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Volume 49 

Published by the Society 



AxDERSOX, W. H.: A Terminology- for the Anatomical Characters 

Useful in the Taxonomy of Weevil Larvae _ 123 

Aknett, Ross H., Jr.: A Review of the Genus Ehinoplatia Horn 

(Coleoptera, Oedemeridae) ._- 241 

Baker, Edward W. : Notes on Mites of the Family Tydeidae (Aca- 

rina) with Descriptions of Two New Species. .._ -.._. 133 

Barber, H. S.: Diahrotica and Two New Genera (Coleoptera, Chry- 

somelidae) - _ 151 

Berry, Paul L. : Oviposition Habits and Early Stages of a Euchar- 

id (Kapala sp.) (Hymenoptera) _ 77 

Black, L. M., and Oman, P. W. : Parthenogenesis in a Leaf hopper, 

Agallia quadripiinctaia (Provancher) (Homoptera, Cicadellidae) 19 
Blake, Doris H. : The Species of Myochrons from the West Indies 

(Coleoptera) _._. 22 

Breland, Osmond P.: Orthopodomyia alba Baker in Texas with 

Notes on Biology (Diptera, Culicidae) 185 

Brues, Charles T.: Predatory Enemies of Winged Termites—. 167 

Buchanan, L. L. : Hickory Curculios of the Genus Conotrachelus 

(Coleoptera, Curculionidae) 41 

BuREN, William F. : A New Aedes from the Florida Keys (Diptera, 

Culicidae) ' 228 

Burks, B. D.: Nearctic Species of the Genus Dirhinus (Hymenop 

tera, Chalcididae) 136 

Caffrey, D. J.: (See Wade) 

Calvert, Philip P.: How Many Mosquito Larvae and Pupae Are 

Required to Make One Dragonfly (Diptera, Culicidae; Odonata, 

Aeschnidae)? 171 

Clark, Austin H.: The Interrelationships of the Several Groups 

■within the Butterfly Superfamily Nymphaloidea ...-■ 148 

Clarke, J. F. Gates: A New Dichoyneris from Eastern United 

States (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) 187 

Cockerell, T. D. a.: A New Genus of Bees from Honduras 

Hymenoptera, Anthidiinae) 106 

Crawford, J. C: The North American Species of the Genus Mega- 

lothrips Uzel (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae)..... 197 

■■ : A New Species of the Genus Meiriothrips 

(Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) 229 

: A New Species of the Genus Haplothrips 

Subgenus Hadothrips (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) 250 

DbLong, Davight M. and Hershberger, Ruth V.: A New Genus 

and Species of Leafhopper from Central America Related to 

Alanus (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). 231 

Dodge, Harold R.: A New Species of Wyeotni/ia from the Pitcher 

Plant (Diptera, Culicidae) .". .'. 117 

ExzMANN, Jane: The Nest of the Bog Ant, Myrmica brevinodis 

var. canadensis Wheeler (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) 246 

Evans, W. H. : Hesperiana 162 

Gressitt, J. LiNSLEY: Notes on the Lepturinae (Coleoptera, Ceram- 

bycidae) .' 190 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 iii 

GuRNEY, A. B.: Homoiiymy in Mantidae of Canary Islands (Orth- 
optera) 251 

Hershberger, Euth V.: (See DeLong) 

Hoffmann, William E.: Insects as Human Food - 233 

HooGSTRAAL, Harry (See King) 

Hsiao, Tsai-Yu: The Genus Eccritotarsus Stfil, with Descriptions 

of a New Genus and Two Species (Hemiptera, Aliridae) 59 

— ^ : A New Genus and Species of Miridae from 

Guatemala (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) 63 

Jordan, H. E. Karl: On Thaumapsyllinae, a New Subfamily of Bat 

Fleas (Suctoria, Ischnopsyllidae) 182 

King, Willard V., and Hoogstraal, Harry: Two New Species of 

Culex (Neociiiex) from New Guinea (Diptera, Culicidae) 65 

Krombein, Karl V. : An Unnoticed Subgeneric Name in Bombus 

(Hymenoptera, Apidae) 170 

Lane, John: The Larva, Pupa and Adults of Wyeomyia {Wyeom- 

yia) melanopus Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae) 97 

Mason, Preston W.: A New Pear Aphid (Homoptera, Aphidae)..^ 252 
Metcalf, Z. p. : A New Genus of Lophopidae from Brazil (Homop- 
tera) -1 238 

MiLLiRCN, H. E.: A New Aphelinid Egg Parasite of the Saratoga 

Spittlebug, ApJirophora .saralogensis (Fitch) (Hymenoptera, 

Aphelinidae) .'^ ' 193 

Needham, James G.: A Moth Larva that Lives on Fern Spores 

(Lepidoptera, Heliodinidae) 165 

Oman, P. W.: (See Black) 

OSBORN, Herbert: On the Status of Grass Insects 149 

P>TE, V. S. L. : NeAV North American Belomicrus (Hymenoptera, 

Sphecidae) 54 

: On Williamsita, a Genus of Wasps from New 

Caledonia (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Pemphilidini) _ 107 

Penn, George Henry: The Larva of Aedes (Leptosomatomyia) 

aurimargo (Diptera, Culicidae) J -__ 103 

Pratt, Harry D.: Shannonomyina, New Name for Sliannonomyia 

Dyar (not Alexander) (Diptera, Psychodidae) 86 

Rees, Bryant E. : Taxonomy of the Larvae of some North American 

Species of the Genus BermcfiieH (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) 1 

Rehn James A. G.: The Removal of the Mantid Genus Callimantis 

C thoptera, Manteidae) from the North American Fauna 163 

ROHWER, S. A.: Greetings to L. O. Howard.— -_-_ 146 

Rozeboom, Lloyd E. : Taxonomic Notes Concerning Phlebotomus 

osornoi Ristorcelli and Van Ty, 1941 (Diptera, Psychodidae)— 177 
Sabrosky, Curtis W. : The Identity of Winthemia tibialis Reinhard 

(Diptera, Larvaevoridae) 249 

Sailer, R. I.: Dysdercita himaculatiis Stal, 1843, Restored (Hemip- 
tera, Pyrrhocoridae) 15 

Smith, Harry S. : Biological Control of Weeds in the United States 169 
Smith, Marion R.: Ants of the Genus Crypfocerus F. in the United 

States 29 

: A New and Extraordinary Phcidole from New 

Guinea (Hymenoptera, Formieidae) 73 


: A New Species of Metapone Forel from New 

Guinea (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) ._.. 75 

A New Species of Megalomyrmex from Barro 

Colorado Island (Hjonenoptera, Formicidae) — 101. 

Steyskal, George C. : A New Genus and Species of Rhopalomeridae 

from Northwestern Mexico (Diptera) 225 

Stone, Alan: A Topotypic Male of Aedes scutellaris (Walker) 

(Diptera, Culicidae) 85 

and WiRTH, Willis W. : On the Marine Midges of the 

Genus Clunio Haliday (Diptera, Tendipedidae) 201 

Strandtmann, R. W. : Atricliolaelaps me gav entrails, a New Species 

of Parasitic Mite (Acarina, Laelaptidae) 112 

Timberlake, p. H. : New Species of Perdita from the Southern 

States (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) - 81 

Travis, B. V.: Three Species of Flies Predaceous on Mosuito 

Larvae 20 

Wade, J. S., and Caffrey, D. J.: Rufus Hiram Pettit 87 

Walton, W. R. : Local Unique Tabanid Unrecovered after 28 Years 

(Diptera) 168 

WiRTH, Willis W. : (See Stone) 


Number 1 — pages 1-40 inclusite January l.i, 1947 

Number 2 — pages 41-72 inclusive February 10, 1947 

Number 3 — pages 73-96 inclusive February 28, 1947 

Number 4 — pages 97-116 inclusive April 15, 1947 

Number 5 — pages 117-144 inclusive -..- -April 28, 1947 

Number 6 — pages 145-176 inclusive June 11, 1947 

Number 7 — pages 177-200 inclusive.- October 17, 1947 

Number S — pages 201-232 inclusive- November 12, 1947 

Number 9 — pages 233-260 inclusive December 26, 1947 

' VOL. 49 

January, 1947 

No. 1 


of the 



PuBUSHE© Monthly Excbst July, AuausT and Septbmbee 





Entered as gecond-eUgB matter March 10, 1919. at the Post Office at Washington, 
D. 0., under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of posUKe provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918, 




Organized March 12, 1884. 

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8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President.^ L. O. Howard 

President _ Austin H. Clark 

First Vice President - - — E. H. Sieolee 

Second Vice President - T. E. Sntdee 

Recording Secretary - - Ina L. Hawes 

Corresponding Secretary _ — — - R. I. Sailer 

Treasurer — _ — - L. B. Reed 

Editor _ - ' —AiAN Stone 

Executive Committee P. N. Annand, F. W. Poos, C. A. Weiqel 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences C. F. W. Muesebectk 


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proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 49 JANUARY, 1947 No. 1 

SPECIES OF THE GENUS DERMESTES (Coleoptera: Dennestidae) 

By Bryant E. Eees 

Bureau of Eniomologrj and Plant Quarantine, U. S. Departme^it of 

Of the 15 or 16 probable species of the genus Dermestes 
occurring in North America, the larvae of 11 have been stud- 
ied by the writer. In the course of these studies certain, and 
it is believed new, characters of taxonomic importance have 
been found. It has also been noted that these characters, 
along with others, pass through various stages of develop- 
ment, sometimes gradually, sometimes abruptly, as the larva 
approaches maturity. It is the purpose of this paper to bring 
these new characters and observations to the attention of those 
interested in coleopterous larvae and to those particularly in- 
terested in this important economic group. All specimens 
studied are preserved in the United States National Museum. 
The identification of the specimens was checked as closely as 
possible, and the only larvae used were those definitely asso- 
ciated with adults, or from which adults had been reared. 

To the experienced worker larvae of the genus Dermestes 
(fig. 1) may be recognized by the following macroscopic char- 
acters : 

Body elongate, tapering anteriorly and posteriorly from metathorax, 
well sclerotized; dorsally deep reddish brown, with or without broad 
yellowish stripe on dorsum ; ventrally membranous except for abdominal 
segments 7 to 10, which are nearly or completely sclerotized and pig- 
mented, tenth abdominal segment always a complete sclerotized and pig- 
mented ring; setiferous, with short to very long spinulate setae (fig. 
3), some of which are in eight distinct, oblique series across each ab- 
dominal tergite; most species in last larval stage with abdominal ter- 
gites 4 to 6, sometimes 3 to 10, each bearing an anterior transverse 
series of retrorse tubercles ; ninth abdominal segment with a pair of 

Of less macroscopic 'nature are the following characters : 
Spiracles well developed, pigmented, and sclerotized; mesothoracic 
spiracle large; metathoracic spiracle, when present, greatly reduced, 

2 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, XO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 

non-functional; abdominal spiracles either in body membrane, indi- 
cated by small pigmented sclerite in body membrane, or in their 
respective sclerotized and pigmented areas incorporated with the ter- 
gites. Legs unevenly pigmented, 5-segmented, with tarsus and claw 
fused into a single claw-shaped, tarsungular segment. Head hypog- 
nathous and subglobular, coriaceous, with fine slender setae, light- 
ly pigmented around ocelli; 6 ocelli on each side of head; epicranial 
and frontal sutures present; frons triangular, with or without a pair 
of tubercles; antennae 3-segmented, long, with sensory organ near mid- 
dle of second segment. Labrum dorsally with few setae, anterior margin 
medianly emarginate, a transverse series of broad setae on labro-epiph- 
aryngeal margin. Epipharynx with proximal sensory area composed of 
a transverse, sometimes irregular, series of 6 large sensory papillae and 
a slightly more proximal transverse series of about 9 to 11 sensory cups; 
epipharyngeal rods tapering, curved and diverging posteriorly. Mandi- 
ble piceous, tridentate, with large retinaculum and basal setal brush ; 
maxillary palpus 4-segmented, segments subequal; palpifer well sclero- 
tized; ligula bilobed, setiferous; gula and submentum fused. 

Many of the characters used in this paper are to be found 
on the tergites of the abdominal segments, and they are read- 
ily seen if a tergite is removed from the specimen and mount- 
ed on a slide for study under the compound microscope. Be- 
fore the tergite is mounted, any adhering muscle tissue may 
be mechanically removed, or it may be satisfactorily cleared 
by immersing the tergite for a few minutes in beechwood 
creosote. The removal of a single tergite does not damage the 
specimen beyond use for further study. The sixth abdominal 
segment has been selected for study in this work, since the 
characters, if present, will be found at a maximum develop- 
ment on this segment for any instar. 

As with the species of other genera of Dermestidae, the 
species of Dermestes apparently do not necessarily have a 
definite number of instars through which they pass to reach 
maturity. According to the temperature, relative humidity, 
moisture content of the food, and the amount and kind of 
food available, the life span of the larvae and number of 
moults may vary greatly. In Dermestes niaculatus Deg., for 
instance, according to various authors, the larvae may live 
from 2 to 3 weeks to several years, or, as has been observed in 
South Africa, the larval period may varj^ from 35 days in the 
summer to 238 days in the colder parts of the year. Further- 
more, the larvae may moult from 6 to 11 times. As the larvae 
pass through the various moults, specific characters found in 
the mature larvae may gradually or suddenly appear. With 
D. lardarms L., a specific character present in mature larvae 
appears gradually, whereas with D. signatus Lee, a compara- 
ble character appears suddenly from one instar to the next. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 Plate 1 








\ Q ^ 


-1- PKOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 

At what instar or stage of development these characters ap- 
pear in various species, if they do appear at a definite instar, 
will not be known until a careful rearing and study has been 
made of individual species subjected to controlled conditions. 
Consequently, at the present time it is impossible to deter- 
mine the age of a larva through known morphological charac- 
ters. Nevertheless, this paper in addition to giving a key for 
differentiating the species of the mature larvae here consid- 
ered, includes a provisional guide for the specific determina- 
tion of larvae here designated as being semimature. Also in- 
cluded are occasional notes regarding certain characters pres- 
ent or indicated in the very young larvae. 


1. Sixth abdominal tergite anteriorly with a transverse series of 

fully developed retrorse tubercles (figs. 11, 14, 21, 23 and 25).. 4 
Sixth abdominal tergite anteriorly without a transverse series 
of retrorse tubercles (figs. 7 and 10) or, if tubercles present, 
incompletely developed (fig. 31) or tubercles indicated by 
setae only (fig. 35) -... 2 

2. Sixth abdominal tergite with a pronounced transverse series of 

many fine short setae immediately anterior to the fine anterior 
transverse tergal ridge (fig. 7) ; retrorse tubercles entirely 

lacking marmoratus Say 

Sixth abdominal tergite without such a setal series anterior 
to the anterior transverse tergal ridge (figs. 10, 11, 14 and 
23) 3 

3. Sixth abdominal tergite with a pronounced transverse series of 

30 or more setae between the spiracular levels and immedi- 
ately posterior to (occasionally on and obscuring) the ante- 
rior transverse tergal ridge (fig. 10) ; retrorse tubercles en- 
tirely lacking ater Degeer 

Sixth abdominal tergite with incompletely developed retrorse 
tubercles immediately posterior to the anterior transverse 
tergal ridge (fig. 31), or tubercles represented by setae only, 
Avhen so, setae few in number, always less than 30 between 

the spiracular levels (fig. 35) (semimature 

and early-stage larvae) 12 

4. Sixth abdominal tergite with either a transverse series of short, 

ramous setae (figs. 11, 14, 16 and 17), or a transverse series 
of short, normal, compactly grouped setae (figs. 20 and 21) 

immediately posterior to the retrorse tubercles 5 

Sixth abdominal tergite without such a setal series immediately 
posterior to the retrorse tubercles (figs. 23, 25, 26 and 28).— 7 

PROC. ENT. soc. AVASH., VOL. 49, 'SO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 Plate 2 



16. LARDARIUS 17. I 

18. NIDUM 





PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JAXU.\RY, 1947 

Transverse setal series immediately posterior to the retrorse 
tubercles composed of numerous, compactly grouped, short 
normal setae (figs. 20 and 21) ; abdominal tergites with short 
spiny capitate setae (fig. 22) ...- nidum Arrow 

Transverse setal series immediately posterior to the retrorse tu- 
bercles composed of ramous setae (figs. 16 and 17) 6 

Ramous setae with few rami (fig. 16) ; ramous setae moderate in 
number and arranged in a narrow, somewhat single, series 
(fig. 11) ; normal setae on the posterior edge of the tergite 
numerous and closely grouped lardarius Linnaeus 

Ramous setae with many rami, bushy (fig. 17) ; ramous setae 
numerous and arranged in a transverse series of several ir- 
regular rows (fig. 14) ; normal setae on the posterior edge of 
the tergite few in number and widely sTpaeed. . signatus Leconte 

Mesal area immediately anterior to the fine anterior transverse 
tergal ridge of the sixth abdominal tergite granulated (figs. 
15 and 23) ; terminal processes of the retrorse tubercles ir- 
regular, acute (fig. 19) .....medialis Casey 

Mesal area anterior to the anterior transverse tergal ridge of 
the sixth abdominal tergite not pronouncedly granulated 8 

Retrorse tubercles of the sixth abdominal tergite bilobed (figs. 
24 and 30) 9 

Retrorse tubercles of the sixth abdominal tergite not bilobed 

. (figs. 12, 13, 19, 27, 33 and 34) 10 

Lobes of the retrorse tubercles rounded terminally and with or 
without wartlike processes (fig. 24) ; tenth abdominal tergite 
with retrorse tubercles; non-pigmented area on each side of 
the pronotum open laterally to margin, a dark pigment spot 

usually present and free, not enclosed (see fig. 4)._ 

peruviamts Castelnau 

Lobes of the retrorse tubercles with acute terminal processes 
(fig. 30); tenth abdominal tergite without retrorse tubercles; 
each side of pronotum with an oblong non-pigmented area con- 
taining a dark pigment spot; lateral margins of pronotum not 
pigmented (see fig. 2),. carnivorus Fabricius 

Ocelli normal in size, ventral pair closer together than the mid- 
dle pair (fig. 6) ; non-pigmented area on each side of the pro- 
notum open laterally to margin, dark pigment spot usually 
present and free (fig. 4) ; retrorse tubercles of the sixth ab- 
dominal tergite terminally rounded, with somewhat acute, ter- 
minal wartlike processes (fig. 27) maculatus Degeer 

Ocelli irregular in size, small, usually rounded, ventral pair as 
widely or nearly as widely separated as middle pair (fig. 5) ; 
pronotum with (figs. 2 and 9) or without (figs. 4 and 8) ; 
a lateral, closed, oblong, non-pigmented area on each side; 
retrorse tubercles of the sixth abdominal tergite with small 
acute terminal processes (figs. 33 and 34) 11 

PROC. ENT. soo. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 Plate 3 




31. C A MINUS 




8 PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOI>. 49, XO. J, JANUARY, 11)47 

11. Pronotuiii oil each side with an oblong iion-pigmeiited area, 

usually containing a dark pigment spot (figs. 2 and 9) ; com- 
pletely divided by a broad, median, yellowish stripe (fig. 9) ; 

lateral margins of pronotum not pigmented (fig. 2) 

caninus Germar 

Pronotum with neither a distinct dark pigment spot nor an 
oblong non-pigmented area on each side (fig. 8) ; incompletely 
divided by a broad, discontinuous, yellowish stripe, only the 
posterior and anterior margins with portions of the yellowish 

stripe; lateral margins of the pronotum not pigmented 

talpinus Mannerheim 

12. Sixth abdominal tergite with more than four small setae an- 

terior to the anterior transverse tergal ridge (see fig. 7)— 

marmoratus Say 

Sixth abdominal tergite with four or less small fine setae an- 
terior to the anterior transverse tergal ridge (figs. 11, 14, 23 
and 25) 13 

13. Sixth abdominal tergite with a pronounced transverse series of 

30 or more setae between the spiracular levels and immediate- 
ly posterior to (occasionally on and obscuring) the anterior 
transverse tergal ridge (see fig. 10) ; retrorse tubercles en- 
tirely lacking _.._ ater Degeer 

Sixth abdominal tergite with incompletely developed retrorse 
tubercles immediately posterior to the anterior transverse 
tergal ridge (fig. 31), or tubercles represented by setae only, 
setae few in number, always less than 30 between the spiracu- 
lar levels (fig. 35) 14 

14. Sixth abdominal tergite with retrorse tubercles sufficiently de- 

veloped to bear processes or nodules (fig. 31) 15 

Sixth abdominal tergite with retrorse tubercles not in the nodu- 
lar stage of development, or with retrorse tubercles indicated 
by setae only (fig. 3")), or tubercles and setae entirely lacking 
immediately posterior to the anterior transverse tergal ridge 
— early-stage larvae. (Not included in this paper) 

15. Sixth abdominal tergite with a transverse series of short ramous 

setae (see figs. 11, 14, 16 and 17), or Avith a transverse series 
of very short, normal, closely grouped setae (see figs. 20 and . 
and 21) immediately posterior to the incompletely developed 

retrorse tubercles 16 

Sixth abdominal tergite without such a setal series (fig. 31) im- 
mediately posterior to the incompletely developed retrorse 
tubercles 18 

16. Transverse setal series immediately posterior to the incomplete- 

ly developed retrorse tubercles composed of numerous very 
short, irregularly yet quite closely spaced, normal setae (see 
figs. 20 and 21) ; abdominal tergites with spiny capitate setae 
(fig. 22) nidtim Arrow 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 9 

(These chaiacters have sometimes been noted in specimens so 
voung that tlie retrorse tubercles were indicated by setae 
Transverse setal series immediately posterior to the incompletely 
developed retrorse tubercles composed of ramous setae (figs. 
16 and 17) 17 

17. Bamous setae with few rami (fig. 16) ; ramous setae moderate 

in number and arranged in a narrow, somewhat single, series 
(see fig. 11) ; normal setae on the posterior margin of the 

tergite numerous and closely spaced Jardarius Linnaeus 

(In this species the ramous setae appear to increase in num- 
ber through the consecutive instars as the larva approaches 
maturity, and they have been noted in some specimens in 
which the retrorse tubercles had not attained the nodular 
stage of development.) 
Eamous setae with numerous rami, bushy (fig. 17) ; ramous setae 
numerous and arranged in two or three irregular transverse 
rows (see fig. 14) ; normal setae on the posterior margin of 

the tergite few in number and widely spaced aic/natus Leconte 

(The ramous setae in this species appear suddenly, from one 
instar to the next, and at a time when the larva is nearly 

18. Mesal area anterior to the fine anterior transverse tergal ridge 

of the sixth abdominal tergite granulated (,gs. 15 and 23)- 

medialis Casey 

Mesal area anterior to the anterior transverse tergal ridge of the 
sixth abdominal tergite not pronouncedly granulated 19 

19. Body uniformly pigmented, with only a fine cleavage line on the 

dorsum; tenth abdominal tergite usually Avith very small in- 
completely developed tubercles; sixth abdominal tergite along 

its posterior margin Avith about 26 or a few less setae .. 

peruvianus Castelnau 

Body with a broad or narrow, median, yellowish stripe on the 
dorsum (see fig. 9) 20 

20. Ocelli large, normal, ventral pair closer together than the middle 

pair (fig. 6) maculatus Degeer 

Ocelli irregular in size, small, usually rounded, ventral pair as 
widely or nearly as widely separated as middle pair (fig. 5).— 21 

21. Pronotum completely divided, or nearly so, by a broad, median, 

yellowish stripe, only the posterior third and a portion of the 
anterior margin of the pronotum with yellowish-striped mark- 
ings (see fig. 8) 22 

22. Dorsum of body with a broad, median, yelloAvish stripe 

carnivorus Fabricius 

10 PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. ], JANUARY, 1947 

Dorsum of body with a narrow, median, yellowish stripe, some- 
times indistinct talpinus Mannerheim 

(As a larva approachi'S muturity the dorsal median stripe, in 
some species, changes in appearance, usually becoming propor- 
tionally narrower than in the younger larva. When the larva 
has reached maturity the dorsal stripe, in some instances, 
may be obliterated posteriorly.) 

Dermestes marmoratus Say 
Body very setiferous, dorsally with moderately broad, median, yel- 
lowish stripe extending posteriorly from the anterior margin of the 
mesonotum; pronotum incompletely divided by moderately broad stripe 
(see fig. 8), lateral margins of pronotum non-pigmented; abdominal 
tergites each with a series of fine short setae immediately anterior and 
posterior to the fine anterior tergal ridge (fig. 7) ; retrorse tubercles 
entirely lacking; urogomphi curved downward. Frons anteriorly Avith a 
pair of prominent tubercles, one on each side; ocelli large, normal, ven- 
tral pair closer together than middle pair (see fig. 6). 

Description and study based upon the following material : 
Ex dead horse, Williams, Ariz., May 30 [year?], Schwarz and 
Barber; southern Colorado or New Mexico, July 1875, W. L. 
Carpenter ; Colorado, C. V. Riley. 

Dermestes ater Degeer 
(Z>. cadaverinus Fabricius) 
Body very setiferous, dorsally with broad, discontinuous, median, 
yellowish stripe extending posteriorly from anterior margin of mesono- 
tum, generally present through length of anterior tergites, but remain- 
ing evident only in posterior membranous area of posterior segments; 
pronotum incompletely divided by broad, discontinuous, median stripe 
(see fig. 8), lateral margins of pronotum non-pigmented; abdominal 
tergites each with a series of slender, normal, upright setae immediately 
posterior to (occasionally on and obscuring) the fine anterior trans- 
verse tergal ridge (fig. 10); retrorse tubercles entirely lacking; uro- 
gomphi straight or slightly curved upward. Frons simple, without a pair 
of anterior tubercles; ocelli large, normal, ventral pair closer together 
than middle pair (see fig. 6). 

Description and study based upon the following material : 
Numerous specimens from the United States, Brazil, Argen- 
tina, Siberia, Manchuria, China, Java and Japan. 

Dermestes lardarius Linnaeus 
Body dorsally uniformly pigmented, only fine cleavage line present 
on dorsum; pronotum uniformly pigmented except for a non-pigmented 

PROC. ENT. SOl-. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 H 

area on each lateral margin ; an anterior series of fully developed re- 
trorse tubercles on abdominal tergites 3 to 10 (fig. 11), tubercles ter- 
minally with a few small acute processes and terminal seta (fig. 12) ; 
abdominal tergites 3 to 8 each with a transverse series of ranious setae 
immediately posterior to retrorse tubercles (fig. 11), series composed of 
a somewhat single row of setae, ramous setae with few rami (fig. 16) ; 
normal setae on posterior margin of tergites numerous and closely 
spaced; urogomphi curved downward. Frons simple, without a pair of 
prominent tubercles; ocelli large, normal, ventral pair closer together 
than middle pair (see fig. 6). 

Description and study based upon the following material : 
Numerous specimens from the United States. Prance, Holland 
and Czechoslovakia. 

Dermestes signatus Leconte 
Body dorsally with narrow, indistinct, yellowish, median stripe ext- 
ending posteriorly from the anterior margin of the pronotum, lateral 
margins of pronotum non-pigmented; an anterior series of fully de- 
veloped retrorse tubercles on abdominal tergites 4 to 10 (fig. 14), tuber- 
cles terminally Avith few small acute processes and terminal seta (fig. 
13) ; abdominal tergites 4 to 8 each with a transverse series of several 
rows of ramous setae immediately posterior to retrorse tubercles (fig. 
14), ramous setae numerous, with many rami, bushy (fig. 17) ; normal 
setae on posterior margin of the tergites few in number and widely 
spaced; urogomphi curved upward. Frons simple, without a pair of 
prominent tubercles; ocelli large, normal, ventral pair closer together 
than middle pair (see fig. 6). 

Description and study based upon the following material : 
Ex mag-pie's nest, Bird Creek, Ravilli County, Mont. Mav 
28, 1931, C. B. Philip; bird's nest, Ravilli County, Mont", 
May 1940, Jellison and Philip; ex egret's nest No. 9, Brvte. 
Calif., June 12, 1945, C. M. Herman. 

Dermestes nidum Arrow 
Body dorsally with broad, median, yellowish stripe, borders irregular, 
extending posteriorly from anterior margin of mesonotum, becoming 
less definite posteriorly; dorsal stripe faint on pronotum, lateral mar- 
gins of pronotum non-pigmented; an anterior series of fully developed 
retrorse tubercles on abdominal tergites 4 to 9 (fig. 21), tubercles 
terminally with wartlike processes and terminal seta (fig. 18) ; abdomi- 
nal tergites 4 to 8 each with transverse series of numerous, compactly 
grouped, short, normal setae immediately posterior to retrorse tubercles 
(figs. 20 and 21); abdominal tergites 4 to 8 with many, short, spiny, 
capitate setae (fig. 22), short setae of other tergites not capitate; nor- 
mal setae on posterior margin of tergites moderate in number, widely 
and evenly spaced; urogomphi widely separated, slender, curved upward 

12 PKOC. KXT. SOC\ WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 194:7 

tlieii icciiived caudjilly, foriiiiiig small tenninal hook. Frons simple, 
without a pair of prominent tubercles; ocelli medium to large in size, 
rounded, vential pair barely closer together than middle pair. 

Description and study based upon the following material : 
Ex nest of night heron, Dalecarlia Reservoir, District of Co- 
lumbia, 1911 and 1914, R. C. Shannon; nest of night heron. 
Dalecarlia Reservoir, District of Columbia. June Ki, 1915. 
Shannon and Barber. 

Dermestes medialis Casey 
Body dorsally with broad, niedinn, yellowish stripe extending pos- 
teriorly from anterior margin of iMonotum, formed by yellowish tri- 
angular area on each abdominal tergite, apices directed anteriorly; 
pronotum laterally on each side with a small oblong non-pigmented area 
containing a dark pigment spot (see fig. 2), lateral margins of prono- 
tum not pigmented; an anterior transverse series of fully developed 
retrorse tubercles on abdominal tergites 4 to 8 (fig. 23), less developed 
on tergite 9, tubercles terminally Avith several pronounced, irregularly 
arranged, acute processes and terminal seta (fig. 19) ; mesal area im- 
mediately anterior to fine anterior transverse tergal ridge of each 
abdominal tergite granulated (figs. 15 and 23) ; urogomphi curved up- 
ward. Frons simple, without a pair of prominent tubercles; ocelli 
medium in size, rounded, ventral pair slightly closer together than mid- 
dle pair. 

Description and stud}' based upon the following material : 
Ex parasitized grasshoppers, Havre, Mont., Julv 15, 1940, J. 
R. Parker. 

Although Leng lists this species as a synommi, and perhaps 
correctly so, of I), tristis Fall, the adult specimen of the 
larvae here considered was not compared with the Fall type, 
but it was compared with the type specimen of D. medialis 
Csy. It was upon this comparison that the specific determina- 
tion was made for the larval specimens studied. In order to 
prevent, as nearly as possible, an error in the identification 
of the specimens, D. medialis Csy. is used in this paper. This 
does not mean, however, that D. medialis is a valid species. 
Perhaps, at a later time, the synonymy of D. rattus Lee, T). 
tristis Fall and /). medialis Csy. will be clarified. 

Dermestes peruvianas Castelnau 
Body dorsally uniformly pigmented, only a fine cleavage line on 
dorsum ; non-pigmented area on each side of pronotum open laterally 
to margin, dark pigment spot usually present and free (see fig. 4) ; 
an anterior transverse series of fully developed retrorse tubercles on 
abdominal tergites 4 to 10 (fig. 25), tergite 3 with incompletely de- 
veloped tubercles, tubercles bilobed, each lobe terminally rounded, with 

PKOC. KNT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 49, XO. 1, JAXUAKY. l!.47 13 

or without -wartlike processes, terminal seta at .iiinctioii of lol>es (fig. 
24); urogomplii straight or slightly curved upward, teniiinally recurved 
eaudally forming small hook at tip. Prons anteriorly with a pair of 
prominent tubercles, one on each side; ocelli large, normal, ventral i)air 
closer together than middle pair (see fig. 6). 

Description and study based upon tlie following' material : 
Amherst, Mass., 1943, Marion E. Smith; in pacldug' around 
bottled beer, Sweden, January 11. 1931. 

Dermestes carnivorus Fal)ricius 

Body dorsally with broad, median, yellowish strii)e extending pos.- 
teriorly from anterior margin of pronotum; pronotum on each side 
with oblong non-pigmented area containing a dark pigment spot (see 
fig. 2), lateral margin of pronotum not pigmented; an anterior trans- 
verse series of fully developed retrorse tubercles on abdominal tergites 
4 to 9 (fig. 29), tubercles bilobed, each lobe terminally with acute 
processes, terminal seta at junction of lobes (fig. 30) ; urogomphi 
curved upward. Frons anteriorly with a pair of prominent tubercles, 
one. on each side; ocelli small, rounded, ventral pair usually closer to- 
gether than middle pair (see fig. 5). 

Description and study based upon the folh>winji' material: 
Numerous specimens from the United States, Dominican Re- 
public, Haiti, Salvador and Peru. 

Dermestes maculatus Degeer 
(D. viiJpinus Fabricius) 

Bod.v dorsally with Inroad, median, yellowish stripe extending pos- 
teriorly from anterior margin of pronotum; pronotum with non-pig- 
mented area on each side open laterally to margin, dark pigment spot 
usually present and free (fig. 4) ; an anterior transverse series of fully 
developed retrorse tubercles on abdominal tergites 4 to 9 (fig. 26), 
tubercles terminally with acute wartlike processes and terminal seta 
(fig. 27) ; urogomphi curved upward. Frons anteriorly with a pair of 
prominent tubercles, one on each side; ocelli large, normal, ventral pair 
closer together than middle pair (fig. 6). 

Description and study based on the following material : 
Numerous specimens from the United States, Mexico, Chile, 
Cuba. Africa and Italy. 

Dermestes caninus Germar 

Body dorsally with broad, median, yellowish stripe extending pos- 
teriorly from anterior margin of pronotum; pronotum laterally on each 
side with an oblong non-pigmented area containing a dark pigment 
spot (figs. 2 and 9), lateral margins of pronotum not pigmented; an 
anterior transverse series of fully developed retrorse tubercles on ab- 

14 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANU.\RY, 1947 , 

dominal tergites 4 to 9 (fig. 28), tubercles termiually with small acute 
processes and terminal seta (fig. 34) ; urogomphi curved upward. Frons 
anteriorly Avith a pair of prominent tubercles, one on each side; ocelli 
small, generally rounded, ventral pair widely spaced, as widely or nearly 
as widely spaced as middle pair (fig. 5). 

Description and study based upon tlie following material : 
Numerous specimens from Connecticut, Missouri. Georgia, 
Calift)rnia. T'tah and Illinois. 

Dermestes talpinus Mauneiheini 

Body dorsiilly with broad, median, yellowish stripe extending pos- 
teriorly from anterior margin of mesonotum ; pronotum incompletely 
divided Ity discontinuous yellowish stripe, only posterior half and aii- 
torior margin with yellowish-striped markings (fig. 8), lateral margins 
of pronotum not pigmented; an anterior transverse series of fully de- 
veloped retrorse tubercles on abdominal tergites 4 to 9 (fig. 32), tu- 
bercles terminally with short acute processes and terminal seta (fig. 
33) ; urogomphi curved upward. Frons anteriorly with a pair of promi- 
nent tubercles, one on each side; ocelli small, rounded, ventral pair 
widely separated, as widely or nearly as widely separated as middle 
pair (see fig. 5). 

Description and study based upon the following material : 
Ex dried chicken, Plummer's Island, Md., 1908, Schwarz and 
McAtee: ex dead sheep, Vallejo Oalif., Mav 2, 1983, P. C. 


HiNTON, H. E. 1943. A monograph of the beetles associated with 
stored products. Vol. 1. British Museum (Natural History), Lon- 

Kreyenbehg, J. 1928. Experimental-biologische Untersuchungen iibei- 
Dermestes lardarius L. and D. viilpinus Fab. Ztschr. f . Angew. 
Ent. 14 (1): 140-188, 22 figs. 

Bees, Bryant E. 1943. Classification of the Dermestidae (larder, hide, 
and carpet beetles) based on larval characters, with a key to the 
North American genera. IT. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 511, 18 pp. 

PROC. ENT. SOr. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 15 

(Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae ) 

By E. I. Sailer, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 
United States Department of Agriculture 

It ha.s recently become apparent that Dysdercns ohliquiis 
(H.-S.) as currently recognized is composed of two species. 
Since the forms included here have received some notice as a 
pest of cotton in Central America, it is of considerable impor- 
tance that the identity" of Herrich-Schaffer's species ohliquus 
be established and the status of the second species clarified. 

Herrieh-Schaffer described ohliquus from "Mexico" in 
1843. In 1943 Stal described Dysdercus Mmaculatus. Pre- 
sumably through an oversight locality data were not given, 
and since this information has never been published it is of 
interest that Rene Malaise, of the Naturhistorska Riksmuseum, 
Stockholm, has informed me that the type series of himacu- 
latus consists of four specimens all labeled "J. St. Joseph, 
Kinb. " In 1859 Stal again treated himacidatus and listed it as 
from the island of "St. Joseph," now San Jose in the Pearl 
Island group off the west coast of Panama, and from tlie 
Island of Puna just off the coast of Equador near Guayaquil. 

In 1862 Stal decided that himacidatus was a synonym of 
ohliquus, and it has been so treated by all authors since that 
date. In order to establish the identity of himaculata, 
sketches of the male claspers and of the anterior portion of 
the pronota of the two species now standing under the name 
ohliquus were sent to Dr. Malaise at Stockholm for comparison 
with the type series of himaculatus. Dr. Malaise very kindly 
informed me that my sketches drawn from a specimen taken 
on Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone, agree in every partic- 
ular with the specimens in Stal's type series. 

It is not known w^hether the type of ohliquus still exists. 
Presumably it may be found in the Zoologischer Museum zu 
Miinehen, should this institution have escaped the ravages 
of war. While it is possible that Herrieh-Schaffer also had 
the species with Stal named himaculatus, it seems more prob- 
able that he named the other of these two forms, thus re(|uiring 
the restoration of himaculatus. There are two sources of evi- 
dence indicating the validity of this action. On the basis of 
the material in the United States National Museum collection, 
the species described by Stal is predominantlv more southern 
in distribution, there being 25 Central American, Colombian. 
and Venezuelan localities represented as against 6 Mexican. 
The other species is represented bv 13 Mexican and 7 Central 
American localities. The more dominantly southern sjieeies 



NO. 1, J.\NUARY, lli-tT 

slioAv.s a wider range of variation in the shape of the spots on 
the hemelytra, with only 11 specimens ont of 190 agreeing 
with Herrich-Schatfer's illustration of ohiiquus. By contrast 
only 4 ont of 52 specimens of the predominantly Mexican 
species fail to agree with that illustration. 

The apparent structural dift'erences between the two 
species are found in the shape of the male claspers and in the 
appearance of the anterior pronotal margin of both sexes. 
These differences are illustrated by the accompanying figures. 

The following locality and host data were taken from speci- 
mens in the United States National Museum collection. 

Dysdercus obliquus (H.-S.) 

Mexico. — Colima : Colima. Distrito F'ederal : Mexico 
City. Oaxaca : Tehuantepec. Puebla : Puebla. Sinaloa : Vil- 
la Union. Tamaolipas : Matamoros, Tamos, Xicotencatl. Vera 
CrT'Z: Cordoba. Jalapa, Medellin, Orizaba, Pueblo Vie.i". 





PROG. ENT. SOV. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 19-47 17 

Guatemala. — Guatemala City, Trece Aguas (cotton). 
El Salvador. — One specimen with no specific locality. 
Nicaragua. — Ameya, Managua. 
Costa Rica. — Mount Poas, San Jose. 
Panama. — Boquete. 

Dysdercus bimaculatus .Stfil 

Panama. — Bl Carmeno, La Chorrera, Taboga Island, Ca- 
bima, Secanquin. 

Cana Zone. — Barro Colorado Island, Alhajuelo, Ancon, 
Corozal, Bella Vista. 

Colombia. — Atlaiitico (cotton), Magdalena, Santa Marta, 
Rio Frio. 

Venezuela. — Maracaibo, Carragua. 

Costa Rica.^ — Piedras Negras. 

Nicaragua. — Managua, San Jorge. 

San Salvador. — Yzalco (cotton), La Concordia (cotton), 
San Salvador, La LTiiion (cotton). 

Guatemala. — Alta Vera Paz, Cacao. Secanguin (cotton), 
Trece Aguas (cotton), Volcan Santa Maria. 

Mexico. — Oaxaca : Tehuantepec. Vera Cruz: Cordoba. 
Tamaulipas : Tampico. Morelos : Cnernavaca. Durango : 

Most of the literature pertaining to these two species has 
been under the name ohliqiius. While it is not always possible 
to know with certainty which species was actually concerned 
in a given reference, tlie folU)wing reassignment should be 
approximately correct. 

Dysdercus obliquus (H.-S.) 

1843, Pyrrliocoris ohUqnus Henich-Schaffer, Wanz Ins., vol. 7, p. 19, 
table 223, fig. 701. 

1850, Dysdercus obliquus Hei-ricli-Schaffer, Wanz Ins., vol. it, p. 170. 

1876, Dysdercus obliquus, Uhler, U. S. Geol. Survey Bui. 1 :314. [Reprint, 
Hemip. W. Miss., p. 48.] 

1883, Dysdercus obliquus, Distant, Biol. Centr. Amer., vol. 1, p. 232, 
table 21, fig. 18. (Mexican records except "Cuidad in Duran- 
go"; the latter and most, if not all, the non-Mexican records 
should be referred to bimaculatus.) 

1886, Dysdercus obliquus, Uhler, Check List Hemip. N. Amer., p. 17. 

1893, Dysdercus obliquus. Distant, Biol. Centr. Amer., vol. 1, p. 415. 

(Many of the records cited here should be referred to bima- 
culala. Only a study of Distant 's material in the British 
Museum of Natural History can straighten this out with cer- 

1894, Dysdercus obliqinis, Uliler, Calif. Acad. Sci. Proc, Rer. 2, 4: 248. 

18 PROr. KNT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANU.\RY, 1947 

1894, Dysdercus obliqiius, Lethieiy and Seveiin, Cat. Hemip. Heterop., 
vol. 2, p. 254. (Includes bimaculatus references in synonymy.) 

1906, Dysdercus obliquiis, Ballon, West Indian Bui. 7: 65, 79. (Listed, 
biviaculata cited as synonym.) 

1910, Dysdercus obliquus, Banks, Cat. Nearctic Hemip. -Heterop., p. 71. 

1916, Dysdercus obliquus, Van Duzee, Check List Hemip., p. 25. 

1917, Dysdercus obliquus, Van Duzee, Cat. Hemip. N. Amer., p. 208. 

(Includes bimaculatus references in synonymy.) 
1927, Dysdercus obliquus, Morrill, Calif. Dept. Agr., Spec. Pub. 73, p. 80. 

(Notes presence in cotton fields of northwestern Mexico, but 

observes no damage.) 
1929, Dysdercus obliquus, Hussey, General Cat. Hemip., fasc. 3, p. 97. 

(Includes bimaculatus references in synonymy.) 
1931, Dysdercus obliquus, Blote, Zool. Meded. 14 (1-2) : 129, 134 (a key 

to genus). 

Dysdercus bimaculatus Stal 
1850, Dysdercus bimaculatus Stal, ofversigt Kougl. Svenska Vetensk. 

Akad. Forhandl. 11: 236. 
1854, Dysdercus bimaculatus Stal, Freg. Eugen, Ees^, Ins., p. 253. 
1862, Dysdercus obliquus Stal, Stettin Ent. Ztg. 23: 316. (Incorrectly 

places bimaculatus as a synonym.) 
1866, Dysdercus obliquus Stal, Hemip. Afr., vol. 3, p. 16. 
1870, Dysdercus obliquus Stal, Enum, Hemip., vol. 1, p. 121. 
1883, Dysdercus obliquus, Distant, Biol. Centr. Amer., vol. 1, p. 232, 

table 21, figs. 16-17. (All records except Jalapa and Milpas, 

Mexico, probably refer to bimaculatus.) 

1893, Dysdercus obliquus, Distant, Biol. Centr. Amer., vol. 1, p. 415. 

(Some records, probably including all the non-Mexican, should 
refer to bimaculatus.) 

1894, Dysdercus obliquus, Lethierry and Severin, Cat. Hemip. Heterop., 

vol. 2, p. 254. (References for bimaculatus in synonymy.) 

1895, Dysdercus obliquus. Pittier and Biolley, Invert. Costa Rica, vol. 2. 

p. 21. 
1897, Dysdercus, obliquus, Tristan, Ins. Vosta Rica, p. 16. 
1906, Dysdercus obliquus, Ballou, West Indian Bui. 7: 65, 79. (Listed, 

bimaculatus cited as synonym.) 

1916, Dysdercus obliquus, Van Duzee, Check List Hemip.. p. 25. (Listed,- 

bimaculatus cited as synonymy.) 

1917, Dy.^dercus obliquus, Van Duzee, Cat. Hemip. N. Amer., p. 208. 

(References for bimaculatus included in synonymy.) 
]929, Dyxdercus obliquus, Hussey, General Cat. Hemip., fasc. 3, p. 97. 

(References for bimaculatus in synonymy.) 
1931, Dysdercus obliquus, Calderon, U. S. Dept. Agr. Insect Pest Surv. 

Rul. 11: 687. (A pest of cotton.) 
1936. Di/sderciis nhUquus, Ballou, [Costa Rica] Cent. Nac. de Agr. Bol. 

20, pp. 5, 9. 15, 17, 26. (Host ]>]ants listed.) 

PROC. ENT. SOO. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 19 

1941, Dysdercits obliqiiK.'i, VivasBertliier, Bol. Soc, Venezol. Cieiic. Nat. 
7 (48): 117. (First record for Venezuela; two host plants 

The following bibliography concerns the two species of 
Pyrrhocoridae treated in this paper and represents an addi- 
tion to the bibliography of Pyrrhocoridae literature compiled 
by Miss Elizabeth Sherman in General Catalogue of the 
Hemiptera, fascicle III, Pyrrhocoridae, 1929, by R. F. Hussey. 

Ballou, Charles H. Insectos observados durante el ano 1934 [Costa 
Eica] Cent. Nac. de Agr. Bol. 20: 1-60, 1936. 

Blote, H. C. VIII. Catalogue of the Pyrrhocoridae in 'S Rijks Mu- 
seum Van Natuurlijke Historic. Zool. Medcd. 14 (1-2) : 97-135, 
6 figs., 1931. 

Calderon, S. Insect conditions in Salvador, Central America. U. S. 
Bur. Ent. . . Insect Pest Surv. Bui. 11: 686-688, 1931. [Processed.] 

MORRILOL., A. W. Pest control problems on the west coast of Mexico. 
Calif. Dept. Agr., Spec. Pub. 73: 70-82, 1927. 

Vevas-Berthiek, Gaston. Los " Manchadores " del algodon en Vene- 
zuela. Bol. Soc. Venezol. Cienc. Nat. 7 (48) : 115-119, 1941. 

PUNCTATA (PROVANCHER) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) 

L. M. Bi.A( k1 and P. W. Oman-' 

It has been recorded in literatur^^'^ and frequently ob- 
served that males of Agallia quadripunctata (Provancher) 
are rarely encountered in collected material. The apparent 
absence of males from normal populations led to conjecture 
as to the method of reproduction of this species, and the 
studies herein described were undertaken in an attempt to 
clarify this point. This appears to be the first authentic rec- 
ord of parthenogenesis in any member of the auchenorrhyn- 
chous Homoptera. The presence of males in some populations 
of quadriptmciata may indicate that at times the species does 
reproduce bisexually. On the other hand, such males may 
be nonfunctional. 

^Department of Animal and Plant Pathology, Tlie Rockefeller Insti- 
tute for Medical Research, Princeton, N. J. 

-Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, V. S. Department of 

30sborn, H., and Ball, E. D. Rpt. Iowa Expt. Sta. for 1897. Iowa 
Agr. Col. Bien. Rpt., p. 114, 1898. 

''Oman, P. W. A classification of North American agallian leaf- 
hoppers. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bui. 372, p. 41. 1933. 

20 I'KOC. F.XT. ROC AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 

In October 1941, 17 iiyiuplis oi: this species were collected 
in and around AYashin<>ton. D. C. These nymphs were used 
to establish a thriving culture on plants of crimson clover, 
Trifolium incarnatum L. The plants were grown under cellu- 
loid cages in a greenhouse. The temperature was maintained 
between 20° and 30° C, except for short periods of uuusual 
fluctuation. Extra illumination was provided on dull days 
and during the short days of winter. It was soon observed 
that all adults in the culture were females. Although the 
culture was maintained for more than 2 years, no males were 

To determine whether the species is parthenogenetic, an 
experiment was carried out in w^hicli 30 nymphs 24 hours 
old or less were separately caged on crimson clover. Each 
insect was transferred to a fresh clover seedling about every 
4 weeks, but each was always maintained isolated from other 
individuals of the species. One nymph died between the sec- 
ond and third transfers. About half of the remaining insects 
became adult within 120 days and all but one within 133 
daj's. This one insect eventually reached the adult stage. 
Each of the 29 insects was female, and each deposited eggs in 
clover and produced nymphs without contact with other in- 
dividuals of the species. Two had produced nymphs wdthin 
130 days of their own hatching from the egg, but the last one 
to produce nymphs did not do so until 163 days after it 

This experiment would seem to indicate that in the eastern 
United States AgaUia quadripuvctata normally reproduces 


By B. V. Travis- 
Z7. S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 

While making collections of mosquito larvae on Guam, M. 
I., two species of flies, one an Ephydridae, Ochthera canescens 
Cress, and the other a Dolichopodidae, ParacUns germanus 
Parent, were observed to capture and feed on larvae of Culex 
amiulirostris Skuse, C quinquefasciatiis Say, and blood- 

iThe writer is indebted to C. T. Greene of the U. S. National Museum 
for the identification of the Dolichopodidae, and to E. T. Cresson, Jr., 
for the identification of the Ephydridae. 

^Lieutenant, H(S), USNR. On military leave from the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, .JAXU.^RY, 1947 21 

worms (Cliirononiidae). Also, on Gnaclak-anal, S. I., a spe- 
cies of Ephydridae, Ochihera hrevititiolis Meijere was noted 
to feed on anopheline larvae and bloodworms. These flies 
were snffieiently numerons around isolated pools that they 
undoubtedly caused a local reduction of the mosquito pop- 
ulation. They were not found to be abundant over a large 
area, therefore no appreciable general reduction of mosqui- 
toes could be attributed to them. 

The Ephydridae have large prehensible prothoracie legs. 
The front femur is greatly enlarged and the tibia is modi- 
fied to form a hook-like clasper that fits tightly against the 
large femur. Along the surfaces Avhere the femur and the 
tibia come in contact there are many spines of various sizes. 
One of the most noticeable habits of these flies is the con- 
stant flexing of the prothoracie legs as the flies sit or walk. 
When disturbed, they stand high on their mesothoracic legs 
and with the raetathoracic legs flexed, they sit with the head 
high and with the tip of the abdomen near the ground. Flight 
is rapid and usually close to the surface of the ground or 

The flies feed upon Cule.r larvae while these are in shallow 
water. A common feeding method also is for the flies to 
skim the surface of the water rapidly and to grasp the larvae 
when the latter rise for air. The flies have difficult}^ in cap- 
turing Culex larvae in deeper water, as the larvae can easily 
avoid capture by "sounding." The bloodworms are cap- 
tured at the edge of shallow water where the flies reach them 
with their prehensible legs. Anopheline larvae are easily 
captured by the flies while they wait at the edge of, or on 
debris and vegetation in, the w^ater. Occasionally they were 
seen to alight on the surface and to catch anopheline larvae 
that were in the open Avater. All larvae are grasped with the 
prehensile legs. 

The Dolichopodidae feed on mosquito larvae and blood- 
Avorms AA'-hen these insects are in water sutflciently shalloAv to 
be reached with the short mouthparts of the flj^ These flies, 
as do the Ephydridae, glide over the surface of the Avater 
and capture Culex larvae as they come up for air. 

22 I'KOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANTAKY, 1947 


By Doris H. Blake 

In 1801 Fabricius^ described Cryptocephalus duhius from 
a specimen collected in "America meridionali" by "D. 
8midt." The description translated from its Latin reads: 
"Dull gray, with the posterior femora imidentate. It appears 
to be of this genus. Antennae filiform, fuscous, with the first 
joint longer, incurved. Head, thorax, elytra subpunctate, 
dull gray, not at all shiny. Thorax on either side runs out 
into a small obtuse angle. Feet dull, with the posterior 
femora subdentate. ' ' 

In 1804 in his comments on the Fabrician species described 
in the Systema Eleutheratorum, Illiger- makes the bare state- 
ment that Cryptoceplmlus duhius is an Eumolpid. 

