alate. — Generally brown, wings and ventral surface pale; eyes about 0.5 mm. in 
diameter, separated from ventral margin by about 0.30 mm.; ocelli large, touching 
the eye; Y suture fine but visible; a pale gamma-shaped spot on frons; antennae of 



240 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

17/18 segments; pronotum more than twice as wide as long; radius sector with three 
long and four or five very short anterior branches. 

Soldier. — Head relatively broad (head index 0.70) and high (ratio of height to 
width 0.82); antennae of 16 segments; 3rd as thick as 1st, longer than 2nd or 4th; 
pronotum much less than one-half as long as wide, deeply but roundly concave in 
front; gula twice as wide in front as behind, sides converging gradually from anterior 
end. 

Descriptions 

Alate. — Generally brown above, head and sternites darkest, pronotum lighter; 
ventral sclerites, legs, antennae and costal veins of wings light brown; central areas 
of meso- and meta-nota whitish. 

Head (fig. 2) squarish, bulging slightly behind eyes and converging in front. 
Y suture narrow but distinct; a faint additional Y marking on the frons. 

Eyes truncated in front, longer than high, not strongly projecting, separated from 
lower margin of head by slightly more than half their vertical diameter and from 
posterior margin by one and one-half this diameter. 

Ocelli large, about same size as antennal foveolae, touching eye below, oval, with 
long axis directed forward and upward at an angle of about 45°, slightly drawn out 
at point of juncture with Y suture. 

Antennae of 17 or 18 segments; 3rd about as long as 2nd when 17 segments; 4th 
shortest, very short when 18 segments. 

Pronotum (fig. 2) wider than head, broadly concave in front, roundly emarginate 
in the center behind; sides strongly convex, receding into biconvex posterior margin; 
antero-lateral comers rounded. 

Head, pronotum, legs, and abdominal sclerites with prominent reddish-yellow 
hairs. 

Wing membrane pale, transparent: median vein (fig. 1) separated from radial 
sector by same distance as separates radial sector from radius; transverse branches 
of median weak; radius joining costa near middle of wing near level of origin of first 
anterior branch of radius sector; radius sector with 3 or 4 long oblique anterior 
branches. 

Measurements in millimeters of alates of Kalotermes (Neotermes) larseni Light, 
new species. 

Length with wings 14. -16. 

Length without wings 8 . 

Length of head to tip of labrum 1.92 

Length of head capsule 1 . 50- 1 . 59 

Width of head through eyes 1.70 

Width of head capsule 1 . 53 

Maximum diameter of eye . 50- . 60 

Minimum diameter of eye . 48 

Length of ocellus 0.21 

Maximum length of pronotum 1 .06- 1 .08 

Minimum length of pronotum . 93- 0. 96 

Width of pronotum 1.95 

Length of fore wing with scale 13 . 

Length of fore wing scale 1 . 44- 1 . 56 

Width of fore wing 3.3 

Pronotal index 0.55 

Soldier. — Head shading from light yellow-brown behind through light reddish 
brown to dark reddish brown on front margins, pronotum pale with darker margins; 
body and legs pale to light yellow; antennae dark reddish brown near base, pale 
distally. 



Vol. XXI] 



LIGHT— TERMITES 



241 




Fig. 1 




Fig. 2 





Fig. 3 



Fig. 4 



Figs. 1-4. Camera lucida drawings of Kalotermes (Neotermes) larseni Light, new 
species. 

1. Right fore wing. X 6. 

2. Head and pronotum of alate. X 13. Posterior emargination not 

indicated. 

3. Head capsule of soldier in ventral view to show gula. X 14. 

4. Mandibles of soldier. X 14. 



Head (pi. 9, fig. 3) relatively short, head index 0.70; sides of head weakly convex 
especially at level of ocelli, converging from ocelli forward; postero-lateral corners 
rounding into straight posterior margin. Head high, head height index 0.82. 

Frons with declivity of about 45°; with broad, shallow median groove narrowing 
posteriorly and extending back to about middle of head: Median suture of head 
white, conspicuous; lateral sutures visible; eyespot large, white; ocellus spot distinct 
(pi. 9, fig. 3). 

Gulamentum (fig. 3) about twice as wide near anterior end as at narrowest point, 
sides converging gradually from near anterior end. Antennae of 16 segments 
(pi. 9, fig. 3); 3rd segment chitinized, as thick as 1st, longer than 2nd or 4th. 

Mandibles as in figure 4. 



242 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pronotum (pi. 9, fig. 3) broadly, shallowly and angularly emarginate in front, 
with central emargination behind; sides converging behind the middle; antero- 
lateral corners squarely rounded. 

Head, pronotum and tergites with sparse, conspicuous, stiff, reddish-brown 
hairs. 

Measurements in millimeters of a soldier of Kalotermes (Neotermes) larseni 
Light, new species. 

mm. 

Length of head capsule 3.6 

Width of head 2.52 

Height of head 2.07 

Length of left mandible 1 . 92 

Maximum width of gula 83 

Minimum width of gula 36 

Width of pronotum 2 . 65 

Maximum length of pronotum 1.32 

Minimum length of pronotum 1 . 08 

Head index 0.70 

Type.—C. A. S. Ent. No. 3912. 

Systematic Affinities. — This species seems most closely related to 
Neotermes castaneus (Burmeister) as defined by Snyder (1924) but 
differs from it in that the head of the alate is smaller and relatively 
narrower and longer and the pronotum relatively shorter, while the 
head of the soldier is shorter and broader and the pronotum quite 
different in shape. This group of species is in need of careful revision. 



Subgenus Cryptotermes Banks 
Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) darwini Light, new species 

Plate 9, figs. 1 and 2; figs. 7 and 8. 

Material. — Seven collections of this species by the Zaca Expedi- 
tion are all from the Galapagos Islands, four from Albemarle Island, 
two from Charles Island and one from Sullivan Island. In addition 
I am able to report a collection of soldiers made by Dr. Beebe on 
Gardner Island available through the kindness of Dr. Alfred Emer- 
son and Dr. Harold Kirby, Jr. Several of the colonies were in stand- 
ing dead trees, others in fallen branches. One colony contained 
alates on May 25th and dealates were taken in other collections. 

Diagnosis 

Alate. — Generally brown with pale, faintly brown wings: a dark V-shaped band 
across head behind frons, head parallel-sided; antennae of 15 segments; eyes and 
ocelli large for genus; eyes separated from lower margin of head by slightly less than 
their own short diameter; ocelli about half as wide as eyes; median vein not bent up 
to join radius sector but sending several branches to it beyond middle of wing. 
Ratio length of pronotum to length of fore wing scale about 0.6. 



Vol. XXI] LIGHT— TERMITES 243 

Soldier. — Frontal rim bilobed, widely flaring; dorsal surface of head black, 
excavated, tuberculate and wrinkled, surrounded by a raised margin, flat above; 
head relatively long, low and narrow, somewhat constricted behind frontal rim. 

Descriptions 

Alale. — Brown above, yellow-brown below; frons dirty yellow with a dark 
V-shaped band across head behind it. Head squarish, sides parallel, postero-lateral 
comers, broadly rounded. Antennae of 15 segments, 13th and 14th longest, each 
twice as long as 3rd which is about as long as 2nd and 8th and longer than 4th, 5th, 
6th, or 7th. Eye large for genus, separated from lower margin by somewhat less 
than its own short diameter; ocellus large, about as high as half the short diameter of 
eye; nearly as high as long; touching eye. 

Pronotum widely but very shallowly concave in front and faintly but widely 
emarginate behind, sides rounded, receding into biconvex posterior border. 

Wing strongly narrowed at base; membrane pale, delicate, with very fine orna- 
mentations; radius joining costal margin near origin of first branch of radius sector; 
radius sector with four chitinized anterior branches; median closer to cubitus than 
to radius sector; running to tip of wing but sending several vertical branches to the 
radius sector. 




Fig. 7. Dealate of Kalotermes (Crypiotermes) darxvini Light, new species. X 13. 



Soldier. — Back and lower sides of head, cervical sclerites and anterior margin of 
pronotum yellowish brown; frons, top and upper sides of head black; antennae 
white, abdomen pale brownish; in life "a bright yellow thoracic area separates the 
deep black head from the pale brownish abdomen" (Larsen in lit.). 

Blackened areas of head (pi. 9, figs. 1 and 2) rugose, tuberculated. Head with 
widely flaring bilobed frontal rim, followed by an irregular lateral constriction be- 
hind which the sides swell out again, minimum width being found at about the 
anterior third and maximum width at about the posterior third behind which the 
margins round into the flatly convex posterior margin. 

Dorsal concavity (pi. 9, figs. 1 and 2) roughly quadrangular, anteriorly some- 
what indented by median notch in frontal rim, bounded laterally by upraised longi- 
tudinal ridges, which end anteriorly in the frontal rim, and are connected posteriorly 
by a somewhat convex transverse ridge. Head relatively long and narrow for the 
genus, greatest width about two-thirds of greatest length. Frontal rim elevated 
and projecting, frons making less than a right angle with the horizontal plane of 
head; frontal cavity deep and regular, separated by an inconspicuous median ridge 
running down from the notch; frontal rim thickened above the antennae (pi. 9, fig 2) 
which lie in a longitudinal groove in the outer lower portion of this thickening. 
Antennae (pi. 9, fig. 2) of 13 or 14 segments; 3rd narrowest, clavate, somewhat 
chitinized, often incompletely separated from 4th. 



244 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Pronotum with broadly but very shallowly convex posterior margin; postero- 
lateral corners rounded; sides convex, strongly contracted anteriorly; anterior 
margin deeply, roundly, and broadly, concave; antero-lateral comers sharp, pro- 
jecting forward over head, set off from lateral margins by a notch. 

Measurements in millimeters of soldier of Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) darwini 
Light, new species. 

Length over all 5 . 40 

Length of head to center of frons 1.25 

Length of head to side of frons 1 . 44 

Minimum width of head 0.97 

Maximum width behind middle 1 . 14 

Width of head across center of frons 1.10 

Maximum height of head 0. 86 

Minimum height of head 0.81 

Width of pronotum 1 . 20 

Maximum length of pronotum 0.88 

Minimum length of pronotum 0. 63 




Fig. 8. Left fore wing of Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) darwini Light, new species. 
X 13. 



Type.—C. A. S. Ent. No. 3913. 

Systematic Position. — This species is closely related to Crypto- 
termes hrevis Walker and Cr. piceatus Snyder. The reproductives, 
however, are considerably smaller in every way, and differ in relative 
size of eyes, pronotum, etc., while the soldiers differ in that the head 
is decidedly lower and narrower, and is more constricted behind the 
frons, while the frons flares much more widely, and the dorsal 
surface is flattened. 

Biology. — The frontal cavities of the heads of most of the soldiers 
in the collections were filled with a mass of granular material which 
also covered the mouth parts and lower side of the head in most 
cases. Dr. Larsen reports that when disturbed they threw out this 
yellowish material from the head region and would be found with the 
head lying in a pool of the yellowish liquid. The liquid is almost 
certainly regurgitated food which issuing from between the mouth 
parts would seem to come from the neck. It seems probable that 
this is a defensive mechanism against ants. It is interesting as being 
a new departure in termite economy. 



Vol XXn ■ LIGHT— TERMITES 245 

Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) fatulus Light, new name 

Plate 9, fig. 4; fig. 6. 

Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) occidentalis Light 1933 [preoccupied by K. {Rugitermes) 

rugosus var. occidentalis Silvestri 1903J. 
Cryptotermes sp. ? Light (1930). 

Material. — Two collections, one of king and queen and a soldier 
from James Island, Galapagos, and one of soldiers only, from Albe- 
marle Island, the first in the dead branch of a living tree, the other in 
a small dead bush. 

Diagnosis 

Dealate. — Small and delicate; eye separated from lower margin by about two- 
thirds its short diameter; ocellus small; pronotum long, more than half as long as 
wide; ratio of length of pronotum to length of fore wing scale 0.87. 

Soldier. — Small, head (pi. 9, fig. 4) short and broad, nearly as broad as long; low 
behind, high in front; frons making slightly less than a right angle with horizontal 
plane of head; frontal rim flaring, deeply notched; dorsal surface with a median 
longitudinal groove which runs back onto posterior third; head and frons with no 
conspicuous rugosities. Antenna! scale vestigial; antennae with eleven segments; 
pronotum deeply and angularly concave, longer than half its breadth, antero-lateral 
corners only slightly acute. 

Descriptions 

Dealate. — Pale brown above, yellow or yellow-brown below. Head broad, head 
index about 0.9; eyes large separated from lower margin by about two-thirds their 
short diameter; ocelli small, touching eye, obliquely elongated, directed forward 
and upwards; antennae (incomplete), with 3rd segment shorter than 2nd; pronotum 
long, index about 0.6; anterior margin of pronotum deeply, broadly, and evenly 
excavate; posterior margin shallowly emarginate, anterior comers squarely rounded, 
sides rounded, receding posteriorly into posterior margin. 

Measurements in millimeters of dealates of K. (Cryptotermes) fatulus Light, new 
name, from the Galapagos Islands. 

Female Male 

Length without wings 4.41 4.56 

Length of fore wing scale 78 .90 

Length of head to tip of labrum 1 .04 1 .07 

Length of head capsule 84 .83 

Width of head capsule 78 .76 

Width of head with eyes 87 .87 

Long diameter of eye 25 .27 

Short diameter of eye 20 .22 

Short diameter of ocellus 06 .08 

Long diameter of ocellus 12 .12 

Width of pronotum 81 .87 

Maximum length of pronotum 59 .61 

Minimum length of pronotum 53 .57 

Length of hind tibia 66 .66 

Soldier. — Frons and anterior half of head black, posterior half mahogany to 
light brown; mandibles dark reddish black; anterior margin of pronotum dark 
brown; irregular areas just behind the anterior margin of the pronotum, the cervical 



246 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

sclerites, and the tips of the maxillary palpi, brown; other parts very pale yellow to 
whitish. 

Blackened portions of head (pi. 9, fig. 4) not rugose or wrinkled but with very 
fine tuberculations or very fine wrinkles. Frontal rim somewhat flaring, with 
conspicuous median notch, and followed somewhat posteriorly by a shallow con- 
striction behind which the sides of the head are somewhat swollen; postero-lateral 
corners rounding shortly into nearly straight posterior margin. 




Fig. 6. Head and pronotum of alate of Kalotermes {Cry plater mes) fatulus Light, 
new name. X 24. 



Head small, short and broad, about 1.0 mm. long and 0.96 mm. wide; head low 
behind and high in front due to uplifted frons; dorsal surface of head marked by broad 
sunken area behind the frons which is lower than frontal rim or the posterior third 
of head and a narrow median groove extending back onto the posterior third; 
anteriorly this groove begins at the posterior end of a ridge running back from the 
frontal rim. Frons making just about, or slightly more than, right angle with the 
horizontal plane of head; frontal concavity regular, relatively shallow and without 
any marked protuberances; antennal scale vestigial. 

Mandible short, sharply incurved, antennae of 11 segments; 1st and 2nd large 
and chitinized, 3rd short, clavate, 3rd and 4th smallest, subequal. 

Pronotum deeply and somewhat angularly concave in front; antero-lateral 
corners somewhat acute; sides rounded, rounding and receding into faintly emargi- 
nate posterior margin; anterior margin roughened. 

Measurements of soldier of Kalotermes (Cry ptotermes) fatulus Light, new name. 

James Albemarle 

Island Island 

Length over all 4. 26 

Length of head to center of frons 0.9 . 93 

Length of head to side of frons 0.98 1.02 

Minimum width of head 0.94 0.96 

Maximum width behind middle 0.96 0.96 

Width of head across center of frons 1 . 00 1 . 02 

Maximum height of head 0.75 0.84 

Minimum height of head . 67 0.75 

Width of pronotum 0.89 0.9 

Maximum length of pronotum 0.59 0.6 

Minimum length of pronotum . 48 0.53 

Systematic Position. — In 1930 I reported a single dried dealate 
Cry ptotermes collected from Socorro Island by T. T. Craig. In 1933 
I gave the name K. (Cryptotermes) occidentalis to a new species 
represented by pinned alates in the collection of the California 
Academy of Sciences. The collection by Larsen from James Island 



Vol. XXI] LIGHT— TERMITES 247 

contains a king and queen and a soldier which seem to represent the 
same species although the condition of the Socorro and Mexican ma- 
terial makes the comparison difficult. 

Since the name occidentalis is preoccupied by Silvestri's Kalo- 
termes rugosus var. occidentalis (1903) the species is given the new- 
name K. (Cr.) fatulus. 

The presence of soldiers has made possible the description of that 
hitherto unknown caste. 



Genus HETEROTERMES Froggatt 
{ = Leucotermes Silvestri) 

Heterotermes pallidus Light, new species. 

Figure 5 

Seven dealate reproductives of this species with one first instar 
nymph were taken from an old log lying high on the beach at Puen- 
tarenas, Costa Rica. These evidently represented incipient colonies 
and were located so near to soldiers and workers of Microcerotermes 
struncki (Sorenson) as to have been included with them. 

It is interesting to find the incipient colonies of this species of 
Heterotermes in wood as is often the case with Reticulitermes. This is 
in contrast to observations made on H. aureus in the Colorado 
Desert which show it to start its colonies in the soil rather than in 
wood. 



Fig. 5 Dealate of Heterotermes pallidus Light, new species. X 24. 



Diagnosis 

Alate. — Small, head 0.85 mm. wide through eye; generally pale in color; nota 
convex, mesonotum longer than wing scale and not covered by it; eye large, sharply 
truncate in front; ocellus vestigial, anterior wing scales short, 0.64 mm. long. 

Description 

Alate. — Generally pale brown to yellow, head especially pale with a white area 
just back of fontanelle (as in H. maculatus Light). Eye relatively large, separated 
from lower margin of head by a little less than its short diameter, sharply truncate 
in front. Ocellus very small, vestigial. Pronotum with broadly rounded corners. 



248 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

posterior margin with only faint suggestion of emargination. Nota strongly convex, 
mesonotum extending beyond anterior wing scales. 

Soldier unknown. 

Measurements in millimeters of Dealate of Heterotermes pallidus Light, new species. 

Length of head to tip of labrum 1 . 20 

Length of head capsule 0.81 

Width of head through eyes 0. 85 

Maximum diameter of eye 0. 20 

Minimum diameter of eye 0.17 

Maximum length of pronotum 0.52 

Minimum length of pronotum . 49 

Width of pronotum . 65 

Length of anterior wings scale 0. 64 

Type.—C. A. S. Ent. 3937. 

Systematic Position. — Its very short wing scales, convex nota, 
small size and pale color serve to separate the species from all the 
other described American species of the genus. It seem probable 
that it is the alate of H. orthognathus Light but in the absence of a 
collection including both soldiers and alates it must be considered a 
separate species. 



Heterotermes orthognathus Light 

Five collections from the following localities have been determined 
as belonging to this species: Acapulco, Mexico; Puerto Vallarta, 
Mexico; Braxilito Bay, Costa Rica; and Indefatigable Island, Gala- 
pagos. This extends materially our knowledge of its range, it having 
been reported only from Colima and vicinity (Light 1933). 

None of the collections contained alates. The collections fall into 
three groups as regards size of soldier, those from Puerto Vallarta 
being larger in every way than those from Colima, those from Brax- 
ilito Bay, considerably smaller and those from the Galapagos of 
about the same size as those from Colima. All showed a remark- 
able agreement in proportions as brought out below. 

Measurement in millimeters of soldiers of Heterotermes orthognathus Light. 

Galapagos 

Length of head 1 . 50 

Width of head 0.90 

Length of left mandible, . 1 . 05 

Width of pronotum 0. 69 

Head index 0. 60 

Head mandible index. ... 0. 70 
Head pronotum index ... 0. 77 
Maximum width of gula. 
Minimum width of gula.. 
Gular index 



Puerto 


Braxilito 


Vallarta 


Bay 


1.62 


1.26 


0.92-1.02 


0.78 


1.15 


0.99 


0.78 


0.61 


0.61 


0.64 


0.70 


0.71 


0.77 


0.76 


0.41-0.42 




0.18-0.20 




0.43-0.50 





Vol. XXI] LIGHT— TERMITES 249 

Nasutitermes (Nasutitermes) guatemalae (Holmgren) 

Material. — One colony from Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias 
Islands, Mexico; one from Braxilito Bay, Costa Rica; and two from 
Port Parker, Costa Rica. 

Discussion. — The black headed nasutes of the subgenus Nasuti- 
termes present a very difficult taxonomic problem which will only be 
settled by a careful comparative study using great numbers of ex- 
tensive colony collections taken over large areas. It will be necessary 
to determine the nature and extent of intracolonial variation, which 
undoubtedly is great, the intercolonial variation within given locali- 
ties and the geographical variation within a species. At present 
identifications must be considered tentative and be based when 
possible upon both alate and soldier characters. 

The collections here considered to belong to N . guatemalae show 
considerable variation in characters of the nasutes. The alates 
present in the collection from Tres Marias (June 25) and those from 
Port Parker (July 5) agree perfectly with alates from Guerrero col- 
lected by von Hagen and identified as N . guatemalae by Emerson 
(in lit.) after comparison with type alate material. 

These alates differ from N. (N.) nigriceps (Haldeman) (Light 
1933) in the much larger eye and the close approach of the ocellus to 
the eye. The nasutes are characterized by darker color, generally 
larger heads, which are relatively broader and with shorter rostra. 

Since this nasute has not been described a brief diagnosis with 
measurements follows. 

N&sute oi Nasutitermes (Nasutitermes) guatemalae (Holmgren) 

Tergites and nota light brown, antennae somewhat darker, sternites and legs 
lighter, head black-brown, lightest below and just above antennae. Rostrum dense 
black in basal two-thirds shading into reddish apicalzone. 

Head very broadly ovate in dorsal view; minimum width (anterior) more than 
half of maximum width; contraction index 0.62. Dorsal profile of head fiat in 
general but with a distinct median convexity set off by two narrow concavities. 
Rostrum short, not at all uplifted. 

Measurements in millimeters of Nasute of Nasutitermes (Nasutitermes) guatemalae. 

Length of head with rostrum 1 . 68 

Length of head 1 . 20 

Length of rostrum 0. 48 

Head rostrum index 0.48 

Width of head 1 . 02 

Head index 0.93 

Minimum width of head 0. 66 

Contraction index 0.65 



250 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Genus MICROCEROTERMES Silvestri 

Six nearctic species of this genus have been reported: M. exiguus 
(Hagen), M. struncki (Sorensen), M. bouveri (Desneux), M. arboretts 
Emerson, M. septentrionalis Light and M. gracilis Light. The first 
three species are very imperfectly described, especially M. exiguus, 
which must be considered a species inquire nda. 

Two species are represented in the material under consideration, 
each by a single collection and each by soldiers and workers only. 
These I have identified as M. struncki and M. bouveri in the absence 
of alates or of authentic soldier types with which to make compari- 
sons. Such identifications are difficult and must be considered ten- 
tative. The species in question are clearly very different from M. 
septentrionalis and M. gracilis. From M. arboreus they differ in that 
the head is not largest just behind the antennae. M. exiguus cannot 
be definitely identified. They must therefore be considered to be 
either M. struncki and M. bouveri respectively or new species. The 
agreement is close but not entirely satisfactory in certain regard as 
is brought out in the discussion of the species. Diagnostic characters, 
measurements and illustrations are given to enable future workers 
to check the identifications. 



Microcerotermes struncki (Sorensen) (?) 
Figure 9. 

A single collection from a log, lying high on the beach at Puen- 
tarenas, Costa Rica, has been identified as belonging to this species. 
Sorensen's (1884) description is inadequate. The agreement with 
Silvestri's (1903) figure is excellent, however. Holmgren's (1910) 
figure is evidently not this species, the head being much shorter and 
wider and the characteristic narrowing of the head anteriorly, as 
shown in Silvestri's figure and in these soldiers from Costa Rica, is 
lacking. 

The proportion of the head (fig. 9) agrees exactly with those given 
by Silvestri (head index 0.62) but the mandibles are relatively longer. 
Otherwise the agreement is excellent. 

The great distance between Costa Rica and southern Brazil where 
Sorensen's and Silvestri's collections were made adds to the uncer- 
tainty of this identification. 



Vol. XXI] LIGHT— TERMITES -51 

Measurements in millimeters of a soldier of Microcerotermes struncki (Sorensen) 
(?) from Puentarenas, Costa Rica. 

Length ^-96 

Length of head without mandibles 1-46 

Length of mandibles ^^ 

Width of head ^^ 

Width of head at antennae "^ 

Width of pronotum ^ 

Maximum width of gula ^^ 

Minimum width of gula ^^ 





Fig. 9 




Fig. 10 



Figs. 9-10. Head of soldiers of Microcerotermes. 

9. Microcerotermes struncki (Sorensen) (?). X 29. 
10. Microcerotermes bouveri (Desneux) (?). X 29. 



252 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4thSer 

Microcerotermes bouveri (Desneux) (?) 

Figure 10. 

A single collection from Acapulco taken from a beehive-like mound 
which extended a foot above the ground and a foot below it around 
the root of a dead shrub has been determined as belonging to this 
species. 

Desneux's (1904) description is scanty and without illustrations 
but there are no outstanding differences. The 10 degrees separating 
the two localities, Acapulco in Mexico and Mariquita in Colombia, 
makes the identification questionable. 

Measurements in millimeters of Microcerotermes bouveri (Desneux) (?) from 
Acapulco, Mexico: 

Length 5 . 58 

Length of head without mandibles 1 . 88 

Length of mandibles 1 . 03 

Width of head 1 . 14 

Width of head at antennae 98 

Width of pronotum 73 

Maximum width of gula 36 

Minimum width of gula 18 



Vol. XXI] LIGHT— TERMITES 253 

Papers Consulted 

Banks, N. 

1901. Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos Expedi- 
tion 1898-1899. Thysanura and Termitidae. Proc. Wash. 
Acad. Sci.,3: 541-546. 

Desneux, J. 

1904. Trois termites nouveaux. Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige, 48: 
286-289. 

Holmgren, N. 

1909. Termitenstudien. I. Anatomische Untersuchungen. 
K. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., 44(3): 1-215, pis. 1-3, 76 
figs, in text. 

Light, S. F. 

1930. Termites collected by T. T. Craig on Socorro Island. 
Pan.-Pac. Entom., 6: 178-180. 

1932, Termites of the Marquesas Islands. Bull. B. P. 

Bishop Museum, 98: 73-86, pis. 1-3, 5 figs, in text. 

1933. Termites of Western Mexico. Univ. Calif. Publ. 

Ent., 6: 79-164, pis. 7-11, ZZ figs, in text. 

Silvestri, F. 

1903. Contribuzione alia conoscenza dei termitidi e termito- 
fili deir America meridionale. Redia, 1: 3-234, pis. 1-6, 
57 figs, in text. 

Snyder, T. E. 

1924. Descriptions of new species and hitherto unknown 
castes of termites from America and Hawaii. Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 64: 1-40, pis. 1-5. 

1926. Five new termites from Panama and Costa Rica. 

Proc. Entom. Soc. Wash., 28: 7-16, 3 figs, in text. 

Sorensen, W. 

1884. Track af nogie sydamerikanske Insecters Biologi. 
Ent. Tidskr., 5: 1-25, pi. 1. 

Sumner, Ethel Craig. 

1933. The species of the termite genus Zootermopsis Emerson 
( = Termopsis Hagen) Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent., 6: 197-230, 
pis. 12-13, 23 figs, in text. 



254 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 9. 



Fig. 1. Head of soldier of Kalotermes {Cryptotermes) darwini Light, new species, 
in oblique lateral view. X 22. 

Fig. 2. Same in dorsal view. X 22. 

Fig, 3. Head and pronotum of soldier of Kalotermes {Neotermes) larseni Light, 
new species, in dorsal view. X 9. 

Fig. 4. Head of soldier of Kalotermes {Cryptotermes) fatulus Light, new name, in 
dorsal view but with head uplifted in front to show frons. X 22. 



PROC. CAL, ACAD. SCi., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 20 



[LIGHT] Plate 9 




m 






256 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc 4th Ser. 



Plate 10. 

Photographs of work of Nasutitermes (Nasutitermes) gualemalae (Holmgren) 
taken by Dr. A. E. Larsen at Port Parker, Costa Rica. 

Fig. 1. Carton nest. 
Fig. 2. Runways on tree. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 20 



[LIGHT] Plate 10 





PROCEEDINGS ij-jy /j^pp ^ 




OF THE ^^i^^ ^ 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES* 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 21, pp. 259-276, pis. 11-15 April 3, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION TO WESTERN 
POLYNESIAN AND MELANESIAN ISLANDS, 1933 

No. 21 

SOME MARINE PLANTS OF SOUTHEASTERN 
MELANESIA! 



BY 

WILLIAM ALBERT SETCHELL 
Department of Botany 
University of California 



The collections of marine plants made by the "Zaca" Expedition 
during May, June, and July, 1933, were obtained from the Santa 
Cruz and Solomon islands, lying between latitudes 8° to 12° S. and 
longitudes 160° and 170° W. They originate, then, from south- 
eastern Melanesia, along the western boundaries of the Pacific Ocean 
but in direct eastward extension of the Indo- Malayan-Papuan seas. 
The collection, incidental to other work, is valuable chiefly for indi- 
cating certain distributional relations existing between the tropical 
algae of the Indo- Malayan-Papuan archipelagoes, bordering (east- 
erly) the Asiatic and Australian tropics and the Samoan-Tongan- 
Fijian groups, with their Polynesian and Micronesian affinities. In 
all, 31 species have been determined, while certain epiphytic forms 
(chiefly Melohesieae) remain still unnamed. Certain species of 
Sargassum, included in the collections, were of particular interest to 
the writer. A list of the species with critical and distributional notes 
seems desirable. The material was all preserved in alcohol. 

1 See Science, 79: 344, 345, Apr. 13, 1934. 

April 3, 193S 



260 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Myxophyceae 

Of the blue-green Algae, there was noticed, but not carefully 
determined, what seemed to be a unicellular type, probably a Dermo- 
carpa, forming patches on certain of the species of Halimeda. No 
gonidangia, however, were observed. 



1. Lyngbya majuscula (Dillw.) Harv. 

Apparently abundant in floating (?) masses in Uras Cove of Tai 
Lagoon, on Malaita Island, on May 27 (No. 0642 B). The species is 
characteristic of tropical waters and of subtropical waters (in sum- 
mer or in shallow situations where the temperature is raised up to 
25*0. or over). 



2. Nostoc commune Vaucher f.? 

At Auki Bay, Malaita Island, on May 25, Norton Stewart col- 
lected a Nostoc (No. 0640 A), associated with a Scytonema and form- 
ing expanded thin and rather tough membranes, apparently pale 
yellowish-green (or pale bluish-green when living?). If marine, as 
seems probable, the occurrence is noteworthy. In general, the 
specimen seems more closely related to Nostoc commune than to an}' 
other, but the determination is not at all certain. Records of Nostoc 
in saline waters are almost wanting, but terrestrial species of the 
genus do seem, rarely, to exist just above high water mark, prob- 
ably in certain contact with salt water. 

3. Scytonema polycystum Born, et Flah., f.? 

Closely associated with the preceding (No. 0640) was a loosely 
pannose Scytonema. The color is lost, the sheaths are thick, the 
trichomes are slender, and in general the plants seem altered from a 
possibly normal or juvenile state. In referring this plant to 5. 
polycystum, as a doubtful form, there must be taken into account 
the fact that, at least, the specimens do not agree at all closely with 
the original description. The type locality of the species is Noumea 
in the New Caledonia group, consequently not far removed from 
Malaita Island. It has been credited also to Tahiti, in the Society 
Group of the eastern Pacific (see Setchell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot., 
12:67, 1926) and to the Netherlands East Indies (see Weber-van 
Bosse, Siboga Exp., Mon. LIX-a, 28, 1913). Dr. Anna Weber-van 
Bosse (loc. cit.) has expressed the opinion that the species may 
possibly be only a marine form of some fresh water species such as 
5. crispum (Ag.) Born. The Malaita specimens add little to our 
knowledge except as to an additional occurrence of a seemingly 
marine Scytonema in close association with a seemingly marine 
Nostoc. 



Vol. XXIJ SETCHELL— MARINE PLANTS OF MELANESIA 261 

Chlorophyceae 

The green Algae are usually represented in lagoons by members 
of the genera Halinieda (calcified) and Caulerpa (uncalcified). The 
representation of Halinieda is most satisfactory^ ; that of Caulerpa is 
meager, suggesting that members of this genus were either not 
abundant or perhaps not conspicuously well developed in the areas 
chosen for collections. 

4. Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forssk.) Boerg. 

A fragment (No. 0631 E) of a hollow plant, presumably of this 
species, was collected "inside the reef" on Sikaiana Island, on May 
16. This is referred here, as probably being the plant commonly 
known as D. favulosa (Mert.) Decaisne, a name recently supplanted 
by the one given above. 

5. Dictyosphaeria australis Setchell 

Two or three solid plants (No. 0631 F), associated with the above, 
seem to belong to D. australis Setchell, rather than to D. Versluysii 
W.-v. Bosse. 

6. Caulerpa racemosa (Forssk.) J. Ag. 

On Sikaiana Island, northeast of Malaita Island (Solomon 
Group) there were collected scanty specimens (No. 0631 H) belong- 
ing to var. clavifera f. macrophysa (Kuetz.) W.-v. Bosse, of this 
species. 

7. Caulerpa peltata (Turn.) Lamour 

A single scrap, seeming clearly of this species, was collected in 
Mohawk Bay of Lomlom Island of the Swallow Group in the Santa 
Cruz Islands on June 10. 

8. Caulerpa Fergusonii Murray? 

A single scrap (No. 0716 C), possibly of this species, was collected 
in Mohawk Bay, on Lomlom Island, Swallow Group, by Norton 
Stewart, on May 25. 

9. Caulerpa cupressoides (Vahl.) C. Ag. 

The var. mamillosa (Mont.) W.-v. B. (No. 0631 A) was collected 
inside the reef of Sikaiana Island, on May 16, and the var. Lyco- 
podium (C. Ag.) f. alternifolia (Crouan) W.-v. B. (No. 0677) was 
collected on Bellona Island, south of the Solomon Islands, on June 
21. The specimens are characteristic but in small quantity. 



262 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sbr, 

10. Caulerpa anceps Harv. ? 

A scrap (No. 0631 J), collected "inside the reef" of Sikaiana 
Island, on May 16, is tentatively referred to this species. 



Halimeda 

The collection of species of Halimeda, characteristic of tropical 
seas of all oceans, is remarkably inclusive, considering that no ex- 
tensive search was possible along this direction. 



11. Halimeda discoidea Decaisne 

A few well developed specimens (No. 0654 C) were found with 
other species of Halimeda in Kunggawa Bay on Rennell Island, south- 
west of the southeastern extension of the Solomon Islands, on 
June 8. 



12. Halimeda simulans M. A. Howe 

A number of specimens (No. 0716), of typical form, of this species 
were collected in Mohawk Bay on Lomlom Island in the Swallow 
Group of the Santa Cruz Islands on July 10. Halimeda simulans 
was described from the Caribbean region (Bahama Islands) where 
it is abundant. It was first credited to the Pacific Ocean from 
Tahiti (see Setchell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot., 12:81, 1926), the 
identification being confirmed by M. A. Howe. The present collec- 
tion seems to be the second in the Pacific Ocean but extends the 
known distribution of the species to the extreme western limit of this 
ocean. 



13. Halimeda Monile (Ell. et Sol.) Lamour 

Two well developed and characteristic specimens (No. 0631 B) 
of this species were collected "inside the reef" on Sikaiana, on May 
16. This species, apparently frequent in the Caribbean region, is 
only occasional in the Indo-Pacific. It occurs at Vavau in the Tonga 
Islands and now far to the westward on Sikaiana Island. It seems 
clearly distinct from H. tridens (Sol.) Lamour [H. incrassata (Ell. et 
Sol.) Lamour]. 



Halimeda tridens (Sol.) Lamour 

Two varieties of this widespread and variable species occur among 
the collections: 



Vol. XXI] SETCHELL— MARINE PLANTS OF MELANESIA 263 

14. Halimeda tridens var. ovata (J. Ag.) M. A. Howe 

This variety, originally described from Noukahiva in the Mar- 
quesas Islands (J. G. Agardh, Lund, Univ. Arssks., 23:86, 1887) has 
also been reported from Tahiti (see Setchell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot., 
12:81, 1926). It seems to be a very distinct form. It occurred in a 
number of specimens (No. 0654 B) among the collections of June 8 
from Kunggawa Bay, Rennell Island, and (No. 0677 B) from 
Bellona Island, June 21, localities far west of any hitherto reported. 

15. Halimeda tridens var. tripartita (Barton) Setchell, comb. nov. 

{Halimeda incrassata forma tripartita Barton, Siboga Exp., Mon. 

LX:27,fig. 43, 1901). 

Two specimens (No. 0654 A) were found among other Halimeda 
plants collected on June 8 at Kunggawa Bay, on Rennell Island. 
The variety was described from plants collected by Dr. Anna 
Weber- van Bosse of the Siboga Expedition (1899-1900) in the 
Netherlands East Indies. 



16. Halimeda Opuntia f. typica Barton 

Plants (No. 0631 C) of apparently the typical form were collected 
at Sikaiana Island, "inside the reef," on May 16. 



17. Halimeda Opuntia f. triloba (Zan.) Barton 

The trilobed form of Halimeda Opuntia occurred in two collections : 
No. 0631 D "inside the reef," on Sikaiana Island, May 16; and No. 
0654 D, in the form of a single fragment, from Kunggawa Bay, 
Rennell Island, June 8. 



Melanophyceae 

The brown Algae represent, as is natural, the more conspicuous 
forms of the Dictyotaceae and the Sargassaceae. The species col- 
lected are of decided interest from a critical point of view and from 
that of distribution. 



18. Dictyota friabilis Setchell 

The collection (No. 0716 A) from Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island, 
of the Swallow Group in the Santa Cruz Islands (July 10) consists 
of a somewhat extended mat of procumbent plants, thin, papery, 
and brittle (when fresh), which most closely approximate the 
Tahitian species (see Setchell, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot., 12:91, pi. 13, 
figs. 4-7; pi. 20, fig. 1, 1926). The surface is not areolate, there is 



264 • CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

little evidence of either marginal or surface proliferations, but the 
tetrasporangia do tend, at least here and there, to arrange them- 
selves in horizontal lines. It may be close to D. lata Lamour, from 
the East Indies, but comparison with type is desirable before definite 
reference to that species can be made. It, also, has some agreement 
with the description of D. nigrescens Zan., of the Aru Islands, but 
again, comparison should be made with type specimens before cer- 
tainty of this name may be assumed. 

19. Padina Commersonii Bory 

Two collections contain what seem to be typical, rather young 
plants of this species. No. 0641 B, from Auki Bay, Malaita Island, 
collected by Norton Stewart, on May 25, shows a few thin tetra- 
sporic plants. The fronds are composed of 2 unequal layers of cells, 
are about 250/i thick, with the tetrasporangia in interrupted lines 
just above each successive arc of hair zone. No. 0716 B contains a 
few young plants, very similar to those of the preceding in general 
structure, but the organs in front of the hair zone arcs seem to be 
antheridia. The material, however, is too scanty for detailed 
investigation. 

20. Hormophysa triquetra (L.) Kuetz 

At Uras Cove of Tai Lagoon, on Malaita Island, on May 27, 
Norton Stewart collected (No. 0642 C) a single young fragment of 
the plant which is variously placed in Cytoseira, Hormosira, Monili- 
formia, and Hormophysa, and under species names of triquetra, 
articulata, prolifera, and latifrons. Kuetzing (Phyc. Gen., 359, 
1843) created for it the generic name of Hormophysa, which may be 
retained for the present as most suitable. The species seems to be 
the same as that of the Red Sea and intervening areas, which 
Forsskal (1775) named Fucus articulatus. The fragment is of the 
"latifrons'' type, but that is the usual form of the frond in young 
plants. 

21. Turbinaria Murrayana Barton 

Two specimens of what seems to be this plant, short, stout, simple, 
and with massive triangular leaves, answering well to Barton's 
description and figures (Trans. Linn. Soc, ser. 2, Bot., 3:218, pi. 54, 
f. 2, 1891) and showing close resemblances also to the more slender, 
branched, vesiculate T. decurrens. No. 0642 D is a single short plant 
from Uras Cove, Tai Lagoon, Malaita Island, May 27, collected by 
Norton Stewart, and No. 0676 A, also a single short specimen, from 
Bellona Island, June 20. The type collection is from Papua and the 
Siboga Expedition collected it at Makassar. 



Vol. XXI] SETC HELL— MARINE PLANTS OF MELANESIA 265 

22. Turbinaria turbinata (L). O. Ktze 

Two collections of this species were made. No. 0642 E consisted 
of 2 plants from Uras Cove, Tai Lagoon, Malaita Island, May 27, 
collected by Norton Stewart; No. 0676 B included 4 fragments from 
Bellona Island (June 20). The species is found in all tropical oceans. 



23. Turbinaria ornata (Turn.) J. Ag. 

This common species of the Indo-Pacific region is represented by a 
single specimen (No. 0641 A) from Auki Bay, Malaita Island, col- 
lected by Norton Stewart, May 25. 



Sargassum 

24. Sargassum echinocarpum var. phyllocysta Grun. 

No. 0642 H, collected by Norton Stewart in Uras Cove, Tai 
Lagoon, on Malaita Island, May 27, seems to be a very distinct 
variety of this apparently wide-spread species of the Indo-Pacific 
oceans. The type of the species is from Hawaii, while that of the 
variety is from Tongatabu. The broadly foliaceous vesicles mark off 
the variety from the species, while the compact glomerules of spinose 
receptacles and the more obtuse, more rigid, more deeply dentate 
leaves with long cuneate bases distinguish it from 5. Binderi. 

25. Sargassum Binderi Bonder 

No. 0642 F, of the same collection from Uras Cove, Tai Lagoon, 
Malaita Island, as the last, seems nearer to the original plant of 
Bonder, than the one selected by J. G. Agardh (Spec. Alg., 1:328, 
1848; see also Sonder, Abh. a. d. Geb. d. Naturw. herausgegeben v. d. 
Naturw. Ver. in Hamburg, 5, 2:43, 1871). Sonder (loc. cit.) divides 
his species between var. latifolium and (loc. cit., p. 44) var. angusti- 
folium. The former variety (from Onrust Island, near Batavia, 
Java) is the broader-leaved typical form, while the. narrow-leaved 
forms have been confused, both by J. G. Agardh and others, with 
5. Swartzii (Turn.) C. Ag. and with other narrow-leaved species. 
J. G. Agardh also discusses this question later (see K. Sv. Vet. Akad. 
Handl., 23:87, 88, pi. 26, II, 1889). In the "Zaca" specimens the 
vesicles are ordinarily muticous but occasionally are long apiculate. 

26. Sargassum cristaefolium C. Ag. 

No. 0642 G represents still a third species in the Uras Cove mix- 
ture of Sargassums. The several fragments seem to be typical an- 
theridial (male) plants, or at least those having receptacles are, of 



266 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

this probably widely extended and somewhat variable Indo-Pacific 
species, whose variations have seemingly been described under 
several binomials. 



27. Sargassum polycystum C. Ag. 

Under No. 0676 C, are two small fragments from Bellona Island 
(June 20), which on account of their more or less strongly muricate 
axes and small leaves and vesicles may be associated with this 
species, or possibly rather with 5. myriocystum C. Ag. The species 
having the characters mentioned above are usually separated into 
two groups, according as to whether they have the receptacles 
unarmed, or spinulose dentate, and further as to whether the re- 
ceptacles are dioecious or androgynous. In dioecious species of this 
type the rule seems to be that the oogonial (female) receptacles are 
more or less spinulose dentate while the antheridial (male) may be 
devoid of lateral projections ("unarmed"). Such species are placed 
under the Acanthocarpicae hiserrulae parvifoliae of J. G. Agardh 
(loc. cit., 1889, p. 37), while the smooth-receptacled but otherwise 
similar group were placed by J. G. Agardh (loc. cit., 1889, p. 39) 
under Malacocarpicae racemosae glandulariae . Grunow (Add. ad. 
cog. Sarg., 1915-1916) places the two groups nearer to one another, 
both under Acanthocarpicae, because the oogonial receptacles are 
spinulose-dentate, although the antheridial receptacles are unarmed, 
and makes distinctions in leaf characters, acute versus obtuse, 
percostate versus partially or completely ecostate. Our scanty 
specimens vary as to these; the larger has all the leaves ecostate, the 
smaller all percostate. The tips in each case are between acute and 
obtuse. It is therefore difficult to distinguish 5. polycystum C. Ag. 
from 5. myriocystum J. Ag. Very possibly the two species may be 
identical and very possibly also certain alleged closely related species 
may really belong to the same species-cycle. 



28. Sargassum oligocystum Mont. 

Plates 11-15, figures 1-9 

Two numbers from Bellona Island of Sargassum with flattened 
primary branches suggest that possibly this species of Montagne 
(PI. Cell., in Dumont D'Urville, Voy. au Pol. Sud., 1:67, 1845) from 
Sumatra may be the one represented, but also suggest 5. porosum 
Grev., 5. Grevillei J. Ag., and 5. oligocystoides Grun. From the 
vegetative characters, the plants seem to fit descriptions of all four 
species, but the receptacles are described differently. Sargassum 
oligocystum was described from an oogonial (female) plant having 
flat or possibly triquetrous receptacles with spinulose-toothed 
margins. Whether the type of S. oligocystum may possibly be andro- 



Vol. XXI] SETCHELL— MARINE PLANTS OF MELANESIA 267 

gynous is not stated, but Grunow has referred to it, as possible 
varieties, plants with androgynous receptacles. 

Sargassum Grevillei J. Ag. and 5. porosum Grev., proposed almost 
simultaneously, have somewhat elongated cylindrical, unarmed, 
androgynous receptacles, while 5. oligocystoides Grun. is said to differ 
from 5. Grevillei J. Ag. (and S. porosum Grev.) in having receptacles 
very similar to 5. Grevillei but varying from unarmed, through 
sparingly spinulose, to dentate. 

No. 0676 D, Bellona Island, June 20, and No. 0680, Bellona Island, 
June 21, seem to be closely of the same vegetative form as these 
several proposed species, but almost dimorphic as to the receptacles. 
In certain plants the receptacles answer to those described for 
Sargassum oligocystum Mont. They are flat, with dentate margins. 
Their conceptacles are largely oogonial (female) but an occasional 
conceptacle, among the others, is antheridial (male). The plant is, 
then, androgynous, although preponderantly female. Other plants, 
agreeing perfectly with those just mentioned in vegetative characters, 
have slender, cylindrical, but torulose receptacles, predominantly 
male, but with occasionally one, or a very few, female conceptacles. 
While these plants with slender, cylindrical receptacles are unarmed, 
there are some with a few scattered spinulose teeth. Such specimens 
as these seem to indicate an incomplete dimorphism of the recep- 
tacles, those predominantly male tending towards being slender, 
cylindrical, with only traces of spinules, while those predominantly 
female tend to have flat, broad, dentate, receptacles. Because of 
their close association in habitat and vegetative form, it seems reason- 
able to regard them as presumably states of the same species and 
refer them to 5. oligocystum Mont., the earliest species of the series 
to be described (1845). It also seems reasonable to suspect that 
S. Grevillei J. Ag. (1848), S. porosum Grev. (1849), and 5. oligo- 
cystoides Grunow (1916) are, likewise, simply names given to states 
of 5. oligocystum Mont. 

Figure 1 of Plate 11 represents two plants of No. 0680, reduced to 
about 0.5 diam., from Bellona Island; that below (A), the more 
slender of the two, showing receptacles elongated, slender, cylin- 
drical, and slightly if at all spinulose (as seen enlarged 6 diameters in 
figure 2), and with their androgynous receptacles almost but not 
entirely antheridial. This plant falls under the description and 
figure of Sargassum, porosum Grev., but which was slightly earlier 
described as 5. Grevillei J. Ag. Figure 1 also shows above (B), a 
plant of the same collection, also reduced about 0.5 diameters, which 
is more robust in all its parts and, as shown in figure 3, Plate 12, en- 
larged 6 diameters, with broader, more congested, flattened, and 
dentate receptacles, which answer to those described for 5. oligo- 
cystum Mont. The conceptacles in this specimen are almost ex- 
clusively oogonial, but an occasional associated antheridial con- 
ceptacle is found. On this basis is suggested the uniting of 5. 
porosum Grev. (1849) and 5. Grevillei J. Ag. (1848), as representing 



268 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the antheridially-(male-) dominated plants, with 5. oligocystum 
Mont. (1845), the oogonially- (female-) dominated plants, as a single 
species under the last-mentioned name. 

Figures 4 to 7, Plates 12-14, show habit and some details of recep- 
tacular variation in No. 6076 D, also collected at Bellona Island. 
Figure 4, Plate 12, shows plants, reduced to about 0.5 diam., whose 
receptacles verge towards one or another of the sexes but whose 
conceptacles are mixed. Figure 5, Plate 13, shows slender, undulate 
receptacles with antheridial dominance, figure 6, Plate 13, shows 
some with oogonial dominance, while figure 7, Plate 14, shows 
receptacles almost balanced between the two sexes, all enlarged 6 
diameters. The plant of figure 6, Plate 13, comes close to 5. oligo- 
cystoides Grun. (figure 9, Plate 15), whose primary branches are 
more flattened and whose receptacles (figure 8, Plate 14, enlarged 6 
diameters) are mixed as to sex and, while verging towards 5. oligo- 
cystum on the one hand and S. Grevillei on the other, are really 
intermediate. It seems reasonable, then, to add 5. oligocystoides 
Grun. (as a sex state, or form?) to 5. oligocystum Mont. 

It seems, therefore, that it is reasonable to assume that here, as in 
the fairly closely related group of species, the Sargassum stenophyllum 
J. Ag. (1848), 5. lanceolatum J. Ag. (1848), and 5. Skottsbergii Sjost. 
(1924), we may be dealing with a species cycle whose varying recep- 
tacular morphology is induced by the proportional representation of 
the one or the other sex-conceptacles, contained within it, constitu- 
ing polygamous species varying from almost (possibly absolute) 
dioecism to an almost equitable androgyny. The strongly male 
plants are more slender, the strongly oogonial plants more robust, 
while the intersex plants are intermediate in this respect. 



Rhodophyceae 

Only a single non-calcified member of this group occurred in the 
collections. Several calcified members {Melobesieae and Corallineae) 
were found as epiphytes on the larger green and brown algae or on 
the sea grasses, but no identifications are attempted at the present 
time. 



29. Laurencia mariannensis Yamada 

No. 0631 G, collected "inside the reef" on Sikaiana Island, seems 
to belong to this species, known hitherto only from the Marianne 
Islands. The tuft of plants has both the habit and the structural 
details given by Yamada for this species. 



Vol. XXI] SETCHELL— MARINE PLANTS OF MELANESIA 269 

MONOCOTYLEDONAE 

Two species of Sea Grasses, each with the leaves bearing Melo- 
besieae, were found among the "Zaca" collections. 

30. Thalassia Hemprichii (Ehrb.) Aschers 

No. 0677 A, occurred among the collections from Bellona Island 
(June 21). The plants are sterile but seem clearly of this species. 
Bellona Island is possibly as much as 200 miles eastward of its 
hitherto known range (see Ostenfeld, Die Pflanzenareale 1, 3: map 
23, 1927). 

31. Cymodocea ciliata (Forssk.) Ehrb. 

No. 0642 A was collected in Uras Cove, Tai Lagoon, Malaita 
Island, by Norton Stewart, on May 27. These plants are also sterile 
but the branches are fairly long, the teeth on the fiat leaves are 
transparent, the nerves of the leaves 21 to 23, and the peripheral 
vascular bundles of the stems within the inner lacunose cortex. 
This locality extends the eastward confines of the Australio-Papuan 
area of the species by at least a couple of hundred of miles (see Osten- 
feld, loc. cit., map 36). 



270 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Plate 11. 

Sargassum oligocystum Mont, (in sens, ampl.) 

Fig. 1. (A). S. Grevillei J. Ag. (incl. 5. porosum Grev.) habit (with antheridial 
dominance). X 0.5 diam. 

Fig. 1. (B). S. oligocystum Mont, (in sens. ang.). habit (with oogonial domi- 
nance). X 0.5 diam. Both from Bellona Island. No. 0680. 

Fig. 2. S. Grevillei J. Ag. Receptacles, leaves, and vesicles of Fig. 1, A. X 6. diam. 

Plate 12. 

Sargassum oligocystum Mont, (in sens, ampl.) 

Fig. 3. 5. oligocystum Mont, (in sens. ang.). Receptacles, leaves, and vesicles of 
Fig. 1, B. X 6. diam. 

Fig. 4. S. oligocystum Mont, (in sens, ampl.), habits of several plants of varying 
sexual dominance. Bellona Island, No. 0676 D. X 0.5 diam. 

Plate 13. 

Sargassum oligocystum Mont, (in sens, ampl.) 

Fig. 5. S. Grevillei J. Ag. (incl. 5. porosum Grev.) Receptacles, leaves, and 
vesicles of a plant shown in Fig. 4 (with antheridial dominance). X 6. diam. 

Fig. 6. 5. oligocystum Mont, (in sens, ang.) Receptacles, leaves, and vesicles of a 
plant shown in Fig. 4, (with oogonial dominance). X 6. diam. 



Plate 14. 

Sargassum oligocystum Mont, (in sens, ampl) 

Fig. 7. S. oligocystoides Grun. Receptacles and leaves of a plant shown in Fig. 4 
(with nearly balanced dominance). X 6. diam. 

Fig. 8. 5. oligocystoides Grun. Receptacles, leaves, and vesicles from syntype 
shown in Fig. 9 (with slight oogonial dominance). X 6. diam. 



Plate 15. 

Sargassum oligocystum Mont, (in sens, ampl.) 

Fig. 9. 5. oligocystoides Grun. Habit of a syntype from the E. coast of the 
Malacca Peninsula. X 0.5 diam. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 21 



[SETCHELL] Plate 11 








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-^ 





PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 21 



[SETCHELL] Plate 12 




PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 21 



SETCHELL] Plate 13 




PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 21 



[SETCHELS] Plate 14 





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PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 21 



[SETCHELL] Plate 15 






Fig. 9 



PROCEEDINGS "■■'^.:^;--rl:;^: ..,,-,:. 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 22, pp. 277-284. September 26, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 22 

THE VASCULAR PLANTS FROM SAN NICOLAS ISLAND, 

CALIFORNIA 



JOHN THOMAS HOWELL 

Assistant Curator, Department of Botany, 

California Academy of Sciences 

INTRODUCTION 

So that the special botanical problems of each region can be 
properly emphasized and treated, it has appeared best to present the 
formal report on the vascular plants of the Templeton Crocker 
Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences, 1932, in several 
papers, each dealing with the collections from a relatively limited, 
definite geographic area. The first of these deals with the small 
collection from San Nicolas Island, California, both the first and last 
place visited for scientific studies by the Templeton Crocker Expe- 
dition. 

