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Full text of "Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences"

PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY 



OK 



NATURAL SCIENCES. 



VOLUME IT. 

1876-1S7S. 




DAVENPORT, IOWA: 

f^UBLISHED BY J. D. PUTNAM. 

1877-1880. 






PUBLICATION COMMITTEE — 1870, 

J f). PUTNAM. Chairman. Dr. C. C. P.^RRY. Rev. W. H. RARHf^ 

Dr. R. .1. FARQUHARSON. Dk. C. H. I'RESTON. 



The authori^ of the various papers are aloue responsible for what is contained in tlieiii. 

The date of the printing of each sheet is printed iu the signature line. 

Pagej* 1-148. and Plate» I-III, constituting Part f , were piiMishcd in July. 1877- 



OaZETTKCo. PniXTESS. 




PREFACE 



«v£W YORK 
"^Or AH i (y M. 



The publication of the first volume of the proceedings of the Academy 
was so well received, and resulted in such large additions to its library 
and museum, it was decided to continue it; and in now presenting an- 
other volume it may be of interest to continue the brief sketch of its 
progress commenced in the former one. 

The year 1876 was largely occupied with preparing the material, print- 
ing and i)ublishing the first volume of Tkoceedings; but the scientific 
work wiis not neglected, and active Biological, Historical, Archaeological 
and Geological Sections were formed, holding frequent meetings in ad- 
dition to the general meetings of the Academy. The collections con- 
tinued to increase faster than space could be provided, and the first 
fruits of the publication were seen in the shape of large numbers of 
books received in exchange. 

Early in 1877 the printing of the second volume of Fkoceedings was 
commenced. The 22d of February of this year whs made memorable by 
the donation of a building lot by Mrs. P. V. ]S'ewcomb. A subscription 
was started, plans drawn, contracts let, and the year closed with a well- 
constructed building nearly ready for occupancy— the first of its kind west 
of the Mississippi. Other notable events of the year were the discovery 
of two inscribed tablets in a mound on the Cook Farm, and the donation 
by Prof. T. S. Parvin. of his extensive geological collection. Donations 
to the Library and Museum were received from more than TOO persons. 

In 1^78, on February 22d. the anniversary of Mrs. Newcombs gift, the 
new building of the Academy was opened to the public. Tliis led to a 
great and rapid increase in the collections, taxing the ability of the cu- 
rator to the utmost to care for them. The deposit of the botanical col- 
lections of Dr. C. C. Parry and entomological collections of J. D. Putnam, 
the exliuming of another inscribed tablet by Messrs. Gass, Harrison and 
Hume, and the addition to the museum of an antique pipe carved in the 
form of an elephant are events of the year worthy of note. 

At the annual meeting held January 1st, 1879, a new departure was 
taken, and a lady, Mrs. Mary L. D. Putnam, to whose zeal the prosper- 
ity of the Academy is largely due, was elected President. Early in this 
year No. 1 of the Third Volume of 1'roceedings was published, con- 
taining the Reports presented at the annual meeting. The increase of 
the library and museum was greater than during any previous year. 
The most noticeable additions were the elegant mineralogical collections 
of the late Geo. W. Doe, and of tlie late D. S. True. During all these 
years Capt. W. P. Hall has continued his indefatigable explorations 
throughout the entire length of the Mississippi river, and of many of its 



IV PREFACE. 

branches, gathering each year many thonsmfis of stone and flint imple- 
ments and eartiien vessels. These, together with the results of the la- 
bors of Rev. J. Gass, and other members, has rendered the archaeological 
collection of the Academy one of unusual interest. 

The present year, ISSO, tlie thirteenth in the life of the Academy, opens 
with a fair promise of continued progress. 

This volume contains the proceedings of the Academy for three years, 
1876, 1877, and 1878, and is published under an arrangement with the 
corresponding secretary, who has attended to all the details of editing, 
printing, illuslrating and paying the bills. It was the original intention 
to issue tiie work in monthly or quarterly parts, but this was not found 
practicable. Part I, containing 148 pages and three plates was pub- 
lished in July, 1877, and part II completing the volume is now issued, 
having been delayed a year longer than was expected by tlie destruction 
of the litiiographic plates originally prepared to illustrate it. Six plates 
(V, VI, by VV. O. Gronen, VII, VHI, X, XI by A. D. Churchill) had 
been beautifully drawn on stone during the summer of 1878, but were 
ruined by the lithographic printer before 200 impressions were taken. 
After much delay these plates have been reproduced by etchings on 
steel by Messrs. \V. O. Gronen, W. II. Pratt and J. D. Putnam. Being 
first attem))ts, and without personal instruction, they are not as artis 
tic as could be desired, but will serve to illustrate the text, being 
fairly correct in outlines. The cuts also, are, njany of them, first at- 
tempts at engraving on wood. 

From January 1876 to June 1877 (Page 1-148) the minutes of the vari- 
ous meetings have been very fully printed. After that date all business 
matters, except such as had an important bearing on the welfare of the 
Academy, have been omitted, thus giving greater space for scientific 
matter. A very full index was prepared, but is omitted on account of 
the cost of printing it. 

Acknowledgments are due to Prof. Spencer F. Baird, of the Smithso- 
nian Institution for supervising the preparation of Plates I-IIt; to 
Messrs. Charles F. Steel, President and James Bannister, Chief Engra- 
ver of the Franklin Bank Note Co., 107 Liberty St., New York, from 
whom the plates and materials for etcliing were obtained, for their brief 
and practical directions and suggestions ; to Messrs. llarroun & Bierstadt. 
58 Reade St., New York, who prepared the albertype and artotype plates ; 
to Mr. Herman Strecker, Reading, Pa., who engraved Plates IV and IX ; 
to Messrs. Hastings, White & Fisher, Davenport, wiio prepared the neg- 
atives for Plate VII; to the Gazette Company of Davenport, who have 
done the printing with care and patience, worthy of the highest praise ; 
to the various engravers of the plates and cuts, and to all members and 
correspondents of the Academy who have taken part in the work. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Preface iii 

Contents v 

List of Illnstriitlons vii 

Election of OfHcers for 1876 ; 1 

Standiuj» Committees for 18T6 5 

Standing Rules of the Biological Section 9 

Resolutions on the death of A. U Barler 13 

Standing Rules of the Historical Section 14 

Committees of I he Historical Section 15 

By-Laws of the Section of Geology and Archaaology 16 

Horned toads in the collection of the Academy. J. D . Putnam 22 

On the young of a species of Lycosa. J. D. Putnam 23 

Exploration of a Mound near Utah Lake. Julia J. Wirt 23,82 

Notice of the late I. A. Lapham, LL. D. Dr. C. C. Pakry 29 

Manufacture of Pottery by Mojave Indian Women. Dr. E. Palmer 32 

Remarks on Galeodes palli])es Say. J. D. Putnam. Illustrated 35 

Shell Money and other Primitive Currencies. W.H.Pratt. Illustrated 39 

Annual Meeting, Jan. 3, 1S77 47 

Treasurer's Report for 187fi. John Hume 47 

Curator's Report for 1876. W. H. Pratt 48 

Additions to the ^Museum during 187t!. W. H. Pratt 50 

Recording Secretary's Report for 1870. C.H.Preston 56 

Librarian's Report for 1876. R. J. Farquu arson 57 

Additions to the Librar3' during 1876, J. D. Putnam. 57 

Corresponding Secretary's Report for 1876. J. D. Putnam 64 

Report of the Committee of Publication. J.D.Putnam .. 65 

President's Annual Address. Rev. W. H. Barris . 75 

Election of Officers for 1877 77 

Standing Committees for 1877. 80 

Mound Explorations in Jackson County, Iowa. C. T. Lindley. Illustrated 83 

Remarks on Coral Formations. Prop. H. T. Woodman 85 

Donation of Geological Collection by Prof. T. S. Parvin 89 

Deed of Building Lot donated by Mrs. P. V. Newcomb 90 

Explorations of Mound No. 3, Cook"s Farm Group, and Discovery of Inscribed Tablets. 

Rev. J. Gass. Illustrated 92 

Call npon Mrs. Newcomb, and Address by Rev. S. S. Hunting 99 

On the Inscribed Tablets found by Rev. J. Gass. R. J. Farquharson. Illustrated 103 

Amendment to Article IX of By-Laws, On Committees 117 

Report of the Director of the Biological Section. J. D. Putnam 120 

V)eiini\A\on oi Ualopteiius picticoriiis. Dr. Cyrus Tuomas. Illustrated 124 

"^^Contributions to the Flora of Iowa. J. C. Artuur 128 

/ On a collection of Jlollusks from L'tah and Colorado. Ernest Ingersoll 130 

Conference with Library and Art Associations 136 

■T^ A recent tiud of Skulls and Skeletons in Ohio. Rev. S. D. Peet 138 

|Ti Report of Exploration of Mound No. 10, Cook's Farm Group. Rev. J. Gass. Hiustrated. 141 
QQ Description of inscribed stones found in CleonaTownship, Scott Co., Iowa. Rev. J. Gass. 142 

Deed of Additional land donated by Mrs. P. V. Newcomb 143 

^^ Remarks on Missouri and Iowa Mound Pottery. Prof. P. E. Nipher 147 

" Exploration of Mounds on the Farm of Col. Wm. Allen. W. H. Pratt 148, 154 

, ^ Report of Conference Committee 1.51 

to Report of Building Committee 152, 164, 166 



VI CONTKNT8. 

PAOt 

ExHmniiMon of a I'lmo Mound in Jackson Connfy, Town. Rev. J. Gass 155 

The Shell B'mIs of the vicinity of Davjnport. W. U. Pratt. Illustrated 158 

Proposition of Trii<tee< of (Iri^woUl Coll^'Jie 162 

Battle of Port Stephenson. W. C. Putnam 165 

Resolution ofi'urin'^ ii«t! of room to D ivenpoi't Art Association 166 

A review of the pii'ilish^'l state'nents re'^afiin'^ the Mounds at Payaon, Utah; with an ac- 
count of their structure and oritjin. T)r. E. Palmer 167 

Inscribed Rocks in Cleona Township. Kkv. J. Gass 173 

Report on a Mound in Jackson County. Rrv. J. Gass 173 

Exercises at the layins; of the Corner Stone of the Academy Buildin<jr, October 4th, 1877. . . 173 

Address by Rev. S. S. Hunting 174 

Address by Hon. Z. C. Luse 177 

Ode on hiving ; lie Coraer-S one. Dr C. C. Paruv 178 

Articles deposited in Corner-Stone, W. U. Pratt 179 

Addressby T. S. Parvin. 180 

Resolution offering; use of Room to Scott County Medical Society 18.5, 204 

On the prevalence of Left-hand^duess in the City Schools. W. H. Pr.att 186 

A new California Lilly. Dr. C. C. P\rp.Y. Illustrated 188 

Habits of a Si nsjins; Mouse. W.H.Pratt 190 

List of the Lepidoptera of .Muscatine County, Iowa. Miss Alice B. Walton 191 

Reminiscences of the Early History of the Academy. W. H. Pratt 193 

Amendments to the Articles of Incorporation 303 

Annual Meeting, January 2d and -Joth, 1878 204, 206 

On the Growth of Paleontology as a Science. S. A. Miller a06 

President's Annual Address, Jan. 2.51 h, 187:^. Rev. S. S. Hunting 207 

Corresponding Secretary's Report. J. D. PijtnaM '. 211 

Recording Secretary's Report. C. E. Haruison 212 

Treasurer's Report. Dr. M. B. Cochran 212 

Librarian's Report. Dr. E. H. Hazen 213 

Curator's Report. W. H. Pratt 213 

Report of the Publication Committee. J. D. Putnam 215 

Report of the Historical Section 218 

Report of the Biological Section 218 

Election of Officers for 1878 - 218 

Standing Committees for 1878 "218 

Mound Explorations in Jackson County, Iowa. Rev. J. Gass 219 

On the Synonomy of two Species of Spirifera. S. A. Miller 220 

Exploration of Mound No. II, Cook's Farm Group, and Discovery of an Inscribed Tablet 

of Limestone. C. E. Harrison. Illustrated 221 

Opening of Academy Building, Feb. 22cT, 1378 224 

Notes of personal investigation among the Shell Mounds of Florid i. W. W. Calkins . . 225 

Post-mortem Examination of a Boa-Constrictor. Dr. R. J Farquiiabson 230 

Catalogue of the Mirine Shells of Florida, with notes and descriptions of several new 

species. W. W. Calkins. Illustrated 232 

Carious Relic from the Cook Farm. W. H Pratt. Illustrated 256 

On the East Davanport Mounds. A.D.Churchill 257 

Resolutions on the Death of Prof. Joseph Henry 258 

"^Contributions to the Flora of Iowa, No. III. J. C. Arthur 258 

' The Local Geology of Davenport and vicinity. Rev. W. H. Bakbis 261 

Resolution regarding the " Botanical Room" 370 

Descriptions of some species and varieties of North American Heteroceres, mostly new. 

Herman Strkcker. Illustrated 270 

On some Hybrids between Callimorpha lecontei and C. inter rupto-marginata. Herman 

Strecker. Illustrated 275 

The Larva of Samia Gloveri. Herman Streckeb 276 

The Parry Botanical Collection. Dr. C. C. Pabby 279 

New Fossils from the Corniferous Formation at Davenport. Rev. W. H. Barris. Illus- 
trated 283 



COJJTKNTS. Vll 

Taub 
Exploration of a Mound near Moliue. Illinois. Kov. J. Gass and Dk. R.J. F'arquiiakson. 289 

Ei'poit of Kxiiioriition ol Indian Graves. Rev. J Gass 291 

Biological and oilier notes on Voccidce. J. D. Putnam. Illustrated 293 

Elephant and Bear Pipes exhibited. Illustrated 343 

B'urniation of Ground lee in the Rapids of the Mississippi. Dr. R. J. Fauquiiarson. II- 

Uii-trated 349 

Explornlion of SIX Indian Burial Grounds. Rev. J. Gass 354 

Annual Address of the President, Jan. 7th, 1874. Dk. C. C. Parry. [Omitted from Vol. 

I, page 55. J 355 

Eriata 357 



Record op Procebdings of Regular anu Trustees Meetings, from January 5tu, 1876 
TO Dec. 28tii, 1878, inserted in their Chrouologieal Order. 

Biological Section Meetings: 7, 8, 13, 17, 19, 21, 25, 34, 37, 120, i :9, 142, 202, 205, 230, 2.52, 

253, 254, 258, 270. 
Historical Section Meetings: 8, 11, 14, 19, 20, 79, 119, 134, 150,1.54,165,18.3,193,205,231. 

253, 254, 2ii9. 
Arch-isological and Geological Section Meetings. 11, 15, 24, 137, 154, 219. 



Entomological Notes : 7, 8, 10, 14, 17, 19, 22, 26, .35, 48, 123, 129, 142, 143, 148, 151, 184, 190, 20.5, 

209, 252, 253, 255, 270. 
Botanical Notes: 8, 10, 17, 20. 22, 28, U, 37, 48, 119, 121, 129, 134, 202, 214, 2.52, 253, 255, 269, 

278, 279, 291. 
Zoological Notes: 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, :30, 35, 48, 80, 85, 111, 121, 190, 205, 214, 254, 256. 
Geological Notes; 24. 48, 87, 89, 98, 116, 1:37, 1:38, 145, 150, 184, 209. 
Arcu.eological Notes: 6, 21, 24, 26, ;38, 48, 81, 82, 8.5, 86, 87, 92, 115, 127, 129, 137, 138, 146, 147, 

.53, 154, 156, 214, 219, 221, 254, ;348. 
Conchological Notes: 10, 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 22, 26, 48, 122, 129, 14:3, 202. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 

Plate I. Upper surface of Inscribed Tablet found in Mound No. :3, Cook Farm, about 
two fifths of the natural size. Pages 96, 109. 

Plate II. Lower surface of same Tablet. Pages 96, 111. 

Plate III. Upper surface of another Inscribed Tablet from the same mound, about one- 
half of the natural size. Pages 96,108. [The round spots at the right hand corners of the 
figure are holes pierced through the slab apparently for the purpose of suspending it. This 
edge should have been printed at the top] 

[Plates I, II, III were prepared by the Albertype process by Mr. E. Bierstadt, New York, 
from Photographs taken at the Smithsonian Institution under the direction of Prof. Spencer 
P. Baird, and give a very good idea of the tablets. It should be mentioned however that the 
photographs were obtained by throwing a light obliquely across the stones from above, which 
has caused the horizontal Uues to appear stronger than the vertical lines.} 

Plate IV. Figs. 1,2, 6'a^p<e«MS pic<2COr>(2«, Thomas, 3 S. Page 125. Figs. 2, 3, Ceca^/o 
Putnumi Uhler, 6 2. Bulletin U. S. Geological and Geographical Survey, Vol. Ill, page 455. 
Figs, o, 6, 7, Hybrids of Callimorpha. Page 275. [Drawn and engraved on stone by Herman 
Strecker.J 

Plates V, VI. Lilium Parryi Watson. Page 189. | Drawn from Nature and etched on 
*!teel by W. O. Gronen. | 



Viil LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Plate Vll. Inscribed Tablet from Mound No. 11, Cook Farm. One-hulfof the Natural 
size. [Artotype by Harroun & Bierstadt, New York, from negative by Hastings, White & 
Fisher, Davenport.] 

Plate VIII. Figs. 1, 2. Triton veliei Calkins. Page 23.1, Fig- 3, Odosfomia alba Calk- 
Ins. Page 239; Figs. 4, 5, CanceWarzas?i»«/)«o«M Calkinp. Page 250. [ Drawn from nature 
and etched on steel by J. D. Putnam,] 

Plate IX. New North American Heteroceres, Pages 270-ir4. [ Drawn and engraved by 
Herman Strecker.] 

Plate X. Gyroceras Fratti Barnn. One-half natural size. Page 287. [Drawn from Na- 
ture and etched on steel by W. H, Pratt.] 

Plate XL New Corniferous Fossils, Natural size. Pages 382-287, [Etched on steel 
from Nature by J. D. Putnam,] 

Plates XII, XIIL Pulvinaria innumerabils. See Page 343, [Etched on steel from 
Nature by J. D. Putnam.] 

[Plates V and VI were originally drawn by Mr, Grouen, with lithographic crayon on pre 
pared paper, and transferred to stone, but after a few hundred impressions the figures became 
so blurred as 1o be useless. Plates VII, VIII, X, XI were carefully and beaurifulty drawn 
from nature by Mr, A. D. Churchill, directly on lithographic stone, but were spoiled by the 
printer before 200 impressions had been taken. The steel plates were printed by the Frank 
lin Bank Note Co., New York-] 

WOOD-CUTS. 

Fig. I- Galeades pallipes Say, Page 36. Drawn by J. D, Putnam. 
Figs. 2-6. Shell beads, etc, Pnges 39-4.5. Drawn by W. II. Pratt. 
Fig. 7. Copper crescent. Page 83. Drawn by W. H, Pratt- 
PiG. 8. Section of Mound No. 3, Cook Farm. Page 92- Drawn by W. H. Pratt- 
Fig. 9. Plan of Mound No- 3, Cook Farm- Page 93- Drawn by W. H- Pratt. 
Fig. 10. Dighton Rock Inscription- Page lO.i, Drawn by \V. II. Pratt. 
Figs, II, 12, Grave Creek Inscription, Page 10(j- Drawn by W. H. Pratt- 
F1G8-I3, 14. Characters from Davenport Tablet. Page 110. Drawn by W. H. Pratt. 
Fig. 1.5. Section of Mound No- 10, Cook Farm- Page 141. Drawn by W. H. Pratt- 
FiG. 16. Section of Shell bed on Rock Island, Page 1.57- Drawn by W. H. Pratt. En 
graved by .John Graham. 

Fig. 17. Section of Mound No. 11, Cook's Farm- I'age 222- Drawn and Engraved by C. 
E. Harrison. 

Figs. 18, 19. Relic from Cook Farm- Page 256. Drawn by W- H. Pratt, Engraved by 
C. E. Harrison - 

Fig. 20. Diagram of Sfer'eocrinus. Page 283. Sketched by Rev. W. H. Barris. Engraved 
by J. D. Putnam and John Graham- 

FiG. 21. Section of Mound near Moline. Page 289. Drawn by Dr. R, J. Farqitharson aurt 
W. H. Pratt, Engraved by John Graham. 

Fig. 22- Bear Pipe. Page 348- Drawn by W. H. Pratt- Engraved by John Graham- 
FiG. 23. Elephant Pipe. Page 348. Drawn by W. H. Pratt. Engraved by John Graham- 
Fig. 24, Section of Rapids of Mississippi. Page 352, Drawn by W. O. Gronen. En- 
graved by John Graham. 

Brass die on cover of bound volume. Elephant pipe- Engraved by John Graham- 




PROCEEDING 

OF THE 

DAVENPORT ACADEMY 

OF 

NATURAL SCIENCES. 



VOLUME 11. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDING'S. 



Januaky 5th, 1876. — Annual Meeting. 

Dr. E. H. Hazen, President, in the chair. 

Twenty-three members present. 

The reports of the Treasurer, Librarian, and Curator, were 
presented, and the retiring President, Dr. E. H. Hazen, deliv- 
ered his Annual Address.* 

The following officers were elected to serve during the ensu- 
ing year : 

President — -Rev. W. H. Barris. 
Vice-President — Geo. H. French. 
Recording Secretary — De. C. H. Preston. 
Corresponding Secretary — Mrs, M. A. McGonegal. 
Treasurer — John Htjme. 
Librarian — Dr. R. J. Faequharson. 
Curator — W. H. Pratt. 

Trustees — Wm. Riepe, Chas. E. Putnam, Prof. D. S. Shel- 
don. 

* Printed in Proc, Vol. 1, pages 83-86. 

[Proc D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 2 [February, 1877.] 



2 davenport academy of natural sciences. 

January 14th, 1876. — Trustees' Meeting, 

Prof. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Seven members present. 

On motion of Mr. C. E. Putnam, the Abstract of Records, as 
prepared bj the Publishing Committee, subject to such minor 
corrections as may be necessary, was accepted for publication. 

The Secretary read a communication from the Women's Cen- 
tennial Association, regarding the printing of the proceedings. 

On motion of Mr. French, the Secretary was directed to in- 
sert the name of John Rowe in the list of regular members, his 
name having been accidentally overlooked at the last regular 
meeting. 

The Treasurer was authorized to pay bills for ordinary cur- 
rent expenses, as presented. 

January 22d, 1876. — Trustees' Meeting. 
Prof. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 
Eight members present. 

No business being ready, after an informal discussion, the 
Board adjourned, 

January 28th, 1876, — Trustees' Meeting. 
Prof. "W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Eight members present. 

A number of papers presented for publication in the Proceed- 
ings were accepted. 

C. E. Putnam, chairman of the committee on proposed 
amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws, presented a codi- 
fication of the Constitution to agree with the Articles of Incor- 
poration, but making no change not necessary far such agree- 
ment. On motion the new form was adopted as the Constitu- 
tion of the Academy.* Several amendments to the B3^-Law& 
were also proposed and approved, to be acted on at the next 
meeting;. 



♦Printed in Vol. I, page 236. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 



A list of papers prepared by J. D. Putnam was read and re- 
ferred to the Committee on Publication. 



January 28th, 1876. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Eight members present. 

Dr. Preston, of the Auditing Committee, reported that the 
Treasurer's report had been examined and found correct. The 
report was accepted and the committee discharged. 

A letter was read from the Scientific Association of Richmond, 
Ind., acknowledging the receipt of photographs of pipes and 
axes. 

The following persons were elected regular members : D. H. 
Twomey, E. P. Hopkins, Chester L. Pratt, C. E. Bronson, 
Mrs. M. Fisher, Mrs. Ebenezer Cook and Miss Frankie Pratt. 
The names of fourteen persons were proposed for membership. 

February 19th, 1876. — Trustees' Meeting. 

Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 
Seven members present. 

Several amendments to the By-Laws, proposed at the last 
meeting, were unanimously adopted.* 

A long list of papers, presented to the Academy at different 
times, was read, and on motion it was voted to publish all but 
one or two in the first volume of the Proceedings of tlie Acad- 
emy. • It was further voted to place the papers together in the vol- 
ume, and to include the minutes of the last annual meeting in 
the published proceedings. 

The Curator was authorized to use his discretion in allowing 
the removal of articles from the museum for exhibition at the 
art gallery established by the Bric-a-Brac Club on Second and 
Main Streets. 



*By-Laws, as amended, Vol. I, page 23S. 



4 davenport academy of natural sciences. 

February 25th, 1876. — ^Trustees' jMeeting. 

Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Eight members present. 

On motion of Dr. Preston, a Committee on Insurance, con- 
sisting of Messrs. C. E. Putnam, John Hume and W. H. Pratt, 
was appointed, with power to act. 

Mr. Pratt gave notice of a proposed amendment to the By- 
Laws (Art. 2, § 2), changing the Kfe membership fee from $100 
to $50. 

February 25th, 1876. — Regular Meeting. 

George H. French, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Thirteen members present. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam, on behalf of the Committee on Pubhca- 
tion, reported that the printing of the "Proceedings" had been 
commenced, under a contract, made by the Women's Centen- 
nial Association, of Davenport, with C. E. Bronson, Levi 
Davis and Charles Fluke, printers residing in Davenport. It 
was expected to complete the work in from six to eight weeks. 

The following persons were elected regular members : J. P. 
Stibolt, D. N. Richardson, F. I. Jervis, E. C. Chapin, George 
Wing, Richard Smetham, G. H. Parker, J. A. Crandall, Mrs. 
J. P. Stibolt, Mrs. D. X. Richardson, Mrs. F. I. Jervis, Mrs. E. 
C. Chapin, Mrs. W. B. Sherman, and Mrs. Ed. Russell. The 
names of four persons were proposed for membership. 

The following resolutions, offered by J. D. Putnam, were 
unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, In their generous and earnest efforts in behalf of the Acad- 
emy of Sciences, the ladies of the Centennial Society have met with a 
great calamity, and incurred serious loss by the tire of the 23d inst. ; 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That our wanii thanks be tendered them for the endeavor 
they have made to publish our proceedings, but in view of the heavy re- 
sponsibility the calamity has devolved upon them, we recommend that 
arrangements be made with the publishers to postpone the publication 
indefinitely, and that the proceeds of the entertainment intended there- 
for be devoted to the payment of losses incurred. 

Besolved, That the members of this Academy will render to the ladies 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 5 

of the Centennial Society all the assistance in their power to make good 
the loss incurred in its behalf. 

Resolved, That to the young ladies of the " Bric-a-Brac" especial praise 
is due for the creditable art gallery they have improvised in our midst, 
as well as for their excellent management and eminent success ; and that 
they be requested, if possible, to continue their entertainments during 
part of the following week, and to devote the funds realized to the pay- 
ment of losses incurred. 

The following papers were read and referred to the Commit- 
tee on Publication : 

"Mound Explorations in 1S75," bj A. S. Tiffany. 

"Mound Explorations in 1875," by Clarence Lindley. 

"Summer Botanizing in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah Terri- 
tory ; a letter addressed to Prof. Asa Gray," by C. C. Parry. 

A communication was read from James Terry, of San Bernar- 
dino, Cal., requesting an exchange of copper axes, etc., for 
relics and specimens in his possession. 

A few donations were reported, for which the thanks of the 
Academy were returned. 

March 31st, 1876. — Trustees' Meeting. 

Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Seven members present. 

Mr. C. E. Putnam reported, on behalf of the Committee on 
Insurance, that the property- of the Academy had been insured 
to the amount of $2,000, distributed as follows: Museum, $750 : 
library, $750 ; furniture, $100 ; cabinet cases, $300 ; telescope, 
$100. 

An amendment to the By-Laws, Art. 2, § 2, changing the 
fee for life membership from $100 to $50, was adopted. 

Mr. W. H. Pratt gave notice that he would, at the next meet- 
ing propose a new by-law, providing for the formation of M^ork- 
ing sections in the Academy. Messrs. W. H. Pratt, J. D. 
Putnam and C. H. Preston were appointed a committee to pre- 
pare such a by-law. 

The President announced the following standing committees 

to serve during the year: 

Publication.— W. H. Pratt, J. D. Putnam, C. H. Preston, R. J. 
Farquharson and G. H. French. 



6 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Library.— R. J. Farquliarson, C. H. Preston and Mrs. S. R. Millar. 

Museum. — W. H. Pratt, Curator; R. J, Farquharaon, Archceological 
Department ; J. G. Haupt, Botanical Department; J. D. Putnam, Zoolog- 
ical Department; A. S. Tiffany, Geological Department; John Hume, 
Historical and Mechanical Department. 

Finance. — Chas. E. Putnam, John Hume and George H. French. 

Furniture and Rooms.— John Hume, Mrs. C. E. Putnam and Mrs. 
M. A. Sanders. 

The Library Committee were requested to prepare rules and 
regulations for the use of the Library. 

On motion of Mrs. M. A. McGonegal it was 

Besolved, That that portion of Dr. Hazen's Valedictory Address, re- 
lating to the history and progress of the Association, and all parts of 
scientific interest, be inserted in the publication of the Proceedings of 
the Academy. 

March 31st, 1876. — ^Kegular Meeting. 

Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Eleven members present. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam, on behalf of the Committee on Publica- 
tion, reported sixty-four pages of the Proceedings and twenty 
lithographic plates printed. 

Letters were read from Mr. James Terry, of San Bernardino, 
Cal., offering exchanges, and from Mrs. Mary P. Haines, Rich- 
mond, Ind., acknowledging the receipt of photographs of axes 
and pipes, and advising of valuable donations in return. 

A large number of donations were reported by the Curator. 

The following persons were elected regular members : J. E. 
Carmichael, M. J. Pvohlfs, Dr. P. H. Worley and Mrs. G. W. 
Fitch. The names of four persons were proposed for. member- 
ship. 

A very neatly and carefully executed pen drawing, showing 
the texture of the Mound Builders' Cloth, was exhibited by Mr, 
W. H. Pratt. Each cord of the warp is composed of two 
doubled and twisted cords, and the woof of one, which passes 
between the two parts of the warp, the lattej: being twisted at 
each change, allowing the cords to be brought close together, so 
as to cover the woof almost completely. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. T 

On behalf of the author, Mr. J. D. Putnam presented the 
following paper for publication in the Proceedings : 

" List of Hymenoptera collected by J. Duncan Putnam, of 
Davenport, Iowa, with descriptions of two new species," by E. 
T. Cresson, Philadelj)hia. 

Mr. Putnam exhibited a portion of the above collection which 
he had made during the past four years in Iowa, Colorado, 
Wyoming and Utah. Of the two new species described, Nomadoj 
Putnatni was found quite common at Spring Lake Yilla, in 
Utah, July, 1875, and Anthophora albata was collected in June, 
1872, near Denver, Colorado. The latter were noticed very 
abundantly, flying swiftly in a circular manner, close to the 
ground, which was sandy, beneath some cottonwood trees. 

Mr. Putnam also exhibited some specimens of a ferocious- 
looking spider-like animal, a species of Phrynus from Mazatlan, 
Mexico, and also two specimens of the so-called Tarantula 
{My gale Hentzii) from Canon City, Col., and from Spring 
Lake, Utah. N^one but males were found. These were wan- 
dering solitarily about the country, along the roads and in dry 
ravines. 

April 7x11, 1876. — Biological Section. 

Pursuant to a notice published in the daily papers a meeting 
was held this evening for the purpose of organizing a Section of 
Botany and Zoology. Ten persons were present. 

Mr. J. G. Haupt was called to the chair, and W. H. Pratt 
was appointed Secretary. 

The Chairman stated the objects of the meeting: To form a 
working section of those members of the Academy specially in- 
terested in Botany and Zoology, holding more frequent meetings 
for the purpose of listening to and discussing the reports of ob- 
servations and collections in these departments, made by the 
members. The Secretary then read the amendment to the By- 
Laws regarding sections proposed at the last meeting of the 
Trustees. 

An application for the organization of such a section was 
drawn up and signed by the following eight members of the 



b DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Academy : J. D. Putnam, J. J. Nagel, J. G. Haupt, John 
Hume, Mrs. M. A. Sanders, W. E, Crosbj, Mrs. C. E. Putnam, 
W. H. Pratt. 

Messrs. J. D. Putnam, W. H. Pratt and J. G. Haupt were 
appointed a committee to draft a plan of organization and a 
programme of work for the section, and to report at the next 
meeting. 

Mrs. Sanders exhibited a beautiful collection of plants col- 
lected bj her husband, the late Alfred Sanders, illustrating the 
Flora of Iowa nearly thirty years ago, and which she has 
mounted in a handsome volume for exhibition at the Centennial, 
afterwards to be placed in the Herbrarium of this Academy. 

Messrs. Nagel and Haupt reported that they had noticed the 
white maple (Acer dasi/Garpum) in blossom March lOtli, some 
three weeks earlier than usual. The weather has since been so 
severe that, with the exception of a few club mosses, no plants 
have been collected. 

Mr. Putnam stated that insects were beginning to become 
lively and plentiful. 

April 14th, 1876. — Historical Section. 

Pursuant to notice a meeting was held this evening for the 
preliminary organization of an Historical Section of the Acad- 
emy. Ten members were present. 

Mr. J. A. Crandall was called to the chair and W. H. Pratt 
was appointed Secretary. 

An application for the formation of the Historical Section was 
drawn up and signed by the following persons : Mrs. C. E. Put- 
nam, Messrs. J. A. Crandall, C. C. Leslie, C. T. Lindley, J. G. 
Haupt, W. Kiepe, W. C. Putnam, H. S. Putnam, W. H. Pratt, 
and John Hume. 

Messrs. C. C. Leslie and W. C. Putnam were appointed a 
committee to draft a plan for the organization and working of 
the Section, to be presented at the next meeting. 

Messrs. W. H. Pratt and J. G. Haupt were appointed a com- 
mittee to obtain additional names to the application for organiz- 
ing the Section. 



record of proceedings. 9 

April 15th, 1876. — -Biological Section. 
Eleven members present. 

Mr. J. G. Haupt called the meeting to order, and W. H. Pratt 
was appointed Secretary. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam, of the Committee on Organization, re- 
ported the following code of rules, which, after some discussion, 
were unanimously adopted, subject to the action of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Standing Rules of the Biological Section. 

1. This Section shall be known as the Biological Section of the 
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 

2. It shall have for its object the collection of all facts and specimens 
illustrating the Botany and Zoology of this region in particular and of the 
world in general. 

3. There shall be one executive "officer, styled Director, who may 
appoint such deputies or assistants as he may deem necessary. 

4. The meetings shall be held every alternate Saturday at such time 
and place as the members may from time to time determine. 

5. Field meetings and excursions for the collection of specimens shall 
be held as often as practicable. 

6. One or more members shall be appointed to assist the Curator in 
labeling and caring for the collections in each of the following depart- 
ments : Phaenogamic Botany, Cryptogainic Botany, Medical (or Applied) 
Botany, Mammalogy, Ornithology, Hereptology, Ichthyology, Entomol- 
ogy, Articulata, Conchology, Radiata, Infusoria. 

7. Any person who shall fail to attend any of the meetings of the 
Section for three consecutive months shall cease to be a member of the 
Section, unless such non-attendance is caused by sickness, absence from 
the city, or some other good reason. 

In accordance with these rules, Mr. J. D, Putnam was elected 
Director, and took the chair. 

The business being ov^er, the next thing in order was the re- 
ports of observations and collections made during the week. 

Messrs. Nagel and Haupt reported that the following plants 
had blossomed since the last meeting : 

Corylus Americana Walt. Hazel nut. April 13. 
Thxilictrum anemonoides Mx. Rue anemone. April 13. 
Ulmus Americana L. American Elm. April 13. 
Clayfonia Virginica L. Spring beauty. April 14. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 3 [March ,1877.] 



10 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Capsella Barsd-pastoris. Maench. Shepherd's purse. April 
Uth. 

Hepatica acutiloha^ DC. Sharp lobed Hepatica. April 15. 
Ranunculus fascicularis Muhl. Earlj crowfoot. April 15. 

The table was adorned with a large number of living exam- 
ples of the above plants. Mr. Kagel reported that several club 
mosses had fruited, but he could not give the names. He was 
unable to gain access to any work describing the mosses of this 
country. 

Mr. W. H. Pratt reported that last Saturday (April 8th) he 
visited Horse Island, a few miles below town, for the purpose 
of collecting Helix prof unda Say, a species usually abundant on 
that Island, though rare elsewhere in this vicinity. He found 
them still in a state of hibernation, and easily gathered a large 
number. Without exception they were all found with the 
spire down and the umbilicus up. Among the specimens 
collected there is a great range of variation in color. Sev- 
eral are entirely without brown bands, while others are en- 
tirely covered with reddish brown, excepting a narrow clear 
line. The majority of specimens have one prominent broad 
reddish band, sometimes accompanied by several narrow ones. 
It is probable that the warm weather of Monday and Tuesday 
brought them to active life, and tliat they have now scattered so 
that they will be more difficult to collect. A few dead speci- 
mens of Helix thyroides Say, and of H. conoava Say, were col- 
lected in the same locality. He also found several specimens of 
Succinea obllqua Say, a species which no recent collector has 
before been able to find, though it is recorded in Tryon's List.* 

Mr. Putnam stated that the present warm weather was bring- 
ing the insects into active life quite rapidly, but he had been too 
unwell to collect much. On April 7th and 10th the following 
species were collected, mostly from under stones, pieces of wood, 
etc.: CoLEOPTERA : Amara fallaxX^ec.., Selenophorus pedicu- 
lariwi Dej., Stenolophus conjunctly Say, Agonoderus pallipes 
Fab., Tach>/s, 2 species, Orchestris striolata 111., and about a 
dozen undetermined species ; also under some dead turtles were 
Silpha marginalis Fab., S. inwqualis Fab., Ips quadrisig- 

♦Journal of Conchology, Vol. I, p. — . Philadelphia, 1867. 



SECORt) OF PROCEtDlKGS. ] 1 

naius Saj, Ulster americamis Payk, Platysoma Lecontei Mars, 
and an undetermined species of Nitidulidm. A large colony 
of white ants, TermesJIavipes Roller, was found under the bark 
of an old cherry log. Specimens of the wingless cricket, Ceu- 
thophllus raamdatus^ and of^he chinch bug, Bhyparochromm 
leucopterus Say, were also collected. 

April 19th, 1876, — Historical Section. 

George H. French in the chair. 

Mr. C. C. Leslie, of the committee appointed at the last 
meeting, presented the outline of a plan of organization, and 
asked that the committee be given longer time for perfecting 
details. 

A letter was read from C. H. Eldridge, expressing his sym- 
pathy in the objects of the Section and making some valuable 
suggestions regai*ding the work to be done towards preserving 
the local history of Davenport and its institutions. Mr. E. 
states that he is " the oldest ' white boy' now living as a resi- 
dent here, this making my fortieth year of continuous residence 
in the city of Davenport." 

It was voted that this section be called the Historical Section 
of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Messrs. W. H. Pratt, J. A. Crandall, C. C. Leslie and C. H. 
Eldridge were appointed a committee to present the objects of 
the Section to persons likely to be interested. 

W. C. Putnam called the attention of the members to 
an erroneous stateitient inWilkie's "Davenport, Past and Pres- 
ent," regarding the battle fought on AVillow Island in August, 
1814, between the Indians and Col. Zachary Taylor. The 
account given by Dr. Parry in his lecture on the " History of 
the Mississippi Valley," is probably the correct one. 

Apkil 21st, 1876. — Geologic a.l and Arch^logical Section. 

Pursuant to notice a meeting was held this evening for the 
purpose of taking preliminary action toward the formation of a 
Section of Geology and Archaeology. Seven members were 
present* 



12 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

An application for organization of such a Section was drawn 
up and signed by those present. 

Dr. E. H. Hazen and W. H. Pratt were appointed a commit- 
tee to draft a plan of organization and operation of said section. 

May 5th, 1876. — Trustees' Meeting. 

Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Six members present. 

A committee, consisting of Messrs. Hume, Pratt and Riepe, 
were appointed to confer with Mr. James Ren wick concerning 
the suitability of certain rooms he proposed to rent to the Acad- 
emy. 

The committees on new By-Laws, concerning the use of the 
Library and formation of Sections, made their reports, which 
were laid over until the next meeting for action. Mr. Hume 
gave notice of a proposed By-Law setting aside life-membership 
fees as a building fund. 

May 5th, 1876. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Eleven members present. 

The correspondence during the month was read, and a num- 
ber of valuable additions to the Library and Museum were re- 
ported. 

The following resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, Our friend and associate, Mr. A. U. Barler, has passed to 
the higher life : 

Eesolved, That in the death of Mr. Barler the Academy and the com- 
munity have sustained a loss which is deeply to be regretted, he having 
been one of the founders of our Association, and its first Vice-President, 
occupying that position for several years until his removal from the city ; 
and, having been also an experienced teacher, remarkably earnest and 
successful in introducing and awakening an interest in the Natural 
Sciences in the public schools. 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with his family in the loss of a 
kind husband and father, and with the members of the various associa- 
tions with which he was connected, in the departure of an earnest fellow- 
worker. 



EECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 13 

Mesolved, That these resolutions be published in the city papers, and 
copies thereof sent to the family and relations. 

W. H. Pratt, 
C. H. Preston, 
John Hume, 

Committee. 

Mrs. H. C. Marsh, Mrs. T. F. M. Currj, E. J. Babcock and 
W. C, Putnam were elected regular members. 

The Secretary was authorized to procure a box and balls for 
more convenient balloting. 

May 12th, 1876. — Trustees' Meeting. 

George H. French, Yice-President, in the chair. 

Six members present. 

The following By-Laws were adopted : Article 8th on the 
Formation of Sections, and Article 9th on Library Regulations.* 

The Committee on Rooms reported those offered by Mr. Ren- 
wick to have little, if any, advantage over those at present 
occupied. Messrs. C. E. Putnam, W. H. Pratt and George H. 
French were appointed a committee to make further investiga- 
tions towards securing more commodious quarters. 

A proposition from Mrs. Ebenezer Cook to bear the expense of 
a die for the cover of the published Proceedings of the Acad- 
emy, was accepted with a vote of thanks. 

May 13th, 1876. — Biological Section. 

J. D. Putnam in the chair. 

Six members present. 

Mr. Pratt stated that last Saturday (May 6th) he visited Rock 
Island in search of shells. In a small stream flowing into Syl- 
van Water, near the old railroad embankment, he collected 
Bxilimis hypnoriim Linn., Planorhis parvus Say, Segmentina 
armigera Say, and a species of Sphwrixim. These were all 
quite plentiful in this place, though he himself had never found 
either of them in any other locality in this vicinity. 

During the past week Mr. A. S. Tiifany made a very interest- 
ing collection of shells just above Milan, Rock Island County, 

*See Vol. I, page 242. 



14 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

111., near the junction of Rock River and Mill Creek. He found 
the following species : 

Hyalina arhorea^ Say. Pupa fallax^ Say. 

Hi/alma Tninusctda^ Binney. Pupa armifera^ Say. 

Hyalina lineata^ Say. Pupa contracta, Say. 

Helix striaiella^ Anthony. Succinea obliqua^ Say. 

Helix lahyrinthica^ Say. Segmentina armigera^ Say. 

Helix monodon^ Rackett. Planorhis hicarinatus^ Say. 
Pomatiopsis lapidaria^ Say. 

Of these Helix striatella and Pupa armifera were not in- 
serted by Mr. Pratt in his list of shells found in the vicinity of 
Davenport (just printed), as he knew of no authentic recent 
sj)ecimens being found, though they were both known to 
occur as fossils in the loess of the bluffs. 

Prof. D. S. Sheldon exhibited a colored drawing of Thysania 
zenohia Cram., made by Mr. C. V. Riley from a specimen which 
Prof. Sheldon took on the roof of Griswold College in 1867. 
This large and beautiful moth has never been taken in a region 
so far north as this before, and is a remarkable instance of a 
tropical insect being drifted north, probably with one of the 
severe thunder storms which so frequently visit the Mississippi 
Valley during early summer. The specimen from which this 
drawing was made is preserved in the cabinet of Mr. Riley in 
St. Louis. 

Mr. Putnam reported but few insects collected. There was 
an unusual scarcity of all insects, and particularly of butterflies. 

May 16th, 1876. — Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Five members present. 

W. C. Putnam, of the Committee on Organization, reported 
a series of rules, which, with some amendments, were unani- 
mously adopted, as follows : 

Standing Rules of the Historical Section. 

1. The name of this Section shall be the Historical Section of the 
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 

2. The object of this Section is the collection and recording for future 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 15 

reference of all such facts and incidents as relate to the history of this 
locality in particular, and of all others in general. 

3. The officers of the Section shall be a Chairman and a Secretary, 
who shall hold their offices during the pleasure of the Section. 

4. The duty of the Secretary shall be to keep a record of the proceed- 
ings; to keep a scrap-book for newspaper cuttings, etc.; to keep an 
album for pliotographs, autographs, etc.; to preserve and take charge of 
all papers, memoirs, and other written communications that may be pre- 
sented. 

5. The regular meetings shall be held on the second Friday of each 
month. 

6. Any person who is a member of the Academy may become a mem- 
ber of the Section upon the written request of two members at a regular 
meeting of the Section, and election at a subsequent meeting by 
three-fourths of the members present. 

7. Any member failing to attend any of the meetings for three consec- 
utive months shall cease to be a member of the Section, unless such ab- 
sence is caused by sickness, absence from the city, or some other good 
reason. 

8. There shall be standing committees appointed by the Section on 
Membership, Local History; Books and Authorities ; Numismatics and 
Philatics ; Geography, Charts, etc. ; Statistics, Records and Publications ; 
Museum and Library. 

9. These rules may be altered or amended by a two-thirds vote at any 
regular meeting, notice of such alteration or amendment having been 
given at a preceding regular meeting. 

Mr. J. A. Crandall was elected permanent Chairman, and W. 
C Putnam was elected Secretary. 

The following committees were appointed : 

Local History. — J. A. Crandall. 

Numismatics and Philatics — J. G. Haupt. 

Records and Publications. ~W . C. Putnam. 

Museuin and Library. — W. H. Pratt. 

Mr. Crandall stated that he had obtained promises from a 
number of persons to write up various portions of the local his- 
tory of Davenport and vicinity. 

May 19th, 1876. — Geological akd Arch^ological Section. 

Dr. E. H. Hazen in the chair. 

Seven members present. 

The Committee on Rules reported a series of By-Laws, which 
were adopted subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees. 



16 DAVKNPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

By-Laws of the Section of Geology and Archaeology. 

1. This Section shall be known as the Section of Geology and 
Archaeology of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 

2. Its object shall be the study of local Geology, and of Geology in 
general, including Paleontology and Mineralogy, and the study of the 
history, habits and conditions of pre-historic races, exploration of ancient 
mounds, and collection of articles for the Academy. 

3. Candidates for membership may be elected by a vote of three-fourths 
of the members present at any regular meeting, having been proposed at 
a previous regular meeting. 

4. Any member who shall be absent from the meetings for six consec- 
utive months, except in case of absence from the city, sickness or other 
reasonable excuse, shall be dropped from the roll of membership. 

o. The officers shall be a President and a Secretary, and shall be 
elected semi-annually at the regular meetings in July and January. 

6. The regular meetings of the Section shall be held on the third Fri- 
day in every month. 

7. These By-Laws may be amended in the same manner as is provided 
for amendments of the By-Laws of the Academy. 



May 26th, 1876. — Regular Meeting. 

George H. French, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twelve members present. 

The list of donations for May was read, and the thanks of the 
Academy voted to the donors. A special vote of thanks was 
oifered to Mrs. Mary P. Haines, of Richmond, Ind., for a very 
valuable contribution. 

Mr. Gustav Carstens was elected a regular member. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported the organization of a "Biological 
Section," of which three meetings have been held. Mr. J. A. 
Crandall reported the organization of an " Historical Section," 
and Dr. E. H. Hazeii that of a "Geological and Archaeological 
Section." It is proposed in these Sections to meet frequently 
for the discussion of appropriate topics, and to gather up all 
facts relating in any way to the natural and civil history of our 
own locality. 

The Secretary was instracted to procure a bulletin board on 
which to post notices of meetings, etc. 



record of proceedings. 17 

May 27th, 1876. — Biological Section. 

J. Dj Putnam in the chair. 

Eleven members present. 

On motion of Dr. C. II. Preston, it was voted to hold the 
regular meeting of the Section on the first Saturday evening of 
each month. 

A letter was read from Mrs. Marv P. Haines, of Richmond, 
Indiana, inquiring if any of our members were interested in the 
study of the mosses, etc. The subject of mosses and lichens, 
and the books relating to them, were discussed to some extent. 
Mr. J. G. Haupt was appointed to make further investigations. 

Mr. Haupt reported a list of sixty species of plants which had 
been collected in flower since the last report, April 15th. One 
of these, a species of Eriisimuin^ is new to this locality. An 
abundance of all the wild plants now in flower was on hand, 
and a number of those present, under the leadership of Mr. 
Haupt, organized a class, and spent some time in analyzing 
plants. 

Dr. Preston exhibited some large tadpoles, which he was 
keeping under observation in a vase during the interesting pro- 
cess of development to the adult batrachian state. 

Mr. Putnam brought a living horned toad {Phrynosoma cor- 
nutum) from Texas, given by Mrs. Col. Mandeville, and a fine 
living specimen of a tree toad {Hyla versicolor^ Lee.) from 
Jacksonville, 111. Also a specimen of Sainia cecropia, recentlv 
emerged from a cocoon in one of the cabinets of the Academy. 

Mr. Putnam reported a continued scarcity of butterflies, prob- 
ably owing to the severe cold weather of March and April. The 
following species were observed during the month of May : 
Papilio usterias, P. troilus^ Colias lyliilodice^ Pieris protodice^ 
Danais errippiis^ Pyrameis oardui^ P. atalanta, Lyccena 
sp., Hesperia sp., DeilepMla Uneata^ Arctia nais, Samia 
cecropia^ and others. A considerable number of beetles, in- 
cluding several not before recorded from this locality, were col- 
lected, but have not yet been identified. 

A living specimen of a large black spider, a species of Lycosa, 
bearing a large globular cocoon filled with eggs, was shown by 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 4 [March 1877.] 



IS DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SOIEN'CES. 

Mr. Pratt. He found it, with others, under an old log on Rock 
Island, , 

Mr. Pratt exhibited large numbers of small 1)1 valve crustaceans 
(related to Limnadea and Estheria) which he had collected dur- 
ing the past week (since May 20th) in a pool of stagnant water 
on Rock Island. There seem to be two or more species, differ- 
ing in size and in other ways. The smaller variety is now much 
more abundant than at first, thus giving rise to the idea that 
they may be the young of the larger species, but this is doubt- 
ful, for no intermediate stage is noticed. These animals are 
very lively, and may frequently be seen in pairs, thus showing 
them to be full grown. Associated with these crustaceans in 
the same pool are found Limnma caperata^ Planorbis pai^vus^ etc. 
The late Mr. A. U. Barler found a single specimen of a larger 
species several years ago, in the river on the south shore of Rock 
Island. Prof. Sheldon has had specimens of the dry shells of 
probably two species in his collection for some years, but did 
not know what they were. 

During the past week Mr. A. S. Tiffany collected two speci- 
mens of Helix perspeotiva Say in a ravine near Rockingham. 
One of these he has presented to the Academy. This makes 
the third species added to the fauna of Davenport by Mr. Tif- 
fany since the publication of Mr. Pratt's list. 

Mr. Pratt visited the slough back of Rock Island City on May 
14rth and 21st. Here he collected Limnea reflexa and Physa 
heterostropha in large numbers. This is the best locality for 
these species he knows of in this vicinity. He also found man}^ 
specimens of Planorhis [Menetus) exacutus — a species which he 
had not previously collected, though it was included in the list on 
Prof. Sheldon's authority. Associated with these were Planorhis 
parvus, Segme?itina armigera, etc. Also one young specimen of 
Yivipara intertexta, thus showing that this species still inhabits 
this station though it had not before been collected there since 
1870. This morning (May 27th) he again visited the Island 
(Rock Island), and collected a few land shells — among them 
several specimens of Helix clausa, a species he had not found 
for several years, and never in any other locality. 

Mr. Pratt noticed a peculiarity in the habits of Bulinm hyp- 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 19 

norum. When adhering to stones, sticks, etc., beneath the 
surface of the water, as is its custom, it will, on being disturbed, 
rise immediately to the surface. 

Living specimens of upwards of fourteen species of land and 
ft-esh water shells were on exhibition. 

May 27th, 1876.— Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Six members present. 

J. G. Haupt reported a number of additions to the collection 
of coins. The collection has been neatly arranged on cards. 

An interesting discussion w^as had on the history of the 
schools of Davenport, and various other topics of local interest. 
•Mr. DeArmond was requested to read a sketch of the famous 
chief Blackhawk at the next meeting. 

June 3d, 1876. — Biological Section. 

J. D. Putnam in the chair. 

Nine members present. 

Mr. Pratt made some further remarks on the small bivalve 
crustaceans noticed at the last meeting, and exhibited a number 
of drawings he had made. He continues of the opinion that 
there are certainly two and probably more species, but he has 
not succeeded in finding any descriptions of them in any books 
accessible. On May 28th he found a lot of dry and dead shells 
of a similar, but much larger species, in the slough back of Rock 
Island City. He has put up a large number of specimens in 
different media — alcohol, glycerine, turpentine, etc. 

Mr. Putnam reported but little of interest in regard to the in- 
sects. Limenitis Ursula and Euptychia eurytas were noticed 
during the past week for the first time this season. A specimen 
of Alavs oGulatus was found by Mr. Shaefer. Quite a number 
of beetles, new to this locality, were collected but have not yet 
been identified. Among some insects received from Prof Shel- 
don are several interesting additions to the list of Coleoptera 
and Lepidoptera, recently published. Among the former is a fine 
specimen of Plectrodera scalator Fab. The new Lepidojjtera 



20 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NxVTURAL SCIENCES. 

are Vdfiessa J-alhum and Ceratocampa regalis. A specimen of 
this beautiful moth was raised from a larva found by Willie 
Allen on his father's farm several years ago. In this specimen 
the left wings are undeveloped. 

Mrs. C. E. Putnam presented a specimen of a small snake 
about six inches long which had died while engaged in shedding 
its skin. The shed skin is turned back, inside out, for about 
one-third of the length of the snake. Every scale, including 
those of the head, is perfectly preserved. The snake had evi- 
dently been killed while thus engaged, and being in a hot, dry 
place, it is perfectly hard and dry, thus making a much more 
perfect specimen than could have been obtained artificially. 
Another living horned toad {Phrynosoma cornutum) was re- 
ceived during the week, 

Mr. Haupt reported a list of twenty-one species of plants col- 
lected in flower to-day, among them three new to the list :^ 
Ptelea trifoUatalj., SpiroBa opuUfolia L., and Rhus toxicoden- 
dron L. He also found a single plant of the scarlet painted 
cup [Castilleia coccinea)^ a species once common here, but not 
observed for several years. 

June 5th, 1876. ^Trustees' Meeting. 
W. H, Pratt in the chair. 
Five members present, 

Mr, Hume presented a new By-Law, Article X, relating to an 
Endowment Fund, which was duly adopted.* 

June 9tH, 1876. — Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Six members present. 

The following donations were reported : 

A photograph of Homer Henderson's picture of old Fort 
Armstrong as it appeared in 1840, from D. P. Me Gown, of 
Pock Island. 

Six City Directories of Davenport, Rock Island and Moline, 
bearing respectively the dates 1858-59, 1859, 1863, 1866, 1869, 

*See Proceedings, Vol. 1, page 24*. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 21 

1873, and an old almanac of the State of Iowa for 1850, from 
James M. Dalzell. 

The various committees reported progress in their respective 
•departments. Several additional reports had been promised on 
various branches of Local History. 

The Committee on Museum reported that the collection of 
historical relics had been arranged in a case especially set apart 
for the purpose. 

An interesting discussion ensued upon old Fort Armstrong as 
it ajjpeai'ed in early days, 

June 30th, 1876. ^Regular Meeting. 

Dr. E. H. Hazen in the chair. 

Nine members present. 

The chairmen of the different Sections reported progress and 
considerable work done, especially in the Biological and Histor- 
ical Sections, 

A long list of valuable donations was reported. 

Judge Wm. Cook was elected a regular member. The names 
of a number of persons were presented for corresponding mem- 
bership. 

It was voted that the Academy Rooms be kept open on tlie 
4th of July, 

The special thanks of the Academy were tendered to Capt. 
W. P. Hall for his extensive donation of stone and flint imple- 
ments ; to Hastings, White & Fisher, for pictures donated, and 
to Mr. Theo. Mssen, of Rock Island, for a valuable collec> 
tion of pressed plants from the Alps of Europe. 

July 8th, 1876.— BioIvOgical Sectiox. 

J. D. Putnam in the chair. 

Seven members present. 

Mr. Pratt stated that he had visited Horse Island again yes- 
terday (July 7th), and collected a few shells. SuGcinea ohllqua 
was common. The young of Helix jprofunda were very abund- 
ant, — crawling over everything. Helix multilineata was quite 



:22 DAVEXl'ORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

plentiful on the lower part of the Island, Mosquitoes were very 
troublesome. At the time he last visited Rock Island (July 3d), 
the small shelled crustaceans had almost entirely disappeared. 
He had gathered a lot of turtle eggs which he was going to try 
to hatch. 

Several weeks ago August Stuhr brought to the Academy an 
immense bull frog {Rana Cateshiana^ Schaw.) measuring 
when stretched out, fourteen inches from the head to the tip of 
the feet. To-day he presented a specimen of fishing duck 
( Mergus Merganser). 

A cigar-box containing four horned toads, alive and in good 
condition, was received by mail a few days ago, liaving been 
sent from San Bernardino, Cal., by Mrs, Dr. C. C. Parry. 
They are of the species Phrynosoma coronatum, Blain. 

Mr. Putnam stated that he had lately examined the specimens 
of Phrynosoma contained in the collection. They can all prob- 
ably be referred to the following three species : 

Phrynosoma coronatum Blain. Four living specimens in different 
stages of growth, recently received from Mrs. Parry, San Bernardino, 
Cal. This is by far the most handsome species of the genus we have 
.seen. 

Phrynosoma cornutiun Gray. Two living specimens lately received 
from Texas (from Mrs. Col. Mandeville and Mr. Martin), and one speci- 
men in alcoliol. 

Phrynosoma douglasii Gray. This species seems very generally dis- 
tributed on the high table lands of the Rocky Mountains. I have ob- 
served it in greater or less abundance in different parts of Colorado, 
Wyoming and Utah, though it seems more plentiful in the sage brush 
regions, and was not noticed in the mountains. In the collection of 
the Academy there is a hue series of this species in all stages of growth, 
collected at Spring L^ike Villa, Utah, last summer. There are also a 
mniiber of specimens from Denver and Valmont, Col., and from the 
neighborhood of i;^uth Pass, Wyoming. 

Mr. J. G. Haupt reported that he had made collections of 
plants lately along the river bank to Gilbert, and for some dis- 
tance up Duck Creek ; in various localities to the west of the 
city ; and to a distance of four miles south of Rock Island. He 
found a rare cliff-l)rake (Pelloea atropivrpurea) on rocks along 
the river. Cystopterls fragilis is another new species collected 
in the same locality. Pond lilies {Nuphar advena) were found 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 23 

growing in Duck Creek. In and about Chippiannock Cemetery, 
south of Rock Island, lie found great numbers of ferns, among 
them several rare species. In company with J. D. Putnam he 
had made a trip to Walcott on June 10th, and collected several 
new plants, but was not prepared to report to-night. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported a considerable number of insects 
collected during the month, among them several not before re- 
corded from this locality. A very pretty myriapod with re- 
markably long legs and appendages i^Cermatia forceps^'afR.') has 
been several times brought in, but it does not appear to be com- 
mon. The large, uncouth insect, known as the helligramite fly 
{Cory dolus cornutus Linn) seems to be particularly abundant 
this year, and a large number of specimens have been brought 
to the rooms by various persons. A small collection of insects 
was made at Walcott, Iowa, June 10th, while on a visit there in 
company with Mr. Haupt and Dr. Byrnes. Besides the insects 
a few small fishes, tadpoles, a crawfish, and a number of speci- 
mens of Succinea avara. These latter were attached to the 
decaying stems of weeds and rushes partly immersed in the 
water. A single dead shell of Planorbis trivolvis was noticed 
in the same slough. Butterflies continue to be remarkably scarce 
this year, and during the entire trip to Walcott and back — 
twenty miles — -scarcely a dozen were seen. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam also made the following renuii-ks : 

On the Young of a Species of Lycosa. 

At the meeting of this Section, May 27th, Mr. Pratt brought in a tin 
baking powder box containing a number of living land snails, and also a 
large, dark-colored spider of the genus Lycosa, wiiich was carrying about 
a large cocoon filled with eggs. The cocoon was fully five-eighths of an 
inch in diameter, and was attached to the abdomen by the spinnerets. 
He found it that morning, in company with, others, while looking for 
shells under a log on Rock Island. I took the box home, but did not look 
into it again until about June 15th. The eggs had then all hatched, 
and the young spiders had crawled upon the back of the motlier, and 
made her appear two or three times as large as natural. It remained in 
this condition for upwards of a week. I did not disturb the box again 
until June 22d, when it was noticed that a considerable number of the 
young spiders had crawled out of a small hole in the top of the can, and 
had begun to spin webs from the top of the can to the table on which it 
stood. The spiders were somewhat larger than when I first saw them. 



24: DAVKXPORT ACADEMY OF XATL'RAL SCIENCES. 

but not a great deal. When the box was opened a few days later, every- 
thing in tlie shape of a spider had disapi>eared. Can it be that the mother 
spider was eaten by her own progeny V 

July 21st, 1S76. — Geological and Archaeological Section. 

Prof. W. H. Barris in the chair. 

Four members present. 

Tlie Section proceeded to elect permanent officers, resulting 
ill the choice of Prof. W. H. Barris as President, and W. H. 
Pratt as Secretary. 

Messrs. Barns and Pratt re[>orted the collection of a consid- 
erable variety of fossils from the quarries in the neighborhood, 
and proposed to continue the research, and report at a future 
meeting. 

Clarence Lindley stated that he had recently been on an ex- 
ploring trip to Pine Creek and Toolesboro, during which he had 
examined several mounds, and would prepare a report lor the 
Academy. 

July 28th, 1876. — -Trustees' Meeting. 
George H. French, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Six members present. 

But five members having been present at the last meeting of 
the Trustees, the actions of that meeting were ratified. 
The following communication was read : 

To the Honorable Board of Trustees of the Davenport Academy of Natural 
Sciences : 

The undersigned proposes to and does hereby donate to the Academy 
the collection of fossil and mineralogical specimens now on deposit in 
the Academy rooms, and numbered from five thousand and one (5001) to 
six thousand three hundre'd and fifty (685!)) inclusive, if accepted by the 
Trustees with the following conditions, and the acceptance endorsed 
liereon, and this paper recorded in the minutes. 

Condition Is/. In case of the dissolution of the Academy or its being 
merged in any other institution, or in any other way losing its separate 
and independent existence, this collection shall revert to the donor or his 
heirs ; and 

Second. This collection shall not be disposed of or parted with by the 
Academy, except that duplicate specimens may be used in exchanges ; 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 25 

provided, that the specimens received in exchange therefor shall be num- 
bered the same as the specimens given, and be subject to the same 
conditions. Respectfully, 

Davenport, July 2Sth, 1876. W. H. Pratt. 

On motion of Dr. Preston the donation was accepted with 
the conditions proposed, and with the thanks of the Academy. 

July 28th, 1876. — Reoular Meeting. 

Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Thirteen members present. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported on behalf of the Publication 
Committee that the printers were now at work on the last sheet 
of the first volume of Proceedings, which, it was expected, 
would soon be ready for distribution. 

A number of donations were reported and a vote of thanks ex- 
tended to the donors. 

A communication was read from James Terry, of Terryville, 
Conn., recently returned from San Bernardino, Cal., requesting 
again to exchange for copper relics. 

Mrs. Walker Adams was elected a regular member, and the 
following persons were elected corresponding members : Dr. 
Geo. Engelmann, St. Louis, Mo. ; Henry Ulke, AVashington, 
D. C. ; Herman Strecker, Reading, Pa. ; E. T. Cresson, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. ; Dr. H. A. Hagen, Cambridge, Mass. ; F. W. 
Putnam, Salem, Mass. ; S. H. Peabody, E. W. Blatchford, Dr. 
J. W. Velie, Dr. H. A. Johnson, Chicago, Ills. ; Henry Ed- 
wards, R. H. Stretch, Dr. Herman Behr, Dr. A. Kellogg, W. G. 
W. Harford, San Francisco, Cal. ; Dr. Cyrus Thomas, Carbondale, 
Ills. ; Jos. L. Barfoot, Salt Lake City, Utah ; G. C. Broadhead, 
State Geologist of Missouri ; Dr. James Lewis, Mohawk, N. Y. ; 
John Wolf, Canton, Ills. 

August 7th, 1876. — Biological Section. 

To-day a number of the members of the Section joined the 
members of the County Teachers' Institute in an excursion and 
picnic to Offkrmann's or Credit Island. Eight members of the 
Section were present, besides about fifty persons not members. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 5 [March 1877.] 



26 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

The party assembled at the foot of Brady Street, and about 
nine o'clock a. m. started down the river on board of Mr. Oifer- 
mann's horse power boat, "River Horse." After a pleasant trip 
of an hour, the party was landed near the head of Credit Isl- 
and, about three miles below town. The weather was delight- 
ful, and the place beautifully adapted for a picnic. Everyone 
seemed to thoroughly enjoy the day, and it was seven o'clock p. 
M. when the boat started on the return trip. 

A large number of cattle are now pastured on the Island, so 
that the collecting is not as good as formerly. A conside- 
rable number of interesting insects were picked up, embracing 
about a dozen species of beetles not before known from this 
locahty. A single immature mole cricket ( Gryllotalpa horealis) 
was found under a stick of wood in a moist place. We know of 
but one other specimen, which Prof. Sheldon found near French 
tfe Davies' saw mill several years ago. The only shells collected 
were some immature specimens of Physa heterostropha and a 
few young Helices. A few years ago there was an abundance of 
Helix multilineata on this Island, but the presence of cattle 
has rendered them scarce. A large number of frogs {Rana 
halecina Kalm.) were noticed high up on dry land. Ko plants 
of any special interest were noted. 

August 25th, 1876. — Regular Meeting. 

Dr. M. B. Cochran in the chair. 

Thirteen members present. Baron C. R. Osten Sacken was 
present as a visitor. 

The list of donations for August was read, and the thanks of 
the Academy extended to the donors. 

Mr. W. R. Smith was duly elected a regular member. Per- 
mission was granted to Dr. R. J. Farquharson to take from the 
Museum articles of interest to be exhibited at the Interna- 
tional Archseological Convention, meeting at Philadelphia, Sep- 
tember 4th. 

Mr. Pratt gave an account of a recent trip to Peoria, and the 
collection near that place of some 600 specimens of a fresh 
water shell ( Vivipera lineatd)., not found in this vicinity ; also 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 27 

specimens of building stone and potter's clay. He had trans- 
planted some of the Kving shells into Sylvan Water. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported that the first volume of the Pro. 
ceedings was now in the hands of the binders, and would soon 
be ready for distribution. He also made some remarks on the 
recent visit to the Academy (August 15) of Dr. Geo. J. Engel- 
mann, of St. Louis, who is much interested in archaeological re- 
searches respecting the so-called mound builders. 

Baron Osten Sacken, upon solicitation, made a few brief but 
interesting remarks upon the Swiss Lake Dwellings near Zurich, 
which he visited while the excavations were being made. 

September 28th, 1876. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. "W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Thirteen members present. 

A large number of donations and exchanges were reported. 

George W. Parker was elected a regular member and Baron 
C. R. Osten Sacken a corresponding member. 

The Corresponding Secretary of the Academy having been 
absent for some months, Mr. J. D. Putnam was appointed to 
fill the office j^rc tern., with W. H. Pratt to act in his absence. 

The publication of the first volume of Proceedings has been 
completed, and 180 copies have been distributed to societies, 
besides a number sold. 

October 14:Th, 1876. — Trustees' Meeting. 
Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 
Six members present. 
The following communication was read : 

Davenport, October 11, 1876. 
Dr. Preston, Secretary of the Academy of Natural Sciences : 

Dear Sir :— The Publishing Committee of the " Ladies Centennial 
Society" have been directed by said Society to inform you that the work 
entitled " Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of iSTatural Sciences," 
and published by them, is now completed, and placed at the disposal of 
the Academy. Respectfully yours, 

Mrs. Thomas McCullough. 

Secretary pro tern. 



28 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 

On motion of Dr. Preston the publication was accepted from 
the hands of the Centennial Society, with earnest thanks for their 
generous labor in accomplishing the work. 

The purchase of an additional case for botanical specimens 
was authorized. 

A proposition from Prof. W. D. Gunning, of Boston, to de- 
liver a course of six scientific lectures before the Academy was 
accepted. 

October 27th, 1876. — ^Regular Meeting. 

Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 

Thirteen members present. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported numerous communica- 
tions — none requiring action. 

A large number of donations and exchanges were reported. 

J. H. Southwell, of Port Byron, and Jay Goldsbury, of this 
city, were elected regular members. 

Mrs. M. A. McGonegal, Corresponding Secretary, being about 
to remove from the city, offered her resignation which was 
accepted. 

Messrs. Hume, Pratt and Preston were appointed a committee 
on Prof. Gunning's lectures. 

Dr. Parry read some interesting letters from a correspondent 
in Utah, Miss Julia J. Wirt, describing the recent 

Exploration of a Mound near Utah Lake, Utah. 

The mound, which is situated on the farm of Mr. Amasa Potter, near 
Payson, was about fifty feet long and twelve feet deep. At about the gen- 
eral level, or five feet below the surface of the mound, was found a skel- 
eton, six feet seven inches in length, with its head toward the center, and a 
stone pipe weighing five ounces between its teeth. Disposed about it 
were numerous articles of pottery, some of them beautifully orna- 
mented with pictures of flowers and different animals. There were also 

4 a number of smaller human bones near the skeleton not nearly so well 
preserved. In a later and more thorough investigation, an air-tight 
stone box, encased in mortar or potter's clay, and containing another 
stone box of about two quarts capacity, was found at the head of where 

. the skeleton had lain. The second box contained on opening about a 
qua;rt of light, mouldy wheat, a few of the best grains of which were 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 29 

planted and grew, producing ears somewhat similar to Chilian club wheat. 
The presence of wheat argues against the very great antiquitj' of -the 
mound, since, according to Humboldt and others, wheat was first intro- 
duced into this country about 300 years ago. 

There are six otlier mounds near the one opened, all encircled and con- 
nected by graveled walks. Two of them are circular ; the others elon- 
gated. They are composed of earth similar to the adjacent alluvial soil, 
which is interspersed with gravel. Some of the local Indians (Utes) 
attibute these mounds to the Navajoes ; others to the whites. Besides 
the articles already mentioned, there have been found charred corn 
with a small indented kernel, sun-flower seeds, pieces of red cedar, 
grinding stones, mineral paint, and amongst numerous pieces of pottery, 
one having painted upon it a quite recognizable sketch of a range of 
mountains visible from the locality of the mounds. 

Unfortunately the greater part of the articles exhumed have been scat- 
tered beyond recovery, but it is hoped other mounds of the group may be 
equally instructive and rich in relics. 

[The discovery of wheat aboTe mentioned has been found to be a fraud. The wheat was taken 
from a mouse nest. See Proceedings, Jan. 2fith, 1877.] 

Dr. Parry then read the following : 

Notice of the late I. A. Lapham, LL. D., 
tJorresponding Member of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, 

BY DR. C. C. PARRY. 

A little ir.ore than a year ago, viz : September 14th, 1875, Dr. I. A. Lapham 
was found dead in a small fishing boat on Lake Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, 
where, after concluding some scientific work in reference to the adapta- 
bility of that charming lake district for the propagation of fish, he had 
taken a solitary row for recreation. As a corresponding member of this 
Academy, a,nd a worthy representative of scientific progress in the West- 
ern country, it would seem proper that some special notice in reference 
to the subject should appear on our records. Having been for many 
years in frequent friendly correspondence with Mr. Lapham and enjoying 
his personal friendship, I therefore submit the following, which may be 
regarded as a tribute from the Academy. More full details may be gath- 
ered from a complete biographical sketch, published by his intimate per- 
sonal friend, S. S. Sherman, of Milwaukee. 

Mr. Lapham- was a genuine western man. Early identified, since 1836, 
with the growth and progress of Wisconsin, and especially its chief town, 
Milwaukee, He carefully, from the first, preserved all historical records, 
including regular series of newspapers, and was the author of several of 
the earliest works on Wisconsin, including maps and popular descriptions 
of the country. He was actively connected, as surveyor and engineer, 
with some of the earlier projects of inland navigation, including a canal 
to connect the head waters of Rock River with Lake Michigan. He took 



80 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

an early and deep interest in the study and examination of the pre-liistoric 
mounds of his district, and was among the first to detect and publish the 
fact that many of the mounds represented in outline various animal fig- 
ures. A full accoimt of these, with actual measurements and figures, 
was published in early numbers of the Smithsonian Contributions. 
Among his other active labors as a surveyor, he made some of the ear- 
liest collections of plants in Wisconsin, and also published at different 
times in Agricultural Reports, lists of the native grasses of Wisconsin 
and Northern Illinois. 

Mr. Lapham was always foremost in every enteprise to cultivate a 
taste for scientific investigations, was one of the original founders of the 
Wisconsin Historical Society, and later of the Wisconsin Academy of 
Science. He assisted largely in carrying on the Geological Survey of the 
State, at one time holding the position of Chief Geologist. He kept a 
continuous meteorological record at Milwaukee during the whole period 
of his residence, and was the first to suggest in practical form the organ- 
ization of the Signal Service Bureau. In his later years he was especially 
interested in fish propagation, and with a view to master its details, he 
moved to Oconomowoc. living on the borders of that beautiful lake. 

In his scientific character, Mr. Lapham was laborious, patient, con- 
scientious and unpretentious ; he was ever regardful of the claims of his 
associates, and always free to communicate information. He was also 
naturally deeply interested in educational progress. Some of his latest 
views on botanical classification seem worthy more attention than they 
have yet received. 

Socially, Mr. Lapham was genial, affable and unostentatiously hospita- 
ble. His retired house in Milwaukee was specially attractive in a very 
select library and carefully arranged museum, to which was added the 
charm of a most intelligent and refined family. 

Mr. Lapham is botanically commemorated in a well-marked genus, 
of southwestern plants, Laphamia, dedicated to him several years ago by 
his life-long friend, Prof. Asa Gray. This genus now comprises several 
well-marked species, of which the Lajjliamia Stansburii (here exhibited) 
was first discovered in Stansbury's exploration of Salt Lake, and then 
named and figured by Dr. Torrey as Monothrix Stansburii. 

The loss of Mr. Lapham at the present time, when special interest is 
lyeing directed to investigations in which he was a pioneer and earnest 
laborer, is a matter of sincere regret. 



November 23d, 1876. — Trustees' Meeting. 
Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. » 

Seven members present. 

Mr. Pratt stated that a fine golden eagle, presented to the Acad- 
emy, had been stuffed and mounted at an expense of $10, which 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 31 

sum was now due the taxidermist. On motion it was voted to 
pay the bill as soon as the funds in the treasury would allow. 

The committee having Prof. Gunning's lectures in charge, I'e- 
ported a very satisfactory course of six lectures delivered, three 
in the Unitarian, and one each in the Congregational, Metho- 
dist and Christian churches. The receipts were $125.50, and 
expenses $129.20, including a bill for advertising in the Gazette^ 
not yet paid. 

Dr. Parry was appointed a committee to make some definite 
arrangements with the newspapers of the city for notices and 
reports of lectures, etc. 

The thanks of the Academy were voted to the editors of the 
Democrat for generous gratuitous advertising. 

November 23d, 1876. — Regular MEEtixo. 

Dr. C. C. Parry in the chair. 

Eleven members present. 

A large list of donations received during November was read, 
and the thanks of the Academy returned to the donors. 

An extensive cori-espondence regarding the publication of 
Proceedings, etc., was reported. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam was unanimously elected to the office of 
Corresponding Secretary, made vacant by the resignation of 
Mrs. M. A. McGonegal. 

Israel Hall, of Davenport, was elected a regular member, and 
Miss Julia J. Wirt, of Paysou, Utah, and Mr. J. C. Arthur, of 
Charles City, Iowa, were elected corresponding members. Five 
names were proposed for membership. 

The following resolution was offered by Dr. C, C. Parry : 

Besolved, That a committee of three be appointed to take into consid- 
eration the feasibility of establishing a monthly publication in the inter- 
est of this Academy, to contain its regular proceedings, and also such 
other matter of local or scientific interest especially pertaining to tliis 
western region as may commend it to the patronage of the community at 
large ; with estimated cost of the same, and probable sources of revenue, 
and to report at the next regular meeting. 



32 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

The resolution was adopted, and Messrs. Parry, J. D. Put- 
nam and Preston were appointed on the committee. 

The Secretary stated that he had been unable to procure the 
publication of Dr. Parry's memorial of Dr. Lapham, the event 
not being sufficiently recent. 

The following paper was then read, and referred to the Pub- 
lication Committee. 

Manufacture of Pottery toy Mojave Indian Women. 

BY DR. EDWARD PALMER. 

At the landing of Europeans on the American continent, they found 
the native Indians in possession of pottery, the excellence of which was 
praised by the strangers. The manufacture of pottery seems to have 
been can'ied on all over the American continent, that of Chili ^nd Peru 
being of superior quality to that of any other section. The pottery grad- 
ually assumes an interior quality northward, and becomes especially so 
in the northern and eastern mounds. 

There seems to be two divisions of the American Indians, the Toltecs 
and Aztecs, both of whom are found to be makers of pottery, but of very 
different qualities. The Toltecs are makers of the superior pottery, and 
are represented by the Pimo Indians of Arizona, the Moqui and Rio 
Grande Indians of New Mexico. This division is distinguished from the 
other, not only by their pottery, but also by their superior dwellings and 
the manner of disposing of the dead, by burying instead of burning, as 
is practised by the Aztecs. The pottery of the Aztecs is very inferior to 
that of the Toltecs in quality, decoration and glazing ; in fact, it is of a 
rudeness that would almost warrant the conclusion that they had bor- 
rowed the art from their neighbors, and had just completed their first 
lesson— that of making a plain, rough pot. 

Both these divisions of Indians existed at the discovery of America. 
The women have always been superior to the men in their knowledge and 
successful prosecution of the domestic arts and manufactures, and liave 
always been the sole pottery makers. If a man or his children depended 
upon him to make a pot to cook or eat from, they would starve before 
they would have one. As the female artists of both divisions use the 
same means of constructing pottery, it may be interesting to many to 
know how pottery is made by the native women of our continent. 

Last summer I visited the Mojave Indian reservation on the Colorado 
River, Arizona, for the purpose of making a collection of their native 
foods, manufactures, etc. Wishing a set of dishes of their make, I en- 
gaged the services of a native woman. She was instructed to bring 
wliatever was necessary to make the pottery to the agency so that I could 
see the process. 

The next day she appeared, as desired, accompanied by an assistant. 



PALMER OX MAM'FACTrRE (»F I'oTTKKY. 83 

They were somewhat ageil, appioacJiiiig to four score years, and i)os- 
sessed of many wrinkles. Their hair was cut off straight in front, just 
above the eyes, the remainder reaciiing down to the shoulders, w'here it 
too was evenly trimmed all round. On the head was a round, rather coni- 
cal hat, made of split twigs, and water tight. Around the waist was sus- 
pended the only article of dress, a skirt reaching to the knees, made of 
strips of willow bark, intermingled with strips of old l)lankets. pants, and 
various colored calicos obtained from the whites. This mixture of 
various colored strips was fastened to a belt of the same materials. The 
jewelry, worn by one consisted of a number of white pearl buttons, 
strung and hung around her neck. The other wore a string of small sea 
shells with a larger one in the center. Thus attired they were ready for 
work. 

One of the women laid down a (piantity of clay, some paint, several 
round Hat stones of different sizes, and two wooden paddles. The other 
took her hat from her head, went to the well and tilled it with water. 
They both squatted down on the bare ground, and commenced by .sprink- 
ling water from the hat on the clay, using their hands to work the clay to 
a consistency like that used in manufacturing bricks. After being told the 
kinds and sizes of pots required, each selected one of the round flat 
stones upon which to form the bottom of the contemplated pot. using 
the stones according to the size of the article to be made. Pieces of clay 
were taken and laid upon the stones. A wooden paddle was used by the 
right hand to form the mud on the stones into the bottom of the future 
pot. The ground near by was smoothed off, and these bottoms carefully 
placed on it. The next thing was to build upon tliese bottoms. As 
much clay was taken as was considered necessary, and rolled out in the 
hand until it was of the same thickness, and long enough to go round the 
bottom. This was then applied to tlie bottom and pinched together by 
the thumb and fingers of the right hand as white ladies do pie crust. 
The. flat stone was now- removed from the bottom, and held in the left 
hand on the inside of the embryo pot. close against the attachment 
of the addition to the bottom, while the paddle in the right hand patted 
the outside, nearly obliterating all traces of tlie joint, while the stone 
served the same purpose to the inside. 

As piece by piece the pots were built up, and the seams nearly obliter- 
ated by the stone and paddle, the hands were dipped in water and 
rubbed over the vessels, inside and out, until a smooth and even surface 
was produced, thus making the union perfect, and hiding all appearance 
of the pots having been built up. When the pots had been completed to 
the desired height, the rim was formed by holding the round stone under 
the last piece built on, and gently tapping as the stone was moved around 
the edge. If it was to be ornamented by indentations, a stick was suitably 
pointed, and the designs executed therewith. In the course of a few 
hours seven pieces of pottery of various sizes, and designed for different 
purposes, all even in thickness and smoothness of surface, were produced. 
The great difficulty was in regulating the quantity of clay for each addi- 

fProc. D. A. N. .?. Vol. II.] 6 [March 1877.] 



34 D.VVKXI'ORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

lion, as the circumference increased or diminished, but they successfully 
accomplished the task, so that they are justly entitled to the reputation 
of skilled workers in clay. 

All the pottery completed, a smooth piece of ground was selected, ex- 
posed to the direct rays of the sun, to which the vessels were removed to 
dry. As the drying proceeded any crack that appeared was filled up by 
dipping the fingers in thick, muddy water. The pottery was repeatedly 
turned so as to dry evenly, xlll defects that showed themselves were cor- 
rected before the burning. Some of the vessels were to be ornamented 
with paint. This was done during the process of drying, so that it might 
dry evenly with tlie clay. The artist mixed her paint with water on a 
flat stone, and made a brush by twisting a piece of cloth from one of the 
strips of her skirt. The decorations were now applied, consisting of par- 
allel lines and dots, neatly and regularly made. The painting and drying 
completed, the next thing was the burning. 

A quantity of wood of even sizes was selected, and laid in two piles 
and ignited. They arranged the pottery tops downward, so that fire 
could be put all around and on the tops, causing the heat to be uniform 
all over. A sharp watch was kept over the burning, so that an even de- 
gree of heat was applied to all parts of tlft same vessel at the same time. 
The potters repeatedly examined the vessels by removing the fire with 
long sticks in order to see that an even burning was being effected. As 
soon as the pottery was sufficiently burned, the fire was removed and the 
pots allowed to remain and cool. Vessels made for cooking and for hold- 
ing water were not glazed, but those to be used for other purposes were. 
The glazing was done by rubbing salt water over the vessels while warm, 
and reburning them to set the glazing. 

, These artists, though homely and plainly clad and besmeared with 
dirt, had performed their work well. Judging them by their works, it 
must be acknowledged they had done as well as most men and women of 
the paler and better-to-do race could have done with like materials. 
Dire necessity and compulsion would be necessary to compel most of us 
to attempt the task. Considering the beauty of the pottery, its sym- 
metry of form, quality of workmanship, the rude tools, the kind of ma- 
terials used, and also that necessity had been their only teacher, these 
female artists, though Indians, had, by their works, proven themselves 
heroines in domestic art, challenging competition by either sex of Amer- 
icans under like conditions. Credit must be given to the female for her 
good works, let her be of whatsoever race or color. 

December 2d, 1876. — Biological Section. 
J. D. Putnam in the chair. 
Six members present. 

In answer to a question from Dr. Pariy, Mr. Hauj)t stated 
tliat he had found Sarrcbcenia purpurea L. growing in a bog on 



PUTNAM ON GALEODES PALLIPES. 35 

the Iowa shore of tlie river, somewhere l>etween Dubuque aiul 
Davenport, while on his way down tlie river in 1871. He 
thought it was in Scott county, but couhl not l)e positive. It 
was decided that this species shouhl be dropped from tlie list 
until better evidence is secured. A variety of other phmts were 
discussed. 

Mr. W. H. Pratt exhibited a glass of cistern water contain- 
ing a number of very small and active crustaceans, a species of 
Cyclops. Several of these were placed under a microscope and 
examined with interest l)y the members present. Mr. Putnam 
stated that he had frequently noticed these crustaceans in the 
well water at his residence in the west part of town. Their 
presence in the water should be regarded as rather a tavorable 
sign. They probably act as scavengers in destroying organic 
matter that might otherwise be injurious. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam exhibited several specimens of a curious 
spider-like animal, belonging to the Soljyugidie^ a family of 
Arachnids allied to the scorpions, and made the following re- 

mai'ks on 

Galeodes pallipes. Say. 

The specimens here exhibited, five in mnnber, were collected at differ- 
ent times in 1872 and 1874, under stones and dried dung in dr.y places, 
near Denver, Valmont or Canon City. Colorado. They were always, 
found single and alone. As near as I can recollect I have never noticed 
any other living thing under the same stone with them. They appear to 
be quite pugnacious, but their habits were not as carefully observed as 
they should have been. 

This species was first collected over fifty years ago by the celebrated 
naturalist of Philadelphia, Thomas Say. at the base of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, not far from the site of the present city of Denver, and was des- 
cribed by him in a foot-note in the Report of Long's Expedition to the 
Rocky Mountains in 1819-20, under the name of Galeodes pallipes. In 
the same place Mr. Say describes another species — G. siibuhtta. Of this 
latter species but one specimen is known to have been since collected — 
by Capt. Marcy on his expedition to Red River in 1852, and is redescribed 
by Girard in the report of that expedition. This specimen is still pre- 
served in the museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadel- 
phia, and although only hastily examined I am satisfied it is quite dis- 
tinct from my Colorado specimens. Dr. Packard in his Guide to the 
Study of Insects mentions that Solpnga {Galeodes) Americamis Say, oc- 
curs in the Southern States, but no authority is giveu, nor can I find 
any other reference to such a species. At the meeting of the Philadel- 
phia Academy of Natural Sciences Nov. Tth, 1870, Prof. Cope exhiljited 



36 



DAVENPORT ACAOKMY OF NATURAL SCTENTES. 



a specimen of Galeodes (probably G. pallipes Sayi from Denver. Colorado, 
with some remarks on its habits. This is the only other record of the 
occurrence of this species I have been able to find. 



■"^-^ 




FIG. 1. GALEODES PALLIPES, Say 

LTwice nHtiiral size.] 

Mr. Butler, of the British Museum, has published in the Transactions 
of the Entomological Society of London for 1873, a " List of the species 
of Galeoclides." in which fifty-two species are enumerated, under five 
genera, but not a species from the United States. Of the eighteen spe- 
cies of Galeodes proper not one is from the American continent, but it is 
not improbable that our species may prove to belong to the genus Gluvia, 
of which several species are recorded from Mexico and the West Indies. 
Say's descriptions have been entirely overlooked. 

It is probable that, besides these two. there are three or four other spe- 
cies found in this country, as specimens seen from Florida, California, 
and Arizona, in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, and 
in that of the Boston Society of Natural History would seem to indicate. 
I hope sometime to give a more detailed account of this interesting 
group of animals. 

;i«ince making tlic above remarks, I have liad an opportunity of examining other specimen.^ 
of both species, contained in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences- 
and have received from Rev. H. C. McCook, a specimen of O. subulnia, collected by Capt. Bun, 
in Wyoming. Although bearing some superficial resemblance to each other, these two species 
must probably be referred to different genera — r,'. pallipee being a true Galeodes, and G. sub- 
ulata probably a species of Gluvia. A more detailed description, with illustrations, is in prep- 
aration for publication in these Proceedings. The accompanying woodcut of Ga/eodes patlipes 
Say, Cenlar>;ed to twice the natural size,j will serve to give an idea of the general appearance of 
these peculiar animals. ./, D. P . March 15<A, 1877. 1 

It was decided to hold the meetings of the Section every Sat- 
urdav- afternoon during the winter, whenever practicable. 



RECORD OF J'ROrKEDINGS. 37 

DECEAfHER 4th. J87H. — ^Trustees" Meeteno. 

Eev. W. H. Ban-is, President, in the chair. 

Six members present. 

It was decided to exhibit a selection from the collection of 
the Academy, including the cloth covered copper axes, at the 
Turners' Fair, to be held December 8th, 9th, and 10th. Messrs, 
Hume, Riepe. and Farquharson were appointed a committee to 
make the selection and attend to the exhibition. 

Decealber 23d, 1876. — Biological Section. 

Met in Dr. Parrv's Herbarium. 

J. D. Putnam in the chair. 

Three members present. 

Dr. Parry exhibited a collection of walnuts from various parts 
of the country — Juylans clnerea L, our common white walnut or 
butternut, J. nigra L, the black walnut, -/. regia L, the smooth 
shelled English walnut, J. calif ornioa "Watson, from the Pacific 
coast, and J. rujyes'^ris Engl., from Texas. Some time was spent 
in examining early botanical publications. 

December 29th, 1876.— Trustees* Meetixg. 

G. U. French. Yice-President, in the chair. 

Eiglit members present. 

Dr. Parry stated that the editors of the Gazette and Demo- 
crat both expressed a friendly feeling toward the Academy, and 
their willingness to publish notices of the meetings gratui- 
tously, and to advertise paying lectures, etc.. at a fair reduction 
from regular rates : also desiring to be furnished Math condensed 
reports of proceedings for prompt publication. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported, on behalf of the Publication 
Committee, that the first volume of Proceedings had been com- 
pleted and paid for, with a small balance on hand in the publi- 
cation fund. Nine hundred and ninety complete copies were 
received fi-om the printers, besides a number of copies lacking 
some of the plates. Of these 250 copies had been delivered to 
subscribers and sold, and 156 copies distributed to scientific 



38" DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

societies, editors and others, leaving 288 copies on hand. On 
jnotion the action of tlie committee was approved. 

Drs. Preston, Parry and Cochran were appointed a committee to 
draft resohitions in acknowledgement of the generous action of 
the ladies of the Centennial and Bric-a-Brac societies on behalf 
of the publication. 

December 29th, 1876. — Regular Meeting. 

G. H. French, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Thirteen members present. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported a large correspondence 
in regard to the Proceedings, etc. A communication from Prof. 
Richards projiosing to deliver a course of lectures upon chemis- 
try was referred to a special committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Parry, Hume and Pratt. 

The list of donations for December was read, and the thanks 
of the Academy returned to the donors. 

Dr. Edward Palmer, Cambridge, Mass. ; Dr. L. N. Dimmock, 
Santa Barbara, Cal. ; J. G. Lemmon, Sierra Valley, Cal. ; W. 
G. Wright, San Bernardino, Cal. ; and Dr. J. D. B. Stillman, 
of San Francisco, Cal.. were elected corresponding members 
of the Academy. 

A line specimen of stone carving by the Hydah Indians, of 
Queen Charlotte's Island, was exhibited by Dr. C. C. Parry, with 
brief explanatory remarks. The following paper was then read : 

SHELL MONEY and Other Primitive Currencies. 
fiY w. II. PRATT. 

Having recently received, among other articles collected from mounds 
in Calhoun County, Ills., by Capt. W. P. Hall, a quantity of small univalve 
shells, all of which have been uniformly ground off in a peculiar manner, 
and different from any specimens that we have seen or heard of before, 
and which have evidently been buried a long time, it becomes a matter 
of considerable interest to determine, if possible, for what purpose or use 
they were intended. (Fig. 2.) 

They are from half an inch, or somewhat less, to three-quarters of an 
inch in diameter, with very low spire, and were supposed to be of some 
marine species, though we were unable to find any to which they could 
be referred. Within a few days, however. I have identified the species 





PRATT ON SHELL MONEY. -39 

without a doubt to be a varietij of Anculosa pnerosa, one of several spe- 
cies I have received from the rivers of Alabama and East Tennessee. I 
have ground down one of these shells to correspond with the ancient 
specimens, and it does correspond perfectly. 

It is easy to see that they must have had something 
else than their beauty to recommend them, and they 
are exceedingly undesirable as ornaments. In the 
same rivers are found many far handsomer shells, and 
certainly none less so than these. Upon examination 
it is quite evident that they were not beautified by pol- 
ishing. The shell in its natural condition is too thin 
to admit of that. Of course it is not improbable that 
several species of the same genus, or of closely allied 
genera, may have been used in this way, but they are 
all thin, and the differences among the specimens we 
FIG. 2.-xaturai Size, j^j^^g (souie 200 in number) are so small as to render 
it highly probable that these, at least, are all of the same species. Many 
of them are considerably decayed and broken, yet they generally retain 
the principal portion of the shell not much injured. 
What were they for V 

PRIMITIVE CURRENCIES. 

As soon as a people become sufficiently advanced to adopt a system, 
however crude, of " division of labor," each doing chiefly that for 
which he has a particular taste or capacity, and exchanging his com- 
modities for those which he cannot so easily produce with his own 
hands, the inconvenience of the direct exchange and transfer of arti- 
cles in bulk will become apparent to them, and as a matter of fact, it 
has been found that they soon, even while in a very barbarous condition, 
wall adopt some article of more or less, or even of no intrinsic value, as a 
representative of value, which article, or perhaps several of them of dif- 
ferent kinds, they will, by common consent, give and receive in exchange 
for articles of comfort or necessity. 

A great variety of very dissimilar things have been made to serve the 
purposes of a currency among the different nations and tribes of the 
world. In the East India Islands and many parts of Africa, the small 
'•cowry" — as it is commonly called, the Cypra'arno)ieta [the specific name 
" moneta" relates to this fact)— which is abundant in the waters of that 
region, is extensively used, and doubtless has been for ages, as a circu- 
lating medium. Baird's Dictionary of Natural History states that many 
tons of these shells are imported into Great Britain, and exported for 
barter with the native tribes of Western Africa. It is said that as many 
as sixty tons were brought in 1848, and nearly 300 tons in 1849 to Liver- 
pool alone. They are called " Guinea money" (referring to the African 
coast where they are used), and are, or have been used in the slave trade. 

According to Chamber's Encyclopaedia, " In Central Africa purchases 
are made and debts paid by strings of beads or coils of brass wire." 



4<' DAVENPOirr acadkmv of natural SCIKNCES. 

Johnson's Cyclopa'dia says : 

•• Anything which lias value nniy i)e used as money. Tin was 
thus employed in ancient Syracuse and Britain, iron in Sparta, cat- 
tle in Rome and Germany, a preparation of leather among the Car- 
thaginians, platinum in Russia, lead in Burmah, nails in Scotland, 
pieces of silks among the Chinese, cubes of pressed tea in Tartary. salt in 
Abyssinia, cowry shells on the coast of Africa, slaves among the Anglo- 
Saxons [a bad pre-eminence for the Anglo-Saxons, surely], tobacco in 
Virginia, codfish in Xewfoundlaiul, bullets and wampum in the early 
liistory of Massachusetts, logwood in Cami)eachy. sugar in the West 
indies, soap in Mexico, etc." 

He says "anj'thing that has value," but here are named tlie cowry 
shell, wampum, etc.. which have no intrinsic value, unless their possible 
use as ornaments might be so considered, and even that would hardly 
apply to the cowry, which is probably "seldom used as an ornament. 

Prof . Jevons says, in the volume entitled -'Money and the Mechan- 
ism of Exchange," of the International Series, ' In India the current 
rate of these cowry shells used to be about -5,000 shells for one rupee, at 
which rate each shell is worth about 1-200 of a penny;" and he says, 
•' among the Fijians lo/ia^e'.s teeth served in the place of cowries, and 
white teeth were exchanged for red teeth somewhat in the ratio of shil- 
lings to sovereigns." Among other articles of ornament or of special 
value as currency, he mentions yellow amber, engraved stones, such as 
the Egyptian scaraba-i, and tusks of ivory. He further says that while 
various manufactured commodities, such as, for example, pieces of cot- 
ton cloth, might very naturally be used as a currency, as was the case in 
several countries, such cloth having an actual value, it is not so easy to 
understand the origin of the curious straw money which circulated until 
1094 in Portugal, and which consisted of small mats, called libongos, 
woven out of rice straw, and worth about U pence each. These mats 
must originally, he thinks, have had some use apart from that as a cur- 
rency. 

He speaks also of the not iinprobalile suggestion of Boucher de Per- 
thes, one of the eai-ly explorers and collectors of flint implements in the 
gravel beds of the A^alley of the Somme in Switzerland, that, '• perhaps, 
afterall, the finely woi-ked stone implements iiow so frequently discovered, 
were among the earliest mediums of exchange. Some of them are cer- 
tainly made of jade, nephrite, or other hard stones, only found in distant 
countries, so that an active traffic in such implements must have existed 
in times of which we have no records whatever." 

Prof. Jevons also refers to '' some obscuie allusions in classical authors 
to a wooden money circulating among the Byzantines, and to a wooden 
talent used at Antioch and Alexandria," but says that, '• in the absence 
of fuller information as to their nature, it is impossible to do more than 
mention them." 

In the American Encyclopiedia I read that "of the aboriginal money 
of the American continent, from the mounds in and adjacent to the Val- 
ley of the Mississii)pi, si)ecimens have been obtained, composed of lig- 
nite, coal, bone, shell, terra-cotta, mica, pearl, carnelian, chalcedony, 



PRATT ON SHELL MONEY. 41 

agate, jasper, native gold, silver, copper, lead and iron, which were fash- 
ioned into forms evincing a skill and art to which the descendants of the 
aborigines, now surviving, are strangers.'' 

Two of these statements I think we should now be inclined to call in 
question, namely : First, the finding of iron relics in the ancient mounds, 
or, at least, in the ancient portion of any mound, and the work of any 
ancient people in this country, and also its use as a currency here ; and 
second, that their form evinces greater skill than is now possessed by the 
descendants of those "• aborigines." 

Their descendants, if any are still living in North America, are proba- 
bly those tribes which certainly do possess a skill quite equal to that 
shown by the workmanship of the ancient relics found in and about the 
Mississippi Valley. 

It is there further stated that " wampum, as is Avell known, was used by 
the. Indians as a currency, and consisted originally of strings of small 
spiral fresh- water shells." 

This is the only mention I can find of the use of small, spiral univalves 
as a currency, and these are said to have been fresh-water shells". 

It is stated by early New England writers that one of the most com- 
mon shells of that coast — Venus Mercenaria or " quahog" — was much 
used for this purpose by the Indians of those times, and from the dark- 
colored portion they made their purple money or "black money," and 
from the axis of a species of Fyrula, and from other shells, the "• white 
money," which was rated at one-half the value of the black money or 
purple shell.* 

It seems usually to have been made in the form of beads or buttons, as 
in any other form it would be liable to rapid wear and breakage, and 
would be ill-suited for ornaments, and more likely to be lost. 

In a very interesting article on this subject, by Mr. Robert E. C. 
Stearns, of San Francisco, published in the Overland Monthly^ and also 
in the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, he says : 

'' As to whether the interior tribes of the continent made use of money, 
and whether it was diiferent from, or the same as that of the coastwise 
tribes, we can only conjecture, as we have been unable to obtain satis- 
factory data on this point. It is, however, highly probable that the 
money used by them was received from the maritime or coast tiibes in 
return for such articles as are peculiar to interior positions, for it it rea- 
sonable to suppose that the matter of habitat would naturally affect and 
cause certain differences, as between each other, in the manners and cus- 
toms of tribes occupying exterior and interior stations. The proximity 
of the coast tribes to the sources whence the material was procured from 

*In those days when business was not very lively, and money doubtless rather scai-ce, and in- 
flation not much dreaded, some of the perhaps rather dreary winter hours might no doubt be 
profitably employed by the colonists in the manufacture, which was free to ^11, of this kind of 
money, and I observe that Mi*. Chas. Rau, in a recently published description of the archieologi- 
ical collection of the United States National Museum, mentions that the early settlers did adopt 
the Indian practice of making the warapuiu for circulation. 

" In the intercourse of the colonists among themselves," he says, " wampum served at certain 
periods instead of the common currency, and the court issued, from time to time, regulations for 
fixing the value of this shell money." 

In large amounts it was counted by the " fathom," a string of six feet in length. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 7 [March 1877.] 



42 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

which their money was made, would at once give to the latter superior 
commercial advantages, and it is quite likely that they were liberal pur- 
chasers from the interior communities.'' 

On the northwestern coast of North America it appears that a very 
different form of shell has been used as money, and is still so used to 
some extent, though its use has rapidly diminished since the introduction 
of blankets by the Hudson Bay Company, as blankets while on hand, 
would not be dead capital, but could be used. 

Tills shell is the Dentalium, and Mr. J. K. Lord, formerly connected 
with the British North American Boundary Commission, states that the 
current value of the shell depends much upon its length, the longest 
representing the greatest value, and when strung together end to end, 
twenty-five shells should form a string one fathom, i. e., six feet in length. 
Such a string was called a Hi-qua. It is stated in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London, 1864, that at one time a hi-qua would pur- 
chase a male slave, equal in value to fifty blankets or £50. 

" It would seem as if there might be some mistake about this length of 
shell," says Mr. Stearns, " as they are seldom found even as much as 
two inches in length." Foreign species of this genus have been largely 
imported, and are sometimes displayed for sale in the fancy stores of 
San Francisco. 

Mr. Stephen Powers, in a valuable article in the Overland Monthly, 
states that the Cahrocs, a tribe of Northern California Indians, make use 
of the red scalps of wood-peckers, which are valued at $5 each (and 
surely these have no intrinsic value). They also use the Dentalium, 
which they polish and arrange on strings, the shortest being valued at 
twenty-five cents, and the longest at $2, the value increasing in geomet- 
rical ratio with the length, or as the square of the length. When the 
Americans (meaning the whites), first arrived there, an Indian would 
give from $40 to $50 for a string of the length of a man's arm, contain- 
ing a certain number of the longer shells below the elbow, and of the 
shorter ones above. "Among the interior Indians," he says, "all the 
dwellers on the plains, and as far up on the mountains as the cedar line, 
bought all their bows and the most of their arrows, from the upper 
mountaineers. An Indian is about ten days in making a bow, and it 
costs from $3 to $5, according to the workmanship, and an arrow 12* 
cents." Three kinds of money were employed in this traffic, viz : white 
shell beads or buttons, pierced in the middle, $5 a yard ; the Periwin- 
kles, $1, and fancy marine shells at various prices, from $3 to $10, or 
even $15, according to their beauty. 

The Yocuts, another tribe of Californians, use the usual shell buttons, 
a string, reaching from the point of the middle finger to the elbow, being 
valued at twenty-five cents. A section of bone, v^ry white and polished, 
about two and a half inches long, is sometimes on the string, and rates 
at a " bit" (twelve and a half cents). 

Dr. Edward Palmer states that some years since he was witness to a 
trade where a horse was purchased of one Indian by another, the price 
paid being a single Haliotis rufescens (" Aulone shell"). 



PRATT ON SHELL MONET. 43 

Mr. Harford, of the Coast Survey, has discovered in some Indian 
graves on one of the islands off the southerly coast of this State (Califor- 
nia), beads or money of a different character from any heretofore ob- 
served. These were made by grinding off the spire and the lower portion 
of the univalve shell, OUvella Mplicata, so as to form small, flat, button- 
shaped disks, with a single central hole. These much resemble in form 
some of the wampum of the New England tribes. 

H. H. Bancroft, in his description of the native races, says that " the 
circulating medium of the Southern Californians consisted of small 
round pieces of the white mussel shell." He also mentions the cacao 
beans used in Central America even now. 

It appears then, that in many cases articles of no intrinsic value have 
been used as a circulating medium, as we use paper money, which pos- 
sesses no value in itself, but, like the wampum, had a, representative value, 
and each individual would accept it in exchange for useful articles, or for 
labor, because he knew that others would accept it from him in the same 
way. It was not, of course, like our paper money, a promise to pay, but 
was received from a reliance upon the custom of the country, which 
really is just what our government money, bonds, etc., depend upon after 
all. 

Actual intrinsic value, then, is not absolutely essential, but one indis- 
pensable requisite to the currency of such an article, or of any article, is 
that it must cost something. 

The successful hunter would not give the half of the deer he had killed, 
or the arrow-maker the product of a day's labor for a certain limited 
number of shells, if he could in a short time gather large quantities just 
like them himself. If, however, it was one which could only be procured 
at a great distance, that would give it this requisite of value, and whether 
from a distance or not, if a certain amount of labor had been bestowed 
upoH it, as in tiie case of beads and polished bones of certain forms, etc., 
it would possess this value of having cost something. 

Stevens, in the volume entitled "Flint Chips," says of the Aulone 
sheW, or Haliotis rufescens : '' The Indians converted them into buttons, 
and strung them in numbers from 100 to 200 on deer's sinews. A string 
of them was of great value, /or they were produced with immense labor. It 
took an Indian twelve months to make a string of them." 

Here the value of them was merely as a medium of exchange, and was 
just simply the representative and equivalent of the labor expended, and 
not an intrinsic value at all. If by any means the people could learn to 
make them twice as fast, they would at once become exchangeable for 
but half the amount of labor, or of any useful article. 

WORKED SHELLS FROM ANCIENT MOUNDS. 

The shells before us (Fig. 2,) certainly carry with them the evidence of 
this value of cost, and the amount of labor which has been invested is very 
definitely determined. I ground one of the Anc}dosa down like the an- 
cient specimens, using a hard sandstone for the purpose. It took three- 
quarters of an hour, and as it was a small one, I do not believe that they 
were done in less time on an average by the ancient manufacturers. 



44 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

They could not be counterfeited without the actual amount of labor 
which would make them genuine, the counterfeits would be genuine. It 
could not be said, as of the American continental currency, '■'■ to counter- 
feit is death,"" but " to counterfeit is very hard work,^- would be true. 

We see that each shell has been ground on the lower side next the 
aperture, until the plane surface thus formed, at an angle of from thirty 
to forty degrees with the axis of the shell, cuts the outer lip, and also 
cuts through into the cavity of the next whorl. This is a very exact 
measiure of the work done, and could not be slighted without entirely 
changing the appearance of the specimen, nor cheapened, except by 
mechanical processes, of which all were alike ignorant. One man or 
woman could make a certain number in a day, and no more, and not a 
very great number. 

That they were estimated by count, and not by length, unless by laying 
in a row, if used as a currency, seems altogether probable, as they are 
not adapted for stringing. It is true that a string could be put through, 
but equally true and apparent that it was not done to any considerable 
extent, as the thin edge about the hole in the side of the shell would be 
very easily worn and broken, which does not appear to have happened. 
Besides it is to be observed that they would not slide upon a string except 
with much difficulty.* Doubtless it is and was common to string the 
shells or beads of which the currency was composed, but it was by no 
means always done, for the cowries are not described as having been per- 
forated at all, and until recently I had seen no intimation that they 
were ever so pei'forated, but in the Iowa College Museum at Grinnell I 
have lately seen a string of cowries, drilled through and strung on a cord. 

I also found there two other kinds ot'warapum or shell ornaments^ 
One is a string of marine univalves, drilled through above the aperture. 
The other is a small Natica, and is drilled through and attached to a 
hoop of wood, forming doubtless a circlet or head band. These were not 
ground down at all, and the work of preparing them is ten or twenty 
times less labor than to grind them. 

One other use for these shells suggests itself as possible, viz : as orna- 
ments being attached to a belt or flat surface of some kind, not by a 
string (for the effects of a string would, as before remarked, be easily 
seen), but possibly by some kind of cement. In that case, no indication 
of the cement is now to be seen, and their use as currency seems the 
more probable one. If used as ornaments and cemented, it would 
scarcely seem necessary to grind them all down to just a uniform depth, 
nor to grind off as much as has been done, or even to grind them at alU 

*In the work by Mr. Rau, alreaily referred to, he gives (Page 69) a description and figure of a 
marine shell, Strombus pugilig, which is perforated so as to be readily strung upon a cord. 

To drill these shells in a similar manner would be not one-twentieth, perhaps not one-hun- 
dreth of the labor required to grind them ; they would be strung much more conveniently 
would slide more freely and would make a much better appearance, being central on the string 
instead of hanging to one side and irregularly, 33 they would do when ground in this way. 
Hence, I conclude that these are not so prepared to be used specially as beads, though doubtless 
they might sometimes be so used. Especially it would seem probable that when buried with the 
deceased owner, they would be jrfaced upon strings for that purpose. 



PRATT OX SHELL MOXEY. 45 

while for a currency it ivould be needful in order to determine the value 
by the cost of labor which they exhibit. And beside, we see by the re- 
cent specimens before us of the same species, that they are very far 
from being ornamental in their appearance. 

SHELL BEADS. 

We have here a quantity of beads exhumed from a mound at Tooles- 
boro, Iowa, last year, which are not only shell beads, but they are pearl 
beads, that is they are made of either detached or attached pearls, found, 
possibly, in the bivalve shells of the Mississippi. 8uch pearls are, how- 
ever, rare in our river shells, and these are, without much doubt, marine. 
1 have here one or two very small pearls I found detached and lying loose 
(having apparently grown so), in the Unio rectus. Many of these from the 
Toolesboro mound were apparently attached, i. e.,w^ere excrescences or 
protuberances, resulting from injuries to the shells, and of flne pearly 
texture upon one side only. Two of these pearls, very flne ones, were 
used as the eyes of one of the bird pipes found in the same mound. 
The most of these beads were found within and around one of the skulls. 
We have here also a small quantity of shell beads, found last year by 
Mr. Tiffany in one of the mounds at Albany, Ills. These beads are 
probably made from marine shells, and are of three varieties : First, of a 
discoidal form, about four-tenths of an inch in di- 
ameter, and two- tenths of an inch thick in the mid- 
dle, edges very much rounded, and a rather large 
hole drilled through in the direction of longest di- 
ameter, and considerably tapered from each end of 
FIG. 3.-NatLirai Size, the hole to the middle. (Fig. 3.) Second, a cylin- 
drical form, about one-quarter of an inch in diameter, and somewhat less 
in length, (Fig. 4) ; and third, cylindri- ^_^^^ ^^^ 

cal like the second form, but about ^^^^ \0J 

twice as long, (Fig. 5). The Hrst and ^^^^ 
FIG. +. second forms were found at the neck of fig. 5. 

a skeleton, and the third (long cylindrical) at the ankle, as described by 
Mr. Tiffany. 

We received some time since, from Mrs. Haines, of Richmond, Ind.. 
some button-shaped shell beads, being flat disks three-tenths of an inch in 
diameter, and one-tenth in thickness, perforated in the middle. (Fig. 6. i 
These were found in a mound in Florida, on the St. John's 
River, eight miles from the mouth. This mound, whicli 
was explored by Mr. Eli Haworth, contained the skele- 
FI6. 6. ton of one of those thick-skulled gentlemen who inhab- 

ited that region during the early centuries. The skeleton, as described 
by Mr. Haworth, was in a sitting position, facing the river, and nearly 
covered with the beads, of which there were probably five bushels. If 
this was money, this party, when he left, took his fortune with him, 
part way, at least. Perhaps he was a manufacturer of the articles, and 
then it might well have been said : " He rests from his labors, and his 
works do follow him." At his feet was a drinking cup, formed from a 




46 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

large concli shell, probably the same species from which the beads were 
made. I have recently received from Mrs. Haines, for the Academy, a 
portion of the frontal bone, which is half an inch or more in thickness ; 
also a piece of the lower jaw. These are from the same skeleton above 
mentioned. 

COPPER BEADS. 