In 1857 in Ramon de la SagraV natural history of Cuba. 
Jaquelin Duval used the name Myoclirous duhius Fab. for a 
species described and illustrated with the note that "as to the 
genus, it is to M. Chevrolat that we owe the recognition of it." 

In 1866 Suffrian'* wrote that the question "whether Crypto- 
cephalus duhius of South America belongs here is to me in 
some measure doubtful, since Fabricius in his description 
speaks of the teeth on the hind femora but not of the still 
sharper teeth on the fore tibiae." Like Suffrian, I have con- 
siderable doubt whether Cryptocephalus duhius is a Myo- 
chrous. There is no mention of the scales with which the 
beetle is covered, nor of the three conspicuous teeth on each 
side of the prothorax, nor of the prominently toothed front 
tibiae. The sculpture of most species of Myochrous could not 
be described as subpunctate ; — they are densely and coarsely 
and often on the head and thorax rugosely punctate. 

In Henricksen 's^ acount of Danish entomologists, he at- 
tempts to trace the Smidt in the Lund collection mentioned 
by Fabricius. He describes two men, the first Adam Levin 
Smidt, who was a "customs lieutenant" on the island of St. 
Croix, Danish West Indies, with the title of "controller." 
The second, Johan Christian Schmidt, was a surgeon on a 

^Fabricus, Syst. Eleutlieiatonun, vol. 2, p. .i:^, ISOl. 

-Illiger, Mag., vol. 3, p. 168, 1804. 

"Ramon de la Sagra, Hist. . . . de I'Tle dc Cuba. (Sp.-uii.sli ed.) vol. 7, 
2iid part, pp. 124-0, 1856. 

■'Suffrian, Archiv. f. Naturg., vol. ',\2, no. 1, pp. 346-7, 1866. 

'Henricksen, K. L., Oversigt over Dansk Entomologis Historie. En- 
toniologiske Meddelelser, vol. IH, no. 3, p. 127, 1923. 

PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 23 

plantation in St. Croix, who, after lie returned to Copenhagen, 
wrote a little book on St. Croix which showed he had an inter- 
est in natural history. Henricksen thinks the second man 
was probably the collector of Fabricius' insects. At any rate, 
both men were stationed on this island for some time, and it 
may be assumed that St. Croix is the type locality for Crypto- 
cephalus dubius. If it be a Myochrous, the species is probably 
confined to that island. 

Specimens of Myochrous from different West Indian islands 
are different. The species from Cuba is quite distinct from 
that found on Hispaniola, and the one from Puerto Rico is 
distinct from either. It is very probable that if a species of 
Myochrous is found on St. Croix, it is also different. The 
name Myochrous duhrus should not be applied to the species 
from other islands. 

Myochrous cubensis, new species 
Fig. 3 

From 4.5 to (5 mm. in length, oblong, deep brown or pieeous, densely 
covered with brown and grayish scales; thorax with three median teeth 
on each side, densely and deeply punctate with longitudinal ridgings, 
elytral punctation regular, tending in apical half to be striate; a dis- 
tinct tooth on anterior tibia, and a blunt tooth on posterior femur. 

Head broad and flat in front with eyes widely separated; covered 
with dense brown and white scales down to antennal sockets, then the 
scales becoming coarse, white, closely appressed hairs and not so dense, 
so the surface shining below is visible; scales on occiput covering dense, 
rugose punctation with ridgings between, on either side of head an 
elevated ridge more prominent than others extending down the vertex 
almost to the level of eyes. Antennae yellowish brown, extending 
slightly below the humeri, outer joints more pubescent and thicker. 
Prothorax about a sixth wider than long, with three teeth along the 
side and a small one at anterior and posterior angles; smoothly and 
moderately convex ; only slightly depressed in the middle at the base ; 
surface densely and rugosely punctate beneath the cinereous scales with 
irregular longitudinal ridges. Elytra wider than thorax with finely 
serrate edges along and below the humeri ; densely covered with brownish 
white scales forming an irregular color pattern ; punctation below coarse 
and regular. Body beneath lustrous, not so densely scaley, the scales 
becoming coarse A^hite hairs arising from the punctures with the shining 
pieeous surface below visible. Legs with dense white hairs, hind femora 
bluntly toothed, the anterior tibia with a prominent tooth on the inside 
margin. Length 4. .5-6.1 mm. width 2-2.8 mm. 

Type and 9 paratypes U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 57984. One j)ara- 
type in Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Type locality. — Cayamas .Cuba, collected by B. A. Schwarz. 

24 PKOC. KXT. SOI'. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, l;i47 

Oflur local Hies: Ayraiuonte, Prov. Camayuey, July 2, \^):i4, 
J. Acufia; Baragua, May 16, 1927, L. Scaramuzzo, taken on 
Capsicum sp., on May 26, 1927 by same collector on sugar- 
cane, on June 12, 1925, by Lomanitz on sugar-cane ; C. Cova- 
donga, Zapata, S.W., Sept. 16, 1936, Davenport ; C. Jareno, 
H. K. Plank, feeding on sugar-cane; C. Velasco, Nov. 4, 1980; 
Chaparra, July 10, 1915; L. C. Scaramuzza, on sugar cane; 
Havana, Baker and Barbour ; San Antonio de los Banos. Jose 
H. Pazos; Santiago de las Vegas, Aug. 30, 1930, by S. C. 
Bruner, on May 20, 1923, by A. Otero. 

liemarks. — The rather pronounced longitudinal ridging-s 
between the lines of punctures on the thorax separate this 
from the other West Indian species. It is not so roughly 
jiunctate as the Florida species, M. floridanus Schaeif., nor so 
reddish brown, but is more deeply punctate than M. denti- 
collis Say. There is little difference in the aedeagi of the 
different species of Myochrous. This is true of all the species 
that I have examined with the exception of species of the 
squamosus group, in which the aedeagus Avhile similar has 
distinctive differences. 

Myochrous hispaniolae, new .species 
Fig. -2 

From .")..") to 0.6 iiiiii. in length, oblong, dark brown or piceous, cov- 
ered with yellowish gray and brownish, closely appressed scales; thorax 
with three teeth along either side, and with dense and moderately coarse 
punctation, the punctures not confluent and the intervals between not 
ridged as in cubensis. 

Head covered with scales down to the antennal sockets, here the 
scales becoming coarse white hairs from each puncture; on upper half 
of head the punctures rugose; on either side of occiput a ridge curving 
downwards nearly to the level of the eyes; eyes widely separated. 
Antennae extending below the hiuneri, l)rownish, outer joints thickened 
and pubescent. Prothorax about one-seventh or one-eighth wider than 
long, with three teeth along the side, and one at apical and basal angle; 
smoothly rounded, not very convex, with little trace of basal depression ; 
punctation under the scales dense, coarse but not confluent and Avitli 
out ridgings. Elytra wider than thorax, serrate along the edges in biisnl 
li;ilf, coai'sely punctate beneath the cinereous scales, the punctation 
(ItMisc :i!i(I regular. Body beneath lustrous, covered with coarse white 
liairs arising from punctures; last abdominal segments tending to be 
reddish brown. Hind femora bluntly toothed, anterior tibia Avith a 
prominent tooth. Tjcngth 5.4-6.8 mm.; width mm. 

Tjijic and 5 ])aratypes (1 in National Museum. TT.S.N.M. 
Cat. No. r)7985'). Museum of Comjiarative Zoolou'v Tvpe No. 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANU.\RY, 1947 25 

Type locality. — Swamps north of Dessalines, Haiti, col- 
lected Sept. 11, 1934, by P. J. Darlington. 

Other localities. — Monte Cristi, June 1938, Sanchez, Juh' 
1938, Puerto Plata, Aug-. 20-Sept. 2, 1938, Dominican Repub- 
lic, all collected by P. J. Darlington ; Etang- Lachaux, 1934, 
Miragoane, Oct. 30-Nov. 2, 1934, Emery (1000 ft. alt.) Sept. 
11, 1934, Trou Caiman, Sept. 4, 1934, Haiti, all collected by 
P. J. Darlington. 

Remarks. — The thoracic pwnctation of M. hispaniolae while 
dense and moderately coarse is not confluent and there are no 
ridging-s such as are so conspicuous in M. ciihensis. The speci- 
mens examined are also a little longer and narrower tlian the 
specimens of M. cuhensis. 

Myochrous portoricensis, iiew species 
Fig. 1 

7)-(i mill, ill length, oljloiig, jiii-eoiis, eoveied with gr:iyish yellow, 
closely appressed scales, the thorax with three teeth along the side, 
not so densely punctate as in AJ. cithciisis or hispaniolae. 

Head covered with scales down to the antennal sockets, then with 
coarse white hairs, not very dense and showing the dark, shining surface 
beneath. Punctation under the scales dense and rugose and with an 
elevated ridge curving down on either side of the occiput. Antennae 
extending a little below humeri, brownish, with thicker outer joints. 
Prothorax about a sixth wider than long, with three teeth on either 
side and a tooth at apical and basal angles, moderately convex, without 
marked basal depression; punctation under the scales coarse but not so 
dense as in M. cubensis and hispaniolae. Elytra wider than thorax with 
finely serrate edge near the humeri ; under the scales the punctation 
regular but not so dense as in M. cubensis or hispaniolae. Body beneath 
shining beneath the coarse white pubescence; anterior tibia with a dis- 
tinct tooth and posterior femur with blunt tooth. I^eiigth .".S-H. mm ; 
widtli 2.4-3 mm. 

Type U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 57986. 

Type locality. — Arrovo, Puerto Rico, collected in February 
1899 by August Busck." 

Other localities. — Lake Guanica, May 26, 1912, A. Wetmore 
(in stomach of Oxyechus) ; L. Guanica, May 31, 1938, P. J. 

Remarks. — Although closely related to CMhensis and his- 
paniola, this species is less coarsely punctate both on the thorax 
and elytra. It has no trace of the ridges on the thorax found 
in cubensis. The head seems more depressed behind the eyes 
than in cuhensis. 

26 PKOC. KNT. SU( . W ASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, lli-i? 

Myochrous jamaicensis, new species 
Fig. 5 

About 6 mm. in length, oblong, shining piceous, covered with gray 
and brownish scales; front tibia with distinct tooth, thorax moderately 
densely punctate, the punctures tending to be in semi-confluent rows. 

Head densely covered with aeneous scales down to the anterior sockets, 
then with scattered finer scales or hairs arising from the punctures. 
On either side of the occiput a ridge curving down to above eyes. 
Antennae not reaching the humeri (in female at least), brownish, with 
the apical joints thickened. Prothorax about a seventh wider than long 
and with three well developed teeth on each side and one at the apical 
and basal angles; basal margin sinuate, disc a little depressed in middle 
of the base; surface moderately densely punctate, the punctures tending 
to be in rows and semiconfluent with slight ridgings between. Elytra 
wider than prothorax, densely and regularly punctate, and covered 
with cinereous scales; evenly convex, without marked depressions, edge 
about humeri finely serrate. Body beneath shining piceous, with coarse 
^hite hairs arising from the punctures; legs also with white pubescence; 
Anterior tibiae with a prominent tooth, posterior femora bluntly toothed. 
Length 6 mm.; Avidth 2.7 mm. 

Type female, U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 57997. 

Type locality. — Manchioneal, Jamaica, collected January 
30, 1937, by E. A. Chapin and R. E. Blaekwelder. 

Remarks. — M. jamaicensis appears to be half way between 
the Cuban and Hispaniolan species. Although there is a ten- 
dency towards ridging on the thorax, the ridges are not so 
dense nor so deeply cut and the punctation is not so close as in 
cuhensis. The thorax is not so heavy as in cuhensis, in this 
respect resembling that of hispaniolae. The thoracic puncta- 
tion unlike that of any other West Indian species tends to be 
in short lines of semiconfluent punctures. Unfortunately only 
one specimen, a female, is at hand, but I have confidence that 
a series of specimens would show the same differences, since 
in the other species such specific differences in punctation and 
sculpture have been found to hold true in all of the consider- 
able number of each species examined. The antennae are un- 
usually short, possibly because the specimen is a female. 

Myochrous barbadensis, new species 
Fig. 4 

About 6 mm. in length, oblong, shining dark brown beneath the gray 
and brown scales; front tibiae toothed, thorax with large, deep, but 
not dense punctures, and between these, very sliallnw, fine, and some- 
what obsolete punctures. 

PROC. ENT. soc. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 Plate 4 

5. M. joniaicfneis d-b 


28 I'KOC. KM. SOL. \VA.SIi., VOL. 49, .\0. ], .JAWAKY. 1947 

Head tU'iisi'lv covered witli scales down to antciiiial sockets, then witli 
finer haiis arising from the punctures; a ridge down occiput on either 
side of liead; occiput well rounded. Antennae yellowish brown, extend 
iiig to the humeri, outer joints heavier. Prothorax about a fifth wider 
than long, smoothly rounded, without dei)ressions, basal margin sinuate, 
three teeth on each side and a tooth at basal and apical angles; disc 
with coarse, deep but not dense punctures, betAveen these larger ones, 
line, shallow, nearly obsolete punctures. Elytra wider than prothorax, 
densely and regularly punctate, covered with scales, without depressions; 
edge around humeri faintly serrate. Body beneath shining piceous, 
the legs deep brown, covered Avith coarse white hairs arising from punc- 
tures. Anterior tibae toothed, posterior femora l)luntly toothed. T-cnsjth 
(>.2 (i.o mm., Avidth 2.S mm. 

Tijije male, U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 57998. Uiie paratype. 

Tyfjc locality. — Barbados, B.W.I., collected March 14, 193(i 
by R. E. Blackwelder. 

Remarks. — This is an nniisually coarsely punctate species, 
the prothorax of which is as wide as in cuiensis, but much 
less densely punctate, and without ridgings. The aedeagus 
is a little broader at the tip than in tlie other s]iecips here 

PROf. KXT. SOr. WASH.. VOL. 49, NO. ], JANUARY, 1947 29 


By Marion E. Smith 

Burrav of Entoviolor/i/ and Plant Quarantine, U. S. Department of 

Cryptoccrus is one of the most easily recognized genera of 
North American ants. The soldier and worker are readily dis- 
tinguished from those of other groups by their 11-segmented 
antenna, flattened body, short incrassated legs, margined 
thorax bearing angles, spines or tubercules, and the scalelike, 
appressed hairs of the body. The soldier is especially char- 
acterized by a verj' striking, concave, cephalic disk, the bor- 
der of which is either entire or else broken anteriorly. 

The ants are Neotropical in distribution, occurring in 
South and Central America, Mexico, southern United States. 
and the Antilles. In the United States only three forms have 
been recorded, Cryptocerus (Cyathomyrmex) varians F. 
Smith of Florida, C. (Cryptocerus) texanus Santschi of Tex- 
as, and C. {Cryptocerus) rohweri Wheeler of Arizona. These 
three have been collected so infrequently that there is very 
little information available concerning their distribution and 
biology. It is generally known, however, that the ants of the 
genus Cryptocerus are arboreal in habit, forming small colo- 
nies in the cavities of plants and feeding largely on honeydew 
and the flesh of small arthropods. The soldier is believed to 
keep intruders from the nest by blocking the entrance hole 
with its head. 

It is the purpose of this article to otfer keys and descrip- 
tions for identifying our forms, as well as to give the known 
facts concerning distribution and biology. 

Attention is called to the intraspecific variability in these 
ants with reference to color, and also to the number, ar- 
rangement, and form of the spines and tubercules. Often such 
variability may occur even in indivduals from the same col- 

With the exception of specimens loaned the author by W. 
M. Mann and Wm. F. Buren, all material studied is in the 
collection of the National Museum. For the sake of brevity 
a loAver-case letter is used to indicate the caste of each species 
examined ; thus " s " for soldier, " w " for worker, * ' f " for 
female, and "m" for male. 

30 PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 



Cephalic disk deeply concave, with elevated, entire margin. Gaster 
unusually elongate, the first segment usually 1.4 times as long 
as broad. Florida subgenus, Cyathomyrmex Creighton 

Cephalic disk weakly concave and much less pronounced, the margin 
broken anteriorly in the vicinity of the mandibles. Gaster not 
unusually elongate, the first segment approximately 1.25 times 
as long as broad. Texas and Arizona 

subgenus, Cryptocertis Fabricius 


Gaster unusually elongate, the first segment usually 1.4 times as long 
as broad. Mesoepinotal suture pronounced. Lateral border of 
thorax with obtuse asigles. Florida 

subgenus, Cyathomyrmex Creighton 

Gaster not unusually elongate, the first segment seldom more than 
1.25 times as long as broad. Mesoepinotal suture absent or 
obsolescent. Lateral border of thorax with acute spines or tu- 
bercles. Texas and Arizona subgenus, Cryptoceriis Fabricius 


Cryptoceriis, subgenus Cyathocephahis Emery, 1915, Soc. Ent. de 
France Bui., p. 192. (Cyalhocephaliis preoccupied by Kessler, 

Cyathomyrmex Creighton, 1933, Psyche 40: 100. 

Subgenotype, Crypfocerus pallens Klug (by original desig- 

Cryptocerus (Cyathomyrmex) varians F. Smith 

Cryptoceriis varians F. Smith, 1876, Lond. Ent. Soc. Trans., p. 606, pi. 
11, fig 6, worker; Emery, 1894, Soc. Ent. Ital. Bui. 26: 211, pi. 4, 
fig. 33, worker; 1895, Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. System. 8: 325; 
Wheeler, 1905, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bui. 21: 102, pi. 7, figs. 1-6, 
worker, soldier, female, male; 1910, Ants, Columbia Univ. Press, pp. 
17 (fig. 3 M, head of soldier), 90 (fig. 53, worker, soldier, head of 
soldier, female, male), 151, 426, 567; 1926, ibidem, 2d edit.; Emery, 
1915, Soc. Ent. de France Bui., p. 192; Mann, 1922, U. S. Natl. 
Mus. Proc. 61: 34; Weber, 1934, Eev. de Ent. (Rio de Janeiro) 
4; 57, fig. 1. 

Cryptocerus {Cyathomyrmex) varians Wheeler, 1937, Mus. Com]iar. 
Zool. Bui. 81: 459. 

Cryptocerus (Cyathocephalus) varians Wheeler, 1942, Mus. Compar. 
Zool. Bnl. 90: 212, pi. 54, soldier,. heRA of soldier, worker. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 31 

Soldier. — Length 5-6 mm. 

Cephalic disk elliptical, deeply concave, the border entire except for 
a scarcely perceptible longitudinal cleft in the middle of the anterior 
border, the cleft approximately one-sixth the length of the disk; bor- 
der crenulate posteriorly; floor of disk with a distinct convexity, the 
main area of which lies slightly anterior to the center of the floor. 
From above, entire head concealed by the disk, except the prominent, 
angular, somewhat upturned posterior corners. Mesoepinotal suture 
very distinct, the promesonotal suture less so. Pronotum with a promi- 
nent anterolateral angle or spine. Transverse pronotal crest rather 
sharp but not high, interrupted in the middle. Mesonotum approxi- 
mately twice as broad as long, each side bluntly angular. Each side of 
epinotum with a short, blunt, usually upturned spine, anterior to 
which there are usually two less distinct protuberances. Legs short, 
femora incrassated. Petiolar and postpetiolar nodes subequal, the side 
of each bearing a short spine; the spine of the postpetiolar node larger, 
more anteriorly placed. Gaster elongate elliptical, with very distinct 
basal emargination and definite anterolateral margins. 

Subopaque. Head and thorax covered with numerous subcircular, pit- 
like impressions, those on the head being large and deep, those on the 
thorax small and shallow. Sides of thorax, posterior surface of epino- 
tum, and gaster granulate. 

Hairs rather inconspicuous, short, silvery, scalelike, appressed, each 
borne in an impression. Apex and ventral surface of gaster Avith a few 
short, erect, single hairs. 

Black or brownish black ; gaster, legs, and antennae often lighter. 

Worlcer. — Length 3-4. 2o mm. 

Posterior border of head nearly straight, posterolateral corners dis- 
tinct, each forming an angle less than a right angle. Eye visible through 
an excision on head, the excision being anterior to the posterolateral 
corner. Anterior border of head with a distinct median emargination 
exposing much of the mandibles. Thorax Avith a very definite mesoe- 
pinotal suture but no promesonotal suture, sharply marginate on each 
side throughout its length. Each side of pronotum with a very promi- 
nent anterolateral (humeral) angle and another blunt angle in the area 
where the promesonotal suture should be, if it were present; side 
of pronotum between the angles often entire but occasionally with a 
few irregularities. Mesonotum on each side usually with a distinct 
angle. Epinotum Avith an angle on each side slightly anterior to the 
midlength of the epinotum ; sides of epinotum strongly converging 
posteriorly behind the lateral angles. Legs short, femora incrassated. 

Petiolar and postpetiolar nodes of nearly equal breadth, each Avith a 
lateral spine the apex of Avhich is often more or less obliquely truncate. 
Gaster elliptical, with very distinct basal emargination, rather sharply 
marginate on each side througliont most of its length, but especially 

32 I'KOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, J.\NT.\KV, lSi47 

Body suljopaque. Hides of thorax, legs, posterior surface of epinotum, 
and gaster finely granulate. Head and thorax with very much smaller 
and more irregular, pitlike impressions than those of soldier. 

Pilosity similar to that of soldier. 

Brownish black to almost black, appendages often lighter. Immature 
specimens more yellowish red, especially the gaster. 

Female. — Length 6.5-7.;" mm. 

Eesembling soldier. Cephalic disk of same general sha]te but very 
shallow; the cleft at the middle of the anterior border of the head 
shorter, succeeded by a smooth, fused, longitudinal area; one large 
convexity on the floor of the disk. Ocelli extremely small, scarcely per- 
ceptible. Bolder of disk crenulate, especially posteriorly. Pronotum 
with a single anterolateral (humeral) spine. Pronotal crest present 
but not well developed as in soldier. Mesoepisternum with a prominent 
spine. Anterior wing brownish; a distinct stigma, a cubital, a dis- 
coidal, and an appendiculate radial cell. Legs short, femora incrassated. 
Epinotum concave posteriorly, Avith a rather short, blunt, posterolateial 
spine. Petiolar node Avithout a spine on each side. Postpetiolar node 
broadest anteriorly. Gaster oblong, sides subparallel, the base broadly 
emarginate, anterolateral margins not thin and sharp as in Avorker; 
first gastric segment approximately twice as long as broad. 

Sculpture similar to soldier, except that the pitlike impressions on 
the cephalic disk are larger, coarser, and more abundantly distributed. 

Short, erect hairs sparsely distributed on the dorsal surface of the 
thorax and on all of the gaster. The hairs around the cephalic disk 
more clavate. The short, silvery, scalelike, appressed hairs very incon- 
spicuous or absent from the pitlike impressions on the head and thorax. 

Color similar to that of Avoiker. 

"Male. — Length 4-4.-5 mm. 

"Head broader behind than in front, decidedly broader than long; 
cheeks concave, eyes and ocelli A'ery prominent; mandibles Avell developed, 
dentate; clypeus short and broad, its anterior border straight. Frontal 
area large, triangular, impressed. Frontal groove pronounced, extend- 
ing from the frontal area to the anterior ocellus. Antenna long, 13- 
jointed, joints 3-13 subequal in length, but increasing very gradually 
in thickness towards the tip. First .ioint thick, hardly half the length 
of the third, second .ioint verj- small, not incrassated, lot longer than 
broad. Thorax Avith deep Mayrian furroAvs. Scutellum flattened. Epi- 
notum somewhat rounded in profile, its basal and declivous surfaces 
of about equal length. Petiole and postpetiole subequal, seen from 
above about as long as broad, angular in front, Avith straight sides 
slightly converging behind. In profile the petiole is someAvhat more 
couA-ex than the postpetiole. Gaster slender, first segment occupying 
a little over half its length, the remaining segments subequal. Genitalia 
oxserted. Legs rather short. 

"Mandibles, head, tliornx. and pedicel oiinque, finely granulai', or 
punctate. Ofci|)ital imrtion of licnd siniiscly foveolate niid sonu'wliat 

PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JAXUAKY, U>47 IV-] 

letic-uhite-rugoso. Dorsal and pleural surfaces of thorax finely and 
obscurely longitudinally striated, most clearly on the scutellum, meta- 
notum, and basal epinotal surfaces. Gaster and legs smooth and shining. 

"Hairs yellow, longest and suberoct on the head, thorax, and gaster; 
very short and appressed on the antennae and legs. 

"Head, thorax and pedicel black; base of mandibles, antennae, 
coxae, and gaster dark brown. Tips of mandibles, palpi, legs, pos- 
terior edges of gastric segments, and genitalia pale yellow. Wings 
whitish hyaline with yellow veins and conspicuous brown stigma." 

Wheeler's description of the male (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Bill. 21 : 103, 1905) based on Bahama specimens is quoted 
above. Males collected at Miami, Fla., by AYm. F. Buren 
differ from Wlieeler's description as follows: 

Anterior border of clypeus with a median emargination, frontal area 
not well defined, segments 4-12 of funiculus subequal in length, scutel- 
lum moderately convex, declivous surface of epinotum greater than 
the base, posterior edges of gastric segments, and genitalia reddish 

l'yi)c locality. — Antilles; no specifie locality cited. 

Cotypes presumably in the British Museum of Natural 

Other localities.— FUmiD A : Miami Beach, Thos E. Sny- 
der, Tillandsia sp. on red mangrove, Bhizophora mangle L., 
Hopkins U. S. No. 15291 (s, av) ; Miami, Wm. F. Buren, in 
dead twigs and small branches of red hiangrove, Rhizopiiora 
mangle L. (s, w, f, m) ; Cards Point, W. M. Wheeler, in Til- 
landsia; Coconut Grove, Nancy Fairchild, in twigs of sea 
grape, Coccolohis uvifera L ; same locality. J. P. Linduska, in 
wood of Baiihinia sp.. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. No. 44- 
16865 (f) ; Key West, collector (?), in burrows in wood, 
foraging only at night (w) ; same locality, E. A. Schwa rz 
(s, w) ; Homestead. Wm. F. Buren, in red mangrove, Rhizo- 
phora mangle L. (s, w, f ) ; Saddle Bunch Keys, Wm. F. 
Buren, in red mangrove, Bhizophora mangle L. (s, w, f). 

C. variants has been collected too infrequently in Florida 
for one to know its exact distribution. At present the species 
is recorded from Miami southward to Key West. Outside of 
the United States rarians has been collected in the Bahamas 
(W. M. Wheeler), Honduras (W. M. Mann), Cuba (E. A. 
Schwarz, N. A. AVeber, W. M. Mann, and others). A sub- 
species, marginatus, was described from Haiti by Wheeler 
and Mann and the varietv, jamaicensis, from Jamaica bv 

Buren took winged females and males at Miami on June 23 
and Julv 4. 3945. 

34 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 

Crypivcerus Falnieius, 1804, Syst. Piez., p. 418. 

Subgenotj^pe, Cryptocerus unibmculatus Fabricius (by 
designation of Emery, 1914). 



Gaster entirely black. Head and thorax with niunerous, largo, pitlike 

impressions, but only those of the epinotum bearing a prominent, 

silvery or grayish hair as in texanus. Gaster with longitudinal 

rugulae in addition to other sculpture, the rugula© most evident 

near the base. Arizona rohweri Wheeler. 

Each side of gaster with a yellowish basal spot. Head and thorax 
with numerous pitlike impressions, each of which bears a prominent, 
silvery or grayish hair. Gaster lacking the longitudinal rugulae 
present in rohweri. Texas texanus Santschi. 


Gaster entirely Vilack, with longitudinal rugulae in addition to other 
sculpture. Petiolar and postpetiolar node each with an extremely 
acute, lateral spine. Part of the thoracic sculpture with a distinct 
longitudinal trend. Arizona rolnveri Wheeler. 

Each side of gaster with a yellowish basal spot, no longitudinal 
rugulae in addition to the other sculpture. Lateral spine on petiolar 
and postpetiolar node not extremely acute. Thoracic sculpture with- 
out a definite longitudinal trend. Texas texanus Santschi. 

Cryptocerus (Cryptocerus) rohweri Wheeler 

Cryptocerus (Cyathocephalus) rohweri Wheeler, 1916, New England 
Zool. Club Proc. 6:32, soldier, worTcer, fig. 2 (a) soldier, (b) 
Soldier. — Length 6 mm. 

Cephalic disk with the posterior border transverse, approximately 
straight, the posterolateral corners oblique, sides subparallel, the front 
rounded and bearing a distinct median emargination, which exjioses 
much of the mandibles. Disk deepest anteriorly, with a convexity near 
the center. Border weakly or not crenulate. Pronotum as broad as 
head, sharply declivous anteriorly, each lateral border usually bearing 
two spines, the anterior of which is always present and is the more 
prominent. Transverse, pronotal crest sharp and well defined but in- 
terrupted in the middle, crenate. Promesonotal and mesoepinotal su- 
tures varying from indistinct to well defined. Lateral border of meso- 
notum usually bluntly rounded, occasionally with a blunt spine or 
tubercle. Lateral border of epinotum with a spine, which is often 
acute. Eacli side of petiolar and postpetiolar nodes Avith an acute. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 35 

moderately long spine, whic-li is directed posterolaterally or postero- 
dorsally. Node of postpetiole widest anteriorly, somewhat constricted 
posteriorly. Legs short, femora incrassated. Gaster oblong-elliptical, 
emarginate basally, without indication of anterolateral margins. 

Opaque. Dorsal surface of head, thorax, petiole, and postpetiole with 
numerous coarse, pitlike impressions, some of Avhich are rather large 
and almost circular on the head and thorax. Gaster very densely and 
finely granulate, with minute, almost indistinct longitudinal rugulae, 
the rugulae best defined toward the base. 

Body and legs with short, sparse, scattered, suberect to erect, grayish 
hairs. A short, appressed, silvery hair present in each of the pitlike 
impressions on the epinotum, petiole and postpetiole; indistinct or ab- 
sent elseAvhere. 

Black; apex of each femur and terminal segments of the tarsi red- 
dish brown; antennae and mandibles sometimes reddish brown. 

Worlcer. — Length 4.3 mm. 

Head trapezoidal, posterior border transverse and nearly straiglit, 
most of dorsal surface convex except the frontal carinae and clypeus; 
clypeus declivous, subtriangular, distinct. Pronotum marginate on 
each side. Thorax narrower than head and without promesonotal and 
mesoepinotal sutures, rather convex through promesonotum ; in profile, 
noticeably sloping posteriorly from the region Avhere the promesonotal 
suture should be, if present. Spines arranged on each side of thorax 
in the following order: Two prominent spines on pronotum, a bluntly 
angular one in the region where the promesonotal suture shuold be, 
if present, and an acute, posteriorly directed spine on the epinotum. 
Petiolar and postpetiolar nodes similar to soldiers', the side of each 
with an acute, posterodorsally directed spine. Gaster as in soldier but 
less emarginate basally. 

Thorax differing from that of soldier in its more rugulose-reticulate 
sculpturing instead of subcircular, pitlike impressions. Gaster as in 
soldier, but the longitudinal rugulae apparently more distinct. 

Erect hairs more abundant than in soldier. The silvery, appressed 
hairs distinct in the impressions on the dorsal surface of the thorax, 
petiole, and postpetiole, as well as on the posterior surface of the head. 

Black; mandibles, frontal carinae, apex of each femur and tibia, and 
terminal segments of tarsi reddish brown. 

Female. — Length 7.3 mm. 

Cephalic disk differing from that of soldier in that the border is 
less elevated, especially in the posterior half; posterior border and 
posterolateral corners less defined; most of disk convex except antero- 
laterally. Transverse pronotal crest not strongly developed as in sol- 
dier. Anterior wing brown, with a distinct stigma, a cubital and dis- 
coidal cell, and also an appendiculate radial cell. Petiolar and post- 
petiolar nodes differing from those of soldier, in that the lateral spine 
is absent on the petiolar node and is indicated on the postpetiolar node 
by a weak anterolateral spine or tubercle. 

']{) PKGC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49. \(). 1, .JAXT'AKY, 1647 

Sculpture, pilosity, ;iud color similar to tli:it of soldit-r. 
Male. — Unknown. 

'Type locality. — Buehmaii Canyon near Kedin^ton, 3,800 
feet, Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, M. Chrisman. In 
galleries excavated at the base of a dead limb and aginst the 
green Avood of "palo-verde," Cercidium torreyanum Sarg.. 
Hopkins U. S. No. 10193. Five soldiers and seven workers 
of the original nest series are in the collection of the United 
States National Museum. (Wheeler's article cites the canyon 
as Buekman, which is undoubtedly a misspelling.) 

Cotypes in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Other localities.— AmZON A : Pima County, E. D. Algert. 
buprestid burrow in hackberry, Celtis np., Bur. Ent. and 
Plant Quar. No. 45-15993 (s, w, f ) ; Catalina Springs, ap- 
proximately 9 miles northeast of Tucson, H. G. Hubbard and 
E. A. Schwarz (w) ; Sabino Canyon at least 12 miles north- 
east of Tucson, W. D. Edmonston (w) ; Brush Corral Station 
near Redington. M. Chrisman, in dead unbroken "palo-ver- 
de" limb. Cercidium torreyanum Sarg., Hojikins U. S. No. 
12647 d (s, w, f). 

In describing rohweri, Wheeler called attention to the ant's 
close relationship to wheeleri Forel. He remarked as follows : 
"C. rohweri can be readily distinguished from C. wheeleri, 
which I found many years ago nesting in epiphytes {Til- 
la ndsia) near Cuernavaca, Mexico, by its somewhat larger size 
(the soldier of wheeleri measures only 5-5.5 mm., the worker 
only 3.2-3.6 mm.), and by several peculiarities of structure, 
sculpture, pilosity, and color. Most of the structural differ- 
ences will be apparent from a comparison of the figures (fig. 
2, a-d). In the soldier of wheeleri (fig. 2, c) the border of 
the cephalic saucer is much lower laterally and posteriorly 
than in rohweri, but the anterior translucent portion is some- 
what more extensive, and the top of the head forming the 
floor of this structure is flattened behind and transversely 
convex in front. The pronotal crest is more distinctly inter- 
rupted in the middle, the surface of the body and especially 
of the gaster is distinctly smoother and more shining, and the 
foveolae are smaller and sparser on the head, thorax, and 
pedicel. In the worker wheeleri (fig. 2, d), besides the struc- 
tural differences shown in the figures, the mesoepinotal su- 
ture is seen to be obsolete, the expanded frontal carinae are 
larger, thinner and whitish yellow, and the antennae, knees, 
tibiae, and tarsi are red. The foveolae of the head have ap- 
pressed silvery hairs like those on the thorax and pedicel, 

PROO. ENT. SOCi. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 37 

and the erect hairs are much longer and more conspicuous 
than in the worker rohweri." 

The author has examined cotypes of wheeleri Forel, and he 
finds that the differences between the soldier and workers of 
rohweri and those of wheeleri are substantially the same as 
given by Wheeler. The author, however, has not been able 
to detect a distinct mesoepinotal suture in any of the workers 
of rohweri as described and figured for this species, and he 
therefore does not believe the workers of the two species can 
be satisfactorily separated on the basis of this character. He 
also does not detect a distinct promesonotal suture in roh- 

C. rohweri is the only species recorded from Arizona. To 
date, specimens have been collected mostly in the canyons of 
the Santa Catalina Mountains in Pima County, northeast of 
Tucson. Winged females were collected at the Brush Corral 
Station near Redington on May 25, 1914. 

Cryptocerus (Cryptocerus) texanus Santschi 

Cryptocerus texanus Santschi, 1915, Soc. Ent. de France Bui., p. 208, 

soldier, worker, fig. 2 (a) soldier, (b) worlcer, (c) head of soldier. 

Cryptocerus angustus Wheeler, not Mayr, 1910, Ants, Columbia Univ. 

Press, pp. 151, 567; 1926, Ibid., Ed.2, pp. 151, 567. 
Cryptocerus angulosus Wheeler, not F. Smith, 1916, Nev? England Zool. 
Club Proc. 6:35 (lapsus for C. angustus Mayr). 

Soldier. — Length 4.5-5.4 mm. 

Cephalic disk proportionately broader than in rohweri, approximately 
as broad as long, with posterior border usually weakly emarginate, 
occasionally straight, posterolateral corners oblique, sides less subparallel 
and front rounded, bearing a distinct median emargination which ex- 
poses much of the mandibles. A convexity near the center of the disk. 
Border weakly or not crenulate. Pronotum as broad as head. Trans- 
verse pronotal crest well developed, sharp but interrupted in the mid- 
dle, somewhat crenate ; lateral border of pronotum usually spineless, 
except for a very feeble indication of an anterolateral spine. Promeso- 
notal and mesoepinotal sutures weakly to moderately well indicated, the 
mesoepinotal suture usually the more distinct of the two. Mesonotum 
projecting laterally as a short, angular lobe. Epinotum concave pos- 
teriorly, each lateral margin with three lobes, if one includes the antero- 
lateral and posterolateral corners, the median lobe larger than the 
other two. Each side of petiolar and postpetiolar nodes with a short 
spine, that on the postpetiolar node usually larger and more strongly 
reflexed posteriorly. Gaster oblong, with a very distinct basal emargi- 
nation, and with weakly developed anterolateral margins. 

Pitlike impressions on the head and thorax much smaller, finer and 
apparently less circular than in rohweri. Gaster very finely granulate, 
but lacking the rugulae of rohweri. 

38 PROC. KNT. HOC. AVASH., VOL, 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 

Gaster beneath and apically with short, erect hairs; rest of body 
and appendages apparently devoid of hair except a few on the pronotal 
crest. Body and appendages with short, appressed, silvery hairs, the 
pitlike impressions on head and thorax each bearing only one of these 

Black; mandibles, antennae, frontal carinae, occasionally the entire 
border of the cephalic disk, apex of each femur, tibiae, tarsi, and some- 
times a spot on each side near the posterior border of the first gastric 
segment reddish brown, in addition there is always a whitish-yellow 
basal spot on each side of the gaster. 

WorTcer. — Length 3.6-4 mm. 

Posterior border of head weakly emarginate, posterolateral corners 
not excised, dorsal surface largely convex except toward the sides, 
anterior border with a distinct emargination exposing much of the 
mandibles. Promesonotal suture lacking or very poorly indicated, 
mesoepinotal suture present but not strongly developed. Thorax margi- 
nate on each side, bearing spines arranged in the following order: Two 
on pronotum, one on mesonotum, and two on epinotum (the anterior 
one lying near the mesoepinotal suture and sometimes feebly developed). 
Petiolar and postpetiolar nodes and also their spines similar to those 
of the soldier but smaller, the postpetiolar spines usually less reflexed 
apically. Gaster as in soldier. 

Pitlike impressions on head and thorax smaller and more irregular 
than in soldier, the sculpturing on the thorax especially with a reticulate- 
rugose trend. Sculpture on gaster similar to soldier's. 

Pilosity similar to that of soldier in nature and arrangement. 

Black; mandibles, frontal carinae, antennae, apex of each femur, 
tibiae, and all tarsal segments except the metatarsal reddish brown. 
Frontal carinae and a basal spot on each side of gaster whitish yellow. 
The spot on each side near the posterior border of the first gastric seg- 
ment, which is sometimes present in the soldier, apparently missing in 
the worker . 

Female. — Length 6-6.6 mm. 

Smaller than rohweri. Impressions on head and thorax smaller, finer 
and less circular. Mandibles, frontal carinae, antennae, tibiae, and all 
of tarsal segments except the metatarsal, reddish brown; basal spot on 
each side of gaster whitish yellow (body of rohweri entirely black). 
Silvery, appressed hairs conspicuous over the body and appendages, these 
lacking in rohweri. Anterolateral corners of pronotum not so acute. 
Epinotum concave posteriorly (straight in' rohweri^. Postpetiolar node 
more compressed anteroposteriorly and with much larger and more 
prominent spine. Differing from soldier and worker (of texanus) in 
having sparse, short, suberect to erect hairs on thorax, postpetiole, and 

Description based on a wingless female. 

Male. — Length 4-4.7 mm. 

PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 39 

Eye convex, longer than broad. Posterior border of head rounded, 
with the ocelli borne on summit. Antenna 13-segmented, the segments 
enlarging toward the apex but not forming a definite club; scape 
short, first funicular segment annular. Mesonotum with well-developed 
Mayrian furrows. Epinotum with coarse longitudinal rugulae. Vena- 
tion similar to that of roMveri female. Side of petiolar and postpetiolar 
node each with a small tubercle ; the tubercles not very noticeable under 
the low power of a binocular. Gaster from above, subelliptieal, broadest 
at base. Pronotum and mesonotum especially, with coarse impressions 
in addition to the other sculpturing. 

Body subopaque. Sides of thorax, petiole, postpetiole, coxae, troch- 
anters, femora, and gaster shining. 

Head, thorax, petiole, and postpetiole with rather rather long, grayish, 
erect, simple hairs; hairs on legs less abundant and more appressed. 

Body black. Antenna yellow except for a slight infuscation on scape 
and first funicular segment. Wings hyaline, legs and genital appendages 
lighter than body. 

Type locality. — Texas, J. Bondroit ; no precise locality cited. 

Location of cotypes (if still in existence) not known. 

Other localities. — Texas: Victoria, J. D. Mitchell, in live 

oak twig- gall (s, w, f ) ; Victoria County, J. D. Mitchell (s, 
w) ; Keeran's Ranch in Victoria County, J. D. Mitchell (s, 
w) ; San Antonio, E. S. Ross, on Mexican persimmon, Brayo- 
dendron texanum. Scheele (s, w, f ) ; Five miles north of San 
Antonio, Wilda S. Ross (s, w, f) ; Columbus, Wm. F. Buren, 
in pricklv ash, Xanthoxylum clava-hercnUs L. (s, w, f, m) ; 
San Benito, T. F. McGehee (w) ; San Juan, T. F. McGehee 
(w) ; Beeville, collector ( ?), (w) ; Corpus Christi, R. A. Cush- 
man, on ebony, Zygia flexicaulis Sudw. (w) ; Sabinal, F. C. 
Pratt, in dead persimmon (s, w, f, m) ; Sinton, collector (?). 
in gallery of Hypothenemus in hackberry, Celtis pallida 
Torr. (w) ; Arroyo, collector (?), in mesquite, Prosopis sp. 
(w) ; Lavaca County, collector (?), (w) ; Brownsville, H. S. 
Barber (s, w) ; Esperanza Ranch, Brownsville, C. Schaeffer 
(s, w) ; Los Borregos Ranch, Brownsville, H. S, Barber 
(bearing label "texanus Santschi, det. Wheeler") (s, w, f). 

This is the only Cryptocerus known to occur in Texas. Ex- 
amination of numerous specimens, especially soldiers and 
workers, show little variation in the species. Unfortunately, 
the ant was confused with angustus Mayr for a long time. In 
the 1910 edition of his well-known book "Ants," Wheeler 
listed the Texas species as angustus and did not change the 
name even as late as the second edition of the book in 1926. 
In the National Museum there are specimens collected by R. 
A. Cushman in Corpus Christi which bear a determination 
label showing that Wheeler at one period considered the ant 

40 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1947 

as a new variety of angustus. There are also specimens from 
the Esperanza Ranch, Brownsville, collected by Charles 
Schaeffer which Wheeler still later considered a new species, 
and which he proposed to name in honor of the collector. 
Nothing was done about the matter, however, and in 1915 
Santschi described the ant as texanus. Santschi apparently 
had a lapse of memory in describing the ant when he re- 
marked, "Tres voisin du C. angulosus F. Sm. dont il dif- 
fere surtout par le disposition des taches, la pubescence et 
le pedicule plus etroit." He undoubtedly meant angustus 
Mayr, as this is the species with which texanus has been com- 
monly confused. 

The author finds that the worker of texanus can be distin- 
guished from that of angustus by the fact that each side of 
the pronotum bears three instead of four spines, and also 
by the fact that the most anterior of the spines is at the end 
of the pronotal crest rather than behind it, as in angustus; 
each side of the epinotum usually has two or rarely three 
spines, whereas that of angustus has three and often four 
spines ; texanus lacks the prominent, thin, upturned antero- 
lateral margin at the base of the gaster; there is also an im- 
portant color difference, the gaster of texanus being black 
with a prominent, whitish-yellow basal spot on each side, 
that of angustus entirely except for the narrow, whitish-yel- 
low, anterolateral margin. 

Present records indicate that texanus is distributed through- 
out southern Texas from at least as far west as Sabinal (ap- 
proximately 99.5 degree of longitude) northward and east- 
ward to at least Columbus (approximately 29.5 degree of 
latitude). The author seriously doubts that this or any other 
species of Cryptocerus will be found in Louisiana. He has 
seen what he considers to be typical specimens of texanus 
from Mexico, exact locality unknown but believed to be near 
Brownsville, Tex. 

Actual date of publication January 15, 1947 


February, 1947 

No. 2 


of the 



Published Monthly Except July, August ani> Septkubxe 





Entered as second-class matter March 10. 1919, at the Post Offlce at Washington, 
D. C, under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of poatajte provided for In Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 




Oboanizeo Mabch 12, 1884. 

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giren precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President , L. O. Hotvaiw 

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nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President 

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The Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer shotUd be addressed 

proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 49 FEBRUARY, 1947 No. 2 


(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) 

By L. L. BiHHAXAX, Biircdu of KnIomoUuiji and Phiiil Quarantine, 

Uiiitcd Stairs Dtparttuiul of A (jricHJt ure 

During 1944 and 1945 W. C. Pien-e and C. B. Nickels, of 
the Bureau of Eiitoinolouy and Plant Quarantine, collected 
large series of an undeseribed species of Conotrachelus which 
had, been found breeding in shoots of pecan trees in Louisi- 
ana. Li this paper the new species is described, and the 
chief facts regarding the habits and disli-ihution of several 
related species are summarized. Most statements are based 
on specimens I liaAC examined, and now contained in the Na- 
tional Museum Collection. The characters used in the key 
for separating affinis and hicoriac were taken from Schoof 's 
valuable paper (The genus Conotrachelus ... in the north cen- 
tral United States, 111. Biol. Monog., vol. 19, No. 8, 1942). 

Including pecanae, described as new in this paper, six 
North American species of Conotrachelus are known to be 
associated with Hicoria (Carya). A seventh species, jug- 
landis Leconte, the butternut curculio, has been recorded from 
hickory a few times, but its occurrence on plants other than 
Jughins is probably accidental or exceptional, and it is not, 
therefore, included here. C. juglandis can usually be recog- 
nized by the combination of fine, sparse abdominal punctures 
and a very prominent, black crest on each elytron at the mid- 
dle of interval 3. 

The hickory Conotrachelus all belong to Schoof's group 1^ 
and, both by morphology and habits, form three sections, the 
first represented by elegans alone (in galls), the second by 
the very closely related pair, affinis and hicoriae (in nuts), 
the third by the almost equally close aratus, tibialis, and 
pecanae (in shoots and twigs). It may be mentioned that, in 
a more comprehensive treatment, each of these sections would 

^Iii the fauna of the United States group 1 includes those species 
having divergent tarsal claws and, nearly always, bidentate feniora, and 
lacking a median, longitudinal furrow on the apical half of the pro- 

m 12 .. 

4-2 I'KOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. li, FK7HKUAKY, 1947 

include one or more additional species, none of which, how- 
ever, is yet known to attack Hicoria. Taken together the six 
hickory Conotrachelus range over the eastern half of the 
United States west to about the 100th meridian, and from 
southern Canada to Texas. Two or more species frequently 
occur in the same general region, and at French Creek, W. 
Va., Brooks found five of the six — elegans, affinis, Mcoriae, 
aratus, and tibialis. Species belonging to the same section 
have occasionally been taken at the same time and place 
under very similar or even (apparently) identical conditions, 
a rather striking circumstance in view^ of their exceedingly 
close morphological af^nities. Examples of such associations 
are the following : S 9 aratus and S 9 pecanae at each of 
four localities in Louisiana, all reared from larvae in pecan 
shoots by W. C. Pierce, the shoots from each locality taken 
from the same pecan orchard; $ 9 tibialis and S aratus at 
French Creek, W. Va., reared by Brooks from Hicoria twigs 
and petioles; one $ and one $ (probably reared from nuts of 
Hicoria ovata), Durham, N. C, all pin-label data identical, 
the male belonging to hicoriae, the female to affiviis; $ 9 
tibialis and 9 aratus, at Mendenhall, Miss., April 4, 1911, 
J. E. Boggan, S. 3042; S 9 aratus and $ 9 pecanae, at 
Tallulah, La. 

Although there can be scarcely any doubt that the segre- 
gates interpreted as species in this paper are separate, nat- 
ural entities, their limits are fluctuating and hazy, and it is 
more than likely that a few misidentifications, chiefl}' of fe- 
male specimens, are recorded in the following pages. The 
most reliable external specific differences are found in the 
secondary sex characters of the males. The sexes are usually 
separable by differences in the uncus — the hooklike or spine- 
like process at the apex of each tibia (figs. 26, 27). In the 
females of all six species, all the unci are simple, but in the 
males of all, except in some individuals of affinis, the hind 
tibial uncus is dentate (both mid- and hind unci dentate in 
elegans). In affinis ( $ ) the hind uncus is simple in some 
specimens, feebly dentate in others. Another, but not very 
dependable, sex difference is found on the intereoxal part of 
abdominal sternite 1, this area often being distinctly convex 
in the female ; slightly concave, subplanate or feebly convex 
in the male. In affinis the sex of some specimens cannot al- 
ways be determined by any external character, except bj' the 
structure of the dorso-apical surface of the abdomen, the male 
(as in all species of Conotrachelus) having two visible semi- 
sclerotized terminal tergites, the female only one. To expose 
these tergites an elytron must be lifted, or, in fresh and flexi- 
ble specimens, the abdominal apex bent down. 

PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 43 


1. Abdominal steniites 1-4 coarsely and densely punctate (fig. 

11). Male. — Both mid- and hind unci dentate; proximal tooth 
of forefemur well developed; sides of aedeagus not so faintly 
emarginate toward apex (fig. 28). Female. — Rostrum rela- 
tively long and slender, rather feebly arcuate (figs. 2 and 
13); distal tooth of forefemur usually longer and more 
slender (fig. 20). In galls elegans Say 

The numerous specimens here referred to elegans display 
a great deal of variation in external characters ; the shape of 
the aedeagus, however, is nearly constant in the 15 males dis- 

Specimens examined from Ontario, New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania. Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, 
West Virginia, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Tennessee, Louisiana, Texas, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, 
Michigan. Schoof 1942, p. 82, adds Nebraska, Indiana, Ohio, 
North Carolina. 

Reared specimens as follows : 

Pennsylvania.— West Chester, July 8, 1908, Phylloxera 

gall on hickory. 
Indiana. — Mount Vernon. From galls, "P. canjaecaulis 

[Phylloxera] . 
Louisiana. — Baton Rouge, May 1, 1922, T. H. Jones. 

From Phylloxera galls. 
Texas.— Victoria, May 3, 1907, J. D. Mitchell; from 
Phylloxera devastatrix galls on Hicoria pecan. Vic- 
toria, April 26, 1909, May 7, 1907, and June 13, J. D. 
Mitchell ; from pecan leaf galls. Victoria, June 15 and 
June 27, 1915, J. D. Mitchell; from pecan galls. Vic- 
toria, May 21, 1909, J. D. Mitchell ; in leaf galls. 
Locality not stated. — In hickory gall. 
Abdominal sternites 1-4 less (in some species much less) 
coarsely and densely punctate (figs. 8-10). Male. — Only hind 
uncus dentate (and in some specimens of affinis none of the 
unci dentate) ; proximal tooth, in some species, feebly de- 
veloped or obsolescent; aedeagus, except in hicoriae, with dis- 
tinct side emargination (figs. 16, 17, and 29-47). Female. — 
Rostrum not at the same time so long and slender (figs. 1, 3, 
12, 14, 1.5) ; distal tooth of forefemur usually stouter (figs. 
21, 22). Not in galls - 2 

2. Larger species (up to 7 mm.) with conspicuous, postmedian 

elytral band and more prominent elytral carinae (figs. 1,'5, 
18); prothorax a little longer, its dorsal bosses, impressions. 