San Nicolas Island lies nearly 70 miles west-southwest of San 
Pedro on the mainland of California, and is in the southern group of 
the Santa Barbara Islands. It is adjacent to the islet of Santa 
Barbara and to the larger islands of Santa Catalina and San Cle- 
mente. San Nicolas Island is a small island, about 10 miles long, a 
third as wide, and from 500 to 800 feet high along the mesa-like top. 
Although it lacks the interesting and varied vegetation of its larger 
neighbors, it is, nevertheless, the classic locality for a number of 
insular species, some of which are known in no other place. Most 
of these were described by Alice Eastwood in the only account of the 
flora of the island that has been published (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 

September 26, 1935 



-3PT .4 i99^ 



278 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ser. 3, Botany, 1: 89-120, 1898). Miss Eastwood's report was based 
on the collection of 1897 of Mrs. Blanche Trask, intrepid and 
ingenious explorer of the southern members of the Santa Barbara 
Islands, where several rare endemic plants are named in her honor. 

The following account, taken from the botanical notebooks of the 
expedition, briefly describes the features and floral aspect of San 
Nicolas Island: 

March 12, 1932. "We arrived off San Nicolas Island about 
3 P. M. The north end presented an uninviting expanse of barren 
sand-dunes. Midway down the island, patches of green could be 
seen on steep slopes between the beach and the summit of the island. 
The slopes were scoured and cut by gullies and arroyos. From the 
east, the island appeared like a mesa, its top being uniform and 
nearly fiat. About 4 P. M., I landed at the south end where I col- 
lected on the lower slopes of the island. Lycium was the character- 
istic shrubby plant, and, although it was not uncommon, at no place 
did it form a thicket extensive enough to impede one's progress. 
Two species of Opuntia were also present but were not abundant. 
A shrubby Artemisia and Coreopsis giganiea were rare in the arroyos. 
Between these shrubby plants on fiats and gentle slopes was her- 
baceous vegetation, many of the species being introduced weeds." 

March 13, 1932. "Shortly after day-break, I landed and climbed 
to the top of the island which was buried in a heavy fog. The top 
of the island is an undulating plain, the edges of which are being 
dissected by raw-walled gullies. Only low herbaceous vegetation 
was seen on the plain, and grazing on it were numerous sheep. On 
the south wall of a canyon, I found three hepatics: Asterella, Tar- 
gionia, and Sphaerocarpus. I looked for Riccia but found none. 
Below the top of the mesa, the gullies and ravines give rise to bad 
lands. Here there is little or no vegetation to cover the eroding 
slopes. Still lower down is a terrace, probably an elevated beach, 
on which I collected last evening. The vegetation there was the 
most luxuriant seen on the island and there were the thickets of 
Lycium and cacti. . . . This afternoon we sailed between Santa 
Catalina and San Clemente islands; and just before sunset, we could 
see Santiago Peak in the Santa Ana Range on the mainland, the 
characteristic saddle-back summit marking it." 

On the homeward journey, the expedition again visited San 
Nicolas Island for two and a half days, August 26 to 28. The 
time was spent dredging, and, because of the heavy surf, no party 
was landed. 

The present collection of vascular plants from San Nicolas Island 
consists of 34 numbers representing 32 species and varieties, 7 of 
which were not reported in Miss Eastwood's list. In that account, 
82 species and varieties were listed, so that the present list brings the 
number of plants known from San Nicolas Island to 89. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— VASCULAR PLANTS FROM SAN NICOLAS ISLAND 279 



LIST OF SPECIES 

1. Bromus carinatus H. & A., Bot. Beechy Voy. 403 (1841) 

The determinations of this and the two other grasses found on San 
Nicolas Island have been checked at the Grass Herbarium of the 
United States Department of Agriculture through the kindness of 
Dr. A. S. Hitchcock. The present number is probably B. Hooker- 
ianus or B. virens of Miss Eastwood's list. No. 8226. 



2. Festuca octoflora subsp. hirtella Piper, Contrib. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 10: 12 (1906) 

This plant, not included in Miss Eastwood's list, may be a more 
recent introduction from the mainland where it is widespread and 
rather common. No. 8222. 



3. Hordeum murinum L., Sp. PI. 85 (1753) 

Although this weedy foxtail was noted as "not common," two 
collections of it were made. No. 8211, 8218. 



4. Brodiaea capitata Benth., PI. Hartw. 339 (1857) 

This grew among protecting thickets of Opuntia and Lycium. The 
flowers were pale lavender-rose. No. 8225. 



5. Parietaria floridana Nutt., Gen. Am. 2: 208 (1818) 
From a thicket of Lycium. No. 8228. 

6. Atriplex californica Moq. in DC., Prodr. 13, pt. 2: 98 (1849) 
Clay slopes and flats. No. 8209. 

7. Abronia maritima Nutt. in Wats., Bot. Calif. 2: 4 (1880) 

Sand-dunes just back of the beach. No. 8230. The rarer A. alba 
Eastw., with type locality San Nicolas Island, was not found. 

8. Lepidium nitidum Nutt. in T. & G., Fl. 1: 116 (1838) 
No. 8 208 A. 



280 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

9. Lepidium Robinsonii Thell., Gatt. Lepidium 255 (1906) 

This species, reported by Miss Eastwood as L. hipinnatifidum 
Desv., was common in open level places on the lower part of the 
island. No. 8208. 



10. Tillaea erecta H. & A., Bot. Beechy Voy. 24 (1841) 

This low herb, which was not reported in Miss Eastwood's list, 
was common on clay fiats at the south end of the island. No. 8214. 



11. Jepsonia sp. 

Specimens belonging to a species of this interesting genus were 
found on northern clay slopes near the south end of the island. The 
plants were in leaf and no flowers or fruits could be found. The 
leaves are orbicular and about 2 cm. in diameter. Thus it appears 
that the plants are nearer to /. Parryi (Torr.) Small (Bull. Torr. 

Club 23: 18, 1896) than to /. malvaefolia (Greene) Small 

{loc. cit., 19), a closely related species which is found on Santa Cruz 
and Santa Rosa islands to the northward. In the latter species, the 
leaves are described as being longer than wide and ovate-orbicular. 
Jepsonia has not been reported heretofore from San Nicolas Island. 
No. 8210. 



12. Medicago hispida Gaertn., Fruct. 2: 349 (1791) 
A common weed on clay fiats. No. 8215. 



13. Trifolium stenophyllum Nutt., Journ. Phil. Acad., 
n. ser., 1: 151 (1848) 

The plant on San Nicolas Island is referable to T. depauperatum 
Desv. var. stenophyllum (Nutt.) McDerm. f. franciscanum (Greene) 
McDerm. according to Miss McDermott's North American Tri- 
foliums (p. 140). It would seem better to treat this variable group 
as Jepson has and consider the island plant a broad-leaved form of 
T. amplectens T. & G. var. stenophyllum (Nutt.) Jepson (Man. Fl. 
PI. Calif. 537). The plant was common on the mesa. No. 8212. 

14. Erodium cicutarium L'Her. in Ait., Hort. Kew., 
ed. 1, 2: 414 (1789) 

In Miss Eastwood's list, this weedy species was reported as un- 
common. It is now abundant in areas visited near the south end of 
the island. No. 8217. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— VASCULAR PLANTS FROM SAN NICOLAS ISLAND 281 

15. Erodium moschatum L'Her. in Ait., Hort. Kew., ed. 1, 

2: 414 (1789) 

This plant, although not uncommon, was less abundant than the 
preceding. It was not listed by Miss Eastwood. No. 8216. 

16. Opuntia occidentalis Engel. & Bigel., Pacif. R. R. Rep. 
4: 38 (1856); Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 29 (1856) 

Forming low thickets about a meter tall on the lower slopes of the 
island. Two collections were prepared to show variation, No. 8204 A 
and 8205 A. In the first, the joints are elongate-obovate and yellow- 
green, the areoles bear 4 or more spines, and the fruits are sterile. 
In the second, the joints are rather broadly obovate and glaucous- 
green or bluish-green, the areoles bear 1-3 or occasionally 4 spines, 
and the fruits are fertile. This sort of variation is characteristic of 
the species as it occurs on the coast of Southern California. The 
plant was reported as "probably 0. Engelmanni Salm. var. littoralis 
Engelm." by Miss Eastwood who had only a single flower without an 
ovary for study. According to Britton and Rose in The Cactaceae, 
the dull brownish spines of the present collections mark them as 
nearer to 0. occidentalis than to 0. littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell. 



17. Opuntia prolifera Engelm., Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. 2, 
14: 338 (1852) 

This Opuntia was not as common as 0. occidentalis. It was about 
a meter tall. No. 8206. 



18. Apiastrum angustifolium Nutt. in T. & G., Fl. 1: 644 (1840) 
No. 8227. 



19. Lomatium insulate (Eastw.) Munz, Man. S. Calif. 
Bot. 358 (1935) 

Euryptera insularis (Eastw.) C. & R., Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 7: 
243 (1900). 

Peucedanum insulare Eastw., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 3, 
Botany, 1: 106 (1898). This endemic species was rather common 
on the steep clay sides of arroyos just back of the beach. The leaves 
are somewhat glaucous and are variously cleft, the final segments 
sometimes being coarse and broad, sometimes finely divided and 
narrow. The flowers are bright yellow. No. 8207. 



282 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

20. Sanicula arguta Greene in C. & R., Contrib. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 7: 36 (1900) 

This is 5. Menziesii of Miss Eastwood's list. The plant was 
common around thickets of Opuntia and Lycium and on moist slopes 
in partially shaded places. No. 8201 A. 

21. Nemophila insularis Eastwood, spec. nov. 

Nana, prostrata, basi divaricati ramosa, ramis gracilibus, subglabratis; foliis 
2-3 cm. longis, 5-7 pinnatifidis, segmentis rotundis, plerumque oppositis, 3-4 mm. 
diametro, laeviter hirsutis et minute pustulatis, petiolis aequilongis laminis, divari- 
cati-hirsutis ; pedunculis subaequalibus petiolis, gracilibus, appresse hispidis; 
calycis segmentis subovatis, hispidis, auriculis minoribus; corolla caerulea, cam- 
panulata, circa 4 mm. longa, segmentis obtusis, ciliatis, inter staminibus prope basi 
minute atro-maculata et duobus, parallelis, hirsutis lineis; staminibus corolla 
brevioribus; capsula orbiculata, 3 mm. diametro, hispida, stylo bilobato, persistent! 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 206984, collected on March 13, 
1932, on moist northern slopes of San Nicolas Island, California, 
by John Thomas Howell, No. 8213. 

This belongs to the group of small-flowered species of Nemophila 
described and figured by the author in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 28: 
137-160. The base of the corolla with the two rows of parallel hairs 
resembles Fig. la in PI. 15, and the corolla is similar in shape to 
Fig. 6a on the same plate. The little black dots between the fila- 
ments above the base are unusual in these small-flowered species. 

Nemophila insularis is a low annual reclining on the ground with 
spreading stems and begins to flower and fruit soon after springing 
from the ground, often while the round cotyledons are still present. 
The leaves have from 5 to 7 round divisions, generally opposite and 
decurrent along the rhachis, and each is tipped with a weak mucro. 
The petiole, which is about as long as the blade, is pubescent with 
spreading hairs and the lobes are clothed with appressed hairs 
minutely pustulate at base. The slender peduncles are generally 
as long as the adjacent petioles, spreading and recurving in fruit. 
The little flowers are pale blue, with calyx about 1.5 mm. long, cor- 
olla bell-shaped, 4 mm. long, somewhat hairy externally, and ciliate 
on the margins of the rounded lobes. Within the corolla above the 
base and between each pair of filaments are two parallel lines of 
hairs and a small black dot. The seed-pod is orbicular and generally 
contains 4 orbicular, minutely papillose seeds, each with a stout 
calyptra resembling a little handle. 

22. Cryptantha Traskae Johnston, Contrib. Gray Herb., 
n. ser., 74: 77 (1925) 

At the south end of San Nicolas Island, this local endemic was not 
common. It was reported by Miss Eastwood as C. Torreyana. 
No. 8223. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— VASCULAR PLANTS FROM SAN NICOLAS ISLAND 283 

23. Lycium californicum Nutt. in Gray, Bot. Calif. 1: 542 (1876) 

This was the commonest woody species at the southern end of San 
Nicolas Island and formed broad low thickets 6 dm. tall and 5 m. or 
less across. The leaves were fleshy but distinctly flattened; the 
corollas were sordid-white with dashes of brownish-purple in the 
throat below the lobes. No. 8203 A. 



24. Galium Aparine L., Sp. PI. 108 (1753) 

A widespread weedy species not reported heretofore from San 
Nicolas Island. No. 8224. 



25. Marah major Dunn, Kew Bull. 151 (1913) 

This plant is not listed by Miss Eastwood but Dunn {loc. cit., 152) 
cites specimens of it from San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, and San 
Clemente islands. No. 8231. 



26. Achillea Millefolium var. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper, Fl. 
Palouse Reg. 196 (1901) 

No. 8231 A. 



27. Artemisia calif ornica Less. var. insularis (Rydb.) Munz, 
Man. S. Calif. Bot. 575 (1935) 

Crossostephium insulare Rydb., N. A. Fl. 34: 244 (1916). 

A rare shrub in the arroyos, worthy of varietal recognition because 
of the leaves which are so different from those of typical A. cali- 
f ornica. Miss Eastwood had only sterile shoots and wrote: "if an 
Artemisia, it is probably undescribed." Hall and Clements in their 
monograph of the North American species of Artemisia discuss this 
interesting insular plant as minor variation number 7 under A. 
calif ornica (Carn. Inst. Wash. Publ. No. 326: 54, — 1923). Besides 
San Nicolas Island, it is known only from San Clemente Island, the 
type locality. No. 8219. 



28. Baeria Palmeri var. Clementina Gray, Syn. Fl. 1, pt. 2, 
ed. 2: 452 (1886) 

Found in open grassy places and about protecting shrubs. By 
Hall, it is called B. chrysostoma var. gracilis f. Clementina in Univ. 
Calif. Publ. Bot. 3: 171 (1907) and simply B. chrysostoma F. & M. 
in N. A. Fl. 34: 77 (1914). 



284 ' CALIFORNIA ACADEMY CF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

29. Coreopsis gigantea (Kell.) Hall, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 3: 

142 (1907) 

Leptosyne gigantea Kell., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4: 198 (1873). 

A single robust specimen of this was seen in an arroyo back from 
the beach. It was nearly 2 m. tall with a crown about as broad 
which carried hundreds of yellow heads. No. 8220. 



30. Malacothrix implicata Eastw., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
ser. 3, Botany, 1: 113 (1898) 

M. saxatilis (Nutt.) T. & G. var. implicata (Eastw.) Hall, Univ. 
Calif. Publ. Bot. 3: 269 (1907). 

Sterile specimens of this plant, first described from San Nicolas 
Island, were obtained from clay bluffs of an arroyo. No. 8228 A. 



31. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill, Herb. Brit. 1: 47 (1769) 
Only a single plant of this weed was found. No. 8221. 

32. Sonchus oleraceus L., Sp. PI. 794 (1753) 
No. 8229. 



PROCEEDINGS — ^..;^;s^ 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 23, pp. 285-294, plates 16-17. September 26, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 23 

THE ROCCELLACEAE 

With Notes on Specimens Collected During the Expedition 
of 1905-06 to the Galapagos Islands 



BY 

OTTO VERNON DARBISHIRE 

Late Professor oj Botany, University of Bristol, England 

PART I 

This portion of the paper deals with specimens collected by Alban 
Stewart during the 1905-1906 expedition of the California Academy 
of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, and is based on material in the 
Farlow Herbarium of Harvard University and the Herbarium of the 
California Academy of Sciences. The numbers cited below are those 
of the Stewart collection. 

Roccella portentosa Mtg. 

Darbishire, O. V., Monographia Roccelleorum, Bibliotheca Botanica, p. 29, 
pi. 7-11, figs. 27-41, 1898; idem, Pflanzenareale 2 (part 1): p. 4, 1928; Farlow, W. G., 
Thallophytes and Musci of the Galapagos Islands, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 38: 
83, 1902; Zahlbruckner, A., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: no. 4187, 1924. 

The specimens were on the whole apparently very weather 
beaten and old, but in their general habit quite typical of the species. 

No. 393. Common on rocks, Barrington Island, October 20, 1905. 
No. 394. Common on the sides of clifEs, Hood Island, September 
26, 1905. 

September 26, 1935 



om %' i^^s 



286 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th SEa. 

Roccella Babingtonii Mtg. 

Darbishire, O. V., Monographia Roccelleorum, Bibliotheca Botanica, p. 47, 
pi. 18-19, figs, 83-85 and 87 and 88, 1898 (as R. peruensis Krphbr.); idem, 
Pflanzenareale 2:4, 1928 (as R. peruensis Krphbr.); Farlow, W. G., Thallophytes 
and Musci of the Galapagos Islands, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 38: 87, 1902; Wainio, 
E. A., Lichens. Catalogue of "Welwitsch's African Plants," part II, p. 434, 1901;^ 
Zahlbruckner, A., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: no. 4168, 1924. 

The specimens were all typical, exhibiting the characteristic 
yellow coloring of the medullary hyphae inside the attachment 
organ. 

No. 382. Abundant on trees and bushes on the lower and dryer 
parts of the island, Villamil, Albermarle Island, March 7, 
1906. 

No. 386. Common on the branches of trees on the lower parts of 
Charles Island, October 4, 1905. 

No. 387. Common on dead bushes, Hood Island, September 26, 
1905. 

No. 388. The same, collected September 25, 1905. 

No. 390. On dead bushes, Indefatigable Island, southeast side, 
October 27, 1905. 

No. 391. Common on trees of Bur sera graveolens, Jervis Island, 
December 20, 1905. 

No. 392. The same, Barrington Island, October 26, 1905. 



Roccellodea nigerrima Darbishire 

Darbishire, O. V., A new genus of Roccellaceae. Ann. Cryptog. Exot. 5: 153, 
pi. 3. 1932. 

The specimens in question were rather broken up. This is typical 
of the species. In form and anatomy too, the specimens correspond 
to the type. The apothecia however were old and blackened. The 
soralia were those typical of the species. The specimens were labelled 
Roccella portentosa Mtg. but certainly do not belong to that species. 
I do not really doubt that they belong to Rocellodea nigerrima. 

No. 395. Common on the sides of cliffs. Hood Island, September 
26, 1905. 

No. 396. Covering the lower sides of projecting masses of lava, 
Charles Island, October 5, 1905. 



• Wainio looks upon R. peruensis Krphbr. as always soraliferous and R. Bahinitonii Mtg. as not bearing 
soralia. 



Vol. XXI] DARBISHIRE—ROCCELLACEAE 287 

PART II 

The specimens mentioned in the second part of this paper were 
collected, for the most part, during the Templeton Crocker Expedi- 
tion of the California Academy of Sciences in 1932. The specimens 
are deposited in the Herbarium of the California Academy of Sciences 
and in the Farlow Herbarium of Harvard University. 



Dendrographa leucophaea (Tuck.) Darbishire 

Darbishire, O. V., Monographia Roccelleorum. Bibl. Bot., p. 65, pi. 27, fig. 121, 
1898; Zahlbruckner, A., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: no. 4159, 1924. 

(a) Collected on San Nicolas Island, California, /. T. Howell, 
March 13, 1932. 

These specimens were fvdly grown, exhibiting externally the char- 
acteristic smooth, though stringy appearance of the cortex. Anasto- 
moses between branches were not infrequent. Apothecia were 
plentiful and on the younger branches spermogonia also occurred. 

(b) Collected at the south end of Guadalupe Island, Lower Cali- 
fornia, H, L. Mason, April, 1925. 

These specimens were small and evidently represented young 
plants. The surface was smooth but in section showed the structure 
associated with Dendrographa leucophaea. Anastomoses were com- 
mon, but apothecia and spermogonia completely absent. 



Roccella fimbriata Darbishire, spec. nov. 

Plate 16, figures 1, 2; plate 17, figures 3, 4. 

Thallus fruticulosus, basi placenta substrate affixus. Placenta* bene evoluta, 
crassa margine crescens, strato corticali instructa ex hyphis formato rectis, strato 
gonidiali instructa et strato medullari, cuius hyphae internae intense luteae sunt 
sed externae et substrati propinquae nigrescentes. Podetia recta, basin versus 
constricta sed mox amplificata, complanata, ramosa, fimbriata, usque ad 6 et 10 
mm. lata, et rarissime 15 mm., ad 10 cm. alta, apicibus angustioribus et paulo 
teretibus; stratum corticale ex hyphis formatum transversalibus, rectis; stratum 
gonidiale distinctum; gonidia Trentepohliae species; stratum meduUare ex hyphis 
formatum longitudinalibus, conglutinatis, chondroideis. Apothecia lateralia, aut 
superficialia, basi paulo constricta et breviter stipitata, rotundata, 1 mm. lata, 
disco nigro instructa pruinoso, margine pallido, paulo elevato, laevi, deinde 
crenato, hypothecium nigrum, sub media parte ad 200 n crassum, parathecium 
versus 30 n crassum, gradatim in parathecium transiens, tenue; amphithecium 
evolutum, marginem efficiens, gonidiis instructum; paraphyses ramosae, apici- 
bus fuscescentes (epithecium) et foris pruinam albidam efficientes; thecium 60 /u 
altum; asci 10 m crassi; sporae octonae, decolores, 28-32 x 5-8 /x, quadriloculares, 
paulo arcuatae, fusiformes. Spermogonia (apotheciis propinqua) simplicia, im- 
mersa, sed ostiolo paulo elevato, perithecio instructa decolori; ostiolum decolor; 
spermatia bacillariformia, curvatula, 12-14 x 0.5 ix. Soralia non visa. 

2 The term "placenta" is due to Wainio (Lich. Welw. 1901, p. 443). It stands for "attachment organ" 
and it is to take the place of the "thallus" and "protothallus" of various authors, at any rate in the case of 
Roccella. It corresponds to the German term "Haftscheibe" (Lindau, Lich. Beitr. p. 59, 1895). 



288 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Habitat ad saxa maritima, California Inferior, Americae borealis. 

Roccella fimbriata a R. fuciformi differt reactione chemica et morphologice et 
placentae medulla interna lutea; a R. Babingtonii differt hyphis placentae externis 
nigrescentibus ; a R. Montagnei differt medulla placentae lutea; et a R. decipienti 
hyphis luteis placentae et thallo latiore. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 221700, collected at South Bay, 
Cedros Island, Lower California, Templeton Crocker, August 17, 
1932. Also collected at south end of Guadalupe Island, Lower 
California, H. L. Mason, April, 1925. 

The material from both these localities was plentiful and thus 
it was easy to establish a new species. There is no doubt in my mind 
that the specimen identified as Roccella peruensis Krphbr. and 
figured in my Monograph on plate 19, fig. 86, is not an exceptionally 
broad specimen of R. peruensis ( = R. Babingtonii Mtg.) but that it 
belongs to the new species. It was collected by Dr. Eckfeldt in 
Lower California and sent to me in 1897 and it is now in my own 
herbarium. In the Farlow Herbarium there are also specimens 
belonging to Roccella fimbriata collected on Guadalupe Island by 
Dr. Edward Palmer in 1889 (Flora California, Guadalupe Island, 
No. 905c) and labelled Roccella leucophaea Tuck, and relabelled R. 
portentosa Mtg. Some specimens in the Herbarium of the University 
of Michigan from the same source (Flora of Southern California, 
Coronados Island, No. 260c) collected by Dr. Palmer in 1888, 
labelled Roccella leucophaea Tuck, are also Rocella fimbriata. These 
particular specimens showed a very large number of apothecia 
borne on the flat portion of the upright podetia. 

Roccella fimbriata follows in the general differentiation of its thallus 
the usual type of the members of its genus such as Rocella fucif or mis 
(L) DC, R. Montagnei Bel., and R. Babingtonii Mtg. in having a 
well developed attachment organ from which arise upright flat 
podetia. 

The attachment organ is firmly fixed to a rocky substratum. The 
outer tissues in immediate touch with the substratum consist of 
blackish hyphae, whereas the inner medullary hyphae are intensely 
yellow in color. In addition, cortex and gonidial layers are seen. The 
whole attachment organ exhibits marginal growth and it is from 
the mature metathallus of the attachment organ that the upright 
podetia arise and in the end these stand so close together that little 
can be seen of the actual attachment organ. The cortex and gonidia 
together form a tissue about 120-140 fi in depth. The gonidia do 
not form a very dense layer but their Trentepohlia-hrsLnching is 
very clearly seen. The want of light at this point may affect the 
healthy development of the gonidia. The yellow hyphae of the 
medulla measure 2-3 fi in thickness and they possess a thin but hard 



Vol. XXI] DARBISHIRE—ROCCELLACEAE 289 

wall. The black hyphae are slightly thinner and also show a firm 
wall. 

The upright flat podetia vary in breadth from 3-6 mm., with a 
height of about 10 cm. Occasionally the breadth may exceed 15 
mm. The podetia are narrow just above the point where they are 
attached to the attachment organ. They then broaden out grad- 
ually. The branching seems to take the form of a splitting or lobing 
of the flat frond. Frequently numerous narrower portions arise on 
one or both sides of a flat podetium, thus producing a fimbriate 
appearance. The broadest portion is generally about 4-5 cm. above 
the attachment disk. In most of the specimens the branches seemed 
to bend over to one side but this may not be the case under natural 
conditions. In any case, branching seems to take place more or less 
in one plane. The side branches are always much narrower than the 
main stems. The color of the podetium is a faint yellowish or 
greenish-gray, merging sometimes into a deeper but faint reddish- 
brown. The color on one side is often darker than on the other. 
When the thallus is moistened, the color generally tends to become 
faintly greenish throughout. The upright thallus of this species is 
tough and hard and not easily bent. It is slightly brittle. 

In the metathallus of the podetium, the cortex in its structure to a 
certain extent resembles that of R. fuciformis, fasciated bundles of 
hyphae passing out into the cortex and then spreading out to make 
the cortical hyphae stand out at right angles to the outer surface. 
The separate hyphae are not, however, so closely cemented together 
as they are in R. fuciformis and they form a smooth outer surface. 
In the median portion of a flattened podetium the cortex is 40-50 m 
deep but groups of gonidia may push their way in between the 
hyphae bundles, often getting as near as 20 ju to the outside of the 
cortex. The cortical hyphae are 2-4 ju in diameter with a lumen of 
about 1.5 /x. Further inside, the hyphae have a smaller lumen. 
Between the gonidia, hyphae not passing out into the cortex are 
barely 2 /i in diameter. They are in touch with the gonidia by means 
of haustoria. The gonidia measure about 4 x 10 ju and are oval in 
shape and belong to the algal genus Trentepohlia. The whole 
gonidial layer may be 40-50 n deep. The combined cortical and 
gonidial layers are deeper in the middle line of the flat podetium 
and much shallower at the edges. This is the case, too, with R. fuci- 
formis. It is at this edge that the lateral expansion of the podetium 
mainly takes place and it is where the new hyphae are actively push- 
ing their way into the cortex. Also, it is at this point that apothecia 
generally arise, and in R. fuciformis, also the soralia. In a younger 
portion of the podetium, the fasciated hyphae giving rise to the 
cortex are well seen. 



290 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The medulla of the mature podetium is of the usual Roccella type. 
The hyphae run longitudinally in the main, and they are firmly 
cemented to form strands. These strands anastomose in the way 
characteristic of Roccella. The separate hyphae are about 6-7 /x in 
diameter with a lumen barely 1 /x across. There are thinner hyphae 
between the bigger ones. Towards the attachment organ, the 
medullary hyphae become more closely cemented together. 

Apothecia and spermogonia are found on the same podetia, often 
very close together, but in that case the latter are generally no 
longer active. Young spermogonia still containing spermatia are to 
be observed nearer the tips of the branches, where mature apothecia 
do not yet occur. The apothecia seem to arise mainly at the edges 
of the flat podetia. Many, however, are later formed on the flat 
surface, especially in the broadest specimens. This may in part be 
due to the apothecia gradually moving away from the edges as the 
fronds expand by active marginal growth. But that is not always so, 
and many apothecia certainly arise actually away from the edges. 
Apothecia appear to be mature when they are about 1 mm. in 
diameter, when they are circular in outline and have a black disc 
which is whitely prmnose. As the apothecia become older, their 
smooth and entire margin becomes crenate. These apothecia do not 
generally contain spores. As is the case in many species of Roccella, 
they just grow vegetatively and no longer function as apothecia. 

The epithecium consists of dark brown hyphae about 1-2 n thick 
which end in the colorless tips forming the pruina. The whole 
epithecium is about 40 n deep. The thecium is 60 n deep and the 
narrow asci are 10 n across, the spores measuring 28-32 x 5-8 n. 
They are in shape quadrilocular, cylindrical, slightly arcuate and 
colorless. The hypothecium is black and 200 n deep under the 
center of the apothecium, tapering to 30 /x at the margin where it 
passes into the parathecium, which is thin and slightly brown. The 
hyphae of the hypothecium and parathecium are firmly united and 
thus form the usual air-tight cup in which the thecium rests. The 
amphithecium is well developed and contains gonidia. The whole 
apothecium is slightly raised above the level of the podetium and 
shows a constriction at that point. It therefore appears to be 
shortly stalked. 

The spermogonia are of the usual flask-shaped form, the narrow 
ostiole being slightly elevated. The whole spermogonium is 170-200 /x 
high and 100-120 /x broad. The actual air-tight wall is colorless and 
about 25 ju thick. The spermatia are 12-14 /x long and about 0.5 /x 
thick. They are colorless and slightly curved. 

Soralia have not been observed. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 23 [DARBISHIRE] Plate 16 




Fi.t;. 1. RocTi'lla fiinbriata Darbishire, sp. nov. X "/i 




Fig. 2. Roccella fimbriata Darbishire, sp. nov. X Vx. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 23 [DARBISHIRE] Plate 17 




Fig. 3. Roccella fimbriata Daibishiie, sp. nov. X Vs. 




Fig. 4. Roccella fimbriata Darbishire, sp. nov. X */s. 



Vol. XXI] DARBISHIRE—ROCCELLACEAE 291 

There is a certain resemblance between R. fimbriata and R. 
Montagnei Bel., R. fuciformis (L.) DC, and R. Bahingtonii Mtg. 
The more or less uniformly broad and thick frond of the podetium of 
R. fuciformis separates this species from the new one. The gradual 
narrowing down from almost the base of the podetium of R. Montag- 
nei and R. Bahingtonii separates these two species. Of the four 
species, R. fimbriata and R. fuciformis are the hardest and toughest, 
though R. fuciformis is perhaps the more fragile. The medulla in the 
attachment organ of R. Montagnei and R. fuciformis is colorless, 
while yellow in the other two species. In addition, in R. fimbriata, 
the outer tissues of the attachment organ are black; the cortex of the 
podetium turns red with Ca CIO2 in all cases except R. fuciformis. 
The podetia of R, decipiens Darbishire are narrower than those of R. 
fimbriata and the inner medullary hyphae of the attachment organ 
are white in color, but those in touch with the substratum are 
black. 



PROCEEDINGS i^ fy^ /^ ^^ ,^/ 






OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 24, pp. 295-300. September 26, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 24 

NEW SPECIES OF GRASSES FROM THE GALAPAGOS 
AND THE REVILLAGIGEDO ISLANDS 



ALBERT SPEAR HITCHCOCK 

Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture 

(With an introductory paragraph by John Thomas Howell) 



During the course of the Templeton Crocker Expedition of the 
California Academy of Sciences in 1932, more than 250 specimens of 
grasses were collected in Mexico, Central America, and the Gala- 
pagos Islands by Mr. John Thomas Howell, botanist of the expedi- 
tion. The entire collection was referred to Dr. A. S. Hitchcock, 
United States Department of Agriculture, who, with Mrs. Agnes 
Chase, kindly named the species. A full report on the grasses will 
accompany the account of the vascular plants of the expedition 
which is now being prepared. But, since several years will probably 
elapse before it is completed, descriptions of the new grasses found in 
the collection have been prepared for publication. The new species 
of Trisetum from the Galapagos Islands and the two new species of 
Aristida from the Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico, have been de- 
scribed by Dr. Hitchcock, while the new Galapagian species and 
variety of Paspalum have been named by Mrs. Chase. 

J. T. H. 



©.GT 



Septemher 26, 1935 



296 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Trisetum Howellii Hitchcock, spec. nov. 

Perenne; culmi laxe caespitosi, erecti, tenues, glabri, 70 cm. alti, nodis multis; 
vaginae glabrae vel pauUum pilosae; ligula 1-2 mm. longa; laminae planae, laxae, 
glabrae, 10-15 cm. longae, 1-3 mm. latae; panicula angusta, laxiuscula, 10-15 cm. 
longa, ramis tenuibus, laxe appressis, paucifloris, 1-3 cm. longis; spiculae 2-florae; 
rachilla pilosa; glumae aequales, angustae, acuminatae, 4 mm, longae, prima 1- 
nervia glabra, secunda 3-nervia quam prima latior, carina scabra; lemmata glabra 
tenuiter 5-nervia, callo breviter piloso, apice acuta, primum 3-3.5 mm. longum, 
secundum quam primum paulo minus, 1 mm. infra apicem aristam geniculatam 
circa 5 mm. longam exserentia. 

Perennial; culms rather loosely cespitose, erect, slender, glabrous, several-noded, 
about 70 cm. tall; sheaths striate, glabrous or the lower sparingly short-pilose; 
ligule 1-2 mm. long; blades flat, lax, glabrous, or somewhat scaberulous on the upper 
surface, often somewhat bulged out on the margins at base, 10-15 cm. long, 1-3 mm. 
wide; panicle erect, narrow, rather lax, brownish or greenish, 10-15 cm. long, the 
axis slender, scaberulous or nearly glabrous, the slender branches loosely appressed, 
1-3 cm. long, loosely flowered; glumes equal in length, narrow, acuminate, about 
4 mm. long, the first 1-nerved, glabrous or slightly scabrous on the keel near the 
slightly awn-pointed tip, the second a little broader than the first, strongly 3-nerved, 
scabrous on the keel; florets 2, the slender rachilla joint pilose, 1 mm. long; first 
lemma 3-3.5 mm. long, faintly 5-nerved, glabrous, short-pilose on the callus, the 
hairs less than 0.5 mm. long, the apex rather firm, acute, the awn from about 1 mm. 
below the tip, geniculate, about 5 mm. long; second lemma similar to the first, 
smaller, the hairs at the summit of the rachilla joint below about 1 mm. long, the 
rachilla extending above about 1 mm., pilose, the hairs at summit about 1 mm. long. 



Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 211262, co-type in the U. S. 
National Herbarium, collected on Mt. Crocker, Indefatigable 
Island, Galapagos Islands, March 9, 1932, /. T. Howell No. 9208. 

Aristida tenuifolia Hitchcock, spec. nov. 

Culmi dense caespitosi, tenues, 1 m. alti, nodis multis; ligula brevissima; laminae 
plerumque involutae, tenues, interdum basi planae (1-1.5 mm. latae), glabrae; 
panicula angusta, patula, 15-20 cm. longa, ramis ascendentibus, laxe paucifloris, 
inferioribus 5 cm. longis; glumae aequales, attenuatae, 10-12 mm. longae; lemma 
1 cm, longum, apice minute scaberulo vix torto, callo 0.5 mm. longo dense et breviter 
piloso; aristae denique horizontaliter patulae, basi paulo tortae, laterales 1-1.5 cm. 
longae, media paulo longior. 

Culms densely cespitose, with numerous innovations, slender, many-noded, 
about 1 mm. thick, about 60 cm. tall; sheaths glabrous, not keeled, bearing a few 
long hairs at the summit on each side of the blade; ligule very short, scarcely 
measurable; blades at first flat below and involute above, as much as 20 cm. long, 
those of the innovations closely involute, the flat base as much as 1.5 mm. wide, 
firm, bearing a few scattering long hairs, otherwise glabrous on both surfaces and 
margin, the margins and center thickened; panicles narrow, somewhat condensed, 
15-20 cm. long, the axis slightly scabrous, the branches ascending, rather loosely few- 
flowered, the lower about 5 cm. long; glumes equal, attenuate to an awn-point, 
10-12 mm. long, the first 3-nerved, scabrous on the nerves, the second weakly 
3-nerved, glabrous; lemma about 1 cm, long, glabrous, minutely scabrous near 
the scarcely twisted summit, the callus slender, 0.5 mm. long, densely short-pilose; 
awns finally strongly or horizontally divergent, somewhat contorted at base, the 
lateral 1-1.5 cm. long, the central a little longer. 



Vol. XXI] HITCHCOCK— NEW GRASSES OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 297 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 211473, co-type in U. S. Na- 
tional Herbarium, collected among rocks on ridge above Sulphur 
Bay, Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 23, 1932, 
J. T. Howell, No. 836 L 

This species differs from A. vaginata, in its more slender culms 
about 60 cm. tall, its narrower mostly involute blades, with scatter- 
ing long hairs on the upper surface near the base, and looser, shorter 
panicles. The spikelets are similar, though the awns are somewhat 
shorter and are finally widely spreading. 

Aristida vaginata Hitchcock, spec. nov. 

Perennis; culmi caespitosi, erecti, robusti, 1 m. alti, nodis multis; vaginae 
numerosae, imbricatae; laminae durae, planae, elongatae, supra scabrae, subtus 
glabra^, 1-4 mm. latae, longe attenuatae; panicula angusta, condensata, 20-30 cm. 
longa, ramis appressis; glumae paulo inaequales, longe attenuatae, circa 1 cm. 
longae, prima scabra, secunda glabra; lemma glabrum, 10-15 cm, longum, apice 
(2-3 mm.) leviter torto et scabro, callo dense et breviter piloso; aristae aequales, 
aequaliter patulae, 2-3.5 cm. longae, basi paulo contortae. 

Culms cespitose, erect, many-noded, stout, about 2.4 mm. thick on the lower 
part, about 1 m. tall; sheaths overlapping, glabrous, tight, not at all keeled, broader 
than the base of the blade, the shoulder on each side obscurely pubescent and also 
villous with a few long hairs; ligule a firm short ciliolate membrane, less than 0.5 mm. 
long; blades of the culm firm, flat, glabrous beneath or obscurely pubescent near 
the base, strongly sulcate-striate and scabrous on the upper surface, elongate, as 
much as 4 mm. wide, long-attenuate and involute at tip; panicles narrow, con- 
densed, about 30 cm. long, the axis scabrous, the branches, branchlets, and spikelets 
all appressed, the branches 5-8 cm. long, overlapping; glumes narrow, somewhat 
unequal, gradually narrowed into an awn-tip, the first about 1 cm. long, 3-nerved, 
more or less scabrous on the nerves, the second a little longer, weakly nerved, less 
scabrous; lemma slender, 10-15 mm. long, glabrous on the lower half, scaberulous 
above, the upper 2 to 3 mm. long, rather weakly twisted and lighter in color, the 
callus rather blunt, about 0.5 mm. long, densely short-pilose; awns about equally 
divergent, ascending, about equal in length, 2-3.5 cm. long, more or less contorted 
at base. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 211474, co-type in U. S. National 
Herbarium, collected on dry slopes, north anchorage, Socorro 
Island, Revillagigedo Islands, March 29, 1932, J. T. Howell No. 
8448. 

No. 8386 collected on the same island at Benner's Cove is some- 
what less robust. 



Paspalum galapageium Chase, spec. nov. 

Perenne, dense caespitosum; culmi 45-80 cm. alti, interdum basi racemos brevis- 
simos sessiles ferentes; laminae planae, 15-25 cm. longae, 3-8 mm. latae, utrinque 
dense canescentes; racemi 2-8, ascendentes vel patentes, 3-6.5 cm. longi; rachis 
0.6-0.8 mm. lata, scabra; spiculae binatae, 2-2.8 mm. longae, 1.5-1.8 mm. latae, 
ellipticae, subacutae; gluma prima interdum extans; gluma secunda et lemma 
sterile subaequalia vel gluma quam lemma brevior, 3-nervia, glabra; fructus 2-2.3 
mm. longus, 1.5 mm. latus, laevis, nitens. 



298 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

Perennial, grayish-olivaceus; culms 45 to 80 cm. tall, simple, leafy to the summit 
or nearly so, sometimes with a few to several few- flowered racemes of cleistogamous 
spikelets in the basal sheaths; sheaths mostly overlapping, from glabrous to finely 
canescent toward the summit, the margin sometimes ciliate; ligule fragile, 2 to 4 mm. 
long; blades flat, mostly 15 to 25 cm. long, 3 to 8 mm. wide, densely canescent on 
both surfaces, the pale midnerve prominent beneath; racemes 2 to 8, mostly 4 to 6, 
ascending to spreading, 3 to 6.5 cm. long, rather distant on a slender axis; rachis 
fiexuous, 0.6 to 0.8 mm. wide, scabrous and with a tuft of long hairs at base; spikelets 
in pairs or the lower of the pair often undeveloped on fiat scabrous pedicels, mostly 
not crowded, 2 to 2.8 mm. long (typically 2.3 to 2.8 mm.), 1.5 to 1.8 mm. wide, 
elliptic, subacute (the cleistogamous basal ones slightly larger, more turgid); first 
glume occasionally developed; second glume and sterile lemma subequal, or the 
glume somewhat shorter, 3-nerved, glabrous, mostly pale, sometimes obscurely 
speckled with pale brown; fruit 2 to 2.3 mm. long, about 1.5 mm. wide, pale, smooth 
and shining. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 211105, co-type in U. S. National 
Herbarium, collected 3 miles south of the Equator, east side of 
Albemarle Island, Galapagos Islands, May 30, 1932, /. T. Howell 
No. 9612. 

In the type specimen the visible basal cleistogenes are only 3, and 
are 3 mm. long, the other spikelets are 2.5 to 2.8 mm. long and the 
first glume is developed in occasional spikelets. 

This species was described by Andersson as Paspalum canescens 
but since that name is preoccupied, Andersson's specimen incomplete, 
and his description inadequate, Paspalum galapageium is based on a 
new type instead of on P. canescens Anderss. 

Paspalum canescens Anderss., Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockh. 1853: 
132. 1855. Not P. canescens Nees, 1826. "Hab. in insula Abemarle 
[Albemarle] locis siccissimis elevatis." The type, collected by 
Andersson, was examined by A. S. Hitchcock in the Riksmuseets, 
Stockholm. 

Of the ten collections referred to this species only three, the type 
and Howell No. 8905 and No. 9375 A, show the basal cleistogenes, but 
the Snodgrass & Heller and most of the Stewart collections show 
little or nothing of the base. The spikelets vary in size, even in 
individual plants, more than usual in Paspalum. In Andersson's 
type and in the three Howell collections mentioned above the spike- 
lets range from 2.3 to 2.8 mm. long; in Howell No. 9531, and Stewart 
No. 1310 they range from 2 to 2.5 mm., and in Howell No. 9424 and 
No. 9508, and Stewart No. 1309 and No. 1319 from 2 to 2.3 mm. 
In all the blades are velvety-canescent. 

Known only from the Galapagos Islands. 

Albemarle Island: Tagus Cove, Howell No. 9508; Snodgrass & 
Heller No. 198. Tagus Cove Mountain, Howell No. 9531, Stewart 
No. 1309 and 1319. Iguana Cove, Howell No. 9424. East side, 3 
miles south of the Equator, Howell No. 9612. 



Vol. XXI] HITCHCOCK— NEW GRASSES OF THE CROCKER EXPEDITION 299 

Charles Island: Black Beach, Howell No. 8905. Post Office Bay, 
Howell No. 9375 A. 

James Island: Sulivan Bay, Howell No. 10019. 

Narborough Island: north side, Stewart No. 1310. South side, 
Snodgrass & Heller No. 312. 



Paspalum galapageium var. minoratum Chase, var. nov. 

Laminae minores canescentes vel glabrescentes ; racemi 2-6; rachis 0.5 mm. lata; 
spiculae 1.5-1.8 mm. longae, 1.3-1.4 mm. latae, obovatae. 

Culms ascending to spreading, 30 to 70 cm. tall; foliage mostly darker olivaceous, 
the blades less densely canescent to glabrescent; racemes 2 to 6, mostly arcuate- 
spreading, the rachis 0.5 mm. wide; spikelets 1.5 to 1.8 mm. long, 1.3 to 1.4 mm. 
wide, broadly obovate; glume and sterile lemma subequal, mostly more thickly 
spotted with pale brown. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 211101, co-type in U. S. National 
Herbarium, collected at Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, 
Galapagos Islands, May 2, 1932, /. T. Howell No. 9042. 

The type and most of the specimens assigned here might be con- 
sidered specifically distinct, but the differences are in degree. Since 
the spikelets of the species vary so greatly it seems more reasonable 
to regard these smaller plants with smaller spikelets as a variety. 

This form appears to be what Andersson (Vet. Akad. Handl. 
Stockh. 1853: 132. 1855) referred to Paspalum longepedunculatum 
LeConte, a very different species, known only from the United 
States. The Darwin and Macrae collections referred to P. longe- 
pedunculatum by Hooker (Linn. Soc. Trans. 20: 171. 1847) may, 
judging from his discussion, have included P. galapageium. No 
basal cleistogenes are found in any of the specimens referred to the 
variety, and in only a few spikelets of Stewart's No. 1317 is a first 
glume developed. 

Stewart's No. 1322, with spikelets 2 mm. long and glabrescent 
blades is intermediate. 

Known only from the Galapagos Islands. 

Albemarle Island: Iguana Cove, in bunches on sides of cliffs above 
the Cove, Stewart No. 1317 and 1318. Villamil, common at 3150 
feet, Stewart No. 1311. 

Charles Island: north side of Floreana Peak, Howell No. 9321. 

Chatham Island: Wreck Bay, Stewart No. 1321 and 1322. 

Indefatigable Island: Academy Bay, Howell No. 9042; "50 to 75 
feet, only 4 or 5 clumps," Svenson No. 59; Mt. Crocker, Howell No. 
9226. 



300 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Paspalum redundans Chase, spec. nov. 

Perenne, dense caespitosum; culmi erecti vel ascendentes, 70-90 cm. alti, basi 
racemos brevissimos numerosos breviter pedunculatos spicularum cleistogamarum 
ferentes; laminae planae, 5-20 cm. longae, 3-7 mm. latae, utrinque pilosae; racemi 
paniculae terminales 2-4, erecti vel ascendentes, 2.5-6 cm. longi; rachis 1.1-3 mm. 
lata, scabra; spiculae binatae subcrebrae, 4-5 mm. longae, 2.5-2.8 mm. latae, 
obovatae; gluma et lemma sterile subequalia, 5-nervia, glabra; fructus 4 mm. 
longus, 2.3-2.5 mm. latus, laevis, nitens. 

Perennial; culms compressed, in dense tufts, erect or ascending, 70 to 90 cm. tall, 
simple, leafy nearly to the summit, with numerous short racemes of cleistogamous 
spikelets at base, some partly hidden in the basal bladeless sheaths, some on ped- 
uncles 1 to 7 cm. long; foliage olivaceous, somewhat purplish at base, the sheaths 
mostly overlapping, pilose toward the summit to nearly glabrous, the lower short, 
loose, bladeless; ligule fragile, about 2 mm. long; blades flat, 5 to 20 cm. long, 3 to 7 
mm. wide (the uppermost much-reduced), finely papillose-pilose on both surfaces, 
the pale midnerve rather prominent beneath; racemes of the terminal panicles 2 to 4 
(mostly 3), erect to ascending, 2.5 to 6 cm. long, on a slender but stiff channeled 
axis; rhachis flexuous, 1 to 1.3 mm. wide, scabrous and usually with a few long hairs 
at base; spikelets in pairs on short fiat scabrous pedicels, somewhat crowded, 4 to 5 
mm. long, 2.5 to 2.8 mm. wide, obovate, turgid; glume and sterile lemma rather 
firm, subequal, 5-nerved (the marginal nerves sometimes obscure), glabrous, tinged 
with purplish brown; fruit about 4 mm. long, 2.3 to 2.5 mm. wide, grayish-tawny, 
smooth and shining; basal racemes 1 or 2 on short peduncles, of 2 to 6 spikelets. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 211116, co-type in U. S. National 
Herbarium, collected on the north side of Indefatigable Island, 
Galapagos Islands, June 9, 1932, J. T. Howell No. 9902. 



PROCEEDINGS "- 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 25, pp. 301-328, plates 18 and 19, September 26, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 25 

THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 



BY 

LEO GEORGE HERTLEIN 

Assistant Curator, Department of Paleontology, 

California Academy of Sciences 



Eleven species of pectens are present in the collection made by the 
Templeton Crocker Expedition to the Galapagos Islands in 1932. 

The writer wishes to express his appreciation to Mr. Templeton 
Crocker whose interest and generosity provided the collection. 
Acknowledgment is also due Dr. G. Dallas Hanna for photography 
of the specimens illustrated in this paper. Mr. W. M. Grant also 
assisted with the preparation* of certain of the photographs. The 
author also acknowledges the kindness of Dr. Alexander Wetmore, 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, who furnished photo- 
graphs of certain specimens in the U. S. National Museum, 

The genus Pecten is attributed to Miiller whose valid usage of the 
name is rather generally accepted. The type species is Ostrea 
maxima Linnaeus. A few authors have accepted Osbeck's^ usage as 
valid, but that author's use of the name has been discussed by 
DalP, Iredale^, and by Winckworth*, all of whom rejected it. 

It is not definitely known what species was represented by Os- 
beck's reference to "Pecten adscensionensis." Iredale suggested it 
might even be a Spondylus, and Winckworth suggested it might be 
Spondylus powelli Smith. Under the circumstances it seems far 
better to accept Miiller as the author of the genus Pecten. 

1 See Grant IV. U. S., and H. R. Gale, Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1931, pp. 157, 158. 
* Dall, W. H., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, p. 400. 
' Iredale, T., Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 49, pt. 3, 1915, p. 194. 
•Winckworth, R., Joiir. Conch., vol. 20, no. 2, 1934, p. 51. 

September 26, 1935 



302 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pecten (Pecten) diegensis Dall 
Plate 19, figures 5, 6 

Pecten floridus Hinds, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Moll., pt. 3, 1844 [dated January, 1845 
on cover of pt. 3], p. 60, pi. 17, figs. 6, 6a. "Inhab. San Diego, California. 
In five fathoms among mud." 

Not Ostrea {=Pecten\ fiorida Gmelin, Linn. Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, vol. 1, pt. 6, 1790, 
p. 3330. "Habitat ....". (Reference given to Gaultieri, Test., T. 74, 
f. Q.).— Kobelt, Syst. Conchyl.-Cab., Bd. 7, Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten, 
1887, p. 212, Taf. 57, fig. 2. EarUer record cited. 

Pecten {Pecten) diegensis Dall, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. 3, pt. 4, 1898> 
p. 710. New name for P. floridus Hinds, not Ostrea [—Pecten] florida 
Gmelin.— Arnold, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 47, 1906, p. 127, pi. 51, 
figs. 1, la, lb. Pleistocene at San Diego, California. Recent from Monte- 
rey to San Diego, California. — I. S. Oldroyd, Stanford Univ. Publ., Univ. 
Ser. Geol. Sci., vol. 1, no. 1, 1924, p. 51, pi. 29, fig. 5; pi. 41, fig. 3. 

Range: Monterey Bay, California to the San Benito Islands, 
Lower California. Fossil in the Pleistocene. 

A fragment of the right valve of Pecten diegensis was dredged by 
the Templeton Crocker Expedition at Loc. 27603 (C. A. S.) in 30 to 
50 fathoms off San Nicolas Island, California. Mr. H. N. Lowe has 
collected the species at San Benito Islands, Lower California, at a 
depth of 10 fathoms. 

The stronger, squarer and slightly narrower ribs and the slightly 
narrower interspaces on the right valve, and the strongly rounded, 
and more closely spaced ribs in the adult stage of the left valve, 
separate this species from the more southern P. sericeus Hinds. 
The ribs and interspaces of P. diegensis are crossed by imbricating 
lamellae. 

The smaller number and greater height of the ribs and the relatively 
longer hinge line separate P. diegensis from P. stearnsii Dall which 
occurs in the Pliocene. Related forms which occur as fossils, in- 
clude P. beali Hertlein, P. h'dsei Hanna & Hertlein, and P. bakeri 
Hanna & Hertlein. The last two forms are quite distinct and 
not synonymous as indicated by Grant and Gale. Bavay^ has 
mentioned a similarity between P. diegensis and a fossil form found 
in Patagonia. 

Pecten soror codercola Harris* from the later Tertiary of Venezuela, 
belongs to the present group. P. soror Gabb^ from the medial 
Tertiary of Santo Domingo, and P. hemicyclus RaveneP from the 

' Joum. de Conchyl., vol. 54, no. 1, 1906, p. 10. 

^Peclen soror codercola Harris, Bull. Amer. Palec, vol. 13, Bull. 49, 1927, p. 23, pi. 13, fig. 3; pi. 14, figs. 
1, 5; pi. 15, fig. 7. "Districts of Democracia and Colina, State of Falcon, locality numbers 69,123." Vene- 
euela. "Miocene and Pliocene." 

^ J antra soror Gabb, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 257. Santo Domingo. 
Pecten soror Gabb, Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 73, pt. 2, 1922, p. 410, pi. 44 
figs. 1,2. 

* Janira hemicycla Ravenel, in Tuomey & Holmes, Pleiocene Fossils of South-Carolina, 1857, p. 25, pi. 8, 
figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. "Grove, Cooper River." 

Pecten (Chlamys) kathrinepaimerae Tucker, (Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., vol. 40, 1931, p. 244, pi. 1, 
figs. 2, 5. "Near Baileys Ferry, Fla." "Chipola Miocene.") has been compared to P. hemicyclus, by Tucker. 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN—THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 303 

later Tertiary of South Carolina, also bear some resemblance to the 
present group. 

P. diegensis shows some resemblance to P. fraterculus Sowerby of 
the P. besseri group, which occurs in the later Tertiary of the 
Mediterranean region. 



Pecten (Pecten) sericeus Hinds 

Plate 18, figures 14, 15; plate 19, figures 3, 4 

Pecten sericeus Hinds, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Moll., pt. 3, 1844 [dated January, 1845 
on cover of pt. 3], p. 60, pi. 17, figs. 1, la. "Inhab. Bay of Panama. In 
fifty fathoms, on a muddy floor." — Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 8, Pecten, 
1852, sp. 23, pi. 5, fig. 23. "Bay of Panama (on a muddy floor at the depth 
of fifty-three fathoms); Belcher." — Kobelt, Syst. Conchyl.-Cab., Bd. 7, 
Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten, 1887, p. 211, Taf. 57, fig. 1. Original record 
cited.— Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, p. 400. "Pan- 
ama Bay, 53 fathoms, Hinds." Also "near Cocos Island, Gulf of Panama, 
in 66 fathoms, rocky bottom, temperature 58°. 4F." 