In this connection we must not forget the copper beads found with the 
infant bones in the mound on Mrs. Cook's land here at Davenport, and 
which still contain pieces of the cord upon which they were strung ages 
ago. These have heretofore been fully described.* 

The descriptions to wtiich I have referred, and some other considera- 
tions suggest a possible use of the copper relics, axes so called, as a me- 
dium of exchange, and representing, no doubt, if so used, very high val- 
ues. As they have apparently not been used as tools, not being adapted 
for actual service, being too soft, and showing no signs of wear, perhaps 
we might look upon them as copper coins, fashioned into the form of 
some of the stone implements, and made for the especial purposes of 
exchange and commercial transactions. If made for such a purpose 
they must have some definite form, and perhaps some useful article in 
everyday life would be as likely to furnish the model form which would 
be adopted, as any other object or idea. 

Prof. Jevons says : " Some of the most extraordinary specimens of 
money ever used are the large plates of pure copper which circulated in 
Sweden in the eighteenth century. They were about three-eighths of an 
inch in thickness, and varied in size, the one-half daier being three and 
a half inches square, and the two daler seven and one-half inches square, 
and three and one-half pounds weight. 

Mr. Bancroft says : " Ornaments are in the form of rings, gorgets, 
medals, bracelets and beads, with a variety of small articles of unknown 
use, some of them probably used as money. Very small models of larger 
implements like axes are often found, and were doubtless worn as orna- 
ments. Mr. Dickeson speaks confidently of gold, silver, copper and 
galeiia money left by the mound builders. He further says that " Accord- 
ing to Cogolludo, copper bells and rattles of different sizes, red shells in 
strings, precious stones and copper hatchets often served as money, 
especially in foreign trade. Doubtless many other articles, valuable and 
of compact form, were used in the same way."' 

That all of these articles, copper axes, beads.and awls, and stone pipes, 
etc., would sometimes be exchanged between individuals or tribes for 
various kinds of property, value for value, is, of course, not to be 
doubted, but to what extent this was a custom in the case of each of these 
objects, is as yet little more than a mere speculation. 

These ground shells seem to be more adapted to that purpose and less 
suited to any other than any other article we have found, excepting, per- 
haps, the shell beads so common in many mounds. 



*See these Proceedings, Vol. I, page 134, plate VI. 



record of proceedings. 47 

January 3d, 1877. — Trustees' Meeting. 
Eev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 
Six members present. 

On motion the reading of regular annual reports of officers 
for the past jear was left to the annual meeting of the Academy. 

January 3d, 1877. — Annual Meeting. 
Rev. W. H. Barris, President, in the chair. 
Twenty members present. 

In the absence of Dr. Preston, Dr. C. C. Parry was chosen 
Secretary ^ro tern. 

The reports of the different officers were then read, as follows : 

TREASURER'S REPORT. 
To the President and Members of the Academy : 
The undersigned would beg leave to make the following report : 

receipts. 

Balance on hand January 1, 1876 $ 42.30 

Initiation fees 115.00 

Annual dues 188.00 

Rent of rooms 21.05 

Contributions, etc 10.75 

Proceeds from Prof. Gunning's lectures 125.50 

S502.60 

EXPENDITURES. 

Rent of rooms S12o.00 

Gas and fuel 57.45 

Insurance 30.00 

Janitor 29.25 

Two wall cabinet cases 27.50 

Stationery, postage, express and miscellaneous. .. 76.50 

Prof. Gunning's lectures $100.00 

Use of halls for the same, etc 16.00 

Advertising in Gazette 9.50— SI 25. 50— $471.20 

$ 31.40 

ENDOWMENT FUND. 

Received from J. D. Putnam, life membership.. .$ 50.00 

Deposited in Davenport Savings Bank § 50.00 

Accrued interest 1.76 

Subject to order of the Finance Committee. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

John Hu3ie, 
Treasurer of the Daven2Jort Academy of Natural Sciences. 
January 1st, 1877. 



48 davp:nport academy of natural sciences. 

The report was received and referred to an Auditing Com- 
mittee, consisting of George H. French, W. H. Pratt and C. E. 
Putnam. 

CURATOR'S REPORT. 

Qetitlemen and Ladies of the Academy : 

Regarding the condition or the Museum I beg leave to present the 
following report : 

The increaae in the collection during the past year having been, as in 
the preceding year, very considerable, has rather more than kept pace 
with the increase of space and facilities for their proper arrangement. 
As a consequence the arrangement is still rather imperfect and incom- 
plete. In several of the cases the specimens are too much crowded to 
make a good appearance ; in some others is a miscellaneous collection, 
placed there temporarily for safe keeping, but which should be separately 
arranged, and the unsettled appearance of some is still far from what we 
should desire, while many good specimens are packed away for want of 
room. The want of space and of labels, and a sufficient quantity and 
variety of specimen boxes, greatly obstructs and increases the labor of 
arrangement. 

On the whole, however, something has doubtless been gained during 
the year in this respect. 

Almost the whole of the articles on deposit last year have since been 
donated to the Museum, including one entire case (6x7 feet) of fossil 
corals, nearly the whole of one case of coal plants, and the greater part 
of one case of fossil shells, about 1,500 specimens in all. 

Two wall cases, 6 by 7 feet, and one botanical case have been added. 

Very little has been done in Archaeological explorations, but the number 
of ancient stone implements has been about doubled. 

In Mineralogy, Geology and Palaeontology, the collection is gradually 
and steadily increasing. 

In Botany, some valuable contributions have been received and collec- 
tions made by members. 

In Zoology, the acquisitions consist of a number of skins of South 
American birds, with a few specimens of local species, mounted, and eggs 
of a number of species ; the skulls of some mammals; several bottles of 
reptiles in alcohol ; a few fishes stuffed, and several hundred species of 
recent shells, mostly foreign. 

Some of the above have been received in exchange for specimens from 
our collections, and some in exchange for our Proceedings, but mostly by 
donation. 

Considerable collections have been made by members, which collec- 
tions are not reported among the donations, including several species of 
recent and fossil shells, not before noted as being found here. 

The following is an approximate list of the collection as it now stands : 



curator's report. 49 

mound ret.ics. 

Copper axes, 20; copper awls, 13; copper beads, about 200; carved 
stone pipes, 14; horn and bone implements, 20 ; marine shells (drinking 
vessels), 4 ; shell and pearl beads, 6 forms ; pottery, two vessels entire, 
several others nearly so, and large quantities of fragments ; flint imple- 
ments, specimens of galena, mica, obsidian, horn, etc. ; mound builders" 
skulls, 21, beside fragments of several from different parts of the coun- 
try. 

Of ancient implements, not from mounds, there are stone axes, flesh- 
ing stones, hammer stones, discoidal stones, and grinding stones to the 
number of 460, and flint (including quartz) aiTows, spear heads, hoes, 
scrapei-s, awls, etc., to the number of 1,580. 

The collection of modern Indian implements, bows, arrows, pipes, etc.. 
is extensive. 

GEOLOGICAL. 

Fossil shells, 250 species ; fossil corals, 100 species ; fossil crinoids, 50 
species; fossil coal plants, 75 species; primitive rocks, minerals, ores, 
•crystals, 3 cases. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

Plants, 2500 species ; marine shells. 350 species ; corals, sponges and 
algae, 50 species ; crabs, 8 species ; turtle shells, 8 species ; land and fresh 
water shells (local), 110 species; land and fresh water shells (foreign), 
400 species ; birds, mounted, 90 specimens ; birds' eggs, 30 species ; 
mammals, 16 specimens ; skulls of mammals, 22 specimens. 

SPECIMENS IN ALCOHOL. 

Reptiles, 40 bottles ; other specimens, 40 bottles. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Mechanical models from the Patent Office, about 200. 
Historical relics and foreign curiosities, coins, etc., 1 case. 

Among the immediate needs for the Museum I would mention : One 
large case for birds ; five wall cases, viz : one each for Natural Histo- 
ry, Comparative Anatomy, Mound Relics, Systematic Geology, and Lo- 
cal Geology. A case of drawers for such specimens as cannot be other- 
wise conveniently arranged. A quantity of boxes suitable for speci- 
mens in cases and labels for specimens, and a quantity of alcohol and 
bottles of the several suitable sizes. 

For the work of the ensuing year in this direction, I will venture to 
call the attention of the Academy to the especial importance of syste- 
matic effort in two directions, viz : A somewhat extensive exploration of 
mounds, and a collection of the most complete possible series of the 
fishes and reptiles of the locality. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

W. H. Pratt, Curator, 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 8 [March 1877.] 



50 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OP NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Additions to the Museum During the Year 1876. 

Adams, Joseph, Hampton, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Alston, Edwin. Favosites from Iowa City. 

Anderson, Jess M., Anderson Post Office, Pike Co., Mo. 8tone skin- 
ning knife. 

Arthur, J. C, Charles City, Iowa. Specimens of Iowa plants. 

Barber, Albros, Port Byron, Ills. Four stone implements. 

Barber, George, Port Byron, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Barber, John F., Port Byron, Ills. Twenty-six flint arrow heads. 

Barter, A. C, Chicago, Ills. Birds' eggs, 30 species. 

Barter, A. U. Skeleton of owl and collection of skulls of small animals. 
One sturgeon, one gar pike, stuffed. 

Barnes, Joseph D., Port Byron, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Barris, Prof. W. H. A collection of 50 species of fossils from the Nia- 
gara, Lower Helderburg, Oriskany sandstone and Hamilton Groups, 
of New York. 

Barrows, Miss Sarah, Old account book, Rockingham, 1837. 

Baxter, John. P., Port Byron, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Bergstrom, Edward, Watertown, Ills. Two arrow heads. 

Bergstrom, Nelson, Watertown, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Berry, Geo. W., Somerville, Ala. Several stone and flint implements. 

Bickle, Ferdinand, Le Claire, Iowa. Stone axe and flint arrow. 

Blyle, Benjamin, Canton, Mo. Ancient stone implement. 

Blackman, Elmer. Two arrow heads. 

Borsch, Hugo. Ancient stone implement. 

Boyd, R. M. Stone axe, arrow head, and one fossil from Crestline, O. 

Brock, Frank, Deer Plain, Ills. Three arrow heads. 

Brock, Richard, Deer Plain, Ills. One aiTowhead. 

Brous, Harry A., Manhattan, Kan. Specimen of Amblychila cylindri- 
f or mis. 

Buck. Body of a monkey. 

Chamberlain, Levi, Princeton, Iowa. Ancient stone axe, broken. 

Chamberlain, Mrs. M., Princeton, Iowa. Flint arrow head. 

Clark, Calvin, Le Claire, Iowa. Stone hatchet and six arrow heads. 

Coffey, John R., Fackler, Ala. Ancient stone implement. 

Cole, George, Illinois City, Ills. One hammer stone. 

Cole, Leonard, Illinois City, Ills. Flint arrow head. 

Coilamer, Neil. Fan coral and collection of specimens from Colorado. 

Collins, Cornelius, Port Byron, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Cornelian, Garrett, Watertown, Ills. Two arrow heads. 

Cook, Wm. Mineral specimens collected in Colorado. 

Coyle, S. E., Canton, Mo. Hammer stone. 

Criswell, Robert, Princeton, Iowa. Two arrow heads. 

Cross, J. P. Ancient stone axe. 

Dalin, Josephine, Nauvoo, Ills. Flint arrow head. 

Dillin, Wm. T., Green River, Ills. Copper awl. 

Doolittle, Amasa, Appanoose, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 



ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 51 

Diigald, Robert, Port Byron, Ills. Flint arrow heads, etc. 

Earle, Benj. C. Bottle of reptiles from Colorado. 

Evans, Fannie M. White flint arrow head. 

Evans, John, Pleasant Valley, Iowa. Ancient stone axe. 

Fangmeier, Fritz. Fossil shells, casts. 

Figley, Josiah, Dixon, Iowa. Head of wolf. 

Frahm, Henry. Specimen of Devonian coral of Davenport. 

Frank, Mrs. Mary, Rapids City, Ills. An ancient stone implement, 
" fleshing stone," found at Port Byron thirty years ago. Given to the 
Academy in her will. 

Freeland, Felix, Rapids City, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

French, Geo. H. Specimens of seed oysters attached to a clam shell. 

Gates, Frederick, Pleasant Valley, Iowa. Flint arrow head. 

Geisler, Louis. Lump of copper ploughed up at Blue Grass in 1860. 

Gilman, S. F. Skull of prairie dog. 

Ginung, Mrs. Tennie, Rapids City, Ills. White flint arrow head. 

Goldsbury, Jay. Radiated Tourmaline, Franklin Co., Mass. 

Graham, David, Rapids City, Ills. Two arrow heads. 

Graham, James, Rapids City, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Gray, Wm. Head of a very large pike of the Mississippi River. 

Gronen, W. O. Skull of raccoon. 

Gundaker, Anna. Specimen of limestone— furrowed. 

Haines, Mrs. Mary P., Richmond, Ind. Eight Geodes, showing or- 
ganic origin. Thirty-five cards of labelled specimens of fossil corals and 
polyzoa of Cincinnati group. Shell beads and pieces of skull from a 
Florida mound. Three photographs of fossil star-fish. 

Hall, Chauncey. Petrified moss from Minnesota. 

Hall, George, Gundrysville, Ala. Ancient stone implement. 

Hall, Miss Grace R. Ancient stone implement. Flint arrow. Stone 
implements from a mound, Henry Co., Ills. 

Hall, Capt. W. P. A large collection of flint and stone implements, 
fragments of pottery, minerals, woods, beaver gnawing, etc., from the 
Southern States. Bird's head, carved in stone or pottery, from a mound 
30 feet high, Sandy River, Tenn. Ancient stone axe from Cook's Point, 
Davenport. Agate from Lake Pepin. A large lot of flint and stone imple- 
ments, and of mound relics, consisting of pottery, shell money, speci- 
mens of paint stone {Hematite), etc. ^ivom Calhoun Co., Ills., and vicinity. 

Hanks, Hattie, Princeton, Iowa. Two arrow heads. 

Hanks, Leonard, Princeton, Iowa. Four arrow heads. 

Hanks, Samuel, Princeton, Iowa. Three arrow heads. 

Hannawacker, Chas., Hampton, Ills. Flint arrow heads. 

Hanson, H., Durant, Iowa. Bone found ten feet below the surface. 

Harrison, C. E. Several specimens of marble polished. Three glass- 
covered specimen boxes. 

Harrison & Holman. A mass of melted bottles, relic of the Brady 
street fire of Feb. 22d, 1876. 

Harrison, I. VY. Specimen of long-legged rayriapod {Cermatia forceps). 

Hathaway, W. W. Coal plant impressions in clay shales. 



52 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Haupt, J. G. Collection of coins, 14 specimens. Specimens of plants, 
etc. 

Ilaviland, Adam, Valley City, Iowa. Tlirae aiTOW heads. 

Heath, S. A. Body of rat— dried. 

Hennessy, Charles, Hampton, Ills. Flint arrow head. 

Ilennessy, Mary, Hampton, Ills. Flint implement. 

Heschmeier, Mary, Deer Plain, Ills. Two arrows. One scraper. 

Highm, John, Bay Post Office, Ills. Flint arrow head. 

Hill, E. L., Green River, Ills, Two flint spear heads. 

Holmes, John Wilson, Albany, Ills. Ancient stone implement. 

Houghton, David, Montro.se, Iowa. Large stone axe and arrow. 

Hughes, Mr. Shell of Limulus, very large. Specimens of sea-weeds 
and shells from Cape May. 

Hume, John. Fossil shells, casts. Megalomus Canadensis and Spir^ 
ifer orthis from Canada. 

Hunting, Rev. S. S. Specimens of granite from New Hampshire; 
asbestos and mica from Georgia ; shell marl from Georgia ; palm leaf 
from Kew Gardens, London. Fragments of human skull from a mound 
in Wisconsin. 

Jay, Charles, Bay Post Office, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Jay, E. J., Bay Post Office, Ills. One flint shovel or hoe. Two flint 
scrapers. 

Jay, .John R., Bay Post Office, Ills. Discoidal stcme. 

Jay, Mary J., Bay Post Office, Ills. Ancient flint knife. 

Johnson, Finley, Montrose, Iowa. Two arrow heads. One crystal. 

Johnson, Robert, Andalusia, Ills. One arrowhead. 

Kauflman, John, Rock Island, Ills. Indian skull from the Island. 

Keating, Edward. Ancient stone implement, etc. 

Keely, Ambrose, Port Byron, Ills. Indian shell ornament. 

Keely, Henry, Port Byron, Ills. Ten arrow heads. 

Keely, Miss Nonie, Port Byron, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Keely, Wm., Port Byron, Ills. Two arrow heads. 

Kellogg, , Chicago, Ills. Head of Texas ox. 

Kelley, Dennis, Port Byron. Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Kendall, John, Sonora, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Kendall, Kate L., Sonora, Ills. One flint shovel. 

Kendall, Mary, Sonora, Ills. Two specimens coral {Lithostrotion Can- 
adense). 

Kirby, Mrs. M. S. Cocoons of tiger moth. 

Lamb, L. D., Port Byron, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Lane, Emma. Flint arrow head. 

Lane, Hattie M. Flint arrow head. 

Lane, Nettie. Flint arrow head. 

Lesslie, C. C. Copper coins, 19 specimens. 

Lindley, C. T. A very large snake. 

Littig, Augustus N. Two stone axes. 

Livergood, Geo. O., Watertown, Ills. Very small stone axe and two 
arrow heads. 



ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEITM. 06 

Long, Matt. Flint arrow head. 

Lorenzen, Martin. Specimen of volcanic scoria, found in Arkansas. 

Lorton, -. Five arrow heads, etc. 

Lyter, Mrs. J. M. Tusks of the walrus. Pair Chinese shoes. Bouquet 
of skeleton leaves. 

McCabe, Eraeret, Deer Plain, Ills. Small stone axe. 

McCuUongh, Frank. Chinese Joss tapers and Southern pitch pine. 

McGonegal, Mrs. M. A. Collection of Geodes. 

McKown, D. P. Photographic view of Fort Armstrong as in 1840. 

McTier, John, Hamburg, Ills. Copper awl. 

Mahan, Matthew, Somerville, Ala. Flint arrow head. 

Malarky, John, Port Byron, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Mallet, Mr. Ancient stone axe, found in a colfer dam. 

Mandeville, Mrs. Col. Horned toad from Texas. 

Martin, Mr. Horned toad from Texes. 

Mason, Wm., M. D., Stevenson, Ala. Ancient stone implement. 

Matthews, J. C. Ancient stone axe. 

Maxwell, Dr. A. S. Tennessee ores from the Centennial Exposition. 
Palm leaves from Florida. 

Mead, Hon. J. R., Wichita, Kan. Silver bearing galena. 

Miclot, Joseph. Polished specimen of Buffalo encrinal limestone. 

Moeller, Adolphus. Ancient implement of brown hematite and seven 
arrow heads. 

Moore, J. W. Flint implements from Kaskaskia battle ground, Illi- 
nois. 

Myers, Dr. R. D. Casts of the carved stone pipes in the Museum. 
Alligator tooth. 

iNagel, Chas., Rockingham, Iowa. One stone axe, — broken. 

Nagel, J. J., and Ilaupt, J. G. Collection of plants of this vicinity of 
1875. ^ 

Newcomb, Mrs. D. T. A lot of shells collected by Dr. W. Newcomb, 
California. 

Newton, Mr., Dixon, Iowa. Five heads of mink, squirrel and skunk. 

Niel, Wm., Hamburg, Ills. Three arrow heads. 

Nissen, Theodore, Rock Island, Ills. Herbarium of 248 species of 
Alpine plants collected in Switzerland in 1828. 

Northcraft, H. H., Bay Post Office, Ills. Discoidal stone and stone axe. 

Northcraft, Margaret, Bay Post Office, Ills. Ancient stone implement. 

O'Brien, Michael, Watertown, Ills. Two arrow heads. 

O'Brien, Thomas, Watertown, Ills. Two arrow heads. 

Palmer, Dr. Edward. A collection of California plants. Mojave pipe. 
Specimen of Mezquite bread, made by the Cohuilla Indians of South- 
eastern California. 

Parry, Dr. C. C. Photograph of stone plate, carved by Hydah Indians, 
and found in Colorado Desert, California. String of pine nuts, Califor- 
nia. 

Parry, Mrs. Dr. C. C Four living horned toads from San Bernardino, 
Cal. 



0-i DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Peck, Mrs. E. Mineral specimens from Grave Creek, Iowa. 

Peters, Wm. E., Gundrysville, Ala. Three flint implements. 

Pickering, C. E. Skull of mole. 

Pickering, Miss H. E. Ancient stone axe and head of gar pike. 

Pleasantina, Antonio, Bay Post Office, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Pleasantina, Mary, Bay Post Office, Ills. Fossil crinoid. 

Polk, Martin, Hamburg, Ills. Flint arrow head. 

Pollock, Hugh, Le Claire, Iowa. Flint arrow head. 

Port Byron Lime Co. Fossil shell cast. 

Post, Oliver, Hamburg, Ills. Two arrow heads. 

Pratt, C. L. Arrow head found on High School hill. 

Pratt, W. H. 1,350 specimens of fossil corals, coal plants and shells, 
numbered from 5,001 to 6,350, inclusive. Also, ooO species of recent 
foreign, land, fresh water and marine shells. Numerous specimens of 
fossils, shells, etc. 

Preston, Dr. C. H. Specimens of frogs in alcohol. 

Prince, Mrs. Eliza M., Cordova, Ills. Two stone axes. 

Proctor, N. J., Gundrysville, Ala. Two an-ow heads. 

Putnam, H. S. and W. C. Cartridge shell tired over the grave of Gen. 
Rodman, on Rock Island, 1871. Chicago Exposition medal, and Spanish 
copper coin. 

Putnam, J. D. Collection of fresh water and land shells. Tree toad 
[Hyla arborea), living specimen. Trilobite from Illinois. 

Putnam, Mrs. C. E. A small snake, killed while shedding its skin. 

Raneff, Wm., Appanoose, Ills. Two arrow heads. 

Reilly, Albert. Iron ore from Johnstown, Pa. 

Renard, S. B., New Grand Chain, Ills. Specimens of silver mica, etc. 

Rice, Mrs. Adeline, Gundrysville, Ala. Ancient stone implement. 

Riley, Chas., Port Byron, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Rook, Chas., Princeton, Iowa. Five arrow heads. 

Rosa, George, Hamburg, Ills. Flint arrow heads. 

Rowe, Mrs. Mary, Washington Territory. Moss agate. 

Rule, D., Hamburg, Ills. Flint hoe. 

Rule, J. D., Hamburg, Ills. Flint spear head. 

Sanders, Miss Julia E. Specimen of Coquina (shell rock), and a 
Platycarcinum (sea star) from Florida. 

Sanders, Mrs. M. A. A collection of pressed flowers, gathered in Iowa 
by the late Mr. Alfred Sanders, between 1845 and 1860, comprising about 
300 species. Centennial Herbarium, 123 species. 

Sands, M. Acorns enclosed in leaves of apple trees. 

Schloeflel, Theresa, Princeton, Iowa. Small stone axe. 

Scott, Mrs. James, Montrose, Iowa. Ancient stone axe. 

Shaefer, Mr. Specimen of Alaus oculatus. 

Shannon, John, Illinois City, Ills. Flint arrow head. 

Sheldon, Prof. D. S. Shells from Ohio, 15 species, 74 specimens. Sev- 
eral species of shells collected in Griswold College grounds. A number 
of entomological specimens. Gypsum sand from New Mexico. 

Shelts, Godfrey, Dallas City, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 



ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 55 

Sheridan, Thos. Nauvoo, His. One discoidal stone. One fleshing 
stone (Hematite). 

Sibels, Franli, Watertown, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Simpson, Robert. Egg of skate, California. 

Smart, Gordon C, Haydon, Bear River, Col. Specimen of Baculite. 

Smith, Manuel, Hampton, Ills. Flint arrow head. 

Smith, iSlathan, AVatertown, Ills. Three arrow heads. 

Smith, Otto. Specimens of conglomerate. 

Smith, Otto, Jr. A golden eagle for mounting. 

Snow, Mrs. L. M., Watertown, Ills. Discoidal stone. 

Snyder, Byron, Rapids City, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Snyder, Mrs. Elizabeth, Port Byron, Ills. Piece of drift copper. Flint 
scraper. 

Snyder, Geo., Rapids City, Ills. Three arrow heads. 

Southwell, J. H., Port Byron, Ills. Several specimens of fossil coal 
plants, new species, found at Port Byron, and fossil coral and shell. 

Spencer, John, Illinois City, Ills. Flint arrow head. 

Stuhr, August. A very large bull-frog. Fishing duck [Mergus mer- 
ganser,, mounted. Skulls of birds and turtle. Birds' eggs. Skin of 
bat, etc. 

Suiter, James, Princeton, Iowa. Fossil shells and seven arrow heads. 

Suiter, Wm. A., Le Claire, Iowa. Flint arrow heads. 

Teele, Warren. Petrified wood found on Credit Island. 

Thompson, H. M., Long Grove. Specimens of crinoids. 

Thoringtou, Hon. James. Thirty-four skins of South American birds. 

Tiffany, A. S. Copper kettle found buried near Rock River. Speci- 
men of quartzose limestone or calcareous sandstone, Davenport quarries. 
Lump of iron ore fx'om Ripley street bluff. Specimens of land and fresh 
water shells. 

Vann, E. J., Madisonville, Fla. Four arrow heads and a quartz crystal. 

Wagoner, I. N., Sr., Hamilton, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Wagoner, I. N., Jr., Hamilton, Ills. Ancient stone axe. 

Wain Wright, Geo., Rapids City, Ills. Two stone axes. 

AVallace, M. B., Marietta, Ga. Five quartz arrow heads. 

Wallendorf, Joseph, News Post Office, Ills. Flint arrow head. 

Walton, John, Muscatine, Iowa. Ancient stone implements. 

Weller, J. Two ancient stone implements. 

Wells, Albert, Hampton, Ills. Arrow head and mineral specimen. 

West, Benj. F., New Hope, Ala. Several ancient stone implements. 

Wheeler, H. Specimen of New Hampshire granite from New York 
State House. Gypsum from Harvey Co., Mo. 

AVilcox, Geo., Port Byron, Ills. Flint scraper. 

Wood, B. F., Princeton, Iowa. Two arrow heads. 

Woodbury, Miss Anna, Carbon Cliff, His. One arrow head. One 
shell. 

Woodbury, Miss Emma, Carbon Cliff, Ills. Three arrow heads and 
three shells. 

223 Donors. 



56 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

RECORDING SECRETARY'S REPORT. 

During the past yeai- there have been held fifteen business meetings of 
the Trustees, and thirteen regular meetings of the Academy, including 
the annual meeting in January.* The average attendance of members 
at the regular meetings has been within a fraction of thirteen members. 
Thirty-six regular and twenty-eight corresponding members have been 
elected during the year. 

Three papers t have been presented for publication, viz: 1. A 
Notice of the late Dr. I. A. Lapham, by Dr. C. C. Parry. 2. Modern 
Manufacture of Pottery in America by Females, by Dr. Edward Palmer. 
3. A paper on '' Shell Money," by Prof. TV. H. Pratt. 

Numerous and valuable donations have been reported each month. 

In January a Codification of the Constitution to agree with the articles 
of Incorporation, was adopted. 

In February it was resolved to recommend the indefinite postponement 
of the publication of the " Proceedings'- on account of the loss sustained 
by fire on the night of the 22d and 23d, but thanks to the courage of the 
ladies of the Centennial and Bric-a-Brac Societies, and to the generos- 
ity of our citizens, the work went on, and has been brought to a satis- 
factory completion. 

In March, insurance to the amount of $2,00f' was effected on the 
Museum, Library and furniture of the Academy ; also the life member- 
ship fee was reduced from §100 to SoO, 

In May the organization of Working Sections was authorized, and 
since then the Biological, the Historical, and the Geological and Archaeo- 
logical Sections have held frequent meetings. A By-Law regulating the 
use of the Library was also adopted in May. 

A By-Law for the establishment of an Endowment Fund, was adopted 
in June. 

In August the Academy authorized Dr. Farquharson to take mound 
builders' relics from the Museum for exhibition at the International 
Archaeological Convention, meeting at Philadelphia, Sept. 4th. 

In October the completed first volume of " Proceedings'' was grate- 
fully accepted by the Academy from the hands of the Centennial Society. 

During the latter part of October and the early part of November a 
course of six highly instmctive popular lectures was delivered before the 
Academy by Prof. W. D. Gunning, of Boston. 

In December the Academy contributed a collection of relics, etc., for 
exhibition at the Turners' Fair, held in this city. 

The above are the principal matters of record, aside from current busi- 
ness, and some slight alterations of By-Laws, which appear as amended 
in Vol. I. Respectfully submitted. 

Davenport, January 3d, 1877. Chas. H. Preston, Secretary. 

*In addition to the aljovc the Biological Section have held nine, the Historical Section five, 
and the Geological and ArchoRological Section three meetings during the year. 

tThis does not include a number of papers presented during the early part of the year, and 
included in the first volume of Proceedings. The preparation of that volume necessarily kept 
the few active members of the Academy pretty busy for several months. 



librarian's report. 57 

LIBRARIAN'S REPORT. 

Mr. President : — As Librarian, I would beg leave to make the follow- 
ing report, viz : 
The number of books, according to the last annual repoi't, was. . 362 
Since then there has been received by exchange of complete 

volumes 121 

By exchange of pamphlets and parts of volumes 351 — 472 

By gifts of complete volumes 90 

By gifts of pamphlets and parts of volumes 36 — 126 

Total volumes 960 

For the proper preservation of this comparatively small, yet very val- 
uable Library, one or two additional book cases are i-equired. 

R. J. Farquharson, 
Davenport^ loica, Jan. 3cZ, 1877. Librarian. 

Additions to the Library during 1876. 

I. FROM INDIVIDUALS. 

Barler, A. U. Patent Office Report, 1859. 

Barris, Prof. W. H. Reports on the New York State Cabinet of Nat- 
ural History for the years 186S, "69, '70, '71, '72, '73—6 vols. 

Broils, Harry A.; Manhattan, Kan. Habits of Amblychila cylindriformis. 

Campbell, Alva E. Correlation of Forces. 

Dahell, Jas. M. Davenport City Directory, 1858-.59 ; Twin Cities Direct- 
ory, 1859-60; Davenport City Directory, 1863 ; Davenport Directory, 
1866 ; Davenport City Directory, 1868-69 ; Davenport, Rock Island 
and Moline Directory, 1873 ; Iowa State Almanac, 1860. 

Dana, Jas. D.; New Haven, Conn. On Cephalization, Part V. 

Davis d- Fluke. A large quantity of extra sheets from the 1st vol. of 
Proceedings D. A. N. S., etc. 

Eads, Luther T. Resources of the State of Arkansas. 

Farquharson, Dr. B. J. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila.,1875, Part I; Cat- 
alogue of the British Section of Philadelphia International Exposi- 
tion ; Catalogue of Collections from the India Museum ; Photo- 
graphic likeness. 

Fulton, H. U. S. Postal Guide, 1874. 

Gentry, Thos. G.; Germantoicn, Pa. Life History of Birds, Vol. I. [Ex.] 

Gunning, Prof. W. D. Our Planet, its Life History. 

Haines, Mrs. M. P., Richmond, Lid. Fifth Annual Report of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Indiana. 

Harrison, Chas. E. A package of the Scientific American. 

Hastings, White & Fisher. Photographs of copper axes ; photographic 
portraits of Dr. Farquharson and J. D. Putnam. 

Hunting, Bev. S. S. Annual of Scientific Discovery, 1857 ; Annual Re- 
port of Commissioner of Agriculture of Georgia ; Report of Progress 
of Physical Survey of Georgia ; Chemical Analysis of Georgia ; Man- 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Voh II.] 9 [April 1877.] 



58 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

ual of Sheep [lusbaiidry in Georgia ; Annual Reports of Smith. Inst. 
1857, '59, '60 ; Patent Office Agricultural Report, 1857 ; Fourth Annual 
Report Mass. Board of Agriculture ; Abstract of Returns of Agricul- 
tiu'al Societies of Massachusetts, 1856 ; First Annual Report of In- 
spectors of Detroit House of Correction ; Report of Operations of 
the Sanitary Commission, &c., 1861 ; Report on Treatment of Opthal- 
mia, by Hildreth ; Despotism in America ; The Exiles of Florida, 
Giddings ; The Impending Crises, Helper ; Slavery and Anti-Slavery, 
Goodell; Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery, Jay; N. P. Roger's 
Writings. 

Ingersol, Ernest ; New York. Special Report on the Recent Mollusca of 
Colorado ; Mollusks of the Rocky Mountains ; Forrest and Stream. 

Jarvis, Frank 1. White's Geology of Iowa, 2 vols. ; Dictionary of 
Weights and Measures, Alexander; Weights, Measures and Money 
of all Nations, Clark; Monopolies and the People, Cloud; Philadel- 
phia and its Manufactories, Freedley ; Iowa Horticultural Report, 
1875 ; Hayden's Geological Survey of the Tenitories, 1872. 

Lajiham, S. G.; Milwaukee, Wis. Biographical Sketch of Dr. Increase A. 
Lapham. 

Lindsay, W. K. Indian Tribes by Kenney and Hall, Xos. 9 and 16. 

Magoun, Rev. Geo. F.; Grinnell, Iowa. Statistical Atlas of the United 
States, Part 3, vital statistics. 

McGonegal, Mrs. M. A. Davenport Directory 1876. 

McXeil, O. S. Iowa Agricultural Reports, 1874-75. 

Marsh, Prof. O. C; New Haven, Conn. Six pamphlets on Extinct Verte- 
brate remains. 

Olshausen, Dr. J. History of St. Louis; German emigration pamph- 
lets, descriptive of Iowa and Missouri. 

Packard, Dr. A. S.; Salem, Mass. Record of American Entomology. 
1868-73 ; First, Second and Third Reports on the Injurious Insects of 
Massachusetts; The Ancestry of Insects; Glacial Phenomena of 
New England and Europe ; On the Cave Fauna of Indiana ; Thysan- 
ura of Essex County ; Notice of New Phyllopoda ; five papers on 
the Phalainidse and Pyralidse. 

Palmer, Dr. Edward. Exploration of a mound in Utah; Papers on 
Coleoptera, by Dr. Horn ; Ornithology of Guadaloup Island. 

Parvin, Prof. T. S.; Iowa City. U. S. Coast Survey Reports, 1851-1865 
inclusive, 16 vols. 

Perkins, Prof. Geo. H.; Vermont. Insects Injurious to the Potato and 
Apple ; Ancient Burial Ground at Swan ton, Vt. ; Molluscan Fauna 
of New Haven ; Hygiene of House Plants ; Vegetation of the Illinois 
Lowlands. 

Pratt, Miss Lucy. Photographic likeness. 

Pratt, W. H. Perke's Geography, 1793 ; Davenport's Gazetaer ; Guyot's 
Earth and Man ; Foster's Pre-historic Races of the United States. [Ex.] 

Preston, Dr. C. H. Photographic likeness. 

Putnam, Chas. E. Binding of 36 vols. Proceedings Phila. Acad. Nat, 
Sciences, etc. Letter Press, Letter copy book, etc. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 59 

Pidnam^ /. B. Eeport on Climate and Kesources of !San Bernardino 
County, Cal. ; photographic likeness. 

Robertson, Col. D. A., St. Paul, Minn. Journal of Am. Geog, Soc, Vol. 
V, 1874. 

Bussell, Edward. V. S. Postal Guide, Oct., 1876. 

Scudder, 8. H.; Cambridge. Mass. Historical Sketch of the generic names 
proposed for butterflies ; Entomological notes (from Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Kat. Hist.) Ill, IV, V ; Papers from Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., and from 
Bulletin U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories. 

Thompson dk Carmidiael. Davenport Past and Present, Wilkie ; Iowa 
Hand Book, 1860. 

Thompson, James. Photographic likeness. 

True, Mrs, B. S. Pacific R. R. Survey, 8 vols. ; U. S. Coast Survey Re- 
ports, 2 vols. 

Watson. Sereno ; Cambridge, Mass. Geological Survey of California, Bot- 
any, Vol. I ; Contributions to American Botany, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Whittlesey^ Col. Chas.; Cleveland, Ohio. Fugitive Essays, Selection No. 1. 

II. FROM SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 

California. 

California Academy of Science. Proceedings, Vols. I, III, IV, V, com- 
plete : Memoirs, Vol. I, Nos. 1, 2. 

California State University. Bulletin, Nos. l-2o ; Statement of Progress 
and Condition, 1875 ; Report on Water Supply ; Petition of John Le 
Conte, President ; Circular regarding Pacific Coast Fisheries ; Report 
of Joint Committee ; Lecture on Cotton Culture. 

San Biego Society of Natural History. Fungus, on Orange and Olive 
Trees, in Southern California. ( B. Cleveland.) 

Santa Barbara College. Forest Culture, and the Eucalytus Tree, by 
Ellwood Cooper. Two different editions. 

Connecticut. 

New Haven Colony Historical Society. Papers of the New Haven Colony 

Historical Society, Vol. I. 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. Transactions, Vols. I and 

II, complete ; Vol. Ill, part I. 

District of Columbia. 

Department of Agriculture. Annual Reports, 1874 and 1875. 

Department of the Interior. Annual Report of U. S. Geological and 
Geographical Survey of Colorado, 1873; Birds of the Northwest, 
( Dr. Coues) ; Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado, ( Porter & Coulter) ; 
Synopsis of the Acrididse of North America, ( Thomas ) ; Report on 
Extinct Vertebrate Fauna, of Western Territories, { ie^d^/ ) ; Report 
on Cretaceous Vertebrata, [Cope); Monograph of the Geometrid 
Moths, (Packard) ; Geology of the Uintah Mts.,Maj. PowelFs Survey 
with an Atlas; Report on the exploration of the Colorado River, 
( Powell). 



60 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

r. <S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, F. V. Haydeii. 
Letter from Secretary of the Interior, Jan. 27, 1873; Report of Con- 
gressional Committee. May 26, 1874 ; Supplement to Fifth Annual 
Report, for 1871 ; Catalogue of Publications of the Survey. Miscel- 
laneous Publications: No. 1, List of Elevations; No. 2, Meterologi- 
cal Observations, in 1872; No. 5, Catalogue of Photographs : Bulletin 
Vol. I, First Series, No. 2, Second Series, Nos. 4, 5, 6; Bulletin, Vol. 

II, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

r. S. Coast Survey. Report for 1873. 

Surgeon GeneraVs Office. Circular No. 1, Report on Epidemic Cholera 
and Yellow Fever; Circular No. 2, Excisions of the Head of the 
Femur, for Gunshot Wounds ; Circular No. 8, Hygiene of the U. S. 
Army and Military Posts ; Medical Statistics of Provost Marshal's 
Bureau. 2 vols. ; List of Skeletons and Crania in the U. S. Medical 
Museum ; List of Preparations and Objects of Human Anatomy. 

Signal Service Office, U. S. A. Daily Weather Bulletin, September, 1873 
to November, 1873, 15 vols. ; Practical Use of Meterological Reports 
and Weather Maps; Instructions to Observer Sergeants. 

Engineer Office, U. S. A. Report of Lieut. G. C. Doane, Yellowstone 
Expedition, 1870 ; Report of Expedition up Yellowstone River, 187.5, 
( Forsyth & Grant) ; Report of Explorations in Nebraska and Dako- 
tah, 18.55, '56, '57, ( Warren ) ; Explorations Across the Great Basin 
of Utah, 1859; ( Simj) on); Expedition from Santa Fe to Junction 
of Grand and Green Rivers. [Macomb], Geological Report, by Prof. 
Newbury ; Exploration of the Black Hills of Dakotah, 1874, ( Ludlow). 
Explorations West of One Hundredth Meridian, [Lieut. Wheeler): 
Progress Report, 1872; Annual Report. IS 75; Final Report, Vol. 

III. Geology, ^"ol. V, Zoology : Preliminary Report on Invertebrate 
Fossils, ( White ) ; Systematic Catalogue of A'ertebrata of New Mex- 
ico, ( Cope ). 

Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior. Public Libraries of 

the United States, Part I ; Part II. 
Smithsonian Institution. List of Foreign Con-espondents, 4th edition ; 

Check List of Publications, July, 1874 ; Archaeological Collection of 

U. S. National Museum, in charge of the Smithsonian Institution, 

by Charles Bau. 
V. S. Kaval Observatory. Reports of Foreign Societies on Medals to 

American Arctic Explorers ; Instruments and Publications of the U. 

S. Naval Observatory, 184-5-1876. 
Field and Forest. Vol. I, complete : Vol. II, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Georgia. 
Historical Society of Georgia, Savannah. Constitution and By-Laws; 
Description of Hodgson Hall, Savannah ; Miscellanies of Georgia, 
[Chappel ), Parts 1,2; Wilde's Summer Rose. 

Illinois. 
Illinois State Microscopical Society, Chicago. The Lens, A^ols. I, II, 
complete. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 61 

Ottaica Academy of Natural Sciences. Origin of the Prairies, by J. D. 

Caton ; American Cervis, by J. D. Caton ; Lanrl and Fresh Water 

Shells of La Salle Co., Illinois, by W. W. Calkins. 
Scientific Association of Peoria. Constitution and By-Laws. 
Geological Survey of Illinois; A. H. Worthen. Report, Vol. I, Geology ; 

Vol. II, Paleontology. 
Rantoul Literary Society. Reports, etc. 
Illinois Wesleyan University. Nineteenth Catalogue, 1876-77 : The Alumni 

.Journal, Vol. VI. Xo. 9. Sept. 1876. 

Indiana. 
Geological Survey of Indiana, E. T. Cox. Annual Report for 1875. 
Richmond Scientific Association. Transactions No. 1, June, 1875. 
Botanical Bulletin, J. M. Coulter, Editor, Vol. I, No. 12; Vol. II, Nos. 
1,2. 

lo-wa. 

Davenport Library Association. Finding List, 1876; Pacific Railroad 
Surveys, Vols. I, III and IV. 

Davenport Women\'i Centennial A-isociation. Proceedings of the Daven- 
port Academy of Natural Sciences, Vol. I, 1867-76; 750 or more 
complete copies. 

Iowa State Library; Des Moines. Census of Iowa, 1856, '59, '63. '67. 
'69, '73,-6 vols. Adjutant General's Report, 1864. '65, '66, '67. '68, 
'73, '74, '75, '76,— 9 vols. 

Imoa College ; Grinnell. Catalogues 1876-77. 

Kansas. 
University of Kansas. Tenth Annual Catalogue 1875-76. 
Kansas Academy of Science. Transactions, 1873, 1874, and Vol. IV, 187."), 
(2 copies) ; Catalogue of the Birds of Kansas, { Snow ), third edition. 

Kentucky. 
Kentucky University and State Agricultural College. Catalogue, 1874 ; 
Treasurer's Report, 1871 ; Report of Board of Visitors, 1873; Report 
of J. B. Borman, 1869. 

Louisiana. 
New Orleans Academy of Science. Philosophy of the University of 
France (Sarah A. Dorsey) ; The Aryan Philosophy [Sarah A. Dorsey); 
The Entities and Thoughts on Development, &c. [Forshey] ; Lecture 
on Friends of Horticulture [Kohn) ; Lecture on Formation of Lan- 
guage [King) ; Geological Reconnaissance of Louisiana, 1869 [Hil- 
gard) ; Report on Improvement of Mouth of the Mississippi by Jet- 
ties ; Report of the Commissioner of Louisiana at the Paris Exposi- 
tion ; Lousiana as It Is, 1876 [Dennett). 

Maryland. 
Maryland Academy of Science ; Baltimore. Constitution. Charter, and 
List of Members ; Address at Dedication of the Hall. 



62 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Massachusetts. 
Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings, Vol. XVIII, Nos. 1,2; 

Report on the Geological Map of Massachusetts, 1876. 
Cambridge Entomological Club. Psyche, Vol. I, Xos. 1-31. 
Xuttall Ornithological Club. Bulletin, Vol. I, Xos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. Annual Report for 1875 ; Bulletin, 

Vol. III. Xos. 11-14, and Xos. lo, 16. 
Peabody Museum of American Archcpology and Ethnology. Seventh and 

Eighth Annual Reports. 
Bussey Institute, Jamaica. Plain. Bulletin, Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5. (Xo. 1, out 

of print). 
Essex Institute, Salem. Bulletin, Vol. VII, 187-5, complete ; Bulletin, 

Vol. VIII, 1876, Xos. 1, 2. 
Peabody Academy of Science, Salem. Annual Reports, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; 

Memoirs, Xos. 2, 3, 4. 
Anierican Association for the Advancement of Science. Proceedings of 

the Detroit Meeting, 1875. 
Worcester Lyceum of Natural History. Centennial Pamphlet; OflBcers 

and Constitution ; Catalogue of the John M. Earle Collection of 

Shells. 

Minnesota. 

Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences, Minneapolis. Constitution, etc., 
1873; Bulletin, 1874, 1875; Geological, and Xatural History Survey 
of Minnesota, Second Annual Report. 

Missouri. 

Historical Society of Missouri. Address at the International Exposi- 
tion, {Allen ) ; History of St. Louis and Missouri. 

St. Louis Academy of Science. Transactions, Vol. I, Xos. 2, 3, ( Xo. 1 
out of Print ) : Vol. II, complete ; Vol. Ill, Xos. 1, 2. 3. 
New Hampshire. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. Collections, Vol. VIII. 

New Jersey. 

Stevens' Institute of Technology. Annual Announcement, 1876 ; Strength 
of Materials of Machine Constniction, (Thurston); Methods of 
detecting phases of vibration in sound; Method of measuring 
wave lengths, etc., of sound in gases ; History of Young's discov- 
ery of his Theory of Colors ; Effects of Magnetism on Dimensions 
of Iron, etc. ; Researches in Acoustics, Papers Xos. 5, 6, 7 ; Method 
of fixing and photographing magnetic spectra; Determination of 
Constants of the law connecting the pitch of a sound, with dura- 
tion, etc., ( Mayer). 

Passaic Historical Society, Paterson. Xewspaper Report. 

New York. 

Albany Institute. Transactions, Vol. VIII. 

Nev: York State Museum of Natural History. Reports 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 
26,27. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LTBKARY. 63 

New Yoric State Library. State Cabinet Eeports, 8; 9, 10. 11, 14, 15, 16. 

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 
Cornell University, Ithaca. Warfare of Science. ( White) ; Register jukI 

Catalogue, 1875-76. 
American Geographical and Statistical Society. Transactions and Jour- 
nal, Vols. 2, 3, 4, 6. Vol. 1 out of print. 
Columbia College. Catalogue of the Library ; Report of the Librarian, 

1875. 
Torrey Botanical Chib. Bulletin, Vols. 1. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, complete ; Vol. 7, 

Nos. 1-10 ; Constitution and By-Laws. 
A77ierican Museum of Natural History. Annual Reports, Nos. 5, 6, 7. 
I'he Nation. Nos. 588-600. 
Poughkeepsie Society of Natural Sciences. Proceedings, Vol. I., Part 1, 

1875. 
Union College, Schenectady. Catalogue, 1876, 81st year ; Historical 

Sketch. 

Ohio. 

Cincinnati Observatory. Catalogue of New Double Stars. 

Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Constitution and By-Laws; Pro- 
ceedings No. 1, Jan., 1876. Cincinnati Quarterly Journal of Science. 
Vols. 1, 2, complete. 

Western Reserve and Northern Ohio Historical Society. Tracts 1, 3, 4, 5, 
6,7,8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22.27,28,29,30,31,32. 

Cleveland Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings 1845-1859. 

Toledo Society of Natural Sciences. Organization and Constitution 1876; 
Scientific Monthly, Vol. I, No. 9. 

State Archceological Association of Ohio. Minutes of the Convention at 
Mansfield, Ohio, Sept., 1875; Circulars, etc. 

Pennsylvania. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Pi'oceedings 1875, Parts 

1, 2,' 3. 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Circular regarding Publication Fund. 

South Carolina. 
South Carolina Historical Society. Address on Twenty-first Anniversary 
( Rivers). 

Vermont. 

University of Vermont. Catalogue 1876-77 ; Address before O. B. K, 
Society (C. K. Adams) ; Transactions Vermont Dairyman's Associa- 
tion ; Featherstonhough's Geological Reconnaissance of tiie elevated 
country between the Missouri and Red Rivers ; Featherstonhough's 
Geological Reconnaisance of the elevated country between the Mis- 
souri and St. Peter's Rivers. 

Vermont Historical Society. Annual Address, Oct. 17, 1876 [E. A. Soides). 

Orleans County Society of Natural Sciences. Archives of Science, and 
Transactions, O. C S. N. S., Vol. I, complete. 



64: DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Virginia. 
University of Virginia. Catalogue. 1875-76 ; Semi-Centennial Ode, by 

D. B. Lucas ; Alumni Address ( Hunter) ; Economy of Higher 

Education [Kean). 
Virginia Historical and Philosophical Society. Newspaper Report. 

Wisconsin. 

University of Wisconsin. Historical Sketch, 1849-1876. 

Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. Transactions, Vol. 
I, 1870-72 Vol. II, 1873-74. 

Wiscon.'iin Historical Society. Collections, Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, complete : 
Catalogue, 2 vols., and Supplement; Twenty-First and Twenty- 
Second Annual Reports: Tre-historic Wisconsin, /. D. Butler; 
Circular's. 

Canada. — Province of Qnebec. 

Literary and Philosophical Society of Quebec. Transactions, 1873-4, 1874-5 ; 
Manuscripts Relating to the Early History of Canada, Fourth Series ; 
Siege of Quebec, on 31st of December, 1775, Centenary Fete, etc. 

Le Naturaliste Canadiene. Vol. VIII, Xos. 1-10. 

Province of Ontario. 
Entomological Society of Ontario. Annual Report, for 1875; Canadian 
Entomologist, Vol. VIII, Nos. 1-10. 

England. 
Xewman's Entomologist. Nos. 161, 162, 163. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY'S REPORT. 

To Bev. IV. H. Barris, President of the Board of Trustees : 

The publication of the " Proceedings" during the past year has caused a 
very considerable increase in the con-espondence of the Academy. A 
letter or a postal card was written announcing each copy as it was mailed, 
and requesting a return of exchanges. In the absence of Mrs. McGone- 
gal, this work was undertaken by the undersigned, and at the meeting of 
the Academy in November they did me the honor to elect me to the 
vacancy caused by her resignation. One hundred and eighty-three com- 
munications Avere written in September, and seventy-one during the 
months of October, November and December, making a total of two 
hundred and fifty-four. About thirty of these were by Mr. W. H. Pratt^ 
and the remainder by myself. During this time two hundred and sev- 
enty-eight communications of various kinds have been r-eceived, most 
of them being in acknowledgement of our Proceedings. A large num- 
ber of publications have been received, of which a detailed account 
will be found in the report of the Librarian. So far as is known but 
a small amount of correspondence was carried on previous to Sept. 
15th, and of this there has been no record. 
A copy book and letter-press were procured, and copies of all letters 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 65 

written since Sept. 15tli have been preserved, and may be readily re- 
ferred to. The letters received have been filed in the order of receipt, 
and it is intended to prepare an index so that they can be easily referred 
to. A blank book has been used jointly by the Publication Committee 
and Corresponding Secretary, in which to keep their accounts and records. 

Twenty-eight correspond ini>- members have been elected during the 
past year, making a total of sixty-two. Owing to the pressure of other 
duties during the short lime since my election, I have not been able to 
notify these members of their election. 

It seems to me quite important that the Academy should have some 
suitable certificate of membership to send to its corresponding members. 
A seal is another of the important needs of the Academy, and I hope 
that steps will be taken to secure both at an early day. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. Duncan Putnam, 

Davenport, Jan. 2cZ, 1877. Corresponding Secretary. 

REPORT of the COMMMITTEE of PUBLICATION. 

To the President and Members of the Academy : 

In the first Constitution of the Academy, adopted in December. 1867, its 
object was stated to be the " Increase and diffusion of a knowledge of 
the Xatural Sciences, by a Museum, the reading and publication of origi- 
nal papers, and other suitable means." A Museum was soon commenced, 
lectures were delivered, and papers read before the Society. Occasion- 
ally reports of the meetings were published by the city newspapers, but 
they were usually hastily prepared, and not often preserved. The matter 
of publishing the Proceedings or Transactions of the Academy in a more 
permanent form, was ever and anon the subject of discussion, and Dr. 
Parry never failed to allude to the importance of such a publication to 
the Academy in his annual addresses as President. But nothing had 
been accomplished, when, on November 26th, 1875, tlie following resolu- 
tions were presented by J. D. Putnam :— 

Whereas, The object of the Academy is the increase and ditf'usion of a knowledsre of the 
Natural Sciences by the establishment of a Musesm, the reading and publication of original 
papers, and all other suitable means; anil, 

Whereas, Many original investigations have already been made by our members, some of 
them being of general, as well as of scientific interest; and, 

Whereas, The publication of our proceedings would be advantageous to the Academy in 
many particulars, e. g, : 

1. It will preserve much material that might otherwise be lost. 

2. It will furnish a greater incentive to our members to make original investigations. 

3. It will increase the Library by means of exchanges with other societies and publishers. 

4. It will place us on a creditable footing with the other societies of the world. Thex-fore 
be it 

Resolved, That the Academy begin the publication of its proceedings with the least possi- 
ble delay ; and. 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed, of which Messrs. W. 11. Pratt and J. D. 
[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 10 [April, 1877.] 



66 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Putnim (ex-secretarics), and Dr. C. H. Preston (present secretary), shall be members, to decide 
as to the best form of publication, as to title, etc.. and to prepare the records and make selections 
of reports, scientific papers, etc., and determine on the publication or non-publication of each. 

This resolution was adopted, and Messrs. W. H. Pratt, J. D. Putnam, 
C. II. Preston, R. J. Farquharson, and Geo. H. French, were appointed 
a committee on publication of proceedings. ISo means were provided to 
pay for the work, nor, indeed, was there any very encouraging prospect 
that any would be forthcoming. ' In the meantime the committee set to 
work with a good heart to discuss the various plans for a publication and 
to prepare the records, but before getting fairly started, the greatest diffi- 
culty in the way of publication— a guarantee that it could possibly be 
paid for, — was removed in an unexpected manner by the 

women's centennial association. 

This Society had been organized during the autumn by the ladies of 
Davenport for the purpose of having the city represented in the Women's 
Pavilion at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. It was at first 
proposed to collect various specimens of women's handiwork, the best 
samples to be sent to Philadelphia for exhibition, and afterwards to be 
sold for the benefit of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Many of the 
ladies, however, felt that such articles would not fairly represent the work 
of women in Davenport, where they have done so much for the advance- 
ment of literature and science. So, when the publication of its proceed- 
ings was decided upon by the Academy, the ladies made a proposition to 
publish the Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 
from December 14th, 1867 to January 1st, 1876, and to exhibit the work 
at Philadelphia as the result of woman's enterprise. 

At a meeting of the Board of Trustees, held December 20th, 1875, the 
following resolution was adopted : 

Whereas, The Academy has received a proposition from the Ladies' Centennial Asso- 
ciation, to publish the Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences to Jan- 
uary 1st, 187G, 

Htcnlved, That the Board, on behalf of the Academy, accept the proposition, and tender our 
hearty thanks for this generous aid in furthering the interests of the Academy. 

Resolved, That the committee appointed by the Academy, to whom was intrusted the pre- 
paration of the records and selections of reports, scientific papers, etc., bo requested to furnish 
to this Board the matter designed for publication with as little delay as possible. 

Mrs. Charles E. Putnam, Mrs. Thomas McCullough, Mrs. M. A. Mc- 
Gonegal, Mrs. M. A. Sanders and Mrs. S. B. R. Millar, were appointed a 
committee to attend to the details of the publication by the Centennial 
Association. Under this arrangement the Jjadies' Committee attended 
to all financial matters connected with the publishing of the Proceedings. 
To them belongs all the credit of securing the necessary funds, and mak- 
ing the contracts for the execution of the work. In fact, they assumed 
the entire responsibility of raising the money and paying for the publica- 
tion, while the preparation of the manuscript, correction of proofs, etc., 
was managed by the regular Publication Committee of the Academy. 

Before undertaking this work, the Ladies' Centennial Association had 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 67 

already given a "Centennial Tea Party," in November, of which the net 
proceeds were $176.00 ; $100.00 of this sum was now set aside for the pub- 
lication, while the remainder was kept as a reserve fund, to be used in 
any manner the Association might Hnd necessary or expedient. A sub- 
scription paper was prepared and circulated by the chairman of the 
Ladies' Committee, with such great success that the Committee felt no 
hesitancy in making the final contracts with the printers and engravers 
for the execution of the work. An estimate of the work to be done was 
sent to each of the printing establishments in Davenport, Rock Island and 
Moline, and bids were received from four offices. On the 8th of February, 
a contract was signed by Messrs. Bronson, Davis and Fluke, and the mem- 
bers of the Ladies' Committee individually, in which the former agreed to 
print 1,000 copies of the volume, consisting of 250 pages, 100 copies to be 
bound in cloth, and the remainder in paper covers, all to be done in a 
strictly first-class and acceptable manner, and the Ladies agreed to pay 
them the sum of $419, and $1.50 for each additional page, upon comple- 
tion of the contract. They also made a contract the same day with Mr. 
L. Hageboeck to furnish 1,000 copies each of thirty-two lithographic 
plates, for which he was to receive $22S.64, and Mr. J. E. Rice was en- 
gaged to make a wood-cut of one of the copper axes. 

The Academy committee had, in the meantime, been engaged in 
preparing and revising the records, and as soon as the printers were 
ready they were furnished with copy, and work was at once begun. 

On the evening of the 22d of February the Ladies gave the first of 
what was to have been a series of Centennial entertainments for the ben- 
efit of the Publication Fund, in Olympic Hall. The exercises the first 
evening consisted of tableaux, supplemented by a " Martha Washing- 
ton" Reception and Tea Party. Although the admittance fee was but 
ten cents, the Ladies cleared about $121.00 that evening, and the prospect 
of success looked very bright. An Art Gallery had been projected in 
connection with the other entertainments. This part of the enterprise 
was undertaken by the " Bric-a-Brac Club," a literary society of young 
ladies, and was a great success in every point of view. The exhibitions 
of paintings, engravings and reliques, loaned by the various owners, far 
surpassed the expectations of any one. 

But the Ladies were destined to a severe trial, for early on the morn- 
ing of the 23d, Olympic Hall took fire and burned to the ground, together 
with the entire block in which it stood. As the entertainments were 
intended to extend over several days, a large quantity of valuable prop- 
erty had been left in the Hall— much of it borrowed of merchants and 
others who could illy afford the loss. At a meeting held on the morn- 
ing of the fire, the ladies decided that though they might not be legally 
boimd, yet they held themselves morally responsible to pay all losses to 
persons who had loaned articles for the entertainment. The entire 
amount of these losses was over $1,500, about $500 of which was gen- 
erously remitted. They set to work with a wonderful energy to raise 
money with which to pay the balance, and in less than three weeks 



68 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

every debt was paid. The Ladies of the ("entennial Association were 
greatly aided in their efforts to raise the money by the Bnc-a-Brac Club, 
the Parlor Club, and by the citizens generally. A party of ladies and 
gentlemen from Rock Island and Moline, gave a very successful enter- 
tainiuent in the Burtis Opera House for the benefit of the "Fire Debt 
Fund." 

Fortunately the ''Art Gallery," under the supervision of the Bric-a-Brac 
Club had been established in a vacant store in Davenport's old block, at a 
distance from Olympic Hall, and escaped the fire. It was kept open for one 
week, and was constantly thronged with appreciative visitors. The re- 
ceipts were upwards of $600. Of this sum $250 was paid over to the 
Ladies' Publishing Committee, that amount being sufficient, in connec- 
tion with funds already on hand and subscriptions promised, to pay all 
contracts for getting out the book. The remainder was appropriated 
to paying the fire debts. At a meeting of the Academy, February 25th, 
resolutions were passed sympathizing with the Ladies in their misfor- 
tune, and thanking them for their endeavors to publish our Proceedings, 
ings, but suggesting its postponement until a more favorable time.* 

The Ladies' Publishing Committee now had $350 in their hands in 
addition to the amount of private subscriptions which had been promised, 
and the fire debt having been reduced to about $1-50, they decided to loan 
that amount to the committee having in charge the settlement of these 
debts. This reduced the amount of funds on hand to $200, but having 
already the promise of about $300, subscribed by private individuals, with 
a prospect of further subscription, they decided to continue the publica- 
tion, and trust to future efforts for the re-payment of the $150. 

Naturally enough, the ladies felt the need of I'est after so great exer- 
tion ^ but the work of printing went steadily on, though on account of 
various delays the printers were unable to fully complete the work and 
deliver all the books before December 1st. By the terms of the contract 
they Avere to be paid in full upon its completion. The bill of Davis & 
Fluke was $665.58— there having been fifty pages more printed than 
called for in the contract, besides other extras. Of this sum $368.00 had 
already been paid by the Ladies, leaving $287.58 still due. This sum was 
advanced by a member of the Academy, who was anxious to see the 
work a success. 

During the month of May two incomplete copies were sent to Philadel- 
phia for exhibition at the Centennial Exposition in the Women's Pavil- 
ion, and in the Iowa Educational Department. These were duly replaced 
by the completed volumes in October. 

Early in December the Ladies decided to give a dinner in order to 
raise enough money to repay the $150 used during the sprmg to pay the 
balance of fire debts, but the weather became suddenly very severe, and 
they concluded to raise tlie sum by subscriptions among themselves. In 
this they were entirely successful. The $150 was all raised, and in addition 
the sum of $30.35 balance remaining from the Centennial Fourth of July 

*Ante, page 4. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 



69 



celebration, was generously donated to the Ladies by the committee having 
the celebration in charge, making a total of $180.35 with which to reim- 
burse Mr. C. E. Putnam, who had so generously met the printers' bill 
when it became due. This has enabled the Association to close up their 
accounts with the close of the Centennial year, with a small balance on 
hand. The following synopsis of accounts will show from whence the 
funds have been received and how disbursed : 



Dr. 

To subscriptions for books $ 304.50 

To sale of books 329.6a 

To special subscriptions 39.00 

To autbor's extra sheets 18.45 

To Art Gallery by Brie-a-Brac Club.. 250.00 

To other entertainments, etc 115.20 

To balance from Fourth of July cel- 
ebration 30 35 

Total receipts §1,087. 13 



Cr. 

By woodcuts, electrotypes, etc I 21.85 

By lithographs (35 plates) 259.64 

By insurance on plates 9.00 

By lithographs, plates 35-3!) 88.00 

By printing and binding 63i.3S 

By printing extra sheets 239.') 

By expenses of distribution 48.05 

Total expenditures §1,082.87 

Balance on hand S 4.26 



In accordance with the original proposition of the Ladies to publish 
the Proceedings, it is expected by them that all proceeds from its sale 
shall continue in a special fund, to be devoted to future publications. 

Having thus successfully completed their task, the Women's Centen- 
nial Society, on the 27th day of December, A. D. 1ST6, formally disbanded. 



PREPARATION OF THE MANUSCRIPT. 

The preparation of the manuscript devolved upon the regular Publica- 
tion Committee of the Academy. Tliis committee met frequently during 
the winter, often in connection with the Board of Trustees. It was de- 
cided to have the publication of Proceedings begin with the lirst organi- 
zation, and thus give a complete history of the Academy. I'liis involved 
the rearranging, copying and revising of the records of tlie Academy for 
over eight years, a very difficult piece of work, which was executed in a most 
commendable manner by Miss Lucy Pratt, with the direction and advice 
of members of the committee. The records, as thus prepared, were 
carefully revised and corrected by the committee, and were accepted by 
the Trustees. 

During the early history of the Academy, but a comparatively small 
number of scientific papers were read at the meetings, and these were 
often of a very general nature. Many of these could not be found, and 
others containing no new facts, it was decided not to publish. It was 
also decided to omit all simply theoretical papers not supported by origi- 
nal observations. Fortunately for the committee, there was scarcely a 
paper presented which could not be accepted for publication. Several 
papers were rewritten and several were prepared especially for publication 
in this volume, and not read at the meetings. Each paper was carefully 
read and passed upon by the Committee and Board of Trustees. The 



70 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

following papers, accepted for publication, have been printed in the first 
volume of Proceedings : 

BY E. T. CRESSON, PHILADELPHIA, PA.: 

1. List of Hyinenoptera collected by J. Duncan Putnaiu, of Davenport, Iowa, with descrip- 
tions of two new species. 

BY DR. R. J. FARQUHARSON: 

1. A paper entitled. Do rifle balls, when striking the animal body, burn? 

2. A study of skulls and long bones from mounds near Albany, Ills. 

3. Recent Archieological Discoveries at Davenport, Iowa, of Copper Axes, Cloth, etc , sup- 
posed to have come down to us from Pre-historic People, called the Mound Builders. 

BY DR. E. H. HAZEN: 

1. President's Annual Address, January 5th, 1876. 

BY J. G. HAUPT: 

1. List of Phteuogamous Plants collected in the vicinity of Davenport, Iowa, by J. J. Nage) 
and J. G. Haupt, during the years 1870 to 1875, inclusive. 

BY CLARENCE LINDLEY: 

1. Mound Explorations in 1875. 

BY DR. C. C. PARRY: 

1. President's Valedictory Address, March 12th, 1869. 

2. Obituary Notice of Prof. John Torjrey, M. D. 
President's Annual Address, January 7th, 1874.* 

3. President's Annual Address, January 9th, 1875. 

4. Summer Botaniziing on the Wasatch Mountains, Utah Territory. 

BY W. H. PRATT: 

1. Meteoric Shower, Nov. 13th, 1868. 

2. Force and Motion. (Abstract.) 

3. Report on a Geological Examination of the section of the Bluffs recently exposed by the 
C, R. I. & P. R R. 

4. Report of Explorations of the Ancient Mounds at Albany, Whiteside County, Ills. 

5. Report of Explorations of the Ancient Mounds at Toolsboro, Louisa County, Iowa. 

6. Report on the Condition of the Museum, January 5th, 1876. 

7. List of Land and Fresli water Shells found at Davenport, Iowa. 

8. Description of a Unio shell, found on the south bank of the Mississippi River, opposite 
the Kock Island Arsenal, in 1870. 

BY DR. C. H. PHESTOX: 

1. Synopsis of a paper on Storms. The cold wave of Jan . 7th to Jan. 11th, 1873. 

BYOHAb. E. PUTNAM: 

Resolutions on the death of D. S. True. 

BY J. D UNCA N P UTNA M : 

1. The Maple Tree Bark Louse {Lecanium acericola W. & R.). ' 

2. Hierogliphics observed in Summit Canyon, Utah, and on Little Popo-agie River in Wyo- 
ming. 

3. List of Coleoptera found in the vicinity of Davenport, Iowa. 

4. Coleoptera collected at Monticello, Iowa, June 12th, 1872. 

5. Coleoptera collected near Frederic, Monroe County, Iowa, August, 1869. 

6. List of Lepidoptcra collected in the vicinity of Davenport, Iowa. 

7. List of Coleoptera collected in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado in 1872. 

8. List of Lepidoptera collected in Colorado during the summer of 1872. 

9. Report on the Insects collected by Capt. Jones' Expedition to Northwestern Wyoming in 
1873. Indian Names for Insects. 

10. Report on the Insects collected in the vicinity of Spring Lake Villa, Utah County, Utah, 
during the summer of 1875. 

11. Notes on Dr. Thomas' paper on Orthoptera. 



*A copy of this Address was not found until after the printing of tiie volume had been corft- 
pleted. It will be appended to this volume. 



EEI'OET OF COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 71 

BY DR. CYRUS THOMAS: 

A list of OrthoptL-ra collected by J. Duncan Putnam, of Davenport, Iowa, during the sum- 
mers of 1872, '73, '74, and '75, chiefly in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Territories. 

BY A. S. TIFFANY: 

1. Discovery of Human Remains in a shell-bed on Rock Island. 

2. On an ancient copper implement donated by E. B. Baldwin. 

3. On a supposed Pre-historic Cremation Furnace. 

4. Report on the results of the excursion to Albany, Ills., Nov. 7th and 8th, 1873. 

5. Mound Explorations in 1875. 

The other matter contained in this volume was prepared by the differ- 
ent members of the committee. * * * 

In the published Proceedings the details of business matters have been 
greatly condensed, or even sometimes omitted, while occasionally re- 
marks on new observations or discussions which were briefly mentioned 
in the minutes, have been slightly elaborated from notes preserved by the 
members. It is very unfortunate that many observations of real value 
have been so briefly recorded. The verbal remarks made before such a 
society as ours often contain information of both interest and value, and 
the Eecord of Proceedings would be much more interesting if these 
loose observations were carefully reported. They should, of course, 
whenever possible, be revised by the authors before publication. 

It would be impossible in printing such a book for the first time, to 
avoid having a considerable number of typographical errors. We always 
found Messrs. Davis & Fluke very obliging and accommodating. Con- 
sidering the number of vexatious delays and other ditticulties they de- 
serve great credit. The printing was commenced February 14th, but 
owing to a variety of causes, for some of which the committee, and tor 
others the printers themselves were responsible, it was not completed 
until the first week in August. The binding was done by R. Crampton. 
of Rock Island. The entire work was completed, and 990 copies of the 
volume were delivered at the Academy Rooms on and before Decem- 
ber 1st. Messrs. Davis & Fluke very kindly donated a considerable 
number of over-sheets, including about sixteen complete volumes, for 
which there were not a suflicient number of plates. These sheets may 
hereafter be useful to the Academy, and it was thought best to preserve 
them. 

illustrations. 

The very considerable number of interesting relics contained in the 
Archaeological collection of the Acidemy, and described by Dr. Farqu- 
harson in his paper on the Mound Builders, made it very desirable to 
have some of the more typical forms figured. When the Ladies un- 
dertook the work they decided that the book must be handsomely illus- 
trated, and they would supply the necessary funds. 

After considering the various methods of illustration, lithographs were 
decided upon as being the cheapest and best adapted for the purposes in 
view. Plates 1, 2 and 3 were drawn by Mr. W. O. Gronen, under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Farquharson. They should be regarded as diagrams rather 
than actual sections. Plates 4-8, illustrating some of the many reliques 



72 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

fouiul in the mounds in tins vicinity, were drawn bj^ Mr. W. II. Pratt, either 
directly from the objects themselves, or from photographs, and then re- 
duced with a pantagrapli. A large number of the figures of flint and stone 
implements on Plates !)-l9 were selected and originally drawn by Miss 
Alice French, and were afterwards transfered and prepared for the 
engraver by Mr. Pratt, who also made some additions. It is unfortunate 
that no description of these relics was prepared for the book. It should 
be stated here that these plates exhibit only a very small proportion of 
the forms to be found in the Academy's collection. The outlines of 
skulls on Plates 20-25 were all drawn by JSIr. Pratt from the shad- 
ows, and reduced to one-fourth of natural size with a pantograph. They 
give a very good idea of the different shapes of the skulls. Plate 
26 was drawn by Mr. Putnam, the upper section from the description 
and a diagram by Mr. Tiffany, and the lower figure from an original 
sketch. Plates 27-30 are from original sketches made in Wyoming and 
Utah by J. D. Putnar.-i, but the lithographing has been very roughly done. 
Plate 81 was drawn from nature by Mr. Pratt, and Plate 32 is from a 
survey of the cut of C, R. I. & P. R. R., made by Mr. Pratt some years 
ago. Plates 33-34 were received through the courtesy of Mr. F. VV. Put- 
nam, Permanent Secretary of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, in exchange for an equal number of Plates 2 
and 3. Plates 5 and 6 were also published in the Proceedings A. A. 
A. S. Plates 35 and 36 were drawn and engraved from the original 
specimens by Herman Strecker, of Reading, Pa., and are accurate repre- 
sentations of the insects figured. In a limited edition these plates have 
been colored. 

An electrotype of the map of the Albany Mounds was received from 
the Smithsonian Institution, having been used to illustrate an article by 
Mr. Pratt in the Report for 1873. A woodcut of one of the cloth-covered 
axes was engraved by Mr. J. E. Rice from a photograph. 

Through the liberality of Mrs. Ebenezer Cook, a gilt stamp, represent- 
ng one of the copper axes, has been placed on the covers of the bound 
volumes. 

DISTRIBUTION, 

Four copies of the book were first received at the Academy Rooms on 
August 28th, and the remainder in varying quantities at different dates, 
the last copies being received December 5th, making a total of 990 
complete copies, besides sixteen copies, lacking the plates, and a large 
quantity of surplus sheets. Of this number there were : 

309 copies bound in cloth with a gilt side stamp. 

681 copies bound in paper covers. 

787 copies were printed on white paper— 154 bound. 

203 copies were printed on tinted paper— 155 bound. 

In 72 copies Plates XXXV and XXXVI were colored. 

These books were delivered at the Academy Rooms by order of the 
Ladies' Committee having the publication in charge. With the consent, 
and partly at the suggestion, of the Ladies, the distribution of the books 



REPORT OF COIVEVIITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 73 

to othei" societies, in accordance with the original object of tlie pub- 
lication, was commenced as soon as a list of societies* could be 
prepared, and 188 copies had been thus distributed, besides 212 copies 
sold or delivered to subscribers before the books were formally turned 
over to the Academy at the meeting October 10th. In accordance with 
the wishes of the Ladies, all proceeds arising from the sale of books have 
been applied to the payment of the printers. In December, 198 copies of 
the book were sent to the Smithsonian Institution for distribution to for- 
eign countries. Of this numl)er 172 were addressed to such societies as 
have sent exchanges during the past two years to other similar societies, 
as the St. Louis and Philadelphia Academies. This list was made out 
also by Mr. Putnam, with aid and advice from Dr. Parry and Mr. Pratt. 
The books were packed in a box and sent by express to Washington. It 
is confidently believed that a large number of valuable publications will 
be received in exchange for these. 

The following statement shows the exact manner in which the books 
have been distributed. Accompanying this report is a list giving the 
name of each society or individual to whom books have been sent. 

Entire number op books received 990 copies. 

Delivered to subscribers 103 " 

Sold for cash 120 " 

Distributed to scientific men, etc , for exchange 50 " 

Distributed to editors for review and exchange 34 " 

Distributed to societies in the United States and Canada 165 " 

Sent to theSniitlisonian Institution for foreign distribution 198 " 

On hand 301 

Unaccounted for 8 " 

Total 990 

RESULTS. 

The publication of its " Proceedings" has proved of great benefit to the 
Academy in many ways. It has, to a great extent, opened to us our own 
resources, and has brought us into active communication with nearly all 
similar societies throughout the world. By mentis of exchanges, our 
Library has been greatly increased, already 121 complete volumes and 351 
pamphlets and parts of volumes have been received, and it is but a few days 
over three months since the first books were distributed. These exchanges 
have been received from but !)4 institutions and individuals, less than one- 
fourth of the number to whom books have been sent. Scarcely a day 
passes but some new book is received, and twelve or more periodicals are 
sent to the Academy regularly ; among them The Nation, The Canadian 
Entomologist, Le Naturaliste Canadien, Coulter's Botanical Gazette, Field 
and Forest, Psyche, Bidletin of the Essex Institute, Bxdletin of the Torrey 
Botanical Chib, Bidletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, Proceedings of 
the Boston Society of Natural History and of the Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences and Ne2cman''s Entomologist (London). 

*This list was made out and most of the labor of distribution was done by Mr. J. D. Putnam, 
with the advice and assistance of other members of the committee, Drs. Preston and Farquhar- 
son and Mr. Pratt. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II,] 11 [April, 1877.1 



74 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

It is very difficult to place a money valuation of the publications that 
have been received, for a large portion of them are not for sale at any 
price, and are very difficult to obtain. But a careful estimate shows that 
tliere has been already received works to the value of not less than $300, 
and probably miicli more. 

Numerous letters have been received from some of the leading natu- 
ralists in the country, congratulating the Academy upon the fine api)ear- 
ance of its first publication, and the energy of its lady members in being 
able to publish so creditable a volume. It is said to be the best first pub- 
lication of a young society ever issued in this country. The appearance 
of such a publication from west of the Mississippi was entirely unlooked 
for, and it can scarcely be credited that we are a society almost without 
funds and without a library, and yet show such positive evidence of an 
enthusiastic membership. Very favorable notices of the Proceedings 
have appeared in 2'lie Nation for Oct. 5, Field and Forest foi November, 
Psyche for October, Harpers'' Monthly for December, tlie American Natu- 
ralist for December, Popular Science Monthly for January, the Botanical 
Gazette for November and again in December, the American Journal 
of Science and Arts for October, the Common School for December, the 
San Bernardino (Cal.) Times, the Patterson (N. J.) Evening Bulletin, the 
Rock Island Argus, the Davenport Daily Democrat, Davenport Der Dem- 
okrat, and probably others which we have not noticed. Not one unfavor- 
able criticism has been made by anybody, either at home or abroad. These 
notices have given our little Academy a fame throughout the world, such 
as is possessed by but comparatively few older and more worthy insti- 
tutions. The city of Davenport, too, comes in for its full share of the 
glory, and has already been designated more than once as being in a 
fair way to become the "Athens of the West." 

Now, that our first publication has proved such a decided success, it is 
quite important we should not let our enthusiasm suddenly subside, but 
some means should be provided for the continuance of publication of the 
Proceedings. It would be better to print the Proceedings in parts, and 
issue them at regular intervals, and as soon after each meeting as possi- 
ble. In this way, the work being extended over a longer time, the ex- 
penses might be more easily met. In printing another volume it is 
recommended that a slightly larger page and heavier paper be used, so as 
to render our Proceedings more uniform with those of other similar 
societies. The proof reading should be more carefully attended to. 

A list of exchanges received, and some extracts from letters and 
notices of our work are herewith submitted. 

There remains in the hands of the committee 301 complete copies of 
the Proceedings, Vol. I, besides sixteen copies without plates, and a 
quantity of sm'plus sheets. These should be placed in charge of such 
officer or officers of the Academy as the Board of Trustees may direct. 
The exchanges which have been received should be turned over to the 
Librarian to be incorporated in the Library. 

In closing this report we desire to express our heartfelt thanks to the 
AVomen's Centennial Association for the important aid they have ren- 



president's ANNtTj^L ADDRESS. ^5 

dered us in the publication of our Proceedings ; to the printers for their 
uniformly accommodating manner upon all occasions, and to all others 
who have aided us, either Ijy work performed or advice given. 
Respectfully submitted. 

W. H. Pratt, 

J. Duncan Putnam, 
R. J. Farquharson. 
C. H. Preston, 

Davenport^ Jan. 3(Z, 1877. Committee. 

Tlie retiring President, Rev. W. H. Barris, then delivered his 

ANNUAL ADDRESS. 
Ladies and Gentlemen : 

In compliance with custom, and carrying out the provisions of our by. 
laws, it becomes the duty of the retiring President to make a report on 
"the condition and progress of the Academy in all its departments." Such 
a paper must necessarily gather its material mainly from the reports of 
the other officers of the Society. 

The report of the Treasurer shows our financial status to be sound. In 
one respect our Academy is a model. Our receipts for the year have 
been in excess of our expenditures. 

From the report of the Recording Secretary we find that during the 
year there have been fifteen business meetings of the Trustees, and thir- 
teen regular meetings of the Academy. The latter have averaged a fair 
attendance, though not as full as we could have desired, yet embracing 
those most devoted to our work. 

The report of the Librarian shows the additions that are constantly be- 
ing made to the Library. Every addition is a new argument for increased 
accommodations. Even at the beginning of the year our two cases were 
crowded to overflowing. Since that time the number of books have more 
than doubled ; 360 volumes have grown to 900 volumes and pamphlets. 
The two or three cases modestly asked for by our Librarian are needed 
now. We have yet to hear from the vast mass of our foreign exchanges, 
and if they respond at all in proportion to their capability, we shall be in 
no condition properly to care for them. 

The report of the Curator is in your possession. In Archaeological re- 
mains, the number of stone and flint implements during the year has 
been doubled. In the departments of Mineralogy, Geology and Palaeon- 
tology, the collection has steadily increased. In Botany, valuable con- 
tributions have been received. In Zoology the acquisitions have been 
quite extensive. With the recital of work done in this department, we 
are again confronted with the wants of the Academy. The Curator is 
ready, and has done his part in the proper identification and classification 
of the material under his hand, but as to its full arrangement and scien- 
tific presentation to the eye, such as shall make it subserve the highest 
purposes of education, in this he is sadly crippled. 
Such result cannot possibly be looked for in our present condition, till 



76 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

far greater facilities and spaces are afforded, so that whether we regard 
the wants of the cabinet or library, we are led in but one direction, and 
to but one result. We need a fire-proof building, which will not only 
preserve what we have in possession and in prospect, but become a per- 
manent place of deposit for valuable libraries and cabinets scattered 
over the State, and which, even now, await our action. 

The report of the Corresponding Secretary is suggestive of patient, 
quiet, persistent work. This post, whatever it may have been in past 
years, is now no sinecure. An immense amount of correspondence, 
foreign and domestic, now devolves on this officer. The number of let- 
ters written, though for the past three months averaging eighty per 
month, is no measure of head and brain work required for such a task. 
It could only be wro:ight by one whose heart is in his work, to which he 
is devoting the best energies of his life. 

I suggest, with reference to the offices so far considered, that there be 
as little change as possible in the status of the present occupants. When 
men are well qualified for their respective positions, either by the posses- 
sion of thorough scientific acquirements or acknowledged business hab- 
its, it is not wisdom to change. With the offices of President and Vice 
President it is different. More and greater good may, and no doubt wilb 
accrue by change, bringing with it new accessions of interest and strength. 

The report of the Publication Committee furnishes us with a full his- 
tory of the Women's Centennial Association, their exposures, tempta- 
tions, trials, battles, victory — of which victory they wear the crown ; we 
reap the more substantial benefits. It contains, in addition, a complete 
account of the preparation of manuscripts, illustrations, publication and 
distribution of the Proceedings of the Academy to individuals as well as 
societies, the returns they have brought us, and the arrangement of the 
whole is so complete, that the merest item of detail can be turned to at 
once. Whatever disposition may be made of the paper, it deserves a 
prominent place in the archives of the Academy, not only valuable to us, 
but to those who come after us. The cost of publication and distribution 
up to date has been $1082.87, the whole of which has been paid, with a 
small balance in our favor. By way of exchange for 92 numbers of the 
Proceedings, there have been received 120 complete volumes, 3-57 pam- 
phlets, at a rough valuation worth over $300. In addition, I may note 
that among the works already received are many that it is simply impos- 
sible to purchase. 

In May last a new feature was introduced into the Academy— the 
organization of Sections. One of these was the Biological Section. 
There may be much in the nature of the subject, but more in the qualifi- 
cations of the parties composing it, that has given it marked prominence. 
Not only has it been fully attended, but the interest has kept up since its 
organization. Many causes may liave combined to interfere with the 
work of the other Sections. Whether they can be removed remains to be 
seen. Workers are comparatively few and limited as to the necessary 
knowledge with which to work to advantage. 

I would suggest whether in each of the Sections, especially in those that 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 77 

as yet have attempted little, tliere might not be founded schools of instruc- 
tion, where especially tlie younger members might regularly secure such 
practical instruction from the lips of the living teacher as shall qualify 
them for efficient, practical work. In each Section might be found some 
one willing in this quiet way to further the interests of the Academy. 

I would emphasize the recommendation of the Curator that especial 
attention be directed to the collection and study of the fishes and rep- 
tiles found in our vicinity. This department is full of interest, and to 
work it up faithfully would add greatly to the reputation of the Academy. 

It is hoped that the present season may witness a further and fuller 
exploration of the mounds in our vicinity. Much of the interest awak- 
ened in the publication of our Proceedings is traceable to the fact that it 
abounds in illustration of these relics of the past. Men who are not par- 
ticularly drawn out or interested in scientific studies and details, readily 
recognize the importance of such collection, and are ready to contribute 
to it. We have but to look around our cabinet, and in the array of stone 
implements deposited or given to the Academy, realize that the popular 
lieart and hand has nobly responded to this department of our work. 
We are masters of the situation. There remains much land to be pos- 
sessed. 

The year just closed is, in many respects, the most auspicious year in 
our history. The publication of our Proceedings has given us a position 
we must not forfeit. Already three papers have been presented as mate- 
rial for the commencement of a new volume. They will rank favorably 
with papers published by any similar society. They present facts new to 
science, and most worthy a place in the archives of any of our sister 
societies. The same reasons exist for publication as before. There is 
the inherent value of the papers themselves. We have no right to hoaj-d 
np such facts ; we have no right to shut them up within the four walls of 
this society. It is our duty to disseminate the knowledge and light we 
gather to add to the wealth and stimulate other and distant workers in 
the various departments of science. That this is expected of us is fully 
proved by the pleas that come up from so many quarters for what we 
have already done. The wants of the Academy can alone be met by full 
publication. No society can work independently of others. Without 
their aid we may be toiling and plodding on problems which they solved 
years ago. With each fact new to science our own horizon expands. 
Facilities are offered by exchanges, enabling us to compare our best work 
with others— to do honest, permanent work. 

I remind you that the returns already made are full of promise. We 
have even now the first fruits — the earnest of a full rich harvest. 

The election of officers for the ensuing year was then hekl, 
with the following result : 

President — Rev. S. S. Hunting. 
Yice- President — Dr. C. H. Preston. 
Recording Secretary — Dr. C. C. Parry. 



78 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Corresponding Secretary — J. Duncan Putnam. 
Treasurer — Dr. M. B. Cochran. 
Lilyrarian—T)K. E. IT. Hazen. 
Curator — Wm. IT. Pratt. 

Additional Trustees — Rev. W. H. Barris, Dr. R. J. Far- 
QUHARSON, Wm. Riepe. 

On motion of Dr. M, B. Cochran, the thanks of the Acad- 
emj were tendered to the retiring officers for their faithful and 
efficient performance of duty. 

The following persons, proposed at the last regular meeting, 
were duly elected honorary members of the Academy : Prof. 
Asa Grray, M. D., Cambridge, Mass. ; Prof. Joseph Henry, 
Washington, D. C. ; Dr. John L. Le Conte, Philadelj^hia, Pa. ; 
Dr. J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio ; Dr. J, D. Hooker, 
Director Royal Gardens, Kew, England ; Prof, Alphonse De 
Candolle, Geneva, Switzerland ; Dr. Wm. B. Carpenter, Lon- 
don, England ; Prof J. O. Westwood, London, England. 

The committee appointed at the last regular meeting to draft 
resolutions in acknowledgement of the services rendered by the 
Ladies of the Women's Centennial Association in providing 
means for publishing the first volume of Proceedings of the 
Academy, reported the following, which was unanimously 
adopted : 

Whereas, During the past year (1876) an organization, known as the 
Women's Centennial Association, has generously volunteered and effi- 
ciently carried out a plan to supply the necessary funds for publishing 
Vol. I of the Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural 
Sciences. In duly acknowledging the value of this timely gift, which has 
placed at the disposal of the Academy, free of all debt, the means of 
securing a large and constantly accumulating series of scientific ex- 
changes to enrich its Library and Museum, we are not unmindful of the 
great labor involved in the undertaking, which, though securing liberal 
aid from other kindred associations of ladies, and always warmly 
seconded by the generous contributions of the community at large, has 
had to contend with serious losses by fire, and an unusual stringency in 
pecuniary affairs, yet still brought to a successful conclusion during the 
Centennial year just closed ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the most sincere thanks of the Davenport Academy of 
Natural Sciences is due, and is hereby tendered, to the Ladies, both indi- 
vidually and collectively, who have been instrumental in carrying^ out 



RECORD OF rROCEEDINGS. 79 

this generous and laborious enterprise ; that, as a scientific society, we 
shall ever cherish a most grateful recollection of the valuable assistance 
thus rendered in promoting one of the principal objects of the Academy, 
and desire herewith to place on our permanent records this testimony to 
the great value of the services thus rendered to the cause of science by 
the ladies of Davenport. 

Dr. C. C. Parry oftered the following resolution, which was 
unanimously adopted : 

liesolved, That the thanks of tlie Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 
are hereby tendered to the Publication Committee for their efficient 
and faithful labors in superintending the publishing of their Proceedings ; 
while recognizing the trials and difficulties under which this duty has 
been performed, and the engrossing labor necessarily incurred, we are 
satisfied that their gratuitous efforts have been prompted solely by a de- 
sire to promote the best interests of the Academy, and we congratulate 
them at the conclusion of their labors on the abundant evidence fur- 
nished by disinterested and competent parties at home and abroad of the 
permanent value of their work. 

Ill the same connection we would further express our appreciative 
thanks to the Corresponding Secretary of the Academy, who, in spite of 
bodily w^eakness, has accomplished so much mental labor in carrying on 
a constantly increasing correspondence, and has so judiciously and efii- 
ciently aided in the work of home and foreign exchanges. 

January 18th, 1877. — Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Five members present. 

A number of donations to the Museum of the Sectfon were 
announced — among others the journal of an old grocery store 
and lumber business in this city in 1837. 

Mr. W. H. Pratt deposited in the Library of the Section a 
large collection of early IS'ew England Historical and Genealogi- 
cal works, including nearly a full series of the New England 
Historical and Grenealogical Register, besides many other books 
and pamphlets. 

January 26th, 1877. — Trustees' Meeting. 
Pev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 
Six members present. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported proceeds from the sale of Pro- 
ceedings to the amount of $18.76. which was, on motion, appro- 



80 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIfJNCES, 

priatecl towards paying the expenses of future publications of 
the Academy, 

A proposition was received and accepted from J. D. Putnam 
to publish Yol. II of the Proceedings of the Academy at his 
own cost, and to furnish the Academy with 500 copies for dis- 
tribution, free of expense, provided that 150 copies were 8ul> 
scribed for by members of the Academy and citizens of Daven- 
port at ^3.00 per copy. 

Permission was granted to Miss Dubois to use the rooms of 
the Academy for teaching a French class, three times a week, 
upon certain conditions. 

January 26th, 1877. — Regular Meeting. 
Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 
Twenty-four members present. 

The President announced the following standing committees 
for the ensuing year : 

Publication. — J. D. Putnam, C. H. Preston, R. J. Farquharson, 
C. C. Parry, C. E. Harrison. 

Museum.— W. H. Pratt, R. J. Farquharson, C. C. Parry, A. S. Tiffany, 
•J. Gass, J. Hume. 

Library. — E. H. H izen, C. H. Preston, E. P. Lynch, J. G. Haupt, 
C. T. Lindley. 

Finance. — M. B. Cochran, G. H. French, C. E. Putnam. 

Furniture.— John Hume, W. H. Pratt, Mrs. C. E. Putnam, Mrs. M, 
A. Sanders. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported a large number of let- 
ters received, and answered during the month, all of which had 
been filed and the answers copied. 

The Curator reported a large list of donations to the Museum, 
including a fine series of Florida corals and shells from the Chi- 
cago Academy of Science, and a collection of bird's eggs from 
Dr. J. W. Velie. The thanks of the Academy were tendered 
the donors. 

Mr. Pratt exhibited a photograph of a gray ground squirrel 
(Spermophilus Franklinii) rolled up into a perfect sphere, with 
the head completely out of sight. It was fonnd. frozen solid, 
in the center of a hay stack, where it had probably gone for the 



RECOKD OF PEOCEEDINGS. 81 

purpose of hibernating. It was brought to the Academy by 
Mr. W. K. Smitli about a week ago. 

Tlie Librarian reported many vahiable additions to the 
Library, received in exchange and by donation, and also the 
deposit by W. H. Pratt of a very vahiable collection of Histor- 
ical and Genealogical works. 

The Committee appointed to audit the accounts of the late 
Treasurer, reported them correct. The report was accepted and 
the committee discharged. 

Eev. J. S. Jenckes and Chas. M. Putnam were elected regular 
members of the Academy. 

The following communication was received: 

Davenport, January 10th, 1877. 
After receiving the final report of tlie Central Committee at the regular 
meeting on January 9th, it was resolved : That the Davekport Turn 
Vereinde deems it its duty to cordially thank the Academy of Natural 
Sciences for their assistance at our fair of December last ; it was further 
resolved : that we are under special obligations to those members thereof 
whose untiring zeal and protracted manual labor in arranging specimens, 
made the display of the Academy so interesting aud instructive. 
For the Davenport Turn Gemeinde, 

Chas. K. Voss, Chr. Moller, 

First Secretary, First Speaker. 

To Academy of Natural Sciences^ Davenport, Iowa. 

A communication was read from the Kev. J. Gass, describing 
the discovery on the 10th inst. of two inscribed tablets, in a re- 
cent further excavation of the mound on Cook's farm near this 
city, heretofore described in these Proceedings (Vol. I, p. 119, 
and pi. I, fig. 3) as Mound No. 3, in which he was assisted by 
Messrs. L. H. Willrodt and H. S. Stoltzenau.* These tablets 
have been deposited in the Museum of the Academy- on the 
same conditions with the former articles from this group of 
mounds. The tablets were on exhibition, and much interest 
was manifested in them by the members present. The larger 
one was broken by a spade, but is otherwise perfect, and is cov- 
ered on both sides with a large number of hieroglyphics and 

*This cornraunication has been included in a more complete and corrected descrijition of the 
exploration of this mound, which Tvill be printed hereafter. 

[Proe. D. A. N. S. Vol. II,] 32 [Apkjl. 1S77,] 



82 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

pictorial representations of animals, plants, etc. On the smaller 
tablet are inscribed four circles, nearly perfect, one of them 
divided into twelve equal parts, each marked with a peculiar 
sign, and another into four equal parts. 

On motion of Dr. C. C. Parry the following resolution was 
unanimously adopted : 

Resolved^ That the thanks of the Academy be presented to Rev. .J. 
Gass for his interesting paper, for the zeal and intelligence with which he 
has prosecuted his successful archaeological researches, and that the 
tablets now on exhibition as the last result of his labors, be known and 
designated in the future publications of the Academy as the Gass tab- 
lets ; and further, that the matter of permanent record and illustration 
be referred to the Publication Committee. 

General remarks on the recent remarkable mound discoveries 
of the Rev. Mr. Gass were made by several members. It being 
considered important to continue the excavations, a subscription 
paper was put in circulation to raise funds for mound explora- 
tion, and $45 was subscribed by members present. 

Dr. Parry read a letter from Miss Julia J. Wirt, giving some 
further developments in regard to the mound opened near Pa}^- 
son, Utah, of which she had recently written.* One of the 
persons engaged in the opening of the mound had reluctantly 
confessed to her that the wheat was taken from a mouse's nest, 
two or three feet below the surface, and that the stone box was 
a myth. The other parties in the exploration still stoutly de- 
clare its genuineness, but there is little doubt that it is a fraud, 
gotten up in the interests of the Mormon church. The finding 
of the stone box accords very well with certain stories in the 
"Pearl of Great Price," and other works published by the 
Latter Day Saints. 

On motion of Dr. C. C. Parry, Mr. A. S. Tiffany was re- 
quested to present to the Academy an illustrated paper on 
Devonian Fossils, which he has in j)reparation, with a view to 
its publication in the Proceedings of the Academy. 

Clarence Lindley read the following paper on 



*This voluuie, page 28. 



LINDLEY ON JACKSON COUNTY MOUNDS. 



S3 



Mound Explorations in Jackson County, Iowa. 

BY C. T. LINDLEY. 

In Iowa Township, Jackson County, Iowa, four miles below the mouth 
of the Maquoketa River and about half a mile from the Mississippi, is a 
group of nine mounds, situated on the farm of Thomas Boothby, near a 
locality known to the people of the neighborhood as " The Point.'" The 
land on which the mounds are situated rises very abruptly from the 
river. The sweeping view of the two rivers and the height of the eleva- 
tion makes this a very commanding and beautiful locality, thus exhibit- 
ing another example of the taste displayed by these ancient people in 
selecting the sites of their works. The place is still a favorite resort for 
fishing parties and hunting excursions. 

At my suggestion, Mr. G. W. Boothby, of Goose Lake, Clinton County, 
Iowa, examined four mounds of this group, and the following account 
has been prepared from his statements. 

The mounds are nine in number, arranged in a single row. The first one 
examined was that farthest up the river, and may be designated No. 1. 
This mound was about five feet in height, and was an elongated pyra- 
mid in shape, instead of conical, like the others. The remains of seven 
skeletons were found, three with their heads to the east, and four with 
the heads to the west. All were lying on their backs. Just above the 




riG. 7.-Two-thirds Natural Size. 

skeletons were three or four large stones. Under one of the skulls, be- 
longing to a skeleton having its head to the west, was found a very thin 
crescent-shaped implement of copper (Fig. 7), which was probably used 
as a knife.* On the floor of the mound, about four feet north of the 
center, was foimd a curious earthen vessel, lying bottom side up. It 
was about twenty-five inches in circumference, and four inches deep. 
The frailty of its structure was so great that it was almost wholly de- 
stroyed in the attempt to unearth it. Directly under this vessel a perfo- 

*A shnilar implement, from a mound near Fond du Lac, Wis., is figured by Dr. Rau iu his 
Account of the Archseological Collection of the Smithsonian Institution, page 60, 



84 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 

rated shell, (a river Unto,) was found. The perforation was made near the 
hinge of the shell, which was probal^ly used as an ornament. In this 
mound, as in all the others examined, numerous pieces of charcoal were 
found mixed with the earth. 

The next mound examined was No. 4. This was of the usual conical 
shape, and was about five feet high and sixty feet in diameter at the base. 
Thirty-one skeletons were found lying promiscuously, but principally 
with the heads south and feet north. All were adults except one 
child. As in Mound No. 1 a number of stones were found directly over 
the bodies. On and below the cervical vertebra; of two of the skeletons, 
160 copper beads were found, about equally distributed between the two 
individuals. In three of these beads the twine on which they were strung 
is quite well preserved. It is composed of some w'oody vegetable fiber. 
Eight perforated bear's teeth were found in connection with one of the 
I)iles of copper beads. Among the rib bones of one of the skeletons was 
a flint spear 81 inches long, being the largest I have ever seen. Num- 
bers of small bivalve river shells were also found in the mound. 

Mound No. 6 was then examined. It was of about the same dimen- 
sions as No. 4, but probably a little liigher. Five skeletons were found, 
four being on the floor of the mound, while the other was an " intrusive 
burial,'' and was about one foot below the surface. This latter skeleton 
was in a l>ed of ashes, and all the bones were black and completely 
charred. 

Mound No. 7 was next examined, and but one skeleton was found. 
This skeleton was covered with rocks so closely that the soil did not 
reach it at all. An abundance of charcoal and burned stones were found 
outside the pile of stones covering the body. 

February 2d, 18TT. — Ad.jourxed Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Twenty members present. Prof. H. T. Woodman, of Du- 
l»uque, was present as a visitor. 

On motion of Dr. Hazen, the President, Recording Secretary, 
and Treasurer were appointed a committee to prepare and pre- 
sent at the next regular meeting an amendment to the By-Laws, 
defining the duties of the standing committees on Finance and 
Furnishing. 

Dr. Hazen also presented the following resolution, which w'as 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Academy be tendered to the gentlemen 
who have so successfully and creditably carried out the public entertain- 
ment of an oratorical contest in the interest of this Academy, and that 
the net proceeds realized from the same, reported as amounting to $26.03, 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 85 

HOW in the hands of the Treasurer, be hereby appropriated in accordance 
with tlie expressed wishes of said donors. 

Dr. C. H. Preston read an intei-esting paper, presenting a 
brief synopsis of scientific progress for the past month. 

President Hunting stated that tiiis paper, prepared at his sug- 
gestion, was intended as the commencement of a series of such 
reports to be presented at the regular meetings of the Academy, 
and asked the active co-operation of the members of the Acad- 
emy in carrvine* out tliis desio;n. 

Prof. H. T. Woodman, upon inv^itation, addressed the Acad- 
emy on the subject of Coral Formations, recent and fossil, 
exhibiting some interesting specimens of the latter, recently dis- 
covered by him. In regard to recent coral formations he had 
arrived at a conclusion opposed to that held by Prof. Agassiz, 
his numerous observations showing conclusively that the range 
and limit of particular species of reef-building corals was de- 
pendent on the temperature of the water, and not on the deptli 
or degree of pressure. He also showed that, owing to an im- 
perfect knowledge of the development of recent coi-als, several 
fossil forms, representing only different stages of development, 
had been described as different species or even genera. He also 
exhibited specimens of Catenipora^ showing a distinct ray struc- 
ture which had not been noticed in previous descriptions. He 
alluded to the singular metamorphoses of corals in geodes, etc. 

In reference to mound explorations. Prof. Woodman stated, 
as an item of practical value in such explorations, that a dis- 
tance of fifteen feet, or a multiple of it, was frequently observed 
in these deposits. He complimented the Academy on the prog- 
ress it has made in such explorations, stating that in some respects 
the collections here exhibited were unequaled by any other col- 
lection in tlie country. 

On motion the thanks of the Academy were voted to Prof. 
Woodman for his interesting address. 

February Otu, 1877. — Historical Section. 
J. A. Crandall in the chair. 
Four members present. 



86 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Dr. C. C. Parry and Rev. S. S. Hunting were elected mem- 
bers of the Section. 

!N^ot much business was transacted, but the evening was spent 
in tlie discussion of historical and other topics. 

February 10th, 1877. — Trustees' Meeting. 
Rev. S. S. Hunting, President in the chair. 
Six members present. 

Dr. C. C. Parry offered the following motion, which was 
adopted : 

Be-olved. That the Academy assume the subscription to 100 copies of 
Vol. 11, Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences to 
complete the number of 150, as required to meet the proposition of J. 
D. Putnam for publishing the same. 

The action of W. H. Pratt, in procuring photographs of the 
engraved tablets, was ratified. 

On motion of Mr. Pratt, the matter of disposing of the pho- 
tographs in the interest of the Academy, was referred to the 
Publication Committee with power to act. 

Dr. C. H. Preston offered the following resolution, which was 
unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That in consideration of the important services of Rev. J. 
Gass in the successful prosecution of his archaeological discoveries, and 
of his generous action in depositing with the Academy the valuable 
material he has so laboriously collected in these researches, he is hereby 
constituted a life member of the Academy. 

Messrs. Pratt and Riepe were requested to arrange with Mr. 
Gass for a definite written understanding of the conditions on 
which his deposits of archaeological specimens may Ue perma- 
nently held by the Academy. 

February 20th, 1877. — Trustees' Meeting. 

Rev. S, S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Eight members present. Also present, Chas. E. Putnam, on 
behalf of the Academy, and Messrs. D. Gould and Francis Ochs 
on behalf of the School Board. 

An informal discussion was had in regard to the proposed 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. OT 

purchase by the Academy of the old High School building, on 
the corner of Sixth and Main Streets. 

On motion of Dr. C. C. Parry, the Trustees of the Academy, 
requested further time to consider the matter, with a view to 
making a definite offer for purchase, if thought advisable. 

Messrs. Oould and Ochs then withdrew. 

On motion of Dr. Hazen it was decided that the Board make 
an offer to purchase the premises in quesliou— provided, there 
is a reasonable i:)rospect of securing the necessary funds. 

The President and Secretary, with Mr. Chas. E. Putnam, 
were appointed a committee to endeavor to secure a pledge of 
$2,000, through life membership, or otherwise, towards the pro- 
posed purchase. 

It was voted to authorize the Curator to send the inscribed 
tablets to the Smithsonian Institution at Washington for exami- 
nation, subject to the consent of the discoverer — Rev. J. Gass. 

February 23d, 1877. — Trustees' Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Eight members present. 

Mr. C. E. Putnam presented a deed of gift from Mrs. P. Y. 
Newcomb, donating a building lot on Brady Street, 45x150 
feet, north of the Presbyterian Church. The deed was accepted 
by the Trustees, and further action deferred to the open meeting 
of the Academy. 

Dr. C. H. Preston notified the Trustees of a valuable collec- 
tion of geological specimens and cases donated to the Academy 
by Prof. T. S. Parvin on the condition that the collection be re- 
tained in its present form as the Parvin collection. The dona- 
tion was accepted, and further action deferred to the open meet- 
ing of the Academy. 

A motion was made and carried that the committee appointed 
to confer with the School Board in regard to the purchase of the 
old High School building, be authorized to take into considera- 
tion the subject of erecting a building on the lot now donated by 
Mrs. Newcomb, and canvass the whole question in reference to 
a permanent home for the Academy. 



88 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

The Treasurer and Secretary were authorized to renew the in- 
surance on the pro]>erty of the Academy, the present policy 
expiring on the 26th inst. 

February 23d, 1877. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Twenty-four members present. 

President Hunting, on account of necessary absence, called 
the Vice-President, Dr. C. H, Preston, to the chair. 

The Cui'utor, W. H. Pratt, reported a number of additions to 
the Museum by donation. 

Dr. Hazen, as Librarian, reported a number of additions to- 
the Librai-y by donation and exchange. He also stated that he 
had in preparation a complete catalogue of the Library. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported the correspondence of 
the month somewhat reduced. 

As Chairman of the Publication Committee, Mr. J. D. Put- 
nam reported that the Proceedings of the Academy had been 
copied and prepared for publication from January l&t, 1876, to 
February 1st, 1877, and a portion had already been placed in 
the hands of the printers. It is expected to issue the first part, 
bringing the Proceedings of the Academy down to the end ot 
March, sometime during April or May, 

Mr. Geo. H. French offered his resignation as a member of 
the Finance Committee, which was accepted, 

Messrs. L. H, Willrodt and J. H. Harrison were elected regu- 
lar members. The names of live persons were proposed for 
membership. 

The Committee on a Revision of tlie By-Laws made a re]:)ort 
which was laid over to the next meeting for action. 

Mr. Pratt was authorized to make arrangements for a lecture- 
or lectures from Prof. Butler, of Wisconsin, on Ijehalf of the- 
Academy, at his discretion. 

The following letter from Prof, T. S. Parvin, of Iowa City,, 
was read bv the Vice-President, Dr. C. H. Preston: 



RECOKD OF PROCEEDINGS. 89 

Iowa City, February 21st, 1877. 
Charles H. Preston, 31. D., Davenport, Iowa : 

Dear Sir : — I propose to donate to the Academy of Sciences of your 
city my geological cabinet and the cases containing the same — requiring 
only that the Academy keep the collection, and it alone, in the cases, as 
my distinct contribution to its cabinet ; and that the Academy take the 
same from the rooms of the Historical Society in this city, where it has 
been stored tor some years past. 

The cases are of white walnut, panelled, with glass sides and front, 6* 
feet high, 'Si wide, and U deep, and eight in number. The cases cost me 
upwards of SlOO, and the collection cost me much labor, worry, and 
about thirty years of time. 

The Historical Society need the room they occupy at once, and I know 
of no better method of disposing of my labors than to transfer them to 
the Academy. I write this at my office, and my volume of the Transac- 
tions of the Academy being at my house, I do not know the name of 
your President, so write you, requesting you to hand this to him. 

If the Academy accepts, it would be better to send one of its members 
here to take charge of packing and transportation. 

The Mineralogical collection I shall bring to my office, subject to 
future arrangement. You will recollect the collection placed at one time 
in my lecture room at the University, and have some appreciation of its 
interest and value. 

I am proud of the success and prospective permanency of the Acad- 
emy, and have given it, therefore, the preference over the High School 
of Muscatine (at whicli place I made much of the collection— not in 
point of locality, more than of time), the Historical Society, or University. 

Yours truly, 

T. S. Parvin. 

On motion of Dr. Parrj, this donation was accepted bv the 
Academy, and Dr. M. B. Cochran was appointed to proceed at 
once to Iowa City, and take charge of the removal and trans- 
portation of the collection, as requested by the donor. 

Dr. C. H. Preston then offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted unanimously : 

Eesolved, That in accepting from Prof. T. S. Parvin, of Iowa City, the 
very generous donation to the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, 
of his entire Geological Cabinet, the result of thirty years' labor, and 
much care and expense, we would hereby express our earnest thanks and 
high appreciation of the scientific fellowship and good will which has 
prompted this valuable gift. 

Dr. C. C. Parry remarked that this donation, representing the 
work of an earnest life-time, may be properly regarded as one 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 13 [April, 1877,] 



90 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

of tlie direct results of the recent publication of the Academy, 
showing that it was a live and likely to be a permanent institu- 
tion. 

On motion of Dr. M. B. Cochran, Prof. T. S. Parvin was 
recommended for life memberslii]3 of the Academy. 

Mr. Chas. E. Putnam, on behalf of Mrs. P. V. Newcomb, 
formally presented the following unconditional 

DEED. 

This Deed of Bargain and Sale, Made and executed this 22d day of 
February, A. D. 1877, by and between Patience V. Newcomh, Widow, of 
the County of Scott and State of Iowa, of the first part, and " The Dav- 
enport Academy of Natural Sciences,''' a corporation duly incorporated 
under the laws of Iowa, of Davenjiort, Jowa, of the second part, WITNESS- 
ETH : That the said party of the first part, for and in consideration of the 
sum of Four Thousand Five Hundred ($4,500) Dollars, in hand paid by 
the said party of the second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowl- 
edged, has granted and sold, and does by these presents, Grant, Bar- 
gain, Sell, Convey and Confirm, unto the said second party, its suc- 
cessors and assigns forever, the following real estate, lying and being 
situated in the County of Scott and State of Iowa, to-wit : 

Part of Out-Lot No. ^i'J^teen (16), Davenjjort, Scott County, Iowa, bounded 
as folio (cs, to-wit : Commencing on the west line of Brady street, and on the 
north line of property heretofore conveyed to the Presbyterian O. S. Church 
of Davenport, lo^m, running thence xoest along said north line one hundred 
and, fifty (15'J)/eet, more or less, to an alley, thence north forty-five (45) feet, 
thence east one hundred and fifty {150) feet to Brady street, and thence south 
along the icest line of Brady street forty-five {Ao)feet to the place of beginning. 
Thiif conveyance is made as an unconditional donation to " The Davenport 
Academy of Natural /Sciences," to show my appreciation of its worthy ob- 
jects, and because of the great regard I entertain for my young friend, J. 
Duncan Putnam, and my admiration for the noble loork he is doing in its 
behalf. 

The intention being to convey an absolute title in fee to said 
real estate, including any right of homestead had therein. 

To Have and to Hold the premises above described, with all the ap- 
purtenances thereto belonging, unto the said second party, its successors 
and assigns forever. The said Patience V. Newcomb liereby covenant- 
ing herself and her heirs, executors and administrators, that the above 
described premises are free from any incumberance : that she has full 
right, power and authority to sell the same ; and she will warrant and 
DEFEND THE TITLE uuto the Said second party, its successors and 
assigns, against the claims of all persons whomsoever lawfully claiming 
the same. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 91 

In Witness Whereof, The said party of the first part has hereunto set 
her hand and seal the day and year first above written. 

Patience Yiele Neavcomb. | l. s. | 

State of Iowa, Scott County, ss : 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the 23d day of February, A. D. 
1877, before the undersigned, a Notary Public in and for said County, 
personally appealed Patience V. Newcomb^ to me personally known to be 
the identical person whose name is subscribed to the foregoing Deed as 
Grantor, and acknowledged the instrument to be her voluntary act and 
deed, and that she executed the same for the purposes therein men- 
tioned. 

Witness, my hand and Notarial Seal, the day 

! LOUIS A. LE CLAiKE. 1 and year last above written. 
AotarialSeal. ^ J^^^^ig ^ LeClairC, 

Scott Co., . To.. a. } ^^^^^^ p^^,.^^ g^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 



[Filed for Record the 24th day of February, A. D. 1877, at 2 o'clock p. m ,and recorded in Boot 
38, of Town Lot Deeds, on page 122. 

J. A. LeClaire, Recorder^] 

[Entered for taxation this 2d day of March, A. D. 1877. 

James Dooley, Auditor.] 

In acceptance of this gift, Dr. Parry offered the following 
resolutions : 

Besolved., That the Davenport Academy of Sciences accept, with pro- 
found gratitude, the unsolicited gift by Mrs. P. V. Newcomb of a valua- 
ble and eligible building lot in tliis city ; that the alleged motive of the 
donation — '' to show my appreciation of its worthy objects, and because 
of the great regard I entertain for my yonng friend, J. Duncan Putnam, 
and my admiration of the noble work he is doing in its behalf,"— largely 
enhances to us the value of the gift ; that upon this broad and assured 
foundation we have every encouragement to hope that ere long, by the 
liberality of our citizens, a noble superstructure shall arise for the bene- 
fit of future generations, commemorating to all time the name of the 
generous and esteemed first donor. 

Besolved, That Mrs. P. V. Newcomb be at once enrolled on the list of 
Life Members of this Academy, and that a copy of these resolutions be 
presented in person by the ofiicers and members of the same. 