44 rucc. i:xT. r-(Tc. xvAsiL., voi,. 4.2, xc. 2, fp:biuai;y, l!li7 

and median carina usually more pronounced (fig. 5) ; gen- 
eral punetation on abdominal sternites* 1-4 fine and sparse or, 
if coarser and.,, denser, the punctures are shallow and rather 
vaguely defined (fig. 8) ; abdominal sternite 5 without, or 
with feeble, setigerous tubercle each, side near apex. - Female 
with rather long and stout rostrum tfigs. 1, 12)* male- with 
proximal tooth of forefemur usually well developed. In 

nuts ; - . 3 

Smaller species (5.8 mm. or less) witli_ less conspicuous elytral 
band (figs. 4, 6, 7) and less prominent elytral carinae; pune- 
tation' on abdominal' sternites usually coarser and denser, 
the punctures as a rule more sharply defined (figs. 9, 10) ; 
abdominal sternite '^ nearly always with a setigerous tumidity 
each side near apex, this sometimes low and inconspicuous, 
but often in the form of a small but distinct tubercle. Female 
rostrum shorter and rather more strongly arcuate (figs. 3, 
14, 15) ; male with proximal tooth of forefemur often feel)le 

or obsolescent. In shoots, petioles, and twigs . 4 

3. Larger (6-7 mm.). Male. — Hind uncus feebly or not dentate; 
aedeagus with a broad apical process, i.e., sides of aedeagus 
cmarginate near apex (fig. 16). Female. — Antennal scape 
failing to attain head Ijy a distance of at least half and 
usually tAvo-thirds the length of first funicular segment 

ajfinis Boheman 

Specimens seen from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. 
Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Arkansas. A female 
from Durham, N. C, belongs to affinis by antennal and ros- 
tral characters, though a male, bearing identical pin-label 
data, must be referred to hicoriae. Schoof, 1942, p. 67, re- 
cords affinis also from Illinois and the District of Columbia. 
Reared specimens as follows : 

West Virginia.— French Creek, September 15-16, 1920,, 
F. E. Brooks; from larvae in immature nuts of Hicoria 
ovata (shagbark hickory). French Creek, September 
9-12, 1920, F. E. Brooks; issued from earth beneath in- 
fested shagbark hickory nuts. 
North Carolina.— Durham, August 19, 1943, J. A. Beal ; 
host. Carya ovata. (Presumably reared from nut.) 

Plate 5 
(Photographs by Marcel L. F. Foubert) 

Fig. 1, affinis $, French Creek, W. Va.; fig. 2, elegans 9, West 
Point, N. Y. ; fig. 3, pecanae ?, Williams, La.; fig. 4, elegans $, West 
Point, N. Y. ; fig. 5, hicoriae $, Williams, La.; fig. 6, tibialis 5, Jef- 
ferson Barracks, Mo.; fig. 7, pecanae $ , Williams, La.; fig. 8, abdominal 
sternites of hicoriae 9 , Prince Georges County, Md. ; fig. 9, same of 
arattts 9, Natchitoches, La.; fig. 10, same of pecanae 9, Williams, La.; 
fig. 11, same of elegans 9 , West Point, N. Y. 

PROC. ENT. sor. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 Ptate 5 






46 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL,. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 

Smaller (4.4-7 mm.). Male. — Hind uncus distinctly dentate; 
aedeagus without apical process, i.e., sides scarcely emarginate 
apically (fig. 17). Female. — Antennal scape failing to attain 
head by a distance less than half the length of first funicular 

segment hicoriae Schoof 

Specimens seen from New Jersey, Maryland, District of 
Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, Kansas, Arkansas, Mis- 
souri, Iowa, Indiana. Also (Schoof, 1942, p. 71) from Il- 

Biological data on reared specimens as follows: 

Missouri. — St. Louis, August 10, 1872; from green hick- 
ory nut. 
North Carolina.— Durham, August 19, 1943, J. A. Beal ; 

host, Carya ovata. (Presumably reared from nut.) 
Louisiana.— Baton Rouge, July 26, 1934, C. E. Smith; 
destroyed half the pecan nuts on several ll-j^ear-old 
trees; larvae feed both on hull and kernel. AVilliams, 
September 15-19, 1945, W. C. Pierce; from larvae in 
pig nuts. Sligo, Williams, Shreveport, Melrose, and 
Robson; adults from these five localities in Louisiana 
reared by W. C. Pierce, on several dates during Sep- 
tember 1945, from larvae in pecan nuts. 
Texas. — Victoria, August 19, 1909, McMillan; bred from 
pecan. (Schoof, 1942, p. 71, adds Victoria, J. D. 
Mitchell; bred from fallen pecan nuts.) 
4. Length, 4.3-5.7 mm. Body and rostrum slightly more slender 
(fig. 14) ; elytral humerus a little more advanced, at least 
in female (fig. 19). Foretibia in both sexes with its anterior 
face unmodified and subevenly sculptured and setose from 
base to apex, the apical ridge bearing the fringe of spinules 
less prominent. Male. — Aedeagus with deeper and more abrupt 
lateral emarginations, the apical lobe broad (figs. 29-35) ; 
denticle on uncus preterminal (fig. 27) aratus Germar 

(Figures 23 to 27 drawn by Arthur Cushman) 

Fig. 12, rostrum of hicoriae 9, Williams, La.; fig. 13, same of elegans 
9 , West Point, N. Y. ; fig. 14, same of aratus $ , Natchitoches, La. ; 
fig. 15, same of pecanae $ , Williams, La. ; fig. 16, tip of aedeagus of 
affinis ,\ fig. 17, same of hicoriae; fig. 18, profile of costa at middle 
of elytral interval 3 of hicoriae 9, Williams, La.; fig. 19, aratus 9, 
Natchitoches, La., showing advanced humerus; fig. 20, elegans 9, West 
Point, N. Y., posterior face of right forefemur; fig. 21, same of pecanae 
9, Williams, La.; fig. 22, same of aratus 9, Natchitoches, La.; fig. 23, 
pecanae i , Williams, La., anterior face of foretibia; fig. 24, upper sur- 
face of same; fig. 25, tibialis S, southern Illinois, upper surface of 
foretibia; fig. 26, pecanae $, Williams, La., apex of hind tibia showing 
strueturi' of uncus; fig. 27, same for aratus $ , Natchitoches, La. 

PKOC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBKUAKY," l;t47 Plate 6 


48 PKOr. ENT. SOr. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. '2, FEBIIL'ARY, 1947 

Specimens seen from Connecticut, New York, Marj'land, 
West Virginia, North Carolina (Alabama-^a very stout fe- 
male from Mobile County is doubtfully referred to aratus), 
Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Kansas, Iowa. 

The principal biological data accompanying specimens 
seen are : 

West Virginia.— French Creek. May 27, 1920, F. E. 
Brooks; beetles jarred from hickory branches in the 
shoots of which they were ovipositing. 
^Mississippi. — Wiggins, March 24, 1929 ; hickory petioles. 
Wesson, June 16, 1926, 0. M. Chance; from larvae, 
pecan [ ? pecan shoots or petioles] . Poplarville, June 
26, 1926, J. F. Lee; from larva, pecan [pecan shoots 
or petioles]. 
Louisiana. — Tallulah, Mound, Port Hudson, Monroe, 
Lake Providence, and Natchitoches; adults from these 
six localities reared by W. C. Pierce, May and June 
1945. from larvae in pecan shoots. 
Locality not stated. — In petiole of hickory. 
Body and rostrum a little stouter (figs. 3, 1.5) ; elytral humerus 
usually less advanced. Male. — Foretibia with its upper sur- 
face more or less flattened near apex and there with its aii- 
teriar face produced into a rounded, shelflike expansion, the 
surface beneath the expansion subimpunctate and subglabrous, 
remainder (basal three-fourths) of anterior face rugoso- 
carinate (figs. 23-2.3) ; aedeagus with lateral emargination 
less abrupt (figs. 36-47) ; hind uncus with denticle terminal or 
preterminal. Female. — Anterior face of foretibia setose and 
lather roughly sculptured (usually more roughly so than in 
aratus) except near apex where, usually', the setae are abruptly 
less numerous and the surface smoother and more shiny; 
apical ridge bearing the fringe of spinules usually more 
]iromiiu'nt ^i 

Plate 7 

(Tips of aedeagi; drawn by Arthur Cushmau) 

Fig. 28, elegans, Plummer Island, Md. ; fig. 29, aratus, Beltsville, 
Md.; fig. 30, aratus, Poplarville, Miss.; fig. 31, aratus, Tallulah, La.; 
fig. 32, aratus, Tallulah, La.; fig. 33, aratns, West Point, N. Y.; fig. 34, 
aratus, Tallulah, La.; fig. 35, aratus, Natchitoches, La.; fig. 36, tibialis^ 
southern Illinois; fig. 37, tibialis, Mendenhall, Miss.; fig. 38, tibialis, 
French Creek," W. Va. ; fig. 39, pecanae No. 192, Mound, La.; fig. 40, 
pecanae 287, Grand Bayou, Xa. ; fig. 41, pecanae 402, Williams, La.; 
fig. 42, pecanae 229, Lake Providence, La.; fig. 43, pecanae 58, Wil- 
liams, La.; fig. 44, pecanae 401, Grand Bayou, La.; fig. 45, pecanae 190, 
Mound, La.; fig. 46, pecanae 19, Williams, La.; fig. 47, pecanae 399, 
Grand Bayou, La. 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 Plate 7 

1 , 











"r 1 1 






















1 ! i 





















X / 









/ 7 

42 Mill 





K / 






50 PKOf. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, llt47 

'). Larger (4.5-5.75 mm.) ; prouotal sculpture a little more regu- . 
lar (fig. 6). Male. — Foretibia more strongly modified (fig. 
25); denticle oil uncus preterminal (about as in fig. 27); 
iiiiiciil lobe of aedeagus nearly always broader (figs. 36-38) 

tibialis Schoof 

Speeiineiis seen from New York, West Virginia, South 
Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Michigan, Iowa, 
Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas. Also (Schoof, 1942, p. 92) from 
Massachusetts and Illinois.- The female from New Iberia, 
La., placed with tibialis by Schoof, is here transferred to 

A male from French Creek, W. Va., July 12, 1919, F. E. 
Brooks, was, according to accession-number records, reared 
from larva in base of a hickory leaf stem. 

Smaller (3.8-5 mm.) ; pronotal sctllpture a little rougher (fig. 
7). Male. — Foretibia less modified (figs. 23, 24); denticle 
on uncus terminal (fig. 26) ; apical process of aedeagus more 
slender (figs. 39-47). Louisiana and Texas .. pecanae, new species 

In the apparent absence of qualitative differences between 
the females of pecanae and tihiolis, several female specimens 
of each species have been identified chiefly by locality^ — 
pecanae not yet having been recognized from outside Louisi- 
ana and Texas, whereas no specimen definitely referable to 
tihialis has been found in either of these two states. It is 
probable, however, that the ranges of pecanae and tibialis 
actuallj^ overlap, although available evidence does show rather 
conclusively that the main body of each population is re- 
stricted to its own region — tibialis -to the North and East, 
pecanae to the South and West. Such geographic subisola- 
tion, in connection with the close morphological likeness, may 
indicate racial, rather than specific, distinctness; chiefly be- 
cause of the rather well-defined male differences, the two 
populations are treated here as distinct species. Whatever 
their status, they are clearly separate, though unstabilized, 
natural groups. 

Conotrachelus pecanae, new species 
(Figs. 3, 7, 10, 15, 21, 23, 24, 26, and 39-47) 

Length 3.8-5 mm., most specimens between 4.2 and 4.6 mm. Body 
above rather dull to moderately shiny, black or piceous black when ma- 
ture, here and there usually with some indefinite, dull red-brown areas, 
teneral specimens dull red brown with darker blotches; midline of 
rostrum above brighter red brown. Prothorax above sparsely setose, 
the sculpture plainly visible. Scutellum convex, prominent. Elytra 
each with 4 low carinae, the median portion of carina on third interval 
only slightly higher than the other carinae; elytral vestiture consisting 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 51 

of very small, appressed, setiform scales which are irregularly distributed 
and do not entirely conceal derm except in places, postmedian band 
evident but not conspicuous. Fore coxae contiguous. Mesosternum 
subtruncate anteriorly, not depressed. Abdomen black, shiny, strongly 
punctate. Femora bidentate, the proximal tooth of at least forefemur 
'is ) very small or obsolete. Hind tibial uncus ( 6 ) with a denticle 
at apex, the denticle appearing as an upturned prolongation of the uncus 
itself, rather than as a separate tooth (fig. 26). 

Head densely punctate, and with sparse to dense, usually white or 
intermixed white and yellow-brown, setiform scales which as a rule are 
sparser along median line and wanting in a small spot each side; inter- 
ocular puncture deep. Rostrum stout, subevenly, distinctly curved, 
about as long as head and prothorax { $ } or slightly longer ( $ ) 
(measured along a straight line between most advanced point on closed 
mandible and anterior margin of eye at middle of rostrum), thickest 
at base and gradually thinner to apex, apical section usually a little 
wider than basal section, especially in female, dorsal profile of rostrum 
forming a usually obtuse angle with head ; dorsum { $ ) with 3 carinae 
from base to near antennal socket, the median carina broader, rounded 
at summit, and separated each side from the submedian carinae by an 
irregularly punctate groove, the surface anterior to the carinae finely, 
densely, subconfluently punctate and often somewhat flattened ; dorsum 
( 9 ) with similar but usually shorter and less prominent carinae and 
shallower grooves, the apical surface finely, rather densely punctate, 
the punctures separated in part but, especially toward sides, more or 
less confluent ; side of rostrum ( $ , 9 ) shiny to subopaque, carinato- 
rugose; setae on rostrum chiefly confined to basal three-fourths, some- 
times rather dense, but not concealing the sculpture, transversely di- 
rected, sometimes uhicolorous, but usually a mixture of whitish to yel- 
low brown; frequently there is a small cluster of broader, white seti- 
form scales lying partly on submedian carina at about basal third. 
Antennal socket at about one-fourth from apex ($), at about one-third 
(9), funicular joint 1 stouter and longer than 2. 

Prothorax transverse (about 7 wide to 5.5 long), sides diverging 
from base to about middle, then more strongly converging to the apical 
constriction; dorsum convex, its punctures dense, rather coarse, some- 
what irregular in size and spacing and here and there often longi- 
tudinally confluent, the surface each side" in front of middle commonly 
with a shiny boss posterior to which is often a shallow impression, and 
behind each impression sometimes a feeble boss, midline usually with 
at least a trace of median carina beginning about middle and extending 
a variable distance forward, rarely extending a short distance behind 
the middle, apical fourth of pronotum depressed and usually more or 
less distinctly red brown; setae on disc fine, sparse, curved, subap- 
pressed; lateral line often well-defined basally, where it is composed 
of broader, denser, usually white or yellow-white, appressed setiform 
scales, the line usually interrupted at about basal fourth and thence 

52 PKOC-. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. L*, FEBRUARY, l;i47 

to iipox more or less diffuse, and sometimes scarcely traceable. Scu- 
telluin subovate to narrowly elliptical, sometimes bare, but usually with 
a few, fine setae. Elytra nearly 3 times as long as prothorax, base 
feebly bisinuate; carina on interval 3 usually twice interrupted, the 
basal interruption occasionally; the postmedian inte?ruption more fre- 
quently, only partial; carina on interval 5 often complete, sometimes 
interrupted or subinterrupted toward base, or about middle, or at both 
places; earinae on 7 and 9 usually complete; vestiture varying in color 
in different specimens, and on different areas on same specimen, yellow 
brown of several shades often predominating, commonly scales of vari- 
ous shades of yellow brown are intermixed with dingy white and yel- 
low-white scales, the pure white scales on many specimens chiefly con- 
fined to irregular patches on the carinate intervals, to a short streak 
at base of interval 3, and a small patch at base of interval 5, the vesti- 
ture denser on flat than on carinate intervals, densest and usually con- 
cealing the surface (except on the odd intervals) in the postmedian 
band ; postmedian band dingy yellow white, yellow brown or dull red 
brown, often with a sparse sprinkling of white and yellow-white scales. 
Metasternum ( S ) with surface between a mid- and hind coxa not dis 
tinctly sulcate. Abdomen usually dull red brown at sides of last 3 
sternites, setae fine and sparse generally, denser and broader at sides of 
last 3 sternites, punctures on last sternite denser and smaller than on 
rest of abdomen; sternite 1 in female shiny throughout, and transversely 
convex at middle, but in male subplanate or vaguely impressed, and 
more or less dull, medially; sternite 5 usually with a small tubercle 
each side toward apex. Legs sometimes almost entirely red brown, but 
usually the femora and, to a lesser degree, the tibiae more or less ex- 
tensively suffused with blackish, the dark color sometimes covering 
most of forefemur except apex, and a considerable part of mid- and 
hind femora; vestiture on mid- and hind femora often denser apically 
and forming a band across anterior face at apical third, on forefemur 
forming a diffuse annulus. Spinules at tibial apices golden to fuscous, 
apparently averaging darker than in tibialis and aratus. Femoral teeth 
in female distinct though often small on fore- and midlegs ; in 'male, 
the proximal tooth on forefemur is at most feebly developed, and not 
infrequently absent, and in many specimens the proximal tooth on fore- 
and niidfemora and sometimes on all 3 pairs, is represented by a feeble, 
subangular prominence; foretibia {$) with lower edge broadly bisinu- 
ate, the anterior face with a dorso-apical shelflike .prominence (figs. 
if*3, 24); foretibia ($) with the apical edge (which bears the terminal 
l-ow of spinules) usually thickened and shiny, the anterior face of tibia, 
just basad of apical edge, often with a feeble, oblique carina, dorsal 
edge of tibia often notched near apex. 

Type. — Male, United States National Museum Cat. No. 

Type /oca?%.— Williams, La., June 13, 1945. W. C. Pierce. 
Under rougli bark on pecan trees. 

PKOc. KXT. sor. WAyH., VOL. 49, xo. '2, FEBKUAUY, r,(47 53 

The type series consists of the t.ype and 242 paratypes, 
selected from about 800 specimens. 

Distribution. — Louisiana: Williams (88 males, 171 fe- 
males) : VI-13-45, under rough bark on pecan trees, W. C. 
Pierce ; 11-19-46, under pecan trees, W. C. Pierce ; Marston 
orchard, III-17-45, III-29-45, IV-13-45, and IV-25-45, over- 
wintered adults on pecan trees, W. C. Pierce; Marston or- 
chard, larvae in pecan shoots, IV-25 to V-18-45, adults 
emerged V and VI-1945, W. C. Pierce. Grand Bayou (about 
400 specimens, males and females) : IV-5 to IV-22-44 and 
V-5 to V-22-44, on pecan trees, C. B. Nickels; IV-18-44, on 
pignut hickory trees, C. B. Nickels; III-31-45, overwintered 
adults on pecan trees in Bevill orchard, W. C. Pierce. Ab- 
ington (2 males, 4 females). Larvae in pecan shoots, IV-26- 
45, adults emerged V-29 to VI-1-45, W. C. Pierce. Lake 
Providence (6 males, 3 females) : Ransdell orchard, larvae in 
pecan shoots, IV-20-45, adults emerged V-29 to VI-1-45, W. 
C. Pierce ; overwintered adult on pecan tree, IV-20-45, W. C. 
Pierce. Mound (5 males, 6 females) : Larvae in pecan shoots, 
IV-20-45, adults emerged V-29 to V-30-45, W. C. Pierce. 
Monroe (14 males, 18 females) : Larvae in pecan shoots, IV- 
21-45, adults emerged V-29 to V-30-45 ; larvae in pecan shoots 
in Stubbs' orchard, IV-21-45, adults emerged V-29 to V-30- 
45; overwintered adults on pecan trees in Stubbs' orchard, 
IV-19-45. Natchitoches (3 males, 1 female) : Larvae in pecan 
shoots, IV-28-45, adults emerged V-31 to VI-1-45. Shreve- 
port (5 males, 16 females) : On pecan, C. B. Nickels, spring 
1944; overwintered adults on pecan in Bolinger orchard, 
IV-2-45, W. C. Pierce. Tallulah (4 males, 6 females) : XI- 
15 to XII-1-43, in ground trash, R. C. Gaines; III-8 to III- 
15-44, in ground trash, M. T. Young; overwintered adults 
on pecan in McNelle orchard, IV-20-45, W. C. Pierce ; larvae 
in pecan shoots in McNelle orchard, IV-20-45, adults emerged 
V-29 to V-30-45, W. C. Pierce. Baton Rouge (1 female): 
11-28, collection H. Soltau. Bqll Chase (1 male); IV-13-45, 
on mulberry leaves, Whitmire. New Iberia (1 male, 5 fe- 
males) : VI-6-95, collection H. Soltau. Beauregard Parish 
(1 female) : Larva in pecan shoot, V-21-45, adult emerged 
VI-1945, W. C. Pierce. 

Texas: "Tex.," 1 male. "Texas" (1 male) : C. V. Riley 
collection. Victoria (4 males, 1 female) : X-4, on pecan, E. 
A. Schwarz; VI-10-13, Quaintance No. 4632, on young green 
pecans, J. D. Mitchell; V-21-09, "bred leaf galls," J. D. 
Michell, 1 male. [This leaf gall record is doubtful. Speci- 
mens of elegants in the Museum collection bear identical pin- 
label data, and probably the larva which produced th& male 
pecanae was not in a gall, but in a shoot, the leaf of which 

54 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 

may have been infested with galls of elegans,] San Antonio 
(12 males, 5 females) : VI-22-95, VI-23-95, and VI-24-95, H. 
Saltan collection. Dallas (3 males. 1 female) : IV-6-07, bred 
Hicoria alha petiole. Hunter No. 1384; III-6-08, on wild plum, 
Jones and Hood. (Justine (2 males, 2 females) : VIII-30-44, 
on pecan, C. B. Nickels. Brownwood (2 females): III-20 to 
IV-7-44, on seedling pecan tree, W. C. Pierce. 

The numerous specimens of pecanae at hand exhibit a wide 
range of individual variation and in a bewildering variety of 
fluctuating combinations. In equally extensive series from 
different localities, however, the variations, though doubtless 
never precisely the same, seem on the whole to be substantially 
similar in kind and range. 

The foretibial modification in the male is occasionally 
feeble, but usually strong enough to be easily detected; the 
terminal position of the denticle on the hind uncus of the 
male is almost constant, and is probably the most distinctive 
single feature of the species. The tip of the aedeagus, in about 
75 male genitalia examined, varies in shape within the limits 
shown in figures 39 to 47 ; in nearly all cases the apical lobe 
is decidedly more slender than in tibialis (figs. 36-38). 

C. pecanae is most closely related to tibialis Schoof, and 
less so to aratus Germar. When the three are compared in 
series, pecanae is seen to be the smallest and apparently the 
stoutest, and aratus a little more slender than the other two. 

(Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) 

By V, S. L. Pate 
Ithaca, New York 

In the collection of the United States National Museum I 
recently discovered two new Nearctic species of the Oxyteline 
genus Belomicrus. Descriptions of these novelties are ap- 
pended below. 

Belomicrus maricopa,^ new species 
(Figs. 1, 2, 5, 6) 

The sharply flanged prepectus and mesopleura and tuber- 
culate raesosternum indicate that maricopa is a member of the 
Vanyume Group. The broadly excised lower mandibular mar- 
gins, the hind coxal tooth, the emarginate hind trochanters, 
and the distinctive shape of the clypeus and pronotum read- 

^ After the Maricopa Indians of Arizona. 

PROC. Ear. soc. wash., vol. 49, xo. 2, fkbruary, 194; 

Belomicrus Fig. 1. — Anterior aspect of clypeus. Fig. 
Scutellum, postscutellum, squamae and mucro. Fig. 5. — Dorsal aspect 
of pronotuni. Fig. 6. — Ventral aspect of mandible. 

Belomicrus potawatomi: Fig. 3. — Anterior aspect of clypeus. Fig. 4.— 
Scutellum, postscutellum, squamae and mucro. 

(Figs. 1-4 drawn to same scale. Figs. ."> and 6: scale one-half that of 
Figs. 14.) 

ily distinguish the present Arizonan species from the Mohave 
Desert form vanyume. 

Type. — $ ; Higlev, Maricopa County, Arizona. September 
29, 1916. (E. G. Holt.) [United States National Museum, 
Catalogue No. 58180.] 

Female, o mm. long. Black; the following stramineous: pronotum 
with two small spots medially on dorsal face, the tubercles, axillary 
sclerites, postscutellum and inner margins of squamae, fore tibiae with 
a stripe externally, middle tibiae narrowly annulate at base. Fulvous: 
mandibles basally (apices red), fore legs. Ferrugious: middle and 
hind legs, and abdomen. Wings clear hyaline ; veins and stigma fulvous. 

Head subfulgid; inner orbits with a broad band and clypeus with 
dense appressed silvery sericeous pile; vertex and temples with a thinner 
vestiture of silvery puberulent hair. Front flat, with a broad shallow 
trench along inner orbits ; with fine, separated puneturation ; width at 
distal end of scapes six-tenths the vertical eye length. Vertex subfulgid; 
with fine, separated punctures superposed on a microscopic cancellate 
sculpture; ocelli in a curved line, the anterior ocellus situated in a 
depression, a strong furrow running obliquely forward from hind- ocelli 
to upper inner orbits; ocellocular line fourth-ninths (0.44) the posto- 
cellar distance; a large strong, blunt tubercle behind each compound 
eye; temples with fine, well separated punctures above to obscurely 

56 PKOr. ?:nt. soc. wash., vol. 49, no. '2, kebkuaky, 1947 

striatopunc'tate lielow; temporal cariiiae fine; post-temporal legioii gla- 
brous, polite; occipital carina moderate. Antennae with scapes cylindri- 
cal, about four-ninths (0.45) the vertical eye length; pedicel obterete, 
one and a fifth times the length of first flagellar article; flagellum with 
first segment four-fifths the length of second, ultimate article conical, one 
and a half times the length of penult segment. Clypeus finely punctate; 
median length three-eighths the vertical eye length; flat laterally, medial- 
ly with a strong rounded keel which ends in a strong rounded tooth 
projecting over the polite impunctate bevel. Mandibles with apices 
blunt; inner margins edentate; lower margins with a lortg, shallow 
excision on basal three-fourths. Psammophore absent (probably worn 
away) save for mandibular ammochaetae. 

Thorax subfulgid; with a thin and inconspicuous vestiture of suberect 
to decumbent pubescence which is subaeneous on dorsum and silvery on 
pleura; with a moderately fine scattered puncturation throughout super- 
posed on a microscopically fine cancellate sculpture. Pronotum with 
median portion abruptly produced forward, dorsal face flat, anterior 
dorsal margin ecarinate, rounded, humeri subdentate and with a verti- 
cal carinule descending from them, the lateral faces vertically strigose. 
Mesonotum Avith moderately coarse, very scattered, separated punctures, 
bisected on anterior fourth by a fine double line, suture between scutel- 
luni and mesonotum strongly impressed, ef oveate ; scutellum subtrapezi- 
form, slightly tumid, punctured like mesonotum, lateral edges flanged; 
postscutellum one-third the length of scutellum. Squamae large, oblique, 
subrectangular, contiguous behind and completely enclosing the postscu- 
tellum, the posterior emargination broadly V-shaped and rounded at 
apex, the surface flat, each with a large pellucid fenestra, apices acute. 
Mucro one-half the length of scutellum, acuminate, canaliculate above. 
Mesopleura with fine cancellate sculpture upon which is superposed a 
series of irregularly scattered, well separated punctures, finely rugulose 
below; prepectus anteriorly with a strong translucent laminate margin 
which is continued ventrad on each side and ends in a sharp, acute, 
eaudally projecting tooth, behind which on each side is a ventrally 
directed blunt tooth; episternal suture distinct, finely impressed and 
finely foveolate, hypersternauli not evident, mesopleural pit distinct. 
Metapleura glabrous, fulgid, finely horizontally aciculate. Propodeum 
glabrous, subopaque, dorsal and posterior faces finely granulate; dorsal 
face traversed by fine subparallel, oblique rugulae; posterior face with 
discal areole sublenticular, well stalked above and below, deeply con- 
cave within, lateral areas Avith a few fine horizontal rugulae; lateral 
carinae laminate dorsally and along upper half of posterior face, obso- 
lescent below; lateral faces very finely granulate and with fine horizon- 
tal striae. 

Fore femora subtriquetrous, squarely and abruptly dilated at base 
and tapering thence toward apex, lower hind margin sharply carinate 
lengthwise; fore tarsi with a well developed pecten. Middle and hind 
tibiae strongly spinose on outer faces; hind femora strongly bowed, 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 57 

the genicular area strongly carinate above and subfornicate; hind coxae 
with a verj' large, blunt, curved tooth on inner distal margin; hind 
trochanters emarginate posteriorly at base. 

Abdomen fulgid; rather strongly constricted between the first few 
segments; with a thin vestiture of decumbent puberulent silvery pubes- 
cence. Tergites with a moderately coarse, well separated puncturation 
on first two segments, becoming finer on succeeding tergites, the first 
not bisected by an impression. Pygidial area subequilateral, the disc 
Avith coarse, Avell separated punctures. Sternites finely acupunctate. 

This very distinctive Arizonan species is known only from 
the unique female described above. 

Belomicrus potawatonii,^ new species 

(Figs. 3, 4) 

The present lowan species is very closely related to the Vir- 
ginian hridwelli from which it may be distinguished by, the 
truncate posterior margin of the postscutellum, the absence of 
a carinule bisecting the lateral areas of the dorsal face of the 
propodeum, the different conformation of the clypeus, the 
more coarsely punctate body, the shorter postocellar line, and 
the castaneous first abdominal segment. 

Type. — 9 ; Sioux City, Woodbury County, Iowa. Jul}' 12, 
1935. (C. N. Ainslie.) [United States National Museum. Cat- 
alogue No. 58181. J 

Female. 4 mm. long. Black; mandibles badeous, apices red; first 
abdominal segment castaneous with a black longitudinal stripe medially; 
last abdominal segment, tegulae and axillary sclerites dark brunneous; 
tibial calcaria pallid. Wings clear hyaline, veins and stigma dark 

Head subquadrate in anterior aspect; subfulgid; clypeus (except 
disc), and lower inner orbits broadly, clothed with appressed silvery 
sericeous pile, remainder of front and vertex with inconspicuous short 
pale pubescence; temples with a thin vestitiue of short silvery hair. 
Front with distinct, sepai-ated, moderate puncturation throughout, width 
at distal end of scapes about four fifths (0.S3) the vertical eye length; 
seapal basi-n flat, above which the front is tumid. Vertex with punc- 
turation similar to that of front becoming weakly and transversely 
striatopunctate posteriorly; behind each eye with an acute nitidous 
tubercle ; ocelli in a low triangle, the postocellar line three and a half 
times the ocellocular distance; an oblique furrow curving forward from 
each lateral ocellus to upper inner orbits; temples punctate above to 
striatopunctate below; temporal carinae wanting; post-temporal region 
glabrous nitidous. Antennae short, reaching about to occiput, sit- 
uated low on face on dorsal margin of clypeus, the antennocular line 
five-eighths the interantennal distance ; scape • straight, cylindrical to 

-After the Potawatomi Indians. 

0,S FKO( . ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, XO. 2, FEBKl'AKY, lit47 

oliteretc, about two-fifths (0.413) the vcitical eye length; pedicel sub 
equal in length to first two flagellar articles; flagellum finely puberu- 
lent, first two segments subequal in length, ultimate article twice the 
length of penult segment. Ciypeus transverse, subfusiform, median 
length one-third the vertical eye length, finely punctate laterally to more 
coarsely so medially, flat laterally to strongly tumid medially, the me- 
dian tubercle rounded, blunt, coarsely punctate; produced medio-apically 
into a short, broad, squarely truncate lobe, the apical margin subbevelate 
and subopaque. Mandibles subfalcate, apices acute, lower margins en- 
tire. Psammophore with mandibular, temporal, and femoral ammochae- 
tae present. 

Thorax subfulgid; with an inconspicuous vestiture of short, decum- 
bent, light pubescence dorsally, the posterior margin of the pronotum 
and the pleura more noticeably clad with silvery pubescence. Pronotum 
short, transverse, linear, with moderate, distinct puncturation, dorsal 
surface notched medially, anterior dorsal margin and humeri rounded, 
ecarinate. Mesonotum with close, moderate puncturation throughout, 
without trace of a median longitudinal line anteriorly ; sutures between 
mesonotum and scutellum, and scutellum pnd postseutellum deeply im- 
pressed but not foveate; scutellum punctured like mesonotum, tumid 
discally, ecarinate Tnedially, laterally v/ith narrow laminate margins; 
postseutellum short, one-third the length of scutellum, transversely lin- 
ear, flat, very finely punctate, posterior margin truncate. Squamae 
falciform, four-fifths the length of scutellum, lateral in position, a,pices 
acuminate. Mucro short, two-fifths the length of scutellum, acuminate, 
canaliculate above. Mesopleura punctured like mesonotum ; rounded an- 
teriorly; episternal suture, hypersternauli, and mesopleural pit strongly 
impressed, foveolate; metapleura glabrous, fulgid, horizontally acicu- 
late. Propodeum opaque, glabrous ; with a fine f avous sculpture 
throughout; dorsal face laterally on each side traversed by very fine, 
oblique, parallel carinules but not bisected by a carinule as in bridwelli ; 
posterior face Avith discal areole obcuneate, without carinules emanating 
laterally above as in bridwelli, distinctly stalked above and below, lat- 
eral areas traversed by a few fine horizontal rugulae; lateral carinae 
well developed, sublaminate above, abruptly obsolescent ventrally be- 
low; lateral faces Avith fine horizontal rugulae. 

Fore tarsi Avith a distinct pecteu. Middle and hind tibiae strongly 
spinose on outer faces. Hind femora boAved, the genicular area cari- 
nate above but not fornicate. 

Abdomen fulgid; rather strongly constricted between the segments; 
thinly clothed Avith a short silvery pubescence which is most noticeable 
along apical margins of tergites. Tergites more finely punctate than 
mesonotum, the first bisected on basal half by a strong impression; 
pygidial area triangular, slightly longer than wide at base, the lateral 
margins straight, disc coarsely punctate. 

This middle western form is known only from the unique 
female described above. 

PROC. ENT. .SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 59 

A NEW GENUS AND TWO SPECIES (Hemiptera, Miridae) 

By Tsai-Yu Hsiao 
DepartDient of Biology, Nankai University, Tientsin, China 

In 1860 Stfil (11) established the genus Eccritotarsus and included 15 
species. More species were described subsequently by Distant (6, 7), 
Berg (1, 2, 3), Reuter (9) and several others. In 1906 Kirkaldy (8) 
designated E. nigrocruciatus Stal as the type of the* genus. In the fol- 
lowing year Reuter (9) designated E. semiluteus Stk\ as the genotype 
and transferred nigrocruciatus to the genus Neofurius Distant. In 
1912 Reuter (10) repudiated Kirkaldy 's type-designation on the basis 
that E. nigrocruciatus belonged to Neofurius and was not available for 
the type of Eccritotarsus. Bergroth (4) followed Reuter 's designation 
and remarked that the approval of Kirkaldy 's proceeding "would have 
disastrous results and lead to the renaming of a great many genera." 
However, it is clearly expressed in Article 30 (g) of the Interna- 
tional Rules of Zoological Nomenclature that type by subsequent desig- 
nation is not subject to change and that type species of other genera 
are not excluded from consideration in the selection of the type of a 
genus (see also Opinion 62). Therefore it is necessary that Kirkaldy 's 
designation be accepted. As indicated by Bergroth some inconvenience 
will result. However, since no included species involves any consider- 
able economic literature, action ta conserve Eccritotarsus in Renter's 
sense would be inadvisable. Since the genotype of Neofurius Distant, 
.V. affinis Distant, is congeneric witli Ji. nigrocruciatus, this genus must 
be considered as a synonym of Eccritotarsus. 

Thus Eccritotarsus, in its present sense, contains the fol- 
lowing species. With the exception of Stal's seven species and 
the new name proposed below, all the others represent new 

affinis (Dist., 1884) hyalinus Stai, 1860 

amethystus (Dist., 1884) infumatus (Dist., 1884) 

argentatus (Dist., 1884) leucopus Stk\, 1860 

auratus (Dist., 1884) linearis (Dist., 1884) 

aurora (Kirk., 1902) nigrocruciatus St&l, 1860 

cruxnigra Stal, 1860 nigrocruciatus var. pallidocornis 
decoratus (Dist., 1884) (Rent., 1907) 

deliQatus (Reut., 1907) ornandus (Dist., 1884) 

denigratus (Dist., 1884) pallidulus (Dist., 1884) 

discifer St&l, 1860 paraguayensis (Carvalho and 
discipennis Stal, 1860 Drake, 1943) 

distanti Hsiao, n. n. for N. margi- pictus (Dist., 1884) 
natus Dist., 1893, preoc. by E. plagosus (Dist., 1884) 

marginatus Dist., 1893. pollutus (Dist., 1893) 

hieroglyphic us (Dist., 1884) scriptus (Dist., 1884) 

tiO PkOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. -', FEBRUARY, ltt47 

stieglmayri (Rent., 1907) variabilis (Dist., 1884) 

tabiiscoensis (Dist.,' 1893) vemistus St51, 1660 

ihetis (Kirk., 1003) viUosus (Dist., 1884) 

Mwe woi'k is needed to ascertain the generic disposition of 
Eccriiotarsus semiluteus Stal, platensis Berg, luculentus 
Berg, nigriclavus Berg, magnigicus Distant, porrectus Dis- 
tant, impavidus Distant, tenehrosus Distant, nocturniis Dis- 
tant, and marginatus Distant. 

In 1942 Costa Lima (5) described Neofurius carvalhoi from 
Brazil. However, careful study of this species reveals that it 
represents a new genus which, together with two new species, 
is herewith described. 

MECOLAEMUS, new genus 

Body oval, broadened posteriorly, shining, clothed with rather long 
simple hairs. 

Head short, vertical, seen from above about 3 times as broad as long, 
with vertex a little narrower than apex of pronotum; as seen from side 
about twice as high as long; eyes medium-sized, prominent but not 
pedunculate; vertex nearly flat, more than twice as wide as an eye 
seen from above; frons perpendicular, very slightly convex; clypeua 
moderately prominent, discrete from frons at the level of a line connect- 
ing the lower apices of eyes, seen from side curvate; jugum not dis- 
tinctly convex, somewhat triangular, separated below the base of an- 
tenna by a distinct impression; lorum divided into portions by an im- 
pressed line at basal fifth. Rostrum thick, surpassing intermediate or 
posterior coxae, segments III and IV very short, together about half 
the length of II, this longer than I. 

Antennae linear, inserted near lower third of the inner margin of 
eye; segments I and II of about equal thickness, III and IV much 
slenderer, I about one-third the width of head seen from above, II 
more than three times as long as I, III much longer than IV. 

Pronotum distinctly punctate, more than twice as broad at base as 
at apex, about two-thirds as long as broad at base, lateral margin very 
sinuate at middle, posterior margin slightly sinuate before scutellum, 
humeral angle broadly rounded, apical collar very distinct but some- 
times not separated posteriorly at the middle between calli, very thick, 
distinctly thicker than antennal segment I, punctate; calli small, im- 
punctate; posterior disk convex, greatly broadened posteriorly. Scu- 
tellum impunctate, triangula,r, broader at base than long, triangularly 
impressed at base. 

Hemelytra impunctate, embolium linear, crassate, distinctly convex 
laterally; cuneus declivent, broader than long, cuneal fracture distinct; 
membrane finely pubescent, rugulose, inner angle of areola rounded. 

Xyphus marginate, ostiolar peritreme small. Legs rather short, dense- 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 61 

l.y pilose but not spinose, tarsi iuciassate toward apex, pseudarolia 
large, broadly involving the claws. 

(Teiiotype : Neofitrius carvalhoi Costa Lima. 

This genus is closely related to Eccritotarsus Stal and Ten- 
thecoris Scott but differs from both by a thicker pronotal col- 
lar, more explanate hemelytra, smaller calli, and more sinuate 
lateral margin of pronotum. The rostrum is much longer than 
in Eccritotarsus and the areolar angle is more rounded. 

Mecolaemus fasciatus, new species 

Female. Body ovate, length 3.87 mm., width 2.32 mm., ochraceous, 
with red linear and dark patched markings, clothed with simple golden 

Head. Width across eyes 0.9 mm., length seen from above 0.3 mm., 
height seen from side 0.73 mm., width of vertex 0.47 mm., ochraceous, 
a curvate line on vertex, between eyes, middle of frons, elypeus, and 
lorum red. Rostrum red, barely reaching apex of hind coxae, length of 
segments, I : II : III : IV : : 0.42 mm. : 0.56 mm. : 0.13 mm. : 0.15 

Antennae. Length of segments I : II : III : IV : : 0.29 mm. : 0.95 
mm. : 0.56 mm. : 0.29 mm., I and base of II red, II dark. III and IV 
dark reddish with base pale. 

Pronotum. Length 0.9 mm., width at base 1.59 mm., at apex 0.65 
mm., thickness of apical collar 0.14 mm. ; ochraceous, a longitudinal 
median line and a line along each lateral margin red. Scutellum ochra- 
ceous with a longitudinal median line red, length 0.56 mm., width 0.77 

Hemelytra reddish ochraceous, clavus (except basal fifth), inner half 
of corium, inner angle of cuneus and membrane dark ; length of em- 
bolium 2.1 mm.; cuneus, length 0.77 mm., width 0.99 mm. 

Body beneath red, xyphus, coxae, pleura (except lateral margin) 
ochraceous. Legs reddish, fore and mid tibiae and all tarsi paler ; length 
of hind femur 1.38 mm., length of hind tibia 1.59 mm. 

This species differs from carvalhoi (Gosta Lima) by having distinct 
linear markings on pronotum and scutellum, thicker antennal segment 
I, and longer segment III. 

Tyijes. U. S. N. M. No. 58080, holotype, female, Brazil, in- 
tercepted on M'ild orchid at the Inspection House, Washing- 
ton, D. C, Mav 25, 1939; paratype, female, Brazil, on Onci- 
dium, May 11," 1937. 

Mecolaemus costalimai, new species 

Female. Body ovate, length 4.08 mm., width 2.36 mm., red marked 
with dark, 'densely clothed with simple golden hairs. 

Head. Width across eyes 0.95 mm., length seen from above 0.3 mm.; 
height seen from side 0.77 mm., width of vertex 0.56 mm. Rostrum 

62 PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUAKY, 1947 

reaching middle of mid coxae, length of segments, I : II : III : IV : : 
0.35 mm. : 0.48 mm. : 0.15 mm. : 0.14 mm. 

Antennae. Length of segments, I : II : III : IV : : 0.25 mm. : 0.84 
mm. : 0.35 mm. : 0.22 mm.; I red, darkened beneath; II dark. III and 
IV pale, fuscous at apex. 

Pronotum red with posterior margin very broadly dark, length 0.9 
mm., width at base 1.46 mm., at apex 0.67 mm., thickness of apical 
collar 0.17 mm. Scutellum, length 0.52 mm., width 0.73 mm. 

Hemyltra. Length of embolium 1.02 mm.; cuneus, length 0.73 mm., 
width 0.95 mm.; membrane fuscous. 

Sternum fuscous with lateral margin broadly pale ochraceous, coxae 
and basal third of femora pale ochraceous; apical two thirds and tibiae 
dark, tarsi fuscous. Length of hind femur 1.42 mm., length of hind tibia 
1.51 mm. 

This species may separated from carvalhoi (Costa Lima) 
and fasciatus, n. sp. by its shorter rostrum, shorter antennae 
and different coloration. 

Type. U. S. N. M. No. 58081, Turrialba, Costa Rica, on 
beans, corn, etc., Aug. 14-15. 1944 (E. J. Hambleton). 

This species is named in honor of Dr. A. da Costa Lima, 
the author of the typical species of the new genus. 

Literature Cite© 

1. Berg, C, Hemiptera Argentina. 

2. , 1884. Addenda et Emendanda ad Hemiptera Argentina. 

3. — T, 1892. Nova Hemiptera Faunarum Argentinae et Uru- 

guayensis. Anal Soc. Cient. Argent. 

4. Bergroth, E., 1922. On the Southamerican Miridae described by C. 
Stai. Ark. f. Zool. 14 (-22) : 1-25. 

5. Costa Lima, A. da, 1942. Percevejos de Orquideas (Hemiptera — 
Miridae — Bryocorinae) . Orquidea 4(3): 100-109. 

. 6. Distant, W. L., 1880-1893. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta. 

Rhynchota, Hemiptera-Heteroptera I: 1-462, 39 pis. 
• 7; v^ .. ' ■ — , 1888. Enumeration of the van Volxem Collection of 

Rhynchota contained in the Brussels' Museum. Pt. III. Ann. Soc. 

Ent. Belg. 32: LXXVIII-LXXXIII. 

8. Kirkaldy, G. W., 1906. List of the Genera of the Pagiopodous 
Hemiptera-Heteroptera with their type series, from 1758 to 1904 
and also of the aquatic and semi-aquatic Trochalopoda. Trans. 
Amer. Ent. Soc. 32 (2): 117-156b. 

9. Renter, O. M., 1907. Capsidae in Brasilia collectde in Museo I. R. 
Vindobonensi asservatae. Ann. Nat. Hofm. Wien. 22:33-80. 

10. , 1912. Hemipterologische Miscellen. Ofv. Finska Vet.- 

Soc. Forh. .54 A (7): 1-76. . 

11. Stai, C, 1860. Bidrag till Rio Janeiro Traktens Hemiptera— Fauna. 
Kongl. Svensk Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 2(7): 1-84. 


NO. 12, FEBRUARY, 1947 


GUATEMALA (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) 

By Tsai-Yu Hsiao 
Dfpart iitcnt of BioJogy, Xaxkai Uiiiver.siti/, Tientsin, China 

MEGAMIRIS, new genus 

llody large, oblong, dull, clothed with simple hairs. 

Head small, subhorizontal, smooth, seen from above triangular, much 
wider than long, seen from side about as long as high; vertex convex, 
iramarginate, more than twice as wide as the diameter of eye seen from 

Figure X. Megamiris vittatiis, n. sp. (Drawn by C. S. Carbonell) 

64 PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. L', FEBKUARY, l!t47 

above; frons convex, small; clypeus promineiit, moderately curvate, 
Avith base situated at the level of about the middle of inner margin of 
eye but not distinctly impressed; jugum flat; lorum tumidly convex. 
Eyes large, not touching anterior margin of pronotum, seen from side 
ovate, occupying about the whole height of head. Rostrum slender, 
tapering apically, reaching the middle of intermediate coxae, segments 
I, II, and III subequal in length, segment IV longest. 

Antennae linear, inserted at lower third of the inner margin of eye, 
clothed densely with short simple hairs; segment I about as long as 
the width of vertex, II as thick and about '> times as long as I, III and 
IV slender, taken together about half the length of II, III more than 
twice as long as IV. 

Pronotum densely punctate, more tlian 1.5 times as wide at base as 
long, less than one-third as wide at apex as at base; lateral margin 
straight or somewhat convex, posterior margin broadly convex but 
truncate before scutellum ; apical collar smooth, longer than the thick- 
ness of antennal segment I, not separated posteriorly at middle, with a 
distinct median longitudinal impressed sulcus; calli small, smooth, pos- 
terior impressed line not reaching lateral margin of pronotum; posterior 
disk with a broad longitudinal sulcus. Scutellum elevate, broadly longi- 
tudinally sulcate, triangular, shorter than width at base, apex rounded, 
lateral margin straight or slightly convex. 

Hemelytra punctulate, when at rest much broader than pronotum, 
embolium explanate, broadened at basal portion; cuneus triangular, 
longer than width at base, fracture distinct; membrane bicellate, with 
several vein-like impressions extending from apical angle of laige 

Legs slender, moderately long, devoid of spinules; tarsal segments 
slender, III the longest and slenderest; claws dentate, arolia hair-like, 
pseudarolia absent. 

This geims is< referred to the subfamily Clivineminae but 
differs from all the known genera by its larger size, different 
structure of pronotum and vein-like structure on membrane. 

Genotype : Megamirk vittatus, n. sp. 

Megamiris vittatus, new species 
(Fig. 1) 

Female. — Body oblong, length 12.64 mm., width H.SS mm., fuscous 
with reddish markings, clothed with concolorous, simple, curved hairs. 

Head, width across eyes 1.76 mm., length seen from above 1.08 mm., 
height seen from side 1.08 mm., width of vertex 0.77 mm.; posterior 
margin of vertex narrowly, jugum and lorum reddish. Rostrum reach- 
ing middle of intermediate coxae, fuscous, paler at the joints, length 
of segments, I : II : III : IV : : 1.03 mm. : 0.99 mm. : 1.03 mm. : 
1.25 mm. Antennae with antenniferous projection reddish, length of 
segments, I : II : III : IV : : 0.73 mm. : 3.78 mm. : 1.29 mm. : 0.52 

PKOC. KXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 65 

Pionotum coarsely punctate, length 2:45 mm., width at base 3.87 ram., 
at apex 1.08 mm. ; apical collar, a broad longitudinal median line and 
posterior margin very narrowly reddish ; calli black, an oblique line on 
each callus and the posterior impressed line shining black. Scutellum, 
length 1.76 mm., width 1.94 mm., lateral margins and apex broadly 
reddish. Hemelytra uniformly fuscous, irregularly punctulate, length 
of embolium 2. .IS mm., length of cuneus 0.99 mm., width 0.86 mm. 

Body beneath reddish, each abdominal segment with a black round 
spot on each side near lateral margin, apical segments tinged with 
fuscous, vagina exteriorly fuscous. Legs with coxae and trochanters 
reddish, length of posterior femur 3.74 mm., length of posterior tibia 
4.82 mm. 

Tyi}es.—JJ. S. N. M. No. 58127, liolotype, female, Cayuga, 
Guatemala, April 1915 (W. Sehaus) ; paratypes, 2 females, 
same data as holotype. 

NEW GUINEA (Diptera, Culicidae)* 

By WiLLARD V. King, Lt. Colonel, and Harry Hoogstraal, Capiain, 
Sn. C. AUS 

These two species are referred to subgenus Neoculex chiefly 
because they do not fit into any of the other subgenera. They 
agree fairly Avell with some of the miscellaneous species that 
have previously been placed in the subgenus. 

Culex (Neoculex) pedicellus, new species 

MALE. — Head: Proboscis dark scaled, about equal fore femur in 
length. Palpus longer than proboscis, dark, the subapical segment 
reaching slightly beyond tip of proboscis (apical segment missing) ; 
no modfiied scales from long segment. Antenna rather densely plumose, 
integument pale between verticils. Head vertex with narrow curved 
pale scales and brownish upright scales posteriorly; a line of broad 
white scales along eye margins, apparently not reaching mid line 
(median part of vertex denuded). Thorax: Integument of scutum 
brownish, with slightly paler submedian and lateral stripes; scales 
narrow, dark ; scutellum pale, denuded. Posterior pronotum dark, de- 
nuded, tluee or four hair root-spots on posterior border; pleurites with 
the upper two-thirds dark, especially over the mesepimeron (largely 
denuded of bristles except along the posterior part of the sternopleuron) ; 
a few pale scales visible on upper sternopleuron. No lower mesepimeral 
bristle present and a root spot not visible. Legs entirely dark except 

*From the 19th Medical General Laboratory, U. S. Army. Con- 
tribution No. 12 from the Entomology-Mammology Department. 

66 PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, .\0. 2, KEBRUARV, 194:7 

under side of femora toward base; fore tarsal claws subequal, the 
larger toothed (other tarsal claws missing) ; first hind tarsal segment 
longer than tibia. Wing all dark scaled; first fork cell about 1.5 times 
as long as its petiole; lateral scales of veins 2-4 all unusually broad, 
with rounded tips; cross veins well separated; wing length 2.5 ram. 
Abdomen: largely denuded except for a wide basal band of white scales 
on segment VI, complete across middle and one side, and a partial wide 
band on segment V beginning near mid line (evidently complete bands 
originally). Eypopygium (fig. 1): Coxite about twice as long as mid 
width, with short and moderately long setae; lobe divided into three 
pedicels, the apico-dorsal one (AD) long, with a bristle from its base 
and a strong, pointed, medially bent, apical spine; apico-ventral pedicel 
(AV) shorter, with three slightly flattened setae; basal pedicel, arising 
near middle of coxite and unusually long, with two stout apical rods 
each broadly flattened and recurved at tip. Style about three-fifths as 
long as coxite, wide, nearly straight, with a large deltoid fin at apical 
third; a short bristle near middle and one toward apex; appendage, 
short, spine-like, slightly subapieal. Paraproct heavily sclerotized, 
crowned with a row of about ten blunt, somewhat laminated spines; no 
lateral arm. Phallosome with a dorsal transverse bridge; lateral 
plate rather long, alate, with a group of closely appressed, very long 
needle-like teeth arising from the inner ventral margin of the plate, 
beyond its middle, their tips slightly exceeding the tip of the plate; 
a fringe of very short fine teeth on one side near extreme apex of 
plate. Eighth and ninth tergites not discernible. 
Female and larva unknown. 