Not Pecten sericeus Verneuil, Keyserling, Wissenschaftliche Beobachtungen auf 
einer Reise in das Petschora-Land, im Jahre 1843, (St. Petersburg), 
1846, p. 246, Tab. 10, fig. 12. "Aus den Permischen Schichten im grauen 
Mergelkalke an der Uchta des Wymm, und im Kalksteine am Wei bei 
dem Dorfe Kischerma." {=Avicula sericea Verneuil, in Murchison, 
Verneuil & KeyserHng, Geol. Russia, vol. 2, Aug. 1845, p. 321, Tab. 20, 
fig. 5.) 

Not Pecten sericeus Gronwall & Harder, Danmarks Geol. Undersog., ser. 2, vol. 18, 
1907, p. 28. — Ravn, Mem. I'Acad. Roy. Sci. et Lett. Danemark, Copen- 
hague. Sect. Sci., ser. 9, vol. 5, no. 2 (D. Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. 
Skrifter, Naturv. og Math., Afd. 9, Raekke 5, No. 2), 1933, p. 20. Den-. 
mark. Danian, upper Cretaceous. 

Range: Panama to Acapulco and Mazatlan, Mexico. Cocos 
Island; Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 109° 31' to 109° 36' W.; 
and Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Group, Mexico. 

Templeton Crocker Expedition: 

Loc. 27527 (C. A. S.), dredged in Acapulco Bay, Mexico. 

Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.), dredgings about 10 miles due east of San 
Jose del Cabo, Lower California, Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 
109° 31' to 109° 36' W. 20-220 fathoms. 

Also in the collections of the California Academy of Sciences : 

Loc. 23779 (C. A. S.), off Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Group, 
Mexico, in five to ten fathoms. G. D. Hanna & E. K. Jordan, colls. 

Loc. 27202 (C. A. S.), dredged in Acapulco Bay, Mexico. L. G. 
Hertlein, coll. 

Loc. 27223 (C. A. S.), Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico. L. G. Hertlein, 
coll. 



304 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The shell of P. sericeus resembles that of P. diegensis Dall. The 
right valve is usually somewhat less brightly colored than the left. 
The ribs on the right valve are somewhat lower and broader and 
separated by slightly wider interspaces than those of P. diegensis 
Dall. Young specimens of the two species are very similar. The 
development of stronger, narrower and more squarish ribs, crossed 
by sharp, concentric, raised lines, appears to take place earlier on 
the right valve of P. diegensis than on P. sericeus. According to 
Reeve, the ribs on the large left valve of the type specimen of P. 
sericeus are sharply triangular. The specimens of P. sericeus, at 
hand, are small forms, and the ribs on the left valves are not espe- 
cially triangular, but they are less prominent and wider spaced than 
those on P. diegensis. In very large specimens of P. diegensis, the 
ribs on the left valve show a slight tendency toward a triangular 
shape in the later stages of growth. 

It seems probable that P. sericeus, a southern species, intergrades 
with the northern P. diegensis. 

The single, small valves found at Locs. 23779 (C. A. S.), from 
Maria Madre Island, Mexico, and 27223 (C. A. S.), Mazatlan, 
Mexico, seem referable to P. sericeus rather than to P. diegensis. 



Pecten (Pecten) vogdesi Arnold 

Plate 19, figures 16, 17 

Pecten dentattis G. B. Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 109. "Hub. ad 
Sanctam Elenam." "Among sand and stones in twelve fathoms." — 
Kobelt, Syst. Conchyl.-Cab. Bd. 7, Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten, 1887, 
p. 155, Taf. 44, figs. 1, 2. Original record cited. — Olsson, Nautilus, vol. 37, 
no. 4, 1924, p. 127. "Lobitos," Peru. "Salinas," Ecuador. 

Not Pecten dentatus J. Sowerby, Miner. Conch. Great Britain, vol. 6, 1829, p. 143, 
Tab. 574, fig. 1. Fossil at "Bugbrook and Staverton, in Northampton- 
shire." 

Pecten (Pecten) excavatus Anton, Arnold, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 47, 1906, 
p. 134, pi. 46, figs. 1, la, lb. Gulf of California. Recent. 

Not Pecten excavatus Anton, Verzeich. der Conchyl., 1839, p. 19, no. 710. China. 

Pecten (Pecten) vogdesi Arnold, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 47, 1906, p. 100, 
pi. 33, figs. 1, la; pi. 34, fig. 1, "San Pedro formation (Pleistocene), San 
Pedro, Los Angeles County Calif." Also other localities. 

Pecten (Euvola) cataractes Dall, Nautilus, vol. 27, no. 11, p. 121, 1914. New name 
for P. dentatus G. B. Sowerby, not P. dentatus J. Sowerby. 

Pecten (Janira) vogdesi Arnold, Grant & Gale, Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 1, 1931, p. 228, pi. 3, figs. 3a, 3b. 

Range: Magdalena Bay, Lower California; Gulf of California and 
south to Paita, Peru. Pliocene and Pleistocene of California and 
Lower California. 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN—THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 305 

Templeton Crocker Expedition: 

Loc. 27581 (C. A. S.), between Isabel Island and Mazatlan, 
Mexico. 

Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.), dredged about 10 miles due east of San 
Jose del Cabo, Lower California, Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 
109° 31' to 109° 36' W. 

Also in the collections of the California Academy of Sciences from: 
Loc, 23802 (C. A. S.), San Luis Gonzaga Bay, Gulf of California. 
Loc. 27229 (C. A. S.), Bahia Honda, Veragua, Panama, in three to 

nine fathoms. L. G. Hertlein coll. 

Loc. 27827 (C. A. S.), Puerto Bellandra, Carmen Island, Gulf of 
California. 

Loc. 23779 (C. A. S.), Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Group, 
Mexico. 

Pecten vogdesi is well known in the Recent fauna from Magdalena 
Bay, Lower California, and the Gulf of California, south to Peru. 

The highly arched right valve, which is ornamented by low 
rounded ribs, and the flat or concave lower valve easily distinguish 
this species from others in the Recent fauna of tropical North 
America. Exteriorly the shell is usually colored light brown or 
reddish brown. 

The fewer ribs, and greater convexity of the right valve of P. 
hartmanni Hertlein from the Pliocene of Lower California, easily 
separate it from P. vogdesi. 

P. vogdesi and P. hartmanni appear to belong to the P. henedictus 
group which occurs in the Miocene and Pliocene of the Mediter- 
ranean region. 



Pecten (Chlamys) amandi Hertlein, new name 

Pecten australis Philippi, Archiv f. Naturgesch., Jahrg. 11, Bd. 1, 1845, p. 56. 
"Patria: Insulae Chonos." 

Not Pecten australis Sowerby, Thes. Conch., vol. 1, 1842, p. 76, pi. 19, figs. 210, 220. 
"Swan River," Australia. 

Pecten rosaceus Stempell, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl.-Bd. 6, 1902 (Fauna Chilensis), 
p. 228. "Fundort: Calbuco," Chile, Recent. New name for P. australis 
Philippi, not P. australis Sowerby. — Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 37, 
1909, p. 256. "Calbuco, Chiloe, and the Chonos Islands." 

Not Pecten rosaceus Deshayes, Conchyl. d. I'lle d. Reunion, 1863, p. E-31. [No 
description.] 

Not Pecten distortus Da Costa var. rosacea Locard, Contrib. a. 1. Faune Malacol. 
Franc, 11, Prod. Genr. Pecten, 1888, p. 46; not P. tigrinus var. rosacea 
Locard, p. 117; not P. laevis Pennant var. rosacea Locard, p. 120; not P. 
varius var. rosacea Locard, p. 34. 

Range: Calbuco; Chiloe; and the Chonos Islands (Dall). 



306 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This species is not present in the collection of the Templeton 
Crocker Expedition, but it is listed here because it is known farther 
south in the fauna of Chile and Peru. It was originally named Pecten 
australis by Philippi, but due to an earlier usage of that name by 
Sowerby, Stempell proposed P. rosaceus for Philippi's species. 
Stempell's name P. rosaceus is also preoccupied in the genus Pecten; 
therefore the name Pecten amandi is here proposed in honor of 
Dr. Rudolph Amandus Philippi^, in recognition of his work on the 
natural history of Chile. 

According to Philippi, the species bears some resemblance to the 
Caribbean P. ornatus Lamarck.^" 



Pecten (Chlamys) zeteki Hertlein, new name 

Plate 19, figure 9 

Pecten digitatus Hinds, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Moll., pt. 3, 1844, [date on cover given 
as January, 1845], p. 61, pi. 17, fig. 2. "Bay of Guayaquil. In twenty- 
three fathoms," — Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 8, 1853, Pecten, sp. 172, pi. 35, 
fig. 172. Hinds' record cited.— Kobelt, Syst. Conchyl.-Cab., Bd. 7, 
Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten, 1888, p. 227, Taf. 60, fig. 8. Earlier record 
cited. — Paetel, Cat. Conch.-Samml., Ed. 4. Abt. 3, 1890, p. 229 
"Guayaq."— Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 37, 1909, p. 256. "Bay of 
Guayaquil." — Zetek, Los Mol. Republ. Panama. Revista Nueva, nos. 
1 & 2, 1918, p. 52. Probably Panama. 

Not Pecten digitatum Perry, Conch., April, 1811, no. 2 on Expl. to pi. 55, pi. 55, 
fig. 2. "A native of Amboyna and the Eastern Seas." 

Range: Guayaquil, Ecuador (Hinds; Reeve); probably Panama 
(Zetek). 

This species is not present in the collection made by the Templeton 
Crocker Expedition. The valves of the species are said to be very 
similar and are ornamented by nine rounded, grooved ribs. Dall^^ 
has mentioned that probably the species is only a young specimen of 
P. suhnodosus Sowerby. A comparison of young specimens of P. 
subnodosus Sowerby with Hinds' figure of P. "digitatus," however, 
indicates that Sowerby's species has a very much larger anterior ear 
on the right valve and the shell is rounder in outline. 

Zetek in 1918 cited the species as one which probably occurs at 
Panama. 

•See Fiirstenberg, P., Verhandl. d. Deutschen Wiss. Ver. zu Santiago de Chile, Bd. 5, Heft 2, 1906, 
pp. 233-271.— Also, M. E. McLellan, Auk, vol. 44, 1927, pp. 158-159. 

1' Pecten ornatus Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. 6, 1819, p. 176. "Habite I'Ocean Atlantique 
austral." — Sowerby, Thes. Conch., vol. 1, Pecten, 1842, [the date on the title page is 1847, but according to 
Sherbom this part was issued prior to November, 1842.] p. 72. pi. 14, figs. 77, 78, 79. "Atlantic Ocean." — 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 8, Pecten, 1873, sp. 68, pi. 19, fig. 68. "Hab. Barbados."— Maury, Bull. Amer. 
Paleo., vol. 8, Bull. 34, 1920, p. 59 (27). North Carolina to Brazil. 

Pecten {Chlamys) ornatus Lamarck, Dall, Nautilus, vol. 38, no. 4, 1925, p. 1 18 [but probably not all of 
hissynonjTny]. 

" Dall, W. H., Nautilus, vol. 27, no. 11, March, 1914, p. 122. 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN—THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 307 

Dautzenberg and Bavay^^ have pointed out the great resemblance 
between P. digitatus Hinds and P. vexillus Reeve. ^^ ^he only dif- 
ferences noticed by them, in the two species, were the slightly less 
height of the shell, and the presence of nine ribs in Hinds' species 
rather than ten in P. vexillus. 

Possibly the locality "Bay of Guayaquil," given by Hinds for 
P. digitatus, is incorrect, although that is not definitely known. 
P. vexillus Reeve is known from New Caledonia, Noumea, Island of 
Nou, Lifou, Madagascar, and the Philippine Islands. 

Dautzenberg and Bavay pointed out that P. distans Reeve (not 
Lamarck), which was renamed P. janus Montrouzier^* (not Mun- 
ster), can be considered to be a synonym of P. vexillus Reeve. The 
true P. distans of Lamarck^^ is considered to be a variety of P. glaber 
Linnaeus, a Mediterranean species. 

The name Pecten digitatus Hinds, is preoccupied by the earlier 
usage by Perry. In view of the conflicting evidence regarding this 
form, the name zeteki is substituted for the species described by 
Hinds. 

Possibly this species could be included in the subgenus Decado- 
pecten Riippell in Sowerby, 



Pecten (Chlamys) hastatus Sowerby 

Pecten hastatus Sowerby, Thes. Conch., vol. 1, 1842, [the date on the title page is 
1847, but according to Sherborn this part was issued prior to November, 
1842.], p. 72, pi. 20, fig. 236. [No locality given.]— Kobelt, Syst, Conchyl.- 
Cab., Bd. 7, Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten 1888, p. 233, Taf. 62, figs. 1, 2. 
Northwest coast of North America. 

Pecten (Chlamys) hastatus Sowerby, Arnold, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 47, 
1906, p. 108, pi. 41, fig. 4; pi. 42, figs. 1, la, 2, 2a. Pliocene and Pleistocene. 
Recent, from Quatsino Sound, British Columbia to San Diego, Cal- 
ifornia. — I. S. Oldroyd, Stanford Univ. Publ., Univ. Ser. Geol. Sci., vol. 
1, no. 1, 1924, p. 53, pi. 29, figs. 1, 3. Monterey Bay to San Pedro, 
California. 

" Dautzenberg, P., & A. Bavay, Siboga-Expeditie, Mon. 53b, Les Lamellibranches de L'Exp^dition 
du Siboga, Partie Syst. 1, Pectinid6s, 1912, p. 26. 

" Pecten vexillum Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 8, Pecten, May, 1853, sp. 114, pi. 27, figs. 114a, 114b. "Hab. 

?" 

Pecten {Pallium) vexillum Reeve, Dautzenberg & Bavay, 5«6ogo-Exped., Mon. S3b, 1912, p. 26. 
"Nouvelle Cal^donie (Marie, Rossiter), Noumea (Bougier, Culli6ret, Rossiter), He Nou (Bougier), Lifou 
(Mus6e de Boulogne), Philippines (collect. Bavay)." 

Chlamys vexillum Reeve, Dautzenberg, Joum. de Conchyl., vol. 76, no. 1, 1932, p. 91. "Diego- 
Suarez," Madagascar. Recent. 

^^ Pecten distans Lamarck, Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 8, Pec/e«, February, 1853, sp. 49, pi. 13, fig. 49. 
"Hab. Philippine Islands; Cuming." 

Pecten janus Montrouzier in Fischer, Joum. de. Conchyl., vol. 7, (ser. 2, vol. 3), 1858, p. 340. "Hab- 
ile Art. C. C." Caledonian Archipelago. — Lischke (Jap. Meeres-Conchyl., Bd. 2, 1871, p. 159) pointed 
out that P. janus Montrouzier =P. distans cited by Reeve, not P. distans Lamarck. 

Not P. janus Munster in G. A. Goldfuss, Petref. Germaniae, Bd. 2 (pt. 4), 1833, p. 62. "Findet sich 
im tertiaren Sande zu Baden bei Wien." 

•" Pecten distans Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. 6, 1819, p. 169. "Habite 1' Oc6an atlantique." 
— See also Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, Moll. Manns du RoussUlon, vol. 2, fasc. 3, 1889, p. 88. 



308 CALIFORNIA At^ADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Range: Monterey to San Pedro, California. Also fossil in the 
Pliocene and Pleistocene. 

A single left valve of Pecten hastatus was dredged by the Temple- 
ton Crocker Expedition at Loc. 27603 (C. A. S.), at the west end of 
San Nicolas Island, California, in 30 to 50 fathoms. P. hastatus 
is known from Pliocene to Recent. 

The right valve is characterized by about nine pairs of strongly 
individualized ribs which are ornamented by prominent spines. 
There are nine narrow, prominent spiny ribs on the left valve. The 
right valve of the northern species, hericius, is ornamented by 
fascicules of three spiny riblets which are nearly equal, although the 
central riblet is slightly more prominent and spiny; while in P. 
hastatus there is a central spiny rib, with from two to four small scaly 
riblets between the major rib and the central riblet of the interspace. 

P. hericius pugetensis I. S. Oldroyd,^^ is close to P. hericius but it is 
a smaller form; it has fewer ribs, a broader, anterior ear on the right 
valve, and the notch on the anterior ear of the left valve is less 
developed. It has been recorded from Puget Sound, and it has been 
collected at Craig, and at Ketchikan, in southeastern Alaska by Mr. 
George Willett of Los Angeles, California. 

A subspecies, P. hastatus var. ingeniosa Yokoyama,^^ has been 
described from the Pliocene of Japan. P. hindsii Carpenter is also 
related to P. hastatus but is easily distinguished by the character 
of the ribbing. 

Vaillant's record of Recent P. hastatus from Suez, which was re- 
ferred to P. laetus by Fischer, has been referred by Lamy,^* who 
studied the original specimens, to P. squamosa var. decoriata 
Jousseaume. 



Pecten (Chlamys) lowei Hertlein, new species 

Plate 19, figures 1, 2, 7, 8 

Shell moderately small, nearly equivalve, higher than long. Right valve with the 
exterior surface ornamented with 20 to 22 roundly triangular ribs; the ribs are 
crossed by strong imbricating lamellae which are fused to form a row of spinose 
nodes on the top of each rib; toward the ventral margin traces of small riblets 
appear on each side of the majoi ribs about halfway between the tops of the ribs and 
the bottoms of the interspaces; interspaces narrower than the ribs and in each, a 

>' Pecten islandicus pugetensis I. S. Oldroyd, Nautilus, vol. ii, no. 4, April, 1920, p. 136, pi. 4, figs. 5, 6. 
—I. S. Oldroyd, Stanford Univ. Publ., Univ. Ser. Geol. Sci., vol. 1, no. 1, 1924, p. 55, pi. 12, figs. 4, 5. 
•'Type locality, off San Juan Island, Washington." Puget Sound. 

Pecten (Pecten) hastatus Sowerby var. pugetensis I. S. Oldroyd, Grant & Gale, Mem. San Diego Soc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1931, p. 168. Type locality cited. Also ? middle Pliocene, southeast of Pico Canyon, 
Los Angeles County, California. 

" Imper. Geol. Survey of Japan, Rept. 104, 1929, p. 5. pi. 6, fig. 2. "near Nanao." Pliocene. 

"Lamy, E., Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., vol. 34, 1928, no. 2, p. 170.— See also Cox, Proc. Malacol. Soc. 
London, vol. 18, pt. 5, 1929, p. 204. 

Lischke (Jap. Meer. Conch., Th. 2, 1871, pp. 157-158) also pointed out that the Red Sea species could 
not be P. laetus Gould. 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN—THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 309 

spinose riblet is present. Ears unequal, the anterior ear large, ornamented by 
about four to five riblets which are crossed by imbricating spines; a distinct byssal 
notch is present and a ctenolium consisting usually of four to five spines; posterior 
ear very small and ornamented by four to six spinose riblets. Left valve orna- 
mented similarly to right; anterior ear with eight to ten spinose riblets, while on the 
posterior ear there are four to six riblets. The color in the Hving shells is generally 
gray toward the umbos flecked with brown spots, but grading to brown toward 
the ventral margin. Some specimens are reddish or orange brown. Type specimen, 
altitude 13.8 mm,; longitude 11.5 mm.; diameter of both valves 4.5 mm. 

Range: Gulf of California; Galapagos Islands. PCatalina Island, 
California. 

Holotype: No. 6878 (Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Paleo.); paratype, No. 
6879 (Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Paleo.), and paratypes in H. N. Lowe 
collection, from Carmen Island, Gulf of California, from a depth of 
20 fathoms; H. N. Lowe collector. 

In the Lowe collection there were eight paired valves from Carmen 
Island and 16 unpaired valves of P. lowei from Angel de la Guardia 
Island in the Gulf of California; there are three specimens with 
paired valves from Loc. 27587 (C. A. S.) in the collection made by 
the Templeton Crocker Expedition, off Cape San Lucas, Lower 
California, in 20 to 25 fathoms; one left valve from Loc. 27232 
(C. A. S.) was collected on the Hancock Expedition by L. G. Hert- 
lein at Conway Bay, Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Group. A 
single worn valve of this species in the collection at Stanford Uni- 
versity came from Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, Galapagos Group. 
One left valve is present from Loc. 25610 (C. A. S.), said to have been 
dredged on the north side of Catalina Island, California, in 30 to 80 
fathoms. There seems no reason to doubt this locality, although the 
range is longer than that of most west American pectens. The char- 
acters of the new species are rather constant in all the specimens, 
the largest of which attains an altitude of 14.5 mm. 

Pecten lowei is very close to Pecten sancti-ludovici Anderson & 
Martin^^ from the upper Miocene Santa Margarita formation of 
San Luis Obispo County California, and from the Pliocene of Alver- 
son Cafion, Imperial County, California. Possibly the species here 
described as new, may be a living P. sancti-ludovici but on the adult 
fossil form there are three beaded riblets ornamenting the ribs and 
three in the interspaces. From the specimens of P. sancti-ludovici 
at hand, it appears that the development of the beaded riblets takes 
place earlier than on the corresponding forms of equal size in P. 
lowei. Furthermore P. lowei has much smaller posterior ears. 

P. collazoensis Hubbard^" from the Miocene of Porto Rico, 

" Pecten sancti-ludovici Anderson & Martin, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 4, December 30, 1914, 
p. 55, pi. 3, figs. 10a, 10b. . . . "from the Santa Margarita formation along the west side of the San Juan 
River about one half mile above the mouth of Navajoa Greek, northeastern San Luis Obispo County. 
California." — G. D. Hanna, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 14, no. 18, 1926, p. 473, pi. 22, figs. 1, 2,3, 
Goral reef of Alverson Ganon, Imperial County, California. Pliocene. 

M Pecten (Chlamys) collazoensis Hubbard, New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and the Virgin 
Islands, vol. 3, pt. 2, 1920, p. 87, pi. 11, fig. 1, "Collazo Falls", "Lower? San Sebastian shale," Porto Rico. 
Referred to lower Oligocene. 



310 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser 

appears to have somewhat similar sculpture, but the scales on the 
ribs are apparently not fused into small spinose nodes as in P. lowei, 
and the form from Porto Rico has much larger posterior ears. 
Several species in the Miocene of the Caribbean region have orna- 
mentation similar to P. sancti-ludovici. 

P. sancti-ludovici resembles closely P. plurinominis Pilsbry 8c 
Johnson,^^ from the Miocene of Santo Domingo. The subspecies 
Pecten plurinominis morantensis Woodring^^ from the Bowden 
Miocene, has also been questionably recorded by Trechtmann^^ 
from beds referred to the Pliocene, on St. Kitts Island in the West 
Indies. 

Pecten oxygonus optimus Brown & Pilsbry^^ from the Miocene of 
Costa Rica and Panama and P. oxygonus canalis Brown & Pilsbry^^ 
from the Miocene of Panama, possess shells in which the ribs and 
interspaces are ornamented by spinose beaded riblets. In the 
Miocene of Venezuela, P. buchivacoanus F. & H. Hodson,^^ P. buch- 
ivacoanus maracaibensis F. & H. Hodson,^^ and P. buchivacoanus 
falconensis F. & H. Hodson,^^ likewise possess spiny beaded riblets. 
P. hodgii Hubbard,^^ from the Miocene of Porto Rico, has squarer 
ribs than P. sancti-ludovici. 

Pecten exasperatus Sowerby,'" now living in the Caribbean region 
has ornamentation similar to P. sancti-ludovici and others of that 
group. 



*i Pecten plurinominis Pilsbry & Johnson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 69, September, 1917 
p. 193. New name for P. oxygonum Sowerby, Gabb, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 256. Not 
P. oxygonum Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. 6, 1850, p. 52. San Domingo. Tertiary. — Pilsbry, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 73, pt. 2, 1922, p. 411, pi. 45, figs. 1, 2. Gabb's collection from 
Santo Domingo. (According to Gardner (U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 142-A, 1926, p. 46) "Pecten pleuri- 
nominis Woodring = P. thelidus Dall.") 

^CMamys {Aequipecten) plurinominis morantensis Woodring, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 366, 
May, 1925, p. 67, pi. 8, figs. 4, 5. Bowden, Jamaica. Miocene. 

*» Cklamys {Aequipecten) cf. plurinominis Woodring, Trechtmann, Geol. Mag., vol. 69, no. 816, 1932, pp. 
249, 253, pi. 15, fig. 3. Brimstone Hill, St. Kitts Island. Pliocene. 

^ Pecten oxygonum optimum Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 64, January 30 
1913, p. 511, pi. 24 [cited in text as pi. 23], fig. 2. "Reventazon River, Costa Rica." [Miocene]. (=P. 
paranensis d'Orbigny, Gabb. Not P. Paranensis d'Orbigny). This species has been recorded from the 
Miocene of Lower California by Dickerson (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 7, no. 8, 1917, p. 202. — Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 28, 1917, p. 231) and by Clark & Arnold (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 28, 1917, p. 
224). According to Woodring (Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 385, 1928, p. 95) Dickerson's record 
probably refers to P. canalis Brown & Pilsbry. 

2' Pecten oxygonum canalis Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 64, January 30, 
1913, p. 511, pi. 24 [cited in text as pi. 23], fig. 3. "Tower N, Culebra Cut, Canal Zone." 

M Pecten {Chlamys) buchivacoanus F. & H. Hodson, Bull. Amer. Paleo., vol. 13, Bull. 49, October 1927, 
p. 29, pi. 16, figs. 6, 8, 10, 11. "Districts of Buchivacoa, Miranda and Petit, State of Falcon", Venezuela. 
•'Oligocene." [Probably Miocene]. 

2' Pecten buchivacoanus maracaibensis F. & H. Hodson, Bull. Amer. Paleo., vol. 13, Bull. 49, October, 
1927, p. 30, pi. 17, fig. 6. "Districts of Democracia, Miranda, Colina and Acosta, State of Falcon", Vene- 
zuela. "Miocene." 

2» Pecten buchivacoanus falconensis F. & H. Hodson, Bull. Amer. Paleo., vol. 13, Bull. 49, October, 1927. 
p. 31, pi. 17, figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7. "Common in the state of Falcon", Venezuela. "Miocene." 

2' Pecten {Chlamys) hodgii Hubbard, New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, 
vol. 3, pt. 2, 1920, p. 93, pi. 12, fig. 5. "Quebradillas limestone (rare)", Porto Rico. Referred to upper 
Oligocene. [Probably Miocene], 

3» Pecten exasperatus Sowerby, Thes. Conch., vol. 1, Pecten, 1842 [on title page date given as 1847, but 
according to Sherbom, this part was issued prior to November, 1842], p. 54, pi. 18, figs. 183 to 186. "Medi- 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEm— THE RECENT PECTIN IDAE 311 

Pecten coccymelus DalP^ bears only a general resemblance to P. 
lowei, and has much narrower ribs, wider interspaces and a larger 
posterior ear, as well as differing in details of ornamentation. 

Pecten varius Linnaeus, ^^ common in northern Europe and in the 
Mediterranean region, possesses more ribs and lacks the interribs 
which are present in P. lowei. 

This new species is named for Mr. Herbert N. Lowe, of Long 
Beach, California, in recognition of his work on west American 
moUusks. 



Pecten (Plagioctenium) circularis Sowerby 

Pecten tumidus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 109. "Hab. ad Sanctam 
Elenam et ad Salango, Columbiae Occidentalis." "Found in sandy mud 
at from six to ten fathoms. — G. B. S." 

Not Pecten tumidus Turton, Conch. Insul. Brit., 1822, p. 212 "Taken from the 
Serpula tubularia, in Torbav." { = Ostrea tumida Turton, Conch. Diet., 
1819. p. 132). 

Not Pecten tumidus Hartmann in C. H. v. Zieten, Petrif. Wurt., (9), 1833, p. 68. 

Not Pecten tumidus Dujardin, Mem. Soc. Geol. France, II (2), 1832, p. 214 [accord- 
ing to Sherborn]. 

Pecten circularis Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 110. "Hab. ad Sinum 
Californiae (Guaymas)." "Found in sandy mud at a depth of seven 
fathoms.— G. B. S."— Li, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 9, no. 3, 1930, p. 
254, pi. 2, figs. 9, 9a. Bay of Panama, Recent. 

Not Pecten circularis Goldfuss, Petref. Germaniae, Bd. 2 (pt. 5), 1836, p. 76, pi. 99, 
figs. 10a, 10b. "Ex arena viridi Westphaliae." Cretaceous. 

Pecten ventricosus Sowerby, Thes. Conch., vol. 1, 1842 [the date on the title page is 
1847, but according to Sherborn this part was issued prior to November, 
1842], Pecten, p. 51, pi. 12, figs. 18, 19, 26. "St. Elena" [The record from 
the Philippines is erroneous]. New name for P. tumidus Sowerby, not P. 
tumidus Turton, nor P. tumidus Zieten, 1830. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
vol. 8, Pecten, 1852, sp. 31, pi. 7, figs. 31a, 31b. Earlier records cited. — 
Kiister, Syst. Conchyl.-Cab., Bd. 7, Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten, 
1859, p. 100, Taf. 28 [plate 28 issued 1858], figs. 1, 2. "West-Columbia." 
[Fig. 3 is referred to P. ventricosus in the text, but in the explanation to 
the plate it is referred to P. gibbus, which it apparently represents.] — 
Olsson, Nautilus, vol. 37, no. 4, 1924, p. 128. "Negritos, Lobitos, Mancora, 
Zorritos," Peru. "Salinas," Ecuador. 

Pecten (Dentipecten) circularis Sowerby, Kobelt, Syst. Conchyl.-Cab., Bd. 7, 
Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten, 1887, p. 188, Taf. 51, figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. Cali- 
fornia to Mazatlan, Mexico. 

terranean." [Locality erroneous]. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 8, Pecten, 1852, sp. 7, pi. 2, figs. 7, 8a, 8b; pi. 
26, fig. 108; pi. 29, fig. 127. [pis. 26 and 29 issued in 1853]. "Hab. Island of St. John, West Indies."— 
Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 65, 1913, p. 496. "Oyster-shell Layers from the 
Black swamp near Mount Hope", Isthmus of Panama. Pleistocene. — Maury, Bull. Amer. Paleo., vol. 8, 
Bull. 34, 1920, p. 59 (27) Cape Hatteras to Guadaloupe Island; also Yucatan Strait. Pliocene to Recent. 
It has also been reported from the Bermuda Islands and Porto Rico. Also fossil at Barbados Island. 

" Pecten (Chlamys) coccymelus Dall, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. 3, pt. 4, 1898, p. 741, pi. 34, 
fig. 1. "Miocene of Plum Point, Maryland; Clark." — Glenn, Maryland Geol. Survey, Miocene, 1904, p. 
374, pi. 99, fig. 3. Several localities in the Calvert formation, Maryland. Miocene. 

'2 It is interesting to note that Dautzenberg has recorded this species from the coast of Venezuela. 
(Mem. Zool. Soc. France, vol. 13, 1900, p. 224). "Golfe de Maracaibo, Stn. 39; ile Tortuga, Stn. 36." 



312 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pecten {Plagioctenium) circularis Sowerby, Arnold, U. S, Geol. Survey, Prof. 
Paper 47, 1906, p. 125, pi. 42, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6; pi. 44, figs. 6, 6a, 6b, 7. Plio- 
cene and Pleistocene. Recent from the Gulf of California to Santa Elena, 
Ecuador. 

Pecten cf. circularis Sowerby, Li, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 9, no. 3, 1930, p. 255, 
pi. 1, fig. 8. Bay of Panama. "Probably Gatun formation." [According 
to Pilsbry, (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 83, 1931, p. 429) 
"Two right valves of P. ventricosus Sowb."] 

Pecten filitextus Li, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 9, no. 3, 1930, p. 255, pi. 2, fig. 10. 
Panama Bay. "Probably Gatun formation." [According to Pilsbry 
(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 83, 1931, p. 429) "a left valve of 
Pecten ventricosus Sowb., in which the fine sculpture is well preserved."] 

Pecten purpuratus Lamarck, Pilsbry & Lowe, Proc. Acad. Nat, Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 84, 1932, p. 139. "San Juan del Sur and Montijo Bay." "Taboga 
Island." "Corinto." [Not P. purpuratus Lamarck.] 

For further synonymy of P. circularis, see Arnold, 1906, and E. K. 
Jordan & Hertlein, (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 15, no. 14, 1926, 
p. 439). See also remarks by Grant & Gale (Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. 
Hist., vol. 1, 1931, p. 218). 

Range: IMonterey, California to Paita, Peru (Dall). Fossil in 
Pliocene and Pleistocene. 

This well known species was collected at a number of localities 
by the Templeton Crocker Expedition. 

Loc. 27527 (C. A. S.), dredged in Acapulco Bay, Mexico. 

Loc. 27557 (C. A. S.), dredged between Punta Arenas and Bat 
Island, just off Punta Arenas, Costa Rica. 

Loc. 27566 (C. A. S.), dredged in 35 fathoms in Lat. 14° 15' N., 
Long. 92° 28' W. 

Loc. 27568 (C. A. S.), dredged in 35 fathoms in Lat. 14° 52' N., 
Long. 93° 04' W. 

Loc. 27569 (C. A. S.), dredged in 28 fathoms in Lat. 15° 40' N., 
Long. 93° 49' W. 

Loc. 27571 (C. A. S.), dredged in Lat. 16° 38' N. to 16° 39' N., 
Long. 99° 24' 30" to 99° 27' 30* W. 

Loc. 27580 (C. A. S,), dredged one-half mile east of Isabel Island, 
between Isabel Island and IVIazatlan, IMexico. 

Loc. 27581 (C. A. S.), dredged between Isabel Island and Mazat- 
lan, Mexico. 

Loc. 27583 (C. A. S.), dredged in 10-17 fathoms, Lat. 22° 44' N., 
Long. 105° 59' W. 

Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.), dredged about 10 miles due east of San 
Jose del Cabo, Lower California, Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 
109° 31' to 109° 36' W. 

The species was also collected in Braxilito Bay, Costa Rica, and as 
a fossil in the Pleistocene beds on Maria Madre Island, Mexico. In 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN—THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 313 

the collections of the California Academy of Sciences, the species 
is present from many other localities. 

There appears to be all gradations between typical circularis 
and the form ventricosus Sowerby from western Colombia and 
Ecuador, with no practical method of separating the two forms, 
and Arnold, who studied a large series of the species in the U. S. 
National Museum, came to the same conclusion. Morch^^ described 
a scarlet colored variety from Costa Rica, which can apparently be 
considered to be one of the variations of P. circularis. Records of 
P. circularis from the Asiatic region^* can evidently be referred to 
some other species. The species described by Li from Panama Bay 
as P. filitextus, can apparently be referred to P. circularis. 

The subspecies P. circularis aequisulcatus Carpenter from southern 
California, and western Lower California, attains a larger size when 
adult, the shell is thinner and flatter, the ribs narrower, and the 
coloration is more subdued. 

P. abietis E. K. Jordan & Hertlein, in the Pliocene of Maria 
Madre Island, and Lower California, is closely related to P. cir- 
cularis, but can be distinguished by the triangular shaped ribs, 

P. gibbus Linnaeus, found living along the Atlantic Coast of North 
America is also closely related to P. circularis. Members of the 
circularis group, also occur in beds referred to the Miocene and 
Pliocene in Venezuela. (See Bull. Amer. Paleo. vol. 13, Bull. 49, 
1927. P. circularis venezuelanus F. & H. Hodson, p. 25, pi. 14, fig. 6; 
pi. 15, figs. 2, 4, 5; pi. 17, fig. 1; P. circularis cornellanus F. & H. 
Hodson, p. 26, pi. 14, fig. 2; pi. 15, figs. 3, 10; pi. 16, fig. 3; P. cir- 
cularis caucanus F. & H. Hodson, p. 27, pi. 15 figs. 1, 8). 

P. demiurgus DalP^ from the upper Miocene of Trinidad is close 
to P. circularis. 

Zetek^® has indicated that the east American P. gibbus ampli- 
costatus Dall, might occur in the fauna of western Panama, but it 
seems likely that this record can be referred to some of the numerous 
variants of P. circularis. 



»» Pecten (Argus) ventricosus Sow. var. coccinea Morch, Malakzool. Blatter, Bd. 7, 1861, p. 210. 
"Var. coccinea; valva dextra lituris atris, intus alba. Sow. thes. f. 26. — Puntarenas ad prof. 14 org. 
Long. 16, alt. 17 mill." 

" Campbell, A. S., [Identification attributed to H. A. Pilsbry], Jour. Entomol. and Zool., vol. 15, no. 3, 
1923, p. 40. Near Canton, and at Chung Chow, Hong Kong territory, China. Recent. 

« Pecten {Plagioclenium) demiurgus Dall, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. 3, pt. 4, 1898, p. 718, pi. 26, 
fig. 3. "From the Caroni Series of Trinidad at Savanetta ; Guppy." Miocene. 

38 Zetek, J., Los Mol. Republ. Panama. Revista Nueva, nos. 1 & 2, 1918, p. 52. 



314 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pecten (Leptopecten) latiauratus Conrad 

Pecten latiauratus Conrad, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 7, 1837, p. 238» 
pi. 18, fig. 9. "Inhabits below the eflflux of the tide near Sta. Diego and 
Sta. Barbara."— Kobelt, Syst. Conchyl.-Cab., Bd. 7, Abt. 2, Spondylus 
und Pecten, 1887, p. 203, Taf. 54, figs. 7, 8. West Coast of North America, 
especially California. 

Pecten (Chlamys) latiauritus Conrad, Arnold, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 47, 
1906, p. 115, pi. 46, figs. 2, 2a, 3, 3a. Monterey to San Diego, California. 
Also Pliocene and Pleistocene. — I. S. Oldroyd, Stanford Univ. Publ., Univ. 
Ser. Geol. Sci., vol. 1, no. 1, 1924, p. 57, pi. 22, fig. 2 (under subgenus 
Chlamys, section Leptopecten). (Reproduction of Conrad's type figure). 
Monterey, California, to the Gulf of California. See also remarks by 
Grant & Gale, Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1931, pp. 203-204. 

Range: Monterey, California to Gulf of California (I. S. Oldroyd); 
?San Francisco Bay, California (Packard). Pliocene to Recent. 

One specimen of this species with both valves was dredged by the 
Templeton Crocker Expedition at Loc. 27600 (C. A. S.),in 25 fathoms 
off San Martin Island, Lower California. The exact locality is given 
as "above long spit." 

An inspection of Conrad's original figures of latiauratus and 
monotimeris , indicates that latiauratus has more squarely shaped 
ribs, a longer hinge line, and acutely pointed ears. The longer hinge 
line and prominently lamellated interspaces distinguish the sub- 
species latiauratus delosi (Plate 19, figure 10) from Conrad's species. 
P. latiauratus cerritensis Arnold in the Pleistocene has fewer ribs. 
P. andersoni Arnold in the Miocene of western North America is a 
related species. 



Pecten (Leptopecten) tumbezensis d'Orbigny 

Plate 19, figures 11, 12 

Pecten aspersus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 110. "Hab. ad Tumbez 
Peru viae." 

Not Pecten aspersus Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 6, 1819, p. 167. "Habite . 
Mon cabinet." 

Pecten tumbezensis d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. M6rid.,^^ vol. 5, 1846, p. 663. Tumbez 
Peru (Cuming). New name for P. aspersus Sowerby, not P. aspersus 
Lamarck.— Peile in Bosworth, Geol. N. W. Peru, 1922, p. 178, pi. 25 
fig. 8. "Talara Tablazo" and "Lobitos Tablazo." Quaternary, Peru. — 
Olsson, Nautilus, vol. 37, no. 4, 1924, p. 127. "Paita, Negritos, Lobitos 
Jorritos," Peru. "Salinas," Ecuador. 

Pecten sowerbyi Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 8, 1852, Pecten, sp. 4, pi. 1, fig. 4. "Tumbez 
Peru." New name for P. aspersus Sowerby, not P. aspersus Lamarck. — 
Kobelt, Syst. Conchyl.-Cab., Bd. 7, Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten, 1888, p 
229, Taf. 61, fig. 3. Peru. 



" For a collation of this work see Sherborn, C. D., and F. J. Griffin, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 10 
vol. 13, no. 73, 1934, pp. 130-134. 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN—THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 315 

Pecten paucicostatus Carpenter, Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1863 [issued 1864.], 
p. 645. Neighborhood of Santa Barbara (Jewett). — Kobelt, Syst. Con- 
chyl.-Cab., Bd. 7, Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten, 1888, p. 281. Original 
record cited. 

Pecten {Plagioctenium) paucicostatus Carpenter, Arnold, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. 
Paper 47, 1906, p. 137, pi. 39, figs. 3, 3a, 4. Gulf of California.— I. S. 
Oldroyd, Stanford Univ. Publ., Univ. Ser. Geol. Sci., vol. 1, no. 1, 1924, 
p. 56, pi. 41, figs. 4, 5. "Santa Barbara, California, to the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia." 

Pecten cf. latiauritus fucicolus Dall, Li, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 9, no. 3, 1930, 
p. 255, pi. 2, fig. 11. Mouth of the Rio Grande near La Boca about one 
mile from the mainland in Panama Bay. Recent. [Not P. latiauritus 
fucicolus Dall. See Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 83, 
1931, p. 429.] 

Pecten latiauritus Conrad indentus Li, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 9, no. 3, 1930, 
p. 256, pi. 2, fig. 13. Mouth of Rio Grande near La Boca about one mile 
from mainland in Panama Bay. [=P. tumbezensis d'Orbigny, according 
to Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 83, 1931, p. 429]. 

Pecten latiauritus Conrad splendens Li, Bull. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 9, no. 3, 1930, 
p. 256, pi. 2, fig. 12. Mouth of Rio Grande near La Boca, about one mile 
from the mainland in Panama Bay. Recent. [= P . tumbezensis d' Orhigny , 
according to Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Soc. Philadelphia, vol. 83, 1931, 
p. 429]. 

Pecten (Aequipecten) tumbezensis d'Orbigny, Grant & Gale, Mem. San Diego Soc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1931, p. 206. Earlier records cited. [Not P. palmeri 
Dall in the synonymy.] 

Range: Gulf of California to Tumbez and Paita, Peru. Also 
Quaternary of Peru. 

This interesting species was secured at a number of localities by 
the Templeton Crocker Expedition. 

Loc. 27527 (C. A. S.), dredged in Acapulco Bay, IVTexico. 

Loc. 27558 (C. A. S.), dredged in 50 fathoms between Punta 
Arenas and Bat Island, about five to six miles off Delas, Costa Rica. 

Loc. 27569 (C. A. S.), dredged in 28 fathoms, Lat. 15° 40' N., 
Long. 93° 49' W. 

Loc. 27571 (C. A. S.), dredged off Mexico in 20-45 fathoms, Lat. 
16° 38' to 16° 39' N., Long. 99° 24' 30" to 99° 27' 30" W. 

Loc. 27580 (C. A. S.), dredged one-half mile east of Isabel Island, 
between Isabel Island and Mazatlan, ]Mexico. 

Loc. 27583 (C. A. S.), dredged in 10-17 fathoms. Lat. 22° 44' N., 
Long. 105° 59' W. 

Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.), dredged in 20-220 fathoms off Mexico, Lat. 
23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 109° 31' to 109° 36' W. 

Loc. 27584A (C. A. S.), dredged about five miles west of Mazatlan, 
Sinaloa, Mexico, Lat. 23° 12' N., Long. 106° 29' W. 

Pecten tumbezensis d'Orbigny is known to range from the Gulf of 
California to Peru. It has been recorded from Santa Barbara, 



316 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

California, but this is a very doubtful record. Arnold in referring 
to P. paucicostatus Carpenter, which can be regarded as a synonym 
of tumbezensis, stated that it undoubtedly came from the Gulf of 
California, and that no species with its characteristics is known out- 
side the tropics. 

P. tumbezensis possesses a rather small but fairly heavy shell. 
The largest specimen in the collection has an altitude of 30.4 mm. The 
shell is usually ornamented by about 14 ribs. The left valve usually 
shows a sprinkling of light bluish dots on a slate-colored or brownish 
background. 

Olsson has mentioned a similarity between P. tumbezensis and P. 
woodringi Spieker,^^ from the Miocene of Peru. 

Rutten's record (Leid. Geol. Mededeel., Deel 5, 1931, p. 661) of 
''Pecten sowerhyi Reeve" in the Quaternary of Surinam, South 
America, can apparently be referred to some other species. 



Pecten (Leptopecten) velero Hertlein, new species 

Plate 19, figures 13, 14 

The type is a left valve with 16 strong ribs, of which every third rib is higher than 
the intervening ones; the two ribs on the margins are a little stronger than those on 
the middle; strong imbricating lamellae cross the ribs and interspaces and are 
especially prominent on the stronger ribs. The anterior ear is ornamented by 
about six to seven imbricated riblets and the posterior ear shows about five such 
riblets. The exterior of the shell is colored pink with whitish and brownish spots. 
The hinge line has transverse striations; and the ribs are shown on the interior 
of the shell by strong ridges and hollows. Other specimens sometimes have pairs 
of raised ribs instead of only one. Type, altitude approximately 6.4 mm.; length of 
hinge line approximately 6.2 mm. 

Range: Bahia Honda, Veragua, Panama; Mazatlan, Mexico; and 
Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Group, Mexico. 

Holotype: Left valve No. 6857 (Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Paleo.); 
paratype, left valve No. 6886, and plesiotype, right valve No. 6887 
(Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Paleo. type coll.), Bahia Honda, Veragua, 
Panama, in three to nine fathoms, G. Allan Hancock Expedition; 
L. G. Hertlein, collector, 

P. velero is not present in the collection made by the Templeton 
Crocker Expedition, but is recorded here as a new species. 

The new species differs from P. latiauratus delosi Arnold, in the 
character of the ribs, of which every third one is raised and occa- 
sionally a pair is raised. Another left valve and a right valve, 
slightly worn, occurred with the type at Bahia Honda, Panama. The 
right valve has about 16 ribs, every third one is slightly raised, and 

'» Pecten woodringi Spieker, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geol., no. 3, 1922, p. 125, pi. 7, figs. 4, 5. 
•'Upper Zorritos. Quebradas Pantheon, del Tore, de las Alturas and del Grillo." — Olsson, Bull. Amer. 
Paleo., vol. 19, Bull. no. 68, 1932, p. 81, pi. S, figs. 2, 5 (as Pecten (Plagioctenium) woodringi)." Tumbez 
formation, probably Que. Tucillal, Zorritos (Nelson)." 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN— THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 317 

it is presumably the right valve of the new species. Its general 
appearance is considerably like P. latiauratus Conrad, Recent west 
American species, and P. ischnon Pilsbry & Johnson ^^ from the 
Miocene of Santo Domingo. 

Several specimens of P. velero were collected by the author at Loc. 
27,223 (C. A. S.), Mazatlan, Mexico. One left valve was collected 
by G. D. Hanna & E. K. Jordan at Loc. 23,779 (C. A. S.), Maria 
Madre Island, Tres Marias Group, Mexico, in ten fathoms. 

This new species is named for Captain G. Allan Hancock's yacht, 
Velero III. 



Pecten (Lyropecten) subnodosus Sowerby 

Plate 19, figure 15 

Pecten subnodosus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 109. Var. brownish 
red with white striae, "ad Sinum Calif orniae." Var. variegated with 
brown and white patches, "ad Insulam Platae Columbiae Occidentalis." 
Var. A more depressed shell of a bright orange color, "ad Sinum Tehuan- 
tepee, Mexicanorum." "in sandy mud and coral sand in from ten to 
seventeen fathoms." — Sowerby, Thes. Conch., vol. 1, 1842, p. 65, pi. 
15, figs. 97 and 112. EarUer records cited. — Kiister, Syst. Conchyl.- 
Cab., Bd. 7, Abt. 2, Spondylus und Pecten, 1859, p. 112, Taf. 32, fig. 3. 
"Mexico und Westcolumbien." — Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 37, 
1909, p. 256. "Gulf of California to Guayaquil and the Galapagos Islands. 
— Olsson, Nautilus, vol. 37, no. 4, 1924, p. 127. "Negritos, Mancora," 
Peru. "Salinas," Ecuador. 

Lyropecten intertnedius Conrad, Amer. Jour. Conch., vol. 3, 1867, p. 7. "Cape St. 
Lucas, California." 

Pecten (Nodipecten) subnodosus Sowerby, Arnold, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 47, 
1906, p. 128, pi. 52, fig. 1; pi. 53, figs. 1, la. Recent from Coast of Lower 
California to Ecuador. Also Pliocene and Pleistocene. 

Pecten (Lyropecten) nodosus (Linnaeus) variety subnodsus Sowerby, Grant & Gale, 
Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1931, p. 180. "Panama and West 
Columbia." 

Pecten (Lyropecten) nodosus (Linnaeus) variety intermedius (Conrad), Grant & 
Gale, Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1931, p. 181. EarHer records 
cited from Pliocene to Recent. 

Range: Scammon Lagoon, Lower California, and the Gulf of 
California, to Guayaquil, Ecuador (Dall and others). Also Pliocene 
and Pleistocene of Lower California and Pliocene of Imperial 
County, California. 

This well known species was collected at four localities by the 
Templeton Crocker Expedition. 

Loc. 27559 (C. A. S.), Braxilito Bay, Costa Rica. 

s» Pecten ischnon Pilsbry & Johnson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 69, 1917, p. 194. Santo 
Domingo. Miocene. — Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 73, pt. 2, January 18, 1922, p. 413, 
pi. 44, figs. 7, 8, (type) 9. Santo Domingo. Miocene. 



318 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Loc. 27562 (C. A. S.), Port Parker, Costa Rica. 

Loc. 27577 (C. A. S.), on south shore of Maria Madre Island, 
Mexico. 

Loc. 27578 (C. A. S.), San Juanito Island, Tres Marias Group, 
Mexico. 

Pecten suhnodosus is quite variable in color. It may be red, 
variegated with red and brown or white, or orange in color. An 
excellent specimen from San Juanito Island has eleven ribs on the 
right valve and ten on the left. This, as well as specimens from the 
Gulf of California, does not substantiate Grant & Gale's^" conclu- 
sion that the more northern forms described as intermedius by 
Conrad, can be recognized as a separate subspecies possessing one 
less rib than the Panama shells. 

P. nodosus Linnaeus,^^ from the Caribbean region is a closely 
related species as is P. veatchii Gabb from the Pliocene of Cedros 
Island, Lower California. Related species such as P. peedeensis 
Tuomey & Holmes,^^ p pernodosus Heilprin,*^ P. pittieri Dall,*'* 
P. pittieri collierensis Mansfield^' and P. colinensis F. & H. Hodson,*® 
occur in the Miocene and Pliocene of the Caribbean region. 



Pecten (Decadopecten) fasciculatus Hinds 

Plate 18, figures 1, 2 

Pecten fasciculatus Hinds, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Moll., pt. 3, 1844 [date on cover 
January, 1845], p. 61, pi. 17, fig. 4 "West coast of Veragua. In seventeen 
fathoms, among sandy mud." — Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 8, 1853, Pecten, 
sp. 171, pi. 35, fig. 171. Hinds' record cited. 

Pecten (Pallium) miser Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, p. 401' 
pi. 8, fig. 6. Gulf of Panama, in 182 fathoms, mud, bottom temperature' 
54.1° F. 

?Pecten panamensis Dall, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. 3, pt. 4, 1898, p. 696. 

<o Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1931, p. 181. 

•1 Ostrea nodosa Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1758, p. 697. "Habitat in O. Africano E Indico." 

Pecten corallinus Chemnitz, Neues Syst. Conch.-Cab., Bd. 7, 1784. p. 306, pi. 64, figs. 609, 610, 611- 
S t. Croix, St. Thomas and St. Jean, Danish West Indies. 

Pecten nodosus Linnaeus, Reeve, Conch, Icon., voL8, Pecten, 1852, sp. 15, pl.3, fig. 15. "Hab. Gulf of 
Mexico." 

*2 Pecten peedeensis Tuomey & Holmes, Pleiocene Fossils of South Carolina, 1857, p. 30, pi. 12, figs. 
1,2,3,4,5. "Darlington District." 

" Pecten pernodosus Heilprin, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. 1, 1887, p. 131, pi. 166, figs. 69, 69a. 
Caloosahatchie, Florida. Pliocene. 

" Pecten (Lyropecten) pittieri Dall, Smithson, Misc. Coll., vol. 59, no. 2, March 2, 1912, p. 10. "Moin 
Hill, near Port Limon, Costa Rica, niveau a. H. Pittier. 1899."— Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 66, 1925, 
p. 23, pi. 17, fig. 6. 

" Pecten (Nodipecten) pittieri collierensis Mansfield, U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 170-D, 1932, p. 47, pi. 
16, figs. 3, 5. "Tamiami trail, about 11 miles east by north of Marco, Collier Coxinty, Fla." Pliocene. 

" Pecten (o#. Nodipecten) colinensis F. & H. Hodson, Bull. Amer. Paleo., vol. 13, Bull. 49, October 7, 
1927, p. 33, pi. 18, figs. 3, 6; pi. 19, fig. 4. "District of Colina, State of Falc6n," Venezuela. "Miocene- 
Pliocene." 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN—THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 319 

Range: Panama. 

This species is not present in the Templeton Crocker Collection. 

Hinds illustrated only a left valve, and Dall a right valve, of 
species occurring off Panama. The number of ribs in each, is about 
the same, and the descriptions seem to indicate that Ball's species 
will need to be placed in the synonymy of P. fasciculatus Hinds. 
This species appears to be the only representative of the subgenus 
Decadopecten, to be reported Recent or fossil from western North 
America. Recent and fossil forms of Decadopecten are represented 
in the Asiatic and Mediterranean regions. 

Dall in 1898 gave a brief description of a species cited as Pecten 
panamensis Dall. According to the description the species differs 
from P. plica Linnaeus, "by having the cardinal laminae obsolete 
and in the presence of a byssal sinus and ctenolium." No locality 
is given for the species but the name suggests that it came from or 
occurs near Panama. Possibly this is the species later described by 
Dall as P. miser which in the present paper is referred to P. fascicu- 
latus Hinds. 

P. parmeleei Dall and related forms in the Pliocene belongs to the 
subgenus Swiftopecten Hertlein, the type of which is P. swiftii 
Bernardi. 



Pecten (Cyclopecten) cocosensis Dall 

Plate 18, figures 7, 8 

Pecten {Cyclopecten) cocosensis Dall, BuU. Mus. Comp. ZooL, vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, 
p. 405, pi. 6, figs. 1, 3. "near Cocos Island Gulf of Panama, in 52 fathoms, 
rocky bottom, temperature 62°.2 F." — Zetek, Los Mol. Republ. Panama. 
Revista Nueva, nos. 1 & 2, 1918, p. 39. 

Range: San Jose Island, Gulf of California to Acapulco Bay, 
Mexico, and near Cocos Island, Costa Rica. 

This species was dredged at several localities by the Templeton 
Crocker Expedition. At some localities the species was represented 
only by small juvenile specimens. 

Loc. 27527 (C. A. S.), in Acapulco Bay, Mexico. 

Loc. 27581 (C. A. S.), between Isabel Island and Mazatlan, 
Mexico. 

Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.), dredged about 10 miles due east of San 
Jose del Cabo, Lower California, in Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., 
Long. 109° 31' to 109° 36' W., in 20 to 220 fathoms. 