These resolutions were unanimously adopted by a standing 
vote of the Academy, all the members present rising to their 
feet. 

A committee to arrange for a formal complimentary call on 
Mrs. jSTewcomb, to present the above resolution, was appointed, 
to consist of Eev. S. S. Hunting and Dr. C. C. Parry. To 



92 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIEXCES. 

these were added, on behalf of the ladies, Mrs. C. E. Putnam 
and Mrs. C. C. Parrj. 

Dr. It. J. Farquharson reported a considerable correspondence 
in regard to the tablets recently discovered by the Rev. Mr. 
Gass, and that much interest had been manifested in them, and 
" serious doubts expressed as to their genuineness. If truly the 
work of the mound builders, they were by far the most impor- 
tant relics that have yet been found. In order to satisfy these 
doubts, Mr. Gass has prepared a detailed statement and com. 
plete history of the mound in which these tablets were found. 

The following paper M'as read : 

A Connected Account of the Explorations of Mound No. 3, Cook's 

Farm Group. 
BY REA'. J. GASS. 

To the Academy of Natural Sciences : 

Although a second partial report of the explorations of the Mound 
designated in A^ol. I of these Proceedings as Mound No. 3 of the Cook 
Farm Group, has been submitted, it seems to be desirable to present a more 
particular description in connection with diagrams so as to afford a con- 
nected representation of all the facts and the results of the investigation, 
and especially so as some errors occurred in the former description and 
illustration, and also from the fact that on account of recent discoveries 
this mound has become an object of especial interest. My own ideas re- 
garding the discoveries I will present on a future occasion, giving here 
only the facts. 
South. a be c North. 




d e f d' 

FIG 8. — Scale, about 10 feet to one inch. 

Mound No. 3 is the largest of this group, and is situated on the highest 
ground in the vicinity (Plate I and page 119, Vol. I, Proc. D. A. N. S.). 

Fig. 8. — Vertical section of Mound No. 3, Cook Farm Group. 

Fig. 9.— Plan of same mound ; so far as the layers of shells and stones extend. 

a, Position of limestones met with in the first excaration, one foot below the surface, b, Po- 
sition of human remains first met with, c, c', Upper shell bed. d, d', Lower shell bed. e, Cavi- 
ty ex- avated at the north side of grare A. f, Position of the tablets, e, s, Limits of shell bed 
bordered by a row or layer of stones. 



GASS ON MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



93 



Its diameter at the base is about sixty feet and height three and one-half 
feet above the natural grade. Having been many years under cultiva- 
tion, its height has doubtless been thereby somewhat redxiced. The form 
is not conical, but considerably flattened, as shown by the diagram, Fig. 
8. It is a so-called double mound, there being in the central portion two 
graves, extending east and west, and parallel to each other, separated by 
three to fom- feet of earth, and designated by A and B, (Figs. 8 and 9.) 
Each grave is about six feet wide and nine to ten feet long, and exca- 
vated to a depth of two and one-half feet below the natural surface, 
reaching to the hard clay in the middle of the excavation, which is slop- 
ing on all sides, giving it a concave form, though flattened at the bot- 
tom. The actual mound raised over the whole is now only three to four 
feet above the original surface, and presents somewhat the form of a 
cone. If we divide the mound by a line passing from east to west through 
the center, the grave A is in the southern and the grave B in the northern 
half. 

West. f 



^5«<?3Oe=^«P0CX^ 



South. 




£V(4f. g 
FIG. 9. — Scale, about 10 feet to one inch. 

EXPLORATIONS OF 1874. 

When, in the latter part of 1874, I, with the assistance of W. En- 
gelbrecht, E. Borgelt and H. Decker, who were at that time theological 
students, explored the other mounds of this group, I opened at the same 
time the southern grave. A, of this mound, the details of which work I 
here give in full, from notes taken at the time. 

We made an opening several feet in width, and, as we afterward found, 
three or four feet to the south of the grave, A. At the depth of one foot 
we found a scattered layer of limestones (a), under which was a stratum of 
earth about one foot thick. At the southern side of this opening, one 
and one-half feet from the surface, we discovered two human skeletons (b). 
From the condition of these skeletons, and from their arrangement, and 
the nature of tlie objects found associated with them, it is clearly shown 
that they belong to our century, and not to the age of the mound build- 



94 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

ers, the bones being in a good state of preservation, and. as is often 
found in Indian graves, covered with the boughs of oak trees. 

The objects found with these bones were a fire steel, a common clay 
pipe, a nur::ber of shell and glass beads, and a silver ear ring. A few of 
the bones exhibit some cuts, made apparently by sharp teeth or some 
cutting instrument. It should also be remarked that fragments of human 
bones were found scattered through the earth at about the same depth as 
the skeletons above referred to, viz : one and one-half feet below the 
surface. 

Immediately beneath the above mentioned skeletons was found a thin 
layer of river shells, from one to two inches in thickness, which sloped 
slightly toward the north (c). At the south side of this excavation, about 
two feet below the surface, we found a large quantity of ashes. This bed 
of ashes was beyond the circumference of the shell layer, hence we can- 
not positively determine whether the ashes have been placed there by the 
mound builders. 

The layer of shells above mentioned rested upon a stratum of earth 
twelve inches in depth, under which was found a second bed of shells (d), 
three or four inches in thickness. This second layer of shells sloped 
more abruptly to the northward, which induced us to proceed in that 
direction, until we reached what proved to be the south side of the 
grave A. Here, at the depth of about two feet below the second shell 
bed. about five and one-half feet below the surface, were discovered three 
skeletons, two of adults, and the third that of a child, lying in a horizon- 
tal position on the hard clay, with the heads to the west and the feet to 
the east. The small skeleton was lying between the two larger ones. 

At the east end of the grave we found several small fragments of 
skulls All of the bones were covered with loose black earth, occupy- 
ing the space between them and the lower sliell bed. Immediately in 
contact with the bones of the child's skeleton were a large number of 
copper beads (see Nos. 12 to 18, Plate VI, A^ol. I). About three inches 
above the southernmost of the two larger skeletons, and near the right 
shoulder were discovered two copi>er axes (Nos. 3 and 5, PI. V, Vol. I) 
lying side by side, with the sharp edges toward ihe south. 

Near the northernmost skeleton were found three copper axes (Nos. 1, 
2 and 4, PI. V) in the same relative position, except that they were about 
two feet above the bottom of the grave, and immediately beneatli the 
lower layer of shells. Nos. 1 and 2 were lying side by side, with the 
sharp edge toward the south, and No. 4 lying across them with the edge 
westward. All the axes had been wrapped in cloth, which was more or 
less imperfectly preserved. A few of the bones of the child were of a 
greenish color, quite well preserved, probably by the action of the cop- 
per, while the rest of them, as well as those of the other skeletons, 
crumbled in pieces as soon as removed. 

Just north of the northernmost large skeleton, and in a small cavity 
excavated at the north side of the grave (e), were found the following arti- 
cles, viz : 1st, a number of small red stones arranged in the form of a 



GASS ON MOUND EXPLOKATIOXS. 95 

Star, about three inches in diameter ; 2d, two carved stone pipes, one 
liaving the form of the ground hog (Fig. 4, PI. lY, Vol. I), and the other 
a plain one : 3d, several canine teeth of the bear, etc., etc. ; 4th, one arrow 
head; 5th, one large broken pot (which is represented, restored, in Fig. 1, 
PL VIIl. Vol. I), with bones of the turtle adhering to the inside of the 
fragments ; 6th, two pieces of galena ; 7th, a lump of yellow ochre. 
Here I would also mention that at each end of this grave were found 
several stones of a few pounds weight each. 

The fact that the bottom of this grave sloped upward and outward in 
all directions, confirmed our opinion that all the contents of this mound 
had been discovered, and a further search would be useless. Messrs. 
Farquharson, Tiffany and Pratt, to whom full permission was given to 
prosecute a further research, concurred in this opinion, and did not think 
it advisable to avail themselves of the opportunity. The work on this 
mound was therefore discontinued, and operations commened in an adja- 
cent one. 

EXPLORATION OF 1877. 

In tilling the field containing these mounds, many shells were turned 
up by the plow last summer on the north side of Mound No. 3. This cir- 
cumstance led me to believe that the shell layers extended further to the 
north than I had formerly supposed, and to consider it probable that on the 
side opposite to the former excavation, i. e.,on the northern slope of the 
mound, a second grave might be ftmnd north of the first, or some other 
reason must exist for the extension of the shell layer so far in this direc- 
tion. 

My intention to begin in the latter part of the summer, the work 
of a second excavation was repeatedly frustrated by the unusual wetness 
of the ground and various private hindrances, luitil the early setting in 
of severe winter weather made it seem advisable to postpone operations 
until spring. Learning, however, in December, that the farm was 
rented to a new tenant, who was to take possession on the 1st of March. 
1877, and that after that date the permission to excavate, which had here- 
tofore been freely granted, could no longer be obtained, the shortness of 
the time remaining induced me to commence a new exploration, in spite 
of the difiiculties attending such work in winter, the ground being frozen 
to the depth of about two and one-half feet. Accordingly, on the 10th of 
January, the weather having somewhat moderated, I commenced the 
work, assisted by Messrs. Willrodt and Stoltzenau, aided also by five 
other men, whose curiosity attracted them to the spot. 

Commencing on the north side of the mound, about fifteen feet north- 
west of the grave A, and, as we afterward found, about six feet from the 
grave B, we made an opening several feet in diameter. Five or six 
inches below the surface we came upon a shell layer (c), one or two inches 
thickness, which sloped downward toward the southeast until at a dis- 
tance of four or five feet it reached the depth of two feet, or rather more, 
from the surface. 

Between the surface and this first layer of shells, a number of 



96 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

human bones were found, scattered through the soil ; also, a num- 
ber of stones, which, as was afterwards observed, were more numer- 
ous over the middle of the grave B. Associated with these bones, which, 
like those on the other side of the mound, were doubtless of modem 
times, we found a few glass beads and fragments of a brass ring. This 
layer of shells rested upon a stratum of earth from twelve to fifteen 
inches in thickness, and beneath this was a second layer of shells (d'). This 
layer was from three to four inches thick, and in a sloping position nearly 
parallel with the upper layer. These indications caused us to continue 
our excavation in this direction, and so we reached the northwest corner 
of the grave B. Here the shell layer was live inches thick. Below this 
layer was a stratum of loose black soil or vegetable mould of eighteen or 
twenty inches, resting on the firm, undisturbed clay. In this soil were 
discovered fragments of human bones, and small pieces of " coal slate" 
or bituminous shale. 

DISCOVERY OF INSCRIBED TABLETS. 

These circumstances arrested particular attention, and caused me to 
proceed with more caution, until soon after, — about five o'clock in the 
afternoon, — we discovered the two inscribed tablets of coal slate, 
(Plates I, II and III) which, with other relics from the mound, are now 
in the Museum of the Academy. The two tablets were lying close to- 
gether on the hard clay, in the northwest corner of the grave, about 
five and one-half feet below the surface of the mound, the larger one to 
the southward and the smaller one north of it (f). The smaller one is 
engraved on one side only, and the larger on both sides. The larger one was 
lying with that side upward which was somewhat injured by a stroke of 
the spade (Plate I), and the smaller with the engraved side upward 
(Plate III). Both were closely encircled by a single row of limestones. 
They were covered on both sides with clay, on removal of which the 
markings were for the first time discovered. A number of fragments of 
the coal slate lay in the immediate vicinity of the tablets. It should also 
be remarked that I did not leave the mound after penetrating through 
the frost until the tablets were discovered and taken from their resting- 
place with my own hands. 

South of the tablets, i. e. in the south-west corner of the gi'ave, were 
found a few pieces of skull bones, of which one piece was saturated with 
the green carbonate of copper. Also, several pieces, of human cervical 
vertebrse, a small bit of copper, and an artificially wrought bone. In this 
grave were a great number of bones of the body, and also in the north- 
east corner, as in the south-west corner above mentioned, some pieces of 
kull and Iwines of the neck. It seems probable that here had been two 
skeletons, lying one with the head to the west and the other to the east, 
but this cannot be positively determined. 

About two and one-half feet east of the west end, at the south side of 
the grave and about three inches from the bottom, we found a copper axe, 
No. 21, which exhibited no indication of having been wrapped in cloth, 
and two feet still farther east, on the same side of the grave, a few cop- 



GASS ON MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 97 

per beads, fragments of pottery, a piece of yellow pigment. A piece of 
mica, two crystals of " dog-tooth spar," some flakes of selenite, and a 
flint arrow head were afterwards found as mentioned in the supple- 
mentary report. In all parts of this grave, above the bones, we found 
many pieces of rotten wood, and, in one instance, a piece of bone about 
three inches in length, apparently artificially wrought. 

The two shell layers over the grave B Avere united toward the middle 
of the mound, and forri.ed a continuous layer, with the shells in the 
southern part, showing that both of the graves were covered at the same 
time. These layers were lowest immediately over each grave. The shell 
beds are composed of the species of river shells common in this vicinity, 
and lying flat-wise in a horizontal position, and frequently in pairs, never 
having been separated. They extended about two or three feet beyond 
the graves in every direction, terminating in a border of stones, fitted 
closely together, and forming on the north and south sides a layer of about 
two feet in width, and on the east and Avest sides cDusisting of only a 
single row (s s).' 

Over the middle of the broad layer of stones on the north side, was 
found a bed of ashes and a number of human bones, and at the junction 
of the layer of shells and stones at the northwest corner, and imme- 
diately beneath them a few fragments of bones, with cuts or scratches, 
like those above described, found on the south side. It was remarked 
that in the earth near the surface of all parts of the mound were found 
more or less human bones, showing that it was used as a burial place in 
comparatively modern times. The piece of pottery represented in Fig. 
4, PI. VIII, Vol. I, was found at the top of this mound, and pieces were 
also found at the top of other mounds of this group. 

It is not impossible that additional discoveries may be the reward of 
further explorations in tliese grounds when a favorable opportunity shall 
be presented. 

REPORT OF CONTINUED EXPLORATION FOR THE ACADEMY, CONDUCTED 

BY MR. GASS. 

Having finished the further examination of the mounds of the Cook 
Farm group, and particularly of Mound No. 3, conducted in the interest 
and at the request of the Academy, I would present the following addi- 
tional report of the work. 

It was in this further exploration that the copper axe J^o. 21, a number 
of copper beads and fragments of pottery and yellow pigment, mentioned 
in the description of this mound were obtained. The value of these 
articles m themselves is scarcely commensurate with the expense in- 
curred, but the opportunity thus afforded for further observations upon 
the structure of the mound was very desirable, and has given us a better 
understanding of the whole, and I would present my thanks to the Acad- 
emy for thus having enabled me to prosecute the work to completion, and 
to present a more full description of the entire structure. 

After the finding of the tablets, some intruders entered the excavation 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 14 [April, 1S77.] 



98 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

in our absence, and took out some relics, which, however, I was fortunate 
enough to obtain from them. These are a piece of mica, some crystals of 
dog-tooth spar, flakes of seleuite, and an arrow head, which are also in 
the Academy Museum, witli the axe and other articles above mentioned. 

I now have also to report that in three other places in the immediate vicin- 
ity, and to the southward of this group, where mounds were supposed to 
exist, I have made a careful examination by boring a great number of 
holes and examining the earth from different depths. We found, in each 
ease, a number of stones, as in the other mounds, and below these stones 
only sand and gravel and the hard clay, but no indications of shells, 
human bones, or other artificial deposits, and hence conclude them to be 
only natural elevations. 

It therefore appears that no more mounds are probably to be found 
south of this group, but to the northward, on Mr. Smith's land, there are 
a few more mounds, for the exploration of which permission has not yet 
been obtained. 

For further explanation of this work, prosecuted on behalf of the 
Academy, I would refer to the detailed description already presented. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. Gass. 

Accompanying this report of Mr. Gass were certificates from 
Rev. W, Engelbrecht, Eev. H. Decker and Mr. A. Borgelt, who 
assisted in the excavations of 1874, and from Messrs. L. H. 
Willrodt, H. S. Stoltzenau, H. Braun, F. Schlimmer, I. 
Schricker, Ch. Schricker and F. Blumer, who were present and 
assisted in the explorations of January, 187Y, in which they fully 
confirm and substantiate the above description of the explora- 
tion of Mound Xo. 3 of the Cook Farm group by Mr. Gass. 

A vote of thanks to Mr. Gass for his interesting paper was 
passed by the Academy. 

March 6th, 1877. — Trustees' Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Seven members present. 

On motion of Dr. Cochran, Dr. Preston was appointed to 
proceed to Iowa City to attend to the packing and removal of 
the Parvin Geological Collection. 

At the suggestion of President Hunting, it was voted that 
Mrs. C. E. Putnam and Mrs. M. A. Sanders be added to the 
committee to procure subscriptions for the new Academy build- 
ing. It was also voted that this committee nominate a Building 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 99 

Committee of fiye, to be appointed at the next regular meeting 
of the Academy. 

The following resolution, oifered by Dr. Cochran, was unani- 
mously adopted: 

Resolved^ That in consideration of important and valuable services, 
untiringly rendered in behalf of the Davenport Academy of Natiu-al 
Sciences by Mrs. Chas. E. Putnam, her name be enrolled as a life mem- 
ber of the Academy. 

March 6th, 1877. — Social Meeting. 

In accordance with the resolution adojDted by the Academy on 
February 23d, the evening of March 6th was appointed as the 
time for the members to call upon and formally thank Mrs. P. 
V. Newcomb for her valuable donation. The otiicers and gen- 
tlemen of the Academy assembled at the rooms of the society, 
and at four o'clock proceeded to the residence of Mrs. iS^ew- 
comb. Here they were joined by the lady members, and other 
friends of Mrs. J!^ewcomb and the Academy. The party, num- 
bering nearly one hundred, was received in a very hosj:)itable 
and cordial manner by their genial benefactress, her parlors 
having been beautifully decorated for the occasion. 

After a pleasant half hour of social conversation, Rev. S. S. 
Hunting, President of the Academy, arose and read the resolu- 
tions of gratitude and thanks, adopted February 23d, presenting 
theift with the following 

Address. 

Mrs. ;N"ewco:mb :— In addition to the resolutions of thanks which the 
Academy of Sciences is only too glad to present on this occasion, it is my 
privilege, because of the trust now imposed on me, to add a few words to 
make this day a milestone on the road to that triumphant success on 
which our Academy has started. 

In contributing for science, you may be assured that you are promot- 
ing pure knowledge, for we take knowledge and science as synonymous 
words. Need I suggest what the lamented Agassiz so often taught, that 
every object of nature is the symbol of a divine thought, and all natural 
science is knowledge of eternal verities. The martyrs of science are 
enrolled with those of religion, and both are crowned with the same un- 
fading wreath. The method of study, which to-day is called scientific, is 
the best possible guarantee we can have that theory must conform to fact 
before it can take its place as a recognized scientific truth. 



100 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIEN"CES. 

It is to-day a fact on wliich the citizens of Davenport may well con- 
gratulate themselves; that within the last decade so much lias been 
done to put the Academy upon a secure basis, but we all feel that the 
gift of a lot on which we may and will erect a suitable building, is prac- 
tically the laying of the corner stone of the Temple of Science on the 
sunny side of the city whose citizens, we trust, will never suffer the 
north wind of indifference to blow upon it. To-day we commend the 
zeal which founded the Academy, and the energy which has prosecuted 
so noble an enterprise. It is possible that there may be a martyr here 
whose life will be a diamond set in gold. If so, let us be thankful for the 
noble example of self-consecration. 

By aiding science, you are putting another stone into the foundation of 
our public school system. With the products of nature and art before the 
pupil, his mind is naturally stimulated to earnest inquiry as to the 
nature and meaning of these things, and he is no longer contented to 
rest in words, but seeks the knowledge of things, of realities. He be- 
comes curious to learn what is written in the book of nature, and know 
the right interpretation of the handwriting on the walls of creation. 
The Academy must, in the nature of the relations between the two, be 
the ally of our public schools. 

Nor are its benefiis confined to the youth of the city. It is emphati- 
cally the citizens" school, the home of the mechanic, as well as the 
museum of the leax'ned and the curious. 

'' Great field here for the imagination," said the distinguished person 
who visited the museum yesterday. May I not suggest that each speci- 
men on the shelves may yet be read with as much interest by the youth of 
our city as any well worn volume in the Library ? As we are to have a 
school of the sciences in our midst, can our wealth find a better channel 
of usefulness than tl)e one here opened for all the generous V 

The Centennial year has been as one hundred years in one to our city. 
When our hopes had been consumed in the fire of one night, we sat^not 
down in the ashes, for we saw, with the expiring smoke, a form arising, 
rhoenix-like, that was equal to the solution of every riddle which the 
doubter could prepare. That form was the energy of woman crowned 
with faith, which carried bravely forward the enterprise of publishing 
the records of the Academy. Now we speak a living word to every 
prominent scientific association, both in America and Europe ; and every 
word we send abroad brings back a glad response, freighted with the 
riches of other minds, and the scientific treasures of both hemispheres 
are laid at our feet, and freely opened to every citizen. 

We gladly, then, gather here to thank you for your generosity, to cheer 
each other in the good work, to make more sure the conditions of success,' 
to marry intention to action, in such a way, by such measures, as will 
secure the triumph of our noble enterprise. 

This address was briefly responded to on behalf of Mrs. Wew- 
comb by Rev. Dr. Nott. He spol^e of the pleasure Mrs, ]^ew- 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 101 

comb experienced in making a donation for the welfare of an 
institution which has for its object the feeding of tlie noblest 
part of man's nature, his mind, through exploration in the do- 
main of science. She felt honored in being elected to a life 
membership of the Academy, which has already gained a noble 
reputation for its achievements in an imjDortant field of research. 
It had taken a high position, not only in our own State, but 
among the most noted scientific institutions and learned people 
of far distant States. He concluded by expressing the thanks of 
Mrs. Newcomb for the honor bestowed upon her, and for the 
visit of the friends and members of the Academy upon this 
occasion. 

Hon. James Renwick offered a resolution, directing the Trus- 
tees of the Academy to have painted, with her consent, a full 
length portrait of Mrs. Kewcomb, and that it be placed in one 
of the chief rooms of the new building soon to be erected by 
the Academy. The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

References having been made to the good offices of another 
lady, Dr. C. C. Parry rose and read the resolution adopted by 
the Trustees earlier in the day, making Mrs. Chas. E. Putnam 
a life member of the Academy. The resolution was unani- 
mously confirmed. 

The formal ceremonies being over, the members were enter- 
tained with vocal and instrumental music by Miss Jennie But- 
ton, and her sister, Mrs. Alice Button Atwell, after which the 
party adjourned to the dining rooms, where a rich and bountiful 
collation had been prepared by the ladies. After supper a short 
time was spent in social enjoyment. 



March 9th, ISTT.^Adjoitrned Meeting. 

Dr. E. H. Hazen in the chair. 

Sixteen members present. 

Under the head of communications, the following letters were 
read : 



102 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

To the President and Board of Trustees of the Davenport Academy of 
Natural Sciences : 

Gentlemen : — Your action in making me a life member of your 
society under so pleasant circumstances, and associated with that of our 
noble patron, Mrs. Newcomb, I regard as a great compliment, and desire 
to express to you my profomid acknowledgment therefor. I feel, how- 
ever, that the distinction is undeserved, and that the principal credit is 
due to those earnest -workers who established and have maintained the 
society under so many adverse circumstances, and knowing, too, how 
greatly f imds are needed for building puri^oses, I must decline receiving 
this life membership as a gratuity, and herewith enclose the sum of fifty 
dollars (SoO) in payment therefor, which I beg you will receive. 

Yery sincerely yours, 

Woodlawn, March 9th, 1877. Mary L. D. Putnam. 

Also the following : 

To to the President and Trustees of the Davenport Academy of Natural 
Sciences : 

Gentlemen : — In grateful remembrance of him who, next to my 
mother, was the first to lead me in the path of nature, and was among 
the first to conceive the idea of founding this Academy, and who alone 
of its founders has labored unceasingly in its behalf, and to whom the 
credit of its prosperity is largely due, I desire, in partial acknowledg- 
ment, to have the name of William H. Pratt enrolled in the list of life 
members of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 

I enclose a check for fifty dollars ($50) to. be applied to that purpose. 
Very respectfully yours, 

Davenport, March 9th, 1877. J. Duncan Putnam. 

The communications were received with the thanks of the 
Academy, and the money appropriated as requested by the 
donors. 

Mr. C. E. Putnam, on behalf of Mrs. Putnam, presented a 
communication from Hon. E. H. Pendleton, of Cincinnati, en- 
closing a draft for S250 — a donation to the Building Fund of the 
Academv. The donation was thankfully accepted, and the Sec- 
retary was instnicted to made proper acknowledgments. 

Dr. Farquharson then read the following paper : 



FAEQUHAESON ON INSCRIBED TABLETS. 103 

On the INSCRIBED TABLETS, found by Rev. J. Gass in a Mound 
near Davenport, Iowa. 

BY R. J. FARQUHARSON, M. D. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : — You need scarcely be told that the recent 
discovery of engraved tablets of stone in one of the mounds of this 
vicinity, is one of great, even transcendant, importance, not only to scien- 
tific persons, but also to the world at large. We are, in a measure, aston- 
ished at the vmexpectedness of our discovery, and also somewhat em- 
barrassed with its richness ; for in one particular, (that of phonetic 
writing,) it seems to prove too much. The only evidence we have of the 
existence of a people — conventionally called Mound Builders— preceding 
tlie modern Indians in the occupancy of this continent, consists of mate- 
rial relics, and of these a most abundant supply has been collected ; but 
of evidences of their language, of inscriptions, there are none — that is 
none which have a clear and indisputable title to such a character. 

Bancroft,* speaking of the importance of material relics, has the fol- 
lowing language : "■ When, in addition to their indirect teachings respect- 
ing the arts and institutions of their builders, antique monuments bear 
also inscriptions in written, or legible hieroglyphical characters, their 
value is, of course, greatly increased ; indeed, under such circumstances, 
they become the very highest historical authority." 

With this abundance of material relics we are not satisfied. There is 
now, and has always been, in the hearts of the students of American 
Archaeology, a longing for something more intimately connected with 
the mind of man, for some relic of language, the voice of the soul, the 
litera scripta. It may not not be too presumptuous on our part to hazard 
the conjecture that upon the face of one of the tablets before us we iiave 
the wherewithal, at least partly, to supply this void. 

It is objected, and seriously, too, that this discovery comes too apropos, 
too pat, in fact, and so partakes in the minds of some too much of the 
nature of a stage trick, a Deus ex Machina. However, if it is a true, 
bona fide discovery, some one else among the great army of searchers, in 
the course of time and from the very necessity of the case, must have 
made the same or a like one ; nor need we fear that our find, remarkable 
as it is, will long remain unique and solitary, for, as Mr. Haven truly 
says,t ^'Science and civilization do not leave solitary monuments.''^ 

However, whether by fortune or misfortune, it has been our lot to 
make the discovery, and it now becomes our duty, honestly and firmly 
convinced as we are, of its genuineness and authenticity, fairly to pub- 
lish it to the scientific world, for its merits there to be adjiidged, inviting 
all fair and candid criticism, yet deprecating, in the most earnest man- 
ner, the crude strictures of the hasty and inconsiderate. 

If the characters in the cremation scene tablet (Plate I) should prove 
to be phonetic, or even hieroglyphic, it may be, it doubtless will be long 
before they are deciphered ; it may be that from inherent difficulties, they 



*Native Tribes, &c., Vol. 4, p. S. 
tin a letter to the writer. 



104 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF XATURAL SCIEXCES. 

may never be deciphered. But we must bear in mind how very long the 
Egyptian hieroglyphics remained unread ; that until quite recently the 
cuneiform inscriptions were a sealed book. Indeed, the reading of them 
was for a long time deemed an impossible feat, and the very theory that 
there was any meaning in the complicated arrangement of wedges, was 
pronounced absurd by many wise antiquarians. Therefore, let us not 
despair, but rather let us indulge the hope, though it may seem to some 
a frail one, that this is but the first of a series of such discoveries ; that 
in time our Eosetta stone may be found, and that in the line of our 
learned occidentalists, there will arise a future Champollion, having a key 
to unlock this American language. 

Here, as well as anywhere, I may mention that one great objection to 
the reception of this or any other discovery of an inscription, seeming to 
come from the mounds, arises from the fact that most writers on Ameri- 
can antiquities of any authority, however much they may differ on other 
matters, seem as one on this point, that no American race ever had a 
written phonetic language ; some even go further, and say that as no 
evidence of such has been found, none ever will be found. 

Schoolcraft,* speaking of the inscription on the Grave Creek tablet, 
has the following empliatic language : " It would contradict all our actual 
knowledge in this branch of American Archseology, to admit the pos- 
session, by them, at any period known to us, of an alphabet of any kind. 
The characters employed In picture writing by the Toltecs and Aztecs 
were symbolical, and they have left irrefragable evidences of their high 
■^jroficiency in them, but nothing more. There can be no pretence that 
any Indian race w^ho e^er inhabited this valley possessed an alphabet." 

Again he says:t '' Nothing is more demcyistrtible than that whatever 
has emanated in the graphic or inscriptive art on this continent from the 
Red race, does not aspire above the simple art of pictography ; and 
whenever an alphabet of any kind is veritably discovered, it must have 
had a foreign origin. By granting belief to anything contravening this 
state of art, we at first deceive ourselves, and then lend our influence to 
diffuse error." 

Brantz Mayer says 4 "The ancient history of our tribes, it is well 
known, is a matter of tradition alone, for they had no written language ; 
or if they had. their story was not engraved on monuments, or trans- 
mitted on imperishable materials." 

Col. Whittlesey says : II "There is no evidence that they (the mound 
builders) had alphabetical characters, pictiure writing, or hieroglyphics, 
though they must have had some mode of recording events." 

These quotations might be greatly extended, but enough has been 
given to show the general drift of opinion among those writers, gener- 
ally accepted as authorities. 



*History, Conditions and Prospects of the Indian Tribes, Vol. I, p. 123-. 

tLoc. cit., Vol. I, p. 125. 

JSmitbsonian Contributions, Vol. IX, p. 3. 

ITopogra^ical and HistoricarSketchesof Ohio, p. 10. 



FAEQUHARSON ON INSCRIBED TABLETS. 105 

The subject matter of this paper, our inscribed tablets, will now be 
briefly considered under the following heads : 

1. A short notice of the various inscribed stones found in the United 
States and Canada, both true and false. 

2. The discovery of the Davenport Tablets, and the evidence in our 
possession of their authenticity. 

3. A description of the Tablets. 

4. A commentary on the Calendar Stone. 

5. A commentary on the Sepulchral Rite Stone, and on the letters or 
hieroglyphics. 

6. ji. commentary on the Hunting Scene Stone and its natural history, 
with some remarks on the question of the contemporaneous existence, 
on this continent, of man and the mastodon. 

I. — INSCRIBED STONES. 

The oldest and most celebrated inscribed stone in this country is un- 
doubtedly that of Dighton Rock, in Massachusetts near the mouth of 
Taunton River. This famous inscription has been described, figured and 
discussed many times in the past two hundred years ; at one time it was 
considered a bit of Indian picture writing and no more, in which state 
opinion rested for a long while. It came again into importance when the 
question of the Pre-Columbian discovery of America was brought for- 
ward. There are two kinds of inscriptions on the rock, one of which is 
apparently Indian, was so regarded by the late Prof. Wyman, and as such 
was intelligently translated for Schoolcraft by an Indian. The other, 
altogether different, is regarded as Runic, and is shown in the cartoon. 

The essential parts of the inscription, according to the skillful Runolo- 
gist, Finn Magnusen, to whom it was referred by Prof. Rafn, are as 
follows : 

FIG. 10. 

NOERROENIR M ADR NAM (land) ThORFINS. 

That is, 151 i^orthmen occupied this land (with) Thorflns. G or C 
being the centum majus, or ten dozen (120) of the ancient Scandinavians. 

As this reading accords almost exactly with the long lost and recently 
found Saga of Thorflnn Karlsefn, and is accepted by the French Runol- 
ogists, it may be accepted as the true one.* 

The confidence inspired by this successful reading induced the Royal 
Socie ty of Antiquarians of Denmark to purchase this rock, and arrange- 

*Compte-Eendu dii Congress des Americanistes, Nancy, 1875, Vol. I, article Dighton Eock. 
[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 16 [April, 1877.] 



106 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATL'RAL SCIENCES. 

ments were ver>' recently being made to remove it to Copenhagen. The 
excitement caused by this movement culminated lately in a public meet- 
hig at Boston, and other airangements were there made by which this 
important monument of our early history is to be preserved and trans- 
ported to that city. In consideration of this concession on the part of 
the Danish antiquaries, a granite monument is to be erected on the spot 
now occupied by the engraved rock, thus to commemorate the landing 
here in 1007 of Thorfinn, as narrated in the Saga, and in the inscription, 
as read by Magnusen. 

For most of the following information in regard to the other inscribed 
stones, I am indebted to Col. Whittlesey's Tract No. 33, entitled 
•' Archaeological Frauds,'" being the second one by him with that title. 

Grave Creek S^one.— This inscribed stone has excited nearly as much 
comment and controversy as the tirst. It was discovered in 1838, and 
was seen by Schoolcraft in 1843, in whose work it is tigured from a draw- 
ing made by Capt. Eastman, U. S. A. 

Schoolcraft considers it genuine ; Squier doubts its authenticity ; while 
Col. Whittlasey says : " The best authorities in the United States have 
condemned it during many years. The preponderance of proof, as well 
as of probabilities, is decidedly against it." And yet, at the Congress of 
Americanists, at Nancy, in 1875, it (or rather, according to Whittlesey, 
an imperfect copy) was read by Mr. Bing, as follows : " Thy orders are 
laws, thou shinest in thy impetuous clan, and rapid as the chamois." Mr. 
Bing then adds : '• I not only sustain but justify the autlienticity of the 
twenty-three Canaanite or Phoenician letters, comprising the eight words 
of the Grave Creek inscription." 

In 1857, M. Maurice Schwab had read the same inscription as follows, 
viz : " The chief of emigration who reached these places (or this island), 
has fixed these decrees forever." 

Again M. Oppert, another advocate of the Phoenecian theory, had read 
it: '• The grave of one who was murdered here; to i-evenge him may 
God strike his murderer, suddenly taking away his existence '' {en lui 
trancliant la main, Vexistence). 

These three different renderings of the same sentence by these learned 
men are doubtless interesting, but it must be admitted that they are also 
somewhat embarrassing. fig. ii. 

The three following characters are common to the yv 
inscription on Dighton Rock, and to that on the /j> Y / 
Grave Creek stone : ^ 

Of the twenty-three characters on the Grave Creek stone, the seven 
following, viz : 



< I >^ xxs 



are, according to Schoolcraft, to be found among the so-called " Stick 
book" characters of the Ancieiat Bardic (the Billet of the Bards of 



FAEQUHAESOK ON INSCRIBED TABLETS. 107 

Britain) ; but as Prof. Rafn was totally unable to unravel the inscription, 
the resemblance is no doubt a fanciful one ; just as finding tlie letters 
T, O, "W", N, in the Davenport inscription may also be pure fancy. 

The third engraved stone is a quartz axe, found on the ocean beach in 
Nova Scotia. 

The fourth is the Pemberton axe of New Jersey. 

The fifth and sixth are the Holy Stones of Wyrick. They had Hebrew 
characters on them, and were said to have been taken from two separate 
mounds in Licking County, Ohio, one near Newark and the otlier near 
Jacktown. 

The seventh, having Hebrew letters, and alleged to have been taken 
from the latter mound, though, like the others, evidently a fraud, has a 
somewhat curious history from the fact that an account of its finding 
was presented to the Congress of Americanists at Nancy (1875), in whose 
proceedings it will be found, together with an illustration of it and one 
of the Wyrick stones from photographs ; the savans present wisely re- 
serving their decision. 

The eighth engraved stone is an axe from Butler County, Ohio, with 
English characters. 

The ninth is from Grand Travei-se Bay, Michigan, with Greek, Bardic 
and fictitious characters, all jumbled together, without order, and very 
imperfectly executed with a knife. 

The tenth being a stone maul from, an ancient mine-pit. Lake Supe- 
rior, on which are some characters, at first supposed to be letters. 

In his last tract. Col. Whittlesey, omits all mention of the Cincinnati 
stone, whose authenticity was the subject of so much controversy, the 
weight of evidence being now in its favor. However, it scarcely de- 
serves menting here, as the marks on it liave no pretensions to being let- 
ters, or even hieroglyphic or symbolic figures, being in fact, purely orna- 
mental. A stone like it, but figured on both sides, was found in one of 
the minor mounds of Grave Creek, and is figured in Schoolcraft's work. 

DISCOVERY or THE TABLETS. 

In this regard there is but little to be said in addition to the account 
already given by the original explorers. Perhaps, however, it might be 
well enough to state that these tablets are from Mound ^o. 3 of the 
series already described in Vol. I of our Proceedings, the hole dug in 
finding them being on the north or opposite side from the site of the 
former exploration. Shortly after the report of the discovery, several 
gentlemen, officers of the Academy, visited the excavation, and through 
our President, Mr. Hunting, reported, that from the unbroken condition 
of the layers of shells, and from other evidences visible, they were of the 
opinion that no disturbance of the mound had taken pla43e since the 
formation of these layers. 

But the indisputable evidence of the authenticity of these tablets rests 
in the explicit statement of the Rev. Mr. Gass and the gentlemen assist- 
ing him, — that after the penetration of the frozen crust of the earth, they 



108 DATEJfPORT ACADEMY OF XATUKAL SCIEXCES. 

did not leave the spot until the tablets were unearthed by the hands of the 
former. This forever silences the doubt in regard to the intrusion or 
interi^olation of these tablets, for, taken in connection with the frozen 
state of the ground, it makes such an act simply impossible. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLETS. 

The material of the tablets is the bituminous shale, which is abund- 
antly found in the coal regions, and crops out in various places in this 
vicinity, notably on Rock River. This shale is quite light and very soft, 
and has the following composition, the analysis being due the kindness of 
our associate, Mr. J. H. Harrison : 

Water (moisture) 74 parts. 

Inflammable matter (carbon, bitumen, etc.) 316 parts. 

Ashes 610 parts. 

1000 

Though this material is found so abundantly in this vicinity, it is not 
a fair inference to conclude that the tablets were necessarily made here, 
for the substance of which they are composed is equally abundant in 
very many other places, indeed, wherever coal is found. The large 
tablet, as found, had a thickness of one and a half (1*) inches, and is of 
an iiTegular, quadrilateral shape, twelve (12) inches long on the unbroken 
edge, and from eight (8) to ten (10) inches wide. Judging from the sac- 
rificial or cremation scene, nearly or quite one-half of this engraved tab- 
let is missing. 

As found, the stone was split into two parts by a separation in the 
plane of cleavage, and the upper half (the cremation scene) was unfortu- 
nately broken also into two pieces by the blow of the spade, which re- 
vealed its existence in the soft earth where it rested. 

The smaller tablet or calendar stone is composed of the same material, 
and is in shape an imperfect square, with nearly straight sides of seven 
(7) inches in length ; the thickness, which is not vmiform, averages five 
eighths (f ) of an inch ; the holes bored near the upper corners, apparently 
for the purpose of suspension, have each the diameter of three-eighths 
(f) of an inch. 

An examination of the surfaces of the stones with a magnifying glass, 
showing the marks of the original polishing, or smoothing would seem to 
indicate that they had not weathered much. Whatever signs of weath- 
ering exist are equally visible everywhere, that is to say, they have weath- 
ered alike the surface and the cuts. The exceedingly friable nature of 
the stone would indeed render much exposure to weathering influences 
impossible. The incisions, which are no where very deep, have a depth 
which is uniformly as the width, and seem to have been made with a 
cutting point or edge held at angle of 45 degrees to the surface. 

CALENDAR STONE (PLATE III). 

In addition to the representation on the plate, a very short notice of 
the marking on this;3tone will suflSce. The central circle was described 



FARQUH ARSON ON INSCRIBED TABLETS. 109 

with the radius of one inch, and the spaces between the outer cii'cles 
average nearly three-quarters (f ) of an inch. This certainly has a mod- 
ern look, but the apparent agreement with modern measures of 
length may be, after all, merely a coincidence. For in an elaborately 
carved shell ornament, found by Dr. Jones in a sacrificial or sepulchral 
mound near Nashville, Tenn.,* and figured in this work, I find very 
nearly the same measures, the central circle being first of one (1) inch 
radius, and the distances between the outer circles being about a quarter 
(i) of an inch. If we consider this a calendar stone, and the twelve (12) 
signs as marking the divisions of the year, then it does not in the least 
resemble the Mexican and Maya calendars. If again we consider it as 
zodiacal, the signs in the outer circle being symbols of the constellations 
along the sun's path, then, though the signs are different, yet the resem- 
blance to the common zodiac is so great as to suggest contact with one 
of the many nations or races which have adopted that very ancient 
delineation of the sun's pathway through the heavens. 

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to inake out the animals and other 
figures on this stone. I can decipher but one, which seems to be the 
cross-l)ones surmounted by a flame, the former being found quite fre- 
quently in Maya sculpture, but always accompanied, as in modern times, 
with the figure of a skull. 

THE SACRIFICIAL OR CRE^IATION SCENE, AND THE LETTERS OR 
HIEROGLYPHICS (PLATE l). 

There is a general agreement that this represents a burning of the 
dead. That the mound builders practiced cremation we have abundant 
evidence in the burnt human bones in the altar mounds, though Bancroft 
thinks their presence suggests human sacrifice. That they collected a 
number of bodies, or rather skeletons, for cremation, seems quite prob- 
able ; this would account for the three bodies present. 

La Hon tan says : " The savages on the Long River (Mississippi) burn 
their dead, reserving the bodies until there are a sufficient number to 
burn together, which is performed out of the village, in a place set apart 
for the purpose." 

We come now to what is, no doubt, to most of you, the most interest- 
ing part of the subject— the consideration of the letters or figures occu- 
pying the two scrolls above the cremation scene, and also the corners 
above the scrolls. I must, in the first place, confess my utter inability to 
throw any light on the subject, the mastery of languages requsite for such 
a purpose being entirely beyond my power. The following observations 
may, however, enable you to see the mode and direction of my groping 
in the dark : Counting the total number of figures, I make ninety-eight 
(98), twenty-four (24) in one line, twenty (20) in the other, and fifty-four 
(54) above the lines, deducting twenty-four (24) repetitions, and there 
remains seventy-four (74) separate figures. 



♦Explorations of the Aboriginal Remains of Tennessee, p. 43. 



110 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

The figures repeated are as follows, viz : 

• • 4 times. >> 4 times. 

O '^ times. rjj 3 times. 

4 times. /\ 3 times. 

3 times. 



// 

y, 4 times. \/ 



You have already seen specimens of the written Runic and Bardic 
characters. Your attention is now called to the letters of the Phoenician 
alphabet, and it would require no exuberant fancy to see a resemblance 
between some of these and some of the characters of the Davenport 
Tablet. The identity, or at least strong resemblance, of several of these, 
is shown in the cartoon. 

We do not know whether the ancient Peruvians had any written lan- 
guage, as none has come down to us, or, indeed, if they possessed any 
other means of recording events than the colored strings or quippos, 
and these were merely mnemonic or a kind of artificial memory. 

The Mayas of Central America had picture writing, but whether they 
had made any advances towards symbols for sounds I know not. The 
Mayas had a peculiar way of noting or marking numbers, which has a 
striking resemblance to the groups of dots in the Davenport inscription. 
This similarity I remarked first when looking over the representations of 
Maya sculpture given \n Bancroft's great work, and the impression was 
confirmed by the perusal of a paper by M. Leon de llosny, on " The Num- 
eration in the Language and in the Sacred Writing of the Ancient 
Mayas," read at the Congress of Americanists, at Nancy, in 1875, and 
published in the Compte-Rendu of that body (vol. 2, p. 439). This mode 
of numeration, which was also used in the ancient Mexican writing, 
though the language is altogether different, is as follows : •==!, • .=2, • • • 
or . • ,=3, .... or : : =4, =5, then ' (5 and 1)=6, _J_^ (5 

and 2)=7, ^^^ (5 and 3)=8, ' ' ' (5 and 4, =9, — — — , and so on up to 
= 23, which is the greater unit of the numeration, it counting on- 
ward by 20's, and there being names for the square of 20 (20x20), etc. 
This vigesimal system of counting, evidently founded on the whole number 
of fingers and toes, seems to have been confined to the Mayas, Aztecs, 
and allied nations ; elsewhere, in l>oth North and Soutli America, the dec- 
imal system prevailed. 

But, according to Duponceau, the Indian tribes about the Great Lakes 
and the neighboring ones, counted by fives, like the Mayas. 

The Mexicans had picture writing, as we know, but they had more, 
Brantz Mayer says :* " The Mexican picture writing consisted of several 



*Smithsonian Contributions, Vol. IX, p. 13-. 



FAEQUII ARSON ON INSCRIBED TABLETS, 111 

elements : an arbitrary system of symbols to denote years, months, days, 
seasons, the elements, and events of frequent occurrence; an effort to 
delineate persons and their acts by rude drawings ; and a phonetic sys- 
tem ivhich, through objects, conveyed sounds that, siyigly or in combination, 
expressed the facts they loere designed to record.^'' 

The objection that the mound builders were in too rude a state to have 
had a phonetic, or, indeed, any written language, seems to me a not in- 
superable one. 

Livingstone* found the people of Bergema (Central Africa) possessed 
of a written language, consisting of 280 letters or characters, each repre- 
senting an entire syllable. It is true, they may have inherited this alpha- 
bet, or gained it by contact with other nations, but the latter is not 
known to be the fact. 

As having some bearing on the question of the possibility of the mound 
builders forming an alphabet of written characters, the fact of the devis- 
ing of an alphabet by a probably kindred people, the Cherokees, is 
worthy of mention. Now, though the Cherokees had long been in con- 
tact with the whites, especially the English, the inventor Sequoyah, or 
George Guess, did not copy the English alphabet, giving another force to 
the different letters or characters ; he could not even read English, and 
the alphabet of his invention is totally unlike that of the English, or, 
indeed, of any modern tongue. 

.Sir John Lubbockf speaks in the following high terms of praise of the 
Cherokee alphabet : '' Sequoyah invented a system of letters which, as 
far as the Cherokee language is concerned, is better than ours. Cherokee 
contains twelve consonants and six vowels, with a nasal sound, mung. 
Multiplying the twelve consonants by the six vowels, and adding the 
vowels which occur singly, he acquired seventy-seven characters, to 
which he added eight, representing the sounds s,Tca,hna, nah,ta,te,ti, tla, 
making, altogether, eighty-five characters. This alphabet, as already 
mentioned, is better than ours. The characters are indeed numerous, 
but when once learned the pupil can read at once. It is said that a boy 
can learn Cherokee, when thus expressed, in a few weeks, while if ordi- 
nary letters are used, two years are required." 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE HUNTING SCENE, AND REMARKS UPON 

THE QUESTION OF THE CONTEMPORANEOUS EXISTENCE OF 

MAN AND THE MASTODON (PLATE II). 

Of the animal kingdom, 30 individuals are represented, divided as fol- 
lows, viz: Man, 8 ; bison, 4; deer, 4; birds, 3; hares, 3; big horn or 
Rocky Mountain goat, 1 ; fishes, 1 ; prairie wolf, 1 ; nondescript ani- 
mals, 3. Of these latter, one defies recognition, but the other two, appar- 
ently of the same species, are the most interesting figures of the whole 
group. These animals are supposed by different critics to represent she- 
moose, tapirs or mastodons. 



*Travels in Africa, p. 228. 
fOrigin of Civilization, appendix. 



112 DAVENPOET ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

We will leave the upper animal out of consideration, though he has a 
true flap ear like the elephant ; the correctness of his drawing seems to 
have been spoiled by the nearness of the bison, the outlines of whose 
body are repeated in him. Now, taking the lower animal, and measur- 
ing him, we find the following dimensions, viz : Length of body, 45 milli- 
metres : height, 41 m. ; length of tail, 13 m. ; diameter of fore leg (near 
the body), 6 m. ; diameters of hind leg (near the body), 8 m. Now, 
assuming the height as 10 feet, we have a length of 11 feet, a length of 
tail of 3 feet, diameter of the fore and hind legs, respectively, of li and 
2 feet— truly a very elephant-like proportion. But the trunk and the 
tusks are omitted. Well, so are the eye and the ear, yet, nevertheless, 
we contend that no animal but an elephant has such proportions, such a 
contour of the back, such legs and such a tail. 

The statement of the following fact may not be amiss in this connec- 
tion : The modern Indians, though generally very accurate in details, 
sometimes purposely omitted important features of an animal, as, for 
instance, the horns of the elk, when representing the head of that ani- 
mal. Examples of this are to be found in Schoolcraft. 

Again, in that otherwise truthful delineation of the mastodon, the ele- 
phant mound of Wisconsin, the artist has totally omitted the tusks, and 
shortened the trunk to very modest dimensions. Surely, not for want of 
space, for the whole animal has a length of over one hundred (100) feet 
and a proportionate height. 

Anyhow, we will assume this animal to be the mastodon, or, at least, a 
good enough mastoddn for our purpose, and proceed to treat of the last 
portion of our subject, the contemporaneous existence of man on this 
continent. We will consider the evidence on that subject, seriatim, as 
nearly as possible in the order, in point of time, that it was brought to 
light by publication. 

First, we have the Indian tradition, as narrated by Jefferson in his 
" Notes on Virginia," written about 1794, and in answer to an inquiry of 
a gentleman in France. Jefferson says : " Our quadrupeds have been 
mostly described by Linnaeus and Monsieur de Buffon. Of these the 
mammoth or big buffalo, as called by the Indians, must certainly have 
been the largest. Their tradition is, that he was carniverous, and still 
exists in the northern parts of America. 

•'A delegation of warriors from the Delaware tribe, having visited the 
Governor of Virginia during the Eevolution, on matters of business, 
after these had been discussed and settled in council, the Governor asked 
them some questions relative to their country, and among others, what 
they knew or had heard of the animals whose bones were found at the 
salt licks on the Ohio (Big Bone Lick, Kentucky). Their chief imme- 
diately put himself into an attitude of oratory, and with a pomp suited 
to>vhat he conceived the elevation of the subject, informed him that it 
was a tradition handed down from their fathers. That in ancient times 
a herd of these tremendous animals came to the Big Bone Licks and be- 
gan an universal destruction of the bear, deer, elks, buffaloes, and other 



FAEQUHAESON ON INSCRIBED TABLETS. 113 

animals which had been created ; that the Great Man above, looking 
down and seeing this, was so enraged that he seized his lightning, de- 
scended, seated himself on a neighboring monntain, on a rock, of which 
his seat and the print of his feet are still to be seen, and hnrled his bolts 
among them till the whole were slaughtered, except the big bull, who, 
presenting his forehead to the shafts, shook them off as they fell, but 
missing one at last, it wounded him in the side, whereupon, springing 
round, he bounded over the Ohio, over the Wabash, the Illinois, and 
finally over the great lakes, where he is living at this day." 

Mr. Jefferson* also states that, " a Mr. Stanley, taken prisoner near 
the mouth of the Tennessee, relates that after being transferred through 
several tribes, from one to another, he was at length carried over the 
mountains west of the Missouri to a river which runs westwardly, that 
there these bones (tusks, grinders and big bones) abounded, and that the 
natives described to him the animal to which they belonged as still exist- 
ing in the northern part of their country, from which description he judged 
it to be an elephant." 

A recent writer in a newspaper! thus speaks of the Big Bone Lick : 
After mentioning the fact that when first discovered in 1773, mastodon 
bones were in great abundance on the surface of the ground, he contin- 
ues : " This fact affords a key to the living age of these extinct animals 
that has ever be6n a matter of conjecture with the scientific world. 
That bones on the surface would not last a hundred years, probably not 
more than forty or fifty." He then adds : " So that this key of the Big 
Bone Lick (never before or elsewhere found) unlocks the mystery, and 
shows to a certainty that these now extinct giants might have been seen 
stalking through the forests like moving mountains, with their fearfui 
tusks, glaring eyes, and heads of a thousand pounds, but a short time be- 
fore the discovery of their remains.'''' 

The next link in the chain of our evidence is afforded by the narrative 
of Dr. Koch, who, in a pamphlet published in St. Louis, in 1840, stated 
that he had found the remains of a mastodon, in 1838, which had evi- 
dently been destroyed by the hands of man. This premature statement 
of a fact was received with ridicule and scorn, and his reputation, so far 
as veracity is concerned, remained under a cloud during the rest of his 
life. This statement was also published in the Proceedings of the St. 
Louis Academy for 1857, from which it has been repeatedly quoted by 
various writers. 

By good fortune, and through the kindness of our associate, Mr. Les- 
lie, I am in possession of the original pamphlet of Dr. Koch, published in 
1840, in St. Louis, while he was exhibiting in that city the skeleton of 
another mastodon, being the one now in the British Museum. As it is 
important, in such cases, to have the exact words of an original 
explorer, I will quote him at some length. After stating how a farmer 
in Gasconade County, Missouri, in cleaning out a spring, discovered the 

*Xotes on Virginia. 
fLouisville Courier-Journal. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 16 [April, 1S77.] 



114: DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATL'RAL SCIEN'CES. 

bones ; the manner of his hearing of this, and his arrival on the spot in 
the month of October, 18.SS, he proceeds thus : " The whole situation in 
which I found the remaining bones bore every evidence that the animal 
whose frame they constituted had been destroyed by human hands, which 
is a circumstance of the highest importance, as I believe no similar one 
has exhibited itself, or been recorded in geology or history, with the excep- 
tion of some few Indian traditions, which have been generally discred- 
ited, and probably originated in their vague conceptions of the Supreme 
Being. 

'' The principal part of the animal had been consumed by fire, that had 
not been created by a volcanic eruption, but had been made of wood, as I 
found nine feet beneath the surface a layer of ashes from six (6) to twelve 
(12) inches in thickness, mingled with charcoal, large pieces of wood partly 
burned, together with Indian implements of war, as stone arrowheads, 
tomahawks, etc. I also found more than one hundred and fifty (150) 
pieces of rocks, varying from three (8) to twenty-five (25) pounds in 
weight, which must have been carried from the rocky shores of the Bur- 
boise (Bourbeuse) River, a distance of three hundred (300) yards, as there 
was no rock, stone, or even gravel near to be found ; and these pieces of 
rock taken out of the ashes were precisely the same as chat found in the 
river, which is a species of limestone. These had been thrown evidently 
with the intention of striking the animal. 

" I am more of the belief that the animal got mired, than that it died 
a natural death, as I found the fore and hind foot standing in a perpen- 
dicular position, and likewise the full length of the leg below the layer 
of ashes, so deep in the mud and water that the fire had no effect on 
them. AYhereas, if the animal had died in any other way, these feet and 
legs could not have remained in their standing position, but would have 
fallen into a recumbent or reclining posture. As it is indisputable that 
the animal could not have died and remained standing after its death, 
excepting that it was so deeply mired that it could not fall ; in which 
case the fire would have had no perceivable effect on the carcass." 

It must be said that Dr. Koch's account met with a more favorable re- 
ception in Europe, especially in Germany ; and it was not very many years 
before the abundant proofs of the coexistence of man and the mammoth 
in that hemisphere, even to a drawing of the latter animal on its own 
ivory, forced an almost universal belief of it. We cannot trace in this 
country, as in Eui'ope, the existence of man to period when he was the 
contemporary of many extinct mammalia, and when the outlines of land 
and sea, and the conditions of climate over large parts of the earth were 
wholly different from what they now are. But he can be traced beyond 
the last great change, for Dr. Abbott found worked flint implements in 
the glacial drift of New Jersey, and he rightly infers, " that if man was 
a 2)re-glacial occupant of this continent, he must have been familiar with the 
mastodon.''''* 

The works of man have been repeatedly found in this country in con- 

*LeUer to the writer. 



FAEQUHARSON ON INSCRIBED TABLETS. 115 

nection with the bones of the mastodon, or of other extinct animals, 
his contemporaries. 

Bancroft says :* " The mining shafts of California have brought to 
light human remains, implements wrought by human hands, and bones 
of extinct animals, at great depths below the surface, evidently of great 
age. 

Whitney found in California in 1857 the works of man with bones of 
the mastodon, and says :t " There is every reason to believe that these 
great proboscidians lived at a very recent period (geologically speaking), 
and posterior to the epoch of the existence of glaciers in the Sierra 
Kevada, and also after the close of the period of activity of the now ex- 
tinct volcanoes of that great chain." 

Holmes, in "South Carolina in 1858, "| found pottery at the base of a 
peat bed, on the banks of Ashley River, in close connection with the 
grinder of a mastodon. 

Hilgard, in Louisiana in 1867, in the salt mine of Petite Ansa Island, 
found the works of man, with the bones of a mastodon. There are two 
instances in America of the existence of the effigies of the mastodon in 
monumental structures. First, in the splendid ruins of Copan and 
Palenque, where they occur as sculptured ornaments of buildings, in the 
form of massive heads with huge trunks ; and secondly, in the instance of 
the celebrated elephant mound of Wisconsin. Of the latter, the original 
describer in the Smithsonian Report for 1872, has the following remark : 
"Is not the existence of such a mound good evidence of the contempo- 
raneous existence of the mastodon and the mound builders V" 

Ladies and Gentlemen, the last link in the chain of evidence of the 
coeval life of man and the mastodon on this continent, beai*s the date of 
1877, and is to be found on the face of the Hunting Scene Tablet, now 
before you. 

The paper was illustrated by charts of ancient and modern 
letter characters, and was referred to the Publication Comhiittee. 

Prof. W. D. Gunning was present, and in response to a call, 
made some interesting remarks, in which he alluded to these 
archaeological discoveries as promising very important results. 

Mr, W. H. Pratt exhibited a stone carving, representing a 
human head, said to have been exhumed from a well excavation 
at a depth of thirty-nine feet below the surface fn Hardin 
County, Iowa, and which was sent to the Academy by the 
owner for an expression of its opinion. The letter accompany- 
ing left some doubt in regard to the exact location of the speci- 

*Nativ9 Tribes, vol. 4, p. 688. 

fProceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Vol. 3, p. 278. 

tProc. of Phila. Acad, of Nat. Sci., Jaly, 1859, p. 179. 



116 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

men, but Prof. Gunning expressed the opinion that it probably 
belonged to the era of the mound builders, as it resembles closely 
similar relics exhumed elsewhere. 

March 30th, 1877. — Kegular Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Fifteen members "present. 

Tlie Publication Committee announced that forty-eight pages 
of Vol. II of the Proceedings had been printed. 

Various donations to the Museum were announced, among 
them a Fiji war club from Miss Fanny Timanus, and an addi- 
tional donation of a large lot of minerals from Prof. T. S. Par- 
vin, of Iowa City, all of which were received, with thanks to the 
donors. The Parvin Geological Collection has been received 
and mostly arranged. 

A number of valuable additions to the Library were reported, 
including a set of Agricultural lieports from Ohio, and various 
foreign scientific publications received through the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

The Furnishing Committee announced the donation by Pres- 
ident Hunting of a much needed extension table, which was 
accepted with thanks. 

A communication from J. D. Putnam, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Publication, addressed to the President and Board of 
Trustees, was read, stating in a precise form the conditions 
under which the publication of Vol. II of the Proceedings had 
been undertaken ; the necessity of more liberal support in the 
way of subscriptions to meet the obligations assumed by the 
Academy, which had not yet reached one-half of the required 
number of 150 copies, and would soon be required to meet 
accruing bills, and to provide for necessary illustrations ; also, 
dwelling on the importance of the work in order to keep up the 
future standing and usefulness of the Academy, especially in 
securing exchanges from kindred associations at home and 
abroad. Following the reading of this communication it was 
voted to appoint a committee to solicit subscriptions, which was 
selected as follows : H. C. Fulton, W. J. Skinner, E. P. Lynch, 
W. H. Pratt, E. H. Hazen. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS, 117 

The Corresponding Secretary reported a large number of 
letters written, and about as many received, besides several 
packages of books, etc. 

Letters were read from the following persons in acknowledg- 
ment of their election as honorary or corresponding members of 
the Academy : Joseph Henry, Washington, D. C. ; Asa Gray, 
Cambridge, Mass. ; Dr. John L. Le Conte, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Dr. Herman Behr, Henry Edwards, Dr. A. Kellogg, "W". G. W. 
Harford, San Francisco, Cal. ; L. N. Dimmock, Santa Barbara, 
Cal. ; Henry Ulke, "Washington, D. C. ; Baron C. R, Osten 
Sacken, Newport, R. I. ; Dr. H. A. Hagen, F. AV. Putnam, 
Cambridge, Mass. ; Herman Strecker, Reading, Pa. ; John 
Wolf, Canton, 111. ; James Lewis, Mohawk, N. Y. ; Dr. Ed- 
ward Palmer, St. George, Utah, and others. 

President Hunting announced the appointment of S. F. Smith 
as a member of the Finance Committee in place of George H. 
French resigned. 

A building committee was nominated and confirmed by the 
Academy to consist of Chas. E. Putnam, E. P. Lynch, C. C. 
Parry, M. B. Cochran, E. H. Hazen. 

The amendments to the By-Laws presented at the last meet- 
ing, were adopted, as follows : 

ARTICLE IX.— COMMITTEES. 

Section 1. Strike out the word "and" after '•'•Library,'''' and after 
" Publication,'''' insert " on Finance''' and " on Furnishing.'''' 

At the close of Section 6 add : 

Section 7. The Committee on Finance shall consist of three mem- 
bers, the Treasurer of the Academy being ex-officio chairman of the 
committee. It shall be their duty to take into consideration all subjects 
directly connected with the financial interests of the Academy ; to recom- 
mend from time to time such action as may seem advisable for raising 
necessary funds for regular or extraordinary expenses, and at each 
annual meeting to present an estimate of the funds required for the en- 
suing year, with suggestions in reference to the most feasible means of 
securing the same. 

Sec. 8. The Furnishing Committee shall consist of Ave members, of 
whom not less than three shall be ladies connected with the Academy ; it 
shall be their duty to take charge of all entertainments devised and car- 



lis DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF XATCRAL SCIENCES. 

ried out for the interests of tlie Academy, and all monies derived from 
such sources, or special donations to the furnishing funds, shall be ex- 
pended by them on orders approved by the President, in supplying neces- 
sary furniture to render the rooms of the Academy comfortable and 
attractive. It shall be their duty to present at the annual meeting a 
condensed statement of such receipts and expenditures, and offer such 
suggestions as may seem advisable for promoting the efficiency of such 
objects. 

Chas. Sclimidt, Weller Reed, M. V. Gannon, P. S. Black- 
mon, of Davenport ; Prof. T. S. Parvin, of Iowa CItj, and 
Hon. T. H. Howe, of Pittsburg, Pa., were elected regular 
members of the Academy. Prof. Parvin was elected a life 
member. The names of nine persons were presented for regu- 
lar membership, and of one hundred persons for corresponding 
membership of the Academy. 

Dr. C, C. Parry offered the following resolution : 

Whereas, The United States Department of Agriculture, under the 
administration of Commissioner Watts, for the past six years, has failed 
to meet the requirements of advanced agriculture, its official acts and 
published reports being neither creditable to the country nor of any essen- 
tial benefit to the large agiicultural community for whose benefit it was 
instituted, and. 

Whereas, The time has fully come when American science should be 
properly represented at the capital of the nation ; therefore. 

Resolved, By the Davenport Academy of Sciences, that we urgently 
recommend, as citizens of a State largely devoted to agricultural pur- 
suits, that the position of United States Commissioner of Agriculture 
should be filled by one whose large experience, eminent abilities, scien- 
tific training, extensive travels and acknowledged executive ability are 
calculated to elevate the standard of progressive agriculture, meet the 
pressing want of supplying the necessary information in efficiently com- 
batting insect foes, and creditably represent American science both at 
home and abroad, and that these desirable qualifications are worthily 
exemplified in Dr. .John L. Le Conte, the distinguished entomologist, of 
Philadelphia, who is eminently qualified to fill such a position, with credit 
to himself and benefit to the country at large. 

Mr. W. H. Holmes offered as au amend raent : 

Resolved, That it is inexpedient for the Academy to make any recom- 
mendation in reference to the appointment of a United States Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture. 

The amendment, being put to vote, was lost, and after some 
discussion the original resolution was adopted. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 119 

W. J. Skinner made a motion tliat an amendment to the By- 
Laws be proposed at the next meeting, requiring that all names 
proposed for regular membership be accompanied by the regular 
initiation fee of $5. 

The following paper was read by title and referred to the 
Publication Committee : Botanical Features of the Desert Re- 
gion of South-eastern California, hj/ Dr. G. C. Parry. 

April 9th, 1875. — Trustees' Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Six members present. 

An oifer from the Eclectic Club, of Davenport, to give a 
dramatic entertainment for the benefit of the Academy was 
accepted, and a Committee of Arrangements, consisting of Dr. 
C. H. Preston, Dr. C. C . Parry, Clarence Lindley, and Chester 
Pratt, was appointed, with authority to make all necessary 
arrangements. 

It was also voted, that if convenient to the performers, the 
play entitled " Fate" be given at the Burtis Opera House on 
Monday, the 16th inst. 

April ISth, 1877. — Historical Section. 

J. A, Crandall in the chair. 

Ten members present. 

Quite a number of donations were reported, among them the 
first Directory of the City of Davenport in 1855 ; Eastman's 
History of the State of Kew York, 1831, from Mr. Pratt; also 
a piece of wood from Commodore Perry's flag-ship, " Law- 
rence," and one from the celebrated frigate, "Constitution;" 
an old table-fork of Queen Elizabeth's time, together with a 
curious old china pitcher and cup, etc. 

Several contemplated papers, relating to various subjects con- 
cerning the history of this vicinity were reported, and a general 
informal discussion was had. Great regret was expressed by the 
members present that so many valuable historical documents be- 
longing to the Scott County Pioneer Society had been destroyed 
in the late fire in Eldrids-e & Brother's office. 



120 davexport academy of natural sciences. 

April 14th, 1877. — Biological Section. 
J. D, Putnam in the chair. 
Nine members present. 
Mr. J. D. Putnam presented the following 

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

It is now a little more than a year since ten members of the Academy 
met together " to form a working section of those membei's specially 
interested in Botany and Zoology, for the purpose of listening to and 
discussing the reports of observations and collections in these depart- 
ments made by the members.'" Since that time there have been eight 
meetings of the Section, besides one '• Field meeting," an average of about 
eight members being present on each occasion. Other meetings and ex- 
cursions were planned, but failed on account of the weather, or because 
of other engagements by the members. 

The active work of the Section has fallen upon a very few, and although 
but comparatively little was accomplished in adding to our knowledge of 
the Biological features around us, we have gained some experience, and 
will, no doubt, be better prepared for the great work before us. With 
the exception of the flowering plants, the shell-hearing mollusca, and a 
few of the orders of insects, we know almost absolutely nothing regard- 
ing the Botany and Zoology of the neighborhood in which we live, and 
even in these branches our knowledge is exceedingly crude and imper- 
fect. Our first and principal object should be to learn all we can of the 
living things in our own vicinity, and in this way we will not only come 
to a better knowledge of our own resources, but we may be able now and 
then to add something to the entire stock of knowledge already possessed 
by the scientific world. To do this it is necessary to make close observa- 
tions of the animals and plants which we meet in our rambles, and to 
carefully record them as nearly at the time as possible. Much valuable 
information that is now of use to but a single individual, might prove of 
vast importance to many others if it were put on record in proper form. 
Biology is essentially a science based on observation or experiment, which 
is obsen^ation under artificial arrangements. As we cannot always bear 
In mind names for so great a multitude of objects, or we may not know the 
proper terms in which to describe our observations intelligibly to others, 
it will often be found necessary to collect the specimens so that we can 
at our leisure study out their characteristics and compare them with 
others. 

The careful collection of specimens, taken in connection with their 
observations and study, before and after, is of the greatest importance 
in aiding us in the study of the physical chai'acteristics of any region, 
but their greatest value lies in the fact that they are veritable proofs of 
the correctness of our observations. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION — EEPORT OF DIRECTOR. 121 

I hope that the members of the Section will bear this in mind, and not 
only observe carefully, but also record their observations and report them 
at our meetings, so that they may be preserved in a permanent form 
in our Proceedings, and thus be of use to others besides ourselves. The 
number and variety of living things is so great, that in order to make 
any very satisfactory progress, we must each of us condne our principal 
attention to some one or more particidar and limited departments. A 
few things thoroughly learned will be of much greater value than any 
amount of half made observations on a great variety of objects. Hav- 
ing made these more general remarks, I will now make more particular 
mention of the present condition and future needs of the various depart- 
ments of Biology in our own locality. 

In Phcenogamic Botany more progress has been made than in any 
other department. As early as 1847, the flowering plants growing in this 
vicinity were collected by Dr. C. C. Parry, and he included them in his 
list of the plants of Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota, published in Owen's 
Report. Since that time other collections have been made by the late 
Alfred Sanders, and by Messrs J. J. Nagel and J. G. Haupt, whose col- 
lections have been included in the Herbarium of the Academy. In the 
list prepared by Mr. Haupt, and published in the first volume of our Pro- 
ceedings, 410 species are enumerated. During the past year several 
additional species were collected, and it is likely that others will yet be 
found. It may prove interesting and instructive for our collectors to 
give some attention to the local distribution, times of flowering, and 
other habits of the various species. In addition to the local collections 
above mentioned, the Herbarium contains a very complete collection of 
about 2,000 species of eastern plants, presented by Hon. G. W. Clinton, 
of Buffalo, X. Y., and smaller collections received from J. C. Arthur, of 
Charles City, Iowa, and from Dr. E. Palmer, collected in Southern Cali- 
fornia. The Herbarium is contained in four walnut cases, made after 
the design of Dr. Parry. 

In Cryptogamic Botany scarcely anything has been accomplished, as 
,yet. The field is a comparatively new one and the difficulties are great, 
but we hope om- members will continue to persevere, and success will be 
sure to crown their efforts. 

But it is in Zoology that we feel the greatest need of more active workers. 
Strange as it may seem, we have practically no definite knowledge what- 
ever of the Vertebrates found in this vicinity. Nothing like a complete list 
has ever been attempted. A small number of stuffed birds and mammals 
are contained in the Museum of the Academy, but they are not deter- 
mined or labeled, and are in danger of being destroyed by insects for 
■u^ant of proper cases to receive them. An interesting collection of 
skulls has been commenced by Mr. Pratt, and should be continued until 
all our species are represented. It would be well, in some instances, to 
carefully pi'eserve the entire skeletons, even if not able to mount them. 
I hope that this year we may be able to make the beginning of a more 
systematic survey of the zoological featm-es of this district, and would 
particularly urge our friends of the shot-gun and fishing-tackle to remem- 

[Proc. D. A. X. S. Vol. IL] 17 [May, 1877.] 



122 DAVENPOET ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

ber the wants of science when on a hunt or fishing excursion, and report 
to the Academy lists of the various animals they may meet, together 
with notes of any peculiar habits that are observed. Even the most 
trivial facts often prove of the greatest interest in solving the difficult 
problems of nature. If some of our experienced sportsmen would fur- 
nish us with an account of our game animals, their haunts and habits, 
with a notice of the relative abundance in different years and at different 
seasons, it would be a paper of great interest, not only to the naturalist, 
but to the historian and the climatologist. Observations in regard to the 
times of the migrations of our birds, and in regard to their food, might 
prove of vast importance to our farmers and fruit growers. While a 
complete collection of our birds and mammals is very desirable, it is not 
necessary that every specimen should be stuffed and mounted in a life- 
like attitude. That would require a skill in taxidermy which few of us 
possess, ov are likely to acquire. A carefully preserved skin, together 
with the skull, will be amply sufficient to identify the species, and while 
it may not add so much to the beauty of our cabinets, it will be just as 
useful, and much more easily procured and taken care of. 

Mr. Pratt has <ilready suggested, in his report as Curator, that special 
attention be given this year to a collection of the Fishes and Reptiles 
found so plentifully in our midst, and about which we know so little. 
The smaller species, especially, should not be neglected, and with careful 
management a small amount of alcohol may be made to do good service. 
The season is already well advanced, and an effort should be made at 
once to procure a supply of alcohol, and proper jars or other vessels in 
which to preserve the specimens. Arrangements should be made with 
the various fishermen to have them preserve for us any peculiar animals 
which they may take, and our school children should be induced to bring 
to the Academy any curious reptiles and insects, or other animals that 
they may chance to meet. We would thus soon have a collection to be 
proud of, and in which each collector might feel a personal interest. 

Our Mollusks have hitherto received more attention than any other 
branch of the animal kingdom. The early efforts of Prof. Sheldon and 
Mr. Pratt have left but little to be done in the way of collecting. In 1867 
Mr. G. W. Tryon published in the American Journal of Conchology, 
Vol. I, a list of the species collected by Prof. Sheldon, embracing 102 
species. Mr. Pratt, in his list published last yeai", increased the number 
of species to 117. During the past year some interesting observations 
were made in regard to the local distribution and habits of several of the 
species, and it is hoped that these may be continued during the present 
season. Mr. Tiffany was so fortunate as to add three species to those 
previously known to occur here in a living state. While collecting insects 
in the Rocky Mountains some years ago, I made a small collection of the 
Mollusks. These have been studied by Ernest Ingersol, of Jersey City, 
and his report is nearly ready. Mr. Pratt has already paid some atten- 
tion to the shell beds occurring along the river banks above high water. I 
hope that these observations may be continued and that we may thus obtain 
some knowledge of the changes that have occurred in our fauna during past 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION REPORT OF DIRECTOR. 123 

ages, and besides, in some instances it; is not unlikely that we may learn 
something more of the pre-historic inhabitants of this country. In this 
connection I would suggest a more careful examination of the shells found 
in the loess of the bluffs. 

In the department of Entomology, to which I have devoted my special 
attention, considerable collections have been made, but owing to a 
variety of causes they have not as yet been sufficiently studied. Lists of 
the Coleoptera and Macro-Lepidoptera, collected by me, were published 
m the first volume of oiu: Proceedings, but they are certainly far from 
complete. During the past year several Lepidoptera and a larger number 
of Coleoptera, not yet determined, were collected for the first time. A 
knowledge of our insect fauna has scarcely been commenced, and there 
is enough to keep a score of active entomologists busy for many years. 
I have so far had the work entirely to myself, and I am not aware of the 
existence of another entomologist in the county, and scarcely in the 
State. A few others have commenced collections, but none have per- 
severed. I hope this will not continue long, but that some of our young 
men or women will take some thought of these most interesting ani- 
mals. To any such I will gladly extend all the assistance within my 
power. To properly obserye, collect, preserve and study insects, requires 
much care and perseverance, and above all a thorough love of the sub- 
ject. When once interested, the pursuit of entomology becomes exceed- 
ingly fascinating, and I hope it may hereafter receive more of the atten- 
tion which it deserves. My own collection, although still very incomplete, 
will, I hope, form the basis of a large and useful collection, which it is 
my intention to present to the Academy as soon as sufficiently safe and 
convenient quarters are procured. Thanks to various friends, portions 
of the collection have been carefully determined and arranged, thus 
greatly increasing the value. The Coleo2)tera, numbering over 1,000 
North American species, have all been named by Mr. Henry Ulke, of 
Washington ; the Hymenoptera by Mr. E. T. Cresson,of Philadelphia, and 
the Ortlwptera by Dr. Cyrus Thomas. In determining the Lepidoptera I 
have received valuable assistance from Henry Edwards, R. H. Stretch 
and Dr. Herman Behr, of San Erancisco, Cal., Herman Strecker, of 
Reading, Pa., J. A. Lintner, of Albany, N. Y., S. H. Peabody, Chicago, 
and B. P. Mann, of Cambridge, Mass.; from all of whom I have received 
many specimens in exchange or by gift. During his short visit here last 
summer, Baron Osten Sacken gave me much valuable assistance in the 
classification of the Diptera, so that I have been enabled to arrange them 
by families. The Neuropjtera have been arranged by families, while the 
Hemiptera, Araclmida, Myriapoda and the lower Articulata are as yet 
almost entirely unarranged. There is more work to do in caring for and 
arranging this collection than I can ever hope to accomplish. 

In regard to special entomological work during the coming season, I 
would suggest a careful study of the maple tree bark louse, its habits, 
enemies, and the means to be used in combating it, a matter of vital im- 
portance to this community. The small Crustaceans, such as Mr. Pratt 
found so abundant last spring, should be carefully looked for and their 



124 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

habits learned. Observations and collections of all varieties of animal 
life are very desirable, and I hope that the members will report them 
regularly at our meetings for publication in the Proceedings of the 
Academy. 

Another matter which has been suggested, I hope in time to see prac- 
tically carried out, and that is to organize under the auspices of the Sec- 
tion, classes in Botany^ and in some of the branches of Zoology, with 
which our members may be most familiar. Dr. Parry has signified his 
willingness to assist a class in practical Botany, and no doubt other mem- 
bers will do what they can in other branches of natural science. Prof. 
Barris has suggested a similar plan for the Geological Section, and I hope 
that we will soon be able to make a beginning in this important educa- 
tional work. 

I would recommend that the meetings of the Section be held regularly, 
and as often as possible to have field meetings in the vicinity of some of 
the best localities for making collections. 

In closing this report I must thank all who have in any way assisted in 
the work of the Section, and beg them to continue their aid to my suc- 
cessor. Having through your courtesy held the office of Director for one 
year, I now beg leave to tender my resignation, in order that you may 
elect to that office some one who, possessing greater abilities, accom- 
panied with better health, will be more able to make the work of the Sec- 
tion a success. 

Mr. Putnam's resignation was laid on the table. 

A discussion was had on the ways and means of carrying out 
some of the suggestions contained in the above report. Mr, J. 
A. Crandall was appointed to see what could be done toward 
procuring a supply of alcohol at a reasonable cost. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 
Description of a New Species of Acrididse from Arizona. 

BY DR. CYRUS THOMAS. 

Caloptenus {Hesperotettix] picticornis. Sp. nov. (Plate IV, fig. 1, 2). 

Medium size ; head, thorax and legs yellow, sprinkled over profusely 
with dark-brown quadrate dots ; antennae banded alternately with yellow 
and dark brown. 

i^emaZe.— Head short; vertex between the eyes rather narrow, very 
slightly deflexed, with a shallow groove ; suddenly expanded, sub- 
hexagonal and more deflexed immediately in front of the eyes, this por- 
tion being depressed in the middle. Frontal costa deeply sulcate, form- 
ing two carinse nearly parallel and reaching to the clypeus ; lateral facial 
carinse distinct, nearly parallel with the frontal costa ; cheek carinse below 
the eyes somewhat distinct. Eyes ovate, acuminate above, prominent. 



DE. THOMAS ON ACRIDID.E. 125 

Pronotum sub-cylindrical, without any distinguishable carinse ; posterior 
sulcus behind the middle. Elytra and winsjs passing the abdomen 
slightly. Posterior femora not so robust as usual in (Jaloptenus ; about 
as long as the abdomen ; anterior and middle femora comparatively 
slender. Antennae a little longer than the head and thorax. Prosternal 
sharply conical, broadest lengthwise at the base ; directed obliquely back- 
ward so as to approach the border of the mesasternum. 

Ootor (dried after long immersion in alcohol). — Ground color through- 
out, yellow varied only in shading and by the dark brown dots men- 
tioned, which are scattered profusely over nearly every part of the 
external surface, except the elytra, wings and venter, being rather sparse 
only on the sternum and posterior tibiae. On the face they are found 
chiefly on the carinas ; on the pronotum there is usually a band of them 
along the front and posterior margins, and a group on the middle of the 
disk ; on the posterior femora they are chiefly placed in longitudinal rows, 
one along the central line of the disk, and one on each carinte. The head 
and posterior femora, and sometimes the front part of the pronotum, are 
of a darker, somewhat orange, shade. The eyes are usually marked 
with numerous oval yellowish spots. The antennae are banded alter- 
nately with yellow and dark brown, very distinct and well defined, the 
yellow being at the nodes, and the dark on the internodes ; the yellow 
bands are alternately broad and narrow, thus making the dark bauds 
appear in pairs. Elytra and wings immaculate ; the former a transpa- 
rent greenish yellow, the latter slightly more pellucid ; both were proba- 
bly pale green when living. 

Jfaie.— Differs but slightly from the female. Is much smaller ; the 
vertex between the eyes very narrow and more distinctly grooved ; ely- 
tra and wings longer as compared with the abdomen ; face more oblique. 
The abdomen is scarcely or but very slightly enlarged at the tip ; the last 
ventral segment somewhat elongated and narrowing to the tip, which is 
strongly elevated ; cerci small, and rapidly tapering to a point ; suiier- 
anal plate, elongate-triangular, rounded at the tip, with a distinct 
median longitudinal groove above. 

The face of the female is nearly vertical ; that of the male somewhat 
oblique. 

Dimensions. — $ Length to tip of abdomen, 1.00 inch to 1.05 ; length to 
tip of elytra, I.IO in. ; elytra, .82 in. ; posterior femora, .53 in. ^ Length 
to tip of abdomen, .62 to .75 in. ; to tip of elytra, .80 to 1.00 in. ; elytra, 
.52 to .75 in. 

Five females and thi'ee males collected in Arizona by Lieut. Wheeler's 
Expedition in 1874, and accidently omitted in the report made to liim by 
me. 

This well marked and very distinct species can be easily recognized, 
both from alcoholic or living specimens, no matter what the general 
color of the latter may be. It evidently belongs to Scudder's new genus, 
Hesperotettix, formed by him to receive my Ommatolampis viridis. 



126 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Contributions to the Flora of Iowa, 

BY J. C. ARTHUR. 

The following list comprises all the species of Iowa plants brought to 
my notice up to date, and not mentioned in my " Flora of Iowa." Speci- 
mens of each from which the names were determined are either in my 
private herbarium, or in the herbarium of the Agricultural College, and 
were all furnished by Dr. Geo. E. Ehinger of Keokuk, J. G. Haupt of 
Davenport, Prof. C. E. Bessey of Ames, and R. Burgess of Ames. 

76a Draha verna, L. Ames. 

97a HyperiQum prolificum^ L. Keokuk. 

110a Lychnis vespertina, Sibth. Decorah. 

207a Lespedezrx violacea, Pers. Keokuk and Davenport. 

236a Agrimonia pai-viflora, Ait. Keokuk. 

3.53a Eupatorium altissimum, L. Harrison County. 

362a Aster Shortii, Boott. Keokuk. 

36oa Aster ericoides, L. Keokuk. 

369a Aster tenuifolius, L. Plymouth County. 

468a Senecio aureus, L. Var. obovatus, Gr. Ames. ' 

422a Aphyllon uniflorum, T. & G. Keokuk. 

427a Collinsia verna, Xutt. Keokuk, 

.533a Conobea niuUifida, Benth. Keokuk. 

o39a Veronica Americana, Schw. Keokuk. 

579a Monarda punctata, L. Cedar Rapids. 

638a Apocyniim cunnahinum.li. Y?iT. inihescens, DC Blackhawk Co. 

644a Ascle'ljias quadrifolia, Jacq. Keokuk. 

670a Froelichia Floridana, Moq. Cedar Rapids. 

75la Salix sericea, Marshall. Plymouth County. 

754a Salix lucida, Muhl. Plymouth County. 

81 la Trillium erectum, L. Decorah. 

843a Cyperus injlexus, Muhl. Ames. 

934a Glyceria fluitans, R. Br. Ames. 

Lespedeza capltata, var. angustifoUa of the " Flora of Iowa", (No. 209), 
should be changed to L. leptostachya, Engelm. The following descrip- 
tion of this new species is from Proceedings American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, Vol. XII (Dec. 1876) : " Lespedeza lepAostachya, Engelm, 
—Clothed with appressed, silky pubescence ; leaves linear ; petiole longer 
than the terminal petiolule ; spikes paniculate, slender, somewhat loosely 
flowered, rather longer than the peduncle ; legume equal to or slightly 
longer than the calyx. Minnesota, T. J. Hale ; Illinois, Bebb. ; Iowa, 
J. C. Arthur, Bessey. Has passed for L. angusiifolia, from which its 
slender spikes and paniculate habit at once distinguish it." 

Many names have been reported from different parts of the State, but 
not being accompanied by specimens, it is thought best not to include 
them in this list. Additions will be made as often as suflScient material 
accumulates. 

Botanical Labratory, Agricultural College, Ames. Iowa; March, 1877. 



record of proceedings. 127 

April 27th, 1877. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the cliair. 

Seventeen members present. 

The Publication Committee reported 120 pages of the Pro- 
ceedings printed, and that the first part of Voh II would be 
ready for distribution as soon as the necessary illustrations were 
completed. 

The Committee on raising subscriptions to the building fund, 
reported that $2,000 had been subscribed, of which some $400 
had been paid into the Treasury. 

Dr. Farquharson reported letters from Dr. E. Sterling, of 
Cleveland, Ohio, in reference to the discovery of inscribed 
tablets by the Mormons in Southern Illinois, and from Prof. 
Jos. L. Barfoot, of Salt Lake City, containing copies of the in- 
scriptions and the account of their discovery. They are twelve 
in number, covering either side of six brass bell-shaped plates, 
which were dug from a mound near Kinderhook, Pike County, 
Ills., by Robert Wiley, in 1843. 

A letter was also read from Prof. S. F. Baird, Assistant Sec- 
retary of the Smithsonian Institution, to whom the tablets 
found by Mr. Gass were sent for examination, in which he says 
" there appears every evidence of the genuineness of the speci- 
mens, and the discovery is certainly one of very high interest." 

The usual number of donations to the Library and Museum 
were announced, and accepted with a vote of thanks to the 
donors. Among the latter, a stuffed heron (Ardea ho'odias) 
from Dr. J. H. Reid; a fine peacock from Jas. Ryan, and a 
magnificent collection of crystals from near Little Rock, Ark., 
donated by Mrs. H. M. Mandeville. 

Messrs. E. A. Clark, S. F. Smith, J. S. Pierce, Mrs. Isabel 
Sheaf, Mrs. J. J. Humphrey, Mrs. George McClelland, Miss 
Rose Dawson, of Davenport ; Messrs. Chas. H. Truax, B. F. 
Reeve, D. A. Fletcher, of Maquoketa, were elected regular 
members, and the following persons corresponding members of 
the Academy : 

Chas. C. Abbott, Trenton. N. .J. J. A. Allen, Cambridge, Mass. 
Alex. Agassiz, Cambridge, Mass. Dr. Edmund Andrews, Chicago. 



128 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



£. P. Austin, Cambridge, Mass. 

Spencer F. Baird, Washington, D. C. 

James Behrens, Socilito, Cal. 

G. W. Belfrage, Clifton, Texas. 

E. L. Bei-thoud, Golden City, Col. 

Prof. C. E. Bessej-, Ames, Iowa. 

Kev. C. J. S. Bethune, Port Hope, 
Ontario. 

W. G. Binney, Burlington, X. J. 

T. S. Brandegee, Berlin, Conn. 

Harry A. Brous, Manhatten, Kan. 

Edward Burgess, Boston, Mass. 

Kev. R. Burgess, Ames, Iowa. 

James D. Butler, Madison, Wis. 

Prof. S. Calvin, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Dr. E,. M. Byrnes, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

W. M. Canby, Wilmington, Del. 

Lucien Can-, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. D. Caton, Ottawa, Ills. 

V. T. Chambers, Covington, Ky. 

T. B. Corastock, Ithaca, N. Y. 

T. A. Conrad, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Edw. S. Cope, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. 

J. M. Coulter, Hanoyer, Ind. 

E. T. Cox, Indianapolis. Ind. 

J. J. Crooke, Xew York. 

W. H. Dall, Washington, D. C. 

Kev. Dr. E. A. Dalrymple, Balti- 
more, Md. 

J. D. Dana, Xew Haven, Conn. 

Chas. R. Dodge, Washington, D. C. 

W. H. Edwards, Coalburg, W. Va. 

James H. Emerton, Salem, Mass. 

George J. Engelmann, M. D., St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Prof. W. G. Fallow, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Dr. E. Forman, Washington, D. C. 

Prof. S. A. Forbes, JSTormal, Ills. 

James T. Gardner, Albany, X. Y. 

Thos. G. Gentry, Germantown, Pa. 

Townend Glover, Washington, D. C. 

Prof. Geo. L. Goodale, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Rev. E. L. Green, Silver City, New 
Mexico. 



W. G. Gunning, Boston, Mass. 

Prof. A. Guyot, Princeton, N. J. 

James Hall, Albany, X. Y. 

Dr. H. W. Harkness, San Francisco. 

B. Waterhouse Hawkens, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Dr. F. Y. Hayden, Washington. 

Wm. Holden, Marietta, Ohio. 

Dr. Geo. H. Horn, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Alpheus Hyatt, Boston, Mass. 

Malvern W. lies, Baltimore, Md. 

Ernest Ingorsoll, Jersey City, N. J. 

Dr. Joseph .Jones, New Orleans, La, 

Capt. W. A. Jones, U. S. Eng. Corps. 

Dr. Isaac Lea, Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. H. Leggett, New York, N. Y. 

Joseph Leidy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Leo Lesquereux, Columbus, Ohio. 

J. A. Lintner, Albany, N. Y. 

Rev. H. C. McCook, Philadelphia. 

B. Pickman Mann, Cambridge. 

Prof. O. C. Marsh, New Haven. 

Prof. O. T. Mason, Washington. 

Theodore L. Mead, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Thomas Meehan, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lewis H. Morgan, Rochester, N. Y. 

Rev. J. G. Morris, Baltimore, Md. 

Dr. Wesley Newcomb, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Col: S. T. Olney, Providence, R. I. 

Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr., Salem, Mass. 

Rev. Stephen D. Peet, Ashtabula, O. 

Thos. C. Porter, Easton, Pa. 

Dr. Chas. Rau, Washington, D. C. 

J. H. Redfield, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Albert Reilly, Henrietta, Texas. 

Robert Ridgway, Washington, D. C. 

Wm. Saunders, London, Ontario. 

S. H. Scudder, Cambridge, Mass. 

Prof. N. S. Shaler, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. E. Shroyer, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

S. I. Smith, New Haven, Conn. 

Prof. F. H. Snow, Lawrence, Kan. 

Robt. E. C. Steams, Berkely, Cal. 

Prof. Sanbum Tenuey, Williams- 
ton, Mass. 

George Thurber, New York. 

George W. Tryon, Philadelphia, Pa. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 129 

Philip R. Uhler, Baltimore, Md. J. D. Whitney, Cambridge, Mass. 
Dr. Geo. Vasey, Washington, D. C. W. D. Whitney. Baltimore, Md. 
A. E. Verrill, New Haven, Conn. Col. Chas. Whittlesey, Cleveland, O. 
Sereno Watson, Cambridge, Mass. Prof. Bm-t G. Wilder, Ithaca, N. Y. 
R. P. Whitfield, Albany, N. Y. H. T. Woodman, Dubuque, Iowa. 

The Committee on Dramatic Entertainment reported the ex- 
penses greater than the receipts — causing a deficit of $14.05. 

Rev. J. Gass reported that he had lately examined another 
Mound, No. 10, in the Cook's Farm Group, which presented 
some peculiar features, and promised a more detailed descrip- 
ti(m. The wetness of the weather has interfered with this work. 

April 28th, 1877. — Biological Sectiox. 

J. D. Putnam, Director, in the chair. 

Six members present. 

Mr. J. A. Crandall reported that he had made arrangements 
by which the Academy could obtain alcohol at reduced prices. 

Dr. C. H. Preston stated that six or eight years ago he found 
Trillium nivale blossoming in March over a limited area on 
Rapid Creek, near Iowa City. 

Mr. Putnam reiDorted that the first butterfly noticed this year 
was Vanessa antiopa on April 7th ; Pyra.nieis ata lanf a was ^rst 
seen on April 1 4th, and Lxjcmna jyseudargioltis on April 17th, 
On April 15th, a species of Simulimi was quite abundant, and 
caused some annoyance to men and horses. The weather has 
not been particularly favorable for the development of insects, 
and but few have been observed. Mr, Tifiany reports a borer, 
probably the larva of TroGhiliwn iipuliforviie — quite destructive 
to his currants. 

Mr. Putnam stated that while engaged in collecting insects in 
Colorado in 1872 and 1874, in Wyoming in 1873, and in Utah 
in 1875, he had also made a small collection of the Mollusca. 
This collection, which now belongs to the Academy, was placed 
by Prof. Sheldon in the hands of Ernest Ingersoll, of Jersey 
City, for determination, and he has prepared the following re- 
port : 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. ILl 18 [Ju.ne, 1877.] 



130 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

On a Collection of Mollusks from Utah and Colorado. 

BY ERNEST INGERSOLL. 

The following list is a catalogue of an interesting collection of Mol- 
lusks from Colorado, Utah and Southern Wyoming, made by Mr. J. D. 
Putnam, a member of the Academy, in the years 1872, 1873 and 1875. 

The collection, although embracing only thirty-two species, is typical 
of the Molluscan fauna of that region, affords one or two names not 
hitherto recorded from beyond the Rocky Mountains, and is particularly 
interesting as including specimens of two species discovered only two 
years ago in the mountains of Colorado. 

It is of the greatest importance to have collections like the present 
accurately labelled as to localities and stations, from all parts of the 
rugged territory between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, 
for a study of the molluscan life of no other part of North America is 
likely to yield more aid in elucidating the history of the origin and geo- 
graphical distribution of our mollusks ; and very interesting results are 
already foreshadowed. 

I have received willing help from Dr. James Lewis, of Mohawk, New 
York, in identifying the puzzling forms of the limneas and physas ; and 
am glad to acknowledge his superior judgment, and thank him for his 
kindly assistance. 

Jersey City, March, 1877. Ernest Ingersoll. 

CATALOGUE OF MOLLUSCA. 

Pulmonata Geophila. 

HELICID^. 

Limax castaneus, Ingersoll. 

Locality : Davidson's Ranch, Boulder County, Colorado ; Summit 
Canon, Mt. Nebo, Utah. 

Described in Hayden's Annual Report, 1874, p. 396. Determined by 
W. G. Binney. 

Vitrina limpida, Gould. 

Locality : Empire, Col. [Common among the beaver dams, August, 
September, 1872.J 

Vitrina PfeilTeri, Newcomb. 
Locality; Summit Canon, Mt. Nebo, Utah. [Common, August, 1875.] 

Microphysa Ingersolli, Bland. 

Localities : American Fork Canon, Wahsatch Mountains, Utah ; Sum- 
mit Canon, Mt. Nebo, Utah. 

Type specimens from the Saguache Mountains of Southern Colorado. 



[Some notes regarding localities, etc., added by the collector, are distinguished by being 
placed in brackets. — J. D. Putnam,] 



INGEESOLL ON KOCKT MOUNTAIN MOLLUSKS. 131 

Zonites arboreus, Say. 

Localities : American Forl<; Cauon, Walisatch Moilntains, Utah : Sum- 
mit Canon, Mt. Xebo, Utah. 

Zonites fulvus, Drapernand. 

Localities : American Fork Canon, Wahsatch Mountains, Utah ; Sum- 
mit Canon, Mt. Nebo, Utah ; Empire, Col. 

Pattila Cooperi, W. G. Binney. 

Localities : Summit Canon, Mt. Nebo, Wahsatch Mountains, Utah ; 

[Floyd's Hill, Clear Creek, Col. ; Canon City, Col.] 

These specimens present the usual difference of size, shape and mark- 
ings, which render it so difficult to determine between this species and 
three or four closely allied forms. 

[Of this species I have found the dead shells in great abundance, and 
very widely distributed, both in Colorado and in Utah. On the moun- 
tains near Summit Canon, Utah, I often found the dead shells among 
barren rocks, at a height of from 8,000 to 10,000 feet, and it was only 
after several weeks searching that I succeeded in finding a few living 
specimens among the debris in the bottom of some deep crevices at the 
base of a high rocky cliff. Although it was in the latter part of August, 
these had all hibernated. It seems very probable that this species may 
hibernate, both for cold and for dry seasons.] 

Patula striatella, Anthony. 

Localities : American Fork Canon, Wahsatch Mountains, Utah ; Fort 
Bridger, Wyoming Territory; Empire, Col. ; Summit Canon, Mt. Nebo, 
Utah. 

Vallonia ptilchella, Mailer. 
J^iocality : American Fork Canon, Wahsatch Mountains, Utah. 

Pupilla muscorum, Linnseus. 
Locality : American Fork Canon, Wahsatch Mountains, Utah. 

Pupilla Blandi, Morse. 

Locality : Summit Canon, Mt. Nebo, Utah. 

More common throughout the West than the preceding. It was known 
only as a fossil in the drift along the Upper Missouri, until in 1874 I found 
it living at various elevated points in Colorado. 

Pupilla alticola, Ingersoll. 

Locality : V 

Several specimens of this well-marked species, discovered among the 
mountains of South-western Colorado in 1874, are included in the pres- 
ent collection, but the precise locality unfortunately is unrecorded. They 
have heretofore been found inhabiting elevations up to the extreme of 
timber growth, some of my specimens having been obtained above 
! 1,000 feet. 

[Found either in the vicinity of Empire City, Col., or among the Wah- 
satch Mountains of Utah.] 



132 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Vertigo Californica, Rowell. 
Locality : Summit Canon, Mt. Xebo, Utah. 

Succinea lineata, W. G. Binney. 

Locality : Empire, Col. 

Both this and the preceding species are common throughout the West 
in suitable localities. 

Succinea Nuttalliana, Lea. 
Locality : Utah Lake, Utah. [On rushes close to the water.] 
The common species of the Central Province. 

Pulmonata Limnophila. 

L,I5IN.EID^E. 

Limnea stagnalis, Linnaeus. 

Localities : Utah Lake and Spring Lake, Utah. 

[Very large and abundant among the rushes growing in shallow, brack- 
ish water at the southern extremity of Utah Lake. A favorite article 
of food with the ducks, which were very plentiful in the same locality.] 

Limnea palustris, Muller. 
Locality : Utah Lake, Utah. 
[Plentiful, but never found in company with the above.] 

Limnea elodes, Say. Variety ? 
Locality : Fort Bridger, Wyoming Territory. 
[In small pools.] 

Limnea desidiosa, Say. 

Locality : Utah Lake, Utah. 

[In the waters of a fresh water spring near the southeast shore, with 
L. i)alustris.] 

Limnea catascopium, Say. 
Locality : Utah Lake, Utali. 
[Semi-fossil, on a salty mud Hat.] 

Limnea bulimoides, Lea. Variety? 
Locality : Denver, Col. 
[In small pools.) 

Carinifex Ne'wberryi, Lea. 
Locality : Utah Lake, Utah. 
Semi-fossil on a mud flat. 

Physa elliptica, Lea. 

Locality : Empire, Col. 

Physa (jyrina., Say, of which, by some authors, this is considered only 
a variety, has been found at various points in the Tenitories ; but I do 
not think this particular form has been reported heretofore from any 
locality west of the Mississippi. 

Physa Sayii, Tappan. 
Localities : Fort Bridger, Wyoming Territory : Utah Lake, Utah. 



IXGERSOLL ON ROCKY MOUNTAIN MOLLUSKS. 133 

Two large lots in alcohol. All are more or less damaged, as is solikelj' 
to be the case under the circumstances ; but they seem to be of this 
species, which to my knowledge, has not been reported heretofore from 
the West. They vary much in appearance, some being almost exact 
miniatures of P. Lordi and P. ancillaria. But they seem to coincide in 
the points of P. Sayii more nearly than in those of any other of the very 
confused species of this variable genus. 

Physa heterostropha, Say. 

Localities : Canon City, Col. ; Empire, Col. ; Hot Sulphur Springs, 
Middle Park, Col. 

Some specimens from pools near Denver, which are small, horn-colored, 
and streaked across the whorls with white, resemble closely the descrip- 
tions and figures of P. virgata, but as I have no specimens of that species 
to compare them with, I hesitate to identify them as such. 

Planorbis ammon, Gould. 

Localities: Utah Lake, Utah ; Spring Lake, Utah. 

This splendid shell, of which many fine specimens are at hand, seems 
pretty well distributed west of the Eocky Mountains, having been found 
on the Pacific slope and in several of the interior Territories. 

Gyrauliis parvus, Say. 
Localities : Davidson's Ranch, Boulder Co., Col. ; Utah Lake, Utah. 
Found everywhere among the mountains of the West. 

TALVATID.E. 

Valvata tricarinata, Say. 

Locality : Utah Lake, Utah. 

The degree of carination among these specimens, all of which are of 
small size, and in a semi-fossil condition, varies greatly, and it would not 
be difficult to assign some of them to V. sincera, but it would be hard to 
draw any line of demarcation between such and the truly tricarinated 
specimens. 

RISSOID.B. 

Fluminicola fusca, Haldeman. 
Locality : Utah Lake, Utah. 
Semi-fossil, on a mud flat. 

Conchifera. 

UNIONID.E. 

Anodonta oregonensis, Lea. 

Locality : Utah J^ake, Utah. 

Many specimens living. 

[Found very abundantly and of good size in the brackish water at the 
Southern extremity of Utah Lake in the soft mud. Occasionally eaten 
by the inhabitants, who sometimes declare them •' better than oysters.'' 
They are also to be seen displayed for sale in the markets of Salt Lake 
City. I was several times told of another clam with heavy shells, found 



131 DAVEXPOET ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

in streams of running water. Tliis is probably a Unio. but I was unable 
to procure a specimen. — ./. D. P.] 

CORBICULAD-E. 

Sphaerium striatinum, Lamarck. 
Locality : Utah Lake, Utah. 
[Se mi-fossil in a mud flat.] 

Pisidium abditum, Haldeman. 
Locality ; Empire, Col. 
[Very abundant among the roots of moss and other plants in still water.] 

Mr. J. G. Haupt presented the following report on the first 
appearance this spring of the various plants mentioned : 

April QTn.—Hejxitica acutiloha^ on hillsides sloping eastward. 

April WTii.—Sanguinaria Canadensis, on Horse Island, and a little 
later on hillsides sloping northward. 

April lior^.—Populus tremuloides, abundant, but small, north of the 
city. Capsella bursa-pastoris, a few specimens on roadsides n ear Walcott. 

April 18th. — Popuhis monilifera, near Walcott ; also, near Davenport, 
April 20th. 

April 2Gru.— Po2mlus grandidevtata, a single small tree in North- 
west Davenport; quite abundant near the mouth of Duck Creek. 
Salix petiolaris. 

April •Iinr.— Ulmus fulva. Eanunculus fascicularis, top of hills, on 
southern slope. Caltlia palustris, very abundant in marshy places be- 
tween Davenport and Walcott. Acer dasycarpum, the blossoms did not 
seem fully open until now. Dentaria laciniata, very abundant on Horse 
Island ; also, to be found on Black Hawk hillsides. Uvularia grandi- 
flora. Horse Island and around Davenport. Negundo aceroides, is quite 
plentiful along Duck Creek. It is cultivated to a considerable extent in 
different parts of the city. Corylus Americana, very abundant; the 
plants are exceedingly full of pistillate flowers, which promises a bounti- 
ful harvest of nuts. 

April 28d. — Popndus bahamifera, var. candicans. Draba cuneifolia,a, 
single plant on C, R. I. & P. R. R., six miles from Davenport. 

April 28tu.— A walk of over twelve miles gave me an opportunity to 
see quite a number of old friends. With these I found three plants not 
seen or noted in previous years by Mr. Nagel or myself. Houstonia min- 
ima. Beck., grows quite abundantly at a rocky spot a mile east of the 
city. The almost invariable height of the plant was between H and 2 
inches. The color of the blossoms on different plants varied from purple 
to almost white, but the stems of all were scabrous, while other charac- 
teristics also plainly proved them to be H. minima. Amelanchier Cana- 
densis, var. oblongifolia, T. and G. indicated its presence even in the dis- 
tance, by its numerous white blossoms. The shrub grows on very rocky 
soil, near the river bank. JDraba Caroliniana, Walt., is quite common to 
the upper part of the hillsides for a long distance east of the city. I can 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 135 

hardly see how I could have overlooked this hi previous years, it being 
quite easily distinguished from D. cuneifolia, which has much longer 
racemes. I am inclined to think D. '"aroUniana to be more abundant 
liere than D. cuneifolia. 

The old pets that I noticed in addition to some of those previously re- 
ported, are given in the following list: Thalictrum anemonoides is still 
quite abundant. It does not seem to disappear from grazed fields as fast 
as other plants. Dicentva cucularia and Claytonia Virginica seemed to 
have been in blossom for several days. Viola cucullata is abundant. 
Erythronium albidmn presented few blossoms this year. In many places 
where I found great numbers of single-leaved flowerless plants, not a 
single blossom was to be seen. Androsace occidentalis is very abund- 
ant. In size it about equals our Draba, being from two to three inches 
high. But the larger blossom of the latter distinguishes it even in the 
distance, while the foliage easily indicates the pkint on nearer approach. 
Mertensia Virginica and Ranuncidus repens are common. Anemone Car- 
oliniana was quite abundant on the rocsy soil east of the city a few 
years ago, but has fast disappeared, there being but a few plants remain- 
ing at present. Ranuncidus abortivus, Trillium recurvaium, and Viola 
imbescens are in blossom on Duck Creek. 

May 8th, 1877. — Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Seven members present. 

Mr. W. E.. Smith was elected a member of the Section. 

The following donations were reported: Davenport City 
Directory for 1870-71, and for 1 874-75, /r^m J. A. Crandall ; 
bound file of the Vermont Journal for 1819 and 1820, yVww. C. 
G. Plummer ; Worcester's Gazeteer of the United States, 1818; 
Gazeteer by Wm. Chapin, published in 1831 ; Iowa Instructor, 
Vol. I, 1859-60, /wm W. H. Pratt. 

Mr. W. C. Putnam read the first of a series of very interest- 
ing-papers, entitled " Davenport and Vicinity dui'ing the War 
of 1812." The paper was mainly occupied with an account of 
the fortification of Fort Shelby at Prairie du Chien, its subse- 
quent capture by the British and Indians under Col. MacKay 
during the summer of 1814, and the defeat at Campbell's 
Island in July, 1814, of a large reinforcing party of Americans 
under the command of Lieut. Campbell, who were sent from St. 
Louis to assist the garrison at Fort Shelby. 

An interesting discussion was had upon early reminiscences, 
and regarding the noted Mr. Bonny, the detective employed 



136 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

ao-ainst tlie murderers of Col. Davenport, and who wrote the 
historical romaftee entitled "Banditti of the Prairies," 

May 12th, 1877. — Trustees' Meeting. 
Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 
Six members present. 
After some discussion the following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved. That the Presiednt of the Academy be requested to confer 
with the Presidents of the Davenport Library and Art Associations 
respectively, and agree with them on the time and place for a meeting of 
the three Associations or their delegates, to be held to consider the feas- 
ibility of the three societies uniting their efforts toward procuring a 
building for the accommodation of the several associations. 

May 17th, 1877. 

Special meeting, pursuant to notice, to confer with the Dav- 
enport Library and Art Associations, or their delegates, to con- 
sider the feasibility of uniting the efforts of the three Associa- 
tions toward procuring a building for the accommodation of 
the several societies. 

Dr. C. H. Preston, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Kine members present ; also, on behalf of the Library Asso- 
ciation, Mesdames McCullough, Young, Wing, Ballon and 
Brvant, and on behalf of the Art Association, Messrs. Benson 
and Harrison. 

The object of the meeting having been stated by the Chair- 
man, and discuseed by the members present, the following reso- 
lution, presented by Charles E. Putnam, was unanimously 
adopted : 

Eesolved, That the Library and Art Associations be invited to join 
with the Academy in the erection of a suitable building for the joint 
occupancy of the three societies. 

After some time spent in a rather informal discussion of the 
project, which seemed to meet with general favor, and compari- 
son of some provisional plans which were presented, it was 
voted : that the ladies of the Library Association be requested 
to take the matter into consideration in connection with the Art 
Association, and determine upon some definite action or propo- 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 137 

sitiou, and notify the Academy at their earliest convenience, 
when a meeting shall be held for the further consideration of the 
subject. 

May 18th, 1877. — Geological and Arch^ological Skctiox. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting in the chair. 

Eight members present. 

Mr. Gass presented some inscribed rocks, granite boulders, 
which he had found in Cleona Township, a few miles from the 
city, and stated that there were several more at the same place, 
but almost inaccessible at present on account of the mud and 
water from the recent rains. He proposed to make a further 
exploration when the season shall be dryer, and would defer 
making a report of the matter until after such further research. 

Mr. Pratt had collected a few fossil shells from tlie Davenport 
and Buffalo quarries, but not much had yet been done in geolog- 
ical work. 

The members agreed to endeavor to make a further examina- 
tion of Mound Iso. 9, on Caj)t. Hall's land, on Saturday, May 
26th. 

A letter was read and put on file, written by Mr. Gass in 
reply to a letter from Maj. J. AV. Powell, requesting suggestions 
from members of the Academy, regarding the best methods of 
procedure in opening mounds, such suggestions being intended 
for use in a manual of archieological i*esearch, soon to be j)ub- 
lished. 

May 25th, IS 77. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Twenty-three members present. 

On motion, it was voted that W. H. Pratt be appointed 
Recording Secretary ^/'6» tempore, during the absence of Dr. C. 
C. Parry. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported, in addition to the usual 
amount of ordinary correspondence, the receipt of a large num- 
ber of letters, from persons recently elected corresponding- 
members, acknowledging their election. 

[Proc. D. A, N. S. Vol. II.] 19 [July, 1877,1 



138 DAYEIfPOET ACADEMY OF NATUKAL SCIENCES. 

Donations to the Museum and Library were reported, and a 
vote of thanks was tendered to the donors. 

Mr. Leo Shumacher was elected a regular member. Several 
names were presented for membership. 

Rev. Mr. Gass presented a brief account, given by Mr. Alir- 
man, of Pleasant Yalley, of a curious relic found by him in 
digging a post hole where was formerly an Lidian village. It 
was of a material resembling yellow clay, but as hard as stone. 
It was a very smoothly carved, though rude and incomplete, 
representation of the human form, and six inches in length. 
The face was very distinctly carved, the forehead very fiat, the 
hands were resting on the chest, lower limbs not carved out. 

Mr. Gass also presented the following communication : 

To the Davenport Academu of Natural Sciences : 

Believing that specimens of scientific interest will be much more val- 
uable and useful in a public museum than when scattered, and finding 
that heretofore some specimens stored away by the workmen for the 
Academy, had been taken for private collections, and did not reach the 
Academy at all, Mr. F. Fangmeier, foreman at Mr. Schmidt's quarry 
below the city, has, with the concurrence of Mr. Schmidt himself, com- 
municated to me the following offer and promise, viz : 

" All petrifactions and other valuable mineral specimens found in our 
quarry will, hereafter, no longer be collected for private purposes, but 
only for the benefit of the Davenport Academy of Xatural Sciences, and 
will be delivered only to such persons as may be authorized by the Acad- 
to receive them." 

Mr. Fangmeier wishes that the above determination may be kindly re- 
ceived by every one, and strictly respected. 

On motion the proposition was accepted, with a vote of thanks 
to Messrs. Schmidt and Fangmeier, and Messrs. Pratt and Gass 
were appointed to receive such specimens. 

The following papers were read and discussed : 

A Recent Find of Skulls and Skeletons in Ohio. 

BY KEY. S. D. PEET, ASHTABULA, OHIO. 

To the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences : 

Sirs : — I desu-e to call your attention to a recent find of skulls and 
skeletons. 

In Columbia, about twenty miles from Springfield, Ohio, there is an ele- 
vation which overlooks the bottom land of the Lagonda River. This ele- 
vation is formed by a gravel bank of the drift period, as it rests on the 



PEET ON SKULLS AND SKELETONS FOUND IN OHIO. 139 

limestone which here comes to the surface. The bed has been recently 
excavated by the C, C. & I. R. R. for ballast for their road bed. The 
bank is within a stone's throw of the depot at Columbia Station, and in 
full sight from the passing cars. On the summit there is at present a 
cottage and a field, but no forest. 

In the gravel there were found a large number of skeletons and skulls, 
some of which I have had the opportunity of examining. The pit in 
which these skeletons were found was an irregular cavity situated not 
far from the eastern side of the bluff, and on its summit. The skeletons 
were situated near the surface, from two to four feet below it, and were 
found in a variety of attitudes, but the majority of them in a sitting pos- 
ture. Xo careful examination of the spot or of the remains has been 
made, and no relics have been collected as accompanying them. 