HOLOTYPE.— Male, taken by the authors in a light trap 
operated at edge of rain forest near army hospital area, Hol- 
landia, New Guinea. 12 April 1945. Deposited in U. S. Na- 
tional Museum. 

This is the only specimen obtained during several months' 
operation of light traps iii this area. On external characters 
it appears to be similar to C. (Neoculex) crassistyhis Brug 
(Bull. Ent. Res. 55: 516, 1934) from Inawattan, New Guinea', 
except that the mesonotum of the latter, as illustrated by 
Brug, has a pattern of pale scales and dark brown spots. The 
shape of the style and the comb of the paraproct are also 
somewhat similar in the two species but the formation of 
the subapieal lobe of the coxite and its appendages are dif- 
ferent, crassistylus having a leaflet, wliich is lacking in jyedi- 
cellus, and does not have three widely separated, elongate 
pedicles. From other species of Neoculex, pedicellus differs 
distinctly in the genitalia as well as the combination of ex- 
ternal characters (long palpi, flat scales on eye margin, un- 
ornamented scutum and banded abdomen). Because of the 
fiat scales bordering the eyes and the long male palpi this 
species and crassistylus would form an additional group 




(group F) to those proposed in the subgenus by Edwards 
(1941, Mosq. of Ethiopian Region, III Culicine Adults and 
Pupae, p. 249). 

Culex (Neoculex) caeruleus, new species 
This species has been referred to in the senior author's 
notes as the "blue Culex" because of the distinctive colora- 
tion of the larva. A bluish green tint is also evident in the 
thorax of fresh adults. 

MALE. — Head: Proboscis dark, 1.4 mm. long. Palpus dark, slender, 
slightly shorter than proboscis (not quite reaching base of labella). 
Vertex largely covered with broad, flat, pale scales, a moderate sized 
triangular area of narrow curved scales behind. Thorax: Scutum 
brown, with fine scales; acrostichal bristles apparently absent in the 
remaining specimen (scutum denuded and no root spots visible, while 

Culex (Neoculex) pedicellus. Male genitalia. Fig. 1 : paraproct, 
phallosome, and tip of coxite. 

Culex (Neoculex) caerulevs. Male genitalia and larva. Fig. 2: tip 
of coxite (inner aspect), lateral plate of phallosome, and paraproct; 
Fig. 3 : head and terminal segments of larva. 

68 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUAKY, 1947 

scais of the dorsocentials are plainly evident). Pleurites paler (with a 
bluish tinge when fresh), unsealed; a lower mesepimeral bristle toward 
front of sclerite. Legs dark. Wings dark; first fork cell twice as 
long as its petiole; lateral scales of veins 2-4 linear, slightly broadened 
toward tips of the forked veins. Wing length 1.9 mm. Abdomen: 
entirely dark; posterior border of eighth tergite moderately indented. 
nypopygium (fig. 2) : Goxite short and broad, basally, with scattered 
long bristles outwardly; lobe near apex, its appendages consisting of 
two long, stout, tlattened, closely appressed rods, their ta-urit-ate -tips 
slightly recurved, a slender bristle near their . base, a stout, pointed 
rod arising from a distinct pedicle, and a stout bristle bent into an 
inverted U shape; no leaflet present. Style about three-fifths ;is long 
as coxite, the basal two-thirds wide, the apex narrower; a pair of small 
hairs toward apex; appendage long, blunt, slightly subapical. Paraproct 
without a lateral arm; crown with two short projections and a double 
row of short, pointed spines. Phallosome simple, the lateral plate wide 
basally, with a narrow studded tip. Ninth tergite not discernible. 

FEMALE. — Similar to male except for short palpi and shorter hairs 
on antenna; flat scales on head vertex duskier in color, and the area 
of narrow scales behind, smaller. Wing length 2.2 mm. 

LAEVA (fig. 3). — Small and transparentj, with a distinct blue tint 
in the thorax and ventral side of abdomen in the living larva. The 
airtube and head hairs are similar to species of Lophoeeraomyhi . Head: 
wider than long; antenna pale with narrow dark rings at base and 
apex ; shaft with slender spicules ; tuft large, set in a constriction at 
apical third; subapical hairs long, subequal, set in a second constric- 
tion; apical hair less than half as long, the spine about three times as 
long as apical appendage. Preclypeal spines moderately short and 
stout. Head hair A set near base of antenna, with six branches; B 
and C long, each 2-branched, set well back of line of anteunal base, C 
behind and slightly inside of B; (? short, with two or three branches. 
LTpper lateral hair of abdominal segment I double, the lower single; 
lateral hair of II double; of III to VI double or triple, much smaller 
and finer than those on I and II. Comb of segment VIII a patch of 
35-40 long, slender scales, which are rounded and fringed apically 
and laterally. Pentad hairs, 1 with 3-4 branches, 3 with 8-9 branches,- 
3 double or triple, 2 and 4 single. Air tube long and slender, slightly 
expanded at tip, index about 8:1; a large acus present; pecten of 
about 14 teeth on ba^al third, each tooth long and with a stout sub- 
basal denticle and a fine fringe on one side to apex; distance between 
the teeth increasing apically; five pairs of small hair tufts, beginning 
well beyond pecten, usually 3- to 5-branched, sometimes single or 
double. Anal saddle minutely spiculate, completely encircling segment; 
ventral brush normal ; dorsal subcaudal hair with one very long and 
one short branch ; gills slender, a little longer than saddle. 

HOLOTYPE.— Male (K 156-2), now represented in collec- 
tion only by a slide monnt of the genitalia (remainder of sjieei- 

PKOC. ENT. SCf. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 12, FEBRl'AKV, 1947 (i9 

men ruined by mold during- shipment) ; reared from larva 
eollec'ted in pools in flat swampy forest near Samboga River, 
Dobodura, N.'G., December 1943 (W. S. Monlux collector). 
ALLOTYPE.— Female (K 156-3), same data (mouldy and 
in poor condition). PAHATYPES.— One male (K 156-1), 
same data (in very poor condition), a slide mount of two 
la^'val and two pupal skins (K 156-3), and six slides of larval 
exuviae or whole larvae (K 156). Types deposited in the V. 
8. National Museum and a paratype larval slide to be de- 
posited in the Museum of the Council for Scientific and In- 
dustrial Research, Canberra, Australia.. 

The original collection contained a number of larvae from 
which several adults were reared. Descriptive notes- were 
taken from the fresh adults but the specimens later became 
damp during shipment and were almost completely ruined 
by mold. 

The species is set off from all known species of Xcoculcx 
of the Oriental and Australasian regions by the extensive 
area of broad scales on head vertex. This character and the 
relative length of the male palpi places it in group /D of the 
subgenus as defined by Edwards (1941, loc. cit. p. 252) con- 
taining three African species, C. olbiventris Edw., C. adersi- 
anus Edw., and C. acrostichalis Edw. These all differ from 
caendeus in havirig the abdominal sternites white scaled, and 
the first two at least in several details of the male genitalia 
(the male of acrosticfndis not being known), including pres- 
ence of a leaflet on the coxite, which is lacking' in cacru'cHs. 


The iKiGtli regular meeting of the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington was held at 8 P. M., Oct. 3, 1946, in Eoom 43 of the U. S. 
National Museum. Piesident Weigel called the meetjug to order with 
42 members and 26 visitors present. The minutes of the 564th and 
565th meetings were read and approved. 

Ten persons were elected to membership in the Society: 

Dr. Frederico A. Simoes Barbosa, Laboratorio de Entomologia, Facul- 

dade de Medicina, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. 
Manuel Barro, Calle 12 Nr. 220 altos. Apart. 3, Yedado, Haliana, 

Paul A. Berry, Division of Foreign Parasite Introduction, U. S. 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 
Grace Glance, Division of Insect Identification, U. S. Bureau of En- 
tomology and Plant Quarantine. 
Zelda D. Knowles, Division of Insect Identification, I'. S. Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

70 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 2, FEBRUAKY, 1947 

Dr. William Procter, Founder and Director of the Biological Survey 
of the Mount Desert Region. 

Charles V. Reichert, -309 B. & Z. Building, Ohio State University, 
Columbus 10, Ohio. 

Luella M. Walkley, Division of Insect Identification, U. S. Bureau 
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

Richard O. White, Insecticide Testing Laboratory, Production and 
Marketing Administration. 

Lucile W. Yates, Division of Insect Identification, U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

President Weigel announced the appointment of Howard Baker to 
fill the vacancy left on the Program Committee when Mr. Latta was 
transferred from the Washington area. 

Dr. Austin Clark called the attention of the Society to the appear- 
ance of the 1,000th number of the Entomologist and suggested that a 
letter of congratulation be sent to the Editor, Dr. N. D. Riley. Dr. 
Weigel directed the Corresponding Secretary to prepare such a letter. 

Mr. Reed reported that the Society had gained twenty-one new mem- 
bers during the current year and had lost six. 

Dr. Austin H. Clark said that in his last shipment of butterflies from 
Guam, Lt. David F. Grether, USNR, included two specimens of Papilio 
polytes borealis which apparently has not been recorded from that is- 
lajid. Lt. Grether wrote that the only place where this species Avas 
observed was in the general area between the Ylig and Togcha rivers. 
In the half -cleared brush woods just north of the Togcha there were 
dozens of them. This is apparently a recent introduction from north- 
ern China or the extreme south of Japan. Lts. Grether and Warren H. 
Wagner sent in long series of Papilio xuth-us from Guam and Saipan. 
The specimens from Saipan are larger and lighter than those from 
Guam. According to Dr. W. T. M. Forbes this is an introduced species, 
and in 1895 Lord Rothschild gave no record for either island. It is 
probable that the small and dark individuals from Guam are from 
southern China or Formosa, the larger and lighter ones on Saipan 
representing an introduction from Japan. (Author's Abstract.) 

Dr. Sailer stated that, including those elected at the present meeting, 
there are now over 300 on the membership roll. Besides the Honorary 
President, Dr. L. 0. Howard, the Society can boast another distinguished 
member of long standing. Dr. Herbert Osborn of Ohio State Univer- 
sity, who was elected to membership in January of 1886. 

Carlos S. Carbonell, Laboratorio de Entomologia de la Direccion 
d'Agronomia, Montevideo, Uruguay, presented the first paper on the 
regular program: Problems in Agricultural Entomology in Uruguay. 

A brief description of the geography, climate, and agriculture of 
Uruguay was given as an introduction to the theme of the talk. After 
some consideration of the general methods of agricultural entomology 
used in Uruguay, a short account was given of some of the most im- 
portant pests, which are: the migratory locust (Schistocerca paranen- 

PROC. ENT. SOC, AVASH., VOL. 49, XO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1947 71 

sis), the green bug (Toxoptera graminiim), scale insects, codling moth 
(Carpocapsa pomonella), oriental fruit moth (Grapholitha molest a), 
Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), other fruit flies (Anasfre- 
pha spp.), stored grain insects, blister beetles (Epicauta adspersa, E. 
atomaria), leaf-cutting ants (Atta sp.; Acromyrmex spp). (Author's 

In response to a question from Mr. Snodgrass, Mr. Carbonell said 
that termites in Uruguay live mainly on dry roots, or similar mate- 
rial, and are not a serious problem. Dr. Bishopp asked if ticks cause 
much damage to livestock. Mr. Carbonell replied that they are impor- 
tant as vectors of a fever similar to Texas fever. Eradication programs 
have not been successful because of lack of cooperation from the cattle 
growers. Human ticks are not of economic importance. Mr. Leonard 
requested a brief statement on the status of Government organization 
of Entomology in Uruguay. Mr. Carbonell said that entomological 
services are very limited. The Laboratory to which he is attached is in 
charge of general problems and of insecticides. It has a staff of four 
men. There is nothing which corresponds to the work of the Extension 
Entomologists in the United States. 

The paper by G. S. Langford on Japanese Beetle Control in Mary- 
land was postponed to a later meeting in order to give the members the 
■opportunity to hear a talk by Dr. J. van der Vecht of the Instituut 
voor Planten ziekten, Buitenzorg, Java: Entomology in the Nether- 
lands Indies. 

The war in the Pacific has temporarily brought to an end the ac- 
tivities of about a dozen of the entomologists who were employed in 
various research institutions in the Netherlands Indies, not including a 
few entomologists dealing with insect pests of man and animals. Taxo- 
nomic entomology was studied at the Zoological Museum at Buitenzorg, 
a subdivision of the Botanic Garden. The rich entomological collec- 
tions, which shortly before the war were considerably enlarged by the 
many thousands of specimens collected by Dr. L. J. Toxopeus of the 
Archbold Expedition to New Guinea, survived the period of Japanese 
occupation and are in good condition. Mr. M. A. Lieftinck, specialist in 
Odonata and Apidae, is now in charge of the Museum and will soon 
be assisted by Dr. A. Diakomoff, specialist in Microlepidofjlera and on 
the Museum staff since Dec. 1, 1941. During the war the Museum shel- 
tered many important private collections and libraries. Entomological 
problems of native crops (rice, coconut palm, truck crops and vegetables, 
fruit trees, pepper, etc.) were studied by five entomologists of the 
"Instituut voor Plantenziekten, " a subdivision of the Government 
Agricultural Experiment Station at Buitenzorg. Dr. L. G. E. Kalshoven 
of this Institute spent most of this time on problems of forest en- 
tomology. In charge of this work was Dr. P. van der Goot, who died in 
1944 in a concentration camp in Java. 

Some four or five entomologists were engaged upon investigations on 
insect pests' of crops of European-managed estates (rubber, coffee, tea, 

r2 PKOl. KX'i. SOC . WASH., VOL. 49, SO. '2, FKBKLAKV, 1!»17 

c-i)cu;i, sugar, tobacco, etc.) ; they were employed liy the private experi- 
ment stations for these crops at various localities in Java and Suma- 
tra. The fate of the collections, libraries, equipment, etc. of most of 
the Agricultural Experiment Stations is yet unknown. (Author's Ab- 

The paper was thrown open to discussion. Dr. Mclndoo asked if more 
than one species of Derris was grown for insecticidal use. Dr. van der 
Vecht answered that a few wild species had been tested, but none 
showed as high a rotenone content as Derris elliptica. Mr. Muesebeck 
wondered why Dactylopius had been given preference over Cactoblastis 
in biological control of cactus. Dr. van der Vecht replied that the Staff 
at the Agricultural Department felt that literature showed the coccid 
to be better adapted to cactus than the Lepidoptera. It had, therefore, 
been decided to test the coccid first and excellent results were obtained. 
BactylopUis is very specific to cactus and was believed less liable to 
spread to other hosts. No predators or hymenopterous parasites have 
been found on Daciylopius. Mr. Wood inquired if disease, following in- 
jury Ity the insect, had played a part in the outstanding success of the 
])iological control program, and was answered in the affirmative. Fur- 
ther questions by Muesebeck, Anderson, Philip, and Trembley brought 
out that: Artona caterpillars, which had been serious pests of cocoanut, 
caused no defoliation during 1!)38/1941 ; only one species of StepJiuno- 
deres (S. luimpei) , which liad been imported from Africa, is present in 
the coffee plantations; although the Archbold Expedition had reported 
severe annoyance from itch mites. Dr. van der Vecht had personally ex- 
perienced no trouble in traveling about the Archipelago ; several species 
of Anopheles are an economic problem in the tea gardens. 

Dr. Weigel introduced to the Society Dr. S. M. Madwar, Director, 
Medical Entomology Section, Ministry of Public Health, Cairo, Egypt. 
Dr. Madwar addressed the Society briefly. He said that the Medical 
Entomology Section had just been organized, and cited the great toll 
taken yearly by malaria as evidence of the need for such a unit. He 
also spoke on the deV:! stating effect in Egypt of the 1942 invasion of 
Anopheles gamhiae. This species has been eradicated with the help of 
the Rockefeller Foundation. Dr. Madwar felt that entomologists could 
teach politicians something about unity of purpose and closed his talk 
with the spirited demand : "If people must fight, let them fight the 
insects. ' ' 

After the introduction of Mrs. Madwar, Dr. Bishopp arose to point 
out that Dr. Madwar had himself played a major role in the organiza- 
tion and execution of the monumental project of A. gamhiae eradication. 

E. H. Nelson, recently transferred back to Washington, was asked to 
stand, as was also E. F. Knipling, the new Chief of the Division of 
Insects Affecting Man and Animals. 

The meeting adjourned at O.iiO P. M. 

Ina L. Haw'ES, 
Hecording Secreiarv 

Aehuil (lotr of piihlicat inn, VehriKuti in, l'J47 

No. 3 

VOL. 49 March, 1947 


of the 



Published Monthly Except July, August and September 

BY the 




Entered as lecond-daaa matter March 10, 1910, at the Post Office at Wathinston, 
D. 0., tinder Act of Aag:ast 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailine at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 




Organized March 12, 18S4. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National MuBeam 
on the first Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President — L. O. Howard 

President - Austin H. Ci^abk 

First Vice President — -E. H. SieqI/ER 

Second Vice President — - - _ T. E. Skydea 

Becording Secretary — — Ina L. Hawes 

Corresponding Secretary E. I. Saileb 

Treasurer L. B. Reed 

Editor Alan Stone 

Executive Committee P. N. Annand, F. W. Poos, C. A. Weiqel 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences C. F. W. Muesebeck 


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at Washington, D. C. Terms of subscription : Domestic, $4.00 per annum ; 
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age extra. All subscriptions are payable in advance. Remittances should 
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Authors will be furnished not to exceed 10 copies of the number in 
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Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 49 

MARCH, 1947 

No. 3 

GUINEA (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) 

By Marion R. Smith, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

There are several new and unusually interesting forms 
among the hundred or so specimens of New Guinea ants col- 
lected by Karl V. Krombein and given to the United States 
National Museum. One of the most extraordinary is a species 
of Pheidole which I propose to name q^iadriprojectus because 
of the four spatulate processes on the anterior half of the head 
of the soldier, two of these being formed by the dorsal exten- 
sion of the frontal carinae, and each of the other two by a 
dorsally extended process originating on the superior border 
of the mandible. So far as I am aware no species of Pheidole 
with such processes has been described. One can only conjec- 
ture as to the use of these peculiar processes. It would appear 
that they might aid the ant in seizing, holding or transporting 
small, narrow, elongate objects. Although the processes are 

Pheidole quadriprojeet u.i, 
dier; Fig. 2. Lateral v 

sp. Fig. 1. Anterior view of head of aol- 
■ of head of soldier. (Drawn by Arthur 

BAR 4 1947 

74 PROC. E'NT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

the best character for immediately recog'nizing- this species, 
other good characters are the deep, angfular emargination at 
the posterior border of the head ; the unusually short antenna) 
scape, the base of which is extremely slender and curved, and 
the apex enlarged ; the angularly extended anterior corners 
of the head ; the prominent, angular, prothraeic humeri ; the 
lateral borders of the postpetiole conical ; the subglobular gas- 
ter with truncate base; and finally, the erect hairs on the an- 
tennal scape. 

Pheidole (Pheidole) quadriprojectus, new specie.s 

Soldier. — Length 4.5 mm. 

Head measured through its greatest breadth and length approximately 
one and one-tenth times as long as broad. Posterior corners prominent, 
subangularly rounded. Posterior border with an unusually deep, angu- 
lar emargination. Frontal groove extending from this emargination to 
the frontal area; weakly defined in its anterior half, rather broad and 
deep in its posterior half. Anterior corners of the head forming dis- 
tinct, angular projections, posterior to which the cheeks are slightly 
concave. In profile, head with a distinct but weak transverse impres- 
sion posterior to the frontal region, but most evident on each side of 
the frontal groove. Antennal scape unusually short, when fully ex 
tended posteriorly its apex not attaining more than approximately two- 
fifths of the length of the head; extremely slender and curved at the 
base, enlarged apically. Frontal area distinct, impressed, but without a 
definite suture separating it from the clypeus. Clypeus with a median ca- 
rina, also a small but distinct emargination on its anterior border. Each 
frontal carina strongly extended dorsally as a spatulate process. Each 
mandible with a somewhat similar, but even longer process extending dor- 
sally from its superior border. Mandible rather small, the masticatory 
border edentate except for two blunt apical teeth and another blunt 
tooth at the junction of the masticatory and superior borders. Eye un- 
usually small, placed approximaely twice its length from the posterior 
border of the mandible. Prothorax with, very prominent, angular humeri, 
the anterior surface strongly sloping toward the head. Promesonotal 
suture obsolescent. Posterior surface of mesonotum arising almost ver 
tically from the well-defined mesoepinotal impression. Epinotum with a 
pair of well-defined spines which are not as long as the basal surface 
of the epinotum. Petiolar node with emarginate, sharp, superior border. 
Postpetiolar node approximately twice as broad as long, with conical 
sides. From above, gaster subglobular, with truncate base. 

Most of the head irregularly reticulate, shagreened, except for the 
cheeks and front which are largely longitudinally rugulose. Gastei- 
rather shining although densely shagreened. Clypeus, lower sides of 
head, posterior surface of each occipital lobe, epinotal declivity, and 
much of thorax, smooth and shining. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 75 

Hfiirs yellowish or golden, moderately long and abundant on body. 
Antennal scape with approximately six prominent, erect hairs. 

Thorax, petiole, postpetiole, and gaster blackish; head dark reddish 
brown; legs yellowish. 

Type locality. — Along bank of Gama River, Milne Bay, 
New Guinea; 300 feet elevation. 

Type. — United States National Museum No. 58209. 

The unique soldier holotype was collected March 5, 1944, by 
Karl V. Krombein. 

(Hynxenoptera, Formicidae) 

By Marion E. Smith, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Departrnent of Agricidture 

Among the interesting ants collected by Karl V. Krombein 
in New Guinea is a new species of Metapone which is de- 
scribed below. This is the eleventh recognized species in the 
genus. In 1919, when Wheeler revised Metapone (Ent. Soc. 
Amer. Ann. 12 (3) : 173, 7 figs), he treated seven species. 
These and their type localities are as follows : M. hakeri 
Wheeler, Mount Banahao, Luzon Island, Philippines ; greeni 
Forel, Peradeniya. Ce^ylon ; hewitti Wheeler, Kuching, Bor- 
neo ; leae Wheeler, Mount Tambourine, Queensland ; mjoehergi 
Forel, Malanda, Queensland ; sauteri Forel, Sokutsu, Banshor- 
yo District, Formosa ; tillyardi Wheeler, Dorrigo, New South 
Wales. Later Crawley 1924, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 13 
(76) : 389) described jacobsoni from Fort de Kock, Sumatra; 
Karawajew (1933, Konowia 12 (1-2) : 115) described joh7ii 
from Hantana, Ceylon; and Wheeler (1935, Psyche 42 (1) : 
38) described gracilis from Dapitan on Mindanao Island, 

The genus Metapone includes forms of such peculiar struc- 
ture that the taxonomic relationships and status of the group 
have not yet been clearly determined. In 1911 Forel placed 
the genus in a new tribe, the Metaponini, of the subfamily 
Ponerinae; and in 1912 Emery concluded that the larvae of 
M. greeni were definitely myrmicine and placed the tribe Me- 
taponini along with the tribe Pseudomyrmicini in the section 
Promyrmicinae of the subfamily Myrmicinae. Finally Wheel- 
er after much study stated, "It should, of course, constitute 
an independent tribe, Metaponini, as Forel and Emery main- 
tain, but its position among the other tribes of the Myrmicinae 
is not easily determined. It might be placed provisionally be- 

76 PROC. KNT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

tween Emery's Melissotarsini and his Stereomja-mieini, which 
have 11-jointed antennae in both male and female phases." 
I agree that the ants belong to the subfamily Myrmicinae, but 
reserve my opinion as to the further status and position of the 

According to present information these ants form small 
colonies in dead branches and are thought to feed on termites. 

Metapone krombeini, new speiies 

Alate female. — Length 8 mm. 

Head subrectangular, approximately one and one-half times longer 
than broad when measured through its greatest breadth and length, nar- 
rowest anteriorly, with distinct but not strongly emarginate posterior 
border. Clypeus extended medially as a prominent, subrectangular lobe 
which has subparallel sides and subtruncate anterior border; posterior 
border of clypeus Avithout a distinct suture, but the clypeus separated 
from the remainder of the head by a more or less curved, transverse im- 
pression. Frontal area and frontal groove lacking. Vertex with three 
rather indistinct ocelli. Eye oval, approximately as long as the last two 
funicular segments, situated more than its greatest diameter from the 
base of the mandible, with numerous very small facets. Mandibles over- 
lapping, longer than broad; each with five teeth, not including the tooth- 
like lobe formed by the junction of masticatory border and superior 
border of the mandible. Thorax wider anteriorly than posteriorly, ap- 
proximately three times as long as wide, widest through the mesothorax, 
weakly convex above. Prothorax marginate both anteriorly and laterally, 
the epinotum marginate only laterally. Anterior wing with a well- 
developed stigma. Epinotum broadest anteriorly, about one and one- 
fourth times as long as its greatest breadth; in profile, the dorsal sur- 
face sloping posteriorly to meet the slightly concave declivous surface 
in a bluntly rounded angle. Petiole, in profile, subrectangular; anterior 
surface of the node concave, dorsal surface convex and also longitudi- 
nally arched, posterior dorsolateral region with a blunt, rounded tooth, 
which is shorter than the basal width of the tooth; ventral surface of 
petiole with only a prominent, blunt, longitudinal lobe. Petiole sub- 
marginate; from above, approximately one and three-tenths times as 
long as broad, anterior border transverse and straight, lateral borders 
divergent posteriorly, posterior border broadly emarginate forming a 
distinct tooth on each side. Pospetiole convex dorsally; from above, ap- 
proximately one and one-third times as broad as long, widest at the an- 
terior two-thirds of its length; ventral surface with a prominent, trans- 
verse ridge. Gaster elongate, oval, without humeral, angles, the first 
gastric segment approximately one and eight-tenths times the length of 
the petiole. 

Dorsal surface of head and thorax longitudinally striated, the striae 
finer on the scutellum and epinotum, sides of head with fine striae, those 
on the mesopleuron and side of epinotum unusually fine. Dorsal surface 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 77 

of petiole with fine, longitudinal striae, that of the postpetiole either 
with indistinct or no striae. 

Head, thorax, petiole, and postpetiole black, gaster reddish brown; 
antennae and legs lighter than remainder of body excepting the gaster. 
Wings brown, veins darker than remainder of wings, stigma black. 

Txjpe locality. — K. B. Mission, Milne Baj', New Guinea. 

Described from a single winged female collected by Karl V. 
Krombein, March 26-28, 1944. The holotype specimen, which 
bears U. S. N. M. No. 58,003, is in the collection of the United 
States National Museum. 

This species can be readily recognized by the following 
characters: Small size; shape and prominence of the clypeal 
lobe ; structure of the petiole and postpetiole ; and color of 
the body. In the 1919 key to the species of Metapone by 
Wheeler, the ant would key out to santeri; it differs from 
that species, however, in many respects, but mainly in the 
proportions of the epinotum and first gastric segment, and in 
the structure of the petiole. The first gastric segment in 
santeri is nearly three times as long as the petiole and one 
and one-half times as long as broad. The petiole of sauteri 
has two prominent protuberances beneath, and the length of 
the body is 10.5 to 11.1 mm. 

(KAPALA SP.) (Hymenoptera) 

By Paul L. Berry, i Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture 

In January 1945 the writer observed a eucharid, Kapala 
sp., ovipositing on the under surface of a leaf of malvaceous 
plant near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Further search for adults, 
egg masses, and host was made, but additional material was 
not found in the limited time available. The female was ob- 
served closely for a few minutes and then captured and 
killed. The leaf containing the eggs was placed in a tin box, 
and a few days later moist cotton was added in order to main- 
Itiin the humidity. The eggs developed satisfactorily up to 
the completion of the fully formed first-instar larva within 
the shells, but unfortunately the larvae did not rupture the 
egg shells and they had to be teased out of the confining mem- 
brane in order to make good mounts for further studv. 

iThe writer is indebted to H. L. Parker for helpful criticism of the 
drawing and suggestions in the preparation of the manuscript, and to 
A. B. Gahan for identification of the eucharid. 

78 PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

The female, when ovipositing, walks slowly over the leaf 
surface, gently feeling it with her antennae and, at the same 
time, constantly tapping it with her abdomen, apparently 
depositing one or more eggs at each contact. When inter- 
rupted she had deposited a few thousand eggs, which were 
placed horizontally and at random on the leaf surface. 

The egg is oblong oval with a rather strong stalk. The stalk 
is relatively short, measuring slightly less than one-third the 
length of the entire egg. These measurements and the draw- 
ing (fig. 1) were made from an egg shell from which the 
embryo had been extracted, and do not represent exactly the 
ovarian or freely deposited egg. The proportions of egg stalk 
to body of egg are approximately correct, however, and the 
egg is of this general appearance when first deposited. The 
freshly deposited egg, as viewed under a hand lens, is white 
and without sculpturing. 

The first-instar larva is of the well-known planidium type, 
and the body lies in the egg with the head pointing towards 
the stalk, as is usual in this group. It is composed of the head 
and twelve body segments, the last appearing as a fleshy lobe 
bearing two caudal eerci. It is black except for the fleshy 
parts between the sclerites. 

The head is heavily sclerotized dorsally and laterally, and 
has two more or less triangular, heavily sclerotized areas that 
almost meet ventrally. It bears two small fleshy lobes and 
two sensory setalike processes dorsally on the anterior part. 
The mouth is oval and has a fleshy part around the opening. 
The mandibles are of the usual comma shape. On the ventral 
side is a heavily sclerotized anchor-shaped area, the hooks of 
the anchor being below the mandibles and the other point 
between the mandibles almost to the mouth opening. There 
are two small triangular sclerotized areas on each side of the 
head near the hooks of the anchor. One pair of small sensory 
seate is located somewhat forward on the dorsum of the head 
and three pairs near the posterior part of the head. 

The first segmental band is collar-shaped, the points ap- 
proaching each other ventrally and directed caudad. The 
second segmental band is also collar-shaped and rounded at 
the centroposterior angle. The third band is shaped more or 
less like the second except that it has an indentation near 
the eentroanterior angle and from this a heavy spine points 
cauded. The fourth to sixth segments are similar in that they 
terminate ventrally in long, pointed, spinelike processes that 
are directed posteriorly. The seventh segment is rounded at 
the anterior-ventral angle and has a short, spinelike process 
directed caudad near the posterior angle. Slightly posterior 
to this spine is a long, spinelike process extending posterior- 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 PLATE 8 

Fig, 1. Egg and first instar larva of a eucharid, Kapala sp. 


80 PK.OC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

ly, and further out laterally from the end of the ventral 
termination is a small toothlike protusion of the band directed 
cauded. Segment 8 consists of a sclerotized triangular band, 
that appears to terminate ventrally, with a hooklike indenta- 
tion some distance from the ventral termination. Segment 9 
also consists of a sclerotized band that apparently terminates 
ventrally in triangular plates. Segments 8, 9, and 10 were 
not so distinct as could be desired, but were the best that 
could be obtained from larvae teased out of the egg shell, and 
it is believed that they are represented accuratelj^ in the de- 
scription and drawing. The plate of segment 10 is rounded 
or oval at the ventral termination. Segment 11 has a small 
sclerome on each side, each provided with two toothlike 
processes, the whole being somewhat the shape of a molar 
tooth. The last, or twelfth segment, consists simply of a fleshy 
lobe with two long cerci extending posteriorly. 

Segments 1 to 6 each bears a pair of sensory spines dorsally, 
those on segment 5 being heavier and longer than on the pre- 
ceding segments, and those on segment 6 much longer and 
heavier than those on segment 5. On the second to the eighth 
segments the lines of demarcation between the pleural and 
dorsal plates are faintly visible. Two seal-shaped structures 
originate in the area of the eighth and ninth segments, the 
knoblike anterior portion being heavily sclerotized. Posterior- 
ly to the knoblike areas these structures broaden out consid- 
erably, and at the greatest width a pointed process is directed 
somewhat ventrally. From this wide point there is a gradual 
tapering to a sharp T3oint near the tip of the last abdominal 
segment. The function of these structures is not known, but 
thev may serve in locomotion, possibly for standing erect while 
waiting for a host, or to assist in jumping when a moving ob- 
ject anproaches. It is not possible to demonstrate the exact 
use of these structures without live material. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 81 

(Hymenoptera, Apoidea)i 


University of California Citrus Experiment Station, 
Riverside, California 

Since the number of species of Pcrdifa inhabiting the 
United States east of the Mississippi River is small, the dis- 
covery of two new species from Florida, North Carolina, and 
Mississippi is a matter of considerable interest. 

Perdita mitchelli, new species 

This is a member of the subgenus Alloperdita Viereck, 
and is easily distinguished from the other species by the en- 
tire lack of light markings on the face, thorax, and abdomen. 

Female. — Head and thorax dark green, the underparts nearly black. 
Abdomen black, the apical margin of tergites tinged with testaceous. 
Antennae and legs black, the tarsi testaceous, with outer margin of hind 
basitarsus, and the front and middle basitarsi, especially toward base, 
dusky or blackish. Mandibles yellow testaceous at base, more reddish 
at middle, and piceous at apex. Tegulae pale testaceous. Wings whitish 
hyaline. Stigma testaceous, the nervures nearly colorless, except for the 
brownish subcosta. Head a little broader than long, with inner orbits 
slightly diverging above. Head and thorax weakly, very finely tesgellate, 
shining, the tessellation faint on disk of mesoscutum and on scutellum 
and basal area of propodeum, and absent on clypeus and supraelypeal 
area. Clypeus with well-separated, fine punctures. Eemainder of face 
and sides of frons with a few remote punctures. Mesonotum with fine, 
widely spaced punctures. Pubescence sparse, whitish. Fore wing with 
a small supernumerary submarginal cell as in other Alloperdita. Length, 
5 mm.; anterior wing, 3.3 mm. 

Male. — Similar to female. Head and thorax dark blue. Apical ter- 
gite of abdomen brownish testaceous. Labrum testaceous, prominent, 
convex, tapering, blunt at apex, and thus nasiform. Mandibles yellow 
testaceous, becoming red at apex. Tarsi yellow testaceous. Tegulae 
whitish hyaline. Wings as in female, except that the stigma has a 
brownish margin. Head a little more transverse than in female, its 
anterior margin truncate except for the projecting labrum and support- 
ing apical middle of clypeal margin. Cheeks about as wide as width of 
eye, hardly wider behind and abruptly truncate in front, with the outer 
corner a little produced and sharp. Antennae reaching about apex of 
tegulae; the flagellum stout, cylindrical; the scape very short. Sculp- 
ture about as in female. Pubescence sparse, erect, whitish. Length, 
4 mm. ; anterior wing, 3.3 mm. 

iPap'^r No. .'^49, University of California Citrus Experiment Station, 
Eiverside, California. 

82 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

Described from 12 females (holotype and paratypes), Hat- 
tiesburg, Mississippi, collecting pollen at flowers of Cyrilla, 
June 4, 1944 (C. D. Michener), in the Michener collection; 
1 male (allotype), sandhills near Lillington, North Carolina, 
June 13, 1941 (T. B. Mitchell), in collection of U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, Cat. No. 58140. 

The Alloperdita group now includes four species: Perdita 
novae-angliae Viereck, P. ohsciirata Cresson, P. floridensis 
Timberlake, and P. mitchelli, n. sp. P. hradleyi Viereck also 
belongs here, but is, I am sure, the male of ohsciirata Cres- 
son (new synonymy). Alloperdita is restricted to the Atlantic 
Coast and Gulf States, from Massachusetts to Mississippi. 

Perdita graenicheri, new species 

Allied to P. ig7iota Cockerell and P. crawfordi Cockerell, 
from each of which it differs, in both sexes, in having the up- 
per margin of disk of clypeus more or less darkened. 

Female. — Head and thorax dark olive green, the abdomen blackish. 
Disk of clypeus, except a blackish mark on each side of upper border, 
and small lateral face marks, white, the white of clypeus extending 
upward in middle, more or less in an angle, often to the dorsal margin. 
Lateral marks rather roundish, extending only slightly above level of 
clypeus, usually separated from clypeus by a black sutural line, or by 
a broader interval, and sometimes separated also from the eye. Lateral 
extensions of clypeus and labrum brown. Mandibles testaceous, be- 
coming red at apex and white on outer side of base. Scape and pedicel 
blackish, the former sometimes with a yellowish line beneath at base. 
Flagellum brownish above and dull orange brown beneath. Anterior 
border of pronotum, two cuneate marks on the hind border, and usually 
the tubercles, white. Legs brownish, darker toward base; the tarsi paler, 
with small joints sometimes yellowish. Front and middle knees narrow- 
ly, and front tibiae on anterior side of basal half, pale yellowish. Ter- 
gites 2 and 3 with a creamy-white basal band, moderately wide and 
even, rather narrowly interrupted medially, that on 3 ending rather 
far from lateral margins. Tergite 4 sometimes with two basal marks 
similar to those of tergite 3 but smaller. Earely a whitish dot on ter- 
gite 1, on each side subapically, close to lateral margins. Pygidium 
testaceous brown, truncate at apex. Tegulae pale testaceous, becoming 
fuscous on inner margin. Wings whitish hyaline, the subcosta and mar- 
gins of stigma pale brown. Frons, vertex, cheeks, and thorax dis- 
tinctly tessellate; the vertex and mesonotum rather dull; the face below 
antennae, pleura, and propodeum shining. Pubescence rather sparse and 
writish. Length, 4-4.5 mm.; anterior wing, 3.3 mm. 

Male. — More bluish green than female, the propodeum bluer than other 
parts. Abdomen brownish black, immaculate; the apical margins of 
tergites 2 to 6 whitish hyaline. Base of mandibles, labrum, disk of 
clypeus except upper border, very small lateral face marks, and scape 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 83 

beneath, yellowish white. Lateral marks adjacent to clypeus, widely 
separated from eyes and occasionally entirely absent. Thorax entirely 
dark, or more rarely with a whitish dot on each side of hind border of 
pronotum. Legs blackish, with the knees rather broadly, tarsi, and front 
tibiae, pale yellow. Head ordinary, not enlarged in any specimen at 
hand, the cheeks unarmed or with a very small tooth anteriorly. Other- 
wise, about as in the female, except for usual sexual differences. Length, 
3.5-4 mm. ; anterior wing, 3 mm. 

Described from 7 females and 6 males (types and para- 
types) collected by S. Graenicher in southern Florida at 
flowers of Chrysopsis Tracyi, in September and October : the 
holotype female and allotype (Miami, Sept. 7, 1927) in col- 
lection of U. S. National Museum ; also 4 males and 2 females 
from Miami (Sept. 7 to Oct. 29, 1924 and 1927), 1 male from 
Kelsey City (Sept. 18, 1927), 1 female from Hollywood (Sept. 
27, 1924), "2 females from West Palm Beach (Sept. 5, 1927), 
and 1 female from Stewart (Sept. 18, 1927). 

Type.—\]. S. National Museum, Cat. No. 58141. 

The late Dr. Graenicher has discussed the habits and dis- 
tribution of this species in his account of the bees of southern 
Florida (Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 23:153-174, 1930). 

The species of the ignota group most similar to P. grae- 
nicheri may be separated by the following tables. 


1. Clypeus entirely white, except for the usual pair of dark dots... 2 
A fuscous blotch on each side of upper margin of disk of clypeus; 

mesoscutum tessellate, dullish 6 

2. Lateral face marks present 3 

Lateral face marks absent, wings whitish hyaline, the subcosta 

and margins of stigma pale brownish; an interrupted linear 

whitish band at base of tergites 2 and 3 (Illinois) 

-. -_ - - holtoniae (Eobt.) 

3. Mesoscutum distinctly tessellate, more or less dullish 4 

Mesoscutum faintly tessellate, very shiny; lateral face marks 

subquadrate, nearly reaching level of antennae; tergites 2 and 
3, and sometimes 4, with an interrupted, whitish, basal band; 
wings whitish, with margins of stigma and subcosta slightly 
darkened (New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Texas) ..Agnota Ckll. 

4. Abdomen with basal interrupted band on tergites 2 and 3 ; meso- 

scutum less strongly tessellate; wings whitish hyaline, with 

margins of stigma hardly darkened 5 

Abdomen usually immaculate; mesoscutum strongly tessellate, 
dull; lateral face marks rather small, not extending above level 
of clypeus and separated from clypeus by a narrow black in- 
terval; wings very slightly dusky (Texas) bishoppi Ckll. 

84 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

5. Lateral face marks large, subquadrate, generally broader than 

high and not reaching level of antennae; mesoscutum rather 
dullish; tergites 2 and 3, and often 4, with vi'hitish basal band, 
usually rather narrowly interrupted medially (Nebraska, Tex- 
as, Colorado) crawfordi Ckll. 

Lateral face marks small, roundish, adjacent to clypeus; meso- 
scutum moderately shiny; basal bands of tergites 2 and 3 
linear and broadly interrupted (Texas) ...isopappi Timb. 

6. Lateral face marks rather small, roundish, barely reaching above 

level of clypeus, usually slightly separated from clypeus and 
sometimes from eye; tergites 2 and 3, and sometimes 4, with 

a whitish, interrupted basal band (Florida) graenicheri, n. sp. 

Lateral face marks large, triangular, acute above at level of an- 
tennae; abdomen immaculate (New Mexico) asteris Ckll. 


1. Clypeus entirely pale, except the usual pair of dark dots 2 

Upper border of disk of clypeus more or less broadly blackened; 

lateral face marks small and adjacent to clypeus; frons and 
mesoscutum distinctly tessellate, a little dullish - ^raenzc/ieri, n. sp. 

2. Lateral face marks small, adjacent to clypeus 3 

Lateral face marks larger, extending from clypeus to eye mar- 
gin 4 

3. Vertex and mesoscutum distinctly tessellate, but the latter rather 

shiny; Avings whitish hyaline, the subcosta and margins of 

stigma brownish; cheeks strongly dentate anteriorly 

boltoniae (Robt.) 

Vertex tessellate, the disk of mesoscutum nearly polished; wings 
milky hyaline, the subcosta and margins of stigma hardly dark- 
ened; head ordinary, the cheeks unarmed, or with a small tooth 
anteriorly isopappi Timb. 

4. Vertex and mesoscutum distinctly tessellate, more or less dullish .. 5 
Vertex and anterior border of mesoscutimi more or less faintly 

tessellate, the disk of mesoscutum polished; wings milky hya- 
line, the subcosta and lower margins of stigma pale brown- 
ish ignota Ckll. 

5. Vertex and mesoscutum moderately dullish; the disk of mesoscu- 

tum more or less faintly tessellate; wings milky hyaline, mar- 
gins of stigma not darkened craivfordi Ckll. 

Vertex and mesoscutum strongly tessellate, dullish; wings only 
slightly whitened, the subcosta and margins of stigma brown . . 
hislioppi Ckll. 

It now seems probable that some of the nominal species in 
the above tables will be found to intergrade when large series 
from many localities are studied. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 85 

(Diptera, Culicidae) 

By Alan Stone, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

There has been considerable doubt on the part of recent 
workers, including myself, as to the advisability of using the 
name Aedes scutellaris (Walker). This was due to the lack 
of any description of a male positively stated to be from the 
Aroe Islands, the type locality of the species. A number of 
the species of the scutellaris group have been found to have a 
restricted distribution and the females are often very difficult 
to separate, so that it was quite possible that when the male of 
the Aroe Island species was found it would prove to belong 
to an undescribed species or at least not to the common species 
of New Guinea. For some time I have felt rather certain that 
Aedes hehrideus Edwards was a synonym of A. zonatipes 
(Walker), since the only species of the group that has been 
found in New Guinea, the type locality of zonatipes, agreed 
with hehrideus. It also appeared highly probable that both 
were synonyms of A. scutellaris (Walker), but this had not 
been proved. 

Through the kindness of Dr. S. L. Brug, I have had the 
opportunity to examine the male genitalia of a specimen from 
the Aroe Islands. These came from a specimen reared by 
Brug and De Rook from a larva in a coconut shell, Dobo, 
Aroe Islands, January 23, 1932. The specimen was complete- 
ly destroyed in transit, but the genitalia mount, although 
broken, was not destroyed. Upon being remounted they were 
found to be identical with genitalia from specimens from the 
New Hebrides and New Guinea. This slide mount of the male 
genitalia is now on deposit at the United States National 
Museum. It should be noted that the fiorure bv Bohart, in 
Farner and Bohart, 1945 (U. S. Nav. Med. Bui. 44: 40, fig. 
14), while accurate for the specimen drawn, which had the 
basal lobe greatly flattened in the mount, is not a typical 
lateral view, and hence is somewhat misleading. Usually this 
view shows an angle close to the point where the 3 or 4 large 
setae arise, making the lobe appear obliquely truncate. 

In view of this agreement in the male genitalia, I consider 
Aedes varieqatus var. hehrideus Edwards, 1926, and Culex 
zonatipes Walker, 1861, to be synonyms of (Culex scutellaris 
Walker, 1859) = Aedes scutellaris (Walker). 

86 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

(NOT ALEXANDER) (Diptera, Psychodidae) 

By Harry D. Pratt 
Communicable Disease Center, U. S. Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga. 

In 1929 the same name for two different genera in Diptera 
was proposed in honor of the late Raymond C. Shannon, an 
entomologist of world wide renown who discovered Anopheles 
gamhiae in Brazil, while working with the Rockefeller Foun- 
dation. The first of these, Shannonomyia Alexander, was pro- 
posed as a genus of Tipulidae in "Diptera of Patagonia and 
South Chile, volume 1, pages 142-143." According to Dr. N. 
D. Riley, Keeper of Entomology in the British Museum of 
Natural History, this volume was published January 26, 
1929. The second, Shannonomyia Dyar, was proposed as a 
subgenus of Phlehotomus by the late Dr. Harrison G. Dyar 
in a paper entitled "The present knowledge of the American 
species ol Phlehotomus Rondani (Diptera, Psychodidae)" in 
the American Journal of Hygiene, volume 10, No. 1, pp. 117- 
118, July 1929. In response to inquiry as to the exact date 
of publication of Dyar's article. Miss Hermine G. Bird, Secre- 
tary of "The American Journal of Hygiene," has written 
that the July, 1929, issue of "The American Journal of Hy- 
giene" was billed by the printer on July 23, 1929. It is possi- 
ble that the first mailing might have preceded this by a few 
days. Therefore, the generic name Shannonomyia Dyar, July 
1929, is preoccupied by Shannonomyia Alexander, January 
1929. The name Shannonomyina is here proposed for the 
homonyn Shannonomyia Dyar, with the same genotype — Phle- 
hotomus panamensis Shannon originally described in the Jour- 
nal of the Washington Academy of Science, volume 16 : 192, 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 87 



Rufus Hiram Pettit, American naturalist, educator, artist 
and writer, and a member of the Entomological Society of 
Washington since December 3, 1896, died on June 1st, 1946, 
at East Lansing, Michigan. 

Born at Baldwinsville, New York, on January 11th, 1869, 
he was graduated from the Baldwinsville Academy in 1887. 
After some two years of service as apprentice in a machine 
shop, he entered Cornell University where he was graduated 
in 1895. During a portion of this period it was his good for- 
tune to serve for a time as assistant to Professor John Henry 
Comstock, for whom he prepared numerous drawings dealing 
with insect wing venation which later were used by the latter 
in his well-known Manual for the Study of Insects. It was 
also about that time that he served for a year as anatomist in 
the Ward Natural Science Establishment at Rochester, New 
York. Following graduation from Cornell, he obtained a posi- 
tion as assistant state entomologist of Minnesota under Dr. 
Otto Lugger during parts of 1895-1896. In 1895 he was mar- 
ried to Jessa A. Treat of Ithaca, Ncav York. Their children 
are Mrs. M. S. Nelson of Indianapolis, Indiana, and Mrs. M. 
J. Reed of East Lansing, Michigan. On January 1st, 1897, 
he was appointed instructor in zoology and assistant in en- 
tomology^ in the Experiment Station of the Michigan State 
College, where he served until 1906, at which time he was 
placed in charge of its entomological work and at the same 
time was made entomologist of the State Experiment Station. 
Subsequent to 1934 he served therein as consulting entomolo- 
gist. The honorary degree of Doctor of Science was conferred 
upon him by Michigan State College in 1931. Although deep- 
ly interested in every phase of natural history, he early spe- 
cialized in economic entoniology, and during the years that 
followed he performed much valuable work therein, particu- 
larly in control of noxious insect pests, in insect diseases 
caused by fungi, and in systematic study of the Coccidae. He 
also performed outstanding service as artist and photogra- 
pher, and was notably skillful in preparation of various types 
of insect exhibits. His published works include numerous 
Experiment Station bulletins, and contributions to scientific 
periodicals and to the press, some of these of outstanding val- 
ue. In addition to membership already mentioned in our 
Society, he was a fellow of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, a charter member of the Entomolog- 
ical Society of America, a life member of the Society Lineene 
de Lyon, France, and a member of the American Association 
of Economic Entomologists, the Lambda Chi Alpha Society, 
Sigma Xi and Alpha Zeta. — J. S. Wade and D. J. Caffrey. 

88 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL, 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 


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For office supplies 93.05 

For clerical services including preparation of programs 71.95 

For parcel post and stamps 65.67 

Reimbursement of funds received for services not rendered 14.80 

Service charges at bank 1.50 

Total expenditures |2,300.31 

Funds in checking account in Hamilton National Bank Dec. 

31, 1946 - 498.14 

Total accounted for . $2,798.45 

Outstanding obligations ..— $ 242.00 

proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 49, no. 3, march, 1947 89 

Publication Fund 
In addition to the general fund as reported above, the society has a 
publication fund the nucleus of which is as follows: 

Schwarz donation ._ : $1,000.00 

Knab bequest --i 1,400.00 

Funds derived from life membership fees and from sale of 

complete sets of the Proceedings 1,222.60 

Total $3,622.60 

Of this nucleus of the publication fund, only the money derived from 
life membership fees and from the sale of complete sets of the Proceed- 
ings may be used. At the discretion of the Executive Committee the 
latter may be borrowed for publishing articles other than the regular 
periodical; such sums to be returned to the fund within five years. There 
have been no receipts or expenditures during 1846. 

Earnings of the publication fund may be spent on any publications 
but the policy of the Executive Committee is to limit the use of the 
earnings to the publication of memoirs. The earnings of the publication 
fund as of January 1, 1946, amounted to $707.38. 
Earnings received during 1946 were as follows: 

Interest on savings accounts $ 42.43 

Sale of 5 copies of Memoir No. 1- - 13.90 

Sale of 12 copies of Memoir No. 2 _._.'..._ 32.40 

Total earnings during 1946 ___... _.. $ 88.73 

Expenditures None 

Total earnings as of December 31, 1946 I 796.11 

Total publication fund - $4,418.71 

The publication fund is deposited as follows: 

War Savings Bonds of F Series dated Jan. 1, 1945 (filed 
for safe keeping with the Treasurer of the United 

States) purchase value $1,480.00 

Savings account, Columbia Federal Savings and Loan 

Association 2,586.06 

Savings account, Hamilton National Bank of Washington 352.65 

Total amount of publication fund $4,418.71 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. B. Reed, Treasurer 

The Auditing Committee has examined the report and the accounts 
of the Treasurer of the Entomological Society of Washington for the 
calendar year ending December 31, 1946, and find them correct and in 
good order. 

How^ard Baker 
G. J. Haeussler 

Auditing Committee 

90 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

NOV. 1, 1945 TO DEC. 1, 1946 

Letters written, 148. 

Proceedings acquired, 449 (net gain in 10 numbers) ; plus 764 (gifts 
of back numbers) ; total 1,213. 

Back numbers sold (early and recent) _ 409 

Back numbers sent in liquidation of exchange obligations 213 

Back numbers sent by Dr. Wadley (listed as numbers sent to re- 
instated subscribers) __ 191 

Recent back numbers sent to F. W. Faxon for advertising ex- 
hibition in foreign countries _ 40 

Copies sent directly as advertising 3 

Net change in stock of Proceedings, gain of 357 

Old reprints sold .— 16 

Memoir 1, sold 5 

Memoir 2, sold - .._ 15 

Literature sales, total $189.51 

Membership changes of record: 

Elected __ 31 

Reinstated 2 

Resigned _ 6 

Died _ , 2 

Dropped - _. 2 

Net gain _ 23 

Present list of members, including 8 not receiving Proceedings... 311 

Subscribers added __ 19 

Subscribers lost _. 2 

Foreign subscribers reinstated 1 

Present list of domestic subscribers 89 

Present list of foreign subscribers 72 

Total 161 

Total circulation of Proceedings 464 

In accordance with action taken by the Executive Committee, all 
exchanges have been ended as of January 1, 1946. All exchange obliga- 
tions involving institutions located in countries either neutral or allied 
with our nation in the late war have been liquidated. The status of our 
exchange obligations involving institutions of former enemy countries 
remains indefinite. 