Loc. 27587 (C. A. S.), off Cape San Lucas, Lower California, in 
20 to 25 fathoms. 



320 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

It is also present in the collections of the California Academy of 
Sciences from the following localities: 

Loc. 23779 (C. A. S,), in five to ten fathoms off Maria Madre 
Island, Tres Marias group, Mexico; G. D. Hanna & E. K. Jordan, 
colls. 

Loc. 23804 (C. A. S.), Amortajada Bay, San Jose Island, Gulf of 
California. F. Baker coll. 

The shell of this species has a subangular posterior margin, and a 
broad shallow sulcus occurs on the posterior fourth of the shell. 
The color of the exterior of the shell consists of white, red, and brown, 
occurring in lines, zigzags, or in clouded patches. 

P. catalinensis Willett,'*^ has more nearly equal ears and a different 
color pattern and lacks the sulcus on the posterior portion of the 
valves. 

Ball's figures of P. guppyi Dall,^* from the late Tertiary of the 
Caribbean region, show a resemblance to P. cocosensis. The Carib- 
bean shell apparently has a broad shallow sulcus on the posterior 
portion of the shell, and traces of coloration in blotches, is said to be 
present. P. subminutus Aldrich,^^ from the Tertiary of Mississippi 
is said to resemble P. guppyi but is smaller. 

Pecten aotus Olsson^" from the Miocene of Costa Rica, has, on 
the left valve, fine radial lines, which according to the description, 
occur in irregular streaks or blotches. 

Pecten (Cyclopecten) oligolepis Brown & Pilsbry^^ bears some 
resemblance to P. cocosensis. 



Pecten (Cyclopecten) pernomus Hertlein, new name 

Plate 18, figures 11, 12, 13 

Pecten {Cyclopecten) rotundus Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, 
p. 404. "Panama Bay, in 29J^ fathoms; also at station 2784, in 194 
fathoms, mud bottom temperature 51°. 9 F." "A single valve from near 
the Straits of Magellan, apparently the same species." — Zetek, Los Mol. 
Republ. Panama. Revista Nueva, nos. 1 and 2, 1918, p. 39. Panama. 

■" Pecten (Cyclopecten) catalinensis Willett, Nautilus, vol. 45, no. 2, 1931, p. 65, pi. 4, figs. 1,2.... "in 
100 fathoms off White's Landing, north side of Catalina Island, California." 

48 Pecten (Pseudamusium) guppyi Dall, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. 3, pt. 4, 1898, p. 718, pi. 34, 
figs. 12, 13. "Oligocene of the Bowden marl, Jamaica, and of the Alum Bluff sand at Oak Grove, Santa 
Rosa County, Florida, Burns; and in the Pliocene Marl of Port Limon, Costa Rica, Hill." 

Chlamys {Pallioltim?) guppyi (Dall), Woodring, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 366, 1925, p. 72, 
pi. 8, figs. 13, 14, 15, 16. "Bowden, Jamaica." 

*^ Pecten {Pseudamusium) subminutus Aldrich, Nautilus, vol. 16, no. 9, January, 1903, p. 100, pi. 4, 
figs. 16, 17. "Red Bluff, Miss., Jackson, Miss." 

oo Pecten aotus Olsson, Bull. Amer. Paleo., vol. 9, Bull. 39, 1922, p. 376 (204), pi. 21 (18), figs. 17, 18. 
''Gatun Stage: Port Limon." "Coll. 5, Red Cliff Creek," Costa Rica. Miocene. 

'1 Pecten (Cyclopecten) oligolepis Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 64, 1912, p. 
512, text fig. 5. "From the excavation of the lower locks at Gatun." Miocene. 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN— THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 321 

Not Pecten rotundus v. Hagenow, Neues Jahrb. f. Min., 1842, p. 554. "Rugen. 
schen Kreide." 

Range: Panama Bay (Dall). (?)Straits of Magellan (Dall). 

This species is not present in the Templeton Crocker Expedition 
collection. The name Pecten rotundus was used by von Hagenow 
much earlier than by Dall, and the name pernomus is here proposed 
for the West American species. 

According to Townsend,52 -^^ 2799 U. S. B. F. Sta., is given as 
Lat. 8° 44' 00" N., Long. 79° 09' 00" W., at a depth of 29.5 
fathoms, green mud, surface temperatures 75° F., March 6, 1888, 
and Dall in his original record of P. rotundus gave the locality as . . . 
"in Panama Bay, in 29>^ fathoms." 

The specimens illustrated on plate 18, figures 11, 12, 13, are con- 
sidered in the present paper to be syntypes of Pecten rotundus Dall, 
due to the fact that the altitude given in the original description is 
3 mm., and the altitude of the specimens illustrated in figures 11 and 
13 are both 3 mm. From the present information it is not clear 
which specimen, if any, was selected as holotype by Dall. The 
photographs of the "types" of P. rotundus, were received from the 
U. S. National Museum, through the kindness of Dr. A. Wetmore. 

Additional collections may show that this is the young of P. 
cocosensis Dall, but for the present it is regarded as a separate 
species. 



Pecten (Delectopecten) zacae Hertlein, new name 

Plate 18, figures 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 

Pecten {Pseudamusium) panamensis Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 
1908, p. 404, pi. 6, figs. 8 and 10. "Gulf of Panama, in 322 fathoms, mud. 
bottom temperature 56°F." 

Not Pecten panamensis Dall, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., vol. 3, pt. 4, 1898, p. 
696. No locality cited [} — P . fasciculatus Hinds]. 

Range: Cape San Lucas, Lower California to Panama. 

Holotype: No. 6880 (C. A. S. Paleo. type collection), from Loc. 
27587 (C. A. S.), off Cape San Lucas, Lower California; paratypes: 
Nos. 6881, 6882 (C. A. S. Paleo. type collection), from Loc. 27584 
(C. A. S.), dredged in 20 to 220 fathoms from Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' 
N., Long. 109° 31' to 109° 36' W.; Templeton Crocker collector. 

This species was dredged by the Templeton Crocker Expedition 
at two localities. Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.), about 10 miles due east 
of San Jose del Cabo, Lower California, in 20 to 220 fathoms, Lat. 



52 Townsend, C. H., Dredging and other records of the United States Fish Commission Steamer Albatross 
with bibliography relative to the work of the vessel, in Rept. U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, pt. 26, 
1900 [issued 1901], p. 404. 



322 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc. 4th Ser. 

23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 109° 31' to 109° 36' W.; and Loc. 
27587 (C. A. S.), off Cape San Lucas, Lower California, in 20 to 25 
fathoms. 

The thin, delicate forms of this species, collected by the Templeton 
Crocker Expedition, possess the shell characters of the species de- 
scribed by Dall as P. panamensis in 1908 (not P. panamensis Dall, 
1898). Due to the fact that Dall has used the name panamensis for a 
species in 1898, the name zacae is here proposed for the present 
species. It is named for Mr. Templeton Crocker's yacht, Zaca. 

Some specimens are nearly smooth, while others have 40 to 65 
fine radial, minutely scaly threads. The whole surface externally, is 
covered by fine camptonectes striations. 

The more elongate form, fewer and more widely spaced ribs, the 
broader anterior ear of the right valve, and the squarer posterior 
margin of the posterior ears of both valves, separate the species from 
P. randolphi Dall and P. randolphi tillamookensis Arnold. 

Pecten lillisi Hertlein^^ from the Kreyenhagen Shale (upper 
Eocene or lower Oligocene), appears to be a related species. 

M Peclen (Pseudamusiutn) lillisi Hertlein, Bull. South Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 33, pt. 1, January- April 
(issued February 28), 1934, p. 5, pi. 1, fig. 1, pi. 2, figs. 2, 3. "diatomite, Kreyenhagen shale, from S. E. 
comer of Sec. 35, T. 6 S., R. 7 E., M. D. M., Stanislaus County, California; on the north side of Crow 
Creek road." 



Vol. XXII HERTLEIN—THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 323 

Plate 18 

Fig. 1. Pecten (Decadopecten) fasciculatus Hinds. A reproduction of the original 
figure of Pecten {Pallium) miser Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, 
pi. 8, fig. 6 "Gulf of Panama, in 182 fathoms." P. 318. 

Fig. 2. Pecten {Decadopecten) fasciculatus Hinds. A reproduction of the original 
figure of Pecten fasciculatus Hinds, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Moll., pt. 3, 1844 [date on 
cover given as January, 1845], pi. 17, fig. 4. "West coast of Veragua." P. 318. 

Fig. 3. Pecten {Delectopecten) zacae Hertlein, new species. Altitude 12 mm.; 
longitude approximately 10 mm. Paratype, right valve. No. 6881 (C. A. S. Paleo- 
type coll.) from Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.), Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 109° 31' to 
109° 36' W., in 20 to 220 fathoms. P. 321. 

Fig. 4. Pecten {Delectopecten) zacae Hertlein, new species. Altitude 11 mm.; 
longitude 10.8 mm. Holotype, right valve, No. 6880 (C. A. S. Paleo. type coll.), 
from Loc. 27587 (C. A. S.), off Cape San Lucas, Lower California, in 20 to 220 
fathoms. P. 321. 

Fig. 5. Pecten {Delectopecten) zacae Hertlein, new species. Altitude approxi- 
mately 13.8 mm.; longitude approximately 13.8 mm. Paratype, left valve. No. 
6882 (C. A. S. Paleo. type coll.), from same locality as specimen shown in figure 3. 
This valve shows stronger ribbing than that on the left valve of the holotype. 
P. 321. 

Fig. 6. Pecten {Delectopecten) zacae Hertlein, new species. Holotype, left valve 
of specimen shown in figure 4. P. 321. 

Fig. 7. Pecten {Cyclopecten) cocosensis Dall. A reproduction of the original 
figure of the right valve given by Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, 
pi. 6, fig. 3. . . . "near Cocos Island, Gulf of Panama, in 52 fathoms." P. 319. 

Fig. 8. Pecten {Cyclopecten) cocosensis Dall. A reproduction of the original 
figure of the left valve given by Dall, 1908, pi. 6, fig. 1. From same locality as 
specimen shown in figure 7. P. 319. 

Fig. 9. Pecten {Delectopecten) zacae Hertlein, new species. A reproduction of the 
original figure of the right valve of Pecten {P seudamusium) panamensis Dall, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, pi. 6, fig. 10. "Gulf of Panama, in 322 
fathoms." P. 321. 

Fig. 10. Pecten {Delectopecten) zacae Hertlein, new species. A reproduction of the 
original figure of the left valve of Pecten {P seudamusium) panamensis Dall, 1908, 
pi. 6, fig. 8. Same locality as specimen shown in figure 9. P. 321. 

Fig. 11. Pecten {Cyclopecten) pernomus Hertlein, new name. Altitude 3 mm. 
Paratype, left valve Cat. No. 110708 (U. S. Nat. Mus.), from U. S. B. F. Sta. 2799, 
Lat. 8° 44' 00" N., Long. 79° 09' 00' W., at a depth of 29.5 fathoms. Figures 11, 
12, 13 are photographs of Pecten {Cyclopecten) rotundus Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, p. 404. [Not Pecten rotundus von Hagenow.] P. 320. 

Fig. 12. Pecten {Cyclopecten) pernomus Hertlein, new name. Altitude 3.5 mm. 
Holotype, right valve. Cat. No. 110708 (U. S. N. M.), from same locality as speci- 
men shown in figure 11. P. 320. 

Fig. 13. Pecten {Cyclopecten) pernomus Hertlein, new name. Altitude 3 mm. 
Paratype, left valve (Cat. No. 110708 U. S. N. M.), from same locality as speci- 
men shown in figure 11. P. 320. 

{Plate 18 continued on next page) 



324 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Plate 18 — Continued 

Fig. 14. Pecten {Pecten) sericeus Hinds. A reproduction of one of the original 
figures of Pecten sericeus Hinds, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Moll., pt. 3, 1844, pi. 17, fig. la. 
"Bay of Panama. In fifty fathoms." P. 303. 

Fig. 15. Pecten (Pecten) sericeus Dall. A reproduction of the original figure of 
the left valve given by Hinds, 1844, pi. 17, fig. 1. Same locality as specimen shown 
in figure 14. P. 303. 

Fig. 16. Pecten (Delectopecten) liriope Dall. Altitude 7.5 mm.; longitude 8 mm.; 
length of hinge line 4.5 mm. Holotype, right valve of Pecten {P seudaniusium) 
liriope Dall, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, 1908, p. 402. Cat. no. 122,869 
(U. S. Nat. Mus.), from "U. S. S. 'Albatross', station 3392, Gulf of Panama, in 1270 
fathoms, hard bottom, temperature, 36°. 4 F., U. S. N. Mus. 122, 869." This photo- 
graph was furnished through the kindness of Dr. A. Wetmore, Assistant Secretary 
Smithsonian Institution. 



Vol. XXI] HERTLEIN—THE RECENT PECTINIDAE 325 

Plate 19 

Fig. 1. Pecten (Chlamys) lowei Hertlein, new species. Altitude 13.8 mm.; 
longitude 11.5 mm. Holotype, right valve, No. 6878 (C. A. S. Paleo. type coll.), 
from Carmen Island, Gulf of California, from a depth of 20 fathoms; H. N. Lowe, 
collector. P. 308. 

Fig. 2. Pecten (Chlamys) lowei Hertlein, new species. Holotype, left valve. 
P. 308. 

Fig. 3. Pecten [Pecten) sericeus Hinds. Altitude approximately 17 mm.; longi- 
tude approximately 17.5 mm. Plesiotype, right valve of a juvenile specimen, No. 
6876 (C. A. S. Paleo. type coll.), from Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.), dredged in 20 to 220 
fathoms, Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 109° 31' to 109° 36' W. P. 303. 

Fig. 4. Pecten {Pecten) sericeus Hinds. Left valve of specimen shown in figure 3. 
P. 303. 

Fig. 5. Pecten {Pecten) diegensis Dall. Altitude approximately 25 mm.; longitude 
approximately 26 mm. Plesiotype, right valve of a juvenile specimen, No. 6875 
(C. A. S. Paleo. type coll.), from Loc. 27824 (C. A. S.), Isthmus Cove, Santa Cata- 
lina Island, California, in 30-50 fathoms. P. 302. 

Fig. 6. Pecten {Pecten) diegensis Dall. Left valve of specimen shown in figure 5. 
P. 302. 

Fig. 7. Pecten {Chlamys) lowei Hertlein, new species. A much less enlarged view 
of specimen shown in figure 1. P. 308. 

Fig. 8. Pecten {Chlamys) lowei Hertlein, new species. A much less enlarged view 
of specimen shown in figure 2. P. 308. 

Fig. 9. Pecten {Chlamys) zeteki Hertlein, new name. A reproduction of the 
original figure of Pecten digitatus Hinds (not P. digitatus Perry), Zool. Voy. Sulphur, 
Moll., pt. 3, 1844, pi. 17, fig. 2. "Bay of Guayaquil." P. 306. 

Fig. 10. Pecten {Leptopecten) latiauratus delosi Arnold. Altitude approximately 
7.5 mm.; longitude approximately 7.8 mm. Plesiotype, left valve No. 6885 
(C. A. S. Paleo. type coll.), from San Benito Island, Lower California, in ten 
fathoms; H. N. Lowe, collector. P. 314. 

Fig. 11. Pecten {Leptopecten) tumbezensis d'Orbigny. Altitude approximately 
18.4 mm.; longitude approximately 20 mm.; diameter (both valves) approximately 
8.2 mm. Plesiotype, right valve No. 6883 (C. A. S. Paleo. type coll.) from Loc. 
27584 (C. A. S.), Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 109° 31' to 109° 36' W., in 
20 to 220 fathoms. P. 314. 

Fig. 12. Pecten {Leptopecten) tumbezensis d'Orbigny. Left valve of specimen 
shown in figure 11. The left valve shown in this figure has more white marking 
than the other specimens in the collection. Usually they are ornamented by 
smaller white patches, or in some specimens only by light bluish dots on a brownish 
or slate colored background. P. 314. 

Fig. 13. Pecten {Leptopecten) velero Hertlein, new species. Altitude approxi- 
mately 6.1 mm.; length of hinge line approximately 5.9 mm. Plesiotype, right 
valve, No. 6887 (C. A. S. Paleo. type coll.), from Loc. 27229 (C. A. S.), Bahia Honda, 
Veragua, Panama, in three to nine fathoms. P. 316. 

{Plate 19 continued on next page) 



326 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Plate 19 — Continued 

Fig. 14. Pecten {Leptopecten) velero Hertlein, new species. Altitude approxi- 
mately 6.4 mm.; length of hinge line approximately 6.2 mm. Holotype, left valve, 
No. 6857 (C. A. S. Paleo. type coll.), from Loc. 27229 (C. A. S.), Bahia Honda, 
Veragua, Panama, in three to nine fathoms. P. 316. 

Fig. 15. Pecten (Lyropecten) subnodosus Sowerby. Altitude 37.2 mm.; longitude 
36.5 mm. Plesiotype, right valve (left ear imperfect). No. 6884 (C. A. S. Paleo. 
type coll.), from Loc. 27577 (C. A. S.), Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands, 
Mexico. P. 317. 

Fig. 16. Pecten {Pecten) vogdesi Arnold. Altitude approximately 37.4 mm.; 
longitude approximately 41 mm. Plesiotype, left valve No. 6877 (C. A. S. Paleo. 
type coll.), from Loc. 27584 (C. A. S.). Lat. 23° 03' to 23° 06' N., Long. 109° 31' 
to 109° 36' W., in 20 to 220 fathoms. P. 304. 

Fig. 17. Pecten {Pecten) vogdesi Arnold. Right valve of specimen shown in 
figure 16. Convexity of valve approximately 13.1 mm. P. 304. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 25 



[HERTLEIN] Plate 18 












PRCC. CAL ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 25 



[HERTLEIN] Plate 19 







■'iii 



prcx;eedings s 



OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 26, pp. 329-336. September 26, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 26 

NEW FLOWERING PLANTS FROM THE 
GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



JOHN THOMAS HOWELL 

Assistant Curator Department of Botany, 

California Academy of Sciences 

In the course of my studies on the rich collections of flowering 
plants of the Templeton Crocker Expedition of the California 
Academy of Sciences, 1932, from the Galapagos Islands, a number of 
plants have appeared to be new and undescribed. Although some of 
these must await further study or comparison with critical historical 
specimens and types, a few have seemed undoubtedly new and 
worthy of taxonomic recognition. Descriptions of these new plants 
from the Galapagos Islands are given herewith. 

Drymaria monticola Howell, spec. nov. 

Herba glabra; caulibus decumbentibus, radicantibus, lignescentibus in senectute; 
foliis 1-2.5 cm. longis, late ovatis, suborbicularibus, subsessilibus, basi rotundis vel 
subcordatis, ex basi 3 nervis prominentibus et nonnullis minoribus, abrupte acutis 
et cuspidatis, integris, stipulis numerosis, filiformibus, subcaducis; inflorescentia 
pauciflora, pedicellis 2-5 mm. longis, glabris; sepalis 4, 6 mm, longis, elliptico- 
lanceolatis, 3-nervatis, subcarinatis, acutis; petalis 4 vel 5, 4-5 mm. longis, fissis 
3-3.5 mm., lobis circa 1 mm. latis, obtusis, ungui angustissimo; staminibus 5, 
ovarium subaequantibus, filamentis glabris, anthefis oblongis; stylo 1 mm. longo, 
trifido, capsula vix angulata supra, dura et nitenti, glabra; seminibus 16, muri- 
culato-tuberculatis. 



^^' 



September 26, 1935 



330 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ssr. 

Creeping, glabrous plant, the old stems becoming woody, rooting; leaves broadly 
ovate, nearly round, subsessile, subcordate or rounded at base, with 3 prominent 
and several less prominent nerves, 1-2.5 cm. long, shortly acute and cuspidate, 
entire; stipules numerous, filiform, more or less cauducous; inflorescence few- 
flowered, pedicels 2-5 mm. long, glabrous; sepals 4, 6 mm. long, elliptic-lanceolate, 
3-nerved, somewhat carinate along midrib, acute; petals 4 or 5, 4-5 mm. long, cleft 
3-3.5 mm., the lobes about 1 mm. wide, obtuse, the claw very narrow; stamens 5, 
about equalling the ovary, filaments glabrous, anthers oblong; style 1 mm. long, 
3-parted 3-^-3^ length, capsule scarcely angled above, hard and shining, glabrous, 
16-seeded; seeds muriculate-tuberculate. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 213492, collected on the summit 
of Mt. Crocker, Indefatigable Island, Howell No. 9243. 

This Drymaria is related to D. macrantha Gray but the entire 
plant is glabrous and the flowers are only 3^ to /^ as large. The 
collection of Drymaria made by Miss Rorud on Indefatigable 
Island at Hacienda Fortuna and doubtfully referred by Christo- 
phersen to D. cordata (Nyt. Mag. Naturvid. 70:75) may be D. 
monticola. The two species can be readily separated by the pedicels 
which in D. cordata are closely glandular-papillose. 

Euphorbia bisulcata Howell, spec. nov. 

Herba annua glabra; caulibus 6-8 dm. altis, erectis, ramulis numerosis, sub- 
divaricatis; foliis oppositis, oblongo- vel lineari-lanceolatis, 0.2-1.5 cm. longis, 
0.5-2 mm. latis, integris, subacutis, basi obliquis et auriculatis, cinereo-viridibus vel 
rufescentibus, utrinque subsimilibus, petiolis brevissimis, stipulis parvis, circa 0.5 
mm. longis, filiformibus, basi plus minusve coalescentibus; involucris axillaribus, 
brevissime pedicellatis, campanulatis, 0.5-0.75 mm. longis, lobis involucralibus 
triangulari-subulatis, sparse ciliatis, glandulis transverse oblongis, atropurpureis, 
appendicibus non evidentibus vel angustissimis; ovario glabro; stylis brevibus, 
bifissis ad medium; capsula depresso-globosa, circa 1.5 mm. longa et 2 mm. lata, 
basi rotundata, apice trilobata, dorso carpelli late bisulcato, sulcis carina abrupta 
acuta separatis, sulcis carpellorum contiguorum carina lata, plana, septali separatis; 
seminibus quadrangularibus, suboblongis, 1 mm. longis, cinereis, prof unde propinque 
et transverse rugosis, rugis plus minusve fractis et muriculatis. 

Annual, glabrous, herb; stems 6-8 dm. tall, erect, branchlets numerous, somewhat 
divaricate; leaves opposite, oblong- or linear-lanceolate, 0.2-1.5 cm. long, 0.5-2 mm. 
broad, entire, subacute, oblique and auriculate at base, gray-green or reddish- 
brown, the upper and lower surfaces nearly the same, petioles very short, stipules 
small, circa 0.5 mm. long, filiform, more or less coalescent below; involucres axillary, 
very shortly pedicellate, campanulate, 0.5-0.75 mm. long, involucral lobes tri- 
angular-subulate, sparsely ciliate, gland transversely oblong, purplish-black, ap- 
pendage not evident or very narrow; ovary glabrous; style short, cleft to the middle 
into 2 broad branches; capsule depressed-globose, about 1.5 mm. long and 2 mm. 
wide, rounded at base, 3-lobed at summit, back of each carpel broadly bisulcate, 
the grooves on the carpels separated by an abrupt sharp ridge, the grooves of ad- 
jacent carpels separated by a broad, flattened, septal ridge; seeds quadrangular, 
oblongish, 1 mm. long, ashy, deeply and closely transversely wrinkled, the wrinkles 
more or less broken and muriculate. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 220745, north side, Indefat- 
igable Island, Howell No. 9880, June 9, 1932. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— NEW PLANTS FROM THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 331 

This Euphorbia is most closely related to E. diffusa Hook. f. but 
it differs from this and all the other Galapagian species of Euphorbia 
in the bisulcate backs of the carpels which together form the peculiar 
6-ridged fruit. 



Malvastrum dimorphum Howell, spec. nov. 

Planta herbacea, perennis (?); caulibus erectis, 2 m. altis; foliis ovatis, dentatis 
vel crenato-dentatis, acutis, latissime cuneatis vel subcordatis basi, cinereo-viridibus 
supra, pallidioribus incanisque subter, foliis primariis magnis, 4-7 cm. longis, 3-5.5 
cm. latis, petiolis 3-5 cm. longis, foliis superioribus et secundis parvis, 1.5 cm. longis, 

1 cm. latis, petiolis 2-4 mm. longis; floribus primo solitariis in pedicellis longis ex 
axillis foliorum magnorum primariorum, pedicellis 1-2 cm. longis, vel tardius sub- 
sessilibus congestis solitariisve in ultimis caulibus vel in ultimis ramulis contractis 
axillaribus peduncularibus; bracteolis 3, filiformibus, 0.5 cm. longis; calyce 1.5-2 cm. 
lato, in fructu stellato-rotato, fisso infra medium, lobis ovato-lanceolatis, sub- 
acuminatis, utrinque pubescentibus; corolla lutea, 1-5 cm. diametro, petalis sub- 
integris, late obovatis basi barbatis; tuba staminali stellato-pubescenti; stylis 
staminibus aequilongis; carpellis circa 12, stellato-depressis, 4 mm. longis, in ex- 
teriors angulo cornibus 2, gracilibus, prominentibus, horizontalibus, radialiter 
extendentibus et in interiore angulo puncta brevissima erecta, pubescentibus circum 
undique, dense supra; seminibus oblique reniformibus, subopacis, laevibus. 

Plant herbaceous, probably from a perennial base, clothed with dense, close 
stellate pubescence; stems erect, 2 m. tall; leaves ovate, dentate or crenate dentate, 
acute, very broadly cuneate to subcordate at base, gray-green above, paler and 
incanous below, primary leaves large, 4-7 cm. long, 3-5.5 cm. wide, petioles 3-5 cm. 
long, the upper leaves and secondary leaves small, 1.5 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, petioles 
2-4 mm. long; flowers at first solitary on long pedicels from the axils of the large 
primary leaves, pedicels 1-2 cm. long, or later subsessile congested or solitary near 
the ends of stems or at the ends of abbreviated peduncle-like axillary branchlets; 
bractlets 3, filiform, 0.5 cm. long; calyx 1.5-2 cm. broad, subrotate in fruit, cleft to 
below the middle, lobes ovate-lanceolate, subacuminate, pubescent above and 
below; corolla yellow, 1.5 cm. in diameter, petals subentire, obovate, bearded at 
base; stamen-tube stellate-hairy; styles equalling stamens; carpels 4 mm. long with 

2 prominent horizontal, outwardly pointing horns at outer angle and a very short, 
inconspicuous, erect point at the inner angle; pubescent on all sides, densely so 
above; seed obliquely reniform, somewhat dull, smooth. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 220768, Academy Bay, Inde- 
fatigable Island, Howell No. 9294, May 13, 1932. Other collec- 
tions, all from Indefatigable Island: southeast side at 600 ft., 
Stewart No. 2014 and No. 2015 (reported as M. spicatum); Academy 
Bay, Schimpff No. 35 (determined as M. scoparioides). Almost 
without doubt, the flowering collection reported by Dr. H. K. 
Svenson as ?Sida sp. (Amer. Journ. Bot. 22: 244, — 1935) is to be 
referred here. 

This Malvastrum, whose name connotes the diverse aspect of 
habit, leaves, and inflorescence in youth and age, is related to M. 
scoparium (L'Her.) Gray and to M. scoparioides Ulbr. (Notizbl. 
Bot. Gart. Berlin, 11: 525, —1932). Like ih^ latter, M. dimorphum 



332 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

differs from M. scorparium in the much larger flowers and fruit, but 
M. dimorphum appears very distinct from M. scoparioides in the 
dimorphic characters of leaves and inflorescence and in the very 
different carpellary horns. A specimen of M. scoparium (Chosica, 
Peru, Machride & Featherstone No. 531) and a photograph of the 
type of M. scoparioides (Peru, Weberbauer No. 3196, ex Mus. Bot. 
Berol.) were kindly loaned for study by the Field Museum of Nat- 
ural History. 



Salvia floriana Howell, spec. nov. 

Perennis, suffrutescens, humilis; caulibus 1.5-9 dm. altis, puberuli.s, erectis; 
foliis deltoideo-ovatis, 1-2.5 cm. longis, 0.5-2 cm. latis, obtusis subacutisve, truncatis 
vel late rhomboideis basi, prominenter crenato-serratis, petiolis 0.5-1.5 cm. longis; 
verticillastris 7-20-floris, racemosis, distantibus subter, contiguis supra, bracteis 
deciduis, oblongo-linearibus,pubescentibus, 1.5 mm. longis, pedicellis canescentibus, 
circa 2 mm. longis; calyce tubulato-campanulato, subturbinato, subtruncato supra, 
3 mm. longo in flora, 4-5 mm. longo in fructu, striate 13-nervato, pubescenti, glan- 
duloso, ciliato, bilabiato, labio superiore late subquadrilaterali et vix apiculato, in- 
feriore bilobato, lobis asymmetricis late ovato-triangularibus, breviter acutis; 
corolla alba, conspicue exserta, labio inferiore 4 mm. longo, trilobato, lobis laterali- 
bus 2, parvis, medio magno, subquadrangulato, labio superiore obcordato, 1.5 mm. 
longo; filamentis subglabris, connectivo longe producto, filamento longiore, rudi- 
mentis staminum superiorum parvis; stylo clavellato, lobo inferiore obsoleto; 
nuculis subobovatis, opacis, brunneis, trigonis, dorso plano-convexo, faciebus 
ventralibus planis. 

Low suffrutescent perennial; stems 1.5-9 dm. tall, puberulent, erect; leaves deltoid- 
ovate, 1-2.5 cm. long, 0.5-2 cm. wide, brownish-green and minutely pubescent above, 
incanous and subtomentose below, finely but definitely rugulose, obtuse or sub- 
acute, truncate or broadly rhomboidal at base, prominently crenate-serrate; petioles 
0.5-1.5 cm. long; flowers verticillate, the verticils 7-20-flowered, racemose, distant 
below, forming a continuous inflorescence above, subtended by early deciduous, 
oblong-linear, pubescent bracts 1.5 mm. long, pedicels canescent and about 2 mm. 
long; calyx tubular-campanulate, subturbinate, subtruncate aboVe, 3 mm. long in 
anthesis, 4-5 mm. long in fruit, striately 13-nerved, pubescent, glandular, ciliate, 
2-lipped, the upper lip broadly subquadrilateral and scarcely pointed, the lower lip 
2-lobed, the lobes asymmetrical, broadly ovate-triangular, shortly acute; corolla 
white, conspicuously exserted, the lower lip 4 mm. long, with 2 small lateral lobes 
and large expanded subquadrangular middle lobe, the upper lip obcordate, 1.5 mm. 
long; filaments subglabrous, connective long-produced, longer than the free part of 
the filament, rudiments of upper stamens present; style cla vallate, the lower lobe 
obsolete; nutlets subobovate, dull, brown, trigonous, plano-convex dorsally, the 
inner faces plane. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 220744, from the summit of 
Floreana Peak, Charles Island, Howell No. 9336, May 15, 1932. 

This is the plant collected by Stewart {No. 3339 and 3340) and 
reported by him as 5. prostrata (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 
1 : 135) ; and it is probably the plant collected by Darwin and reported 
by Hooker f. as 5. tiliaefolia (Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 200). In habit 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— NEW PLANTS FROM THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 333 

and foliage, S. floriana looks like a xerophytic form of 5. tiliaefolia 
but in the characters of the flower it is very different. The style 
appears especially remarkable. 



Elvira atripliciformis Howell, spec. nov. 

Herba annua, caulibus strigosis, decumbentibus, 2-5 dm. longis, raro radicanti- 
bus; foliis ovatis, 1-5 cm. longis, 0.5-2.5 cm. latis, acutis, serratis, subflaccidis, 
sparse pubescentibus et minute scabridulis, petiolis brevibus, 2-5 mm. longis, 
subcuneate marginatis subter basi rotunda folii; capitulis 1 vel 2 in axillis foliorum, 
compressis vel saepe tripteris, brevissime pedunculatis, floribus 2 vel 3; bracteis 
involucralibus 3, bractea exteriori maxima, foliacea, sparse pubescenti, 5-9 mm. 
lata, 3-5 mm. longa, truncata vel obcordata, breviter et abrupte acuminata, basi 
truncata vel tenuiter et late cordata, basi conjuncta cum bracteis minoribus, margini- 
bus bractearum volutis et basi involucri induratis in senectute; flore pistillate 1, 
corolla ligulata, albida, parva, 1.5 mm. longa, bidentata; floribus staminalibus 1 vel 
2, tubulatis, 4-dentatis, 1.5 mm. longis; acheniis nigrescentibus, 2 mm. longis, 
obovato-cuneatis, superne puberulis, valde compressis, latere exteriori plano- 
convexo, interiori costato vel carinato, cum involucro purpurascenti deciduis. 

Annual herb with spreading stems 2-5 dm. long, sparsely rooting, strigose; leaves 
ovate, 1-5 cm. long, 0.5-2.5 cm. wide, acute, serrate, subflaccid, sparsely pubescent 
and minutely scabridulous, shortly petiolate, petiole 2-5 mm. long, subcuneately 
winged below the rounded base of the blade; heads 1 to several in the axils of the 
leaves, compressed or commonly tripterous, very shortly pedunculate, 2- or 3- 
flowered, involucral bracts 3, more or less united at base, the exterior one largest, 
foliaceous, 5-9 mm. broad, 3-5 mm. long, truncate or obcordate and shortly and 
abruptly acuminate, the base truncate or shallowly and broadly cordate, thinly 
pubescent, more or less united at the base with the smaller bracts, the edges of the 
bracts becoming folded and the base of the involucres becoming indurated in age; 
pistillate flower 1, corolla whitish, minute, 1.5 mm. long, bidentate; staminate 
flowers 1 or 2, tubular, 4-toothed, 1.5 mm. long; achene slaty-black, 2 mm. long, 
obovate-cuneate, puberulent above, strongly flattened, exterior face plano-convex, 
interior face ridged or sharply carinate, deciduous together with the involucre which 
becomes purplish in age. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 220339, in sandy soil near the 
beach, James Bay, James Island, Howell No. 9635, June 4, 1932. 

In morphology, E. atripliciformis closely resembles E. repens 
(Hook, f.) Rob. but it is adequately distinct in its more robust habit 
and in the larger size of all its parts. The peculiar winged involucre 
enveloping the solitary achene is reminiscent of the ripened fruit and 
persistent bracts of certain western American species of Atriplex, 
notably A. canescens (Pursh) James. 



Pectis glabra Howell, spec. nov. 

Herba annua; caulibus 0.5-2.5 dm. longis, diffuse ramosis et decumbentibus, 
glabris puberulisve, purpureo-fuscis; foliis linearibus, 0.5-2 cm. longis, 0.5-1.5 mm. 
latis, glabris vel minute scabrido-ciliatis margine et basi, apicibus mucronatis vel 
setigeris, margine 2 vel 3 setis remotis utrinque ciliata, subtus glanduloso-punctatis. 



334 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

glandulis subbiserialibus; capitulis in pedunculis bracteatis 0.5-2.5 cm. longis; 
bracteis involucralibus 5, oblongo-oblanceolatis, serrulatis, obtusis subacutisve, 
5 mm. longis, 1.5 mm. latis, purpurascentibus, glanduloso-punctatis, carinatis sub 
medio et rotundatis basi; ligulis 4-5 mm. longis, 1-1.5 mm. latis, luteis super, rufes- 
centibus subter; floribus disci 8, coroUis 3-3.5 mm. longis; acheniis 2-3 mm. longis, 
sparse pubescentibus superne, pappo radii nullo vel minute paleaceo-disciformi vel 
raro 1-2-setoso (in f. setuloso multisetoso), disci 20-30-setoso, setis gracilibus, 
inaequalibus, 2-3 mm. longis, saepius brevioribus quam corolla disci. 

Annual herb; stems 0.5-2.5 dm. long, diffusely branching and spreading, glabrous 
or minutely puberulent, purplish-brown; leaves linear, tapering from the base to a 
mucronate or setigerous tip, 0.5-2 cm. long, 0.5-1.5 mm. wide, glabrous or minutely 
scabrous-ciliate on the margin and near the base, bearing 2 or 3 pairs of bristles on 
the margin, glandular-dotted, the glands nearly biserial; heads on slender bracteate 
peduncles terminating branches, 0.5-2.5 cm. long; involucral bracts 5, oblong- 
oblanceolate, serrulate, obtuse or subacute, 5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, purplish and 
gland-dotted, keeled below the middle and rounded at base; ligules 4-5 mm. long, 
1-1.5 mm. wide, yellow above, ruddy-brown below; disk-flowers 8, corolla 3-3.5 mm. 
long; achenes 2-3 mm. long, lineate, sparsely hairy above; pappus of ray-achenes 
none or a minute paleaceous disk, or rarely 1 or more bristles, pappus of disk-achenes 
of 20-30 slender bristles, the bristles unequal, 2-3 mm. long, generally a little shorter 
than the disk-corolla. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 220743, Sulivan Bay, James 
Island, Howell No. 10040, June 13, 1932. 

Pedis glabra is most nearly related to P. tenuifolia Hook. f. from 
which it differs not only in its annual habit but in its smaller flower 
parts and shorter pappus. Pedis tenuifolia is apparently an evolu- 
tionary modification adapted to the rigorous conditions of its home 
on relatively fresh lava flows, while P. glabra is an annual adapted 
for rapid growth in loose alluvial and volcanic soils during a brief 
rainy season. Field observations and herbarium studies indicate 
beyond doubt that these plants do not represent different habital 
aspects of the same species but rather two distinct entities admirably 
adapted for special situations. 



Pectis glabra f. calvescens Howell, f. nov. 

Pappo acheniorum radii et disci nullo vel brevissimo et paleaceo-squamulato. 

Pappus of both ray-achenes and disk-achenes none or reduced to minute pale- 
aceous scales. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 220740, Conway Bay, Inde- 
fatigable Island, Howell No. 9870, June 8, 1932. 

Plants of the type collection have achenes without pappus but in 
a collection made at Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, Howell No. 8615, 
a few minute paleaceous scales are frequently present on the disk- 
achenes. 



Vol. XXI] HOWELL— NEW PLANTS FROM THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 335 

Pectis glabra f. pubescens Howell, f. nov. 

Caulibus retrorse puberulis; foliis scabrido-pubescentibus supra et in costa 
subter; bracteis involucralibus acutis vel breve acuminatis, subglabris; pappo 
acheniorum radii 1-2-paleaceo-aristato vel obsolete. 

Stems retrorsely puberulent; leaves scabrous-pubescent above and on the midrib 
below; pappus of raj'^-achenes of 1 or 2 paleaceous awns or obsolete. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 220739, north side of Inde- 
fatigable Island adjacent to South Seymour Island, Howell No. 
9897, June 9, 1932. 



Pectis glabra f. setulosa Howell, f. nov. 
Herba humilis foliosa; pappo acheniorum radii setoso et simili ei disci. 
Low leafy herb; pappus of ray-achenes bristly and similar to that of disk-achenes. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 220742, North Seymour 
Island, Howell No. 9991, June 11, 1932. 

Not only does this form differ from the species in the critical 
character described but it has a different aspect due to the more 
condensed habit and more leafy stems. In fact, it looks more like a 
glabrous form of P. Hookeri Rob. since the leaves are a trifle broader 
in proportion to length than is usual in P. glabra. 



Pectis Hookeri f. stellulata Howell, f. nov. 

Pappo acheniorum disci brevi, paleaceo, squamulato vel disciformi, disco stellato- 
dentato vel brevi-setoso, radii simili vel nuUo. 

Pappus of disk-achenes reduced to a few small scales or to a minute stellate- 
dentate or short-bristly paleaceous disk; pappus of ray-achenes similar or none. 

Type: Herb. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 220741, Jervis Island, Howell 
No. 9740, June 6, 1932. 

The following key, based on the collections of the Templeton 
Crocker Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences (except 
for data relating to P. subsquarrosa (Hook, f.) Sch. Bip. and P. 
Anderssonii Rob.), indicates characters by which the species and 
forms of Pedis in the Galapagos Islands may be distinguished: 



336 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

A. Pappus of disk-achenes of numerous straight bristles or reduced to minute scales 
or none; rays conspicuous; endemic species. 

B. Plants perennial, the lower stems distinctly woody. 

C. Leaves narrowly linear, glands more or less biserial. 

D. Heads terminating similar stems and branches; peduncles 

long P. tenuifolta 

D^ Heads terminating short, fasciculate-leafy, lateral branches; 

peduncles short (ex char.) P. subsquarrosa 

C^. Leaves linear-lanceolate, glands scattered irregularly 

(ex char.) P. Anderssonii 

B^ Plants annual, the stems herbaceous throughout. 

E. Leaves and stems cinereous, hispidulous (see also P. glabra i. pubescens) ; 

leaves linear-oblong to lanceolate; pappus generally a little 
longer than the disk-corolla (except in P. Hookeri f . stellulata). 

F. Pappus of disk-achenes of numerous bristles P. Hookeri 

F^. Pappus of disk-achenes reduced to a minute 
stellate-dentate or short-bristly palea- 
ceous disk, rarely a longer bristle 
present P. Hookeri f. stellulata 

E^ Leaves glabrous (except in P. glabra f. pubescens), mostly narrowly 
linear; pappus equalling or shorter than the disk-corolla. 

G. Pappus of disk-achenes present and conspicuous. 

H. Pappus of ray-achenes of 1 or 2 paleae or none. 

I. Leaves glabrous P. glabra 

I^ Leaves pubescent P. glabra f . pubescens 

H'. Pappus of ray-achenes of numerous bristles . . P. glabra f . setulosa 

G^ Pappus of disk-achenes none or reduced to 

very minute scales or bristles P. glabra f . calvescens 

A^ Pappus of disk-achenes generally present, of 2 or 3 divergent, curved 
awns; rays short and inconspicuous; widespread 
in the American tropics P. linifolia 



\^ OCT 3 1 193b ft- 





^ 



OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 27, pp. 337-378, plates 20 to 23. October 23, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION TO WESTERN 
POLYNESIAN AND MELANESIAN ISLANDS, 1933 

No. 27 

FISHES 



ALVIN SEALE 

Superintendent Steinhart Aquarium, 

California A cademy of Sciences 

FOREWORD 

The Templeton Crocker Expedition of 1933 to the Polynesian 
and Melanesian islands of the Western Pacific returned with a col- 
lection of fishes numbering 1830 specimens representing 248 species. 
Eight of these seem to be new to science, and specimens of a number 
of rare species were taken. 

Fishes were collected at the following islands: 

Palmyra Island 

Samoan Group 

Tutuila Island at Pago Pago. 

Fiji Group 

Viti Levu Island at Suva. 

Santa Cruz Group 

Vanikoro Island at Tevai Bay, 
Lomlom Island at Mohawk Bay, 
Anuda (Cherry) Island, 
Matema Island, 
Tucopia Island. 

October 23, 1935 



338 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Solomon Group 

Rennell Island at Kungava Bay, 

Bellona Island, 

Santa Ana (Owa Reha) Island, 

Malaita (Mala) Island at Auki Harbor, Uras Cove, 

Tai Lagoon, 
Florida Island at Tulagi, 
Gavutu Island at Gavutu Harbor, 
Guadalcanar (Guadalcanal) Island at Aola Bay, Kau 

Kau, 
Sikaiana Island, Stewart Islands, 
Ugi Island, 
San Cristoval at Star Harbor. 

The following species are described as new in this report : 

Muraenichthys malaita (Echelidae). 
Callechelys fijiensis (Ophichthyidae). 
Cypselurus zaca (Exocoetidae). 
Cypselurus crockeri (Exocoetidae). 
Amia asaedce (Apogonidae). 
Abudefduf atrapinna (Pomacentridae). 
Thalassoma herrei (Coridae). 
Hypleurochilus samoensis (Blenniidae). 

Elopidae 

Elops saurus Linnaeus. Ten-pounder 

Pago Pago, Samoa (1)*, April 16, 41 mm. The young of this 
species probably has a larval transformation from young to adult 
similar to that of Albula. This specimen is almost translucent with 
a number of dark dots at the posterior edge of the opercle. The 
teeth are strong and well developed. 

Chanidae 
Chanos chanos (Forskal). Bangos. Milk Fish 
Suva, Fiji (2), April 29, 98-99 mm. 

Clupeidae 

Spratelloides delicatulus (Bennett). Sprat 

Uras Cove, Malaita Island (1), May 27, 48 mm.; Tai Lagoon, 
Malaita Island (6), May 30, 28-45 mm.; Tai Lagoon, Malaita Is- 
land (12), May 29, 26-45 mm.; Kau Kau, Gaudalcanar Island (1), 

♦Number in parenthesis indicates the number of specimens from the given locality. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 339 

May 22, 29 mm.; Auki, Malaita Island (4), May 25, 25-45 mm.; 
Santa Ana Island (68), June 30, 26-45 mm.; Rennell Island (1), 
June 12, 30 mm.; Pago Pago, Samoa (5), April 12, 28-31 mm. 

Many of these little sprat were taken at night around the strong 
electric light lowered into the water. 

Spratelloides gracilis (Schlegel). Graceful Sprat 

Tulagi Island (12), May 19, 34-40 mm.; Anuda Island (2), August 
15, 23-34 mm. This species has a bright silvery stripe on the side. 

Dussumieria acuta Cuvier and Valenciennes 
Sharp-nose Sprat 

Pago Pago, Samoa (9), April 14, 45 mm. 

Dussumieria hasseltii Bleeker. Hasselt's Sprat 

Auki, Malaita Island (1), May 25, 24 mm.; Vanikoro Island, Santa 
Cruz group (3), July 12, 23-24 mm. 

Sardinella sirm (Riippell). Sardine 
Pago Pago, Samoa (1), April 15, 51 mm. 

Harengula gibbosa (Bleeker). Herring 

Pago Pago, Samoa (35), April 16, 23-45 mm. In these young 
specimens the scutes are quite distinct. The origin of the anal is 
under the fourth dorsal ray. Anal rays 16. 

Harengula melanura (Cuvier). Black-tail Herring 

Uras Cove, Malaita Island (1), May 27, 115 mm. Bluish above, 
silvery on sides with 2-3 indistinct stripes, caudal broadly black. 

Harengula pinguis Gunther. Herring 
Tai Bay, Malaita Island (3), May 29, 30-34 mm. 

Harengula fimbriata (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Herring 

Tai Lagoon, Malaita Island (18), May 30, 35-60 mm. In these 
young the origin of the dorsal is distinctly nearer the tip of snout than 
caudal fin. Origin of ventrals under fourth ray of dorsal. Depth 
3.5 in length (without caudal). Color brownish above, otherwise 
silvery — a rather narrow line separating the two colors. 



340 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Engraulidae 
Anchovia apiensis Jordan and Seale. Apia Anchovy- 
Pago Pago, Samoa (3), April 14, 38 mm.; Tai Bay, Malaita Island 
(2), May 29, 79-80 mm.; Tulagi Island (1), May 19, 43 mm. 

Anchovia evermanni Jordan and Seale. Evermann's Anchovy 
Suva, Fiji Islands (2), April 24, 81-86 mm. 

Anchovia commersonii Lacepede. iVnchovy 

Tulagi Island (1), May 19, 32 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island 
(11), May 22, 32-33 mm. 

Anchovia purpurea (Fowler). Anchovy 
Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (13), May 21, 25-44 mm. 

GONOSTOMIDAE 

Diplophos pacificus Giinther 

Bellona Island (1), June 22, 43 mm. The type of this rare species 
was taken by the "Challenger" expedition near the mid-Pacific. It 
measured 37 mm. in length. This seems to be the second specimen 
taken. It agrees very well with Gunther's description and figure. 
(Challenger Report, Vol. 31, pt. 2, p. 33, pi. 4, fig. B.) 

Anguillidae 

Anguilla australis Richardson. Australian Eel 

One fine specimen from Tevai Bay, Vanikoro Island, May 6, 340 
mm., also a fine series of larval specimens which seem to be of this 
species. 

Anguilla mauritiana Bennett. Fresh-water Eel 
Suva, Fiji Island (1), April 28, 460 mm. 

MORINGUIDAE 

Moringua javanica (Kaup). Java Worm Eel 

Suva, Fiji Islands (3), April 30, 75-245 mm. These specimens 
have the dorsal and anal fins reduced to a mere fold of skin with a 
few rays at the tip of the tail only. 

Depth about 70 in total length. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 341 

ECHELIDAE 

Muraenichthys gymnopterus (Bleeker). Worm Eel 

Pago Pago, Samoa (2), April 18, 65-127 mm.; Rennell Island (1), 
June 14, 52 mm.; Auki, Malaita Island (1), May 25, 112 mm. In 
this species the origin of the dorsal fin is nearer the origin of the anal 
than to gill openings. 

Muraenichthys macropterus Bleeker 

Suva, Fiji Islands (3), April 28, 48-80 mm.; Pago Pago, Samoa 
(2), April 18, 118 mm. In this species the origin of the dorsal fin 
is nearer the gill openings than to origin of anal. 

Muraenichthys macrostomus (Bleeker) 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 21, 77 mm.; Suva, Fiji 
Islands (1), April 23, 34 mm. In this species the origin of the dorsal 
fin is almost directly above or very slightly behind the origin of the 
anal. 

Muraenichthys malaita Scale, sp. nov. 

Plate 20, fig. 1 

This species differs from all other members of the genus in having 
the origin of the dorsal fin posterior to the origin of the anal b}'^ more 
than the length of the head. Head 3.5 in body to anal pore, 9.5 in 
total length, depth about 3.8, snout projecting. Eye located above 
posterior half of mouth, its width 2.5 in length of snout, anterior 
nostril tubular, posterior one a slit on upper lip. Teeth small in two 
or more rows. No pectoral fin. Origin of anal anterior to middle of 
body. Origin of dorsal more than the length of the head behind 
origin of anal. Color yellowish with dark punctulations above. 

Holotype: No. 5499. Mus. Cal. Acad. Sci., Ichthyol. Malaita 
Island. Length 116 mm. 

Muraenichthys gymnotus (Bleeker) 

Pago Pago, Samoa (3), April 13, 85-104 mm. Origin of dorsal 
posterior to origin of anal. M. cookei Fowler may be a synonym of 
this species. 



342 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Ophichthyidae 

Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay and Bennett) 
Half-banded Snake Eel 

Suva, Fiji (1), April 26, 176 mm.; Uras Cove, Malaita Island (1), 
May 27, 150 mm.. In this species the tip of the tail is pointed and 
bare; the upper jaw projecting, with tubular nostril. Body with 
numerous incomplete black bands. 



Sphagebranchus bicolor (Kaup). Two-colored Snake Eel 

Uras Cove, Malaita Island (2), May 27. Origin of dorsal on a line 
with the gill openings, which are ventral. Color dark above, light 
below, dark bands on the throat. 



Sphagebranchus lumbricoides (Bleeker). Worm-like Eel 

Suva, Fiji Islands (4), April 30, 165-202 mm. Origin of dorsal 
)4 length of head posterior to gill openings. 



Callechelys fijiensis Scale, sp. nov. Fiji Snake Eel 
Plate 20, fig. 2 

Suva, Fiji Islands (4), April 29, 1933. 298-350 mm. Head 10 in 
trunk, 21 in total length. Depth 3.5 in head, 38 in trunk, 68 in 
total length. Anal opening midway between tip of snout and tail. 
Origin of dorsal midway between gill opening and eye. No pectoral 
or vestige of same. Dorsal and anal not confluent around the bare 
pointed tail. Snout projecting, lower jaw short, extending slightly 
posterior of eye. Anterior nostril tubular, posterior nostril a tube 
extending down from upper lip. Teeth small, sharp pointed in a 
single row with a few additional teeth anteriorly. Color uniform 
brownish above, pale yellowish below. In life this eel is of a dis- 
tinctly red color. 

This species is related to C. filaria (Giinther), differing in the 
entire absence of pectorals, arrangement of teeth and in color. 

Holotype: No. 5500, Mus. Cal. Acad. Sci., Ichthyol., from Suva, 
Fiji Islands. Length 350 mm. Three paratypes, Nos. 5501, 5502, 
5503. 

MURAENIDAE 

Gymnothorax boschi (Bleeker). Bosch's Moray 

Rennell Island (2), June 13, 101-175. Head 6.7, depth 12. Teeth 
and coloring well shown in Dr. Bleeker's figure. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 343 

Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker. Moray 
Rennell Island (1), June 13, 168 mm. 

Gymnothorax marmorata Lacepede. Marbled Moray 
Sikaiana Island (1), May 16, 123 mm. 

Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepede). Moray 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 16, 323 mm. This is the form called 
M. isingleenoides by Dr. Bleeker and is well figured in his Atlas, 
Vol. 4, pi. 2>3, fig. 1.' 

Echidna nebulosa Ahl. Clouded Eel 

Tulagi, Florida Island (1), June 26, 328 mm.; Suva, Fiji Islands 
(1), April 30, 134 mm. This species, well marked by its blunt teeth, 
is widely distributed over the Pacific. 

Strophidon brummeri (Bleeker). Brummer's Moray 

Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 30, 398 mm. Dorsal fin very high, 
no rim to posterior nostril. Color uniform with black specks on 
anterior portion of head. 

Larval Eels 

This collection contains several fine specimens of larval eels repre- 
senting a number of different species of which brief descriptions are 
given. All are flat, thin forms. 

(a) Sikaiana Island (3), May 14, 77-88 mm. These have large 
canines in lower jaw. No pectorals. Two distinct rows of 17 round 
black dots along the middle of body, and an additional row of dots 
along ventral edge alternating with the median spots. 

(6) Sikaiana Island (1), May 16, 100 mm. A row of 6 black spots 
along the ventral margin except on the posterior third of body, where 
they are on middle of sides and are 4 in number. 

(c) Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 21, 45 mm. A 
single row of 8 large round spots along the middle of side from head 
to tail. 

(d) Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 28, 88 mm. Thickly pigmented 
with light brown spots entirely covering head and body. Perhaps 
it is the young of G. fiavomar ginatus . 



344 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

(e) Ugi Island (1), June 23, 55 mm. Entirely white except 
the anterior portion of head, which is thickly pigmented with 
black. 

(/) Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 23, 54 mm. White 
with a row of 26 small black dots near ventral surface and about 14 
on the middle of side from head to tail. A very short deep larva, 
depth 5.5 in length. 

(g) Star Harbor, San Cristoval Island (4), June 29, 54-59 mm. 
White without markings. Caudal large, no canine teeth. 

Synodontidae 
Saurus myops Bloch and Schneider. Lizard-fish 

Tulagi, Florida Island (7), May 19, 40-45 mm.; Kau Kau, Gui^d- 
alcanar Island (11), May 21, 30-45 mm.; Rennell Island (12), June 
12, 40-46 mm.; Tai Lagoon, Malaita Island (1), May 30, 45 mm. 

These are all larval forms but are easily distinguished by the black 
patches on the ventral surface as follows : 1 pair between pectorals 
and ventrals, 4 pairs between ventrals and anal. 