The most of the skulls have crumbled so that they can not serve any 
purpose in discovering the race connection of the people there buried. 
Those which have been preserved are now scattered, some of them in the 
cabinet of Delaware College, five in the possession of one of the pro- 
fessors of Wittemberg College, Springfield, one in the office of the Spring, 
field Bepublican, and others with various physicians and private individ- 
uals. 

The peculiarity of the skulls to which I desire to call your attention, is 
the remarkable orthocephalic character. Dr. S. G. Morton's collection 
has several skulls which liave been marked " mound builders." They 
are all distinguished by their peculiar straightness in the occipital pro- 
tuberance, the height in their frontal sinus, and the elevation of the 
coronal suture. The contrast between them and the dolicocephalic char- 
acter of certain skulls, and the brachiocephalic nature of others is very 
marked. In this collection, however, the peculiarity is much more dis- 
tinctive. 

Professor Schofler, of Wittemberg College has in his possession, a 
skull taken from the sand upon the island of Oahu in the Pacific Ocean. 
The prognathic character of this skull contrasts strongly with the skulls 
from this collection, taken from the gravel beds, in which the lower maxil- 
laries are unusually delicate and small, the teeth inserted in a straight line, 
and closely fitting. These are as good specimens of the typical mound 
builders of the Mortttn classification as I have been able to discover. 
They contrast with a collection recently exhumed from the neighborhood 
of Elyria, on the Black River, about three miles from Lake Erie, and now 
in the possession of the Northern Ohio Historical Society. They are also 
different from others which were taken out of an ancient burying-ground 
in Ashtabula, on the banks of Lake Erie. 

The point of inquiry is, however, how we can determine their race 
affinity by their shape and peculiarities. These skulls were found in a 
gravel bed, in a sitting posture, both characteristic of the burial of the 
later Indians. No mound exists and no other sign has been discovered 
of their being mound builders. On the other hand, the narrow, dolico- 



140 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

cephalic skulls in the Historical collection were taken out of a burial 
mound or tumulus near the banks of Lake Erie. 

Here, then, are mound builders' skulls found in the environments of 
the later Indians, and the skulls of the later Indians, as we suppose, 
probably Wyandots or Eries, in the tumulus of the mound builder. The 
anomaly somewhat puzzles us. The only explanation which I have been 
able to give is that possibly the spot was a battle held. There are in the 
collection a few skulls which have all the characteristics of the red 
Indians, large occipital protuberance, low frontal sinus, short lateral 
diameter, the longitudinal diameter in great proportion. There are also 
the skulls of little children in the collection, and the number and variety 
in the pit give some indications of an indiscriminate slaughter. 

The only difficulty in this supposition is that there are no traces of 
wounds in any of the crania, and yet their shapes and variety preclude 
the idea that they were deposited in a funeral feast after the manner of 
the later Indians. Allow me to say that we are accustomed to draw the 
distinction in this State between the two races with considerable cer- 
tainty. We rely not only upon the traditions of the Algonquins, but the 
study of the remains, in their skull formations, their attitudes in burial, 
and the relics attending them, and especially the differences of the 
earthworks. 

By these three sources of evidence we are able to ascribe different 
geographical localities to the two races. AVe find on the streams running 
north traces of a great military race, who are supposed to have been red 
Indians. South of the watershed there ai'e traces of another race, which, 
from the evidence of their high state of architectural and artistic skill, 
their agricultural mode of life, and their highly developed religious sys- 
tem, we judge to have been entirely different from the Indians, and these 
we call the mound builders. In this state, the division is geographical. 
The point of enquiry now is, whether we shall discover the differences 
which shall prove to be chronological and ethnical. There are mounds 
which contain skeletons in a recumbent position at the north and on the 
lake shore. The red Indians generally buried in lone heaps or in sitting 
postures, and rarely, so far as we know, in the recumbent attitude, or in 
mounds. Were the two races successively occupants of the whole terri- 
tory, and are their works to be distinguished chronologically V We hope 
to secure attention to the subject, so as to u^ltimately arrive at some sure 
conclusions in reference to the pre-historic races. 

Very respectfully, 

Stephen D. Peet. 

AshtahulUy Ohio, Ajiril^ 1877. 



GASS ON MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 141 

Report of Exploration of Mound. No. 10, Cook's Farm Group. 
BY REV. J. GASS. 

To the Academy of Natural Sciences: 

Having recently explored another mound of the Cook Farm Group, I 
would respectfully present the following brief description of it : 



■— =^*%t -- "■■ r^-i ^- > ,■ ,- r^ 


■ ■ 1 




i^r-- ^— --lae£t=- 






= ■ =T-^ ..-^"^ 


-^m:^^ ^ 


=— ^ .v.^*'- 



FIG. 15.— Scale, six feet to one inch. 

Vertical section of Mound No 10, Cook's Farm Group, east and west; c-s, original surface of 
the earth; eee, undisturbed earth: a, altar or pile of stones; b, human lei^ bones under the 
stones : c, layer of shells ; d, fragments of pottery. 

This mound, which we will designate as Mound No. 10, is situated in 
the second or northwesterly row of mounds, and is ninety-five feet north- 
west of Mound No. 1, and 100 feet northeast of Mound No. 5. It should 
be mentioned that these mounds have been numbered in the order of 
their exploration, and without reference to their relative position. Mound 
No. 10 is the smallest and least important one of the group. It was about 
fifteen feet in diameter, and about eight inches above the surrounding 
surface. All the mounds in this row, viz: Nos. 7, 5 and 10, are less ele- 
vated than those of the other line. Six inches below the surface I found 
a pile (or altar Vi of stones, which were packed closely together through- 
out, and although of irregular size and form, they were so arranged as to 
present a tolerably even surface on each side of the pile, which was 3^ 
feet long from east to west, and 2* feet from north to south, and 2? feet 
high. The whole pile rested upon the hard, undisturbed clay at the bot- 
tom of the excavation, and 3 feet from the surface of the ground. The 
excavation was about ten feet long from east to west, and 6 feet wide, 
rather more than 2 feet deep, and rounded at corners and bottom, being 
of the same form as those already described in Mound No. 3. The 
mound was 3 feet in depth, from the surface to the hard clay at the bot- 
tom of the excavation. In the lowest layer of the pile was a flat stone, 
2 feet long, 10 inches wide, and about 2 inches thick, lying with the 
smoother side downward. Beneath this stone I found fragments of the 
leg bones of a human body, pressed down into the clay. About 2 to 2i 
feet west from this pile, and 1 to 1+ feet below the surface, was a small 
layer of the usual river shells, about 3 feet long from north to South, and 
2+ feet wide and 1 inch thick. This layer was in an arched form, tlie 
north and south edges being curved downward. The shells were much 
decayed, and not a single one could be preserved. Three or four inches 
below this shell layer, and directly under the middle, were several frag- 
ments of pottery, evidently comprising not nearly all of the original ves- 
sel, and three small polished stones. The pieces were nicely packed 



142 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

together in a little pile, showing clearly that they were thus broken before 
being placed there. No farther indications of relics or human bones 
could be discovered. 

The articles above named are in the cabinet of the Academy, and 
although but few relics were obtained, the observation of the structure 
and arrangement may add something to our knowledge of the subject, 
and especially of this very interesting group. 

Description of some Inscribed Stones found in Oleona To-wtiship, 
Scott County, Iowa. 

BY REV. J. GASS. 

To the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences : 

A number of remarkable stones, with ancient engravings, are imbedded 
in a creek about twenty-two miles west of Davenport. I visited the place 
twice to obtain the needed information and help for the exploration. The 
second time, i. e„ on the 1.5th of May, I discovered five inscribed stones. 
Two of them are now in our Museum, and the other three, even if I had 
the power to move them out of the creek, would have been too heavy for 
my vehicle, though one of them, the largest and most important, covered 
with many inscriptions, might be of particular value to our Academy. 

Some other stones of more or less importance will, perhaps, be found 
there when the water in the creek is lower. 

Now, the whole group of stones, except the largest one, is below the 
surface, and it was only by several hours of arduous labor that I could 
accomplish what 1 have already done. 

For a further exploration, I have obtained from the kind owner of the 
farm, a written permission, and with the assistance of the Academy to 
hire some help, I shall be able to obtain possession for our Museum of 
some more of these relics, so valuable for investigation and compari- 
son, and to gain additional facts for a second and more detailed report. 

June 2d, 1877. — Biological Section. 

J. D. Putnam in the chair. 
Eight members present. 

Mr. Putnam reported the receipt of a specimen of Gonyleptes 
ornatum, Say, from Mr. Albert Reilly, at Henrietta, Texas. He 
also stated that he had observed the following Lepidoptei'a dur- 
ing the month of May : Papilio turnus (once only), P. aste- 
rias^ P. troilus, P. philenor^ Golias jphilodice^ Darmis errippus, 
Pyramies atalanta, Nisoniedes sp., Hesperiavialis, Lycmna s,^., 
Peilephila lineata, Actias luna^ Samia ceeropia^ and many 
others he could not specify. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 1-13 

Prof. D. S. Sheldon presented the following list of shells to 
be added to Mr. Pratt's list, published in Vol. I of these Pro- 
ceedings : 

Vnio Higginsii, Lea. Helix perspectiva, Say. 

Unio grandiferus, Lea. Pupa armifera, Say. 

Limnophysa palustris, Muhl. 

Miss Emma A. Smith, of Peoria, Assistant State Entomolo- 
gist of Illinois, was present, and called the attention of the 
members to the bark louse on the soft maples of this city, and 
gave a very interesting account of it, and of its various insect 
enemies, of which the lady birds are the most useful and abund- 
ant. Various methods of fighting it were discussed by Messrs. 
Nissen, Putnam and other members present. An account of 
this insect was first published by Walsh and Riley in the Amer- 
ican Entomologist, Yol. I, page 14, under the name of I,eca- 
nium acericola, where a very poor illustration is given. Mr. 
Putnam stated that he had examined this insect in 1871* and, 
was now engaged in further observations. 

June 23d, 1877. — Trustees' Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Nine members present. 

Mr. Chas. E. Putnam, on behalf of Mrs. P. Y. Xewcomb, 
presented the following deed, conveying to the Academy three 
additional feet of land on the north of the tract formerly con- 
veyed, making forty-eight feet in all : 

Know all men by these presents., That, whereas, on the 22d day of Feb- 
ruary, A. D. 1877, by deed of that date, I conveyed to " The Davenport 
Academy of Natural Sciences," for certain purposes and considerations 
therein named, a certain tract of real estate, adjoining the Presbyterian 
Church in the city of Davenport, Scott County, Iowa. And, xchereas, the 
description of property in said deed did not include all the tract intended to 
be conveyed thereby. Now, therefore, this Indenture witnesseth : That I, 
Patience Viele Newcomb, in consideration of One Dollar, to me in hand 
paid, do hereby grant, bargain, sell and convey unto ^ The Davenport 
Academy of Natural Sciences," of Davenport, Iowa, the following de- 
scribed tract of real estate in said city, to-wit : a part of out-lot No. Six- 
teen (16), bounded and described as follows, viz : commencing at a point 



*See these Proceedings, Vol. I, page 37. 



144 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

on the Avest line of Brady street ninety (90) feet north from the north- 
west corner of Brady and Seventh streets, thence north along the west 
line of Brady street forty-eight (48) feet, thence west parallel with the 
north line of Seventh street one hundred and fifty (150) feet to an alley, 
thence south along said alley forty-eight (-48) feet to the north line of 
property belonging to the Presbyterian church ; thence east along the 
north line of said church property one hundred and fifty (150) feet to the 
place of beginning, intending hereby to convey three (3) feet front on 
Brady street in addition to the forty-five (45) feet heretofore conveyed. 

In thus renewing and increasing my donation to the Academy, while 
I earnestly reiterate and emphasize the inducements and reasons stated 
in my former conveyance, I also desire to make this donation a Memorial 
of my late husband, Daniel T. Newcomb, for the benefit of his former fel- 
low citizens, and in doing so I will express the hope that it may be found 
practicable, and not inconsistent with the objects of the members of the 
Academy, to include in their enterprise provision for an Art Gallery, and 
also that at no distant day their already valuable and growing collection 
of books may be opened and established as a free public library. 

And, while my donation to the Academy is made unconditional, it is my 
desire that a building should be erected on this property for the purposes 
named. 

In witness hereof I have hereunto set my hand this 20th day of June, 

A. D. 1877. 

Patience Viele Newcomb. 

State of Iowa, ) 
Scott County. | 

Be it remembered, that on this 20th day of June A. D. 1877, before the 
undersigned a Notary Public in and for said county, personally appeared 
Patience Viele Neivcomb, to me jjersonally known to be the identical per- 
son whose name is subscribed to the foregoing .deed as grantor, and 
acknowledged the instrument to be her voluntary act and deed, and that 
she executed the same for the purposes therein mentioned. 

Witness my hand and notarial seal the day and year last above written. 
. , ^ Louis A. LeClaire, 

(Louis A. LeClaiee.) . 

-{ Nouiriai Seal, I Notary Fublic, 



i Scott County, Iowa, j Scott County, Iowa. 

[Filed for record June 2Gth, 1S77, at S:49 o'clock A. M., and recorded In Cook 36 of Lot Deeds, 
on page 395. J. A. LeClaire, i?ecorder. J 

[Entered for taxation this 26th day of June, A. D. 1877. 

Jas. Dooley, Courdy Auditor. 
by W. H. Dooley.] 

Thereupon Dr. Cochran moved the adoption of the following 
resolution : 

Eesolved, That the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences return 
grateful thanks to Mrs. P. V. Newcomb for this addition to her generous 
donation, and in accepting the same assure her that the property will be 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. " 145 

used in accordance with her expressed wishes, and that, so far and as 
soon as practicable her excellent recommendations shall be carried into 
execution. 

After some discussion upon the resolution, it was adopted. 

Mr. C. E. Putnam, Chairman of the Building Committee, 
stated that a rough estimate had been obtained upon a brick 
building, 40x50 feet, basement and two stories, with slate roof, 
at a cost of about $4,000. He thought the committee would 
recommend, that if no arrangement be entered into in connection 
with other societies, the Academy should proceed whenever 
practicable to erect such a building as a wing to a more extended 
building contemplated for the future. 

On motion of Dr. Preston it was voted that the Trustees ap- 
prove of the recommendation of the chairman of the building 
committee, that we limit ourselves for the present to the build- 
ing of a rear wing, and request from the committee further and 
more definite plans. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam offered the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the invitation heretofore extended to the Library and 
Art Associations to unite with the Academy in the erection and occu- 
pancy of a building, be and hereby is renewed. 

On motion, it was voted that the Treasurer be authorized to 
pay the freight on a box of specimens from Colorado, donated 
by C. H. Enos, Deadwood, Dakota Territory. 

June 29th, 1ST7. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Seventeen members present. 

The Corresponding Secretarj^ reported the correspondence of 
the month. A letter was read from Prof. S. F. Baird, stating 
that the preparation of photographs of the inscribed tablets for 
second volume of Proceedings had been completed, and the 
prints, executed by the albertype process, would soon be for- 
warded. The thanks of the Academy were tendered to Prof. 
Baird. Letters were also read from various foreign societies, 
acknowledging the receipt of Yol. I of the Proceedings, and 
placing the Academy upon their exchange lists. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 20 [July, 1877.] 



146 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

The Librarian reported a number of publications received by 
donation and in exchange, among them a fine illustrated volume 
on the Heteroptera from Prof. Townend Glover, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, and a set of "Annals of Iowa," from Mrs. 

D. S. True. 

The Curator reported a long list of donations to the Museum 
— among which is an archaeological collection of about 500 flint 
and stone implements, with several of copper, some pottery, 
etc., solicited and collected by Capt. W. P. Hall, and a complete 
collection of the ferns of Scotland, 135 species, donated by John 

E. Wilson, of Gait, Canada, through Mr. John Hume. 

The thanks of the Academy were voted to all persons making 
donations to the Library or Museum. 

Thos. G. Milsted, E. H. Smith, and Wm. Allen, Jr., were 
elected regular members, and the following persons were elected 
corresponding members : Dr. E. Sterling, Cleveland, Ohio; Dr. 
Fred. Brendel, Peoria, Ills. ; Dr. A. W. Chapman, Apalachi- 
cola, Florida; Prof. Alex. Winchell, Syracuse, 'N. Y. ; Presi- 
dent A. D. White, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Mrs. 
Mar}^ Treat ; Robert Clarke, Cincinnati, Ohio ; Theodore Gill, 
Washington, D. C. ; D. Cleveland, San Diego, Cal. ; Edward 
!N"orton, Farmington, Conn, ; Prof. E. S. Morse, Salem, Mass. 

Mr. C. T. Lindley reported the money paid in for life mem- 
bership fees of Prof, and Mrs. D. S. Sheldon, contributed by 
Griswold College students, and their names were ordered en- 
rolled upon the list of life members. Mrs. S. B. R. Millar, 
having contributed $50 to the building fund was also declared a 
life member. The names of several persons were proposed for 
membership. 

The President read a communication from the Secretary of 
the Library Association, stating that the invitation from the 
Academy, to join in the matter of building, was presented at 
their last meeting, and laid over for one month. A communi- 
cation yas also read from the Y. M. C. A., inviting joint action 
of the Academy with them in procuring an Association build- 
ing. On motion, the thanks of the Academy were tendered to 
the Y. M. C. A., and Messrs. C. E. Putnam, E. P. Lynch and 
Dr. M. B. Cochran were appointed a committee of conference. 



EECORD OF PKOCEEDINGS. 147 

Upon request, Prof. F. E. Nipher, of St. Louis, made some 
remarks, urging the importance of prosecuting archasological 
work with vigor, as much valuable material is being destroyed 
by persons whose zeal is much greater than their skill. The 
Archaeological Section of the Academy of Science of St. Louis 
has been doing good work in the mounds of south-east Mis- 
souri, and a few of the results of the researches there were 
given. Six or seven hundred specimens of pottei*y have been 
collected during the past few years. These vessels were found 
in burial mounds, as many as 300 specimens being found in a 
single mound. Such mounds are found near the sites of ancient 
cities, which are marked by the "dug outs," over which the 
rude habitations of the mound builders were erected. The hab- 
itations were formed by digging a small cellar-like cavity in the 
earth, over which was built an arch of brush and poles, which 
was covered with clay and dried in the sun. Excavations in 
these "dug outs" reveal a hearth of burned clay, covered with 
charcoal and ashes, in which vessels containing charred bones 
are occasionally found. There are many hundreds of these 
which are yet to be examined. N^o implements of war are found. 

The decorations of the pottery are most frequently made in 
paint. Some of the vessels are marked with an equal armed 
cross, surrounded by a circle, ©, which, as is well known, 
was the ancient Asiatic symbol of the sun-god. In one case 
the symbol was surrounded with a system of rays, by whicli the 
artist had plainly attempted to represent the sun itself. The 
finding of this symbol in the mounds coupled with the fact that 
some of the American aboriginal tribes were sun worshipers, is 
certainly of great interest. Two amulets of shell have been 
found lying on the breasts of skeletons, almost alike in their 
markings. One was found in the bluffs opposite St. Louis, and 
the other in the southei'n part of the State. On each of these 
shells was scratched an excellent representation of the tarantula, 
on the back of which was the symbol before described, ®. 

The speaker remarked the striking difference between the 
pottery and skulls found near Davenport, and those found in 
Southern Missouri. He exhibited photographs of a remarkable 
pipe found in Macoupin County, Ills., which consisted of a 



148 DAVEXPOKT ACADEMY OF NATUKAL SCIEXCES. 

human figure in a stooping posture, the features being exactly 
similar to the features represented on tlie mound pottery of Mis- 
souri. Over the head of the figure is represented a head-dress, 
consisting of the skin of an animal, the hind legs and tail being 
carved on the back. 

The importance of preserving specimens of the earth in which 
bones are found was urged, as it may possibly lead to a rough 
estimate of the age of the mounds, by comparison with a like 
examination of the condition of bones in our older cemeteries. 

Miss Emma A. Smith, of Feoria, being requested to present 
some entomological notes, gave an account of the nearly com- 
plete defoliation of a large forest of oak trees in Illinois, ex- 
tending from Elmira to the north of Kewanee, by a small leaf 
roller moth, the Argyrolepia q-aercifoliana of Fitch. Speci- 
mens of the moth and of its parasites were exhibited. 

Mr. J. D. Futnam stated that he had recently discovered a 
new bark louse on the soft maple. It is small, less than one- 
tenth of an inch long, and is covered with a circular elevated 
scale, composed of concentric layers around the small reddish 
larval scale, bearing considerable resemblance to the shells of 
the genus Aiicylus — fresh water limpets. It belongs to the sec- 
tion DiASPiDES of the family Coccid.e, and is found in abundance 
on the same trees with Leccuiium acerlcola. 

Mr. W. H. Fratt presented the following report : 

On the Exploration of the Mounds on the Farm of Col. Wm. Allen. 

BY W. H. PRATT. 

Having, by the kindness of Mr. Wm. Allen, Jr., obtained the privilege 
of making some explorations in the group of ancient mounds on the farm 
of his father, the late Col. Wm. Allen, who was a member of the Acad- 
emy, an examination was made on Monday, June 25th. Our party con- 
sisted of Rev. J. Gass, Dr. C. H. Preston, T. G. Milsted, Thomas Far- 
quharson, Chester L. Pratt and W. H. Pratt. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The group of mounds, originally six in number, is situated about six 
miles down the river from Davenport, upon the extreme edge of the 
bluff, which is very high at that point, about half a mile from the river, 
and commanding one of the most extended and finest views to be had of 
this portion of the Mississippi Valley. The position is a very prominent 
one, and is distinctly visible from the city, though six miles distant. The 



PEATT ON ALLEN MOUNDS. 149 

mounds were in a curved row, corresponding to the contour of the bluff, 
and nearly in a north-east and south-west direction. They were of 
different sizes; from two and a half to five feet in height, and from 100 
to 150 feet apart, and had never been disturbed by cultivation. The 
locality was formerly covered with brush, but no large trees were there. 

In the first mound, counting from the east end of the row, stands a tall 
flag staff, in excavating for which we learn that a quantity of bones were 
discovered, but we have no details of its contents or structure. 

The fifth mound, the largest of the group, was removed in excavating 
for the cellar of the mansion built by Col. Allen in 1871, and now occu- 
pied by his family. A considerable quantity of human bones were 
exhumed, probably five skeletons, and one or two quite well preserved 
skulls, and some trinkets of brass, now lost, which last probably belong 
to modern Indians, who may have been buried there, as is not unfre- 
quently the case wherever the ancient mounds are found. 

The sixth or most westerly one of the group was also removed several 
years since to level the earth for a croquet ground. Some pains were 
taken in the exploration of this, and portions of several skeletons were 
found with some relics, the principal of which were two eartlien vessels 
of rather light structure and well burned. One of these, which is now 
in the possession of the family, is of the capacity of about one quart, 
rounded at the bottom so that it will not stand, and has four ears or lugs 
on the outside at the top, only two of which, however, were perforated so 
as to admit of any attachment by which to suspend it. The other vessel 
was sent to the Smithsonian Institution by Capt. Joseph A. Crawford, 
who, I believe, also sent an account of the mound and contents. 

The fourth mound was also removed and explored some years ago. It 
was four or five feet high, and contained the bones, it is said, of three 
skeletons ; also a sea shell, which is still preserved. 

Mound No. S— Special Description. — The third mound from the east end 
was the one selected for our examination at this time. It was nearly cir- 
cular, from thirty to forty feet in diameter, and two and a half feet high. 
Near the middle the surface was flattened or very slightly depressed, as 
if some excavation had been made there at some time, and it is reported 
that some boys once dug down a sliort distance in it, and found some 
arrow heads. We made an excavation about five feet wide, across nearly 
the whole diameter of the mound from north to south, and found it to be 
composed of mixed clay and black earth, containing very few small 
gravel stones, two or three small flint flakes, no shells, no ashes, charcoal 
or other indications of the action of fire, and only one piece of limestone. 
This was a rough fragment, about ten inches long and one and a half by 
three inches in thickness and width, and was near the south side of the 
mound, and standing in an upright position, its upper end, which was 
rather pointed, being about one and a half feet below the sod. The mixed 
earth above mentioned extended down to four feet below the surface in 
the middle of the mound, where we found the natm-al undisturbed yellow 
clay very distinctly defined, and easily distinguished from the darker and 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 21 [April, 1878.] 



150 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

mixed earth above it. This clay siu-face was therefore the bottom of an 
excavation which had been made about one a half feet below the natural 
grade in the middle, and of a shallow basin or saucer-like form, and, as 
nearly as could be determined, about six by eight feet across, and largest 
from north to south, the slope being gradual from the middle upward on 
all sides. Very few and poorly preserved fragments of bones were to be 
found, amounting to less than two ounces probably in all. At some dis- 
tance south of the center was the body or solid portion of a human cer- 
vical vertebra, the processes being decayed, worn, or broken off. Near 
the middle were a few small bits of bone, as soft and friable as the clay it- 
self, and quite undistinguishable as to the portion of the skeleton to which 
they belonged. None of the leg bones, which are usually best preserved, 
and none probably belonging to a skull were found. A little to the south 
of the center we discovered a very perfectly wrought stone pipe of the 
ordinary pipe stone, red and gray colors mixed. It is of the type inva- 
riably found in the mounds of this region, i. e., the base being about 
three times as long as wide, curved slightly upward in the middle, and 
transversely convex on the under side, the bowl, which in this case is a 
plain round one, standing upon the middle of the base, and a small hole 
drilled through the base from one end to communicate with the cavity of 
the bowl. A flattened oval stone, of dimensions about IfxH inches and 
1 inch thick, apparently artificially wrought or worn by use, was found. 
A fragment of pottery, about an inch square, was all that was discovered. 
All of these articles were placed, not at the bottom of the excavation, 
but about three feet down, or slightly below the level of the natural grade. 

Eev. J. Gass, W. H. Pratt and John Hume were appointed 
a special committee on Mound Explorations. 



July 4th, 1877.— This morning at about 9 o'clock. Judge Wm. Cook 
hauled the first load of stone for the new building of the Academy, and 
Mr. A. C. Fulton brought a corner-stone. About fifteen members were 
present, and Mr. Hunting made a brief informal address. 



July 13th, 18Y7. — Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Seven members present. 

Mr. W. C. Putnam read the second part of his paper upon 
"Davenport and Yicinity in the War of 1812," giving an 
account of the defeat of Major Taylor and several hundred 
Americans by a large force of British and Indians, in August, 
1813, on the three willow islands opposite the lower part of our 
city, and his subsequent retreat down the river to St. Louis. 



REPORT OF CONFERENCE COAESIITTEE. 151 

On the afternoon of July 17th, 1877, a " Kettle-drum" entertainment 
"was given by the lady members of the Academy for the benefit of the 
Building Fund, on the grounds of Mr. and Mrs. Chas. E. Putnam at 
" Woodlawn," which was a great social and financial success ; from 
700 to 8C0 of the citizens of Davenport, Kock Island and Moline were 
present. Among many other attractions, the extensive entomological 
collection of Mr. J. D. Putnam was on exhibition. 



July 21st, ISYY.-^Special Meeting. 
Dr. E. H. Hazen in the chair, 
Nine members present. 
Tlie following reports were presented, viz : 

Report of Conference Committee. 
To the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences: 

The undersigned, appointed a committee to confer with committees 
from other societies with reference to the erection of a union building, 
beg leave to submit a report of their action. 

Similar committees having been appointed by other organizations as 
follows to-wit : On the part of the Library Association, Mrs. W. F. 
Peck, B. B. Woodward, Esq., and Hon. John F. Dillon ; of the Art 
Association, Hon. H. H. Benson and J. H. Harrison ; and of the Chris- 
tian Association, Messrs. U. N. Koberts and S. F. Smith. A conference 
of these various committees was called for Monday, July 2d, at 4 o'clock 
p. M., at the rooms of the Academy of Sciences. 

All these committees being present at the time and place above stated, 
except that of the Art Association, an informal discussion as to various 
plans and projects for a union building was had among the members. 

In explanation of the invitation extended by the Academy to the 
Library Association and other societies to join in the erection of a union 
building for the joint occupancy of all, it was stated in substance by 
your committee that this action on the part of the Academy was in 
response to a very general sentiment prevailing in the community favor- 
able to such a union, with which the members of the Academy were in 
hearty accord. It was further represented that societies whose objects 
are in harmony ought to work easily and strongly together, and thus be 
able, with less expense to the community, to erect a building for their 
joint occupancy which would be an ornament to the city. It was also 
stated that through the generosity of an esteemed lady in our city, the 
Academy had become the owner of a lot for such purpose, centrally and 
favorably located, and that through the liberality of other citizens, a 
building fund had been started, and a considerable amount already 
raised. It was further represented on behalf of the Academy, that the 
preservation of its valuable museum, and the need of more room, made 
immediate action on its part necessary. The proffer was therefore made 



152 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

to the other societies represented in the conference, and Inchiding the 
Art Association, to give them the benefit of our property, and for them- 
to join in the erection of a union building thereon. 

In lesponse to this invitation, the committee from the Young Men's 
Christian Association, while expressing themselves as favorable to a 
union building, considered the location selected as objectionable, and 
stated that in view of the special objects of their society, it was indis- 
pensible that it should be located as nearly in the center of business as 
possible. 

The committee representing the Library Association also objected to 
the location, and expressed the opinion that the needs and objects of their 
society require that it also should be situated in or near the center of 
business ; and, further, that from want of pecuniary resources they 
were unprepared at the present time to join in any building enterprises. 

The committee of the Art Association were not present at this confer- 
ence, but inasmuch as that association has heretofore expressed a willing- 
ness to join in the erection of a union building, it is recommended, 
should it still be desired, that provision be made for its occupancy in our 
completed building. 

Your committee, therefore^ are compelled to report a total failure in 
the efforts to secure the erection of a union building, and ask to be dis- 
charged from further duty. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Charles E. Putnam, 
M. B. Cochran, 
E. P. Lynch, 

Committee. 
July 3d, 1877. 

The report was received and the committee discharged. 



Report of the Building Committee. 

To the Davenport Academy of Natural Seiences : 

The undersigned Committee on Building herewith submit the follow- 
ing report of their action : 

The other societies having declined to join in the erection of a vmion 
building, all plans having reference thereto have been abandoned, and it 
Is now recommended that immediate steps be taken for the erection on 
the property donated to the Academy, of a plain and unpretentious edifice, 
sufficiently large for the present needs of the Academy, but not so large 
as to leave it in debt. ' 

Your committee have had plans prepared in accordance with these 
views, and the same ai'e herewith submitted for youractionand approval. 
They have been so designed as to allow the erection of only a part of the 
same at the present time, and it is recommended that only the main or 
central portion be built now, leaving the ornamental front, and the cii'- 



EECOED OF PKOCEEDINGS. 153 

cular rear addition for library, to be erected in the future, whenever 
required by the Academy, or its resources will permit. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Charles E. Putnam, 
M. B. Cochran, 
E. P. Lynch, 
R. J. Parquharson, 
E. H. Hazen, 

Committee. 
July 19th, 1877. 

Thereupon the following resolution was presented, and on 
motion adopted : 

Besolved, That the report of the Building Committee be approved and 
its recommendations adopted, and that the committee be now instructed 
to have woi'king plans and specifications prepared for the erection of the 
central portion of the building, and that they report at the next regular 
meeting. 

Dr. M. B. Cochran presented the following resolution, which 
was unanimously adopted : 

Besolved, That the thanks of the Academy be extended to the ladies 
who so earnestly and successfully carried out the " Kettle-drum" party 
for the benefit of the Academy, and that the especial kindness of Mr. 
and Mrs. Putnam has placed the Academy under additional obligations, 
which we cannot too highly appreciate. 

July 27th, 1877. — Regular Meeting. 

Dr. C. H. Preston, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Eighteen members present. 

The Curator reported a list of donations to the Museum, con- 
sisting of archaeological relics from various parties, solicited by 
Capt. W. P. Hall, and some fossils, minerals, and natural his- 
tory specimens from several citizens. Also, a few additions to 
the library. 

Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Pendleton, Cincinnati, Ohio ; Mr. Isaac 
Rothschild and Mr. John Berwald, of Davenport, were elected 
regular members. 

Prof. Otto Torrell, Stockholm, Sweden ; Prof. J. M. Gregory, 
Champlain, Ills. ; Dr. Asa Fitch, Salem, N. T. ; Miss Emma 
A. Smith, Peoria, Ills. ; Prof. F. E. Nipher, St. Louis, Mo., 
were elected corresponding members. 



15-1 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

The Treasurer reported that Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Pendleton, 
of Cincinnati ; Rev. and Mrs. S. S. Hunting, of Davenport, 
and Mr. Israel Hall, of Davenport, had paid their life member- 
ship fees," and their names were ordered enrolled on the list of 
life members. 

Mr. W. H. Pratt presented a brief report of the exploration of 
another mound (No. 1) on Col. Allen's farm on the 30th of June. 
It is the mound in which is set the flag-staff which is visible for 
many miles both up and down the river. The mound was but 
three feet in height and about thirty feet in diameter, and was 
found to contain as many as eight skulls, and many bones, 
probabl}' the whole or greater portion of that number of skele- 
tons or more. The skulls were none of them sufficiently well 
preserved to be secured without crumbling to pieces. The 
bones were all much decomposed, and except in the case of a 
few of the long bones, which were laid side by side, were much 
scattered, and had evidently been buried without any order or 
regularity, as is more frequently the case than otherwise in all 
our mounds. About two feet from the surface were a number 
of rather large, flat, rough limestones, irregularly placed, and 
seeming to have no relation to anything else in the mound. Six 
flint implements were obtained, several of which were placed 
immediately beneath the long bones above referred to. About 
three feet from the center was a quantity of fragments of pot- 
tery, of the form and style of ornamentation usually found, 
and near these a quantity of charred human bones. 

August 10th, 1877.— Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Ten members present. 

Ten volumes of the "Documents of the Colonial History of 
New York," and two volumes of the "Documentary History 
of New York," were donated by Mr. C. E. Putnam. 

Mr. H. C. Fulton read the first chapters of his contemplated 
work on the history of Davenport, giving a description of the 
place while still in the hands of the Indians ; of the troubles 
\\^hicli gave rise to the Blackhawk war, and of the first settle- 
ments made by the whites. 



GASS ON JACKSON COUNTY MOUNDS. 155 

Mr. W. C. Putnam read an unpublished letter of the late 
Gov. Joseph Duncan, describing the battle of Fort Stephenson, 
fought at Lower Sandusky, August 2d, 1813. where 150 men, 
nearly all of whom were very young, and whose commander. 
Major Croghan, was but twenty-one, defeated 3,000 British and 
Indians in a hardly fought battle. 

August IYth, 1877. — Geological and Archaeological Section. 
Prof. W. H. Barris in the chair. 
Fifteen members present. 
The following communication was presented : 

Examination of a large Monnd in Jackson County, Iowa. 

BY REV. J. GASS. 

To the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences : 

During the month of June of this year I visited and examined a very 
large mound in Jackson County, Iowa. This is, perhaps, the largest 
mound in the eastern part of tlie State. It is of an oval form, tlie longer 
diameter at the base being about 200 feet, and the shorter i20 feet, the 
circumference nearly 700, and height yo to 35 feet. The sides are very 
steep, sloping probably at an angle of about 70^ from the horizontal- 
The top is a flat surface, about 30 x 5^ feet, and oval. Contrary to the cus- 
tom of the mound builders, this mound is bi;ilt in a deep ravine, ou the 
bottom of a small valley, and near the bank of a creek. 

At the center of the surface I dug a hole twelve to foiu'teen feet deep, 
but found neither bones nor other indications of burials ; only a few 
pieces of iron ore — hematite— some of which had evidently been burned, 
and two arrow heads, all of which are now in our Museum. Owing to 
the looseness of the earth, it was not safe to penetrate deeper, and I was 
still about twenty feet above the level of the base. Not satisfied with 
the result, but convinced of the impossibility of a successful exploration 
under present circumstances, I was obliged to give up the work. 

A thorough exploration of this mound would seem to be a matter of 
very great importance, on account of its extraordinary size, its particular 
form, its peculiar situation, its undisturbed condition, and the fact that 
no such large mound has been fully investigated here in the West. 

The public attention being so much directed toward mound explorations, 
a case of so much importance as this will soon come to public notice, 
and our Academy may lose a valuable opportunity to secure important 
facts of the pre-historic tiirfe. I would therefore express the earnest 
hope that the Academy will take measures to assist me in making an ex- 
ploration of this remarkable mound as soon as possible. 

EespectfuUy submitted. J. Gass. 



156 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

JRev. Mr. Ilunting then called tlie attention of the meeting to 
some fragments of mound pottery which he had recentlv ob- 
tained in Wisconsin, and presented to the Academy. He also 
presented some specimens of copper ore and other minerals 
from Wisconsin, and described the position and circumstances 
in which they were found. 

The following paper was then read : 

The Shell-Beds of the Vicinity of Davenport. 

BY W. H. PRATT. 

The deposits of shells in the soil along the banks of the river in this 
vicinity have always attracted attention and excited some interest, and 
seemed to challenge a more thorough and careful examination than has 
hitherto been given them. 

Two different opinions have prevailed to some extent regarding the 
origin of these formations. Some have been inclined to consider them 
wholly, or principally, an artificial accumulation, formed — like the 
" kitchen-middens" of Denmark and other parts of Europe, and some 
probably in the United States— of the refuse of the repasts of our prede- 
cessors in the occupancy of this country ; while others have attributed 
them to the action of the river itself. As these beds are of considerable 
extent in the aggregate, being found at the head of Eock Island, and 
near the lower end of Credit Island, and on this side of the river at 
East Davenport and at Gilbert, and also on the Illinois side, both above 
and below Moline, and as they are of very uniform character, it may be 
best to give first a general description, and then to note the particulars 
more in detail. 

In the first place, then, the layers are usually in a horizontal position, 
and varying from three or four centimeters to one meter in thickness, 
pretty evenly distributed for some distance. Xo abrupt slopes or curves 
are observed, and the layers never terminate or clmnge very abruptly, 
but thin out rather gradually in each direction, though the very thin 
layers, or lines, of shells are sometimes of but small extent. Where the 
accumulation of shells is very heavy, they are packed quite closely to- 
gether, and the interstices are rilled with the usual soil of the particular 
locality, and the layer is usually covered with from three or four to thirty 
centimeters of earth. One layer is not found above another, except in 
cases where they are very thin, and close together, i. e., where layers of 
earth are inters tratified. Sometimes the shells are so few and scattered 
as not to form a continuous layer at all. 

The shell bed is usually found at, or very slightly above, high-water 
mark, though, of course, it is upon rare occasions only that the water 
attains that height, the highest flood during the year being usually con- 
siderably less. The shell layer is ordinarily raised slightly above or built 
upon the general surface of the plateau, and extends but a little way 



PEATT ON SHELL-BEDS. 157 

back from the present edge of the bank, though it is impossible to say 
just how much of it may have been carried away by the encroachments 
of the river. It should also be observed that the river bank in front of 
these beds is usually neither muddy, nor abrupt, or overhanging, but is 
rocky and sloping toward the water. 

PARTICULARS. 

A bed of shells, about two-thirds of a meter in thickness, at the foot 
of Mississippi avenue, at East Davenport, now removed or rendered in- 
accessible by the late improvements there, was some one and one-half 
meters above high water, but this is the only instance of the kind ob- 
served, and it is at a point in the rapids where the river bed would 
probably wear down in a century or two, considerably. 




CT v;r:^- 



FiG. IG. Section of Shell Bed at the head of Rock Island. 0, Bed of limestone rock. 6, Shell 
bed. c, c, General surface, d. Shell heap superposed upon the general surface. 

At the head of the Island (Rock Island), where are found the most ex- 
tensive accumulations in this region, we find, at several places along the 
edge of the bank, an additional deposit of shells heaped up above the 
general shell bed, which is itself very heavy at the same point. One of 
these heaps is still over two meters high above the regular continuous 
bed, its contents being similar in every respect. These superficial depos- 
its ^ope off or thin out inland rather rapidly, extending back but a short 
distance from the present edge of the bank, and the face of the bank is 
vertical here down a meter or two to the solid limestone rock, being 
broken down and washed away by the high waters of every season, thus 
always presenting a good vertical section of the strata. 

Usually, and notably in .the case of the shell deposits along the river a 
short distance above Moline, these deposits are found at intervals, and 
situated on the up-stream side of the projecting points of land, where, 
by the sinuosities of the shore, the curves are exposed more directly 
to the action of the current when the water is high. 

CONTENTS. 

These beds are composed of shells of the same species now living here. 
Xo species now extinct have ever been reported as found among them? 
and they are of the usual size, and as far as has been determined, about 
in the same proportions of the several species as are now found close by, 
with this exception, however, that the very small, as well as the very 
thin species are seldom recognized, as, for example, the Unto parvus, 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 22 [Apbil, 187S.] 



15S DAVEMPORT ACADEMY OF XATURAL SCIENCES. 

zig-zag, gracilis, Icevissimus. monodontus, and the various species of 
Anodon. Tiiis, however, might be expected, as thej^ are so frail that 
when the epidermis is decayed, thej' will soon crumble in pieces, and it 
appears probable that a considerable portion of the minute fragments, of 
which we find a great quantity, are the fragments of these thin shells. 

I have found the following TJniones, and about in the following order of 
abundance, viz : Vnio pustidosus, verrucosus, metanevrus, plicatus, ceso- 
pu-'i, cornutus, ligamentinus, ellipsis, gibbosus, crassidens and trigonus. Sev- 
eral species would be very difficult to distinguish when weathered and de- 
composed, e. g. — anodontoides from rectus, asperrimus,elegans, etc. In ad- 
dition to these, of the larger aquatic univalves, Melantho subsolida is 
usually abundant, and the Vivipara sidjpurpurea is not uncommon in the 
Rock Island beds, and the larger land snails. Helix profunda, tliyroides, 
riiultilineata and alternata are very numerous. All this seems to indicate 
very positively that the molluscan fauna of this region has not mate- 
rially changed in character since the formation of these shell strata. In 
rather rare instances relics of the work of human hands have been found 
associated with the shells. 

In about the middle of the shell-bed at East Davenport I found, in 
May, 1870, the bone awl figured in Vol. I, Plate VII, fig. 7, and some 
animal teeth, perhaps those of the deer, and a stone ax was said to have 
been found, not long previovis, in a similar position, by one of the work- 
men on the road, in digging near the same spot. Also, about midway in 
the depth of the regular layer on the Island, I have found two " hammer- 
stones'- in place, and recently a grooved stone axe in the upper edge of 
the same bed. 

Mr. Tiffany found, some years ago, in the same shell layer, seventy-five 
centimeters below the surface, a bone from the head of the ox or the 
cow, over the left eye, exhibiting cuts made with an axe or some such 
smooth, sharp instrument, indicating that the deposit does not date prior 
to the use of iron or steel instruments, and the introduction of domestic 
cattle. 

Prof. Sheldon has also found several fragments of bones of some of the 
larger animals, perhaps the deer, one of which has been fashioned into 
an awl, similar to the one from East Davenport; also some very small 
bones, one of which, probably a bone of some bird, has evidently been 
cut off with some cutting tool. He also found there a few fish bones and 
one anow head. 

A NATURAL DEPOSIT. 

If these shell beds have not accumulated as refuse heaps, of course 
they are not to be considered as the work of human hands at all, as no 
other occasion or method has, so far as I am aware, ever been assigned 
for the intentional or unintentional collection of such quantities of shells. 
That they are not of such artificial character is, I think, clearly indicated 
by the following considerations, viz : 

First. The beds are frequently of considerable extent and thickness, 
showing that a long time must have been required for a refuse heap to 



PRATT ON SHELL-BEDS. 1 59 

attain such dimensions, and consequently the spot in such cases must 
have been occupied for a considerable period. In many instances there 
is higher ground near at hand, places much drier and more suitable for 
huts or camping grounds, and where that was not the case, we know that 
the earlier races not unfrequently raised " tenement floors" of earth to 
secure those advantages, but these shell beds are never found upon such 
elevations, either natural or artificial, but always on the low flats, close 
by the water. 

Second. The great scarcity of relics of human handiwork, as there 
are certainly not more than might w^ell be expected to be accidentally 
dropped and lost in the streams and along the banks, w^hile the undoubted 
" kitchen heaps" invariably contain an abundance of such remains, and 
the fragments of them. Also, the absence of a dirty and trodden floor, 
and of any dirt mixed with the shells, as the soil which fills the spaces 
between the shells, and which not unfrequently constitutes by far the 
greater portion of the whole mass— for the shells are in many cases 
very few and far between— is exactly the same in character as that imme- 
diately surrounding the place, and fragments of limestone which often 
abound there are sharp, angular and unworn, like those still lying on the 
slope below. 

Third. The species of shells are about in the same proportion as might 
be expected in a natural deposit, while, if the moUusks were used as food, 
there would surely be evidences of selection. Even in the heaps of shells 
collected by musk-rats, we find them in very different proportions, the 
hardest and toughest classes are scarcely at all collected by the rats. The 
Uniones, rectus, gibbosus, verrucosus, tuberculatus, plicutus, and ligamen- 
tinus are scarcely ever to be found there, nor are the aquatic univalves, 
nor the land snails, while in our shell beds all of these are present in full 
proportion. If, then, these were the remains of the daily meals of our 
human predecessors, they must have selected with less taste and less intel- 
ligently than the musk-rats of later days. In hundreds of cases, also, the 
shells are found in pairs, closed, having apparently never been opened.* 

Fourth. The almost total absence of remains of all kinds of food. 
Surely, we cannot suppose that a people subsisted entirely upon clams ! 
But, though close by the water, there are almost no fishbones, and appar- 

*1 would refer, also, in this connection, to the shell heaps, as they are called, at the edge of the 
high sand bank by the river, about a mile below New Boston, Ills. They are situated on the 
very highest part of the sand ridge, which is many feet higher than the prairie surface a 
short distanee back from the river, and have the appearance of a row of large heaps of shells. 
Upon examination, however, I found that they are but the remaining portions of a horizontal or 
somewhat undulating shell-bed, fitteen or twenty centimeters in thickness As the sand washes 
away and the shells fall down the slope on all sides, it gives the appearance of a shell-mound. 
All the shells, however, have fallen from the top, and are only on the surface of the 
sand. The layer remains at the top, a level surface of a meter or two in extent, and growing nar- 
rower every year, and of the depth above named, and no shells nor fragments are to be found in the 
sand immediately beneath it. The species found here exhibit the same indications of selection 
as those of the musk-rat heaps before mentioned, the same species being absent in both cases. 

Relics of flint and pottery are also numerous among these shells, as should be expected in a 
refuse heap, and the sand beneath the shells is much discolored, black and dirty. 



160 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

ently no signs of any cnlinary operations having been carried on. As to the 
superficial heaps at the head of Rock Island, already alluded to, a differ- 
ent theory might be suggested, but we will consider farther on whether 
that is necessary or tenable. I conclude, then, that the shell beds of our 
vicinity are natural deposits, but the question is, 

HOW FOR3IED? 

It has been mentioned that in most, if not all cases our shell- 
beds are situated where the bank is in a position more or less opposed to 
the current of the river, and also where it is sloping to the river and 
rocky. In the breaking up of the ice, the floating cakes are often pushed 
up these slopes, and piled upon the bank, carrying with them, of course, 
whatever loose material may be lying in the way. 

At the head of the island, the whole extent, where are found the 
largest shell deposits in this region, stands square across the path of the 
current of floating ice, and is a very long, rocky slope. Doubtless the 
shells were much more abundant in this part of the country formerly 
than now, as they are growing scarcer CA'ery year, and in the neighbor- 
hood of Moline they are still more plentiful than in any other locality I 
have seen. At the time when the coffer dam was built there some eight 
years since, and a considerable extent of the river bed exposed, many 
wagon loads of shells could have readily been shoveled up immediately 
opposite that town, and no doubt there must have been immense quanti- 
ties there in former times. 

Under these circumstances it must follow, as a matter of course, that 
quantities of shells would be pushed up the bank by the moving ice at its 
breaking up in the spring, and would not unfreqnently be carried to the 
top of the bank, and must be left there by the melting ice. This opera- 
tion, repeated from year to year, or. at least, many times, would neces- 
sarily result in beds of shells of greater or less thickness, according to 
the circumstances, such as we find them. Of course, it would be only at 
longer intervals that the debris in the river at and near its edge, would 
be carried up to the fullest extent, when the river was high, the ice strong 
and the break-up sudden. 

I have stated that at prominent or projecting points of the river bank, 
shell-beds are usually found at the up-stream side, provided the bank is 
firm and sloping. In short, it appears that the form and position of the 
river bank relatively to the motion of the floating ice, is the key to the 
whole matter of these wide-spread shell deposits. Where the ice would 
run up most readi'y and certainly, we find most shells at the top. 

With this principle to guide us, we can, by observing the contour of 
the river banks from the distance of a mile or two, point out the places, 
with almost unerring certainty, where the accumulations of shells will 
be found. It may be asked why this operation should cease. I do not 
know that it has ceased everywhere, but, as before remarked, shell life in 
the river (as well as on the land), is constantly diminished by the progress 
of civilization. A city soon almost utterly destroys it in its own vicinity, 
and for some distance down the stream. As the prairie grass and many 



PKATT ON SHELL-BEDS. 161 

indigenous plants disappear from a region which is pastured and trodden 
bj' domestic animals ; as the beaver, the deer and the buffalo, the forest 
and the cataract, languish and vanish at the approach of the white man, 
one of whose chief characteristics is vandalism, so it is with the seem- 
ingly not very sensitive mollusk. The disturbance of the balance of the 
conditions in which it flourislies, dwarfs, deforms and destroys it. We 
must now visit unsettled districts to secure numerous good specimens of 
aquatic shells. 

Again, it is well known that the river bed is constantly wearing deeper, 
that the great Mississippi is gradually letting itself down into the earth, 
and especially is this the case on the rapids, and the labors of man in 
making a channel for the improvement of navigation hasten this depres- 
sion. So every few years new " high water" and '' low water" marks must 
be adopted, and always lower than of old, and the waters will never more 
reach altitudes which formerly were frequently attained. These two 
facts— the decrease of molluscan life and the lowering of the river-bed- 
will doubtless fully account for the cessation of the formation of shell- 
beds here, and, of course, no very long period would be requisite to cover 
them with a light layer of soil. 

SHELL HEAPS. 

In regard to the shell heaps above the general surface at the head of 
the island, I believe they may be rationally accounted for in the same 
way. After a shell bed of such extent as we find there was formed, three 
or four feet in thickness in some parts, the constantly encroaching 
waters, breaking down the bank containing it, and washing away the 
light soil, deposited, as it still does, great quantities of these old shells 
upon the denuded rocky slope, which is there but a meter or two below 
the sod. Then, upon the rush of a mass of strong and thick ice, great 
quantities of these must be carried up and superposed, forming great 
heaps or a ridge along that shore. 

I have already remarked that beside the largest heap there still remain 
portions of several others, or perhaps of a continuous ridge along the 
portion of the bank which is nearly at right angles to the general direc- 
tion of the stream. Much of this has already evidently been washed 
down, and ere long, unless the authorities protect the bank or destroy it 
themselves, the river will complete its work of removing its own shell 
defences along that coast. 

MOUND AT THE LOWER END OF THE ISLAND. 

In this connection we ought not to overlook a bed of shells formerly 
existing near the foot of Rock Island, at the bottom of which the skull 
which we have designated the " shell-bed skull," was found by Mr. Tif- 
fany in the fall of 1871. He described it as follows* : *■' . . . at a 
depth of three feet from the top is a deposit of shells, mostly Unios, but 
including Melantho subsolida, and two or more species of Helix. 
This shell bed at this exposure varies from six to sixteen inches in 



*Proc D. A. N. S., Vol. 1, p. 42, Plate XXVI, fig 1 ; Plate XXI, fig. 26. 



162 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

thickness. Accurate levelings prove the deposit to be eighteen feet 
above the highest water mark known since Fort Armstrong was estab- 
lished on the Island." 

Again : "• The covering was evidently an aqueous deposit, the sedi- 
mentarj' lines being perfect and unbroken. Deposited with and above 
the shells are gravel and sand, the material becoming finer toward the 
top, the last foot being fine alluvium and vegetable mould." He further 
saj'S : " The section has been visited by many members of the Academy, 
and by Prof. Alexander Winchell, while some of the bones were in place, 
and all agree that the covering of this pre-historic man was a sedimen- 
tary deposit." 

I must say that I had then no serious doubts of the correctness of this 
conclusion. Later experience, however, and examination of shell-beds 
and mounds have fully convinced me that this was an ancient burial 
mound, and for the following reasons : 

First. It was eighteen feet above high water, and if a natural aqueous 
deposit of shells would accumulate there, certainly others should have 
been formed at the same period, and in similarly elevated positions, but 
this is the only instance of the kind in these parts. 

Second. The bed was very irregular in thickness and position, being 
abruptly curved, and presenting an appearance similar to layers, since 
found in several ancient mounds, and especially in Mound No. 3, where 
the inscribed tablets were discovered, while none of the layers anywhere 
else except in the mounds were of this character ; and further, it was not 
in a position where it could have been produced by floating ice, or any 
other natural means as yet suggested, even if the river had been eighteen 
feet higher. 

Third. With the skull and other bones of the skeleton were found, as 
described in Vol. I, " the point of an antler of a deer or elk," the 
exact counterpart of several which we have since found with the other 
relics in the ancient burial mounds, and which have been found nowhere 
else. 



At a meeting of the Board of Trustees held on August 20th, 1877, the 
President stated the especial object of the meeting to be the reception 
and consideration of a communication from the Trustees of Griswold 
College. 

Mr. C. E. Putnam, who was present by invitation, handed in the fol- 
lowing paper, which had been received by him : 
To the Academy of Sclenres : 

The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of Griswold College 
(subject to the approval of said Board), make the following offer: 

I. To grant by perpetual lease so much land as may be needed for use of 
the Academy of Science for its buildings in the north-east corner of Cathedral 
Block, the Academy of Science to pay all taxes or assessments, municipal or 
otherwise, that may be lawfully levied upon the lands or the buildings thereon ; 
the buildings to be used for the appropriate objects of the said x\.cademy of 
Science. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 163 

II. Tbe architecture of building to liarmonize as nearly as possible with 
the buildings on said block, approaches to be so made as not to interfere with 
the use of the grounds not taken up by the Academy of Science building. 

III. The lease to end when the Academy disolves or ceases to act, and 
buildings to become the property of the college. 

IV. Premises not to be sub-let or used for any other purpose than as above 
indicated ; the lease not to be transferred ; the buildings are not to be used on 
Sunday; no lectures assailing the Christian religion are to be delivered therein, 
(the doctrines of such religion being those set forth in the Apostle's Creed). 
This restriction is not intended to prevent the full and free discussion of 
scientific truth. 

V. In case of the dissolution or extinction of the Academy, its collections, 
books, manuscripts, etc., as well as the buildings to become the property of 
the College. 

VI. To identify the College and the Academj- the Curator of the Academy 
shall be ex-officio an othcer of the College. 

VII. The heads of the several departments of Natural Science in the 
Academy are to be ex-officio Professors of the corresponding departments in 
the College, each to deliver every j-ear not less than four (4) free lectures to the 
students on subjects connected with their departments; Mr. J. Duncan Putnam 
to be Professor of Entomology, Dr. Parry, Professor of Botany. 

VIII. The collection of Griswold College in natural science, as well as its 
library of works on scientific subjects, to be added to the collection and library 
of the Academy. 

This is but a rough outline of what is proposed. As the Academy advances 
more professors can and will be added. The details can be arranged hereafter 
as well as legal forms. 

S. E. Brown, Chairman. 
J. L. Daymude, 

Committee. 

•Mr. J. D. Putnam presented the following resolutions, and moved their 
adoption : 

Resolved, That, while the proposition from the Trustees of Griswold Col- 
lege to erect the Academy building on the Cathedral Block, is supported by 
many inducements and oflfers great advantages, yet as the location proposed is 
less central and accessible than that so generously donated by Mrs. Newcomb, 
and, moreover, as the offer is accompanied with conditions and restrictions 
inconsistent with the free action, and independent existence of the Academy, 
it is therefore most respectfully declined. 

Mesohed, That the thanks of the Academy be extended to the Trustees of the 
College for the recognition of the educational value of our society, which is 
implied in their friendly offer. 

BesolvGd, That we extend to the Trustees of Griswold College our congrat- 
ulations upon the proposed revival of that institution, and tender to them the 
free use of our museum and library for the benefit of its faculty and students. 

After discussion, the resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

On motion of Dr. Cochran, the following resolution was also adopted : 

Resolved, That the free use of the museum and library connected with the 
Academy be granted to the pul)lic schools and all other educational institu- 
tions of our city, and that, under proper regulations for their preservation, 
they be allowed the use of such specimens as may be needed to illustrate stud- 
ies in natural science. , 

Mr. W. H. Pratt presented the following resolution, which was adopted 
by a unanimous vote : 



164 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Sesolced, That, in consideration of his valuable services in archa'ological 
research and large contributions to the Musemu, Mr. W. P. Hall, of Daven- 
port, be enrolled a life member of the Academy. 



At a meeting of the Trustees, held Aiigust 27th, 1877, the Building 
Committee reported that the estimated cost on the central section of the 
Academy building was so much in excess of the ability of the Academy 
that they recommended the erection of the rear portion of the building 
instead, and presented specifications and plans thereof, drawn up under 
the direction of the committee by B. W. Gartside, architect, which, 
after some slight alterations, were approved and adopted. Mr. B. W. 
Gartside was appointed superintendent of the building. The Building 
Committee was directed to advertise for proposals for erecting said build- 
ing in accordance with the plans and specifications adopted. 

Dr. C. C. Parry, Rev. S. S. Hunting and Charles E. Putnam were 
appointed a commit'ee to make all necessary arrangements for a public 
ceremony in connection with laying the corner stone. 



August 31st, 1877. — Eegular Meeting. 

Dr. C. H. Preston, Yice-President, in the chair. 

Seventeen members present. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported a considerable corres- 
pondence, and also the receipt of a number of valuable publica- 
tions from various foreign societies in exchange for our Pro- 
ceedings. 

The Cm-ator reported a list of donations to the Museum, 
received during the month. 

On motion it was voted that the especial thanks of the Acad- 
emy be tendered to Dr. M. W. lies for his valuable donation of 
one hundred or more varieties of minerals, fully named and 
described. 

The following persons were duly elected regular members : 
Mrs. Lottie Hall Whitaker, Col. H. M. Mandeville, Mr. Charles 
Davison, Miss Ella Davison, Mr. S. F. Smith, Mrs. S. F. Smith, 
Mr. T. W. McClelland, Mrs. T. W. McClelland, Mr. B. B. 
Woodward, Mr. J. Meredith Davies, Mr. Robert Mackintosh, 
Mr. Walker Adams. Mr. Otto Steiniger, of Bellevue, Iowa, 
was elected a corresponding member. 

The fees of life membership for the following members were 



EECOKD OF PEOCEEDINGS. 165 

reported paid : Mr. Chas. Davison, Miss Ella Davison, Dr. C. 
C.^Parrj, Mrs. C. C. Parry, Mr. S. F. Smith, Mrs. S. F. Smith, 
Mr. B. B. Woodward, Mr, Walker Adams, Mrs. Walker Adams, 
Mrs. Karolin Fejervary. 

Dr. M. W. lies gave a brief description ot the collection of 
minerals, which he has added to the Museum of the Academy, 
and then read a paper, describing three new chemical tests of his 
own discoverj^ viz : — 1, Detection of Xickel in the presence of 
Cobalt; 2, Direct test for Calcium in the presence of Barium 
and Strontium : and 3, Test for Boracic Acid. The paper was 
illustrated by a few simple experiments. 

The chairman read an official circular from the Superintendent 
of the United States Kaval Observatory, announcing the dis- 
covery on the 11th and 17th inst. of two satellites of Mars, by 
Prof. A. Hall. A large chart, prepared by Mr. W. H. Pratt, 
showing the relations of Mars to the other planets during the 
present month, was exhibited. 



At a Trustees' meeting, held September 8th, 1877. the bid of Franklin 
Kirk to erect the Academy Uuilding, in accordance with the specifica- 
tions, for $4,080, was accepted, it being the lowest bid presented. The 
President and Secretary were directed to execute a contract with Mr. 
Kirk for the erection of the building, as specified, to be completed by the 
14th of December, 18T7. 



On the evenings of September 10th and llth, Miss Emma A. Smith, of 
Peoria, delivered two lectures on the External and Internal Anatomy of 
Insects, under the auspices of the Academy, in the rooms of the i'oung 
Mens' Christian Association. The lectures were well attended, and 
much interest was manifested. 



September 14th, 1877. — Historical SECTio:jf. 
J. A. Crandall in the chair. 
Seven members present. 

The donation of several books were reported, 
Mr. W. C. Putnam read a paper on '•"The Battle of Fort 
Stephenson, August 1st and 2d, 1813." The memorable siege 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 23 [April, 1878.] 



160 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

of this fort, occurred on August 1st and 2d, 1813, at Lower 
Sandusky, now Fremont, Ohio. It was defended by a force 
of about 150 Kentuckians, under the command of the gal- 
lant Major Croghan, who were attacked by 1200 or 1300 of the 
combined British and Indians under General Proctor. The 
siege was commenced on the afternoon of the 1st by the opening 
of heavy cannonade on the fort, which consisted of nothing but 
a stockade of small logs, with a ditch around it which Croghan 
had dug but a few days before, this cannonading being continued 
all that night and until late the next day. At 5 o'clock on the 
afternoon of Sunday, the 2d, the British made their assault on 
the fort. "When they reached the ditch they received a terrible 
discharge from the only cannon in the fort, a six-jDounder, which 
the young commander had placed in a masked embrasure, so as 
to rake the ditch. The British, who lost 120 killed and wounded, 
immediately retreated, and returned to Canada that same night, 
having been rejoined by 2,000 more Indians under Tecumseh. 
The Americans lost but one killed and seven shghtly wounded. 
For this heroic defense. Congress, though not till twenty-five 
years afterwards, voted Croghan a gold medal, and each of his 
oflicers an elegant gold sword. 



At a meeting of the Trustees, held September 22d, 1877, the following 
resolution, offered by Dr. M. B. Cochran, was unanimously adopted : 

Whereas. One of the rooms in that part of the building now being 
erected was designed as an Art Gallerj', but for the present may be re- 
quired for other purposes ; and, 

"Whereas, The Art Association of this city has expressed a desire to 
make some arrangement for its occupancy, therefore, 

Resolved, That the Art Association be granted the free use and occur 
pancy, in connection with the Academy, of said rooms, on condition that 
a fair proportion of the running expenses of the same be paid by said 
Art Association. 



September 28th, 1877. — Regtjlae Meeting. 
Dr. C. H. Preston, Yice-President, in the chair. 
Seventeen members present. 

On motion of Dr. Hazen, the thanks of the Academy were 
tendered to Miss Smith for her able and interesting lectures, 



PALMER ON UTAH MOUNDS. 167 

September 10th and lltli ; also, to the Y. M. C. A. for the use 
of their rooms for said lectures. 

The following persons were elected regular members of the 
Academy : Mr. John Balils, Mrs. Karolin Fejervarj, Mrs. D. 
S. True, Mrs. L. S. Davies. 

The following paper was read : 

A Review of the Published Statements regarding the Mounds at Payson, 
Utah, with an Account of their Structure and Origin.* 

BY DR. EDWARD PALMER. 

In Vol. II, Part 1, of the Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of 
Natural Sciences, on page 24, it is stated that Dr. C. C. Parry read some 
interesting extracts from a letter by a correspondent in Utah, Miss Julia 
J. Wirt, describing the recent exploration of a mound near Utah Lake, 
situated on the farm of Mr. Amasa Potter, adjoining Payson, Utah. As 
the substance of tliis communication has created much unfavorable com- 
ment, and as I have recently made a systematic examination of the 
mounds at Payson, I beg leave to review what has been published. 

The first thing commanding our attention is the remains of a skeleton, 
said to have been found therein, measuring six feet seven inches in 
length. Mr. Potter, in answer to questions about this, stated to me that 
the people carried it away, piece by piece, until notliing but the skull was 
left, which latter his wife gave to an Indian. This appears unusual for 
an Indian, as they do not like to look upon, much less to handle, the 
bones of the dead, and. according to my knowledge, they will not do so 
willingly. The correspondence further states that between the teeth of 
the skeleton was inserted the stem of a pipe, the bowl weighing hve 
ounces. How it happened that several feet of earth and rubbish could 
fall upon that skeleton witliout breaking or displacing tlie pipe is some- 
what surprising ! Mr. Potter informed me that he did not have the 
pipe, that it was borrowed by one of his neighbors, who, on being 
questioned, declared slie never saw it. The pipes found by me in the 
ruins of Utah are very small and made of clay, the bowl and stem being 
straight and continuous. There was no necessity for large pipes with 
the ancient people of Utah. The native plants used as tobacco by them 
was so strong that a small quantity suflSced, and hence the pipes were 
small. 

The following, if true, would have been a most wonderful discovery : 
"An air-tight stone box, encased in morter or potter's clay, containing 
another stone box of about two quarts capacity, was found at the head of 
the above mentioned skeleton. The second box contained, on opening, 
about a quart of light mouldy wheat, of which a few of the best giains 
were planted and grew." On making inquiry of the residents of Payson 

♦Ante, pages 28 and 82. 



lOS DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

in regard to the finding of this wheat as above stated, one and all de- 
clared they did not believe any stone box containing wheat was found, 
for in other mounds that had been leveled near by, wheat was also found, 
but it was carried there by rats. In the mounds opened by me in the - 
same locality, I found several holes, three to five feet below the surface, 
filled with wheat, and while leveling the mound, three rats were killed. 
The same kind of wheat shown to me as having grown from the grains 
purporting to come from the stone box, I saw ripe in a field near the 
spot in which the box was claimed to have been found. Why so much 
pains was taken to conceal wheat in a double stone box is more than I 
can reasonably account for. I have never found anything deposited with 
the remains in ancient ruins or in modern Indian graves, that was 
specially prepared for preservation. If seeds of native plants instead of 
wheat had been found in an tarthen vessel, it would not have been un- 
reasonable, for I have seen with skeletons several kinds of seeds in such 
receptacles while exploring in Utah. Besides, no tools have beeii found 
in the ruins or mounds of Utah that would serve the purpose of hewing 
or cutting stone with the edges to fit, so that mortar or cement would 
render them air tight. The most conclusive evidence against the matter 
is that the Indians who left these ruins behind, like the present races, 
did not work for the sake of work, but only did wiiat labor the collecting, 
preparing and preservation of native animal and vegetable substances 
required to convert them into articles of food and clothing. 

I was shown some of the cement said to have come from around the 
box. In my opinion it is not cement, but grooved pieces of clay, that 
once formed part of the roof covering of a house whose ruins helped to 
make the pile of 6arth in which the box of wheat was claimed to have 
been found. In constructing a roof, small poles and sticks were used, 
over which wet mud was thickly plastered. When, by natural decay 
or by fire the wood was destroyed, the clay was broken in pieces, 
and left with the grooves formed by the sticks. Mr. Potter had taken one 
of these pieces, and asserted for a fact that it did come from around his 
box ! 

It is said that with the above mentioned skeleton were numerous arti- 
cles of pottery, some of them beautifully ornamented with pictures of 
flowers and animals, and also one piece " having painted upon it a quite 
recognizable sketch of a range of mountains visible from the locality of 
the mounds." If this is true, it is unlike anything I have ever found in 
Utah. Mr. Potter could show me only parts of dishes which were either 
plain or ornamented with parallel lines. I made special inquiry for the 
piece having the said mountains painted on, but was told it had been bor- 
rowed by a neighbor. Through a friend acquainted with this person, I 
made inquiry, and learned that the said piece of pottery was not in pos- 
session of nor had ever been seen by the person said to have borrowed it. 

The correspondence says the mounds of this locality " are connected 
by gravel walks." There does seem at first sight to be remains of gravel 
walks, which are readily traced, as vegetation grows very scantily 
tliereon, but on a closer examination it is discovered that they are an- 



PALMER ON UTAH MOUNDS. 169 

cient water ditches, used by the former inhabitants of these ruins, not 
only to water their fields, but to bring the water to the dwellings for 
domestic purposes, and to be used in making the rude mud bricks or 
adobes of which the houses were built, and the ruins of which form the 
so-called mounds of Payson. The reason that the soil is so poor in the 
vicinity of the ditches is because the constant tlow of water carried off 
the rich earth, leaving the sand and gravel in its place, and the modern 
cultivation of the surrounding land has only covered over these sutficient 
soil to hide them from view, so that grain and corn planted in this thin 
soil soon present a very decided contrast to that planted in the richer soil 
near by. 

In a letter published in the Eureka (Nevada) Sentinel* Mr. Potter 
gives a somewhat different account from that by Miss Wirt. lie says, 
'' in the right hand'' of the large skeleton " was a huge iron or steel 
weapon which had been buried with the body, but which crum- 
bled to pieces on handling.'' Mr. Potter, it seems to me, must 
have mistaken a piece of juniper wood that had decayed to dust by the 
side of the skeleton for his supposed '' iron or steel weapon." The color 
would be the same, and to one so ready to draw conclusions to suit his 
preconceived desire to have his explorations verify the book of Mormon, 
this would be sufficient. The Book of Mormon tells of a people called 
Nephites, who once inhabited Utah, and who were acquainted with the 
use of iron, so that metal must be found to prove the fact. a. close ex- 
amination would have convinced him of its being wood instead of iron 
or steel, or may-be even the wood was wanting ; one cannot be blamed 
for being skeptical after so little truth is found in Mr. Potter's state- 
ments. A great many mounds have been leveled in other parts of Utah 
by other persons without finding iron or steel. 

It is also stated that, " near the skeleton was also found pieces of cedar 
wood, cut in various fantastic shapes, and in a perfect state of preserva- 
tion, the carving showing that the people of this unknown race were 
acquainted with the use of edged tools." As I could get no trace of these, 
I would state that many rotten pieces of wood, and only one sound piece, 
were found by me in Utah, and these were without form or ornamenta- 
tion. Nor have I ever found tools in Utah ruins that either whites or 
Indians could use to cut or carve cedar wood into fantastic shapes. In 
this letter he also makes a different statement regarding the stone boxes 
containing wheat. He says : "• Close by the floor was covered with a 
hard cement, to all appearances a part of the solid rock, which after 
patient labor and exhaustive work we succeeded in penetrating, and 
found that it was but the corner of a box similarly constructed, in which 
we found about three pints of wheat kernels." The letter further says : 
"• We have found plenty of charred corn-cobs, with kernels not unlike 
what we know as yellow dent corn." Close examination would have 
shown that it was the same kind of corn now grown by the Pah Ute 
Indians and the Moquis of Arizona. The letter also speaks of finding 
'■'■ moulds made of clay for the casting of different implements." Many 

*Since re-published in Popular Science Monthly for Nov., 1877, Vol. XII, p. 123. 



170 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF XATURAL SCIEXCES. 

of these so-called moulds, Mr. Potter showed me lying in his door-yard. 
They were evidently only pieces of clay which had formed part of the 
roof-covering, as above described when speaking of the ''cement" 
around the " stone-box," 

A " neatly carved tombstone" was said to have been found at the head 
of a second skeleton. This being shown me proved to be only a long 
narrow piece of rock, neither carved nor cut, and showing that it was 
broken accidentally into its present shape. It appeared to me like half 
of a slab of stone used for baking bread, which being broken was dis- 
carded. Besides a people who destroy with the dead everytUing they 
possess have no use for tombstones. They keep nothing to commemorate 
the dead, and even destroy the houses over them. In this letter the fol- 
lowing statement differs from that by Miss Wirt : "■ Upon one large stone 
jug or vase can be traced a perfect delineation of the mountains near 
here for a distance of twenty miles." If this had really been found, an 
article of so much value would certainly have been cared for. Yet, while 
Mr. Potter has carefully preserved all sorts of things from the mounds of 
little or no value, the valuable ones were not on hand. "• Stone lasts" 
were shown me by the correspondent of the Eureka Sentinel, but they 
proved to be only rudely shaped natural stones. 

In referring to the ancient people of Utah Mr. Potter says : " Tha in- 
habitants here say a race of people existed here fourteen hundred years 
ago, and belonged to a tribe known as the Xephites, who were often re- 
ferred to in the Book of Mormon, which also speaks of terrible encoun- 
ters these people had with their ancient enemy, the Lamanites. We 
find houses in all the mounds, the rooms of which are as perfect as the 
day they were built. All the apartments are nicely plastered, some in 
white, others in red color." This is correct only so far as the fact of there 
being ruined houses in the mounds, but an examination of the walls re- 
ferred to in Mr. Potter's letter, showed no traces of either white or red 
plaster, nor could any be found in the debris thrown out of the interior of 
the room. 

As Mr. Potter's letter d')es not explain the formation of these mounds, 
I will do so in order to give a better idea of the simple habitations of the 
people that once inhabited Payson. Tlie mounds prove on examination 
to be debris of many dwellings successively built in the same location. 
Often walls were found most perfect at the base of the mound, the one 
above much broken, and often one side wall was found inside the ruins 
of the lower house, while the opposite wall was outside. As no walls 
were found of the original height tnat point must remain unknown, but 
it appears to me that about six feet was the most probable height. The 
walls were too thin to admit of an upper story, besides if two story houses 
were built they would require large timbers, which would necessitate im- 
plements to cut them with, none of which have as yet been found in 
Utah. The houses have generally two rooms with an alley or partition 
between. One room was usually smaller than the other, and the fact of 
its containing the debris of lires would suggest its use as a kitchen. 

The size of the largest rooms may be said to be about twelve feet long 



PALMER ON UTAH MOUNDS. 171 

and ten feet wide, with the walls varying from ten to twelve inches in 
thickness. The smaller rooms are about ten feet long and eight feet 
wide, with the walls ten inches thick. The width of the passage between 
the rooms is two feet and ten inches. These measurements indicate the 
average size of the dwellings in the Payson group of mounds. The walls 
were constructed of what may be appropriately called sun-dried mud 
brick. Close by each mound, or pile of ruined houses, is a depression in 
which the bricks for building were made, and near it the ancient canal 
Avhich supplied them with water. A close examination shows that while 
the clay was soft it was taken up by the hand and laid in the wall, and 
another similar lot laid over this, and the upper surface and sides smooth- 
ed with the hand. This is shown by finger marks still remaining on the 
interior but obliterated from the exterior surfaces. The joints between 
the various layers were very irregular. If the men, who inhabited Utah 
in early times, disliked work as much as the present Indians do, then the 
females were the house builders and their own architects. 

That these people were destitute of cutting tools is shown, not only by 
the entire absence of such tools, byt by the fact that the remains of wood^ 
with few exceptions, have been found. The small, narrow rooms requir- 
ed only short poles to be laid across and covered with mud, to form a roof 
sufficient in the climate of Utah, where it rains so seldom. 

It may be asked, " Who were the Ancient People of Utah ?" From the 
evidence left behind in their ruined dwellings, they appear to belong to 
the same class of Indians as the.Moquis of Arizona, a people simple in 
all their wants and habits, yet plain Indians. This is evident by the ma- 
terials taken out of their ruined dwellings, consisting of stone mortars 
in which to grind their corn and the seeds of native plants. Large flat 
stones for baking bread, pottery, bone awls, arrow points, a few beads 
and square pieces of bone that were probably used for gambling, 
were the most important articles found, as all perishable substances had 
decayed. A highly enlightened people would have left a far different 
collection. Since this people were driven across the Colorado river 
to Ai'izona they have attained to their present advanced condition, 
having larger and better houses and an increase in everything required 
for domestic purposes. This change has been caused by the incessant 
wars that have been waged upon them by their numerous enemies, driv- 
ing them across the Colorado river. Selecting elevations that afforded 
abundance of stone, they erected their present large three story houses, 
the roofs of w^hich afford ample opportunity for defence against their en- 
emies, being secure places of retreat when they had drawn up their lad- 
ders, which afforded the only means of entrance and intercourse be- 
tween the numerous apartments in the different stories. After having 
been brought together in communities by force of circumstances, many 
changes of habits were made to suit their altered condition. Yet after 
the lapse of so many years we find them making pottery, as well as other 
articles, that are identical in their characteristics with those found in the 
ruins of their ancestral dwellings in Utah. 

In reviewing Miss Wirt's letters to the Davenport Academy of Sciences 



1 72 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

and Mr. Potter's letter in the Eureka (Xevada) Sentinel. I have done so, 
not with the view of showing their statements intentionally false, but to 
correct the errors arrived at by a minute examination of the mounds re- 
ferred to by them. Mr. Potter is alone responsible for all the statements, 
which were evidently made with the idea of proving that these rains be- 
longed to the ancient race known to the Mormons as Nepliites, who are 
said to have been a great people, cultivating wheat and acquainted with 
the use of iron. Miss Wirt derived her information wholly from Mr. 
Potter. Various persons in Utah, Latter Day Saints, spoke to me freely 
regarding these discoveries and regretted that the statements sliould have 
been made in the proceedings of tlie Academy, or that they should in 
any sense be regarded as gotten up in the interests of the Mormon 
church, inasmuch as none of them concur with Mr. Potter in his extrav- 
agant, and as we have shown, absurd views. 

Inscribed Rocks in Cleona Township. 

BY REV. J. GASS. 

To the Davenport Academy of Xatural Sciences : 

In accordance with a request of the Academy at the meeting of May 
'2oth, in reference to some insciibed stones found in a creek near Cleona, 
I visited the place again on the 20th of this month (Septeaiber) for the 
purpose of a further investigation of this remarkable group of stones. 
The water in the creek is now very low, giving a better opportunity for a 
close examination of the spot. My labor was soon rewarded by obtain- 
ing two inscribed stones, which are now in our Museum. The very large 
one I found upon further examination to be of very little interest, and 
scarcely worth moving. 

These stones (except one), are a very dark-colored, very hard, heavy 
and coarse greenstone. One of these stones, the one exhibiting the 
greatest number and variety of forms cut upon its surface, is of a very 
irregular natural form, and seemingly ill-suited for such a use. The fig- 
ures, however, though exceedingly crude and rough, are quite distinct 
and unmistakable, and consist of a liuuian head, a four-footed' animal 
(perhaps a bear), a bii'd, a form much resembling the human forms cut 
upon the Cook Farm tablets ; a portion of the features of another human 
face, and the upper portions of another human form; also, some other 
marks which have no significance as far as we can recognize. 

Another of the stones is of an almost regular oval form, about twice 
as large as a man's head, and on it is cut in sharp grooves the outlines of 
the human features with perfect distinctness and quite regular form. 

Another smaller stone exhibits a few mere scratches, or irregular 
curved and straight lines. 

The fourth stone, which is much larger, weighing 100 lbs. or more, a 
very hard, light-colored quartzite. presents only a very uncouth human 
head on one side, and an equally crude tree on the other. 

All the other stones of this group are entirely destitute of engravings 



GASS ON JACKSON COUNTY MOUNDS. 173 

of any kind, still it seems to me that they must have been collected and 
placed there for a particular purpose by human hands. But for what 
purpose the people selected them, by what intention they were guided, 
with what kind of tools the inscriptions on such hard material were 
made, by what nation the engraving was executed, Indian or Mound 
Builder — these are questions which I do not venture to answer. 

I would only call your attention to the significant fact that two years 
ago a copper implement was found among these stones, and furthermore, 
that in the neighborhood of them are several mounds. 

Eespectfully submitted. J. Gass. 

Report on a Mound in Jackson County. 
BY REV. J. GASS. 

To the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences : 

A few days since I employed a person to open a mound in -Jackson 
county, in which he found the following relics, viz : three copper imple- 
ments a, few fragments of pottery, and a number of burned bones, which 
I herewith present to the Academy for the archaeological department of 
its museum. The elevation of this mound above the surrounding surface 
Avas about four feet, and the diameter at the base about thirty feet. The 
construction was veiy simple. A few feet below the surface were found 
a number of stones and many pieces of wood, all scattei-ed in very 
irregular positions. At the depth of about five feet he reached a quan- 
tity of ashes, intermingled with which were the burned bones already men- 
tioned. Here, also, were found fragments of pottery of a very dark color ; 
two different shaped knives of malleated copper, and a copper spear-head 
made in the same manner. 

Respectfully submitted. J. Gass. 

September 28, 1877. 

October -Ith, 18Y7. 

This afternoon the Corner Stone of the Building of the 
Academy was laid. The ceremonies commenced at 4 o'clock, 
and were conducted bj Grand Master Z. G. Luse of the Grrand 
Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Iowa, assisted 
by the Knight Templars and other Masonic bodies, according 
to the following 

ORDER OF EXERCISES : 

Music by Strasser's Band. 

Prayer, by Rev. J. G. Merrill. 

Address by the President, Rev. S. S. Hunting. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. A^ol. II.] 24 [April, 1878.] 



174 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIEXCES. 

Address by Rev. S. S. Hunting. 

Members of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, all friends 
of the same, and members of the Masonic fraternity, it is my privilege 
to congratulate you this day upon the advancement of your enterprise, 
which was begun nearly ten years ago. December 14, 1867, a few gentle- 
men met in a humble place to form a Natural History Society, and the 
result of that meeting was the organization of the Davenport Academy 
of Natural Sciences. The publications of this Academy show what has- 
been done in these ten years— more, certainly, than the most sanguine 
predicted at the time of the organization. We have come hither to-day 
to lay the stone which will mark the first decade of the life of the 
Academy ; it will be the symbol of the corner-stone of more than a 
material building — that of the temple of science destined to rise in this 
city. 

It is not the time to repeat the story of the efforts, the struggles, the 
delights, and the disappointments which have been thus far connected with 
this enterprise. He who would tell that story should speak from his own 
experience— one who has borne the heat and burden of the day. My 
task to-day is different from that. It is to speak a word in the interest 
of true science. The object of our Academy is the study of any depart- 
ment of nature. Science is another name for knowledge, and the truth 
which we seek is as many-sided as the variety of natural objects and. 
the phases of life in the universe. 

Longfellow has introduced his poem, " The Mask of Pandora," by the 
workshop of Hepha;stus, who appears standing before the statue of 
Pandora. He then describes the fashioning of Pandora, " moulded in 
soft clay," till the lovely form stands forth in every part. Her floating 
drapery " was like a cloud about her, and her face was radiant with the 
sunshine and the sea." 

It was fitting for poetic genius to personify nature in Pandora, the all- 
gifted, subject to the Pates and the Furies, yet attended by the Graces. 
If left to the care of ignorance and stupidity, what the Greeks named 
Epimetheus, or After-thought, her open chest sent forth all manner of 
evils to afflict mankind, her benevolent uses being perverted by imtu- 
tored minds and unskilful hands. But Pandora closed her chest before 
Hope escaped. 

Prometheus is science that dares ascend into the heavens or go down to 
Sheol, for the evidences of truth. Under the direction of knowledge, 
Pandora becomes, not an evil genius, sending forth disease and death, 
but a beneficent order of life. Life in rock, in plant, in animals ; life 
on the earth, and in all the other planets ; in the stars no less than in 
the soul of man, " erect and free," the crown of nature. So we all say, 
" Beautiful Pandora, thou art a goddess still." 

The continents appeared, the earth was clothed in luxuriant vegeta- 
tion, the coal beds were formed, the rocks were stratified, and man 
appeared in total ignorance of all things ; but there was a day coming 
when nature would open her treasures, reveal her secrets, and speak an 



EXEKCISES AT THE LATIXG OF THE COENEE-STOXE. 175 

intelligible word. She has spoken ; her voice has been heard, and her 
word we christen as Science. That word is truth. Man cannot know all 
the truth she has to impart, but he can make approaches to her inmost 
shrine ; he can deal in evidences ; he can accumulate knowledge, and 
systematize it, and by his reason he can change darkness to light and 
bring order out of chaos. That light and order are science, the substance, 
of which material forms are but symbols. The man of science puts no 
limits upon investigation, but the whole boundless universe is his. As 
the astronomer, he calculates the distances of the stars and estimates 
the forces which keep them in their orbits or bend them from their 
courses, and with his eye a thousand times magnified, he penetrates infi- 
nite space, resolving star-dust into nebulse, and nebulae into worlds. 
Mars has been riding through the heavens the thousands of years that 
man has lived, and none were wise and keen-eyed enough to see the ser- 
vants that attended him, till last August his satelites were seen by the 
astronomers at Washington. 

With the microscope man discerns the dust in the eye, the pestilence m 
the air, the inhabitants that live in our breath, and the gases of the sun, 
and the very passions of mankind are caught by the light in the camera 
of the photographer, and the soul is inspected by the artist. The revela- 
tions of science are perpetual. The last page in a book whose leaves are 
infinite in number can never be read, but as man reads page after page 
he is inspired with hope, and ever has the baptism of new light. In her 
temple those minister who are self-consecrated, and none are debarred 
from coming who will make the sacrifices she demands. Every one en- 
tering here may speak with the oracle face to face, and all shall stand or 
fall by tiieir own merits. Those only may teach in this temple who are 
loyal to the evidences of truth. Says Mr. Huxley, " The most ardent 
votary of science holds his firmest convictions, not because the men he 
most venerate holds them, not because their verity is testified by por- 
tents and wonders, but because his experience teaches him that whenever 
he chooses to bring these convictions into contact with their primary 
source — nature, whenever he thinks fit to test them by appealing to ex- 
periment and observation, nature will confirm them. The man of 
science has learned to believe in justification by verification." 

The careful study of nature with the habit of mathematical thought, 
makes one morally exact in his conduct. The reader who opens the 
second volume of Charles Darwin's book, "The Descent of Man,'' will 
find a postscript to the first volume in which he frankly says : " I have 
fallen into a serious and unfortunate error in relation to the sexual dilfer- 
erences of animals. The explanation given is wholly erroneous, as I 
have discovered by working out an illustration in figures.'' Then follows 
the needful correction of the error. It is such honesty as that, united 
with consummate ability, which commends the thoughts of the scientist 
to the candid consideration of the reader. 

Science is, and is destined still to be, the great reconciler of the con- 
flicting interests of mankind, because it appeals always to facts and 
their verification, and an international exposition of the products of art 



176 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

and the results of science, is hailed as a peace-maker among the differ- 
ent nations. Simon Xewcomb, recentlj' the President of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, in his opening address at 
the late meeting in Nashville, gave this incident in these words : " A 
few years ago it was my fortune to be in Paris, at a time when the cele- 
brated Commune was in full sway. In the reaction which followed the 
downfall of Louis Napoleon, the populace was engaged in destroying 
every remnant of monarchy. The mystic letter "N" was torn down, 
and even the names of streets which savored of monarchy displaced. 
One day I was being shown through the rooms where the Academies of 
France held their meetings. I noticed in a prominent position a picture 
bearing the well-known face of the great warrior, and under it ' Napoleon 
Bonaparte, First Consul.' I expressed my solicitude as to that picture's 
remaining there. Why it happened to remain there was met by the em- 
phatic response, ' Politics never enter here.'' Thus during seventy years 
of internal turmoil among the most excitable people known, in an asso- 
ciation which contained extremes of both parties, that picture had 
remained untouched during the revolutions which had affected the gov- 
ernment of France. This is the spirit of science everywhere." Such, 
friends, is the spirit which shall reign within this building, whose corner- 
stone we lay this day. 

We all know something of the utility of the knowledge which is 
scientific. When cities were ill-drained, ill-lighted, ill-ventilated and ill- 
watered, and the people ill-washed, ill-fed and ill-clothed, the plague 
came as a visitation of Providence. Science destroys the possibility of 
the plague. By the use of the steam engine and the forcing pump, 
mines are successfully worked. Wheels turn on axles with inconceivable 
velocity, without burning or (lying into pieces. The air-pump has taken 
away the dread of locomotion by steam. 

It is the mission of science to utilize all the forces of the earth, which 
exist in air and water, rock and soil. The forces resident in the sun are 
now being utilized, and the colors are made parlor companions and 
kitchen servants. Here by the side of the "• Father of Waters," which 
is building up a continent in the Gulf of Mexico with the soil taken 
from our feet, we would do something for science ; we would lay the 
corner-stone of her temple on this spot, that, if possible, our works may 
go forth to help build in human life that continent of knowledge from 
which may spring a more perfect form of human society than has yet 
appeared upon this earth. 

I would emphasize the thought that the exact knowledge which is 
sought in scientific pursuits is the sure ground of prosperity and the essen- 
tial thing to bring man into the freedom of his reason and liberty of 
. action. It were tit if the kind of stone we here lay were the undermost 
stone of the earth's crust, for as the earth has its foundations upon 
granite, so all the prosperity of mankind is conditioned upon the knowl- 
edge of the laws of nature in matter and in mind, which knowledge 
comes by the patient study of that book which always bears the imprint 
of its author. 



EXERCISES AT THE LAYING OF THE CORNER-STONE. 1T7 

After an appropriate song. Grand Master Z. C. Luse, of tbe Grand 
Lodge of Iowa, delivered the following 

ADDRESS. 

My Brethren and Citizens : 

It has been our custom from time immemorial, with appropriate cere- 
monies to lay the corner, or foundation-stones, of such edifices as it was 
supposed would endure to after ages, and by this means transmit to pos- 
terity a brief history of our people, the nature of our institutions, the 
progress we have made in the arts and sciences, and the achievements 
towards civil and religious liberty. Anterior to and all through the mid- 
dle ages, our ancient brethren took almost sole direction of the science of 
architecture, and it is to them that the world is indebted for those mag- 
niticent specimens of grandeur, which lie scattered throughout Europe, 
as beautiful relics of a refined and cultivated people. 

Those magnificent edifices were the result of the labors of associa- 
tions of Freemasons of various nations who united by secret pledges and 
governed in lodges, traveled from country to country, wherever their su- 
perior skill was demanded. They transmitted the mysteries of the craft 
from generation to generation. Countenanced by the wisest men and 
the most powerful monarchs until their traditionary lore became dissem- 
inated among the people, and finally resulted, through arbitrary power 
and papal selfishness in the organization of that important fraternal 
institution which we now humbly represent. 

In the hands of our ancient brethren the implements of architecture 
were used for the construction of material temples, while in our hands 
they have become expressive symbols, to prepare our hearts and minds 
for the spiritual temple which cannot be completed until time shall be no 
more. 

" Over two hundred years ago the corner stone of the fifth and present 
St. Paul's Cathedral of London, was laid. The grand and majestic struc- 
ture, which rears its noble proportions above the ashes of many temples 
that previously had stood upon the sacred site, was designed by Sir 
Christopher Wren, whose rare architectural skill was only matched by his 
acquirements of natural philosophy and other sciences. One of the first 
architects and scholars of his time— he was likewise the Grand Master 
of Masons, and by his hand with the craft assembled about him, and by 
the same ceremonies we observe to-day, the corner stone of that wonder- 
ful building was placed." 

" On the 24th day of June, 1792, the cornerstone of our national capitol 
was laid in accordance with ancient Masonic usage. President Wash- 
ington, whose name is a household word throughout our land, acted as 
Grand Master of Masons on the occasion — placed the corner stone, and 
caused the corn, the wine and the oil to be poured thereon, employing 
these emblems with the same significance that now attaches to their use." 
On the 17th day of June, 1825, the noble, brave and patriotic LaFayette 
assisted in laying the corner stone of Bunker Hill monument. He ap- 
plied to the angles and sm-faces of that stone the square, the plumb and 



178 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

the level. "The lofty column on Bunker Hill, which carries the history of 
those times down to future ages, was designed no less to perpetuate the 
memory of the martyr Warren, who, on that spot poured out his blood in 
the cause of liberty, than the rememljrance of the event, which will live 
long after that pillar of granite shall have crumbled into ruin." It was in- 
deed a fitting tribute to his memory, that the corner stone upon which 
rests that immense structure should have been tried by the square and 
adjusted by the level and plumb of LaFayette — that brother whose un- 
selfish patriotism and exalted benevolence made him the confidential 
friend of our Washington. 

With such precedents as these it does not seem strange or inappro- 
priate that the institution here represented should frequently be called to 
perform work like that of to-day. If it be asked why preference is shown 
to the Masonic organization in the rendering of such service, the answer 
may be found, perhaps, in the fact that the custom has long been estab- 
lished — reaching back to a period when other kindred societies, some of 
which are now most honorable and influential, were not in existence. 

We are here to-day clothed in white gloves and aprons, the insignia of 
Free and Accepted Masons, to place in the north-east corner of the 
ground plan the first stone upon which is to be built a super-structure to 
be dedicated to the promotion of science. The corner stone has its 
casket, the depository of the evidence of the condition of the people, re- 
ligious and political, and of the history of the times when it was laid. 

Dr. C. C. Parry then read the following : 

ODE. 

On Laying the Corner-Stone of the Davenport Academy of Natural 
Sciences, October 4th, 1877. 

BY C. C. PARRY. 

In ocean's depths, long ages past, 

A floor of solid rock was laid. 
From which, in later times recast, 

A fitting corner-stone is made. 

This block, transformed by human art. 
We now would lay with rev'rent hand, 

Where it may needful strength impart. 
On which our temple wall may stand. 

Within its massive bed we place 

Some tokens of the present age. 
In which the future man may trace 

The brightening light on Science page. 

Above this corner-stone we aim 

To rear no monumental fane, ; 

Which shall, in solemn tones proclaim 

That human works and hopes are vain. 



EXERCISES AT THE LAYING- OF THE CORNER-STONE. 179 

But a fair structure to unfold 

To open eye, and ready mind. 
Creation's wonders manifold, 

Which in our daily walks we find. 

To show a plan which runs throughout 

The whole of Nature's broad domain. 
And indicates, bej'ond all doubt, 

Wisdom and truth shall ever reign. 

What e'er we do for truth and right, 

By work or gift, by will or deed, 
Can never fail while " right is might," 

In Truth's great cause we must succeed. 

The God of truth we now invoke, 

To crown our work — but just begun; 
We wait to hear the plaudit spoke 

From out the topmost stone — '• Well done /" 

A leaden box containing tlie following articles was then placed 
in the cavity of the stone by Prof. W. H. Pratt, Curator : 

Proceedings of Davenport Academy of ISatural Sciences, Vol. I. 

Proceedings of Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, part 1 of 
Vol. II. 

List of subscribers to the building fund to this date. 

Manuscript copy of the address of the President, Eev. S. S. Hunting. 

Programme of the exercises. 

Constitution and by-laws of the Art Association of Davenport. 

List of officers and membei-sof Davenport Lodge, No. 37, A.. F. &A. M. 

Constitution and by-laws of Davenport Library Association. 

Davenport City Directory, 1S76. 

Programme of Centennial Fourth of July Celebration, Davenport. 

Daily Davenport Gazette, July Cth, 1876. • 

Centemiial Supplement to Gazette, July 4th, 1876. 

Carriers' Address, Davenport Gazette, January 1, 1877. 

Centennial Art Catalogue, Ladies' Centennial Art Association Fair 
and Exhibition, February 22d to 28, 1876. 

Davenport Weekly Gazette, Oct. 3d, 1877. 

Davenport Daily Gazette, Oct. 4th, 1877. 

Davenport Weekly Democrat, Oct. 4th, 1877. 

Davenport Daily Democrat, Oct. 3d, 1877. 

Davenport Weekly Demokrat (German), Oct. 4th, 1877. 

Davenport Daily Demokrat (German), Oct. 4th, 1877. 

A copy of " The Sunbeam," Hastings, White & Fisher. 

Hastings, White & Fisher's photographed business cards. 

Circular descriptive of Harrison & Holman's new drug store. 

Historical address by Dr. C. C. Parry on the early exploration and 
settlement of the Mississippi Yalley, delivered Jan. 21, 1873. 



180 DAVENPOKT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Davenport and Vicinity in the War of 1812, by W. C. Putnam. 

List of Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the United States of 
America. 

Three cent piece of United States fractional currency. 

Fee Bill of Iowa and Illinois Central District Medical Association, 
Jan. 11, 1877. 

List of members elected since the last published Proceedings. 

List of articles deposited in the corner-stone. 

Laying of the Corner-Stone. 

The corner-stone was then laid hy the Grand Master and liis 
assistants with Masonic ceremonies. 

Song by Quintette. 

Address by Prof. T. S. Parvin.* 

The Professor remarked that all Masons and Templars were, or should 
be, gentlemen, and observing a crowd of boys and girls among his 
audience, he said : — 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Boys arid Girls, and congratulated the children 
upon so interesting an occasion, and as they were the material out of 
which the future ladies and gentlemen of Davenport were to be made, 
he hoped in their progress and development into noble manhood and 
womanhood, many of them would be found studying the sciences and 
arts in the Academy whose corner-stone they had just seen laid with 
masonic ceremonies. 

The Free Masons of to-day were the successors of those operative 
masons of the middle ages, who associated together in guilds, traversed 
Europe from the Adriatic to the Baltic seas and the German Ocean, and 
erected those magnificent cathedrals, abbeys and castles, whose magnifi- 
cence even in ruins commanded the admiration of a world unknown in 
their day. 

AS speculative Masons, those present were so far connected in op- 
erative work with those of the past that they with appropriate ceremo- 
nies and historical surroundings, laid the corner-stones of public edifices 
designed in their structure to promote the welfare of men. 

He had himself, he said, as an officer of the Grand Lodge of Masons, 
on many occasions officiated in the laying of corner-stones of " temples 
erected to the worship of the true God," and in this the Masons had 
shown their reverence for the religion of their fathers. Of " Temples 
of Justice," thus evincing the Masons' devotion to the principles of 
right which should govern the social world. Of "• School Houses," man- 
ifesting in such labors their interest in the youth of the nation, and 
the means so wisely provided to fit them for honorable and useful citi- 
zenship. 



*The address of Prof. Parvin was wholly extempore, as are all of his public efforts, and being 
a very rapid speaker, we could catch only the leading topics of his remarks. 



EXERCISES AT THE LAYING OF THE CORNEE-STONE. 181 

And now comes the Grand Lodge for the first time in the history of 
masonry in Iowa, to show in a three-fold manner the reverence, devotion 
and interest which the masons of Iowa, in connection witli those of Dav- 
enport, have in the worli to-day, so happily and successfully inaugurated 
in the laying of the corner-stone of a building owned by the Academy of 
Sciences of Davenport, and consecrated to the advancement of science 
and instruction in those arts which are ennobling to our nature. 

This is not the first Academy of Science organized in the State. But 
its history illustrated the truth of the Darwinian idea, that in the strug- 
gle of life it was the strong, the swift, and the most fitting alone that 
survived. At an early period in our history, every pretty site for a town 
from the Des Moines to the Wapsipinicon rivers was staked off for a 
future city, but the march of commerce, the introduction of railroads 
and advancing civilization of the age, had led to the pulling up of the 
stakes and the consecration of their virgin soil to the holier purpose of 
the agriculturist, whose fields of waving grain testified to the great im- 
provements, as well as great changes wrouglit tliereby. So too, many 
towns, real and imaginary, provided for or organized Academys of 
Science, but like many other things of the i)ast, they have departed and 
are no more. Better have one institution the pride and glory of the 
State, commanding the admiration of scientists and the lovers of sci- 
ence everywhere, than a number existing only in name. 

The corner-stone has been adjusted in its place by the "■ square," the 
" level," and the " plumb," the working tools of both the operative and 
speculative mason. They had their moral as well as physical use. The 
square was an emblem of space, and within these walls he hoped to see 
cultivated the wide range of science studied everywhere in the interests 
of humanity. The level is to teach us that all science has its uses, and is 
designed and calculated to advance its votary in the path of usefulness, 
and make him an honor to the age and country in which he lives and 
labors, while the plumb should ever admonish the student that the 
science he most dearly cultivates is in harmony with every other science. 
Indeed, said the speaker earnestly, all the sciences are ever in harmo- 
nious relation with each and all others, natural and revealed. The God 
of Revelation and the God of Nature is the one God, our common 
Father, ''in whom there is no variableness neither shadow of turning." 
The God of the devout Christian is our God, and we worship in sincerity 
and truth at the common altar which He has created for all his followers. 
There is truth, in the language of the Mason, '•'• We. meet upon the level 
and part upon the square," because our great Teacher has " set a plumb 
line in the midst of his people," of every name and profession, and in fol- 
lowing him they walk by it. 

Upon this corner-stone we have poured the " corn, wine and oil,^' fit 
emblems of the occasion and of the objects had in view. Science in its 
onward march has not only developed new and before Tinknown articles 
of " nourishment" and food, of which corn (or the wheat of the olden 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol.11.] 25 [April, 1878.] 



182 DATEXrOET ACADEMY OF XATUKAL SCIENCES. 

time) is but the emblem, but has given increased supplies and potency to 
those before known. So, too, has it done much to " refresh'" and glad^ 
den the heart of man as he wearily plods his way in search of food or 
pleasure, and in combining pleasure with profit to himself aud the world, 
has added new -'joys" to the crown of honored bliss and earthly happi- 
ness shadowed forth so beautifully in the wine and oil, the symbols used 
upon this and all similar occasions. 

In this, then, the work of the man as a mason is completed ; as a scien- 
tist only begun. The Masons, in common with the citizens of the State, 
will, during the revolving years of the future, look forward with interest 
and hope to the success of your labor, fellow-members of the Academy, 
labor which we and they fully trust will redound to the honor of the 
members, and the substantial benefit of the people. 

Prof. Parvin paid a glowing and fitting tribute to the ladies of the city, 
to whose labor of love the Academy was so greatly indebted for the 
success of the present entei-prise, and could he, he said, but reach the 
ears of the men of wealth in which Davenport abounds, and properly 
touch their inward conscience, he would prove to them that the highest 
and truest development of manhood was to be found only when the large 
purse was brought into liberal and harmonious relations with the culti- 
vated mind, and the noble and j^enerous soul. To all such he would say, 
go and do as the noble patrons of the Academy had already done, and 
further endow it for usefulness. 

As a citizen of Iowa, having grown to a ripened age with the growth 
and strength of the State, and in behalf of its citizens, known for their 
love of a wide-spread knowledge, he congratulated the members of the 
Academy upon what they had done, and in the fullness of time would 
do, if properly encouraged and cheered on their way. 

As a Mason, identified somewhat prominently with the order from its 
introduction into the territory of Iowa, and as a band of brethren always 
friendly to science, its progress and development, he was happy to ex- 
tend in their name his most hearty congratulations. As an humble 
student of science from his boyhood up, ever finding, as he treaded its 
paths, new pleasures and increased delights, he was profoundly impressed 
with the earnest manner and the success thus far attending the labors of 
his associates, young and old, in the work before them, regarding it as 
an augury of the larger success in store and sure to reward the labors so 
happily begun. 

In the conclusion of his remarks the Professor said, that it was a day 
memorable in the history of the Academy, of the city, the state, and the 
fraternity. The laying of a corner-stone of an institution devoted solely 
to the instiiiction, progress and development of Science and Art is a 
"new departure"' in the State, and from which we have much to hope. 

The honored names of citizens, not directly connected with the pur- 
suits of science, yet laboring in common with those who are, is an evi- 
dence that the enterprise is in the hands of those who mean success as 
their watchword. In the future, when the names of the politicians who 
have filled our governmental and senatorial chambers are forgotten, the 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 183 

names of J^ewcomb, Putnam, and other active promoters of this great 
work with that of Cook, who has endowed another worthy enteprise near 
by,* will be held in grateful remembrance by your children's children, 
who in later years shall tread these halls, sacred to science and art. 

The worthy lady whose generous gift to the Academy is a fitting mem- 
orial of her conjugal love for the departed, has in this wise step erected 
a monument which shall testify her devotion when the centograph. 
erected in yonder cemetery shall have crumbled and mingled with the 
dust. And the same sun which smiles upon us in glory to-day in token of 
approval, will continue to shine upon the Academy during all its future 
labors and years. 

The exercises closed with a benediction by Rev. W. H. Barris, D. D. 



October 12th, 1877. — Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 
Forty persons present. 

Mr. A. S. Tiffany presented, on behalf of Stephen Sammons, 
an interesting and vakiable collection of old documents, includ- 
ing an original army account of Volcart Yeeder, of Johnstown, 
1772; the notice of election, as Senator, of Major Fonda, 1787: 
commission of Peter Rills, Ensign, with the signature of De 
Witt Clinton and J. W. C. Yates, 1820 ; a copy of the Ulster 
County Gazette, January, 1800, giving an account of the death 
of Washington, etc. 

Mr. J. M. DeArmond read a very able and interesting 
sketch of the life, character and adventures of the renowned 
Sac and Fox warrior. Black Hawk. He spoke of the respective 
characteristics of Pontiac, Tecumseh and Black Hawk ; of the 
Sacs and Foxes, and kindred tribes in the North-west ; and of 
the birth and early career of Black Haw^k ; the memorable 
Black Hawk War ; his final overthrow and death. He called 
particular attention to the inaccuracies of historians in their 
accounts of Black Hawk and the troubles caused by him. 

[*Mrs. Clarisa C. Cook has presented the Davenport Library Association with a building 
costing $12,000, erected for its especial use.— Ed.] 



184 davenport academy of natural sciences. 

October 26tii, 1877. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in tlie chair. 

Twenty members present. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported numerous letters re- 
ceived and answered, mainly in reference to exchanges. 

The Curator reported many additions to the Museum and 
Library. 

The following persons were elected regular members : Mr. A. 
Burdick, Mrs. A. Burdick and Mr. C. E. Pickering. Mrs. E. 
P. Kirby, Jacksonville, Ills., and Prof. L. G. Olmstead, Fort 
Edward, N. Y., were elected corresponding members. 

Mr, C. H. Truax, of Maquoketa, presented a fossil Orthoceras 
from the Niagara limestone, especially interesting as showing 
in the fracture a portion of the siphuncle, unusually well pre- 
served. 

The following paper was read and referred to the Publication 
Committee : 

The Local Geology of Davenport and Vicinity. 

BY PROF. W. 11. BARRIS, D. D.* 

I^ovEMBER 3d, 1877. — Biological Section. 

Six members present. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam exhibited various specimens of the Cher- 
netidm and Solpugidai of the United States. Special attention 
was called to the specimens of Galeodes jpallijpes and G. 
Huhulata collected by Prof. F. H. Snow in Colorado, and 
Mr. G. W. Belfrage in Texas, showing beyond a doubt that 
the}' are the two sexes ol but one species — j[>alli])e8 being the 
female, and suJmlata the male. Three specimens of another 
species, collected in Texas by Mr. Belfrage, corresj)ond per- 
fectly with the description and figure of Gluvia genioulata 
Koch, hitherto known only from the vicinity of the Oronoco in 
South America. 



L*At the time of going to press with this sheet, Dr. Barris is so ill that he is unable to revise 
his paper for publication. It is therefore omitted in this place, and will be inserted later.— Ed.] 



KECOED OF PROCEEDINGS. 185 

NOYEMBEE 9th, 1877. HISTORICAL SeCTION. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Five members present. 

Mr. H. 0. Fulton read a second instalment of his "History 
of Davenport," giving an account of the city during the event- 
ful years of 1837-38, the establishment of the first school, 
founding of the first church, building of the first brick house, 
starting of the first newspaper — the Iowa Sun, the holding of 
the first court, etc. It was during the first of these years that 
Scott county was organized, and during the second that Iowa 
was m'ade a separate territory. 



At a meeting of the Trustees, held November 30th, 1877, the following 
resolution, presented by Dr. Preston, was adopted : 

Resolved, That the Scott Count}^ IMedical Society be oftered the privilege of 
depositing books and articles appropriate to a Museum in the new Academy 
building, subject to the will of the Medical Society; also, the privilege of 
holding" their meetings in said building, provided that mutually satisfactory 
arrangements can be made as to room and current expenses. 

Dr. C. H. Preston, Dr. E. H. Hazen and Kev. W. H. Barris were ap- 
poitited a committee to confer with the Medical Society. 



November 30th, 1877. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Fifteen members jjresent. 

The Curator reported the receipt of a large number of stone 
and fiint implements, obtained by Capt. W. P. Hall from 
various places in Illinois and Missouri, along the Mississippi 
River. Also two barrels of geodes from Mrs. C. H. Perry, of 
Keokuk. 

Mr. A. S. Tiffany ofiered to donate, upon certain conditions, 
a large number of fossils and corals from various geological 
horizons in the States of New York, Connecticut and Massa- 
chusetts. The ofi'er was accepted with a vote of thanks. 

Mr. T. T. Dow was elected a regular member. 

Dr. C. C. Parry, being about to depart on a prolonged trip 



186 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



to Mexico, tendered his resignation as Recording Secretary, and 
Mr. J. G. Haupt was chosen to fill the vacancy. 

Mr. Pratt called attention to the frequent and permanent in- 
jury of the eye-sight, by faulty light and lack of caro of the 
eyes, and presented the following resolution, which was adopted : 

Besolved, That in view of the importance of the subject of the influ- 
ence of study, and of the lighting and seating arrangements in the 
schools, as affecting the eyes of the pupils. Dr. E. H. Hazen be requested 
to make such an investigation of the condition of the eyes of the pupils 
in our city schools as he may be able to do, as extensive as practicable, 
and report the results in a paper to the Academy. 

The following papers were read : 



On the Prevalence of Left-Handedness in the City Schools. 

BY W. 11. PRATT. 

I have recently taken the opportunity afforded by my connection with 
the city schools to make some investigations regarding the amount of 
left-handedness existing among the portion of the community there 
assembled, and some of the circumstances connected therewith. 

The whole number attending the public schools during the month of 
November (including 93 teachers), was 3,971, a sufhcieut number to fur- 
nish a pretty fair index to the whole community. Among these I found 
126 who were naturally, or primarily, left-handed, a trifle over 3 1-6 per 
cent — 3.17. • It was in no case, so far as 1 could learn, occasioned by any 
injury or disability of the right hand, and seems to have been just as 
natural to those persons as was right-handedness to the rest. Of these, 
75 are males and 51 females. Of the males 34 and of the females 29, 
(just one half), report some of their relatives left-handed. It is probable 
that there may be more than are reported, as the small cliildrejn, espe- 
cially, would doubtless be unable to report soiiie cases of left-handedness 
among relatives beyond the immediate range of their personal acquaint- 
ance. The left-handed relatives reported are, males 53, females 39, as 
follows : 



Fathers 13 

Grandfathers 6 

Uncles 14 

Brothers 16 

Cousins 4 



53 



Mothers 11 

Grandmothers 5 

Aunts 4 

Sisters 14 

Cousins 4 

Great-aunt 1 



Of the whole attendance we have, males 1,905, females 2,066—3,971. 
Per cent, of males left-handed, a little over 31—3.88 ; percent, of females 
left-handed, not quite 21-2.40, which does not accoi'd with Mr. Buchan- 



PRATT ON LEFT-HANDEDKESS IN THE CITY SCHOOLS. 1S7 

an's opinion,* that left-handeclness is more prevalent among females 
than among males. 

We also have 24 parents, and only 18 uncles and amits, left-handed, 
which again does not tend to corroborate the remark by Dr. Daniel Wil- 
son,! that " it appears more generally to manifest itself collaterally than 
in direct line of descent." 

It is true that children might be less likely to be aware of the exist- 
ence of this condition among more distant relatives than in the case of 
their own parents, though I usually caused them to make inquiry at 
home, but we should also remember that children have more uncles and 
aunts than parents, and one of these considerations may fairly offset the 
other. 

I did not make the inquiry, which would be an interesting one in this 
connection, how many of the right-handed persons had relatives who 
were left-handed. 

Almost all of the teachers included in the list (of whom there are 
eight), and also several of the pupils, are ambidextrous, as it is termed, 
or using one hand about as readily as the other ; but this ambidexterity, 
as far as I can learn, is the result of primary left-handedness and culti- 
vation of the use of the right hand on account of its greater conven- 
ience. Only seven of the whole '26 are in the habit of writing with the 
left hand, as I, with the co-operation of the other teachers, have guarded 
against the acquirement of that habit as far as possible. In each case, 
except one, it appears that the original left-handed bias, or at least the 
early habit of using that hand in preference, was quite decided. In one 
instance the boy was deliberately made left-handed. His mother's sister 
was left-handed, and his mother said it was " lucky to have one left- 
handed in the family, and it might as well be he as any,"' so he was made 
the victim. It would seem that the "good luck" was confined to those 
who escaped such a conclusion. 