Only two of the 10 original subscriptions paid for by the American 
Library Association remain to be placed. 

Respectfully submitted, 
R. I. Sailer, 
Corresponding Secretary. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 91 


The 567th regular meeting of the Society was held at 8 P.M., Nov. 
7, 1946, in Eoom 43 of the National Museum. President Weigel pre- 
sided and there were 33 members and 18 visitors present. The minutes 
of the previous meeting were approved as read. 

The following persons were elected to membership: 

Dr. W. G. Bodenstein, Division of Control Investigations, U. S. 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Beltsville, Maryland. 

Mr. Thomas P. Cassidy, Assistant Chief, Division of Cotton Insect 
Investigations, U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

Mrs. Leila F. Clark, Librarian, Smithsonian Institution. 

Mr. J. M. Davis, Division of Forest Insect Investigations, U. S. 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

Dr. Guenther W. Lassmann, Entomologist, State Health Service, 
Jalapa, Vera Cruz. 

Dr. Eoy D. Schenefeld, Assistant Professor of Entomology, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. 

Mr. J. S. Yuill, Division of Forest Insect Investigations, U. S. 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

President Weigel appointed E. W. Harned, B. A. Porter, and E. E. 
Snodgrass to act as a Nominating Committee to present a list of 
names to be voted on in the selection of officers for 1947. 

D. J. Caffrey and J. S. Wade were requested to prepare an obituary 
of Dr. E. H. Pettit for publication in the Proceedings. Dr. Pettit, for 
many years Entomologist at Michigan State College, was a member of 
the Society as early as 1910, and in 1941 Avas elected to retired member- 

Dr. Sailer reported that he had prepared a letter to Dr. N. D. Eiley, 
as instructed at the October meeting. 

Dr. Gurney discussed the gall aphid, Chermes cooleyi Gillette, which 
he had observed on blue spruce in N. Y. State. This aphid winters on 
spruce, and in the Spring attacks the growing "needles at the tips of the 
branches. In the northwestern states it usually goes to Douglas fir as an 
alternate host. The galls are, however, found only on spruce. If control 
becomes necessary on ornamentals, oil and nicotine sulfate is recom- 

Mr. Orr stated that larvae of the spruce budworm which feed on trees 
infested with the Chermes feed partly on the galls and grow larger than 
when they feed on the foliage alone. 

Mr. Snodgrass discussed the nature of the so-called epicranial sutures 
which follow various patterns on the heads of young insects. He be- 
lieves that these sutures are not structural features but merely lines of 
weakness where the cuticle will split to permit the insect to continue its 

92 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

The first paper on the regular progiani was presented by Dr. G. S. 
Langford: Japanese Beetle Conti'ol in Maryland. 

The University of Maryland, the Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine, of the U. S. D. A., and local county governmental agencies 
are cooperating in Maryland in a state-wide endeavor to retard and 
control the Japanese beetle. 

The fundamental objective for the program is to establish disease and 
parasites to cheek potential damage and ultimately obtain permanent 
relief from acute conditions. Because of the time required to efficiently 
establish disease and parasites, organized work to aid farmers and 
others to obtain temporary relief until the biological complex is firmly 
established is being stressed. In this Avork all known control practices 
with merit are being coordinated and utilized. 

For temporary relief trapping, spraying, crop substitution, delay in 
planting corn, plowing and discing to kill grubs, and the use of plants 
not fed upon by the beetle are recommended. These practices are being 
used to advantage in many communities, and they create a broad stabiliz- 
ing force which functions to ameliorate damage. 

The ultimate goal of jjcrmanent relief from serious damage, through 
biological control, is fast becoming a reality. Milky disease and para- 
sites have proven effective for reducing peak infestation in old heavily 
infested areas and in cheeking extreme peaks for new aras. Trends in 
improved conditions are obvious for many sections of the state. During 
ing 1941 the average catch of beetles for a trap in Cecil County was 
approximately 36 quarts of beetles for the season. This past summer 
the average catch was only about one quart. 

The total amount of milky disease distributed throughout the State 
from 1938 through 1946 is 83,077 pounds. This has been placed on 
62,634 properties. During this same period a total of 474 colonies of the 
wasp Tipliia venialis, 86 colonics of Tiphia popilliavora, and 105 col- 
onies of the nematode Neoplectana glaseri have been released. 

Approximately 50,000 traps are being used each year in the state as 
an aid for control, and to determine beetle populations. Two new spray 
materials, DDT and benzene hexachloride, are proving of value in pro- 
tecting many types of fruit and foliage on which beetle control has been 
difficult in the past. 

Automatic traps have been developed and are now being offered for 
trial to the public. They have met with favor in many quarters as they 
eliminate the burdensome task of emptying, and thereby save labor re- 
quired in operating conventional traps. (Author's Abstract.) 

Dr. Langford illustrated his paper with a film strip. 

The discussion which followed brought out that 25 lbs. of actual DDT 
was used per acre and 250 lbs. of 10 per cent DDT; Benzene hexa- 
chloride, tested on small plots, raised the question of possible injury to 
plants; tachinid parasites are not utilized in Maryland in control Avork 
against Popillia japonica. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 93 

Dr. E. E. McGovran gave the second paper on the program: Labora- 
tory Testing of Insecticides. 

The laboratory testing of insecticides is so varied and the relation 
ships involved are so complicated that complete coverage of the field was 
not attempted. Instead a few of the major considerations were men- 
tioned as examples of the problems involved and slides were shown to 
illustrate some of the types of equipment used. 

A testing procedure that is reproducible in all important phases is 
essential. Tor example, a testing technique is divided into six major 
steps, and the variation in five of these is reduced to less than 5%. , 
However, if in one operation or the test insects or a material used there 
is a variation of 25% from test to test or day to day, it is obvious that 
considerable variation in results would occur despite the careful control 
in five of the six phases of the test. Standardization of insects, mate- 
rials, and operations helps to reduce variation. The test insects should 
be produced in abundant numbers and of uniform resistance to a stand- 
ard insecticide. 

As the action of insecticides is often specific, new materials should be 
tested on three or four species of insect pests and six or eight are better. 
The species should be chosen from the major orders of insect pests. 

The insecticide should be applied in a manner as similar to practical 
application as possible and the test insects should be treated under as 
nearly natural conditions as can be provided in the laboratory. Varia- 
tion from normal application of the insecticide or condition of the in- 
sects may give different results than can be obtained under practical 

Eesults with a standard insecticide should be the basis of all evalua- 
tions of toxicity. The relationship of the data obtained with an experi- 
mental material to those obtained with the standard can show their rela- 
tive toxicity even though there is considerable variation in resistance. 
Dosage-mortality curves especially when plotted on log.-probit paper are 
helpful in evaluating results. (Author's Abstract.) 

A brief discussion followed. 

Visitors introduced to the Society were: Dr. J. R. Parker, Howard A. 
Chittick, F. P. Hubert, Mrs. W. E. Hoffman, and Mrs. G. S. Langford. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:40 P.M. 

Ina L. Hawes, 
Recording Secretary. 

f)4 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. B, MAROII, 1947 


The 568th regular meeting- of the Society was held at 8 P. M. on Dec. 
."), 1946 in Room 43 of the National Museum. President Weigel opened 
tha meeting with 56 members and 22 guests present. The minutes of 
tlie previous meeting were read and approved. 
New members were elected as follows: 

Howard A. Chittick, Director, Fairfax Biological r.aboratory, P. () 
Box 178, McLean, Va. 

Joseph Greenberg, National Institute of Health, U. S. Public Health 

Frederic P. Hubert, Plant Pest Control Officer, District of Colum 

E. F. Knipling, In charge, Division of Insects Atfecting Man and 
Animals, U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 

Edward P. Merkel, Assistant Entomologist, Division of Forest In- 
sect Investigations, U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran- 

The December meeting constitutes the annual meeting of the Society 
and President Weigel, therefore, called for reports from the Executive 
Committee. Reports were made as follows: Corresponding Secretary, 
Dr. Sailer; Treasurer, Mr. Reed; Editor, Dr. Stone. Mr. Muesebeck 
also gave an informal report as Representative of the Society at the 
Washington Academy of Sciences. 

Dr. Poos said that h3 often wondered if the members realized the 
amount of work performed by their Officers and suggested practical ways 
by which appreciation might be shown, such as: providing a car to help 
the Corresponding Secretary transport publications, or paying dues to the 
Treasurer before being billed. 'He concluded with a motion to extend a 
rising vote of thanks to the Officers for their fine work during the past 
year. The motion was seconded and carried with spontaneous applause. 
Dr. Porter presented the report of the Nominating Committee. Since 
there were no further nominations from the floor, the slate was accepted 
by unanimous ballot and the list of Officers for the coming year stands 
as follows: 

Honorary President L. 0. Howard 

President , -Austin H. Clark 

First Vice-president - E. H. Siegler 

Second Vice-president T. E. Snyder 

Recording Secretary Ina L. Hawes 

Corresponding Secretary E. I. Sailer 

Treasurer L. B. Reed 

Editor - - - Alan Stone 

Executive Committee (1947-1949) C A. Weigel 

Eepresentative of the Society as Vice-president of the 

Washington Academy of Sciences C. F. W. Muesebeck 

PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 95 

Dr. Weigel expressed his appreciation of the support received during 
his term of office and then turned the meeting over to the incoming 
President, Dr. Austin H. Clark. 

The first paper on the regular program was given by Dr. H. Tysdal^ : 
Eelation of Insects to Legume Seed Production. 

The clovers and alfalfa are more dependent on beneficial insect ac- 
tivity for successful seed production than most any other field crop. 
There is, therefore, an extensive field for cooperation betvs^een entomolo- 
gists and agronomists in the investigation of this problem. Tripping is 
necessary for seed production, and pollinating insects are essential to the 
tripping process. Wild bees and honey bees are chiefly concerned in 
pollinating. Where alfalfa is the only source of pollen, honey bees are 
very effective pollinators, but in many areas they can find and prefer to 
gather pollen from other plants. Varying conditions in the field and 
between varieties of legumes make some much more attractive to pol- 
linating insects than others. We should know more about these conditions 
and also more about the life histories, habits and propagation of wild 
bees such as the Megachile, Nomiq,, and Bombus. l^ot only are these 
legumes dependent upon pollinating insects for seed production, but they 
are also very sensitive to harmful insects such as Lygus, Adelphoeorus, 
Chalcis and others. Dusting alfalfa with DDT in Utah and other west- 
ern states has been an effective control of Lygus and in many cases 
greatly increased, seed yields. This is a big step in improving alfalfas 
seed production and, although it is not the only factor, more work 
should be done on methods, rates and tima of application of DDT and 
the effect of the dust on the plant and its feeding value, and on beneficial 
insects. Here again is a fruitful field for cooperative endeavor between 
entomologists and agronomists. It is a pleasure to report that coopera- 
tive investigations are now being developed between the Bureau of En- 
tomology and Plant Quarantine, several State Experiment Stations, and 
our Bureau to study some of these problem. (Author's Abstract). 

Dr. Ty^dal's paper was illustrated with lantern slides in color. 

Dr. Mclndoo displayed several volumes of his papers, both printed 
and manuscript, which lie had bound himself. He recommended this 
procedure as an enjoyable hobby and a satisfactory means of handling 
the separate problem. 

Dr. Sailer read a letter from Dr. N. D. Eiley acknowledging the 
congratulatory note sent to him by the Society on the publication of 
the 1,000th number of The Entomologist. 

President Clark requested Muesebeck, Snodgrass, and Heinrich to 
consider suitable ways by which the Society can fittingly lecognize the 
approaching 90th birthday of the Honorary President. 

^Principal Agronomist, Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, Bureau 
of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural 
Eesearch Administration, United States Department of Agriculture. 

96 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH, 1947 

The second paper on the program was presented by J. S. Yuill : Use 
of Aircraft in Forest Pest Control. 

The advancements in aviation and related fields have opened possi- 
bilities of many new uses of aircraft. In forest entomology two imme- 
diate possibilities are for survey work and for applying insecticides. 

Surveys to determine the extent and intensity of insect damage con- 
stitute an important part of the forest entomologists' work, the data 
obtained serves as an index of population trends and as a basis for 
planning control operations. The present methods of cruising sample 
plots or strips are slow and are often inaccurate because of the relatively 
small area that can be covered. Early attempts to supplement ground 
surveys with aerial observations were not successful because it was not 
possible to accurately detect infestations from the air. However, it 
now appears that some of the war-time developments in aerial pho- 
tography may be adapted for forest insect surveys so that eventually 
aerial surveys may supplant ground surveys to a considerable extent. 

The application of insecticides from the air is not a recent innovation 
in forest protection. Aerial spraying and dusting have been done ex- 
perimentally in North America an^ Europe since 1921. The method 
however was too expensive for extensive use until the advent of DDT. 
This insecticide has been found to be highly toxic to many forest pests, 
particularly defoliators. Preliminary tests have shown that several spe- 
cies can be controlled with one pound or less of DDT per acre at a cost 
of less than two dollars per acre. Although aerial spraying is now being 
employed routinely for control of the Gypsy moth, mucht remains to be 
done in improving spray apparatus, spray mixtures, and technique of 
application in order to develop this method for general use on forest 
areas. (Author's Abstract). 

Miss Hawes informed the Society that a bibliography, Aviation and 
Economic Entomology, had been prepared by the Library of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, a copy of which would be available for con- 
sultation in the Library while the manuscript was in process of printing. 

Because of the lateness of the hour, the introduction of visitors was 
omitted and the meeting adjourned at 10:05 P. M. 

Ina L. Hawes, 
Recording Secretary 

Actual date of pnbUcation, February "28, 1947 


April, 1947 

No. 4 


of the 




PuBLisHZD Monthly Exoztt July, August and Septxvbeb 

BT thk 




Entered m ■econd-claas matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Waahington, 
D. 0.. ander Act of Au^st 24. 1912. 

Accepted for mailinR at the special rate of postace provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 8, 1918. 




Oeoamized Ma£ch 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Muaenin 
on the first Thursday of each month, from October to June, InclusiTe, at 
8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are 13.00 ; initiation fee tLOO. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President L. 0. HOWABD 

President AuSTiw H. CuutK 

First Vice President E. H. Simlke 

Second Vice President T. E. Sntdkb 

Recording Secretary Jna L. Hawm 

Corresponding Secretary E- !• Sailir 

Treasurer -L. B. Rm) 

Editor AxAN STOira 

Executive Committee P. N. Annand, F. W. Poos, 0. A. WmoKL 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences 0. F. W. Muxszbkox 


Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society 
at Washington, D. C. Terms of subscription: Domestic, |4.00 per annum; 
foreign, $4.25 per annum; recent single numbers, 50 cents, foreign post- 
age extra. All subscriptions are payable in advance. Bemittances should 
be made payable to the Entomological Society of Washington. The So- 
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Authors will be furnished not to exceed 10 copies of the number in 
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Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 49 APRIL, 1947 No. 4 

(WYEOMYIA) MELANOPUS DYAK (Diptera, Culicidae) 

By John Lane^ 

In March 1946 we received from Mr. Kenneth E. Prick a 
batch of Wyeomyia to identify, including larvae, pupae and 
adults of both sexes. The specimens were identified by us as 
Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) melanopus. As to our knowledge, the 
larva and pupa of this species remain undescribed, and, as 
there are some corrections to be made in our Monograph (1), 
we have decided to prepare this paper. 

Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) melanopus Dyai, 1919 
1919 Wyeomyia melanopus Dyar, Ins. Ins. Mens., 7: 130, pi. ;">, fig. 4. 

1923 Dyar, id., 11: 173; 1924 Dyar, id., 12: 115. 

1924 Dyar and Shannon, J. Wash. Ac. Sci., 14: 480. 

1925 Bonne and Bonne-Wepster, Mos. Surinam, 78, 116., 
1925 Dyar, Ins. Ins. Mens., 13: 115. 

1928 Dyar, Mos. Am., 46. 

1932 Edwards, Gen. Ins., 85. 

1939 Lane, Bol. Biol., Ser. Mon., 1: 154. 

1942 Lane and Cerqueira, Arq. Zool. E. S. Paulo, 3 (9) : 551. 

syn. 1925 Wyeomyia culehrae Dyar, Ins. Ins. Mens., 11 : 65. 

FEMALE. — Head. Proboscis approximately of the length of fore 
femur, slightly enlarged on the distal third, blackish except on the ven- 
tral surface where there is a line of white scales; palpus blackish and 
slightly longer than clypeus; clypeus blackish, slightly longer than 
broad, nude; antenna with the torus of the same color as clypeus, 
flagellum about two thirds the length of proboscis, the segment sparsely 
covered with long hairs; occiput with a patch of white scales on vertex 
and others, of this color, on the lower margin of eyes reaching the 
mentum where they form a patch; remaining scales dark with bluish 

Thorax. Pronotal lobes approximate dorsally, large, covered with 
blue-violaceus scales, with metallic luster except on the posterior border 
where there are some white ones; the setae are inserted on the upper 
margin and are brown. Mesonotum with blackish integument, covered 

iFrom the Departamento de Parasitologia (Director Dr. P. C. A. 
Antunes), Faculdade de Higiene e Saude Publica, Universidade de S 
Paulo, Brasil. 

98 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 

with broad, dark scales with slight metallic reflection which, on the 
posterior border, are still broader; the setae are restricted to the an- 
terior border and over wing-roots where they are brown. Scutellum 
covered with broad scales. Postnotum blackish with about five setae 
on a posterior tuft (in one specimen a few white scales were observed). 
Pleura with yellowish integument and densely covered with silvery scales. 

Wing covered with unicolorous, narrow scales which are broader on 
the branches of the second, the third, the branches of the fourth and 
in the upper branch of the fifth veins; squamula nude. Haltere with 
yellowish stem and blackish knob. 

Legs. Coxae with yellowish integument and setae of this color but 
covered with large patches of silvery scales; hind femur and tibia 
whitish internally, the remainder covered with dark scales. 

MALE. — Antenna slightly more plumose than in the female; other 
characters as in the female. 

Genitalia. We have the following data to add to the description given 
by Lane and Cerqueira (1) : Dististyle (Fig. 5) with the distal portion 
longer than in the illustration given for this species and with a small 
lateral protuberance covered with hairs; mesosome with median plate 
elongate on the upper portion and having a digitiform process; ninth 
tergite convex and with three setae on each lobe (rarely a fourth seta 
is also found). 

PUPA. — Strongly marked with brown on both cephalothorax and ab- 
domen. The cephalothorax has an anterior swelling and shows large 
sublateral marks which, from the anterior portion, and involving the 
breathing tubes, reach the first abdominal tergite. The abdomen has a 
dark, broad, longitudinal stripe which narrows posteriorly and ends at 
the tip of segment VIII. 

Breathing tube (Fig. 3) about three times the apical breadth, darker 
on base and before apex, subcylindrical, the opening diagonal; cephalo- 
thorax with a long double or triple hair, the other hairs small and 
double or triple. 

Abdomen (Fig. 4) with the A^ element small on segments II to VI; 
on VII with a large multiple tuft which is nearly as large as the one on 
segment VIII; element B single, three-fourths the length of segment in 
II and III, on segments IV to VI it is much longer than the length 
of the segments; element C long and dichotomised on segment II, with 
five branches and long on segments III to VI; paddle nearly twice the 
length of segment VIII, finley spiculose on apex. 

LAEVA. — Head rounded (Fig. 1), slightly longer than broad, hairs 
very small; antenna very short, less than half the length of head, cylin- 
drical, smooth, with a single two branched preapical hair and ending in 
four simple and short hairs; clypeal plate with a large median tooth 
and about eleven smaller, subequal teeth on each side; mandibles with a 

-The pupal nomenclature here given is the one adopted by A. M. 
Evans in Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian Region, vol. 2, pp. 18-20, fig. 9. 

PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 Plate 9 

Wyeomyia melanopus Dyar. Fig. 1, Head of larva. Fig. 2, Segments 
VIII and IX of larva. Fig. 3, Breathing tube of pupa. Fig. 4, 
Abdomen of pupa. Fig. 5, Basistyle and dististyle of male genitalia. 


100 PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 

long tooth on upper border, the lower one divided into four teeth of 
which the apical one is largest. 

Thorax smooth. Prothorax with hairs 1 to 3 small and in multiple 
tufts, hairs 4 to 6 with one or two long feathered branches; mesothorax 
with long lateral hairs. 

Abdomen smooth. Elements 6 and 7 very long on segments I to VII; 
segment VIII with the pecten in a single row of isolated and pointed 
scales; breathing tube (Fig. 2) about six times the basal width, false 
pecten absent, with five long, single hairs on posterior margin followed 
by a small double hair and a smaller four-branched one ; anal segment 
with the plate saddle-shaped, dorsal setae (1 + 1), lateral seta single and 
long, ventral brush represented by an eight-haired tuft; anal gills longer 
than the anal segment. 

Locality of Studied Specimens. — Panama, Canal Zone. 
Nuevo Limon. IX to XII 1945 (K. E. Frick col.). Six males, 
six females, five pupae and sixteen larvae registered under 
numbers 6217 to 6250 in our collections. 

Habits. — In August 1946, Mr. Kenneth E. Prick sent us 
the following notes on the habits of this species: "It was dur- 
ing latter September, October and November that the rain 
fell daily and hard enough to keep the leaf bases full of 
water. The larvae were all from pineapple plants. W. sco- 
tinomus was slightly more abundant than W. melanOpus. A 
single specimen of W. clasoleuca was found, out of the hun- 
dreds that we examined. Two MegarJiinus stiperhus were 
found in the center of one plant (both larvae) ; they fed 
freely upon the Wyeomyia spp. 

*'W. melanopus was collected only in the very center apex 
of the plants. Although water was held by each leaf it was of 
a minute quantity, while the cone-shaped growing point of 
the plants held 3-6 pipettes-full of water and some even more. 

"Robert Olson found the record of 28 third and fourth 
instar W. melanopus in one plant, with W. scotinomus present 
as well. He threw out the first and second instars which were 
even more plentiful. My record was 15 larvae (all instars) 
and 3 pupae from one plant, the water of which was thick 
and yellow with refuse. However, the water was usually 
clearer, although dirty on the bottom. 

"All plants were in the open, exposed to sun and rain. 
Some, just cleared from deep shade within 4 days, had many 
larvae of all instars in them as well. So, breeding had been 
going on in the shaded areas as well." 

Observations. — In Lane and Cerqueira's (1) monograph 
the female of this species is placed on dichotomy 10 (species 
with pronotal lobe marked with white on top and below. W. 
melanopus must be removed from this dichotomy and placed 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 101 

on dichotomy 13, from thence to 20 and from there to 21 
(together with W. pertinans and W. ahehela). With regards 
to the genitalia the key is correct. In the key for pupae this 
species could be placed in the beginning of the key as it is the 
only known species with all the abdominal segments marked 
with blackish brown. In the key for larvae this species goes 
into the same dichotomy as W. scotinomvs. 


We take this opportunity to thank Dr. Kenneth E. Frick 
for letting us study and keep specimens of W. melanopus. 


1. Lane, J. and Cerqueira, N. L. 1942, Os Sabetineos da America. Arq. 
Zool. E. S. Paulo, 3 (9) : 473-849. 

RADO ISLAND, CANAL ZONE (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) 

By Marion R. Smith 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States 
Department of Agriculture 

The genus Megalomyrmex Forel, a close relative of Mono- 
morium Mayr, is Neotropical in distribution, with representa- 
tives occurring in Mexico, Central and South America. Twen- 
ty-two forms have been previously recorded for the genus, 2 
of these having been assigned to the subgenus Cepohroticiis 
Wheeler, 7 to the subgenus Wheelerimyrmex Mann, and the 
remaining 13 to the subgenus Megalomyrmex Forel. Although 
the attempt has been made to divide the genus into subgenera 
(based mainly on the dentition of the mandibles, proportion 
of the antennal segments, and size of the ants) it has not 
proved satisfactory owing to the highly diverse characters of 
the associated forms. Even the name Megalomyrmex is a mis- 
nomer, for the genus now includes ants as small as 2.2 mm. 
whereas some of the forms described earlier are as large as 
9.5 mm. 

The new species described in this article cannot be assigned 
to any of the described subgenera except Wheelerimyrmex, 
because it possesses the following characters : Weakly devel- 
oped mandible with two apical teeth succeeded by a number of 
denticulae ; promesonotal suture not impressed, indistinct ; 
small size. The species and varieties previously assigned to 
Wheelerimyrmex and their type localities are hrasiliensis 
Borgmeier, Gaspar, Santa Catharina, Brazil ; hrasiliensis var. 
misionensis Santschi, Loreto, Misiones, Argentina; hnmilis 

102 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APEIL, 1947 

Borgmeier, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ; myops Saiitschi, Parana, 
Rio Negro, Brazil ; silvestrii Wheeler, Cordoba, Vera Cruz, 
Mexico; sjostedti Wheeler, Llinqnipata, Pern; and sjostedti 
var. Imigi Wheeler, Kamakusa, British Guiana. The subgeno- 
type of Wheelerimyrmex is silvestrii AVheeler, that of Megalo- 
myrmex, leoninus Forel, and that of Cepo~broticus, symmeto- 
chus Wheeler. For helpful keys in identifying the species of 
Megalomyrmex the reader is referred to Wheeler, 1909, Por- 
tici R. Scuola Super di Agr. Lab. Zool. Gen. e Agr. Bol. 3 :236, 
and 1925, Arkiv. for Zool. 17 A (8) : 32. 

Megalomymiex (Wheelerimyrmex) incisus, new species 

Worker. — Length 3 mm. 

Head (exclusive of mandibles and eyes) measured through its great- 
est breadth and length approximately one and one-fifth times as long 
as broad, with rounded posterior border, rounded posterior corners, and 
anteriorly converging cheeks. Antenna 12-segmented; scape (exclusive 
of pedicel) when fully extended posteriorly exceeding the posterior bor- 
der of the head by one-fifth the length of the scape; funicular seg- 
ments 2-8 inclusive broader than long, antennal club unusually large, ap- 
proximately one and one-half times as long as the combined lengths of 
the remaining funicular segments, the last segment of the club approxi- 
mately one and one-half times as long as the combined lengths of the 
two preceding segments. Eye rather large, strongly convex, coarsely 
faceted, situated less than its greatest diameter from the base of the 
mandible. Frontal area obsolescent or absent. Clypeus extending pos- 
teriorly a considerable distance between the frontal carinae; a distinct 
median impression near the anterior border of the clypeus. Mandible 
small, slender, with two apical teeth and four or five denticulae. Thorax, 
in profile, stout; promesonotum convex, without promesonotal suture; a 
remarkably deep and broad mesoepinotal impression; base of epinotum 
flattened, sloping posteriorly, very strongly impressed anteriorly and 
forming on each side a distinct tubercle; base and declivity of epinotum 
fusing without a clear line of demarcation. Pronotum slightly sub- 
marginate, without definite humeri. Legs slender, tibiae of middle and 
posterior leg each with one spur. Petiole, in profile, large, with a rather 
short peduncle; anterior surface of node almost vertical, posterior sur- 
face declivous. Postpetiolar node, in profile, lower than the petiolar node 
and more convex dorsally. Prom above, the nodes of both the petiole 
and postpetiole are ' somewhat similar in shape, each being distinctly 
broader than long; postpetiolar node broader than the petiolar node 
and separated from it by a strong constriction. Gaster, from above, 
oblong, Avith broad rounded base and narrow apex. 

Body smooth and shining except on the sides of the clypeus, the meso- 
pleura, and lower half of the metapleura. Mesopleura and lower half 
of the metapleura obliquely or longitudinally rugulose. Funiculi and 
tarsi more opaque than the remainder of the appendages. 

PROC. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 1(),3 

Hairs yellowish, simple, moderately abundant but scattered on the 
body, suberect to erect, of variable length but some unusually long. Ap- 
pendages with shorter and more reclinate hairs. 

Body black, the appendages slightly lighter. 

Type locality. — Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone. 

Described from the holotype and 29 paratype workers col- 
lected by James Zetek, Jnne-October 1943. These bear Zetek 
No. 5105 and U. S. N. M. No. 58040. All specimens have been 
placed in the United States National Museum. 

The paratypes are similar to the holotype, except that the 
number and development of the teeth of the mandibles varies 
somewhat among the different individuals. The mandible 
usuall}^ bears six or seven teeth, the two apical ones alwaj'-s 
being the largest. These are followed by four or five denticu- 
lae, the largest of the denticulae being at or very near the 
junction of the masticatorv and superior border of the mandi- 

The writer is not aware of any described species of Megalo- 
myrmex to which incuiis is closely related. The best character 
for recognizing the species is the very deep and broad mesoepi- 
notal impression which gives the appearance of almost cut- 
ting the ant in two. hence the specific name incisus. Other 
good characters are the unusually large antennal club ; denti- 
tion of the mandibles ; large, very convex, strongly faceted 
eyes; flattened and sloping basal surface of the epinotum, 
which is impressed anteriorly and bears a tubercle on each 
side; unusually large and characteristically shaped petiolar 
and postpetiolar nodes ; black color and small size. 

There is no information on the biology of this species. 


(Diptera, Culicidae) 

By George Henry Penn, Cornell University, lihaca, N. T. 

The subgenus Leptosomatomyia Theobald of the genus Aedes 
is restricted entirely to the limits of the island of New Guinea, 
and at present only three species have been assigned to it. 
These are A. aurhnargo Edwards,^ A. medians Brug,- and A. 
variepictus King and Hoogstraal.^ 

Since none of these has been described in its larval stage, 
the following description of larvae of A. aurimargo is of spe- 
cial interest as being the first of the subgenus to be described. 

'1922. Bull. Ent. Ees., 13:94. 
'1932. Bull. Ent. Res., 23:79. 
■■1946. Proc. Ent. Soe. Wash.. 48:98. 

104 PROC. ENT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 

Aedes (Leptosomatomyia) aurimargo Edwards 
Larva. Head (fig. 1) slightly wider than long, lightly pigmented. An- 
tennae are simple shafts, about .3;') the lenglh of the head. Antennal 
tuft consisting of 1 or 2 noii ])lunu)st' hairs, not reaching the apex of 
the shaft, and situated between .41 and .46 of its length from the base. 
Anteantennal hairs (A) slightly plumose, 14- to 20-branched, usually 
18; upper head hairs (B) slightly plumose, 11- to 14-branched, usually 
12; lower head hairs (C) stout, single, with about 12 long slender hairs 
arising along the si'des above the base; posterior clypeal hairs (D) 
short, 25- to 30-branched, drooping tufts; inner occipital hairs (E) 
single or 2-branched, usually single; outer occipital hairs (F) slightly 
plumose, 2- to 4-branched, usually 3; orbital hair (G) inconspicuous, 
2- or 3-branched, usually 3. 

Abdomen. Lateral hairs on segment I 4-branched, on segment II 3- 
or 4-branched, on III to V 2-branched. Segment VIII (figs. 2, 3 and 
4): comb in a single row, consisting of 4 to 6 teeth, usually 5; each 
tooth with a central blunt spine fringed on either side by a few short, 
inconspicuous bristles. Pentad hairs: 1 usually small and 3-branched; 
2 and 4 always single; 3 plumose, 5- to 6-branched, usually 5; 5 slightly 
plumose, 2- to 4-branched, usually 3. Siphon: heavily pigmented, index 
ranging from 1.4 to 1.6, averaging about 1.45; pecten of 9 to 12 teeth, 
usually 9, situated on basal half of siphon; each tooth consisting of a 
simple, acute spine; one pair of non-plumose siphonal tufts just distal 
to the last pecten tooth, 2- to 5-branched, usually 3. Anal segment with 
dorsal plate heavily pigmented, almost encircling the segment, shorter 
than high, with a number of well-developed short spines on its postero- 
dorsal border; venti-al brush consisting of 6 pairs of 5- to 6-branched, 
non-plumose hairs; lateral hair of dorsal plate slightly plumose, stout, 
single; dorsal brush with inner hair single at base, but with five long 
hairs arising near its base along the dorsal side; outer hair single, non- 
plumose, about seven times the length of the anal plate and about 1.5 
times as long as the inner hair. Anal gills tubular sausage-shaped, dor- 
sal pair about four times the length of the dorsal plate, ventral pair 
slightly shorter. 

Material Examined. The descriptions have been based on 
the exuviae of five fourth-instar larvae reared in isolation and 
collected from cocoanut shells in the shade on June 7 (D-4: 1, 
2), June 15 (D-17 : 16), and June 18 (D-18: 5, 6) in 1944, 
all from Draeger Harbor, near Finschhafen, Northeast New 
Guinea, by the writer, and one whole-mount larva from a tree- 
hole on June 23, 1944 (D-24) from the same locality. The 
whole-mount larva and one of the reared specimens (D-4: 2) 
and its associated pupal exuvia have been placed in the Cor- 
nell University collection, and the remainder of the larval and 
pupal exuviae in the U. S. National Museum. All of the adults 
reared from this series are at present in the collections of the 
University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. 

PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 Plate 10 

8 4 

Aedes aurimargo larva. Fig. 1. Dorsal aspect of Head. Fig. 2. Termi- 
nal abdominal segments. Fig. 3. Comb scale from segment VIII. Fig. 4. 
Pecten tooth from siphon. 


106 PBO(\ ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 

(Hymenoptera, Anthidiinae) 

By T. 1). A. ("OC'KERELL 

We have been in Honduras about three months, but have 
already collected about 140 species of bees. For the most 
part, these will have to be worked up next summer when the 
literature is available, but one species, described below, clearly 
represents a new genus. 

MELANTHIDIUM, new genus 

Male. — Build and aspect of a Bomhus ; tegument all black except light 
yellow marks consisting of a narrowly interrupted band on occiput, and 
a broad band on scutellum and axillae, incised posteriorly in middle. 
Eyes long and narrow, green, black in front. Clypeus dull, obtusely 
keeled. Sides of front and upper part of face with yellow hair. Mandi- 
bles with a long acute apical tooth and five little nodular ones. Tongue 
linear, but not excessively long; maxillary palpi very small. 

Thorax above with light yellow hair except on disc of mesonotum, 
and sides of thorax covered with very pale yellowish hair, which is 
quite long. Tegulae shining black, finely punctured. Wings deep fulgi- 
nous, second submarginal cell longer than first, truncate at end, the outer 
nervure meeting the second recurrent. Legs with very pale yellowish 
hair, dense on middle and hind basitarsi; hind tibiae with an acute 
apical spine, and a shorter one on middle tibia ; claws deeply cleft ; no 

Abdomen convex and shining, without hair, except a very little 
basally and apically, but venter with copious light yellowish hair; sixth 
tergite broad with two strong teeth on each side. 

Genotype, Melanthidium carri, new species. 

Melanthidium carri, new species 

Male. — Length about 15.5 mm. with abdomen curved downward, if it 
were extended it would be about 18 mm.; anterior wing 15 mm.; width 
of abdomen about 10.7 mm. Clypeus and front dull; mesonotum dull, 
moderately shining on disc. Abdomen shining, very finely punctured. 

Honduras, Agua Amarilla, November 17 (Archie Carr). I 
am glad to name this after Dr. Carr, who collected it, and who 
is well known for his work on reptiles, amphibians, and 
fresh-water fishes. 

Melanthidium carri seems to be nearest to Anthidium rod- 
riguezi Ckll. from Guatemala, but that has the aspect of an 
asilid of the Laphria type, and the sixth tergite has no spines. 

The type will be placed in the United States National Mu- 

PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIX., 1947 107 

CALEDONIA (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Pemphilidini) 

By V. S. L. Pate, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. ¥. 

In his report on the Aculeate wasps of New Caledonia^ F. X. 
Williams described a curious and interesting new Pemphili- 
dine wasp — Crahro novocaledonicus — which he stated seemed 
to fit best into Kohl 's species-group Crahro or its approximate 
equivalent, the genus Ectemnius. Through the courtesy of 
Dr. Joseph C. Bequaert of the Museum of Comparative Zo- 
ology, Harvard College, I have had the privilege of studying 
a pair of this species, and, as I suspected, Crahro novocale- 
donicus has proved to be the type of an interesting and dis- 
crete new group which is described below. 

It gives me great pleasure to dedicate this new genus to Dr. 
Francis X. Williams of Honolulu, Hawaii, as a slight tribute 
in recognition of his many outstanding contributions to our 
knowledge of the biology and taxonomy of the Aculeate Hy- 

WILLIAMSITA, new genus 

Craho Williams, Proc. Hawaii. Eiit. Soc, XII, p. 448 (1945). 

GENOTYPE: Craho novocaledonicufi Williams, 1945 [= WilUamsita 
novocaledonica (Williams)]. 

The superficial habitus of WilUamsita is very similar to that 
of Ectemnius, particularly the Clytochrysus section, but the 
present genus may be separated from the latter by the simple, 
thirteen-segmented antennae of the male, the curious confor- 
mation of the occipital carinule, and the very narrow and 
slender hind wing. In addition, the males of WilUamsita lack 
an apical calcar on the middle tibiae and are furnished with 
a subquadrate pygidial area on the last abdominal tergite. 
whereas most males of Ectemnius have an apical calcar on the 
middle tibiae and lack a pygidial area. 

Generic Characters. — Medium sized, opaque, finely punctate forms. 
Head subquadrate in dorsal and anterior aspect. Eyes naked, more 
coarsely facetted anteriorly than posteriorly; inner orbits strongly con- 
vergent toward clypeus and antennal sockets; malar space reduced to a 
mere line. Front narrow, strongly concave between inner orbits; scapal 
sinus immarginate. Vertex flat; supra-orbital foveae indistinct in 
males, moderately distinct in females; ocelli situated in a very low 
isosceles triangle. Occipital carina distinct, not a complete circle in 
extent nor attaining the posterior angles of hypostomal carinule mar- 
gining the oral fossa, but curving downward below and running more 
or less parallel to the lateral margins of hypostomal carinule for about 
one-third to one-half the length of latter and terminating abruptly, 
often in a small tubercle. Antennae with sockets contiguous to each 

iProe. Hawaiian Ent. Soc, XII, pp. 407-451 (1945). 

108 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL,, 1947 

other and also to nearest lower inner orbit; thirteen-segmented in males 
and twelve-segmented in females; scapes straight, elongate, subcylindri- 
eal to obterete, ecarinate lengthwise; flagellum simple in both sexes. 
Clypeus relatively simple; with a well developed median lobe. Mandibles 
with apices evenly bidentate in both sexes; in females with an addi- 
tional subapical tooth on inner margins causing them to appear triden- 
tate; inner margins edentate medially in both sexes; lower margins en- 

Thorax opaque; very finely punctate throughout. Pronotum moder- 
ately short, transverse, sharply carinate anteriorly. Mesonotum simple; 
very finely, evenly punctate throughout except discally and mediopos- 
teriorly where it is finely to strongly longitudinally aciculate. Axillae 
simple, immarginate; scutellum and postscutellum simple. Mesopleura 
finely, evenly punctate throughout; episternal suture distinct; mesopleu- 
ral pit small but evident; prepectus sharply margined anteriorly, the 
carinate edge extending down for a short distance on each side onto 
mesosternum, the anterior edge of which, however, is broadly rounded; 
a sharp vertical carina before middle coxae. Propodeum finely sculp- 
tured; finely punctate to aciculate; without lateral carinae or a well 
defined dorsal trigonal enclosure. 

Fore wing with marginal cell elongate, obliquely, exclivously truncate 
at apex; recurrent vein received in outer third of submarginal cell; 
second abcissa of cubitus much shorter than first abcissa and subequal 
in length to transverse cubital vein. Hind wings very narrow and elon- 
gate; anal lobe small, strap-like, one-third the length of submedian cell. 

Legs relatively simple, without a tibial or femoral shield in males. 
Fore tarsi flattened to subpatellate in males; simple, without a distinct 
pecten in females; both sexes with a brushy pad beneath. Middle tibiae 
without an apical calcar in males; one present in females. 

Abdomen sessile; fusiform; finely punctate; generally maculated. 
Tergites with basal acarid chambers; and folded under roundly and im- 
bricate with the sternites, except first two tergites which have customary 
sharp inflexed lateral margins. Second abdominal sternite laterally on 
each side with an impressed, elongate oval, depression, larger in fe- 
males than in males. Males with a small subquadrate pygidial area on 
last tergite. Females with pygidial area strongly narrowed, excavate 
and canaliculate apically, the lateral margins provided with brushes of 
golden setulae. 

Ethology. — Nothing is known about the biology of the mem- 
bers of this genus, but inasmuch as the females have the 
pygidial area greatly narrowed, excavate, and canaliculate 
apically, it may be assumed with some degree of certainty 
that the component species are xylicolous forms which nest in 
wood or hollow or pithy stems and provision their nests with 
other insects — probably Diptera. 

Remarks. — The discovery of Williamsita is of particular 
interest because it furnishes a link between the large, protean 
and cosmopolitan assemblages Ectemnius and Lestica and the 

PEOO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 109 

more generalized groups. In all probability, Williamsita is a 
relic of the ancestral stock which gave rise to Ectemnius: this 
more vigorous, vagile, and modern genus has probably sup- 
planted the pro-Ectemnioid strain, exemplified by Williams- 
ita, to the point where the latter has managed to survive in 
only a marginal area such as New Caledonia. 
Williamsita novocaledonica (Williams) 
Crabro novocaledonicus Williams, Proc. Hawaii. Ent. See, XII, p. 448, 
pi. XXVII, figs. A, Aa, B (1945); [$ : New Caledonia]. 

Type. — S ; Hills behind Noumea, New Caledonia. Octo- 
ber 16-19, 1940. (F. X. Williams; flying about a flowering 
shrub, evidently searching for females.) [Experiment Sta- 
tion, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Honolulu.] 

Williams, when he described novocaledonica, had only 
males. Both sexes are represented in the material before me 
and I append below a description of the female and a fuller 
one of the male sex. Williams has illustrated the males in his 
characteristic excellent fashion. 

Digni. — S ; La Foa, New Caledonia. (C. L. Remington.) 
[Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College.] 

Male. Length 10 mm. Opaque black; the following citrinous: scapes; 
pronotum dorsally, tubercles; axillae; scutellum anteriorly with a trans- 
verse stripe interrupted medially; postseutellum; second abdominal ter- 
gite with an elongate, transverse, trigonal spot laterally on each side; 
fourth tergite with a narrow, transverse median fascia, narrowly inter- 
rupted medially and laterally; fifth tergite with a narrow basal fascia; 
fore femora with a broad, longitudinal stripe lengthwise beneath and a 
small basal spot above; fore tibiae with a small elongate spot external- 
ly at knee ; middle femora with a broad strip lengthwise above and below 
posteriorly; middle and hind tibiae with a narrow stripe lengthwise on 
outer faces; hind femora with a narrow stripe dorsally. Fore wings 
rather heavily infuscated, particularly on anterior half; veins and 
stigma brunneous. 

Head with a vestiture of appressed, light aureous sericeous pile on 
clypeus and along inner orbits; vertex thinly clad with inconspicuous 
puberulent aeneous hair; temples with a moderate vestiture of decum- 
bent, silvery puberulent hair. Front strongly concave between inner 
orbits and glabrous medially; scapal sinus bisected by a fine impres- 
sion which ends opposite distal end of scapes in a small fovea. Vertex 
with fine, close, setigerous punctures; bisected anteriorly by a fine line 
running forward from median ocellus; supra-orbital foveae very indis- 
tinct, elongate-linear ; ocelli arranged in a very low isosceles triangle, 
the ocellocular line seven-eighths the postocellar distance. Occipital ca- 
rina moderate above, flanged and f oveolate below ; conformation as in 
generic diagnosis. Antennae with scapes subcylindrical to subobterete, 
slightly flattened anteriorly but ecarinate lengthwise, about three-fifths 

110 PROC. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 

(0.6149) the vertical eye length; pedicel obterete; flagellum simple, 
without excisions or other modifications ; relative lengths : scape 43 ; 
pedicel 10; flagellar articles from first outwardly, 19:10:8:6:5:4:5:5: 
5:5:12. Clypeus tectate, almost three-eighths (0.3575) the vertical eye 
length; bisected by a strong keel Avhich ends in a narrow truncate me- 
dian lobe, the apex of which is thickened, polite, impunctate, glabrous; 
Jaterad of lobe and separated from it by a deep rounded emarginate is 
a dentiform angle. Mandibles stout, apices evenly bidentate; inner 
margins edentate. 

Thorax opaque; finely punctate; with a thin clothing of puberulent 
hair, subaeneous and inconspicuous dorsally, appressed, silvery and very 
evident on pleura. Pronotum with dorsal face strongly notched medial- 
ly, traversed by a rather strong torus, anterior margin with a strong, 
high, laminate, sinuate carina, humeri acute but not dentate, lateral 
margins rounded, ecarinate, posterior margin very strongly impressed. 
Mesonotum simple, with fine, close puncturation anteriorly and laterally, 
becoming weakly, longitudinally striato-punctate discally and posterior- 
ly; suture between mesonotum and scutellum very strongly impressed 
and weakly foveate; scutellum gently tumid, finely punctate and weakly, 
longitudinally striatopunctate ; postscutellum finely punctate. Meso- 
pleura with very fine, close, even puncturation throughout; episternal 
suture straight, oblique, strongly foveate; mesopleural pit small but 
evident. Metapleura glabrous; finely, horizontally aciculate; separated 
from lateral faces of propodeum by a foveate suture. Mesosternum, 
metasternum, and lower faces of all coxae with a dense brush of 
white hair. Propodeum on dorsal and posterior faces with a heavy vesti- 
ture of decumbent light aureous pile, and finely punctatostriate to 
finely granulate; dorsal face separated along posterior and lateral sides, 
by a broad, shallow, indistinct, foveate groove from posterior and lat- 
eral faces, bisected by a narrow, linear, submarginate furrow which con- 
tinues onto and also bisects posterior face which is traversed below by 
a few weak, horizontal wrinkles; lateral carinae absent, the posterior 
face evenly rounded into the glabrous, subfulgid, finely, horizontally 
aciculate lateral faces. 

Legs with all femora stout, subfusiform. Fore tibiae subtriquetrous, 
flattened beneath, the ventro-anterior margin with a heavy brush of 
light hair. Fore tarsi strongly flattened, with a heavy brush of light 
sericeous hair below. Middle tibiae strongly obterete, without spines on 
outer faces, without a distal calcar; middle metatarsi arcuate, excavate 
below, the ventro-anterior margin with a row of strong, short spinules. 
Hind tibiae obterete, weakly spinose on outer faces; calcaria flattened, 
sublanceolate, the longer one one-half the length of the strongly com- 
pressed, elongate hind metatarsi which are one and a seventh times the 
length of four distal segments combined. 

Fore wings with marginal cell three times as long as wide and broad- 
ly, obliquely, exclivously truncate at apex; radius with first abscissa 
about six-sevenths (0.84) the length of second abscissa, third abscissa 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 HI 

(truncation) two-fifths the length of second abscissa; transverse cubital 
vein oblique, inclivous, equal in length to second abscissa of cubitus 
which is one-third the length of first cubital abscissa. Hind wing very 

Abdomen subfulgid; sessile; fusiform; with a moderate vestiture of 
decumbent silvery to very light aureous puberulent hair, most notice- 
able along apical margins of basal segments. Tergites with a very fine, 
even, rather close, setigerous puncturation throughout ; first inconspicu- 
ously cingulate just before apex ; seventh with a distinct, well defined, 
small subquadrate pygidial area, the disc flat, not furrowed but coarsely 
punctate, the apex truncate. Sternites practically impunctate, with a 
microscopically fine, cancellate sculpture ; first two gently convex, re- 
mainder flattened discally; fifth with apical margin subtruncate; sixth 
with apex gently, broadly and shallowly excavate; seventh with apex 

Allodigm. — $ ; La Foa, New Caledonia. (C. L. Reming- 
ton.) [Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College.] 

Female. Length 11 mm. Agrees with male except in following de- 
tails : 

Livery in general the same but anterior three-fourths of scutellum with 
a broad yellow band; second abdominal tergite with a broad median 
fascia widely interrupted medially ; fourth tergite with a narrow, elon- 
gate, transverse median spot on each side of the median line ; remaining 
tergites immaculate. Fore femora at apex and tibiae at base with a 
small spot ; middle femora with a broad spot at apex ; middle and hind 
tibiae with an elongate stripe on outer faces. Wings not as strongly in- 
fuscated as male. 

Head with clypeus and facial concavity entirely covered with ap- 
pressed sericeous light aureous pile. Vertex more finely punctate; supra- 
orbital foveae more distinct, elongate-lenticular, adjacent to and paral- 
leling upper inner orbits; oeelloeuhir line three-fourths the postocellar 
distance. Lower temples and gular region practically impunctate. Oc- 
cipital carina as in male but ending ventrally in a strong tubercle. An- 
tenna! scapes about three-fifths the vertical eye length, eearinate; flagel- 
lum broken, missing beyond first segment ; relative lengths : scape 43 ; 
pedicel 10; flagellar article 18. Clypeus tectate; median length three- 
tenths the vertical eye length; bisected by a very strong keel which 
diverges medially into an elongate trigonal, glabrous, polite, impunc- 
tate, declivent platform ending in the gently and arcuate excised apical 
margin of the median lobe, laterad of which on each side is a dentiform 
angle. Mandibles with apices evenly bidentate, the inner margins eden- 
tate but with a strong subapical tooth making apices appear tridentate. 

Thorax with anterior margin of pronotum not as strongly crested, 
the anterior laminate carina straight, not sinuate. Mesonotum finely, 
closely punctate anteriorly and laterally, the disc and medioposteriorly 
strongly, longitudinally aciculate and very sparsely punctate. Propo- 
deum with a thinner vestiture; dorsal and posterior faces not separated 

112 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 

by a foveate groove and very finely punctato-aciculate, the bisecting 
groove wider and marginate. 

Legs in general as in male but without modifications. Fore tarsi not 
flattened but somewhat compressed and with heavy sericeous pile be- 
neath. Middle and hind tibiae more strongly spinose on outer faces; 
middle tibiae with a distinct apical calcar; middle metatarsi straight, 
elongate, subequal in length to four distal segments combined, and with- 
out row of spinules beneath. Longer hind tibial calcar one-half length 
of slender, compressed, elongate hind metatarsi which are one and an 
eighth the length of four distal segments combined. 

Abdomen fusiform. Last tergite with pygidial area narrowed, ex- 
cavate and canaliculate apically, the lateral margins with fringes of 
aeneous setulae. 

This insular form is apparently generally distributed 
througfhout New Caledonia. 

PARASITIC MITE (Acarina, Laelaptidae) 

By E. W. Strandtmann 

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of 

Texas School of Medicine, Galveston, Texas 

In the collection of Atricholaelops loaned to me for study 
by the U. S. National Museum was a series of a distinctive 
species long recognized as new by both H. E. Ewing and E. 
W. Baker, but which for one reason or another remained un- 
described. Recently this mite has been sent in frequently from 
various typhus research projects for determination and a 
name for it has become necessary. I wish to extend my thanks 
to the above mentioned men and to H. B. Morlan, H. D. 
Pratt, R. B. Eads, and others who have so kindly sent me 
additional specimens. 

Atricholaelaps megaventralis, new species 

Female. — Length, exclusive of gnathasoma, about 665 m; width about 
431 M. Ventral side (Fig. 4) : The sternal plate is similar to that of 
other species of the genus. It is broader than long, averaging 119 At wide 
by 92 M long at the narrowest points. It bears the usual three pairs of 
setae and two pairs of pores. The endopodal plates are distinct but 
quite slender. The genitoventral plate is very large for the genus and 
closely approaches the anal plate. It bears one pair of setae and has the 
usual configuration of light lines. Its length, when measured from the 
base of the sternal plate is about 226 M. The width at the widest point 
is 154 M. The anal plate is roundly triangular with a slightly concave 
anterior margin. The anus is nearer the posterior seta than to the an- 
terior margin. It measures 98 M from the anterior margin to the pos- 
terior seta and about 105 m in width at the widest point. There are 

PROC. ENT. soo. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 Plate 11 

Atricholaelaps megaventralis, n. sp. 1. Dorsum of female. 2. Chelicera. 
3. Venter of gnathasoma. 4. Venter of female. 


114 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 

three small metapodal platelets. The smallest lies close to the genito- 
ventral plate and .iust above the second pair of setae. The other two 
are about midway between the genitoventral plate and the outer margin 
of the body. The larger of these two is elongated and quite narrow. 
The soft portion of the venter is finely wrinkled and bears 10 to 12 
pairs of setae. The peritreme extends to the middle of the first pair 
of coxae. 