Saurus variegatus (Lacepede). Variegated Lizard-fish 

Tai Lagoon, Malaita Island (5), May 30, 37-45 mm.; Tulagi, 
Florida Island (1), May 19, 33 mm.; Santa Ana Island (1), June 30, 
40 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (4), May 21, 36-47 mm.; 
Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 18, 45 mm.; Rennell 
Island (4), June 12, 38-53 mm.; Suva, Fiji Islands (3), April 28, 
40-46 mm. 

The larval form of this species is distinguished by the presence of 
2 pairs of dark patches between the pectorals and ventrals and 9 
pairs between ventrals and anal. 

Myctophidae 
Myctophum dumerili (Bleeker). Dumeril's Lantern-fish 

Suva, Fiji (1), April 30, 99 mm. Anal photophores 4 -f 5. 

Myctophum evermanni (Gilbert). Evermann's Lantern-fish 
Suva, Fiji (6), April 23, 19-56 mm. Anal photophores 8 + 5. 

Myctophum punctatum Rafinesque. Punctated Lantern-fish 

Vicinity of Suva, Fiji (1), September 29. Length 26 mm. Scales 
ctenoid, anal photophores 7 -|- 9. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 345 

Myctophum pristilepis (Gilbert and Cramer) 
Solomon Island Lantern-fish 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (4), May 22, 32-77 mm.; Sikaiana 
Island (8), May 11, 56-80 mm.; Bellona Island (1), June 22, 67 
mm.; Rennell Island (1), June 17, 80 mm. Anal photophores 7+4. 



Myctophum coccoi (Cocco). Cocco's Lantern-fish 

Bellona Island (2), June 20, 60-65 mm. In this species the 
scales are smooth. The caudal peduncle is long and slim. Anal 
photophores 6 + 10 (6 + 11). 



Belonidae 

Tylosurus indica Le Sueur. Salt-water Gar 

Bellona Island (1), June 20, 442 mm.; Pago Pago, Samoan 
Islands (1), April 14, 103 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (1), 
May 21, 18 mm. 

We give a short description of the fine large specimen from 
Bellona Island. Dorsal 2.21. Anal 2.20. Head 3.2 in length to end 
of vertebrae. Interorbital widening anteriorly; a patch of scales on 
its middle. Origin of ventrals midway between caudal and nostrils. 
No gill rakers. A distinct keel on tail. Posterior rays of dorsal 
about equal in length to first rays, the middle rays shorter. 

Color, bluish above, silvery below. Upper half of dorsal, distal 
half of pectorals, and upper two-thirds of caudal purple. A wide 
purple membrane on lower jaw. This is the lower "lip" which, 
according to Weber and Beauford, is, in the young, "produced into 
a flap-like organ." 



Tylosurus incisus (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Gar 

Napani Atoll (2), May 8, 405-480 mm. Dorsal 2.18. Anal 2.21. 
No keel on tail. Opercle with scales. Caudal truncate. Origin of 
dorsal above second divided ray of anal. Blue above, silvery below. 
Fins white. 



Athlennes hians (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Deep Gar 

Suva, Fiji, April 25, 224 mm,; Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (1), 
May 18, 116 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar (2), May 22, 130-131 
mm. The short upper jaw and very long lower is a feature of these 
young specimens. 



346 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Hemiramphidae 

Euleptorhamphus longirostris (Cuvier). Longjaw 

Bellona Island (1), June 21, 332 mm. In this species the body is 
band like. Pectorals equal in length to the base of dorsal fin. 
Ventrals small. Length of lower jaw beyond upper is 3 in length 
of body without caudal. 

Hemirhamphus far (Forskal). Half beak 

Suva, Fiji (1), April 25, 152 mm. This species is easily distin- 
guished by the nine black spots on each side. 

Hemirhamphus convexus (Weber). Half beak 

Bellona Island (1), June 20, 60 mm. This species has the fore- 
head convex. The pectorals are equal to the length of the head. 
The upper jaw is twice as wide as long. 

Hemirhamphus georgii Cuvier and Valenciennes. Halfbeak 

Tulagi, Florida Islands (1), May 19, 85 mm.; Sikaiana Island (5), 
length 76-116 mm. This species has dorsal 16. Anal 17. Lower 
jaw, beyond tip of upper, one-third of total length. Origin of ven- 
trals nearer caudal than head. 

Hemirhamphus dussumieri Cuvier and Valenciennes 
Dussumier's Halfbeak 

Tulagi, Solomon Islands (1), May 19, 101 mm.; Vanikoro Island 
(3), July 7, 41-90 mm.; Tai Bay, Malaita (7), May 29, 27-30 mm.; 
Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (1), 57 mm.; Star Harbor, San 
Cristoval (1), June 29, 77 mm.; Anuda Island (1), August 15, 
67 mm. 

EXOCOETIDAE 

The collection of flying fishes secured by Mr. Templeton Crocker 
is of special interest and value. It contains forty-two specimens 
representing eleven distinct species. Two of these seem to be new 
to science and three others are very rare, including the second 
specimens of the peculiar C. bilobatus and of C. hexazona, and the 
fourth specimen of C. naresi ever recorded. 

Exocoetus volitans Linnaeus. Flying Fish 

Suva, Fiji Islands (2), 64-68 mm. Dorsal 14, anal 14. Ventrals 
short, their origin nearer tip of snout than to base of caudal. Origin 
of anal in line with origin of dorsal. Pectorals blue with white tip. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 347 

Evolantia microptera (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
Short-fin Flying Fish 

Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 23, 111 mm. This species is easily 
distinguished by the short pectoral fins which do not extend to the 
short ventrals. 



Parexocoetus brachypterus (Richardson) 

Common Flying Fish 

Without question two or more species of this genus are listed by 
most authors under the name brachypterus. Unfortunately, while our 
series is composed of 17 specimens, they are all young, the largest 
measuring but 90 mm., so that we are unable to clear up the matter. 
From Suva, Fiji, we have one specimen, measuring 90 mm., which has 
the dorsal 12, anal 13. Origin of ventral midway between end of 
vertebrae and tip of anal. Pectorals reaching anterior rays of anal 
only. Origin of anal on vertical with origin of dorsal. Pectorals 
white, ventrals gray in center, dorsal gray, anal white. Teeth on 
jaws, vomer, palatines and tongue. Two short barbels. Dorsal 
high, its depressed rays reaching well up on caudal. We also have 
five from Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz group, May 6. Length 
40-80. Dorsal 11, anal 11. Origin of ventrals midway between end 
of vertebrae and anterior margin of eye. No barbels. Two dark 
quarter bands under dorsal. Dorsal dark. 

Bellona Island (1), has the dorsal 12, anal 13. Tulagi, Florida 
Island (10 very young), May 19, length 17-35 mm.; Sikaiana Is- 
land (1), May 16, length 40 mm.; Tai Bay, Malaita Island (1), 
May 29, length 40 mm. All the above have teeth on jaws, vomer, 
palatines, and tongue. The origin of the dorsal is on a line with 
origin of anal. 



Cypselurus poecilopterus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
Spotted-wing Flying Fish 

Bellona Island (1), June 21, 143 mm. This species is easily 
distinguished by the numerous ovate black spots on the pectorals. 
Our specimen also has black spots on ventrals and dorsal. Teeth on 
jaws and on palatines, none on vomer or tongue. Dorsal, 12, anal 
8, scales 44. 



Cypselurus bilobatus Weber. Two-barbed Flying Fish' 

Suva, Viti Levu Island (1), April 23, 84 mm. Distinguished by 
two barbels almost equal to length of head, one from each corner of 
mouth. Dorsal 13, anal 11. Pectorals blue at base with ovate spots 



348 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

on remainder of fin. Two broad black bands in front of ventrals on 
belly and sides. Origin of ventrals midway between end of caudal 
and anterior margin of eye. 

Cypselurus oligolepis (Bleeker). Small-scaled Flying Fish 

Bellona Island (1), June 20. A young specimen. 35 mm. Dorsal 
11, anal 8. Origin of ventral midway between end of last caudal 
vertebra and posterior margin of preopercle. Origin of anal under 
fifth dorsal ray. Pectorals blue, ventrals and dorsal with dark 
markings. No barbels. 

Cypselurus rondeletii (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
Rondelet's Flying Fish 

Bellona Island (3), June 22, 24-36 mm. Dorsal 11, anal 13. 
Origin of ventrals midway between end of caudal vertebra and middle 
of eye. Origin of dorsal on a vertical through origin of anal. Ven- 
trals and pectorals long, second dorsal ray unbranched (but this 
may be immature). Ventrals are too far back in Cuvier's drawing. 

Cypselurus speculiger (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
Pacific Flying Fish 

Bellona Island (1), taken with a night light five miles off shore 
June 20, 288 mm. 

Easily distinguished by the wide white bar on the pectorals and 
the small number (10) dorsal rays. 

Cypselurus simus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
Hawaiian Flying Fish 

Bellona Island (1), June 20, 354 mm. Dorsal 13, anal 11. Scales 
about 50. Fins uniformly pale except outer upper surface of dorsal 
which is grayish. 

Cypselurus opisthopus (Bleeker). Solomon Island Flying Fish 

Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 18, 220 mm. "At- 
tracted by a submerged light." Dorsal 10, anal 9, scales 54. Teeth 
on jaws and palatines. Pectoral fin dark on upper two-thirds, lower 
third lighter, outer ventral rays grayish. 

Cypselurus naresi (Giinther). Barbed Flying Fish 

Bellona Island (1), June 22, 180 mm. Attracted by a night 
light. This fish has a peculiar apron-like barbel which in our speci- 
men is equal to the length of the head and as wide as the pupil of the 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 349 

eye. Dorsal 11, anal 9. Color in alcohol, brownish above, silvery 
below. Pectoral dark with the upper and lower rays white. Ven- 
trals black- with a lighter inner border. Lower part of anal and 
upper portion of caudal grayish, dorsal and anal white. 

This seems to be the fourth and largest recorded specimen of this 
species. 



Cypselurus zaca Scale, sp. nov. Zaca Flying Fish 
Plate 21, figs. 1 and 2 

Head 4.1; depth 5.5. Dorsal 11, anal 9. Pectorals long extending 
to the middle of dorsal, the first, second, and third rays simple, un- 
branched and considerably shorter than the remaining upper or 
middle rays of the fin. Eye large, 2.5 in head, being equal to the 
medium width of the interorbital. Snout less than half width of 
eye. Lower jaw oblique, no barbel. Ventrals long, extending to 
posterior part of anal, their origin midway between end of caudal 
vertebrae and posterior margin of preopercle. Origin of anal 
posterior to origin of dorsal, its rays scarcely reaching base of caudal. 
Dorsal rays not reaching to caudal, caudal well forked, the lower 
lobe much the longest. Teeth small, none on vomer or palatines. 

Color in life, blue above, silvery below and on sides, pectorals, 
ventrals, and tips of anal and dorsal grayish. Caudal white. 

Color in alcohol bluish above, silvery on sides and below. Pec- 
torals dark except webs of three lower rays which are white. Ven- 
trals dark except the inner and outer rays which are white. Dorsal 
and anal dark at tip. Caudal slightly shaded with grayish, espe- 
ciall}^ on the middle of lower lobe. 

Holotype: No. 5504, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., Ichthyol., from Suva, 
Fiji Islands, April 23, 1933, 116 mm. Plate 21, fig. 1. Paratype 
No. 5505, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., Ichthyol., from Bellona Island, 
June 20, 1933, 142 mm. Plate 21, fig. 2. The latter specimen 
seems to have its pectorals malformed, therefore I have taken the 
one of smaller size for the type. 



Cypselurus oxycephalus (Bleeker). Sharp-headed Flying Fish 

Bellona Island (2), June 20, 63 mm. Dorsal 12, anal 12, no 
barbels. Origin of dorsal on a line with the origin of anal. Origin 
of ventrals midway between end of caudal vertebrae and posterior 
margin of eye. 



350 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Cypselurus crockeri Scale, sp. nov. Crocker's Flying Fish 

Plate 22, fig. 1 

Head 4.7 to end of caudal vertebrae; depth 5.7; dorsal 12; anal 8; 
about 35 scales in front of dorsal. Eye three in head being distinctly 
less than width of interorbital space which is concave; jaws equal. 
Teeth on jaws and palatines. Mouth and snout without projections 
or barbels. Maxillary ending on a line with posterior nostril. Pec- 
toral fins placed on a line with upper third of eye, their tip extending 
to dorsal, their length at least two in total length of fish (without 
caudal). Origin of ventrals midway between end of caudal vertebrae 
and middle of base of pectoral, being decidedly nearer to caudal than 
to head, their tips extending almost to caudal base. Anal short, its 
origin under the fifth ray of dorsal, being midway between origin of 
ventrals and first false rays of caudal. Dorsal very high, when 
depressed its middle rays extending well up on the rays of upper 
caudal lobe. Caudal well forked, its lower lobe greater than length 
of head. 

Color in life blue on back, silvery below. Pectoral, anal, ventral 
and dorsal fins black. Caudal gray on upper lobe, three red bars on 
lower lobe. 

In alcohol dusky, grayish below and on sides. Pectorals dark with 
membranes between the five lower rays slightly lighter. Ventrals 
dark with two inner rays lighter, dorsal and anal dark, caudal with 
lower lobe crossed by three dark bars. 

Holotype: No. 5506, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., Ichthyol. This flew 
on deck of the yacht Zaca near Rennell Island when at sea between 
Kungava Bay and Tuhangango, June 17, 1933. 

Named in honor of Mr. Templeton Crocker in recognition of his 
keen interest in scientific research. 



Cypselurus hexazona (Bleeker). Banded Flying Fish 

Head 4; depth 4.8; eye 2.2 slightly greater than interorbital space, 
which is concave. Dorsal 12-13; anal 8-9. Lower jaw projecting. 
No barbels except in young. Pectorals extending to middle of dorsal. 
Origin of anal under sixth dorsal ray. Ventrals longer than head, 
extending to posterior of anal base, their origin being midway be- 
tween end of caudal vertebrae and middle of eye. Dorsal not 
elevated, its longest ray much less than head. Caudal well forked. 
At least 24 scales in front of dorsal fin. The lateral line very low on 
body and with about 50 scales. Color in life, blue above, silvery 
below, and on lower half of sides. Pectorals with a wide white band 
through the center and white on outer portion of rays, some darker 
oval spots on posterior half of fin. Ventrals with large black and 
white areas of irregular shape. Caudal with black tip and a black 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 351 

sub-marginal bar. Dorsal white with a black ovate area in center 
and three black spots at margin of fins. Anal white. 

Color in alcohol dull silvery with six dark bands showing on sides 
of body, the first just posterior of eye, the second below pectoral 
base, third midway between pectoral and ventral, fourth above base 
of ventrals, fifth below origin of dorsal, sixth on the caudal base. 

One specimen from Bellona Island, June 22, length 175 mm., and 
six young, length 25-65 mm. Young all have barbels and are banded 
on sides with the back uniform white. 

If this is the young of some other species, as Weber and Beaufort^ 
seem to think, it must maintain the bands for a considerable period, 
as our fish is apparently an adult. Our example has two more dorsal 
rays than the other known specimen, which was secured by Dr. 
Bleaker at Banka in 1853. 



Pleuronectidae 

Platophrys pantherinus (Riippell). Spotted Flounder 

Matema Island, Santa Cruz Group (1), July 8, 182 mm.; Pago 
Pago, Samoa (1), April 18, 28 mm.; Sikaiana Island (2), May 16, 
35-41 mm. In this species the pectoral rays are prolonged and reach 
to the caudal. Orbital ridge with blunt spines anteriorly. Inter- 
orbital space 4 in the head. Color variegated with dark green, anal 
rays 86. Eyes wide apart. 



Platophrys mancus (Broussonet). Mancus Flounder 

One larval unpigmented specimen from Pago Pago, Samoa, April 
18, 35 mm. 



Cynoglossidae 
Cynoglossus brachyrhynchus Bleeker. Tongue Fish 
Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (4), June 21, 30-33 mm. 

HOLOCENTRIDAE 

Holocentrus opercularis (Valenciennes). Soldier Fish 

Kungava Bay, Rennell Island (1), June 10, 230 mm. Color red 
with more or less distinct stripes. Spinous dorsal black with a row 
of white spots between the spines on the lower half of the fin, margin 
of the dorsal white. Eye large. Preopercle scarcely denticulate. 

' Weber and Beaufort, Indo-AustraJ. Fishes, Vol. IV, p. 185. 



352 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Holocentrus spinifer (Forskal). Spiny Soldier Fish 

Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 25, 293 mm. Scales strongly dentic- 
ulate. Preopercular spine large. Spinous dorsal uniform yellowish. 



Holocentrus caudimaculatus Riippell. Soldier Fish 

Kungava Bay, Rennell Island (1), June 10, 137 mm. Fins uni- 
form pale pinkish. A white saddle over caudal peduncle just back 
of soft dorsal fin. 



Holocentrus diadema Lacepede. Crowned Soldier Fish 

Pago Pago, Tutuila Island (2), April 18, 37-53 mm. Spinous 
dorsal fin black with a broken white line through its center. 



Holocentrus sammara (Forskal). Soldier Fish 

Auki, Malaita Island (8), May 25, 34-37 mm.; Tai Bay, Malaita 
Island (16), May 29, 34-36 mm.; Ugi Island (3), June 30, 32-39 
mm.; Santa Ana Island (1), June 30, 36 mm.; Star Harbor, San 
Cristoval Island (4), June 29, 35-38 mm.; Tulagi, Florida Island 
(1), May 19, 14 mm.; Suva, Fiji Islands (2), April 23, 26-30 mm. 
In the adult there is always a large black spot on the anterior of the 
spinous dorsal extending to the 3-4 spine. 



Holocentrus punctatissimus Cuvier and Valenciennes 

Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 18, 110 mm. Color in 
alcohol silvery, with fine dark specks everywhere, and with opales- 
cent lighter lines along each row of scales. Spinous dorsal pale, with 
some milky-white markings on membrane and a small dark spot at 
base of anterior dorsal spine. 



Myripristis macrolepis (Bleeker). Squirrel Fish 
(M. melanosticUis of Weber and Beaufort) 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (6), May 21, 38-41 mm.; Auki, 
Malaita Island (9), May 25, 36-40 mm.; Tai Bay, Malaita Island 
(2), May 29, 30-45 mm.; Sikaiana Island (1), May 10, 40 mm. 
Dorsal XI 5. Scales 29 to end of vertebrae. As shown in Bleeker's 
figure of this species, there is a small but distinct flat spine at the 
angle of the preopercle. The coloring in alcohol is silvery. The 
caudal peduncle is yellowish followed by a darker area on the base 
of caudal rays. The spinous dorsal is yellowish with slightly darker 
shading at margin. Tips of ventrals dark. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 353 

Platacidae 

Platax teira (Forskal). Leaf Fish 

Santa Ana Island (1), July 4. Length 320 mm. A fine adult 
specimen caught while rod fishing. The}'^ were very abundant at 
this time and are considered a fine food fish. The young of this 
species float on their sides near the surface, and closely resemble 
leaves with which they are frequently associated, perhaps for pro- 
tection. The writer has, by mistake, caught the leaf in a dip net and 
allowed the fish, which he thought was the leaf, to escape! This 
species would make a most interesting aquarium fish. 

Platax orbicularis (Forskal). Round Leaf Fish 

One fine adult from Santa Ana Island, July 4. Length 280 mm. 
This species is the same as P. vespertillo of Bloch and Bleeker. Their 
specimens are immature forms. 

Syngnathidae 
Corythoichthys fasciatus (Gray). Banded Pipe Fish 

Suva, Fiji Islands (4), April 30, 67-95 mm.; Pago Pago, Samoa 
(15), April 19, 38-89 mm.; Auki, Malaita Island (2), May 25, 
63 mm.; Ugi Island (2), June 23, 53 mm.; Star Harbor, San Cristoval 
(1), June 29, 40 mm.; Rennell Island (3), June 12, 40-52 mm.; 
Tulagi, Florida Island (6), May 24, 26-37 mm. 

Dorsal 28. Rings 15 + 34. Body smooth. Banded with green 
except on under surface. 2+4 jet black marks back of the throat. 
Black lines on each side of the throat. Snout with paired black dots. 

Corythoichthys crenulatus (Weber). Crenulated Pipe Fish 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 16, 31-53 mm.; Star Harbor, San 
Cristoval Island (1), June 19, 52 mm. 

Syngnathus spicifer (Riippell). Pipe Fish 

Pago Pago, Samoa (4), April 19, 95 mm.; Suva, Fiji Islands (2), 
April 30, 50-83 mm.; Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (6), May 23, 
39-52 mm.; Tulagi, Florida Island (1), May 24, 92 mm. In this 
species the rings are 16 + 40. The body is smooth. Opercle with 
keel. Small black dots on sides of cheeks. 

Syngnathus uncinatus (Weber). Pipe Fish 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (3), May 21, 50-55 mm. These 
have a median denticulated keel on snout and also keels over each 
eye. Opercle with a single longitudinal keel from which radiate fine 



354 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

lines. Color greenish with white cross bars on tail. This is the 
second time this species has been recorded. 

Coelonotus leiaspis (Bleeker). Round Pipe Fish 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 21, 69 mm.; Suva, Fiji 
Islands (1), April 30, 84 mm. 

This species has no opercular keel. Origin of anal vmder anterior 
third of dorsal. Dorsal rays 52. Color green with about 6 white 
bands on the tail. 

AULOSTOMIDAE 

Aulostomus valentini (Bleeker). Coronet Fish 

Rennell Island (1), June 17, 145 mm. Color bright yellow. Two 
black spots on caudal fin. 

FiSTULARIIDAE 

Fistularia petimba Lacepede. Trumpet Fish 

Pago Pago, Samoa (5), April 15, 150-170 mm.; Auki, Malaita 
Island (8), May 26, 109 mm.; Tulagi, Florida Island (1), June 26, 
109 mm.; Star Harbor, San Cristoval (1), June 29, 160 mm.; 
Rennell Island (3), June 17, 139-155 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar 
Island (6), May 21, 85-166 mm.; Tai Lagoon, Malaita Island (5), 
May 30, 155-166 mm.; Santa Ana Island (1), July 3, 864 mm. 
The color of the adult specimen was brownish on back, white below. 
Dorsal, anal, caudal and pectorals uniformly yellowish. 

Atherinidae 

Atherina uisila Jordan and Scale. Silversides 

Pago Pago, Samoa (2), April 16, 80 mm.; Rennell Island (14), 
June 12, 38-48 mm. 

Atherina lacunosa Forster. Silversides 

Pago Pago, Samoa (37, young), 15-25 mm.; Vdnikoro Island (1), 
July 12, 33 mm. These show a dark stripe on posterior half of body 
which fades out anteriorly; 

Atherina forskSli Riippell. Silversides 

Suva, Fiji Islands (7), April 25, 67-75 mm.; Tulagi, Florida Is- 
land (10), June 25, 35-80 mm.; Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (5), 
May 18, 34-36 mm.; Sikaiana Island (2), May 12, 60-67 mm. ;^ 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 355 

Tai Bay, Guadalcanar Island (8), May 29, 29-69 mm.; Star 
Harbor, San Cristoval Island (2), June 29, 56-57 mm. These have 
42 scales in the lateral series. The anal pore is located between the 
last fifth of the depressed ventrals. A distinct silver}^ stripe equal 
to width of pupil on each side. 

Atherina valenciennesi Bleaker. Silversides 

Tulagi, Florida Island (34), June 25, 34-69 mm.; Guadalcanar 
Island (1), May 29, 45 mm.; Malaita Island (1), May 25, 26 mm.; 
Aola Ba}^ Guadalcanar Island (3), May 18, 30 mm.; Vanikoro 
Island (3), July 12, 50-54 mm. The anal pore is located between 
the anterior third of depressed ventrals. There are 7-8 scales in 
advance of origin of dorsal. 

Atherina temmincki Bleeker. Silversides 

Tai Bay, Guadalcanar Island (2), May 29, 51-61 mm.; Mohawk 
Bay, Lomlom Island (1), July 7, 91 mm. Body cylindrical. Anal 
pore in line with origin of dorsal. 

MUGILIDAE 

Liza caeruleomaculata (Lacepede). Mullet 

Kungava Bay, Rennell Island (1), June 9, 409 mm.; Pago Pago, 
Samoa (26), April 18, 31-47 mm.; Star Harbor, San Cristoval 
Island (1), June 29, 45 mm.; Tulagi, Florida Island (1), June 26, 
48 mm. Anal III 9. There are 38 scales along the median line. 
Lips rather thick, no adipose eyelid. A black spot present in axil 
of pectoral. 

Liza waigiensis (Quoy and Gaimard). Mullet 

Kungava Bay, Rennell Island (2), June 9, 255 mm.; Matema 
Island (1), July 7, 177 mm. Anal III 8, scales 28. No adipose 
evelid. Pectorals black. 



Liza troscheli (Bleeker). Mullet 
Suva, Fiji Group (17, young), April 25, 30-84 mm. 

Liza ceramensis (Bleeker). Mullet 

Malaita Island (4), May 26, 49-53 mm. Anal III 9, scales 29. 
No adipose eyelid. Upper lip thick. Origin of the dorsal much 
nearer caudal than to tip of snout. '• 



356 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Sphyraenidae 

Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier and Valenciennes. Barracuda 

Santa Ana Island (1), June 30, 482 mm. Scales 116. Color 
silver}^, darker above. 

SCOMBRIDAE 

Scomber microlepidotus Riippell. Mackerel 
Pago Pago, Samoa (3), April 16, 27-29 mm. 

Scomber japonicus Houttuyn. Mackerel Scad 

Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (6), May 18, 40-45 mm.; Kau 
Kau, Guadalcanar Island (3), May 21, 49-51 mm. 

Carangidae 
Scomberoides sancti-petri (Cuvier). Mackerel Jack 
Tulagi, Florida Island (6), May 19, 30-46 mm. 

Caranx marginatus Gill. Ca valla 

Tai Lagoon, Malaita Island (4), May 30, 204-215 mm.; Rennell 
Island (2), June 17, 323 mm.; Vanikoro Island (7), July 12, 20-41 
mm. 

This species resembles Caranx hippos but differs in having the 
breast fully scaled. Our specimens have dorsal VIII 22. Anal II I 
16. Scutes 32. The breast is fully scaled. A small but distinct 
black spot at upper axil of opercle. A shaded dark blotch on lower 
rays of the pectoral. 

This collection also contained six specimens of very young Caranx 
which may belong to this species. They were secured at Pago Pago, 
Samoa, April 14, from among the tentacles of the common Samoan 
Jellyfish. These have the posterior margin of the preopercle strongl}^ 
toothed for its entire length. They may represent the genus Car- 
angichthys of Bleeker. 

Caranx ascensionis (Osbeck). Cavalla 
Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (2), May 22, 29-30 mm. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 357 

Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy and Gaimard. Cavalla 

Pago Pago, Samoa (1), April 18, 30 mm.; Rennell Island (1), 
June 9, 195 mm.; Bellona Island (1), June 20, 460 mm. Silvery 
with 5 indistinct dark bands. Dorsal VIII I 23. Anal II I 18. 
Teeth in jaws, vomer and palatines, canines anteriorly. Scutes 28. 



Caranx afiinis Riippell. Cavalla 

Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 24, 104 mm. Opercular spot dis- 
tinct, breast fully scaled. Caudal yellow. 



Alectis ciliaris (Bloch). Thread Fin 

Pago Pago, Samoa (1), April 18, 33 mm.; Aola Bay, Guadalcanar 
Island (2), May 23, 29-30 mm. The dorsal and anal filaments are 
about twice the depth of the body. Bands indistinct. 



Trachurops crumenophthalma (Bloch). Big-eyed Scad 

Vanikoro Island (1), July 13, 275 mm. A fleshy projection into 
the gill chambers and the fully plated lateral line are distinctive 
field markings. 



Elagatis bipinnulatus (Quoy and Gaimard). Runner 

One fine large specimen from between Malaita and Florida Islands, 
May 25, taken while trolling. This is a fine game fish distributed 
throughout the tropical Pacific. 



Apogonidae 

Apogon novemfasciatus Cuvier and Valenciennes 
Cardinal Fish 

Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), July 10, 62 mm. 



Apogon savayensis Giinther. Cardinal Fish 
Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (2), July 10, 32-40 mm. 

Apogon orbicularis Cuvier and Valenciennes 

Tulagi, Florida Island (1), May 24, 15 mm. This species may be 
distinguished by the black ventrals, the dark oblique line from the 
dorsal to the ventral surface, and the black spots on posterior portion 
of bodv. 



358 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Apogon asaedae Scale, sp. nov. Cardinal Fish 
Plate 23, fig. 1 

Head 2.7 to end of vertebra. Depth less than head. Dorsal VII 9. 
Anal II 8. Scales 24 in lateral series. The lateral line complete. 
Teeth sharp pointed, in two or more rows. Teeth on the palatine. 
Preopercle smooth. E^'e 3.7 in head. Maxillary ending under 
middle of eye, its distal end of greater width than pupil. Caudal 
forked. No elongated fins. Ventrals when depressed extending 
beyond origin of anal. 

This fish is distinctively marked. The head is lighter in color than 
the body. There are four, closely placed, black bands radiating from 
the eye, the upper one extending on the nuchal region and uniting 
with its fellow, the second extending back along the edge of the 
opercle, the third obliquely across the cheeks and the fourth obliquely 
down and back from the eye. 

The pectorals, ventrals and spinous dorsal are chiefly jet black. 
The basal-half of the soft dorsal and anal are black. The caudal is 
white. 

Holotype: No. 5507 and paratypes Nos. 5508, 5509, 5510, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., Ichthyol. 

Four specimens, length 20-21 mm., collected at Pago Pago, 
Tutuila Island, Samoa, April 14, 1933, by Toshio Asaeda, the 
skillful artist of the Crocker Expedition, for whom I take pleasure 
in naming this species. 



Apogon lateralis Valenciennes. Cardinal Fish 
Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 20, 39 mm. 

Foa fo Jordan and Scale. Samoan Cardinal Fish 

Suva, Fiji Islands (16), April 30, 20-30 mm. These agree per- 
fectly with the description and figure given by Jordan and Scale in 
Bull. U. S. Bureau Fisheries, 25, 1906, p. 248, fig. 42. 

Ambassidae 

Ambassis interrupta Bleeker. Glass Fish 

Auki, Malaita Island (7), May 26, 56-85 mm. In this species 
the second dorsal spine is very long with the point turned forward. 
The first and third anal spines are almost equal in length, the second 
is directed forward at tip. A black stripe on each caudal lobe, black 
on web of first dorsal spine, and on webs of first and third anal 
spines. Two rows of scales on cheeks. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 359 

Ambassis vaivasensis Jordan and Scale. Glass Fish 

Suva, Fiji (12), April 24, 24-74 mm. Our specimens agree fully 
with Jordan and Scale's description and figure (Bull. U. S. Bur. Fish. 
25, 1906, p. 254, fig. 47). 



KUHLIIDAE 

Kuhlia caudovittata (Lacepede). Island Bass 

Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 28, 70 mm. This species has caudal 
well forked and a single wide oblique black band on each lobe. The 
body is covered with irregular shaped dark spots. Soft dorsal and 
anal with spots. 

Kuhlia taeniura (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Island Bass 

Bellona Island (1), June 22, 41 mm. Body silvery, caudal with 
two oblique dusky bands and a central bar in middle of fin. 

Serranidae 

Epinephelus merra Bloch. Honeycomb Bass 

Rennell Island (8), July 8, 77-205 mm.; Sikaiana Island (1), 
May 16, 64 mm.; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), July 10, 65 
mm. Entire body except belly covered with distinct hexagonal 
spots. 

Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes). Spotted Bass 

Matema Island, Swallow Group (1), July 3, 295 mm. Scattered 
blue spots with dark margins on body and fins, except pectorals and 
ventrals, the latter fins being margined with dusky. 

Cephalopholis urodelus (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Sea Bass 

Tucopia Island (1), May 5, 296 mm. Body yellowish with small 
dark dots. Caudal rounded without bars. Dorsal IX 15. 

Variola louti (Forskal). Sea Bass 

Santa Ana Island (1), July 3, 380 mm.; Anuda Island (1), 
July 16, 280 mm. Dorsal spines nine. Caudal lobes elongated. 
Color red with blue spots. 

Petrometopon pachycentron (Valenciennes). Black Sea Bass 

Tulagi, Florida Island (I), June 26, 135 mm. Uniform dark 
brown. The dorsal, caudal and anal narrowly edged with white. 



360 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

PSEUDOCHROMIDAE 

Pseudogramma polyacanthus (Bleeker). Chromid 

Rennell Island (2), June 13, 35-41 mm. Maxillary extending 
posterior to eye. Large white spots over body. A large black spot 
on opercle. 

Priacanthidae 

Priacanthus cruentatus (Lacepede). Bigeye 

Rennell Island (1), June 12, 1934, 53 mm. Dorsal and ventral 
fins mottled with black, 

Pempheridae 

Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier. Cataluf 

Anuda Island (1), August 15, 75 mm. No black spot at base oE 
ventrals. Caudal with a black tip. 

LUTIANIDAE 

Lutianus marginatus (Cuvier). Marginate Snapper 

Palmyra Island (2), April 3, 224-255 mm.; Pago Pago, Samoa 
(8, young), April 16, 34-45 mm. Dorsal X 15. Anal III 8. In the 
young the color is white with dark margin on the spinous dorsal fin. 

Lutianus gibbus (Forskal). Long-nose Snapper 
Tucopia Island, Santa Cruz Group (1), May 5, 283 mm. 

Lutianus bohar (Forskal). Red Snapper 
Star Harbor, San Cristoval Island (4), June 23, 20-25 mm. 

Lutianus kasmira (Forskal). Blue and Gold Snapper 
Anuda Island (1), July 16, 211 mm. 

Lutianus semicinctus Quoy and Gaimard 
Half-banded Snapper 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 21, 30 mm. Even in 
these young the bands and the spot on base of caudal show 
distinctly. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 361 

Nemipterus metopias (Bleeker). Snapper 

Auki Bay, Malaita Island (1), May 25, 213 mm. No teeth on 
vomer, palatine or tongue. 4-6 canines in each jaw, preopercle 
entire. 3 rows of scales on cheeks. Fins not elongated. Color uni- 
form yellowish white, a pale line through base of dorsal fin. 



Lethrinidae 

Lethrinus leutjanus Lacepede. Plain Porgy 

Anuda Island (1), July 16, 320 mm. Color uniform yellowish 
brown. 

Lethrinus reticulatus (Valenciennes). Porgy 
Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (1), Ma^^ 21, 25 mm. 

Pentapus aurolineatus (Lacepede). Yellow Striped Porgy 

Santa Ana Island (1), July 3, 233 mm. A distinct silvery area at 
posterior exis of soft dorsal. A short silvery stripe at origin of lateral 
line, and another two scales below this. Three yellow stripes on 
sides. Eye large, greater than length of snout. 

Sparidae 

Monotaxis grandoculis (Forskal). Bigeye, Pargo 

Stewart Island (1), May 11, 287 mm. Big molar teeth on sides 
of jaw. Eye very large. Angle of snout more than 45 degrees. 
Brown with 2-3 lighter bands over back. 

Kyphosidae 
Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy and Gaimard). Pilot Fish 
Bellona Island (1), June 22, 45 mm. 

Gerridae 

Gerres poeti Cuvier and Valenciennes. Slipmouth 

Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), July 10, 133 mm. Uniform 
silvery, with dark spots between dorsal rays at base of fin. 

Gerres filamentosus Cuvier and Valenciennes. Slipmouth 

Kungava Bay, Rennell Island (1), June 9, 164 mm. Silvery 
with 6-7 dark bands down the sides. 



362 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

MULLIDAE 

Upeneus vittatus (Forskal). Goat Fish 

Vanikoro Island (1), July 13, 251 mm.; Sikaiana Island (4), 
May 10, 40-44 mm.; Ugi Island (1), June 23, 36 mm. This 
species has 4-5 oblique bands on the caudal, one of the bands of the 
lower lobe always of considerably greater width than others. 

Upeneus tragula Richardson. Goat Fish 

Star Harbor, San Cristoval Island (2), June 24, 25-27 mtn.; 
Tulagi, Florida Island (2), May 19, 30-37 mm.; Aola Bay, Guadal- 
canar Island (1), May 23, 32 mm.; Sikaiana Island (1), May 10, 

48 mm.; Ugi Island (1), June 23, 35 mm.; Sikaiana Island (4), 
May 10, 40-48 mm.; Uras Cove, Malaita Island (3), May 28, 
40-43 mm.; Pago Pago, Samoa (4), April 16, 40-45 mm. 

Pseudupeneus barberinus (Lacepede). Goat Fish 

Tulagi Island (1), June 26, 40-43 mm.; Auki, Malaita Island (2), 
May 15, 45-48 mm.; Uras Cove, Malaita Island (3), May 27, 
48-49 mm.; Ugi Island (4), June 23, 45-46 mm.; Santa Ana Island 
(1), May 23, 47 mm.; Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 23, 

49 mm.; Tulagi, Florida Island (1), June 26, 40-43 mm. 

This species may be distinguished by the black line from snout 
to near the caudal, and the black spot on the caudal peduncle. 

Pseudupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepede). Goat Fish 

Rennell Island (1), June 12, 92 mm.; Auki, Malaita Island (6);, 
May 15, 45-47 mm. 

Pseudupeneus pleurostigma (Bennett). Goat Fish 

Ugi Island (1), June 23, 61 mm.; Santa Ana Island (1), June 30, 
63 mm. A distinct round black spot on side below the interval of 
the two dorsal fins. 

Pseudupeneus indicus (Shaw). Goat Fish 

Mohawk Bay, Lonilom Island (1), July 10, 237 mm. Distin- 
guished by the golden spot below liind portion of spinous dorsal, and 
the large black spot on side of caudal peduncle. 

Mulloides samoensis Gunther. Goat Fish 
Kungava Bay, Rennell Island(2), June 9, 195-282 mm. ■ " 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 363 

CiRRHITIDAE 

Cirrhitus marmoratus Lacepede. Sleepers 
Tulagi, Florida Island (1), June 25, 79 mm. 

Chaetodontidae 

Chaetodon lunula (Lacepede). Butterfly Fish 

Pago Pago, Samoa (23, young), April 16, 11-13 mm.; Star 
Harbor, San Cristoval Island (71, young), June 29, 10-12 mm.; 
Ugi Island (1), June 23, 19 mm.; Suva, Fiji Islands (8), April 26, 
19-22 mm. The young all have the heavy spine below the opercle, 
and two large scalelike plates on the shoulders. All show the ocular 
band, and the dark area on the caudal peduncle. 

Chaetodon flavirostris Giinther. Butterfly Fish 

Pago Pago, Samoa (2, young), April 18, 11 mm. These have a 
wide black orbital band which extends up on the nuchal region, and 
a rather wide black area posteriorly from the dorsal across the caudal 
peduncle to anal. 

Heniochus varius (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Humpback 

Pago Pago, Samoa (1), April 15, 40 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar 
Island (1), May 23, 31 mm. In this species the 4-5 dorsal spines are 
prolonged, these young show the beginning of the characteristic 
hump of the anterior profile. 

Zanclidae 
Zanclus canescens (Linnaeus). Moorish Idol 
Pago Pago, Samoa (2), April 16, 72-75 mm. 

ACANTHURIDAE 

Naso unicornis (Forskal). Unicorn Fish 

Pago Pago, Sarnoa (3), April 15, 20 mm. These correspond 
closely to Garrett's figure in Giinther's "Sudsee" pi. IX, fig. E. 
There are three or four rows of indistinct spots on the sides. 

Acanthurus lituratus Schneider. Surgeon Fish 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 11, 246 mm. The upper and; lower 
rays of caudal greatly prolonged. Color black, a line from eye down 
shout and around upper lip. Base of caudal spines in single yellow 
area. 



364 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Hepatus triostegus (Linnaeus). Striped Tang 

Santa Ana Island (1), July 2, 167 mm.; Tai Lagoon, Malaita 
Island (1), May 29, 62 mm. The young show about 6 dark bands 
on sides. 



Hepatus dussumieri (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Brown Tang 

Uras Cove, Malaita Island (2), May 27, 27 mm.; Ugi Island (1), 
June 23, 28 mm. 

Hepatus giintheri (Jenkins). Common Tang 
One large specimen No. 0762. Length 448 mm. 

Zebrasoma veliferum (Bloch). Bigfin Tang 

Pago Pago, Samoa (1), April 14, 31 mm. Numerous dark bands 
over the body. It is well figured in Giinther's "Siidsee" pi. 76, fig. C, 
under the name of A. flavescens. 

SiGANIDAE 

Siganus rivulatus (Forskal). Rivulated Stinging Fish 

Aola Bay, Guadalcanar Island (4), May 21, 34-36 mm. Char- 
acterized by 6 dark bands and diffused markings. 

Siganus tetrazonus (Bleeker). Stinging Fish 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (24), May 21, 21-40 mm.; Aola 
Bay, Guadalcanar Island (7), May 23, 23-35 mm.; Uras Cove, 
Malaita Island (1), May 28, 25 mm. 

SCORPAENIDAE 

Synanceja verrucosa Schneider. Ugly Mug 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 16, 205 mm. This is probably the 
ugliest known fish. 

Sebastapistes laotale Jordan and Scale. Scorpion Fish 

Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 30, 33 mm.; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom 
Island (1), July 10, 34 mm. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES * 365 

Scorpaenopsis novae-guineae (Cuvier). Scorpion Fish 
Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 24, 34 mm. 

Scorpaenopsis cookii (Giinther). Cook's Scorpion Fish 
Rennell Island (1), June 13, 50 mm. 

Sebastopsis guamensis (Quoy and Gaimard) 
Guam Scorpion Fish 

Rennell Island (1), June 13, 35 mm. 

Aploactidae 

Aploactis milesii Richardson. Velvet Fish 

One of these rare little fishes from Suva, Fiji Islands, April 24, 
53 mm. No scales apparent, the skin being velvety. Origin of dor- 
sal fin above orbit. Anterior dorsal spine longest. 

Cephalacanthidae 

Cephalacanthus orientalis (Cuvier and Valenciennes) . 
Sea Robin 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (6), May 21, 10-12 mm. These are 
larval forms. The large black pectorals and the long slim ventrals 
are characteristic of the species. 

POMACENTRIDAE 

Premnas biaculeatus (Bloch) 
Rennell Island (12, young), June 13, 29-39 mm. 

Amphiprion percula (Lacepede). Anemone Fish 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 16, 27 mm. Color markings, yellow 
with three white bands bordered with black. 

Pomacentrus lividus (Schneider). Livid Damsel Fish 

Sikaiana Island (3), May 16, 45-104 mm.; Star Harbor, San 
Cristoval Island (36), June 29, 10-12 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar 
Island (25), May 21, 9-12 mm.; Ugi Island, June 23, 10-12 mm. 



366 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This species has 12 dorsal spines, 2 anal spines. A broad naked 
preorbital and snout. Small blue dots on most of the scales and 
some larger blue spots on cheeks and head. No black spot in axil 
of fin. 



Pomacentrus nigricans (Lacepede). Black Damsel Fish 

Rennell Island (1), June 12, 115 mm.; Sikaiana Island (1), May 
16, 37 mm. Color dark brown, a black spot on posterior axil of 
soft dorsal fin and at axil of pectorals. A blue line on sub-opercles. 
The preorbital is narrower than in P. lividus. 



Pomacentrus prosopotaenia Bleeker. Spotted Damsel Fish 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 14, 22 mm. This species has small blue 
dots on the scales, and a large black ocellus with white border at the 
posterior axil of the soft dorsal. 



Pomacentrus bifasciatus Bleeker 
Sikaiana Island (36, young). May 16, 10-14 mm. 



Abudefduf uniocellatus (Bleeker). One-spot Damsel Fish 
(Probably not of Quoy and Gaimard) 

Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (5), July 10, 22-37 mm. These 
specimens are all a vivid blue with belly and throat lighter. No 
spots on scales, spinous dorsal as dark as the body, other fins yellow- 
ish white, the anal with a narrow terminal black line. A black line 
as wide as pupil through the eye uniting with its fellow around snout 
and extending to origin of lateral line. A large black ocellus occupies 
the bases of 3-4 dorsal rays, no dark spot in axil of this fin. A 
distinct black line from tip of snout midway between eyes to origin 
of dorsal fin. 



Abudefduf septemfasciatus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Pago Pago, Samoa (1), April 18, 18 mm. Even in this very small 
specimen the dark stripe extending out on each caudal lobe is quite 
distinct. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 367 

Abudefduf atrapinna Seale, sp. nov. Black-fin Damsel Fish 

Plate 22, fig. 2 

Head 3. Depth 2. Dorsal XII 14. Anal II 12. Scales 32, 22 in 
lateral line which is incomplete. Teeth in a single series. Pre- 
opercle unarmed. Anterior dorsal spines the longest. Caudal forked. 

Body yellowish. Each scale on uppej* half of body with a brown 
vertical mark, or with 3-4 dark dots. Upper two-thirds of pectorals 
jet black. Basal half of dorsal spines jet black. A large black 
ocellus on posterior portion of spinous dorsal and extending on to the 
rays. Soft dorsal with a black area at its base. Caudal, soft dorsal, 
and anal yellow. Ventrals yellow with black tips. 

Type: No. 5511, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., Ichthyol. Sikaiana 
Island, 18 mm. Paratypes: Nos. 5512, 5513, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., Ichthyol. Tulagi, Florida Island, May 19, 16-18 mm. 

Abudefduf azysron (Bleeker). Damsel Fish 

Mohawk Bay, Reef Island (2), July 10, 49-64 mm. Char- 
acterized by the dark body and yellow on posterior of soft dorsal. 
Caudal yellowish with dark margin. Preopercle entire. 

Abudefduf antjerius (Kuhl and Van Hasselt). Damsel Fish 

Pago Pago, Samoa (2), April 18, 12 mm.; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom 
Island (2), July 7, 26-36 mm.; Tulagi, Florida Island (6), May 19, 
18-20 mm.; Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 28, 19 mm. Bluish, a wide 
blue line from tip of snout backward over the back to the black 
ocellus. Dorsal with black margin. 

Abudefduf bonang (Bleeker). Three-eyed Damsel Fish 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (63, young). May 22, 14-22 mm.; 
Sikaiana Island (3), May 16, 21-23 mm. Dorsal XIII 11. Anal 
II 12. Scales 27. 17 in lateral line which ends under posterior 
portion of dorsal. A black ocellus on base of last 5 dorsal spines, 
this mark impinging somewhat on the back. No black in axil of 
any fin. 

Abudefduf sexfasciatus (Lacepede). Black-tail Damsel Fish 
Suva, Fiji Islands (5), April 24, 43-64 mm. 

Abudefduf glaucus (Cuvier). Glaucous Damsel Fish 
Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), July 10, 52 mm. 



368 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Abudefduf leucozonus (Bleeker). Damsel Fish 

Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), July 10, 30 mm. Brown in 
color with a white bar down on the side from 4-6 dorsal spines. A 
large black ocellus on posterior of spinous dorsal. 



Dascyllus aruanus (Linnaeus). Coral Beauty 

Rennell Island (3), June 12, length 38-44 mm.; Sikaiana Island 
(10), May 14, 22-46 mm.; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), 
July 10, 52 mm. Color white with three black bands, caudal and 
pectoral white. 



Dascyllus melanurus Bleeker. Coral Beauty 

Rennell Island (1), June 12, 26 mm.; Sikaiana Island (7), May 14, 
26-52 mm.; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), Jul}^ 10, 20 mm. 
Similar to preceding species, but with caudal chiefly black. 



Chromis caeruleus (Cuvier). Sea Blue Fish 

Aola, Lomlom Island (1), May 18, 68 mm.; Tulagi, Florida Is- 
land (13), May 16, 32-37 mm.; Rennell Island (1), May 21, 
22 mm.; Pago Pago, Samoa (20), April 18, 16-22 mm. In these 
very young the preopercle is strongly toothed, the teeth are sharply 
pointed, the maxillary extends to below the anterior margin of the 
eye. Depth equal to length of head, 2.7 in total length (without 
caudal). Eye greater than snout. Dorsal XIII 12. Anal II 3. 
Scales 24. Color in life pale bluish green. Color in alcohol yellowish- 
white, fins uniform. 



Chromis bitaeniatus Fowler and Bean 

Rennell Island (1), May 21, 11 mm. It is of interest to note that 
this is the second specimen of the species ever secured. The type 
was from the Philippine Islands. 



Chromis cinerascens (Cuvier) 

Tulagi, Florida Islands (34), June 25, 15-21 mm.; Rennell 
Island (37), May 21, 20-22 mm.; Tai Bay, Malaita Island (22), 
May 29, 10-15 mm.; Sikaiana Island (14), May 16, 10-21 mm.; 
Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), July 7, 16 mm.; Star Harbor, 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 369 

San Cristoval Island (1), June 29, 17 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar 
Island (25), May 21, 16-24 mm. 

These young chromids are white in color, with a dark stripe from 
base of caudal to near the center of the body. The caudal is deeply 
forked. There are 14 dorsal spines. Seventeen scales in the lateral 
line which ends under the beginning of the soft dorsal. 



CORIDAE 

Hemigymnus melapterus (Bloch). Biglip 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 11, 336 mm. Distinguished by the 
extraordinary broad lips, the light colored shoulder band, the 
mottled nose, and the dark body. 

Coris gaimardi (Quoy and Gaimard). Gaimard's Wrasse 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 16, 229 mm. Posterior part of body 
with bright blue spots, caudal golden. 

Cheilinus undulatus Ruppell. Pig Fish 
Sikaiana Island (1), May 16, 430 mm. 

Thalassoma lunare (Linnaeus). Moon Wrasse 

Palmyra Island (1), April 3, 210 mm. Distinguished by the 
elongated deep blue area on upper half of pectoral and the deeply 
lunated caudal with its sub-margin of deep blue. 

Thalassoma herrei Scale, sp. nov. Wrasse Fish 
Plate 23, fig. 2 

Head 3.5 in length to end of caudal vertebrae. Depth 3.5. 
Dorsal VIII 13. Anal III 11. Scales 26, 12 in a cross series at 
origin of dorsal, 7 before dorsal. Lateral line complete, but bent on 
posterior portion of body. Teeth sharp, pointed, the anterior ones 
slightly enlarged, no posterior canines. Caudal fin truncate, equal 
in length to head. 

Color in alcohol greenish, a large black blotch at the base of the 
anterior portion of soft dorsal, a second dark blotch at base of 
caudal, a red line through middle of soft dorsal. Pectorals with a 
deep blue area on the upper third of the fin as in T. lunare. 

This is closely related to T. lunare, and in fact may be an immature 
stage of that species, but if so it has never been described or illus- 



370 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

trated. It is easily distinguished from other species of Thalassoma 
by the large black spot on base of soft dorsal and at base of 
caudal. 

Holotype: No. 5514, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., Ichthyol. Tulagi, 
Florida Island, June 26, 1933, 111 mm. Named in honor of 
Dr. Albert W. Herre in recognition of his extensive work on Pacific 
fishes. 



Thalassoma schwanefeldii (Bleeker) 
Sikaiana Island (1), May 14, 62 mm. 

Pseudocheilinus hexataenia (Bleeker) 

Sikaiana Island (2), May 14, 34-35 mm. These show but 6 
white stripes; the black ocellus on upper portion of caudal peduncle is 
quite distinct. Lips crossed with 4-5 jet black lines. 

Cirrhilabrus solorensis (Bleeker) 
(Not C. jordani Snyder) 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 14, 41 mm. 

SCARIDAE 

Callyodon bicolor (Riippell). Black-speckled Parrot Fish 

Sikaiana Island (1), May 11, 380 mm. Body, except back and 
front of head, profusely spotted with black dots usually 2-5 on 
each scale. 

Scarichthys auritus (Valenciennes) 
Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 29, No. 1012, 60 mm. 

GOBIIDAE 

Ophiocara aporos (Bleeker). Golden Goby 

Suva, Fiji Islands (2), April 24, 117-121 mm. Dorsal VI 9. 
Anal 11. Scales 28. Yellowish. Darker above. An irregular dark 
stripe on middle of side. A narrow oblique line back from eye. 



V-OL. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 371 

Gnatholepis puntangoides (Bleeker) 

Auki Harbor, Malaita Island (1), May 26, 101 mm. Dorsal VI 
12. Anal 11. Scales 26. Dark brownish above, light below with 
10-12 bars of color extending downward. Dorsal and caudal with 
dark spots, dorsal rays slightly elongated. 2 grooves divide cheeks 
into 2 rows of scales. 



Gnatholepis deltoides (Seale) 
Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 24, 23 mm. 

Gnatholepis anjerensis (Bleeker) 
Suva, Fiji Islands (2), April 19, 17-19 mm. 

Eleotris fusca (Bloch and Schneider) 
Three from a lake on Rennell Island, August 6, 103-120 mm. 

Glossogobius biocellatus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
Auki, Malaita Island (1), May 26, 67 mm. 

Eviota afelei Jordan and Seale 
Rennell Island (1), June 12, 20 mm. 

Zonogobius semidoliatus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), June 7, 30 mm. This dainty 
little species is beautifully marked with distinct bands on head and 
anterior of body. 



Bathygobius fuscus (Ruppell) 

Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (2), August 10, 29-32 mm. Dis- 
tinguished by the notched tongue, the thread-like rays on upper base 
of pectoral and the color. 



Gobius ornatus Ruppell 

Bellona Island (1), June 20, 80 mm. Distinguished by the free 
silk-like rays on upper base of pectoral, the rounded tongue, rows 
of dark spots on sides, and dark lines on the dorsal and anal. 



372 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Rhinogobius neophytus (Giinther) 
Suva, Fiji Islands (3), April 28, 31 mm. 

Rhinogobius criniger (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 24, 15 mm. 

Gobiodon citrinus (Riippell) 
Rennell Island (16), June 13, 15-23 mm. 

Gobiodon rivulatus (Riippell) 
Rennell Island (8), June 13, 25-38 mm. 

Paragobiodon xanthosomus (Bleeker) 

Rennell Island (11), June 13, 24-35 mm.; Sikaiana Island (16), 
May 14, 23-33 mm. Brown with red head. 

Paragobiodon melanosomus (Bleeker) 
Rennell Island (9), June 13, 15-23 mm. Color jet black. 

ECHENEIDAE 

Leptecheneis naucrates (Linnaeus). Shark-pilots 
Bellona Island (1), June 20, 52 mm. 

Parapercidae 

Parapercis hexophthalma (Cuvier). Spotted Round Perch 

Kungava Bay, Rennell Island (1), June 10, 156 mm. Upper 
surface and cheeks profusely spotted, a large black area on caudal. 
Five black ocelli with white borders located on short half-bands on 
lower half of side. A light colored area along middle of side from 
head to caudal. 



Vol. XXI) SEALE— FISHES 373 

Blenniidae 

Periophthalmus koelreuteri (Pallas). Mud Skipper 

Vanikoro Island (1), May 6, 105 mm.; Mohawk Bay, Lomlom 
Island (1), July 10, 120 mm. Scales more than 80 in lateral series. 