How much is usually due to a natural bias (if there be any such bias), 
and how much to accident, determining the use of either hand by the 
infant, it is impossible to determine, but there seems to be good reason 
to conclude that in all ordinary cases the parents, by a little attention, 
can easily cause the child to grow up left-handed or right-handed, as 
they may choose, and hence, when a person is left-handed, it is almost 
always the fault of the parents, and a very grave fault it certainly is, to 
entail a life-time awkwardness upon the child, while he is incapable of 
judging and choosing for himself. 

*"The Center of Gravity in Man," Proc. Pliil Society of Glasgow, Vol. X, page 413. 
t" Left-handedness," Canadian Journal, Vol XV, page 481. 



188 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 

A New California Lily. 

BY DR. C. C. PARRY". 

On one of my last botanical excursions in the vicinity of San Bernar- 
dino, Southern California, in the early part of July, 1876, 1 improved tlie 
opportunity to accept an often repeated invitation to visit the intelligent 
brothers, J. G. and F. M. Ring at their mountain retreat near San Gor- 
gonio Pass. Leaving the broad and picturesque basin of the Santa 
Anna Valley, near the emergence of this stream from the rugged moun- 
tain wall of the San Bernardino range, our route, after crossing Mill 
Creek, one of its largest eastern artluents, hugged close to the foot-hills 
bordering the upper Yucaipa valley, thence by a more rapid ascent in a 
nearly direct easterly course, we reach an elevated bench, variously 
scattered with pine and oak groves, overlooking the broad sweep of San 
Gorgonio Pass, now traversed by the eastern extension of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad. In one of these mountain nooks the Messrs. Ring 
have located a potato ranch, the elevation of over 4,000 feet above the 
sea level giving a sufficiently cool moist climate, while the adjoining 
mountain slopes afford an extensive summer cattle range long after the 
herbage of the lowlands has dried up. 

Owing to the lateness of the season, the early vegetation of this dis- 
trict had already given place to a more sparse mid-summer growth. In 
scattering groves of Pinus Coulteri, the ground was abundantly strewn 
with the massive cones of tliis peculiar species, its dense scales armed 
with formidable hooked spines ; many of the largest cones were fully six 
inches in diameter, with a length of nine inches. At lower elevations 
throughout this district we find the large fruited Douglas spruce quite 
common, this well marked variety in other particulars exhibiting the 
specific characters of this species in more northern and eastern localities. 
Among the rarities of this district we were able to secure a few speci- 
mens of Habenaria elegans Bolander. The occasional perennial water 
courses here met with are mostly confined within deep and inaccessible 
ravines, but more frequently scant springs ooze out from beneath deep 
layers of porous strata, and spi'ead out into boggy marshes generally 
choked up with rank willow and older growths, and occasionally expand- 
ing into small meadows of coarse grass and sedges. Near one of these 
largest expanses of moist, rich soil, is located the potato ranch of 
Messrs. Ring, the special object of our visit. It is quite unusual, though 
none the less agreeable, to find in such secluded and unpretentious resi- 
dences indications of a refined taste exhibited in an excellent library, 
largely composed of scientific works, and books of exploration and 
travel, besides the necessary instruments for keeping up a meteorological 
record! Xo doubt from such resources the bachelor brothers find some 
relief from the tedium of their isolated location, and after the excite- 
ment and hardships of extensive travels on the north-west coast, seem 
reconciled to the independent solitude of a mountain ranch. 

Succeeding a cordial welcome, and the necessary care of our riding 
animals, the vegetation of this curious nook engaged our attention. On 



DR. PARRY ON A NEW CALIFORNIA LILY. 189 

all the steep, gravelly slopes adjoining there was the usual displaj' of Cal- 
ifornia evergreen shrubbery, including conspicuously the heath-like 
Adenostoma, which, under the common name of Chamisal, is largely used 
for fuel ; the holly leaved cherry Prunics ilicifolia, exhaling a strong 
odor of bitter almonds ; the Heterorneles arbidifolia, with glossy var- 
nished leaves, and a prevalent form of " California lilac" {Ceanotlms 
crassifolim), with thick leathery foliage ; the dull, green hue which every- 
Avhere characterizes the moorish growth is at this time of year partly 
relieved by brilliant scarlet festoons of Pentstemon cordifoUus, trailing 
over adjoining bushes, or the less showy blossoms of Pentstemon ternatiis. 
What, however, soon attracted more exclusive attention was a conspic- 
uous yellow lily, growing abundantly in the boggy ground adjoining the 
house, and sharing with the potato patch the care and attention of the 
undisputed proprietors of the soil. Though not as showy as some other 
members of the lily family in this region, there is a grace displayed in 
its large drooping flowers, surmounting a slender stem, beset with nar- 
row scattered leaves, which occasionally are crowded at base into a 
distinct whorl ; the plant varies in height from three to five feet, the 
number of flowers regularly unfolding from it is also variable, ranging 
from three to nine. The specimens then collected, together with later 
material, obligingly fnrnislied by Mr. King, has supplied the necessary 
means for a complete description, and the whole having been placed at 
the disposal of Mr. Sereno Watson, who is now elaborating the endoge- 
nous flora of California, he has determined the same as an undescribed 
species, which he has complimented the discoverer by naming Lilium 
Parryi Watson. At my request Mr. W^atson has kindly furnished the 
following characterized description : 

" Lilium Parryi Watson, Bot. Calif, ined. 

" Bulb somewhat rhizomatous, of numerous crowded scales, fleshy 
and jointed, about an inch long, the upper joint broadly lanceolate ; stem 
slender, glabrous, two to five feet high, 2-10 flowered ; leaves usually scat- 
tered, occasionally the lower ones in a whorl, linear, oblanceolate, four 
to six inches long, and half an inch wide or less, mostly acumin- 
ate ; flowers horizontal, pale yellow, sparingly and minutely dotted 
with purple ; segments tlu'ee and one-half inches long, and five or six 
lines wide, with long, narrow claws, slightly spreading from the base ; 
stamens and style a half inch shorter, equal ; anthers oblong, brown- 
ish, three lines long ; capsules narrowly oblong, acutish, two inches long 
by half an inch in breadth. 

" (^f the section Enlirion^ to which also belongs the Californian L. 
Washingtonianum. It is distinguished from the latter especially by its 
small bulbs, with jointed scales, its more scattered and narrower leaves, 
its smaller yellow flowers with less spreading segments, and its longer, 
narrower and acuter capsules." 

In farther illustration of this species, by the kindness of Mr. W. O. 
Gronen, I am enabled to present an excellent figure with some of the 
more important specific details.* 



*Plate V, fig. 1, Lii'titni Parryi, general view, one-third natural size ; fig. 2, bulb, three- 
fourths natural size; fig. 3, pod, three-fourths natural size; fig. 4, diagram of pod, three-fourths 
natural size. Plate VI, full size view of the top of plant, showing flowers and buds. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol II.] 26 [May, 1878.] 



190 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

December 1st, 18TY. — Biological Section. 
Four members present. 

Mr. Pratt, exhibited a mouse presented to the Academy by 
Mrs. Orr, and made the following remarks on its habits: It is a 
female of the common species — Mus musculus — and is remark- 
able for its almost constant singing or chirping. The key note 
is A sharp, one octave above the middle A of the piano, chang- 
ing frequently to A sharp one octave higher, and to D sharp 
between and probably touching other intermediate notes, but so 
rapidly as to be difficult to distinguish. During the night, if 
not cold, its chattering is continued without cessation, usually 
loud enough to be heard distinctly throughout a good sized 
room, and is a clear musical tone. It consists of about four 
notes per second, with a frequent trill many times more rapid, 
and running up and down the scale to the extent above men- 
tioned. During the day it is often still, or sounding so faintly 
as to be heard at a distance of a few inches only, and resembles 
the pattering of drops of water. 

Several specimens of the Eel Pout {Lota lacustris, Gill) were 
reported as having recently been taken in the Mississippi. Two 
specimens have been presented to the Academy by John Hume 
and Wm. Gray. 

A finely mounted specimen of "Tarantula" was received 
from Dr. L. IST. Dimmock, of Santa Barbara, Cal. Mr. J. D. 
Putnam remarked that it appears to be undescribed, and to be- 
long to the section Eurypelma Koch, of the genus Mygale^ 
which is represented in the south-eastern parts of the country 
by Mygale avicularia DeGeer, M. hentzii Girard, and other 
species. Under the latter name several spQcies from Colorado, 
Utah, etc., seem to have been confounded. Specimens of all 
these species are in the collection of the Academy. The ti'ue 
Tarantula is a species of Lycosa^ and belongs to an entirely 
different group of spiders from Mygale, though the habits are 
somewhat similar. 

Mr. Putnam, on behalf of the author, presented the follow-' 
ing paper : 



LEPIDOPTEKA OF MUSCATINE COUNTY, IOWA. 



191 



List of the Lepidoptera of Muscatine County, Iowa. 

BY MISS ALICE B. WALTON. 



RHOPALOCBRA. 



Papilio philenor Linn. 
Papilio asterias Drury. 
Papilio troilus Linn. 
Papilio turnus Linn. 
Papilio vur. glaucus Linn. 
Papilio cresphontes Cram. 
Pieris protodice Boisd. &• Lee. 
Colias ca^soiiia Stoll. 
Colias eurytheme Boisd. 
Colias keewaydin Ediv. 
Colias philodice Godart. 
Terias lisa Boisd. 
Danais archippus Cram. 
Argynnis idalia Drury. 
Argynnis cybele Fabr. 
Argynnis aphrodite Fabr. 
Argynnis myrina Cram. 

Argynnis . 

Phyciodes tharos Boisd. 
Grapta faunus Edw. 
Grapta interrogationis 

var. Fabricii Fdw. 
Grapta interrogationis 

var. nmbrosa Lint. 



Grapta progne Cram. 
Grapta comma Harris. 
Vanessa ahtiopa Linn. 
Pyrameis cardui Linn. 
Pyrameis hunteria Drury. 
Pyrameis atalanta Linn. 
Junonia lavinia Cram. 
Limenitis Ursula Fabr. 
Limenitis misipus Fabr. 
Apatura celtis Boisd. 
Euptychia eurytus Fabr. 
Chrysophanus hyllus Cram. 
Lycasna neglecta Edw. 
Lyctena pseudargiolus Boisd. 
Lyca^na comyntas Qodt. 
Epargyreus tityrus Fabr. 
Thorybes pylades Scudd. 
Hesperia hobomok Harr. 
Hesperia vialis Edw. 
Hesperia numitor Fabr. 
Hesperia tessellata Scudd. 
Hesperia . 



SPIIINGID.E. 



Macroglossa diffinis Boisd. 
Macroglossa thysbe Fabr. 
Thy re us abbotii Swain. 
Thyreus nessus Cram. 
Darapsa myron Cram. 
Cha;rocanipa tersa Linn. 
Deilephila lineata Fabr. 
Philampelus pandorus Hubn. 



Eudryus unio Hubn. 
Eudryus grata Fabr. 



Hyproprepia fucosa, Hubn. 
Utethesia bella, Linn. 
Callimorpha Lecontei Boisd. 
Arctia nais Drury. 



Philampelus achemou Drury. 
Smerinthus geminatus Say. 
Macrosila Carolina Linn. 
Macrosila quinquemaculata Haw. 
Sphinx cinerea Harr. 
Sphinx gordius Cram. 
Ceratomia amyntor Hubn. 

ZYGiENID^. 

Scepsis fulvicollis Hubn. 

BOMBYCID^. 

Actia decorata Saunders. 
Arctia persephone Grote. 
Arctia arge Drury. 
Pyrrharctia Isabella Smith. 



192 



DAVENPORT ACADEilT OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



BOMBYCID^ (CONTINUED.) 

Leucarctia acrea Drury. Telea polyphemus Linn. 

Spilosoma virginica Fahr. Actias luna Linn. 

Spilosoma latipennis Stretch. Samia cecropia Linn. 

Euchtetes egle Drury. Clisocampa americana Harr. 

Nerice bidentata Walk. Xyleutes robinise Peck. 



NOCTUID.E. 



Acronycta oblinita Synith. 
Microcoelia obliterata Orote. 
Jaspidea lepidula Grote. 
Agrotis c-nigrum Linn. 
Agrotis subgothica Hew. 
Agrotis messoria Harr. 
Agrotis clandestina Harr. 
Mamestra adjuncta Guen. 
Mamestra subjuncta Grote. 
Mamestra renigera Steijhens. 
Perigea xanthioides Guen. 
Dipterygia pinastri Linn. 
Hyppa xylinoides Guen. 
Hydroecia nictitans Linn. 
Gortyna rutila Guen. 
Arzama obliquata G. & B. 
Heliophila pallens Hubn. 
Heliophila pseudargyria Grote. 
Pyroptiila pyramidoides Grote. 



Flusia aerea Huhn. 
Plusia balluca Geyer. 
Plusia simplex Guen. 
Chamyris cerintha Treits. 
Erastria carneola Guen. 
Erastria nigritula Guen. 
Drasteria erechtea Cram. 
Euclidia cuspidea Hubn. 
Catocala meskei Grote. 
Catocala ultronia Guen. 
Catocala neoparta Guen. 
Catocala imiubens Guen. 
Catocala neogama Guen 
Catocala paleogama 

var. phalanga Guen. 
Homoptera lunata Drury. 
Pseudoglossa lubricalis Geyer. 
Plathypena scabra Fabr. 



GEOMETRIDJE. 

Petrophora diversilineata Hubn. Acidalia enucleata Guen. 

Eutrapela trausversata Drury. Angerona crocataria Fabr. 

Heterophelps triguttata Her. Sch. Endropia eifectaria Walk. 

H£ematopi8 grataria Fabr. Endropia marginata Pack. 



Botys verticalis Albin. 



PYRALIDuE. 

Desmia raaculalis West. 



TORTRICID^. 

Argyrolepia quercifoliana Fitch. 

PTEROPHORID.E. 

Pterophorus periscelidactylus Fitch. 



eeminiscences of the academy by me. pratt. 193 

December 14:TH, 1877. — Historical Section. 
J. A. Crandall in tlie chair. 
Twenty -five persons present. 

This evening being the tenth anniversary of the founding of 
the Academy, Mr. Pratt read the following paper : 

Reminiscences of the Early History of the Academy. 
BY W. II. PRATT. 

The occurrence of another anniversary of the organization of the 
Academy, and the completion of the first decade of its existence, recalls 
to mind some reminiscences which may not be out of place here in the 
meeting of our Historical Section. 

Ten years ago this evening, four persons met in a small real estate 
agency office in this city, and agreed and pledged themselves to each 
other and to the community, that their efforts, feeble as they might be 
and must be, should be united and directed towards the acquirement and 
dissemination of scientific knowledge, and that the limited means at 
their command should be used to the best of their knowledge and ability, 
to awaken an interest in such studies, to unite the influence of those who 
were already interested, to encourage scientific research and scientific 
reading, and to promote the introduction of practical scientific instruc- 
tion in the public schools. In this attempt they were merely taking the 
initiatory steps, relying upon the co-operation of others of equal earnest- 
ness and greater ability, who should join in the good work and carry it 
forward. 

During several years this matter had been discussed from time to 
time between Mr. Barler, Mr. Alfred Sanders, Mr. Eiepe, Frof. D. S. 
Sheldon, Dr. Parry, Mr. Tiffany, and myself, and perhaps some others 
whom I do not now recall, with the rather vague determination of doing 
something sometime, and a full conviction that something ought to be 
done by united^effort. 

We had been gradually forming private geological and natural his- 
tory collections, those of Frof. Sheldon and Mr. Sanders being the 
principal ones. With a rich field for study and collection of specimens 
in the several branches of natural history, situated in a flourishing city, 
surrounded by a rapidly increasing population, and at a time when a 
growing interest in scientific subjects was everywhere manifested ; it 
seemed as if something more might and ought to be accomplished than 
had been or would be by such scattered and desultory action, and there 
was encouragement in the work already done. We were, of course, en- 
tirely unaware of the rich mine of archaeological treasures hidden almost 
at our feet, as scarcely any attention had at tliat time been given to the 
subject in this region, and comparatively little anywhere. 

Prof. Sheldon had scoured the woods and fields and explored the 
rivers and ponds in a very assiduous and successful search for plants. 



194 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

insects and shells, and by example, advice and instruction, had been 
gradually and faithfully sowing the seeds of scientific progress, and pro- 
moting s(;ientitic culture. Mr. Alfred Sanders had, during several years, 
made large collections in the same lines, and had then recently retired 
from business, and determined to devote his time largely to scientific 
pursuits, and was much engaged in the study of systematic geology 
especially. Mr. Barler had become an assiduous and persevering col- 
lector and student. 

Mr. Riepe, always a naturalist in his tastes and habits, was constantly 
finding something new and interesting, and leading the attention of his 
pupils and friends in the direction of natural knowledge, and chiefly 
through my acquaintance with him, and through his influence, my atten- 
tion was turned that way more than ever before. He and I, with, some- 
times, one or two others, and usually some of our children, spent many 
a pleasant, and I believe profitable, day on a private pic-nic upon Credit 
Island or over at Rock River, enjoying our dinner with fresh hot coffee, 
made on the spot, by the side of a little fire in the woods, even on a chill 
November day, as well as a keen appetite and absence of conventionali- 
ties would enable us to do. These explorations always resulted in some 
desirable additions to our cabinets, and though often pliysically fatigued 
with our burdens, we always returned refreshed in spirit and renewed in 
zeal. Many specimens found on those excursions are now in our Mu- 
seum. 

Dr. Parry had long since acquired a high reputation as a thoroughly 
scientific botanist, an untiring explorer, and reinarkably successful col- 
lector ; and Mr. Tiffany was delving among the rocks with all the zeal 
of a new convert. 

Such was about the condition in matters of scientific research here in 
1865-66. None of us being very sanguine in our expectations of building 
up a society of much strength or rapid growth, it was still thought that 
a scientific club or small association in some form might be established, 
w'hich would afford an opportunity for comparison of observations and 
interchange of ideas, and by uniting our collections we might form a 
nucleus for a museum which should ultimately become of some general 
interest and benefit to the con^munity, by stimulating research and adding 
something to the sum of human knowledge, and possibly, in time, an in- 
stitution which should be creditable to our city. 

The untimely death of Mr. Sanders, and the loss of his talent, expe- 
rience and influence before any definite action had been taken, was a 
serious drawback and discouragement, and doubtless somewhat delayed 
action in the matter, and Dr. Parry's absence most of the time was a 
further difficulty. But we realized that the formation of mere private 
collections was of comparatively trifling importance, having very little 
influence upon the community, and if pursued with no higher object, 
rather encouraging, perhaps, a spirit of selfishness or exclusiveness, 
each being led to work more for his own than for the general good. Per- 
sonal proprietorship is rather antagonistic to a liberal public spirit and 
true interest in the increase and diffusion of knowledge. 



REMINISCENCES OF THE ACADEMY BY MR. PRATT. 195 

In the spring of 1867 while spending a few weeks at Ottawa, Ills., I 
became acquainted with Dr. John Paul, whom some of us here present 
have since known, and Dr. L. N. Dimmock, now of Santa Barbara, Cal., 
and some other leading members of the Ottawa Academy of Natural 
Sciences, an institution which had then a name but no local habitation. 
They had, however, some good working members, had already in their 
locality awakened a fresh interest in scientific subjects, and had a pros- 
pect of soon establishing the society in good I'ooms, and by uniting their 
private collections, which were of considerable value, making a very 
good beginning in the building up of a museum. By their example and 
advice we were encouraged to attempt something more systematic than 
we had at first thought of venturing. 

Mr. L. T. Eads having become interested in the subject, joined in our 
consultations, and offered the use of his real estate office in the Post 
Oflice block, south-east corner of Third and Perry streets, third room 
from the corner, in the second story, fronting on Perry, for our cabinets 
and meetings, as long as it would answer these purposes. It was prob- 
ably mainly due to Mr. Barler's energy and enthusiasm that decided 
action was taken at this particular time, and on Saturday evening, 
December 7, 1867, Mr. Barler, Mr. Eads and myself met by appointment 
at Mr. Eads' office to consult upon the ways and means, the possibilities 
and probabilities, and as to what we would dare to undertake, thinking 
that its success might depend somewhat upon the character of the first 
movement made. We had been unable to enlist men of means in the 
enterprise ; we had no direct assurances of aid from any source ; we 
knew that in a majority of cases where such a project was attempted, 
the interest died out after a sliort time, and the enterprise failed for 
want of internal energy and persistence, and outside recognition and 
support. We determined to procure a copy of the constitution of the 
Ottawa Academy, and to call a meeting of those interested on the next 
Saturday evening. We did not venture to advertise the meeting, how- 
ever, fearing that too much might be expected at the beginning, but 
invited personally those whom we knew to be desirous of joining in 
co-operative work. During the week Dr. Paul promptly complied with 
my request, and sent us the copy of their constitution and by-laws, and 
on Saturday evening, December 14th, 1867— ten years ago to-night — we 
found "present Messrs. Barler, Eads, Tiffany and Pratt." Mr. Sanders 
was deceased. Dr. Parry absent at the far West, Prof. Sheldon in poor 
health, and Mr. Riepe could not attend that evening, though he was 
present at the next meeting and regularly thereafter. 

It was then decided to proceed to the organization of an association with- 
out further delay, and this was done theji and there, by the adoption of the 
form of constitution and by-laws of the Ottawa Academy, and by the 
election of officers for six months. Some embarrassment was experienced 
in filling up the Board of ten Trustees required by the constitution, but 
the full number were chosen, subject to the acceptance of the position by 
those who were not present. They all accepted, however, except one — 
Mr. C. S. Ells, and his place was filled after a reasonable time by the 



196 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

election of Hon. John L. Davies. After about six weeks tlie following 
encouraging notices, which I give verbatim et literatim, appeared in the 
daily papers, viz : in Gazette, January 2i, 1868 : 

Scientific Society. 

An organization has just been completed which takes the somewhat ambi- 
tious title of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. Its object is the 
collection and dissemination of scientific knowledge, and we understand that 
especial attention will be paid by this Society tc the geology of our State. 
Specimens of the various fauna and flora of the coal formations will be gath- 
ered into cabinets, which the members will endeavor to make as complete as 
possible, a beginning of whicli cabinets have been made. Peat will also 
orcupy a prominent place in their inquiries for informations, and in fact all 
scientific subjects will claim a share of their attention. We wish the Society 
prosperity, as well as a long existence. The otticers are: 

President — S. Sheldon, of Griswold College. 

Vice-President — A. U. Barler. 

Secretary— W. H. Pratt. 

Treasurer — L. T. Eads. 

The Library Association has offered the new Society a habitation in its 
room, we learn. 

In Davenport Democrat, January 2'i, 1868 : 

Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 

A Society bearing the above name has been organized in this city for the 
purpose of disseminating useful knowledge and investigating subjects of a 
scientific character. The officers of the Society are at present: 

President — Prof. D. S. Sheldon, of Griswold College. 

Vice-President — A. U. Barler. 

Secretary— W. H. Pratt. 

Treasurer — L. T. Eads. 

In addition to these there is a board of ten Trustees. The Society has one 
large cabinet filled with natural curiosities, and specimens enough to fill 
another, which is now being constructed. The specimens consist of a large 
variety of river shells — some seventy-five kinds — mineral productions, geodes, 
fern fossils, coal blooms, and various other geological curiosities. Also, 
antiquities and rare articles. The headquarters of the society are now in Mr. 
L. T. Eads' office, where the cabinet and its contents can be seen. An invita- 
tion has been extended by its members to share quarters with the Library 
Association, and it is likely that the invitation will be accepieo, as more 
room will be needed as soon as the other cabinet is finished. The prin- 
cipal object of the Society is to make geology a specialty, and to that end the 
coal and peat beds ot the State are to receive a due share of its attention. The 
gathering of valuable specimens will be continued, and new cabinets provided 
as occasion requires. Donations of curiosities, antiquities, books, etc., are 
respectfully solicited. 

We are glad to notice that a movement of this kind has been inaugurated 
by our citizens. It is a step taken in the right direction, a move worthy of all 
commendation, and we sincerely hope that those who have made the begin- 
ning, will see the project grow to the extent it deserves. Cabinets filled with 
geological and mineralogical specimens, gathered for the most part in our own 
State, and open for public Inspection, will incite inquiry and promote research, 
and tlie cause of science must naturally prosper when its votaries increase in 
number and intelligence. Success to the Davenport Academy of Natural 
Sciences. 

As soon as possible one case for specimens was procured— the old 



REMINISCENCES OF THE ACADEMY BY MR. PRATT. 197 

larger case now in the back room— made by one of the first members 
who joined after the organization, and a considerable number and variety 
of specimens, contributed by Messrs. Barler, Tiffany, Eads, Sheldon, 
Riepe and myself. I find in my diary on January 18th, 1868 : '' Carried 
specimens from home and put them up at the Academy all day." Mrs. 
Alfred Sanders also contributed a large collection of minerals, fossils 
and recent shells, which alone occupied the second cabinet case we 
procured, and others soon began to hand in such specimens as they hap- 
pened to have. 

We were proud on the occasion of the receipt of the first donation 
from abroad, which was that of a collection of Crinoids, now in our col- 
lection, from Mr. Enoch May, of Burlington, January 18th, 1868. These 
"were sent in response to our notice of his election as an honorary mem- 
ber. We were rather free, if not hasty, in our distribution of such 
"honors" at first, while as yet we were receiving, rather than conferring, 
honor by such connections. Our notifications were, however, usually 
very well received and kindly responded to. 

The first lot of specimens received in response to our propositions for 
exchange, was a collection of marine shells, sponges, etc., from the Port- 
land (Me.) Natural History Society. We still have the specimens, but 
we have outlived the institution. 

Our first appearance before the public was upon the occasion of a lec- 
ture delivered before the Academy by Prof. Iliiu-ichs, of Iowa State 
University, at the German Theatre on the loth of February, 1868, on the 
subject of " Pantogen, or the Element of Elements." It was well 
attended and well received, and we " thanked God and took courage." 

The first paper read in Academy meeting was on May 1, 1868, by W. 
H. Pratt, on "The Relations of the Outer World to our Senses." 

Our meetings were held at Mr. Eads' office until a liberal offer was 
received from the Young Men's Library Association to give the use of a 
portion of its room, north-east corner of Second and Brady streets, third 
story, for our cabinets and for meetings, free of rent. The offer was 
accepted, and I find in my diary, March 21. 1868: "Began to remove 
specimens from Mr. Eads' office to the Library rooms," and the meeting 
on April 3d, 1868, was the first held there. The old case, being of an odd 
size and form, was left. 

Our first enterprise out of the routine contemplated in the original 
plan was the purchase from Mr. Thomas Lighton, of Rock Island, of a 
telescope, made by him, for the sum of SiOO, which we raised by sub- 
scription. The instrument is still with us, in good order, and has been 
the source of much pleasure and some benefit. 

During the summer of 1869 preparations were made for securing pho- 
tographs during the progress of the total eclipse of the sun, which was 
to occur on the Tth of August. This project was carried into effect with 
quite as good results as could reasonably have been expected with such 
limited skill and appliances as were at our command. Twenty pretty 
fair photographs were made. We were much disappointed in the failure 
to obtain a negative during the time of totality, not being aware at that 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 27 [May, 1878.] 



108 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

time of what we afterwards learned, that it was necessarily totally out 
of the question in any case, being simply impossible to take one during 
the short time— sixty-three seconds of totality. 

The meetings were held quite regularly at the Library room for three 
years, wnth an average attendance of about 8 members, and usually con- 
siderable interest was manifested, though sometimes the meetings were 
rather thin. For example— on June 2, 1869, only Mr. Jas. Thompson and 
myself w^ere present, but the business had to be done or lie over one month, 
with poor prospect of a larger meeting next time, as it was difficult to 
secure a good attendance during the heated term. The constitution pre- 
scribed no quoi-um for the transaction of business, and we thought it best 
to proceed and dispose of it at once. Small as was this meeting in num- 
bers, yet estimating it by results, it was the greatest meeting the Acad- 
emy ever held. The original minutes read as follows : 

Regular Meeting. 
Very few members present. Mr. Thompson was called lo the chair. Min- 
utes of last meeting; read and adopted. Mr. Thompson reported donation of 
some glacier-scratched boulders by Mr. Fejervary. The proposition to amend 
the by-laws by substituting the last Friday for the first Wednesday of each 
month for the date ot monthly meeting, was then taken up and unanimously 
adopted. Miss Dr. Irish having withdrawn her name on account of leaving 
the city, the other names proposed for membershi]), viz : Mrs. Charles E. 
Putnam, Mr. J. D. Putnam, and Mr. Henry Tourtillotte were then balloted 
for and unanimously elected. Academy adjourned to Friday evening, 25th 
inst. W. H. Pratt, Secretary. 

Here the Secretary was obliged to " cast the vote of the meeting," as 
nobody else was there to vote. We little realized then what we had 
done. We " builded better than we knew." The time for meetings then 
fixed has never since been changed. Mr. Tourtillotte died a year or two 
after, but the other two members then elected are still with us, and were 
it not so the Academy would not now be what it is. Mrs. Putnam was 
the first lady elected to regular membership. Mrs. M. A. Sanders was 
the first lady elected as honorary member, January 4, 1868— afterward 
transferred with the rest to the list of corresponding members upon a 
change of the constitution, and since become an active regular member. 
Mr. John Hume was the first regular member elected, January 4, 1868. 

In the fall of 1872, some changes in the arrangements of the Library 
and their time of meetings rendered it inconvenient for us to hold our 
meetings there, and by the kindness of Messrs. Putnam & Rogers, their 
commodious law office was our place of meeting from Nov. 29th, 1872, 
until the next May. On May 80, 1873, the regular meeting was held 
in Dr. Hazen's office. On July 15, 1873, the Academy rented a small 
room in the rear of Mr. Eads' new office, second story, south side of 
Third street, next door east of the Bank on the south-east corner of 
Brady and Third, which we occupied until April 1, 1874, at $6 per month. 
This was the first rent paid by the Academy. The room not being ready 
for occupancy, our regular meeting, July 25, was held in Mr. Eads' 
office, front room of same place. Referring again to my diary, I find, 
Monday, August 4 : " Moved the specimens out of Mr. Eads' office into 



EEMINISCENSES OF THE ACADEMY BY MR. PRATT, 



199* 



our Academy room this afternoon." This was the old case and its con- 
tents which had never been taken from Perry street to the Library. On 
July 28th I find : '' Worked at the Academy rooms moving the books in 
and arranging them as before in the case." Our Trustees' meeting was 
held there that evening, and the first regular meeiing there on August 
20, by a little kerosene lamp, which some of us may remember. 

March 31, 1874, the diary says : "Commenced carrying our Academy 
things to Odd Fellows building." This room we rented from that date 
at $75 a year. On our removal here we brought only the original wide 
case, two of the regular six foot cases, three of the closed botanical 
cases, and the old narrow book-case, formerly belonging to the Working- 
men's Libriary Association. All of these and twice as many more since 
added, are now in our west room, and all in this room— ten large cases — 
have been added during the three and a half years of our residence 
h§re. This room was not half filled. More cases were soon needed, and 
by a special effort, principally on the part of some lady members and 
friends, a " ladies' furnishing fund" was raised, which soon provided 
several cases, matting for the floor, curtains, etc. 

At the Trustees' meeting, September 18, 1875 it was decided to rent 
an additional room, in the rear of this, at $50 a year, which we did from 
September 1st of that year, and have occupied it until both rooms are 
filled to overflowing. We are compelled to enlarge our borders, and 
are happy in the prospect. Several attempts have been made, and with, 
at first, some apparent prospect of success, to unite the Academy and 
other associations of kindred aims and interests, in an Association 
building, but have each time failed from want of funds, as those who 
possessed the means, without which it could not be accomplished, did 
not step to the front. The failure was, possibly, a blessing in disguise to 
all the parties concerned, as each will go on independently, and their 
several views and interests may be less likely to conflict than if more 
closely connected. All are harmonious now. Let us hope it may always 
continue so, for the best good of each and all. 

This little sketch of our migrations brings us to the present time and 
place, and one more move, we hope, will locate the iHstitution, perma- 
nently, or at least for many years. This move we expect to make within 
a few weeks, and are enabled to do so through the large-hearted munifi- 
cence of our respected benefactress, Mrs. P. V. Newcomb, and the 
liberality and public spirit of a part of the members of the Academy, 
and some of our fellow citizens, and the sympathy and encouragement 
of many others unable to contribute largely in money, and the indefati- 
gable zeal, energy and persistence of the two living members whom Mr. 
Thompson and myself are so proud of having added to the roll of mem- 
bers on that auspicious night. 

Of discouragements we have certainly had no more than a reasonable 
share ; have been seemingly almost eclipsed sometimes, but like other 
eclipses, these have been but temporary, and never total. We have 
often failed to accomplish quite what we had planned, but on the whole 



£00 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

cannot complain. Unexpected successes have more than counterbal- 
anced all our disappointments. 

Of our dissensions and lukewarmness where enthusiasm and unchang- 
ing faithfulness were expected, I do not like to say much, but so much I 
may and ought to say— they have been less, and have been less bitter, less 
injurious, less discreditable, less lasting, and of less importance than in 
any institution of any kind whatsoever with whose internal history I 
have been acquainted. May they be even still less in the future. 

Of the causes or circumstances which have contributed to such meas- 
ure of success as has been achieved thus far, I think we may say that : 

First. Thesociety has been what may be termed fortunate. We found 
ourselves in the midst of mines of archaeological wealth, of which we were 
quite unaware, and were fortunate enough to secure for our labors, and 
especially through the true scientific and liberal public spirit of Rev. Mr. 
Gass, the most unique and valuable relics of the mound age in Amerioa. 
Within two miles of the rooms we occupied was the richest group of 
mounds yet found, and Mound No. 3 of the Cook Farm group has proved 
to be, without exception, the richest mound ever yet explored. 

Second. The hopes of the founders have be^n fully realized in the co- 
operation and disinterested labors of new workers, and work is here, as 
elsewhere, the secret of success. 

Third. The wise determination to commence the publication of Pro- 
ceedings at the earliest practicable date, thus bringing the Association 
into favorable notice, and giving it strength at home and abroad. Our 
library is becoming valuable and is rapidly increasing, and this is due 
largely and directly to the returns made for our own publications, and to 
the standing the Academy takes as a publishing society. The Museum 
is also largely increased from the same cause. A letter received this very 
day is a good illustration of this, and similar cases are now by no means 
uncommon. The liberal contributions we receive for building and fur- 
nishing are also largely influenced by the same considerations. It must 
be borne iu mind that the publication could not have been carried through 
but by the noble work of the Ladies' Centennial Society, whose labors in 
the cause have been commended and held up as a bright example, by 
those interested in the cause of scientific progress, far and near, and our 
" somewhat ambitious title" has been placed on the exchange list of 
many first-class scientific institutions, American and foreign, whose 
publications are very valuable, and has brought the name of our city to 
the favorable notice of many communities whom otherwise it had never 
reached. 

But, Fourth. The chief element of success, and that which made al 
the rest possible, was, as it seems to me, our remarkably favorable finan- 
cial condition at the beginning. We were happily entirely free from the 
incubus of money to be invested or expended, and thus escaped the rock 
on which so many have split in the attempt to build up scientific societies 
and museums. We had not a dollar beyond the small initiation fee, 
established at first and still unchanged ; we were compelled to depend 



REMINISCENCES OF THE ACADEMY BY MR. PRATT. 201? 

absolutely upon work or nothing. We realized that, and want of funds 
was no disappointment. 

The amount of labor represented by the collections here, crude and 
imperfect as the arrangement still is, and by the publications, so far as 
issued, is known only to those who have done it, or who have done similar 
work elsewhere. I could readily give several examples of scientific 
societies which commenced by raising a fund to provide cases, etc., aud^ 
furnish rooms in good style, and after expending that the excitement 
subsided, they did nothing more, or dragged along with a constantly de- 
creasing interest until it reached the vanishing point, and the project has 
been virtually abandoned. The money ought not to be had until the solid 
work brings it. 

There is still plenty of work to be done both for and by the Academy. 
In many directions we have scarcely made a beginning. We must labor 
to round it into full and symmetrical proportions. I need not now partic- 
ularize the points requiring especial attention and effort. 

Whether our Association has contributed much to it or not, it is grati- 
fying to note that the city schools have made a great stride within the 
last ten years in the introduction into several grades of the natural 
sciences, physics, botany, zoology and physiology. That much remains 
to be desired and hoped for in the same direction, is indicated by the 
record of the last School Board meeting, that '-the motion to introduce 
geology into the High School was lost." This is not very discouraging, 
however, as it was only postponed for a time, and will probably be done 
ere long. We may also note the marked absence of natural science in 
the Normal Institutes, and the lukewarmness of teachers generally. 

If the few who began the work shall be able, as they drop off, to leave 
our institution in abler hands, with sufficient vitality to ensure its per- 
manency, continued growtli and increasing usefulness, it will be the 
height of our ambition, and even more than we dared expect or scarcely 
to hope for at the beginning. I, for one, do now confidently expect this, 
so much interest is already manifested, and so good a foundation laid, 
thanks to those who have so earnestly taken up and so nobly borne the 
burdens of these latter days. It is assured by the increased and increas- 
ing sympathy and appreciation on the part of the community. Indeed, 
I am happy to say that for my own part, I never for an hour lost my 
confidence in the Academy and its future prosperity and usefulness. 

Let us hope that the close of another decade, during which time some 
more heads will be laid low, and some more names will disappear 
from the original roll of members, or be marked with the *, may 
find the Academy situated in its own completed building, with a good 
lecture room and valuable museum, an institution whose regular meet- 
ings, lectures and publications, whose labors in the cause of human 
progress, whose connection with the public educational system, and in- 
fluence upon the community, may command respect at home and abroad, 
may be a source of pride and of real benefit to every citizen. 

After the reading of the above paper further remarks were 



fi02 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

made by Dr. Hazen, Mr. TiiFanj^ Mr. Thompson and others of 
the older members. 



During this month Dr. John Lord delivered a course of six historical 
lectures under the auspices of the Academy. The subjects were as fol- 
lows : Dec. 14th, " Michael Angelo ;" Dec. 5th, "Queen Elizabeth" in 
the afternoon and " Hildebrand" in the evening ; Dec. 17th, '' Galileo ;" 
Dec. 18th, Madame Maintenon" in the afternoon and •' Alexander Hamil- 
ton" in the evening. The lectures were delivered in the Presbyterian 
church, and were well attended. The net receipts were $140. 



December 28th, 1877. — Biological Section. 

Three members present. 

Mr. J. G. Haupt reported the extraordinary fact of the blos- 
soming in open air of the following plants during the past week, 
viz : Viola cuculata, Viola concoloi\ Capsella bursa pastoris. 
Other species were in bud. Such an event has not before been 
observed in this region since its settlement by the whites. 

December 28th, 1877. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Nineteen members present. 

A large number of valuable donations to the Library and 
Museum were reported, including a fine collection of Florida 
shells and corals from Mr. W. W. Calkins, of Chicago, and 
forty volumes of books from Dr. E. Palmer. The thanks of 
the Academy were voted to the donors. 

The following persons were elected regular members : Jos. 
Parry, jr., W. O. Gronen, J. B. Young, Frank O. Davis, F. 
H. Miller, Chas." Beiderbecke, Chris. Mueller, B. W. Gartside, 
Conrad Kruse. The following were elected corresponding mem- 
bers : S. A. Miller, Cincinnati, Ohio ; Mrs. J. M. Milligan, 
Jacksonville, Ills. ; M. Tandy, Dallas City, Ills. 

Mr. Pratt made some remarks on a new process of cleaning 
clocks by steam. 

The Secretary read a paper by Mr. Calkins, describing the 
habits of many of the Florida shells and corals presented to the 
Academy. 



eecoed of proceedings. 203 

January 2d, 1878. — Special Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Twenty members present. 

The President stated that bj order of the Trustees he had 
called this special meeting of the Academy, to consider and act 
upon certain proposed amendments to the articles of incor- 
poration. 

Mr. Chas. E. Putnam presented the following resolutions : 

Besolved, That Article IV of the Articles of Incorporation of the 
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences be amended so as to read as 
follows, viz : 

Article IV. The business affairs of the Academy shall be managed 
by a Board of twelve (12) Trustees, who shall be elected at the first reg- 
ular meeting after the adoption of this Article, four (4) to serve one (1) 
year ; four (4) to serve two (2) years, and four (4) to serve three (;j) years, 
and at every annual election thereafter four (4) Trustees to serve three (3) 
years. The President, Treasurer and Recording Secretary of the Acad- 
emy shall be ex-officio members of the Board of Trustees, and entitled to 
vote ; and a majority of said Trustees (including the officers above 
named) shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The 
officers of the Academy shall consist of a President, two (2) Vice-Presi- 
dents, a Corresponding Secretary, a Recording Secretary, a Treasurer, a 
Librarian, and a Curator. The Officers and Trustees must be residents 
of Scott county, Iowa, and shall be elected by ballot at the annual 
meeting on the first Wednesday in January in each year, or if the annual 
meeting is not so held, at any subsequent meeting, of which at least two 
(2) weeks notice shall be given in a newspaper, published in the city of 
Davenport. Each Trustee or officer must receive a majority of the votes 
cast, only one being elected at each balloting. The membership of the 
Academy shall consist of regular, corresponding, and honorary members. 
The right of voting and holding office shall be confined solely to regular 
members, but corresponding and honorary members shall be entitled to 
all other privileges. In case of a vacancy caused by the death, removal 
or resignation of any officer or Trustee, an election to fill the vacancy 
shall be held at the next regular meeting after the announcement 
thereof. The President of the Academy shall also be President of the 
Board of Trustees, and preside at its meetings, and the election of any 
Trustee as President, Recording Secretary, or Treasurer, shall cause a 
vacancy." 

Besolced, That Article VII of the Articles of Incorporation be 
amended so as to read as follows, viz : 

" Article VII. These Articles of Incorporation may be altered or 
amended at any regular meeting of the Academy by a vote of two-thirds 
of the members present, provided, the proposed ameudments have been 



20-i DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIEXCES. 

presented to the Board of Trustees in writing at least one month prior 
thereto, and notice thereof published in some newspaper in the city of 
Davenport, stating the substance of the proposed amendments. The 
Board of Trustees shall present to the Academy any amendments thus 
offered, with a report on the question of its adoption, and with such 
modifications as they may see fit to recommend." 

Besolved, That the President and Secretary be authorized and in- 
structed to certify to the adoption of the foregoing amendments to the 
Articles of Incorporation, and to have the same recorded as required by 
law. 

After due discussion the above resolutions were separately 
voted upon, and vpere unanimously adopted. 

Tlie business of the special meeting having been concluded, 
the President stated that this was the time for holding the reg- 
ular 

Annual Meeting 

for the reception of reports and election of officers. Mr. C. E. 
Putnam presented the following resolution, which was adopted: 

Besolved, That the reception of reports and election of officers be 
postponed imtil the regular meeting on the last Friday of this month, 
and that when this meeting adjourns, it be to meet in the new building 
at that time for those purposes. 

Mr. Clias. E. Putnam, Dr. R. J. Farquharson and Dr. C. H. 
Preston were elected a committee to report at such meeting the 
names of suitable persons to be put in nomination and voted 
on for officers. 

The following persons were appointed a committee to make 
arrangements for an opening of the new building, viz : Dr. M. 
B. Cochran, Mrs. Chas. E. Putnam, Dr. C. H. Preston, H. C. 
Pulton, John Hume, S. S. Hunting and Mrs. D. S. True. 



At a meeting of the Board of Trustees, held January 2, 1878, the fol- 
lowing resolution, presented by Dr. C. H. Preston was adopted : 

Restored. That the Daveuport Academy of Natural Sciences oiler to the 
Scott County Medical Society the joint occupancy of one or other of the first 
floor front rooms in the new Academy building. The Medical Society to be 
privileged to hold its sessions therein, pay in consideration of fuel, lights and 
jaintor's service one dollar for each evening session, and twenty-five cents for 
each day session, and to be allowed case room for two cases of average size 
for the dei)osit of books and articles appropriate to a medical museum, such 
library and museum to be accessil)le at all times to the members of the Acad- 
emy, but that no books shall be removed from the IniiUling. 



eecoed of proceedings. 205 

Januaet 5th, 1878. — Biological Section. 

Four members present. 

Mr. Putnam exhibited some specimens of new bark louse, 
probably a species of Aleurodes^ found on a hard maple {Ace?' 
saceharamivi) in Peoria by Miss Emma A. Smith. 

Prof. Sheldon presented a tine series of hermit crabs {Eupag- 
nus longicarpus^ Stimp.) from Chatham, Mass., in the shells 
which they were inhabiting. 



January 11th, 1878. — Historical Section. 

J. A. (^randall in the chair. 

Thirteen members present. 

Mr. W. C. Putnam read a paper upon '' Old Fort Armstrong," 
which embraced nearly all that is now known concerning that 
important military post. The building of the Fort on Rock 
Island in 1816, a complete description of its plan and appear- 
ance, its earlier incidents and later history, together with its 
abandonment in 1836, were successively described. From 1836 
to 1865 the buildings went gradually to ruin, being superseded 
at the latter date by the present Rock Island Arsenal. Much 
of the material lor the article was gathered from the oldest 
settlers. 



January 25th, 1878. — Regular Meeting. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, President, in the chair. 

Forty-two members present. 

The donations to the Library and Museum were reported. 

The following persons were elected regular members : H. R. 
Claussen, C. A. Ficke, Robert Krause, Francis Ochs, H. Lam- 
bach, Jens Lorenzen, Dr. J. J. Ohlshausen, Mr. J. M. Parker 
and Mrs. J. M. Parker — all of Davenport. The following per- 
sons were elected corresponding members : W. W. Calkins, 
Chicago, Ills. ; Otto Gunther, Worcester, Mass. ; Miss Alice 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 28 [May, 1878.] 



206 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

B. Walton, Muscatine, Iowa ; Mrs. Dwiglit Merriman, Jackson, 
Mich. 

The Corresponding Secretary presented a letter from Mr. S. A. 
Miller, acknowledging his election as a corresponding member, 
and containing the following note : 

On the Growth of Paleontology as a Science. 

BY S. A. MILLER. 

In 1818, the Rev. Mr. Steinhaur, an educated botanist, described spe- 
cies of Sigillaria, Stigmaria, Leindodendron, etc., in the Trans. Am. 
Phil. Soc. under the older generic name Phytolitlius, where others placed 
fucoids. Very slovvly the flora of the Coal Measures was separated into 
genera and species, but these plants continued to be the oldest known 
for many years. About twenty years ago, Prof. Dawson astounded the 
scientific world, by his discovery of land plants, in rocks of Devonian 
age, and, in 1859, he made the first announcement of the existence of land 
plants as low as the Upper Silurian. His Psilophyton remained solitary 
and alone the only representative of land vegetation from the Upper Si- 
lurian rocks, until within the past year. jSTow we are met with the state- 
ment, that plants have been found in the Niagara Group as large and 
well marked as the Lejndodendron from the Coal Measures,* and Prof. 
Lesquereux has described several forms from the Lower Helderberg 
Group more highly organized than Dawson's Psilophyton. Nor do our 
palaeo-botanists stop here, for my learned and esteemed friend. Prof. 
Lesquereux, has come down to the base of the Cincinnati Group, which 
is the equivalent of the Trenton, and^described as land plants Psilophy- 
ton gracillimum and Sphenophyllum primcevum, and from the upper part 
of the Cincinnati Group, he has described the Protostigma sigillarioides-f 
Is is only proper, however, to say, that I believe his Psilophyton gracilli- 
mum cannot be separated by generic differences from Graptolithus 
abnormis found as low as the Quebec Group, and that it is yet a 
matter of some doubt, whether Sphenophyllum primmvum is the recent 
work of an insect or a graptolite of the genus Oldhamia, while Prof. 
Newberry is positive that his Protostigma sigillarioides is a fucoid, with- 
out any characterresembling a land plant. These differences of opinion 
between the doctors, however, will fade away in the light of future dis- 

overies, leaving the truth to stand as part of the science, like all our 
well established facts in natural history, more strongly supported by rea- 
son of the contention. 

Cincinnati, January 8th, 1878. 

*Since published in the April number of the American Journal of Science and Arts, under 
the name of GlyiHodendron eaionense. 

•f-Read before the American Philosophical Society in Octoljer, 1877, and published in its Pro- 
ceedings. 



annual address of the president. 207 

Adjourned Annual Meeting. 
Mr. Hunting delivered the 

President's Annual Address. 

BY rev. S. S. hunting. 

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences : 

It being my duty to make a report on " the condition and progress of 
the Academy in all its departments," during the year 1877, I will con- 
dense into a few pages what it seems essential for me to say, and will 
refer you to special reports of the different departments, for interesting 
details of the work. 

The year had scarcely begun when we were happily surprised by the 
discovery, in a mound on '' Cook's Farm," of the " tablets" which have 
already become celebrated. We may well wait for the solution of the 
problem as to what they were made for, and what is the interpretation 
of the writing and hieroglyphics, but we cannot be indifferent to the ca- 
vils of skeptics. We are glad to see that candid inquirers grant the force 
of the testimony showing how and where they were found, and that they 
are genuine records of the mound-builders. 

The report of the Recording Secretary shows a commendable amount 
of work for the year. Twenty-two trustee meetings were held, thirteen 
regular and live special meetings of the Academy, besides meetings of 
Geological, Biological and Historical sections. The increase in regular 
members has been large ; twenty-seven life members and one hundred 
and twenty- two corresponding members have been elected, and eight 
honorary members were elected at the annual meeting. 

There have been two lectures on the " External and Internal Anatomy 
of Insects," by Miss Emma A. Smith, and six historical lectiu-es by Dr. 
John Lord. 

The several papers presented to the Academy have been especially in- 
teresting, and unusually important, some of which have been already 
published. The following deserve special mention : 

1. A connected account of the exploration of mound No. 3, Cook's 
Earm Group, by Rev. J. Gass. 2. On the Inscribed Tablets, found by 
Rev. J. Gass, by R. J. Farquharson, M. D. 3. A paper by Dr. C. C. 
Parry, descriptive of the lily discovered by himself. 4. Description of 
a new species of Acrididae from Arizona, by Dr. Cyrus Thomas. 5. Three 
new chemical tests, by Dr. M. W. lies. 6. Utah mounds, by Dr. E. Pal- 
mer. 7. Geology of Davenport and vicinity, by Dr. W. H. Barris. 

I would also call your attention to the valuable donations which have 
been made during the year, and mentioned in the report of the Curator. 

The Historical Section has had ten meetings during the year, with an 
average attendance of twelve at each meeting. The donations of val- 
uable historical works and interesting relics have been considerable. 
The interest of the Academy in this Section is increasing, depending 



208 DAYEXPOET ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

greatlj' on the series of historical papers which have already been pre- 
sented and are yet to come. 

The tenth anniversary of the founding of the Academy — December 
14, 1877— was very appropriately commemorated by a paper from the 
Curator, \V. H. Pratt, entitled, " Reminiscences of the Early History of 
the Academy." 

It appears that the inspiring motive which led to the founding of this 
Academy, was the " Acquirement and dissemination of scientific 
knowledge, to encourage research and scientific instruction in the public 
schools." A majority of the gentlemen who first united their efforts in 
this laudable enterprise, still are with us, but some have fallen asleep. 
When they began they had no other purpose than to work for their cause, 
unconscious of the rich treasures even at their doors, but hidden from 
their view. They wanted a scientific club in which they could compare 
their observations, inteichange views, and unite their collections, so that 
a museum might possibly be developed. Of the first members, one has 
certainly become distinguished in his department, and we would send 
greetings to-night to Dr. C. C. Parry on the plains of Mexico. Like all 
such enterprises, its inception was due to a few hopeful and enthu- 
siastic persons. 

The Treasurer's report for the year 1877 .shows commendable results. 
The increase to the general fund has been 8875.41. The expenditure has 
been S860.73. The endowment fund has been increased by life member- 
ships and donations, to the amount of §2,703.50, and by others means 
S227.33, making in all about 83,000, with other sums conditionally sub- 
scribed for the building enterprise. 

The contract for the new building was 84,080, but other expenses will 
make the whole cost 84,500. Circumstances over which the Trustees 
had no control have prevented the raising of the whole amount of 
money needed, and the Trustees have been obliged to resort to a tem- 
porary loan, hoping that the new interest in the work of the Academy 
will bring the needed aid, and trusting that the temporary debt will not 
be a permanent embarrassment. 

Special attention is called to the report of the Publication Committee. 
The welcome given to the first volume encouraged the committee to go 
forward vvith the second, which was to be issued in two parts. A propo- 
sition was accepted from Mr. J. D. Putnam, in which the Academy was 
to have 500 copies free of expense, provided that 150 copies were taken 
by members of the Academy and other persons at S3 a copy. To hasten 
the beginning of the work, the Trustees guaranteed a subscription for 
100 copies. Thus the work began, and the first part was produced in 
good type of 148 pages, illustrated by fifteen woodcuts and three alber- 
type plates of the inscribed tablets. The erection of the new building 
has delayed the work of publication, but I earnestly recommend that the 
second part of the volume be printed as soon as possible, as the best 
means to bring before this community the work of the Academy. Bear 
in mind that the publication of the first volume has brought the Acad- 
emy into correspondence with over 300 similar associations in different 



ANNUAL ADDEESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 209 

countries, and from all those societies there flows into the Academy an 
endless stream of publications, giving the best information upon all 
important scientific researches and discoveries. As the object of the 
Academy is " The increase and diffusion of a knowledge of the natural 
sciences," I suggest that the committee restrict the published matter to 
articles of a historic and scientific nature, by leaving out the record of 
all business which is of simply local interest. In that case we would 
have a volume of greater value to corresponding members and the socie- 
ties to which it is sent in exchange. 

It cannot be expected that a society so young, with so few members 
who have leisure for scientific research, can make many original investi- 
gations. But we have those who are zealous to do what they can in that 
direction. The paper already referred to, on " Our Local Geology," is of 
special interest in this respect, and deserves careful perusal. The ques- 
tion discussed by Dr. Barris is this: "Is the Hamilton Group alone 
developed in our vicinity V" or " Do we have, in addition, the rocks 
of the Upper Helderberg V" Certain explorations which have been go- 
ing on in the quarries west of the city, have been examined and found to 
present facts new to science. As a result of his investigation. Dr. Barris 
claims : 

1. The discovery of a series of beds of limestone that has never here- 
tofore been described. 2. The determination of their true relation to 
the disputed rock in the neighborhood of Rock Island and Moline. 3. 
That these beds have well defined limits, the Hamilton being above, and 
what the workmen call the " flint rock" below. 4. That they contain a 
remarkable series of fossils entirely differing from any in the Hamilton 
Group. 5. That the affinities of these fossils are with those of the Upper 
Helderberg. 6. Hence, these beds constitute the upper fossiliferous 
member of the western extension of the Upper Helderberg. 

Every member of the Academy must see that it is of great importance 
to us and to science that such investigations be put in print, so that the 
conclusions may be either confirmed or refuted by other scientists. 

The Director of the Biological section says, " the object of this sec- 
tion is to promote and assist investigation in all that pertains to living 
beings, both animal and vegetable." The activity of this Section has 
been commendable, and the results considerable. There have been six 
meetings and seven papers have been presented, besides verbal commu- 
nications with exhibitions of specimens. Original investigations have 
been made requiring patient observation. In entomology, Mr. J. D. Put- 
nam has rendered good service to science by the study of the natural his- 
tory of two species of bark lice found on the bark or leaves of the white 
maple. He has observed many interesting facts, and a new species has 
been discovered. He says : " This is a most interesting case of two in- 
sects belonging to the same family and living under similar conditions 
on the same tree, often in close contact with one another, and yet differ- 
ing greatly in all their habits and modes of development." A paper 
upon this subject will soon be submitted to the Academy. Mr. Putnam 
is also pursuing original investigations in reference to the Solpugidrp of 



210 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

the United States of which he says : " Although greatly neglected, this fam- 
ily is one of great interest, as it occupies an intermediate position between 
the eight legged Arachnidae (spiders or scorpions), and the true six-leg- 
ged insects/' These studies require not only a habit of acciirate obser- 
vation, but also patience and perseverance. The Academy may con- 
gratulate itself that it has members who are determined to push out 
original investigations in Biology, and with better facilities for work 
much more will be done. This section is open for the reception of orig- 
inal papers on all animals, from the parasitic insect to the lordly being 
upon which it regales itself. 

The report of the Corresponding Secretary shows that nearly the w^hole 
scientific world, extending from California via Australia, to Russia, Ger- 
many, France and England, is communication with us. The correspon- 
dence is voluminous, and the publications received as donations are many 
and exceedingly valuable. Contributions have been made by individ- 
uals in nearly all the States of the Union, and from all the principal sci- 
entific societies and institutions of the United States and of foreign 
countries. In this connection I wall direct your attention to the valua- 
ble report of the Curator, which shows the exceeding gain of the past 
year. In view of the constant increase of the valuable contents of the 
museum, every person will see that the new building was a necessity, 
and had we turned back from the enterprise when once begun, we should 
have been recreant to the duty of the hour, and unfaithful to the trust 
we had accepted. 

During the year 1B77 two regular and three corresponding members of 
the Academy have died : 

Mrs. Wm. Renioick^s sudden sickness and death cast a shadow over a 
large circle of friends, who mourn her loss as the good and the true are 
ever mourned. 

Mr. U. N. Boberts, a citizen respected and honored for his many servi- 
ces to the community, was a faithful member and a generous friend of 
reform. 

J(xred Potter Kirtland, M. D. LL, D., died at his residence in East 
Rockport, Ohio, December 10, 1877, at the advanced age of 84 years. In 
scientific research and study he devoted himself especially to general 
natural history and geology. Dr. Kirkland was elected an honorary 
member of this Academy, Jan. 3d, 1876. 

Timotky Abbott Conrad died on the 9th of August, at the residence of 
his brother-in-law, W. T. Abbott, of Trenton, X. J. He was a son of 
the late Solomon Conrad, of the University of Pennsylvania, and was 
born in 1803. He was one of the most distinguished of American 
paleontologists, and was elected a corresponding member of the Acad- 
emy, March 27th, 1877. 

Sanborn Tenney, Professor of Geology and Natural History in Wil- 
liams College, Williamstown, Mass., died suddenly on the ilth of July, 
at Buchanan, Michigan, while on his way to Chicago, to join a Williams 
College exploring party to the Rocky Mountains, of which he was the 



ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 211 

projector and leader. He was the author of text books on zoology and 
geology. He was born in Stoddard, N. H., Jan. 13th, 1827, and was 
elected a corresponding member of the Academy, April 27th, 1877. 

When I reluctantly entered upon the office of President, I was told 
that in 1877 we must have a home for the Academy, but we did not know 
whence it would come. We began to look around for the desired build- 
ing and location, and in the midst of our anxiety, we were surprised by 
the valuable gift of a building-lot from our most worthy friend, Mrs. P. 
V. Newcomb. That gave direction to our efforts. AVith a fair prospect 
the Academy resolved to go into the community and beg the money for 
a building, and keep out of debt, which was a laudable resolution. The 
plan was carried into execution. Head winds and side currents checked 
the motion of om- ship, but did not stop it. With genuine pluck and 
faith our cause has moved on, and the foundation of this building was 
laid on the original soil. It has been erected as the kitchen or working 
part of the building yet to come. To build cheaply was prudent. It is 
the way thrifty people begin to make their fortunes. This is to be a 
house of industry, a school of the sciences, a garden for culture, a home 
for all the virtues. 

I congratulate you upon the results of the year 1877, the end of ten 
years of persistent effort. I congratulate the trustees on the harmony 
and good cheer that have attended your councils, and the unanimity 
with which you have acted. We welcome the new and rising Art Asso- 
ciation under our roof, and tender to it all the hospitality which we can 
afford for ourselves. While in biology, entomology, conchology, geology, 
paleontology, archaeology, philology and sociology, this Academy is solv- 
ing the problems which underlie art and history, our sister association 
will put on the walls of its gallery the delineations of " The Good, the 
Beautiful, and the True," in color and in photograph, suggestive always 
of something better yet to come. When we tire of the more material 
studies, we will ascend and "look aloft." The bridegi'oom, sturdy Sci- 
ence^ shall keep steadily at his work, delighted even by studying the hab- 
its of an insect, while the bride. Art. shall welcome him from the door 
of her chamber, and with extended hand and a benignant smile, shall bid 
all her friends '' come up higher." 

The reports of the various officers of the Academy were then 
presented and referred to the Publication Committee. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported that during the year 482 
letters were written, and 740 letters were received, the great majority of 
which were relative to the publications and scientific work of the Acad- 
emy. The additions to the Library during tlie year were as follows : 

Complete volumes, 168 octavo, 87 quarto, 255 

Pamphlets and parts of volumes, 331 octavo, 31 quarto, 36'J 

Maps, photographs, etc. , 41 

Total, 658 



212 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



These have all been received eitlier as donations or in exchange for 
the first volume of Proceedings, as but few copies of the second volume 
have been distributed, and no books have been purchased. 

The Recording Secretary reported that there had been held during 
the year 13 regular and 5 special meetings of the Academy, with an ave- 
rage attendance of 20 members: and 22 meetings of the Board of Trus- 
tees. The Geological and Archselogical Section have had two meetings, 
the Biological Section six meetings, and the Historical Section ten meet- 
ings, with an average attendance of 12 members. During the year there 
have been elected 8 honorary, 122 corresponding, and 57 regular mem- 
bers, most of whom have qualified. Twenty-three members have paid 
their life-membership fees, and four have been made life members by 
vote of the Trustees. 



Treasurer's Report. 

M. B. Cochran, Treasurer, in account with Davenport Academy of Xai- 
ral Sciences, January 3d, 1878 : 
Dr Cb. 

general fund.— receipts. 
To cash from J. Hume, Treasurer: 

General Fund S 3u 90 



Ladies' fund 50 

Initiation fees S125 00 

Dues, 1S75 6 10 

Dues, 1876 75 00 

Dues, 1877 71 OO 

Rent Clioniau Soc'ty 4 00 

Rent Dav. Lit'rv Soc'ty.. 2 00 

Sale of Proceedings 3 00 

Donations 3 25 

Declamatory Contest 26 06 

Dramatic Entertainment 68 i 

Lectures 407 20 

Mound fund 53 50— 844 01 



S875 41 

EKDOWMEXT FUND. 

To cash from J. Hume, Treasurer S 51 76 

Life memberships and donat'ns.. 2763 50 

Interest on deposits 35 57 

General fund 140 00 

Bills payable 723 50 

S3714 33 



GENERAL FUND. — EXPENDITURES. 

By paid for fuel 8 21 9.i 

Gas 24 90 

Printing and advertising 100 05 

Freight and express 56 52 

Insurance 30 Oi» 

Rent 62 50 

Postage 8 00 

Janitor 24 00 

Librarian 3 50 

Museum 6 00 

Lectures 200 ''0 

Dramatic entertainment 68 00 

Exploring mounds 48 50 

Expense acct. and mis- 
cellaneous items 66 83 

Transferred to endow- 
ment fund, 140 00— 860 72 

Balance 14 69 



♦ 



S875 41 



ENDOWMENT FUND. 

By paid B. W. Gartside S 182 00 

F. Kirk on contract.... 3285 23 

E. W. Baker, sewer 68 88— S3536 11 

Balance 178 22 



$3714 33 



Repoi-t of Auditing Committee. 

Mr. President :— Your committee appointed to audit the accounts 
of the out-going Treasurer, Dr. M. B. Cochran, would respectfully re- 



KECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 213 

port that we have performed the duty assigned to us, and find the ac- 
counts to be, to the best of our belief, correct in every particular. 

We desire to express, also, our high appreciation of the ability and 
industry which has enabled hiui to attain this result, despite much har- 
rassing, though temporarily unavoidable, irregularity on the part of the 
Association in the manner of its receipts and disbursements, and we beg 
leave to recommend the early consideration of methods to secure greater 
systematization. 

Kespectfully submitted. Charles H. Preston, 

E. H. Hazen, 
R. J. Farquharson, 

Davenport, Iowa, January 25th, 1878. Committee. 

Librarian's Report. 
President and Officers of the Academy of Natural Sciences : 

The Librarian begs leave to report that the Library of the Academy is 
now of such proportions that the accommodations for it in the rooms 
heretofore occupied by the Academy have been entirely inadequate. 
The large number of books received in exchange during the year, and 
reported by the Corresponding Secretary, have not been turned over by 
that officer to the Librarian. In the fore part of the summer, when he 
removed the Library to the front room, he commenced a catalogue of the 
books, as he reported, but he found the cramped space allotted to it made 
it difficult to handle the books, and as it was expected to move into the 
new building early in the fall, he concluded to postpone the catalogue 
until the removal of the Academy. For these reasons he- has no cata- 
logue to present, as he fully expected to have. If this Academy sees fit 
to re-elect the present incumbent to this office, he will take pleasure in 
carrying out the design he so fondly hoped to do in 1877. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

E. H. Hazen, Librarian. 

Davenport, Iowa, Jan. 25, 1878. 

Curator's Report. 
Mr. President and Members of the Academy : 

Upon the growth of the Museum during the past year and its present 
condition, I beg leave to present the following report : 

The increase in extent and value of the collections has far exceeded 
that during any preceding year. As was stated in my last report one 
year since, our space was already crowded, and since that time the 
quantity has about doubled. Scarcely a day passes without the receipt 
of more or less Museum material. In the meantime the addition of 
cabinet cases has not kept pace with this increase, and could not, as we 
have no room for the cases themselves. In consequence of these cir- 
cumstances, and also from want of time and facilities for proper arrange- 
ment, much that ought and might otherwise have been done, has been 
deferred until our removal to the new building, when it is hoped a more 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 29 [May, 1878.] 



214 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

systematic and permanent arrangement than has heretofore been practi- 
cable, may be inaugurated. The large circular glass show case, donated 
by Mr. Charles Viele, the set of eight upright cases by Prof. Parvin, the 
small table case for the tablets, and the case for the boa constrictor, are 
all that have been added. 

Although our archaeological explorations have not been as extensive as 
could be desired, yet the results have been of an importance and value 
beyond our highest expectations. Owing chiefly to the perseverance, 
skill and energy of Kev. Mr. Gass, our Museum now contains one of the 
most valuable known collections of fine copper implements, including 
the only cloth covered ones known, and in the inscribed tablets from a 
Davenport mound, we undoubtedly exhibit the most important relics of 
the mound-builders' age ever yet exhumed. Our archaeological collection 
is, therefore, in these particulars somewhat in advance of the rest of the 
world. 

We have obtained during the past year 8 copper implements, 3 carved 
stone pipes, 11 vessels of pottery and many fragments, 300 or more pearl 
beads, several hundred shell beads of various forms, -5 ornaments or 
charms made from shells, 6 ornaments or charms made from bears' 
teeth, and various other relics of bone, horn, etc., from the mounds ; 
and also 1350 flint implements and weapons, 275 stone implements and 
weapons, 20 hematite implements. The stone and flint implements, 
beads and pottery have been mostly secured by the untiring energy of 
Capt W. P. Hall. There are now probably but few more extensive col- 
lections of stone and flint implements in the country, and none equalling 
it in the West. In the departments of Geology, Paleontology and Miner- 
alogy, very considerable additions have been made, the most important 
of which are the extensive geological and mineralogical collections of 
Prof. Parvin, the valuable and choice collection of minerals of Dr. M. 
W. lies, a case of fine quartz crystals from Mrs. Mandeville, and a large 
collection of geodes from Mrs. C. H. Perry, of Keokuk. 

In Botany the increase has been considerable, and the collection of the 
ferns of Scotland, 135 species, received from Prof. John Wilson, of Gait, 
Canada ;,and that of Cryptogams from Mrs. M. P. Haines, of Richmond, 
Ind., 80 species ; also a collection of 300 species of Southern plants from 
W. W. Calkins, of Chicago, are of especial interest. 

In Zoology, much less work has been done and progress made than 
was hoped for, and much less than ought to have been done. A few 
specimens of stuffed birds and mammals, and some fishes and reptiles 
preserved in alcohol, and a living boa constrictor, comprising all the 
acquisitions in this line, except some quite valuable collections of marine 
species, donated by the Chicago Academy of Sciences and Mr. W. W. 
Calkins, of Chicago. Let us hope for better work in this direction in the 
near future. 

Some time since I commenced a catalogue of specimens in the Mu- 
seum, but concluded such a work to be impracticable for the present, and 
perhaps not very desirable until after our removal and some re-arrange- 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 215 

ment, with enlarged space and better facilities. I have therefore pre- 
pared no list of numbers of specimens or species in each department. 

It seems probable, and even certain, that our removal to more secure 
and capacious rooms— the property of the Academy and a permanent 
home, will be followed by the reception of large and valuable collections 
of various kinds, which have been awaiting that event, and also by an 
increased influx of donations from all directions, calling for increased 
attention and labor on the part of members of the Academy, who feel 
an interest in its success, stability, and present and future usefulness. 

1 would defer all recommendations regarding the provision of addi- 
tional cabinet cases, boxes, labels, bottles, alcohol, etc., until after our 
removal, when the progress of the work of re-arranging shall show more 
definitely what we need. 

Further I have only to express the earnest hope that more active 
measures may soon be taken than have seemed practicable during the 
past year, to prosecute the work of mound explorations, and that of 
making local natural history collections, with the view of making both 
as thorough and complete as possible, bearing in mind that in both these 
directions the conditions are changing, and the best opportunities are fast 
passing away, and also that aid from without depends ui)on efficient 
labor, disinterested zeal, and harmony within. 

Respectfully submitted. W. H. Pratt, Curator. 



Report of the Publication Committee for 1877. 

To the President and Trustees : 

The publication of the first volume of the Proceedings of the Acad- 
emy by the Women's Centennial Association in 1876 was so well received, 
and the benefits were so apparent, that many members of the Academy 
were anxious to have the Proceedings continued and issued as a regu- 
lar periodical. The plan was also suggested of issuing these Proceed- 
ings in connection with a monthly journal, to be devoted to the natural 
sciences, but this plan was not found feasible at the time. 

At the meeting of the Trustees, held January 26th, 1877, Mr. J. D. 
Putnam made a proposition, which was accepted, to print Yolume II of 
the Proceedings (containing not less than 300 pages of letter-press and 
12 plates of illustrations) at his own cost, and to furnish the Academy with 
500 copies (for use as exchanges) free of cost ; provided, that 150 copies 
were subscribed for by the members of the Academy and citizens of 
Davenport at $3.00 per copy, and that all money receipts from the sale of 
this publication should go to the publisher. On February 10th, about 50 
subscriptions having been procured, the Trustees voted to assume the 
subscription of 100 copies, to complete the number to 150, as required to 
meet the proposition. Under this guarantee the printing was commenced 
as soon as the manuscript could be prepared by the chairman, and re- 
vised by the other members of the committee. A number of wood-cuts 



'216 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

were engraved from drawings by Messrs. Pratt and Putnam, and are 
inserted in the text. Three fine Albertype plates, prepared by Mr. E. 
Bierstadt, illustrate the Inscribed Tablets found by Mr. Gass. These 
were obtained by the advice and through the instrumentality of Prof. 
Spencer F. Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, to whom the Academy 
is greatly indebted for the lively interest he has taken in its work. The 
negatives of these plates were prepared in the Smithsonian Institution 
.without cost to the Academy. 

Part I of Yol. II of the Proceedings, containing 148 pages, and bring- 
ing the record down to the last of June. 1877, was completed, and the 
first copies issued to subscribers on July 15th. Since that time nearly 
200 copies have been distributed, most of them to subscribers. But few 
copies have yet been sent to exchanging societies, as there has been no 
funds available with which to pay the postage. The unusual expenses 
incurred by the Academy in the erection of its building, taken in con- 
nection with the great depression of business generally, has rendered it 
impossible for the Academy to fulfill its part of the contract with the 
publisher. 

Part II of the second volume of Proceedings, completing the volume 
and bringing the record down to end of 1877, is in an advanced state of 
preparation, and contains several very valuable papers by Prof. Barris, | 
Dr. Palmer, Dr. Parry, Mr. Pratt and others, and should, if possible, be 
printed at once : and arrangements should be made for the speedy com- 
mencement of Yol. Ill, which should be printed regularly and promptly 
as fast as the material is at hand. If the printing could be done on the 
premises of the Academy it would be of great advantage, both on the 
score of economy and convenience. Of the many benefits accruing 
from the publication, enough has already been said upon other occasions. 

Soon after the discovery of the Inscribed Tablets, tracings of the marks 
upon them were made by Mr. Pratt, and an edition of 300 copies was 
printed, which has been quite generally distributed. Two sets of photo- 
graphic negatives of the same tablets were made by Hastings, White 
& Fisher— one of tlie full natural size, and the other reduced to about 
one-third of natural size. A number of sets have been sold, but not 
enough to pay expenses. 

The following statement shows the disposition that has been made of 
the publications of the Academy : 

Proceedings, Vol. I. 

Number of copies on hand, January 3d, 1877 301 

To subscribers pn last year's accouut 3 

To exchanges and gifts, etc 13 

Sold for cash 34 

Unaccounted for (lost or stolen) 14 

Total distributed 64— .'54 

On hand, January 2d, 1878 247 



EEPOET OF THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 



217 



Proceedings, Vol. II. 

Number of copies received from Gazette Company ... 1018 

To subscribers in Davenport (these count towards the loi) on copies pledged 

by the Trustees of Academy) 77 

To subscribers abroad 35 

Exchanges, etc , for the Academy 35 

On sale at bookstores ; 10 

Distributed by publisher (his own copies) 39 

Unaccounted for 10 

Total distributed 206— 20G 

On hand, January 2d, 1878 812 

FINANCES. 

The following statement gives the various sources of receipts and ex- 
penditures : 



RECEIPTS. 

Cash on hand Jan. 3d, 1877 ? 4 26 

Sale of photographs 35 00 

Sale of lithographs 6 25 

Sale of pamphlets and extra sheets... 14 00 

Sale of Proceedings Vol. 1 66 00 

Subs, to Proc, Vol. II (Davenport).... 202 50 

Subs, to Proc, Vol. II (abroad) 106 00 

Dr. C C. Parry for engr. Lily 2 00 

Interest on deposits 43 

Adv'd by J. D. Putnam, postage, etc.. 8 75 
Borrowed of Chas. E. Putnam 300 00 

Total 8746 19 



EXPENDITURES 

A. Hageba?ck, lithographs S 17 25 

W. L. Knowles, woodcuts 31 5'> 

E. Bierstadt, Albertypes 140 00 

Hastings, White & Fisher, photos 38 CO 

Oazette Co., printing and binding 383 46 

Postage stamps 5 00 

Discount on check 25 

Paid Chas. E Putnam on note 100 00 

Cash on hand, Jan. ;.'d, 1878 29 73 



Total S746 19 



In order to meet the bill of the printers when it became due, it was 
necessary for the chairman to borrow §5300 for the time being, and giving 
his note, payable on demand, in security therefor ; $100 had been paid on 
the note previous to January 2d, leaving $200 still due. 

The following shows the present financial condition of the Committee : 

Assets, January 2d, 1878. 

Cash on hand 3 29 73 

Due from subscribers and unsettled accounts 76 50 

Due from Trustees of the Academy 219 oo 



8325 23 



In addition the value of the property— books, photographs, engrav- 
ings, etc., in the hands of the Committee, may be estimated at about 
§1,-500. 

Liabilities, January 2d, 1878. 

Due to Chas. E. Putnam on note S20O on 

Due to 94 subscribers in case Part 2 is not issued 141 00 

Total $341 00 

This report has been brought down only to January 2d, 1878, the date 
of the Annual meeting. Since that date the cash on hand has been in- 
creased to $49,33 by the sale of books. 

Eespectfully submitted. J. Duncan Putnam, Chairman. 

Davenport., January 2oth, 1878. 



218 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

The Secretary of the Historical, Section reported that ten meetings 
had been held, with an average attendance of twelve members. Pro- 
gress had been made in the formation of a collection of old documents, 
directories, etc., relating to the early history of this city. Interest 
in the Section has been steadily but slowly increasing, and seven very 
valuable and interesting historical papers have been read at its meetings. 

The Director of the Biological Section reported that six meetings 
have been held, with an average attendance of six members. Many 
verbal communications were made and specimens exhibited, and seven 
papers were presented for publication. Mr. .J. G. Haupt has continued 
his investigations of the local flora, with his usual enthusiasm. Dr. Parry 
is absent in Mexico, where he will trace the southern continuation of 
Rocky Mountain flora, and we may expect rich results. Mr. J. D. Put- 
nam is engaged on a study of the North American Solpugidce, of which 
much valuable material has been brought together. This work has been 
interrupted by an unusually fine opportunity to study the life histories 
of two species of bark lice {Coccidce) on the soft maple, in the course of 
which several interesting and unexpected discoveries were made, which 
will be reported in a paper soon to be presented. 

The election of officers for the ensuing year was held, with 
the following result : 

President— Dk. R. J. Farquharson. 

First Vice-President— Dn. M. B. Cochran. 

Second Vice-President— Dn. C. H. Preston. 

Corresponding Secretary — J. Duncan Putnam. 

Becording Secretary— CnAm.ES E. Harrison. 

Treasurer— H. C. Fulton. 

Librarian — J. G. Haupt. 

Curator— W . H. Pratt. 

Trustees for Three Years— Dr. C. C. Parry, W. H. Pratt, Rev. W, 
H. Barris, J. Duncan Putnam. 

Trustees for Two Years— E. P. Lynch, John Hume, Dr. M. B. Coch- 
ran, Dr. C. H. Preston. 

Trustees for One Fear— Rev. S. S. Hunting, Dr. E. H. Hazen, Wm. 
RiEPE, James Renwick. 

The retiring President then introduced the new executive, Dr. 
E.. J. Farquharson, who thanked the Academy for the honor 
they had conferred upon him. He then announced the fol- 
lowing 

STANDING committees : 

i^tnance— Charles E. Putnam, Wm. Renwick, H. C. Fulton. 
Publication— T>Y. C. C. Parry, .J. D. Putnam, W. H. Pratt, Dr. R, J. 
Farquharson, Rev. W. H. Barris. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 219 

Museum— \V. H. Pratt, Dr. C. C. Parry, J. D. Putnam, Kev. J. Gass, 
J. G. Haupt, Prof. D. S. Sheldon, Capt. W. P. Hall, A. S. Tiffany. 

Library— B,e\. S. S. Hunting, Dr. C. C. Parry, John Hume. 

Furnishing—Mrs. M. A. Sanders, Mrs. C. E. Putnam, Dr. M. B. 
Cochran. 

Special Committee on Ways and Means— Mrs. C. E. Putnam, Mrs. Jen- 
nie S. True, Walker Adams, Israel Hall, A. Burdick. 

Febr'y 15th, 1878. — Geological and Arch^ological Section. 

E.ev. W. H. Barris in tlie chair. 

Twelve members present. 

Mr. W. H. Pratt reported that on the 15th of December, 
18Y7, in company with Rev. Mr. Gass, he had opened a low 
mound by the side of the river road, on the farm of Mr. Heidt, 
some distance below Rockingham. It was about a half-meter 
high and the elevation was composed principally of stone. Under 
these stones they found the usual mixed earth and a few poorly 
preserved bones, and two flint arrow heads were all the relics 
found. They went to the depth of about one meter from the 
surface of the mound. 

Mr. John Hume reported that on the morning of January 
30th he had made some further examination of Mound No. 4, 
Cook's Farm group, but without finding any article of interest. 
He stated, however, that he found much in this mound to con- 
firm his previous views that the mounds were the remains of 
dwellings rather than places of sepulchre. 

Mr. Gass presented the following account of 

Mound Explorations in Jackson County, Iowa. 

The substance of a few communications received from friends in 
Jackson county about the explorations of mounds which they have exe- 
cuted at my request and advice, is herewith respectfully submitted as a 
report thereof, together with the notice of the discovery of a skeleton , 
and of some copper relics in the same vicinity. 

I. 

On Mr. Heisig's farm in Jackson County, in an open level field, are 
found three mounds, which are so situated as to form the points of a 
nearly equi-lateral triangle. All three mounds are of the same construc- 
tion. Each one is three feet high, and the diameter is fifteen feet at the 
base, (a) The first mound consists only of a hard mixed soil down to 
a depth of five feet (that is two feet below the surrounding surface) to 



220 DxVVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

the hard, undisturbed natural soil. Not the least trace of shells, ashes, 

human bones, or other relics, were found in this mound. (6) That pait 

of the second mound three feet above the original surface is entirely 

composed of a light earth, while two feet below the original surface, 

down to the hard, undisturbed- soil, consists of a hard mixed earth. No 

relics were found here, (c) The third mound resembles the first in 

every respect. 

II. 

There is another group of mounds in Jackson County, near Fairfield, 
of the same number, height, diameter and construction as those on Mr. 
Heisig's farm. They are erected also in the same triangular position as 
those of the first group. The mounds of both groups are not burial 
mounds, but they must have been built for some other purpose. 

III. 

A single mound, a mile from Spragueville, Jackson county, is situated 
on a hill near a creek. The height of this mound is only a few feet, and 
the diameter fifteen or twenty feet. The earth that composed this mound 
is very light. Four feet down from the top of this mound a human jaw 
bone was found. 

IV. 

My friends, in their communications about their explorations, related 
also as follows : A farmer near by, in digging a ditch, found a human 
skeleton. Close to it he discovered three copper ornaments, an arrow 
head, and a small piece of blanket. The ornaments were wrapped up 
in strings, and consisted not of hammered, but of rolled copper. These 
relics are now in the Museum of the Academy. 

Respectfully submitted. J. Gass. 

The Corresponding Secretary presented, on behalf of the 
author, the following paper : 

On the Synonomy of two Species of Spirifera. 

BY S. A. MILLER, CINCINNATI. 

To the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences : 

One of the pioneers of American geology, and, as I shall show, the 
first who described a Devonian fossil from American rocks, a learned 
and distinguished archaeologist, whose name will forever be remembered 
in connection with the growth of the sciences in the West, Mr. Caleb 
Atwater, of Circleville, Ohio, figured and described a fossil shell in 1820, 
in the second volume of the American Journal of Science and Arts, page 
244, under the name of Terebratula pennata. Circleville is not far dis- 
tant from exposures of the Hamilton Group of strata, and he says, " this 
beautiful specimen is a light drab-colored limestone." 

After having carefully examined his figure and description, I entertain 
no doubt that he had before him the same species which Conrad after- 
wards called Delthyris mucronatus, and which is now so generally known as 
Sxnrifera mucronata. And I appeal to his 'work, confident that few spe- 



MOrXD EXPLOEATIONS COOK'S FARM GROUP. 221 

cies had been, even in Europe, at that early da}', more accurately figured 
and described. Conrad's name then must give way to the law of priority, 
and the fossil so familiar to us all under the name of ISjnrifera mucronata 
must be called Sjririfera pennata, Atwater. I overlooked Atwater's 
species in the preparation of the '• American Paleozoic Fossils," and so 
far as I have ascertained, every other one has overlooked it, but this is 
no reason why his name should not be reinstated. 

In 18-52 David Dale Owen, in his report of a Geological Survey of Wis- 
consin, Iowa and Minnesota, figured and described a fossil shell from the 
Devonian shell beds of the Iowa river, under the name of Spirifer pen- 
natus, whicli name, as shown above, was preoccupied. I now propose 
for the fossil shell figured and described by Owen as ISpirifer pennatus, 
the name Spirifera attoaterana. The specific name is proposed in honor 
of Mr. Caleb Atwater. The nomenclature will then stand as follows : 

Spirifera. pennata, Atwater, 1820 [2'erebratula pennata), Amer. Jour. 
Sci. & Arts, Vol. II. 

Spirifera mucronata, Conrad, 1841 {Deltliyris mucronata] Syn. for Spi- 
rifera pennata. 

Spirifera atwaterana 6\ A. Miller, 1878. 

Spirifer pennatus, Owen, 1852. The name being pre-occupied, Spirif- 
era atwaterana is proposed instead of it. 

Very respectfully, 
Cincinnati, Feb. ith, 1878. S. A. Miller. 

The principal event of the evening was the exhibition of a 
third inscribed tablet, recently found in a mound on the Cook 
Farm by Messrs. Gass, Hume and Harrison, Mr. Harrison 
read the following paper : 

Exploration of Mound No. 1 1 Cook's Farm Group, and. Discovery of 
an Inscribed Tablet of Limestone. 

BY CHARLES E. HARRISON. 

Having learned from the owners of the laud on which the Cook Farm 
group of mounds is situated, that in plowing the ground late last season 
some stones had been discovered, which probably indicated the existence 
of another mound, it w-as thought desirable to explore the spot, as some 
of the other mounds of the group had been discovered in the same 
manner. 

Accordingly, on the afternoon of Wednesday, January .30th, 1878, Kev. 
Mr. Gass, Mr. John Hume and myself proceeded to the place indicated. 
The mounds had been so nearly leveled by constant cultivation and 
plowing as to be scarcely discernible. This mound was situated about 
sixty-five feet north of Mound Xo. 1, and twenty-five feet south-west of 
Mound No. 9, and was only a slight elevation. Noticing at one place a 
number of pieces of limestone and a few bits of decayed shells, which 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.J 30 [May, 1878.J 



222 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



appeared to have been thrown up by the plow, we commenced to dig 
there, though it was not the most prominent part. 

We opened a place about four by six feet (U to IS meters). The frost 
had penetrated some seven or eight inches (about 20 centimeters), and 
through this frozen crust our progress was of course quite slow. Below 
that the earth was comparatively easy to handle, being composed of a 
dark soil, with some admixture of red clay. At a depth of about fourteen 
inches (8.5 centimeters) from the surface we found some rock, large 
irregular pieces, laid closely together, with smaller stones fitting the 
places between, all within a not very regular area of about two and a 
half by three feet (i by 1 meter). 




Fig 17. — H, undisturbed earth. T, T, original surface. X, pile of stones. A, cavity in which 
the tablet was found. Scale, 1-33. 

Thus far our curiosity was hardly excited, there being scarcely any 
appearance of design in the arrangement. On removing these, however, 
we found a similar layer just beneath, and under that another course, 
and so on Siiccessively as we descended. Our interest grew with increas- 
ing ratio, for we were evidently removing a rude pillar of uncemented 
masonry. We found a few shells among the rock, but these easily 
crumbled on being thrown out or handled. When about three feet (1 
meter) below the surface, we reached a flat, unwrought stone, of rather 
irregular form, about fourteen inches (35 centimeters) square and one 
and a half inches (4 centimeters) thick, lying in a horizontal position, at 
or nearly under the center of the primitive pile. We removed the earth 
from about this slab, and noticed that it i-ested on a rude structure 
of stone, resembling in external appearance that which we had re- 
moved. On raising the flat stone, an irregularly rectangular engraved 
tablet was suddenly exposed to view — as it lay face up in a walled vault, 
evidently built expressly for its reception. The vault, like the pillar 
which surmounted it, was rudely constructed, but substantial, and 
afforded protection from the settling of the earth and descending moist- 
ure. The cavity w^as a little larger than tlie tablet, and about five inches 
(18 centimeters) deep ; the bottom of the vault being on a line with the 
floor of the mound. This floor was a level and very compact stratum of 
yellow clay, such as has been frequently noticed and described in refer- 
ence to other mounds of this group. The tablet lay with the head 
directed east-north-east. Four flint arrows were found lying on the tab- 



MOUND EXPDOKATIONS — COOk's FARM GROUP. 223 

let, with their points directed inwards —one at the top, one at the bottom, 
and one on each side about midway between the top and bottom. On 
the upper left-hand corner of the tablet was found a shell [Unio pustulo- 
sus) containing powdered red ochre, like that used to paint the figures on 
the tablet. A beautiful quartz cry.stal was lying upon the center of the 
tablet over the human figure. Outside of and around the vault were 
numerous decayed shells, and a few small fragments of pottery. No 
bones or relics other than those named were found. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLET (PLATE VII ). 

The tablet is a very evenly stratified, non-fossiliferous limestone, 
apparently resembling the Upper Ilelderberg limestone composing the 
mass of the rock of the lower end of Rock Island. It is about twelve 
and a half inches (32 centimeters) long, seven and a half inches (1!) cen- 
timeters) wide, and one and a half inches {3S millimeters) thick. 

The under side, as it was found lying in the vault, is a surface of nat- 
ural cleavage, presenting no marks of inscriptions, nor of grinding. The 
upper side had been roughly rubbed or ground to a somewhat smoother 
or more even surface. 

The principal figure inscribed or graven is an uncouth human figure, 
seated upon or astride a circle, with radial lines extending from it, appa- 
rently intended to represent the sun. Within this circle, which is about 
two and three-eighth inches (6 centimeters) in diameter, is engraved in 
ouiline a face about half that size, but placed nearer the lower edge of 
the outer circle. Above and rather to the right of this face is a crescent, 
or arc of rather more than half a circle, whicli may or may not be in- 
tended to represent the new moon. The human figure may represent the 
sun-god seated upon his throne, the sun. He apparently holds in his 
right hand some large object — perhaps a thunderbolt, and in his left 
hand or by the left arm, a long staff or scepter. On the breast of the 
figure is a very imperfect figure of a face, about five-eighths of an inch 
(16 millimeters) in diameter. Immediately over his head is cut a figure in 
the usual form of the copper "axes" found in the mounds, but much 
smaller. Above this, at each of the upper corners, is cut a complete fig- 
ure of a bird pipe, such as are f nmd, carved of stone, in these mounds, 
and of nearly full size. These have each a bit of quartz crystal set in 
for an eye— like the eyes of the animal figure from Mound No. 3, found 
last year, and, like those, they were held in place by a white cement of 
some kind, but which had lost its adhesive quality. Beneath these 
pipes, and surrounding the head of the principal figure, are a number of 
inscribed figures, at least five of which are identical with characters in- 
scribed on the tablet from Mound No. 3. These consist of five characters 
on the left and five on the right side, and on the right side are also two 
groups of lines and dots. 

All these figures were formed by incised lines, which in the small fig- 
ures are about one millimeter (1-25 inch) in depth, and in the large ones 
three or four times as deep, and quite wide and coarse. The work has 
apparently been done with poor and imperfect tools, and in the curved 



224 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

lines, which of course, are most difficult, it is quite rough and irregular. 
The principal figure, " sun-god" and " sun," the pipes and axe are all 
colored a deep bright ochre red ; the rest of the stone is unstained. 

The stone has evidently been subjected to a great heat, sufficient 
nearly to reduce the upper edge where the bird pipes are, and especially 
the right hand corner to a quick lime, so that it has crumbled considera- 
bly, and some small fragments crumbled off in removing it from its bed 
in the earth. It is considerably reddened internally, and when found 
was already cracked into ten pieces, which entirely separated on re- 
moval, besides several other cracks which are visible, but which did not 
break apart. 



The new building of the Academy was opened to the public on the 
evening of Friday, February 22d, 1878, at wiiich time Rev Dr. Greg- 
gory, President of the Illinois State Industrial University, delivered an 
address on the '' Higher Scientific Education of the People." The 
Museum and Art Gallery were opened next day, and the exhibition con- 
tinued until March 3d. The exhibition of pictures, under the auspices 
of the Davenport Art Association, was very fine. In addition to the 
Archaeological and other collections of the Academy, which had been 
beautifully arranged by Messrs. Pratt and Harrison, a fine collection of 
old coins was exhibited by Messrs. H. Spink, G. \V. French and others. 
Professor J. D. Butler, of Madison, Wis., exhibited a selection of the 
copper implements from the collection of the Historical Society of Wis- 
consin. Among them were several supposed to have been cast. Four 
casts of the heads of Indian chiefs, prisoners of war at St. Augustine, 
Fla., presented by the Smithsonian Institution, attracted much attention. 
In the entomological room a selection of forty cases from the entomological 
collection of Mr. J. D. Putnam, was set up on racks, and eight micro- 
scopes were arranged on a table, with which to examine a magnificent 
series of preparations, loaned for the occasion by Mr. H. T. Atwood, of 
Chicago. On each evening during the opening, there was either a lec- 
ture or a musical entertainment. On February 23d, Prof. T. S. Parvin 
delivered an historical address on " Reminiscences of Iowa Forty Years 
Ago." Professor J. D. Butler, on February 26th, gave a very entertain- 
ing and instructive lecture on '' Why the French Came West." February 
27th, Professor W. L. Hailman, of Milwaukee, spoke upon the "■ Law of 
Childhood," and on February 28th, Col. W. W. Calkins entertained the 
audience with an account of the " Shell Mounds of Florida." The 
building was constantly thronged both day and evening. Great credit is 
due to the ladies for serving refreshments throughout the opening week, 
which netted fifty dollars. An admittance fee of twenty-five cents was 
charged, and the net receipts were $4-50. During several days the Ferry 
Company carried ticket holders to and from Rock Island and Moline 
free. 



CALKINS ON FLORIDA SHELL MOUNDS. 225 

Some Notes of Personal Investigation Among the Shell Mounds of 

Florida. 

BY W. W. CALKINS. 

(Read February 28tli, 1S78 ) 

It is only within a few years past that the riorida mounds have 
attracted the attention of archaeologists. Works or remains of a similar 
character were known to be abundant all along the Atlantic coast. 
These for many years hardly excited more than passing attention, being 
known as '' shell heaps,"" and their origin referred to accidental agencies 
of tides, winds and waves, which were supposed to have piled them up 
in the same manner as the sand dunes of the coa*t were formed. The 
ordinary observer naturally regarded them in this light, and " passed by 
on the other side." But the man of thought— the inquisitive mind— the 
archa?ologist— ever impatient to delve amid the ruins of the past and 
seek for the solution of questions aifecting the origin of all things, ani- 
mate and inanimate, paused in wonder. He beheld the large size and 
extent of the mounds, and found that they were composed largely of 
edible species of shells — the Ostrea Fir^rijiica being most abundant ; fur- 
thermore, that many shells were broken, and that no two valves would 
match. Thus much being ascertained, we may be sure that further 
observation lifted the veil of mystery, and dissipated long cherished 
opinions as to the origin of the "• heaps." I will summarize some of the 
results. 

In many instances the mounds are situated at a distance inland, re- 
mote from living oyster beds or other abundant shells. In them are 
found evidences of man, consisting of relics of pottery, flint, bones of 
men, and certain species of mammals. Needles and awls of bone, ves- 
sels made of the large Pyrula or Conch, and ornaments manufactured 
from shells, also exist. Excavatians have revealed all these in more or 
less abundance. Human skeletons of the mound-builders age are not 
uncommon, though generally too far decayed for removal. The latest 
were exhumed by Lieut. A. W. Yogdes, at Tampa, Fla., in 1876, and by 
tlie author at Cedar Keys, Fla., in 1877. These lay at five and seven feet 
below the surface, near the center of the mounds, and with the heads 
toward the east. Lieut. Vogdes found an abundance of human tibia 
broken or calcined, which were associated with tlie bones of the bear, 
raccoon, etc., and situated near or in ihe ancient fireplaces, where were 
also charcoal and calcined shells. It is worthy of note that while stone 
axes and flints are common in the North, very few are found in Florida, 
and these were probably imported or obtained in trade with northern 
tribes, by giving, perhaps, the large marine shells — such as the Cassis 
found in a mound near Davenport, Iowa, and now in the Museum of the 
Academy. It is evident, then, that these shell mounds are artificial, the 
work of man. Indeed, the fact is so well established that I need not dis- 
cuss it. But we find in Florida two classes of mounds— those of the 
interior and those on the sea coast. The former are made up almost 
exclusively of fresh water shells, generally of three species, Paludina, 



226 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 

Pomits and Unio. These species are not intermixed in the same mound, 
but were used as a general thing separately. The mounds of the sea 
coast consist entirely of marine shells. They will be noticed hereafter. 
Those of the interior, large numbers of which exist on the St. John's 
river and its tributaries, were made a subject of special investigation 
by the late Professor Wyman, of Massachusetts, and the results are 
embodied in the "Memoirs of the Peabody Academy of Science, 
Vol. 1, Xo. 4." During a recent trip to Florida, in 1877, I improved 
the opportunity to learn all I could in regard to the mounds. My 
course of travel was first in the St. Johns country. Through it 
flows in a nearly north direction the river of that name, and which 
resembles a vast lagoon of the sea, lying, as it does, but a few feet 
above its level, and for a long distance only separated from it by a 
narrow belt of land. Indeed, tide influences are felt 180 miles from its 
mouth. The borders of the St. Johns, as seen from the deck of a 
steamer present the unvarying aspect of low, flat country and interminable 
cypress swamps, with here and there moie elevated tracts, covered with 
live oaks, palmettos, etc. The half tropical vegetation is varied and 
luxuriant, but most noticeable is the Spanish moss [Tillandsia usneoides), 
wliich covers every tree in gray apparel, presenting a strange and gloomy 
appearance. A closer inspection will reveal a dense undergrowth of 
Saw Palmettoes, scrubs and vines, whose roots permeate the loose soil 
in every direction. There are several lakes and numerous tributaries, 
all connected with the main river. These are filled, as formerly, with 
abundant animal life— fish, shell-fish, turtle, and the noble "gaitor." as the 
native Floridian calls him. The adjoining country is not less favored in 
the way of game, the swamps and hammocks affording shelter and safety 
to deer, bear, wild turkeys, etc. The upper St. Johns seems to have pos- 
sessed peculiar attractions for the unknown people who built the hundreds 
of shell mounds existing there, and to have been the centre of population 
of the inland country. In this respect, finding a parallel in the Missis- 
sippi, Ohio and Illinois valleys, wheie we know the mound-builders 
followed the course of ttur large I'ivers. Wyman explored more than 
fifty mounds in the section indicated, some of them containing several 
acres, and the deposits of shells varying in depth from six inches up to 
twenty feet. In most cases he found plenty of pottery, bones of men 
and animals, together with shell dishes and ornaments, and a few rude 
flints. They were obtained at various depths by digging, a work, as I 
found myself, of no little difficulty on account of the dense vegetation 
that now covers the mounds. The researches of Prof. Wyman estab- 
lished beyond all doubt, the origin of the mounds, and he was the first 
explorer to thoroughly establish their character as artificial, though 
Count Pourtales expressed such a belief in 1848, while Dr. Brinton, who 
traveled in Florida in 1856, and published a work called '• The Floridian 
Peninsula," thought otherwise, though he gave them no critical exami- 
nation so far as I know. 

Of several on the St. Johns examined by me, a description of one will 
give a fair idea of the others. This lay immediately on the bank of the 



CALKIXS OX FLORIDA SHELL MOUXDS. 227 

river, north of Pilatka, and was some 250 feet long. 200 wide, and about 
seven feet in depth, and made np of the little univalve shell Vivipara 
contectoides, which I may remark now lives there as well as in our 
northern waters. The top of the mound was overgrown with Saw Pal- 
metto [Sabal semdata) ; also with live and water oaks {Qiiercus), which 
seemed to find sufhcient nourishment in the scanty soil or sand that had 
accumulated to the depth of a foot. Many of the trees could not have 
been less than 800 years old. These are young, compared with some 
growing on other mounds. I began digging at various points, but found 
my labor constantly impeded by the intricate net work of roots. I man- 
aged, however, to go down five feet, and was rewarded by finding a piece 
of pottery and flint chip ; also, an awl made of the bone of some animal. 
This was nearly two inches long, and broad at one end. with a hole 
drilled through it. The other end was narrow and pointed. Below the 
depth stated, the shells were crushed and disintegrated, showing great 
age and a tendency to stratification. This is only one of many mounds 
of the same character on the banks of the St. Johns. In addition to 
these, broken pottery and shells are found almost everywhere, very fre- 
quently on the suface of the soil. Much of the pottery is ornamented, 
and I have found specimens exactly similar to some from Wisconsin. 
Very few whole pieces occur, however, having been broken up by the 
agencies of time, and where buried by the numerous roots which pene- 
trate and destroy everything within reach. At Jacksonville may be 
seen roads made from the material from the shell mounds. 

From the immense deposits then, we may conclude that the popula- 
tion of this section must have been large, and the shells and game of the 
country far more abundant than now. The shell-fisli were used for food, 
and the empty shells became the foundations of the camps and huts of 
the natives, and finally mounds of large extent. Successive generations 
have occupied them as dwelling places, which they would naturally do 
in a country so low and flat. Tradition speaks of three races having 
inhabited Florida, and no doubt the earliest of these built the mounds. 
The human bones found in them in a broken condition preclude the idea 
of burial in a natural manner. It is almost certain that cannibalism 
existed, but at what period we cannot tell. From all I could learn, I 
should not assign an age of less than 600 years to the mounds of the in- 
terior. But this is, of course, mere conjecture, and the secret must 
remain forever buried with the strange people who reared these shell 
structures. 

THE SHELL ^lOUKDS OF THE COAST. 

There are many of these on both the Atlantic and Gulf sides of Flor- 
ida of large extent. Some are now far inland, others immediately on 
the shore. I examined one of the largest mounds at Cedar Keys with 
guite interesting results. I understand that Dr. Brinton examined the 
same one and published his observations, but I have never seen his 
work, much to my regret. The mound is situated on Way Key— one of 
the group known as Cedar Keys. Here, under the shadow of the ancient 
metropolis, as it may well be called, stands the modern city of Cedar 



228 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Keys, though what entitles it to this high sounding name, I could not 
discover. But that there are plenty of excellent people here besides the 
mound-builders, and the best oysters in the world, I will not deny. 
Arriving in the night. I was not prepared for the surprise that awaited 
me on the next morning, when arising early, I strolled out for a walk, 
and saw not more that fifty rods from my hotel what seemed an immense 
hill gradually sloping upwards. This was so unusual a feature in Florida 
scenery as to arrest attention. It appeared to be fifty feet or more in 
height, and was surmounted with a dense growth of vegetation, the 
stately Chamerops Palmetto and live oak, with the Saw Palmetto and 
Yucca aloifolia being prominent features in the landscape. This was 
the famous "Mound." It extends for the distance of a quarter of a 
mile along the shore of a shallow bay known as " Goose Cove," on which 
it fronts abruptly, while on the other side it slopes downward towards the 
town, of which the whole mound may be called a suburb, numerous squat- 
ter sovereigns having fixed their residences on its summit, while several 
gentlemen with whom I became acquainted, are located on the slope. 
Small patches have been cleared of the underbrush for garden purposes. 
The whole mound covers at least ten acres, but portions of it have, from 
the changes of time, been worked down ; soil and sand have, with the 
vegetation, given a modern appearance to these parts. But excavations 
reveal the fact that underneath is the buried mound. My friend, Lieut. 
Vogdes, chanced to arrive a few days after myself, and during his short 
stay we made some examinations on Goose Cove, where there were the 
best exposures. The mound here has an elevation of thirty to forty 
feet, with an almost perpendicular face, against which the tides wash. 
At the base, where they had been casting off shells to make roads in the 
town, we fomid some pieces of pottery, plain and ornamented. A little 
higher up, on digging into the side, more pottery was found ; also char- 
coal ashes and bones of the bear and deer. Some of the.se were made 
into awls or needles ; others had holes drilled into them as if for orna- 
ment. We found some of these relics at about fifteen feet from the 
base — the bones near the old fire-places. I saw no human bones at this 
point. 

The mound proper, that is without the natural accumulations on its 
surface, of soil, sand, debris, etc., is composed of marine shells. Two- 
thirds, perhaps, are ihe Ostrea Virginica, occurring broken and the 
valves never in pairs. There are plenty, also, of the large clams, Merce- 
naria Mortoni. These and many other species, all common in a living 
state in the adjoining waters, make up the mound. Among the more 
noticeable species are Cassidulus corona, Natica duplicata, Sycotypusper- 
versus, S. pyrum, S. papyraceus, Fasciolaria distans, _Fasc. tulipa, 
Fasc. gigantea, Callista gigantea, Pecten dislocatus, P. irradians, Strom- 
bus yigas, S. alatus, Cancellaria reticulata, all edible species. Some of 
these are common to the Post Pliocene also. During my visit I exam- 
ined every part of the mound, making excavations on the surface at 
several points. The part fronting on Goose Cove was evidently the 
kitchen department. Here the mound-builders cooked the oysters. 



CALKIXS ON FLORIDA SHELL MOUNDS. 229 

clams and scallops that made up so large a part of their living. The 
relics found prove this. I made several excavations on the surface 
twenty rods back from the cove, in the midst of a jungle of Saw Pal- 
metto, water oak, yuccas, smilax, etc. Near by w\as an oak tree [Quer- 
cus virens), of large size, and which could not be less than 600 years old. 
The first two feet was all sand, except the space occupied by the roots, 
and to get through the tangled mass required much labor and patience. 
After this I struck a deposit of shells, and mixed with them was an 
abundance of broken pottery, human bones and skulls ; the latter were 
badly cracked by the roots running through them, and the pieces were 
detached. Throwing these aside, I continued to dig to a depth of seven 
feet, finding all the time more bones and pottery. I obtained as many as 
twenty varieties of the latter. The ornamented kinds were more abund- 
ant than plain pieces, and some showed a high degree of skill and syste- 
matic workmanship. Some were covered with figures of squares or 
diamonds. Others with straight or curved lines, and indented with 
little holes. Judging from the pieces, the vessels would hold from two 
to four gallons, but many may have been larger. The same patterns 
occur in the St. Johns mounds, and, as I believe, in those of the Xorth. 
Below seven feet I did not go. It requires a good deal of enthusiasm to 
dig in these jungles on a hot day. At that depth the bodies were evi- 
dently buried with heads toward the east, but their positions had become 
changed, and many of the bones either entirely decayed or dislocated. 
I found no ornaments with the bones. Pottery seems to have been the 
only thing buried with them, unless it be shells. "No metals of any kind 
have been found here or elsewhere in the Florida mounds. 

My operations occupied parts of many days, and while carrying them 
on, I took occasion to interview the " oldest inhabitants," of which there 
are a number hereabouts, but with little satisfaction. Some referred the 
mound to a period anterior to the flood. Others to a " time whereof the 
memory of man runneth not to the contrary," while all agreed that it 
was very ancient, in which view I concurred. Mr. Henry Clark, who 
lives on Goose Cove, informed me that his father had spent a great deal 
of time in searching the mound, but had never taken out more than two 
pieces of pottery entire, all the rest being broken. After months of 
labor he had also secured a number of skulls, but all badly cracked. 
These were sent to Europe. The quantity of pottery is simply immense. 
Future research may bring to light perfect specimens. 

As to evidence of cannibalism, I found none here, but it may exist. 
and probably does. Lieut. Vogdes, in a systematic exploration of the 
same kind of moimds at Tampa, further down the coast, discovered sat- 
isfactory proofs of it. As to the age of this mound, no positive date 
can, of course, be given. Any one standing at a little distance would be 
impressed with its aged appearance— not less than 600 years- and closer 
examinations of the stupendous deposits of shells w^ith the overlaying 
material and vegetation, would rather increase than lessen this estimate. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II. j 31 [May, 1878.; 



230 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

March 3d, 1S78. — Biological Section. 
Seven members present. 
Dr. Farquharson reported the following : 

Post Mortem Examination of a Boa Constrictor. 
BY R. J. FARQUHARSON, M. D. 

A Boa constrictor, 7 feet in length, was received about Sept. 1st, 1877, 
from Hon. Jas. Thorington, U. S. Consul at Aspinwall. It swallowed a 
rat shortly before starting on the journey, and another rat was placed in 
the box to serve for food on the way, but was not eaten. On its arrival 
here the boa was quite torpid, and spent a considerable time in shedding 
its skin, which was done in a very gradual and imperfect manner. A 
rat, which was placed in the cage about a week after its arrival, bit it 
badly about the head and nose, thus causing the snake much suffering. 
Numbers of rabbits, pigeons, or other animals, were from time to time 
put into the cage, but the Boa took no notice of them. It was kept in a 
room with a fire all winter, and kept itself snugly coiled up in a blanket 
most of the time. In January it began to appear more active, but only 
for a short time, as it finally died on February 1st, having eaten nothing 
for nearly six months. Soon after its death, a post mortem examina- 
tion was made, with the following result. 

In removing the skin and preparing the skeleton, the following obser- 
vations were made: Near the anus the ducts of two glands were cut 
across, which were filled with a dark colored semi-fluid matter, with a 
terribly pungent foetid and musky odor. 

The small bones of the rudimentary hind limbs, characteristic of the 
Boidse, were not found, being either imbedded in the thick skin, or over- 
looked from their small size, owing to the immaturity of the specimen. 

No sub-cutaneous nor inter-muscular fat was found ; but internally fat 
was quite abundant in the mesentery, and about the kidneys and other 
organs of the abdomen. 

The stomach and a part of the intestines were empty, in the lower 
part of the latter some masses of the same foecal matter (consisting 
principally of the hair of the Peccary), which it had passed for several 
months, and a large quantity of the peculiar urine, of the color and con- 
sistency of partly melted ice cream. 

The gall bladder was filled with dark colored bile. 

The internal organs appeared healthy, with the sole exception of the 
lung, the whole of which was inflamed, indicated by the diffused red 
color, and by its being adherent to the cavity of the body throughout a 
great part of its surface. Upon the inner or mucous surface of the lung 
were found quite a large number of tubercles, some of which had soft- 
ened. The largest of these would not exceed in size that of a No. 6 shot. 
As in serpents lungs there are no air cells, nor any solid tissue, this 
observation may be of aid in fixing the site of the corresponding miliary 
tubercles in man. 



RECOED OF PROCEEDINGS. 231 

About the head, under the skin, and in the mouth were found signs of 
inflammation and suppuration, the consequence of his injury by the bite of 
a rat, and his knocliing the exposed part against the side of his cage. 
This local suppuration may have been the starting point of the deposition 
of tubercles in the lungs. From the remnants of his last meal being 
found yet in the intestines, and from the abundance of internal fat, it 
may be inferred that he did not die of starvation. 

March 8th, 1878. — Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Six members present. 

The following papers, formerly belonging to the estate of the 
late Aiitoine LeClaire, were presented by George L. Daven- 
port, Esq., executor: United States Patent to Antoine Le- 
Claire, dated November 1st, 1837, conveying all the laud on 
which is now located the city of Davenport ; another patent, of 
the same year, conveying a section of land at the head of the 
Upper Rapids* ; Antoine LeClaire's commission as Postmaster 
at Davenport, dated October 22d, 1836 ; letter of instruction to 
LeClaire from Postmaster-General Amos Kendall, dated April 
26th, 1830; letter from Hon. George W. Jones, dated April 
20th, 1836 ; Antoine LeClaire's commission as "Justice of the 
Peace for Des Moines County, Michigan Territory," dated 
April 1st, 1836, and signed by John S. Horner, acting Governor 
of Michigan ; a copy of the conveyance of the '• original ferry 
license" from Antoine LeClaire to John Wilson in 1837. 

Mr. W. C. Putnam then read some reminiscenes of Black 
Hawk and the Sac and Fox Indians, which had been furnished 
by Lion. Hailey Davenport, of Rock Island. 

March 29th, 1878. — Regular Meeting. 

Dr. R. J. Farquharson, President, in the chair. 

Eight members present. 

Donations to the Museum and Libl-ary were reported, and the 
thanks of the Academy voted to the donors. 

The following persons were elected regular members: Capt. 
T. J. Robinson, Rock Island ; Reuben S. Price and Otto Klug, 
Davenport. The following were elected corresponding mem- 

*Now the City of LeClaire, Iowa 



232 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

bers : S""- Gumesindo Mendoza, S""- Alfonso Herrera, S""- 
Mariano Barcena, S""- Dr. Manuel M. Vilado, and S""- Jesus 
Sanclies, of the National Museum, Citv of Mexico ; S""- Dr. 
Eugene Duges, Guanajuate, Mexico ; S""- Dr. Gregorio Barroeta, 
S""- Don Antonio Espinoza j Cerv^antes ; and S''- Dr. J. A. Pier- 
nas, San Louis Potosi, Mexico. 

Mr. Crandall reported that Mr. L. H. Morse, of this city, 
proposed to photograph, by the new chromotjqDe process, all 
the officers of the Academy, together with the members who 
have been most active in building up the Academy, and to 
donate the same to the Historical Section. This offer was 
accepted with a vote of thanks. 

The following paper was read and referred to the Publication 
Committee : 

Catalogue of the Marine Shells of Florida, with Notes and Descrip- 
tions of Several New Species. 

BY W. W. CALKINS, CHICAGO. 