The dorsal side is almost completely covered by the dorsal plate. This 
plate is covered with a network of fine lines, as is indicated in Figure 1 
by the dotted lines at the anterior end. It bears about 34 pairs of rela- 
tively short setae and several pairs of pores, some of Avhich are fairly 
large and elongate. 

The legs are somewhat more slender and bear finer setae than other 
members of the genus. The heaviest setae are on the tarsi of legs II and 
III. The apical margin of coxa I shows a faint and irregular serration 
in properly mounted specimens. The apical margin of coxa II has a 
small triangular tooth at the anterior side as do all other species of the 

The gnathasoma is adequately illustrated in figure 3. The fixed chela 
(Fig. 2) is slightly notched at the tip but this is visible only when the 
chelicera is mounted in the proper plane. The pilus dentihis is only very 
slightly inflated. The movable chela, as in the other known species, has 
two teeth below the apex and has a circlet of small setae at its base. 

The male and immature stages are as yet unknown. 

This is a light brown species with relatively weak and 
short setation. It may be clearly differentiated from all other 
described members of the genus by the slightly inflated, nearly 
straight seta on the fixed chela, and by the greatly extended 
genitoventral plate. 

I have designated as type one of three specimens mounted 
on a slide bearing the following data : 

"On Gray squirrel; Georgia. October 1 and November 11, 
1935. H. Hixson, Coir." 

This slide has been deposited in the United States National 
Museum together with a number of paratypes. 

Apparently this mite is quite catholic in its tastes but judg- 
ing from the material I have at hand it would seem that they 
have a slight preference for squirrels. I have seen specimens 
from Fox squirrel, Gray squirrel, Sciurus c. carolinensis, Rat- 
tus norvegicus, B. rattus, R. alexandrinus, Sigmodon hispidus, 
Mus musculus, and a few from various birds including Downy 
woodpecker, Pileated woodpecker. Red-bellied woodpecker, 
Redheaded woodpecker, Starling, English sparrow, and one 
from a Cliff swallow's nest. The following states are repre- 
sented in this collection : Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mary- 
land, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia 
and "Washington, D. C. 

PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 115 


The 569th regular meeting of the Society was held at 8 o'clock on 
Thursday, January 2, 1947 in Room 43 of the United States National 
Museum. President Clark presided and 37 members and 16 visitors were 
present. The minutes of the previous meeting were approved as read. 

The following committees were appointed by President Clark: Mem- 
bership — Miss Elizabeth E. Haviland (Chairman), Sievert A. Rohwer, 
Bryant E. Eees, Floyd Smith; Program — Howard Baker (Chairman), 
Paul W. Oman, Harold H. Shepard, George S. Langf ord ; Notes and 
Exhibits — Henry K. Townes (Chairman), Miss Louise Russell, W. G. 

An announcement was made as follows: A course in Advance Mor- 
phology by Mr. Snodgrass is being offered in the Department of Agri- 
culture Graduate School this coming semester, which will start Feb- 
ruary 3. The class will meet from 7-9 Monday evenings, probably in 
Room 3136, the South Building. 

Dr. Sailer called attention to the list of numbers of the Proceedings 
needed for reserve stock which appeared on the notice of the meeting. 
Members are urgently requested to supply copies where possible. The 
numbers in question are: v. 32, no. 1; v. 40, nos. 1, 8; v. 42, nos. 1, 3, 5; 
V. 43, no. 1; v. 48, no. 1. 

Dr. Townes exhibited shells of a large, terrestrial snail {AchatinM 
fidica) which was introduced into certain Micronesian Islands by the 
Japanese for food. The snail reproduced faster than it was consumed, 
and has become quite destructive to garden crops. Convolvulaceous vines 
and Passiflora foetida are its usual food plants in Micronesia. The 
United States Commercial Company and the United States Navy are at- 
tempting to eradicate the pest on Guam, where it was introduced dur- 
ing the Japanese occupation into two small areas. Pennite spray and 
Metag poison bait are being used in these efforts. Though millions of 
snails have been killed on Guam, the infested area is still enlarging. 
The Japanese also introduced this mollusk into Hawaii about 25 years 
ago and the annual expenditure of about $10,000 in recent years has 
failed' to eradicate it. Feeding takes place at night and during rainy 
weather. About 300 eggs are deposited in a batch. On hatching, part of 
the immature snails may feed and develop rapidly, others may become 
dormant for weeks at a time, reaching maturity after a much longer 
period. This erratic development greatly complicates the control prob- 
lem. (Abstract revised by Author.) 

Mr. Clark asked how the snails tasted. Dr. Townes replied that, if 
properly treated with wood ash or lye to remove the slime, the flavor 
was comparable to that of the sea mollusks. 

Dr. Weigel next gave his address as Retiring President: Milestones in 
the Development of Control Measures Against Greenhouse Insects. 

The florieultural industry has grown tremendously during the past 25 
years and at present forms a large segment of our national agriculture. 

116 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 4, APRIL, 1947 

Insects and related pests cause an estimated loss of 15 per cent of the 
value of greenhouse products. Control measures currently in use consist 
of fumigation, spraying, sanitation, thermal treatments and to a lim- 
ited extent the use of natural enemies. While spraying is widely used, 
fumigation is preferred since it is very effective and is ideally suited 
for use in greenhouses. The operation is cheaper and quicker to carry 
out than is spraying or dusting. 

The fumigants most frequently employed are tobacco or nicotine 
smudges, hydrocyanic acid and naphthalene. More recently, however, 
methyl bromide, azobenzene and aerosols have been introduced. 

The discussion covered the early development, nature, and method of 
using eath of these fumigants under greenhouse conditions; the pests 
for which they are generally employed; the limitations and factors in- 
volved in their successful use, and the precautions that should be ob- 
served to avoid plant injury and hazards to the operator. Emphasis was 
placed upon the recently developed method of using liquefied gas aero- 

Another method discussed was that of immersing plants, corms, or 
bulbs in heated water maintained at a constant temperature. This treat- 
ment is used to control a number of pests on ornamental and flowering 
plants and plant products. 

Among the recent developments mentioned is the addition of a toxi- 
cant, like sodium selenate, to the soil to control red spider, especially 
on carnation and chrysanthmum. The chemical is taken up by the plant 
where it acts as a toxicant to the mites and insects as they feed upon 
the plant juices. 

It was also pointed out that kerosene emulsion, soap sprays and nico- 
tine decoctions were among the earlier contact insecticides used, but in 
recent years these have been replaced by standardized nicotine extract, 
pyrethrum, rotenone, white oil emulsions and thiocyanates. Also that 
some of the newer materials, especially DDT, are coming into extensive 
use. Paris green was one of the first materials used as a stomach poison 
and later followed by lead arsenate. Paris green is still being used but 
not to the extent that lead arsenate is because there is always some 
danger of plant injury. 

With the great strides that are being made in the field of newer 
insecticides there are bound to be marked changes and improvements 
in the methods used to control greenhouse insects in the future. (Au- 
thor's Abstract.) 

The program was continued by a series of papers on the Eichmond 
Meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomologists and 
the Entomological Society of America. Different aspects of the meet- 
ings were presented by C. P. W. Muesebeck, M. P. Jones, E. N. Cory, 
B. A. Porter, L. W. Orr, F. F. Smith, and S. A. Rohwer. 

Visitors introduced to the Society were: Mr. and Mrs. G. G. Rohwer, 
K. S. Rohwer, R. D. Rohwer, and C. F. Rainwater. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:55 P.M. 

Ina L. Hawes, Recording Secretary 

Actual date of publication, April 15, 1947 

VOL. 49 

May, 1947 

No. 5 


of the 



Published Monthly Except July, August amo Septkicbeb 





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D. 0., under Act of Aufust 24. 1912. 

Accepted for mailine at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1108. 
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Oboanized Mabch 12, 1884. 

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Annual dues for members are $3.00 ; initiation fee fl.OO. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them ia 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President L. O. HowAED 

President A-USTin H. Claek 

First Vice President E. H. Siegleb 

Second Vice President T. E. Snydee 

Recording Secretary Ina L. Haytes 

Corresponding Secretary , JR. I. Sailee 

Treasurer L. B. Eeed 

Editor A.UAN Stonb 

Executive Committee P. N. Annand, P. W. Poos, C. A. Weigel 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences C. F. W. Muesebeck 


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Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 49 MAY, 1947 No. 5 


(Diptera, Culicidae) 

By Harold E. Dodge 

Associate Entomologist, Communicable Disease Center, 

U. S. Public Health Service* 

Forty years ago, Mitchell ( 1 ) found a few Wyeomyia larvae 
in the leaves of Sarracenia purjmraea in the Botanical Gar- 
dens of Washington, D. C. These plants had been brought 
from South Carolina a few years earlier. This author ob- 
served a small pair of upper anal gills, and remarked : ' ' Hav- 
ing read the descriptions of Wyeomyia smithii, it did not seem 
logical for that species to have but two anal gills, when all 
other mosquito larvae had four, or the rudiments of them. 
Having examined alcoholic specimens to see if at least traces 
of the other gills were not present, I failed to find any. The 
specimens being in poor condition, however, I was not satis- 
fied, but desired to examine living specimens. ..." Then, 
after examining the above-mentioned specimens : ' ' The pub- 
lished descriptions had probably been made from alcoholic 
specimens, where the gills are extremely hard to find, even 
when known to be present, as they shrink between the larger 
two and it is necessary to remove one of the latter in order to 
see the smaller gills plainly." 

Mitchell was actually comparing two different kinds of lar- 
vae. Subsequent authors have not reviewed the disparity of 
the anal gills between northern and southern specimens of 
pitcher plant Wyeomyia larvae. The writer has examined 
presumably typical smithii larvae from New Jersey, New 
York, Ontario and Wisconsin, and in no case can a second 
pair of anal gills be demonstrated. On the other hand, larvae 
from several localities in North and South Carolina have been 
examined and found to be similar to each other and to differ 
from smithii by several characters, notably by the presence 
of a pair of small upper gills, which are as easily observed in 
preserved or mounted larvae as they are in living larvae. On 
the basis primarily of larval characters the Carolina form is 
here described as a new species. 

*The writer is indebted to personnel of the South Carolina State 
Board of Health for their generous assistance in obtaining material for 
this study. 


118 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY, 1947 

Wyeomyia haynei, new species 

Wyeomyia smithii in part Mitchell, not Coquillett. 

Wyeomyia smithii (2) Carpenter, Middelkauff and Chamberlain, 1946, 
pp. 93-96, Figs. 47 and 48. 

HoLOTYPE MALE. Abdomen 1.8 mm. long; wing 2.57 mm. long, .57 mm. 
wide; proboscis 1.9 mm. long; palpus .1 mm. long. Proboscis long, slen- 
der; palpi very short; antennae less than two thirds as long as the 
proboscis, each segment with a whorl of about ten moderately long 
hairs; torus not scaled, with a velvety grey appearance; occiput with 
broad, appressed scales only. Mesonotum with broad, appressed scales, 
of which the majority are directed postero-laterally ; wings uniformly 
dark-scaled, the scales absent on the cross veins, the base of Rs and the 
apex of the anal vein. Legs with lengths of segments as given in Table 
I ; tarsal claws minute, except the outer claw of the middle leg, which 
is long and strongly hooked. 

Vestiture of body of broad, appressed scales, absent on the antennae, 
clypeus, frons, postnotum and posterior part of scutellum, also with 
nude areas on the sides of the thorax. Bristles dark, confined to the mar- 
gins of the terminal abdominal segments, a small group on the post- 
notum, a marginal fringe on the mesonotum from the region df the 
anterior spiracles posteriorly around the scutellum, a few on the ante- 
rior margin of the mesonotum, a row on the anterior margin of the 
pronotal lobes, a few groups of small bristles on the sides of the thorax, 
and a postocular row of bristles, of which the dorsal submedian pair 
is much the largest. The legs bear small bristles, some of which are 
concealed among the scales. The tergite of the first abdominal segment 
bears long, fine, yellowish hairs, and a few similar, though shorter, hairs 
are scattered about the bases of the legs. 

Coloration dark above, with a small patch of silvery scales on the 
vertex and another on the scutellum. Lateral margins of abdominal 
tergites, sides of thorax, venter of abdomen, and a lateral triangular 
area on the occiput also with silvery scales. Club of halteres vrith dark 
scales dorsally and apically and white scales ventrally. Eyes black. 
Proboscis dark, with light yellowish scales ventrally. Eyes black. Pro- 
boscis dark, with light yellowish scales ventrally. Legs dark-scaled, 
with exception of the apical portion of the second through the fourth 
mesotarsal segments, which are pale sealed dorsally, and all legs are 
pale scaled ventrally, the scales yellowish on the femora and tibiae and 
gradually darkening until, on the apical tarsal segments, their colora- 
tion is indistinguishable from the dorsal scales. The dark scales of 
the abdomen, legs and proboscis have a bluish or coppery reflection; 
those of the mesonotum give it a greasy appearance in reflected light; 
those of the pronotal lobes are violaceous. The dorsal dark scales and 
ventral white scales of the abdomen meet in a straight line along the 
sides of the abdomen. 

Hypopygium (Figures D and F). Basistyle (side piece) less than 
twice as long as wide, clad with scales laterally and with two ventro- 

PROC. ENT. SOC". WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY, 1947 

Wyeomyia haynei, n. sp. — A. Larva, terminal segments of abdomen, 
lateral view; B. Larva, mentum; C. Larv^, head, dorsal view; 
D and F. Terminal abdominal segments of holotype male, lateral 
and ventral views; E. Pupa, terminal segments of abdomen, dorsal 
and ventral half-views. G. Dististyle of holotype male, lateral view. 


120 PKOC. JiNT. S0( . WASH., VOL. 49, NO. .., MAY, 1947 

lateral groups of hairs; a sub-basal group of three or four and a sub- 
apical group of two. Dististyle (or clasper, Figure G) complex, greatly 
swollen at the middle of its length, with a dorsal hooked process, a ven- 
tral process bearing two spines, a ventral bladder-like swelling, lateral 
striations, a dorsal row of hairs and a mesal row of spines. Apex snout- 
like, with two acute subapical spines ventrally. Ninth tergite with 4 
pairs of spines. (The terms "dorsal" and "ventral" as here used 
are not anatoinically correct, but are relative to the position of the 
remainder of the body.) 

Ali>otype female. Abdomen 1.33 mm. long; wing 1.93 mm. long, .38 
mm. wide; proboscis 1.43 mm. long; palpus .09 mm. long. Similar to the 
male in all respects (coloration, vestiture, palpi, antennae) with excep- 
tion of the mesotarsal claws Avhich are small and equal in size and 
the female terminalia. 

Table I. Relative lengths of legs and tarsal segments of Wyeomyia 

haynei, holotype and allotype. (Units of measurement not in mm., but 

the scale of the cross-hatched eyepiece of microscope.) 

Fe- — Tarsal segments — Femur 


mur Tibia 1 









8.2 7.7 4. 









7.8 6.3 4. 









6. .^.8 6.5 









Allotype Front 5.9 5. 3. 1.9 1.2 .8 .6 10.9 7.5 18.4 

Female Middle 5.9 4.3 3. 2.4 1.3 .7 .6 10.2 8. 18.2 

Hind 4.5 4.2 4.9 3.2 2.6 2. .9 S.7 13.6 22.3 

Pupa. Previously described by Mitchell. The terminal segments of 
the abdomen are shown in Figure E. Hair A is very large and multifid 
on segments 7 and 8 and, as in Culex, is situated ventrally on segment 
8. Apex of paddle subtruneate, with numerous fine hairs; the usual one 
or two "paddle hairs" are not differentiated. 

Fourth instab larva (Figures A, B and C). Head rounded, about as 
wide as long; head hairs simple, fine, situated anteriorly on the fronto- 
clypeal sclerite; antennae small, slender, glabrous, with a simple hair 
located dorsally at about the apical fourth of its length. Mentum with 
8-11 teeth on each side of the median tooth, which is the largest (Figure 
B). Occipital foramen produced laterally to a point not far behind each 
eye. Dorsal submedian prothoraeic hair groups of fine hairs, not arising 
from a platelet, the two groups widely separated. Thorax and abdomen 
laterally with long hairs. Comb a single row of 11 to 28 scales, eacli 
scale elongate, with a relatively long apical free portion; apex blunt, 
with sparse spinules. Air tube about four times longer than its diameter, 
with paired dorso-lateral and ventrolateral rows of hairs, each row of 
5-7, usually 6 hairs; acus and dorsal pre-apical spine absent; spiracular 
valves with a pair of strong, curved setae dorsally. Anal, segment about 
as long as wide, with dorsal saddle extending to about the middle of the 

PKOC. ENT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. ."), MAY, 1947 121 

sides; caudal and hiteial liairs of anal segment elongate, usuallj' bifid; 

ventrolateral hair shorter, usually bifid; ventral brush absent. Anal 

gills two pair; the lower pair longer than the anal segment, the upper 
pair approximately a third as long as the lower. 

Table II. A comparison of the number of comb scales in all larval 
instars of Wyeomyia haynei and Wyeomyia smithii. 



Number of 
combs examined 


of comb 

scales : 






















haynei 4 40 28 11 18.0 

smithii 4 32 16 4 8.9 

Third and second instab larvae. The description of the fourth in- 
star applies equally Avell to these instars, except for the smaller size of 
the larvae and reduced number of branches of certain hairs. 

First instar larvae. Gills as described for fourth instar larvae; 
ventrolateral hair of anal segment present; air tube with a single pair 
of ventro-lateral hairs followed by two pali-s of spines. 

Egg. Length .42 mm., diameter .15 mm.; color dark grey, without evi- 
dent surface sculpture, flattened on under side, ends bluntly rounded. 

Holotype, allotype and 12 paratypes are labelled "Colum- 
bia, S. C, April 1945, 0. L. Cartwright, collector." Many 
paratypes were reared by the writer from larvae collected 
January 12, 1946. Ail instars of larvae and eggs were col- 
lected by Captain Roy F. Fritz, July 12, 1945. 

The type locality is in Lexington County, 8.2 miles S.W. of 
Columbia, South Carolina, near the Watling Road, between 
the Columbia Air Base and U. S. Highway No. 1. A small bed 
of sphagnum moss and pitcher plants, not more than ten feet 
in diameter, occurs near the rim of a valley in sandy country 
overgrown with scrub oak. The soil is very porous, and it is 
likely that an outcropping of impervious substratum at this 
point has enabled this bog plant association to exist. This site 
was discovered by Frank T. Arnold, Jr., of the South Caro- 
lina State Board of Health. 

The holotype and allotype are deposited in the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum. Paratypes are deposited in the Communica- 
ble Disease Center headquarters office, Atlanta, Georgia, the 
South Carolina State Board of Health, and the author's col- 

122 PKOC. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. '), MAY, 1947 

The exact range of haynei cannot be determined until fur- 
ther collections are made. Its host plant is the southern sub- 
species, Barracenia purpuraea venosa Raf. Both venosa and 
the northern subspecies, gihhosa Raf. are said to occur in 
southern New Jersey (3), and it would be interesting to learn 
if both species of Wyeomyia occur in that region, and if they 
will interbreed, or if there are integradations in nature. The 
writer has collected Wyeomyia larvae at Theodore, Alabama, 
where Dr. F. M. Jones collected " smithii" in 1910, and finds 
that here the upper pair of anal gills are only slightly shorter 
than the lower; the larvae and adults are otherwise indis- 
tinguishable from haynei. The host plant in this region has 
pale pink flowers, and is designated as horticultural variety 
Louis Burk (3). 

The larval characters which distinguish haynei from smithii 
are the presence of a small pair of dorsal anal gills, the comb 
scales more numerous (see table II) and mesothoracic hair 13 
equal to or smaller than (not larger than) prothoracic hair 13. 
The hairs of the anal segment are usually bifid in haynei, 
usuall.y trifid in smithii. In the adult the presence of a patch 
of silvery scales on the scutellum distinguishes haynei from 
smithii, in which the said scales are dark. 

Wyeomyia hayyiei is named in honor of Dr. Theodore Brev- 
ard Hayne, of South Carolina, who died of yellow fever in 
July 1930, at the age of 31, while working with the Rocke- 
feller Foundation at Lagos, West Africa. 

Literature Cited 

1. Mitchell, Evelyn G. 1907. Mosquito Life. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
New York, 281 pp. 

2. Carpenter, S. J., Middlekauff, W. W. and E. W. Chamberlain. 1946. 
The Mosquitoes of the Southern United States east of Oklahoma and 
Texas. American Midland Naturalist, Monograph No. 3, 292 pp., 
illus. University Press, Notre Dame, Indiana. . 

3. Wherry, E. T. 1933. The Geographical Relations of Sarracenia piir- 
purnca. Bartonia, No. 15, pp. 1-6, pi. I. 


The following correction is necessary in Volume 48(9) :237, 
1946, last four lines before the footnotes : 

The reared adults were determined as Aedes mathesoni and 
were numbered to correspond with the cast larval skins. The 
Georgia specimens were isolated, reared and the cast larval 
skins numbered to correspond with respective emerged adult 
specimens by Lt. Robert M. Russel at Camp Gordon. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 5, M.VV, li)47 123 


By W. H. Anderson, BMrea?< of Entomology and Plant Qnara.i^tine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 


■ Several years a^io a c'Oiiii)reheiisive .study of the larvae of 
Rhynehophora, exelusive of the Scolytidae, Platypodidae, and 
smaller related families, was undertaken. In the eonr^e of the 
preparation of the descriptions and keys a satisfaetoi^y termi- 
nology for the taxonomically important characters has de- 
veloped. Mneh of the basic terminology involved is not origi- 
nal; it has been adopted from previously published pajiers 
dealing with coleopterous larvae, particularly larvae of Rhyn- 
ehophora. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate this 
terminolopy in a description and to explain, by means of 
figures and discussion, the meanings of the terms employed. 
In future papers, then, it will be possible to avoid continued 
repetition of explanations of terms the precise meanino' of 
which, in connei^tion with weevil larvae, may not be found in 
standard glossaries. 

Pissodes was chosen for description and illustration for 
several reasons. Larvae of the genus are modei-ately large, 
and the details of structure can be observed without the aid of 
high magnifications. The genus is approximately centrally lo- 
cated among the weevils, and the larval structures are inter- 
mediate between various extremes. At the same time the larvae 
are sufficiently generalized to illustrate most of the characters 
found to be valuable in classifying weevil larvae. In order to 
demonstrate the terminology as completely as practicable, the 
following description contains characters of family and sub- 
family importance as well as those of generic value. A typical 
generic description would be confined to a discussion of char- 
acters Considered diagnostic for a given genus. 

Head frpe,-'i dark orange, lighter in paired dorsal and lateral stripes, 
as broad as long,* broadest at the middle, rounded posteriorly. Anterior 
ocellus* present. Posterior ocellus absent. Antenna* consisting of one 
membranous article which bears a conical accessory sensory appendnge 
and several minute setae. Catapophyses* in same plane as frons. Ilypo- 
pharyngeal bracon* readily discernible. Frontal suture* distinguishable 
throughout its length, incomplete anteriorly. Epicranial suture (fig. 8, 
ES) more than one-half as long as head. Endocarina* distinct, approxi- 
mately one-half as long as frons. Frons* -with five pairs of setae, setae 

iTerms marked with an asterisk are explained in the Definitions of 

124 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49. NO. •'), MAY. 1947 

1, 2 and 3 short to moderately long, snl)e()ual, 4 and ."> long, subequal. 
Dorsal epicranial setae* 1, 3 and 5 long, subequal, 2 moderately long, 
4 short. Lateral epicranial seta* 1 moderately long, 2 long. Ventral 
epicranial setae' short to moderately long, .subequal. Four minute pos- 
terior epicranial setae" present. Clypeal seta- 1 short to moderately 
long, nearly twice as long as 2. Anterior margin of labrum* trans 
verse. Labral setae* 1 and 2 short to moderately long, nearly twice as 
long as 3. Median and paired lateral sensilla* present on labrum. l>a 
bral rods' moderately elongate, stout, subparallel. Epipharynx with 
three anterolateral* and six anteromedian ' setae and four median 
spines.* Epipharyngeal sensory pores* in two clusters, two or three iu 
each cluster, betAveen the anterior and posterior pairs of median spines. 
Epipharynx without asperities.* Mandible with two apical teeth. Man- 
dibular seta* 1 short, slightly longer than and directly behind 2. Tja- 
bial palpus with two articles. Premental sclerite* complete, with an- 
terior and posterior median extensions. Postmentum* with three pairs 
of setae, the posterior pair separated by a distance approximately one- 
half as great as that between setae of middle pair. Lateral margin of 
stipes, in the vicinity of basal seta, with a flattened projection. Maxil- 
lary palpus* with two articles, the basal article Avithout accessory proc- 
ess, with one very short lateral seta, the apical article without lateral 
seta. Mala* with five ventral and seven dorsal setae. 

Pronotum* with 11 setae. Thoracic spiracle bicameral.' Spiracular 
area* of mesothorax with two setae, one moderately long, one very short. 
Prodorsuni" of mesothorax and metathorax with one short seta. Post- 
dorsum* of mesothorax and metathorax with four setae, setae 1 and 2 
short, subequal, 3 and 4 moderately long, subequal. Alar area* with 
one short seta. Pedal area* with seven setae, one moderately long, the 
remainder shorter. Most ventral seta of pedal area subequal to very 
short sternal seta.* Sternal setae subequal to eusternal setae.* 

Abdomen with eight pairs of spiracles. Spiracles all lateral, bicameral, 
the air tubes* subequal in length to diameter of subcircular peritreme,* 
each spiracle with crescent-shaped sclerite dorsoposteriorly. Typical 
abdominal segments* with three dorsal folds,* fold I developed laterally. 
Prodorsum of typical abdominal segments with one short seta. Postdor- 
sum of typical abdominal segments with five setae, setae 1, 2 and 4 
short. 3 and 5 moderately long, subequal. Spiracular area with two 
setae, seta 1 very short, seta 2 short. El)ipleurum"' with two setae, oire 
short, the other slightly longer. Pleurum* with two setae, one short, the 
other slightly longer. Pedal area with one short seta. Eusternum* with 
two very short setae. Sternellum* present. Anus terminal.* Asperities* 
generally distributed over whole body, moderately distinct, slender and 

Definitions of Terms 

Air tube: see Spiracle. 

Alar area (fig. 11, AlA): An area or lobe nearly always discernible on 

PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY, 1947 125 

each side of both mesothorax and metathorax. It lies immediately 
lateral to postdorsal area of each of these segments and is delim- 
ited both doisally and laterally by more or less complete diagonal 
grooves. Each alar bears typically one or two setae of alar area. 

Antenna (fig. 8, Ant and fig. 10): The antenna nearly always consists 
of a membranous, cushionlike, basal article (fig. 10, art) which usu- 
ally bears several minute setae or processes and an accessory sensory 
appendage (fig. 10, acap). The latter does not bear setae or ap- 
pendices of any kind and therefore is not to be considered as au 

Anus (fig. 13): The anus is surrounded by the lobes of amis (fig. 13, 
AnL) which are the remnants of abdominal segment X. When the 
anus is located approximately in the center of the posterior end of 
body it is referred to as terminal. 

Asperities: Minute, usually colorless, pointed or })lunt projections from 
membranous areas of the body. 

Bicameral: see Spiracle. 

Catapophysis (fig. 9, Oat): The mandible has two i)oints upon which 
it swings. Obviously there are at the same time two points on the 
head which oppose those on the mandible. It appears, however, that 
no satisfactory term has been applied to that portion of the head 
capsule which fits into a more or less distinct fossa on the dorsal 
surface of the mandible. It is a projection, and since it exerts a 
pressure downward against the mandible, the term catapophysis 
(plural: catapophyses) is i)roi)osed for it. In the large majority of 
larvae it consists of an uMimi)res,sive extension of the extreme an- 
terior border of frons just lateral to or closely connected to the 
posterolateral corner of clypeus. In other groups the catapophysis 
is more sharply defined. It consists of a partly globular projection 
on the inner surface of the extreme anterior margin of frons and 
its margin, against which tlio mandible pivots, forms an arc of a 

Clypeal seta: see Clypeus. 

Clypeus (fig. <S, CI and fig. 1): The clypeus nearly always bears two 
setae and a sensilhim (fig. 1, clsl) on each side near base. The seta 
))earest tlie middle line is referred to as clypeal sela 1 (fig. 1, clsl), 
the other as clypeal seta y (fig. 1, cls2). 

Dorsal epicranial seta: see Epicranium. 

Dorsal fold: The dorsum of each segment of tlie liody. except pro- 
thorax and abdominal segments IX and X, is divided by one or more 
transverse grooves into two or more folds. In larvae of all Aveevils 
the dorsum of mesothorax and metathorax is divided into two folds. 
In larvae of certain groups of weevils the typical abdominal seg- 
ments are likeAvise divided into two folds. This number seems to be 
basic and any increase in the number to be the result of subdivision. 
When the abdominal segments have two folds each fold l)ears one 
or more setae, as on the two posterior thoracic segments.' In order 

126 PRor. ENT. sor. w.ASH..-vbi7. 49. xo. /). may, 1947 

to >be able to refer to these setae it has been found convenient to 
name the anterior fold the prodorsum (fig. 11, PrD), beariftg the 
prodorsal seiae (Sgs. 11, 12, prs), and the posterior fold the posi- 
dorsum (fig. 11, PsD), bearing the posldorsal seiae (the latter dis- 
cussed more fully below). When more than two folds aY^']lt*sent 
the setae, are coBfined to those which are homolO'gOli* tO fhe basic 
prodOlsum and postdorsum. - ii.;- 

The number of folds (two, three, four or fiVe) on tli^ typical ab- 
dominal segments is often of considerable value in the classification. 
It is necessary to use the cliaracter with caution, however, since 
each condition iutergrades into the next. For descriptive purposes 
it has been found desirable to designate each fold by numlier. For 
reasons which will become evident, the basic prodorsum is desig- 
nated as fold II (fig. 12, Fldll) and postdorsum as fold IV (fig. 
12, FldlV). When three folds are present at the middorsal line- it is 
apparent that fold III (fig. 12, Fldlll) has developed between fold 
II and fold IV. When fold I (fig. 12, Fldl) is present it is usually 
discernible only laterally (as in Pissodes) but when completely de- 
veloped it extends to the middorsal line. The condition in which 
five folds are present at the middorsal line is not common; tWhen 
foM r is present, however, it can be shown to develop at the pos- 
terior end of the segment, behind the postdorsum. The homologies 
of each fold can be understood from a study of the muscles but 
it is not the purpose of this discussion to trace those homologies. 

Endocarina (fig. 8, Enc): A usually dark-colored median line discerni- 
ble on frons of most groups of weevils. When present it extends 
forward from apex of frons. .: 

Epicranium: The head capsule, exclusive of frons, is referred' to as 
epicrauium. For taxonomic purposes the setae on epicranium have 
been divided into four moderately easily defined groups which are: 
(1) Dorsal epicranial setae (fig. 8, desl to des5). There are nearly 
always five pairs of dorsal setae on epicranium which are usually 
of some length, in the same relative arrangement as in Pissodes 
and given corresponding numbers. (2) Lateral epicranial seafe (fig. 

8, lesl, les2). There are, with few exceptions, two setae which ex- 
tend outward from each lateral surface of epicranium, before the 
middle, numbered as in Pissodcu. (3) Ventral epicranial setae (fig. 

9, vesl, ves2). There are two pairs of setae on ventral surface of 
epicranium which are in the same relative position and given the 
same numbers as in Pissodes. (4) Posterior epicranial setae (Fig. 
8, pes). These are present on nearly all larvae and arc very short 
to minute. 

Epipharynx (fig. 9, Epx and fig. 3): The epipharynx bears three w^ell- 
defined groups of setae which are nearly always constant in number 
for a given species or group of species. These are (1) Anterolateral 
setae (fig. 3, als) near anterior margin, lateral to base of each 
lahral rod. In descriptions onlj- the number on one side is given. 


49, NO. "), MAY, 1947 121 

(2) Anteromedian setae (fig. o, ams) near anterior margin, between 
the bases of labral rods. In descriptions the total number is given. 

(3) Median spines (fig. 3, msp) between the labral rods, posterior 
to the anteromedian setae. In descriptions the total number is given. 

On epipharynx, between the labral rods, there are also, with rare 
exceptions, two clusters of sensilla, the epipharyngeal sensory pores 
(fig. 3, snp). 

Epipleurum (figs. 11, 12, EPl): An area or lobe which lies immediate- 
ly above the dorso-pleural line on mesothorax, metathorax and ab- 
dominal segments I to VIII. It is nearly always below the spiracle, 
when the latter is present, and is separated from spiracular area l\v 
a more or less obvious groove. Each epipleural lobe bears one or 
more setae, the epipleural setae (figs. 11, 12, eps, epsl, eps2). 

Eusternal seta: see Eusternum. 

Eusternum (fig. 12, EuSt): A subtriangular area nearest the anterior 
margin on the ventral surface of abdominal segments I to VIII. It 
is not distinguishable on the larvae of some groups in which the 
sternum is not subdivided. The eusternum usually bears two setae, 
the eusternal setae (figs. 11, 12, eusl, eus2) on each side of the 
midventral line and in descriptions only the setae on one side are 

Frons (fig. 8, Fr.): The triangular or subtriangular area on the an- 
terior dorsal surface of head, limited posteriorly and laterally by 
the frontal sutures (fig. 8, ES). It bears the frontal setae (fig. 8, 
fsl to fs5). Frontal seta 4 (fig. 8, fs4) is present consistently and, 
in nearly all groups of Curculionidae is as long as or longer than 
any of the other frontal setae. Its relative position is constant. 
Therefore, when fewer than five pairs of setae are present on frons; 
a prominent seta in the same relative position is referred to as 
frontal seta 4. 

Frontal suture (fig. 8, FS): In some groups of Ehyiu-hopliora each 
frontal suture extends anteriorly to the articulating membrane of 
the mandible and is referred to as eomplete. In most groups, how- 
ever, the suture is not distinguishable beyond the antenna and is 
referred to as incomplete. 

Head, free: If all or nearly all the head capsule is A-isible in well- 
presei-ved larvae, without dissection, the head is considered to be 
free, as opposed to retracted (see below). When free the head is 
usually pigmented posteriorly and, in dorsal view, the posterior 
margin, is often broadly rounded or transverse. 

Head, length: The length of the head is measured from its posterior 
margin to the anterior margin of frons. ' 

Head, retracted: The. posterior part of the head capsule in certain 
genera or groups of genera is embedded in prothorax and caiiilot be 
observed in properly preserved lai«vae Avithout dissection.' In' these 
eases the head is referred to-ias retracted. 'Chfe pOsterioi" part' 6f the 
head is usually .not pigmented, the principal setae are Mv-.frfml'^f 

128 PKOf. KNT. SOI'. AVASH., VOL. 49. NO. ■'), M.\Y. 1947 

the middle of the head and, in dorsal view, the posterior margin of 
the head is often oval to broadly oval. 

Hypopharyngeal bracon (fig. 9, HB): A transverse brace, immediate- 
ly behind the fossae for mairdibles, usually visible in a ventral view 
of the head after removal of the mouthparts. 

Labium (fig. 2): The labium consists of two subdivisions, prementnm 
(fig. 2, PrMt) and pofiimcntum (fig. 2, PMt). The prementum is 
the distal portion of the labium from which the labial palpi aj-ise. 
It is bounded posteriorly by the prrmnital sclerite (fig. 2, PrmS) 
which is usually pigmented and often has the shape of a trident. 
The postmentum, the proximal portion of the labium, is usually 7uem- 
branous and nearly always bears three pairs of setae, the postitHit- 
tal setae (fig. 2, pmsl to pms3). 

Labral rod (fig. 3, LmE): In the majoritj' of larvae the most con- 
spicuous feature of the epipharynx is a pair of dark-colored, rodlike 
structures, the lahral rods. They are the epipharyngeal rods of 
authors. Although most readily visible in a view of epipharynx 
they are Ijasically a part of labrum from which they arise. 

Labral seta: see Labrum. 

Labrum (fig. 8, Lm and fig. 1): The labrum usually bears three pairs 
of setae, the lahral setae (fig. 1, Imsl to lms3). In descriptions they 
are referred to by number, the numbers agreeing with those indi- 
cated for Pissodes. Also on labrum are found, rather uniformly, a 
pair of lateral seiisilla (fig. 1, Isl) and often one median sensilhim 
(fig. 1, msl). The anterior margin of labrum may be straight or 
smoothly rounded or that portion between the bases of the labral 
rods may l)e slightly produced or slightly to obviously emarginate. 

Lateral epicranial seta: see Epieranium. 

Mala (fig. 2, Ma and fig. 5): The maxillary mala is provided with 
setae along its inner margin. Those the base of which is visible in 
a ventral view of mala, are arbitrarily called ventral setae of mala 
(fig. 5, vsma). Those apparently arising on the dorsal surface and 
usually arranged in an evident row, are referred to as the dorsal 
setae of mala (fig. 5, dsma). 

Mandibular seta (fig. 4, mdsl, mds2): On the outer surface of mandi- 
ble there are nearly always two setae, referred to in descriptions as 
the mandibular setae. The more posterior or more dorsal seta is 
referred to as mandibular seta 1 (fig. 4, mdsl) the other as mandib- 
ular seta 3 (fig. 4, mds2). 

MaxiUary palpus (fig. 5, MxP): The maxillary palpus nearly always 
consists of two readily distinguishable articles. The basal article 
bears a short to minute seta on ventral inner surface. In some larvae 
a free, rodlike accessory process of maxillary palpus arises from the 
dorsolateral surface of apex of basal article. In most larvae, how- 
ever, this process has become fused with the apical article and its 
connection with basal article obliterated. 

Ocellus (fig. 8, Oc): In most larvae there is a convex lens on each side 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. WAteH., VOL. 49, NO. •"), MAY, 1947 129 

of the head just lateral or posterolateral to antenna. This is re- 
■ f erred to as the anterior ocellus. In some groups there is a second 
bt-ellus, the posterior ocellus located dorsolaterally ou each side of 
the head, before the middle. Unless a convex lens is clearly diseerui- 
ble, even though a subcutaneous pigment spot nuiy lie visible, the 
ocellus is considered to be absent. 

Pedal area (figs. 11, 12, PdA): A subtriangular area ou eacliside of 
the midventral line of thoracic segments and, nearly always, ab- 
dominal segments I to VII. The apex of the triangular area is 
toAvard the midventral line. Each pedal area, on thorax, hears sev- 
eral setae and, on abdomen, usually bears one seta. 

Peritreme: see Spiracle. 

Pleurum (fig. 11, PI): An area or lobe which lies imnuHliately below 
the dorsopleural line on the thoracic segments and abdominal seg- 
ments I to VIII. Each pleural lobe may bear one or, more com- 
monly, two setae, the pleural setae (figs. 11, 12, psl, ps2). 

Postdorsal seta (figs. 11, 12 pdsl to pdso): The setae on postdorsmn 
of mesothorax, metathorax and abdominal segments I to VIII have 
been assigned numliers in order that each seta may be referred to 
when desirable. No attempt has been made to homologize the setae 
in the various tribes and subfamilies. The seta on each postdorsal 
area which is nearest the middorsal line is referred to as postdorsal 
seta 1 (fig. 11, pdsl) ; the seta lateral to seta 1 is referred to as 
seta 2 (fig. 11, pds2) and so forth. In descriptions, when the num- 
ber of setae on postdorsum is given, only the number on one side of 
the middorsal line is indicated. 

Postdorsum: see Dorsal fold. 

Posterior epicranial seta: see Epierauium. 

Postmentum: see Labium. 

Premental sclerite: see Labium. 

Prodorsum: see Dorsal fold. 

Pronotum (fig. 11, DPt): The dorsum of prothorax, or pronotum, is 
not differentiated into easily interpreted subareas and is treated as 
a Unit. It is considered as extending laterally as far as the level of 
mesothoracic spiracle. When the number of setae is given, that 
number applies to the setae on one side of the middorsal line only. 

Sensillum of labrum: see Labrum. 

Spiracle (figs. 11, 12, Sp and Fig. 7) : Each spiracle consists of a basal 
collarlike peritreme (fig. 7, Prt) with or without finger-shaped, an- 
nulated or non-anuulated air tubes (fig. 7, ATb). A spiracle witli 
a single air tube is described as unicameral; one with two air tubes 
as bicameral. 

Spiracular area (fig. 11, SpA) : A usually poorly de&ned area in the 
vicinity of each spiracle or, on metathorax, rudimentary spiracle. 
The spiracular area usually lies above and behind the spiracle and 
bears the setae of spiracular area (figs. 11, 12, ssl, S82). 

Sternal seta: see Sternum. 

PLATE 13 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 0, MAY, 1947 

Pig. i. Pissodes strobi (Peck), clypeus and labium. Pig. 2. P. fascia- 
tus Lee, labium and maxillae, ventral view. Fig. 3. P. strobi, epi- 
pharynx. Pig. 4. P. strobi, mandible, lateral view. Pig. ."i. P. strobi, 
apex of maxilla, ventral view. Pig. 6. P. fascmtus, lateral view. Pig. 7. 
P. fasciatiis, firs\ abdominal spiracle. Pig. 8. P. strobi, head, dorsal 
vie>v. Fig. 9. P. strobi, head, ventral view, mouthparts rernoved. Pig. 
,10. P. strobi, left antenna, dorsal view. , (Drawn by author."^ 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. .1, MAY, 194; 


Sternellum (figs. 11, 12, Stn): The posterior transverse fold on the 
ventral surface of abdominal segments I to VII. It is not dis 
tinguishable in certain groups of Bhyiiehophora. When present it 
does not bear setae. 

Sternum (fig. 11, St): A typically subtriangular area nearest' the an- 
terior margin on the ventral surface of each thoracic segment. The 
sternum usually bears one seta, the sternal seta (fig. 11, sts) on 
each side of the midventral line and in descriptions only the seta 
(or rarely setae) on one side is mentioned. 

Typical abdominal segment: Abdominal segments II to VI are usually 
identical in so far as areas and arrangements of setae are con- 
cerned and are referred to as typical. The areas and setae on seg 
ments I and VII may or may not be identical with those on seg- 
ments II to VI. 

Unicameral: see Spiracle. 

Ventral epicranial seta: see Epicranium. 

Fig. 11. Pissodes strohi, thoracic and first abdominal segments, semi- 
diagrammatic. Fig. 12. P. strohi, abdominal segments VII to X, semi- 
diagrammatic. Fig. 13. P. strohi, abdominal segment X. (Drawn by 


PROC. KNT. SOr. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 5, M.\Y. 1947 

Explanation of Lettf.king on Figures . 

Abl to AbX, abdominal segments 

acap, acccssoiy sensory appendage 
rof antenna 

AlA, alar area 

als, anterolateral setae of epiphar- 

: ynx 

ams, anteromedian setae of epi- 

AnL, lobes of anus 

Anu, anuulus of spiracular air tube 

art, basal article of antenna 

ATb, air tubes of spiracle 

Cat, catapophysis 

CI, clypeus 

elsl, cl82, clypeal setae 

clsl, clypeal sensillum 

desl to deso, dorsal epicranial se- 

DPt, pronotuni or dorsum of pro- 

dsma, dorsal setae of mala 

Enc, endocarina 

EPl, epipleurum 

epsl, eps2, epipleural setae 

Epx, epipharynx 

ES, epicranial suture 

CHsl, eus2, eusternal setae 

EuSt, eusternum 

Fldl to FldlV, folds of abdomi- 
nal segments 

Fr, frons 

fsl to fs5, frontal setae 

FS, frontal suture 

HB, hypopharyngeal braeon 

LbP, labial palpus 

lesl, les2, lateral epicranial setae 

Lm, labrum 

LmR, labral rod 

Imsl to ]ms3, labral setae 

Isl, lateral sensillum of labrum 

Ma. mala 

mdsl, nids2, mandibular setae 

msl, median sensillum of labrum 

msp, median spines of epipharynx 

MxP, maxillary palpus 

Oc, ocellus 

Or, orifice of spiracle 

PdA, pedal area 

pdsl to pds5, postdorsal setae 

pes, posterior epicranial setae 

PI, pleurum 

pmsl to pms3, postmental setae 

PMt, postmeutum 

PrD, prodorsum 

PrMt, prementum 

PrmS, premental sclerite 

prs, prodorsal setae 

Prt, peritreme of spiracle 

psl, ps2, pleural setae 

PsD, postdorsum 

snp, sensory pores of epipharynx 

Sp, spiracle 

SpA, spiracular area 

ssl, ss2, setae of spiracular area 

St, sternum 

Stn, sternellum 

sts, sternal seta 

ThI to ThIII, thoracic segments 

vesl, ves2, ventral epicranial setae 

vsma, ventral setae of mala 

PKGC. KXT. SOC. AVA8H., VOL. 49, NO. •"), MAY, 1047 133 


By Eowakd W. Baker 

Bureau of Eiitoinolof/ii and I'hnif Quarantine, United States 

Department of Aqriculturc 


Tlie <iemis Tridilaiydeus Baker, type Tridilatydeus minu- 
tus Baker, was established in 11)46, Aiiales de la Esciiela de 
Ciencias Biologieas, vol. IV, Xos. 2-3, June 1946, p. 257. That 
paper was intended as the first in a series on the family 
Tydeidae, but unfortunately, owing to delay in publication, 
the generic name Tridilatydeus was used prior to its valida- 
tion in 1946, in three papers which appeared in 1943 and 1944 
treating six species. These species were thus represented 
only by manuscript names. It is the purpose of this note to 
validate the following names as of the present date and pub- 
lication : 

Tridilatydeus stonei Baker, p. IS", and T. I'orsmeiri Baker, pp. 1S7, 
]SS, Eevista de la Sociedad Mexicaiia de Historia Natural, Tomo 
IV, Nos. 3-4, December 194.'^. 
Tridilatydeus hirsutus Baker, p. 7"), Eevista de la Sociedad Mexicaria 

de Historia Natural, Tomo V, Nos. 1-2, Juue 1944. 
Tridilatydeus gloteriferus Baker, pp. Kifl, 161, T. fragarius Baker, p. 
161, and T. robitstus Baker, p. 162, Proceedings Entomological So- 
ciety of Washington, vol. 46, No. 6, June 1944. 

Retetydeus doddsi Baker 

Retetydeus doddsi Baker, 1944, Eevista de la Sociedad Mexicana de 

Historia Natural, Y (1, 2): 79, 80, June. 
Lorryia baloclci Baker, 1944, Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Mexico, 

XV (1) : 216, 217. (New synonymy.) 

Retetydeus and Lorryia are similar in having a reticulate 
dorsal pattern, but the two are distinct in that Retetydeus 
possesses several dorsal bosses or swellings, whereas Lorryia 
has the normal rounded dorsum. In mounting, some of the 
specimens of Retetydeus were flattened so that they appeared 
to belong to the genus Lorryia and were described as such. 
Further study has shown doddsi and halocki to be the same. 
The description of R. doddsi was published in June 1944. No 
publication date other than the year was found for the volume 
containing the description of L. halocki, but, since that vol- 
ume was received in Washington, D. C, October 28, 1944, 
doddsi has been selected as having priority. 

134 PROC. BNT. S0«;. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. '), MAY, 1947 

Tydeus zempoalensis Baker 

Tifdeus zi'mpoahnsiii Baker, 11>43, Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de 
Historia Natural, IV (3, 4): 182. 

TydcMs popocatcpetlensis Baker, lt)43, Kevista de la Sociedad Mexicana 
de Historia Natural, IV (3, 4) : 183, 184. (New synonymy.) 

It was stated in the original description of Tydeus p&pocata- 
petlensis that the dorsal setae were simple. This was the prin- 
cipal character used to separate it from T. zeinpoalensis. How- 
ever, it has since been found that these setae are pilose as in 
T. zempoalensis and further study has shown the mites to be 
the same. 

Opportunity is here taken to present the description of two 
new species, one collected in the United States by W. F. Tur- 
ner during- a survey of the insects in the soil of peach or- 
chards, and the other collected in Mexico by P. Bonet. 

Coccotydeus tumeri, new species 
(Fig. 1) 

Femalt.—A very small mite; coloi" unknowu; simple suture between 
propodosoma and hysterosoma. Skin finely striated. Rostrum normal, 
with an anterior pair of ventral setae and a posterior pair of ventral 
setae which cross under segment I of palpi. Palpi small, segment II 
about 7 M long, Avith a short basal seta; segment III about 3 /" long, 
with a long and a short setae ; segment IV about 5 m long with three 
very short terminal setae. No eyes visible. Propodosomal sensory setae 
as figured, clublike, pilose, rounded distally; propodosomal and hysteroso- 
mal setae short, about 8 M long; all dorsal body and all leg setae strong, 
pilose. Tarsi I and II each with a large sensory organ as figured, that 
on tarsus I much larger and directed forward, and that on tarsus II 
more or less globular. Pulvilli apparently haired. Length of body 113 
/"; including rostrum 139 M; width ;")S /". 

The type female, U. S. National Museum No. 1711, was 
talven from peach orchard soil, Escambia County, Ala., July 
15, 1936, by W. F. Turner. Three paratypes were collected 
from peach orchard soil, Upson County, Ga., July 23, 1936, 
by W. F. Turner. 

Coccotydevs tuyncri is distinguished from the others in the 
genu? in having strongly pilose dorsal setae ; in having the 
senso^-y setae between the anterior and posterior row of pro- 
podosiomal setae rather than iii either row; in having palpal 
segment IV short (apparently about half, as long as in the 
other' species) ; and in having very large jsensory organs on 
tarsirl and II. that on tarsus d.'bein^i'nnu'li.. larger than that 
on tarsus II. :■■>'■ ■ ■ 

PRO( . ENT. t^OC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. "), MAY, 1947 


Lorryia chiapensis^ new species 

(Figs.. 2-4) 
Female. — Small mite; color unknown; body narrowing slightly to 
rear; body suture entire, bowed posteriorly; dorsal striations ai^pear to 
be formed of double lines with tubercles between as figured. Dorsal skin 
pattern distinctive; a reticulate pattern between the eyes and extending 
length of propodosonui, the reticulate elements of central portion longer 
than Avide. Rest of body striated as figured, with three pairs of lateral 
whorls on hysterosoma ; striations broken into irregular patterns around 
setal bas^s. Venter of mite covered with striations. Rostrum almost 
hidden by nutei-ior portion of body; with two pairs of short anterior 
setae and a posterior jiair of -longer setae which cross under segment I 
of palpus. Palpal segment I, 9 /x long by 12 M Avide; segment II, 22 /J- 
long by 13 /J- wide; segment III, 4.5 M Jong by 6 M wide; segment IV, 
19 fJ- long l)y (i fi wide, clublike, Avith short terminal setae. Two eye 
spots between lateral propodosomal setae. All dorsal- setae simple: 
propodosomal setae 19 /"■ long ; propodosomal sensory setae 56 M long ; 
setae of the tAvo posterior roAvs on hysterosoma about 24 m long ; other 
hysterosomal setae about 19 /J- long. Leg I short, about 130 M long ; leg 
setae simple; tarsus I as figured, with a short clublike sensory organ. 
Length of body 2(i(i M; including rostrum only a few microns longer; 
width of niduiitcd siiocimen 200 M. 

Coccotydeus /«/•» 

Lorryia chiapenst 

Dorsal striae 

neAv species. Fig. 1, Dorsal vicAv of female, 
new species. Fig. 2. Dorsal view of female. Fig. 
Fig. 4, Tarsus I. 

136 PROr. EXT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. •", MAY, 1947 

The type female, U. S. National Museum No. 1712, was col- 
lected in leaf mold. El Vergel, Chiapas, Mexico, January 3, 
1940, by F. Bonet. Two paratype.s were collected at the same 
locality January 20, 1943, by F. Bonet, and are deposited in 
his collection in Mexico City. 

The reticulate pattern distinguishes this species from the 
others in the genus. 

(Hymenoptera-Chalcididae ) 

By B. D. Burks, Illinois Natural History Survey 

The genus Dirhinus is represented in the Oriental and Afri- 
can regions by several fairly common and widely distributed 
species. Dirhinus has, on the other hand, only a few, rela- 
tively rare species in the Nearctic region. Up to the present 
time, but two speckles, occurring in the Gulf Coast and South- 
western states, liave been known in this region. It is, thus, 
quite interesting to find that two additional species of Di- 
rhinus occur in Indiana and Illinois. Descriptions of these 
two new spei-ies are given in this paper. 