Petroscirtes tapeinosoma Bleeker. Eel Blenny 

Sikaiana Island (2), May 16, 64 mm. Upper half of body dark. 
Pale blue below. A dark bar extending to tip of caudal on the sides, 
the bar broken up into numerous small sections. Teeth of upper jaw 
long; fixed canines in lower jaw. 

Petroscirtes anema Bleeker. Blenny 

Auki Bay, Malaita Island (9), May 26, 30-60 mm. 

Identified as P. anema of Bleeker with reluctance as there seem 
very definite points wherein they differ from his description. Our 
specimens all show a fin count of dorsal 30, anal 20. 

There are 3 black stripes on the body — the upper along the back 
and including the lower half of the dorsal fin. The second is from 
tip of snout through the eye to near middle of caudal, where it bends 
down to meet the up-curved end of the third dark stripe, which 
extends from opercle to this line. A definite bluish white stripe 
between the two lower black stripes. A jet black spot between 1-2 
dorsal spines at its tip. Canines of lower jaw very large; upper 
canines small. Two distinct barbels on the chin, two small barbels 
just posterior of eye. Several distinct mucous pores on the head. 
Ventrals, anal, pectorals, caudal and outer half of dorsal white. 
Dorsal and anal with very narrow margin of black. 



Petroscirtes filamentosus (Valenciennes). Filamentous Goby 

Rennell Island (1), June 12, 56 mm. This species is easily dis- 
tinguished by its elongated anterior dorsal spines. The markings of 
our specimen agree fully with Dr. Giinther's figure. 



Petroscirtes maroubrae (Ogilby). Barred Blenny 

Tulagi Island (1), May 19, 19 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar 
Island (2), May 22, 35-37 mm. Color dark bluish, with about 7 
black bars slightly less than the interspaces on body, these bands 
extend to tip of dorsal and anal fin; very distinct on dorsal, less 
distinct on body and anal. Base of pectorals black. No ocellus on 
head. No stripes on body. 



374 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Salarias quadricornis Kittlitz. Crested Blenny 
Bellona Island (1), June 22, 90 mm. 

Salarias meleagris Valenciennes 
Bellona Island (4), June 22, 37-45 mm. 

Salarias sealei (Bryan and Herre). Scale's Blenny 
Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (1), July 10, 40 mm. 

Salarias margaritatus (Kendall and Radcliffe) 

Bellona Island (2), June 22, 52-55 mm.; Rennell Island (5), July 
12, 25-50 mm. Although Fowler has united this species with 
5. caesius Scale our specimens would indicate that they may be 
distinct. This species, as well shown in Kendall and Radcliffe's 
figure, has the posterior axil of soft dorsal much farther from the 
caudal than has 5. caesius, and the markings seem decidedl}^ different. 
Our specimens have no color on the anal fin and are otherwise pale. 
Both species have canine teeth in lower jaw. 

Salarias garmani Jordan and Scale. Blenny 
Pago Pago, Samoa (1), April 19, 19 mm. Uniform white in color. 

Enneapterygius pardochir Jordan and Scale. Blenny 

Mohawk Bay, Lomlom Island (4), July 10, 20-26 mm.; Rennell 
Island (1), June 13. 22 mm. 

Hypleurochilus samoensis Scale, sp. nov. Black-fin Blenny 

Plate 23, fig. 3 

Among the fishes secured by Mr. Tcmpleton Crocker at Pago 
Pago, Samoa, April 18, were two small blennies which seem to merit 
description, although they may not yet be fully mature. 

Head 4.1 in length to end of caudal vertebra, being about equal 
in length to the depth of the body. Dorsal XII 18. Anal 21. The 
dorsal is continuous without notch and free from the caudal. Its 
origin is above the origin of the pectorals. Origin of the anal on a 



Vol. XXIJ SEALE— FISHES 375 

line with the origin of soft dorsal. Pectorals longer than head. 
Ventrals jugular, their tip extending to below the tenth dorsal spine. 
Caudal square, its length about equal to head. Eye large, its width 
greater than length of snout. Gill openings confined to short slits. 
Teeth pointed, 2 large posterior canines in lower jaw. A distinct 
spine projects back from the angle of the peropercle (probably an 
immature feature). Color white with pectorals jet black on lower 
two-thirds, the upper third white, a dark area on opercle, some small 
black dots at base of fins. 

Holotype: No. 5515, paratype No. 5516, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
Ichthyol. Two specimens from Pago Pago, Tutuila Island, Samoa, 
April 18, 14-16 mm. 



Larval Forms of Blenniidae 

Tulagi, Florida Island (11), May 19, 15-16 mm.; Rennell Island 
(15), June 17, 22-23 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (14), 
May 22, 20-22 mm.; Ugi Island (4), June 23, 19-20 mm. 

In our collection are a number of very small and immature forms 
of Salarias which it seems impractical to place definitely with any 
species although they seem very near to Salarias lineatus. These 
are white, without distinctive markings either of body or fins; they 
have dorsal XII 22. Anal 22-24. 



Balistidae 
Balistes papuensis Macleay. Trigger Fish 

Santa Ana Island (1), June 30, 25 mm.; Sikaiana Island (1), 
May 15, 30 mm.; Pago Pago, Tutuila Island (33), April 14-16, 
25-35 mm. 

Twenty specimens of young which we consider to be this species 
were collected at Pago Pago on April 14-16, from crevices of coral 
rocks. These have 5 rows of spinous scales on the caudal peduncle. 
Dorsal IV 25. Anal I 23. 

All are pale greenish, darker above and with silvery sheen below. 
Entire body covered with scattered small brown spots which are 
round and smaller than pupil. First dorsal spine and ventral spines 
toothed. Fins all colorless. 



Balistes flavimarginatus Riippell. Trigger Fish 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (1), May 21, 28 mm.; Uras Cove, 
Malaita Island (7), May 28, 30-36 mm.; Pago Pago, Tutuila 
Island (3, young), April 14, 20 mm. 



376 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

These are similar to the above except that they have no brown 
spots. The color is greenish clouded with darker on upper two- 
thirds of body, a dark band through caudal. Five rows of enlarged 
spines on sides of tail. An indication of three darker indistinct lines 
between the eyes. Dorsal III I 23. Anal I 22. 



Balistes conspicillium (Bloch and Schneider) 
White-spotted Trigger Fish 

One fine specimen from Sikaiana Island, May 16. 295 mm. 
Blackish with conspicuous white spots larger than eye on lower half 
of body. A white band over the snout. 



Balistapus aculeatus (Linnaeus). Black-bar Trigger Fish 
Palmyra Island (1), April 12, 178 mm. 

Balistapus undulatus (Park). Red-line Trigger Fish 

Kungava Bay, Rennell Island (1), May 31, No. 0651, 230 mm. 
No. 0728, probably from Anuda Island, July 16, 254 mm. Body 
covered with curved red or yellowish lines. Rather wide stripe 
around lips and extending back to below pectoral. 

MONACANTHIDAE 

Oxymonacanthus longirostris (Bloch and Schneider) 
Long-nose File Fish 

Pago Pago, Tutuila Island (1, young), April 18, 25 mm. About 
5 indistinct black bars over the body, and a large round black spot 
on the tail. 

Monacanthus howensis (Ogilby). Leather- jacket 

Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 25, 44 mm.; Kau Kau, Guadalcanar 
Island (6), May 22, 45-51 mm. Dark shadings on body. Three 
bands on posterior of body extending into the dorsal and anal fins. 
5 distinct dark bands on tail. 



Vol. XXI] SEALE— FISHES 377 

OSTRACIIDAE 

Ostracion cornutus Linnaeus. Cow Fish 

Pago Pago, Tutuiia Island, Samoa (1), April 15, 19 mm. This 
is the smallest specimen of this species we have seen. Color 
whitish, covered with scattered dark dots. 

Tetrodontidae 

Spheroides lunaris (Bloch and Schneider). Lunate Puffer 

Suva, Fiji Islands (2), April 25, 36 mm.; Auki, Malaita Island 
(1), May 25, 54 mm.; Tulagi, Florida Island (3), May 19, 13-32 
mm. 

Canthigaster striolatus (Quoy and Gaimard). Puffer 
Bellona Island (1), June 20, 32 mm. 

Canthigaster margaritatus (Ruppell). Puffer 

Rennell Island (1), June 12, 31 mm.; Suva, Fiji Islands (33), 
April 28, 20-23 mm.; Ugi Island (1), June 22, 23 mm.; Kau Kau, 
Guadalcanar Island (1), May 22, 15 mm.; Uras Cove, Malaita 
Island (1), May 28, 23 mm. 

Tetrodon meleagris Bloch and Schneider. Puffer 

Pago Pago, Samoa (1), April 15, 19 mm. So densely set with 
prickles as to look as if covered with fuzz, among which may be seen 
small white specks. 

Tetrodon immaculatus Bloch and Schneider. Puffer 

Pago Pago, Samoa (1, young), April 15, 30 mm.; Auki, Malaita 
Island (1), Ma}^ 25, 8 mm. 

Tetrodon manillensis Proce. Puffer 

Suva, Fiji Islands (1), April 25, 119 mm. Gray with numerous 
narrow black lines from head to tail. 



378 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Tetrodon nigropunctatus Bloch and Schneider. Puffer 
Suva, Fiji Islands (4), April 26, 10-18 mm. 

Tetrodon hispidus Linnaeus. Puffer 

Kau Kau, Guadalcanar Island (4), May 22, 21-23 mm.; Suva, 
Fiji Islands (30), April 28, 20-34 mm. 

DiODONTIDAE 

Diodon hystrix Linnaeus. Porcupine Fish 

Rennell Island (1, young), June 12, 20 mm. Found in the 
mouth of a young Priacanthus. 

Antennariidae 
Antennarius commersonii (Shaw). Fishing-frog 
Bellona Island (4), June 22, 1.2 mm. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 27 



[SEALE] Plate 20 









II: 






M 
S 





a 
>, 

H 






<o 



fe 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 27 [SEALE | Plate 21 




Fig. 1. Cypselurus zaca Seale, sp. nov. Type 




7 



Fig. 2. Cypselurus zaca Seale, sp. nov. Paratype 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 27 



[SEALE] Plate 22 




Fig. 1. Cypseliirns crockeri Seale, sp. nov. Type 




, f mcH 



Fig. 2. Abudefdnf atrapinna Seale, sp. nov. Type 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XXI, No. 27 



[SEALE] Plate 23 




Fig. 1. Apogon asaedae Scale, sp. nov. Type 




J tncfv 



Fig. 2. Thalassoma herrei Seale, sp. nov. Type 




INCH 



Fig. 3. Hypleurochilus samoensis Seale, sp. nov. Type 



.^j^^ftiira?)?^^^ 




PROCEEDING! 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 28, pp. 379-382 October 23, 1935 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 28 

THE CARPENTER BEES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 

BY 

T. D. A. COCKERELL 

Emeritus Professor of Zoology, 
University of Colorado 

The only bee known from the Galapagos Islands is Xylocopa 
darwini Cockerell, which is endemic. It is very closely related to 
X. carbonaria Smith, which was described from Tapajos, Brazil, 
where it was collected by H. W. Bates. A specimen from Mexico 
appears to be referable to the same species. The presence of Xylo- 
copa in the Galapagos Islands cannot be regarded as evidence in 
favor of a past continental connection, as these bees nest in wood, 
and may occasionally be carried across the sea in drifting trees. 
Enough collecting has been done in the islands to make it seem 
improbable that there are other endemic bees, though their absence 
is surprising, considering the varied character of the flora. The type 
material of X. darwini came from Chatham Island. Miss Cheesman 
(Trans. Ent. Soc. London, LXXVII, 1929, p. 143) described the 
male, and figured the coxa and trochanter. She found the species 
on all four islands visited, namely Charles, James, Indefatigable and 
Albemarle. Williams (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4 ser. Vol. II, Pt. 2, 
1926, p. 356) had previously given a good account of the species, 
erroneously calling it X. colona Lepeletier, which is a species from 
Cayenne, the wings (female) moderately brown, with a beautiful 
shining golden color, and a noticeable violet reflection. Williams 

October 23, 1935 



380 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

tried to determine whether the specimens from the different islands 
were all alike. He examined the male genitalia and found them to 
"vary to a small extent." The most noticeable difference was in 
the color of the female wings, these showing a greenish-blue irides- 
cence on Charles, Chatham and James islands, and a bluish-purple 
on Albemarle, Indefatigable and South Seymour. 

Miss Cheesman, however, stated that the form of the female with 
greenish-blue iridescent wings occurred on Charles, James, Inde- 
fatigable and Albemarle, and that with bluish-purple iridescence on 
Charles, Indefatigable and Albemarle. Thus it did not seem possible 
to distingu.ish insular subspecies. I have thought it worth while to 
review the matter with the aid of the series obtained by Mr. Maurice 
Willows, Jr. on the Templeton Crocker Expedition, these specimens 
being in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences, along 
with those earlier recorded by Williams. In addition I have had 
access to a smaller series collected by John S. Garth on the Hancock 
Expedition, and now in the Los Angeles Museum. 

The specimens may be divided into three groups, as follows: 

(1) Female wings dark, with greenish-blue iridescence; length of 
wings 17-17.5 mm. 

Chatham Island. One male and four females (Williams); one 
female from Wreck Bay. Two females, Crocker Expedition. 

Charles Island. Five males (Williams), four being from Post 
Office Bay. Nineteen females, variable in size, the wings 15.5 
mm. to 17 mm. Special localities are Post Office Bay (Williams) 
and Cormorant Bay (Willows). The WilloM^s specimens are 
larger than the average Williams ones. 

(2) Like the last but abdomen more densely and strongly punc- 
tured. 

James Island. Two males (Williams). Eight females (Willows, 
Williams and Garth), the wings 16 to 18 mm. long. 

Gardner Island (near Hood Island). Two females (Williams): 
Wing 16 mm. 

(3) Wings dark fuliginous, suffused Avith rosy; no red hair at tip of 
abdomen (none in var. 2, sometimes a little on var. 1). 

S. Albemarle Island (Williams), five males and seven females. 
Female wings 16.5-17.5 mm. long. 

There are also two males collected by Williams at Sappho Cove, 
Chatham Island. One female (Williams). 

Indefatigable Island. Two males (Williams). Two females col- 
lected by Williams, one over 900 ft. alt., two collected by Wil- 
lows. Length of female wings 16-18 mm. 



Vol. XXI] COCKERELL— CARPENTER BEES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 381 

The Williams specimens have the rosy wings typical of this variety, 
but one of the Willows specimens has the wings as in var. 1, and the 
other is intermediate, with much rosy purple. 

In addition to the above, J. S. Garth obtained one female on Dun- 
can Island; it has the wings 17.5 mm. long, labrum with three evident 
tubercles, tergites more densely punctured than in Charles Island 
specimens. The wings are violaceous, blackish beyond the cells, but 
outer margin violaceous. Compared with a James Island specimen, 
the second cubital cell is shorter, its sides on marginal less than half 
length of second intercubitus (over half length of second inter- 
cubitus on James Island specimen). 

On comparing a cotype of X. darwini (Chatham Island) with a 
female collected by Garth on Charles Island, they appear different. 
The X. darwini cotype has subtranslucent strongly reddish wings, 
with feeble iridescence (style of X. carhonaria from Mexico); the 
Charles Island one has very dark, brilliantly blue-green wings. The 
abdomen is more closely punctured in the cotype. The abdomen is 
described as very closely punctured in the type of X. carhonaria. 

Wishing to assemble all the available evidence, I asked Mr. 
Robert B. Benson to kindly look at the series in the British Museum. 
This he did, reporting as follows: 

"I have looked over our long series of Xylocopa darwini from 
Galapagos Islands. Specimens from Charles Island certainly are 
less punctured than those from James, Indefatigable and Albemarle 
islands, but I am not able to recognize any differences in the size, as 
all forms seem to vary. In the wing coloring, likewise a lot seems to 
depend on whether the specimens are fresh or not, and I should not 
like to say that the Charles Island forms were darker than the others. 
Neither do I feel willing to say for certain that forms can be dis- 
tinguished on wing iridescence until I have seen a very long series 
of perfect specimens from each of the islands. For example, we have 
forms from James Island with dark wings, showing green iridescence, 
and also with paler wings showing a purple iridescence." (Litt. 
April 15, 1935.) 

To a taxonomist, it would seem agreeable, and to accord with 
expectation, to find distinct if closely allied races inhabiting the 
several islands. But Miss Cheesman suggests that the bees occasion- 
ally wander from one island to another, and reports seeing a female 
out at sea, eight miles from Albemarle Island. We may conclude, 
I think, that there is a tendency to develop insular races, which is 
checked from time to time by the appearance of immigrants from the 
other islands. Hence the incipient races, differing in sculpture and 
wing-color sufficiently to deserve names, were they constant, but 



382 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

actually too variable for precise definition. According to this view, 
one might expect that on the larger islands some localities would be 
inhabited by characteristic types, while at other points, owing to 
crossing with immigrants, the distinctions would fail to hold. This 
seems to accord with the facts, as shown for instance on Indefatigable 
Island, which from its central position might receive immigrants 
from several directions. To the biologist, these facts are full of 
interest and the carpenter bees may be said to have done their part, 
along with the rest of the fauna, to illustrate the processes of evolu- 
tion. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XXI, No. 29, pp. 383-396 August 12, 1936 



THE TEMPLETON CROCKER EXPEDITION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1932 

No. 29 

NEW AND NOTEWORTHY FISHES 



H. WALTON CLARK 

Curator of Ichthyology, 

California Academy of Sciences 



The scientific collection of fishes consists of 3216 tagged specimens 
and perhaps as many more too small for individual tags, representing 
92 families divided into 230 genera of which there are 304 species. 
The majority of these species having been previously recorded for 
the area in question, no mention will be made of them, and this 
report will be confined to the consideration of noteworthy exten- 
sions of range of known species and descriptions of these believed 
not to have been hitherto described. 

Family Torpedinidae : Electric Rays 
1. Narcine ommata Clark, new species 

Total length 160 mm.; body 140 mm.; width of disk 74 mm.; length of disk 
about the same; posterior end of slit-like vent equidistant from end of caudal and 
end of nasal flap. Spiracles comma-shaped, forming the posterior border of the 
eyes, the tail of the comma pointing forward along the lateral margin of the eye, 
their margins beset with low tubercles. Interorbital width 1.5 in snout. Dorsal 
fins nearly equal, origin of first nearly over end of ventral base. Caudal somewhat 
fan-shaped, its ventral edge nearly straight. 

August 12, 1936 



\k 2'^ 183P 



384 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Color in spirits: Upper parts light brown, an irregular paler area across disk 
in front of eyes, with a dusky blotch each side of central anterior edge of disk. 
Leopard-like spots consisting of clusters of dots, one on each side of disk just over 
gill-slits; strongly marked ones in axils of pectorals, a faint one in middle of back 
between these; one on each side of mid-dorsal line of middle of ventrals, and one 
on each side middle of dorsals; a faint one on each side base of caudal. In middle 
of back an ocellated marking consisting of (1) small black dot at center; (2) rather 
narrow yellow ring; (3) broad black ring; (4) narrow bright halo; (5) row of black 
dots a little larger than central one, these each surrounded by a lighter margin. 
Color markings strikingly similar to those of Discopyge ommata Jordan and Gilbert, 
but ventral fins not united into a continuous disk below the tail as in Discopyge. 

Holotype and only specimen: No. 5444 Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. 
Ichthyol., obtained in dredging off the Pacific coast of Central 
America, exact location unknown, field tag having become loose in 
transit. 



Family Muraenidae. The Morays 
2. Rabula rotchii Clark, new species 

Total length about 235 mm.; head 3.5 in trunk, depth about 14.7 in length; 
eye 1.5 in snout, over about middle of gape, which is about 2.5 in head; teeth all 
conical, those of both jaws and vomer largest and strongest in front; posterior 
nostril minute, close to eye and nearly above it; anterior nostril tubular, near end 
of snout. Dorsal posterior, its distance from vent less than head. Color, black, 
with numerous sharply marked white spots, smaller than pupil, scattered along 
sides of body in 3 rows. Species apparently most nearly related to Rabula davisi 
Fowler = Rabula aquae-dulcis Jordan and Davis, nee Cope, but differing in pro- 
portions and color. Named for the genial captain of the Zaca, Garland Rotch. 

Holotype: No. 4964 Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ichthyol., from tide- 
pools. Black Beach Anchorage, Charles Island, Galapagos, May 14, 
1932. 



Family Belonidae. The Needle-fishes 

3. Belone platyura Bennett 

A noteworthy extension of range of a species hitherto known to 
inhabit the region from the Red Sea to Hawaii. One specimen was 
secured at Gardner Bay, Hood Island, April 2, and 2 from off Cape 
San Lucas August 5. They agree with the description of B. platyura 
in the Hawaiian Report, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. XXIII, part I, 
1903, p. 122. 

Family Exocoetidae. The Flying-fishes 
4. Parexocoetus papilio Clark, new species 

Length of bod^f^ 19 mm.; head 4.5 in body; depth 4.75; eye about 2.2 in head, 
about twice as long as the short snout; a short thickish black barbel one side of 
chin, doubtless the remainder of a pair; pectorals reaching to origin of dorsal; 



Vol. XXI] CLARK— NEW AND NOTEWORTHY FISHES 385 

ventrals broad, wing-like, reaching to middle of anal; dorsal elevated, its longest 
rays reaching beyond base of caudal, conspicuous by its dark tip; lower lobe of 
caudal much the longer, longer than head; lower jaw the longer, chin thick, mouth 
obhque. D. 9; A. 10, mouth small, teeth undeveloped. Scales undeveloped, but a 
somewhat more advanced specimen had faint signs of about 40. Body and pectorals 
mottled, the motthng in the form of bars; ventrals and dorsals black; caudal pale, 
with black dots along the rays of the long lower lobe; body coarsely punctate, 
but pale. 

Holotype: No. 5262, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ichthyol., from Braxi- 
lito Bay, Costa Rica. 

Four specimens were obtained from among schools of little flying 
fishes crowding about the submerged light at Braxilito Bay, July 1, 
and ofif Bat Islands the next evening. The holotype is from the 
former locality, the three paratypes 5496, 5496a, 5496b, from the 
latter. With the exception that they lacked its brilliant coloration 
our fishes remind one somewhat of Beebe's colored drawing of the 
"Butterfiying Fish," plate II, opp. p. 68, of the "Arcturus Ad- 
venture," and there identified as Cypselurus furcatus Mitchill. Our 
little fishes, with their moderate pectoral fins, elevated dorsals, long 
ventrals and other characteristics represent the genus Parexocoetus, 
"small fishes of tropical coasts, widely distributed." 

One of the paratypes. No. 5426 of our collection, 22 mm. long, 
standard length and favorable for examination, had pectorals with 
14 rays, the first 3 unbranched, the 4th and 5th longest and forked 
at tip; middle rays of dorsal longest, reaching well beyond base of 
caudal; ventrals long, expanded, reaching nearly to end of anal 
base, their insertion about midway between gill-opening and base 
of caudal. Markings like those of holotype. The fin membranes of 
these little fishes are very frail, making examination without mutila- 
tion very difficult. 

Family Bothidae 

5. Monolene asaedae Clark new species 

Four specimens obtained, three, Nos. 4727 to 4729 inclusive being 
dredged from off Port Angeles Light July 14, and one. No. 4805, 
from Lat. 18° 14' N.; 103° 23' W., in 60 fathoms, July 17. 

Exceedingly thin flat-fishes, translucent, the intemeural and interhaemal areas 
set off sharply in their transparency from the rest of the body, the neural, inter- 
neural, haemal and interhaemal slender spines showing through. The gills and 
viscera also show through the thin skin, as do the muscular bands of the body. 
Fins all black; lateral line of left or colored side, which has a marked curve, running 
far out on pointed caudal, and hardly perceptible, if present at all, on right or blind 
side. Fugaceous scales nearly all lacking on left or colored side of all specimens 
where they appear to be cycloid; persistent on the blind side where they are marked- 
ly so. Outline of body ovate-lanceolate and much like that of a leaf. The following 
is a more detailed description of the specimen chosen as holotype: 

Length of body 69 mm.; head 3.35 in body; depth 2.5, the greatest depth well 
forward, over about the end of the opercle, from which both dorsal and ventral 



386 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

outlines proceed almost straight to the caudal; eye 3.5 in head; maxillary from tip 
of snout 3.5, reaching about to middle of pupil. D. 75; A. 61; scales 15-75-18; 
pectoral 2 in head, of 10 rays; interocular ridge narrow, rather high and sharp; 
chin with a symphyseal knob; teeth very small in a single row in jaws; a sharp but 
small spine before vent. Gill rakers 3+5, remote from each other, triangular, 
smooth, and rather short. Fin membranes naked. 

Holotype: No. 4729, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ichthyol., dredged off 
Port Angeles Light, Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Our No. 4727 has the dorsal rays 78, anal 56, and scales 14-67-13. 
Our specimens are all unlike either of the two species of Monolene 
described by Garman 1899 from the Pacific coast of Mexico, the 
only Pacific species heretofore described. Named for Toshio Asaeda, 
the clever and accomplished artist of the expedition. 



Family Cynoglossidae. Tongue-fishes 
6. Symphurus melanurus Clark, new species 

Total length 169 mm.; body 155 mm.; head 5.16 in body; depth 3.22; eye 6.5 
in head; maxillary 4.2, reaching about to middle of eye; snout 4.2; D. 100, not 
counting half of caudal which is continuous with it, the fin beginning slightly in 
advance of eye, the first rays somewhat produced, the fin highest about middle of 
body, but always low, the longest rays about length of snout. A. 35, similar to 
dorsal. Scales ctenoid, in longitudinal series 89, transversely 39. Color uniform 
brown except dorsal and anal, which are pale anteriorly, gradually darkening 
posteriorly, the last third of each and the caudal black. 

Holotype: No. 4401, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ichthyol., dredged off 
Acapulco, Mexico, 18° 49' N., 99° 05' W. July 15, 1932. 

A paratype, No. 4423, 166 mm. long was partly dissected: Verte- 
brae 9+39 = 48; gillrakers minute tubercles, 0+10; lower pharyn- 
geals narrow, with one irregular row of sharp teeth; upper pharyn- 
geals rounded pads. An examination of 3 additional specimens gave 
D. 100 to 105; A. 83 to 87. Most nearly like atricaudus , from which 
it differs in having uniform coloration and fewer scales. 



Family Achiridae. The Broad Soles 
7. Achirus zebrinus Clark, new species 

Total length 118 mm.; body 94 mm.; head 3.4 in body; depth 1.66; upper eye 5 
in head; snout 4; mouth on colored (right) side extending to below pupil, short and 
much curved downward on blind side; lips on colored side much fringed; a hard 
blunt spine on upper lip. D. 53; A. 41 ; left V. 2, rudimentary; right V. 4, adnate to 
anal. Caudal rounded, with rough scales; dorsal and anal rays broad, densely 
clothed with rough scales, the dorsal rays divided into closely parallel branches. 
Scales 30-77-39 on blind side, about 75 on colored side, very rough ctenoid on 
colored side, those on blind side of head produced into filaments. Anterior dorsal 
and anal rays on blind side clad in similar filaments; scales of nape and chin en- 
larged, those of upper lip and chin developed into lacerate flabellae resembling 



Vol. XXI] CLARK— NEW AND NOTEWORTHY FISHES 387 

minute barbels. Teeth minute, in a small villiform patch on mandible of blind 
side. Gillrakers almost rudimentary. 

General color blackish or dark brown with numerous narrow white bars about 
H or J^ as wide as interspaces, 13 crossing the body, 6 irregular and broken on 
head, those on the caudal becoming 9 horizontal parallels posteriorly. 

Holotype and only specimen: No. 4448 Mus, Calif. Acad. Sci. 
Ichthyol., dredged in 15° 40' N., 93° 49' W. 

In general shape this fish reminds one of the common hog-choker 
of the Atlantic (A. fasciaHts) but is som.ewhat shorter, and has many 
of the scales of the eyed side with hair-like appendages, as in A. 
barnharti or A. mazatlanus, but more irregularly scattered than in 
the last named species, from which it is strikingly distinguished by 
its zebra-like markings and the absence of a pectoral fin. 



Family Nomeidae 

8. Nomeus gronovii (Gmelin). Portuguese Man-of-War Fish; 

Harder; Pastor 

A single specimen of what was identified as this species was taken 
at the surface around the light by means of a dipnet at Academy 
Bay, Indefatigable Island, on the night of May 3, by Frank Taiga. 
On account of its apparent rarity in the Pacific, as well as dis- 
crepancy of descriptions by various authors, our specimen, which 
was in a condition of extreme inanition when it died, is thus de- 
scribed: 

Head large, 3.2 in body; depth at deepest portion (about the nape) 3.2; eye 
large 2.5 in head; snout 4.5; maxillary short, 3.5 in head, reaching anterior margin 
of orbit; D. XII, 26; A. II, 26; scales cycloid, 3-66-14, the lateral Hne high along 
back; cheeks scaly, nape with small scales. Pectorals 20, caudal rather deeply 
forked, the lobes sharp, about equal. A row of small incurved canine-like teeth in 
jaws; premaxillaries not protractile; gill membranes free from the isthmus; branchi- 
ostegals 6; pseudobranchiae well developed; gillrakers about X + 14, slender, the 
longest about as long as the pupil. Color in spirits brownish. 

The following is a description of the Uving fish shortly after capture and during 
its sojourn in an aquarium where attempts were being made to keep it alive. "A 
small slender dainty blue fish, rather compressed. Azure blue with darker blue 
bars on sides. A remarkable feature is the united ventral fins, which are a little in 
advance of the pectorals and are spread out in a fan-shaped form, more hyaline at 
base between rays, rays and distal margin deeper blue, forming the appearance 
of a lace collar." Next morning by dayUght the following notes were added: 
"Middle line of back, pectoral and deeply forked caudal entirely dark blue; four 
blue blotches, narrowing downward, extend from back down on sides; rest of side 
silvery. Snouth blunt; eye large. The expanded (united) motionless ventrals seem 
to be used as a sort of parachute." 

Of the genus Nomeus, to which the specimen appeared to belong, 
the original brief description of Cuvier fits very well. That of Goode 
and Bean enumerates among other particulars "caudal not deeply 
forked," and in this particular they are followed by Jordan and 



388 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Evermann. Goode and Bean's figure however, show the caudal of 
their specimen to be fairly well forked, and Meek and Hildebrand 
say "caudal fin forked, the lobes of about equal length." As to 
color, most descriptions give the color as brown, but Goode and Bean 
describe it as blue. 

As to distribution, the species was originally described as "Tropi- 
cal America," Jordan and Evermann give its range as "Tropical 
parts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans in rather deep water swim- 
ming near the surface, very abundant in the Sargasso Sea, common 
north to Florida and Bermuda; occasionally farther; Woods Hole, 
Mass., also recorded by Eigenmann from Panama." Eigenmann's 
reference is to a collection of fishes in Cornell University, mostly 
from Brazil, in which he reports 5 specimens of N. gronovii from 
"rocky pools at Panama" (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 7, 1894: 629). 
The next record is that of Snodgrass and Heller who obtained "a 
few small specimens taken with Portuguese Men-of-War about Lat. 
7'' 26' N., Long. 100° 36' W., in open sea" considerably to the 
north and west of the Galapagos. Fowler reports 4 specimens in 
very poor condition in the Bishop Museum from Oahu, and one 
from Lat. 6° N. Long. 162° W. at surface, near Christmas Island. 
Our specimen was taken when and where there was an unusual 
assemblage of fishes about the light, with them a school of jelly- 
fishes and a small Portuguese Man-of-War. 

It is difficult to imagine how the Portuguese Man-of-War and its 
companion fish, both feeble swimmers and confined to the surface 
of tropical waters, could find any passage-way from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. Atlantic and Pacific specimens of both these species 
should be carefully compared. 



Family Priacanthidae. The Catalufas 
9. Pseudopriacanthus lucasanus Clark, new species 

Holotype and only specimen: total length 73 mm.; body 56 mm.; head 2.4 in 
body; depth 2; eye 2 in head; snout 4.3; maxillary 2, oblique, extending nearly 
so far as to middle of pupil; interorbital width 4 in head, or about 2 in eye; D. X, 
11, the spines strong and strongly fluted; A. II, 10, similar to dorsal; pectoral rays 
16, the fin short, 1.5 in head; ventrals long, reaching beyond origin of anal. Scales 
small, very rough, 8-48-14. Teeth in several rows along edge of jaws, the outer 
somewhat enlarged, none on vomer or palatines; preorbital very narrow, rough; 
preopercle serrate, its arms straight at an obtuse angle; opercle narrow; branchi- 
ostegals 4; pseudobranchiae well developed; gillrakers long and numerous. Color 
bright yellow; the only touches of color except the yellow being the black tips of 
the caudal, ventral and anal, and soft dorsal fins. 

Holotype: No. 2708, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ichthyol., from dredge 
haul among rocks off Cape San Lucas, Lower California, August 5, 
1932. 



Vol. XXI] CLARK— NEW AND NOTEWORTHY FISHES 389 

Family Oplegnathidae. The Stonewall Perches 

10. Oplegnathus insigne (Kner) Stonewall Perch 

Three specimens collected, one young 15 mm. long, west side of 
Albemarle Island near the lava fields, May 22, with 5 black cross- 
bars almost identical in markings with young example No. 1, de- 
scribed by Snodgrass and Heller, and another still smaller and more 
faintly marked from about the light, Tagus Cove, May 26. The 
third specimen, 350 mm. long, was one of the most strikingly 
marked of all fishes taken on the cruise. The general color was dark 
brown, almost black, except the breast and belly, the body and fins 
being covered thickly with white spots and vermiculations a little 
narrower than the diameter of the pupil. The general appearance 
was so unusual that the only clue to the family was the remarkably 
thick upper lip with the teeth coalesced into a continuous but 
weakly serrate plate in each jaw, much like those of the parrot fish. 
The species was assumed to be that of dissimilarly marked specimens 
recorded for the region. 



Family Pomacentridae. The Demoiselles 

11. Demoisellea peregrina Clark, new species 

The following is a description of our largest and most mature 
specimen. 

Total length 18 mm.; head 2.57 in body; depth 2; eye 2.3 in head; snout 3.6; 
maxillary reaching nearly to pupil. D. XIII, 13; A. II, 12; scales 3-27-9, ctenoid, 
18 pores, the lateral line ending under the dorsal; a low sheath of scales along base 
of dorsal and anal, an enlarged axillary scale at base of ventral; fin membranes 
naked; preorbital narrow, entire, only partly sheathing the maxillary; preopercle 
entire; teeth in jaws minute, conical. Gill membranes free from the isthmus; 
branchiostegals 6; pseudobranchiae well developed; gillrakers slender, about as 
long as pupil. Soft dorsal and anal rounded, the rays higher than the spines, the 
longest (middle) of the dorsal reaching nearly to the end of the short caudal ped- 
uncle; caudal emarginate. Origin of ventrals under that of the pectorals, both fins 
about 1.4 in head, first ray of ventral produced, reaching anal. 

Color a rather uniform brown, except pectoral, tip of soft dorsal, soft anal, 
and all of caudal, which are white. 

Holotype: No. 5437, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. IchthyoL, attracted by 
submerged light. Bat Islands, Costa Rica, July 2, 1932. 

Two examples were obtained among the small fishes crowding 
about the submerged light at Albemarle Island, May 29, and 14 from 
Bat Islands, July 2, along with the holotype. 



390 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

12. Eupomacentrus beebei Nichols 

A sharp lookout was kept for this brilliantly colored little fish, 
hitherto known from only one specimen, body length 15 mm., ob- 
tained by Beebe in 1923, described by Nichols, and illustrated in a 
colored plate in Beebe's "Galapagos; World's End." 

One was obtained at the north end of Indefatigable Island, not 
far from Seymour Island, and in the vicinity of Eden Island, the 
type locality. A brilliant example was seen in a tidepool on Charles 
Island, but it escaped into a rock crevice, and eight were taken from 
tidepools along the west side of a lagoon near the lava fields of 
Albemarle Island between Iguana and Tagus Coves. As there was 
sufficient material at hand one specimen was partially dissected for 
a fuller description than any available. 

Body length 15 mm.; head 2.5 in body; depth 1.9; eye 3 in head; D. X, 14; A. II, 
11; pectoral rays 20; ventrals with an accessory scale between them; gill membranes 
free from isthmus; pseudobranchiae large, well developed; gillrakers rather slender, 
remote, X + 10; scales 2-23 (19 pores)-9; lower pharyngeals a solid triangular piece 
with concave sides; intestine somewhat elongate, vertebrae 10 + 14 = 24. 

The most striking feature about the little fishes is that the teeth 
are emarginate as in Abudefduf, but the preopercles are serrate as in 
Eupomacentrus; a connecting link between these two genera is thus 
suggested. 



Family Coridae 
13. Julidio maculosus Clark, new species 

Total length 44 mm.; body 37 mm.; head 3.4 in body; depth 3.75; eye 3.6 in 
head; = snout; maxillary hidden under the rather narrow preorbital; interorbital 
slightlj'^ concave, its width nearly equal to diameter of eye; D. IX, 11, A. Ill, 9; 
the spines in both dorsal and anal difficult to distinguish from rays; scales 3-36-7, 
all thin and cycloid. 

Ground color white, covered with large irregular black or deep brown blotches 
of irregular size, an irregular white line, about 2 scales wide, along middle of side 
dividing dorsal set of blotches from ventral; pectoral and caudal colorless, the other 
fins mottled, middle of dorsal with an occellated oval black spot about as large as 
eye. 

Holotype: No. 3156 Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ichthyol., Conway Bay, 
Indefatigable Island. 

More thorough examination was made of a paratype which was 
partially dissected with the following results: D. IX, 12; A. II, 
14; anterior enlarged incisors 2/4, no posterior canines; vertebrae 
9+16 = 25. 

These strikingly piebald black and white wrasse fishes were all 
small, the longest being 43 mm. long. Two were obtained from 
tidepools along James Bay, James Island, June 4, ten from Conway 



Vol. XXI] CLARK— NEW AND NOTEWORTHY FISHES 391 

Bay, Indefatigable Island June 8, and four from tidepools of the 
same island the next day. 

Family Gobioididae 

14. Gobioides peruvianus (Steindachner) 

The fish tentatively identified with this and taken up near the 
head of Pedregal River, Honduras, was so far out of its previously 
recorded range "Shores of Ecuador and Peru, entering rivers" that 
it is deemed best to give a brief description. 

Total length 350 mm.; head 6.5 in body; D. VI, 16; A. 16, the spines and rays 
hidden in thick membrane so that their character and exact count is uncertain; 
ventrals united into a cup-shaped sucker, as is common with gobies. An eel-shaped 
fish with minute eyes nearly on top of head; posterior nostril slit-like, midway 
between eye and tip of snout; anterior nostril round, small, near lip. Mouth very 
oblique, armed with a row of sharp fangs. Gill membranes united to isthmus. 



Family Clinidae. The Scaled Blennies 

Crockeridius, new genus 

Blennies, apparently closely related to Mnierpes or to Emnion, 
genera rather midway between the Clinidae and the scaleless blen- 
nies. They differ from Mnierpes in having a small orbital tentacle 
and in dentition, and from Emnion in the character of the lateral 
line and in conformation of head. Type, Crockeridius odysseus, the 
genus named for Mr. Templeton Crocker. 



15. Crockeridius odysseus Clark, new species 

Total length 78 mm.; body 65 mm.; head 5.4 in body; depth 8; eye large and 
prominent, 3.5 in head; snout 4, the upper lip forming a peculiar upturned ridge; 
interorbital narrow, concave, less than half eye; maxillary to tip of snout and in- 
cluding projecting upturned lip 2.5 in head; gape not quite reaching to middle of 
pupil; cheeks puffed and tumid; gill membranes free from isthmus, forming a fold 
across it; branchiostegals 5. D. XXIV, 14, the spinous portion low and even, the 
spines a little shorter than diameter of eye and about 1.75 in length of rays; A. I, 
26, similar in shape to soft dorsal, but membrane between rays incised to near base, 
leaving a triangular flap of membrane from tip of each ray posteriorly. Ventrals 
I, 3, the short spine and stout long first ray in a common integument, separated by 
a deep incision from the other two rays, the fin inserted a short distance behind 
gill-membrane fold and slightly in advance of origin of pectorals, their longest ray 
about 1.5 in head and their tips reaching about two-thirds way to vent; pectoral 
somewhat acutely rounded, with 13 rays, the longest about as long as head, the 
tips reaching to vent; caudal rays 13, the fin pointed and free from dorsal and anal, 
whose tips reach its base; caudal peduncle very short. Scales about 7-53-7, lateral 
line forming an arch of about 1 7 scales above the pectoral, thence descending to the 
middle of side. From the end of the curve it almost disappears, being represented 
by an occasional almost imperceptible ridge without any sign of tubes. Head, 
breast, and belly naked. 



392 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The scales are peculiar structures, hardly showing at all on moist specimens; 
on alcoholic specimens allowed to dry the scales curl up, resembling loosened patches 
of skin, so that it was at first thought they were the anterior flaps of scale pockets 
from which deciduous scales had been shed, as has been described and figured for 
Entnion hristolae Jordan (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19: 454, 1897). It is only by 
some eflfort that these seeming flaps of skin can be loosened and pulled from the 
body, when they show the fluting and radiating lines characteristic of the point of 
attachment of many scales. 

Holotype: No. 2806, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ichthyol., from pot- 
holes, Duncan Island, Galapagos, June 7, 1932. 

Details of dentition, gill structure, skeleton and the like were 
best made out by a dissection of one of the paratypes, (No. 2809) 
with the following results: Upper jaw with a row of stout canines 
and several rows of minute teeth behind them; lower jaw with only 
the row of canines; no teeth on palatines, a small patch of minute 
granules on vomer. Gills 3>^, a small slit behind the last; gillrakers 
a few wide-set short tubercles. Stomach short and curved, no 
coecae noted; contents a small bristle-bearing worm. Another con- 
tained insect remains. Vertebrae 40. 

The examination of a female revealed a large number of minute 
eggs. All our specimens are much alike in color, nearly black, the 
caudal marked with white spots producing a barred appearance. 

The history and habits of this species are more remarkable than 
their appearance. The first example seen was noticed on the top of a 
rock along the shore of Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, April 18. It 
looked very much like a curled up salamander, with black, smooth, 
glistening skin and prominent beady, watchful eyes. Upon approach- 
ing with a dipnet it sprang into the water. From time to time about 
a dozen more were seen coiled up on rocks, and it was then ascer- 
tained that they were fish. They were seen from time to time mak- 
ing quick jumps from and over rocks into deeper water. From their 
alertness and activity and their unexpected position they were ap- 
parently the most elusive of fishes and probably absent in collec- 
tions. Beebe had apparently caught glimpses of them, for he re- 
marks (Galapagos, p. 112): "Blennies climbed out and flicked here 
and there upon tide-soaked rocks." 

The capture of the first specimen was due to the skill of Frank 
Taiga, a Samoan with unusual ability in the capture of fishes. 
Several were seen curled up on a rock on the shore of Indefatigable 
Island at Academy Bay; by carefully stalking them from behind 
the rocks and making swift strokes with the landing net one after 
another was secured until we had 9 specimens. One, seen in a tide- 
pool, was of a beautiful emerald green color, but it escaped. 

On a trip along the shore of Duncan Island, June 7, was dis- 
covered what appeared to be the home of the rock-springers. They 
seem to be neither ocean nor tidepool fishes but rather pot-hole 
inhabitants, living, along with suck-fishes (Gobiesocidae), in deep 
depressions back some distance from all but the highest tides. Un- 



Vol. XXI] CLARK— NEW AND NOTEWORTHY FISHES 393 

like the suck-fishes they have no means of attaching themselves 
firmly to rocks against the dash of surf. They showed great alacrity 
in climbing out of the steep sided pools and it was only by administer- 
ing poison and keeping them down in the pools that they could be 
collected in such situations. They were indeed able to ascend the 
smooth vertical side of the enameled collecting can. 

Later on (July 3), in small alga bottomed pools back from the 
shore of Murcielago Bay, near Bat Islands, the newly-born or newly- 
hatched young were found, their parents about the pool edges. 

Notwithstanding their climbing ability it is apparently not by 
this means that they attain their positions on the tops of the rocks. 
They were observed, time after time, hurled from height to height 
by successive surges to their final perch where they lay, apparently 
panting for breath, awaiting the dashing spray. It is probable that 
their peculiar scale structure, presenting a great expansion of sur- 
face, is an adaptation for respiration by means of the skin, as in 
salamanders. It is probably only adventurous individuals which 
leave their native pools and pioneer down to the edge of the surging 
ocean, that one finds coiled upon rocks, and that is to these ad- 
venturers that the wide distribution of the species as well as its in- 
tegrity is due. 

Specific name for Ulysses in commemoration of the character of 
his arrival at the land of the Phaeacians. 



16. Scartella atrimana Clark, new species 

Total length 18 mm.; body 16; head 3.2 in body; depth 3.55; eye 2.5 in head; 
snout 3.3; maxillary about 3.3, reaching to anterior border of eye; D. XII, 11, the 
second spine highest, others gradually decreasing, giving the spinous portion a 
wave-like form; A. 15 or II, 13, the spines hardly or not distinguishable from rays; 
V. I, 2, the small spine in the same integument as the first ray, rays in thick integu- 
ment, not forked; P. 13; caudal truncate, well separated from dorsal and anal by 
a slender peduncle; no scales; a faint lateral line arching over the pectoral. Teeth 
a comb-like row, solid in jaws, acute. Branchiostegals 5; gill-membranes attached 
to isthmus a little below base of pectoral, but a peculiar fold across isthmus; pec- 
toral broad and conspicuous, pointed, about 1.2 in head, its tip reaching to base 
of 4th anal ray; ventral inserted before pectoral, 1.5 in head, the tip reaching about 
34 way to anal; nostrils rather wide apart, the lower with a filament; a short simple 
supraocular filament; preopercle with a short, fiat spine-like extension. Color: 
nape, upper part of head, cheeks, top of back up to middle of spinous dorsal with 
punctate blotches; lower part of pectoral black; a black spot in axil of pectoral; 
a small black spot in each anal ray; remainder of body cream color. Others agree 
fairly well with this. 

Holotype: No. 3988, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ichthyol., about sub- 
merged light, Albemarle Island. 

Paratype examined for fuller details gave gillrakers mere tubercles; pseudo- 
branchiae present, very small; vertebrae 8 + 16=24. 

Our specimens differ from 5. brevirostris, with which it was at- 
tempted to identify them, by general difference in physiognomy. 



394 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The interorbital space, instead of being narrow is rather broad, there 
being a brow-like projection above the eyes which are not notably 
high and close together. The caudal is truncate, at times with a 
very slight emargination. A feature that first catches the eye is the 
black of the lower half of the pectoral. 

The following will indicate its abundance and distribution: 
Socorro Island, March 27, one; Postoffice Bay, Charles Island, 
April 23, one; Black Beach Anchorage, April 25, twenty-two; Acad- 
em}^ Bay, Indefatigable Island, May 1, one; Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
Island, May 24 and 25, six; same island off Vilamil April 29, fifty- 
seven; James Bay, James Island, June 3, two; Braxilito Bay, July 1, 
seven; off Bat Islands, July 2, ten; Navidad Bay, July 18, one; 
Banderas Bay, July 20, one; and off Maria Madre, July 23, one. 
Total 100 specimens. 

It is noteworthy that, although these specimens were taken 
over much of the area investigated and during much of the time of 
the investigation, there is little change of size or appearance of 
increased maturity. 



Family Cerdalidae 
17. Cerdale bilineatus Clark, new species 

Total length 39 mm.; body 35 mm.; head 7 in body; depth 10.1; eye 5 in head; 
gape very short, sub-vertical, not nearly reaching eye; lower jaw projecting, enter- 
ing into the rounded profile. D. about XXII, 25, the spines gradually passing into 
simple but articulate rays, the low fin not notched, but apparently lower about the 
point of transition, the dorsal beginning a short distance behind nape. A. II, 
26, beginning about middle of body; caudal rounded, its rays about 5, 18, 5, free 
from dorsal and anal. Ventrals apparently I, 2, or 2, the spine uncertain, one ray 
forked, its longest part about 1.5 in head, the fin inserted under origin of pectorals; 
pectorals acutish, of 9 rays, a little longer than ventrals. Gill opening a small pore 
before base of pectorals. Teeth a double row of strong rounded incisors in jaws. 
Apparently 3 branchiostegals. Most of the body naked, but with small circular 
non-imbricate scales scattered along middle of sides. Color, a long narrow black 
line along each side of dorsal beginning near tip of snout, a somewhat broader line 
extending from the very tip of snout across cheek and along middle side to tip of 
caudal. Near its posterior end there is a dusky extension like a blot passing down 
over the end of base of anal. 

Holotype: No. 3245, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ichthyol., Indefati- 
gable Island, June 9. 

Examples were occasionally seen among rocks in the tidepools, 
exceedingly elongate, brightly striped fishes, very active and fiexuous 
and able to escape the landing net, so that only the holotype was 
captured. The color markings were strikingly similar to that of 
Petroscirtes tapeinosonoma of which we secured a few specimens, 
but the fish was much more elongate. 

The reader will at once be struck by the great disparity between 
the number of species (304) taken during the expedition and the 



Vol. XXI] CLARK— NEW AND NOTEWORTHY FISHES 395 

Species discussed (17) in this report. All of the 3216 specimens repre- 
sent a valuable addition to our scientific collection, even the ones too 
immature for certain identification; for juvenile forms are too little 
known, and further collecting may, in time, make their position 
certain. Along with the specimens are 150 colored drawings repre- 
senting about 170 species, and a few duplicates showing color varia- 
tions, drawn from life by the artist, Toshio Asaeda, which it is 
hoped may be published some time in the future. 

The greater number of species not mentioned in the report for 
lack of space have been already reported for the region under dis- 
cussion, and the mere giving of a list of names would add nothing to 
our knowledge, and as the area covered does not represent a definite 
biological area, a check-list would be of little significance. A few 
additional notes may be of interest. 

(1) Although no living hammerhead sharks, Sphryna zygaena, 
were seen during the cruise, a great pile of skins and remains were 
seen on the beach of Isabel Island, where they had apparently been 
tried out for oil. 

(2) A great school of rays, probably eagle rays, were seen swim- 
ming at the surface in shallow water near Hood Island, their ex- 
panded ventrals beating the water surface and making a striking 
spectacle. No specimens were taken, however. 

(3) A large specimen of the spotted eagle ray, Stoasodon narinari, 
was seen at the shore of Wreck Bay, and a pair were seen at North 
Seymour, but none was taken. 

(4) Our collection indicates that the flying fishes, of which we 
secured a goodly number, may need revision, A species described 
as callopterus, distinguished by having the pectorals covered with 
small, round, dark spots, is said to be "common at Panama, but not 
yet seen elsewhere" (Jordan and Evermann 1896). Beebe reported 
it at Hood Island under that name, remarking that "about one in 
every 50 had wings densely covered with round black spots," 
(Arcturus Adventure, p. 106). At Braithwaite Bay, Socorro Island, 
Revillagigedos, we found some specimens with many, some with a 
fair number, some with few, and some with no black spots, all ap- 
parently the same species. They were crowded with eggs which 
oozed out at a touch (March 28). It was at first thought that the 
black spots were characteristic of one of the sexes, but examination 
showed it not to be the case. Toshio Asaeda made a beautiful draw- 
ing of one of the spotted-winged specimens. Extensions of range, 
hitherto unrecorded but to be more or less expected, is that of Pet- 
roscirtes tapeinosoma Bleeker, from the South Seas to the Galapagos, 
where one was captured in a tidepool of Indefatigable Island near 
Seymour Island, June 9, and three more at Sulivan Bay, James 
Island, June 13. One might possibly expect in the colder, deeper 
waters an extension of members of a fauna found nearer the surface 
farther north; and so we found by dredging about San Nicolas and 
San Martin Islands numerous examples of Chitonoius pugetensis, 



396 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

whose range had been given as San Francisco to Puget Sound, 
Icelinus quadriseriatus in colder deeper water as far as Cape San 
Lucas and Cedros Island, its previous range reported as "off San 
Francisco, between Point Reyes and Golden Gate." 

Our collection is unusually rich in the little cling-fishes, or Go- 
biesocidae, of all ages and sizes, as these had been previously neg- 
lected and the tidepools were thoroughly searched for them. These 
minute creatures are difficult of identification, and there was a na- 
tural hesitancy upon deciding upon any of them being new. 

A noteworthy event of the cruise was the receipt of a radiogram 
from San Francisco by the Zaca, in search of a surgeon to care for 
a man who had been attacked by what appears to have been a king- 
fish, or Wahoo, Acanthocybhtm solandri, which was at first reported 
as a barracuda. The Zaca left Wreck Bay and travelled back all 
night until about 8:30 next morning, when we made connections 
with the tuna boat where the accident occurred. According to ac- 
counts the fish had leaped up two fathoms above the water surface 
and gashed the man's throat, which was attended to promptly on 
our arrival. The boat contained anchovies for bait, and they were 
in the habit of grinding up tuna for "chum" to attract fish to their 
nets. It is probable the odor of ground fish or anchovies had mad- 
dened the kingfish. Anyone noting the Wahoo's arrowy dashes 
after fish fry or observing the row of sharp incisors could easily 
understand how such an accident might occur. 