The material for the following monograph has been mainly derived 
from my own collections, and observations made during two winters 
spent in Florida— in 1875 and 1877. The first time as member of an ex- 
pedition in the interest of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, and in 1877 
on my own account. In addition to my personal collections, I have 
received since my return valuable accessions from my collectors living 
in Florida. In the determination of species I have been assisted in 
many instances by Mr. George W. Tryon, jr., of Philadelphia, to whom, 
and also to Mr. Thomas Bland, I desire to express my acknowledgments 
for kindly aid. While possessing myself a fine series of Conchological 
works, I regret my inability to look over the libraries and museums of 
eastern societies for purposes of study and comparison. I have, how- 
ever, taken the utmost care to identify species. I am led to prepare this 
paper from a feeling that even a catalogue, if it be nothing more, is a 
desideratum among students of American conchology, who have been 
obliged, like myself, to search through hundreds of volumes for informa- 
tion that perhaps a mere list would afford. It is often a satisfaction to 
know ?/;/i,ere a certain shell can be found. I do not, of course, give all 
the Florida species. There are many which can only be obtained by 
dredging in deep water. But a fair representation appears of the littoral 
faunas of both coasts, and the Keys at the southern extremity of Florida. 
It will be seen that West Indian forms are quite common. The geo- 
graphical range of the species is one of interest in connection with 
geological changes in Florida, which have governed their distribution. 
Dr. Stimpson refers to this in the American Naturalist, Vol. 4. It 



CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS OF FLORIDA CALKINS, 233 

seems that a comparatively small number are common to both the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florifla. Some species abundant at St. 
Augustine do not occur at all on the other side, but when the vicinity of 
Galveston is reached are again seen. 

On the other hand we look in vain for the sub-tropical species, found 
even so far north as Cedar Keys on the Gulf. I found at the latter point 
for the first time, Banella clathrata. Gray, heretofore known only from 
the Pacific coast. I also secured the South American shell. Auricula 
Xtellucens, Menke. This shows a wide range, and suggests the powerful 
agency of the Gulf stream in the migration of species from the south, 
and their colonization where its influences are felt. Beyond these influ- 
ences many species do not extend. The same agency also presents an 
insuperable barrier to northern forms. Hence, Dr. Stimpson argued the 
former connection of the colder waters of the xltlantic with the northern 
part of the Gulf of Mexico by means, perhaps, of straits or lagoons 
across the northern part of Florida, and accounts in this way for the 
occurrence of South Carolina shells on the Texas coast. These facts are 
interesting and worthy of more study. I do not propose to give a full 
synonomy of the species mentioned. When so common a shell as Lucina 
dentata rejoices in more than a dozen names bestowed upon it at different 
times by enthusiastic or ambitious naturalists, it is about time to cut 
down the list, and save labor as well as expense. In classification I have 
followed Woodward mainly. The largest part of the species enumerated 
are in my cabinet. A number are in the Museum of the Chicago Acad- 
emy and in that of the Davenport Academy of Sciences. Other species 
will be deposited from time to time. 

Class, CEPHALOPODA. 
Order, AKGONAUTID^. 

Family, ARGOKAUTiDiE. 
Genus, ARGONAUTA, L. 

1. A. ARGO, L. Very frequently cast by storms upon the Florida 
coHst. My collection. 

Order, OCTOPODA. 

Family, Octopodid^. 

Genus, OCTOPUS, Cuvier. 

2. O. RUGOSUS, Bosc. Synonyms, Sepia granulatus. Lam. 1799 ; Octo- 
pus Barkeri, Fer. 1826 ; Octopus Americanus, Blain 1826. From the Gulf 
stream, and occasionally cast on shore. My collection. 

3. O. VULGARIS, L. Common around the coral reefs. The natives 
sometimes eat this species. My collection. 

Order, DECAPODA. 

Family, ONYcnoTEUxniD^. 

Genus, ONYCHOTEUTHIS, Licht. 

4. O. Bartlingii. Lesueur 1821. [Loligo.) Syn. O. Lesueurii,FeY. 
Found in the Gulf stream. My collection. 



'2S4: DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Family, STiRULiDiE. 
Genus, SPIRULA, Lo.m. 
o. S. Pkronii, Z/cm. 1822. Hyn. S. frag His, ^timp. '[860. The only re- 
cent species known. I have observed this shell by thousands on the 
beaches, cast up by storms. The animal is seldom seen or taken alive. 

Class, GASTEROPODA. 

Order, PROSOBRANCHIATA, 

Family, Stkombid.e. 

Genus, STROMBUS, L. 

6. S. bitl^erculatus, Lam. Tortugus Keys. 

7. S. PUGiLis, L. West Coast. 

8. S. alatus, Gmelin. West Coast. 

9. S. gigas, L. Very abundant. The animal affords an excellent 
article of food, while the shells are imported by thousands for manufac- 
turing into articles of jewelry. 

10. S. ACCiPiTER, Lam. By no means common. Found off the Keys. 

Family, Conid^e. 
Genus, BEL A, Leach. 

11. B. PLiCATA, Adams. Loc, Indian Pass, Fla. (.Jewett). Cedar 
Keys (Calkins). 

Genus, CLATHURELLA. P. P. Carpenter. 

12. C. .Jewetti, Stearns. Tampa Bay. 

Family, Muricid^e. 
Genus, MUREX, L. 

13. M. POMUM, Gmelin. Abundant around Cape Sable. 
U. M. SPINCOSTATA, VaUnc. Same locality. 

Genus, UROSALPINX, Stimp. 
1-5. U. Tampaensis, Con. 

16. U. cinereus, Say. 

17. U. FloPvIdanus, Con. All abunda'it from Cedar Keys southwards. 

Genus, TRITONIDEA. 

18. T. ringens, Eeeve. Loc, the Keys. 

Genus, RANELLA, Lam. 

19. R. CAUDATA, Say. Both coasts. 

20. R. Tampaensis, Con. Abundant from Cedar Keys to Cape Sable . 

21. R. CLATHRATA, Gray. This elegant shell— the B. muriciformis, 
Brod.— was determined for me by Mr. Tryon. It is a PaciHc coast form, 
and has not, I believe, been before detected in our waters. I collected a 



CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS OE FLORIDA — CALKINS. 



9P>r 



dozen specimens near Cedar Keys, which I found in dead shells, and on 
the pretty little coral, Oculina diffusa. Lain. 

Genus, TRITON, Lam. 

22. TRITON VELIEI. n. s. Plate viii, Fig. 1 and 2. 

Shell has six whorls, two prominent ribs encircling all but the two first ; 
small ribs between ; color umber or chestnut ; on last whorl in front from 
top to bottom is a large fold, ridge or plait, marked with white blotches; 
two other plaits on fifth whorl, and one on fourth behind, each marked with 
white ; beneath the two ribs on last whorl are others, the upper one white 
and extending entirely around the circumference ; shell longitudinally 
striate and granulate; aperture elongate oval; lips denticulated; the 
outer one strongly folded and ribbed, with two prominent white spots ; a 
deep sinus within caused by the fold, the edge of which is also denticu- 
lated ; canal short ; aperture purplish within, and deeply grooved parallel 
with the ribs; length of largest shell, 43 mill., breadth, 22 mill. ; length 
of small shell, 26 mill., breadth, 14 mill. Loc. Southern Florida. My 
cabinet. 

Iiemarl:s.— This species possesses peculiar interest. The largest speci- 
men was found by Dr. J. W. Velie at Key West in a fresh condition, not 
worn. The small shell was collected by the Messrs. Colliers near Marco 
on the Gulf coast. The late Dr. Stimpson was in Key West at the time 
of the discovery in 1872, and to him Dr. Velie submitted the shell, which 
he unhesitatingly pronounced to be a new species. And he remarked that 
it was even more valuable than V. Junonia, hitherto considered our 
rares,t species. Dr. Stimpson intended to describe and name this shell, 
but his death a few weeks afterwards prevented his giving this new spe- 
cies to science, therefore the task has fallen upon me. Following out 
the intention of Dr. Stimpson, I have the pleasure to name the species 
in honor of its discoverer, Dr. Velie. Besides these two specimens, I 
know of no others having been found. For the veiy accurate figures of 
the shells, I am indebted to Mr. A. F. Gray, of Massachusetts. 

Genus, FASCIOLARIA, Lam. 

23. F. GIGANTEA, Kiener. 

24. F. DiSTANS, Lam. 

25. F. TULiPA, Lam. These three species are very abundant from 
Cedar Keys southwards. The first is sometimes nearly two feet in length. 

Genus. TURBINELLA, Lam. 

26. T. MURiCATUM, Born. Abundant at Key Vaccas. 

Genus, CANCELLARIA, Lam. 

27. C. RETICULATA, Dillioin. Quite common on the west and south- 
ern coast. 

Genus, SYCOTYPUS, Broione. 
Synonyms, Busycon, Bolten; Fulgur, Mont. ; Pyrula, Lam. 

28. S. Pyrum, Dillwin. Abundant on the west coast southwards. 



236 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

29. S. PAPYRACEL'S, Say. Abundant. 

30. S. PERVERSUS, L. Abundant. 

31. S. CAiucA, Gmelin. Peculiar to the east coast. Synonym, Fulgur 
eliceans, Mont. 

32. S. CANALICULATUS, L. Peculiar to the east coast. 

Genus, CASSIDULA, Humph. 

33. C. CORONUS, Lam. Abundant on west coast and among the Keys. 

Genus, FUSUS, Brug. 

34. F. BicoLOR, Say. East coast. 

Family, Buccinid.e. 

Genus, ACUS, Humph. 

(Terebra, Lam.) 

35. Acus DiSLOCATUS, Say. Abundant. 

Genus, NASSA, Lam. 

36. 2^. viBEX, Say. 

37. N. TRiviTTATA, Say. 

38. ]S^. OBSOLETA, Say. 

39. N. LUNATA, Say. 

40. N. acuta, Su.y. 

41. N. ALBA, Say. 

The three first are abundant species. 

Genus, PURPURA, Lam. 

42. P. UNDATA, Lam. A West Indisin species, found by me among 
the Keys. Emits an elegant coloring fluid, as well as the next species. 

43. P. DELTOiDEA, Lo.m. Same locality. 

44. P. Floridana, Con. Same locality. A large well marked species, 
as well as the preceding ones. 

Genus, MONOCEROS, Lam. 

(LEUCOZONIA.) 

45. M. ciNGULATA, Lam. A Panama species, found by me at the 
southern extremity of Florida. 

Genus, PLANAXIS, Lam. 

46. Planaxis V sp. indet. From the Keys. 

Genus, CASSIS, Lam. 

47. C. CAMEO, Stm. Syn., C. Madagascar ensis. Lam. Found at Tor- 
tugas. 

48. C. TUBEROSA, L. Same locality. 

49. C. GRANULOSA, Brug. Loc, east coast. 



CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS OF FLORIDA — CALKINS. 237 

Genus, ONISCIA, Sowerby. 
•50. O. ONiscus, Sowerby. Loc, the Keys. 

Genus, DOLIUM, Lam. 
51. D. GALEA, L. Loc, east coast. 

•52. D. PERDix, L. Most abundant southwards, but plentiful at St. 
Augustine. 

Genus, COLUMBFLLA, Lam. 

•53. C. MERCATORIA, L. Conimon. 

54. C. siMiLis, Bavenel. Quoted as from Massachusetts to Georgia. 
I collected this species at Cedar Keys. 

•55. C. L^viGATA, L. Loc, the Keys. 

•56. C. LUNATA, Say. Eastern coast. 

Genus, ANACHIS. 

57. A. SBMPLICATA, Steams. Loc, west coast. 

58. A. ACUTA, Stearns. Same locality as the preceding species. 

59. A. AVARA, Say. From the east coast. 

Genus, NITIDELLA, Swainson. 

60. N". FiLOSA, Stearns. Loc, Tampa Bay. 

Genus, OLIVA, Lam. 

61. O. LiTERATA, Lam. Abundant on both coasts. 

62. O. MUTiCA, Say. Abundant. 

Sub Genus, OLIVELLA, Sivain. 

63. O. PELLUCIDA, 6r7'ay. 

64. O. FULGENS, Kiener. 

65. O. ZONALIS, Lam. 

66. O. ORYZA, Lam. 

These four species were dredged by me at Cedar Keys and southwards 
in six fathoms. 

Family, Conid^e. 
Genus, CONUS, L. 

67. C. LEONiNUs, Hwass. West coast ; abundant. 

68. C. Floridanus, Oabb. Same locality. 

69. C. Stearnsii, Con. Lf)C, west coast. 
These three species seem to be well marked. 

70. C. 3IUS, Lam. Loc, Key Vaccas. 

71. C. Pealei, Oreen. Loc, the Keys. 

72. CoNUS acutangulus, Chem. Mr. Tryon, to whom 1 submitted 
this species identifies it, after comparison, with the full series in the 

[Proc. D. a. N. S. Vol. II.] 32 [May, ISTS.; 



238 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, as above, though the specimens are 
so different from the typical shells that many persons, he remarks, would 
consider it a new species. Found by Dr. J. W. Velie on the west coast, 
and also among the Keys ; also by myself. 

Family, VolutiDyE. 
Genus. VOLUTA, L. 

73. y. JuNONiA, Chem. This species has been called the rarest of 
American shells, and high prices have been paid for it. Col. Jewett 
dredged specimens off Tampa, and Count Pourtales in the Gidf stream. 
Very good specimens are occasionally found on the Gulf coast that have 
been washed ashore. It is an inhabitant of deep waters. 

Genus, MITRA, Lam. 

74. M. GRANULOSA, Lam. Loc, the Keys. 

Genus, MARGINELLA, Lam. 

75. M. APiciNA, Menlce. Large variety. 

76. M. APICINA, Menke. Small variety. 

77. M. CARNEA, Storer. 
''iS. M. GUTTATA, Billn. 

79. M. ROSCiDA, Bedf. 

Loc, from the Keys and west coast. All well marked species. 

Family, Cypr^id.e. 
Genus, CYPR^A, L. 

80. C. EXANTHEMA, L. Syn., C. cervinetta, L. Quite common at 
Tortugas and around the southern end of Florida. 

Sub-Genus, TRIVIA, Gray. 

81. T. QUADRiPUNCTATA, Gray. Common at Key West. 

82. T. PEDicuLUS, Bumph. Same locality. 

Genus, VOLVA, B(Men. 

83. y. UNiPLiCATA, Sowerby. Found at Tortugas. 

Genus, OVULUM, Lam. 
8-i. O. GIBB0SU3I, Lam. Abundant at Tortugas. The preceding 
species envelope their shells with the mantle from which the beautiful 
enamel is derived that gives them so fine a polish. 

Family, Naticid^. 
Genus, NATICA, Lam. 

85. X. DUPLiCATA, Say. 

86. N. CANRENA, L. 

The first species is abundant. The latter rare. 



CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS OE FLORIDA — CALKINS. 239 

Genus, SIGARETUS, Lam. 

87. S. PERSPECTivus, Say. Found on both coasts at low tide ; gen- 
erally buried slightly in the sand, in which it leaves a track as it moves 
along. The animal entirely envelopes the shell, and when caught re- 
sembles more a huge piece of fat than anything else. 

88. S. MACULATUS, Say. I have never been able to find this species, 
and doubt its present existence. Probably an aberrant form. 

Family, Pyramidellid^. 
Genus, ODOSTOMIA. Fleming. 

89. O. I3IPRESSA, Say. Abundant on both coasts. 

90. ODOSTOMIA ALBA, n. s. Plate viii, fig. 3. 

wShell small, white, shining, pellucid, tapering rapidly to an acute apex ; 
whorls twelve to thirteen; smooth, flat; sutures slightly impressed; 
outer lips simple, thin ; aperture angular above ; length 7+ mill., breadth 
2i mill. Dredged by me at Cedar Keys, Pla., in two and six fathoms. 
My collection. Cabinet of Davenport Academy of Sciences. 

Genus, EULIMA, Eisso. 

91. E. Jamaicensis, C. B. Ad. I found this species at Cedar Keys, 
bringing them up in the dredge. Mr. Tryon identified the species. 

Family, Cerithiad^e. 
Genus, CERITHIUM, Brug. 

92. C. versicolor, Adams. 

93. C. MUSCARU3I, Say. 

94. C. SEPTEMSTRIATUM, Say. 

95. C. FERRUGiNEUM, Say. 

96. C. EBURNEUM, Brug. 

97. C. LITTERATUM, Lam. 

98. C. NIGRESCENS, Menkc. 

99. C. NIGRESCENS, var. MINOR, Calkms, 

100. C. SCABRU3I, L. 

The foregoing species were found mostly among the Keys. No. 99 I 
obtained at Tortugas Keys on the edge of a coral reef, where I collected 
several hundred specimens. There were none of the large variety among 
them ; neither did I see any at that point. They present so much uni- 
formity in size and markings, that while resembling generally No. 
98, yet are so much smaller that I consider them good as a variety, and 
propose the name C nigrescens, Menke, variety minor, as sufficiently 
distinctive. 

Family, Turritellid^. 
Genus, VERMETUS, Ada^ison. 

101. Y. RADicuLA, Stm. This curious worm like shell Is abundant on 
both coasts. 



240 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Genus, C.ECUM, Flem. 

102. C. NITIDUM, Stm. 

103. C. Floridanum, Stm. 
West Coast. 

Genus, SCALARIA, Lam. 

104. S. LiNEATA, Say. 

105. S. MULTiSTRiATA, Say. 

106. S. ANGULATA, Say. 
From both coasts. 

Family, Littorinid^e. 
Genus, LITTORINA, Fer. 

107. L. IRRORATA, Say. 

108. L. ANGULIFERA, Lam. 

109. L. NODULOSA, i>es/i. 

110. L. DiLATATA, Z). Or?: 

111. L. 3IURICATA, Xam. 

All abundant except No. 109, of which I found a few specimens at 
Bahiahonda Key. 

Sub-Genus, MODULUS, Gray. 

112. M. Floridanus, Con. Am. Jour. Conch., Vol. 5, p. 107. This 
species resembles Modulus lenticularis, Ch., from which it is doubtfully 
distinct. 

Genus, PHORUS, Montfort. 

113. P. CORRUGATUS, Eeeve. Bahiahonda Key. 

Genus, LITIOPA, Bang. 

114. L. STRIATA, Bang. Taken by Dr. Brown and myself from the 
Gulf weed {Sargassum bacciferum) near Key West. 

Genus, RISSOA, Fremenville. 

115. R. INC03IPTA, Gould. Loc, east coast. 

Family, Neritid^. 
Genus, NERITA, L. 

116. N. peloronta. Lam. 

117. N. VERSICOLOR, Lavi. 

118. N. TESSELLATA, Gmelin. 
All abundant on the Keys. 

Family, Turbinid^. 
Genus, TURBO, L. 

119. T. CRENULATUS, Gmelin. Loc, Tortugas. 

120. T. CASTANEUS, Lam. Cedar Keys southwards. 



CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS OF FLORIDA CALKINS. 241 

Genus, TROCHUS, L. 

121. T. BREVISPINA, Gmelin. 

122. T. PICA, Gmelin. 

128. T, AMERICANA, Gmelin. 

124. T. Tampaensis, Conrad. 

All abundant on the west coast and among the Kej's. A well marked 
species. 

Family, Janthixid.e. 
Genus, JANTHINA, Bolten. 

125. J. FRAGiLis, Brug. Syn., /. communis. Lam. 

126. J. GLOBOSA, Sivainson. 
Frequently cast on shore by storms. 

Family, Fissurbllid^e. 
Genus, FISSURELLA, Brug. 

127. F. alternata. Say. A common species. 

. Family, Calyptr^eidje. 
Genus, CREPIDULA, Lam. 

128. C. fornicata, L. Syns., C. glauca. Say ; C. convexa. Say. 
Very common, attached to oyster shells, etc. 

129. C. UNGUiFORMis, Lam. Syn., C. plana. Say. This extremely 
common shell is better known by Say's name, but on the ground of 
priority, Lamarck's has the precedence. 

130. C. ACULBATA, Gmelin. Quite common. 

Family, Patbllid.e. 
Genus, PATELLA, L. 

131. Patella , s^j. indt. Loc, Key West. • 

Family, Dentaliad.e. 
Genus, DENTALIUM, L. 

132. D. DENTALS, i. Sy u., D. attenuatum,Sa.y. I dredged this shell 
at Cedar Keys, in six fathoms of water, and can identify it with no other 
species. 

133. D. STRiOLATUM, Stm. Syn., D. entalis, Migh. From the east 
coast, and a well-marked species. 

Family, Chitonid^. 
Genus, CHITON, L. 

134. C. PICEUS, Gmelin. 

135. C. APICULATUS, Say. 

136.- Chiton , sp. indt. 

All abundant species among the Keys. Found clinging to rocks within 
tide marks. 



242 dav' export academy of natural sciences. 

Order, OPISTIIOBRAXCIIIATA. 

Family, Bullidje. 

Genus, BULLA, Lam. 

137. B. occiDEKTALis, Adams. Common among the Keys. 

Family, Aplysiad^e. 
Genus, APLYSIA, Gmelin. 

138. Aplysia protea. Bang. Loc, the Keys and warmer parts of 
the Gulf. 



Class, BRACHIOPODA, Ouvier. 

Order, ARTHROPOMATA, Owen. 
Family, Terebratulid.e, Dall. 
Genus, TEREBRATULA, Brug. 

139. T. cuBENSis, Pourtales. Proc. Pliila. Acad. Sciences, 1873. 
Loc, Florida reefs. 

Genus, TEREBRATULINA, D'Orb. 

140. T. cailleti, Crosse. Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, i, 1871. 
Tortugas. 

Genus, WALDHEIMIA, King. 

141. W. Floridana, Pourtales. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., i, 7, 1868. 
Loc, Florida Reefs. 

Genus, PLATIDIA, Costa. 

142. P. ANOMioiDES, Scacchi. Loc, Florida Reefs. 

Genus, MEGATHYRIS, D'Orb. 
Sub-Genus, CISTELLA, Gray. 

143. C. Barrettiana, var. lutea, Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
iii, No. 1, 1871. Tortugas. 

144. C. RUBROTiNCTA, Da?L Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1871. Tortugas. 

Order, LYOPOMATA, Owen. 
Family, Craniid^e, Gray. 
Genus, CRANIA, Hetzius. 

145. C. AXOMALA, var. PoURTALESii, Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
1871. The Keys. 



CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS OF FLORIDA CALKINS. 



243 



Class, CONCHIFEEA, Lam. 

(LAMELLIBRANCHIATA, Blain.) 

Family, Ostreid^. 

Genus, OSTREA, i. 

146. O. YiRGiNiCA, Gmelin. 

147. O. EQUESTRis, Say. 
Both abundant species. 

— . O. SEMiCYLiNDRiCA, Say. Doubtful. Aberrant. 

Genus, ANOMIA, L. 

148. A. GLABRA, Verrill. Synonyms, A. e2)hippium, Gould ; A. elec- 
trica, Gould. Very common attached to Pinnas and other shells. 

Genus, PECTEN, O. F. lluller. 

149. P. IRRADIANS, Lam, 

150. P. NODOSUS, L. 

151. p. DisLOCATUs, /Say. 

152. p. FUSCOPURPUREUS, Con. 

All abundant species, except No. 150, which cannot be called so. 

Genus, LIMA, Brug. 

153. L. SQUAMOSA, Lam, 

154. L. SCABRA, Dillw. 

Foiind at Tortugas, attached to corals. 

• Genus, SPONDYLUS, L. 

155. S. G^DAROPUs, Dillw. Syn., -S. Americanus, Lam. I obtained 
this species at Tortugas. 

Genus, PLICATULA, Lam. 

156. P. RAMOSA, Lam. Occurs abundantly attached to corals and 
shells. 

Family, Aviculid^e. 
Genus, AVICULA, Brug. 

157. A. Atlantica, Lam. Quite common among the Keys. 

158. AviCULA , sp. indt. Tortugas. 

Genus, PERISTA, Brug. 

159. P. PERNA, Wood. Syn., P. ephippium, Sowerby. From Tortu- 
gas. Attached to corals. 

Genus, PINNA, L. 

160. P. SEMiNUDA, Lam. 

161. P. MURiCATA, L. Syn., p. CaroUnensis, Hanley. Both abun- 
dant species. 



244 DAVENrORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

Family, Mytilid.e, L. 
Genus, MYTILUS, L. 
1G2. M. HAMATUS, Say. Attached to oyster shells. 

163. M. EXUSTUS, L. Syn.. M. cubitus. Say. 

164. M. EDULis, L. East coast. 
Common on both coasts, except the last. 

Genus, MODIOLA, Lam. 

165. M. TLiCATULA, Lam. East coast. 

166. M. SULCATA, Lam. Bahiahonda Key. 

167. M. TULiPA, L. Same locality as the last. 

Genus, DREISSENA, Van Beneden. 

168. D. LEUCOPiiyETA, Con. West coast. 

Genus, LITHODOMUS, Cuvier. 

169. L. ANTiLLARUM, i>'0r6. Taken froui a mass of coral at Tor- 
tugas. 

Genus, CRENELLA, Brovm. 
170'. C. LATERALIS, ;S'a(/. (MYTILUS.) From the east coast. 

Family, Arcad^e. 
Genus, ARCA, L. 

171. A. PEXATA, Say- 

172. A. TRANSVERSA, Say. 

173. A. PONDEROSA, Say. 

174. A. Americana, Gray. 

175. A. No^, L. 

176. A. INCONGRUA, Say. 

Nos. 174 and 176 are peculiar to the east coast, so far as I know. 

Genus, PECTUNCULUS, Lam. 

177. P. PENNACEUS, Con. From the Keys. 

Genus, NUCULA, Lam. 

178. N. PROXiMA, Say. East coast. 

Genus, LEDA, Schumacher. 

171). L. ACUTA, Con. [Nucula.) Am. Marine Conch. This species 

was described as fossil from North Carolina. It has, however, been 

found living there. I also dredged the species alive at Cedar Keys, on 

the Gulf coast in six fathoms of water. This shows a wide distribution. 

Family, Ciiamid^e. 
Genus, CHAM A. L. 
180. C. ARCiNELLA. Common around Tortugas. 



CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS OF FLORIDA — CALKINS. 245 

181. C. MACROPiiYLLA, C/iem. Also common among the Keys. Syn., 
C. Lazarus. 

Family, Cardiad.e, 
Genus, OARDIUM, L. 

182. C. MAGNUM, Born. 

183. C. MURICATUM, L. 

184. C. ISOCARDIA, L. 

185. C. BULLATUM, L. 

All abundant species. 

Genus, L^VICARDIUM, Swainsovi. 

186. L. SERRATUM, L. Syns., C. Icevigatum, Gmelin ; C. direnwrn, 
Wood. 

187. L. MoRTONi, Con. J. Phila. Acad., vi, 259. 
Both common species on west and south coasts. 

Family, Lucinid.e. 
Genus, LUCINA, Brug. 

188. L. Pennsylvanica, i. 

189. L. Pennsylvanica, var. aurantia. Desk. 

190. L. BENTATA, Wood. 

191. L. LINTEA, Con. 

192. L. NASSULA, Con. 

193. L. FLORID ANA, Coyu 

194. L. TIGERINA, L. 

195. L. EDENTULA, L. 

This family is well represented. Ko. 190 is remarkable, at least, for 
having been honored with a dozen or more names by as many different 
authors, all of which illustrates the beauty of variety in which nature 
delights, but does not allow for human credulity in seeing something 
new in a shell of so uniform character or markings as Lucina dentata. 

Genus, MYSIA, Leach. 

196. M. punctata. Say. J. Phila. Acad., ii, 308. Loc, east coast. 

Family, Cycladid.e. 
Genus, CYRENA, Lam. 

197. C. Caroliniensis, Lam. 

198. C. PROTEXTA, C07l. 

199. C. Floridana, Con. 

The first abundant. The two latter rare, so far as 1 have obsei'ved* 
Genus, GOULDIA, C. B. Ad. 

200. G. MACTRACEA, Linsley. [Astarte.) Found on both coasts. A, 
lunidata. Con., is evidently the same species. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 83 [May, 1878.] 



246 DAVEKPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 

Genus, ASTARTE, Sowerhy. 

201. A. TRiQUETRA, Con. Tampa. 

202. A. FLABAGELLA, Con. Tampa. 

203. A. CoNRADi, (Sc/iirff. Syn., Carditaincrassata, Con. Tampa. 

Family, Cyprinid^. 
Genus, CARDITA, Bmg. 

204. C. Floridana, Con. From Cedar Keys southwards. 

Family, Veneridje. 
Genus, MERCENARIA, Sckum. 

205. M. MERCENARIA, L. Common. 

206. M. MORTONI, Con. Common. 

207. M. FULGURANS, Tryon. Common. A younger form of 20G. 

Genus, CYTHEREA, Lam. 

208. C. DIONE, L. Occasionally found at Tortugas. 

Genus, CHIONE, Meg. 

209. C. ciNGBNDA, Dillw. ( Venus.) Common from Cape Sable south- 
wards. 

Genus, CALLISTA, Poll. 

210. C. GIGANTEA, Chem. 

211. C. MACULATA, L. 

An abundant species from the west coast southwards. 

Genus, DOSINIA. ScojyoU. 

212. D. DISCUS, L. Peculiar to the east coast. 

213. D. ELEGANS, Gray. 

214. D. Floridiana, Con. 
From the west coast. 

Genus, PETRICOLA, Lam. 

215. D. PHOLADiFORMis, Lam. Found on the Atlantic coast. 

Family, Mactrid^. 
Genus, MACTRA, L. 

216. M. siMiLis, Say. 

217. M. sOLiDissiMA, Chem. 

218. M. LATERALIS, Say. 

219. M. FRAGiLis, Chem. 

220. M. TELLINOIDBS, Con. 

221. M. Sayi, Gray. 

No. 216 is, no doubt, the younger form of M. solidissima. All are 
■abundant forms. 



CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS OF FLORIDA — CALKINS. 247 

Genus, RANGIA, Desm. 

222. K. CYRENOiDES, Desm. {Gnathodon cuAieata, Gray.) 

223. R. FLEXUOSA, Con^ 

224. R. ROSTRATA, Petit. 

No. 222 is better known by Gray's name. The " mound-builders'" used 
this species extensively in constructing their " mounds," of which there 
are thousands along the Gulf coast, and even so far inland as New Or- 
leans, where the roads are made of this shell, taken from the deposits 
there. The other species I am uncertain about. 

Genus, RAETA, Gray. 

225. R. LINE ATA, ISay. 

226. R. CANALICULATA, Say. 

Plentiful on the east coast at St. Augustine and southwards. 

Family, Tellinid^e. 
Genus, TELLINA, L. 

227. T. CONSTRICTA, Briig. East coast. 

228. T. LUSORiA, Say. East coast. 

229. T. POLITA, Say. East coast. 

230. T. ELEGANS, Gray. West coast. 
281. T. TAMPAENSis, Con. West coast. 
232 T. ALTERNATA, Say. East coast. 

233. T, DECORA, Say. The Keys. ' 

284. T. TENERA, Say. The Keys. 

235. T. Braziliana, Speng. The Keys. 

236. T. iris, Say. The Keys. 

237. T. subradiata, Stm. Mullet Key. 

238. T. radiata, Lam. Tortugas. 

Genus, STRIGILLA, Turton. 

239. S. PisiFORMis, L. 

240. S. FLEXUOSA, Say. 
Locality, The Keys. 

Genus, SANGUINOLARIA, Lam. 

241. S. SANGUINOLENTA, Gmelin. A West Indian species collected 
by me at Tortugas. [Capsa deflorata.) 

Genus, MACOMA. Leach. 

242. M. Balthica, L. 

[Psam. fusca,) Say. East coast. 



248 DA.VENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

Genus, SEMELE, Schum. 

243. S. EQUALis, Say. East coast. 

244. S. LAETA, H. & A. Ad. I have never seen it. 

Genus, DONAX, L. 

245. D. VARIABILIS, Say. East coast. 

246. D. PROTRACTUs, Con. Same locality. 

Family, Solenid^, 
Genus, SOLEN, L. 

247. S. ViRiDis, Say. East coast. 

Genus, ENSIS, Schum. 

248. E. Ambricantjs, Gould. Same locality. 

Genus, SILIQUARIA, Schum. 
'249. S. GIBBA, Speng. Syn., <S. Caribceus, Lam. 

250. S. DivisA, Sjjeng. (Solen centralis, Sa,Y.) Both are from the east 
coast at St. Augustine. 

Family, Myacid^. 
Genus, MYA, L. 

251. M. ARENARiA, L. Syn., M. acuta. Say; M. mercenaria, Say, 
From the east coast. 

Genus, LYONSIA. Turton. 

252. L. HYALINA, Con. East coast. 

Genus, CORBULA, Bmg. 

253. C. CONTRACT A, Say. 

254. C. LIMATULA, Con. 
Both coasts. 

Family, Anatinid^. 
Genus, PERIPLOMA, Schum. 

255. P. PAPYRACEA, Say. 

256. P. LEANA, Con. 
Both from the east coast. 

Genus, PANDORA, Brug. 

257. P. trilineata, Say. Loc, east coast. 

Family, PholadiDuE. 
Genus, PHOLAS, L. 

258. P. cost at A, L. 

259. P. TRUNCATA, Say. 

260. P. Casipechensis, Gmelin. 



CATALOGUE OF TliE SHELLS OF FLORIDA CALKINS. 249 

261. P. cuNNEiFOEMis, Say. 

No. 258 is the largest and most abundant species. Both coasts. 
Family, Teredid^. 
Genus, TEREDO, Adanson. 

262. T. NAVALis, L. Abundant everywhere. 

Genus, XYLOTRYA, Leach. 

263. X. riMBRiATA, Jeffreys. Found on vessels and old wood at Key 
West. 

ADDENDA. 

REMARKS. 

Having received new material since the main part of the paper was 
written, and all within the pist few weeks, I found myself obliged to 
make an Addenda, or omit altogether a large number of interesting 
species, which it seemed desirable to add to the Catalogue. For a por- 
tion of these accessions I am indebted to Dr. James Lewis, of New 
York, who thus put into my hands, many forms collected by the late Col- 
Jewett. I desire again to thank Mr.Tryon, who has kindly compared my 
specimens with others in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia, and identified for me a number of species. I also decided to 
incorporate in the paper a number of species, which, though not strictly 
Marine, are, however, of such an organization that tlie vicinity of the 
sea, with its direct influences, seems necessary to their existence. Some 
of these, on account of their rarity, are but little known. Of the entire 
list, I have collected myself two hundred and seventy-seven species. 
The remainder I add on the authority of others, after careful investiga- 
tion and correspondence with a number of Conchologists, to all of whom 
I desire to express my thanks for aid, sympathy and consideration to a 
degree unexpected by me. 

264. Anomalocardia Floridiana, Con. West coast. 

265. Modulus corrugatus, Stm. May be a young M. lenticidaris, 
Ch. Loc, Cedar Keys. 

266. MuRBX MESSORius, Sowerhy. [M. trilineatus, Keeve.) Loc, the 
Keys. Rare. 

267. MuREX BREYiFRONS, Lam. Cape Sable. Abundant. 

268. Trochus euglyptus, a. Ad. A distinctly marked species, as 
heretofore only reported from Texas. Found by Dr. Yelis among the 
Keys. 

269. Purpura lapillus, Say. East coast. 

270. Natica pusilla. Say. East coast. 

271. LiTHODOMUS LiTHOPHAGUS, L. Found imbedded in coral at 
Tortugas. 



250 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATCRAL SCIENCES. 

272. MoDiOLA TULiPA, L. VAX. NIGRA, CalMns. From Key Vaccas. 
Uniformlj' dark, while 31. iulipch from same locality is distinctly marked 
with pinkish rays. May be compared with M. castanea. Say, but is larger 
and longer. Both are varieties of M. tuUpa. 

27:^. Tritonidea TiNCTA. Co)!. Whether different itova. T. ringens I 
cannot determine. 

274. Cerithium atratum, Bni.g. From the Gulf coast. 

275. Venus [Anomalocardia] flexuosa, L. Common. 

276. CoLUMBELLA OBESA, C. B. Ad. Loc, the Gulf coast. 

277. EiciNULA NODULOSA, C. B. Ad. A West Indian species. Loc, 
the Keys. 

278. Pleurotoma VEXILLU3I, Dunker. According to Mr. Tryon, 
this species is a variety of PL Zebra, Lam. Loc, Tampa, Fla. 

279. Clathl'rella badia, Beeve {?). Following the advice of Mr. 
Tryon, who has compared the specimens with others in the Philadelphia 
Academy, I give them the above name provisionally. If not this spe- 
cies, it is new. Loc, the Gulf coast. 

280. Cerithiofsis terebralis, C. B. Ad. Loc, Cedar Keys and 
Tampa. 

28'. Siphon ARi A BiFURC ATA, iiiss. More elevated than S. alternata. 
Say. Loc. the west coast. 

282. Brittium gibberulum, C. B. Ad. As Mr. Tryon remarks, 
Bissoa aberrans, C. B. Ad., appears to be the same species. Loc, the 
Gulf coast. 

283. Littorina trochiformis. Dill. Appears to me quite the same 
as L. nodulosa, Desh. Loc, the Keys. 

284. Terebra PR0TEXTIJ3I, Con. Dredged by me at Cedar Keys. 
Found also further south. 

285. Ti VELA (Trigorja) TRIGONELL A, ia?7i. Loc, Gvilf coast. 

286. OBELiscrs, sjj. indet. Tampa. 

287. CANCELLARIA STIMPSONII, n. s., Plate viii, figs. 4^5. 
Shell rather small, whitish, rough, nodulous ; whorls about four and a 

half, prominent, finely ribbed ; the last large, with a row of nodules 
on its upper edge, and numerous others scattered irregularly over its 
surface ; the other whorls covered with smaller nodules, the upper part 
of each flat or shouldered; umbilicus large, flaring outwards; deep; 
aperture triangular, slightly oval, the upper part square shouldered ; lip 
thin, the outer one somewhat thickened by nodules on exterior edge ; two 
plaits well within the aperture on the columella ; length, 17 mill., breadth, 
12 mill. Loc, Cape Sable, Fla. My collection. 

Bemarks.—A single specimen of this new and interesting species was 
found by Dr. J. W. Yelie on the beach at Cape Sable, and from its 
appearance, had recently been alive. It is in good condition. Believing 
it to be undescribed, I sent the shell to Mr. Tryon. I cannot do better 



CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS OE FLORIDA — CALKINS. 251 

than append his "note." returned to me with the specimen: "This is 
a new species, belonging to the Trignostoma group of CanccUaria. The 
genus is very sparsely represented in the West Indies, none of those pre- 
viously described approaching this. It is somewhat like C. Verremixii of 
Kiener in general appearance, but differs in having a large umbilicus, 
and from that and all other species of the genus in the nodules being 
broken up irregularly over the surface, instead of being in the line of 
longitudinal ribs. In fact, these nodules seem rather to develop from 
revolving ribs." I do not know of another specimen ever having been 
found. I take great pleasure in dedicating the species to the late la- 
mented Dr. William Stimpson, who directed my first efforts in the study 
of conchological science. 

PULMONATA. 

Family, Aukiculid^e. 
Genus, AURICULA, Lam. 

288. A. PELLUCENS, Menke. This very interesting shell was collected 
at Punta Rassa by Mr. Prime and Dr. Velie, and ai Cedar Keys by my- 
self alive. It has a wide distribution, being quoted from Ceyloni 
Demarara, and the Antilles, by Pfeiffer, Menkc, and others. It is the 
only representative of the genus in the United States. Mr. Thomas 
Bland first called attention to the species as existing in Florida in 1874 
(Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist.), from specimens collected by Prime. It is cer- 
tainly not abundant in Florida so far as research has extended. We may 
account for its presence by the action of equatorial currents, as suggested 
by Dr. Stimpson with regard to other species of tropical derivation found 
in Florida. 

Genus, MELAMPUS. Montf. 

289. M. BiDENTATUS, Say. Abundant north and south to Texas. 

290. M. FLAVus, Gmelin. A West Indian species collected by Bart- 
lett in Florida (Binney). I searched dilligently, but never found it. 

291. M. COFFEA, L. An abundant species. 

Genus, TRALIA, Gr. 

292. T. Floridana, Shutt. Collected on the Keys. 

293. T. PUSILLA, Gmelin. Collected by Bartlett (Binney). Found 
also in the West Indies. This and the preceding species, if not acci- 
dentally brought to Florida, are certainly rare. 

294. T. ciNGULATA, Pfr. I collected this on several of the Keys. 

Genus, PEDIPES, Adanson. 

295. P. NATicoiDES, Stearns. This tiny sliell, only eleven hundredths 
of an inch in length, and tlie only species of the genus thiis far detected on 
the eastern coast, was found by Mr. Stearns near Tampa, and described 
by him in Vol. XIII, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. History. It frequents the 
under side of " coon oysters." 



252 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

Genus, BLAUNERIA, Shutt. 

296. B. HETEROCLiTA, Montf. {Voluta.) [B. pellucida, Pfr.) The 
only species of the genus known. Has been found at several different 
points on the coast. Its generic position seems to be somewhat unset- 
tled. Also found in the "West Indies. 

Family, Truncatellid^. 
Genus, TRUNCATELLA, Risso. 

297. T. BiLABiATA, Pfr. Abundant on Key West and elsewhere. 
Also West Indies. 

298. T. pulchella, Pfr. Same localities. 

299. T. Caribaensis, Lowb. Same localities. 

300. T. suBCYLiNDRiCA, Gray. I found this species associated with 
No. 297. The other two species of Truncatella, I add on the authority of 
Ffeifler, and of Binney and Bland, the latter of whom have included 
them in their list— L. & F. W. S. N. A. 

ADDITIONAL MARINE SPECIES. 

301. CARDIUM MEDIA, 1/. 

302. Semele variegatum, Lam. 

303. Tellina l^vigata, L. 

304. Turbo tuber, L. 

305. Natica Jamaicensis, C. B. Ad. 

The foregoing species were lately received by me, and too late for in- 
sertion in their regular order. They are from the southern coast of 
Florida, and have been compared with types in the Philadelphia Museum 
by Mr. Tryon. 



April 6th, 1878, — Biological Section. 

Three members present. 

Mr. J, Gr, Haupt had on the table a large number of the 
early spring wild Howers. He reported that Acer dasycarpum 
blossomed on March 15th, Hepatica acutiloba on March 23d, 
and some fifteen species of field plants were now in blossom. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported the first appearance of Vanessa 
antiopa on March 23d, and of Grapta comma ahont'Kiixch. 30th 



record of proceedings. 253 

April 12tii, 1878. — Historical Section. 
J. A. Crandall in the chair. 
Seven members present. 

A number of valuable additions to the Library and Museum 
were reported. 

Mr. J. A. Crandall read his report as chairman on the pro- 
gress of the Section during the first two years of its existence, 
and of its present condition. He dwelt at some length upon the 
necessity of preserving the large number of historical docu- 
ments, books, etc., which are now liable to be lost. 

April 20th, 1878.— Biological Section. 

Five members present. 

Messrs. Haupt and Churchill presented a large number of 
fresh wild fiowers, and some time was spent in their analysis. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported the discovery, on April 19th, of 
the male of a species of Asj)idiotus affecting the soft maple 
{Ace7' dasyGCirpum), in company with the more abundant Leca- 
nium acericorticis Fitch. By this discovery the life histories of 
both species are now pretty well known, with the exception of 
the embryological development. He exhibited under the micro- 
scope the first stages of the eggs now forming in the ovaries of 
L. acericm^ticis." 

April 25th, 1878. — Regular Meeting. 

Dr. R. J. Farquharson, President, in the chair. 

Fourteen members present. 

Donations to the Museum and Library, and correspondence, 
were reported. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported that the printing of the Pro- 
ceedings had been resumed, and that signatures 21-2-1 had been 
printed. 

Mr, Henry Frahm was elected a regular member. 

*L. acericorticis Fitch, Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc, Vol. XIX, p. 775, lS59,= i. acericola, Walsh 
& Riley, Am. Ent., Vol. I, p. 14, 1868. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 34 [Sept. 1S78.1 



25-i davexport academy of natural sciexces. 

May 21st, 1878. — Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall In the chair. 

Seven members present. 

Donations to the Museum and Library were received, and the 
thanks of the Section voted to the donors. 

The Secretary read an interesting letter from Hon. Hawkins 
Taylor, of Washington, D. C, giving some account of the 
early county-seat troubles, etc. 

May 31st, 1878. — Regular Meeting. 

Dr. E.. J. Farquharson, President, in the chair. 

Eleven members present. 

The Publication Committee reported that signatures 25-32 
inclusive of the Proceedings had been printed since the last 
meeting, bringing the record down to March 29th, 1878. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported 192 letters and ac- 
knowledgments received and 85 letters written during May ; 
that he had distributed 144 copies of the Proceedings, and had 
received in exchange and by donation 40 complete volumes and 
160 pamphlets and parts of volumes, including current numbers 
of over 30 periodicals. 

The Curator reported a large number of donations to the 
Museum, among them a large vessel of ancient pottery, and 
several hundred flint implements, forwarded by Capt. W. P. 
Hall from Alabama. Many of the flints are of a gray, trans- 
lucent quartzite, containing numerous opaque, white nodules. 

Dr. Farquharson gave an interesting account of the formation 
of ice on the "Rapids," and stated that he would at an early 
day read a paper on the subject. 

June 1st, 1878. — Biological Section. 

Three members present. 

Mr. W. H. Pratt read a letter from Prof. S. A. Forbes, of 
the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, regarding the 
small crustaceans mentioned on page 1 8 of this volume, speci- 
mens of which had been sent to him. He says, " The larger 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 



9^i 



one proved to be Limnetis gouldil Baird, <J and 5 — the 
former more abundantly represented than in its eastern habitat. 
The smaller one I have temporarily identified as Cirrodaphlina 
angulata Say. It agrees entirely with Say's description, but 
that is too incomplete. Say's locality was "swamps of the 
Southern States," and we cannot fix his species with certainty 
until collections from the South are studied. 

Mr. J. Gr Haupt reported two additions to the flora of Scott 
county, as follows : 

Silene antirrhina L. Sandy soil near VValcott. May 2Sth. 
Lithospernium officinale L. Rare in open woods near Yalley City. 
May 13th. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam reported that the females of Leccmium 
acerlcorticis had commenced to lay their eggs on May 24. He 
w^as now engaged in tracing the development of the embryo, 
and as soon as this is completed would present a paper on the 
subject. 

June 28tii, 1878. — -Regular Meeting. 

Mr. C. A. Ficke in the chair. 

Four members present. 

The list of donations to the Museum and Library during the 
month were reported, and the thanks of the Academy voted to 
the donors. 

Antoine J. LeClaire, W. O. Schmidt, and Miss Alia P. 
Lowrey, of Davenport, were elected regular members. Prof. 
George H. Cook, Burlington, N. J., and Thomas Bland, ISTew 
York were elected corresponding members. 

July 12th, 1878. — Historical Section. 

J. A. Crandall in the chair. 

Four members present. 

A number of valuable donations were reported ; among them 
a collection of 194 valuable papers from the estate of the late 
Antoine LeClaire, donated by Antoine J. LeClaire, Esq. 



256 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



July 26th, 1878. — Regular Meeting. 

Dr. R. J. Farquharson, President, in the chair. 

Nine members present. 

A "large number of donations to the Museum and Library 
were reported by the Curator, and the thanks of the Academy 
were voted to the donors. A collection of over 2,000 flint and 
stone implements, collected in Mississippi, were received from 
Capt. W. P. Hall. The Rev. J. Gass, through Mr. Pratt, and 
in the name of his daughter. Flora Gass, formally presented to 
the Academy the inscribed tablets of bituminous shale found in 
the mound known and described as Mound No. 3 of the Cook 
Farm Group, January 10th, 1877, and the inscribed limestone 
tablet found in the mound known as Mound No. 11 of the same 
group, January 30th, 1878. Also, on behalf and in the name of 
his daughter, Emma Gass, the small carved figure of an animal, 
with pieces of crystal set in for eyes (Figs. 18 and 19), found at 
Mound No. 3 above mentioned. These donations are made sub- 
ject to the following conditions, viz: 1st. That these articles 
are not to be disposed of by sale, exchange, or donation, but 
are to remain perpetually in the Museum of the Academy. 2d. 
They are not to be made or held liable in any way for any debts 
or obligations of the Academy. 3d. In case of the dissolution 
of the Academy, these collections are to be transferred to the 
Archaeological collection of the United States National Museum. 

Mr. Pratt presented the following note on a 

Curious Relic from the Cook Farm [Figs. 18 and 19.] 




The "small carved fig- 
ure of an animar' men- 
tioned in the donation of 
Mr. Gass, was found in 
the spring of 1877, while 
plowing over mound No. 
3, from whence it may 
have been thrown out 

during the explorations Fig- is— Side view, natural size. 

earlier in the 5'ear. It is a natural sandstone concretion, firmly attached, 
and almost central upon a flat, thin piece of light brown flint, forming a 
base as perfectly adapted to the figure as if by special design. The ani- 



EECOED OF PROCEEDINGS, 



257 




mal has a broad flat snout, resembling the bill of a duck. The lower 

parts of the body have 
been rudely, but dis- 
tinctly carved to repre- 
sent tail and limbs. In 
addition to these im- 
provements upon na- 
ture's work,the artist has 
inserted a pair of eyes, 
consisting of fragments 
of crystal — apparently 
quartz. At least they are 
hard and sharp enough to 
Fig. 19— Vertical view. scratch glass readily. 

These are apparently fastened in with some kind of cement. The flint 
base is worn as if by much handling. The gleam of the eyes, when 
placed in a strong light, and the peculiar twist of the head give the 
creature a most ferocious aspect. 

Mr. A. D. Churchill presented the following report : 

On the East Davenport Mounds. 

On Thursday, July 2.5th, 1878, a group of ancient mounds in East 
Davenport were examined by a party consisting of Messrs. W. H. Pratt, 
Gass, Harrison, C. L. Pratt, Milstead and Churchill. They are situated 
on the edge of the bluff overlooking the river in Camp McClellan, 300 
yards from the southern line, and thirty yards west of the eastern boun- 
dary of the Russell estate in Davenport Township. There are three 
mounds in line with one another, ranging north-east by south-west. 
They are thirteen to eighteen yards apart. The western and central 
mounds are each about nine yards in diameter, and two and one-half 
feet in height. The eastern mound is fifteen yards in diameter and 
three feet in height. In the two smaller mounds excavations were made 
seven by four feet, and three and one-half feet in depth. In the larger 
mound an opening was made nine by eight feet, and five feet in depth. 
The mounds are of mixed earth, clay and black soil, built upon the orig- 
inal surface soil of the bluffs. Growing upon the central mound are 
black oaks six to eight inches in diameter. No remains of any kind 
w^ere found indicating the purpose for which the mounds were con- 
structed. 

Mr. W. H. Pratt reported the opening of four Sioux Indian 
graves at Camp McClellan by a party from the Academy, who 
secured three good skulls, one of which is especially interesting 
on account of a bright red stain which covered almost the en- 
tire skull. 

In view of the recent decease of Prof. Joseph Henry, Secre- 



258 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

tary of the Smithsonian Institution and an honorary member ot 
the Academy, the following resolutions, drafted by a committee 
appointed by the President for that purpose, were unanimously 
adopted, ^^z : 

Whereas, It is fitting that an institution professedly devoted to the 
cultivation of Science, should honor the memory of those who. having 
been eminent in promoting its advancement by their zeal and talents, 
have ceased from their labors ; and. 

Whereas, Prof. Joseph Henry, for more than thirty 5fears Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, has, by his liberal encouragement of 
scientific associations, materially aided them in promoting the great 
objects of increasing and diilusing knowledge among mankind; by 
original researches in physics has extended the practical benefits of 
science to the world at large, and by his uniform gentlemanly courtesy 
has secured the respect and regard of all true lovers of Science, who now 
mourn his loss. Therefore, 

Besolved, That the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences unites 
with similar bodies in offering their sincere tribute of respect to his 
memory, recalling with gratitude the repeated acts of liberality and 
kindness received from him in his official capacity, and in his personal 
encouragement as a friend of Science, that while deploring the loss of 
his wise counsels, we would seek to improve them by a faithful imitation 
of his zeal and virtue. 

Besolved, That these resolutions be inscribed on the records of the 
Academy, and a copy of the same be sent to the family of the deceased. 

C. C. Tarry, 
J. D. Putnam, 
W. H. Pratt, 

Committee. 

August 2d, 1878. — Biological Section. 
Four members present. 
The following paper was read : 

Contributions to the Flora of Iowa — No. III. 

BY J. C. ARTHUR. 

The following accessions have been received since the publication in 
March, 1877, of my first list of additions.* They have been verified by 
the examination of specimens sent by those reporting the names. I am 
indebted for all but ten names to Geo. D. Butler, of Almont, Clinton 
County, Dr. Geo. E. Ehinger. of Keokuk, R. Burgess, of Ames, E. W. 
Hoi way, of Decorah, Dr. J. J. Davis, late of Vinton, and Prof. C. E. 
Bessey, of Ames. I desire to gratefully acknowledge their kind consid- 
eration in furnishing specimens, and the interest they have taken in 
extending the list of the State flora. 

*Ante, p. 126. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF IOWA ARTHUR. 259 

42a Brasenia peltata, Pursh. Ames. 

52a Nasturtium sessiliflorum, Nutt. Clinton. 

55a Nastiirtmm lacustre, Gray. Clinton. 

62a Arabis hirsuia, Scop. Clinton. 

66a Barharea vulgaris, R. Br. Ames. 

97^ Hypericum sphcerocarpon, Michx. Vinton and Clinton. 
101a Hypericum Canadense, L., var. major, Gr. Vinton, Lyons and 
Ames. 
112a Arenaria stricta, Michx. Clinton. 
154a Vitis aestivalis, Michx. Clinton. 
177a Trifolium reflexum, L. Vinton and Clinton county. 
196a Astragalus Plattensis, Nutt. Harrison county. 
206a Besmodium Illinoense, Gray. Ames. 
235a Spiraea Aruncus, h. Clinton. 
237a Qeitm Virginianum, L. Vinton. 
244a Potentilla fruticosa, L. Decorah. 
250a Rubus Canadensis, L. Clinton. 
285a Ludwigia palustris. Ell. Vinton. 
285^ Ammannia humilis, Michx. Vinton. 
285c Ammannia latifolia, L. Ames. 
314a Cornus circinata, L'Her. Ames and Vinton. 
364a Aster sagittifolius, ^Yi\\(^. Plymouth county. 
366a Aster dumosus, L. Vinton. 
372a Aster puniceus, L,., YHT. vimineus, Gr. Ames. 
374a Aster amethystinus, Nutt. Charles City and Ames. 
428a Helianthus occidentalis, Riddell. Vinton and Clinton. 
435a Coreopsis lanceolata, L. Clinton. 
438a Coreopsis aristosa, Michx., var. mutica, Gr. Vinton. 
47 la Cnicus lanceolatus, Hoffm. Clinton. 
495a Sonchus oleraceus, L. Cedar Rapids. 

512a Plantago Patagonica. Jacq., var. gnaphalioides, Gr. Humboldt. 
525a Linaria Canadensis, Spreng. Cedar Rapids and Vinton. 
59Ua Scutellaria parvula, Michx., var. mollis, Gr. Iowa City. 

606a Myosotis verna, Nutt. Vinton. 

607a Echinospermum deflexum, Lehm. Clinton. 

615a Phlox divaricata, L. Lyons. 

616a 'Phlox bifida, Beck. Vinton. 

619a Cuscuta tenuiflora, Engelm. Vinton and Keokuk. 

625a Physalis pubescens, L. Ames. 

696a Ceratophyllum demersum, L. Keokuk. 

697a Euphorbia Geyeri, Engelm. Vinton. 

708a Euphorbia obtusata, Pursh. Ft. Dodge. 

777a Potamogeton natans, L. Ft. Dodge. 

782a Potamogeton compressus, L. Vinton. 

787a Sagittaria heterop>hylla, Pursh. Clinton. 

818a TJvularia sessilifolia, L. Vinton. 

850" Hennicarpha subsqicarrosa, Nees. Ames. 

855^ Scirpusfluviatilis,GTa.y. Ames and Clinton. 



260 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

856* Scirpiis lineatus, Michx. Ames. 

862^ Carex crus-corvi^ Shut. Clinton. 

863a Carex conjunctd, Boott. Ames. 

S63b Carex alopecoidea, Tuckerm. Ames. 

879a Carex straminea, Schk., var. fenera, Boott. Charles City, Keo- 
kuk, Ames. 

885a Carex tetanica, Schk. Ames. 

890a Carex oligocarpa, Schk. Ames and Keokuk. 

89 la Carex 2}edunculata, 'Muhl. Clinton. 

893a Carex trichocarpa, Muhl., var. imberbis, Gr. Ames. 

895a Carex Grayii, Carey. Ames. 

897a Carex squarrosa, L. Keokuk. 

901a Alopecurus geniculatus, L. Vinton, Ames and Lyons. 

931a Eatonia Pennsylvanica, Gray. Ames. 

942a Eragrostis pectinacea, Gray. Vinton. 

943a Festuca elatior, L. Ames. 

950a Lolium perenne, L. Ames. 

953a Hordeum pratense, Huds. Keokuk. 

972a Panicum depauperatum, Muhl. A^inton. 

The following descriptions are of plants named in this list, and not de- 
scribed in Gray's Manual. The range of the species, as given, is that 
hitherto known and published with the respective descriptions. It will 
be observed that in each instance it is considerably extended by the 
localities given above. 

Desmodium Illinoense, Gray. — Resembling D. canescens in flowers and 
foliage, and D. rigidun in inflorescence and fruit; stem (erect, 3-5 feet) and 
leaves with short rough pubescence; leaflets (3-4 inches long) ovate-oblong or 
ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, sub-coriaceous, beneath cinereous, veins and veinlets 
prominent, strongly reticulated, the lower leaflets nearly equaling the petiole; 
the persistent stipules and caducous bracts ovate-lanceolate, striate, taper- 
pointed; racemes simple; pods scarcely over an inch, very sliortly stipitate, 
sinuate on both margins (deeper below); joints 3-5, oval, not exceeding three 
lines. — Illinois, in dry ground. Proc. Amer. Acad., 1870. 

ScuTELL.vRtA parvula., Michx., var. MOLLIS, Gray. — Rather more diS"use, 
softly pubescent throughout, pubescence somewhat viscid ; leaves usually three- 
fourths of an inch long — Oquawka, Illinois, on the sandy banks of the Missis- 
sippi. Proc. Amer. Acad., F///, 1873. Dr. Gray says: " So diff"erent in aspect 
is this plant from the ordinary S. paroida, that I at first took it for 8. Brum- 
'/?w/ifZii, and then lor a distinct species; but I cannot detect sufficient charac- 
ters, and there are transitions to the ordinary S. parvula. 

EcHiNOSPERMU-M DEFLExuM, Lchm. — DiflTusely branched, a foot or so high; 
leaves from oblong to lanceolate; racemes lax, loosely paniculate, the slender 
pedicels recurved or deflexed in fruit; flowers soon sparse, 1-3 lines in diame- 
ter; nutlets with a Iriangular mostly naked back (a line long), the margins 
armed with n. close row of flat prickles, their bases often confluent. — Saskatch- 
ewan and Wionepeg Valley, Diummond, Boiirfjeau; Brit. Columbia, Lyall. 
Siberia to Europe. The American specimens have occasionally some few 
prickles developed from the rough granulate dorsal face of the nutlets. Gray's 
Synop. Fl. N. A?ner., 1878. 

CORRECTIONS. 

Amarantus Blitum (No. 668), of "Flora of Iowa,'' is A. blitoides. 



LOCAL GEOLOGY OF DAVENPORT BARKIS. 261 

Watson. The followiug description is from Proc. Amer. Acad., XII, 

1877 :— 

Amarantus (Ptxidium) blitoides, Watson. — Prostrate or decumbent, the 
slender stems btcomino; a foot or two long, glabrous or nearly so; leaves 
broadlj^ spalulate to narrowly oblanceolate, attenuate to a slender petiole, an 
inch long or usually less; tlowers in small contracted axillary spikelets; 
bracts nearly a line broad. — Frequent in the valleys and plains of the interior, 
from Mexico to N. Nevada and Iowa, and becoming introduced in some of the 
Northern Slates eastward. It somewhat resembles the A. Biitum, L., of the 
Old World, and has been mistaken for it. 

Aster Novi-Belgii (No. 371) is to be omitted from the list. The speci- 
mens on which the determination was made, prove to belong to a much 
commoner species. 

A few very interesting names are withheld for further verification. 
Collectors will confer a favor if they will forward information in regard 
to the State flora. It is proposed to publish additions as fast as consis- 
tent with accuracy. 

Botanical Laboratory., Agricultural College, Ames, loiva; August, 1874. 



The Local Geology of Davenport and. Vicinity. 

BY REV. W. n. BARRIS. 

Read Oct. :6th, 1877. 

We are indebted to Prof. Hall for the first detailed description of the 
rocks in our vicinity. In his report on the Geological Survey of the 
State of Iowa he has described them under two natural divisions— ^^rsf, 
limestones of the Upper Helderberg, and second, limestones and shales 
of the Hamilton Group. 

The first embraces the series of limestones that stretch away a mile or 
two aboj^e the city, seen in ledges immediately fronting the river, and 
found also in heavier beds lying back in the blufEs. On Duck Creek is 
an exposure, attaining a thickness of from thirty to forty feet. Denuded 
of its uppermost layers, this rock forms the substratum on which Eock 
Island rests, and into which are sunk the foundations of the various 
Government buildings now in process of erection. Below Davenport a 
mile or more it crops out on the river bank, or lies just below the surface 
soil of the river bottoms. It has furnished abundance of the most dura- 
ble and massive building material. The latest built stone churches in 
the city have been constructed of this rock — the Cathedral from the non- 
fossiliferous quarries above the city, Trinity Church from the fossiliferous 
quarries below. The character of the bedding is exceedingly variable. 
There are heavy courses of over a foot in thickness, giving every evi- 
dence of toughness and durability. There are layers, splitting into 
laminiE of an inch and less in thickness, the very type of brittleness and 
decay. A fine grained compact limestone, often alternates with a sub- 
crystalline form. Strata are distinguished by an extended continuity 
of surface, or interrupted by irregular masses of clay. And yet what- 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 35 [Sept. 1878.] 



262 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

ever the character of the rock, there is impressed on it an individuality 
that makes it impossible to mistake it for any other above or below it. 
The entire lower portion of the mass seems to be destitute of fossils, the 
condition of the ancient ocean being to a great extent unfit for the devel- 
opment of animal life. 

Prof. Hall considers it the western equivalent of the Onondaga and 
Corniferous limestones of New York. As in that State, the one often 
encroaches upon and displaces the other, rendering it difficult to separate 
or identify either, he prefers the term, " Limestones of the Upper 
Helderberg." The Ohio geologists apply to the extension of the rock 
into their State, the name " Corniferous." 

The strata succeeding the limestones just described and designated, 
are known as "The Limestones and Shales of the Hamilton Group." 
They are as prodigal of life as the rock immediately preceding them was 
su|)posed to be deficient. The contrast with the former is as marked in 
the character of its material and the manner of its deposition, as in the 
abundance of well preserved animal life. 

These " Limestones and Shales," Prof. Worthen of the State Geologi- 
cal Survey of Illinois, has separated into two divisions, each characterized 
by its own especial series of fossils. Even the localities ai-e pointed out 
where each division can be studied to the best advantage, and its char- 
acteristic fossils gathered. Of these two divisions, as comprising their 
fossil contents, the Professor thus writes : " There can be no doubt that 
they represent the organic forms of the Hamilton Group as it appears in 
New York and Canada." 

It is in reference to the limestone immediately underlying these two 
divisions, (which we have just described as " Limestones of the Upper 
Helderberg"), that there exists a difference of opinion between Profes- 
sors Worthen and Hall. Both recognize a certain well iefined line of 
division. They differ as to its significance. Prof. Hall claims i* as one 
of those lines of difference that separate great groups, and hence he 
claims that all above is the Hamilton, and all below is the Upper Helder- 
berg. Prof. Woi'then considers it as simply marking one of the minor 
divisions of the H^amilton Group, representing a lower member of the 
same. T use his own language, and give the reason on which he bases 
his conclusion.* After establishing beyond doubt the equivalency of his 
two upper divisions with the Hamilton of New York and Canada, he 
adds : " As no fossils specially different from these have been obtained 
from the lower bed, we see no good reason for assigning that division to 
a lower formation." The plain inference being that had he been aware 
of the existence of such fossils, this knowledge would have necessi- 
tated reference of the rock containing them to a lower geological horizon. 
It is the object of the writer to show the existence of a series of beds of 
limestone that were necessarily overlooked in the Geological Survey of 
Illinois, as on the east side of the river they were most imperfectly 
represented ; to point out their relation to the disputed rock in the 

*See Vol. V of the Geological Survey of Illinois, p. 223. 



LOCAL GEOLOGY OF DAVEXPORT— BAKEIS. 263 

neighborhood of Moline and Rock Island, of which it is claimed they 
form the upward extension ; to define the limits within which fossils are 
found, and to call attention to a group of fossils which distinguish these 
beds, and differ from any of the well defined fossils of the Hamilton. 

On the Iowa side of the river for some years, quarrying has been 
carried on to such extent that new facts have been gradually accumu- 
lating, bearing upon the subject. Examinations have been made from 
time to time, such as seem to justify the writer in the views presented. 

In the locality described by Prof. Worthen — the quarries between Eock 
Island and Moline— immediately below the well-known shales and 
limestones of the Hamilton, occurs " a light bluish grey or dove colored 
limestone, irregularly bedded and concretionary in structure, quite desti- 
tute of fossils, except in its upper layers, near its juncture with the 
shales, where it contains Phillipsastrea verneuili, Alveolites and Atrypa 
reticularis.^'' The junction with the shales in some parts is so very grad- 
ual that it is difficult to draw the line of separation. 

On the Iowa side the passage is distinct and abrupt. With the above 
named fossils are associated on the surface of the ground huge masses 
of Cyathophyllum coalitum. Favosites hemispherica, Cladapora Fisclieri., 
with various species of Zajjiirentis, Alveolites aud Stromatopora, which, 
though now detached from each other, at a distant day were no doubt 
consolidated into a coral reef. Immediately underlying these, in each of 
the three quarries below the city, are a series of rough, irregular beds, 
varying from two to eight inches in thickness, and measuring in depth 
two or three feet. They are crowded witli fossils having no place in the 
Hamilton. The surface is roughened with the broken valves of a shell, 
in external form closely resembling a Eenssellceria. In one portion of 
each quarry these take the form of casts, and a continuous reef is pre- 
sented to the eye, the greater number partially weathered, but so 
imbedded in the matrix that while they exist by the thousand to the 
thickness of a foot or more, and almost to the exclusion of any other 
form, yet it is difficult to extricate a single individual from the mass 
without breaking it, and its condition, then, is beyond the possibillity of 
identification. These beds are wanting in the locality between Rock Island 
and Moline. Underneath them we find the same fine grained grey or dove 
colored limestones which are exposed in these quarries, and, I may add, 
with their characteristic fossils. The series then, as a whole, is only 
found on the Iowa side of the river. 

Above these beds and to the south of the quarries— in immediate con- 
tact with them — we have as its uppermost limit the limestone of the 
Hamilton. Its lower limits are equally marked, not only by a zone 
below which fossils rarely appear, but there is a decided change in litho- 
logical character. To the close grained compact limestone suc- 
ceeds a rough rock, concretionary in appearance, closely approaching the 
character of chert. In Cook's quarry (and I suppose the same 
would hold true in reference to Smith's), the workmen only blast 
down till they come to what they call " the flint rock." Mr. Cook told 



264 



DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



the writer lie could at once recognize the presence of this rock by the 
peculiar ring it gave back to the stroke of the iron bar, even though its 
surface was covered deep by water. 

This series of beds, then, seems to be well defined in both its upward 
and downward limits— the Hamilton above, this " Hint rock" below. Its 
thickness is variable, averaging from twelve to twenty feet, of which at 
times one quarter is made up of these upper broken uncontinuous layers, 
only found, so far, on the Iowa side of the river. 

The following table exhibits not only the succession of strata, but the 
localities in which such succession has been studied : 

No. 5. Uppermost limit ; loose masses of coral scattered over the 
surface. 

No. 4. Thin strata of shattered broken layers ; crowded with valves 
of BenssellcBria and remains of Crinoidea ; thickness three to four feet. 

Xo. 3. Bed of compact mass of casts of Renssellceria ; thickness one 
and one-half to two feet. 

No. 2. Dove colored compact limestone ; ten to twelve feet. 

No. 1. Concretionary; thickness unknown. 





Rock Island and 
Moline. 


Cook's 
Quarry. 


Intermediate 
Quarry. 


Smith's 
Quarry. 


Milan. 




*(1) 

* 
* 


* 
* 
* 
* 


* (2; 

* 
* 
* 


* 

* 
* 


* (3) 


Xo 4 




Xo. 3 ..... 

Xo.2 


* 


Xo.l 





Presence in quarry denoted by a *. 

(1) In thin layers. (2) Scattered on surface. (3) Consolidated into reef. 

One of the most marked characteristics of these beds is the frequent 
recurrence of large cavernous openings of greater or less extent and 
irregularity. They have the appearance of having been worn out by the 
action of running water. They are filled with foreign material, derived, 
no doubt, from higher rocks in the series. Prof. Hall, in his Geology of 
the vState of Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 84 and 130, has called attention to and de- 
scribed several such instances occurring in the Helderberg. In the 
quarries we are examining, these reservoirs of foreign material may be 
resolved into three classes, referable to the material with which the cav- 
ity is filled. 

First are those filled with sand and sandstone. This sand exists in 
very fine grains, of a white or greyish white color, occasionally stained 
with iron. In some portions it is no unusual circumstance to find peb- 
bles and rolled stones. So far no fossils have been discovered in it 
belonging to the mass. It is most probable this sand has filtered through 



LOCAL GEOLOGY OF DAVENPORT BAEEIS. 265 

from some member of the coal measures. It could hardly have belonged 
to a later formation. 

In other cavities occurs a tenacious blue or greenish clay, having some- 
what the appearance of a hre-clay, and to some extent used for that 
purpose, how successfully I know not. It possesses a uniform consis- 
tency, varying little in character or color with the depth to which it has 
been exposed. It is so difficult of removal that the quarrymen leave 
large masses of it in place after removing the surrounding rock, so that 
in the quarries they still stand up in pyramidal forms, or in case tlie 
quarries are overflowed with water, they constitute the islands appearing 
above the surface. 

In passing I would call your attention to what appears to have been a 
regular subterranean water course. In Cook's quarry is a mass of clay, 
twenty or thirty yards in length, three feet broad, and in depth extending 
down nearly if not quite to the '' flint rock" before referred to. No work- 
man could lay up a series of stone layers presenting a better facing than 
that exhibited by these walls. The curves are frequent and gradual. The 
filling of clay is so difficult to deal with that the workmen blast down to 
" flint rock," then cross over and begin their work on the other side. 
While so firm is the clay, that after the rock has been removed from its 
sides, it maintains its erect position, and for days in pleasant weather 
retains all the impressions made by the abutting rocks. This blue clay, 
w^hether confined in cavity or extended in this ancient water course, is of 
the same character as that described by Prof. Hall as occurring in the 
quarries between Moline and Rock Island, and which he regards as hav- 
ing originated in the coal measures, finding in it in that locality a Euom- 
phalus, distinct from any in the surrounding rock, and very similar to a 
carboniferous form. This, then, is no doubt the origin of the blue clay. 

But we come to a fact new to science, as first developed in these quar- 
ries. Side by side with these reservoirs of sand and clay from the coal 
measures we have immense cavities, filled with the soft shale of the 
Hamilton*. The bedding is generally irregular, no doubt in its lower part 
conforming to the irregularities of the rock in which it has been depos- 
ited, in the upper partaking somewhat of the irregularities of the roof, 
yet everywhere preserving traces of the layers. 

The gentleness of the deposit may be inferred from the fact that this 
shale is ci'owded to repletion with immense numbers of the smallest 
shells of the Hamilton, in the most complete possible state of preserva- 
tion. AVithin the space of a few feet, after every rain, hundreds of the 
small Chonetes, with even their spines preserved, are washed out. 

*Some of these cavities are distinguished by huge masses of carbonate of lime, most gener- 
ally presenting the appearance of a crowded, confused acicular crystallization. The form of 
the mineral, in some instances, sugs^ests its having been originally suspended from the roof of 
the cavity, and then by some meaus being detached and precipitated into the clay. Other spec- 
imens have every appearance of having been formed where found, as they partake of all the 
irregularities in the deposits of the clay by which surrounded, while others still have been 
rounded by the action of water until they are worn quite smooth. Fossils are scarce in this 
class of cavities. 



266 DAVEXrOET ACADEMY OF NATURAL SOIEXCES. 

Cyrtina appears in numbers, some no larger than a kernel of wheat. 
There is no end to the young of Strophodonta demissa, Strophodonta per- 
plana. Orthis vanitxemi, Spirifera suh-attenuata, etc. The most frail coral- 
line forms generally preserved only on the surface of the hardened shale, 
fronds of Fenestella, Ptylodiclya and Tentaculites here lie loose in the soft 
matrix. These tender children of the Hamilton have been so cared for 
and kindly protected through ages, that to-day in these reservoirs may be 
obtained more numerous specimens of the young, and in a finer state of 
preservation, than from the same area in any natural exposure of the rock 
itself. It is a simple question : With no marked natural exposure of the 
shale about us for miles, how and whence came this shale into its present 
position y The nurse is here the rough old Helderberg^ holding the children 
fondly and lovingly to her bosom ; but the mother herself is absent, and 
has been for ages. 

It is mainly in their fossils that these beds present especial points of inte- 
rest. I have had occasion already to speak of the Bens.seUceria as they form 
continuous reefs of more than a foot in thickness, or as their broken 
valves lay scattered on the surface of the upper layers, extending down- 
wards to the depth of three or four feet. In addition to this abundant 
fossil, and in the same beds, have been found the remains of Crinoidea 
in great numbers. It is only within a short time that two have been 
found in such state of perfection as to warrant a full description. These 
forms are all limited to the uppermost beds so well defined on this side 
of the river. Undei'neath these we find a rock corresponding to the dis- 
puted beds between Moline and Rock Island, and common to all the 
quarries we have examined. On lithological grounds alone the two 
would be pronounced equivalents, while some of the same fossils are 
found in both, serving still further to identify them. In this rock are 
found Gypidula laeviuscida, Hall, Spirifera subundifera, Wortheu, Calceo- 
criniis Barrisi, Worthen, and Phrugmoceras Walshii, Worthen. A Cono- 
cardium has been found in marking and size so similar to Conocardium 
trigonale, Hall, that there is scarce a doubt of its identity. Of unde- 
scribed fossils, part of which are now in process of description, we have 
three species of Crinoidea, the remains of Ganoidea, a large Trilohite, 
one Rhynchonella, two Gyroceras, and one Avicida'. In addition are quite 
a number of fossils in too poor condition to admit of description, mainly 
casts. Among these are the genera Euomphalus, Bellerophon, Platyos- 
toma, Orthoceras, Gompihoceras, and Platyceras. 

It is a remarkable fact that of the whole number of fossils thus far 
enumerated, not one, in this locality, is found in either of the two divisions 
Prof. Worthen describes as fairly representing the Hamilton C4roup. 
Prof. Hall recognized the rock as containing '' few fossils," neither iden- 
tifying old or describing new species. Prof. Worthen published that no 
fossils were found in it differing from the Hamilton. This was a neces- 
sary result at the close of the respective State Surveys, of which they were 
the Geologists in charge. The quarries since opened have furnished 
facts then unknown. The following list of fossils are found in the rocks 



LOCAL GEOLOGY OF DAVENPORT — ^BAEEIS. 



267 



claimed as the Upper Helderberg, none of which are found in the Ham- 
ilton proper. The localities are also given. A star (*) denotes presence- 





Rock Island 
and Moline. 


Cook's 
Quarry. 


Intermed'te 
Quarry. 


Smith's 
Quarry. 


Milan. 


I.— Fossils Already Described. 












Spirifera subundifera 


* 






* 


* 


Calceocrinus Barrisi 


* 










Gypidula oceidentalis 


* 


* 


* 


* 






* 


* 








Renssellseria Johanni 




* 


* 


* 




Conocardium trigonale 








* 




Phragraoceras Walshi 


* 


* 




* 




II.— Fossils in Condition to be 
Described. 
















* 












^ 








Trilobite 




* 


* 


» 








Gyroceras 




* 




* 


* 










* 




III. -Fossils in Poor Condition. 
















* 




* 








* 




* 




Bellerophon 




* 


* 


* 








* 




* 








* 
* 




* 
* 












* 
* 




* 












* 













The present paper, as its title implies, deals exclusively with our 
local geology, facts as gathered from our immediate neighborhood. We 
do not claim that the same state of things in all its minutia of details 
characterizes other localities. But the general principle will be found 
to hold good, and as time goes on we hope to apply it. While we admit 
that possibly hereafter some of the above forms may be found penetra- 
ting into the Hamilton proper, it is equally possible that with more 
extended quarrying more new species will be discovered, confined to the 
lower rock. 



268 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

If asked why we do not find some of the prevailing forms of the Upper 
Helderberg, we Icnow no better reply than the following : A friend and 
accomplished geologist writes, " You ought to find, if your rock is Cor- 
niferous, some characteristic moUusks as Euomphaliis De Cewi, Conocar- 
clium trigonale, Pentcmierus aratus, Paracydas proavia, etc." In the same 
letter he specifies as exclusive and diagnostic species of the Hamilton 
of Ohio, Spirifera mucronata, Tropidoleptus carinatus, Pterinea jiahellum, 
Nyassa arguta, etc. It is remarkable that in the Hamilton of Iowa, here 
or elsewhere developed, not one of these fossils find place. We are neces- 
sitated to rely on an entirely different series to determine the Hamilton of 
Iowa. We look for Orthis lowensis, Spirifera pennata, Spirifera aspera, 
Spirifera subattenuata, forms unknown to the Hamilton of Ohio. The 
inference is valid, that if we are necessitated to look to Iowa for the 
characteristic fossils of the Hamilton, why may we not look to Iowa for 
the characteristic species of the Corniferous. 

As aids in the identification of our rock, we have first, characteristic 
fossils of the Helderberg ; secondly, the occurrence of closely representa- 
tive species ; and thirdly, the general aspect of the whole as a whole. 
Under the first head we have the Gypidula loiviuscula, Hall, figured from 
the horizon of the Upper Helderberg of Iowa. The Eenssellceria 
Johanni, Hall, is also from the Upper Helderberg of Iowa. Our Gono- 
cardium, is undistinguishable from the Conocardium trigonale, Hall, of 
the Corniferous limestone of New York. As closely representative spe- 
cies, our Gyroceras, seem to have their affinities with those figured 
from the Corniferous in the Geological Report of Ohio. A Paracydas 
here occurs, closely resembling the Paracydas proavia of the Cornife- 
rous, the genus, as such, raainly confined to the Upper Helderberg. The 
massive plating of our Oanoidea, with its array of stellate tubercles, at 
least recalls the description of the Macropetalicthys Sullivanti, Newbury, 
of the Ohio Geological Reports. The general aspect of the whole series 
of fossils is widely different from that of the Hamilton. 

We do not disguise the fact that intermingled with the above fossils, 
and especially through the lower parts of the rock, occur many of the 
same fossils that are found in the Hamilton. Elsewhere they are com- 
mon both to the Hamilton and Upper Helderberg, and are of no strati- 
graphical importance. Such, for instance, are the Atrypja reticularis, 
Atrypa rugosa, Athyrus vittata, Strophodonta demissa, and otliers. The 
position taken by Prof. Hall, and maintained solely on lithological 
grounds, that the Upper Helderberg is developed in our vicinity, seems 
thus fully supported by paleontological evidence. With a knowledge of 
the fossils above enumerated, there is every reason to suppose Prof. 
Worthen would not hesitate to refer them to the same geological horizon. 

If there had been no natural lithological division, if these fossils were 
only on the surface, if one or two species were alone represented, if they 
were insignificant in characte'r, their evidence might possibly seem of 
little weight. But the opposite is true in each particular. There is a 
well recognized iiatural distinction. The fossils extend through a thick- 



RECOKD OF PROCEEDINGS. 269 

ness of from ten to twenty feet ; more than twenty species of fossils are 
represented. These forms are very marked, some of them in strong 
contrast with anything above or below. The representatives of seven 
great classes— Echuiodermata, Brachiopoda, Gasteropoda, Gephalapoda, 
Crustacea and P^,sces— ask for a place— their own place— in the Helder- 
berg. They enter a standing protest against any attempt to deprive 
them of their rights. From the very first they abominated the influx of 
this Hamilton mud into the clear waters of their quiet homes. 
This paper claims: — 

1. The discovery of beds on the Iowa side of the river that have not 
before been described. 

2. It determines their true relation to the disputed rock between Mo- 
line and Rock Island. 

3. The two taken together form a series comprised between well- 
defined limits— the Hamilton above, the so-called ^'flint rock" below. 

4. They contain a series of fossils, entirely differing from any in the 
Hamilton Group. 

5. Their general affinities seem to be with the fossils of the Cornife- 
rous, or Upper Helderberg. 

6. Of this rock, we conclude they form the upper and fossiliferous 
member. 

7. If common opinion as to the thickness of the group is correct, it 
must attain to nearly one hundred feet, of which the upper twenty feet 
contain the fossils enumerated in this paper.* 



September 13th, 1878. — Historical Section. 
J. A. Crandall in the Chair. 
Twelve members present. 

A number of donations to the Library were reported. The 
evening was spent in an informal talk on historical matters. 



At a meeting of tlie Trustees, held September 13th, 1878, the following 
resolutions, presented by W. H. Pratt, were unanimously adopted : 

Besolved, That Dr. C. C. Parry be invited to deposit his botanical col- 
lecticms and conduct his investigations in the building of the Academy, 
and that the "• Botanical Room," or such other room as may for the time 
being be more convenient, be placed at the disposal of Dr. Parry for the 
above purpose. 

Besolved, That Dr. Parry be invited to take charge of the Botanical 
Collections of the Academy. 



*See Geological Report of the State of Illinois, Vol. V, p -i-i-i. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 36 [Oct. 1878.1 



270 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

September 14tii, 1ST8. — Biological Section. 

Three members present. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam stated tliat among the collections recently 
brought from Mexico by Dr. C. C. Pari*}^, were two fine speci- 
mens of Thelyphonus giganteus^ Lucas, from Saltillo, called 
" VinagriUo'''' by the natives, from the fact that when disturbed 
it emits an odor resembhng that of vinegar. It is reputed to 
be venomous, and to sting by the tail ! There are also several 
specimens of botli sexes of a species of Gluvia^ found com- 
monly under stones in the vicinity of San Louis Potosi. The 
female of this species does not appear to differ essentially from 
the Gluvia prcecox of Koch, while the male appears to be Glu- 
via cinerascens Koch, the two sexes showing a remarkable 
difference in the structure of the mandibles, as has already 
been noticed in the Galeodes pallipes Say, and G. subulata 
Say. 

The following papers were presented : 

Descriptions of some Species and Varieties of North American Hetero- 
ceres, mostly new. 

BY HERMAN STRECKER. 

Hypoprepia Cadaverosa, N. Sp. 

(Plate IX, fig. 4 ) 

Size and shape ot H. Miniata, Kby; head and body pale ochre yellow, 
antennae black; tarsi black. Uvper surface : Primaries same pale ochra- 
ceous as the body, and with three broad pale slate colored bands arranged in 
tlie same way as in Miniata, K., and Fucosa, H., but these bands are broader 
than in these species, leaving less of the pale ground color visible; fringe 
pale slate color. Secondaries, same color but somewhat paler than the prima- 
maries; costal margin pale slate color ; exterior margin with a rather broad 
border of same color. Under surface as above, but paler. 

A number of this species were taken by H. K. Morrison In Colorado in 
the summer of 1877. The example from which the above description 
was drawn I received from Mr.W. Geffcken, of Stuttgart, Germany, who 
bought it along with other species from Morrison. 

Arctia Geneura, N. Sp. 

(Plate IX, fig. 5 S). 

i expands \% inches. Head flesh colored between the eyes, paler and yel- 
lowish above, and wUh a black spot; palpi blackish; thorax pale flesh color 
as in Virgi) and allies; the protho/ax witli two black stripes; the thorax with 
three, one in the middle and the otliers on the tegulie; abdomen scarlet, same 
shade as in Pfit/IUra, Dru , with a dorsal row of black spots, and another row 
of smaller spots on the sides; beneath pale flesh color, with two rows of small 



NOKTH-AMaRICAN HETP^ROCEEES — STRECKER. 271 

black spots. Upper surface : Primaries; pale yellowish flesh colored, with black 
spots or marks, to-wit: three basal, the one of which ue;irest the inner margin 
islougiluclinal. the one nearest the base atcosta also longitudinal, its fellow ex- 
terior to it oval ; these three basal spots are succeeded by two others, the 
costal lunate, and the one at interior margm rhombus shaped ; following these 
is one ver3' large irregular, somewhat triangular shaped mark, extending 
from costa two-thirds across the wing; opposite to it at inner margin is a very 
small oblong mark; between these and the outer margin are three triangular 
spots, that at costa being the largest, the other tvvo, one of which is at inner 
angle, are nearly of one size; at apex is a lunate spot, at middle of exterior 
margin a large, triangular spot, and towards inner angle a very small spot. 
Fringe same color as ground of wing. Secondaries same scarlet as upper side 
of abdomen; a sub-marginal row of three large black spots, the innermost of 
which touches the outer margin near the anal angle; the outermost merges into 
the rather narrow black co^tat border not far from the apex ; apex with a narrow 
black mark; in the middle of the exterior margin is a small triangular spot; 
two other spots connect with the costal border; a small round spot at the 
outer extremity of discal cell, and another half way between it and the 
abdominal margin. Fringe same pale yellowish as the ground color of prima- 
ries. Under surf iwe: All wings pale yellowish ; primaries darker along the 
costa; secondaries tinged with pink tovvards the abdominal mrgin; all the 
spots of the upper surface exactly repeated, but not as deeply black as above. 

Described from one i, for which I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
G. H. French, of Carbondale, Ills., who stated that he received it from 
Gilpin County, Colorado, at an elevation of about 8,-500 feet. In general 
appearance this fine insect reminds one of A. PhqUira, Dru., its nearest 
ally, but it is larger, and the black marks of primaries are mitch more 
numerous than in that species. A. Virgo, J^., Intermedia, Stretch, Par- 
thenice, Kby,' i'ud Acliaia, Grote, are separated from it by having the 
venation through the black marks of primaries conspicuously designated 
by being of the same pale color as ground of wing. From A. Behrii, 
Stretch, it is easilydistinguished by the black thorax of the former. 

Arctia Quadraxotata, N. Sp. 

(Plate IX, fig. 6 2.) 

? expands Ifg inches. Head, antennii?, thorax and legs entirely black; ab- 
domen above vermillion red, with a dorsal row of large, black, confluent 
spots; beneath black. Primaries elongate and narrower comparatively than 
in any other North American species known ; upper surface deep uniform 
black, with two conspicuous, but not large, yellowi.sh white, egg-shaped spots, 
with the narrow end directed tovvards the inner margin; the larger of these 
spots is within the discoidal cell, towards, but not at its outer extremity; the 
other, which is less than half the size, is half waj' between the last described 
spot and the exterior margin : fringe black. Secondaries vermillion ; a rather 
narrow black costal border; a broad black border to exterior margin, which 
extends inwards in a blunt point at the middle of its inner edge; fri^nge black. 
Under surface same as above, but less intense in color, and with a third small 
whitish spot in primaries, situated at the base. 

This species, so totally unlike any previously described, I received 
from Texas in several examples ; there are also examples in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, likewise from Texas. 



272 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Nemeophila Flantaginis, L., variations. 

Ab. HO SPIT A Schif. 

(Plate IX, fig. 'ii.) 

Ab. GEOMETKICA, Grotf. 

(Plate IX, fig. 3 S.) 

Of all species comprised in the genera of tlie Arctiidce, none present, 
perhaps, variations to the extent exhibited by the present, either in the 
old or new world. In the ordinary form the primaries are black, with 
very pale yellowish marks, the secondaries yellow, of a deeper tint, with 
black marginal, sub-marginal, and basal marks. It was redescnbed by 
G. and R. in 187/J under the name of Cichorii* from a Californian exam- 
ple. Their type I have examined— it and another Californian form nearly 
like ab. Matronalis, which they also described as new, naming it C'aes- 
]jitis,\ are undoubtedly only Plantaginis. Of Cichorii, the authors 
founded its distinctness mainly on the fact of its having totally black 
fringes to the wings. In direct refutation of such an assumption is the 
fact that five European examples now before me have all fringes en- 
tirely black ; another has them partly black and partly yellow. 

Another form has the ground of the wings white. This is the ab. 
Hospita, Schif., figured on the accompanying Plate IX, from one of a 
number of examples taken by Mr. Th. Mead in Colorado some years 
since ; these agree with the examples of the white abberration from 
Europe in every respect ; I can find no difference. To this form is also 
allied the Petrosat of Walker. 

In juxtaposition to these albinous examples are a number of melanos, 
also from Colorado, in which' the primaries are black, with some white 
bars or spots, and tlie secondaries entirely black, witli or without a small 
white spot not very far from the anal angle. This form was first de- 
scribed by Grote as a Zygcenid.l and placed in a new genus [Eupsychoma), 
which he created for its reception. 

But there can be no doubt that all these Colorado forms are but varia- 
tions of the one very variable species Plantaginis. I have seen interme- 
diate examples of all those above alluded to from both continents The 
most extreme of the black examples are American (from Colorado). I 
have seen none from Europe with such totally black secondaries, though 
some come very near. Of the $ form, with red hind wings, I have seen 
no American examples, though I have little doubt but that they will in 
time be found to occur here. The variation in color in different exam- 
ples of the same species in the Arctiidce is beyond all precedent, and in 
some instances, as in those above alluded to, as well as others I am about 
to mention, has led to the describing of many of these varieties as dis- 
tinct species. The three different forms, with their endless variations, 
comprised in Stretch's genus Leptarctia, i. e. L. Lena and Decia, Bdl., and 

*Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, I, p. 338, t. vi (1S08). 

fTrans. Am. Ent. Soc , I, p. 337, t vi (1868). 

tCat. B. M., Ill, p. H26 (185.5). 

'i,Eupsychonia Geoinetrica, Grote. Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., IV, p. 318/t. II (1865). 



NORTH-AMERICAN HETEROCERES STRECKER. 273 

Dimidiata, Stretch, are doubtless but the yellow, red and black varieties 
of one and the same species. Callimorpha Dominula, L., occurs with 
yellow and black hind wings, as well as crimson. (J. Hera, L., is found 
with both red and yellow secondaries. Arctia Persephone, Grote, has a 
variety, with inky black abdomen and secondaries. This has. been de- 
scribed as a separate species by Grote under the name of A. Anna. 
Arctia Figuraia, Dru., occurs with black as well as scarlet inferiors. A 
Achaia, G.-R., Virgo, L., Parthenice, Kby., Nais, Dru., and Phyllira. 
Dru., all are found in both the yellow and red winged forms. 

In fact, with the exception of A. Yarrowii. and a few others, that are 
as yet only knovvn by the types, or one or two other examples, A. Vir- 
guncula, Kby., is. I believe, the only species of all those known to me in 
nature in which I have seen no variation from the normal yellow type, 
unless the insect lately described by myself as A. Oithona be a red-winged 
variety of it. None, however, present a greater number or more astound- 
ing variations than the common A. Caja, L., found in both the old and 
new world. Those found in North America were considered a distinct 
species and described as such by Dr. Harris, under the name of A. Amer- 
icana, on account of having the front of the collar edged with white. 
This distinction, however, failed in validity when examples were also 
found in Europe having likewise the white collar. Ordinarily this spe- 
cies has white primaries, with broad brown diverse shaped marks, which 
latter cover the greater part of the surface, and orange colored seconda- 
ries, decorated with many large black and steel colored spots, these spots 
varying considerably in number and size in diiferent individuals; but 
examples occur in which the brown marks of primaries are reduced to 
very inconsiderable spots or streaks, completely altering the whole ap- 
pearance of the insect. Another and more startling aberration is one in 
which the primaries are entirely uniform brown, and the secondaries en- 
tirely black ; both of these monstrosities are figured in Humphrey's 
British Motlis. Other examples occur with the secondaries yellow, and 
finally Dr. Staudinger discovered in Syria, in 187."), a local form, in wliich 
the secondaries of the male were pure white, and those of the female 
very pale orange ; the brown marks on the primaries were very insignifi- 
cant ; this variety was described by Dr. S. as Caja var. Wiskotti. 

Thus I might go on almost endlessly emimerating varieties without 
number, but enougii have been alluded to to give some idea of the extra- 
ordinary freaks, be they climatic or otherwise, to which these insects are 
subject. That the aberration of. Caja, figured by Humphrey, with 
wholly brown primaries and black secondaries, is a suffused example, in 
which the dark color of the markings predominated to the total exclusion 
of the pale ground, is easily to he inferred, though not to be explained ; 
but why some examples should have yellow hind wings, and others found 
only in a certain locality, should have them white in one sex and orange 
in the other, is a matter as yet to me totally inexplicable. 



274: DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

IIaLESIDOTA A^tr.IGUA, N. Sp. 
(Plate IX, fig 7 ■?.) 

$ expands nearly two inches. Top of head brown, around eyes rose colored ; 
palpi rose colored; antenn;e pale brown; collar brown, edned anteriorly with 
rosoy ; thorax above, brown on patagia' and shining whitish gray dorsally; 
beneath paler brown; tarsi pinkish; abdomen above and at sides densely 
pilose, being covered with long, silky, pink fur, with no signs of the suture's 
between the segments at all visible; beneath not as bright, more of a reddish 
gre}' color, and not more heavily scaled than ordinary, each segment being 
distinguished at a glance. Upper surface; primaries silvery white, with a 
somewhat greyish tinge, and having a slight tendency towards being semi-' 
diaphanous; the fringe, the edge of costa, the exterior and interior margins, 
and all the veins edged with brownish, which confines the whitish ground to 
the cells; secondaries same silvery white as primaries and immaculate. The 
under surface as above, but the brown color not as dark and more inclined to 
redish, especially on edge of costa of primaries; the costa of secondaries with 
a redish brown margin. 

Habitiit, South-west Colorado. Takeit by the party on the San Juan 
Reconnaisance in the summer of 1877, and by accident was omitted 
from tlie report on the insects collected by that expedition. 

Mr. G. H. French, of Carbondale, 111., on one occasion sent me by mail 
for examination a small box of Lepidoptera, among which were the pre- 
viously described Arctia Geneura.n'nd an example of what I now believe 
to have been this species. But the contents got damaged during trans- 
port to such an extent, that in the debris of different examples the frag- 
ments of wings could not be identified as belonging to the wreck of tl?e 
body part, and from the remains of the pink abdomen I thought at the 
time it might be H. Edwardsii, Puck. (Phcegoptera Quercus, Bdl.), but 
since receiving the above example, I am nearly sure that the one sent 
by Mr. French was of the same species ; he also received it from Colo- 
rado. It is without exception the handsomest and most remarkable spe- 
cies of the genus Halesidota yet found in North America. 

ScniNiA Gulnare, N. Sp, 

(Plate IX, fig. 1.) 

Expands 1% inches. Head, olivaceous; body, brilliant pale metallic oliva- 
ceous or greenish gray ; beneath grayish, and not so brilliant. Upper surface) 
primaries shining silvery areenish graj' or olivaceous, somewhat of the tin 
ot Plmia Modes/M, Hub., but far more'lustrous ; three silvery lines cross the 
wing; the first, or sub-basal, is straight until almost to costa, whence it turns 
inwards towards the base at an acute angle; the second starts a little beyond 
the middle of inner margin, from whence it extends in a curve towards, but 
not to the apex; not far from the cosia it too is bent abruptly backwards, 
forming an acute angle ; half way betwee'n the last described line and the outer 
margin, and curved in nearly the same manner, and with the tooth or point 
formed by the bind near costa, touching the exterior margin a little below the 
apex, is the last or third line; between this latter and the exterior margin, and 
resting on the last is an oblong, pointed at both ends, patch of deep gold; 
another smaller golden mark is nearly at apex. Secondaries much the same 
color as primaries near and at exterior margin, but paler on all the interior 
parts; all fringes silvery gray. Under surface somewhat same color as above, 
and nearly as brilliant, but devoid of the three transverse lines, and also of 
the golden patch on primaries ; the latter are pale at edge of costa, and two 
short pale lines are at the costa on the exterior third of wing; apex with a 



HYBRIDS OF CALLIMORPIIA STEECKER. 



275 



golden reflexion. Secondavies with obscurediscal dots, and marginal and sub- 
marginal bands or lines. 

From Mr. G. H. French ; one example taken in Illinois ; exact locality 
not stated. 

I know of no North American Noctuid that equals this in splendor. It 
reminds one in a measure of Plusia lllustris, F., and Modesia, Iliib., in 
the tints, and somewhat in general resemblance, but its metallic silvery 
sheen far excels these or any other Plusia 1 have ever seen. It may, 
according to American ideas, seem to deserve the distinction of being 
placed in a separate genus, but I believe it is unnecessary to take it from 
the group that contains Trifascia, Hub., Gracilenta, Hilb., Neclia, Morr. 
etc., which, though it exceeds them all in size and beauty, are appar- 
ently its nearest allies. 



On some Hybrids between Callimorplia Lecontei, Bdl.. and C. Inter- 
riqjto-marginata, De Beauv., figured on Plate IV, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

BY HERMAN STRECKER. 

C(dlimorpha Interricpto-marginnta is, especially for an Arctian, a most 
i^emarkably constant species, presenting scarcely any variation in differ- 
ent examples, whilst to the contrary in C Lecontei, the number of varie- 
ties and aberrancies that occur are almost without parallel, and have 
resulted in the describing of what were supposed to be four distinct spe- 
cies, three of which, however — Co)}finis, Wlk., Contigua, Wlk., Fulvicosta, 
Clem.,* are only varities, though very marked ones, the last named one, 
being entirely immaculate, devoid of all blackish marks whatever; but 
besides these many more just as remarkable departures from the stem 
form are found, and without exaggeration I may safely assert that in 
my own collection are at least twenty well defined forms of this species 
[Lecontei). Of Interrupto-marginata I have never seen a variety that 
was of importance enough to deserve notice. Of the third North Amer- 
ican species, C. Clymene, Esp., found in the Southern .States. I have an 
immaculate form, all pale yellow, without any dark marks, thus resem- 
bling the variety (of Lecontei) Fulvicosta, except that it is yellow, whilst 
the latter is white. 

Last year I received from a friend in Southern Indiana a box full of 
Lecontei in many varieties, as well as a number of LUen-upto-marginata, 
the latter, as usual, quite constant. But among this lot were also a num- 
ber of examples that at tirst fairly puzzled me. They were marked 
exactly like some varieties of Lecontei, and one was immaculate like the 
var. Fulvicosta of that species ; bui the ground color of these was a pale 
buff, a little darker than in the primaries of hxterntpto-marginafa in- 
stead of being white ; but independent of this uniform yellow color of 
all wings and body, they were to all intents Lecontei. That they were not 
a new species I felt certain, and of course the next thought that suggested 

*C. VestaUs Pack., and Tanada Conscita, Wlk., are synonyms of this form. 



276 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

itself was miscegenation. In this surmise I v\-as correct, as I afterwards 
was enabled to fully prove. 

The accurate collector, who was not a naturalist, had put a s Lecontei, 
and a 2 Interrupto-marginata on one pin, he having taken them in copuli. 
On a little piece of paper attached to the pin he had noted that fact, and 
written, " male and female, as you may see." 80 they were too, but not 
of one species, as he, in his sagacity, had imagined tliey were. It seems 
that after pinning there still was life enough left in the female to enable 
her to deposit some eggs in the box ere she was quite dead. These I took 
out, and in due time the larvte emerged. As usual, the greater number 
died before maturing, but three carried .successfully through, two pro- 
ducing the originals of Figs. 5 and 6 on Plate IV. Fig. 7 was drawn 
from one of the captured examples sent to me by my friend. The larvae 
were black above with rich yellow dorsal and lateral lines, the latter 
somewhat irregular and broken ; also with rows of raised blueish black 
tubercles, from whence proceed tufts of short bristles. Beneath it is 
pale grayish, with darker marks. Head black. Feet black, prolegs 
black outside, pinkish on the inside. They were fed on the most con- 
venient thing that offered, i. e., the leaves of a weeping willow that 
grew on the paveu)ent near at hand, and afterwards on the Morris white 
peach trees that grew in my garden. 

The moths, as the figures on accompanying plate show, ai-e marked as 
the male parent Lecontei, whilst the ground color is that of the maternal 
relative Interrupto-marginata. Tlie examples are, in size, a little below 
the average of either parent. 

From the large number of these hybrids I received, indeprndent of the 
three bred, it would appear that hybridism in a state of nature with 
these species is very common. Nor do I imagine it to be as rare with 
other Lepidoptera as is generally supposed, as I have little doubt but 
that many of the examples of Argynnidce, Cat.ocalce, etc., so puzzling to 
collectors, are nothing more than bastards, the product of allied species. 



The Larva of Samia Gloveri, Streck. 

BY HERMAN STRECKER. 

A number of living pupa? of this heretofore exceedingly rare species 
have been received within the last year from Utah, where it appears to 
be as common as Cecropia is with us in the East. From the moths de- 
veloped from these pupa?, ova have in some instances been obtained, and 
several entomologists, myself among the number, have been successful 
in rearing the larva?. 

On first emerging they were black. After moulting for the first time 
they have the a))pearance of being black and yellow mixed ; after the 
second moult they were lemon yellow, with all the tubei'cles black ; after 
the third moult the color was pale green, with the two dorsal rows of 
tubercles coral, or rather of a bright rust red, and the lateral ones pale 



THE LARV^ OF SAMIA GLOVERl — STEECKER. 277 

blue; when mature, the color was nearly the same pale green, which 
was much the tint of that of Cecrojna, but not such a clear blue-green : 
more of duller hue. especially towards the lower part of the sides. There 
were eleven pair of dorsal tubercles, the first nine pair lemon yellow, the 
two last pair on anal segment pale blueish. The tubercles on the third, 
fourth and fifth segments are largest, and have some small black spots 
and marks on them, and are armed with short spines. On the twelfth 
segment is a large yellow dorsal tubercle, also spotted with black. Three 
rows of pale blueish lateral tubercles, which shine as if covered with 
glazing. The first three of the upper row are the largest ; those of the 
two lower rows the smallest. .Spiracles white, surrounded by a fine black 
line. Feet yellow ; greenish at base, black at ends ; prolegs green, ter- 
minally yellow. Length three inches. 

Of twenty-seven young larvge, I only succeeded in raising one ; the 
others all died after the first or second moults. This one I fed on the 
leaves of the common red currant. A correspondent inf<n-ms me that he 
had reared them on the plum. 1 would suppose that like Cecropia, and 
others of the Atfaci, it will feed on a number of different plants. 

The remarkable and beautiful argenteus looking cocoon of this species 
I have already described on page 128 of the Lepidoptera, Rhop. et Het. 
Before concluding I would briefly state the difference between the 
larvae of this and the three allied species, Cnlumhia, S. I. Smith, Cecropia-, 
L., and Geanothi, Behr., which consists principally in the dorsal tubercles. 
Columbia has three pair of coral red ones, situated on the third, fourth 
and fifth segments ; the remaining six pair, as well as the single one of 
last segment, are yellow. Lateral tubercles whitish. 

Cecropia has two pair of coral red tubercles ; these are on the third and 
fourth segments ; the remaining dorsal ones are yellow, as in the preced- 
ing. Lateral ones pale blue. 

Gloveri has the same tubercles in number and form as the two species 
above alluded to, but, as I have shown, these are all yellowish. Lateral 
ones blueish white. 

Ceannthi has three pair of dorsal yellow tubercles. These are on the 
third, fourlh and fifth segments; the sixth segment has merely faint 
white raised spots in place of tubercles, and the remaining segments are 
without either tubercles or spots dorsally, with the exception of the 
twelfth, which has the usunl single yellow tubercle. This species differs 
from all the others in the absence of dorsal tubercles on all the segments 
except the third, fourth and fifth. It also is devoid of lateral tubercles, 
these being only represented on the third segment by white spots, and on 
the fourth to eighth by mere black points ; the ninth, tenth and eleventh 
segments are devoid of all spots whatever. 

Thus it will be seen that Gloveri differs from Columbia and Cecropia in 
having all the tubercles yellow, and from Ceanothi in having dorsal and 
lateral tubercles on all segments, (excepting, of course, the first and 
second), whilst the latter has these appendages only on the third, fourth 
and fifth segments, besides the single one on the twelfth. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 37 [Dec. 1878.] 



278 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

The larva of Columbia has been bred on Larch [Larix Americanus) 
and wild red chen-y {Pnams Pennsylvanicus). That of Cecropia, as is 
well known, feeds on apple, cherry, plum, barberry, currant, etc. Glo- 
veri has been raised on plum and red currant. Ceanothi, according to 
Henry Edwards, feeds on Ceamthis Thyrsiflorus, Esch., Frangula Cali- 
fornica. Gray, Bhamnus Croceus, Nutt., and Alnus Viridis, D. C. 

The cocoon of Columbia is oval, pointed at the end, from which the 
insect escapes ; pitchy black in color, with a few silver threads here and 
there, principally near the part which is attached to the twig ; generally 
about two and a quarter inches in length. That of Cecropia is, of course, 
too well known to need any description. Of Gloveri, it is as if made of 
native silver, and is most beautiful in its brilliant metallic appearance. 
Of Ceanothi, I liere append Henry Edwards' description from the Proc. 
Gal. Acad, for 1874 : " When about to undergo its cliange, the caterpillar 
attaches itself usually to the under side of a twig and spins a rather 
coarse and veiy compact outer case, with which no leaves or other extra- 
neous substances are incorporated, and within this a reddish brown 
cocoon, the filaments of which are sti'ong, rather coarse, but glossy. 
The cocoon and its outer case are oval, produced into a cone at the end^ 
by which the insect escapes." 

Prom what I have shown, there is little doubt but that there are three 
valid species, as species go now-a-days ; but, nevertheless, despite the 
want of the red tubercles in the larva, I am strongly of the opinion that 
Gloveri is after all but a form of Cecropia, and that successive breedings 
through many generations in the Atlantic districts would eventuate in 
the changing of the red color of the moth to the blackish of Cecropia, 
As regards the larva, I cannot see why an insect may not be subject to 
variation in the earlier stages as well as in the imago. 

Beading, Pa., August 'SQth, 1878. * 



September 18th, 1878. — Special Meettno. 

Dr. R. J. Farquharson, President, in the chair. 

Thirty-nine members and visitors present. 

The meeting was held in honor of the presence in our city of 
Dr. George Engelmann, the distinguished botanist, and to wel- 
come the return of our fellow member, Dr. C. C. Parry, after an 
extended trip to Mexico. 

Rev. S. S. Hunting, on behalf of the Academy, delivered a 
happy address of welcome, to which Dr. Engelmann responded 
in few pleasant remarks. 

After adjournment an hour was agreeably spent in social con- 
versation, wherein the Doctor illustrated his remarks by speci- 



PERBY — BOTANICAL COLLECTION. 279 

mens of several varieties of oaks and hickories, wliich lie had 
gathered at Woodlawn. It was a subject of much regret that 
Dr. Parrj was not able to be present on account of illness. 



At a meeting of the Trustees held October 4th, 1878, a series of regula- 
tions relative to the assignment of rooms in the Academy building was 
adopted. 



October 28th, 1878.— Regular Meeting* 
Dr. R. J. Farquharson, President, in the chair. 
Thirtv-two members and visitors present. 
The President reported the actions of the Trustees during the 
month past, and presented the following letter from Dr. Parry, 
giving an account of the botanical collection which he has depos- 
ited in the botanical room of the Academy. 

To the Trustees of Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences .' 

Gentlemen :— Your courteous invitatiou to deposit my botanical coh 
lection in the commodious room of the Academy assigned to that depart- 
ment, has been complied with, so far as the incomplete arrangement of 
the material, mainly the result of more than thirty years' active fleld 
work, would allow. 

It may be proper in this connection to state briefly the character of 
this collection, and the principal sources from which it has been derived. 

My earliest gatherings in the botanical field were begun in 1843, while 
residing in the attractive floral district of North-Eastern New York, and 
continued more or less actively for five years, while occupied in a course 
of medical studies. During this interval I spent o*ie season in Central 
New York, including a trip to Niagara Falls. The two last years of this 
period was especially memorable by being favored with the personal 
acquaintance of the distinguished American Botanist, Dr. John Torrey. 
to whose assistance and encouragement, equally shared by nearly all 
active American botanists of this generation, I am largely indebted for 
whatever success I may have attained. 

In the fall of 1846 I removed to Davenport, Iowa, and the season fol- 
lowing (1847) I was actively engaged in securing the flora of this district, 
including a summer excursion to Central Iowa, in the vicinity of the 
present State Capital, Des Moines, with a United States land surveying 
party, under the charge of Lieut. J. Morehead. 

In 1848 I was connected with Dr. D. D, Owen's geological survey of 
the North- West, making botanical collections along the course of the St. 
Peters River and up the St, Croix as far as Lake Superior. A list of the 



280 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

plants collected during this and the preceeding season was included in 
Dr. Owen's report published in 1852. 

In 1S49 I was appointed botanist to the Mexican boundary survey, going 
by way of the Isthmus of Panama to San Diego, California, which latter 
place was reached in July. In September of the same year I accom- 
panied an astronomical party to the junction of the Gila and Colorado 
rivers, returning to San Diego in December. The important collections 
of this season were unfortunately lost in crossing the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama while in charge of the late Gen. A. W. Whipple, being probably 
involved in a disastrous fire while stored in Panama awaiting transpor- 
tation. 

In the subsequent year, 1850, this loss was partially made up by some" 
what extensive collections in the vicinity of the Southern Boundary line, 
and including a land trip up the coast as far as Monterey. 

In the year 1851 I was ordered to Washington to make up my report, 
but before concluding it was unexpectedly summoned to join the field 
party on the survey of the boundary, then transferred to El Paso on the 
Rio Grande. This point was reached by an overland trip, via San Anto- 
nio, Texas, late in the fall of that year (1851). In January of the suc- 
ceeding year (1852), I was connected with a small detailed party of 
exploration across the country west of El Paso, extending as far as the 
Pimo settlements on the Gila river, returning by the same route to El 
Paso in April. Subsequently I was connected with various surveying 
parties on the line of the Rio Grande south of El Paso, including late in 
the season the section of the river below Presidio Del Norte, comprising 
a succession of gigantic chasms, which never before or since have been 
visited by any botanist. 

In the winter of 1852-3 I returned to Washington and made up my 
report, since published in the bulky volumes of the Mexican Boundary 
Survey. The interval from 1854 to 1861) was spent mainly in Davenport, 
not actively engaged in botanical work. 

In the spring of 1861 the culmination of the Pikes Peak fever again 
opened the way for western exploration, and in a private collecting trip 
to the Rocky Mountains, I succeeded in securing a rare collection of 
Alpine plants, including, among many novelties, some of the early dis- 
coveries of Dr. James on Long's expedition in 1830. In the following 
season I was associated with E. Hall and J. P. Harbour in further explo- 
ration of the Rocky Mountain district, the botanical results of which 
were published in Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy for 1868. 

In 1864, in company with Dr. J. W. Velie, then of Rock Island, 111., I 
continued my Rocky Mountain collections, embracing the districts of 
Long's Peak and Middle Park. 

In 1867 I accompanied a railroad surveying party in the interests of the 
Pacific Railway Company, across the continent, on the line of 85= par- 
allel north latitude. The most valuable part of my collections during 
that season were made in Western Kansas and South-Easteni Colorado, 
passing by the Sangre de Cristo Pass to Northern New Mexico ; thence 



PAEEY BOTANICAL COLLECTION. 281 

late in the winter season through Arizona, crossing the Sierra Nevada at 
Tehachapi Pass, and through the Tulare and San Joaquin valleys to 
San Francisco. A list of the plants comprised in this collection was 
subsequently published in Dr. W. A. Bell's work entitled " Xew Tracks 
in North America," but without an opportunity for personal revision by 
the collector. 