Genus DIRHINUS Daliuiui 
Dirhinus Dalman, Svensk. Vet.— Akad. Handl., 39:75, 1818.— Nees ah 
Esenbeck, Hymenopterorum leliiieumonibus Affinium, vol. 2:54, 1834. — 
Foerster, Hyinenopterologisehe Studien, vol. 2:29, 18o6. — Walker, Notes 
on Chalcidiae, pt. 3; 39, 1871.— Ashmead, Ent. Amer., 4:87, 1888.— Ash- 
mead, Mem. Carnegie Mus., 1:257, 1904. — Schmiedeknecht, Gen. Ins., 
fasc. 97:67, 1909.— Burks, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 22:285, 1936. 

Eniaca Kirby, Jl. Linn. See. Lond., Zool., 17:57, 1883. 

Hontalia Cameron, Bio. Cent.— Am. Zool., pt. 10, vol. 1:112, 1884. 

Pareniaca Crawford, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 45:312, 1913. 

The following combination of characters will distinguish 
the members of the genus Dirhinus from all other members of 
the superfamily Chalcidoidea : 

Head produced anteriorly on either side of antennal scrobe cavity, so 
that, in dorsal aspect, head appears to bear a pair of short, blunt horns, 
as in figs. 4-6; each of tliese horns bears, dorsally, a small platform or 
Jiicria, fig. 5; each hicria bounded laterally, mesally, and anteriorly by a 
low, thin, upturned border. Antennae 13-segmented, inserted low on 
face, near clypeal margin. Hind femora enlarged, bearing, on outer 
ventral margin, a fairly large, blunt basal tooth and numerous, minute 
and closely-set following teeth; hind tibia arcuate, bearing one terminal 
spur. Dorsal surface of propodeum almost parallel with longitudinal 
axis of body ; abdomen petiolate ; petiole parallel with longitudinal axis 

I'KOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY, 11147 137 

of body, coarsely sculptured and short: leugth usually less than dorsal 
width; third abdominal (first gastral) tergite occupying half or more 
dorsal length of gaster; ovipositor may or may not be exserted. 

Key to Xkaiutic Species 'i 

1. Frons with a secondary projecting tooth, when seen in lateral as- 

pect (fig. 7); border of hicria not notched near frontal angle 

(fig. 5) _ sohivarzi (Crawford) 

Frons not secondarily produced (figs. 1, 2, 3) ; border of hicria 
notched near frontal angle (figs. 4, 6, 8) 2 

2. Outer border of hicria almost reaching margin of compound eye 

(fig. 4) fCifavKii (Ashmead) 

Outer border of hicria located half-way between iuTier margin of 

compound eye and inner border of hicria (figs, li, 8) 3 

8. Head, in dorsal aspect, appearing wider than long (fig. 8) ; in 
lateral aspect, the vertex rounded (fig. 2) ; pubescence of dor- 
sum of thorax silvery . perideus, n. sp. 

Head, in dorsal aspect, appearing longer than wide (fig. G) ; in 
lateral aspect, the vertex more flattened (fig. 3) ; pubescence 
of dorsum of thorax golden paoli, n. sp. 

Dirhinus paoli, new species 
Figs. 3, 6 

Head, body, all coxae, and liind femora and tibiae, dull black; an- 
tennae, front and middle femora and tibiae, and wings, broAvn; tegulae 
and all tarsi, yellow. 

3/«7r.- Length 4 mm. Head clothed with short, silvery pubescence; 
when viewed in dorsal aspect, maximum length of head greater than 
maximum width; hicriae appearing relatively small (fig. G) ; a notch 
present in border of each hicria near anterior angle; outer border of 
hicria terminating at a point one-half the distance from anterior angle 
of head to lateral ocellus; maximum dorsal length of head three times 
as great as maximum dorsal length of compound eye ; relative lengths 
of parts of antenna (measured in arbitrary units) : scape 3n, pedicel fi, 
ring segment 2, first funicle segment 8, second G, third to seventh 5 each, 
eighth to tenth combined 12. 

Thorax clothed with coarse, appressed pubescence, this pubescence 
golden on dorsum, silvery on pleura and sternum ; legs with dense, fine 
pubescence; narrow, transverse area at anterior margin of mesopraescu- 
tum shagreened, and small median area of mesoscutellum glabrous; bal- 
ance of dorsum of thorax uniformly covered l)y large, setigerous pits; 
surface of thoracic pleura similarly pitted, except for median, dorso- 
ventral depressed area of mesopleuron, surface of which bears numerous, 
parallel ridges and obscure shagreening; front coxae shagreened, middle 
and liind ones dull, Avith minutely roughened (matt) surface, except for 

138 PROC. EXT. soc. wwan., vol. 49, no. 5, may, 1!)47 

buteCf dorsal area of eac-li, which is sliiuing and provided with nunu'ious 
parallel ridges; inner tooth of metafemur minute, sharp. 

Propodeum rugose, with a median, longitudinal fovea bouiideti by 
arcuate, roughened carinae; length of petiole less than its dorsal width, 
dorsum of petiole provided with several coarse, longitudinal rugae, voji 
tral surface rugose and shagreened. Dorsal length of gaster as great 
as that of thorax; third abdominal (first gastral) tergite occupying more 
than, two-third dorsal length of gaster; third tergite with surface gla- 
brous except at posterolateral angles, where it bears numerous, minute 
and closely-set punctures and sparse, minute pubescence; this tergite 
also bears several short, longitudinal ridges at base on meson; tergites 
four to eight each Avith a narrow, transverse band of minute, closely-set 
punctures and a single, sijarse row of pubescence at posterior margin. 
Normally-exposed portion of ninth tergite covered with relatively dense, 
elongate pubescence; each cercus bearing 5 long bristles. First gastral 
sternite provided with several short, longitudinal ridges at base; gas 
tral sternites each with a narrow, longitudinal, mesal punctured and 
setose area at apex (when sternites are normally telescoped, these reticu- 
lated areas form an almost continuous, narrow, longitudinal band) ; ninth 
sternite pitted, shagreened, and completely setose. 

Female. — Unknown. 

This species resembles D. fexaiins (Aslimead) in laekin^- 
secondary protuberances on the frons and in havino- a minute 
notch in the border of each hicria near the antero-dorsal angle 
of the head; 2^ooli differs from texanus in possessin<i' a differ- 
ently-shaped head with much smaller hicriae. 

Holotype, male. — Paoli, Indiana, August 4, 1040. B. D. 
Burks. Specimen taken while sweeping dry, woods-edge vege- 
tation. Type deposited in the Illinois Natural History Survey 

Dirhinus perideus, new species 

Figs. 2, 8 

Head, body, all coxae, and hind femora and tibiae, dull black; an- 
tennae, front and middle legs, hind tarsi, and wing veins, light golden 
yellow-brown; wing membranes hyaline. 

Male. — Length 3 mm. Differs from B. paoli only- in the following 
particulars: head, when viewed in dorsal aspect, having maximum width 
greater than maximum length; hicria relatively broader than in paoli 
(fig. 8); maximum dorsal length of head ivdce as great as maximum 
dorsal length of compound eye; relative lengths of parts of antenna: 
scape 28, pedicel 5, ring segment 2, first funiclc segment 6, second 4.5, 
third to seventh 4 each, eighth to tenth combined 12. Entire thorax 
clothed with silvery pubescence. Dorsal length of gaster slightly greater 
than that of thorax. Punctured and setose area on meson of each ab 
dominal sternite three to eight expanded laterally toward posterior 
margin of stiernite, so that these areas are approximately triangular. 

PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY, 1947 


When sternites are normally telescoped, these sculptured areas form a 
median, discontinuous series of short, transverse patches. 

Female. — Unknown. 

This species resembles D. paoli in having a small hicria, but 
differs in having a broader, shorter head, a different pattern 
of sculpturing on the abdominal sternites, and differently-col- 
ored legs and wings. 

Holotype, male — Ft. Massac State Park, near Metropolis, 
Illinois, July 16, 1938, Burks and Boesel. Specimen taken 

Heads of Dirhinus: Tig. 1. texanus (Ashmead), lateral aspect; Fig. 2. 
D. 'pendens, n. sp., lateral aspect; Fig. 3. Z>. paoli, n. sp., lateral aspect; 
Fig. 4. B. texanus (Ashmead), dorsal aspect; Fig. 5. B. schwarsi 
(Crawford), dorsal aspect; Fig. 6. B. paoli, n. sp., dorsal aspect; Fig. 
7. B. scinvarzi (Crawford), lateral aspect; Fig. 8. B. perideus, n. sp., 
dorsal aspect. 

140 PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49. NO. "), MAY, 1947 

while sweeping grass. Type deposited in Illinois Natural His- 
tory Survey Collection. 

Dirhinus texanus (Ashmead) 
Figs. 1, 4 

Eniaca texana Ashmead, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 23:217, 1896. — Dalla 
Torre, Cat. Hymen., vol. 5:368, 1898. — Schmiedekneeht, Gen. Ins., fase. 
97:67, 1909.— Roberts, Jl. Agr. Res., 50:490, 1935. 

Dirhinus texanus (Ashmead) Burks, Proc. Nat. Aead. Sci., 22:286, 

Type locality. — College Station, Texas. 

Type.— U.S.N.M. No. 3325. 

Dirhinus schwarzi (Crawford) 
Figs. 5, 7 

Pareniaea schwarzi Crawford, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 45:312, 1913. 
Dirhinus schwarzi (Crawford) Burks, Proc. Nat. Aead. Sci., 22:286, 

Type locality. — Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona. 
Type.— U.S.N.M. No. 15547. 


The 570th regular meeting of the Society was held at 8 P.M., February 
6, 1947, in Room 43 of the U. S. National Museum with President Clark 
presiding. Fifty members and 23 guests were present. 

At the request of the President, Dr. Sailer placed before the Society 
an amendment to the Constitution proposed by the Executive Committee. 
The present Constitution contains no provision by which the Society 
can give special recognition to members whom it wishes to honor. Arti- 
cle 7 of the By-Laws requires that amendments must be submitted at 
one regular meeting to be voted on at the next. The text of the pro- 
posed amendment is as follows: Article VIII of the By-Laws (Hon- 
orary Members). The Society may elect honorary members in recogni- 
tion of long and meritorious effort directed toward the advance of 
entomological science. Individuals so recognized shall be approved 
unanimously by the Executive Committee and by a two-thirds vote of 
members present at any regular meeting. Honorary members shall be 
elected for life, shall pay no dues, and shall be accorded all privileges 
of members. The number of honorary members carried concurrently on 
the membership roll shall not exceed three. 

New members were elected as follows: 

Dr. Richard E. Blackwelder, Associate Curator of Entomology, V. S. 
National Museum 

Traber N. Dobbins, U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran- 
tine, Beltsville, Md. 

PROC. ENT. SOr. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY, 1947 141 

Charles B. Eaton, U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
Beltsville, Md. 

Borys Malkin, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 

George C. Steyskal, 2945 Wabash St., Detroit 16, Michigan 

Capt. Robert Traub, U. S. Army, Chief of the Section of Entomology, 
Army Medical Center 

Mr. Haeussler stated that the Auditing Committee had examined the 
Report of the Treasurer and found it correct and in good order. The 
Committee felt that the finances of the Society had been very well han- 
dled and wished to commend Mr. Reed particularly on his work in the 
simplification of the accounts, especially of the Publication Fund. 

Mr. Jones discussed the meeting of the Cotton States Entomologists. 
Attendance was excellent and in addition to 31 papers, one half of 
which were on cotton insects, there were two symposia, one on the use 
of newly developed insecticides, and one on airplane application of in- 
secticides. Dwight Isely of Arkansas was elected chairman of the 
Cotton States Branch for next year. 

A. B. Gurney invited attention to the death in Philadelphia, on Dec. 
28, 1946, of Morgan Hebard. Mr. Hebard was born at Cleveland, Ohio 
in 1887, was graduated by Yale University in 1910 and for more than 
40 years was associated with the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia. His specialty was the taxonomy of Orthoptera and Dermaptera 
from all parts of the world, and he was endowed with unusual enthusiasm 
and ability which rapidly made him preeminent in his chosen field of 
research by virtue of his extensive collection and many published con- 
tributions. Gurney commented on the loss which the science of en- 
tomology has suffered in Mr. Hebard 's death at such a comparatively 
early age. (Author's Abstract.) 

The ability of certain walkingsticks (Phasmatidae) to eject a re- 
pugnatorial fluid capable of causing great pain to the human eye was 
briefly discussed by A. B. Gurney. It is known that various species 
have specialized glands near the anterolateral angles of the pronotum 
{see Henry, 1937. Pan-Pac. Ent., 13:140; Maynard, 1889. Contrib. to 
Sci., 1 (1) : 31-35 and these are probably the source, in the genus Aniso- 
morplia, of a fluid which members of the genus in the Southeastern 
States occasionally squirt to a distance of several inches as a means of 
defense. M. A. Stewart (Canad. Ent., 69:84-86, 1937) has described a 
case occurring in Texas of human eye injury by these insects. A closely 
comparable type of injury by a large spider has been reported by E. R. 
Tinkham (Bull. U. S. Army Med. Dept., 5(3) :361-362, 1946). In this 
instance, a soldier located in Florida received a charge of material in 
the eye which was very painful and the effects of which lasted two days. 
The spider was said by the soldier to be responsible, and it was brought 
to Dr. Tinkham for study. It is important that people avoid the care- 
less handling of insects and other arthropods likely to be dangerous in 
this respect and that, when opportunities occur to make observations 
along this line, the facts be carefully recorded. Attacks often occur 

142 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. a, MAY, 1947 

SO quickly and unexpectedly, sometimes at night, that, should several 
insects of different kinds be associated near each other, the actual cul- 
prit is not always readily identified. (Author's Abstract.) 

W. E. IIoffniMiiii stated that (Tiirney's remarks called to mind the 
ejection of fluid in certain Pentatomids or Stink-bugs. Phloeophana 
longirostris (Spiiiola) of Brazil and Te.s.saratoma papilloma (Drury) 
of the Orient upon the slightest excitation eject a stream of fluid from 
the anus. In the Oriental species the nymphs and adults usually vi- 
brate the antennae when disturbed and the adults often stridulate as 
well. When approached more closely this species ejects a very obnoxious 
fluid from the stink glands. The bug may do this without warning or 
as it stridulates. In the nymphs this fluid comes from paired openings 
on the fourth and fifth abdominal segments. The bag containing this 
fluid measured 4 mm by 6 mm. in a fifth-stage nymph. In the adult 
this protective fluid comes from a pair of odoriferous orifices on the 
metapleura. The fluid is of a light amber color and that ejected by 
the nymph is more offensive than that given off by the adult. The 
larger nymphs can eject the fluid for a distance of several inches at 
least and the adults to a distance of one foot or more. The adult 
lunges sideward as it sends out the spray of surprising volume and 
speed and with remarkable accuracy. 

The fluid stains the skin yellow somewhat after the manner of nitric 
acid, and the skin peels off in a few days. If the fluid comes into con- 
tact with skin wet with perspiration one immediately experiences a 
smarting sensation, which soon after feels like a burn and continues to 
do so for two or three days. These spots are yellowish-brown, ringed 
with red, and may perists for a fortnight or longer. Far more serious, 
however, is receiving a charge of the fluid in the eye. This frequently 
occurs to orchardists, and particularly to people harvesting the fruit of 
the Lychee, the chief food-plant of the bug. Kershaw and Muir called 
attention to this in 1909, saying that the fluid caused an almost intoler- 
able smarting. Falkenstein, 1931, spoke of this in some detail. I once 
experienced this myself and although promptly treated by a physician I 
suffered intense pain for about 40 hours and was unable to see out of 
the eye for several days. The eye was weak and sensitive to light for 
several weeks. An eminent American oculist in Canton told me that he 
had treated a number of Chinese for this type of ey£ injury and of one 
case in particular which he had under treatment for about three months. 
This was a young man Avho apparently had received a very full charge 
of the fluid. The oculist believed that the eye would be permanently 
affected and had wished to keep the case under observation, but after 
three months the patient left the community and the case could not be 
followed. Chemists of the Bureau of Science in Manila made a study of 
this fluid in another species of this genus and found the active compo- 
nent to be a formaldehyde-like product. Recently (Faure, 1944) at- 
tention has been drawn to a South African Pentatomid, Encosternum 
delefjorguci Spinola, which ejects fluid from the stink-glands Avith con- 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY, 1947 143 

siderable force. The fluid produces severe pain in a cut on one's hand 
and also burns the eyes severely, causing temporary or even more 
srious blindness. (Author's Abstract.) 

Dr. Stone exhibited eggs, females, and males of a small midge which 
is as yet undescribed but belongs to the genus Chmio. This is strictly a 
marine genus, occurring between tidal levels on rocky coasts. Females 
are wingless. The genus was originally described from Ireland about 
100 years ago. Since species have been found in South Africa, Formosa, 
Japan, the Pacific Islands, Hawaii, the Galapagos Islands, and in 
Florida, it is probably more widespread than is at present known. The 
Florida record is the first time the genus has been noted from the New 

Mr. Sasscer reported that he had recently visited Dr. L. O. Howard 
and found him cheerful, happy, and anxious to get back to Washington. 
Dr. Howard sent greetings to the Society. 

Dr. Sailer told of an amusing order received for a copy of the So- 
ciety's Memoir No. 2 in which the title was listed as: Classification of 
the Larvae and Adults of the Entomological Society of the genus 

The first paper on the regular program was given by L. G. Davis: 
The Pear Psylla Control Program in the Northwest. 

Pear Psylla (Psylla pyricola Foerst), for many years a serious pest 
of pears in the eastern United States, was found for the first time, west 
of the Mississippi Eiver, in Spokane County, Washington, in the summer 
of 1939. These finds being relatively close to the important commercial 
pear-producing areas in Washington, Oregon, and California (70 per 
cent total pears produced in the United States) there was immediate con- 
cern regarding this newly found economic pest. A State-Federal coopera- 
tive control project, based on eradication, was started early in 1940. 
Since that time regular seasonal surveys have been conducted and con- 
trol measures applied with the cooperative assistance of growers in the 
commercial areas of Washington. Except for extension of the infested 
area into British Columbia, starting in 1942, the infested area has been 
confined to eastern and north central Washington, northern Idaho, and 
one county in Oregon, with no knovni infestations found in the important 
commercial Yakima Valley of Washington (except one found and elimi- 
nated in 1944), Oregon, or California. Surveys have been improved 
through the use of sticky board traps and bands, and herbicides have 
been developed to treat and eliminate pear regrowth of all kinds which 
might serve as a host for pear psylla, and reduce the need for sprays. 
The entire commercial pear area in British Columbia is now infested and 
the close proximity to Washington has currently reduced the possibility 
of eradication in the States, consequently the program has been con- 
tinued for the protection of noninfested commercial areas in the States. 
(Author's Abstract.) 

W. L. Popham presented the second paper: The Golden Nematode 
(Heterodera rostochiensis Woll.) in the United States and in Europe. 

144 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY, 1947 

Twenty-six hundred acres of potato land in Nassau County, New York, 
infested with the destructive golden nematode (Heterodera rostochiensis 
Woll.) constitute a threat to the potato industry of the United States. 
In 1934 a farmer near Hicksville noticed a few isolated spots in his 
potato field where the vines were stunted and off color. Harvested 
tubers were small, many no larger than marbles. The spots continued 
to multiply in number and size. A soil deficiency was at first suspected, 
but in 1941 the "potato sick" spots were determined to be infested 
with cysts of the golden nematode. This soil-infesting parasite is eel- 
like in shape, thin as the finest hair, and less than l/50th of an inch 
in length. At maturity the males detach themselves from the rootlets 
and soon die. The females, imbedded in the outer tissues of the rootlets, 
develop into tiny, spherical cysts which may be white, cream, yellow, 
.orange or brown in color, according to age. They may be seen with the 
unaided eye. Mature cysts, filed with eggs, usually become detached 
from the roots and remain like weed seed in the soil. A cyst count of 5 
to an ounce of soil is looked upon as a highly destructive population. In 
the absence of host plants (potatoes or tomatoes) the cysts remain 
inactive but viable for at least 8 years. In less than 30 years after the 
golden nematode was discovered in England it was recognized as the 
most destructive of all potato pests. Infested fields are to be found in 
every important potato producing area. The most effective way to stop 
spread is to take infested land out of potato and tomato production for 
an indefinite period. Certain fumigants will reduce but not eradicate 
the infestation. The infested area on Long Island represents less than 
5 per cent of normal potato land, and even prevention of local spread 
is important. The nematode may be easily spread by movement of soil 
from infested land, by farm machinery, or by bags used in marketing 
potatoes. Should it become established in our major potato growing 
areas, the tax on growers would be tremendous. Potato growers must 
lend their full support to the current effort to prevent further spread. 
State Pest Control officials in both the United States and Canada should 
be alert to the possibility that the golden nematode may already be 
established in areas under their jurisdiction. It is important to remem- 
ber that infestation may exist in a field for several seasons before ap- 
preciable damage is noticed. Therefore, any report suggestive of 
golden nematode damage should be promptly investigated. (Author's 

Visitors introduced to the Society were: Don C. Mote, L. F. Curl, A. 
J. Chapman, J. G. Sanders, C. E. Cooley, Eichard Faxon, A. G. Webb, 
and D. W. Clancy. 

The meeting adjourned at 9.55 P. M. 

Ina L. Hawes, 
Becording Secretary. 

Actual date of publication, April 28, 1947 

VOL. 49 

June, 1947 

No. 6 


of the 



Published Monthly Except July, August an© Septembee 





Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washinffton, 
D. C, under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailiner at the special rate of postage provided for in. Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 




Organized March 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum 
on the first Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00 ; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President ^ ....L. O. Howard 

President ' Austin H. Clark 

First Vice President _ _...E. H. Siegler 

Second Vice President-^ T. E. Snyder 

Recording Secretary _.Ina L. Haaves 

Corresponding Secretary - E. I. Sailer 

Treasurer-^ ...■ L. B. Eeed 

Editor- Karl V. Krombein 

Executive Committee P. N. Annand, F. W. Poos, C. A. Weigeil 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences C. F. W. Muesebeck 


Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society 
at Washington, D. C. Terms of Subscription: Effective with Voliune 
50, 1948 the subscription price is $4.50 per annum, both domestic and 
foreign; recent single numbers, 50 cents, foreign postage extra. All 
subscriptions are payable in advance. Eemittances should be made 
payable to the Entomological Society of Washington. The Society 
does not exchange its publications for those of other societies. 

Authors will be furnished not to exceed 10 copies of the number in 
which their articles appear at a charge of 25 cents per copy, or re- 
prints of such articles, without covers, at the following rates, provided 
a statement of the number desired accompanies the manuscript: 

2 pp. 4 pp. 8 pp. 12 pp. 16 pp. Covers 

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Purchase of reprints by institutions whose invoices are subject to no- 
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Editor, care Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Washington 
25, D. C. 

The Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer should be addressed 

proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 49 

JUNE, 1947 

No. 6 


a founder, historian, and Honorary 
President of the Entomological Society 
of Washington, to whom this number 
of the Proceedings is respectfully and 
affectionately dedicated on the occa- 
sion of his ninetieth birthday, 
lune 11th, 1947. 


146 PROC KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. (5, JUNK, l!t47 


Mr. President, We greet you! President? Yes, for three 
terms, 1886, 1887, and 1923, and Honorar.y President since 
1928. Charter member and worker extraordinary for the So- 
ciety. First Corresponding Secretary serving four terms, 
1884, 1885, 1892, 1893. Recording Secretary for seven terms, 
1894 through 1900. Advisor and leader in other official as- 
signments, including publications through the first four vol- 
umes and the Executive Committee for more than five terms 
before 1904. 

All these and other activities are proof of the important 
part you had in building our organization for the science we 
serve. Of equal or greater importance was your stimulus to 
the discussions and your encouragement to the new and 
younger members. More than once you have said in your 
charming, informal way : ' ' This is your Society ; take part in 
it. Your ideas and observa,tions are important. In the meet- 
ings you and your administrative leader are just members 
and meet as entomologists oil, equal terms." One wonders if 
you really know the influence that such comments had in 
stimulating notes and discussions. I for one can assure you 
they provided a w^elcome and made me feel I had a place 
among the great. 

Conciliator, we greet you ! Many times I, like others, have 
told you that things were all wrong. You heard how Mr. X 
wouldn't do this or insisted that there was only one way to 
do this or that. You were told how this one or someone else 
was invading a field of study that threatened the prerogatives 
of the aggrieved. Your visitor may have also assured you that 
organization, procedures, and fields of endeavor would be de- 
stroyed, or that the science of entomology would lose its iden- 
tity unless something w^ere done right away. It was usually 
you who was expected to correct the direful situation. This 
you did. If your small informal office in that little red brick 
building which stood in the way of the central section of the 
building now housing the Department of Agriculture were 
still with us, and if its walls could talk, what tribute they 
would pay you. There were few, if any, of your visitors who 
didn't have a different view when they left. They all were 
glad they came and were ready and usually anxious to carry 
on. The effect this had on the development of professional 
entomology and the place it now has in the public welfare 
cannot be overestimated. It contributed to the profession and 
the part our science has in the structure of our government. 

Humanitarian, we greet you ! Insect annoy ers of man and 
carriers of his disease are arch enemies to vou. "Kill the 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 147 

wiggletail," "Swat the fly," slogans good and true, meant 
more than comfort to you. • Your recognition of the relation 
of these pests to the health of man, your exploitation of what 
they did, your part in explaining how and why they must be 
combatted had profound influence in developing present-day 
understanding of the part these insects play in human econ- 
omy. A contribution par excellence to the welfare of the world. 

Crusader, w-e greet you ! You knew the days w^hen ' ' ento- 
mologist" meant only "bug chaser" to all but a few. ' Bugs 
are insects, but all insects are not bugs and thousands of 
similar platitudes were only minor devices you used to culti- 
vate appreciation and recognition of entomology. Your popu- 
larizing entomology and entomologists, even to the extrava- 
gant insect menace idea, did for our science what has been 
done only by few. Foundation for present-day recognition 
of the part insects play in the destiny of man was laid when 
the paths of crusaders like you were not carpeted with flowers. 

Diplomat and Historian, we greet you! Your missions of 
good will at home and abroad did much to create and develop 
the esprit de corps needed and essential for good work. Your 
accounts of progress and writings of what was being and had 
been done form a record of inestimable value for those then 
working, for those new to entomology, and for those who will 
come to carry on. Contributions now great, but they will be 
greater still in the years to come. 

Good fellow, we greet you! The yarn you could tell, your 
cheery smile, your enthusiasm for companionship, your inter- 
est in the well-being of others, and many other characteristics 
make you persona grata to myriads who have had the pleasure 
of knowing you. Your expertness at whist and your exactness 
with the billiard cue brought ready partners and fearful op- 
ponents during hours of relaxation at your favorite club. The 
twinkle in your eye, your ready and clever reply, your alert 
"How do you do!" brought many toasts with you. There's 
our good fellow and friend, L. 0. Howard. 

L. 0. Howard, We greet you ! 


Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United State.<^ Department of Agriculture 

148 PROr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 


By Austin H. Clark, U. S. National Museum 

Within the superfamily Nymphaloidea, understood as in- 
cluding all the butterflies in which in both sexes the protho- 
racic legs are reduced and not used for walking, the larvae 
appear to offer the most dependable basic characters for pri- 
mary subdivision. 

On the basis of the larvae this superfamily is divisible into 
three main sections. In the first section the larvae are without 
spines and are usually fusiform. This section is divisible into 
the families Satyridae, Brassolidae (easily recognizable by 
adult characters), Morphidae (larvae with tufts of hairs), and 
Apaturidae (the adults with many features of the Nympha- 

The larvae of the Apaturidae (Apatura, Charaxes and their 
relatives) are of the same general type as those of the Satyr- 
idae and Brassolidae. Although the adults have much in 
common with those of the Nymphalidae it is noticeable that 
when eye spots are present, as on the under side of the hind 
wings in A&terocampa celtis and in species of Prepona, they 
are of the perfect type characteristic of the Satyridae, Bras- 
solidae and Morphidae ; also when, as in species of Prepona 
and Agrias, the males develop secondary sexual characters 
these are in the form of hair pencils or brushes on the inner 
portion of the hind wings as in many of the Brassolidae and 
Morphidae. The larvae of the Apaturidae feed on dicotyle- 
dons instead of on monocotyledons, the usual food of the lar- 
vae of the Satyridae, Brassolidae and Morphidae; but the 
larvae of Morpho also feed on dicotyledons. 

In the second section the larvae are provided with spines 
and are usually cylindrical. There may be median dorsal 
spines only — ^the family Marpesiidae. There may be a com- 
plete and well developed row of median dorsal spines and 
also lateral spines — the family Nymphalidae. There may be 
fully developed lateral spines with the median dorsal series 
reduced or absent except at the two ends — the family Er- 
golidae. Or there may be lateral spines only, the median dor- 
sal series being wholly absent — the family Argynnidae. 

The larvae of the melitaeids (Euphydryas, Melitaea and 
their relatives) indicate a close relationship with the vanes- 
sids. Like many vanessids, the melitaeids lay their eggs in 
groups or masses on the food plant. As in many vanessids 
the larvae of the melitaeids are usually gregarious when young 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 149 

and are lavish spinners of silk. Also as in some vanessids (as 
Vanessa cardui and Precis coenia) melitaeid larvae when 
young are often restricted to a few plants, later becoming- 
general feeders. The adults of the melitaeids when alighting, 
like the vanessids, commonly wave their wings a few times 
before bringing them together. All these features are quite 
foreign to the argynnids with which the melitaeids have com- 
monly been associated. 

In the third section the larvae are cylindrical and are pro- 
vided with pairs of long fleshy filaments — the family Danaidae. 

The families of the Nymphaloidea as outlined above with 
their subdivisions are as follows. SATYRIDAE : Subfamilies 
Satyrinae, Enodiinae, Pronophilinae, Elymniinae, Pierel- 
LiNAE. BRASSOLIDAE : Subfamilies Caliginaei, Brasso- 
linae, Biinae. MORPHIDAE : Subfamilies Morphinae, 
Amathusiinae (with tribes Taenaridi, Amathusiidi, Hyantidi, 
Discophoridi). APATURIDAE : Subfamilies Charaxinae, 
families Nymphalinae, Melitaeinae. ERGOLIDAE : Sub- 
families Catagramminae, Ergolinae, Ageroniinae, Gynae- 
ciiNAE. ARGYNNIDAE : Subfamilies Limenitinae (with 
tribes Cynthiidi, Argynnidi), Heliconiinae (with tribes 
Heliconiidi, Dionidi, (3ethosiidi). ACRAEIDAE. DANAI- 
DAE : Subfamilies Calinaginae, Danainae (with tribes 
Danaidi, Lycoreidi, Anellidi [= Clothildidi], Euploeidi), 
Ithomiinae (with tribes Melinaeidi, Thyrididi, Ithomiidi), 


By Herbert Osborn, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

In connection with the proposal that a series of articles be 
published, timed to anticipate the ninetieth birthday of Doc- 
tor L. 0. Howard, I am very glad to add my tribute to the 
many which will no doubt be received. 

My personal acquaintance with Doctor Howard has extend- 
ed for sixty-five years beginning in 1882 during my first visit 
to the National Capital. During all these years Doctor Howard 
has shown much interest in my entomological work and has 
also been a warm personal friend. It was due to his action 
that the bulletin on "Insects Affecting Domestic Animals"^ 
was issued in 1896 and the bulletin on "The Hessian Fly in 
the United States"" in 1898. He was also responsible for the 

iBulletin No. 5, U. S. Div. Ent. 1896. 
-r.ulletin No. 16, U. S. Div. Ent. 1898. 

150 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. (3, JUNE, llt47 

studies made during a year's leave of absence when, under 
the immediate direction of Professor F. M. Webster, I toured 
the country collecting material for the bulletin "Leaf hoppers 
Affecting Cereal and Forage Crops. "^ Aside from these re- 
ports I presented, during several years as an Agent of the 
Division, annual reports concerning the insect depredations 
in Iowa and adjacent states. There have also been a great 
many occasions where we have been associated in the entomo- 
logical societies and also in the A.A.A.S. of which he was for 
twenty-fiye j^ears the permanent Secretary. During all these 
years he manifested distinct interest in my studies of grass 
insects as indicated in his foreword to my book on "Meadow 
and Pasture Insects."^ 

In this connection it seems appropriate to discuss the pres- 
ent status of the insects affecting grasses and, in a wider 
sense, this may include such cereal crops as are contained in 
the grass family. My volume on meadow and pasture insects 
was issued eight years ago and since that time there have 
been some very important contributions in the line of insecti- 
cides, some of which may be available for the treatment of 
grass areas. It may be noted that we have now some insecti- 
cides which should be very effective for widespread applica- 
tion, such as to permanent pastures and meadows with their 
very complex association of the insects. This complexity was 
illustrated in an article in a Presidential address for the Asso- 
ciation for the Promotion of Agricultural Science in 1919 
entitled, "A Problem of Permanent Pastures,"^ and in some 
detail in the chart in "Meadow and Pasture Insects" where 
an attempt was made to illustrate graphically the various 
complexities in the grass land fauna. It will be evident that 
the use of such insecticides should take into account this asso- 
ciation and the relation to parasitic and predatory species 
that would also be affected. 

3Bulletin No. 108, Bur. of Eiit. 1912. 

^Educators' Press. 1939. 

■"^Proc. 39th Ann. Meeting S. P. A. S. 1919. 

PROC. p:nt. soc. wash., vol. 49, no. 6, june, 1947 151 


By H. S. Barber, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

Our yet fragmentary knowledge of native pests is exposed 
by discovery in Indiana and Quebec of a new species of cu- 
cumber beetle. Its study demands proposal of a new generic 
concept to include it and its supposedly well-known relatives 
which have been included in Diahrotica. A second new genus 
seems needed to include an Arizonian species and its tropical 
relatives. To avoid confusion with the economic literature on 
wheat jointworms, it seems desirable to suppress an old, un- 
used generic name, Isosoma, which might otherwise be re- 
vived for the striped cucumber beetles or some other economic 

Taxonomic trouble also involves our supposedly best known 
species, the 12-spotted cucumber beetle. An asparagus beetle, 
now in Crioceris, was named Chrysomela duodecimpunctata 
by Linnaeus, 1758, and when Fabricius, 1775, applied the 
same name to a different species it was a primary homonym. 
Source of the Fabrician type is unknown, as is also its identity 
with our pest. The Code forbids use of the homonym. So the 
paradoxical course of describing the form we have called 
Diahrotica duodecimpunctata as if it were new seems neces- 
sary. It often demanded the attention of our good Chief, who 
built our Bureau, and it seems proper it should be named for 
one w^hom we so greatly loved. Four closely allied forms show 
no structural distinctions even in the armature of the internal 
sac, but are distinguishable by color differences a,s given in 
the key. 


Diahrotica Clievrolat, 1837, in Dejean, Cat. Coleop., 3d ed., p. 404 (p. 
380 in the later printed "1833" edition). Genotype, Crioceris fncata 
F., 1787, by present designation. 

This generic name was proposed to include 103 listed Amer- 
ican species, among which were 15 Fabrician and a few other 
valid names. In the above-selected genotype, which was men- 
tioned again with his generic description by Chevrolat, 1844, 
the aedeagal structure resembles that in our undecimpunctata, 
halteata, lougicornis, atripejinis, lemniscata, etc., and defines 

152 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 

the genus by the strong, dorsal articulated process covering 
the orifice which opens like a bird's bill to permit evagination 
of the internal sac with its complex armature. The admirable 
treatment of Brazilian Diahroiica by Araujo Marques, 1941 
(Bolotim da Escola Nacional de Agronimia No. 2), delineates 
aspects of this intricate armature as the processes are packed 
inside the invaginated internal sac within the median lobe, 
but knowledge of their shapes and positions can come only if 
the sac be completely evaginated and inflated (pi. 13, fig. 1, 
Ic, Id). In I), piticornis Horn and capitata (F., 1801) (^ 
melanocephala F., 1798, not 1775, = tripunctata ¥., 1801 — 
see discussion of Acalymma vittata), a tendency to extrude 
the internal sac laterally from beneath the base of the articu- 
lated cap piece has produced an emargination on the left side 
of the median lobe near its middle, exposing sclerotized arma- 
ture of the internal sac very different from that in the group 
of 12-spotted forms. Other minor modifications of aedeagal 
form occur in DmhroUca as now restricted, but several dis- 
tinct generic groups are evident among tropical forms exam- 
ined, although most of the 619 species listed by Weise, 1924 
(in Junk, Coleop. Cat., pt. 78, pp. 25-49), are unavailable. 

If genera which include previously valid species in the Dej- 
ean Catalog were to be held invalid (see my discussion, 1940, 
Bui. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, vol. 35, pp. 1-12), Diahrotica, as 
used for a century, would sink. Phyllotrupes Hope, 1840 
(Coleopt. Manual, Vol. 3, pp. 98, 169, 170) = Plxyllotrypes 
Agassiz, 1846 — both names omitted in the Junk Catalog — 
appear to be synonyms of Diahroiica, as .suspected by Hope 
(1. c, p. 170), but the originally designated genotype, Crio- 
ceris cyanipennis Fabricius, 1801, is unknown to me as it was 
to Gahan, 1891 (Ent. Soc. London, Trans., p. 522). Many 
vittate species from section II, as treated by Baly, 1886 (Linn. 
Soc. London, Jour., vol. 19, p. 230), or by Gahan, 1891 (Ent. 
Soc. London, Trans., p. 416), are referable to the new genus 
below named Acalymma. Another vittate species from Ari- 
zona and its tropical relatives are given the new generic name 
Amphelasma. A third very distinct genus, Paratriarius 
Schaeffer, 1906, is defined by peculiar aedeagal structure very 
similar in its genotype, Galleruca dorsata Say, 1824 (pi. 13, 
fig. 8, 8a), and such tropical forms as are available among 
the 17 South American species placed by Gahan, 1891, in his 
group C of section II of Diahrotica, as well as in Central 
American curtisii (Baly, 1886) and longitarsis (Jacoby, 
1887). Besides genitalic peculiarities these species exhibit a 
distinctive habitus and similar secondary sexual modifications. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 153 

Our North American 12-spotted cucumber beetles may be 
known as follows : 

1. Legs and abdomen black (Pacific Coast States) (soror Lee, I860) 

Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim, 1843 
Legs and abdomen more or less pale 2 

2. Ventral segments black, pale at sides (Mexico) 

Dmbrotica undecimpunctata duodecimnotata Harold, 1875 
Ventral segments without black marks 3 

3. Markings black and rather large; form robust (Eastern and 

Southern States) (duodecimpunctata auct.) 

Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, new subspecies 
Markings reduced and brownish; form less robust (Yuma, Ariz.) 
Diabrotica undecimpunctata tenella LeConte, 1865 

Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, new subspecies 
(PI. 13, fig. 1, Ifl, lb, If, Id) 

tChrysomela duodecimpunctata F., 1775 (not L., 1758). 
Diabrotica duodecimpunctata, auct. 

Differs from D. undecimpunctata Mann, (not Jac.) only by 
its pale abdomen and femoral bases and by its habitat. 

Holotype male and eight paratypes, U. S. National Museum 
Cat. No. 58367, collected at Washington, D. C, October 24, 
1943, by L. J. Bottimer. Habitat, eastern and southern States. 

Diabrotica mauliki, new^ name 

Diabrotica undecimpunctata Jacoby, 1879 (not Mannerheim, 1843), Cist. 
Ent., vol. 2, p. 524; Baly, 1890, Ent. Soc. London, Trans., p. 39. 

Type locality, Peru. 

In appreciation of the many useful contributions by S. 
Maulik, of the British Museum, this change is extracted from 
earlier notes on Diabrotica. 

OIDES Weber 

Oides Weber, 1801. Genotype, Chrysomela bipunctata F., jide Weise, 
1924. Synonym, Isosoma Billberg, 1820; genotype, Chrysomela con- 
color F., by present designation. 

An old neglected name, Isosoma Billberg, 1820 (Enumeratio 
Insectorum, p. 56), was proposed for chrysomelid beetles now 
separated into several genera of Alticinae and Galerucinae, 
but has not since been used for any of the included species. 
Its homonym, Isosoma Walker, 1832, was extensivel.y used for 

154 PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 

the wheat jointworms and allies before being replaced by 
Harmolita Motschulsky, 1836. Such a mass of economic rec- 
ords might lead to confusion if Billberg's older i^jame were 
revived for the vittate species of Diahrotica or any of the 
other economic forms to which it might now be restricted. One 
of the originally included species belongs in an older genus, 
Oides Weber, 1801, under which Isosoma can be listed in 
synonymy. I therefore designate the fourth of the originally 
included species, Chrysomela concolor Fabricius, 1781, as 
genot.ype of Isosoma Billberg, 1820. This is the species biblio- 
graphically summarized by Schoenherr, 1808 (Syn. Ins., vol. 
1, pt. 2, p.* 231), as cited by Billberg. 

ACAIiYMMA, New Genus 

Isosoma Billberg, 1820, Enum. Ins., p. 56 (part). 

Characters of Diabrotica, but aedeagal orificial plate rudimentary, con- 
sisting of a flexible narrow sclerotized median band extending from mid- 
dorsal part of median lobe and more or less broadened apically to brace 
the internal sac, but rarely enough to close the orifice and never ser\'ing 
as an articulated cap piece as in Diabrotica. Elytra usually sulcate, 
punetate-striate and vittate. Antennal joint 2 much shorter than 3. 

Besides the genotype, Acalymma gouldi, new species, this 
genus includes our species hitherto known as Diahrotica vit- 
tata (F.),trivittata Mann., hlandula Lee, vincta Lee, as 
well as the Mexican species pallipes (Oliv.) (= theimei Baly), 
of which the aedeagi are here figured (pi. 13, figs. 2-7), and 
numerous tropical species. 

Acaljrmma gouldi, new species 
(PI. 13, fig. 2, 2a, 2b) 

Diabrotica, n. sp. Gould, 1944, Indiana Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. No. 490, 
p. 5, footnote. 

Length 4.5-6 mm. Pale yellow, the head, meso-metathorax, sutural and 
broad median elytral vittae, antennae except parts of three basal joints 
and legs except coxae and basal three-fourths of femora black. Surface 
shining, head impunctate, with shallow midfrontal impression; pronotum 
microscopically punctulate on lateral and anterior median convex areas. 
Elytra shallowly sulcate with double irregular rows of shallow punctures 
in the sulci. Claws cleft, the inner process or tooth a little shorter than 
the outer. Aedeagus (pi. 13, fig. 2, a, b) slightly narrowed in middle 
third, slightly expanded before orifice, the apical fifth tapering with 
sinuate sides to the narrowly rounded apex which bends upward before 
bending downward at extreme tip. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 155 

Holotype and 13 paratopes. United > States National Museum 
Catalog No. 58368. 

Type and 20 paratypes from squash, cucumber, etc., near 
La Fayette, Ind., June, July, 1942, collected by Geo. E. Gould, 
of Purdue ITniversity, who recognized specific distinctness 
from vittata among which they occurred and mentioned dif- 
ferences in the bulletin above cited. He also found a female 
specimen (paratype) labeled "Marion County, Ind., W. S. B., 
9-16-20," filed as vittata in the Blatchley Collection. Still an- 
other paratype was recently received under the name vincta 
labeled "Berthierville, Quebec, 20-VII-40, A. Robert." 

This species is very closely related to Acalymma blandula 
(Lee, 1868) = 7iitida (Linell, 1897) (pi. 13, fig. 3, 3fl), but 
is larger, with stronger elytral sulci and punctures and less 
constricted, less expanded genitalia. The white elytral vitta 
joining the white margin near apex covers costae 2-3 in both 
species, while in Acalymma vincta (Lee, 1878) only costa 3 
is white and the aedeagus (pi. 13, fig. 4, 4a) is longer and very 
slender. This latter species is poorly represented by a few 
specimens from South Carolina and Gulf States to eastern 
Texas, while hlandula is well represented from western Kan- 
sas, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. A poor sample of an 
entirely pale yellow form from Clemenceau, Ariz., H. R. Bris- 
ley, 1922, seems conspecific with hlandnla. 

Acalymma vittata (Fabricius) 
(PI. 13, fig. 5, 5a, 5&, 5c) 

Cistela melanocephala Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent., p. 118. 

Crioceris vittata Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent., p. 122 ; 1792, Ent. Syst., 

vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 12. 
Diabrotica vittata auct., fide Houser and Balduf, 1925, Ohio Agr. Expt. 

Sta. Bui. No. 388; Gould, 1944, Ind. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. No. 490. 
Diabrotica melanocephala (F.), fide Lever, 1930, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist. (10), vol. 6, p. 668; Rev. Appl. Ent., 1930-1946. 

Believing the original Fabrician type of Crioceris vittata 
from Carolina, in the collection of a Mr. Monson, has been lost. 
I designate as neoholotype and neoparatypes 90 specimens 
collected on squash, April 18, 1938, at Charleston, S. C, by 
W. J. Reid, preserved in the United States National Museum. 
This locality is, most likely, the one from which the original 
type was obtained. No other Carolinian species in my experi- 
ence seems to agree so well with the original description. Such 
coijfusion has resulted from the brief statement by Lever, 
1930, that the type of Cistela melanocephala F., 1775 is the 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 

species we have called vittata, that my action above indicated 
seems required. If, however, the authentic holotype of vittata 
can be produced and shown to be other than the species here 
indicated, this action will fall. Lever was not the first reviser. 
Fabricius himself in 1792 chose vittata instead of melanoceph- 
ala as the name for this pest, and page priority claimed by 
Lever is not here applicable. In the same way Fabricius him- 
self vitiated Lever's substitution of trlpunctata F., 1801, for 
melanocephala F., 1798, when in 1801 he proposed capitata as 
substitute name for melanocephala F., 1798 (not Crioceris 
melanocephala F., 1775) and described tripunctata as a dis- 
tinct species. The accompanying diagrammatic table of the 
confused synonymy and homonymy to be worked out from 
these specific names was sketched a decade ago and suggests 
the confusion encountered in following Fabricius' application 
of names in his successive publications. The chart (Text fig. 
1) shows that four species named melanocephala by him as 
well as the two named vittata require consideration in Crio- 
ceris and Cistela, and that when he recognized the conspecific 
identity of North American Cistela melanocephala and Crio- 
ceris vittata and placed them as one species in Crioceris, he 
preferred to keep his previous vise of Crioceris melanocephala 

Names now used 

vittata (F.) 

1930, RAE 1930- 

Levor 1930. RAE 1930 

F. 1775 
Syst Ent. 

F. 1761 
Spec. Ins. 

F. 1787 
Mant. Ins. 

F. J 792 
Ent. Syst. 

F 1798 
SuppI.Ent. Syst. 

f. 1801 
Syst. El. 

p 118. sp 11 

NA Mus Bonks 

vol l,pl48, 

.01 1, p 86, 

vol. 1. pi 2. p. 12, sp. 48 
Crioceris vittoto Mus Monson 


.01 1, p 455, sp 27 
Crioceris vitloto 

'Cucufnere Melone' 
(Cslelo mslonocepholo 

p 119. sp 8 

Mus Bonks 

.01 1, p 152. 

.01 1, p 87. 




.01 1, pi 2. p 3.SP 3 


vol 1. p 450. sp 7 




Ne» Holland Bonks 

p 122, sp 23 



Mus Monson 

.01.1,0 156. 

.01 1. p. 90, 
sp 51. 


vol 2. p 12. sp48 
(some,-but «.tf) 

ciled OS s/nonym ) 


.01 1. p455, sp.27 

Crioceris vitloto 
•Oucomere Melone" 





p95, sp. 53-4' 

Coysnne Richord 

Crioceris copitoto 
(G. melonocepholo 
cued OS s/nonym) 






.01 1. p469. sp95 


Corohno Mus Boso 






vol. 2, p. 18, sp 11. 

Text Fig. 1. — F:il)iici;ui treatments of the spec 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 157 

for his Australian species, now Synodyta melanocephala. His 
choice of the name vittata happens to comply with Article 35 
of our present Code, whereas resurrection of melanocephala 
for vittata violates Article 36. The chart also shows that in 
1801 the conflict of two species named Crioceris vittata F., 
requires suppression of the long-used name Phyllotreta vittata 
{¥., 1801) under the hitherto overlooked specific name strio- 
lata F., 1803 (Index Syst. El., p. 38). This last-cited work is 
not available in Washington, but was reviewed by Illiger, 1803 
(Mag. fiir Insektenkunde, vol. 2, p. 293), who adopted Crio- 
ceris striolata F. in place of the second C. vittata. Illiger in- 
dicated that this Index was published in Braunschweig by 
Fleckeisen, and included Fabricius' own proposals of new 
names to replace names wrongly used in his 1801 work. In 
1807 Illiger, (Mag. Insk., vol. 6, p. 148) proposed the new 
combination Haltica striolata as the name for our fleabeetle, 
but the "stillborn" homonym vittata F., 1801, has continued 
in use. The name Phyllotreta striolata (F., 1803) should be 
used for our pest instead of the homonym Phyllotreta vittata. 
The aedeagus of Acalymma vittata is black, slender, and 
acutel}^ pointed, its apex sinuately elevated (pi. 13, fig. 5, 5a, 
56, 5c) instead of deflexed as in trivittata (pi. 13, fig. 6, 6a). 
The evaginated internal sac of vittata (fig. 5&, 5c) is an un- 
armed, soft, elaborately lobed and constricted white organ 
within which seems to be retracted a black, sclerotized, hooked 
process which probably represents the transfer apparatus at 
the functional orifice. The forms of this sclerotized piece and 
of the inflated sac are different in trivittata, but the only sam- 
ple yet seen is unfit for record. 

Acalymma trivittata (Mannerheim) 
(PI. 13, fig. 6, 6o) 

Diairotica trivittata Mannerheim, 1843, Natuiforsch. Gesellsch. Moscow, 

Bui., vol. 16, p. 309. 
Diabrotica vittata (F.), Jacoby, 1887, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Coleopt., vol. 

6, pt. 1, p. 535. 
Diabrotica vittata incerta Cockerell, 1896, in Webster, N. Y. Ent. Soc. 

Jour.' vol. 4, p. 67 (not Baly, 1886). 

This Californian species now is found the entire length of 
our Mexican boundary. The form with hind tibiae mostly 
white and distinguished under the homonym incerta Ckll., 
1896, has recentlj^ been abundant about El Paso, Tex., but 
merges so completel.y with the Californian form that a new 
name seems unnecessary. A series from Costa Rica, January 
1936, sent as vittata by C. H. Ballou, as on Cucurhita pepo L. 

158 PROC. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUXE, 1947 

at San Pedro de Montes de Oca, is not distinguishable from 
Californian samples of trivittata. As mentioned vinder vittata 
the aedeagal apex is deflexed, acutely ogival, the orificial plate 
is elongate oval, strongly concave and connected by a very 
narrow brown strap to the middorsal selerotized surface of the 
median lobe (pi. 13, fig. 6, 6a). 

Acalymma pallipes (Olivier) 
(PI. 13, fig. 7) 

Galeruca pallipes Olivier, 1791, Encycl. Meth. Ins., vol. 6, p. 590. 
Diabrotica theimei Baly, 1886, Linn. Soc. London, Jour., vol. 19, p. 231 ; 

Jacoby, 1887, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Coleop., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 534. 
Diabrotica pallipes (Oliv.), Weise, 1924, in Junk, Coleop. Cat., pt. 78, 

p. 40. 

The above synonymy may be subject to revision. It ap- 
pears from the original description that Olivier had and de- 
scribed the widely distributed tropical species in which the 
legs are pale and antennal joints 8, 9 and base of 10 are white 
(theimei) but that he proposed the name pallipes as a substi- 
tute for Cistela melanocephala F., 1775, which, according to 
Lever, 1930, is the species we have known as vittata F. Since 
the latter North American species was treated by Olivier im- 
mediately before his proposal of pallipes and the two are 
zoologically distinguishable by the coloration of the legs, it 
seems clear that he chose the name pallipes because it fitted 
his specimens and that the mistaken inclusion of citations to 
melanocephala should be rejected and pallipes adopted for 
theimei as indicated by Weise, 1924. Its aedeagus (pi. 13, tig. 
7) is black, the apex pale with straight convergent margins 
and narrowly rounded tip, the orifice short and closed by an 
oblong rather broad orificial plate which is deeply concave 
throughout its length, strongly emarginate at apex and ap- 
parently continuous with the convex dorsal surface of the 
median lobe. This species has been intercepted in importa- 
tions from Mexico. 