In reporting upon the scientific collection, the collection of living 
fishes brought back to the Steinhart Aquarium is naturally ignored, 
as the identification is in many cases uncertain and the certainty of 
the place of collection soon lost. Among them, however, was a 
handsome snake eel, Quassiremus evionthas (Jordan and Bollman), 
the only specimen known except the type described in Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. 1889: 154, from Hood Island, Galapagos. 



k^ 



/ 



NOV 1-1950 



^^ 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXI 

FOURTH SERIES 
New names in bold-face type 



aberrans, Triclioglossus haematodua, 192 
abingdonensis, Amaranthus sclerantoides 

forma, 92, 94 
Abronia maritima, 279 
Abudefduf antjerius, 3G7 

atrapinna, 367 

azysron, 367 

bonang, 367 

glaucus, 367 

leucozonus, 368 

septemfaseiatus, 366 

sexfasciatus, 367 

uniocellatus, 366 
Acanalonia clarionensis, 38 

excavata, 38 
Acantliuridae, 363 
Acanthurus lituratus, 363 
acapulcana, Hindsia, 119 
acapulcanum, Lioglyphoatoma, 119 
acapulcensis, Nuculana, 118 
acaulis, Alternanthera, 97 
Achillea Millefolium var. lanulosa, 283 
Achiridae, 386 
Achirus zebrinus, 386 
Achyranthes echinocephala, 110 

flavicoma, 107 

galapagensis, 108 

glaucescens, 104, 105 

Helleri, 109 

Hookeri, 102 

nudicaulis, 101 

rugulosa, 111 

strictiuscula, 105 

Snodgrassii, 109 

v'estita, 108 
Acromyrmex octospinosus, 63 
aculeoutus, Balistapus, 376 
acuta, Dussumieria, 339 
acutinoda, Polyrhachis (Ghariomyrma) 

arcuata var., 180 
(Adrana) sowerbyana, Nuculana, 118 
adria, Clathurella, 118 
adscendens, Physcia, 218, 221 

Pliyseia hispida var., 218 
aduncus, Condylostylus, 66 
Aedes taeniorhynchus, 149 



aegilata, Physcia, 218, 221 
aeneacens, Anthomyia, 164 

Ophyra, 164 
aequinoctialis, Platymetopius, 30 
(Aequipecten) plurinominis, Chlamya, 310 

plurinominis morantensia, Chlamya, 
310 

tumbezensis, Pecten, 315 
aesia, Oxyna, 158 
aeaia, Paroxyna, 158 
aethiopicus pygmaeua, Threskiornig, 191 
afelei, Eviota, 371 
affinis, Caranx, 357 
Agraulia vanillae galapagensis, 141 
Agromyza M — nigrum, 162 
Agromyzidae, 163 
aipolia, Physcia, 219, 221 
alata, Froelichia juncea, 116 
albemarlensis, Amaranthus sclerantoides 
forma, 93 

Camponotus (Pseudocolobopais) ma- 
cilentus var., 60 

Dorymyrmex pyraniicus, 59 
albicans, Cyclodietyon, 86 
albidum, Octoblepharum, 81, 86 
albifasciata, Bursa, 118 
albipennis, Lynchia, 134 

Olf ersia, 134 
albomaculatus, Syrphus, 155 
aleeatis, Clavus (Clathrodrillia), 118 
Alectis ciliaris, 357 
Alectoria sarmentosa, 215 
Aligia plena, 37 
Allograpta, 153 

splendens, 153 
Alternanthera, 88, 99 

acaulis, 97 

echinocephala, 101, 110 

ficoidea, 101, 111 

filifolia, 100, 102 

filifolia glauca, 103 

filifolia margaritacea, 102, 104 

filifolia subsquarrosa, 103 

filifoUa sylvatica, 102, 104 

filifolia typica, 102 

flavicoma, 100, 107 



[397] 



0CT3 



W» 



398 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Pboc. 4th See, 



^ ^^1^11^ i,*y4?jjjB;tar^thera flosculosa, 100, 107 

galapagensis, 100, 108 
• glaucescens, 100, 104 

glaucescens forma strictiuscula, 105 

glaucescens forma typica, 105 

halimifolia macrophylla, 101, 112 

HeUeri, 100, 109 

Helleri forma obtusior, 110 

Helleri forma typica, 109 

nesiotes, 100, 110 

nudicaulis, 100, 101 

radicata, 97 

rigid a, 98 

rugulosa, 101, 111 

Snodgrassii, 100, 109 

subseaposa, 97 

vestita, 100, 108 
amandi, Pecten (Chlamys), 305 
Amaranthaceae of the Galapagos Islands, 

The, by J. T. Howell, 87-116 
Amaranthus, 88, 89 

Anderssoni, 89, 95 

Anderssoni forma erectus, 95, 96 

Anderssoni forma typicus, 95 

caracasanus, 90 

celosioides, 89, 90 

dubius, 89, 90 

furcatus, 89, 94 

gracilis, 89, 91 

quitensis, 89, 90 

sclerantoides, 89, 91, 93 

Bclerantoides forma abingdonensis, 
92,94 

sclerantoides forma ablemarlensis, 93 

sclerantoides forma chathamensis, 
92,93 

sclerantoides forma hoodensis, 93 

sclerantoides forma rugulosus, 92, 94 

sclerantoides forma typicus, 92, 93 

spinosus, 89, 91 

squamulatus, 89, 95 

squarrulosus, 95 

urceolatus, 95 

viridis, 89, 91 
Ambassidae, 358 
Ambassis interrupta, 358 

vaivasensis, 359 
Amblogyna urceolata, 95 
Amblogyne squarrulosa, 95 
americanus, Ornithoponus, 134 
amoena. Halcyon chloris, 193 



amosi, Metula, 119, 122 

Amphiprion percula, 365 

Anacolia Menziesii, 77 

Anaptyehia ciliatomarginata, 217, 221 

Anartia jatrophae, 142 

venusta, 142 
anceps, Caulerpa, 262 

papuanus, Iridomyrmex, 178 
Anchineura tibialis, 151 
Anchovia apiensis, 340 

commersonii, 340 

evermanui, 340 

purpurea, 340 
Anderssoni, Amaranthus, 89, 95 

forma erectus, Amaranthus, 95, 96 

forma typicus, Amaranthus, 95 
Anderssonii, Campylopus, 79, 86 

Meteoriopsis, 86 

Pectis, 336 
andromache var. uesiotis, Polyrhachis 

(Myrma) relucens, 179 
anema, Petroscirtes, 373 
Anguilla australis, 340 

mauritiana, 340 
Anguillidae, 340 
angustata, Telanthera, 105 
angusticollis, Termopsis, 236 

Zootermopsis, 234, 236 
angustifolia, Melluge flavescens, 18 
angustifolium, Apiastrum, 281 
anjerensis, Gnatholepis, 371 
annae, Polyrhachis (Hedomyrma), 180 
anolis, Leiolopisma, 185 
Anapolepis longipes, 63, 178 
Antennariidae, 378 
Antennarius commersonii, 378 
antjerius, Abudefduf, 367 
Anthoceros simulans, 204 

vegetans, 205 
Anthocerotaceae, 203 
Anthomyia aenescens, 164 
Anthrax primitiva, 151 

tincta, 151 
actus, Pecten, 320 
Aparine, Gallium, 283 
Aphaenogaster patruelis willowsi, 64 
Aphrosylus setosus, 152 
Apiastrum angustifolium, 281 
apiensis, Anchovia, 340 
Aploactidae, 365 
Aploactis milesii, 365 



oa^ 



'^- 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



399 



Aplonis cantorides cantorides, 194 

metallica nitida, 194 

tabuensis fortunae, 194 
Apogou asaedae, 358 

lateralis, 358 

novemfasciatus, 357 

orbicularis, 357 

savayensis, 357 
Apogonidae, 357 
aporos, Ophiocara, 370 
Apoz-osa tibialis, 148 
Area aviculoides, 118 

labiosa, 118 

nux, 118 

sp., 118 
Architectonica granulata, 118 
archon, Conus, US 
arcuata var. acutinoda, Polyrhachis 

(Chariomyrma), 180 
arenarium, Camptothecium, 77 
argante, Catopsilia, 140 
argentea, Telanthera, 110 

braeteata, Telanthera, 110 

uudiflora, Telanthera, 110 

robustier, Telanthera, 110 
argentum, Bryum, 77 
(Argus) ventricosus var. coccinea, Pec- 
ten, 313 
arguta, Sanicula, 282 
Aristida tenuifoUa, 296 

vaginata, 297 
armillata, Terebra, 119 
Arphnus tripunctatus, 36 
Artemisia californica var. insularis, 283 
aruanus, Dascyllus, 368 
asaedae, Apogon, 358 

Monolene, 385 
ascensionis, Caranx, 356 
Ascia monuste, 140 
asper, Sonchus, 284 
aspera, Terebra, 119 
asperus, Pecten, 314 
Asyndetus interruptus, 152 

versicolor, 152 
Athlennes hians, 345 
Atherina f orskali, 354 

lacunosa, 354 

temmincki, 355 

uisila, 354 

valenciennesi, 355 
Atherinidae, 354 



Athysanus digressus, 32 

atrapinna, Abudefduf, 367 

atriceps, Hydrophis faciatus, 187 

atrimana, Scartella, 393 

Atriplex californica, 279 

atripliciformis, Elvira, 333 

atroeostata, Emoia, 185 

atrovirens, Tortula, 76 

attenuata, Mitra, 119 

aulicus, Camponotus (Myrmocladoecua) 

rectangularis var., 64 
Aulostomidae, 354 
Aulostomus valentini, 354 
auritus, Scarichthys, 370 
aurolineatus, Pentapus, 361 
australis, Anguilla, 340 

Dictyosphaeria, 261 

Enygrus, 186 

Pecten, 305 
aiitocles, Papilio thoas, 140 
aviculoides, Area, 118 
Azteca velox, 63 
azysron, Abudefduf, 367 
Babingtonii, Eoccella, 286 
Baecha, 153 

clavata, 154 
Baccinum metula, 122 
Baeria Palmeri var. Clementina, 283 
Balistapus aculeatus, 376 

undulatus, 376 
Balistes conspicillium, 376 

fiavimarginatus, 375 

papuensis, 375 
Balistidae, 375 

barberinus, Pseudupeneus, 362 
Barbula brachyphylla, 76 
barnesii, Enaeta, 119 

Bartram, E. B., Mosses of the Templeton 
Crocker Expedition and List of 
Mosses Known from the Galapagos 
Islands and from Cocos Island, 75 
Bathygobius fuscus, 371 
bauri, Odontomachus haematoda, 58 
bedoti, Camponotus (Myrmamblys) reti- 

culatus, 179 
beebei, Eupomacentrus, 390 
Bees of the Galapagos Islands, The Car- 
penter, by T. D. A. Cockerell, 379 
bellus, Fusus, 122 
Belone platyura, 384 
Belonidae, 345, 384 



400 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Peoc. 4th Siai. 



Bequaert, J. C, The Hippoboscidae of the 
Galapagos Archipelago, with an 
Appendix on the Tabanidae, 131 
berenice, Danais, 141 
bergii cristata, Sterna, 191 
BernouUii, Syrrliopodon, 86 
biaculeatus, Premnas, 365 
bicolor, Callyodon, 370 
Phillonotus, 119 
Sphagebranchus, 342 
bifasciatus, Pomacentrus, 366 

Pseudupeneus, 362 
bilineatus, Cerdale, 394 
bilobatus, Cypselurus, 347 
Binderi, Sargassum, 265 
biocellatus, Glassogobius, 371 
bipinnulatus, Elagatis, 357 
biplagiata, Victorina steneles, 142 
Birds, Notes on the, by M. E. McLellan 

Davidson, 189 
bispora, Pertusaria, 213, 221 
bispora, Pertusaria leioplaea forma, 213 
bisulcata, Euphorbia, 330 
bitaeniatus, Chromis, 368 
Blenniidae, 373 
bohar, Lutianus, 360 
Boiga irregularis, 186 
Bolanderi, Funaria, 76 
Bombyliidae, 151 
bonang, Abudefduf, 367 
bonita, Calliostonia, 118, 121 
Borboridae, 158 
boschi, Gymnothorax, 342 
Bothidae, 385 
boutonii poecilopleurus, Cryptoblepharus, 

185 
bouveri, Microcerotermes, 234, 251, 252 
Brachycereus Thouarsii, 52, 53 
Brachymenium imbricatum, 86 
brachyphylla, Barbula, 76 
brachypterus, Parexocoetus, 347 
brachyrhynchus, Cynoglossus, 351 
(Braehytoma) nigerrimus, Clavus, 118 
bracteata, Telanthera argentea, 110 

Telanthera echinocephala, 110 
Brandesia echinocephala, 110 
breviceps, Philates, 33, 35 
brevicomis, Chrysotus, 68, 69, 151 
brevispina, Chrysotus, 68, 69, 151, 152 
brevispinosa chathamensis, Cremato- 
gaster (Orthocrema), 58 



var. miiiutior, Crematogaster 
(Orthocrema), 62 
broderipiana, Natica, 119 
Brodiaea eapitata, 279 
Bromus carinatus, 279 
brummeri, Strophidon, 343 
brunneipes, Polyrhachis (Myrma) labella 

var., 179 
Bryum argenteum, 77 

caespiticum, 77 
Buccinum clathratus, 122 
buchivacoanus falconensis, Pecten, 310 
moracaibensis, Pecten, 310 
Pecten (Chlamys), 310 
Bucholtzia filifolia, 102 
glaucescens, 104, 105 
nudicaulis, 101 
bufoniformis, Rana, 184 
bullata, Cancellaria, 118, 119 
Bursa albifasciata, 118 
Butorides striatus macrorhynchus, 190 
caeruleicpes, Trichoglossus haematodus, 

192 
caeruleomaculata, Liza, 355 
caeruleus, Chromis, 368 
caespiticum, Bryum, 77 
caespitosa, Tortella, 86 
ealcitrans, Conops, 165 

Stomoxys, 165 
calciearis var. canaliculata, Eamalina, 
215, 221 
Eamalina, 215, 221 
californica, Atriplex, 279 
Grimmia, 76 

var. insularis, Artemisia, 283 
calif oricum, Lyeium, 283 
Callechelys fijiensis, 342 
callianira, Clavus (Clathrodrillia), 118 
callicomata, Pitar, 118 
Callicostella depressa, 86 
Calliostoma bonita, 118, 121 
leanus, 118 
rema, 118, 121 
Callocardia citharia, 118 
callozoensis, Pecten (Chlamys), 309 
Callyodon bicolor, 370 
Caloplaca cirrochroa, 217, 221 

murorum, 217, 221 
Caloplacaceae, 217 
calvescens, Funaria, 86 
calvescens, Pectis glabra forma, 334, 336 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



401 



ealydonia, Itaballia, 140 
Calymperes Donnellii, 82, 86 

Richardi, 85 
Camponotus (Myrmamblys) reticulatus 
bedoti, 179 
(Myrmaphaenus) cocosensis, 61 
(Myrmobrachys) senex, 63 
(Myrmoeladoeeus) planus var. heph- 

aestus, 59 
(Myrmoeladoeeus) planus var. isabel- 

ensis, 59 
(Myrmoeladoeeus) planus var. pere- 

grinus, 59 
(Myrmoeladoeeus) planus var. santa- 

cruzensis, 59 
(Myrmacladoecus) rectangularis, 63 
(Myrmacladoeeus) reetangularis var. 

aulicus, 64 
(Myrmacladoeeus) rectangularis var. 

willowsi, 63 
(Myrmothrix) sp., 63 
(Pseudocolobopsis) maeilentus var. 

albeniarlensis, 60 
(Pseudocolobopsis) maeilentus var. 

narboroensis, 60 
(Tanaemyrmex) pieipes var. ?, 61 
Camptopleura theramenes, 145 
Camptothecium arenarium, 77 
Campylopus Anderssonii, 79, 86 
introflexus, 81, 86 
Sprucei, 86 
subleucogaster, 79, 86 
Camyplopus (Eucampylopus) insularis, 
79, 86 
cana, Prosthetocirca, 168 
Canace, 160 
Canaceidae, 160 
eanalieulata, Ramalina caliearis var., 

215,221 
canalis, Pecten oxygonum, 310 
Caneellaria bullata, 118, 119 
indentata, 118 
tubereulata, 119 
tuberculosa, 119 
ventricosa, 118 
canescens, Zanclus, 363 
Cantharus pallidas, 118 

vibex, 118 
Canthigaster margaritatus, 377 

striolatus, 377 
cantorides, Aplonis eantorides, 194 
cantorides, Aplonis, 194 



eapitata, Brodiaea, 279 
caracasanus, Amaranthus, 90 
carallinus, Pecten, 318 
Carangidae, 356 
Caranx affinis, 357 

ascensionis, 356 

marginatus, 356 

sexfasciatus, 357 
carbonaria, Xylocopa, 379, 381 
cardinalis puleherrima, Myzomela, 196 

sanetaeerucis, Myzomela, 197 

sanf ordi, Myzomela, 196 
Cardium obovale, 118 
Gardium (Fragrum) graniferum, 118 

(Loevicardium) cumingii, 118 
carinatus, Bromus, 279 

Enygrus, 186 
carinenta, Libythea, 143 
Caroli, Squamidium, 82, 86 
earyae, Vanessa, 142 
castaneum, Creontiades, 27 
catalinensis, Pecten (Cyclopecten), 320 
cataraetes, Pecten (Euvola), 304 
Catopsilia argante, 140 

eubule, 140 

stetira, 140 
eaudimaeulatus, Holoeentrus, 352 
caudovittata, Kuhlia, 359 
Caulerpa anceps, 262 

cupressoides, 261 

Fergusonii, 261 

pcltata, 261 

raeemosa, 261 
cavernosa, Dietyosphaeria, 261 
eelosioides, Amaranthus, 89, 90 
Centrifuga leeana, 120 
(Centrifuga) leeana. Purpura, 120 
Ceplialacanthidae, 365 
Cephalaeanthus orientalis, 365 
Cephalopholis urodelus, 359 
cephalota, Ramalina ceruchis forma, 

216, 221 
ceramensis, Liza, 355 
Ceratobatrachus gueutheri, 184 
Ceratopogon galapagensis, 149 
Ceratopogonidae, 149 
Cerdale bilineatus, 394 
Cerdalidae, 394 
Cereus, 52 

galapagensis, 52 

nesiotieus, 52, 53 



402 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th 8eb. 



Cereus sclerocarpus, 52 

Thouarsii, 52 
Cerithium stercus-inuscarum, 118 
Cerodontha dorsalis, 163 
ceruchis forma cephalota, Ramaliua, 
216, 221 

Ramalina, 215, 221 
cerviana, Mollugo, 14, 15 
cervianum, Pharnaceum, 15 
Cetraria scutata, 214, 221 
Chaetodon lunula, 303 

flavirostris, 363 
Chaetodontidae, 363 
Chanidae, 338 
Chanos chanos, 338 
chanos, Chanos, 338 

(Chariomyrma) arcuata var. acutitioda, 
Polyrhachis, 180 

kaipi, Polyrhachis, 180 

rere, Polirhachis, 180 
chathamensis, Amaranthus sclerautoides 

forma, 92, 93 
chathamensis, Crematogaster (Ortho- 

crema) brevispinosa, 58 
Gheilinus undulatus, 369 
(chieoreus) leeanus, Murex, 120 
chilospilus, Gymnothorax, 343 
Chione compta, 118 

kellettii, 118 
chiron, Megalura, 142 
Chironomidae, 148 
Chironomus sp., 149 
Chlamys vexillum, 307 
Chlamys (Aequipecten) plurinominis, 310 

(Aequipecten) plurinominis moran- 
tensis, 310 

(Palliolum) guppyi, 320 
(Chlamys) amandi, Pecten, 305 

buchivacoanus, Pecten, 310 

coccymelus, Pecten, 311 

callozoensis, Pecten, 309 

hastatus, Pecten, 307 

hodgii, Pecten, 310 

kathrinepalmerae, Pecten, 302 

latiauratus, Pecten, 314 

lowei, Pecten, 308 

ornatus, Pecten, 306 

zeteki, Pecten, 306 
chlorinde, Gonepteryx, 140 
Chlorippe kallima, 143 
chloris amoena, Halcyon, 193 

solomonia. Halcyon, 193 



Chlorophyceae, 261 

Chloropidae, 159 

Chlosyue sp., 142 

Chromis bitaeniatus, 368 
caeruleus, 368 
cinerascens, 368 

Chrysosoma latiaplcatum, 67 

Chrysotus brevicornis, 68, 69, 151 
brevispina, 68, 69, 151, 152 
latifacies, 69, 151 

cicutarium, Erodium, 280 

ciliamarginata, Anaptychia, 217, 221 

ciliaris, Alectis, 357 

ciliata, Cymodocea, 269 

cincta, Sarothromyiops, 168 

cinerascens, Chromis, 368 

cinerea, Philates, 35 

circularis, Pecten, 118, 311 

Pecten (Dentipecten), 311 
Pectent (Plagioctenium), 311 

Cirrepidesmus mengolus mongolus, 191 

Cirrhilabrus jordani, 370 
solorensis, 370 

Cirrhitidae, 363 

Cirrhitus marmoratus, 362 

cirrochroa, Caloplaca, 217, 221 

citharia, Callocardia, 118 

citrinus, Gobiodon, 372 

clarionensis, Acanalonia, 30 
Thecla melinus, 143 

Clark, H. W., The New and Noteworthy 
Fishes, 383-396 

clathratus, Buccinum, 122 

Clathrodrilla nautica, 118 

(Clathrodrillia) alcestis, Clavus, 118 
callianira, Clavus, 118 
heliplexa, Clavus, 118 

Clathurella adria, 118 

Claudia, Euptoita, 141 

Clava gemmata, 118 

clavata, Baccha, 154 

Clavatula (Knefastia) tuberculifera, 118 

clavatus, Syrphus, 154 

Clavus (Brachytoma) nigerrimus, 118 
(Clathrodrillia) alcestis, 118 
(Clathrodrillia) callianira, 118 
(Clathrodrillia) heliplexa, 118 
(Cymatosyrinx) ianthe, 118 
(Cymatosyrinx) pallida, 118 
(Cymatosyrinx) pudica, 118 
(Cymatosyrinx) rosea, 118 
(Cymatosyrinx) rugifera, 113 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



403 



Clementina, Baeria Palmeri var., 283 

Clinidae, 391 

Clupeidae, 338 

coccinea, Pecten (Argus) ventrieosa var., 

313 
coceoi, Myctophum, 345 
coccymelus, Pecten (Chlaniys), 311 
Cochliomyia, 165 

macellaria, 166 
Cockerell, T. D. A., The Carpenter Bees 

of the Galapagos Islands, 379-382 
cocoensis, Glossadelphus, 86 
cocoensis, Hookeriopsis, 86 
cocosensis, Camponotus (Myrmaphaenus), 
61 

Pecten (Cyclopecten), 319 
Caetaceae of the Galapagos Islands, The, 

by John Thomas Howell, 41-54 
codercola, Pecten soror, 302 
Coelonotus leiaspis, 354 
Colaenis delila, 141 
colinensis, Pecten (Nodipecten), 318 
Collemaceae, 212 
collierensis, Pecten (Nodipecten) pittieri, 

318 
Collocalia fuciphaga vainkorensis, 193 
colona, Xylocopa, 379 
colubrina, Laticauda, 186 
combeoides, Ramalina, 216, 221 
cemmersonii, Anchovia, 340 

Antennarius, 378 
Commersonii, Padina, 264 
commune, Nostoc, 260 
complanata, Romalina, 216, 221 
compta, Chione, 118 
eomptus, Conus, 118 
concinnatus, Sphenomorpha, 185 
conchaphila, Ostrea, 118 
Condylostylus aduncus, 66 

dentaticauda, 66, 151 

erectus, 66 

purpureas, 66 
confine, Orthodontium, 86 
Conops calcitrans, 165 
conspersa, Parmelia, 214, 221 
conspicillium, Balistes, 376 
Conus archon, 118 

eomptus, 118 

emarginatus, 118 

sp., 119 

ximines, 119 



convexus, Hemirhamphus, 346 
cookii, Scorpaenopsis, 365 
Coracina luneata gracilis, 193 
corallicola, Epinephelus, 359 
Coralliophila hindsii, 119 
coralloides, Sphaerophorus, 212, 221 
Corbula ovulata, 118 
Coreopsis gigantea, 284 
Coridae, 369, 390 
Coris gaimardi, 369 
cornutus, Ostracion, 377 
Coryphoenas crassirostris, 192 
Corythoichthys crenulatus, 353 

f asciatus, 353 
Cosmioconcha palmeri, 119 
costalis, Diastata, 162 

Ehicnoessa, 162 
costatus willowsi, Xiphomyrmcx, 177 
costellata, Nuculana, 118 
Crassatellites gibbosus, 118 
erassisetum, Lepidopilum, 86 
crassirostris, Coryphoenas, 192 
Crassispira erebus, 119 
Crematogaster (Orthocrema) brevispiiiosa 
chathamensis, 58 

(Orthocrema) brevispinosa var. niinu- 
tior, 62 
crenata, Harpa, 119 

Lecidea (Psora), 212, 221 
crenulatus, Corythoichthys, 353 
Creontiades castaneum, 27 

willowsi, 28 
Crepidula nummaria, 118 

onyx, 118 
criniger, Rhinogobius, 372 
crispus, Dendroceros, 207 
cristaefolium, Sargassum, 265 
cristata, Sterna bergii, 191 
Crocker, Templeton, Introductory State- 
ment, 3-12 
crockeri, Cypselurus, 350 

Diaphnidia, 29 

Dohrniphora, 70, 152 

Laticauda, 186 

Mesogramma, 154 

Mollugo, 15, 20 

Paroxyna, 157 
Crockeridius, 391 

Odysseus, 391 
Croesidium desertorum, 76 
Crossomitrium Oerstedianum, 84, 86 



404 



CALIFOBNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Peoc. 4th Seb. 



Crossostephium insulare, 283 
Crucibulum imbricatum, 119 

spinosum, 119 
cruentatus, Priacanthus, 360 
crumenoplithalma, Trachurops, 357 
Cryptotermes (subgenus), 242 
Cryiitotermes occidentalia, 234 

sp., 245 
(Cryptotermes) darwini, Kalotermes, 
234, 235, 242, 243, 244 

fatulus, Kalotermes, 234, 235, 245, 246 

occideutalis, Kalotermes, 245 
Cryptantha Traskae, 282 
Cryptoblepharus boutonii poecilopleurus, 

185 
Cryptocerus minutus, 63 
Culex taeniorhynclius, 149 
Culicidae, 149 

cumingii, Cardium (Laevicardium), 118 
cupressoides, Caulerpa, 261 
Curran, C. H., Diptera, 147 
curta, Froelicliia nudicaulis, 114, 115 
curtula, Holcoponera, 62 
cuspidatifolium, Leucomium, 86 
cuspidatum var. serrulatum, Sphagnum, 

77,86 
cyanogaster, Emoia, 185 
cyanopterus, Ptilinopus rhodostietus, 192 
cyauura, Emoia, 185, 187 
Cyclinella subquadrata, 118 
Cyclodictyon albicans, 86 
(Cyclopecten) catalinensis, Pecten, 320 

cocosensis, Pecten, 319 

oligolepis, Pecten, 320 

pernomus, Pecten, 320 

rotundus, Pecten, 320 
(Cymatosyrinx) ianthe, Clavus, 118 

pallida, Clavus, 118 

pudica, Clavus, 118 

rosea, Clavus, 118 

rugifera, Clavus, 118 
Cymodocea ciliata, 269 
Cyuoglossidae, 351, 386 
Cynoglossus brachyrhynchus, 351 
Cypselurus bilobatus, 347 

crockeri, 350 

hexazona, 350 

naresi, 348 

oligolepis, 348 

opisthopus, 348 

oxycephalus, 349 

poecilopterus, 347 



rondeletii, 348 

simus, 348 

speculiger, 348 

zaca, 349 
dactylatra persouata, Sula, 190 
Daltonia Lindigiana, 86 

longifolia, 86 
Dauaidae, 141 
Danais berenice, 141 

Darbishire, O. V., The Roccellaceae with 
Notes on Specimens collected dur- 
ing the Expedition of 1905-00 to 
the Galapagos Islands, 285-294 
darwini, Kalotermes (Cryptotermes), 

234, 235, 242, 243, 244 
darwini, Xylocopa, 379 
Dawinii, Pleuropetalum, 89 
Dascalia tumida, 39 
Dascyllus aruanus, 368 

melanurus, 368 
Dasia smaragdina perviridis, 185 
Dasyhelea galapagensis, 149 
Davidson, M. E. McLellan, Notes on the 

Birds, 189-198 
(Decadopecten) fasciculatus, Pecten, 318 
deceptor, Viridinsula, 166 
decussata, Distortio, 119 
(Delectopecten) liriope, Pecten, 324 

zacae, Pecten, 321 
delicatulus, Spratelloides, 338 
delila, Colaenis, 141 
delosi, Pecten (Leptopecten) latiauratus, 

325 
Deltocephalus insularis, 30 
deltoides, Gnatholepis, 371 
demiurgus, Pecten (Plagioctenium), 313 
Demoisellea peregrina, 389 
Dendroceros crispus, 207 
Dendrographa leucophaea, 287 
Dentalium oerstedii, 118 
dentaticauda, Condylostylus, 66, 151 
dentatus, Pecten, 304 
(Dentipecten) circularis, Pecten, 311 
Demigretta sacra, 190 
depressa, Callicostella, 86 
desertorum, Crossidium, 76 
Desmometopa M-nigrum, 162 
devia, Xenocoenosia, 164 
diadema, Holoceutrus, 352 
Diaphnidia crockeri, 29 
Diaphorus interruptus, 152 
Diastata costalis, 162 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



405 



dichroa, Nylandeiia, 181 
Dichonema serieeum, 220 
Dictyonema serieeum, 220 
Dictyota f liabilis, 263 
Dictyosphaeria australias, 261 

cavernosa, 261 
diegensis, Pecten (Pecten), 302 
diifusa, Hookeriopsis, 86 
digitatum, Pecten, 306 
digitatus, Pecten, 306 
digressus, Athysanus, 32 
dimorphum, Malvastrum, 331 
Dinomyia, 160 
Diodon hystrix, 378 
Diodontidae, 378 
diomedeae, Olfersia, 133 

Pseudolfersia, 133 
Diplophos pacificus, 340 
Diptera, by C. H. Currau, 147 
discalis, Scaphoideus, 31 
discoidea, Halimeda, 262 
dispar, Willowsiella, 175 
distans, Pecten, 307 
Distortio decussata, 119 
distortus, Pecten, 305 
divaricata, Phora, 152 
Dohrniphora crockeri, 70, 152 

venusta, 152 

wlllowsi, 70 
Dolichoderinae, 178 
Dolichopidae, 151 
Doliehopodidae and Phoridae, by M. C. 

Van Duzee, 65 
domestica, Musca, 165 
Dounellii, Calymperes, 82, S6 
dorsalis, Cerodontha, 163 

Odontocera, 163 
dorsata, Strombina, 119 
Dorymyrmex pyran^icus albemarlensis, 

59 
Drapetis zonalis, 151 
Drosophila immigrans, 162 
Drosophilidae, 162 
Drymaria monticola, 329 
dubia, Pelagomyia, 150 
dubius, Amaranthus, 89, 90 
dumerili, Myetophum, 344 
dumontii sanf ordi, Mino, 194 
dupetit-thouarsii, Fusinus, 119 
duplicata, Mesogramma, 154 
duriuscula, Usnea, 217, 221 
dussumieri, Hemirhamphus, 346 



Hepatus, 364 
Dussumieiia acuta, 339 

hasseltii, 339 
Echelidae, 341 
Eeheneidae, 372 
Echidna nebulosa, 343 
echinocarpum var. phyllocysta, Sargas- 

sum, 265 
echinoeephala, Achyranthes, 110 

Alteruanthera, 101, 110 

bracteata, Telanthera, 110 

Brandesia, 110 

nudiflora, Telanthera, 110 

robustier, Telanthera, 110 

Telanthera, 110 
Echios, Opuntia, 43, 49 

gigantea, Opuntia, 51 

typica, Opuntia, 51 
Eclectus pectoralis salomouensis, 192 
Ectatomma ruidum, 62 
edentula, Strombina, 119 
Edmonstonei, Iresine, 96 
Elagatis bipinnulatus, 357 
Eleotris fusca, 371 
Elliottii, Eiecia, 200 
ellops, Zaretes, 143 
Elopidae, 338 
Elops saurus, 338 
elva. Microtia, 142 
Elvira atripliciformis, 333 
emarginatus, Conus, 118 
Emoia atroeostata, 185 

cyanogaster, 185 

cyanura, 185, 187 

nigra, 185 

werneri, 185 
Empidae, 151 
Enaeta barnesii, 119 
Engraulidae, 340 
Enneapterygius pardochir, 374 
Enygrus australis, 186 

carinatus, 186 
Eos grayi, 192 
epidaus, Papilio, 140 
Ephydridae, 161 
Epinephelus corallicola, 359 

merra, 359 
erebus, Crassispira, 119 
erecta, Tillaea, 280 
erectus, Amaranthus Anderssoni forma, 

95,96 
erectus, Condylostylug, 66 



406 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Erodium cicutarium, 280 

moschatum, 281 
Erycinidae, 143 

erythrocalyx, Sphagnum, 77, 8G 
erythropsis, Olfersia, 132, 133 
eubule, Catopsilia, 140 
(Eucampylopus) insularis, Campylopiia, 79 
(Euc'ola) cataraetes, Peeten, 304 
Eudamus galapagensis, 144 
Euidella grossa, 39 
Euleptorhamphus longirostris, 346 
Euuica modesta, 142 
Euphorbia bisulcata, 330 
(Euphyscia) Howellii, Physcia, 219 
Eupleura muricif ormis, 119 
Eupomacentrus beebei, 390 
Euptoita Claudia, 141 
Eupytcha hermes, 141 
Euryptera iusuralis, 281 
(Eurytellina) panamaensis, Tellina, 118 
Euxesta, 156 

galapagensis, 156 
nitidiventris, 156 
iiotata, 156 
Euxolus sclerantoides, 93 

evermanni, Anchovia, 340 
Myctophum, 344 

Eviota apelei, 371 

Evolaiitia microptera, 347 

exasperatus, Peeten, 310 

excavata, Aeanalonia, 38 

excavatus, Peeten, 304 
Peeten (Peeten), 304 

Exocoetidae, 346, 384 

Exoeoetus volitans, 346 

faciatus atriceps, Hydrophis, 187 

falconensis, Peeten buehivaeoanua, 310 

Fannia, 163 
sp., 164 

far, Hemirhamphus, 346 

farinacea, Eamalina, 216, 221 

fasciatus, Corythoiehthys, 353 

fasciculatus, Peeten, 318 

Peeten (Deeadopecten), 318 

fatulus, Kalotermes (Cryptotermea), 
234, 235, 245, 246 

feminina, Pachyeephala pectoralis, li)6 

Fergusonii, Caulerpa, 261 

Feronia, 131 

spinifera, 132 

ferroeyanea malaitae, Myiagra, 195 

Featuca octoflora hirtella, 279 



ficoidea, Alternanthera, 101, 111 

Gomphrena, 111 

Telanthera, 111 
fijiensis, Callechelya, 342 
filamentoaus, Gerrea, 361 

Petroscirtes, 373 
filifolia, Alterananthera, 100, 102 
filifolia, Bucholtzia, 102 
filifolia glauca, Alternanthera, 102, 103 

margaritacea, Alternanthera, 102, 104 

subsquarrosa, Alternanthera, 102, 103 

sylvatica, Alternanthera, 102, 104 
filifolia, Telanthera, 102 
filifolia typica, Alternanthera, 102 
filitextus, Peeten, 312 
fimbriata, Harengula, 339 
fimbriata, Roccella, 287 
Fishes, by Alvin Seale, 337 
Fishes, The New and Noteworthy, 

by H. W. Clark, 383 
Fiatularia petimba, 354 
Fistulariidae, 354 
Fisaidens Garberi, 86 

(Semilimbidium) Howelli, 78, 86 
flavescena, Mollugo, 14, 17, 18 

angustifolia, Mollugo, 18 

intermedia, Mollugo, 18 

typica, Mollugo, 18 
rtavescens var. floriana, Mollugo, 21 
flavicans, Thelosehistes, 217, 221 
flavieoma, Achyranthea, 107 
flavicoma, Alternanthera, 100, 107 
flavieoma, Telanthera, 107 
flavimarginatus, Balistes, 375 
flavirostris, Chaetodon, 363 
floriana, Mollugo flaveseena var., 21 
floriana, Mollugo, 14, 21 

gypsophiloides, Mollugo, 21 
typica, Mollugo, 21 
Salvia, 332 
florida, Usnea, 217, 221 

Oatrea [= Peeten], 302 
floridana, Parietaria, 279 
floridua, Peeten, 302 
flosculosa, Alternanthera, 100, 107 
fo, Foa, 358 
Foa fo, 358 

Foreword, by C. E. Grunsky, 1 
forskali, Atherina, 354 
Formieidae, 173 

of the Templeton Croeker Expedition, 
by W. M. Wheeler, 57-64 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



407 



FoTDiicidae of tlie Templeton Crocker Ex- 
pedition, 1933, by W. M. Wheeler, 
173-181. 
Formicinae, 178 
forsteri, Sphyraena, 356 
fortunae, Aplouis tabuensis, 194 
Fosbergii, Pottia, 76 
fossulata, Olfersia, 132 

Pseudolf ersia, 132 
fragile, Micromitrium, 86 
(Fragum) graniferum, Cardium, 118 

obovale, Cardium, 118 
f riabilis, Dictyota, 263 
Froelichia, 88, 114 

juncea, 114, 116 

juneea alata, 116 

juncea typica, 116 

lanata, 115 

lanigera, 114, 115 

lanigera scoparia, 115, 116 

lanigera typica, 115 

nudicaulis, 114 

nudicaulis curta, 114, 115 

nudicaulis longispicata, 114, 115 

nudicaulis typica, 114 

nudicaulis var. longispicata, 115 

scoparia, 116 
fucicolus, Pecten latiauritus, 315 
fuciphaga vainkorensis, Collocalia, 193 
f ulva nesiotis, Nylanderia, 61 
Fulvius geniculatus, 29 
Funaria Bolanderi, 76 

calvescens, 86 

hygrometrica, 77 
funeralis, Tlianaos nr., 145 
furcatus, Amaranthus, 89, 94 
fusca, Eleotris, 371 

fuscipennis, Odontomachus haematoda, 174 
fuscus, Bathygobius, 371 
Fusinus dupetit-thouarsii, 119 
Fusus bellus, 122 
gaimardi, Coris, 369 
galapageia, Opuntia, 43 
galapageium, var. minoratum, Faspalum, 
299 

Paspalum, 297 
galapagensis, Aehyranthes, 108 

Agraulis vanillae, 141 
galapagensis. Alternanthera, 100, 108 
galapagensis, Ceratopogon, 149 

Cereus, 52 

Dasyhelea, 149 



Eudamus, 144 
galapagensis, Euxesta, 156 
galapagensis, Gigantotheca, 169 

Jasminocereus, 52 
galapagensis, Notothylas, 203 

Oliarus, 33 

Pipunculus, 152 

Procanace, 160 

Scatella, 161 

Sphaerocera, 158 
galapagensis, Telanthera, 108 
Galapagomyia longipes, 148 
Galapagosia, 171 

minuta, 172 
galipense, Sematophyllum, 82, 85, 86 
Galium Aparine, 283 
Garberi, Fissidens, 86 
garmani, Salarias, 374 
gaudens, Phos, 119 
Gehyra oceaiiica, 184, 187 
Gekko vitattus, 184 
geminata, Solenopsis, 61, 62 
gemmata, Clava, 118 
gemmulosus, Nassarius, 119 
geniculatus, Fulvius, 29 
georgii, Hemirhamphus, 346 
Geotomus murinus, 26 
Gerres filamentosus, 361 

poeti, 361 
Gerridae, 361 
gibberula, Strombina, 119 
gibbosa, Harengula, 339 

Nuculana, 118 
gibbosus, Crassatellites, 118 
gibbus, Litianus, 360 
gigantea, Coreopsis, 284 

Leptosyne, 284 
gigantea, Opuntia Echios, 51 
Gigantotheca galapagensis, 169 
glabra forma calvescens, Pectis, 334, 336 

Pectis, 333, 336 

forma pubescens, Pectis, 335, 336 

forma setulosa, Pectis, 335, 336 
Glossadelphus cocoensis, 86 

longisetus, 86 

truncatulus, 86 
glauca, Alternanthera filifolia, 102, 103 
glaucescens, Aehyranthes, 104, 105 
glaucescens, Alternanthera, 100, 104 
glaucescens, Bucholtzia, 104, 105 
glaucescens forma strictiuscula, Alternan- 
thera, 105 



408 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th See. 



glaucescens, Telauthera, 104, 105 
glaucescens forma typica, Alternanthera, 

105 
glaucus, Abudefduf, 367 
globifera, Lecidea (Psora), 213, 221 
Glossogobius biocellatus, 371 
Glycymcris tessellata, 118 
Gnatholepis anjerensia, 371 

deltoides, 371 

puntangoides, 371 
Gobiidae, 370 
Gobiodon citrinus, 372 

rivulatus, 372 
Gobioides peruvianus, 391 
Gobioididae, 391 
orobius ornatus, 371 
godeffroyi, Gonocephalus, 184 
Gomphrena fieoidea, 111 
Gouepteryx chloriude, 140 

maerula, 140 
goniocyma, Mactra, 118 
Gonocephalus godeffroyi, 184 
Gonostomidae, 340 
gracilis, Amaranthus, 89, 91 

Coracina luneata, 193 

var. mexieana, Pseudomyrma, 62 

Mollugo, 16 

Spratelloides, 339 
gracillima latifolia, Mollugo, 17 

Mollugo, 14, 15 

Philonotis, 81, 86 

typica, Mollugo, 16 
graudoculis, Monotaxis, 361 
grauiferum, Cardium (Fragum), 118 
granulata, Architectonica, 118 
Grasses from the Galapagos and the Re- 
villagigedo Islands, New Species 
of, by A. S. Hitchcock, 295-300 
grayi, Eos, 192 
Grimmia califoruica, 76 

leucophaea, 77 

pulvinata, 77 
gronovii, Nomeus, 387 
grossa, Euidella, 39 
Gruusky, C. E., Foreword, 1-2 
guamensis, Sebastopsis, 365 
Guadichaudii, Syrrhopodon, 81, 86 
guatemalae, Nasutitermes (Nasuti- 

termes), 234, 249 
guatemalensis var. itineraus, Nylanderia 
vividula, 60 



guiueeuse, Tetramorium, 59, 177 
guentheri, Ceratobatrachus, 184 
giintheri, Hepatus, 364 
guppyi, Chlamya (Pallidum), 320 

Lepidodactylus, 185 

Pecten (Pseudamusium), 320 

Pvana, 184 
gymiiopterus, Muraenichthya, 341 
Gymnothorax boschi, 342 

chilospilus, 343 

marmorata, 343 

undulatus, 343 
gymnotus, Muraenichthys, 341 
gypsophiloides, Mollugo floriana, 21 
haematoda bauri, Odontomachus, 58 

var. fuscipennia, Odontomachus, 174 

Odontomachus, 173 
haematodus aberrans, Trichoglossua, 192 

caeruleiceps, Trichoglossus, 192 
Hageni, Lecanora, 214, 221 
Halcyon chloris anioeua, 193 

chloris solomonis, 193 

sancta, 193 
Halimeda, 262 

discoidea, 262 

iucrassata forma tripartita, 263 

Monile, 262 

Opuntia forma triloba, 263 

Opuntia forma typica, 263 

simulans, 262 

tridens, 262 

tridens var. ovata, 263 

tridens var. tripartita, 263 
halmif olia macrophylla, Alternanthera, 

101, 112 
hamlini, Pinarolestes, 194 
Hanna, G. D., Strong, A. M., and Hertlein, 

L. G., see Strong, A. M. 
Harengula fimbriata, 339 

gibbosa, 339 

melanura, 339 

pinguis, 339 
Harpa crenata, 119 
hasseltii, Dussumieria, 339 
hastatus, Pecten, 307 

Pecten (Chlamys), 307 
hawleyi, Xenophora, 124 
(Hedromyrma) annae, Polyrhachis, 180 
Heliconidae, 141 
Heliconius petiverena, 141 
heliplexa, Clavus (Clathrodrillia), 118 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



409 



Helleri, Achyranthes, 109 
Helleri, Alteinanthera, 100, 109 

forma obtusior, Alternanthera, 110 
Helleri var. obtusior, Telanthera, 110 
Opuntia, 43, 44 
Telanthera, 109 
Helleri forma typica, Alternanthera, 109 
hemicycla, Janira, 302 
Hemigymnus melapterus, 369 
Hemiprocne mystaeea woodfordiaua, 193 
Hemiptera from the Galapagos Islands 
and the Coast and Islands of Cen- 
tral America and Mexico, Char- 
acters of Twenty-four New Species 
of, by E. P. Van Duzee, 25-40 
Hemirhamphidae, 346 
Hemirhamphus convexus, 346 
dussumieri, 346 
far, 346 
georgii, 346 
Hemprichii, Thalassia, 269 
Heniochus varius, 363 
Hepatus dussumieri, 364 
giintheri, 364 
triostegus, 364 
Hepaticae (chiefly Eiccia and Anthocero- 
taceae) of the Galapagos Islands 
and the Coast and Islands of Cen- 
tral America and Mexico, The, by 
M. A. Howe, 199-210 
hephaestus, Camponotus (Myrmocladoe- 

cus) planus var., 59 
hermes, Eupytcha, 141 
herrei, Thalassoma, 369 
Hertlein, L. G., The Eecent Peetiuidae, 

301-328 
Hertlein, L. G., Strong, A. M., and Hanna, 

G. D., see Strong, A. M. 
Hesperidae, 144 
Heteractitis incanus, 191 
Heteropia sp. nr. imalena, 144 
Heterotermes, 247 

orthognathus, 234, 235, 248 
pallidus, 234, 247 
hexataenia, Pseudocheilinus, 370 
hexazonia, Cypselurus, 350 
hexaphthalma, Parapercis, 372 
hians, Athlennes, 345 
Hindsia acapulcana, 119 
hindsii, Coralliophila, 119 
Metula, 122 



Hippelates, 159 

pallidus, 159 
Hippobosca nigra, 134 

Hippoboscidae of the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago, with an Appendix on the 
Tabanidae, The, by J. C. Bequaert, 
131-138 
hirtella, Festuca octoflora, 279 
hispida, Medicago, 280 

var. adscendens, Physcia, 218 
hispidus, Tetrodon, 378 
Hitchcock, A. S., New Species of Grasses 
from the Galapagos and Revilla- 
gigedo Islands, 295-300 
hodgii, Pecten (Chlamys), 310 
Holcoponera curtula, 62 
Holocentridae, 351 
Holocentrus caudimaeulatus, 352 
diadema, 352 
opercularis, 351 
punctatissimus, 352 
sammara, 352 
spinif er, 352 
homalea, Ramalina, 216, 221 
hoodensis, Amaranthus sclerantoides 

forma, 93 
Hookeri, Achyranthes, 102 
Pectis, 336 

forma stellulata, Pectis, 335, 336 
Hookeriopsis cocoensis, 86 

diffusa, 86 
Hordeum murinum, 279 
Hormophysa triquetra, 264 
Horsburgh, D. B., A Revision of Two 
Species of Vinciguerria, a Genus of 
Deep Sea Fishes, 225-232 
Howe, M. A., The Hepaticae (chiefly Eic- 
cia and Anthocerotaceae) of the 
Galapagos Islands and the Coast 
and Islands of Central America 
and Mexico, 199-210 
Howell, J. T., The Amaranthaceae of the 
Galapagos Islands, 87-116 
The Cactaceae of the Galapagos 

Islands, 41-54 
The Genus Mollugo in the Galapagos 

Islands, 13-23 
New Flowering Plants from the Gala- 
pagos Islands, 329-336 
The Vascular Plants from San Nico- 
las Island, California, 277-284 



410 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Pboc. 4th Ser, 



Howelli, Fissidens (Semilimbidium), 
78, 86 

Physcia (Euphyscia), 219, 221 

Eiccia, 202 

Trisetum, 296 
howensis, Mouacanthus, 376 
hubbardi, Kalotermes, 234, 236 
Hydrophis faciatus atriceps, 187 

ornatus, 187 
hydrometrica, Funaria, 77 
Hyla thesaurensis, 184 
Hymenolicliens, 220 
Hypophila Tortula, 81, 86 
Hypleurochilus samoensis, 374 
hystrix, Diodon, 378 
ianthe, Clavus (Cymatosyrinx), 118 
Icosta, 134 

illecebrum, Scleropodiuin, 77 
imaleua, Heteropia near, 144 
imbricatum, Brachymenium, 86 

Crucibulum, 119 
immaculatus, Tetrodoii, 377 
immigrans, Drosophila, 162 

Kalotermes, 234, 235, 236 
implicata, Malacothrix, 284 
ineanus, Heteraetitis, 191 
incisus, Tylosurus, 345 
incompletus, Sj'iThopodon, 86 
incongrua, Semele, 118 
incrassata forma tripartita, Halimeda, 

263 
indentata, Cancellaria, 118 
indentus, Pecten latiauritus, 315 
iudica, Tylosurus, 345 
indicus, Pseudupeneus, 362 

Varauus, 186 
inoa, Opsophytopsis, 167 

Sarcophaga, 167 

Wohlfahrtia, 167 
insigne, Oplegnathus, 389 
iiisiguis, Eecluzia, 119 
insulare, Crossostephium, 283 

Lomatium, 281 
insularis, Artemisia californica var., 283 
insularis, Campylopus (Eucampylopus), 
79, 86 

Deltocephalus, 30 
insularis, Euryptera, 281 
insularis, Merosargus, 150 

Mollugo, 15, 19 

Nemophila, 282 



insularis, Opsophytopsis, 167 

Opuntia, 43, 44 
intermedia, Mollugo flavesceus, 18 
intermedius, Lyropecten, 317 

Pecten (Lyropecten) nodosus var., 
317 
interrupta, Ambassis, 358 
interruptus, Asyndetes, 152 

Diaphorus, 152 
intertropica, Ornithomyia, 134 
intertropicus, Ornithoponus, 134 
Introductory Statement, by Templeton 

Crocker, 3-12 
introflexus, Campylopus, 81, 86 
involvens, Thuidium, 85, 86 
iodocheila, Eiccia, 200 
Iresine, 88, 96 

Edmonstonei, 96 

radicata, 97 

subscaposa, 97 
Iridomyrmex anceps papuanus, 178 

myrmeeodiae, 178 
irregularis, Boiga, 186 
isabelensis, Camponotus (Myrmocladoe- 

cus) planus var., 59 
ischon, Pecten, 317 
isla, Sarcophaga, 168, 169 
islandicus pugetensis, Pecten, 308 
Isopterygium tenerum, 82, 85, 86 
Itaballia calydonia, 140 
ithonus, Polirhachis (Myrma) relucens, 

179 
itinerans, Nylauderia vividula guate- 

malensis var., 60 
Itinerary of the Templeton Crocker Expe- 
dition of the California Academy 
of Sciences, 1932, by Captain Gor- 
land Eotch, 8 
Jamesoni, Schlotheimia, 86 
Janira hemicycla, 302 

soror, 302 
(Janira) vodgesi, Pecten, 304 
janus, Pecten, 307 
japonicus. Scomber, 356 
Jasminocereus galapagensis, 52 
jatrophae, Anartia, 142 
javanica, Moringua, 340 
Jepsonia sp., 280 
jordani, Cirrhilabrus, 370 
jouteli, Kalotermes, 234, 237 
Julidio maculosus, 390 



Vol. XXII 



INDEX 



411 



juncea alata, Troelichia, 116 

Froelichia, 114, 116 

typica, Froelichia, 116 
kaipi, Polyrhachis (Chariomyima), 180 
kallima, Chlorippe, 143 
Kalotermes, 236 

hubbardi, 234, 236 

immigrans, 234, 235, 230 

jouteli, 234, 237 

marginipennis, 234, 237 

minor, 234, 237 

niontanus, 237 

pacificus, 234, 235, 237 

tabogae, 237, 239 

tuberculifrons, 237 
Kalotermes (Cryptotermes) darwini, 
234, 235, 242, 243, 244 

(Cryptotermes) fatulus, 
234, 235, 245, 246 

(Cryptotermes) occideutalis, 245 
Kalotermes (Neotermes) larseni, 234, 235, 
239, 241 

(Rugitermes) rugosus var. occiden- 
talis, 245 
kasmira, Lutianus, 360 
kathrinepalmerae, Pecten (Chlamys), 302 
kelferi, Lygus, 36 
kellettii, Chione, 118 

(Knefastia) tuberculifera, Clavatula, 118 
koelreuteri, Periophthalmus, 373 
krefftii, Rana, 184 
Kuhlia caudovittata, 359 

taeniura, 359 
Kuhliidae, 359 

kuperi, Rhipidura rufifrons, 196 
Kyphosidae, 361 
Kyphosus vaigiensis, 361 
labella var. brunneipes, Polyrhachis 

(Myrma), 179 
labiosa. Area, 118 
lacunosa, Atherina, 354 
(Laevicardium) cumingii, Cardium, 118 
lanata, Froelichia, 115 
lanigera, Froelichia, 114, 115 

scoparia, Froelichia, 115, 116 

typica, Froelichia, 115 
lanulosa, Achillea Millefolium var., 283 
laotale, Sebastapistes, 364 
larseni, Kalotermes (Neotermes), 234, 235, 

239, 241 
lateralis, Apogon, 358 



latiapicatum, Chrysosoma, 67 
latiauratus delosi, Pecteu (Leptopecten), 
325 

Pecten, 314 

Pecten (Leptopecten), 314 
latiauritus fucicolis, Pecten, 315 

indentus, Pecten, 315 

Pecten (Chlamys), 314 

splendens, Pecten, 315 
Laticauda colubrina, 186 

crockeri, 186 
latifacies, Chrysotus, 69, 151 
latlfolia, Mollugo gracillima, 17 
Latirus sp., 119 
Laurencia miriannensis, 268 
leanus, Calliostoma, 118 
Lecanora Hageni, 214, 221 
Lecanoraceae, 214 
Lecidea (Psora) crenata, 212, 221 

(Psora) globifera, 212, 221 
Lecideaceae, 212 
leeana, Centrifuga, 120 

Purpura (Centrifuga), 120 
leeanus, Murex (chicoreus), 120 
leiaspis, Coelonotus, 354 
Leiolopisma anolis, 185 

noctua, 185, 187 
leioplaca forma bispora, Pertusaria, 213 
Leiuranus semicinctus, 342 
lenis, Pitar, 118 
Lepidanthrax tincta, 151 
Lepidium nitidum, 279 

Robinsonii, 280 
Lepidodactylus guppyi, 185 

lugubris, 187 
Lepidopilum crassisetum, 86 
Lepidiptera of the Expedition, The Diur- 
nal, by E. P. Van Duzee, 139-146 
Leptecheneis naucrates, 372 
Leptogium mollucanum, 212, 221 

sp., 212 
(Leptopecten) latiauratus delosi, Pecten, 
325 

latiauratus, Pecteu, 314 

tumbezensis, Pecten, 314 

valero, Pecten, 316 
Leptosyne gigantea, 284 
Leptotes parrhasioides, 143 
Lethrinidae, 361 
Lethrinus leutjanus, 361 

retieulatus, 361 



412 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Peoc. 4th See. 