An interval of several years subsequent to the latter trip was occupied 
in filling the position of Botanist to the Agricultural Department at 
Washington. The principal work there devolving upon me was that of 
arranging the extensive botanical collections, which, as the result of 
various government explorations, had accumulated at the Smithsonian 
Institution. The bulk of these had previously passed through the hands 
of Dr. Torrey, whose gratuitous labors in reducing this mass oftaw 
botanical material to systematic shape have never yet been properly 
acknowledged. 

On being relieved from this position in the fall of 1871, the season 
following I again revisited the Rocky Mountain alpine district, being 
then accompanied for the first time by our associate, J. Duncan Putnam. 

In 1873 I was attached to the North- Western Wyoming Expedition, 
under Capt. W. A. Jones, extending through the Wind River District to 
the Yellowstone National Park, Mr. Putnam being assigned as ray 
meteorological assistant. 

In 18T4 I made a private collecting tour to South Utah, securing a val- 
uable collection of the flora of the singular desert district in the valley 
of the Virgen, near St. George. 

In 1875, again accompanied by Mr. Putnam, I spent the summer in 
Central Utah, in the vicinity of Mt. Nebo. In the fall of that year I 
continued my collecting trip to Southern California, and in the season of 
1876, in connection with Prof. J. G. Lenimon. the enthusiastic California 
botanist made a very full collection of the plants in the vicinity of San 
Bernardino, including the high mountain district adjoining, and the 
desert stretches lying east of the Sierra' Nevada. 

My last and closing labors as botanical collector were made during the 
present season, mainly in the vicinity of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, ex- 
tending on my return trip by way of Saltillo and Monterey to the more 
familiar botanical district of Western Texas, which I had partly explored 
twenty-six years previous. 

From all these various sources collections, more or less complete, have 
accumulated on my hands, the great bulk being fortunately distributed 
far and wide to the different herberia of America and Europe. An 
active correspondence with the principal American botanists during the 
past thirty years has added largely, in the way of exchanges, to the 
material for illustrating Western American Botany. Hoping only for an 
opportunity to reduce this scattered material to systematic order, and to 
see it safely deposited in some scientific institution in the West, where it 
properly belongs, I gladly avail myself of the invitation extended to me 
by the Trustees of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 



282 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

In fully reaiizingf the fact that with advancing years ray active labors 
as a collector and explorer are virtually finished, it is a pleasant reflection 
that some of the results of my labors, here deposited in an Academy of 
Science with which I have been from the first identified, and located in 
my adopted home on the west bank of the Mississippi, may perchance 
prove a source of assistance and encouragement to future botanists long 
after the "gathering hand" shall be itself " gathered.''^ 

Respectfullv, your associate, 

C. C. Parry. 

The reports of the Corresponding Secretary, Librarian and 
Curator were presented. The donations to the Library and 
Museum were placed on the table, and the thanks ot the Acad- 
emy voted to the donors. 

The Publication Committee reported that pages 253-276 ot 
the Proceedings had been printed, bringing the record down to 
date. Plates lY to XI had been lithographed and were partly 
printed. 

The following papers were presented and referred to the Pub- 
lication Committee : 

New Fossils from the Corniferous Formation at Davenport. 

BY prof. W. H. BARRIS, D. D. 

These notes are appended to the preceding paper on Geology* t<" em- 
phasize some of the positions there taken. The fossils selected for illus- 
tration are chosen with reference to the different classes therein enu- 
mei-ated. 

ECHIXODEP.MATA. 

STEREOCRINUS (nov. gen.). 

GENERIC FORMTJLA. 

Basal plates, 3. 
Radials, 2x5. 
Supraradials, 2X5. 
Brachials. 2 x 5. 
Arms, 2x5. 
Interradials, 2 x 5. 

Anal area undistinguishable from the interradial areas. 
Summit slightly elevated. 
Proboscis sub-central. 

Arrangement of plates such as to give a proportionately greater 
breadth than height to the calyx. 
The resemblance of the genus to that of Actinocrinus is very noticea' 

♦Ante, page 261. 



NEW FOSSILS OF THE COKNIFEEOtJS FORMATION BARRIS. 283 



ble. It differs mainly in having no appreciable anal area, and but two 
radials. 

The following diagram illustrates the structure of the body to the sum- 
mit of the brachial plates : 




^&^^ 



Stereocrinus triangulatus (n. sp.)- 

Plate xi, figs. 1 and 2. 

Body large ; breadth to height as two to one. Basal pieces solidly an- 
chylosed, and either as a narrow rim clings closely to the column or 
widens into a pentagon, on each side of which rests the first radial. 
First radials large, hexagonal, the centers of which are connected to- 
gether by ridges, forming a pentagon, whose sides are parallel to those 
of the anchylosed basal plate. Second radials pentagonal, nearly the 
size of the first radial. First supraradials about half the size of the 
second radial, pentagonal or hexagonal, resting mainly on the sloping 
upper side of the second radial, and partly on the interradial, broader 
than high. The second supraradial, or rather brachial, is of irregular 
triangular shape, broader than high, whose base is nearly the breadth of 
the supraradial. First interradial large as first radial, heptagonal, higher 
than broad. This sustains a second interradial hexagonal, not more than 
half the size of the first. This is crowned by three small irregular 
plates, arching from arm to arm, surmounted by another series of three, 
somewhat smaller. The summit is elevated in the centre, From each 
series of arms, extending towards the center, is a ridge of larger plates. 



284 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

giving a five rayed aspect to the summit. Plates roughened and tuber- 
culifortn. 

Proboscis sub-central. 

The ornamentation consists of a series of triangles enclosed one within 
the other, the outer of which— the enclosing triangle heads in the center 
of the larger plates, meeting there the apices of as many aeries of trian- 
gles as there are sides of the plates. This peculiarity was traced out 
first by the artist, Mr. Churchill, to whom the -Academy is indebted for 
the figures accompanying this paper. 

Fig. 1 represents the base of a specimen, the pentagon enclosing the 
base being more sharply defined than in the plate. The column in the 
specimen is slightly removed from the center of the base, the canal pen- 
talobate. 

, Fig. 2 shows a portion of the plates on the summit, and the upper 
plates of the calyx, as seen obliquely from the side. 

Fig. 3, though belonging to the next described species, preserves well 
the normal relations of height and breadth of this species. 

The original of the specimen figured was presented to the Academy 
by the writer. 

Stereocrinus triangulatus var. liratus (n. sp.). 

Plate xi, fig 3 

This species does not attain the size of the former. Common to both 
is the same general arrangement and succession of plates. At the same 
time in this species there is a marked tendency to roundness in the form 
of the plates. The upper edge of the first radial is slightly curved in- 
stead of straight, as in *S\ triangulatus. The system of ornamentation 
is entirely clianged. There is no longer a series of finely marh^d including 
and included triangles, but a system of sharp, well-defined, prominent 
ridges, disposed in single or double series, transversing the entire calyx, 
gathering into sharp nodes at the centres of the several plates. The 
strength of the ridges is uniform throughout. 

From the base througli the center of the first radial passes a single 
ridge into the center of the second radial, thence bifurcating it follows 
the course of the supraradials and brachials, the centres of which are 
ornamented with nodes. In addition to tliis single ridge, from the cen- 
ter of the first radial, pass four double ridges, one couplet extending to 
the center of each adjoining first radial, the other to the center of the 
nearest first interradial. Tlie first interradials are also distinguished by 
these, as well as other double ridges, one of which encloses a pit in the 
center of the plate, its two sides being produced upwards through the 
second interradial. The other plates abound in single rather than double 
ridges. The second radial does not attain more than half the size of the 
first, while the greater part of its surface is covered by strong ridges, 
drawn out upon the center into a sharp angle. This characterizes the 
second radials and interradials to such extent that they constitute a 
girdle of ten nodes, completely surrounding the calyx, giving it a decided 



NEW FOSSILS OF THE CORNIFEROUS FORMATION BARRIS. 285 

decagonal aspect. This species is readily distinguished from the last by 
its smaller s-ize, its tendency to a curved outline of plates, the smaller 
comparative size of its second radials, and its different system of orna- 
mentation. 

This and the last are found in bed No. 4, which represents a thickness 
of three to four feet, and is only developed on the west side of the river. 

The original of the specimen figured was presented to the Academy by 
the writer. 

Megistocrinus nodosus (n. sp.). 

Plate xi, fig. 4. 

Of this Crinoid another specimen has been found (now in the collection 
of Prof. Pratt], far more perfect than the portion figured, having the 
dome in excellent condition. The calyx, though preserving well its gen- 
eral figure, is yet so worn that the lines marking out the plates are not 
recognizable, yet the nodes are preserved on which the specific character 
is based. The description then is of necessity limited to the figure. 

Body broadly urnshaped, the three basal plates, firmly united, extend 
beyond the column, and widen into an hexagonal form, presenting the 
appearance of a single plate. First radials hexagonal, wider than high, 
base and upper margins parallel. Second radials hexagonal, higher than 
the first radials. Third radials heptagoual, higher than first radials ; not 
as high as the second. Supraradials two, hexagonal, resting on the sloping 
upper sides of the third radial. On the two supraradials is a second 
series, wider than high, most probably supporting the arm plates. Be- 
tween the supraradial series are two smaller plates, one above the other, 
the lower of which, resting on the notch between the first supraradials, 
is pentagonal. The first interradials are hexagonal, as large as the third 
radial. These are succeeded by two others, also hexagonal, and nearly 
as large as the first interraflial. A third series comprise three smaller, 
two hexagonal, and one pentagonal ; a fourth and fifth series are small 
and irregular. Anal side unknown. Dome convex composed of an im- 
mense number of small, well-defined plates, its lieight about equal to 
height of calyx. Proboscis sub-central. The peculiarity giving rise to 
the name is a tendency to nodose development exhibited first on the 
second radials and first interradials, and drawn out into points in the 
plates succeeding them. 

Found only in bed, Xo. 4. The original was presented to the Academy 
by the writer. 

BRACHIOPODA. 

Rhynconella intermedia (n. sp.). 

Plate xi, figs. 5, 6 and 7. 

This shell is of the type of the B. cuboides of European celebrity. It 
holds an intermediate position between two of the most marked Ameri- 
can species of that type, E. venustula. Hall, and E. Emmonsi, Hall and 

[Proc. D. A. N. S. Vol. II.] 38 [April, 1879.] 



286 DAVEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIEXCES. 

Whitfield. From the latter it differs in size, being much smaller, having 
a less ventricose aspect, a finer character of plications, a fewer number, 
both on the sides and on the mesial sinus, while in B. Emmonsi the 
breadth of the sinus is to the breadth of the shell as two to three, in our 
species the breadth of shell is nearly twice the breadth of sinus. It dif- 
fers from It. venustula. Hall, in some of the same particulars. It is 
smaller, less ventricose, and more finely plicated. The youngest speci- 
mens yet found maintain the same general form as the older, the plica- 
tions not being confined to the middle portion, but extending along the 
side. In a smaller specimen than any figured by Prof. Hall, there are 
eight plications on the mesial fold (while this is the full number ascribed 
to an adult of R. venustula), forty may be counted on the sides. In ordi- 
nary sized shells the number of plications is still greater,— on the sides 
about fifty, on the mesial fold from ten to twelve. The fold is more 
square, reaching a higher elevation in front, measuring nearly the height 
of the shell. The plications are not flattened as in R. venustula, but 
rounded. The groove longitudinally dividing each plication is armed 
with a pinnatified structure, which is exhibited on the sides as well as on 
the front of the shell. In our specimen a still deeper groove separates 
the plications from each other, and forms a conspicuous feature. This 
shell is found in bed Xo. 2, a dove-colored compact limestone. It is not 
abundant. The specimen figured is larger than the ordinary size. 

Fig. 5 represents a cardinal view of shell. 

Fig. 6. — Front view, with ten plications in the sinus, showing pinnati- 
fied structure. 

Fig. 7.— Profile view. This shell is found only in bed No. 2. Specimen 
figured with others presented to the Academy by the writer. 

LAMELLIBRAXCHIATA. 

Avicula (Plerinea) cancellata (n. sp.). 

Plate xi, fig. 9. 

Shell obliquely subovate, length twice the breadth, gradually expanding 
from the beak. The right valve convex, marked by concentric striae 
and apparent lines of growth. The left valve is far more convex than 
the right, with concentric strise of very unequal strength, which are 
crossed by radiating strise, the concentric predominating over the 
radiating in numbers, strength and persistency. • The hinge line is 
straight. The beaks are oblique, that of the left valve very convex, that 
of the right projecting a little above the hinge margin. The posterior 
wing, so far as shown— nearly the length of the shell — marked with sim- 
ilar unequal stvite as on the body ; the anterior wing not shown on any 
specimens. 

This shell has been found in three conditions. First, as a cast from 
which every trace of marking has disappeared, next as in the case of a 
specimen in the cabinet of Griswold College, where both valves are pre- 
served, and yet only showing concentric striae ; and as in the present 



NEW FOSSILS OF THE COENIFEROUS FORMATION BARKIS. 287 

nsl;^nce, where both concentric and radiating striae are seen on the left 
valve, concentric striae on the right. 

Fig. 9 represents the left valve, the concentric stria; more numerous 
and stronger on the specimen than on the figure. From bed No. 2. 

The shell figured is from the collection of Prof. Pratt. 

CEPHALOPODA. 

Gyroceras Pratti (n. sp.). 

Plate X, figs. 1 and 2. 

Shell large, composed of one and a half volutions, rapidly enlarging 
from tlie apex. Along the side of the shell, and parallel to its volutions, 
is a prominent angular ridge, dividing the disk into very irregular parts, 
two-thirds of the surface inclining with a gentle curve in a dorsal, the 
other third in a ventral direction. The dorsal inclination is gradual, the 
ventral abrupt. 

Septa distant. At the last one of the series, where the dorso- ventral 
diameter measures three inches, the distance of the septa on the dorsal 
side is one inch, on the ridge (two-thirds across the disk) one-half of an 
inch, while on the ventral side it has declined to one-quarter of an inch. 
These measurements will hold equally good of the last ten septa. 
Body chamber occupies nearly half of the last volution. 

In the larger specimen figured, the greatest diameter across the disk is 
eight inches. The dorso-ventral diameter of the outer volution is four 
inches. The transverse diameter at the same point is four inches. The 
number of septa is about twenty, visible the entire length of shell. 

The smaller shell preserves a similar ridge on its disk, differing mainly 
in retaining traces of ornamentation, the apex for the distance of seven 
or eight septa being marked by a series of elevated longitudinal ridges. 
One side of each of these shells is well preserved, the other much marred. 
In each instance the apex is a little out of place, most probably dis- 
torted by pressure. The figures are half the size of the fossils. 

Pig. 1 very fairly represents the original. 

Fig. 2 shows the longitudinal striae on the apex, through which can 
be seen the septa, necessarily faintly shown. These fossils are only 
found in bed Xo. 2. This shell is named in honor of its discoverer. Prof. 
Pratt, the efficient Curator of the Cabinet of the Davenport Academy of 
Natural Sciences. 

CRUSTACEA. 

Proetus Davenportensis (n. sp.). 

Plate xi, fig. 8. 

Body subelliptical, length to breadth nearly as three to two. Head and 
thorax of equal length, pygidium somewhat shorter. Breadth of head 
nearly twice its length. Border at posterior angles of the cheeks pro- 
duced into long spines, extending three-fourths the length of the thorax, 



288 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

divided by one distinct ridge, leaving on each side a shallow groove, with 
a secondary and less distinct ridge close to the margin. Glabella promi- 
nent, longer than broad, gently rounded and narrowing in front, touching 
the first ridge. Occipital furrow narrow, flanked at either end by two 
conspicuous nodes. Occipital ring stronger than any rings on the thorax. 
Lateral lobes marked by furrows, the anterior on a level with the ante- 
rior portion of the eye. the middle close and parallel to it, both gently 
curving downward, while the posterior starts opposite the centre of the 
ej'e, bifurcating, one arm produced toward the inner edge of the nodes, 
the other pointing directly across the glabella. Eyes prominent, cling- 
ing closely to the glabella, and extending nearly one-half its length. 
The facial sutures in their anterior extension curve outwardly from tht 
eye, reaching the border so as to divide it into three nearly equal parts. 
Thorax having ten segments. Mesial lobe prominent, semi-circular, its 
anterior portion very little narrower than the lateral lobes; these tra- 
versed by a sharp angular ridge, from which on each side the descent is 
very conspicuous. Pygidium wider than long. Axis prominent, com- 
posed of nine or ten well-detined rings, tapering gently almost to a point, 
scarcely reaching the border. On the lateral lobes are seven or eight 
annulations, less and less distinctly marked as they approach the termi- 
nation of the axis. Posterior margin bearing traces of two ridges, such 
as distinguish the anterior margin. The whole surface rinely granulose. 
Fig. 9 represents the head with glabella and spines ; also the thorax. 
The artist, in endeavoring to give expression to ^he two ridges, has 
slightly exaggerated the breadth of margin. In the Cabinet of the Col- 
lege is a specimen of the cephalic shield alone, while in the collection of 
Prof. Pratt is another, showing head, pygydium and shield ; on both the 
facial sutures are more plainly shown than on the specimen figured. 
Found in bed Xo. 2. The original of specimen figured was presented to 
the Academy by the writer. 

[An error occurs in the third sentence of the description of Stereocrinus triangulatus . 
Instead of reading " whose sides are parallel to those of the anchylosed basal plate" read " the 
angles of which are equi-dijtaut from the angles of the inscribed pentagon forming the base."] 

Dr. Farquliarson then read the following paper: 

Exploration of a Mound near Moline, Ills. 
BY J. GASS AND R. J. FARQUHARSON. 

The mound was about three miles above Moline, and was situated on 
the brow of the elevated plateau. Before the growth of the rather small 
trees now covering the spot, it must have overlooked the Mississippi river 
and its valley, here several miles wide. The mound w^as circular, with a 
circumference of one hundred and fifty feet, and a central elevation of 
nearly seven feet. Near the centre, a pit some eight feet in diameter and 
six feet deep had been sunk some days before our visit, so that we had 
but little digging to do in order to expose the contents of the mound, if 
any were to be found. In sinking the pit human bones were encoun- 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS NEAR MOLINE, ILLS. 289 

tered at the depth of one foot beneath the surface. Fragments of these 
bones were found, at the time of our visit, intermingled with the earth 
and thrown out. They showed no indications of the action of fire. 




Fig. 21. Scale 1-120 natural size, (a), Surface layer of vegetable soil, (a;), Spot where Indian 
liODes were found, twelve inches under the surface. (6), A stratum of lighter and looser 
earth, two feet thick, (c), A layer of friable, slightly burned clay, one foot thick, id), Red clay, 
hard burned, six inches in thickness, {e), layer of dark friable earth, containing fragments 
of bone and wood, partially burned. ((/), Base of oven, undisturbed soil on which rested the 
bones, etc. lo, o), A layer of hard-tramped, unburned clay, extending arjund the periphery of 
the base of the oven. 

The side of the pit next the center of the mound (the south-west side) 
showed in section the structure of the mound, and exhibited the follow- 
ing appearances : The soil, from just below the vegetable layer, showed a 
gradual change of color, becoming lighter, more ash-like and friable, 
finally merging in and ending with a layer of very fine red clay, evidently 
hard burned. Here, also, were found a good deal of charcoal, some in 
separate pieces, but mostly in a finely divided state, and so intermingled 
with the soil as to make it quite dark in spots. 

Below this layer of red clay, which was arched in form and six inches 
thick, a dark friable earth was found, containing one small pebble stone, 
some shards of pottery, and some fragments of burned bone, rounded 
masses of lime, intensely black in color, and consisting of bodies of the 
vertebrae, the head of a humerus, and a portion of an os calcis. Here, 
also, were found fragments of bonfe, a portion of a tibia exceedingly fria- 
ble, and a portion of a fibula, dense, firm and apparently recent. Inter- 
mingled with this dark soil were fragments of partially burned or charred 
wood, showing evidently the action of a smothered fire. 

The removal of the dark earth exposed the whole interior of what might 
be termed the " cremation oven." This structure was found to be semi- 
ovoid, having for its base the natural surface of the ground, a height of 
eight inches at its greatest elevation, with a major and minor axis of 
twelve and six feet respectively, the former being in an east and west 
direction. Just outside of the edge of the oven, the clay seemed 
more densely packed than elsewhere, indicating that it had been tramped. 
The small elevation of eight inches would indicate that the arch of red 
clay had been put in place while it was in a soft condition, and had set- 
tled down upon the contents. 

The bones found were in such small pieces, and so friable, that but 
little information could be derived from them, except the fact that they 
had been exposed to a fire, and that a smothered one. This was plainly 
indicated by the interior structure of the spongy bones, which were so 
uniformly blackened as to denote in the oven the presence of a consid- 
erable quantity of organic matter, either animal or vegetable, whose 



290 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

destruction by fire, without the access of oxygen, could give rise to such 
a quantity of empyreumatic or tarry vapor as to effect this discoloration. 

The portion of a tibia found in the oven was about four inches long, 
and was from the middle third of the bone. Though it was exceedingly 
brittle and friable, it did not seem to have been exposed to the action of 
fire ; if so, it was not blackened like the other bones. This small frag- 
ment of bone proved of considerable interest for the following reasons : 
First, its medullary cavity was traversed by a small fibre of a root, which 
had penetrated this depth (seven feet), perforating in its passage down- 
wards the layer of hard burned clay, thus showing that this bone was 
placed there before the growth of the present forest, and perhaps before 
one that may have preceded this, as there were on the surface some old 
rotten stumps of large oak trees. Second, its surface showed distinct 
marks of some cutting instrument ; these marks were evidently old, and 
could not have been made by the spade, as from its very friable nature^ 
the bone would have been crushed by the first blow ; it is probable that 
these marks or cuts are the result of a cleaning process the bones under- 
went before being exposed to the action of the fire. Third, the tibia, to 
the unassisted eye, showed a high degree of flattening or platycnemism, 
and such was the case, for upon measurement the antero-posterior and 
the transverse diameters were found to be .033 m. and .01-5 m., thus 
giving an index of .4-5. This is the smallest index found in the measure- 
ments at this Academy, being below the average found by Gilman of 
tibije from the Detroit mounds (.48), and approaching very closely the 
measurements of his celebrated tibiae from the River Rouge, the smallest 
indices known, viz : .40 and .42. 

Here is a mass of drift-clay, which we have exposed for some hours 
to the heat of a fire of coke in an open grate, which, as we see, is very 
similar in color and appearance to the pieces of the cremation mound, 
which are exhibited with it. 

In the vicinity are many common burial mounds, probably erected by 
the same people, but this cremation mound must have been built for a 
particular purpose ; but whether the ceremony was to honor or disgrace 
the deceased, whether the bones were those of conquered enemies, or 
those of the lower classes (servants) of their own nation and tribe, it is 
difficult, if not impossible, now to determine. 

The proceeding was probably as follows : A large open fire was kin- 
dled, and the bodies of the deceased were burnt to a certain degree, 
together with some other bones in the dry state. Afterwards the still 
glowing fire was covered with earth or clay, and this covering was beaten 
a little, or to a certain consistence ; then the mound was filled up to its 
intended height, and immediately finished. This is proved by the traces 
of fire in the burnt clay, which appear as dark streaks, showing clearly 
the passage of smoke, fire and heat. These views are not in the least 
contradicted by the illustration of a cremation in our tablet ; on the con- 
trary, that representation of the ceremony and this newly explored cre- 
mation mound certainly bear a close relation to each other. 



EXPLOKATION OF INDIAN GRATES BY J. GASS. 291 

J^ovEMBER 28th, 1878. — Regular Meeting. 

Dr. C. H. Preston, Vice-President, iu the chair. 

Sixteen members present. 

The reports of the Corresponding Secretary and Curator were 
presented. A large number of valuable donations to the Mu- 
seum and Library were announced, and the thanks of the 
Academy voted to the donors. 

The following persons were elected corresponding members: 
Dr. E. L. Mark, Cambridge, Mass.; Dr. R. A. Philippi, San- 
tiego, Chili.; Dr. L. Koch, JSTurnberg, Bavaria.; Prof. T. Tho- 
rell, Upsala, Sweden; Dr. V. Signoret, Paris, France; Y. M. 
Firor, Charlestown, "W. Ya. 

Dr. Parry called attention to the recent discovery of Shortia 
galacifolia. Gray, by Mr. M. E. Hyams, of Statesville, North 
Carolina. 

The following papers were read : 

Report of Exploration of Indian Graves. 

BY REV. .J. GASS. 

About one mile east of Moline, Illinois, near the bank of the Missis- 
sippi River, on ]\Ir. John Deere's farm, is a group of low mounds, thirty- 
three in number, doubtless an old Indian graveyard, occupying a space 
of about one-quarter of a mile, by ten rods, in four irregular rows, 
running east and west. Twenty of the mounds of this group are of circu- 
lar form, but of various sizes, diameters varying from twelve to thirty 
feet. Nine are oval, fifteen feet wide, and from thirty-six to sixty- 
nine feet long. Three are remarkable for their extraordinary length, one 
being 147 feet and two 186 feet long, but all of the same width— fifteen 
feet. One is of crescent form, with dimensions sixty-six feet by thirteen 
feet. The height of all varies from one and a half to three feet. 

In these burials, the bodies of the deceased were laid, either directly 
upon the sod or upon the natural soil after the removal of the surface 
earth to the depth of a few inches, and then covered with earth. The 
very long mounds are probably rows of single graves, the bodies being 
added one by one from time to time, somewhat similar to our modern 
custom. 

Careful excavation of some of these mounds resulted in the discovery 
in most of them of not a single relic. Xos. 6 and 14 were explored sev- 
eral years ago by some members of our Academy, but only bones were 
found. Mounds I^os. 17, 27, 29. 31 and 32 were opened during the past 
summer. No. 17 is circular, thirty feet in diameter and two feet high. 
A few inches below the siu'face were found a number of stones j(lime- 



292 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

stone), arranged in the form of a triangle. Two and a half feet deeper a 
skeleton was found, resting upon the hai'd clay, and lying in an east and 
west direction. The distance from the skull to the ankle was thirty-one 
inches. The covering earth was black soil. Near this skeleton a roughly 
chipped Hint stone and a small piece of Galena were discovered. The 
face was turned to the side, with a finger bone between the teeth. 

Mound No. 27, circular, diameter twenty-eight feet, height two and a 
half feet. In this, three feet below the surface, was found a skeleton, in 
the same position as that in No. 4, and near it a number of bones. 

Mound No. 29, oval shaped, sixty-nine by thirteen feet, and one and a 
half feet high, the earth black and hard. Two feet deep were a number 
of skull bones and other bones, but nothing more. 

Mound No. 31, oval form, thirty-six by twenty-four feet, and three feet 
high. A little below the surface was a layer of stones, eight and a 
half by six and a half feet, oval, and somewhat curved upward in the mid- 
dle. These stones were closely fitted together, and like those in the other 
mounds, were limestone from the river bank. Two feet below this stone 
layer, iu tlie center, was also a skeleton, situated as those in Mounds 4 
and 27, i. e., lying in an east and west direction, and resting upon the 
side. The skull was well preserved. The whole skeleton was also doubled 
up so as to occupy a space of only three and a half feet, indicating that 
the dead w^ere buried in a sitting posture, as is still the custom of many 
tribes. A second skeleton was found at the west side of this mound, 
beyond the stone layer, at the same depth as the other, and lying in a 
simihir position, but the skull vvas all in fragments. No relics were to be 
found except a piece of pottery, which was probably accidentally dropped 
in the covering earth. 

Mound No. 32, circular, twenty four feet diameter, three feet high. 
A few inches below the surface was also a quantity of stones, arranged 
in lines as shown in diagram, and extending six feet in one direction and 
two feet in the other. Beneath this, and resting on the hard clay, were 
the remains of one or two very much decayed skeletons. 

In these mounds no implements, weapons, ornaments, or relics of any 
kind were found buried with the dead ; nor any pieces of wood, shells, or 
other articles showing any sign of having been used. 

Close by, on the bank of the Mississippi, is an extensive layer of 
shells, which some (erroneously, as I believe) consider to be "kitchen 
heaps," or refuse left there by the Indians who erected these mounds. 
About one-quarter of a mile east of these mounds in the present Molina 
Cemetery, Mr. Toellner, who also assisted in the above explorations, 
has found a stone heap of different character ; perhaps a kind of monu- 
ment in which the stones were piled up carelessly, without any evident 
intention to represent any distinct form. Under this pile was discovered 
a stone "maul," weighing twenty-five pounds. 

Near the Cemetery, in creeks and ravines, are frequently found pieces 
of pottery, and flint and stone implements. On both sides of one of the 
creeks are shell layers, containing also fragments of pottery, perhaps 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMEBABILIS. 293 

"kitchen refuse," and where, we may suppose, was for some time the 
dwelling place of a tribe of Indians. 

On Mr. Davenport's land, above Moline, a mound was opened, or 
rather a burial place which may formerly have been a mound, but which 
was not at all elevated above the surrounding surface. Attention was 
drawn to the spot by some shells thrown up by the plow. About fix- 
inches below the surface was a layer of shells, tifteen feet in diameter, 
and several inches thick. One and a half feet below this layer, near the 
center, a skeleton was found in the same position as in the mounds on 
Deere's land. The skull was well preserved, and is now in our Museum. 
The other human remains were much decayed. 

BIOLOGICAL AND OTHER NOTES ON COCCID.^. 
BY J. DUNCAN PUTNAM.* 

I. PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 

IPlates XII and XIII.] 
SYNONYMY : 

Coccus innunierabiiis Rathvon. Pennsylvania Farm Journal,\ Yol. lY, pp. :i5ri-7-8, 
(with figure). Weet Chester, Pa., August, 1854. 

Lecanium acericorticis Fitch. Transactions of the New York State Agricultural SO' 
Hetyfor 1859, Vol. XIX, pp. 77.5-776. Albany, N. Y., IStiO. 

Coccus aceris Leidy (not Schrank). Report to the Councils of FMladelphia on. some 
of the insects injurious to shade trees, pp 7-8. Philadelphia, 18(52. (A wrong deter- 
mination.) 

Lecanium acericola Wali<h and Riley. American Entomologist, Vol. I, p. 14, (with 
figure). St. Louis, Missouri, September, 1868. 

Lecanium acerella Rathvon. Lancaster Farmer, Vol. YIII, pp. 101-103, Lancaster, Pa., 
•.July, 1876. (Probably a clerical error for acericola.) 

Maple-bark Scale-insect, Fitch, loc. cit. 

Maple-tree Bark-louse, Walsh & Riley, loc. cit. 

Cottony maple scale, Riley, in letter. 

f Lecanium mculurije Walsh and Riley. American Entomologist, Vol. i, p. 14, 1868, 

.'' Coccus salicis Fitch. Fourth annual Report * * of the State Cabinet of Natu- 
ral History, [of New York], p. 69. Albany, N. Y.', 1851. {Pulvinaria salicis Signoret, 
Essai sur les CochenilUs, p. (320), 1873.) 

? Lecanium pyri Fitch, (in part). First Report on the Noxious, Beneficial and other 
Insects of the State of New York, p. 106. Albany, 1854. 

? Coccus adonidum Packard. American Naturalist, Vol. I, p. 223. Salcni, June, 1867. 

I' Coccus viiis, Linne, 173.5; Pulvinaria vitis of authore. 

*A delay of a year in the printing of this paper, has enabled me to include in it the ob- 
servations made during the past year, which have materially changed my views upon sev- 
eral points. 

tDr. Rathvon writes of the Farm Journal,— " It originated here, [Lancaster, Pa.,j in 
1850 or '51, then was removed to West Chester (where it was issued by Mr. Darlington,) and 
Irom thence to Philadelphia: and after the completion of the 7th [vol. J it was sold to another 
party and changed to the Farmer and Gardener, finally transferred to Paschal Morris & 
••^on; changed to a quarto, and became the basis of the Progressive Farmer, and is still 
published in tliat form, \nu\i.'Y Ww WWt oi Practical Farmer."' I am under special obliga- 
lions to Mr. C. V. Riley for the loan of a manuscript copy of Dr. Rathvon"s paper and figure. 

[Proc. D. .\. N. S., Vol. IL| 39 [Dec, 1879.] 



294 DAVEXPOKT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIEXGE8. 

HISTOKY. 

The earliest account of this species I have been able to liiid, is that 
of Dr. S. S. Rathvon above referred to. Dr. Rathvon first observed it 
on the linden trees in Lancaster, Pa., several years previous to the pub- 
lication of his paper in 1854. Besides the linden, he found them later 
on the silver maple, grape vines and in one instance each, on a 
wild rose bush, and on a beech. He goes on to say : '•'■ The ' silver-leaved 
maple' (Acer dasycarpum) seems to be the greatest sufferer, and there 
is not a doubt of the partiality of the insect for that particular tree, al- 
though they are also found on others when standing near them." The 
following is the description given by Dr. Rathvon : 

"The female is a brownish yellow on the back until all the eicgs are deposited when she 
dies, and turns to a darker color, and resembles what is known in common language as a 
•scab." Beneath, the female is of a dirty bluish white, without any appearance of feet, and 
adhering closely to the bark of the smaller branches of trees by a simple anterior process, 
which I have not yet been able to discover. The posterior portion of the body of the femalc 
is free, to which is attached a " globular mass " of white, very elastic cotton-like fibre, which 
serves as a shield or protection to the egtrs. The eggs are white, or yellowish white, in shape 
similar to a common hen's egg, and so minute as to be scarcely perceptible to the naked 
eye. The youui, immediately after exclusion, are also very minute, yellowish white, with a 
brownish line down the middle of the body, legs and antennae white, nearly of equal length, 
and the latter terminated by a seta or diverging hairs. The abdomen is terminated by two 
very slender, white, hair-like appendages about two-thirds the length of the body : there are also 
a few spiny hairs upon the legs and the anterior margin of the antennae, at the base of which 
a;e the eyes which are black and distinct. They occur in such countless million.s that I pro- 
pose to name the insect Coccus innmne 'abilis until a better or prior one may be found: — for 
I have never .vet seen a description of them anywhere." 

The above description, together with the accompanying figure and re- 
marks on habits, etc., applies so perfectly to the species which I have 
studied, and is so much better than those given by later authors that I 
do not hesitate to adopt the name proposed by Dr. Rathvon.* 

The next account of this insect is a brief article by the late Dr. Asa 
Fitch, entitled " Rmxiges of Insects on Forest and Fruit Trees— Rem- 
ed.v." inserted in the Transactions of New York State Agricultural 
Society for lSo9, (Vol. XIX, pp. 775-776), but dated June •27, i860. The 
description is very general, and partly erroneous, but is sufficient to 
show that it should be placed in the modern genus Pulvinaria. It Is 
said to be a ■' very extensive depredator upon the trees in Albany," also 
" abundant upon the maples, especially the soft maples, at Rochester," 
and •• in former years, I have occasionally met with single soecimens of 
this scale on the trees here in Washington county." As it seems im- 
probable that there should be more than one species of Pulvinaria on 
the soft maple in this country. I think we may safely regard Fitch's 
acericorticis as identical with Rathvon's inmoneralnlis and Walsh & 
Biley's acericola. 

In 1862, in the pamphlet above referred to. Prof. Joseph Leidy men- 
tions this insect as occurring on the silver maple in Philadelphia. He 

* In deciding upon the adoption of this name I have been aided by the good advice of Dr, 
H. A. Hagen regarding the synonymy. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINAKIA INNUMERABILTS. 295 

writes to me that he "called it Coccus aceris merely from supposition 
that it was this species, because it infested the maple."* 

In the nuQiber of the Practical Entomologist for October 30th. 1865, 
(Vol. I, p. 6) mention is made of a supposed new species of Lecaninm 
found " upon a branch of Sugar Maple at Fort Wayne. Indiana," which 
probably refers to the species under consideration. 

In the number of the Practical Entomologist for August and Septem- 
ber, 1867, (Vol. II, p. 119) mention is made of a bark-louse on the leaves 
of the common maple, received from B. W. McLain, Indiana. These 
same specimens are afterwards (in American Entomologist] mentioned 
as types of Lecanium acericola. 

In the Aynerican Entomologist for September, 1868, this species is 
figured and named Lecanium acericola by Messrs. Walsh and Riley, 
from the above mentioned specimens received from Indiana, and others 
from Mr. A. S. Tiffany, of this city. The figure represents two females 
witli their egg nests on the leaf of about half the usual size, and the only 
hint at a description is, that it has " similar cottony matter at its tail/' 
and is " light-brown and white " in color. Although the description Is 
defective there is traditional knowledge sufficient to fix the identity of 
this species with that which 1 have studied, in the fact that the speci- 
mens sent by Mr. Tiffany to Mr. Walsh in 1868, were taken from the 
same trees on which my first studies were made in 1871 ; by numerous 
determinations made by Mr. Riley himself, and by an examination of 
specimens contained in his collection. This figure and name have been 
copied by Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr., in his '' Guide to the Study of Insects,''^ 
(2d ed., p. ,528, fig. 530a,) and in his " Half hours with Insects, (p. 112, fig. 
77a) but without any additional information. 

In the Lancaster Farmer for July 15th, 1876 (Vol. A^III, p. 101) Dr. 
Rathvon published another article on this insect, this time calling it 
Lecanium acerella. This paper is mainly a resume of the previous one, 
but with the addition of a brief mention of the males, and a statement 
that the leaves as well as the twigs were infested. Regarding this paper. 
Dr. Rathvon writes to me as follows : 

■' The paper in the Lancaster Farmer for July, 1876, relates to the same insect, so far as 
Jiij' observations extended, for my remarks there are in reply to a correspondent whose trees 
were infested, I nevertheless have all along been impressed with the belief that there are 
two species fonntl on the maple trees; but, other occupations have always prevented their 
investigation. My reasons for thinking so, are mainly these. While they were at their very 
worst, on the linden, the maple, and the grape, I never noticed any of them on the leaves, 
they were entirely confined to the undersides of the brunches, and especially the twigs which 
were entirely covered at the period of incubation, and the leaves were dwarfed, turned yel- 
lowish, and many of them fell off. Some years, however, after the publication ot the paper in 
the Farm Journal, I noticed them, or another species, both on the branches and the leaves 
of the silver maple, (there being then few linden trees left) but they differed somewhat in form 
those described in my paper alluded to. They were not ,so large, the secreted cotton mass 
was somewhat depressed, faintly bilobed, and transversely undulated or indented; in some 
very irregular, but in others almost as regular and distinct as the articulations ofaTri- 
k)bite." 

* I am under obligations to Dr. Leidy for a copy of his Report, and for a number of speci- 
mens from Philadelphia for comparison, whit;h are not specifically different from those found 
Sn this locality. 



29f> DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Tiie suggestions of Dr. Rathvon, regarding the possible existence of 
two species of Pulvinaria on the maple is of much interest, and as some 
doubt has been thrown upon the correctness of Mr. Riley's figure.* it is sat- 
isfactory to have such definite and conclusive corroboration as the above. 
Dr. Rathvon was not able to find a single specimen of either form in the 
vicinity of Lancaster, Pa., during the past season, so that I have not 
been able to make comparisons. He first observed this form on the 
leaves in 1864, the other on the twigs about 1852. 

In the Prairie Farmer for July 22, 1876, Dr. Cyrus Thomas published a 
short account of L. acericola, which he states was very abundant in Illi- 
nois and Iowa that year. 

In 1877 Prof. Townend Glover, in his ''Report of the Entomologist'' 
contained in the " Eejjort of the Department of Agriculture for 1876,'' 
page 44, gives a figure (No. 53) of this species, under the name of Leca- 
nium acericortices Fitch, stating that it " was found on a silver-maple 
in the Smithsonian Grounds in Washington." This appears to have 
been the first application of Fitch's name since its publication seventeen 
years before, all other entomologists having overlooked it because of its 
not having been contained in one of his regular Reports. Prof. Glover 
also suggested that L. acericola and L. madurce were but varieties of 
this. 

In a useful little pamphlet on " Shade Trees, Indigenous Shrubs and 
Vines, and the Insects that infest them,''' published in. Peoria, Illinois, 
in the spring of 1877, Miss Emily A. Smith has given a brief account of 
this bark-louse, {L. acericola) which was first observed in that city on 
the soft maples in 1874. During 1877 and 1878 Miss Smith made a very 
careful and pains-taking study of the life and habits of this insect and 
especially of its parasites and enemies. t A portion of the results of these 
studies were given to the public in 1878 in the "• Seventh Report of the 
State Entomologist of Illinois,'" pages 120-131. A synopsis of this re- 
port had previously been published in the Prairie Farmer for March 2, 
1878. In the American Naturalist for October and December, 1878, she 
gives another very interesting illustrated account of this species, having 
now adopted Fitch's name. L. acericorticis. The illustrations are, unfortu- 
nately, not very good and sometimes quite misleading, as for example, 
the sternal region of the female (fig. 2 c) is made to appear quite convex, 
whereas it is in reality always concave ; in fig. 4 the ventral eyes are made 
to appear as if on the dorsal surface of the head, etc., etc. The imper- 
fection of the illustrations is mainly due to the poorly preserved spe- 
cimens which the draughtsman had to work from. I speak of this freely, 
because I furnished a portion at least of the specimens.:!: A few errors 
which have crept into these papers will be noticed in their proper places 
hereafter. Other articles upon the same subject have been published 

* See Miss SinithV paper in American Naturaliat, 1878, page 660. 

tM. Signoret speakt* thus deservedly of Miss Smith's worli in a letter to the writer: " Pour 
moi c'est surprenaut de voir uue I'emme s'occuper de uotre science et ainsi bien! je desirai 
beaucoup que nombrc d'hoinmes en faire autant." 

% See 7th Report of the State Entomologist of Illinois, p. 121. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 297 

by Miss Smith in the Peoria local nejvspapers, and in the Prairie 
Farmer for July 6, 1878, and July 12, 1879. 

In the Cultivator and Countrii Gentleman, Albany, July 25, 187^5, Dr. J. 
A. Lintner. has reprinted in full Dr. Fitch's very scarce and almost in- 
accessible article on this species. He states that he had been unable to 
find a trace of them on the maples in Albany, in 1878. Dr. Fitch in his 
article compares his species with the Lecanium aceris of Europe, and Dr. 
Lintner desires to have the question of their identity settled. The L. 
aceris is quite fully described by M. Signoret in his ii|valaable " Essat 
.sur les Coc/iemHcs," and is a true Lecaynum of the third group in which 
the females become " more or less elevated, hemi-spherical. more or less 
globular," with the eggs laid loose in a powdery deposit beneath the 
scale of the mother, and hence is even generically distinct from our 
species, and differs in many other particulars. In addition to this I have 
sentspecimens to M. Signoret wlio informs me that they are quite distinct. 

Other articles in which this species is mentioned have been published 
in the Country Gentleman for July 4th and July 11th, I8'78; in the Prairie 
Farmer. August 24th, 1878, August 9th, and October 25th, 1879 ; in the 
Bural Keic Yorker, November 15th, 1878 ; in the Practical Farmer, Phila- 
delphia, January. 13th, 1877, where it is recorded from Circleville, Ohio, 
by M. B. Bateman ; in the Canadian Entomologist, Vol. X, 1878, page 
176, Vol. XI, 1879, page 19G ; and in various local newspapers. 

Mr. Riley writes to me that he first bred the male and the Coccophugiis 
parasite in 1869. In 1870 he received specimens from Prof. D S. Sheldon. 
in 1871 from J. D. Putnam, Davenport, in 1875 from Suel Foster, Musca- 
tine, in 1878 from Janesville, Wis. He has also been able to confirm the 
main points of what Miss Smith says concerning the development of the 
male. 

History in Davenport. Pulvinaria ijinumerabilis was first noticed in 
Davenport in 1867, by Mr. McEwen on the large maple trees then stand 
ing about the corner of Brady and Third streets, near the center of the 
city. They were then few in numbers and attracted little or no atten- 
tion from passers by. In 1868 our fellow member, Mr. A. S. Tiffany, 
noticed them in the same place, and took some specimens over to Mr. 
Walsh, and these specimens formed part of the types of Lecanium aceri- 
<iola Walsh and Riley. In 1870 they liad increased greatly in numbers, 
and had extended their ravages to a distance of seven or eight blocks. 
This year they attracted very general attention during the egg laying 
period, on account of their very large and conspicuous egg nests, and 
were made the subject of several newspaper articles. Prof. Sheldon 
sent specimens to Mr. Riley who determined them to be the L. acericolci 
above mentioned. In 1871 'they were still more abundant, and had ex- 
tended their ravages to a distance of ten or twelve blocks. Many trees 
showed evidences of great depletion, and a few^ died. During this year 
I made my first studies of this insect,— but with very unsatisfactory re- 
sults. A brief sketch of my observations of 1871 was published in the 
Proceedings of this Academy, Vol. I, page 37, 1876. In 1872 they be- 
came comparatively scarce, probably on account of the great increase of 



'29S DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

their enemies flaring the previous years. During the years 1873, 1874, and 
1875 tliey were scarcely noticed at all. In 1876 they again became suflS- 
ciently abundant to attract general attention, and in 1877 and 1878 they 
were as plentiful as in 1870 and 1871, only more extensively distributed^ 
being found as far as twenty blocks from the starting point in 1867. In 
1879, through tiie increase of their enemies and the depletion of their 
food trees, they have decreased considerably in numbers and vitality. 
During the last three years I have given a good deal of attention to this 
insect, and the rpsults of my studies are given in the following pages. 
I have also published a brief article in the Davenport Daily Gazette for 
.June nth, 1877, and another in the Transactions of the Iowa Horticultural 
Society tor 1877, Vol. 12, pp. 317-324, Des Moines, 1878. Having traced 
the complete circuit of its life for three generations, I will begin my 
account with the period at which it first becomes an independent crea- 
ture. 

THE EGG. 

The Egg, tig. 18, is regular oval in form, nearly elliptical, about 303 p* 
in lengtii and 180 /Jt in breadth, the greatest breadth being a very little 
in front of the center. When very higiily magnified it is seen to be cov- 
ered, more or less closely, with minute circles, tig. 18, a. These last ap- 
pear to l>e the dust-like, waxy secretions of the ventral abdominal pores, 
which have become attached to the egg shell ^y means of a viscid sub- 
stance. po.ssibly secreted by the vaginal glands shown in tig. 47. The 
eggs found in the ovaries are without this ornamentation. 

When first laid, the egg is of a pale yellowish white color, but becomes 
very much darker, as the embryo becomes fully developed. This color 
comes mainly from the embryo showing through, as the egg-shell is nearly 
colorless and transparent. In this locality the first eggs are laid during 
the last part of May. varying from the 18th to the 25th, according to the 
weather, and the egg-laying continues from five to seven weeks accord- 
ing to the health of the mother. 

THE EMBRYO. 

At the earliest stage noticed, Fig. 17, the yolk appears to be somewhat 
contracted, leaving a small, apparently vacant space at each end, and to 
l>e inclosed by a thin layer of granular substance with a gathering of 
granules at eacij end. One of these, larger than the other, appears to be 
at the head end. I failed to observe any nucleus or germinal vesicle 
at any stage, probably because I did not know how to look for them. 
It is probable that the gatherings of granules at the two ends may repre- 
sent the first stages of segmentation. 

The collection of granules at the head end grows most rapidly, extend- 
ing gradually further and further downwards through the yolk. It has 
the appearance of being a hollow sack, denser at the sides and in the 

*In this pnper I have talien the 1-1000 of a millimeter, equal to 1-25400 of an inch, 
indicated by U) as the unit for meaeurement, thus 4 « is a little less thau 1-1000 of an inch. 
The measurements tj'ven f<houl<l be regarded as approximate rather than absolute, though I 
believe they will be found correct within the ranj^e of individual vaj-iiitions of the insects 
themselves- 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 299 

middle, something like I have attempted to represent in Fig. 19. I have 
been under the impression that it might be formed by the inturning of 
the outer granular layer, but of this I am not certain. I have observed 
embryos thus far advanced while still in the ovary of the mother. 

This granule mass, or embryonal band, continues to extend backwards 
until its rear end is again turned forward as shown in Fig. 29. At this 
stage the anterior or head end is much the largest, composed of larger 
granules, and lies nearer the surface, while the posterior portion is seen 
to be gradually more and more deeply imbedded in the yolk, becoming 
finally very indistinct and hidden from view. At a little later stage the 
head appears to be divided into three distinct lobes, while the posterior 
end is somewhat shortened and thickened. 

The subsequent development of the ernbryo I did not observe with 
sufficient accuracy to say anything of value. Of the interesting phe- 
nomena accompanying the segmentation of the body, the budding out of 
the limbs and the revolution of the embryo, I caught only tantalizing 
glimpses the full import of which 1 was not able to comprehend. It ap- 
pears in a more advanced stage to lie with the dorsal surface outward 
against the egg-shell with several of the abdominal segments turned 
under. 

The embryo when fully developed, occupies the whole of the interior 
of the egg, without any portion of the body being doubled under. Its 
ventral thickness is nearly equal to its transverse diameter. Viewed 
from above (Fig. 21) the division into segments is quite distinct. The 
head is deeply set into the prothorax, and these two together are equal 
to nearly one-third the length of the whole. The last two thoracic and first 
six abdominal segments are nearly equal in length, decreasing gradually 
in size towards the rear. The seventh segment is larger, bilobed and 
entirely surrounds the very small eighth segment which bears the conical 
appendages from which the anal filaments are secreted ; these last do 
not seem to have appeared as yet. The ninth segment with its append- 
ages is already seen to be withdrawn, so that the latter appear to arise 
from the interior of the seventh segment. The body cavity is filled with 
yolk globules, and the intestinal canal is indistinctly seen. 

Viewed from below, (fig. 22) the head is seen to be produced over the 
prothorax nearly to the mesothorax, and is closely united to the former. 
The various limbs are perfectly developed to the smallest hair; the an- 
tennae are directed backward and extend slightly beyond the bases of 
the first pair of legs ; the six legs are of nearly equal size, have their 
bases at the sides, and are all extended backwards and inwards nearly 
meeting on the median line. The eye spots are very prominent and are 
situated just above and behind the bases of the antennae, one or both of 
them are distinctly visible from every point of view. The labium, 
through which the buccal setae are eventually thrust, is situated be- 
tween the bases of the anterior feet, and appears to be distinctly bilobed. 
The buccal setae are seen to be coiled up spirally and nearly vertically 
on each side of the head with their ends directed towards the internal 
frame work of the mouth parts. 



8(.)0 DAVENPORT ACAUEMV OV NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Oil the front of the head are two or three small conical projections 
(Hg. 2;^, a) arranged on the median line, that on the extreme front being 
largest. There is no trace of these on the newly hatched larva, and they 
are probably left behind with the embryonal skin. Their function is un- 
doubtedly to open the egg shells, which are always seen to become split 
open vertically at the anterior end.* 

When the shell becomes split open the young larva makes its exit 
very laboriously and slowly, undergoing a great amount of wriggling 
and stretching. On freeing itself from the egg-shell it becomes greatly 
expanded in length and breadth, and correspondingly depressed in 
height. During the process of working its svay out of the egg, the tra- 
cheae become tilled with air, and it is probably at the same time that 
the buccal sett« are withdrawn from their spiral coils, and form a loop 
in the abdomen. t 

At fig. 24 is shown an egg of abnormal form containing a fully devel- 
oped embryo which I observed on June 22d, 1878. Just behind the head 
of the embryo it was contracted into a neck, giving it an appearance 
very similar to that of an immature egg follicle. 

The development of the embryo is completed and the birth of the larva 
takes place within three or four weeks after the eggs are laid, that is to 
say between June lOth and July 20th. 

[The development of the embryo of Lecan-^-.m hesperidum on oleander, 
which I have observed incidentally, appears to be almost precisely the 
same as in this species, except that the eggs remain in the ovaries until 
hatched. The egg-shell being thinner, more transparent, and without 
the peculiar ornamentation of the shell above described, it would be a 
more convenient species to study. The conical "egg-openers" on the 
head are larger.] 

THE LARVA. 

The young larva, Hg. 2-5, is a little more than twice as long as broad, 
being at birth about 450 /J. in length and 210 fJ. in bfeadth. It is of an 
elongated oval form, widest in front of the middle, and with the sides of 
the abdomen slightly converging posteriorly. It is considerably flat- 
tened, with the dorsal and ventral surfaces meeting acutely at the 
margin, which is entire except slight emarginations at the eyes and op- 
posite each of the four spiracles, and a very deep apal fissure formed by 
the lobes of the seventh abdominal segment. The margin is furnished 
with a limited number of slender spines,— six or eight between the eyes, 
three or four on each side of the thorax, and one on each side of each 
abdominal segment. At each of the spiracular emarginations is a 
larger spine, set between two small ones, and at the tip of the ninth ab- 
dominal segment are six long spines. On the eighth segment are two 

-Dr. A. S. Packard. Jr., det^cribt's aucl figures what ai>pears to he a similar object iu the 
embryo of Dipla.r, but states that it is "attached to the anterior pole of the shell,'" and 
supposes it •' to be a micropylc "' Memoiis of the Feahody Academy of Science, Vol. I, No. 
I r, pp. 3 and 24, PI. II, tis- 13. Salem, 1871'. 

■IDr. E. L. Mark has given a very interestinK account of this process in Aspidiotus nerii 
iu his Beitrcege zar Anatomie und Histologie des Pflanzenhvuse. page 11,— Bonn, 1876- 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 301 

conical protuberances from each of wliich arises a long slender filament. 
Tlie integument is of a pale yellow color, and quite transparent, showing 
with distinctness such of the internal organs as are not themselves trans- 
parent. It is soft and flexible, but quite tenacious, and when very highly 
magnified it is seen to be finely striated, thestrine being approximately par- 
allel with the sutures between the segments. Thirteen segments can be 
distinguished, namely : one to the head, three to the thorax, and nine to 
the abdomen. These are all closely united and the divisions are not al- 
ways easy to see, and do not appear to extend into the internal cavity 
at all. Tlie head and thorax together slightly exceed the abdomen in 
length. 

The head is deeply sunk in the prothorax, and very greatly flattened 
with the portion corresponding to the front of other Hoinoptera turned 
completely under so that appears as if it were a part of the ventral sur- 
face, while in reality it is tergal. The upper surface, or epicranium, is 
somewhat transversely and irregularly lozenge-shaped, with the anterior 
margin regularly curved, while the posterior margin is slightly pro- 
longed, and the lateral angles siiglitly acute, or nearly right-angles. It 
is one-fifth broader than long, and occupies one-fourth of the entire 
length of the insect. On the anterior margin are six or eight slender 
spines each directed away from the center, and near the lateral angles 
are the two eyes. 

Beneath, the head is divided into three distinct parts, which for conve- 
nience may be designated the front, the cli/peus, and the labium {or men- 
turn). Of tliese the fro)tt and clppeus belong strictly to the tergal region, 
and only the labium is truly ventral. 

The front is of nearly similar form and dimensions to the epicranium, 
but is more prolonged posteriorly towards the dypeus from which it is 
separated by a transverse suture connecting the sutures which separate 
the head from tlie thorax. It supports the antennae and the eyes, and 
marginal spines appear to belong as much to the front as to the epi- 
•cranium. 

The dypeus is a little longer than wide, of a somewhat triangular 
form with the anterior margin nearly straight, and the sides strongly 
convex. It is possible that this part might be more properly desig- 
nated as labrum. Witiiin it is situated the rather complicated frame- 
work which supports the buccal setaa. Viewed in its relation to the in- 
terior frame-work, it appears to correspond very nearly vvith the area 
inferior of Dr. Mark. 

The labium, or beak, consists of a single joint which appears to be 
formed by the sides of the labium being turned forwards and the)i in- 
wards, becoming united to form a flattened conical sheath through which 
the buccal setiB are eventually thrust. Its structure is in fact very sim- 
ilar to that of the beak of a Cicada, only the proportions are ditferent 
Its external surface is nearly circular, but truncated on the anterior side . 
and therefore somewliat broader than long. 

The eyes, two in number, are situated on the margin at the extreme 
outer angles of the head, and are equally visible from above or below. 

[Proc, D. A. N. S., Vol, II.] 40 [Dec- 1879.] 



302 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

They each appear to consist of a simple convex cornea projecting be- 
yond the margin which is liere slightly emarginate. They are rendered 
very prominent by a collection of reddish or reddish black pigment gran- 
ules more or less closely connected with the cornea, and which appear to 
form the termination of the optic nerve. ^ 

The antennre, fig. 2ob, arise from slight tubercles on the front, slightly 
in the rear of a line connecting the eyes and at a distance from the mar- 
gin equal to about one-third of the width of the head. They are quite 
jagged in outline, tapering gradually towards the end, and furnislied 
with an apparently definite number of long slender spiny hairs. The 
separations of the joints are more or less indistinct, so that it is difficult 
to ascertain the exact number. Signoret gives six as the maximum 
number of joints in the larva of Pulvinaria. In tliis case the joints 
marlied 5 and 6 in my figure would be considered as but one joint. As 
the insect approaches maturity the joints become more distinctly sepa- 
rated, and in the adult female one can always make out seven or eight 
without difficulty, and it seems to me quite probable that this is really 
the correct number for the larva as well. 

Considering the antenna as composed of seven joints as represented in 
the figure, the terminal joint is the longest, the third next, and the fourth, 
fifth and sixth progressively shorter. (If there are but six joints the 
fifth is equal to, or a little longer than the fourth, and if there are eight 
joints the seventh is shorter than the sixth, and the eighth shorter than 
the third.) The first and second joints are each of regular outline and 
bear two slender spiny hairs; the tkircl joint of slightly jagged outline, 
bears two very long, rather stout hairs inserted about two-thirds of tlie 
distance from the base; the /oMr^/i joint, of quite jagged outline, bears 
usually one slender hair ; the fifth joint, jagged bears one short and one 
rather long hair inserted near its extremity; the sixth joint, about the 
same length as the fifth, but more jagged, appears to be without hairs ; 
the seventh or terminal joint has its greatest diameter nearly midway 
between its base and its center, thence decreases in four irregular jagged 
steps to the apex, and is furnished with eight or ten prominent hairs, 
having their insertions in the jagged incisions, several of which are very 
long, sometimes that arising from the extremity, and sometimes one from 
the side is the longest and most prominent. The first joint is about 
twice as thick as long. The long hair on the second joint is longer than 
any of those on the ultimate. The second to sixth joints are of nearly 
uniform diameter, gradually, and not very regularly, decreasing from 
12 /^ to 10 /^. The entire length of the antenna from the base to the tip 
of the ultimate joint is about 130 /'■ and to the tip of the terminal hair, 
215 /i. On the front between the bases of the antennae, are two small 
spines directed backwards. 

The chitinom frame work supporting the buccal sette does not differ 
except in the size and strength of the parts from that of the adult female, 
which will be fully described hereafter. Fig. 2'ja represents this frame- 

* Miss Smith in Ith Report of Entomologist of Illinois, p. 135, says that the eyes arc com- 
pound, but I thiuli that this must be an error. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 303 

work in a lurva of the second stage ma<?nifled 2i)0 diameters. If we regard 
it as magnified 275 diameters it would correspond to that of the newly 
hatched larva. 

The buccal setce, four in number having been withdrawn from their 
spiral coils, during the hatching, are now seen to be united into a bundle, 
often called the beak, wliich f<^rins a large loop within the l)ody 
cavity, reaching as far as the third or fourth abdominal segments. The 
enlarged conical bases of the seta?, are iield in their places witliin the 
frame-work above mentioned, while the anterior ends are still held in 
the cavity of the labium, not having been yet protruded. 

The ihonxx is very large and occupies nearly one-tliird of the entire 
length of the insect. Tiie prothorax is larger tlian botii the other seg- 
ments taken together, and is deeply excavated in front to receive the 
head, with which it is very intimately united. It is much narrower in 
the middle than at the sides. There is a slight emargination near the 
center of each side, opposite the anterior spiracles. Inserted in this 
emargination is a rather stout movable spine accompanied by two more 
slender spines in close proximity. Three or four other slender spines 
occur at regular intervals on the margin of each side. 

The mesothorax is very much smaller than the prothorax. but is larger 
than the metathorax. Both of these are very similar to the abdominal 
segments in structure and appearance, each is ■• very little larger at the 
sides than in the middle, and each is furnished with a single slender 
spine on each side. Between the metathorax and mesothorax is an 
emargination opposite the posterior spiracles, furnished with one large 
and two small spines just as that on the prothorax. 

The legs have their insertions on the underside at a distance from the 
margin equal to al out one-fourth of the width of the insect, and are 
about equi-distant from one another. 

The anterior legs, fig. 25rt have their origin either side of and a little 
posterior to the labium. The portion of tlie integument to which the leg 
is attached {en) is quite flexible, thus giving the movements of the leg a 
greater freedom. The coxa {Ir) is quite large, abnut one-and-a-half times 
as long as thick, and bears one or two slender hairs. The trochanter 
[y] is a small triangular piece closely and rigidly united with the femur of 
which it appears as if simply a part. It bears one very long spiny hair. 
The/e«mr (/) is the longest joint of the leg, but is of a little less diam- 
eter than the coxa, Near the outer extremity are two slender hairs. It 
moves upon the coxa in but one direction,— outwards. The tibia [li] is 
a little shorter, Ibut nearly as largo as the femur. On the inner side near 
the center it bears a long slender liair, and on the b ck two short hairs 
near the middle and one longer one on the side near the extremity. It 
moves upon the femur in but one direction, — inwards. The tarsus 
consists of a single joint a little shorter ihan the tibia, slightly sinuous, 
and tapering somewhat rapidly. It is furnished with several (thi-ee to 
five) more or less, long slender hairs on the basai half, and with four 
knobbed hairs, or digitules, and a single stout claw at the eud. It is 



304 DAVENPOKT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

joined closely to the tibia and has a limited movement either inward or 
outward. Tlie claw is comparatively large, sliglitly curved, considera- 
bly swollen at its base, and appears to be movable. The upper pair of 
digitules are the longest and are inserted on each side a sliort distance 
from the extremity. The lower digitules are shorter and appear to be 
inserted on each side of the swollen base of the claw. Both pairs ex- 
tend slightly beyond the tip of the claw, and are quite flexible and mov- 
able. All the hairs of the leg appear to be articulated at their bases 
and movable. They probably act as organs of touch,— the digitules be- 
ing without doubt tlie most sensitive. 

The second and third pair of legs are inserted near the fore margins 
of the mesothorax and metathorax respectively. They are as near as 
may be exactly similar to the anterior legs in all particulars. 

The sjnrades (tig. 2(5, sp.) are surrounded by kidney-shaped chitinous 
pieces, (thickenings of the integument), with the emargination inwards, 
and are four in number. The first pair are situated on the prothorax 
just behind and outward from the bases of the anterior legs; the second 
pair between the meso- and metathorax behind and outward from the 
bases of the middle legs. Extending from each spiracle to the margin 
is a shallow grove, whfch terminates in the spined emargination above 
mentioned. 

The abdomen is composed of nine segments of which the first six are 
similar in form, being each of them a little longer at the sides than in 
the middle, and furnished with a single slender spine at each side. They 
gradually decrease iu size posteriorly, and the excess of the length at 
the sides over that at the center of each segment continues to increase 
until in the seventh segment the disproportion is so great that it forms 
two large lobes wliich almost completely surround the eighth segment. 
There are about three slender spines on each lobr? of tlie seventh sejiment. 
The eigkth segment is very small and entirely surrounded by the seventh. 
It is prolonged upward and backward into two large conical projections 
(an) from the extremity of each of which issues a long deciduous seta or 
filament about as long as the entire insect. On the conical projections 
are two or three slender spines. Remaining between the cones is a 
small triangular piece beneath which is supposed to be the anus. The 
ninth segment is usually kept withdrawn within the eighth and seventh 
segments. When the young larvse are placed in water they are very apt 
to project it and I have frequently watched them gradually project and 
withdraw it. [They appear to loose this power when they ^row older.] 
When projected it appears nearly triangular and is tepninated by six 
long spines arranged in two flat groups cemented together by a 
waxy secretion, thus forming what appears to be a pair of leaf-like or- 
gans (fig. 25 ov). In fig. 25 the ninth segment is represented protruded to 
nearly its whole length, but occasionally the "leaf-like organs" are 
made to extend in a line at right angles to the length of the insect ; in 25c 
it has been partially contracted and the " leaf-like organs" brought togeth- 
er so that they appear as but one group ; in 2o(l it has been entirely with- 
drawn, so that the spines appear to arise from within the seventh seg- 



PUTNAM ON rULVINAKIA IKNTJMEEABILIS. 305 

ment ; fig. 25e represents the same from below. It w ill be noticed from 
the last fi<?ure that there is still a considerable sp ice intervening between 
the lobes of the seventh segment which eventnally meet on the median 
line and form the so-called "anal fissure." 

The internal organs of the larva, and in fact the external as well, are 
exceedingl}'^ similar to tlie adult female only more simple. The malpigh- 
ian vessels/tracheae, stomach, and cephalic ganglion are well developed 
and quite prominent, especially the two first named. In the body cavity 
of the larva there usually remains a more or less considerable number of 
yolk globules at birth, which serve as nutriment during the first few 
days of its life. 

Habits. As soon as born the larvae begin to walk about quite ac- 
tively and if not prevented proceed very soon to the leaves where they 
settle down along the veins, mostly on the under side, (fig. 36) but a fair 
proportion also on the upper surface. As the first hatched seem usually 
to settle on the under side it is probable that they do not proceed to the 
upper side until the desirable places on the under side are mainly occu- 
pied. On the underside tiiey settle along the sides of the veins, with the 
heads either up or down, rarely crosswise, making two rows along each 
of the principal veins. On the upper side they settle directly over the 
vein making but one row to eacli vein. As soon as they settle down 
they thrust forth their slender setae, withdrawing tiiem from the loop in 
the abdomen. The incision into the leaf is, I think, most probably made 
by the ends of the setse themselves, worked by the muscles contained 
within the head. Tiie object in going to the leaf is to find a soft place 
in which to insert their tender beaks. On box-elder trees tlie larvae fre- 
'quently settle on the younger shoots as well as on the leaves. 

They instinctively move towards the liglit and always upward. I have 
frequently had them swarming on my table for days at a time, having 
hatched from egg-nests brought in for examination, and they invariably 
gather on the side nearest the window, and though they mount to the 
top of the highest objects on the table, I have as yet never seen them 
crawl over the edge and down the sides,— they die of starvation first. 
When deprived of their natural food in this way they live for several 
days without other food than the yolk globules which remain within the 
body cavity at birth. During this period they increase r;ipidly in size 
notwitlistanding their want of food. After being starved a few days 
they become very transparent. 

When settled on the leaf the antennae and limbs are always arranged 
in the positions substantially as shown in fig. 26, — the antennse are di- . 
rected backward and outward, tlie anterior legs have the femur directed 
outwards and slightly forwards, while the remainder of the leg is di- 
rected forwards and inwards, nearly at right angles with the femur and 
parallel with the antennae ; the middle and posterior legs are directed 
backwards and inwards. iSoon after settling down, the anal filaments fall 
off or otherwise disappear, while their conical bases remain and form a pair 
of valves covering the anus. A thin layer of a waxy secretion begins to 
form on the dorsal surface soon after the larva settles on the leaves. 



306 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Ill the noiirse of about three weeks after birth, the larva has attained 
rather more than double its size at birth, and begins to show some signs of 
an approaching moult. A considerable quantity of yolk or food globules 
(adipose tissue) has been accuuiulated, and on each side of the head are 
seen two setae coiled up spirally as in the embryo before birth, very much 
as shown in tig. 43. By careful observation the enlarged bases of two 
setaj can be seen at each side (a, b and a^,b^). lam uncertain whether both 
pair are coiled in the same direction or in opposite directions, but my 
impression is liiat the last is correct, and they are so represented in all 
my drawings. As the old setae (g) are still seen to exist with their con- 
ical bases {h and i) in their proper position, it seems quite certain that 
those in the spiral coils are an entirely new set. For a long time I believed 
that the old setae had been withdrawn into the spirals, and AI. Signoret 
writes me that such is his opinion.* Dr. E. L. Mark however wrote 
me, expressing t!ie opinion that they were a new pair, and this 
caused me to make a rather careful study of the subject with the result 
that the more I study the matter the more certain 1 am that Dr. Mark is 
right and a new pair is formed. Among oiher reasons for this belief, in 
addition to the above statement, is that the setae increase materially in 
size with each moult, which would be a fact difficult to account for if 
they "^ were persistent. Tliis spiral formation of the sette just before 
moulting time, I have observed frequently in this species, and in several 
species of Aspidiui us and Ftsylla aiid in the last two mentioned genera 
it is always followed by an actual casting of the skin. It appears prob- 
able to me that the setae of most if not all Homoptera are formed in the 
same way. There is one otlier puzzliiig fact in connection with the 
" moulting'' of this species, notwitiistanding very numerous careful ex- 
aminations specially directed to this point, I have never under any cir- 
cumstances succeeded in seeing any tiling in the least resembling a cast 
off skin. But tlie dilierence in the appearance of the larva before and 
after is marked and easily recognized at a glance. The only way that I 
can account for this is that the skin is shed iu small fragments or scales. 
That something corresponding to a moult takes place at this time, I 
think there can be no reasonable doubt. 

TUE LARVA OF THE SECOND STAGE. 

After the " Tnoult" above described has taken place the larva, fig. 26, 
is still twice as long as broad, but nearly equally broad behind as in front 
of the center, and is no longer broadest in front. The abdomen has 
grown rather more proportionately than the head and thorax, and the 
lobes of the seventh segment have iiicreased in size until they meet at 
the median line, thus forming the so-called '• anal fissure" characteristic 
of the Lecanites. The marginal spines have become very much more 
numerous and stouter, there being now upwards of one hundred of these 
spines nearly equi-distant from one another surrounding the whole mar- 

* Speaking of Fig. 43, Siguoret writes: " Ce n'cst pas, jo crois, nne nouvelle paire de soiee, 
c'est une ancienne qui se degage d'une espece de tube on gainc qui fonnait lea aucienne« 
visibles — c'est a vo.r )e formation nouvelle serait asssez ditiicile a expliquer." 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 307 

gin ; one on each of the lobes of the seventh segment is larger than the 
others and bent at the ends. The legs, antennte and otiier organs show 
no apparent changes except an increase in size. The waxy coating now 
becomes increased in thickness, and a series of tine pores lying in the 
groove between each of the spiracles and their spiracular spines begin to 
secrete a small quantity of white waxy substance. 

Up to this period there appears to be not the least observable differ- 
ence between the larvae whi'ih become males and those which become 
females. But soon the differentiation begins to take place and pro- 
gresses gradually. From this time forward the lives of the two sexes 
are as different as if they belonged to different orders of insects instead 
of to the same species. 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MALE PUPA. 

Those larvae destined to become males can soon be easily recognized, 
as follows : The length becomes considerably more than twice the 
breadth ; the sides are nearly parallel, or at least not wider behind than 
before ; the dorsal surface is very elevated, strongly carinated, and cov- 
ered with a very thick coating of whitish wax. traversed by many irreg- 
ular cracks as shown in tig. 27. Tiie spines on the larval scale in the 
specimen from whicli this figure was drawn show conclusively that the 
males as well as the females are developed from larvse of the form shown 
in tig. 26. 

At this time, the larva has laid up a considerable quantity of food 
globules, and ceases to increase further in size. The pupa begins to 
form witliin the larval skin, new antennae and legs begin to bud out 
and develope gradually, and the first indications of wings appear. The 
large flattened lobes of the seventh abdominal segment become changed 
into prominent conical projections, while the " anal valves" (or the bases 
of the anal set® of the larva) are contracted into small tubercles. The 
ninth segment becomes transformed into a small triangular piece, 
turned riglitside out, and is gradually elongated until it forms the style- 
like penis. Very slight traces of the large dorsal and ventral eyes be- 
come gradually visible, in the shape of clusters of pigment granules, but 
they are never so proninent as in the pupa of Aspidintus. The buccal 
sette of the larva persist for some time and probably supply the pupa 
with food during the earlier stages. What finally becomes of them I do 
not know, for I have not seen any signs of them under the scales after 
the male had come out. 

The appendages grow gradually in size and definiteness of form until 
their full development is reached. The separation of the head from the 
thorax and all other changes take place in an equally gradual manner. 
The pupa also gradually decreases in size, nearly if not quite as much as 
shown in the engravings, figs. 27 to 30, 

The pupa is covered with a thin transparent pellicle which incloses all 
the limbs and appendages. Tliis appears to me to be a waxy secretion. 
at least it shows no apparent structure. Fig. 23 represents ihis pellicle 
slipped half way off. 



308 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

When the wings and all parts of the male become fully developed, but 
still very soft and pale, the long anal setae or filaments begin to be pro- 
jected from the small tubercles on either side of the penis. These setae 
are composed of a brilliant white waxy secretion, and probably continue 
to grow as long as the insect lives, at least they often reach to more 
than its entire lenj^th. The scale becomes loosened at the posterior end 
while the head end remains fast, and the setae are gradually projected 
from under the posterior end, and are always a sure sign that the fully 
developed male is to be found beneath.* This fact may be known also 
by the slight rosy tint given to tlie scale by the partial showing through 
of the rose colored wings. In escaping from the scale the male backs out, 
keeping the wings close to the body, and not drawing them over the 
head as is described of some other species of Coccidse. 

THE MALE. 

The male (tigs. 30 and 33) is a very beautiful, delicately formed two 
winged tly, of yellowish brown, and chestnut brown colors,t with bril- 
liant rose-colored and irndescent wings. It varies considerably in size, 
ranging from 10.)0 ^ to 17-50 /i in length, including the head and penis, 
from 320 />< to 520 fJ- in breadth at the thorax, and from 2000 /i to 2700 // 
in the expanse of wings. The other parts appear to vary in like propor- 
tion. Tlie head is separated from the thorax, with which it is connected 
by a slender neck. It is nearly globular in form, pointed in front 
and below, slightly hollowed beneath the front. It is entirely rigid, ex- 
cept the neck which is flexible, and of a general ochrous brown color 
The epicranium is slightly depressed, at its highest part quite narrow, 
enlarging both posteriorly and anteriorly. In front it is prolonged into an 
obtusely cmical point, on each side of which is a large very convex eye 
projecting beyond the margin. A short distance posterior to and out- 
ward from each eye is a small black ocellus, which corresponds to the 
eye of the larva and female. The sides or cheeks are very large and glob- 
ular, forming the larger part of the head, incroaching on the epicranium 
above and on the front below. On the cheeks and on the projecting 
frontal point are a few sparse hairs. The front slopes rapidly downward 
and backAvard, giving the head a triangular aspect when viewed from 
the side. At the ventral apex of the head are two large convex ventral 
eyes, and between them are two very minute tubercles, which are prob- 
ably all that remains to represent the external mouth parts. There ap- 
pears to be no doubt as to the function of these ventral eyes as organs 
of vision. It is necessary that the male should see downward in order 
that he may detect the female, unless Uiis may be done entirely by touch, 
which is not likely. When dissected out and observed from the inside 

* Miss SmitU'B remarks ou this subject in the American Naturalist, 1878, p. 809, are 
based upon a mistrauslatiou. lu the 2d liue of the 3d paragraph read "this'' for "that,'' and 
"and this remains" for "which ri-sts," and it is evident that Si^jnoret's statement agrees ex- 
actly with Miss Smith's observation. 

t.Miss Smith says, in tlie American Naturaliit, 1878, p. 660, " Inliginoui'," but this is 
probably an error for ferruginous, which would be nearer Ihe truth, though hardly correct 
according to my observations. 



PTTTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMEKABILIS. 809 

highly magnified they exhibit a spiral structure, and their position in 
the developing pupa corresponds precisely to that of the spirally coiled 
set* in the earlier stage of tlie larva, and in the female. I do not feel 
quite ready to assert that the setae are converted into eyes (two to each), 
as it is possible that the spiral structure mentioned may be superim- 
posed upon and yet distinct from the eye. The two ventral and the two 
large dorsal eyes are similar in size and appearance, both pairs are very 
convex, smooth, shining, dark reddish brown, nearly black, and so far 
as i can discover they are simple. The small dorsal ocelhe are about 
one third as large and much darker in color. 

The antenncei^g. o3a) are inserted upon tubercles just below the frontal 
apex and are ten jointed. The first joint is short and thick, the second 
large and globular, the third small and triangular, the fourth longest, 
the fifth to ninth progressively decreasing in length, the tenth a little 
Idnger than the preceding. The third to tenth joints have a somewhat 
irregular surface, and are very nearly equal in diameter, though the last 
three are a little thicker. All the joints are thickly furnished with slen- 
der hairs, longer than the diameter of the joints. The tenth joint, in 
addition, is furnished with three knobbed hairs rather longer than the 
joint, and with three plain curved hairs, without knobs, about twice the 
length of the joint. 

The thorax is large and somewhat irregularly lozenge-shaped in form 
with the angles rounded. It is distinctly separated from both the head 
and the abdomen, though most closely connected with the latter. The 
dorsal surface of the thorax is divided into a number of distinct pieces. 
Three of these parts are particularly noticeable, and appear to offer by 
their form more or less good specific characters. The most anterior of 
these, probably the scutum of the prothorax, is of an irregular oval form 
with the front margin very convex and tiie posterior margin sliglitly 
concave, smooth, polished, and moderately dark brown in color. It is 
large and prominent and projects over the neck, giving a hump-backed 
appearance to the insect when viewed from the side. This piece is fol- 
lowed at an interval by a strongly arched transverse quadrilateral piece, 
called the apodema by Targioni-Tozzetti and which appears to cor- 
respond to the prominent transverse band in Cicada. It is about 
three times as broad as long, with the sides slightly flexuous and 
parallel, of a polished dark brown color, and is very prominent- 
The apodema and proscutum are connected at their nearest outer angles 
by sinuous convex, narrow, dark brown bands, and both are divided 
longitudinally into two halves. If we may judge from the males of sev- 
eral species of Aspidiotus, the form and proportions of the apodema will 
probably be of service in distinguishing tiie males of the different spe- 
cies of Pulvinaria, Immediately following the apodema is the scutellum, 
a very large convex, somewhat triangular shaped piece, which pro- 
jects over the first and second abdominal segments. The sides of the 
thorax are considerably bulged out in the center, and are made up of 
a, number of pieces which I have not studied with care. The anterior 

iProc. D. A. N. S., Vol. II. J 41 [Dec- 187ft.] 



310 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

lateral pieces show a distinct flexure on each side. The wings are in- 
serted on the upper portion of the widest part of the thorax, each side of 
the apodema. Beneath, the thorax is comparatively flat. The proster- 
num is narrow and triangular, allowing the cox* of the anterior legs to 
approach comparatively close to one another. The mesosternum is a 
large flat, sub-hexagonal plate, causing the coxae of the middle legs to 
be widely separated. The meta.^ternuiu is short and broad, causing the 
coxae of the posterior legs to be also widely separated. 

The integument of the thorax is entirely rigid except the region about 
the neck, which appears to be flexible and contractible, so that often the 
head appears to approach closer to the thorax than is shown in the 
figure. The proscutum and apodema are shining dark chestnut brown— 
the latter being the darker. AH other parts are sparsely furnished with 
fine liairs, and are of anochreous brown, varying in darkness according 
to age. The legs, like the antennae, are of a pale ochreous color, with -a 
decided rosy tint when alive. 

The wings when fully developed are thin and membranous, as long as 
the entire body from the front of the head to Che base of the penis ; 
nearly half as broad as long, with the front margin nearly straight, ex- 
cept a slight bending out near the base, and the posterior margin strong- 
ly and regularly curved. Tliey are each furnished with a rather stout 
vein at a short distance from the anterior margin, and a much more 
slender vein directed somewhat parallel to the posterior margin ; both 
veins appear to lose themselves before reaching the margin. The wings 
are scarcely transparent, and are somewhat whitish or highly irridescent, 
according to the direction of the light. The anterior portion, especially 
between the vein and the edge, is strongly rose-colored. The surface is 
covered with numerous very fine hairs which are longer on the margins 
and more numerous in the costal region. They are directed outwards 
on the margins, but appear to stand erect on the rest of the surface. 

I have never succeeded in finding any indications of the balancers or 
v?^ing hooks which are so characteristic of the males of the (Joccidc^ in 
g^eneral, with but one doubtful exception. This last was in the dissec- 
tion of a fresh specimen in August,. 1879, and as I saw but one I was 
not able to prove conclusively that it might not be a fragment of some 
other part of the integument. Xotwithstanding that I have carefully 
searched many scores of specimens under the microscope both alive and 
variously preserved, both transparent and opaque, without detecting 
any trace of a balancer, yet I believe they do exist and will eventually 
be found— though probably in an imperfect form, or held in a position 
diSicult to see. 

The legs (fig. 38&iare long and slender.* as compared with those of 
the female; and are somewhat densely! covered with long slender flexi- 
ble hairs. With the exception of size and the mode of attachment of 
the coxae they all appear to be exactly alike. The coxae of the front legs 

♦Miss Smith says "stout." Am Nat., 1878, p. 660; ~th Rej)ort Ent. III., p. 12i) 
t Mis8 Smith says " gparsely." — loc. cit. 



]PtrtNAM ON PULVINARIA INNlJMEEABILlS. 311 

Hre shortest and directed forward and inward; those of the four poster 
rior legs are alike, a little longer than the anterior coxte, and are di- 
rected backward and outward. The coxae are all quite large and stout. 
The trochanter is tolerably long and slender, and is closely and immov- 
ubly united to the femur. The femur is twice as long as the trochanter 
and is stouter. The tibia is a fifth longer than the femur and trochanter 
combined, is more slender, and is furnished on the inside with about 
six i)airs of rigid spines, of which those at the extremity are largest and 
most prominent. The tarsus is about one-third the length of the tibia 
and tapers toward the extremity where it is terminated by a short 
movable claw* with an enlarged base, and by four digitules or knobbed 
hairs, — the two longer of which are attached to the outside of the tarsus 
near the tip, and the two shorter to the enlarged portion of the claw. 
Both extend a very short distance beyond the tip of the claw. 

The abdomen is longer and more slender than the thorax and, like that 
of the larva, is composed of nine segments. The integument is soft and 
yielding and capable of considerable expansion and contraction. The 
color is normally pale ochreous, but the integument being somewhat 
transparent it is modified by the color of the internal contents of the ab- 
domen—giving it a grayish hue. The whole abdomen is sparsely fur- 
nished with fine short hairs. The first six segments are similar in form 
and simple in structure, each presenting a nearly circular section. They 
become successively smaller from before backwards. In mounted spe- 
cimens it is often difficult to see the divisions of the segments, but in 
the living insect they are plain enough. 

The seventh segment is modified by being prolonged at the sides back- 
ward into two rather long conical processes. These decrease by steps 
and are furnislied with a number of spiny hairs at the tips. They ai'e 
developed from the lobes of the seventh segment of the larva, and cor- 
respond to the lobes of tiie female which inclose and form the ''anal 
fissure." 

The eighth segment, as in the larva and female, is very small and lies 
between the bases of the conical projections. It is furnished with two 
small tubercles, one on each side of the base of the penis, from each of 
which arise about two long spines. These secrete two waxen filaments, 
or rather bundles of filaments united together, of the purest white. 
These filaments often attain a length greater than the entire length of 
the insect, and their presence is a sure sign that their bearer has attained 
his majority. They appear to grow continuously during the life of the 
insect and if broken off still continue to grow. They dissolve readily in 
turpentine, etc., and in reality form no part of the insect, being simply 
a secretion. 

From the ninth segment is formed the penis, and its enlarged base is 
generally kept slightly within the eighth segment. The penis is in the 
form of a long slender conical style, curved downward and tapering to 
•a rounded point at the end. It is composed of two dark brown horny 

* Miss Smith says "two claws," Which is certainly au error. — loc. cit. 



312 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATtJRAl. SCIESTCES. 

pieces/ of which the tergal or dorsal is strongly bent downward at the 
sides, forming a deep groove on the underside throughout its entire 
length, and which for a short distance near the base is formed into a 
complete sliealh by the meeting of its sides. The sternal piece is rather 
flattened and lies within this groove, or sheath. 

Internal Organs.— The nervous system I have not studied. A large 
apparently three lobed ganglion, is often plainly seen in the head in 
specimens which have been rendered somewhat transparent. It is evi- 
dent from his actions that the male is well supplied with nerves and 
very sensitive to them. 

The rnusdes are numerous and well developed, especially in the tho- 
rax, but I have not studied them- 

The digestive organs are apparently very abortive. There appears to 
be no opening for a mouth, and I have been able to discover no anus, 
neither any indications of stomach, nor intestines. There is however a 
small pair of malpighian vessels similar to those of the larva The male 
appears to subsist entirely upon food cells stored up during the early 
part of the pupa state. 

The respiratory organs I have likewise not studied. The larger trach- 
eal vessels and the spiracles I have not observed, but I suppose the 
latter are situated on the sides below the wings. Small tracheal vessels 
are seen to extend into the limbs, and one passes along by the side of 
the main vein of the wing. 

Two rather large glands (tig. io,i.) situated in the eighth abdominal 
segment, furnish the material forming the long waxy anal filaments, 
(fig. 45,/, /^) and are the only secretory organs I have observed. 

The anterior portions of the generative organs, (fig. 45) including prob- 
ably the testes, lie within the thorax and have not been studied by me, 
but in the anterior part of the abdomen are two large vessels (a, a') filled 
and distended with the filamentary spermatozoa. These vessels extend 
backw^ard about as far as to the sixth segment, becoming gradually nar- 
rowed into slender tubes (6, b^). They then take a turn outward and 
forward and then again inward and slightly backward, until they 
come together and unite to form the ductus ejaculatorius (c). This last is 
composed of thick cellular or muscular walls, transversely striated, is 
enlarged towards the middle, then becomes smaller again as it ap- 
proaches the penis {d, e] into which it extends and discharges itself. I 
have an impression of having seen, under pressure, this or some other 
organ protruded from the tip of the penis. 

The spermatozoa (fig. 46 and 46a) after passing out of the ductus ejaculato- 
rius and penis appear usually more or less closely united in bundles. Fig. 
46 shows a small detached bundle, to the structure of which Dr. Mark has 
called my attention. One end of each spermatozoon is sharply pointed 
and more highly refracting than the other end, thus giving it an arrow- 
head-like appearance. The specimen figured is found on one of my 
preparations, and has been preserved for over two years in glycerine. 
In fresh preparations in glycerine or acetic acid, there is no appearance 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMEEABILIS. 318 

of the refracting ends, neither have I been able to detect it in niiujer- 
ous other specimens of the same date as those figured. Some of these 
however show irregular refracting spaces along the filament, not con 
fined to the end, so that I am inclined to regard the arrow-head appear- 
ance as due to the preparation and not to the structure of the spermato- 
zoon itself. I have sometimes thought I could detect a slight transverse 
striation. The filaments represented in Fig. 46 are about 400 1^ long and 
less than 1 /^ in diameter. It will be noticed that each spermatozoon is 
considerably longer than tfie entire length of the egg when it is laid. 

Habits.— Hhe male when he first comes out is quite pale colored and 
soft, but soon becomes darker and stronger. He however at once walks 
about quite rapidly, and at first pays no attention to the females in his 
way. On two occasions I have observed the process of copulation. The 
male mounts the back of the female with his head in the same direction, 
(fig. 34) and vibrating his antennae rapidly ; he now strokes her actively 
with his fore feet in the region of her eyes ; then, by means of alternate 
contractions and expansions of the abdomen, the penis is inserted be- 
tween the anal valves and into the vulva to the extent of its entire 
length ; it is then alternately withdrawn and inserted several times ; the 
vibration of the antennae goes on continually and the stroking with the fore 
feet takes place at frequent intervals ; several times during the operation 
the male makes a complete circuit, with the nearly withdrawn penis as a 
center. The whole process takes about ten minutes. The male then 
goes off to another female. Whether he ever copulates with more 
than two females I do not know, but I am inclined to think he does. At 
any rate his stock of spermatozoa is sufficient for a score or more of fe- 
males. The proportion existing between the males and females, varies 
according to circumstances. On healthy trees, and when both males and 
females are few in number the proportion of males to females is much 
less than when the trees are unhealthy and the bark lice excessively nu- 
merous. In the latter case the males often equal or exceed the females 
in numbers. A suggestion as to the cause of this will be mentioned un- 
der the head of Diseases. 

I have never seen a male take to wing voluntarily, but they will do so 
when dropped from an elevation ; those which I observed flew heavily 
and but a short distance. I do not know whether they are normally di- 
urnal or nocturnal, but I think niDst likely the latter, as they appear 
very inactive by daylight.* The life of the male after attaining the use 
of his wings is very brief, probably never exceeding two or tliree days. 
The males appear from August 1st to September 15th, but the most of 
them about August 15th, making the entire life of the male, little if any 
over eight weeks, while the female lives for thirteen months. 

* Miss Smith who appears to have observed this point more carefully than I have done, 
Bays however, "They are very active flying about the leaves with great rapidity.'" Prairie 
Farmer, Jvly 12, 1879. 



314 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEMALE PUPA. 

Tlie larvje destined to become females undergo only very slight 
clianges of form. Up to the stage represented in fig. 25, they are not 
distinguishable from those of the males, but while those become narrow 
and long, these become much broader in proportion to the length, usu- 
ally about two-thirds as broad as long, and with the posterior (abdomin- 
al) portion very much broader than the anterior, this change being 
caused no doubt by the development of the ©varies. They also differ 
from the males in remaining quite flat with only a slight dorsal carina. 
These characters soon render them easily distinguishable from the male 
scales. 

Just before the appearance of the males, the female pupa (if such it 
may be called) is seen to be supplied with a new pair of sete coiled up 
spirally on each side of the head (fig. 43) just as in the larva above des- 
cribed, thus indicating a moult, although, as in the previous noulting 
time, there is no appearance of a true shedding of the skin. Up to this 
time the females have remained of a pale yellow color ; they now become 
adorned, just in time to attract the attention of the males, with deep red 
markings, rendering them much more handsome than at any other 
period of their life, before or after. 

The female to all appearances remains a larva to the end of her life, 
but I speak of this as the female pupa, because it corresponds with the 
same stage in the development of the male. 

THE FEMALE. 

The female (fig. 32) is scale like, depressed, approximately oval in 
form, widest behind the middle, with the anterior tapering more rapidly 
than the posterior portion ; about one and three-fourths times as long as 
broad, (UOO />« to 1800 /^ long by 800 p- to 1100 /^ broad). A distinct but 
rounded and slightly elevated carina extends from the head to the anus. 
The margin is entire except slight emarginations at the eyes and 
opposite each of the four spiracles, and a deep fissure extending to the 
anus. The margin is furnished with a large number of spines, (about 
120) set at nearly regular intervals, and each secreting an elongated 
waxen cylinder or filament, the whole, when unbroken, forming a whit- 
ish fringe, not usually very prominent. In each spiracular emargina- 
tion is a larger movable spine, supported by two smaller spines, which 
present a different appearance from the others and do not appear to be 
secretive in their nature, though I am not perfectly certain that they 
are not. 

The dorsal integument is dense and tough and the divisions of the 
segments are much obscured. The head is deeply set into the thorax, 
and the head and thorax together are about equal to one half of the en- 
tire length. All of the segments of both thorax and abdomen are longer 
at the sides than in the middle, and in the seventh segment this differ- 
ence is very great, so that it appears formed of two large lobes meeting 
on the median line, surrounding the eighth segment and forming the so- 
called " anal fissure." The eigMh segment is entirely surrounded by 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 315 

the seventh, and is not visible from the above except by two large trian- 
gular subconical valves which cover the anus. (These anal valves are 
developed from the conical bases of the setae in the young larva). The 
anus is situated on the eighth segment and opens dorsally. I have not 
seen the opening itself, but I have seen the excrement (so-called honey- 
dew) ejected from it. 

The general ground color of the dorsal surface is pale yellow, and is 
very prettily marked with deep red. A narrow margin all around, in- 
cluding the anal fissure ill reddish; nearly parallel with this, and at a 
distance from the margin nearly equal to the depth of the anal fissure 
(approaching nearer the margin anteriorly) is another more irregular red 
band ; this is connected with the margin by red cross bands as follows : 
at the eyes, at each of the spiracular emarginations and five or six on 
each side of the abdomen ; these cross bands are more or less faintly 
continued toward the carina. Besides these there are indications of 
more indistinct, intermediate cross bands,— and numerous reddish 
specks over the entire surface. The dorsal carina is also reddish. The 
principal cross bands above referred to have been generally supposed to 
represent the divisions between the segments. 1 can not at present say 
whether tliis is, or is not, the case, for when the sutures are rendered 
visible by acetic acid, glycerine, potash, or otherwise, tlie colored bands 
are at the same time rendered invisible. The entire dorsal surface is 
covered with a thin layer of wax, not enough however, at this stage to 
obscure the color. 

Two black eyes are present, one on each side of the head, equally vis- 
ible from above or below, and are of the same structure as in the larva. 

The veyitral integument is pale whitish yellow, quite thin and somewhat 
transparent, allowing the trachaea nearest the surface to be seen by re- 
flected light, as long slender branching tubes. The divisions between 
the segments are tolerably distinct, especially in the sternal region, as 
all that portion of the under surface lying between the labium and vulva 
and between the bases of the legs may be designated, while the re- 
mainder of the under surface, except the head, forming a border nearly 
as wide as the length of the anal fissure, may be considered as the epis- 
ternal region. The episternum is quite flat, fitting closely to the leaf or 
bark when the insect is at rest, while the sternum forms a shallow cavity 
in which the feet rest when not in use. 

The structure of the head and of its different parts is not different 
from that of the larva. The labium however appears a little more 
strongly developed and is seen to bear at least six quite stout spines, 
(figs. '65, a and 43,/.) 

The antenncB are inserted on the front as in the larva and are com- 
posed of from seven to eight joints, of which the first is thickest and the 
rest gradually tapering towards the extremity. The third joint is the 
longest ; then the fourth, the eighth, the first, the second, the fifth, the 
sixth and the seventh decreasing in length in the order named. In some 
cases the seventh and eighth are represented by but one joint which is 
then longer than the fourth, thus reducing the number of joints to 



316 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

seven.* Tlie first joint appears to be without hairs, the second with two 
hairs, the third with one short hair, the fourth with two hairs, tlie fifth 
with one or two hairs, the sixth with one or two hairs, the seventh with 
one or two hairs, and the eighth with six or eight hairs, two or three of 
them longer than the otliers. All the hairs are proportionately 
much shorter and more slender than in the larva. When at rest the an- 
tennai are held in tiie position shown in fig. 26. The two spines directed 
backwards on the front between the bases of the antennae are larger and 
better developed than in the larva. The antenna is 290 /^ to 310 /^ in 
length without including the terminal hairs. 

The very slender " 6eafc" is composed of four very long and very slen- 
der chitinous setae, and often attains a length considerably greater 
than that of the insect. As these are of internal origin they will be 
more fully described further on. 

The structure of the thorax is essentially the same as in the larva. 
The shallow grooves extending from the spiracles to the spiracular 
emarginations are more marked. In these grooves are a number of fine 
pores which secrete a white waxy, filamentary and powdery substance 
which seems to serve the double purpose of keeping a passage open to 
the air, but closed to foreign substances, and to hold the insect in place. 
Whenever the insect is removed four white marks remain on the leaf or 
bark to mark the position of these spiracular grooves. At the termina- 
tion of each groove are the three spines as described in the larva. Their 
function is unknown. The insertions of the legs are as in the larva,— 
and we may add, between the sternum and episternum. 

All six leg.t are of almost precisely similar structure, (fig. 326), except 
the coxae of the anterior pair may be a little shorter than the others. 
The coxa is quite large, about twice as long as thick, and furnished 
with about two hairs. The trochanter is very small, triangular, and im- 
movably united to the femur. It bears one very long spiny hair. The 
femur is about one and a half times as long as the coxa, of somewhat 
less diameter, and bears near its end, outside, one or two small hairs. 
The tibia is scarcely as long as the femur, but more slender and with 
three or four hairs. The tarsus is about two-thirds as long as the tibia, 
tapers toward the end, and is terminated by a curved claw swollen at 
its base, and by four digitules. The two upper digitules are long and 
slender, terminated by globular knobs at the end, and inserted near the 
end of the tarsus on each side. The two lower digitules are shorter, 
club-shaped, gradually enlarged from the base to the tips, are equal in size, 
and appear to be inserted on the swollen base of the claw. The legs 
when at rest are held nearly in the positions shown in fig. 26, the four 
posterior legs resting in the sternal cavity. 

The abdomen occupies less than half of the entire length, but is con- 
siderably more bulky than the cephalo-thorax. The first six segments, 
as in the larva, are similar in form, but become progressively smaller 

* Signoret 8t,at,(;« that this same variation occurs in P. vit-es- EssaLsur leg Cocfienilles, 
p. (222.) 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 817 

toward the rear. Each segment is composed of at least four pieces 
namely : the notiim forming the dorsal surface, the sternum form- 
ing the central portion of the ventral surface, and one epistcrtnim 
on each side of the sternum. We might go further and consider the dor- 
sal surface as composed of three pieces — a notitm with an epimerum on 
each side, the latter representing the portion lying between the submar- 
ginal band and the margin, and the former the central carinated region, 
thus making six pieces; and still again, as we have seen in the male of 
this species, the sternum and notum are each composed of two lateral 
halves, which would make a total of eight pieces to each segment. [The 
segments of the thorax would of course have the same structure, with 
the addition of the insertions of the coxse.] On either side of the sternum 
on each segment are two obscure impressed points probably serving for 
the insertion of muscles. A small portion of the eighth segment remains 
visible below. The ninth segment is turned outside-in and withdrawn 
within the eighth and seventh segments, forming a vulvular cavity. At 
its extremity is the vulva, the opening of the vagina. Surrounding the 
vulva are two flattened appendages (ttg. 1, o) each formed of three long 
movable spines united together by means of a waxy secretion, forming 
a sort of tube through wliich the eggs pass. These are evidently the 
same as the " leaf-like organs'" seen in the young larva. 

On the sternum of each of the posterior segments, (the 8th, 7th, (ith, 
and possibly others,) are two long movable wax secreting spines, and 
large numbers of very small circular wax secreting pores. Tliese last 
are exceedingly abundant immediately around the vulva on tlie eighth 
segment, a little less numerous on the seventh, and on the otlieis there 
appear to be two irregular rows around the posterior margin of each seg- 
ment. These pores are about 5 P- in diameter and too numerous to 
count. 

Internal Organs. — The i)xternal mouth parts of the Coccidse have been 
well described by Dr. E. L. Mark,* and those of this species are com- 
posed of essentially the same parts. Fig. 26a is drawn from the mouth 
parts of a larva of the second stage, but by considering it as magnitied but 
106 instead of 200 diameters it will he sufficient for the following expla- 
nation. That portion of the head contained within (what I have con- 
sidered as) the clypeus, forms a cavity lying between two somewhat tri- 
angular planes supported by a chitinous frame work. The lower plane 
{area inferior of Mark) is the larger and corresponds very nearly, if not 
entirely with the external clypeus. It is bounded on the front by the 
urcus inferior, (a) and on the sides by the costce inferiores dextnx et sinstrce-, 
each of which appears composed of two parts (b and n, b^ and «/) meet- 
ing at the radiating pohits, (f,f), the posterior portions (n, n^) join with 
the corresponding parts of the costce superiores to form the perforated 
■clavus^or steurung of Mark through which the buccal setse pass, (between 
p and p\) The upper plane (area superior) is bounded in front by the 

*Beitrage zur Anatomie nnd Ilistologie der Pflanzenlause, inbesondere der Cocciden, 
Bonn, 1876, pp. 5-20. Also in Archiv f. Microscop. Anatomie, Band XI II. 

[Proc D. A. N. S., Vol. II.] 42 [Dec, 1879.] 



318 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

arcus superior (d) which is bent inward and then prolonged down- 
ward into the columellce (e, e^) which connect with arcus inferior^ and 
backward at the sides into the costce superiores dextrce et sinstrce (c, c''). 
These costcf superiores are extended backward until they become united 
into a broad plate, which joins with the costce inferiores to form the 
clavus, and from about their middle they each send off a branch 
{h, h') which connects with the costce inferiores at the radiating points 
[f,f'). Tlie broad plate formed of the costoe, superiores probably repre- 
sents a part of the original sternal portion of the head, say for exam- 
ple the yula; at least it now forms the division between the head and 
thorax. Two chitinous pieces (g, g') extend from the radiating points 
{f.f) about three-fourths of the distance toward the center where they 
appear to join with two other slender chitinous pieces (i,iO Ij'ing on 
each side of the oesophagus, (I am however not altogether certain that 
there is a junction). This complicated frame-work serves to sup- 
port the enlarged conical bases of the four buccal setae (r, r\ t, t'). 
Each seta consists of a very long and slender tube enlarged at the base 
wliich forms an elongated apparently hollow cone [conus). In the outer 
and lower pair of setae the cones are more elongated, more slender, and 
they are passed through the clavus until they can go no further on account 
of the enlarged ends. The interior and upper setaj are more rapidly en- 
larged at their bases and come together a short but quite perceptible 
distance above the lower or outer setje. They are also more closely 
united througiiout their entire length,— while the outer pair are easily 
separated, tliese usually remain together as if but one piece. This fact 
has caused many persons to believe that there were but three setse. The 
four setfB evidently form a tube through which tlie sap is absorbed from 
the tree— once started it is probable tliat the capillary action would be 
sufficient to draw up the sap, but Dr. Mark has described a distinct 
sucking apparatus which he observed in Chionaspis.* Extending for- 
ward from the junction of the inner setae is the oesophagus {I), at its 
base are two small chitinous pieces [m, m'), and lying within its swollen 
part [pharynx) is a small chitinous piece (e) the uva of Dr. Mark. The 
buccal sette after passing through the clavus enter the cavity of the labium 
in wiiich they are lield in place, possibly by a crescent-shaped chitinous 
piece (fig. 35,6), and then pass on and out tiirougli the lips at a. The 
internal part of the labium is peculiarly modified so as to form a thin 
transparent elastic sack [crumina) within which the setse are withdrawn 
whenever the insect wishes to change its feeding place, as is always 
done when the sap ceases from any cause to flow in sufficient quantities 
to the leaf or limb on which it is settled. In this case the setse are seen 
to form a large loop lying in the crumina, within the body cavity and 
extending back as far as the third or fourth abdominal segments. This 
withdrawing of the set® is probably accomplislied by means of muscles 
lying within the labial cavity and possibly attached to the crescent- 
shaped piece before mentioned. 

[ Besides the Kpecics under consideration I have studied more or less carefully corres- 
ponding mouth parts in Lecanivm, Aspidioius, Psylla, and Cicada, and in all these the struc- 



*Beitrage, etc., pp. 17-18. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNDMERABILIS. 319 

ture 18 esieenUally tbe same, namely: four slender elongated cliitinous setae, with enlarged 
conical bases, thrust through a davits, and thence through a sheath formed of the lah- 
ium. In all, the bases are 8upport(>d by a fnime-work something as above described. In fact 
the only essential variation is in the proportions and minor details of the ditiereut parts. I 
found it very ea.*y in dissecting the head of a (Jicuda to withdraw the set;e inwards by catch- 
ing hold of the muscles to which they were attached, with a forceps. All four ser» were in 
this way easily separated leaving behind the chitinous piece with around hole through which 
they had been thrust, and which held them in place, being in fact the piece which Dr. Mark 
has called the clavus. While dissecting the Cicada I noticed that just above and behind the 
base of the labium on each side ie an external chitinous piece, terminated by a sharp pointed 
bristle, which appears to be capable of a slight motion, and when separated bears a consider- 
able resemblance to a mandible. In Psylla I observed the mouth parts of the pupa just be- 
fore moulting, and of the imago (sex not recorded). In the latter are similar afortive man 
dibles, rather more distinct than in Cicada, but in the Coccidse I have seen nothing recallinjf 
these except the small tubercles behind the ventral eyes of the male. In the pupa was no- 
ticed a new set of setie formed in spirals just as in the Coccidw. It therefore seems reason- 
able to infer that the setfe of all Homoptera are formed in the same %vay. Taking all these 
things into consideration I have come, much against my original inclination, to regard there 
sette as not representative of the mandibles and maxillse as is generally taught. From a note 
in Dr. Mark's work above referred to (page 6) it seems that Mecznikoff has arrived at a sim- 
ilar conclusion from a study of the embryos in the eggs of Aspidioius and Aphis. Dr. Henry 
Shinier has suggested to me that if this is the case, the buccal setae may more truly represent 
the lingua of oiher insects.] 

The digestive system is almost precisely the same as that of Lccfiniian 
hesperidum which has been well described by Dr. E. L. Mark.* Begin- 
ning with the mouth parts above described, a long slender cesophagiis 
(figs. 26, rt, I; 3")./,- 48, e ; 48,i) extends directly forward from the junction 
of the buccal setse, then turns upward, passing outside of and around the 
arciis superior, and backward, extending into the mesothorax where it 
becomes merged in the chyle stomache {vei)triculus). This becomes en- 
larged, continues to extend backward a short distance and then turns 
abruptly forward making three or four convolutions (ansa minor of 
Mark) inclosed within a sack (apparently the anterior part of the rec- 
tum / f ). It then forms a very long, ratlier narrow intestine [ansa major) 
lying free in the abdominal cavity, extending backward nearly as far 
as the anus, and then forward to near the point of beginning where it 
joins tiie rectum, thus forming a large loop, and after extending a short 
distance further terminates in a blind ended sack. The walls of this 
ventriculus consist of large nucleated cells, very distinctly visible ; these 
undoubtedly serve to transform the sap absorbed from the tree into pro- 
toplasmic cells capable of being converted into the tissues. 

A short distance from the beginning of the large loop [ansa major) of 
the ventriculus it receives the outlet of the so-called malpighian vessels. 
These are two elongated sacks lying free in the abdomen, one on either 
side of the rectum, which unite at their anterior ends to form a small 
short tube which opens into the ventriculus. They consist of large 
cells filled with a deep yellow granular substance, and in each cell are 
two (rarely one) large cavities. It seems quite probable that these ves- 
sels are secretory in their nature, supplying a substance aiding the di- 
gestion of the food, or its conversion into protoplasm or blood. They 
may also serve as a means of escape for the waste products of the change 
of tissues. 

*Beilrage, etc., pp. 20-29. 



320 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Extending from the end of the vertriculus directly baclcward to the 
anus is the rectum. It is an enhirged sack-like organ, and is contracted 
rather suddenly at the small anus. 

Of the circulatory system I have made no positive observations that 
are of any value. The blood (or protoplasm) after leaving the stomach, 
appears to circulate all through the cavity of the body not otherwise oc- 
cupied. If there is a dorsal vessel I have seen no traces of it, neither 
have I seen any indications of a rhythmic motion. 

The respiratory organs consist of the spiracles and trachea. The spir- 
acles are four in number, situated on the under side of the thorax as 
above described. Each spiracle consists of an elongated opening in a 
kidney-shaped chitinous piece. Extending inward from each spiracle is a 
large tracheal tube, which soon divides into three main branches, and 
these again each divide into two secondary branches. Of the six sec- 
ondary trachea thus formed about each of the anterior spiracles, one ex- 
tends near the ventral surface toward the opposite side until it meets 
and unites with a similar trachea from the opposite spiracle ; a second 
extends dorsally and connects with its fellow in the same manner ; a 
third extends longitudinally near the ventral surface until it meets with 
a similar trachea from the posterior spiracle on the same side ; a fourth 
extends inward and backward near the dorsal surface until it meets 
with a similar trachea from the posterior spiracle on the same side ; the 
fifth and sixth extend forward, sending out several branches which lie 
free in the head. Of the six secondary tracheae formed about each of 
the Yjosterior spiracles, two connect with the tracheae from the anterior 
spiracle on the same side ; a third extends near the ventral surface to- 
ward the opposite side until it connects with its fellow from the oppo- 
site spiracle; a fourth extends near the dorsal surface, inward and then 
backward into the fourth abdominal segment where it unites with its fellow 
from the opposite spiracle ; the fifth and sixth extend backward sending 
forth several branches which lie free in the abdomen. The junction point 
of the connecting tracheae is usually marked with a slight irregularity, 
which seems to indicate that at some period in the life of the insect they 
were not so connected but have grown together. By this connection of the 
tracheae, respiration of the insect would not be interfered with even 
though one or more of the spiracles should become stopped up. This 
description of the tracheae applies more properly to tlie younger states of 
the larva. In the adult female it is fundamentally the same, but the 
branches of the tracheae become exceedingly numerous, permeating 
every part of the body, and even the tracheie connecting the spiracles 
appear to send forth branches, which is certainly not the case in the 
young. 

Adipose tissue. Whenever the insect is about to undergo a moult or 
other fast, and to a less extent at other times, it lays up in the otherwise 
unoccupied parts of the body cavity a greater or less quantity of 
spherical food globules,— exactly similar in appearance to the yolk 
globules remaining in the young at birth. 



PUTKAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 321 

The secretive organs are very numerous and highly developed. Besides 
the so-called mulpighian vessels already mentioned, there are the salivary 
glands, the viginal glands, and the numerous v:ax-secreting glands. To 
these might be added the retort-shaped organs in which the buccal setae 
are developed, but I know nothing of their particular structure except 
by seeing the se se coiled up in them. 

The salivary glands (fig. 48,/,/') consist of two groups of six or more 
spherical glands, Ijting one on each side of the mouth parts, with which 
they appear to be connected, but iu just what manner I did not observe. 
Each spherical gland appears to consist of two nucleated cells. These 
organs have been quite fully described by Dr. Mark.* 

The vaginal glands (fig. 47,/', /') consist of two groups of three large 
many celled glands, lying one on each side of the vagina. Each group 
discharges its products into a large spindle-shaped vessel (g, g') which 
becomes very narrow at its outlet. The outlets of both vessels (k) are 
close together a very short distance above the outlet of the vagina at the 
vulva (d). It is probable that these glands secrete a viscid substance 
with which the eggs become coated in their passage, and which after 
their expulsion causes the fine waxy powdery rings to adhere to the sur- 
face, as has been observed to be the case. 

The wax secreting glands so far as I. have observed them, consist of a 
single spherical gland for each pore (fig. 44,a). This appears to consist 
of a single cell surrounded by small branching tubes which unite to- 
gether at one point to form a long slender straight tube (6,c) extending 
to the orifice (d). The outer half (c) of the tube appears to be larger 
than |the inner half {h). The wax secreting 2iores are of three kinds: 
The first are circular with a small central tubercle, surrounded by a 
number of fine pores (fig. 49), these give rise to the fine powder-like sub- 
stance which when highly magnified is seen to be in the form of rings 
(fig. IS a). These pores are very numerous, especially on the ventral 
surface of the abdomen, and in the spiracular grooves as above des- 
cribed. It is possible that these may sometimes give rise to filamentary 
substance, but I do not think this is usually the case. In the second 
form (fig. 50) the central tubercle is enlarged and greatly prolonged 
forming a long stout spine (/), undoubtedly pierced by numerous very 
minute pores, through which the waxy substance issues in a soft state 
and unites to form a long hollow filamentary tube (g). It is from these 
waxen tubes that the so-called "cottony," "w^oolly,"or " silken" sub- 
stance of the egg nest is formed. These spines are numerous all around 
the margin, and a few on the underside of certain of the abdominal seg- 
ments as above described. The third kind of pores, those on the dorsal 
surface, I have not distinctly seen. They are probably very numerous 
and very minute, corresponding to the sweat glands of the higher ani- 
mals. At any rate the dorsal surface is entirely covered with a uniform 
layer of wax very thin in the young, but increasing with age when it 
.generally becomes cracked, but never becoming sufficiently thick to 

* Beitrage^ etc., pages 29-5], 



322 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

conceal the form of the insect, as is the case in many Coccidae. This 
wax is more or less soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, turpentine and 
almost any oily substance, but appears to remain unaffected by water, 
glycerine, nitric and acetic acids, etc., and renders the insect quite water 
proof. 

It is by no means improbable that a more careful study would reveal 
a greater variety in the forms of these wax-secreting glands. The form 
described and figured (fig. 44) appertains to the ventral tubercular pores, 
and I think those of the spines and dorsal pores can not be very differ- 
ent,— but still they may be. 

The nervous systevi (fig. 48) consists of numerous nerves centering in 
two large ganglia. The anterior, cephalic, or suptra-cesophagal gan- 
glion, (a) is triangular in form with the sides convex, and, so far as I 
have been able so detect, without any indication of a bilateral division. 
It lies immediately in front of the mouth parts with the smaller end di- 
rected backward and dividing into two commissures, allowing the oeso- 
phagus to pass upward between them, while they continue on, passing 
between the arcus superior and arcus inferior and thence through an 
opening in the area superior and over the posterior parts of the costce su- 
periores. During this passage they become again united and gradually 
enlarged into the infra- ce.sophagal or thoracic ganglion (b). This is a large 
somewhat pointed oval body, whiUi shows obscure indications of a bi- 
lateral division and also of four or more transverse divisions. It is con- 
tinued backward in a rather large ventral cord (e) which I have traced 
a distance equal to about the length of the thoracic ganglion without 
finding any branches or abdominal ganglia. It .probably supplies the 
large nerves about the vagina, etc. From the posterior half of the tho- 
racic ganglion two nerves (k and c) are seen to start out on each side, 
and the most posterior (c) of these almost immediately sends off a branch 
{d) thus making three nerves on each side. I have not traced the 
ultimate destination of these, they may very probably supply the nerves 
of the legs, or they may in addition send branches to other organs. 
From the anterior angles of the cephalic ganglion proceed the large optic 
nerves (m) to the eyes. As they approach the eyes they become enlarged 
and filled with dark reddish granular matter. From the under side of 
the cephalic ganglion extend two smaller nerves [l) to the antennae, and 
in all probability there are others to the mouth parts and other organs 
which I have not seen. Numerous small nerves are found in various 
parts of the body, but I have not traced their connections. Both nerves 
and ganglia appear to consist of a grayish granular substance inclosed 
by a thin transparent membrane. 

There are nunyerous muscles, but I have made no attempt to study 
them. In structure the muscles are composed of fibres transversely 
striated. There are very numerous muscles in the vicinity of the anus 
and of the vulva. There are also some indications of muscles attached 
{;0 the conical bases of the buccal setae, and in Cicada I have actually 
observed this to be the case. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 323 

The generative organ.^ (figs. I and 47) consist of the ovaries, ofiducts, 
vagina, spermatlieca, vulva, and some accessory glands. 

The ovaries consist of two large organs, one on each side of the diges- 
tive tract and filling the whole of the body cavity not otherwise oc- 
cupied. I have not been very successful in observing the general struc- 
ture of the ovaries, as in all ray dissections the inclosing membranes 
have invariably been riiptured. Whatever the anterior structure of each 
maybe, its posterior portion forms a receptacle inwliich the eggs are 
received from the ovarioles, and then becomes contracted into a rather 
long, slender oviduct. The two oviducts (fig. 1, hji\- fig. 47, e,eO discharge 
into a larse vugina a little below its center (1, fc,- 47 near c). Beginning 
at the vulva (1, m; 47,(i) the vagina becomes slightly narrowed at tlie 
point where it received the outlets of the vaginal glands, {l.j ; 47, /t) and 
then becomes considerably enlarged both behind and in front of the out- 
lets of the oviducts, forming large cavities (l,f; i~.k,l], which sometimes 
appear empty and at others to contain some not very well defined sub- 
stance Further on it becomes contracted into a very narrow neck (1, 
ed; 47,6) and then enlarged into a large oval sack— the spermntkeca (l.«,- 
47,^/) which appears to have no other outlet or inlet besides the narrow 
neck of the vagina. After copulation the spermatheca is always 
seen to be filled with the long filamentary spermatozoa. The 
penis of the male during the process of copulation reaches very nearly if 
not quite to the outlets of the oviducts, as may be seen by comparing 
the distance ok in fig. 1 with the length of de in fig. 45. One or other of 
the cavities above and below the outlets of the oviducts may serve as a 
burm copulatrix, or it is possible that they may serve to i-etain the egg 
while it becomes fertilized in its outward passage, if this lias not already 
taken place in the ovaries. The walls of the vagina and spermatheca 
appear to be continuous, the latter thinner than the former, and to pos- 
sess a very distinct cellular structure. On eacli side of the vagina are 
the vaginal glands above described. The vulva appears to be simply an 
inturning of the integument of the ninth abdominal segment. It is sur- 
rounded by six stout spines, forming two flattened groups cemented to- 
gether by a waxy secretion. These I have imagined to possess some of 
the functions of an oviposter, aiding the outward passage of the eggs. 
Extending along each side of the vagina is a large nerve sending fortli 
several branches. There are also very numerous muscles and tracheae. 

Owing to the vast number of eggs produced by this species the partic- 
ular structure of the ovary becomes very complex and I have been una- 
ble to satisfactorily expli^n the relations of the different parts.* The 
ova are developed in buds or follicles, ovicapsules of Huxley, (figs. iy-M] 
and these are seen to be arranged in clusters (lig. 5) each cluster contain- 
ing capsules in various stages of development. These ovicapsules appear 
to be attached to something, a tube or membrane, through which they 
possibly derive nourishment, while the free ends containing the large 

*lu this study I have derived much benefit from several letters written me by Dr. Mark 
explaiuiug the prevalent views regarding the structure of the ovaries and formation of the 
eggs, but have not always succeeded in making Ihem agree with my observations. 



324 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

vitelligenous cells, lie in the ovary.* Permeating through all parts of 
the ovary are numerous tracliece, one branch appears to extend to every 
cluster of ovicapsules, of which there are several hundreds in each 
ovary. 

This general account of the female generative organs is derived 
from observations made at various stages of their development. At the 
period now under consideration, the time of the appearance of the males, 
the walls of the vagina and spermatheca are very soft and tender, and I 
have not observed tfie ovicapsules at all. In October, (fig. 1) six weeks 
later, the walls are firmer, the ovicapsules are present but very small ; 
the oviducts are exceedingly slender, and I have not up to this time seen 
the vaginal glands, though it does not necessarily follow that they are 
absent. In May, (fig. 47) three or four weeks before the first eggs are 
laid, the vagina is much enlarged both in length and breadth; the ovi- 
ducts are larger, but still not large enough for the passage of the eggs, 
the vaginal glands, muscles, nerves, etc., are fully developed as des- 
cribed, and the more advanced ovicapsules are nearly full grown. At 
the time of laying the eggs the oviducts are much enlarged so as to al- 
low the easy passage of one egg at a time. 

Habits. — The females at the time of the appearance of the males are 
still in a quiescent state on the leaves (fig. 37), or rarely in some cases on 
the twigs, in which condition they remain until fall. 

THE FEMALE IN WINTER. 

Soon after the disappearance of the males, the bright red markings of 
the females become gradually changed to a deep dark brown which soon 
comes to occupy nearly the whole surface, making the general color ap- 
pear to be dark brown. They grow a very little in size, but become 
more elevated, the carina higher and more prominent, and the dorsal 
layer of wax thicker and more cracked. 

When the sap ceases to flow into the leaves, which in this locality 
takes place in October, they withdraw their buccal setse so that they 
form a loop in the crumina vv'ithin the body cavity, and migrate to the 
twigs where they again insert their beaks. They settle on the twigs 
with their heads indifferently up or down, or veiy rarely side ways, and 
are often closely crowded together completely covering the twig, (fig. 38) 
but generally they prefer the underside. As soon as the sap ceases to 
flow in the twigs they enter into a state of complete torpidity, and show 
no signs of life or development until the sap again begins to flow in 
April of the following spring. 

THE FEMALE IN SPRING, 

As soon as warm weather sets in the ova begin to develop with great 
rapidity, causing the body to become distended to fully three times its 
former dimensions This distention takes place more or less in all parts 

*1 feel quite certain of this in my own mind, bnt Dr. Mark seems also quite certain tiiatthe 
egg follicles are directed outward from the oviducts with the free ends lying in the body cavity. 
This would make it necessary forrhc fully developed egg to pass through the narrow neck-like 
base of the capsule in order to reach the oviduct, which is directly contrary to my observations 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILI8. 325 

of the integument, but mostly in the dorsal and epistemal regions. The 
legs and antennae remain of the same size as in the fall, being rendered 
almost entirely useless by the great increase in the bulk of the insect. 
The female is however able to crawl about without ditticuliy for a less or 
greater period during the spring, as I have frequently observed them do 
so. The eyes are still present, but considerably obscured by the dark 
markings around them.* The females reach tlieir greatest size about 
the middle of May, soon after which time they begin to lay their eggs. 

At this period (tigs. 39, 4 >) the female is elliptical, quite convex dor- 
sally, with a low rounded carina; pale greenish or whitish yellow, 
marked with black or dark brown after the same general pattern as in 
the previous August, the yellow color again predominating causing the 
whole to appear light brown instead of dark brown as in the winter ; be- 
neath whitish ; length 4 """» to 6 mm, breadth 3 '"•" to 4i '»'", height t '»'" to 
]| mm. The resemblance in form, color, and markings to a turtle is very 
striking and has been often remarked by popular writers. 

During this period of rapid growth the female necessarily absorbs a 
large quantity of sap, and in addition to what she uses, she seems to have 
some to spare. Tlie leaves of every affected tree and the objects on the 
ground beneath become covered during this time with a sweetish liquid 
or honey dew. This forms a great attraction to various honey-loving 
insects, — ants, flies, bees etc. This honey-dew is really the exciement 
of the female and has its origin as follows : A clear liquid issues from 
the anus dorsally, between the anal valves, until it forms a spherical 
globule about one millimeter in diameter (tig. 39, 6j when it is suddenly 
thrown off, as if squirted with some force, to a distance of .'> mm to 
10 mm. This is probably accomplished by the muscles surrounding the 
anus or by the contraction of the rectum itself. f 

CONTENTS OF THE OVARIES. 

Before proceeding to describe the formation of the eggs it will be ne- 
cessary to make some preliminary remarks on the contents of the 
ovaries. 

On cutting open a female any time between October and the following 
May five different classes of bodies are set free. The normal location of 
these bodies was not very apparent in my dissections owing to the rough 
manner of their execution. But as some of them appear to be closely 
connected with the generation of the ova, it is proper that they should 
be here described. They are :— 

First. A clear transparent liquid. Probably protoplasm, or food in 
process of conversion into protoplasm, — equivalent to the blood of higher 
animals. This appears to unite readily with water, etc. 

Second. Clear spherical globules from 10 // to 30 // in diameter, having 

*Thi8 has caused Miss Smith to state that they are absent. Her description of the female 
refers to the most advanced period of gestation and not to the normal female. 

tMiss Smith's supposition that the honey-dew is derived ftom the egg-nest, or from the 
same material which forms the egg nest, Is certainly incorrect. I have also observed no indi- 
cations that it issues from punctures in the bark. 

[Proc. D. A. N. S., Vol. II.] 43 [Dec. 1879.] 



826 nAVENPQRT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES*. 

a specific gravity less than watei* and not readily stained with eosene or 
magenta, and which have an appearance similar to the yolk globules in 
the egg. Probably fat or food globules. 

Third. Exceedingly minute, apparently spherical, bodies having a 
specific gravity greater than water, and staining readily with eosene 
(fig. 2). When stained a portion remains unstained as though there was- 
3 vacuole. In water and some other mediums they exhibit an active 
vibratory motion (brownian movement) which ceases after several hours.^ 
They sometimes show a distinct but slow and uncertain progressive 
movement. The nature and function of these bodies I do not under- 
stand. They certainly bear a very strong resemblance to bacteria, and 
may really be parasitic, or, it is po.fsible they may belong normally to 
the insect, perhaps corresponding to the blood disks, and I have thought 
of them in connection with the spermatozoa and fertilization of the eggs, 
and also as being an early stage of the /ourf/i class of bodies next des- 
cribed. Whatever they may be, they are always found in great abun- 
dance in the females of this species at all times, and I have noticed 
them in motion while still in the body cavity of the larva, I have fre 
quently observed similar vibrating bodies in various diseased animal 
matter, as tumors, etc. 

Fourth. Small oval bodies 3 // to 5 u in diameter, and about 10 // long, 
having a specific gravity greater than water, (tig. 4). When highly mag- 
nified they are seen to be composed of a greater or less quantity of fine 
granular matter imbedded in a rather thick coating of some transparent 
s^ubstance. Tliislast though easily stained brown by iodine remains unaf- 
fected by eosene or magenta, except in a few in&tances where the external 
envelope appears to be imperfect, in which case the granules become 
stained leaving the envelope unstained. These bodies in general appear 
to be very uniform in size and shape, usually regularly oval, often slightly 
constricted in the middle. But a careful study made since the plate was 
etched, shows a greater variation than I before supposed. Some are 
seen to taper to a point at one end (fig. 4,c), others wliile preserving the 
oval form have a small projection at one end, in others the projection is 
a little larger, in others it is still larger and of an oval form, in others a 
s-imilaroval body to the original and finally two, three or more full sized 
bodies may be seen strung together end to^end. In some, as fig. 4,6, the 
granules api>ear sepai'ated into two groups. A comparatively small 
number of these bodies are already found in the females immediately 
after copulation with the males, so they may have been present before 
that event had taken place. They become exceedingly abundant during 
the final development of the eggs in the spring, at which time they are 
found in great numbers in all parts of the ovaries. At a certain period 
in the development of the egg, just before it takes final leave of the egg 
follicle, several of these bodies appear to enter at the head end, where 
they become disintegrated, and soon after this, never before, the embryo 
begins to form. On this account I for a long time believed them to be 
spermatopbores, the contained granules being the spermatozoa, and that 
they were derived from, the sperm filaments of the male by a process of 



PUTNAM ON P0LVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 327 

t 

breaking up into parts placed end to end, which were subsequently in 
some unknown manner developed into these oval bodies. It is however 
very ditKcult to trace any such connection, and Dr. Mark informs me 
that Leydig has observed t'lese bodies in adult females of Lecaniuin and 
regards them as parasitic, bearing some relation to the Pseudo-navicellce. 
At the present moment I am not inclined to object to this view. 

Fifth. Sperical bodies from 10 // to 3u /^ in diameter (tig. 3) having a 
specitic gravity greater than water, and composed of a number of clear 
globules or cells inclosed in a mass of clear apparently homogeneous 
substance which stains readily with eosene and magenta, while the clear 
«ells remain unstained. With iodine the whole becomes stained brown. 
In water the enveloping substance becomes more or less softened allow- 
ing the clear cells to gradually approach the surface and finally escape, 
after which they cannot be distinguished from the fat or food globules 
nlready mentioned, and like them have a specific gravity less than water. 
There is scarcely a doubt that these are immature ovicapsules, whose 
enveloping membrane is yet unformed or so tender as to be easily rup- 
tured. The larger individuals show evidences of their previous attach- 
ment at one end. From an examination of the ovaries of Lecanium hes- 
peridum it appears that these bodies are formed in the anterior portion 
of the ovary, first appearing as simple very minute cells imbedded in a 
tissue of fibrous appearance. The cells are quite indistinct at the ante- 
rior end, but become gradually larger and better defined posteriorly until 
they become comparatively free from the investing tissue.* 

Of these five classes of bodies it is probable that only the last belong 
•exclusively to the ovaries, and, unless I am greatly mistaken as to their 
character, each one of these spherical bodies is capable under favorable 
circumstances of forming an egg, being in fact a true egg follicle or ovi- 
capsule, comparable possibly to the ovule of the higher animals. 

DEVEIiOPMENT OF THE EGG, 

During the winter the ovicapsules appear to remain in the form and 
■condition just described, but with the advancing warmth of spring, and 
■consequent abundant flow of sap in the trees the development of the 
•eggs proceeds with great rapidity. The more advanced ovicapsules are 
now seen to be slightly elongated at one end into a short pedicle by 
which they are attached, and to be arranged in groups radiating about a 
•common center (fig. 5,a). The capsules develope unequally, or rather 
progressively, so that at a later stage capsules in all stages of develop- 
ment may be seen in the same cluster at the same time (fig. 5,6) present- 
ing a very bud-like appearance. As the females begin to lay eggs about 
May 24th and continue often until about July 12th, during the whole of 
which period they may be found in all stages of development, an excel- 
lent opportunity is afforded for the study of their formation. 

* In this specimen of L..hesperidum, examined Nov. 4th, 1878, the same membrane which 
inclosed these spherical bodies was still connected with a cluster of eggs containing embryos 
iu various stages of development, some of them just ready to be hatched. Whether each 
■ivary has only one, or more, of these anterior ends or ovarioles I did not observe. 



328 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

In its earliest'stage the ovi-^apsule appears as a simple cell less than 
2i fi in diameter imbedded in tiie tissue in' the anterior portion of the 
ovary. It gradually increases in size, and is pushed farther and farther 
back by the continued development of new cells, until finally it becomes 
comparatively free within the ovary (or oviduct) except that it remains 
attached by a pedicle at one end (figs. 6 and 7). It is now y,0 ^ to 40 /^ in 
diameter and appears to consist of a number or clear cells or globules 
Imbedded in a clear homogeneous substance, and the 'Whole inclosed in 
a thin clear membrane. Tliis membrane seems to form a part of, or at 
least to be derived from, the tissue in which the capsule was originally 
imbedded, though it is not impossible that it may be a continuation of 
the membrane of the ovary itself. 

A little later (fig. 8) the ovicapsule has increased considerably in size, 
and can now be plainly seen to contain three or four rather large clear 
apparently nucleated cells, (vitelligenous cells) always situated in the 
free end, and one cell filled with a granular matter always found nearer 
the attached end of the capsule. This granulated cell grows rapidly and 
evejitually forms the ovum or egg, and its granular contents becomes 
the vitellus or yolk. It is sometimes seen to be attached by a slender 
filament to a small group of granules, situated between the vitel- 
ligenous cells. When a little further progressed (fig. 9) the ovum is 
easily seen to be surrounded by a rather thick layer of large oval epith- 
elial cells. Tliis epitlielial layer undoubtedly extends around the vitel- 
ligenous cells also, but being there much thinner it is less apparent. 
The ovum now becomes elongated and of a distinct oval form, (fig. 10) 
causing a corresponding change in the shape of the capsule. As it con 
tinues to grow m size the different parts become better defined. The 
capsule becomes slightly constricted just behind the vitelligenous cells 
forming a 'head'' which is at first distinctly broader than the "body," 
as that part containing the ovum may be designated. (Fig. 10 ; re, vitel- 
ligenous cells ; g, gathering of granules connected with the ovum by a 
filament ; oc, membrane of the ovicapsule ; y, vitellous or yolk ; c/i, vitel- 
line membrane ; cp, layer of epithelial cells.) 

The ovum continues to grow very rapidly, while the vitelligenous cells 
increase in size more slowly, so that the "body" of the capsule soon be- 
comes distinctly broader than the " head." The vitellus is now (fig. 12) 
seen to be composed of vitelline or yolk globules of very variable size, 
some of them being very large. The cells of the epithelial layer are 
very distinct, and are seen to contain some fine granular matter. [In 
Borne diseased specimens which I examined the ovum was abortive, 
while the epithelial cells were abnormally developed, and the granules 
which they contained were seen to have a distinct vibratory movement.] 

The vitelligenous cells now gradually cease to increase in size, while 
the ovum continues to grow rapidly and the yolk globules become grad- 
ually more uniform in size and appearance. The epithelial cells begin 
to show indications of disintegration, and finally cease to exist as such. 
(Although there are three or four of the large vitelligenous cells it often 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 329 

happens that but two of them appear in focus under the microscope at 
the same time, and then they sometimes present a grotesque ovvl-lilie 
appearance.) 

It seems probable that the vitelline membrane really extends around 
and includes the vitelligenous cells, for, as the ovum approaciies its 
final development the yolk globules extend gradually into the '•head" 
forcing the vitelligenous cells into the upper p;irt (figs. 14-15). Tliis 
continues until the vitelligenous cells finally disappear altogether,— 
either being assimilated to the yolk globules or broken up and inter- 
spersed between them. The yolk globules are now of very uniform size 
and fill the entire ovum, including the " head'' (fig. 16). The epithelial 
cells have entirely disappeared, and a firm but elastic chorian has been 
formed around the ovum. The " head " is now but half the width and 
less than a third the length of the ovicapsule, the dimensions being about 
as follows : entire length of capsule 380 /^, greatest breadth 190// ; lengtli 
of head, 90 //, breadth 100 /^ ; length of body 2D() n. The yolk globules are 
about 15 fj. in diameter. 

"At the next stage in the development of the ovum an important change 
takes place. The membrane of the ovicapsule gives way about the neck 
and the ovum, in consequence of the elasticity of the chorion and 
vitellus, assumes a regular oval form, the '-head'' becoming completely 
collapsed, and its contents incorporated with that of the " body." After 
the collaps^ing of the head the vitellus is seen to be still inclosed in a 
vitelline membrane leaving a small space at each end between the 
vitellus and chorion. If at this period there is a nucleus or germinal 
vesicle I have not seen it, unless the gathering of granules at the two 
ends be such. Previous to this stage the vitellus stains readily with 
eosene, etc., now it does not, showing that the chorion has become com- 
pleted and all openings closed. The ovum being now a fully developed 
egg the membrane of the capsule gives way still more and allows the 
egg to slip out into the general cavity of the ovary. 

FERTILIZATION OF TUB EGG. 

During the whole period of the development of the ova, large numbers 
of the oval bodies (fig. 4) before mentioned {Pseudo-navicellcc.? ) are seen 
all around and about them. At about the time of the collapse of the 
*' head" of the ovicapsule a number of these bodies find their way inio 
the ovum in some manner not fully accounted for, possibly by suction 
caused by the collapse, in which case there must be an opening (or more 
than one) in the chorion. I have frequently seen from five to twenty or 
more of these bodies in the space at the anterior end between the vitellus 
and chorion. They very soon appear to become disintegrated and the 
inclosed granules set free. About the same time I have noticed a gath- 
ering of granules at each end of the egg, that at tlie anterior end being 
the larger; this granular substance spreads over the entire surface and 
forms what I have supposed to be the blastoderm. This formation of the 
blastoderm so promptly following the entrance of the oval bodies caused 
me for a long time to believe that the latter were spermatophores, but as I 



380 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

have already stated it is extremely difficult if not impossible to account 
for their development from the true sperm filaments of the male, and a 
possibly more important objection to this theory of mine is, that the oval 
bodies are found of perfect form in the females soon after the first ap- 
pearance of the males, and before there could possibly have been any de- 
velopment from the spermatozoa. The true mode of the fertilization of 
the egg in this species is still open for discovery. The following facts 
may be of use in the investigation : First, the eggs while still in the 
ovaries are often seen to contain embryos in an advanced state of devel- 
opment, and if the polar gatherings are an indication of segmentation 
the fertilization must have taken place before the egg has left the ovi- 
capsule ; Second, a careful study of a large number of females has failed 
to reveal any other bodies in the ovaries than those mentioned; Thirds 
I have never seen a filamentary spermatozoon anywhere in a female, 
except in the spermatheca ; Fourth, There are never in the spermatheca 
a sufiicient number of spermatozoa to fertilize more than a very small 
fraction of the entire number of eggs laid and producing young ; Fifth, 
the number of spermatozoa remaining in the spermatheca after the eggs 
are nearly all laid is less than in the fall, showing that some have been 
used, but a fair proportion remain unused ; Sixth, each sperm filament 
of the male is longer than the entire egg and of such a size as not easily 
to escape detection ; Seventh, the shape of the vagina is such that an 
egg could be fertilized while on its passage out; Seventh, in Lecanium 
hesperidum, of which no male has ever been found, the development of 
the egg is almost exactly the same as in this Pulvinaria, except the 
number of ova is much less, and they are developed in broods, so that 
all the stages can not be seen at once, and the embryos are fully devel- 
oped and the eggs hatched while still in the ovaries, thus showing that 
the eggs in that species are fertilized, if at all, while still in the ovaries. 
Should it be that a part only of tlie eggs are fertilized by spermatozoa, 
it may be that these produce one sex while those unfertilized produce 
the other, the latter most probably females. It would be an interesting 
experiment to carefully separate a colony of females until after the 
males had disappeared, this I have not been able to accomplish as yet. 

THE LAYING OF THE EGG. 

The egg havini,' escaped from its capsule into the general cavity of the 
ovary, is now crowded by its fellow eggs into the oviduct, and thence 
into the vagina and through the vulva and oviduct into the egg nest. 
While in the ovary the shell appears perfectly smooth, but in its passage 
through the vagina it probably becomes coated with a viscid substance 
secreted by the vaginal glands, wliich causes the fine dust-like rings 
secreted by the abdominal pores to adliere to the surface, giving an or- 
namented appearance to the egg shell. Tlie egg now takes its place 
with the other eggs in the egg nest. It thus appears tliat the egg laying 
is almost entirely accomplished by the involuntary crowding of the de- 
veloping eggs, and hence when the eggs are few in number, as in L, 
hesperidum, they are not laid at all, but remain in the ovary until hatched. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 331 

THE EGG NEST. 

The egg nest is formed of cylindrical white fibres or filaments of wax, 
secreted by the peripheral spines of the mother louse, its posterior end 
being constantly pushed farther and farther back by the crowding of 
the moie recently laid eggs, and the continued secretion of the waxen 
fibres. The eggs first laid are thus found at che end farthest removed 
from the insect. The waxen fibres are quite adhesive to one another, 
forming a perfectly close covering to the eggs, which however separates 
quite easily along the median line— showing that no waxen filaments are 
secreted from the anal fissure. This fibrous structure causes the nest 
to appear faintly striated longitudinally, and the successive layers of 
eggs often make it appear somewhat coarsely waved transversely, with 
the waves approximately parallel to the posterior periphery of the abdo- 
men. Permeating all through the nest are filaments secreted by the 
sub-abdominal spines, and a quantity of powdery matter, the secretion 
of the sub-abdominal pores. When highly magnified this dust is seen to 
be in the form of rings. Under ordinary circumstances tlie egg nest 
extends to a distance beyond the tip of the abdomen, equal to from once 
to more than twice the entire length of the mother. The waxen fila- 
ments are adhesive and very elastic so that the fibres of the egg nest can 
be pulled out six inches or more. They melt upon the application of heat 
are soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, turpentine, oil, etc., and inso- 
luble in water, glycerine, nitric acid, etc. 

LAST DAYS OF TUE FEMALE. 

Soon after the middle of May the female begins to lay her eggs, envel- 
oping them in a nest of white waxen fibres, forming a beautiful white 
cushion — whence the name of Pulvinaria. This gradually raises the ab- 
domen of the female from the bark until often an angle of 45° or more 
is reached (figs. 39, c; 41 ; 42), causing the back to become more or less 
transversely wrinkled. The laying of tlie eggs continues often into the 
early part of July, the entire laying period lasting from five to seven 
weeks, varying somewhat with the seasons, the health of the trees 
and of the insects themselves. Her beak remains inserted in the bark all 
the time absorbing the sap. The entire number of eggs laid in each 
nest is rarely if ever less than 500, and must often exceed 2,000, thougli 
as I have not attempted to count the number in the larger nests this is 
only an estimate.* In fact the mother continues to lay eggs until she 
dies from her own sheer exhaustion, or that of the tree upon which she 
dwells, with her ovaries still filled with ova in all stages of development. 
The entire life of the female from her birth to her death is thus about 
thirteen months. The length of time elapsing after impregnation by 
tiie male until the first eggs are laid is fully nine mouths— but of tliese 
at least five are passed in a dormant state. After the females have died 
they dry up and the beak breaks off, but they still continue attached to 
the limb by means of the egg nests which remain frequently for a year 
■or more. 

*Dr. S. S. Rathvon states, in his pcaper in Perm. Farm Journal, 1854, that he counted in 
>one of tliese nests 564 livinst insects and over 300 e<!;£rs not hatched. 



332 DAVENPOKT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

DISEASES. 

Besides disease caused by insufficient food, this insect appears to be 
subject to some one or u^ore diseases whose nature is unknown to me. 
At all events a considerable number of both sexes and of all ages are 
noticed to die without any assii^nable cause, wliile their companions on 
the same leaf remain healthy. Some of tlie deaths are no doubt caused 
by wounds from enemies, others by difficulty in moulting, etc. The 
most critical periods, or those in wliich the most deaths are noticed ap- 
pear to be as follows : the young lice just after settling on the leaf, the 
male pupse just before completing their transformation, and the females 
in the spring, probably not having sufficient vitality to revive from the 
winter dormancy. Diseases of the ovaries have also been observed. In 
some the ovicapsules will be developed as usual, but with the ovum 
abortive or absent; in others the spermatheca becomes contracted and 
shriveled. In tliese cases a small amount of waxy matter is secreted, 
but no eggs are laid. An abnormally formed egg has already been men- 
tioned. The females which have settled on the underside of the leaves 
against the veins are nearly always distorted, often nearly straight on 
one side and convex on the other, making them very lop-sided. 

The depletion of the trees naturally reacts on the insects, and it is a 
fact of frequent notice that the females on healthy trees are larger, of 
more healtiiy appearance, and lay more eggs than ihose on sickly trees. 
It appears that sickly trees produce a greater number of males, and that 
on them both males and females mature earlier, by several days or even 
a week, than on healthy trees. In explanation of tliis fact. Dr. George 
Engelmann. the Botanist, has suggested to me that the sap of diseased 
trees contains more sugar than that of healthy trees. 

PARASITES. 

I have observed the following parasites in Pulvinaria innumerabilis : 

1. The minute spherical bodies with a vibratory movement already 
described on page 326, which may possibly be Bacteria. 

2. The oval bodies ( Pseudo-navicellce f ) described on page 326. 

3. Elongated oval or fusiform bodies divided into two or four large 
quadrilateral cells. So far only noticed a few times in females at the 
time of the appearance of the males. 

4. Coccophdcni)' lecanii Smith,* a small hymenopterons insect belong- 
ing to the family Chalcidce. It is of a dark ashy black color with a large 
transverse lunate spot of bright yellow on the thorax behind the wings, 
and the feet paler. The wings are quite hairy, the fore wings have a 
single subcostal vein exteiiding parallel with the costa more than half 
way to the tip where it sends a very short branch inward and outward 
abruptly terminating in an enlargement. The pupa is of a pale gray 

* I am Tcrj- mnch inclined to think that PlatygoBter lecanii described hy Fitch in his 5th 
New YorVw Report, as infe.«liug Lecaninm qiiercilronn may prove to be really a Coccophngus 
nearly allied if not identical with this species. The description applies too well to easily be- , 
lieve that the two species belong to diflferent families. In this event Dr, Fitch's reference to 
the Proctotrupidee is of course wrong. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINAEIA INNUMEEABILIS. 333 

color with antennae, legs and wings free but rudimentary. It is usually 
found with its head directed towards tlie posterior end of its host, and 
with its cast-off larval skin near the opposite end. There is generally 
but one pupa present in one host at the same time, but in the gestated 
female there are sometimes several. The larva Is an elongated soft 
fleshy worm, of watery color, with articulations indistinct ; legs and 
mandibles present, but exceedingly minute. It is more elongated in its 
earlier stages. The egg is oval, nearly elliptical, less than twice as long 
as broad. Not more than one or two eggs are deposited in the same 
host. The figures of the pupa and the imago given by Miss Smith are 
quite accurate. 

This parasite has been very numerous in this locality during the past 
three years, and it has destroyed a very considerable proportion of the 
Pulvinaricf which have escaped the lady beetles. There seem to be 
two broods each year, appearing in May and August, with some interme- 
diate stragglers. The alfected lice are easily recognized by being more 
or less iiiHated, becoming much more elevated than their fellows, 
finally turning to a pitchy black color and becoming hard and rigid. 
Although most often found in the females, I have in a few cases 
found them in undoubted male scales. During the summer while the 
Pulvinaria is small the (Joccophagus makes its exit by pressing apart the 
dorsal and ventral surfaces, but later when the Pulvinaria is larger, it 
cuts a small round hole in the dorsal integument through which it 
emerges. The manner of cutting this hole, I have observed in an allied 
species inhabiting a large bark louse on the hickory, (Lecanium carya: 
Fitch V) and is as follows : After gnawing from the inside until an 
opening is made, the insect with its mandibles takes in as much of the 
shell of its hosts back as possible, and makes a cut through ; it then 
moves along and makes another cut just so as to be continuous with the 
tirst cut. This continues until the piece thus separated becomes broken 
off mainly by its own weight, when it is thrown oi^t, and a new series of 
cuts is commenced. It continues in this manner to go round and round 
the opening until the circular hole becomes large enough for it to get its 
body through, in the meantime testing it occasionally to see if it is 
suflflcient. 

5. I have on one occasion foimd two hymenoptorous pupae of yellow- 
ish color in a female during the egg-laying season, and which evidently 
belong to a different species from the last. 

ENEMIES. 

In addition to suffering from the attacks of the above parasites. Pul- 
vinaria innumerahilis suffers great havoc from the attacks of various 
predacious insects belonging to the Coleoptera, Neuroptera and Hemip- 
tera. Among these I have observed the following : 

1. CMlocorus hivulnerus, Muls., a shining black hemispherical beetle, 
about 5 ™™ in diameter, with a bright red sublunate spot on each elytron. 
This beetle, with its grayish-black spiny larva, occurs in great abundance 

[Proc. D. A. N. S., Vol. II.] 44 [Jan. 1880,] 



334 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

during the early summer, giving its attention mainly to the young larvae 
of the bark lice, of which it destroys great numbers. When about to 
pupate, the larva attaches itself to the bark, and the skin then dries and 
splits along the back partially disclosing the pupa within. Large groups 
of these pupse are often seen about the junction of the larger branches 
with the trunk. These are often regarded by the ignorant as but a dif- 
ferent form of the bark louse, and are ruthlessly destroyed by them. 

2. Huperaspis signata, Oliv., a lady beetle of very similar form and 
appearance to the last, but of about half the size and with the red spots 
on the elytra entirely circular in form. The larva however, is very dif- 
ferent, of a whitish color, covered with a white downy substance, and 
dwelling habitually in the egg nests of the Pulvinaria. Often two or 
more of these larvse are found in a single nest, and do great havoc 
among the eggs and newly hatched bark lice. Egg nests containing 
tiiese larvae can generally be recognized by being partially separated 
along the median line, and later by their flabby appearance. These 
larvae are occasionally seen to migrate from one nest to another. When 
ready to pupate they leave the egg nest and descend the tree in search of 
some crevice wherein to undergo their transformations. While on this 
search they often wander a considerable distance, and thus sometimes 
prove a possible means of spreading the Pulvinaria. Like the Chiloc- 
oriis they are often mistaken for the bark-lice themselves, and unwit- 
tingly destroyed. Mr. Riley informs me that he has also raised Hyper- 
aspis biyeminata. Rand, from specimens furnished by me. 

3. I have several times observed a small black species of Scymnus on 
the twigs, and a small larva probably of the same dwelling in the egg- 
nests, like the last species. 

4. Anatis lo-puncMta, Olivier, both imigo and larva, I have found in 
small numbers feeding upon this Pulvinaria. 

5. The larva of a species of Chrysopa I have frequently observed 
feeding upon the young lice. They probably injure as many by wounds 
from their long mandibles as they actually devour. 

6-7. The larva; of two species of Eeduvidm have been observed prey- 
ing upon them. 

In addition to the above enemies Miss Smith mentions an Acarus. I 
have never observed an Acarus upon a Pulvinaria., but I have found 
them often excessively abundant under the scales of an Aspidiotus oc- 
curring on the same twigs.* 

MANNER OF DISTRIBUTION. 

The manner in which this insect is transported from tree to tree, and 
from place to place is a matter of some economical interest. The young 
lice are able and do move about quite actively. They can easily crawl 



*Prof. J. H. Comstock lias recently described (Prairie i*'ar»i«/% Oct. 2.5tli, 1879), a lepi- 
dopterous insect under the name oi Dakruma coccidivora, the larva of which dwells in the 
nests of Pulvinaria innurnerabilis, and constructs tubular passages out of the waxen fibers. 
I have never observed any traces of this msect in this locality. It apjiears to be allied to the 
bee moth (Gallerio) in its babitx, and it occurs to ine that its attraction in the egg-nests of 
Pulvinaria may be the waxen fibers and dust rather than the eggs themselves. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 335 

from one tree to another in the close vicinity, but are not likely to go 
any great distance in this manner. During the laying and hatching of 
the eggs the females excrete a quantity of sweetish liquid or honey-dew 
which is a great attraction to flies, bees, ants, etc., and it very frequently 
happens that the young lice find their way on to the legs and bodies of 
these visitors and are thus often carried to a considerable distance. I 
have several times observed them on the legs of flies taken at a distance 
from any infested trees. In case a tree or branch should die any time 
during the summer or fall, or even la the early spring, the females would 
withdraw their beaks and migrate until they found a fresh supply of 
suitable food. [In case this migration took place after the leaves had 
appeared in the spring, it is probable that some of them would settle on 
the leaves, and thus account for the egg-nests observed on the leaves by 
Dr. Rathvon, 'and figured by Mr. Riley.] 

It is probably first introduced into new localities on trees which 
are transplanted from place to place. This also probably accounts in 
part for its being found more generally on the soft maple, for this has 
always, in this part of the countuy, been a favorite shade tree for plant- 
ing in the streets of towns on account of its rapid growth, its beauty and 
its hardiness. A little care exercised in the examination of trees before 
planting would in many cases prevent their introduction altogether. 
With a very little practice an infested tree can be recognized with ease. 

I have observed some peculiar features in their local distribution. 
During the tliirteen years they have been known in Davenport they have 
become distributed throughout a radius of less than twenty blocks of -iOU 
feet each, (a little more than one mile). Yet there are many soft maples 
within this area that are entirely unaffected by them. One particular 
case will serve as an example. On the corner of Sixth and Fillmore 
streets is one of the worst infested trees in the whole city ; during 1877-8 
it was loaded down with all the Fulvinarice it would bear, and as if this 
were not enough it was thoroughly infested with a species of AsjncUotus 
in addition, also by an ^geria and other insects. On each side of 
this tree is a row of two or three maples of the same age and kind, the 
two standing next the infested tree actually interlocking branches with 
it, and yet none of these trees have had more than a few score of Pulvi- 
nxria females at a time— for all practical purposes, being entirely free 
from their depleting effects. Other similar cases have been frequently 
noticed, but the reason of it is unknown to me. 

Another feature of their distribution is that they are of very rare oc- 
currence in the country, while they become excessively abundant in 
cities and towns. I may further say I have never seen them upon the 
soft maple, or any other tree while growing in a state of nature, with the 
possible exception of one single individual once found on a wild grape 
vine. The locality of the origin of this species is as yet unknown. Its 
known range is from Xew York and Maryland on the east, to Minnesota, 
Iowa, and Missouri on the w^est. 



336 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

EFFECT ON THE TREES. 

As may be easily imagined the effect of so extensive a diversion of 
the sap from its legitimate functions, soon shows its ill effects upon the 
tree. In the case of the soft maple, the green of the leaves begins to fade 
away until they turn yellow and prematurely fall off, then the smaller 
outer extremities of the twigs die, and if the devastation is very exces- 
sive or prolonged the larger branches follow until finally the entire tree 
dies. But this last event is not very common, for which we must prob- 
ably thank the enemies and p irasites. Badly affected trees become 
more stunted in their growth, their leaves smaller and weaker, the ordi- 
nary pale grayish bark becomes very dark, almost blackish, thus render- 
ing it very easy to recognize an infested tree from a distance. They 
also put forth their leaves later and shed them earlier than healthy trees. 

My observations have been mostly made on the soft maple, but the 
effect upon other trees is probably not essentially different. I have not 
the exact data, but I think I am safe in saying that less than five per 
cent, of the trees infested with this insect during the past thirteen years 
iiave died therefrom. This would probably be less than one per cent, of 
the trees liable to their attacks in this city. But this is a mere estimate 
and simply conveys the impression made upon me. 

REMEDIES, 

The best remedy known to me is to cultivate and protect the parasites 
and enemies already described. The survival of the trees infested with 
Pulvinaria in Davenport is undoubtedly due almost entirely to them. 
At all events great care should be taken to preserve these enemies, 
and caution should be used in destroying the injurious insects that we do 
not destroy the beneficial ones also. 

Of artificial remedies the simplest is that of "heading in" the tree, 
[i. e. cutting off the branches so as to leave only the trunk and larger 
limbs), and then removing the lice from the remaining portion by hand 
or otherwise. This appears to be the favorite method in use in Daven- 
port, but it does not add anything to the beauty of the trees, though the 
soft maples stand this severe ordeal very well. Tliis operation seems to 
succeed best Avhen done in the early summer. On small trees the lice 
can be removed without much difficulty by hand-picking, or crushing. 

In using liquid applications several facts must be taken into consider- 
ation ; 1st, the effect on the Pulvinaria ; 2d, the effect on the parasites 
and enemies ; 3d, the effect on the tree; 4th, the cost. Under the first 
head I made a few tests, of the effects of various chemicals, such as 
I happened to have at hand, upon the young larva, egg-nests and 
adult females, and as a result I may state that alcohol and spirits, 
chloroform, ether, turpentine or other oils, causes the death of the insect 
in all stages even when fully protected by their waxen coats, while 
water, acids (such as nitric and acetic) and alkaline solutions (such as 
solution of potash) had no effect whatever even on the young larvae. 
Very probably a prolonged submersion in these substances would cause 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 337 

death, but such an application is of course not practicable. This subject 
is worthy of furtlier more careful experiment. Solutions containing soai) 
would do better, as the oily grease would act as a penetrating medium. 
Under the 2d head it is quite probable that any poison which would des- 
troy the wax-protected bark lice would also destroy their unprotected 
enemies. Under the 3d head I have no definite observations to report, 
the effect on the trees can only be ascertained by experiments which I 
, have not performed. Under the 4th head it is plain that to syringe a 
tree with alcohol at $2.50 per gallon, even if considerably diluted would 
not pay, and so it is with most of the other articles I have mentioned, 
but probably some oily substances can be found which will be cheaper 
in their application. The use of oil as a remedy against the bark-lice 
has long been well known and was particularly recommended by Dr. 
Fitch. 

Miss Emily A. Smith recommends the following plan :* "Charge a 
Hre extinguisher in the usual manner with bi-carbonate of soda and sul- 
piiuric acid ; add to the water one spoonful of carbolic acid to every eight 
gallons of water ; apply this to the tree and the force from the extin- 
guisher will convey the fluid to all parts of the tree alike." This plan 
has been tried in Peoria and found a success, the applications being 
made twice on each tree during the time the young lice are hatcliing. 
The cost does not exceed twenty cents an application. Mr. Riley has 
suggested that kerosene oil be substituted for tlie carbolic acid, as it 
would then be effectual even after the waxen coats had foraied.f 
Making the substitution proposed by Mr. Riley, this is probably the 
best artificial remedy yet suggested. But before undertaking to destroy 
the lice artificially, first ascertain what the natur'al enemies are doing, 
and if these are abundant and at work it may often be better to let them 
have their own way, rather than destroy them also, unless there is a fair 
prospect of completely exterminating the bark lice, both on your own 
trees and tliose of your near neighbors. J 

* American Xatiira/ist. Vol. XII, 1878, page 808. 

+ Canadian Entomologist, Vol. X, 1878, page 177. 

:J Of the ranuT other remedies which have been recommended 1 will mention three that 
have come under my notice. Our member. Dr. T. J. lies, in June, 1871, after " headlns; in"' 
his trees washed the remaining limbs with a mixture consisting of "three gallons each of 
soft soap and water, one quart of carbolic acid."' This appears to have checked the lice for 
a time, but from some canee the trees finally died. Another of our members, Mr. John Hnnie, 
informs me that he has successfully treated his trees by boring holes through the bark and 
tilling them with sulphur. I am at a loss to know how the sap could absorb enough sulphur 
to kill the lice without injuring the tree it^elf. I think the lice must have disappeared from 
some other cause, such as the increase of parasites. On a tree thus treated with sulphur 
which came under my daily notice in 1871, there was no apparent effect whatever either on 
the tree or the lice. Another remedy which is being continually recommended is the intro- 
duction of the English sparrow. This bird was introduced into our city some years ago and 
is now exceedingly abundant, yet I have never on any occasion seen one touch a bark louse, 
or any other insect, — they appear to subsist almost entirely upon the grain continually being 
dropped in the streets. 



338 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

FOOD PLANTS. 

I have observed the Pulvinaria innumerabilis in great abundance on 
the soft or silver maple [Acer dasycarpum, Ehrhart) the box-elder [Xe- 
gundo oceroides, Mcench.), the liuden (Itlia eurojxen), and the sugar 
maple [Acer saccliari7\um, Wang.), on each of whicli it thrives well, 
I have also found it, or had it brought to ine, on locust [Robinia pseud- 
acacia, L), Concord grape vine, ( Vilis labrusca, L), sumac ( Wiusglahra, L), 
etc., but in each of these cases there were infested maples in the near 
vicinity. In one instance I have found a single under-sized Pulvinaria 
and nest on a wild grape vine ( Vitis riparia, Michx.) more than half a 
mile distant from the nearest infested maple. 

Although found most commonly on the soft maple, it appears to thrive 
equally will on the box-elder and the linden. In fact those on the box- 
elder appear to develop the best and most rapidly. They do not thrive 
so well on the sugar maple. 

Dr. S. S. Rathvon has observed it on soft maple, linden, rose and 
beech— the latter two on but one occasion each. 

iMiss Emily A. Smith reports it as occurring on soft maple, sugar maple 
and box-elder. More recently she writes me that she lias studied a Pul- 
naria on willow, and on osage orange which she regards as identical with 
innuvierahilis. 

Mr. C. V. Riley writes me that he has "every reason to suppose that 
this same species occurs not only on the hard maple, but on grape vine, 
osage orange, oak, linden, elm and sycamore, and without doubt another 
which occurs on rose, currant, and on the spindle tree [Euronymus] is 
identical.'" Mr. Riley also writes me, that in 1870 he "experimented in 
transferring it [P. innumerubilis] on to various trees and shrubs. The 
specimens were received in June from Prof. D. S. Sheldon, Davenport, 
Iowa, and successfully stationed themselves on Vitis:'' ^ 

I do not feel fully prepared to agree with Mr. Riley and Miss Smith iu 
regarding all the Pulrinarice found on these plants as identical, but there 
is enough evidence to show that this insect is capable of thriving on 
quite a variety of food plants, and in the cases where it has been directly 
introduced from the maple there is no question of its identity. 

OTHER SPECIES OF PULVINARIA. 

Dr. V. Signoret in his valuable " Essai sur les Cochenilles" t has 
brought together descriptions of all the known species of Pulvinaria. 
These are eighteen in number as follows : 1, P. artemisice Lieht, on Ar- 
teviisia, Europe ; 2, betulce Linn6, on Betulla alba, Europe ; 3, camellicola 
Signoret, on C'cmellia japonica, in hot-houses; 4, carpiin Linn<'^ on Car- 
pinus stcEchus, Europe ; fS, cestri Bouch(?, on Cestrum and other Malva- 
ceae, Europe ; 1 6, evonymi Goureau, France ; t7, fagi Hardy, on Beech^ 



* Mr. Riley has necently sent me specimens of Pulvinaria on sycamore, elm and hack- 
berry. In their dried condition it is impossible to say whether they are or are not of the same 
species. In size and aspect they are very similar to innumerabilis. 

+ Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 1872, pages 29-48. 



PUTNAM ON rULYINARIA INNUMERABILIS. 339 

England and Germany; 8,fraxini Licht, on Fraxinus excelsior, Europe ; 
9, gasteralpha leery, on sugar cane, Mauritius ; f 10, lanatus, Gmelin, on 
oak, Europe ; 11, mesambrianthemi Vallot, on Mesambrianthemum, Central 
■ Europe; 12, oxyacanthce Linn^, on Crataegus oxyacantha, Europe; fl'S, 
pyri Fitch, on Pear, United States ; 14, popuU Signoret, on Populus 
nigra, Europe ; 15, ribesice, Signoret, on wild and red currant, France ; 
16, salicis Fitch, {salicis Bouch(5 ?), on Salix viminalis. United States 
(Europe?); 17, tremuloe Signoret, on Populus tremula, Europe; 18, vitis, 
Linne, on Fitis vinifera, Europe. Those species marked with a dagger 
(t) were unknown to Signoret, and are very imperfectly described. Many 
of the others are known in only one or two stages, mostly the gestated 
female or the young larva. In addition to the difference in food plants 
and habitat innumerabilis differs from all of them either in the general 
form, size, color and markings, or in various minute anatomical partic- 
ulars such as the number and proportions of the joints of the antennae 
and of the hairs which they bear, the proportions of the tarsus, tibia and 
femur, of the digituli, the length of the buccal setae, etc. Our innumera- 
bilis however agrees most closely with the description and figures of 
vitis. The only important difference I can find is that the male of vitis 
has two ocellae on each side, while innumerabilis has but one. As innu- 
merabilis thrives well on the grape, the thought has occurred to me that 
it might be identical with vitis. However, I sent specimens of innumer- 
nbilis to M. Signoret and he regards them as distinct from any species 
known to him, which mnst settle the question until the contrary is 
proved by a careful comparative examination of fresh specimens. 

I will now say a few words regarding the species described as occur- 
ring in the United States. 

Lecanium pyri Fitch. In his first report, pages 105-7, Dr. Fitch 
describes a large bark louse on the pear, ' a hemispherical chest- 
nut brown scale, the size of half a pea ;" the eggs and young lice 
were found under the dried scale of the female, which, together with 
the figure, shows that it was a true Lecanium, and his reference to L. 
pyri Schrank, is probably correct. But in the next paragraph he says : 
" Beneath the scales the young lice are interspersed through a mass of 
white cotton-like matter. This subsequently increases in volume and 
protrudes from under one end of the scale, elevating it from the bark, as 
shown in the annexed cut." This is evidently a true Pulvinaria and 
certainly a distinct species and genus from the first, but whether it is 
vitis, innumerabilis, or an hitherto undescribed species, it is impossible to 
tell. It is again mentioned in Fitch's Third Report, No. 53, and in the 
American Entomologist, Vol. I, page 14, the latter reference being to a 
true Lecanium. 

Pulvinaria salicis, Bouch6. Under this name Signoret has described a 
species received from Dr. Asa Fitch, found on the willow.* It is nearly 
allied to P.popidi, but differs from that, as well as from innumerabilis, 
in having the fourth joint of the antenna longest, and in some other 

* Annales Soc. Ent. France, 1872, p. 44. 



840 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

small details. Dr. Fitch's original description of this insect, which 
appears to have been unknown to Signoret. is as follows : '' The Willow 
Coccus, C salicis, is ferruginous with obsolete black spots, has an oval 
nearly hemispherii- form, and measures 0.20 in length, (No. 873). The- 
Linden Coccus, C tillrf, the largest of our species that have been ob- 
served, is ferruginous, hemispheric, and measures 0.24, (No. 874). Both 
these species have the usual slit at the posterior end, and are wrinkled 
transversely."* Miss Smith writes me that she has found innumerabilis 
on willow in Chicago, so it remains a question whether salicis is really 
a distinct species. It is also quite possible that C. tilice, if not a ieca- 
nium, may be identical with P. innumerabilis. 

Pulvinaria vitis, Lmn('. This species is Uientioned by Fitch in his 
Third Report, No. 96, as affecting the stalk of the grape. I find it also 
mentioned in Walsh and Riley's American Entomologist, Vol. I, page 
14, t and Vol. 11, page 276 ; and in the Country Gentleman of July 17th, 
1879, there is a notice of this species by Dr. J. A. Lintuer, in which he 
states that it is identical with a Coccus on tlie grape noticed in the 
Country Gentleman for July 4th, 1878. This however, is an error, for 
while the former is a Pulvinaria, the latter is very evidently a true Le- 
canium, probably of the same species as one I have found quite common 
on a wild grape vine [Vitis riparia, Michx.,) in this locality, and which 
appears to be undescribed, though approacliing Lecanium mori Signo- 
ret, of the mulberry in general appearance. As innumet obiHs is not in- 
frequently found on the grape vine, it may be that some of these refer- 
ences relate to that species. 

Lecanium macluro; Walsh and Riley. American Entomologist, Vol. I, 
1868, page 14. This species was described in the same article with L. 
acericola already mentioned, and is said to be fouud "inconsiderable 
numbei's on the twigs and leaves of the osage orange at Wilmington, 
and also in the vicinity of Alton, Illinois." The scale (?) is said to be 
" of a blood brown color, as usual in the genus to which the insect 
belongs," and the young larva? are said to be " remarkable for having a 
longitudinal dark line along the back." This ''dark line" evidently 
refers to the loop of the buccal setae in the abdomen, as all writers on 
the CocciDvE who were unacquainted with the strrcture of this organ 
appear to have fallen into the same error. The rest of the notice is quite 
general, but together with the figure, shows it to be a true Pulvinaria. 
As we have already seen, Mr. Riley now regards the species on osage 
orange as identical with innumerabilis, and Miss Smith who has made a 
comparative study of the two species during the past summer, writes 
me that she also regards them as identical. Prof. Townend Glover in 
the Beport of the Department of Agriculture for 1876, page 44, had already 
suggested that acericola and mochirce were probably but varieties of acer- 
icorticis Fitch. 

♦Fourth Report N. Y. State Cabinet of Natural History, p. 69. Albany, 18.51. 
1 The species here spoken of 86 L. vitis is a Lecanium, and therefore Bot the true Pu[ 
vinaria vitis. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INJfUMERABILIS. 341 

In Harris's Insects Injurious to Vegetation (new edition, page 252), is 
a general allusion to bark-lice which bed their eggs in a considerable 
qviantity of down, accompanied with a very good figure of a true Pulvi- 
naria, but without mentioning any particular species. This figure is 
copied by Dr. A. S. Packard, jr., into the American Nattiralist, Vol. I, 
page 223, where it is said to be " the Coccus adonidum on the peach." 
This name is certainly an error, for it bears but little resemblance to 
that species. I have seen no other reference to a Pulvinaria on the 
peach. 

The above are all the references to American species of Ptdvinaria 
which I have been able to find to this date. The nearly related genus 
Lecanium, from Avhich Ptdvinaria has been separated, contains a much 
larger number of species, none of which have yet been well studied in 
this country. 

FINAL REMARKS. 

My study of this insect commenced in 1871 with simply the idea 
of finding out all that could be known concerning it, and in this paper I 
have attempted to put in writing what I have learned up to this time. 
After four years of careful study of this one insect, I am still far 
from realizing the ideal with which I started out. The amount that can 
be learned from one insect appears to be infinite, and to this day I never 
look at an inmtmerabilis without learning something new. I publish 
this paper now in its imperfect state, becau se, Jlrst, it has long been 
promised, and, second, I wish to give my attention to some other inves- 
tigations already commenced. I have doubtless fallen into some errors, 
which it will give me great pleasure to have corrected by those 
who are able and willing. I have labored under great disadvan- 
tage in having access to but very little of the literature relating to 
the embryology and development of insects. I have, however, derived 
some help in this matter from Huxley's Anatomy of Invertebrated An- 
imals, Burnett's Siebold's Anatomy of the Invertebrata, Burraeister's 
Manual of Entomology, Packard's Guide to the Study of Insects, and 
several other general and special works. I have also received consid- 
erable assistance from Dr. E. L. Mark who, besides sending me a copy 
of his " Beitrage zur Anatomic and Histologie der Pflanzenliiuse,'' has in 
the course of several letters given me a large amount of information 
upon the present knowledge of the development and embryology of the 
insects most nearly related to the one I have studied. 

Dr. V. Signoret has placed me under great obligations by the commu- 
nication of a copy of his valuable " Essai sur les Cochenilles," and for 
several letters on the nomenclature and anatomy of this and other 
coccids. 1 am also indebted to Mr. C. V. Eiley for the communication 
of numerous notes on this species, for the loan of such specimens of 
allied species as were contained in his collection, and especially for the 
loan of a copy of Dr. Rathvon's paper in which innumerabilis was first 
described; to Dr. S. S. Rathvon of Lancaster, Pa., for several valuable 
letters regarding his original observations on this species ; to Dr. Joseph 

[Proc D, A. N. S., Vol. II.] 45 [Jan. 1880 J 



342 DAVENPORT ACADEMV OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Leidy for a copy of his report already referred to, and for a number of 
specimens of innumerabllis from Philadelphia ; to Dr. J. A. Lintner for 
a copy of Fitch's article on acericorticis ; to Mr. J. V. Walton of Musca- 
tine, for a piece of grape vine infested with innumerabilis ; to Mr. H. F. 
Atwood of Chicago, for valuable information regarding the preparation 
of these insects for the microscope ; and to our members, Mr. A. S. Tif- 
fany, Mr. W. H. Pratt, Dr. E. H. Ilazen. Dr. C. C. Parry, Mr. John 
Hume, Mr. Simpson, Mr. John Temple, and many others for specimens 
and information, and assistance of various kinds. To Miss Emily A. 
Smith of Peoria, Illinois, who has made a contemporaneous study of this 
species, I am specially indebted Cor the frequent communication of her 
observations and discoveries, which for the most part have served to 
confirm my own, In some cases to anticipate them, and only in few es- 
sential particulars appear to differ from mine. To the subjects of habits, 
parasites and remedies she has given more attention than I have done. 

In making this study I have used a McAllister's Physician's Microscope 
stand, with H, I and 1-5 objectives by Wm. Wales, and magnifying from 
5 to 450 diameters. The stand is small, but I found it very convenient 
for this kind of work. The objectives were of the cheapest, low angled 
form, but worked very satisfactorily, except that in some cases a greater 
amplification would have been desirable. 

. In pursuing this study I have prepared a series of more than 200 mi- 
croscopic slides, illustrating every stage of the developmentof this insect, 
and containing from one to more than 100 specimens on each. These have 
been prepared by the following methods ; 1st, mounted directly in pure 
glycerine; 2d, placed first in alcohol, then in glycerine and mounted in 
glycerine ; 3d, placed first in oil of cloves, or in turpentine, and mounted 
in Canada balsam ; 4th, placed first in solution of potash, then in water, 
then in alcohol, then in turpentine, and mounted in Canada balsam ; .5th, 
mounted directly in solution of »alycilic acid; 6th, in solution of acetic 
acid ; 7th, in solution of white of hen's egg, and 8tl), in pure water. Each 
of these methods has its special advantages and neither is to be relied 
upon implicitly. My studies have been made by a comparison of all 
these and of great numbers of living individuals, the whole number ex- 
amined carefully amounts to several thousand examples, with an infinite 
number examined superficially. For all observations recorded in this 
paper I am alone responsible, except where it is expressly stated other- 
wise. 

A large number of drawings were made witli and without the aid of 
a camera lucida, of which only a selection is given on the plates. The 
plates are my first attempts at etching on steel and naturally are quite 
imperfect, as it is difficult without experience to produce just the desired 
effect, but the outlines are, I think, very nearly correct. The figures 
have all been carefully drawn to scale, and the amount of amplification 
annexed in every case. I regret that I was not more uniform in the .use 
of reference letters on the plates, but the importance of this matter did 
not fully impress me until after the etching had been completed. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNtTMEEABILlS. 34:3 

Explanation of Plates XII and XIII. 

PULVINARIA INNtrjIERABILIS. • 

Fig. 1. Posterior portion of the generative organs of a female in Oc- 
tober, about six weeks after fecundation ; a, spermatheca ; b, its wall ; c, 
filamentary spermatozoa ; cZ-e, narrow neck leading from the sperma- 
theca to the vagina ; e-m, vagina ; /, cavity in vagina above outlets of 
oviducts, containing some not very well defined substance ; t, thick cel- 
lular wall of vagina; /l,/l^ oviducts ; t-i^ supposed glandular enlargements 
of oviducts [probably an erroneous observation]; k, outlet of the ovi- 
ducts; i, supposed muscular contraction, [probable outlet of vaginal 
glands] ; m, vulva ; o, six vulvular spines supposed to act as an oviposter ; 
t, end of anal fissure, inturning of eighth segment ; q, q' suture between 
Seventh and eighth segments ; n, n^ suture between sixth and seventh seg- 
ments; _p, and r, wax-secreting spines on the seventh and eighth seg- 
ments ; s, ventral wax-secreting pores ; s*", one of these more enlarged, 
vshowing a number of fine pores set around a central tubercle. Magnified 
»50 diameters. See page 323. 

Fig. 2. Minute spherical bodies having a vibratory motion, found in 
the female, a, 300^, 6, 500 diameters. See page 326. 

Fig. 3. Spherical bodies found in female, probably immature and de- 
tached ovicapsules ; a-i, different appearances of these bodies, 150 diam- 
eters ; k, 330 diameters. See page 327. 

Fig. 4. Oval bodies, (Pseudo-navicellcB f) tonnd in female, once sup- 
posed to be sperm atophoi-es ; a, 150 diameters ; 6-e, different forms, mag- 
nified about 500 diameters. See page 326. 

Fig. 5. Groups or clusters of ovicapsules in various stages of forma- 
tion as seen in the ovaries; a. a small immature group ; b. a larger, more 
advanced group ; c, a tracheal tube sending branches to each cluster.; d, 
membrane or tube to which the ovicapsules are attached — rather exag- 
gerated in this figure. 50 diameters. Pages 323, 327. 

Figs. 6 to 17. Ovicapsules in various progressive stages of develop- 
ment ; oc, membrane of ovicapsule ; ejj, layer of epithelial cells ; c/i, vi- 
telline membrane in fig. 10, chorion in fig. 17 ; y, yolk or vitellus ; re, vitel- 
liginous cells ; g, gathering of granules between the vitelliginous cells 
connected with the vitellus by a filament; sp. sp'.(fig. 17) oval bodies, 
[at the time of etching this plate supposed to be spermatophores] ; bl, 
(fig. 17) blastoderm or granular layer spread over the surface of the yolk 
with a gathering of granules at each end. [The shading of the vitellig- 
inous cells in figs. 10 and 15 is an experimental blunder of etching, so 
also in fig. 3,A-]- All magnified 100 diameters. See pages 32 -^-329. 

Fig. 18. Egg after having been laid, coated with minute rinsfs ; 50 
diameters. [The outline should be symmetrical], a, two of the rings 
magnified 350 diameters. See page 298. 

Figs. 19 to 23. Embryo in the egg in three stages of development ; 
fig. 21 dorsal, 22, ventral, and 23, side views of the embryo just before 



' Pulvinaria acericorticis Fitch, ou Plate Xll, is a synonym. 



344 DATEXPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

hatching ; a, conical projection on the head, — " egg-opener"" ; e, eye spot ; 
at, antennsE ; m and max, [supposed at the time of etching the plate to 
represent the mandibles and maxillre, probably imaginary] ; ?>s, buccal 
setie ooiled up spirally ; I, II, III first, second, and third legs. 100 di- 
ameters. See pages 298-300. 

Fig. 24. Abnormally formed egg. 50 diameters. Page 300. 

Fig. 25. Larva soon afterbirth, from above. I-IX, first to ninth ab- 
dominal segments : a?i, conical bases of the anal setse ; ov, leaf-like organs 
on the ninth segment, each composed of three spines cemented together. 
[An attempt to show some of the internal organs and external surface at 
the same time, has rendered this figure somewhat confused in appear- 
ance.] 75 diameters. See page :^00. 

Fig. 25 a. Leg of larva ; co, portion nf integument to which leg is at- 
tached [which I took for the coxa at the time of etching] ; tr, coxa ; y, 
trochanter ; /, femur ; ti, tibia ; ts, tarsus. 200 diameters. Page 303. 

Fig. 25 b. Antenna of larva ; l-T, the different joints. 200 diameters. 
Page 302. 

Figs. 25c, 25d, 2oe, showing the ninth abdominal segment in different 
positions; 25e, ventral, the rest dorsal. 75 diameters. Page oO-l. 

Fig. 26. Larva after the first moult, from below ; og, supraoesopha- 
geal ganglion ; spr., spiracles ; v, ventriculus (ansa minor) ; ov, vulvular 
spines (on ninth segment) ; an, anal valves, seen through enlargement of 
the end of the anal fissure. 50 diameters. Page 306. 

Fig. 26a. Mouth parts and chitinous frame work supporting them. 
See page 317 for full description, also page 302. 

Plate XIII. 

Fig. 27. Pupa of male under its scale seen from above ; a, waxen 
scalB covering the pupa; b, integument of the larva; c, integument of 
the pupa formed within that of the larva. 25 diameters. Page 307. 

Fig. 28. The pupa a little more advanced, taken out of its scale, seen 
from below. 25 diameters. Page 307. 

Fig. 29. A pupa, a, from which a thin transparent pellicle, b. has 
been slipped partly off ; from above. 25 diameters. Page 307. 

Fig. 30. A still more advanced pupa, from below. 25 diameters. 
Page 307. 

Fig. 31. A fully developed male, from below. 25 diameters. Page 308. 

Fig. 32. Female at time of appearance of males, from above. 25 di- 
ameters. Page 314. 

Fig. 32a. Antenna of female. 64 diameters. Page 315. 

Fig. S2b. Leg of female ; co, coxa ; tr, trochanter; /, femur ; ti, tibia ; 
ts, tarsus. 64 diameters. Page 316. 

Fig. 33. Fully developed male, from above. 25 diameters. Page 308. 

Fig. 33a. Antenna of male. 64 diameters. Page 309. 

Fig. 336. Leg of male : co, coxa ; tr, trochanter ; /, femur ; ti, tibia : ts, 
tarsus. 64 diameters. Page 310. 



PUTNAM ON PULVINARIA INNUMEEABILIS. 345 

Fig. 34. Male and female in copulation. 10 diameters. Page 313. 

Fig. 35. An oblique view of mouth parts of adult female, slightly 
drawn apart in dissection ; a, labium ; a;, cross section of base of labium ; 
b, crescent-shaped, chitinous piece in the labium ; c, costa superior ; c7, 
costa inferior; e, conical bases of the buccal set.ie ;/, oesophagus ; g, buc- 
cal setae. 64 diameters. Page 318. 

Fig. 36. Young lice settled on the underside of a soft-maple leaf. 
Natural size. Page 30.5. 

Fig. 37. Males and females on the underside of a maple leaf in Au- 
gust, at the time of the appearance of the males. Natural size. Page 324. 

Fig. 38. Females on twig in winter. Natural size. Page 324. 

Fig. 39. Females on twig about commencement of egg-laying ; a, 
dark colored parasitized female ; 6, female in process of excreting a drop 
of honey-dew ; c, female with egg-nest just beginning to form. Natural 
size. Page 325. 

Fig. 40. A female just before beginning to lay eggs ; a, from above ; 
6, from below; showing the markings, and the position, and compara- 
tively small size of the legs and antennse. Natural size. Page 325. 

Figs. 41,-42. Females with egg-nests, more or less fully formed. 
Natural size. Page 331. 

Fig. 43. Mouth pans of female pupa just before final moult ; a, 6, and 
a^,b\ conical bases of new setje in spiral coils; c, areus superior; d. 
arcus inferior; e, oesophagus ;/, labium, or sheath ; g, loop of old setse in 
abdomen ; h, base of outer pair of old setae ; i, base of inner pair of old 
setae; fc, clav us. 112 diameters. Pages 306, 3I4. 

Fig. 44. Wax secreting glands attached to ventral pores of female ; 
a, gland ; 6,-c, tube leading to pore, the portion c being larger than b; cZ, 
pore. 160 diameters. Page 321. 

Fig. 45. Generative organs of the male ; a, <i\ vessels containing 
spermatozoa ; bJV, slender tubes connecting with ductus ejaculatorius ; c, 
ductus ejaculatorius ; d, dorsal portion or sheath of the penis : e, ventras 
portion or valve of the penis ; /'./. anal filaments ; (/, lateral prolongation, 
of the seventh segment; h,h\ sides of the abdomen, i,V glands secret- 
ing the anal filaments. 56 diameters. Page 312. 

Fig. 46. Detached bundle of spermatozoa from male. 68 diameters. 
Fig. 46(t. End of a spermatozoon magnified 457 diameters. Page 312. 

Fig. 47. Female generative organs in May, several weeks before the 
first eggs are laid; a, spermatheca; ?>, neck of vagina; c, vagina; d, 
vulva; k, and I, cavities in vagina ; e,e', oviducts ; /,/^, vaginal glands ; 
g.g^ ; spindle-shaped ducts ; h, outlets of vaginal glands. 56 diameters. 
Page 323. 

Fig 48. Nervous system of female ; a, supra-oesophageal or cephalic 
ganglion ; b, infra-cesophageal or thoracic ganglion ; e, main dorsal nerve ; 
d,d\ k,h\ c,c', lateral nerves [probably to the legs] ; l,V ; antennal nerves; 
m,m'', optic nerves ; /i, costa superior; g, costa inferior; /,/'', salivary 
glands ; i, oesophagus. 56 diameters. Page 322. 



346 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Fig. 49. Portion of ventral surface of eighth abdominal segment of 
female, showing pores. ICO diameters. Page 321. 

Fig. oO. Wax-secreting peripheral spines of female ; a, external layer 
of integument ; b, middle or main portion of integument ; c, inside por- 
tion of integument ; d, dorsal layer of wax projecting over the margin ; 
e, duct leading from gland to spine ; /, wax-secreting spine ; g, cylindri- 
cal filament of wax secreted by the spine. 180 diameters. Page 321. 



II. ASPIDIOTUS ANCYLUS. 

Diaspis ancylus. Putnam. Transactiovs of the Iowa State Horticultural 
Society for 18T7 . Vol. 12. page 321. Des Moines, 1878. 

While engaged in the study of Pulvinaria innumerahilis on a soft 
maple in 1877, I very unexpectedly discovered tiiat the tree was fairly 
loaded down with a species of Asindiotus in addition. My leisure time 
being otherwise occupied, I have not been able to give this species the 
attention it deserves. It is found on the branches and trunk of the soft 
maple {Acer dasycarpum,) and of the linden ( Tilia curopcea) and, so far as 
my observations have yet extended, only on trees infested with Pulvi- 
naria innumeruMlis, but this last circumstance is undoubtedly acciden- 
tal. A comparison of Uiese two species so alike in some particulars, 
and so different in otheis, gives rise to many fascinating speculations 
upon the principles underlying llieir development. Sometime when I 
have studied more I hope lo write more fully of this subject. 

Aspidiotus ancylus approaches closely in all respects to A. nerii. It is 
however easily separated from that species by its heavier, slightly larger, 
and darker colored shield. The adult female differs from that of nerii 
in having the fuitwZar pores arranged in live groups, two on each tide 
and one in fiont of the vulva, the side groups containing from 8 to Id 
pores each, and the front group 5 to 10 pores— the exact number varying 
considerably in different individuals. The female lays about thirty or 
forty eggs, with a greater or less interval betvveen each. This takes 
place in the late spring or early summer. The young larva is less than 
twice as lont: as broad, with tbe antenna; and legs inserted near the 
margin, and is much less active than the Pulvinaria larva. Its beak 
is excessively long forming a loop more than twice the length of the 
abdomen. Its e>es are scarcely visible, it rarely moves any great dis- 
tance from its mother, and very frequently settles down right under 
her scale without having seen daylight at all. As soon as it settles it 
withdraws its antenna; and legs into a position corresponding to that 
of the Pulvinaria larva (hg. 2(5), and then gradually becomes contracted 
until it foims nearly a perfect circle. At this time a very thin layer of 
wax is seen to be secreted by the dorsal surface. Tliis layer continues 
to increase steadily in thickness throughout the life of the insect. Dur- 
ing the summer the larva moults and the cast off skin becomes im- 
bedded in the dorsal scale, forming the dark red " umbilicus.'" Before 
moulting the insect appears to enter a dormant, encysted state, becomes 



PUTNAM ON ASPIDIOTUS ANCYLUS. 347 

of a dark red color, and a pair of setie are seen spirally coiled up on 
each side— as has been already described in Pulvinaria. In all cases 
this appears to be a certain indication that the insect is about to 
moult. Late in the fall both sexes enter the pupa state that of the 
female being exactly similar to the encysted state of the larva before its 
tirst moult, except in size, while that of the male now for the first time 
shows a difference of form. Both sexes appear to remain in this quies- 
cent state until spring, when, with the first warm days tiiey quickly 
complete their transformations. The female remains of a similar form 
to the more matured larva, but has lost all traces of antennae and legs,* 
and the vulvular pores have for the first time made their appearance. 
The cast off skin again becomes incorporated with the scale as before. 
The male appears about the middle of April, and is very similar in ap- 
pearance to that of nerii, but can be quickly and certainly distinguislied 
by the form of the apodema or transverse thoracic band ; in nerii this is 
of a slightly waved outline, rather suddenly enlarged at the sides, while 
that of ancylus is of equal width throughout, with parallel sides, the whole 
slightly curved forward. On April 18th, 1878, 1 observed a male copulate 
with the female. After coming out of his scale he walks about with his 
wings folded, in the usual position, flat on his back. The long style-like 
penis is curved under the body so tliat its point is directed forward. 
This he keeps in constant motion. When lie meets with a female he 
mounts upon her back standing high up on his legs ; the penis soon finds 
its way under the scale and keeps constantly vibrating. When inter- 
rupted he goes on to another female. I watched this process continue 
for about ten minutes. 

I have submitted specimens of this species toM. Signoret who regards 
it as a distinct species. I hope before long to give a more detailed ac- 
count of it with suitable illustrations. 

Miss Emily A. Smith while searching for this species in Peoria, found 
another very different species of Asjjidiotus on the hard maple (Acer sac- 
charinum). I have since found it in Davenport. There appear to be 
two broods (both ^ and $) each year, one on the leaves in summer, and 
one on the trunk and branches in winter. Miss Smith has made a care- 
ful study of this insect and expects soon to publish a paper upon it. 



ERRATA. 

Page 293. Coccus tili(e Fitch, might be added to the list of doubtful syuouyms. See p. 340. 

Page 298, line 4 from bottom. For "4 m-"' read " -^5 (x." 

Page 305, line 21 from bottom. For '• always" read "usually."' 

Page 305, line 16 from bottom. Insert at end of this line:—" On the trees however they 
sometimes move downwards as is shown by their settlins on new shoot? below any infested 
branches." 

Page 307, line 2 from bottom. For " 23" read " 29." 

Page 308, line 15 from top. For "30" read "31." 

Page 319, line 27 from bottom. For "26,a" read "2Grt." 

Page 322, lines 12 and 21 from top. For " oesophagat" read " oesopageal." 

Page 339, line 19 from top. Insert "Fig. 17." 

*The antennse and legs are probably lost at the first moult, but I cannot state this for a 
certaintv. 



3J:8 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



Df:cember 28th, 1878. — Regular Meeting. 

Dr. R. J. Farqiiharson, President, in the Chair. 

Twenty persons present. 

The reports of the Corresponding Secretary and Curator were 
presented, and the thanks of the Academy were voted to the 
donors to the Library and Museum. 

Dr. C. F. Waldron, Brush Creek, Iowa, and Prof. H. A. 
Ward, Rochester, K. Y., were elected corresponding members. 




Fii;. Hi, two-thirds natural 8ize. 



Two carved stone pipes, recently obtained by Mr. Gass, were 
exhibited. One of them (Fig. 22) evidently represents a bear, 
and the other (Fig. 23) an elephant, though both are con- 
siderably out of proportion, the bear being too tall, and the ele- 




Fi". 23, two-thirds natural size. 



phant too long and slender. The bear pipe was found by some 
German farmers, in a mound in Muscatine County, Iowa. The 



FARQUHAESON ON FORMATION OF GROUND ICE. 349 

elephant pipe was supposed to have been found in the same lo- 
cality — but as the finder had moved to Kansas, no definite in- 
formation had yet been obtained.* 

The foUowine; papers were read : 

The Formation of Ground Ice in the Rapids of the Mississippi. 

BY DR. R. J. FARQUII ARSON. 

In this country, where everything but nature is new, where man, at 
least of our own race, is but a recent arrival, it is the duty of such pio- 
neer institutions as our Academy to diligently study our surroundings, 
and to faithfully record the more prominent and important phenomena. 

To one of these, a phenomenon on the grandest scale, I would ask 
your attention to-night ; it has been constantly recurring, season after 
season, for many ages, certainly since that time, when at the close of 
the last Glacial Period, the present course of our great river, the Missis- 
sippi, was laid out. Many persons, some of my present audience no 
doubt, have remarked the sudden appearance of a great quantity of 
floating ice in front of the city of Davenport, where the near approach 
of winter is regularly signalized by this event. 

On one of the bright, clear days of our early winter, say in the latter part 
of November, the observer leaves tiie river at sunset perfectly clear of 
floating ice, during the night the mercury falls to any degree below 20« of 
Fahrenheit, in the morning he is surprised to find almost the whole sur- 
face of the river, as far as the eye can reach, both up and down, covered 
with floating cakes of ice. 

Being alone familiar with our Southern riveis, which rarely close, and 
those only by means of a " gorge" of floating masses of surface ice, 
which have formed at the shores of the river, and then become detached, 
I fell into the natural error of attributing the accumulation of ice here 
to the same cause. 

But a very little further observation was sufficient to dispel this error. 
On such a raoi'ning as is here described, the shore ice would be found to 
be not over one or two inches in thickness, and to extend not more than 
from ten to twenty feet from the shore, to which, moreover, it would 
yet remain attached. 

If the observer now placed himself upon the Government bridge, and 

* By a letter from Mr. Peter Mare, now living: in Kau^ias, we are informed that he found 
this elephant pipe six or seven years since, while planting corn on his farm in Louisa County, 
Iowa, where he then resided. He kept it until last year, when he moved to Kansas, and then 
gave it to his brother-in-law, from whom we obtained it. Rev, Mr, Gass heard indirectly last 
winter of the existence of such a relic, sought out the owner and endeavored to purchase it, 
but could not. He, however, borrowed it for the purpose of taking photographs and casts. 
While in our possession it was accidentally broken, and thus by compromising the matter 
with the owner, and paying him about $.5.00, we obtained ownership of it. The linder, Mr. 
Mare, an illiterate German farmer, had no appreciation of any scientific value or especial 
interest attaching to this pipe; he regarded it as a curiosity merely, and his brother-in-law 
valued it only as a keepsake, and used it habitually for smolimg.— {Extract from the Pro- 
-ceedings of the Meeting of Aj)rll int/t. 1879.* 

[Proc. D. A. N. S., Vol. II.] 46 [Jan. 1880 1 



350 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

looked from above upon the floating masses of ice, the whole mystery 
would be solved. He would see that these masses were not formed at the 
shore, and then detached, for they are nothing like shore ice. but were 
formed on the bottom of the rapids; that they were ground-ice in fact, 
and that be stood in the presence of one of nature's great ice making 
machines. 

I shall now quote from notes of observations made during a series of 
years, these notes being made on the spot, and they will go to show the 
nature of the ground-ice which forms upon the rapids. 

Note 1st.— On the night of November 26th-27th, 1876, the mercury fell 
to 0° F. for the lirst time this winter, and in the morning the floating ice 
was running freely from the rapids, so as to fill the main channel of the 
river, as far as the eye could reach. This ice, as seen from the i)ridge 
above, consisted of quite large cakes, some with a smooth upper surface, 
others again were rough, as if from having met some obstruction, there- 
by breaking the upper crust, and forcing ttie fragments upwards along 
the lines of fracture. As always observed before, beneath the upper 
crust were projections, several feet deep, which seemed like great 
sponges, as seen at the edge of the cake and through the transparent 
upper crust, the adherent sand and gravel giving to some of these pro- 
jections the almost exact appearance of stones. Their true nature is 
however made quite manifest when the floating cake strikes the pier, the 
apparent stone glides a short way up the slanting stone-work, and is evi- 
dently of soft ice, like slushy and muddy snow. That these large cakes 
are not of shore ice is evident from the fact, that the shore ice along the 
rapids only formed last night, is only 20 or 30 feet wide, and is still ad- 
herent as far as can be seen; besides, shore ice never has the muddy 
masses like stones, nor the great irregular, projecting bodies, like 
sppnges. 

Xote 2d.— March 4th, 1877. Mercury fell last night to 0° F. Same 
appearances as above noted ; shore ice one inch thick and ten feet 
wide. Upon returning to my oflice noticed the formation of ground-ice 
on a miniature scale, in a small bottle of river water, left standing over 
night on the window ledge ; here the water at the bottom of the bottle 
being frozen by the cold external air coming up through the crevice be- 
tween the sashes, would thus become lighter, would pick up the sand and 
other sediment at the bottom, and rise with it to the top, here meeting 
the warm air of the room it would melt and drop the sediment to the 
bottom, to be again picked up and transported to the surface, and thus 
the round went on. 

Note 3d.— February 11th, 1878. Mercury fell last night to 18° F. 
Plenty of ground-ice running, simulacra of stones abundant. Shore 
ice one inch thick and ten feet wide. 

Note 4th.— December 7th, 1878. This morning at 2 a. m. the first 
ground-ice passed under the bridge, mercury then standing at 10° F., 
being the first floating ice of the season. Shore ice one inch thick, and 
about ten feet wide, just above the bridge. At 10 a. m. large cakes of 
floating ice are passing by, with usual freight of sand, gravel, &c., sim- 
ulating stones. 



FARQUH ARSON ON FORMATION OF GROUND ICE. 351 

These quotations will suffice to show the general nature of the phenom- 
ena observed. In addition to the above, tvi^o rather irregular effects of 
the ground ice were observed. 

At times during the winter, the water as delivered by the hydrants is 
very muddy. This occurs when there has been no rise or freshet, the river 
being generally low, and at its clearest stage, and is the result of the 
lower projecting parts of the spongy masses, when laden with sand and 
mud coming in contact with the rough line of the conduit in the river 
bottom, and there depositing their muddy freight. Again, when the 
floating ice is very abundant in the river, the ferry boat meeting it, has 
her hull so incrusted with this spongy ice, which becomes compacted or 
balled by impact, that her draught of water is increased by several feet, 
and to reach the usual landing-place on the Illinois side, she has to run 
off and scrape herself where the bottom is hard, as the whale is said to 
rid itself of barnacles and other obstructive parasites. 

The phenomenon of the formation of ground ice or bottom ice, or 
anchor ice, always in running water, has been observed in many parts of 
the world, and was for many years quite a puzzle, or at least a perplex- 
ing problem in physics. By general consent it is now explained in ac- 
cordance with the well known properties of water, and the varying 
changes of density it undergoes in passing from the fluid to the solid 
state. 

Fresh water attains it maximum density at 4 'centigrade, or39.'3oF., 
above or below this, as it is warmer or colder, it bf^comes lighter ; water 
at 4*^ centigrade being 1000, ice has a specific gravity of 920. Again, if 
you expose water in a metalic vessel, a common iron pot, to a freez- 
ing temperature, say to our winter air when the thermometer is below 
20« F., ice to a certain thickness will form on the surface, and 
along the sides and bottom of the containing vessel, but, a very long ex- 
posure, or a very reduced temperature is necessary to freeze the mass of 
water solid ; if however, by any means, the water be so stirred as to be 
thoroughly mixed, the whole mass will become solid ice in a compara- 
tively short time. This is also observed in the familiar process of mak- 
ing ice-cream or water ices, when the crust of ice forming at the outside 
must be constantly scraped off, and the whole mixed by motion, in order 
to freeze the mass. 

The formation of ground-ice in our great natural freezer or ice-ma- 
chine, will be better understood after a consideration of the nature of 
the Rock Island Rapids, the description of which is made much clearer 
by an inspection of the accompanying cartoon, giving a sketch or plan 
of the rapids, for which I am indebted to the courtesy of Col. Flagler, 
commandant of the U. S. Arsenal, and to the kindness of our associate, 
Mr. W. Otto Gronen, who has made a perfectly accurate copy from the 
official surveys as made by the U. S. Government. 



352 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF XATUKAL SCIENCES. 




1 



:{ 



Legend.— 0, Davt-nport Bridge; 1, Lower Chain; 2, Moliiie Chain; 3, Duck Creek Chain; 
4, Winuebajjo Chain; a. surface of water; b, river bottom; liorizontal scale, 1-142,560; ver- 
tical scale, 1-228. 

From this it appears that the volume of tlie Mississippi is precipitated 
down an inclined plane, whose fall in 14 miles from LeClaire to Daven- 
port is 25.74 feet, or at the rate of 1.84 feet per mile.* Not only is there 
an inclined plane, but the channel is an exceedingly tortuous one, turn- 
ing in almost all directions, and the bottoui again, so far from being 
smooth enough to facilitate the descentof the falling water, is roughened 
to the highest degree, by means of boulders and other detached masses 
of rock, of crevices in the layer of rock forming the bottom, and of nu- 
merous excavations and pot holes. Thus is formed the machine for the 
mixing and churning process, and a very effectual one it is. 

At the head of the rapids the water is cooled by radiation and the 
contact of the cold air below the freezing point, but long before the three 
hours necessary for the passage of the rapids, indeed, in all probability 
soon after the descent is begun, the whole mass of the water has by the 
mixing process been reduced to the same temperature throughout, and 
being thus on the point of freezing, needs but the slack water afforded 
by the eddy of a boulder, or a pot hole to freeze instantly into a spongy 
mass, including in its embrace all the small stones, sand, mud or other 
sediment in the pot hole or eddy ; the mass thus formed becoming, even 
with its included freight, lighter than a corresponding bulk of the sur- 
rounding water, it must rise to the surface, where the action of the 
waves and of the wind smooth off the upper surface, which is soon ren- 
dered solid by radiation and contact with the colder air. 

That the soft ice forms under the lee, as it were of the stones, as well 
as in the holes and hollows, the presence of the gravel and sand would 
indicate ; for each stone or other obstruction to the current has on its 
lower side a small delta of sand, gravel and mud, and it is just here that 
the ground-ice forms, bearing off this sediment in its embrace. 

The Bibliography of this subject, at least of the books accessible to 
me, is very meagre indeed, consisting of an article in the Smithsonian 
Report of 18G6, being a translation from the "• Annales de Chimie et de 

* HaU'H Ceolojjical Survey of [owa. Vol. 1, p. 7. 



FARQUHARSON ON FORMATION OF GROUND ICE. 353 

Physiques,"" (Paris, 1 866), of an essay by Engelhardt, whose observations 
were made on the lower Rhine. From this we learn that the first men- 
tion made of ground-ice by any writer is by Dr. Plott, in 1705, in his 
"Natural History of Oxfordshire." 

Arago, in the "Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes" for 1833, first 
gave the proper explanation of the formation of ground ice ; this expla- 
nation Engelhardt adopts with an addition. " With Arago, then," he 
says, "I attribute the formation of ice at the bottom of water princi- 
pally to the obstacles which occur in the current ; but, in my view, 
these obstacles are not solely resting" points for the crystals, but they 
serve, on tlie one hand, to augment the movement of rotation, the vor- 
tiginous movement by which the water at a temperature 0" C. (30oF.) is 
made to descend to the bottom of the river ; and, on the other hand, they 
create stationary points in the midst of the movement, when the crystal- 
izing force can exert itself." 

Another article on the subject is a notice in the Journal of Applied 
Science, of a paper by Professor Hind, of New Brunswick, giving some 
account of the effects of anchor ice on the coast of Newfoundland. 
He speaks of the anchor ice forming about the seal-nets, at the depth 
of from 50 to 61) feet below the surface, and that if the sealers neglect to 
lift the nets after spiculse of ice begin to form on the casks at this depth, 
they are liable to be lifted by the forming ice, and being carried away 
by the tides are lost. This autlioi on the authority of Despretz, explains 
the phenomenon by the statement that sea-water, when near the freez- 
ing point, behaves differently from fresh water ; taking no account of 
the mixing of the surface water with that below, by the action of the 
tides, the rougliness of the bottom, &c. It is very doubtful if sea water 
in cooling obeys a different law from fresh water, for it has been lately 
shown that all the metals and sonie rocks expand or become of less spe- 
cific gravity at the moment of solidification or freezing, a property long 
known as belonging to, and thought also to be peculiar to some of the 
more easily fusibln metals; indeed, it would seem highly probable that 
all bodies obeyed the uniform law that all bodies are lighter in the solid 
than in the fluid state, that all solids would float on the surface of their 
liquids, just as ice floats in water. But, there is no necessity in calling 
in the aid of any supposed peculiarity of salt water, when almost identi- 
cally the same phenomena are to be seen in fresh water. 

Anchor or ground-ice forms upon the chain cables of vessels anchor- 
ing in the Detroit river to the depth of fifty feet and more. Some 
years ago, the apparatus for straining the water at the mouth of the 
conduit, which supplies the city of Detroit with water, which was in 
very deep water, and projected somewhat above tlie bottom, became so 
covered with ground-ice, as to completely stop the flow of the water, 
and necessitate its removal. The divers engaged in this work could see 
the whole mass of water filled with spiculae or crystals of ice, wliich 
needed but the momentary check of the current by some obstacle to 
form a spongy mass of ice. Here the cooling of this great mass of wate*' 



354 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

is effected when it passes over the shoals above Detroit, where there is a 
maximum depth of only fifteen feet, with great width. 

Finally, in the Penny Magazine of August 6th, 1842, there is an article 
on ground-ice or ground gru, the latter being the term used in Lincoln- 
shire, where in the river Don it was observed by the author. Dr. Far- 
quharson. He says, " Gru is the name by which the people of Lincoln- 
shire designate snow saturated with or swimming in water ; and as the 
ice formed at the bottom of rivers very nearly resembles that in appear- 
ance, a better name than ground gru could hardly be given." Again, he 
says, " when it begins to form at the bottom, it aggregates in forms, 
somewhat resembling the hearts of caulitlovver." 

The synonyms for this form of ice, as far as I make out, are the fol- 
lowing, viz: Grundeis (German); Frazeau (Canadian French); Lolly 
(seal-fishermen) (lolly, soft, as in lob-lolly — gruel or mush, and lollepop — 
soft candy) ; ground-ice; anchor-ice; and ground-gru, (Lincolnshire.) 

Whether the ground-ice continues to form on the rapids after the final 
freezing of the surface for the winter takes place, is not yet definitely 
known ; but as an observer (Dr. Jackson, .Journal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, Vol. 5), states that such is the case in regard to the 
river Neva, in Russia, when covered with three feet of ice and as much 
snow, it is probable that here it also continues to form. This would ac- 
count for the growth of the ice opposite the city, after it forms, the ac- 
cretion below being sufficient not only to counteract the effect of the 
enormous loss by evaporation from the upper surface ; but to so exceed 
it as to produce a total thickness of three feet. 

Exploration of Six Indian Burial Grounds in the Vicinity of the 
Mouth of Rock River. 

BY REV. J. GASS. 

On the 29th of November, in company with Mr. Toellner of Moline, I 
visited five Indian burying places on Rock River, and one on the Mis- 
sissippi. We found on the right bank between the mouth of the river 
and the first railroad bridge, three of these groups of Indian graves. 
Some of the graves were situated so close to the running stream that a 
number of them were swept away by the torrents of high water. 

The graves are all in rows similar to those of the Sioux at Camp 
McClellan. In the one nearest the bridge they are arranged in the form 
of a hollow square. We opened some of the graves. They were about 
five feet deep, and in each of them only one body had been buried, and 
no accompanying relics of any kind were discovered. 

The foui'th cemetery we explored is on the island near Milan. In dig- 
ging a ditch for the use of a factory, built there some years since, a num- 
ber of graves were disturbed, and many relics of glass and bronze were 
found similar in form and material to those usually found in modern 
Indian graves. 

The fifth burying place we visited is situated about a mile above 
• Milan, on the left of the river. Close by it is a Siind-pit, and in digging 



president's annual address. 355 

the sand a few skeletons were exposed, and rings and buckles of bronze 
were found, with a few arrow heads. 

The graves in the;3e five places vary from ten to twenty-five in number, 
but in the sixth are about 200. This latter cemetery is on Campbell's 
island in the Mississippi river, two miles above Moline. Here the graves 
were in even rows, and many of them adorned with shells, resembling 
somewhat the custom sometimes observed in modern grave-yards. 

The shortness of the winter day prevented a more extended explora- 
tion, but by a second research in this region in a more favorable season, 
assisted by the information already gained, new discoveries will doubt- 
less be made. 

As a result of our labor I am encouraged to state : 

1st. That I consider it an established fact that these graves were 
made by the Sacs and Foxes, the last inhabitants of the surrounding 
country, and 

2d. That their custom in burying their dead was entirely different 
from that of the mound-builders ; and 

od. That the mounds in our vicinity were built by an entirely differ- 
ent nation or nations, and at a far earlier period. 



The following address accidentally omitted from the Proceedings, 
Vol. I, page 55, is now printed on account of its value in preserving the 
history of the Academy. 

President's Annual Address, January 7th, 1874. 

BY DR. C. C. PARRY. 

Gentlemen of the Academy: A dnty constitntionally devolving on your presiding officer, 
of presenting at the annual meeting a statement of t he general condition of the Academy, has > 
as far as my information goes, been a dead letter on our statute book. Perhaps the proper 
lime has come for resuscitating this defunct by-law; at least I propose at this close of my offi- 
cial term, to leave to my successors no excuse for the non-fnltil!ment of this duty. 

It is perhaps not altogether a matter of congratulation, that having accomplished little in 
the way of research, or publication, we have spent little. The account of the Treasurer to be 
presented in detail will show : 

Amount received from all sources $30;i 20 

Amount expended 168 1;} 

Balance on hand, or available $134 07 

By the commendable and persistent efforts of our present Treasurer, the annual dues from 
regular members, and initiation fees, on which the Academy depends for meeting current ex- 
penses have been collected as far as practicable up to the present time. The rule of striking 
out from the list of membership all who, on due notice, fail to meet their obligations, will 
hereafter be rigidly and impartially enforced. By vote of the Academy the privilege of secur- 
ing life memberships, by the payment of $100 has been established, but as yet we have no 
life members. The average attendance at the regular meetings during the present year has 
been seven, showing a slight increase over that of the previous year. Up to the present time 
out of an elected resident membership of ninety-two, sixty have been duly qualified by pay- 
ment of initiation fees, and twenty-three are in full standing, being alone entitled to vote at 
the annual election of officers. 

The collections of the Academy as far as provided with suitable cases, and store-room, are 
in good condition, and would no doubt be materially increased by donations or otherwise as 
soon as the proper means are provided for their safe reception and display. The Library now 
numbers 182 volumes and 129 unbound pamphlets. The single room at present occupied for 
meetings, the display of collections, and the library, is inconvenient of access, uncomforta- 



356 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

hie, and in fvi-ry way unftt for the purposes desired. An apparently well-devised effort, hy 
co-operation with other kindred local associations, for securing a permanent and convenient 
location for these essential purposes, failed entirely of any practical results, and has been 
abandoned. The selection ot suii able rooms for future use, is now in the hands of a com- 
mittee who expect to present a tinal report, on which definite actioh can he taken. 

The oriranization of the Academy, under its present constitution and by-laws, has been 
found in its practical working to be unnecessarily cuml)ersome, inconvenient and unsatisfac- 
tory. 1 refer particularly to the double orjranization of a board of independant trustees, and 
the Academy proper, the relative duties of which are incon<;ruous and not clearly defined, the 
matter of revision being now in the hands of a Committee of Investigation, their report 
derived from an ex mination of the organization of a number of similar scientific bodies now 
in successful operp on will, it is hoped, present the data for a more satisfactory reorganiza- 
tion. My attentii' 'is also been called hy Mr. C. E. Putnam, one of the Trustees of the 
Academy, to some )ortant defects in the articles of Incorporation, which in his opinion 
destroy its legal vahii 1 take pleasure in adding that Mr. Putnam has kindly volunteered to 
correct these important defects, and thus place the organization of the Academy on a proper 
legal basis. It is unnecessary to recommend to the Academy the grateful acceptance of this 
generous ofter. 

During the past season two of the officers of the Academy have been connected with the 
Scientific Corps of a United States Government Survey in Western Wyoming, the results of 
which are now in course of publication. One of our members has been engaged in geolog- 
ical examinations and collections in Missouri, the results of which have been in part commu- 
nicated to the Academy, at its regular meetings. 

Under the direct auspices of the Academy, some interesting and valuable ethnological in- 
vestigations have been made of Indian mounds in this vicinity. These several examinations, 
and especially the last, which has added important material to our collections, have excited 
considerable interest both at home and abroad, and have served to give credit and reputation 
to the Academy, as evide-iced in the receipt of various complimentary letters. It is to he 
hoped that such investigations may be still more energetically continued during the present 
year. 

It has been proposed from several distinct sources to incorporate into the organization of 
the Academy, an historical division, with the view of collecting and storing for future use, 
any material especially bearing on Western or local history. It will be obvious to all that 
such collections including old newspapers, manuscripts, hooks, relics, &c., would increase 
in value year hy year, and eventually form a very attractive feature, as well as afford the most 
satisfactory material for the use of the future historian. I therefore cordially commend this 
subject to your consideration. 

To the above brief statements of the defects, the wants, and work of this association, it 
might be proper, did time allow, to add some pertinent suggestions on the educational scope 
of such institutions, as directly bearing on their future progress. That such institutions 
have a legitimate educational sphere, unappreciated it mny be, but none the less real, iti 
made only the more apparent hy contrast with the much lauded and munificently supported 
schools and colleges of our day, that are still groping in llie misty fog of medieval literature 
and abstract science; that they will eventually receive a fitting recognition is equally clear. 
It will be sufficient here to refer to the successful progress of similar institutions iu other 
parts of the country, to draw the encouragement that persistent eft'orts, aided and directed 
by experience, will be everywhere eventually successful, and an Academy of Science be re- 
cognized as an essential part in the educational appliances of every intelligent community. 

And although our Davenport Peabocly has not yet made his appearance, to enrich with 
living gifts, or endow with testamentary liequests such an institution as ours, yet, pending 
his arrival, tlii! harvest of natural truth must not be left entirely ungathered, though the fields 
may be broad and fruitful and the laborers few. 

And now, gentlemen, having qualified myself hy the performance of a long-neglected duty, 
to speak with sincerity and plainness, I will close by an earnest recommendation that, in 
accordance with the well-recognized republican rule of rotation in office, you will join me in 
selecting as my successor, one who will bring to the discharge of its duties a more active 
zeal and executive ability than I have been able to give, though yielding to no one in my 
earnest desire for th(! vvelfan; and usefulness of the Davenport Academy of Sciences. 

END OF VOLUME 11. 



ERRATA 



Page 5, line 3. After "Bric-a Brae" insert "Club". 

Page 8, line 15. For " Herbrarium" read " Herbarium". 

Page 9, line 21. For "Hereptology" read "Herpetology". 

Page 17, line 10. For "were" read "was". 

Page 20, line 31. For " McGowu" read " McKown". 

Page 29, line 39. For " Milwaukee." read " Milwaukee,". 

Page 37, line 5. For "including" read "not including". 

Page 41, line 37. For "it" read "is". 

Page 59, line 23. For "Eiicalytus" read "Eucalyptus". 

Page 64, line 18. For "Canadiene" read "Canadien". 

Page 67, line 18. For "L. Hageboeck" read "A Hageboeck". 

Page 81, line 16. For " Vereinde" read " Verein". 

Page 93, fig. 9. TLe black spot near the south-west corner of Grave B rs to represent the cop- 
per axe TSTo. 21, mentioned on page 96. The references were inadvertently omitted 
both here and in Fig. 8. 

Page 106, line 30. For " Phoenecian" read "Phoenician". 

Page 128, line 1. For " W. G. Gunning" read "W. D. Gunning". 

Page 128, line 3. For " Socilito" read " Sauzalito". 

Page 128, line 5. For " Hawkens" read " Hawkins". 

Page 128, line 12. For " lugorsoll" read " lugersoU". 

Page 128, line 39. For "Forman" read "Foreman". 

Page 128, line 46. For " Green" read " Greene". 

Page 159, line 2fi. Suppress the comma after "Uniones'\ 

Page 171, line 18. For "the remains" read "no remains". 

Page 188, line 34. For "older" read "alder". 

Page 189, line 5. For '■'■Heterorneles''' read ^'■Heteromeles^' . 

Page 197, line 21. The institution here referred to is, we are glad to learn, still alive and 
flourishing. 

Page 217, line 27. For "746.19" read "745.19"— two places. 

Page 232, line 2. For " V'ilado" read " Villada". 

Page 2.32, line 4. For "Guanajiiate" read " Guanajuato". 

Page 2:38. Genus Monoceros should be Leucozonia. No Monocerus is found on the east 
coast. No. 45, M. Cingitlata, Lam., should be Leucozonia cingulifera, Lam., and 
placed after No. 25. 

Page 237. No 57 should be Anachis semiplicata. 

Page 252. No. 296; after B. heterodita read " Montague" instead of " Montf". 

Page 279. Headline; for "Perry" read "Parry". 

Page 281, line 8 from bottom. For "herberia" read "herbaria". 

Page 284, Hue 10 et seq. The remarks on the figures refer to the original lithographic plates. 
On the steel plates the drawings are more sharply defined, and Fig. 2 has been changed 
to a direct, instead of an oblique, side view. 

Page 286, line 24. The "pinnatified structure" is brought out a little too strongly iu the fig. 
ure on the steel plate. 

Page 288, line 23. Fig. 9 has been entirely redrawn for the steel plate from other and better 

preserved epacimens. 
Page 341. At end of first paragraph insert: "Dr. Packard writes me that this figure was in- 
troduced by Mr. Sanborn in the edition printed after Harris' death, that it certainly 
is not C. adonid'um, and that the reference to the peach is also incorrect." 
Page 341. Between first and second paragraphs insert: "I have received from Miss Smith 
specimens of a Pulvinaria found on the gooseberry in Peoria, which is quite distinct 
from P. innumerabilis. It may possibly be the P. ribesice of Signoret. In the 
Canadian Ent07nolorjist, Vol. XI, 1879, page 160, Wm. H. Ashmead has described, 
under the name of Lecanium phyllococcns, a bark louse found on the orange tree in 
Florida, which lays its eggs under a cotton-like substance, and which may possibly 
be a Pulvinaria.'^ 

For additional errata see pages 288 and :i47. 



Q 



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Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. -Davenport, Vol II. 



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Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci. Davenport, Vol II. 



Plate III 




Proc. D.A.N.S, 



VoJ.il PIN. 








Jierman i!itrecker ciIgI. 



Proc. Davenport Aoad. Nrt. Sci., Vol. II. 



Plate Vli. 




Negative By HaetingB. White St Fisher, Davocport 



Proc. Dav. Acad. Mat. Eoi .]/ol. Li 



PldCt yiii. 






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to 



EXCHANGES SOLICITED. 




PROCEEDINGS 




DAVENPORT ACADEMY 



NATURAL SCIENCES. 



VOLUME II — PART I. 

JANUARY, ISTi; — JUNE, 1S77. 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 

J. DUNCAN PUTNAM. Chairman. 
DR. C. C. PARRY, DR. R. J. F ARQUHARSON, 

DR. C. H. PRESTON, CHAS. E. HARRISON. 




DAVENPORT, IOWA: 

JULY, 1877. 
GAZETTE COMPANY, PRINTERS. 



Price, $3.00 per Voluine. 




CONTENTS. 



RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS OF MEETINGS FROM JANUARY 3, 1876, TO 
JUNE 29, 1877. 

PACK. 

Election of Officers for 1876 * 1 

Standing Committees for 1876 C 

Resolutions on the death of A. U. Barter 12 

Horned Toads in the collection of the Academy. J. D. Putnam 23 

On the Young of a species of Lycosa. J. D.Putnam 23 

Exploration of a Mound near Utah Lake, Utah. Julia J. Wirt 28, 82 

Notice of the late I. A. Lapham, LL. D. Dr. C. C. Parry 29 

Manufacture of Pottery by Mojave Indian Women. Dr. E. Palmer 32 

RemnTks on Galeodes pallipe8 S?i.y . J. D. Putnam. Illustrated 35 

Shell Money, and other Primitive Currencies . W.H.Pratt. Illustrated 38 

Annual Meeting, Jan. 3d, 1877. Reports of Officers, etc 47-70 

Additions to the Museum during 1876 50 

Additions to the Library during 1876 57 

President's Annual Address. Rev. W. H. Barris 75 

Election of Officers for 1877 77 

Standing Committees for 1877 80 

Mound Explorations in Jackson County, Iowa. C. T. Lindley. Illustrated 83 

Remarks on Coral Formations. Prof. H. T. Woodman 85 

Donation of Geological Collection by Prof. T. S. Parvin : 89 

Donation of a Deed of Land by Mrs. P. V. Newcomb 90 

Exploration of Mound No. 3, Cook's Farm Group, and Discovery of Inscribed Tab- 
lets, by Rev. J. Gass. Illustrated 92 

rail upon Mrs. Newcomb, and address by Rev. S. S. Hunting 99 

On the Inscribed Tablets found by Rev. J. Gass. R. J. Farquharson. Illustrated... 103 

Report of the Director of the Biological Section. J. D Putnam 120 

Description of Caloptenus picticornU N Sp. Prof. Cyrus Thomas 125 

Additions to the Flora of Iowa. J. C. Arthur 126 

Mollusca collected in Colorado, Wyoming and Utah. Ernest Ingersoll 130 

Recent find of Skulls and Skeletons in Ohio. Rev. S. D. Peet 138 

Exploration of Mound No. 10, Cook's Farm Group, by Rev J. Gass. Illustrated 141 

Description of In.scribed Stones found in Cleona Township, Scott County, Iowa, by 

Rev. J. Gass .• 142 

Exploration of Mounds on the Farm of Col. Wni. Allen. W. H. Pratt 148 

Reports of observations, collections, etc., etc. 



*j..*The Academy does not hold itself responsible for opinions expressed or statements 
made in papers read before it, and published in the Proceedings. The authors are 
alone responsil)lt' 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS 

FOR 1877. 



President Eev. S. S. Hunting. 

Vice-President Dr. C. H. Preston. 

Becording Secretary Dr. C. C. Parry. 

Corresponding Secretary J. Duncan Putnam. 

Treasurer Dr. M. B. Cochran. 

Librarian Dr. E. H. Hazen. 

Curator Prof. W. H. Pratt. 

Eev. W. H. Barris, Dr. R. J. Farquharson, 

Wm. Riepe. 



ERRATA 



Page 5, line 3. 
Page 8, line 15. 
Page 9, line '34. 
Page 17, line 10. 
Page 20, line 31. 
Page 29, line 39. 
Page 37, line 5. 
Page 59, line 28. 
Page 64, line IS. 
Page 67, line 18. 
Page 81, line 16. 
Page 93, fig. 9. 

Page 106, line 30. 
Page 128, line 1. 
Page 128, line 3. 
Page 128, line 5. 
Page 128, line 12. 
Page 12S, line 39. 
Page 128, line 46. 



After " Cric-a-Brac" insert Clnb. 

For Herbrarium redd Herbarium. 

For Hereptology read Herpetology. 

For were read was. 

For McGown read McKown. 

^/iie?' Milwaukee ^toce« comvaa instead of a period. 

Before including insert not. 

For Eucalytus read Eucalyptus. 

For Canadiene read Canadien. 

For L. Hageboeck read A. Hageboeck. 

For Vereinde read Vereln. 

The black spot near the southwest corner of Grave B is to represent the Copper 

Axe Xo. 21, mentioned on Page 90. The references have been Inadvertently 

omitted both here and in Fig. S. 
For Phoenecian read Pha?nician. 
For W. G. Gunning read W. D. Gunning. 
For Socilito read Sauzalito. 
For Hawkens read Hawkins. 
Fm' Ingorsoll read Ingersoll. 
Fm' Forman read Foreman. 
For Green read Greene. 



The publication of this number has been delayed in order to obtain suitable illustra- 
tions of the Inscribed Tablets. These have been prepared by Mr. E. Bierstadt, of New 
York, under the direction of Prof. Spencer F. Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, 
and will be found quite satisfactory. It should be mentioned that the photographs were 
obtained by throwing a light obliquely across the stones from above. This has caused 
the horizontal lines to appear heavier than the vertical lines, which is not the case ia 
the originals Plates I and II represent the opposite sides of the larger tablet, and are 
about two-fifths of the natural size. Plate III is about one half the natural size. 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



The first volume of the Pkoceedings, 8vo., 30ft pages, was published 
in 187G by the Women's Centexxial Association of Daveni)ort, 
and contains the proceedings of the Academy from its organization, 
December 14th, 1S67, to the annual meeting, January 3d, 1876, together 
with papers on the different branches of Xatural Science, read before the 
Academy, wliich are quite fully illustrated by thirty-eight litliographic 
plates, mostly representing the remarkal)le works of the " Mound Build- 
ers" about Davenport, and various new insects and shells. 

Price, in paper covers, $3.00 ; bound in cloth, with gilt stamp, $4.00. 

i3g°'0nly a sinail number of copies remain to be sold. 



The second volume of the Proceedixgs is now being published in 
parts, and will contain many valuable papers on Archaeology, IJotany, 
Conchology, Entomology, Geology, etc., for which illustrations will be 
freely provided w»xenever needed. The volume is to contain not less than 
300 pages, with illustrations, and it is hoped will be completed early 
in 1878. Subscription for tlie volume, in advance, $3.00. 

Entomological Contributions from the Proceedings, Vol. I, 64 pages, 
with two plates. Price, colored, $l.r>0; uncolored, $1.00. 



Accountof the Discovery of Inscuiked Tablets by Rev. J. Gass, with 
a description, by Dr. R. J. Farquiiakson. [From the Proceedings, 
Vol. II.] Illustrated with wood cuts and three albertype plates. Price, 
75 cents. 



PHOTOGRAPHS 

Of some of the more interesting objects contained in the collection of the Academy have been 
prepared by Messrs. Hastings, White & Fisher, and may be had, postage paid, at tlie following 
prices : 

Cabinet Siae : Cloth-wrapped Copper Axes, nine views; Collection of Copper "Awls," 
etc.; Price, 40 cents each $4.00 per dozen. 

Victoria Size : Carved Stone Pipes, 14 views; "Mound P.uilder'.s" Crania, 17 views of S 
skulls, &c. ; Price, :iO cents ciich ; $3.00 per dozen. 

Inscribed Tablets, found by Mr. Gass, set of Uiree, cabinet size, Sl.UO ; full size, $4 00. 
Stereoscopic Views.— Cloth Covered Copper Axe, No. 12; Fragment of a Skull used for 
cutting charms; Hibernating Ground .Squirrel [Sj^ermophilug Franldiidiy, Stone Carving, rep- 
resenting a liuman head (2 views) Price, 30 cents eadi ; $.3.00 per dozen. 
Address all communications to 

J. DUNCAN PUTNAM, 
Correspon ding Secretary. 




V 



PROCEEDINGS 




OF THE 



DAVENPORT ACADEMY 



OF 



NATURAL SCIENCES. 



VOLUME II— PART 11. 



JULV, ISTT-DKCEMBEi:, 1S78. 




DAVENPORT. IOWA: 

PUBLISHKD BY J. D- PUTNAM. 
March, 1880. 

g.\zette c0mp.4ny. printers. 




PU BLICATIO N S 

OF THE 

DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. ^ 



Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. ; 
Vol. I, 1867-1876. Published by the Women's Centennial Association, 
July, 1876. 8vo., 304 pages, 38 plates, 3 wood-cuts. 

Price : in paper covers. $3.00 ; bound in cloth, $3.75. A few copies on 
tinted paper, 50 cts. additional. 



Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, i 
Vol. II, 1876-1878. Published by J. D. Putnam, July, 1877, and Feb- ' 
ruary, 1880. 8vo., 364 pp., 13 plates, 24 wood-cuts. i 

Price : in paper covers, $4.00 ,• bound in cloth, $4.75. 

Part I, separate, $1.75 ; Part II, separate, $2.50. Cloth binding cases, 
50 cts. each. 



Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Vol. Ill, No. 1. Published by J. D. Putnam, March, 1879. 8vo., &4 pp. 
Price, 50 cts. 



Report on the (!ondition and Progress of the Davenport Academy of 
Natural Sciences during the year 1878. [From the Proceedings, Vol. Ill, 
No. 1.] 8vo.,64pp. Price, 50 cts. 



Entomological Contributions from the Proceedings, Vol. I. By J. 
D. Putnam, E. T. Cresson and Cyrus Thomas. 8vo., 64 pp., 2 plates. 
Price. $1.00. 



Account of the Discovery of Inscribed Tablets, by Rev. J. 
Gass, with a description by Dr. R. J. Farquharson. FFrom the Proceed- 
ings, Vol. II.] 8vo., 20 pp.. 3 albertype plates, 7 wood-cuts. Price 75 cts. 



Biological and other Notes on CocciDiE, by J. D. Putnam. 
[From the Proceedings, Vol. II.] 8vo., 55 pages, 2 steel plates. Price, 
$1.00. 



.\ny uf tliL' above sent post paid to any jiiirt of the world on receipt of price. 
Address all eomTuunicnfionp to 

J. D. PUTNAM, Corresponding Secretary, 

DAVENPORT. IOWA, U. S. A. 



New York Botanical Garden Librar 



3 5 



85 00278 2843