Leucomium cuspidatifolium, 86 
leucophaea, Dendrographa, 287 

Grimmia, 77 
leucophrys melaleuca, Ehipidura, 195 
leucostegium, Stereophyllum, 85 
leucotrichum, Squamidium, 81, 82, 86 
leucozonus, Abudefduf, 368 
leutjanus, Lethriniis, 361 
Libythea carinenta, 143 
Libythidae, 143 

Lichens, by D. H. Linder, 211-224 
licisca, Pellicia, 145 
Light, S. F., The Termites, 233-258 
ligyrus, Terebra, 119 
Limnophora, 163 

Limonia (Geranomyia) tibialis, 148 
Linder, D. H., Lichens, 211-224 
Lindigiana, Daltouia, 86 
lingualis, Terebra, 119 
linifolia, Pectis, 336 
Lioglyphostoma acapulcanum, 119 
liriope, Pecten (Deleetopecten), 324 
Lispe, 163 

sp., 165 
Lithophila, 88, 97 

radicata, 97 

rigida, 98 

subscaposa, 97 
lituratus, Acanthurus, 363 
lividus, Pomaeentrus, 365 
Liza caeruleomaculata, 355 

ceramensis, 355 

troscheli, 355 

waigiensis, 355 
Lomatium insulare, 261 
longicornis, Paratrechina, 60, 181 
longifolia, Daltonia, 86 
longif olium, Maeromitrum, 86 
longipes, Anoplolepis, 178 

Anopolepis, 63 

Galapagomyia, 148 
longirostris, Euleptorhamphus, 346 

Oxymonacanthus, 376 
longisetus, Glassodelphus, 86 
longispicata, Froelichia nudicaulis, 

114, 115 
louti. Variola, 359 
lowei, Pecten (Chlamys), 308 
lucasanus, Pseudopriacanthus, 388 
lucetia, Vinciguerria, 227 
lucetius, Maurolicus, 227 

Zalarges, 227 



(Lucilia) pionia, Musca, 166 
lugubris, Lepidodactylus, 187 
lumbricoides, Sphagebranchua, 342 
lunare, Thalassoma, 369 
lunaris, Spheroides, 377 
luneata gracilis, Coracina, 193 
lunula, Chaetodon, 363 
Lutianidae, 360 
Lutianus bohar, 360 
gibbus, 360 
kasmira, 360 
niarginatus, 360 
semicinctus, 360 
Lycaenidae, 143 
lycidice, Mechanitis, 141 
Lycium californicum, 283 
lydia, Terias, 141 
I^ygus keif eri, 36 
Lynehia, 134 

albipennis, 134 
nigra, 134 
pusilla, 135 
Lyngbya majuscula, 260 
Lyropecten intermedius, 317 
(Lyropecten) nodosus var. intermedius, 
Pecten, 317 
nodosus var. subnodosus, Pecten, 317 
pittieri, Pecten, 318 
subnodosus, Pecten, 317 
macellaria, Cochliomyia, 166 

Musca, 166 
Macoma panamensis, 118 
macilentus var. albemarlensis, Campo- 
notus (Pseudocolobopsis), 60 
var. narboroensis, Camponotus 
(Pseudocolobopsis), 60 
Macrocallista squalida, 118 
macrolepis, Myripristis, 352 
Macromitrium longifolium, 86 

mucronifolium, 81, 86 
macrophylla, Alternanthera halimifolia, 

101, 112 
macropterus, Muraenichthys, 341 
maerorhynchus, Butorides striatus, 190 
macrostomus, Muraenichthys, 341 
Mactra goniocyma, 118 
maculosus, Julidio, 390 
maerula, Gonepteryx, 140 
major, Marah, 283 

Philates, 35 
majuscula, Lyngbya, 260 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



413 



Malacothrix implicata, 284 

saxatilis, 284 
malaita, Muraenichthys, 341 
malaitae, Myiagra ferrocyanea, 195 
Malea ringens, 119 
Malvastrum dimorphum, 331 
mancus, Platophrys, 351 
manillensis, Tetrodon, 377 
Marah major, 283 
Marchantiaceae, 203 
marginatus, Caranx, 356 

Lutianus, 360 
marginipennis, Kalotermes, 234, 237 
margaritacea, Alternanthera filifolia, 

102, 104 
margaritatus, Canthigaster, 377 

Salarias, 374 
mariana, Turritella, 119, 123 
mariannensis, Laurencia, 268 
maritima, Abronia, 279 
marmorata, Gymnothorax, 343 
marmoratus, Cirrhitus, 363 
maroubrae, Petroscirtes, 373 
maura, Turricula, 119 
mauritiana, Anguilla, 340 
Maurolicus lucetius, 227 
Mechanitis lycidice, 141 
Medieago hispida, 280 
megacephala, Pheidole, 174 
Megalopterus minutus minutus, 191 
Megalura chiron, 142 

peleus, 143 
megaspenna, Opuntia, 43, 46 

orientalis, Opuntia, 47, 48 

typica, Opuntia, 47 
melaleuca, Rhipidura leucophrys, 195 
melamocephalum, Tapinoma, 178 
melanogyna var. pallldiventre, Tetra- 

morium, 177 
Melanophyceae, 263 
rnelanosomus, Paragobiodon, 372 
melanostictus, Myripristis, 352 
melanura, Harengula, 339 
melanurus, Dascyllus, 368 
melanurus, Symphurus, 386 
Dielapterus, Hemigjonnus, 369 
meleagris, Salarias, 374 

Tetrodon, 377 
melinus clarionensis, Thecla, 143 
Melitaea theona, 142 
Menzieaii, Anacolia, 77 
merra, Epinephelus, 359 



Merosargus insularis, 150 
Mesogramma, 153 

crockeri, 154 

duplicata, 154 
metallica nitida, Aplonis, 194 
Meteoriopsis Anderasonii, 86 

patula, 82, 86 
metopias, Nemipterus, 361 
Metopiidae, 165 
Metula amosi, 119, 122 

hindsii, 122 
metula, Baecinum, 122 
mexicana, Pseudomyrma gracilis var., 62 
mexicanus, Termes, 237 
Microcerotermes, 150 

bouveri, 234, 251, 252 

struncki, 234, 250, 251 
microlepidotus, Scomber, 356 
Microlynchia, 135 

pusilla, 135 
Mieromitrium fragile, 86 
microptera, Evolantia, 347 
Microtermes (Microtermes) panamaensis, 

234 
(Microtermes) panamaensis, Microtermes, 

234 
Microtia elva, 142 
milesii, Aploactis, 365 
militaris, Turricula (Pleurofusia), 119 
Millefolium var. lanulosa, Achillea, 283 
Mino dumontii sanfordi, 194 
minor, Kalotermes, 234, 237 
minoratum, Paspalum galapageium var., 

299 
minuta, Galapagosia, 172 
minutior, Crematogaster (Orthocrema) 

brevispinosa var., 62 
minutus, Cryptocerus, 63 

Megalopterus minutus, 191 

minutus, Megalopterus, 191 
Mirmicinae, 174 
raiser, Nassarius, 119 

Pecten (Pallium), 318 
Mitra attenuata, 119 

sp., 119 

zaca, 119, 120 
M-nigrum, Agromyza, 162 

Desmometopa, 162 
modesta, Eunica, 142 
Modiolus pallidus, 118 
mollucanum, Leptogium, 212, 221 



414 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Seb. 



Mollugo, 13 

Cerviana, 14, 15 

Crockeri, 15, 20 

flavescens, 14, 17, 18 

flavescens angustifolia, 18 

flavescens var. floriana, 21 

flavescens intermedia, 18 

flavescens typica, 18 

floriana, 14, 21 

floriana gypsophiloides, 21 

floriana typica, 21 

gracilis, 16 

gracillima, 14, 15, 16 

gracillima latifolia, 17 

gracillima typica, 16 

in the Galapagos Islands, The Genus, 
by J. T. Howell, 13-23 

insularis, 14, 15, 19 

Snodgassii, 15, 22 

Snodgassii var. santacruziana, 22 

striata, 14, 15, 19 
MoUusca from Acapulco, Mexico, with 
Notes on other Species, Marine, by 
A. M. Strong, G. D. Hanna and 
L. G. Hertlein, 117-130 
Monacanthidae, 376 
Monacanthus howensis, 376 
Monarcha ugiensis, 195 

vidua, 194 
mongolus, Cirrepidesmus mongolus, 191 

mongolus, Cirrepidesmus, 191 
Monile, Halimeda, 262 
Monocotyledonae, 269 
Monolene asaedae, 385 
Monotaxis grandoculis, 361 
montanus, Kalotermes, 237 
monticola, Drymaria, 329 
monuste, Ascia, 140 

moracaibensis, Pecten buchivacoanua, 310 
morantensis, Chlamys (Aequipecten) 

plurinominis, 310 
Morellia ochricornis, 165 
Moringua javanica, 340 
Moringuidae, 340 
moschatum, Erodium, 281 
Mosses of the Templeton Crocker Expedi- 
tion and List of Mosses known 
from the Galapagos Islands and 
from Cocos Island, by E. B. Bart- 
ram, 75-86 
mucronifolium, Macromitrium, 81, 86 
Mugilidae, 355 



MuUidae, 362 
Mulloides samoensis, 362 
Muraenichthys gymnopterus, 341 

gymnotus, 341 

macropterus, 341 

maerostomus, 341 

malaita, 341 
Muraenidae, 342, 384 
muralis, Tortula, 76 
Murex (chicoreus) leeanus, 120 

reetirostris, 119 
muriciformis, Eupleura, 119 
murinum, Hordeum, 279 
murinus, Geotomus, 26 
murorum, Caloplaca, 217, 221 
Murrayana, Turbinaria, 264 
Musca, 163 

domestica, 165 

macellaria, 166 

occidua, 167 

ochricornis, 165 

(Lucilia) pionia, 166 
Muscidae, 163 
mutilatus, Peropus, 187 
mycone, Nymphidium, 143 
Myctophidae, 344 
Myctophum coccoi, 345 

dumerili, 344 

evermanni, 344 

pristilepis, 345 

punctatum, 344 
Myiagra ferrocyanea malaitae, 195 
myops, Saurus, 344 
myriacantha, Opuntia, 49 
Myripristis macrolepis, 352 

melanostictus, 352 
(Myrma) labella var. brunneipes, Poly- 
rhachis, 179 

relucens andromache var. nesiotis, 
Polyrhachis, 179 

relucens ithonus, Polyrhachis, 179 
(Myrmamblys) reticulatus bedoti, Campo- 

notus, 179 
(Myrmaphaenus) cocosensis, Caniponotus, 

61 
(Myrmatopa) osae, Polyrhachis, 181 
myrmeeodiae, Iridomyrmex, 178 
(Myrmobrachys) senex, Camponotus, 63 
(Myrmocladoecus) planus, Camponotus, 
59 

rectangularis, Camponotus, 63, 64 
(Myrmothrix) sp., Camponotus, 63 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



415 



mystacea woodfoidiana, Hemiprocne, 193 

Myxophyceae, 260 

Myzomela cardiualis pulchenima, 196 

cardinalis sanetaecrucis, 197 

cardinalis sanfordi, 196 

nigrita tristrami, 197 
narboroensis, Camponotus (Pseudocolo- 

bopsis) macilentus var., 60 
Narcine ommata, 383 
naresi, Cypselurus, 348 
naso, Nysius (Ortholomus), 27 
Naso imicoiiiis, 363 
Nassarius gemmulosus, 119 

miser, 119 

pagodus, 119 

versicolor, 119 
Xasutitermes (Nasutitermes) guatcmalae, 

234, 249 
Xatica broderipiana, 119 
iiaucrates, Leptecheneis, 372 
iiautica, Clathrodrilla, 118 
nebulosa. Echidna, 343 
Ncmophila insularis, 282 
Neniipterus metopias, 361 
neophytus, Ehinogobius, 372 
(Neotabanus) vittiger, Tabauus, 136 
Neotermes (subgenus), 239 
(Neotermes) larseni, Kalotermes, 

234, 235, 239, 241 
nesiotes, Alternantliera, 100, 110 
nesioticus, Cereus, 52, 53 
nesiotis, Nylanderia fulva, 61 

Polyrliachis (Myrma) relucens andro- 
mache var., 179 
nigerrima, Eoccellodea, 286 
nigerrinius, Clavus (Brachytoma), 118 
nigra, Emoia, 185 

Hippobosca, 134 

Lynchia, 134 
nigrella, Kiccia, 200 
nigrescens, Papillaria, 82, 86 
nigricans, Pomacentrus, 366 

Squamidium, 86 
nigrita tristrami, Myzomela, 197 
nigropunctatus, Tetrodon, 378 
nimbaria, Vinciguerria, 230 
nimbarius, Zalarges, 230 
iiitida, Aplonis metallica, 194 
nitidiventris, Euxesta, 156 
nitidium, Lepidum, 279 
noctua, Leiolopisma, 185, 187 
(Nodipecten) colinensis, Pecten, 318 



pittieri coUierensis, Pecten, 318 

subnodosus, Pecten, 317 
nodosa, Ostrea, 318 

nodosus var. intermedins, Pecten (Lyro- 
pecten), 317 

Pecten, 318 

var. subnodosus, Pecten (Lyropec- 
ten), 317 
nodulosa, Turritella, 119 
Nomeidae, 387 
Nomeus gronovii, 387 
Nostoc commune, 260 
notata, Euxesta, 156 
Notothylas galapagensis, 203 
novae-guiuae, Scorpaenopsis, 365 
novemfasciatus, Apogon, 357 
Xuculana acapulcensis, 118 

costellata, 118 

gibbosa, 118 

sp., 118 

(Adrana) sowerbyana, 118 
nudicaulis, Achyranthes, 101 

Alternanthera, 100, 101 

Bucholtzia, 101 
nudicaulis curta, Froelichia, 114, 115 

Froelichia, 114 

longispicata, Froelichia, 114, 115 

Telanthera, 101 

typica, Froelichia, 114 
nudiflora, Telanthera argentea, 110 

Telanthera echinocephala, 110 
nummaria, Crepidula, 118 
nux. Area, 118 
Nylanderia dichroa, 181 

fulva nesiotis, 61 

obscura, 181 

vaga, 181 

vividula guatemalensis var. itinerans, 
60 
Nymphalidae, 141 
Nymphidium mycone, 143 
Nysius (Ortholomus) naso, 27 
obovale, Cardium (Fragum), 118 
obscura, Nylanderia, 181 
obtusatum, Pilotrichum, 84, 86 
obtusior, Alternanthera Helleri forma, 110 

Telanthera Helleri var., 110 
occidentalis, Cryptotermes, 234 

Kalotermes (Cryptotermes), 245 

Kalotermes (Eugitermes) rugosus 
var., 245 

Opuntia, 281 



416 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Pkoc. 4th Seib. 



oecidua, Musca, 167 

Sarcophagula, 167 
oceanica, Gehyra, 184, 187 
ochricornis, Morellia, 165 

Musca, 165 
Octoblepharum albidum, 81, 86 
octoflora hirtella, Festuea, 279 
octospinosus, Acromyrmex, 63 
Odinia williamsi, 163 
Odontocera dorsalis, 163 
Odontomachus haematoda, 173 

haematoda bauri, 58 

haematoda var. fuscipennis, 174 
Odysseus, Crockeridius, 391 
Oecophylla smaragdina subnitida, 179 
Oeratedianum, Crossomitrium, 84, 86 
oerstedii, Dentalium, 118 
oleraceus, Sonchua, 284 
Olfersia, 131 

albipennis, 134 

diomedeae, 133 

erythropsis, 131, 133 

fossulata, 132 

spinifera, 132 
Oliarus galapagensis, 33 
oligocystum, Sargassum, 266 
oligolepia, Cypselurus, 348 

Pecten (Cyclopecten), 320 
Oliva spicata, 119 
onunata, Narcine, 383 
onyx, Crepidula, 118 
opercularis, Holocentrua, 351 
Ophichthyidae, 342 
Ophiocara aporos, 370 
Ophyra, 163 

aeneseens, 164 
opisthopus, Cypselurus, 348 
Oplegnathidae, 389 
Oplegnathus insigne, 389 
Opsophytopsis, 165 

inoa, 167 

insularis, 167 
optimum, Pecten oxygonum, 310 
Opuntia, 42 

Echios, 43, 49 

Echios gigantea, 51 

EcMos t3rpica, 51 

galapageia, 43 

Helleri, 43, 44 

insularis, 43, 44 

megaspenua, 43, 46 

megasperma orientalis, 47, 48 



megasperma typica, 47 

myriacantha, 49 

occidentalis, 281 

prolifera, 281 

saxicola, 43, 45 

Zacana, 43, 48 
Opuntia forma triloba, Halimeda, 263 

forma typica, Halimeda, 263 
orbicularis, Apogou, 357 

Platax, 353 
orientalis, Cephalacanthus, 365 
orientalis, Opuntia megasperma, 47, 48 
ornata, Pachycephala pectoralis, 196 
ornata, Turbinaria, 265 
ornatus, Gobius, 371 

Hydrophis, 187 

Pecten, 306 

Pecten (Chlamys), 306 
Ornithomyia intertropica, 134 
Ornithoponus, 134 

americanus, 134 

intertropicus, 134 
(Orthocrema) brevispinosa chathamensis, 
Crematogaster, 58 

brevispinosa, Crematogaster, 62 
Orthodontium confine, 86 
orthognathus, Heterotermes, 234, 235, 248 
(Ortholomus) naso, Nysius, 27 
osae, Polyrhachis (Myrmatopa), 181 
Oscinella, 159 
Ostraciidae, 377 
Ostracion cornutus, 377 
Ostrea conchaphila, 118 

nodosa, 318 
Ostrea [= Pecten] florida, 302 
ovata, Halimeda tridens var., 263 
ovulata, Corbula, 118 
oxycephalus, Cypselurus, 349 
oxygonum canalis, Pecten, 310 

optimum, Pecten, 310 
Oxymonacanthus longirostris, 376 
Oxyna aesia, 158 
oxytropis, Turris, 119 
pachycentron, Petrometopon, 359 
Pachycephala pectoralis feminina, 196 

pectoralis ornata, 196 
pacifica, Turneria, 178 
pacificum, Tetramorium, 177 
pacificus, Diplophos, 340 

Kalotermes, 234, 235, 237 
Padina Commersonii, 264 
pagodus, Nassarius, 119 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



417 



pallida, Clavus (Cymatosyrinx), 118 

Pseudomyrma, 62 
pallidiventre, Tetramorium melanogyaa 

var., 177 
pallidas, Canctharus, 118 
pallidas, Heterotermes, 234, 247 
pallidus, Hippelates, 159 

Modiolus, 118 

Prohippelates, 159 
(Palliolum) guppyi, Chlamys, 320 
(Pallium) miser, Peeten, 318 

vexillum, Peeten, 307 
Palmeri var. Clementina, Baeria, 283 
palmeri, Cosmiconcha, 119 
panamaensis, Microtermes (Miero- 
termes),234 

Tellina, 118 

Tellina (Eurytellina), 118 
panamensis, Macoma, 118 

Peeten, 318 

Peeten (Pseudamusium), 321 
panamensis, Procanace, 161 
panamensis, Terebra, 119 
pantherinus, Platophrys, 351 
paphia, Terebra, 119 
Papilio epidaus, 140 

philenor, 139 

photinus, 139 

thoas autocles, 140 
papilio, Parexocoetus, 384 
Papilionidae, 139 
Papillaria nigrescens, 82, 86 
papuanus, Iridomyrmex auceps, 178 
papuensis, Balistes, 375 
Paracleius pusillua, 152 
Paragobiodon melanosomua, 372 

xanthosomus, 372 
Parajalysus pxinctipes, 35 
Parapercidae, 372 
Parapercis liexophthalma, 372 
parasiticus, Syrrhopodon, 81, 86 
Paratrechina longicornis, 60, 181 
pardochir, Euneapterygius, 374 
Parexocoetus brachypterus, 347 

papilio, 384 
Parietaria floridana, 279 
Parmelia conspersa, 214, 221 

perforata, 215, 221 

perlata, 215, 221 

physodes, 215, 221 
Parmeliaceae, 214 



Paroxyna ?aesia, 158 

crockeri, 157 
parrhasioidea, Leptotea, 143 
Paspalum galapageium, 297 

galapageium var. minoratum, 299 

redundans, 300 
patruelia willowai, Aphaenogaster, 64 
patula, Meteoriopsis, 82, 86 
paucicostatus, Peeten, 315 

Peeten (Plagioctenium), 315 
Peeten aotus, 320 

asperus, 314 

auatralis, 305 

buchivacoanus falcouenaia, 310 

buchivaeoanus moracaibenais, 310 

eiieularis, 118, 311 

corallinus, 318 

dentatua, 304 

digitatum, 306 

digitatua, 306 

distans, 307 

diatortus, 305 

excavatua, 304 

exasperatus, 310 

faacieulatua, 318 

filitextua, 312 

floridus, 302 

hastatus, 307 

iachnon, 317 

ialandicus pugetensis, 308 

janua, 307 

latiauratua, 314 

latiauritua fucicolua, 315 

latiauritus indentua, 315 

latiauritua splendena, 315 

nodosus, 318 

ornatua, 306 

oxygonum canalis, 310 

oxygonum optimum, 310 

panamensis, 318 

paucicostatus, 315 

peedeensis, 318 

pernodosus, 318 

plurinominis, 310 

purpuratus, 312 

rosaeeus, 305 

rotundua, 321 

sancti-ludovici, 309 

sericeus, 118, 303 

soror, 302 

soror codercola, 302 



418 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Proc. 4th Ser. 



Pecten sowerbyi, 314 
subnodosus, 317 
timidus, 311 
tumbezensis, 118, 314 
ventrieosus, 311 
A-exillum, 307 
woodringi, 316 

Pecten (Aequipecten) tumbezensis, 315 
(Argus) ventrieosus var. coccinea, 

313 
(Chlamys) amandi, 305 
(Chlamys) buchivacoanus, 310 
(Chlamys) callozoensis, 309 
(Chlamys) coccymelus, 311 
(Chlamys) hastatus, 307 
(Chlamys) hodgii, 310 
(Chlamys) kathrinepalmerae, 302 
(Chlamys) latiauratus, 314 
(Chlamys) lowei, 308 
(Chlamys) ornatus, 306 
(Chlamys) zeteki, 306 
(Cyclopecten) catalinensis, 3120 
(Cyclopecten) cocosensis, 319 
(Cyclopecten) oligolepis, 320 
(Cyclopecten) pemomus, 320 
(Cyclopecten) rotundus, 320 
(Decadopecten) fasciculatus, 318 
(Deleetopecten) liriope, 324 
(Delectopecten) zacae, 321 
(Dentipeeten) circularis, 311 
(Euvola) cataractes, 304 
(Janira) vodgesi, 304 
(Leptopecten) latiauratus, 314 
(Leptopecten) latiauratus delosi, 325 
(Leptopecten) tumbezensis, 314 
(Leptopecten) velero, 316 
(Lyropecten) nodosus var. inter- 
medins, 317 
(Lyropecten) nodosus var. subno- 
dosus, 317 
(Lyropecten) pittieri, 318 
(Lyropecten) subnodosus, 317 
(Nodipecten) colinensis, 318 
(Nodipecten) pittieri eollierensis, 318 
(Nodipecten) subnodosus, 317 
(Pallium) miser, 318 
(Pallium) vexillum, 307 
(Pecten) diegensis, 302 
(Pecten) excavatus, 304 
(Pecten) hastatus var. pugetensis, 

308 
(Pecten) sericeus, 303 



(Pecten) vogdesi, 304 
(Plagioctenium) paucicostatus, 315 
(Plagioctenium) circularis, 311 
(Plagioctenium) demiurgus, 313 
(Pseudamusium) guppyi, 320 
(Pseudamusium) lillisi, 322 
(Pseudamusium) panamensis, 321 
(Pseudamusium) subminutus, 320 

[= Pecten] florida, Ostrea, 302 

(Pecten) diegensis, Pecten, 302 
excavatus, Pecten, 304 
hastatus var. pugetensis, Pecten, 308 
sericeus, Pecten, 302 
vogdesi, Pecten, 304 

Pectinidae, The Recent, by L. G. Hertlein, 
301-328 

Pectis Andersonnii, 336 
linifolia, 336 
glabra, 333, 336 

glabra forma calvescens, 334, 336 
glabra forma pubescens, 335, 336 
glabra forma setulosa, 335, 336 
Hookeri, 336 

Hookeri forma stellulata, 335, 336 
subsquarrosa, 336 
tenuifolia, 336 

pectoralis feminina, Pachycephala, 196 
ornata, Pachycephala, 196 
salomonensis, Eclectus, 192 

peedeensis, Pecten, 318 

Pelagomyia dubia, 150 

peleus, Megahira, 143 

Pellicia licisca, 145 

peltata, Caulerpa, 261 

Pempheridae, 360 

Pempheris vanicolensis, 360 

Pentapus aurolineatus, 361 

pereula, Amphiprion, 365 

peregrina, Demoisellea, 389 

peregrinus, Camponotus (Myrmocladoe- 
cus) planus var., 59 

perforata, Parmelia, 215, 221 

Periophthalmus koelreuteri, 373 

perlata, Parmelia, 215, 221 

pernodosus, Pecten, 318 

pemomus, Pecten (Cyclopecten), 320 

Peropus mutilatus, 187 

persius, Thanaos, 145 

personata, Sula dactylatra, 190 

Pertusaria bispora, 213, 221 

leioplaca forma bispora, 213 

Pertusariaceae, 213 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



419 



peruvianus, Gobioides, 391 
perviridis, Dasia smaragdiua, 185 
petimba, Fistularia, 354 
petiverena, Heliconius, 141 
Petrometopon paehycentron, 359 
Petroscirtes anema, 373 

filamentosus, 373 

maroubrae, 373 

tapeinosoma, 373 
Pharnaceum Cerviana, 15 
Plieidole megacephala, 174 
Philates breviceps, 33, 35 

cinerea, 35 

major, 35 

productus, 35 

servus, 34, 35 

vicinus, 34, 35 
philenor, Papilio, 139 
Philonotis gracillima, 81, 86 
Philoxeius, 88, 98 

rigidus, 98 
Phora divaricata, 152 

venusta, 152 
Phoridae, 152 
Phoridae, Dolichopodidae and, by M. C. 

Van Duzee, 65 
Phos gaudens, 119 

veraguensis, 119 
photinus, Papilio, 139 
phyJlocysta, Sargassum echiiiocurpum 

var., 265 
Phyllomyzidae, 162 
Phylloiiotus bicolor, 119 
Physcia adscendens, 218, 221 

aegilata, 218, 221 

aipolia, 219, 221 

hispida var, adscendens, 218 

picta, 220, 221 

stellaris, 220, 221 
Physcia (Euphyscia) Howellii, 219, 221 
Physciaceae, 217 
physodes, Parmelia, 215, 221 
picipes var. ?, Camponotus (Tauae- 

myrmex), 61 
picta, Physcia, 220, 221 

Turris, 119 
Pieridae, 140 
Pilotrichum obtusatum, 84, 86 

rugifolium, 83, 86 
Pinarolestes hamlini, 194 
pinguis, Harengula, 339 



pionia, Musca (Lucilia), 166 

Viridinsula, 166 
Pipunculidae, 152 
Pipunculus galapagensis, 152 
Pitar callicomata, 118 

lenis, 118 
pittieri coUierensis, Peeten (Nodipecten), 
318 
Peeten (Lyropecten), 318 
Plagiochasma sp., 203 
(Plagioctenium) circularis, Peeten, 311 
demiurgus, Peeten, 313 
paucicostatus, Peeten, 315 
Plants from the Galapagos Islands, New 
Flowering, by J. T. Howell, 329-336 
from San Nicolas Island, California, 
The Vascular, by J. T. Howell, 
277-284 
of Southeastern Melanesia, Some 
Marine, by W. A. Setchell, 259-276 
planum, Taxithelium, 85, 86 
planus var. hephaestus, Camponotus 
(Myrmacladoecus), 59 
var. isabelensis, Camponotus 

(Myrmocladoecus), 59 
var. peregrinua, Camponotus 

(Myrmocladoecus), 59 
var. santaeruzensis, Camponotus 
(Myrmocladoecus), 59 
Platacidae, 353 
Platax orbicularis, 353 

teira, 353 
Platophrys mancus, 351 

pantherinus, 351 
Platymetopius aequinoctialis. 30 
Platystomidae, 156 
platyura, Belone, 384 
plena, Aligia, 37 

(Pleurofusia) militaris, Turricula, 119 
Pleuronectidae, 351 
Pleuropetalum, 88, 89 

Darwinii, 89 
pleurostigma, Pscudupeneus, 362 
plinthopyga, Sarcophaga, 168, 169 
plurinominis, Chlamys (Aequipecten), 310 
morantensis, Chlamys (Aequi- 
pecten), 310 
Peeten, 310 
poecilopleurus, Cryptoblepharus boutonii, 

185 
poecilopterus, Cypselurua, 347 



420 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Seb. 



Poeciloscytus vegatus, 28 
poeti, Gerres, 361 
Polinices uber, 119 
polyaeanthus, Pseudogramma, 360 
polycystum, Sargassum, 266 

Scytonema, 260 
Polyrhachis (Chariomyrma) arcuata var. 
acutinoda, 180 

(Chariomyrma) kaipi, 180 

(Chariomyrma) rere, 180 

(Hedomyrma) annae, 180 

(Myrma) labella var. brunneipes, 179 

(Myrma) relucens andromache var. 
nesiotis, 179 

(Myrma) relucens ithonus, 179 

(Myrmatopa) osae, 181 
Pomacentridae, 365, 389 
Pomacentrus bifasciatus, 366 

lividus, 365 

nigricans, 366 

prosopotaenia, 366 
Ponerinae, 173 
portentosa, Eocella, 285 
Pottia Fosbergii, 76 
Premnas biaculeatus, 365 
Priacanthidae, 360, 388 
Priacanthus cruentatus, 366 
primitiva. Anthrax, 151 

Villa, 151 
pristilepis, Myctophum, 345 
pristiphora, Tellina, 118 
Procanace, 160 (genus) 

galapageusis, 160 

panamensis, 161 
productus, Philates, 35 
Prohippelates, 159 

pallidus, 159 
prolifera, Opuntia, 281 
prosopotaenia, Pomacentrus, 366 
Prosthetocirca, 165 

cana, 168 
(Pseudamusium) guppyi, Pecten, 320 

lillisi, Pecten, 322 

panamensis, Pecten, 321 

subminutus, Peetenj 320 
Pseudocheilinus hexataenia, 370 
Pseudochromidae, 360 
(Pseudocolobopsis) macilentus, Campo- 

notus, 60 
Pseudogramma polyaeanthus, 360 
Pseudolfersia, 131 

diomedeae, 133 



fossulata, 132 

spinifera, 133 
Pseudomyrma gracilis mexicana, 62 

pallida, 62 

8p., 62 
Pseudopriacanthus lucasanus, 388 
Pseudupeneus barberinus, 362 

bifasciatus, 362 

indicus, 362 

pleurostigma, 362 
(Psora) crenata, Lecidea, 212 

globifera, Lecidea, 213 
Psorotichia squamulosa, 212, 221 
Ptilinopus rhodostictus cyanopterus, 192 

rhodostictus rhodostictus, 192 
pubescens, Pectis glabra forma, 335, 336 
pudica, Clavus (Cymatosyrinx), 118 
pugetensis, Pecten islandicus, 308 

Pecten (Pecten) hastatus var., 308 
pulcherrima, Myzomela cardiualis, 196 
pulvinata, Grimmia, 77 
punctatissimus, Holocentrus, 352 
punctatum, Myctophum, 344 
punctipes, Parajalysus, 35 
puutangoides, Gnatholepis, 371 
Purpura (Centrifuga) leeana, 120 
purpuratus, Pecten, 312 
purpurea, Anchovia, 340 
purpureus, Condylostylus, 66 
pusilla, Lynehia, 135 

Microlynchia, 135 
pusillus, Paracleius, 152 
pygmaeus, Threskiornis aethiopicuB, 191 
pyramicus albemarlensis, Dorymyrmex, 

59 
Pyrenopsidaceae, 212 
quadricornis, Salarias, 374 
quadrif orceps, Sarcophaga, 169 
quitensis, Amaranthus, 89, 90 
Kabula rotchii, 384 
racemosa, Caulerpa, 261 
radicata, Alternanthera, 97 

Iresine, 97 

Lithophila, 97 
radula, Turritella, 124 
Eamalina caliearis, 215, 221 

calicaris var. canaliculata, 215, 221 

ceruchis, 215, 221 

ceruchis forma cephalota, 216, 221 

combeoides, 216, 221 

complanata, 216, 221 

farinacea, 216, 221 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



421 



Ramalina homalea, 216, 221 

uaneoides, 216, 221 
Kana bufouiformis, 184 

guppyi, 184 

krefftii, 184 

aolomonis, 184 
Recluzia insignis, 11^ 
rectangularis var. aulicos, Camponotus 
(Myrmocladoecus), 64 

Camponotus (Myrmocladoecus), 63 

var. willowsi, Camponotus (Myrmo- 
cladoecus), 63 
rectirostris, Murex, 119 
recurva, Strombina, 119 
redundans, Paspalum, 300 
relucens andromache var. nesiotis, Polyr- 
hachis (Myrma), 179 

ithonus, Polyrhacliis (Myrma), 179 
rema, Calliostoma, 118, 121 
rennelliana, Ehipidura, 195 
Reptiles and Amphibians, with the De- 
scription of a New Species of Sea- 
Snake, Notes on the, by J. R. 
Slevin, 183-188 
rere, Polirhachis (Chariomyrma), 180 
reticulatus, Lethrinus, 361 

bedoti, Camponotus (Myrmamblys), 
179 
reversa, Sarcophaga, 168 
Rhicnocssa costalis, 162 
Rhiuogobius criniger, 372 

neophytus, 372 
Rhipidura leucoplirys melaleuca, 195 

rennelliana, 195 

rufifrons kuperi, 196 
Rhizogonium spiniforme, 82, 86 
Rhodophyceae, 268 
rhodostietus cyanopterus, Ptiliuopus, 192 

Ptilinopus rhodostietus, 192 

rhodostietus, Ptilinopus, 192 
Riccia Elliottii, 200 

Howellii, 202 

iodocheila, 200 

nigrella, 200 

sorocarpa, 199 

sp., 200 

trichocarpa, 200 
Riceiaceae, 199 
Richardi, Calymperes, 85 
rigida, Alternanthera, 98 

Lithophila, 98 
rigidus, Philoxerua, 98 



ringeus, Malea, 119 
rivulatus, Gobiodon, 372 

Siganus, 364 
Eobinsonii, Lepidium, 280 
robusta, Sarcophaga, 169 

Xenophora, 124 
robustier, Telanthera argentea, 110 

Telanthera echinocephala, 110 
Roccella Babingtonii, 286 

fimbriata, 287 

portentosa, 285 
Roccellaceae, The, by O. V. Darbishire, 

285-294 
Roccellodea nigerrima, 286 
rondeletii, Cypselurus, 348 
rosaceus, Pecten, 305 
rosea, Clavus (Cymatosyrinx), 118 
Rotch, Garland, Itinerary of the Temple- 
ton Crocker Expedition of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, 1932, 
8 
rotchii, Rabula, 384 
rotundus, Pecten, 321 

Pecten (Cyclopecteu), 320 
rubescens, Tellina, 118 
rufifrons kuperi, Rhipidura, 196 
rugifera, Clavus (Cymatosyrinx), 118 
rugifolium, Pilotrichum, 83, S6 
(Rugitermes) rugosus var. occidentalis, 

Kalotermes, 245 
rugosus var. occidentalis, Kalotermes 

(Rugitermes), 245 
rugulosa, Achyranthes, 111 
rugulosa, Alternanthera, 101, 111 
rugulosa, Telanthera, 111 
rugrilosus, Amaranthus sclerantoides 

forma, 92, 94 
ruidum, Ectatomma, 62 
ruralis, Tortula, 76 
sacra, Demigretta, 190 
Salarias garmani, 374 

margaritatus, 374 

meleagris, 374 

quadricornis, 374 

sealei, 374 
salomonensis, Eclectus pectoralis, 192 
Salvia floriana, 332 
sammara, Holocentrus, 352 
samoensis, Hypleurochilus, 374 
samoensis, Mulloides, 362 
sancta. Halcyon, 193 
sanctaecrucis, Myzomela cardinalis, 197 



422 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Proc. 4th Ser. 



sancti-ludovici, Pecten, 309 
sancti-petri, Scomberoides, 356 
sanfordi, Mino dumoutii, 194 

Myzomela cardinalis, 196 
Sanicula arguta, 282 
santacruzeusis, Camponotus (Myrmo- 

cladoecus) planus var., 59 
Bantacruziana, Mollugo Snodgassii, 22 
sanzoi, Vinciguerria, 230 
Sarcophaga, 165, 168 

inoa, 167 

isia, 168, 169 

plinthopyga, 168, 169 

quadriforceps, 169 

reversa, 168 

robusta, 169 

taitensis, 168 

violenta, 168, 169 

williamsi, 168, 170 
Sarcophagula, 165 

occidua, 167 
Sardinella sirm, 339 
Sargassum, 265 

Binderi, 265 

cristaefolium, 265 

echinocarpum var. phyllocysta, 265 

oligoeystum, 266 

polycystum, 266 
- earmentosa, Aleetoria, 215 
Sarothromyiops cincta, 168 
Satyridae, 141 
eaurus, Elops, 338 
Saurus myops, 344 

variegatus, 344 
eavayensis, Apogon, 357 
eaxatilis, Malacothrix, 284 
saxicola, Opuntia, 43, 45 
Scaphoideus discalls, 31 
Scarichthys auritus, 370 
Scaridae, 370 
Scartella atrimana, 393 
Seatella galapagensis, 161 
Schlotheimia Jamesoni, 86 
Bchwanefeldii, Thalassoma, 370 
Sciaridae, 149 

sclerantoides forma abingdonensis, 
Amaranthus, 92, 94 
Amaranthus, 89, 91, 93 
Euxolus, 93 

forma albemarlensis, Amaranthus, 93 
forma chatamensis, Amaranthus, 
92,93 



forma hoodensis, Amaranthus, 93 

forma rugulosus, Amaranthus, 92, 94 

forma typicus, Amaranthus, 93 
sclerocarpus, Cereus, 52 
Scleropodium illecebrum, 77 
Scleropus squamulatus, 95 

squarrulosus, 95 

ureeolatus, 95 
Scomber japonicus, 356 

microlepidotus, 356 
Scomberoides sancti-petri, 356 
Scombridae, 356 
Bcoparia, Froelichia, 116 
scoparia, Froelichia lanigera, 115, 116 
Scorpaenidae, 364 
Scorpaenopsis cookii, 365 

novae-guineae, 365 
scutata, Cetraria, 214, 221 
Scytonema polycystum, 260 
Seale, Alvin, Fishes, 337 
sealei, Salarias, 374 
Sebastapistes laotale, 364 
Sebastopsis guamensis, 365 
Sematophyllum galipense, 82, 85, 86 
Semele incongrua, 118 
semicinctus, Leiuranus, 342 

Lutianus, 360 
semidoliatus, Zonogobius, 371 
(Semilimbidium) Howelli, Fissidens, 78 
senex, Camponotus (Myrmobrachys), 63 
septemfasciatus, Abudefduf, 366 
sericeum, Dichonema, 220 

Dictyonema, 220 
sericeus, Pecten, 118, 303 

Pecten (Pecten), 303 
Serranidae, 359 
serrulatum. Sphagnum cuspidatum var., 

77,86 
servus, Philates, 34, 35 
Setchell, W. A., Some Marine Plants of 
Southeastern Melanesia, 259-276 
setosus, Aphrosylus, 152 
setulosa, Pectis glabra forma, 335, 336 
sexfasciatus, Abudefduf, 367 

Caranx, 357 
Siganidae, 364 
Siganus rivulatus, 364 

tetrazonus, 364 
simiensis, Xeuophora, 124 
similis, Thyanta, 26 

simillimum, Tetramorium (Tetroginus), 59 
simukins, Anthoceros, 204 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



423 



simulans, Halimeda, 262 
simus, Cypselurus, 348 
sirm, Sardinella, 339 

Slevin, J. R., Notes on the Reptiles and 
Amphibians, with the Description 
of a New Species of Sea-Snake, 
183-188 
smaragdina perviridis, Dasia, 185 

subnitida, Oecophylla, 179 
Suodgrassii, Achyranthes, 109 
Snodgrassii, Alternanthera, 100, 109 
Snodgrassii, Mollugo, 15, 22 

santacruziana, Mollugo, 22 

Telanthera, 109 
Solenopsis geminata, 61, 62 

sp., 62 
solomonis. Halcyon chloris, 193 

Rana, 184 
solorensis, Cirrhilabrus, 370 
Sonchus asper, 284 

oleraceus, 284 
soror codercola, Pecten, 302 

Janira, 302 

Pecten, 302 
soroearpa, Riccia, 199 
sowerbyana, Nuculana (Adrana), 118 
sowerbyi, Pecten, 314 

Turricula, 119 
Sparidae, 361 

speculiger, Cypselurus, 348 
Sphaerocera galapagensis, 158 
Sphaerophoraceae, 212 
Sphaerophoria splendens, 153 
Sphaerophorus coralloides, 212, 221 
Sphagebranchus bicolor, 342 

lumbricoides, 342 
Sphagnum cuspidatum var. serrulatum, 
77,86 

erythrocalyx, 77, 86 
Sphenomorphus concinnatus, 185 
Spheroides lunaris, 377 
Sphyraena f orsteri, 356 
Sphyraenidae, 356 
spicata, Oliva, 119 
spicif er, Syngnathus, 353 
spinifer, Holocentrus, 352 
spinifera, Feronia, 132 

Olfersia, 132 

Pseudolfersia, 133 
spinif orme, Rhizogonium, 82, 86 
spinosum, Crucibulum, 119 



spinosus, Amaranthus, 89, 91 
splendens, Allograpta, 153 

Pecten latiauritus, 315 

Sphaerophoria, 153 

Syrphus, 153 
Spratelloides delicatulus, 338 

gracilis, 339 
Sprucei, Campylopus, 86 
squalida, Macrocallista, 118 
Squamidium Caroli, 82, 86 

leucotrichum, 81, 82, 86 

nigricans, 86 
squamulatus, Amaranthus, 89, 95 

Scleropus, 95 
squamulosa, Psorotichia, 212, 221 
squarrulosa, Amblogyne, 95 
squarrulosus, Amaranthus, 95 

Scleropus, 95 
stellaris, Physcia, 220, 221 
stellulata, Pectis Hookeri, 335, 336 
steneles biplagiata, Victorina, 142 
stenophyllum, Trif olium, 280 
stercus-muscarum, Cerithium, 118 
Stereophyllum leucostegium, 85 
Sterna bergii cristata, 191 
stetira, Catopsilia, 140 
stocki, Xenophora, 124 
Stomoxys, 163 

calcitrans, 165 
Stratiomyidae, 150 
striata, Mollugo, 14, 15, 19 
striatus macrorhynchus, Butorides, 190 
strictiuscula, Achyranthes, 105 
strlctiuscula, Alternantliera glaucescens 

forma, 105 
strictiuscula, Telanthera, 105 
striolatus, Canthigaster, 377 
Strombina dorsata, 119 

edentula, 119 

gibberula, 119 

recurva, 119 
Strong, A. M., G. D. Hanna and L. G. 
Hertlein, Marine MoUusca from 
Acapulco, Mexico, with Notes on 
Other Species, 117-130 
Strophidon brummeri, 343 
struncki, Microcerotermes, 234, 250, 251 
subleucogaster, Campylopus, 79, 86 
subminutus, Pecten (Pseudamusium), 320 
subnitida, Oecophylla smaragdina, 179 



424 



CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Seb. 



gnbnodosue, Pecten, 317 

Pecten (Lyropecten), 317 

Pecten (Lyropecten), nodosus rar., 
317 

Pecten (Nodipecten), 317 
subquadrata, Cyclinella, 118 
eubscaposa, Alternanthera, 97 

Iresine, 97 

Lithophila, 97 
subsquarrosa, Alternanthera filifolia, 
102, 103 

Pectis, 336 
Sula dactylatra personata, 190 
Buperciliosa, Woodfordia, 198 
sylvatica, Alternanthera filifolia, 102, 104 
Symphurus melanurus, 386 
Synanceja verrucosa, 364 
Syngnathidae, 353 
Syngnathus spicif er, 353 

uncinatus, 353 
Synodontidae, 344 
Synthesiomyia, 163 
Syrphidae, 153 
Syrphus albomaculatus, 155 

clavatus, 154 

splendens, 153 
Syrrhopodon Bernoullii, 86 

Guadichaudii, 81, 86 

incompletus, 86 

parasiticus, 81, 86 
Tabanidae, 150 
Tabanus vittiger, 136, 150 
Tabanus (Neotabanus) vittiger, 136 
tabogae, Kalotermes, 237, 239 
tabuensis fortunae, Aplonis, 194 
Tachinidae, 171 
taeniorhynchus, Aedes, 149 

Culex, 149 
taeniura, Kuhlia, 359 
Tagelus violescens, 118 
taitensis, Sarcophaga, 168 
(Tanaemyrmex) picipes, CamponotuB, 61 
tapeinosoma, Petroscirtes, 373 
Tapinoma melanocephalum, 178 
Taxithelium planum, 85, 86 
teira, Platax, 353 
Telanthera angustata, 105 

argentea, 110 

argentea bracteata, 110 

argentea nudiflora, 110 

argentea robustier, 110 



echinocephala, 110 

echinocephala bracteata, 110 

echinocephala nudiflora, 110 

echinocephala robustier, 110 

ficoidea. 111 

filifolia, 102 

flavicoma, 107 

galapagensis, 108 

glaucescens, 104, 105 

Helleri, 109 

Helleri var. obtusior, 110 

nudicaulis, 101 

rugulosa. 111 

Snodgrassii, 109 

strictiuseula, 105 

vestita, 108 
Tellina (Eurytellina) panamaensis, 118 

panamaeiisis, 118 

pristiphora, 118 

rubescens, 118 
temmincki, Atherina, 355 
tenerum, Isopterygium, 82, 85, 86 
tenuifolia, Aristida, 296 

Pectis, 336 
Terebra armillata, 119 

aspera, 119 

ligyrus, 119 

lingualis, 119 

panamensis, 119 

paphia, 119 

sp., 119 

varicosa, 119 
Terias lydia, 141 

westwoodi, 141 
Termes mexicanus, 237 
Termites, The, by S. F. Light, 233-258 
Termopsis angusticollis, 236 
tessellata, Glycymeris, 118 
Tetramorium guineense, 59, 177 

melanogyna var. pallidiventre, 177 
Tetramorium pacificum, 177 

(Tetroginus) simillimum, 59 
tetrazonus, Siganus, 364 
Tetrodon hispidus, 378 

immaculatus, 377 

manillensis, 377 

meleagris, 377 

nigropunctatus, 378 
Tetrodontidae, 377 

(Tetroginus) simillimum, Tetramorium, 
59 



Vol. XXI] 



INDEX 



425 



Thalassia Hempricliii, 269 
Tlialassoma herrei, 369 

lunare, 369 

schwanefeldii, 370 
Thanaos sp. nr. funeralis, 145 

persius, 145 
Thecla melinus clarionensis, 143 
Theloschistaceae, 217 
Theloschistes flavicans, 217, 221 
theona, Melitaea, 142 
theramenes, Camptopleura, 145 
thesaurensis, Hyla, 184 
thoas autocles, Papilio, 140 
Thouarsii, Brachycereus, 52, 53 

Cereus, 52 
Threskiornis aethiopieus pygmaeus, 191 
Thuidium involvens, 85, 86 
Thyanta similis, 26 
tibialis, Anchineura, 151 

Aporosa, 148 

Limonia (Geranomyia), 148 
Tillaea erecta, 280 
timidus, Pecten, 311 
tincta. Anthrax, 151 

Lepidanthrax, 151 
Tipulidae, 148 
Torpedinidae, 383 
Tortella caespitosa, 86 
Tortula atrovirens, 76 

Hypophila, 81, 86 

muralis, 76 

ruralis, 76 
Traehyrops crumenophthalma, 357 
tragula, Upeneus, 362 
Traskae, Cryptantha, 282 
Trichoglossus haematodus aberrans, 192 

haematodus caeruleieeps, 192 
trichocarpa, Riccia, 200 
tridens, Halimeda, 262 

var. ovata, Halimeda, 263 

var. tripartita, Halimeda, 263 
Trifolium stenophyllum, 280 
triloba, Halimeda Opuntia forma, 263 
triostegus, Hepatus, 364 
tripartita, Halimeda incrassata forma, 

263 
tripartita, Halimeda tridens var., 263 
tripvmctatus, Arphnus, 36 
triquetra, Hormophysa, 264 
Trisetum Howellii, 296 
tristrami, Myzomela nigrita, 197 
troscheli, Liza, 355 



truncatulus, Glassidelphus, 86 
Trypaneidae, 157 
tuberculata, Cancellaria, 119 
tuberculifera, Clavatula (Knefastia), 118 
tuberculifrons, Kalotermes, 237 
tuberculosa, Cancellaria, 119 
tumbezensis, Pecten, 118, 314 

Peeten (Aequipecten), 315 

Pecten (Leptopecten), 314 
tumida, Dascalia, 39 
Turbinaria Murrayana, 264 

ornata, 265 

turbinata, 265 
turbinata, Turbinaria, 265 
Turneria pacifica, 178 
Turricula maura, 119 

sowerbji, 119 
Turricula (Pleurofusia) militaris, 119 
Turris oxytropis, 119 

picta, 119 

sp., 119 
Turritella mariana, 119, 123 

nodulosa, 119 

radula, 124 
Tylosurus incisus, 345 

indica, 345 
typica, Alternanthera filifolia, 102 

Alternanthera glaucescens, 105 

Alternanthera Helleri forma, 109 

Froelichia juncea, 116 

Proelichia lanigera, 115 

Froelichia nudicaulis, 114 
typica, Halimeda Opuntia forma, 263 
typica, Mollugo flavescens, 18 

Mollugo floriana, 21 

Mollugo gracillima, 16 

Opuntia Echios, 51 

Opuntia megasperma, 47 
typicus, Amaranthus Anderssoni forma, 
95 

Amaranthus sclerantoides, 92, 93 
uber, Polinices, 119 
ugiensis, Monarcha, 195 
uisila, Atherina, 354 
uneinatus, Syngnathus, 353 
undulatus, Balistapus, 376 

Cheilinus, 369 

Gymnothorax, 343 
unicornis, Naso, 363 
uniocellatus, Abudefduf, 366 
Upeneus tragula, 362 

vittatus, 362 



426 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th See, 



urceolata, Amblogyna, 95 

urceolatus, Amaranthus, 95 
Scleropus, 95 

urodelus, Cephalopholia, 359 

Usnea duriuscula, 217, 221 
florida, 217, 221 

Usneaceae, 215 

usneoides, Eamalina, 216, 221 

vaga, Nylanderia, 181 

vaginata, Aristida, 297 

vaigiensis, Kyphosus, 361 

vainkorensis, Collocalia fuciphaga, 193 

vaivasensis, Ambassis, 359 

valenciennesi, Atherina, 355 

valentini, Aulostomus, 354 

Van Duzee, E. P., Characters of Twenty- 
four New Species of Hemiptera 
from the Galapagos Islands and 
the Coast and Islands or" Central 
America and Mexico, 25-40 
The Diurnal Lepidoptera of the 
Expedition, 139-146 

Van Duzee, M. C, Dolichopodidae and 
Phoridae, 65-74 

Vanessa caryae, 142 

vanicolensis, Pempheris, 360 

vanillae galapagensis, Agraulis, 141 

Varanus indicus, 186 

varicosa, Terebra, 119 

variegatus, Saurus, 344 

Variola louti, 359 

varius, Heniochus, 363 

vegatus, Poeciloscytus, 28 

vegetans, Anthoeeros, 205 

velero, Pecten (Leptopecten), 313 

veliferum, Zebrasoma, 364 

velox, Azteca, 63 

ventricosa, Cancellaria, 118 

ventricosus var. coccinea, Pecten 
(Argus), 313 
Pecten, 311 

venusta, Anartia, 142 
Dohrniphora, 152 
Phora, 152 

veraguensis, Phos, 119 

verrucosa, SjTianceja, 364 

versicolor, Asyndetus, 152 
Nassarius, 119 

Vesicularia vesicularis, 86 

vesicularis, Vesicularia, 86 

vestita, Achyranthes, 108 

vestita, Alternanthera, 100, 108 



vestita, Telanthera, 108 
vexillum, Chlamys, 307 

Pecten, 307 

Pecten (Pallium), 307 
vibex, Cantharus, 118 
vicinus, Philates, 34, 35 
Victoriua steneles biplagiata, 142 
vidua, Monarcha, 195 
Villa primitiva, 151 

Vinciguerria, a Genus of Deep Sea Fishes, 
Revision of the Species of, by D. B. 
Horsburgh, 225-232 
Vinciguerria lucetia, 227 

nimbaria, 230 

sanzoi, 230 
violenta, Sarcophaga, 168, 169 
violescens, Tagelus, 118 
Viridinsula, 165, 166 

deceptor, 166 

pionia, 166 
viridis, Amaranthus, 89, 91 
viridula, Weisia, 76 
vittatus, Gekko, 184 

Upeneus, 362 
vittiger, Tabanus, 136, 150 

Tabanus (Neotabanus), 136 
vividula guatemalensis var. itinerana, 

Nylanderia, 60 
vogdesi, Pecten (Pecten), 304 
volitans, Exocoetus, 346 
waigiensis, Liza, 355 
Weisia viridula, 76 
werneri, Emoia, 185 
westwoodi, Terias, 141 
Wheeler, W. M., Formicidae of the Tem- 
pleton Crocker Expedition, 57-64 

Formicidae of the Templeton Crocker 
Expedition, 1933, 173-181 
williamsi, Odinia, 163 
williamsi, Sarcophaga, 168, 170 
willowsi, Aphaenogaster patruelis, 64 

Camponotus (Myrmocladoecus) 
rectangularis var., 63 

Creontiades, 28 

Dohrniphora, 70 

Xiphomyrmex costatus, 177 
Willowsiella, 174 

dispar, 175 
Wohlf ahrtia inoa, 167 
Woodfordia superciliosa, 198 
woodfordiana, Hemiprocne mystacea, 193 
woodringi, Pecten, 316 



Vol. X XT] 



INDEX 



427 



Xanthandius, 153 

sp., 155 
xanthosomus, Paragobiodon, 372 
Xenocoenosia, 163 

devia, 164 
Xenophora hawlej'i, 124 

robusta, 124 

simiensis, 124 

stocki, 124 

zitteli, 124 
ximines, Conus, 119 
Xylocopa colona, 379 

carbonaria, 379, 381 

darwini, 379 
Xyphomyrniex costatus willowsi, 179 
zaca^ Cypselurus, 349 



Mitra, 119, 120 
zacae, Pecten (Delectopecten), 321 
Zacana, Opuntia, 43, 48 
Zalarges lucetius, 227 

nimbarius, 230 
Zanclidae, 363 
Zanclus canescens, 363 
Zaretes ellops, 143 
Zebrasoma veliferum, 364 
zebrinus, Achirus, 386 
zeteki, Pecten (Chlamys), 306 
zitteli, Xenophora, 124 
zonalis, Drapetis, 151 
Zonogobiiis semidoliatus, 371 
Zootermopsis, 236 

angustieillis, 234, 236 



3. 

Page 83. 
Page 89. 
Page 168. 
Page 178. 
Page 221. 
Page 233. 
Page 345. 
Page 346. 



ERRATA 

Line 5 from top: for pp. 3-9 read pp. 3-12. 

Line 5 from top: for recollected read re-collected. 

Last Line : for A ndersson read A nderssoni. 

Line 14 from bottom: for violens read violenta. 

Line 9 from bottom : for Formicidae read Formicinae. 

Line 5 from bottom : for corralloides read coralloides. 

Line 15 from bottom: for Captain read Mr. 

Line 12 from bottom: for Beaixford read Beaufort. 

Line 2 from top : for Hemiramphidae read Hemirhamphidae. 



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