Specimens from Arizona, Mexico and Guatemala, represent- 
ing several species, display a third type of aedeagal structure 
distinct from that in Diabrotica, Paratriarius or Acalymma 
which seems to require their removal from the former genus. 
Th*ey also show the midfrontal fovea and the pair of pronotal 
impressions as well as the sculpture and color patter^i men- 
tioned by Thomas Say in his posthumously published descrip- 

PROC. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 159 

tion (Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, p. 198, 1835) of Gal- 
leruca cava, which species is selected as type of this new genus. 
A good sample of this species was collected in April and May 
1908 by the late Frederick Knab, at Cordoba,, Vera Cruz, 
which is near the port at which Say and McClu're landed in 
1827. A dissected male, neoholotype, from this series of neo- 
paratypes agrees entirely with the original description and is 
selected to replace the lost type of G. cava Say, 1835. The 
claws and anterior coxal cavities are as in Diahrotica, but the 
aedeagus is relatively stout, feebly concave and devoid of 
lamellae beneath and the apex is acute (pi. 13, fig. 9, 9a). No 
sclerotized armature on the internal sac is visible in cleared 
preparations of A. cavum or in closely related species. Sclero- 
tization of the orificial membrane produces a pair of short 
broad plates hinged at sides of the orifice so as to open lateral- 
ly as the internal sac is evaginated in some of the species, 
but in the genotype these areas are membranous. There is no 
sclerotized median process bracing the base of the internal sac, 
and there is no vestige of elytral costae, striae or seriate punc- 
tures as in Acalymma. In other species one or two pair of 
black pronotal spots may be present, the blue-green reflections 
over the black elytral vittae may be absent and the vittae 
themselves may be much broader as in decorata Jac. or very 
narrow as in imilineata Jac. This last name has been applied 
to two distinct but superficially similar species in the few 
samples before me. In one the aedeagus is stout with obtuse- 
acuminate apex and with feeble ventral sulcus not margined 
by carinae, while in the other the aedeagus resembles that of 
decorata (pi. 13, fig. 10) in being slender with apex acute- 
acuminate and with ventral sulcus strongly impressed between 
strong carinae. In specimens intercepted at Laredo and Eagle 
Pass, Tex., in orchids and other plant material from Mexico, 
the aedeagus is stout and apically obtuse with a distinct pair 
of orificial plates. They resemble the female type of D. bi- 
puncticollis Schaeffer from southern Arizona in all superficial 

The five described species now assignable in this genus are — 

Amphelasma cavum (Say, 1835), genotype, (Galleruca, Diahrotica) 

Amphelasma hipuncticolle (Schaeffer, 1905) (Diabroiica) Arizona 
Amphelasma decoratum (Jacoby, 1887) (Diabroiica) Mexico 

Amphelasma unilineatum (Jacoby, 1887) (Diabrotica) Mexico 

Amphelasma trilineatum (Jacoby, 1887) {Diabrotica) Guatemala 

Definite bibliographical citations needed by those wishing 
to check nomenclatorial details are included in discussion, but 

Plate 14 PROC. ent. soc. wash., vol. 49, no. 6, june, 1947 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 161 

repetition of citations which are available in well-known cata- 
logs or summaries indispensable to any student of this group 
5eem sufficiently indicated by author and date. 

Plate 14. — Aedeagi of Diabrotica, Acalymma, Amphelasma, and 
Paratriarius. Drawn by Arthur Cushman. 

Fig. 1. Diabrotica undecimpiinctaia howardi, n. subsp., lateral, showing 
retracted armature of internal sac; la, dorsal; lb, ventral; Ic, in- 
flated internal sac with armature, dorsal aspect; Id, same, lateral. 

Fig. 2. Acalymma gouldi, n. sp., lateral; 2a, dorsal; 2b, ventral. 

Fig. 3. Acalymma blandula (Lee), lateral; 3a, dorsal. 

Pig. 4. Acalymma vincta (Lee.), lateral; 4a, dorsal. 

Pig. 5. Acalymma vittata (F.), lateral; 5a, dorsal; 5b, inflated internal 
sac, dorsal (drawn by David Hall) ; 5c, same, lateral. 

Pig. 6. Acalymma trivittata (Mann.), lateral; 6a, dorsal. 

Pig. 7. Acalymma pallipes (Oliv.), dorsal. 

Pig. 8. Paratriarius dorsatus (Say), lateral; 8a, dorsal, with retracted 
armature of internal sac indicated. 

Pig. 9. Amphelasma cavum (Say), lateral; 9a, dorsal. 

Pig. 10. Amphelasma decoratum (Jac), dorsal. 

162 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 


By Brigadier W. H. Evans, British Museum (Natural History) 

Lepidopterists generally neglect the skippers. They are 
difficult to see and catch : difficult to kill and set : difficult to 
identify and classify. Few are of economic interest and most 
of them are small and drab. Nevertheless their serious study 
presents an endless number of baffling, though fascinating, 
problems to anyone gifted — or cursed — with an enquiring 
type of mind and with plenty of the patience and time needed 
for the purpose. 

The eleven species known to Linnaeus in 1758 had grown 
to 1567 arranged in 61 genera, when W. F. Kirby (1871-7) 
compiled his Synonymic Catalogue of the Diurnal Lepidop- 
tera. But though the species of Europe and the eastern U.S.A. 
were reasonably well known, confusion reigned elsewhere. 

The first real hesperiidist was Carl Plotz who, in 1879-1886, 
published a complete classification with analytical tables of 
the 2,438 species known to him. He figured every species, but 
this part of his work was not published. P. Mabille (1876- 
1917) was an erratic though voluminous writer, contempo- 
raneous with Plotz; he described 87 genera and 804 species, 
many of which have not since been recognized. 

The next hesperiidist of note was E. Y. Watson who, in 
1893, published a classification of the Hesperiidae of the world, 
basing his results on the work done by S. H. Scudder. Wat- 
son's system has been followed for the Old World, but was 
considerably modified b}^ Godman and Salvin in their great 
work, Biologia Centrali Americana (1893-1901). Seitz's 
Macrolepidoptera of the World (1906-1924) was the next step 
forward : it is a compilation that has been of the greatest 
assistance to workers. 

A niimber of hesperiidists have been at work during the 
first half of the present century. 

The binocular microscope has simplified genitalia examina- 
tion and our conception of a species has been greatly modified. 
Many series of specimens of what were considered to be one 
species, have been found to appertain to several quite distinct 
species, while many quite dissimilar "species" have come to 
be regarded as sub-species of a single species. It is estimated 
that 2,600 species of Hesperiidae, arranged in 450 genera, are 
now known to science and are distributed thus : 

Africa, 78 genera, 425 species, 

Old World excluding Africa, 130 genera, 750 species, 

America, 242 genera, 1,425 species, 
and there are approximately 9,000 names. 

Pfebc. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 1 B-') 

Due to the generosity of numerous collectors all over the 
world, to many large and small bequests, and to the enterprise 
shown by N. D. Riley, the Keeper of Entomology, in acquir- 
ing collections, the British Museum now has an arranged 
collection of some 150,000 hesperiids in 900 drawers, as well as 
a considerable overflow of additional material, and about 2,500 
types. The Trustees have published (1938) a catalogue with 
analytical tables for Africa; a similar catalogue for the Old 
World, excluding Africa is now ready for publication ; the 
catalogue for America is under preparation. 




By James A. G. Rehn, Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia 

The Swedish orthopterist Stal in 1877^ erected the genus 
Callima litis on the single species Mantis antillarum Saussure,- 
which in 1871 had been referred by its original describer to 
the genus Iris. The species was described from St. Thomas, in 
the Virgin Islands, and has since been reported from Puerto 
Rico and Hispaniola. The genus Callimantis is a very dis- 
tinctive one, differing in a number of important respects from 
the related, continentally dominant and widely distributed 

In 1896 Scudder described a second species of Callimayitis 
as C. floridana,^ from a single individual supposedly from 
' ' Florida, ' ' and on the strength of this as yet unique specimen 
the genus has since been included in the North American 
fauna. In the last forty-five years extensive and comprehen- 
sive field investigations have been carried on over virtually the 
entire state of Florida, by a half dozen or more trained orthop- 
terists, without Scudder 's Callimantis floridana, or any other 
member of that genijs, having been encountered. 

Having long suspected that floridana was either not a Cal- 
limantis or that it did not come from Florida, while at the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology in 1946 I examined Scud- 
der 's type, and immediately recognized it was not a member 
of the genus Callimantis, my acquaintance with the type spe- 

iBihang K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., IV (10), pp. 39, 61. 
2Rev. et Mag. de Zool., (2) XI* p. 60, (1859). 

^For a discussion of this genus and its component species-groups, 
Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXVII, pp. 218-224, (1935). 
4Canad. Entom., XXVIII, p. 210. 

164 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. C, JUXE, 1947 

cies of which dates back over forty years. Instead it was a 
Stagmomantis, and a representative of one of the Central 
American speeies-gronps of that genus. 

The unique male type of floridana bears a printed "Fla. " 
label, without further information as to its locality or source. 
It also has a Scudder type label with Callimantis floridana in 
his characteristic long-hand, and a red M.C.Z. type label with 
number 16040. The specimen is clearly a member of what I 
have called the "Heterogamia Group" of Stagmomantis,^ one 
which includes venusta Saussure and Zehntner, parvidentata 
Beier, and heterogamia Saussure and Zehntner. The first of 
these occurs in Guatemala, Honduras afld British Honduras, 
the second in Costa Rica, and the third in Costa Rica and 
Panama. They constitute a well-marked group, very distinct 
from any North American forms of the genus. 

Unfortunately the type of Callimantis floridana is minus 
the apex of the abdomen, hence characteristic genitalic fea- 
tures could not be examined. Also it apparently has been 
dried from a wet preservative and, therefore, is almost com- 
pletely decolored, while in addition the wings are badly 
crinkled and the distal portion of the right tegmen is gone. 
My notes on variovis of the features of the type of floridana 
which are in sufficiently good shape to be of value, indicate 
close relationship to, and probable identity with, Stagmomantis 
heterogamia., which was described in 1894. The sole measure- 
ment which Scudder gave for floridana was "the expanse of 
the tegmina is 45 mm." The following measurements were 
personally taken from the type : length of pronotum, 10.6 mm. ; 
greatest breadth of pronotum, 1.9; length of tegmen, 23.3; 
length of cephalic coxa, 6.3; length of cephalic femur, 8.1; 
length of caudal femur, 10.1. 

It is now evident : (1) that as far as present knowledge goes 
the genus Callimantis is entirely Antillean in its distribution ; 
(2) that Callimantis floridana of Scudder is a Stagmomantis, 
and probably a synonj^m of S. heterogamia Saussure and 
Zehntner, the final decision on which point will be possible 
only after a direct physical comparison of the type with ma- 
terial of the various forms of the Heterogamia species-group; 
and (3) that in all probability the type of floridana is incor- 
rectly labelled for locality and did not come from Florida, 
but instead was of Central American origin. 

'^See Eehn, Op. cit., p. 220. 

PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUXK, 1947 165 


By James G. Nee»ham, Cornell University 

At Englewood, Florida, in December 1903 I first came upon 
the nests made by the little heliodinid moth, Erineda sp. 
The nests were common in the fronds of the giant brackish- 
water fern, Acrostichnm anrcum. They occupy the sporangia 
layer, that in this head-high fern, entirely covers the back of 
each spore-bearing pinna, save only its mid-rib. This fern is 
common in sheltered estuaries of the southwest Florida coast. 

The nests are easil.y found for they are exposed on the back 
of the taller fronds and are shaped like low flat-topped blis- 
ters that rise slightly above the general level. They lack the 
velvety smoothness of the broad brown sporangia-sheet round 
about them. They have something of the appearance of blotch 
leaf-mines. They are roundish or oblong in shape and from 
one-half to three-quarters of an inch in diameter. Each nest 
is merely a shelter, covering the foraging ground of a single 
Erineda larva. 

The larva clears an area of fern sporangia, eats the spores 
and fastens the remaining fragments together with silk to 
form a sheet that is stretched like a tarpaulin over its head. 
One can see with a lens that this roof is composed of frag- 
ments of sporangia, and of the stubby hairs that grow inter- 
mingled with them. The most conspicuous component of this 
roof sheet is the annuli of the sporecases. Both sporangia and 
hairs are bitten off close, and in fragments they are added bit 
by bit to the free edge of the roof to form one continuous 
elastic sheet. 

The nest is lined with silk throughout. At one end there is 
a hole through the leaf to its upper side. The silken lining 
extends funnel-like up into and through this hole, and a short 
tubular extension of it lies out flat on the upper surface of 
the leaf. This tube is hardly longer than the body of the larva. 
It would seem to serve as a place of retreat from enemies at- 
tacking the nest. 

When the cover of a nest is torn off it contracts elastically 
and its edges turn under. I tore the cover from a nest while 
the larva was at the end of the chamber farthest from the exit 
hole through the leaf, and then I pulled the lining out of the 
hole as far as I could. The larva first made for the hole but 
did not enter; appeared to be baffled by my disarrangement 
of it. Then it went to the opposite end of the nest; found a 
bit of loose cover there hanging free ; lifted the edge of it, and 
crept under it, and at once began cutting additional sporangia 

Ifi5 PROr. EXT. SOf. WASH.. VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 

and adding- them to the margin. It dragged them into place, 
not by the pull of its jaws, but by a dab of fresh adhesive 
silk on the tip of its spinneret. 

I left it undisturbed for about six hours and returned to 
find that it had made a complete new shelter alongside the 
now roofless old one, had lined it completely with silk, and 
had begun a new hole through the leaf at the farther end. 
Apparently it had made its shelter and was engaged in mak- 
ing its place of retreat to the upper surface. 

Later I saw pellets of frass deposited on the outside of this 
extension tube ; carried there not in the jaws, but on the tip 
of its spinneret. All the interior of both nest and exit tube are 
silk-lined and clean. 

Pupation takes place in the nest. Close by the funnel, 
shaped exit hole through the leaf a cocoon is spun of silk so 
dense, so tight and so excessively sticky that I could not get a 
pupa out of it uninjured, though I sacrificed a number of 
them in the attempt. So in order to avoid injury, I put whole 
big, leather-like pinnae into a rearing jar and waited for the 
adults to appear. From stuff put in this jar on January 22nd 
the first moths emerged on Februarj^ 22nd, a period of 31 
days; some of which days may have been speutt in the larval 

The moth is among the slenderest of its kind and only 
about four millimeters long. It is about the shape of a scale 
of chaff from the smallest of seed of grasses, and it has about 
as little color pattern, but under magnification its attire is 
truly elegant; its coat so smooth one does not see the individ- 
ual scales composing it. It shines like burnished gold. 

The nests are quite like those of Erineda aenea found by 
Dr. Anette Braun on a very different kind of fern, Asplen- 
ium* ; which, as is well known, bears its sporangia in segre- 
gated sori, each sorus covered by a scale-like indusium, and 
all ranged along the veins of the leaf, with much leaf surface 
left bare. 

I am indebted to Dr. Braun for examination of my reared 
specimens, and for determining that it is not a new species, 
but the very little known Eriyieda elyella Busck. In a letter 
she has pointed out a difference between the two species in 
pupation habits. The larva of Erineda aenea leaves the nest 
when mature and spins its cocoon amongst debris on the 
ground ; a difference well in accord with the drier environ- 

Specimens of larvae, pupae and adults are deposited in the 
Cornell University collection. 

'Canadian Entomologist 50:229-251, 1918. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 167 


By Charles T. Brues, Biological Laboratories, Harvard University 

On April 11, 1947 a number of colonies of termites {Reticu- 
lite7-mes virginicus Banks) ^ were swarming close to our house 
in Georgetown, Florida. The grounds border the wide St. 
Johns River which lies only some 200 yards distant. As the 
shallow water of the river with its abundant, floating water- 
hyacinth supports a very large population of chironomid 
midges, we are accustomed to see numerous dragonflies which 
use the open area about the house as a feeding ground. At 
this season of the year they appear in full force, especially 
early in the morning and again at sunset when many adult 
midges are flying. 

On this morning at about eight o'clock, the dragonflies had 
turned their attention to the winged termites which were issu- 
ing in small swarms from their nests and taking flight. The 
dragonflies darted downwards and picked up the termites on 
an upward swing, apparently paying no attention for the 
moment to any other source of food. Two species of dragon- 
flies which were caught with the net proved to be Coryphae- 
schna ingens Rambur and LiheUula incesta Hagen.- and ap- 
peared to be the only ones present at the time. The large 
aeshnids came at the early height of the termite swarms, and 
the smaller, but by no means puny libellulids came in num- 
bers later, after the larger ones had begun to disperse. 

Many of the termites were gobbled up after they had risen 
only a few feet, and as nearly as we could judge, only com- 
paratively few progressed far enough to be out of sight before 
their fate was sealed by a hungry dragonfly. 

The death toll of termites at this period of their existence 
must be very heavy in surroundings such as those prevailing 
here, due to dragonflies, and to this must be added those that 
fall prey to various other enemies. Innumerable pits housing 
ant-lions dot the sandy soil, particularly near the walls of the 
house and a considerable number of the termites were trapped 
in these. 

Several small vertebrates took their share. Examples of a 
small ground lizard that lives about wood-piles and palm- 
trash discovered the dealated termites that had dropped to 
the ground and the common chameleon lizards were also after 
them, together with a small toad. We were surprised to no- 

' Kindly identified liy Professor Alfred E. Emerson. 

-I am indebted to Professor C. H. Kennedy for these identifications. 

168 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 

tice the toad as its feeding- period seems ordinarily to be 
crepuscular or nocturnal. 

As a final act in this little drama, foraging ants from a 
nest of a large species of Pheidole salvaged the cast-off termite 
wings and carried them off' proudly as bits of tinsel. 

In spite of its enemies this termite is an everpresent nui- 
sance in the sandy soil of the region. Boards, boxes, or other 
wooden articles l.ying on the damp sand are soon discovered 
and show evidence of feeding. It appears to do very little 
damage to buildings unless these are resting on wooden posts, 
and then only when they are damp from leaky roofs. 


By W. E. Walton, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

In the December, 1918 issue of these Proceedings, the writ- 
er described and illustrated a tabanid fly, Neochrysops gloho- 
sus Walton.* 

The unique type, a female, was collected at Cabin John 
Bridge, Md., July 20, 1916, by Robert Fonts, then a promising 
juvenile entomologist, now engaged as a systematist by the 
U. S. Bureau of Entomology & Plant Quarantine at Laredo, 

It seems quite remarkable that after a lapse of 28 years, 
the type still remains the only specimen known, this in spite 
of the fact that the tabanid fauna of the District and environs 
has been quite thoroughly explored by many competent col- 
lectors. Several years ago Dr. Cornelius B. Philip, well-known 
specialist in the Tahanidae, made a painstaking examination 
of the type locality at the season of original discovery but was 
unsuccessful in his quest for additional material. At that time 
Dr. Philip remarked that until he had made personal examina- 
tion of the type he was skeptical regarding the validity of 
both genus and species, but that after examination he was 
fully convinced of their validity. 

That this form is structurally distinct from related genera 
is abundantly evident from examination of the illustration 
accompanying the original description. It is to be hoped that 
additional specimens may yet be discovered. 

*District of Columbia Diptera : W. L. McAtee & W. R. Walton, Vol. 
26, pp. 188-206. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 169 


By Harry S. Smith, Division of Biological Control, 
University of California, College of Agricultitre 

Dr. L. O. Howard is in reality the founder of the bio- 
logical control method of pest suppression in the United 
States. While he was not responsible for the first introduc- 
tions of beneficial species into this country, it was his interest 
in the biology and taxonomy of parasitic insects and his en- 
thusiasm for their use in practical pest-control problems that 
gaye the method its impetus here. 

Prior to 1944 biological control on the North American con- 
tinent was limited to attempts to control insect pests (and 
mites and ticks). In spite of some striking successes in the 
biological control of weeds in other parts of the world, par- 
ticularly in Australia, resort to this method for weed control 
is a very recent development in this countrj'. 

In 1944 the Agricultural Research Administration of the 
United States Department of Agriculture approved a joint 
project between the Division of Biological Control of the Uni- 
versity of California College of Agriculture and the Division 
of Foreign Parasite Introductions of the Bureau of Entom- 
ology and Plant Quarantine, having as its objective the bio- 
logical control of the range pest known as the Klamath weed 
or St. John's wort {Hypericum perforatum L.). This weed, 
a native of Europe, has been very destructive to some of the 
most valuable ranges in northern California and other parts 
of the Pacific Northwest. The same weed occurs as a serious 
pest in Australia and before the war the Australian Common- 
wealth government had explorers searching in Europe for in- 
sects suitable for introduction into Australia for its control. 
When, in 1944, this effort gave considerable promise of a 
successful outcome, the joint project mentioned above was in- 
augurated, and arrangements were made with the Australian 
government, through Dr. A. J. Nicholson, to import into Cali- 
fornia some of the European beetles used successfully in 
Australia. After making starvation te.sts on plants not tested 
by the Australians, the release of the two beetles, Chrysolina 
hyperici and C. gemellata, was authorized by the Agricultural 
Research Administration. Both species are now established 
in the field in California, and their behavior seems to justify 
optimism as to the final outcome. Anyone who has watched 
this pernicious plant gradually take over some of the finest 
range lands in California can well imagine the eagerness with 
which the progress of the beetles is being watched. A success- 

170 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 

fill outcome of this effort will no doubt be followed by »a!t^ 
tempts to control other weed pests, particularly of ranjies, by 
the bioloofical method. 

(Hymenoptera, Apidae) 

By Karl V. Krombein, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Q)iarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

It seems to have escaped the attention of both bibliogra- 
phers and taxonomic workers in bees that the late Dr. Prison 
inadvertently proposed the name R u focinctohomhus for a sub- 
genus of Bremus Jurine. The name is mentioned in the Trans- 
actions of the American Entomological Society (53: 78, 1927) 
where the explanation of plates is given, thus: "Fig. 9. — Male 
genitalia of Bremus rufocinctus, representative of the sub- 
genus Rufocinctohomhus Frison." The accompanying figure 
9 on plate 27 is a microphotograph of the male genitalia of 
Bonihus rufocinctus Cresson. This proposal fulfills the re- 
quirements laid down in article 25 for the acceptance of 
generic names proposed prior to 1930 and must be regarded 
as being validated by Frison in the original publication with 
type Bremus rufocinctus (Cresson) [monobasic and also by 
virtual tautonymy]. 

In the text discussion (p. 65) Frison cites rufocinctus as 
the North American representative of the subgenus Culluma- 
nohomhus Vogt where it had been placed originally by Skori- 
kov (Bui. Sta. Region. Protect. Plantes Petrograd 4 : 152, 
1922). Frison did not have material of cullumanus Kirby. 
the type of Cullumanohom'bus, for comparison, but confirmed 
Skorikov's generic assignment of rufocinctus on the basis of 
a study of descriptions and figures of male genitalia. There 
is only a worker of cullumanus (determined by Friese) in the 
United States National Museum collection but it agrees with 
workers of rufocinctus in subgeneric characters. On the basis 
of this and the similarity of male genitalia, Rufocinctohomhus 
Frison (1927) is to be considered a synonym of CuUumano- 
homhusYogt (1911). 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 171 




By Philip P. Calvert, Cheyney, Pennsylvania 

In view of Doctor Howard's lono'-eontinued and active in- 
terest in many aspects of the study of mosquitoes, it is appro- 
priate, on this memorable occasion, to add some unpublished 
laboratory data on the relations between pre-adult mosquitoes 
and one group of their predators. 

In 1937-1938 the writer reared nine dragonflies, Aeshna 
cyanea Miiller, from eggs laid in dampened cellulose wadding 
at Horley, Surrey, England, September 3-4, 1936, and sent 
by Mr. John Cowley to me in March, 1937. Twenty-one eggs 
hatched between April 14 and May 20. Of these, nine reached 
the imago .stage, under conditions as described for Anax 
Junius (1929). Although each of these nine cyanea larvae was 
isolated and maintained under nearly similar external condi- 
tions, their individual larval lives varied from 187 to 385 
days. In the first five instars, i.e., up to a body length of 
about 7.5 mm., the food supplied them was almost exclusively 
.small Crustacea, largely daphnids. From the sixth instar on, 
the food was chiefly Culex mosquito larvae and pupae as may 
be seen from the following data for two larvae : 

Larva No. 1, 9 

Larva No. 5, $ 

Larval Life, days 




Apr. 14- 

Apr. 24/37- 

Oct. 18/37 

May 13/38 




Food consumed: 

Mosquito larvae 



Mosquito pupae 



Mayfly larvae (Ephemerida) 



Dragonfly larvae 

(Anax Junius) 



Damselfly larvae 




Baekswimmers (Notonectidae) 



On October 18, 1937, when Larva No. 1 transformed to an 
imago. Larva No. 5 was in its twelfth instar, with 2 additional 
instars and 207 days to be passed through to transformation. 
In these 207 days its food consumption was 2,114 mosquito 
larvae and 5.3 mosquito pupae. These last two figures, subi- 
tracted fronr the total amounts consumed bv Larva No. 5, 

172 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, .TUNE, 1947 

show its consumption, for approximately equal times with 
Larva No. 1, to have been 923 mosquito larvae and 111 pupae. 

One conclusion which emerges from these figures is that the 
larger eater of mosquito larvae and pupae (No. 5) does not 
necessarily develop more rapidly than his more abstemious 

Space limits do not permit interesting expatiation on the 
food consumption of dragonfly larvae, other than to call atten- 
tion to the data published by Elsie Lincoln (1940) on four 
larvae of Aeshna fuherculifera which I reared. Mosquitoes 
consumed by them in their last seven instars, ranged from 
703 to 1,334 larvae and from 114 to 180 pupae. 

The two cyaMsa adults measure 67 (No. 5, $ ) and 66 (No. 
1, 9 ) mm. in body length, the two tuherculifera male adults 
measure 65 and 68 mm. 

References: Calvert, P. P., 1929. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 68:23.^-236. 
Lincoln, E., 1940. Op. cif. 83:601-602. 


The 571st regular meeting of the Society was held at 8 P. M., March 
6, 1947, in Room 43 of the National Museum. Vice-President Siegler 
presided and there were 49 members and 19 visitors present. The 
minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The first item of business was concerned with the proposed Article 
VIII of the By-Laws which was first presented at the February meet- 
ing, and which reads as follows: 

Article VIII of the By-Laws (Honorary Members) (Present 
Article VIII to become Article IX) 

The Society may elect honorary members in recognition of long 
and meritorious effort directed toward the advance of entomologi- 
cal science. Individuals so recognized shall be approved unani- 
mously by the Executive Committee and by two-thirds vote of 
members present at any regular meeting. Honorary members 
shall be elected for life, shall pay no dueg, and shall be accorded 
all privileges of members. The number of honorary members 
carried concurrently on the membership roll shall not exceed 

Vice-President Siegler asked if any action on the amendment was 
desired. There was discussion by Townes, and Weigel moved that a 
vote be taken to make the proposed Article a part of the By-Laws. 
The motion was seconded and a favorable vote was registered. There 
was discussion of the measure by Mclndoo and Rohwer. 

PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 173 

Miss Haviland, reporting for the Membership Committee, proposed 
that Orville C. McBride, Division of Control Investigations, Bureau 
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Beltsville, Md., be elected to 
membership. He was duly elected. 

Dr. Sailer read a portion of a letter received from J. C. M. Gardner, 
Dehra Dun, India. Mr. Gardner expressed great pleasure with his 
status as a retired member of the Society. 

Under Notes and Exhibition of Specimens, M. P. Jones read ex- 
tracts from a letter recently sent to State Extension Directors by the 
Director of Extension Work, U. S. Department of Agriculture, deal- 
ing with a demonstration of the work carried on by the Division of 
Insect Identification, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 
This demonstration was presented under the supervision of C. F. W. 
Muesebeck to representatives of the Extension Service on January 
8, 1947. 

Dr. Sailer read a letter from Tsai-yu Hsiao, Department of Biology, 
Nankai University, Tientsin, China. Dr. Hsiao, a member of the 
Society located in Washington for several years, recently returned 
to China to resume teaching and research work there. 

The first speaker on the regular program was Floyd Smith, Bureau 
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, who discussed "Insect Vectors 
of Virus Diseases of Ornamental Plants." 

Plant diseases caused by viruses have resulted in some of the most 
serious crop losses. Viruses have caused "running out" of many crops 
and ornamental plants and this condition has been recognized in 
potatoes since 1770. Viruses, formerly believed to be living organisms, 
are now considered to be nucleoproteins. Some have been purified 
and reduced to crystal-like form. Approximately 130 viruses have 
been classified and numerous strains of certain ones have been recog- 
nized. Most, if not all, viruses are transmitted by insects in nature; 
some as in onion yellow dwarf have been transmitted by 57 species 
of aphids while other viruses as aster yellows have been transmitted 
by only one species, the aster leafhopper. According to the mode of 
transmission the viruses are classified as persistent and non-persistent 
in the insect. In the persistent viruses a latent period of from 4 
hours to 10 days occurs in the insect after feeding on the infected 
plant before it can infect a healthy plant, after which it may remain 
infective for life. An insect transmitting a non-persistent virus may 
become infective by a one-minute feeding and infect one or more 
successive plants during the next hour after which it loses infectivity. 

The most important insect vectors are aphids, leafhoppers, thrips, 
mealybugs and whiteflies. Myzus persicae has transmitted more than 
25 virus diseases while other species have transmitted only one. Both 
persistent and non-persistent viruses may be transmitted by the same 

1 74 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 

Virus diseases have frequently been confused with symptoms re- 
sulting from direct feeding of the supposed vector. A virus disease 
may be mild in its effect on one plant and fatal to other crops. Virus 
diseases can be expected to be more serious in the future because of 
the rapid transportation facilities and the greater chances for dis- 
tributing susceptible plants and insect vectors. (Author's Abstract) 

Following his talk, Dr. Smith introduced Philip Brierly, of the Bu- 
reau of Plant Industry, who had collaborated with him on certain of 
the virus investigations. There were comments by Mclndoo. 

The second talk of the evening was by L. D. Christenson, Bureau 
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, entitled "Peach Mosaic and 
Phony Peach Virus Vector Investigations." 

In support of its cooperative control programs on phony peach and 
peach mosaic, the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, in 
cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural 
Engineering, has undertaken work to determine the insects that are 
responsible for the natural spread of these two destructive virus dis- 
eases that attack peach. Two laboratories, one presently located at 
Fort Valley, Ga., with W. F. Turner in charge, and another now 
located at Riverside, Calif., with L. S. Jones in charge, were estab- 
lished to carry on the investigations. Surveys and studies were made 
in phony peach affected orchard areas in the southeastern States, 
and in peach mosaic affected orchard areas in the southwestern States, 
to determine the insects most likely to be the vectors. In this work, 
two fully equipped mobile entomological laboratories were used. Trans- 
mission tests have been conducted in California, New Mexico, Texas, 
Tennessee, and Georgia. Thus far, no vectors have been clearly dem- 
onstrated although more than one thousand transmission tests with 
the phony peach virus, and more than five thousand with the peach 
mosaic virus have been made. Promising leads have been obtained 
with certain species of leafhoppers in the phony peach tests. These 
are being explored further in the work that is now in progress. The 
methods employed in the work on these vector problems, and the char- 
acteristics of phony peach, peach mosaic, and other related peach virus 
diseases, were' presented in a series of colored slides. (Author's Ab- 

Dr. Townes commented briefly on Mr. Christenson's paper. 

Orville C. McBride and Nathan Stabler were introduced to the 

The meeting adjourned at 10:05 P. M. 

Ashley B. Gukney, Actinq Recording Secretary. 

PROC. EiNT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 175 


The 572d regular meeting of the Society was held at 8 P. M., April 3, 
1947, in Room 43 of the U. S. National Museum. President Clark 
opened the meeting with 33 members and 16 visitors present. Minutes 
of the previous meeting were approved as read. 

New members were elected as follows: 

Capt. Herbert T. Dalmat, United States Public Health Service, 
APO 837, % Postmaster, New Orleans, La. 

L. W. Hopner, Fort Hays, Kansas State College, Hays, Kansas. 

Jenaro Maldonado Capriles, Departamento de Salud, Unidades de 
Salus Publica, Ponce, P. R. 

Prof. J. A. Ramos, Acting Director, Department of Biology, Agri- 
cultural College, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, P. R. 

Raymond F. Thomasson, 2354 Kemper Lane, Cincinnati 6, Ohio. 

In accordance with the procedure provided in Amendment VIII to the 
By-Laws of the Constitution, President Clark presented the nomination 
of Dr. Herbert Osborn as honorary member of the Society. Dr. Osborn 
was elected by a unanimous vote. 

President Clark made the following announcements. 

"When our fellow member, Mr. John F, Gates Clarke, left for 
London I took the liberty of asking him to transmit to the President 
and members of the Royal Entomological Society of London the com- 
pliments and best wishes of the Entomological Society of Washing- 
ton. ' ' 

"To my regret I received last Monday the resignation of Dr. Alan 
Stone as Editor of the Society. I have appointed Mr. Karl V. Krom- 
bein to serve for the remainder of Dr. Stone's term." 

Mr. Hoffmann made the motion that the Corresponding Secretary be 
directed to write a letter to Dr. Stone expressing the deep appreciation 
of the Society for his services as Editor during the last five years. The 
motion was passed. 

Major Robert Traub called the attention of the Society to the recent 
book by C. A. Hubbard, "The Fleas of Western North America." He 
referred to the biographies of siphonapterists, the section on medical 
importance of fleas, the interesting notes on field work, the hundreds of 
pages on classification, and the excellent host index. Taxonomic charac- 
ters are clearly shown in the illustrations, and there is a very complete 

Mrs. Clark reviewed briefly a book published in 1945 under the title 
' * Butterflies, ' ' by the well-known British geneticist, E. B. Ford. The 
work differs from the usual treatment of British butterflies in that the 
author deals with structure, development, habits and behavior, color. 

176 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE, 1947 

races, subspecies, and the origin of British butterfly fauna from the 
genetic viewpoint. There is also a section on collecting, and the book 
is handsomely illustrated in color. 

Dr. Sailer stated that "Time" in its issue of Mar. 24, 1947 (v. 49, 
no. 12, pp. 69-70) had published a fairly accurate review of the book 
by Dr. Hubbard. 

The first paper on the regular program was presented by Dr. E. E. 
Ivy: "Control of Cotton Insects With Some of the Newly-developed 
Insecticides. ' ' 

In experiments conducted at Waco, Texas, during 1946 a mixture of 
DDT and benzene hexachloride gave satisfactory control of extremely 
heavy infestations of Heliothis armigera (Hbn.), Anthonomus grandis 
Boh., Aphis gossypii Glov., and Alabama argillacea (Hbn.). This mix- 
ture was also effective against other injurious cotton insects such aa 
Psallus seriatus (Eeut.), Loxostege similalis (Guen.), Trfchoplitsia ni 
(Hbn.), Thripidae, and Pentatomidae. 

Another new insecticide which shows considerable promise is chlori- 
nated camphene. A dust containing 20 percent of chlorinated camphene 
controlled infestations of Heliofhis armigera (Hbn.), Anthonomns gran- 
dis Boh., Aphis gossypii Glov., and Alabama argillacea (Hbn.), just 
about as well as did mixtures of DDT and benzene hexachloride. 

These results indicate that at last an insecticide or combination of 
insecticides may have been found which gives promise of practical con- 
trol of all of the seriously injurious insects that attack cotton in this 
country. (Author's Abstract) 

Dr. Ivy's talk was illustrated with lantern slides. 

Illness prevented Mr. Sasscer from presenting the next paper sched- 
uled. At the request of the Program Committee, Dr. C. E. Woodworth 
discussed the results of the work carried out by the Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy and Plant Quarantine at the Walla Walla Station, Washington, on 

Brief reports were presented on the North-Central States Entomolo- 
gists' Meeting and on conferences held in connection with it. Dr. B. A. 
Porter discussed the Codling Moth Conference and the Fruit Insect 
Section; C. M. Packard covered the General Sessions and the Corn 
Borer Conference. Mr. Harned was also asked to report on the March 
meetings of the Texas Entomological Society held at San Antonio. 

Visitors introduced to the Society were: Karl O. Kramer, Frederick 
M. Bayer, and David G. Shappirio. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:45 P. M. 

Ina L. Hawes, Becording Secretary. 
Actual date of publication, June 11, 1947 

VOL. 49 

October, 1947 

No. 7 


of the 







Entered as ■econd-class matter March 10, 1919. at the Post Office at Washington. 
D. 0.. under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted (or mailintr at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1108. 
Act of October 8, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 




Oboamized Mabch 12, 1884. 

The regalar meetings of the Society are held in the National Musenni 
on the first Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclnsive, at 
8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them ia 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President L. 0. Howard 

President A-USTIN H. Clabk 

First Vice President E. H. Sieglee 

Second Vice President T. E. Sntder 

iLecording Secretary Ina L. Hawes 

Corresponding Secretary R. I. Sailee 

Treasurer L. B. Reed 

Editor Karl V. Krombein 

Executive Committee P. N. Annand, F. W. Poos, C. A. Weigel 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences C. F. W. Mttesebeok 


Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society 
at Washington, D. C. Terms of Subscription: Effective with Volume 
50, 1948 the subscription price is $4.50 per annum, both domestic and 
foreign; recent single numbers, 50 cents, foreign postage extra. All 
subscriptions are payable in advance. Remittances should be made 
payable to the Entomological Society of "Washington. The Society 
does not exchange its publications for those of other societies. 

Authors will be furnished not to exceed 10 copies of the number in 
which their articles appear at a charge of 25 cents per copy, or re- 
prints of such articles, without covers, at the following rates, provided 
a statement of the number desired accompanies the manuscript: 

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Additional copies per 100 1.00 1.15 2.00 2.60 3.15 1.50 

Purchase of reprints by institutions whose invoices are subject to no- 
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Illustrations in excess of the equivalent (in cost) of one full page 
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may be obtained at a nominal cost through an order placed with the 
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be obtained at author's expense. All manuscripts should be sent to the 
Editor, care Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Washington 
25, D. C. 

The Correspondins Secretary and Treasurer should be addressed 

proceedings of the 

Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 49 OCTOBER, 1947 No. 7 


Hv Lloyd K. Rozeboom, IJcpt. of Pard.siiolof/i/, Johns HopTcins 
Scliool of Hygiene and Public Health* 

Aiiioii<>' a eolleetioii of Phlehotomus received from Dr. J. A. 
Moiitoya Oehoa were six females and one male of P. osornoi 
Ristorcelli and Van Ty, 1941, collected at Tuquerres, Colom- 
bia, on Augnst 15, 1944. As the male of this species has not 
been known, a description is presented below, as well as addi- 
tional descriptive notes concerning the female. 

Phlehotomus osornoi, Eistorcelli and' Van Ty, 1941. 
MALE — Head: Length from vertex to elypeus 344 microns; clypeus 
165 microns, epipharynx 394 microns. Length of palpal segments (fig. 
3) ill microns: I, 49; II, 165; III, 245; IV, 120; V, 410. Palpal for- 
mula 1, 4, 2, 3, 5. Length of antenna! segments in microns: III, 623; 

IV, 295; V, 262; \J, 246; VII, 229; VIII, 213; IX, 180; X, 164; XI. 
148; XTI, 140; XIII, 131; XIV, 82; XV, 82; XVI, 66. Geniculate 
spines of antenna without basal spur; situated about one-third the dis- 
tance from the apex on segment III, and slightly above the base on 
succeeding segments; reaching to middle of segment V, shorter on other 
segments. III/E = 1.6. 

Thorax: Length of scutum and scutellum 705 microns. Wing (fig. 1) 
measurements in microns: length, 3330; width, 1040; alpha, 915; beta, 
416, gamma, 499; delta, 250. Alpha/beta = 2.2; alpha/gamma = 1.8; 
alpha/delta = 3.7. Femora of hind legs without a row of special setae 
or spines. Leg measurements in microns: Foreleg: femur, 1290; tibia, 
1870; tarsus I, 1205; II, 460; III, 310; IV, 250; V, 125. Midleg: 
femur, 1165; tibia, 2165; tarsus I, 1400; II, 500; III, 333; IV, 250; 

V, 125. Hindleg: femur, 1290; tibia, 2580; tarsus I, 1620; II, 580; III, 
375; IV, 290; V, 125. 

Abdomen: Length without genitalia, 2290 microns. Genitalia (fig. 2): 
basal segment of upper clasper 525 microns in length; with a dense tuft 
of many long setae at the base and a short row of long, fine setae along 
the inner margin above the basal tuft. Distal segment of upper clasper 

*This work was supported in part by the International Health Divi- 
.•iion of the Rockefeller Foundation. The writer is indebted to Dr. 
Alan Stone for the opportunity to examine material in the IT. S. Na- 
tional Museum. 

•LATE 1." PKOC. KN'T. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOHF.K, l!t47 

Phite 1;"). Fig-. 1 — Fhlebutummi OKurnoi. Wing of male. Pig. 2 — P. osor- 
7(oj. Male genitalia. 


PKOC. KNT. sot'. WASH.. VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBEK, 1947 1 7D 

1380 inic-roiis long; with five enlarged spines, two apical, two median, and 
one between tlie apical and median spines. Median clasper 260 microns 
long; unarmed, simple; the upper surface of the distal half with a 
patch of short posteriorly-directed setae; lower margin angled before 
the middle, a small patch of fine setae beyond the angle. Lower clasper 
390 microns in length, unarmed, but with some long setae at apex. Spic- 
ular apparatus: genital pump 165 microns in length; spicules .")2.1 
microns in length, ending in a simple blunt point. 

FEMALE. Agrees with the description of Eistorcelli and Van Ty. 
Average lengths in microns of the palpal segments of three females : 
I, 63; II, 225; III, 265; IV, 160; V, 435. Spermatheea (figs. 4 and 5) 
32-4S microns in length, with 12-16 irregular rings; the head narrow, 
tufted with fine hairs. Individual ducts 160-175 microns in length; 
common duct very short, 20 microns in length. 

Ta.roHOin ic Di.sei(.ssioH 

Ristoi'L-elli and Van Ty note that osornoi is most closely re- 
lated to P. intermedius on one hand, and to verrucarum, 
itogiichii, and pernensis on the other. The female described by 
these authors lacked the fourth and fifth palpal segments. 
The present description shoM's osornoi to have a long- palp, 
whereas in intermedius palpal segment V is shorter than III. 
The ringed spermatheea separates osornoi from verrucarum 
and presumably from peruensis, since Shannon (1929) states 
that the spermatheea of the latter is similar to that of verru- 
carum. P. osornoi females possess several characters in com- 
mon with the species listed below : a long palp with segment 
V longer than III ; bucco-pharynx with four horizontal teeth ; 
hind femur unarmed; and spermatheea ringed. The related 
species are as follows : 

P. amarali Barretto and Couthinho, 1940 

P. hourrouU Barretto and Coutinho, 1941 

P. fluviatilis Floeh and Abonnenc, 1944 

P. gomezi Nitzulescu, 1981 

P. japignyi Floch and Abonnenc, 1944 

P. lanei Barretto and Coutinho, 1941 

P. noguchii Shannon, 1929 

P. oswaldoi Mangabeira, 1942 

P. rorotaensis Floch and Abonnenc, 1944 

P. stewarti Mangabeira and rxalindo, 1944 

P. svis Rozeboom, 1940 

The most obvious difference between these species and 
osornoi lies in the shape of the spermatheea, which has the 
distal ring greatly enlarged in all these species except hour- 
rouU, fluviatilis, and noguchii. The short individual ducts as 
well as the structure of the spermatheea of hourrouli readily 

PLATE 1(3 PKOO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOU. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBKK. 1!I47 

Plate 1(3. Fig. 3 — Phlebotonuis osornoi. Palp of male. Fig. 4— P. osor- 
noi. Spermathecae and genital fork. Fig. o — P. osornoi Spermatheca. 
Fig. 6 — Phlebotomus noguchii. Spermathecae and genital fork. Fig. 7 
P. nopiichii Spermntheea. Fig. 8 — P. vopuchii. Spermatheca. 


fROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBER, 19-1:7 181 

distiiigui.sli that species. The description of the si)erinatheca 
of ftiiviatilis given by Floch and Abonnenc (li->44) shows 
some resemblance to that of osornoi, except that in the former 
it is larger (78 microns), the rings are more regnlar in shape, 
and the individnal dncts are mneh longer (578 microns). 
Other differences are fonnd in the wing ratios, and the rela- 
tivelj- short palpal segment V of fluviatilis. P. osornoi ap- 
pears to be most closely related to P. noguchii. Shannon (1929) 
stated that the spermatheca of this species was similar to the 
sac-like spermatheca of verrucariim. However, Hertig (1838, 
1943) believed that the female described by Shannon as 
noguchii was actually one of verrucariim. Through an exam- 
ination of Shannon's allotype female, and by dissections of 
females of noguchii collected and reared in Peru by Hertig 
and deposited in the U. S. National Museum, I am able to 
confirm Hertig 's suspicion that Shannon's female is vo'ru- 
ca)-uni. Hertig has redescribed the female of noguchii, with 
the exception of the spermatheca. These are illustrated in 
figures 6, 7, andS. The spermatheca is 40-50 microns in length, 
and composed of 14-17 rings, the first largest; the rings may 
be regular in shape as in figure 7 or irregular as in figure 8. 
The individual ducts are 160-190 microns in length ; the com- 
mon duct is very short, about 20 microns in length. The ducts 
and the spermatheca with the irregular rings very closely 
resemble these structures in osornoi. There are other differ- 
ences between females of nogucliii and osornoi in the wing 
ratios and in the size and position of the eyes. The value of 
eve/eve-vertex is 1.6 in the osornoi female and 0.75 in no<iuchii 
(Hertig. 1943). 

The male characters possessed in common with related 
species are the long palp, distal segment of upper clasper with 
five spines not arranged as in Brunipiomyia (sens, str.), 
mediam clasper unarmed, and basal segment of upper clasper 
with a basal tuft. Related species are as follows : 

P. nogucliii Shannon, 1929. In noguchii the lower clasper 
extends well beyond the apex of the basal segment of the 
upper clasper, while in osornoi the lower is shorter than the 
basal segment of the upper. The length and shape of the 
median clasper differs markedly in the two species, and there 
are differences in the wing vein ratios, particularly in the 
value of alpha/delta, which is 6-12 in noguohii and only 3.7 
in Osornoi. 

P. quinquefcr Dyar, 1929. From Dyar's description the 
male of this species differs from osornoi in the shape of the 
median clasper and in the arrangement of the spines on the 
distal segment of the upper clamper. 

1(S2 I'KOC. KXT. .S0( . WASH., VOL. 49, XO. 7, 0( TOBKK, HUT 

F. rickardi Costa Lima, 1986, differs in the shape and length 
of the median clasper, in the position of the basal tuft, and 
in the palpal formula of 1, 2, 4, 3, 5. 

P. rorotoensis Floeh and Abonnenc, 1944, differs in the shape 
of the median elasper, the position of the basal tuft, in the 
l^alpal formula of 1, 2, 4, 3 5, and in the wing vein ratios. 

P. stewarti Mangabeira and Galindo, 1944, and P. vexator 
Coquillett, 1907, differ especially in the small basal tuft con- 
sistinji' of only a few hairs. 


Fldcli, H., ;iiid Abonneue, E., 1S44. Plilebotomes de la Guyane Fraiicaise 
(IX). Deseiiptiou de la femelle de P. fluviatilis et de trois especes 
nouvelles. Inst. Past. Guy. Terr. L'Inini, Publ. No. 83: 1. 

Hertig, M., 1938. Notes on Peruvian sandflies. Identification of females 
of Phlebotomus verrucanim and P. noguchii. 

Hertig, M., 1943. Notes on Peruvian sandflies with descriptions of 
Phleboiomus battistinii, n. sp. and P. pescei, n. sp. Amer. Jour. Hyg. 
37: 24(i. 

Eistorcelli, A., and Dao Van Ty, 1941. Mission E. Brumpt et L. Ch. 
Brumpt en Colombie. III. Plilebotomes d'une region de Colombie 
ou la verruga du Perou est devenue endemique depuis deux ou trois 
aiis (secoiide note). Ann. Parasit. Hum. Comp. IS: 2-")l. 


■ By H. E. Karl Jordan, Tring, Ilcris 

The two known species of the Old \Yorld genus Thaumu- 
psylla Rothschild, 1907, are in their build so exceptional among 
the bat fleas of the Avorld (some 70 species), and the compar- 
ison of one with the other is so instructive, that these remark- 
able insects appear to me to be a very suitable subject for a 
short note written as an expression of my esteem and affection 
for the great entomologist to whom the June number of the 
Proceedings is dedicated.^ 

Until the discovery of ThaumapsyJhi the bat fleas were gen- 
erally considered to be slender insects with a long liead and a 
long thorax. As ThaumapsyUa hreviceps Rothschild, 1907 (on 
fruit-eating bats in Africa and the Oriental Region), has the 
proportionally shortest head of all known fleas and a very 
short pronotnm (apart from the comb), our concept of a bat 
flea had to be changed, and a further change in the diagnosis 

iBeceived too late for puV)licatioii in the Juno issue honoring l>r. 
L. O. Howard.— Editor. 

PROC. ENT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBER, 1947 183 

of the family was caused by the second species, Th. dina 
Jordan, 1937 (tropical Africa), which has a cephalic comb 
eonsistinji' of tliree spines, instead of two as in all other bat 

The chief distinctions of ThauniapsijUa are found on the 
head and thorax ; thouoh the abdomen is broader than is usual 
in bat fleas, the terminal segments rather closely resemble 
those of the slender species 0/ LagaropsyUa Jord. & Roths., 
1921 (Africa and Oriental Region). The bearing of these 
distinctions of Thaumapsylla on the evolution of bat fleas 
becomes evident when the two species are compared with each 
other. The head is shorter in Th. hreviceps (fig. 2) than in 
Th. dina (fig. 1) ; the minute hairs on the frontal area are 
more numerous; in between the large bristles of the median 
row of the posterior external area there are many small ones, 
which is quite unusual ; and the lower bristles of the posterior 
row are ratlier close together and without the alternate small 
bristles characteristic of the posterior row on the head, thorax' 
and abdominal terga I to VII (sometimes also on metepim- 
erum) of fleas, these alternates having attained the size of the 
long ones on the head of Th. hreviceps, but being normal in 
Th. dina. The pronotal comb extends much further down in 
Th. hreviceps than in any other known flea. The pronotum is 
divided in both species by a vertical non-sclerotized line, 
which separates an anterior area bearing the row of long 
bristles from the posterior area bearing the marginal comb 
(such a line is indicated in some other fleas). This division 
is vcnti-alh- less definite in Th. dina than in Th. hreviceps. The 
bristles of the posterior row on the meso- and metanotum are 
somewhat prolonged in Th. hreviceps (as they are in several 
bat fleas, a secondary development), but not in Th. dina; in 
Th. dina the alternates in these rows are normal, whereas in 
Th. hreviceps they are more numerous than usual. The in- 
ternal band-like sclerotization extending forward and upward 
from near the lower end of the sterno-meral rod of the meso- 
thorax (the sclerotized stripe is often defined in some other 
bat fleas) is more reduced in Th. hreviceps than in Th. dina, 
as is also the episternum of the metathorax, the pale central 
area of the sclerite being absent in Th. ht-eviceps and present 
though small in our series of five Th. dina. The bristles on 
the sternum and epimerum of the metathorax are more num- 
erous in Th. hreviceps than in Th. dina. 

It is evident from these differences that the two species 
represent two well-defined stages in the evolution of this 
branch of bat fleas and that Th. hreviceps is the more special- 
ized one of the two. It seems reasonable, therefore, further 
to conclude that the lonuer liead of Th . dina with its three 

1S4 I'KOC. KXT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. -id. XO. ,. OC'rOHKK, 1!I4' 

Fig. 1. — TIkui 1)1(1 psi/Ua dlna, male. Fig '1. — Th. hreviceps, male. 

ventral spines instead of two is more primitive than the head 
of Th. ])reviceps. This conclusion justifies the sujigestion that 
the small number of g'enal spines in bat fleas is due to the re- 
duction of an ancestral comb that consisted of a greater num- 
ber of spines. fSuch a species may still be discovered on one 
of the very numerous bats from whieli no fleas liaA'e as yet 
been obtained. It would link tlie bat fieas with some genera 
of Australian Macropsyllidae (on native rodents), from a 
cousin of which that had eight major combs on the thorax and 
a multidentate cephalic comb the bat fleas have probably 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBKK, l!t47 185 


By Osmond P. Breland, Tlte University of Texas'^ 

The mosquito, Orihopodomyia alha Baker, was described iu 
1936 (Baker 1986). Since that time, it has been collected so 
rareh' that its discovery in a new locality has been considered 
worthy of comment. 

This species has previonsly been reported from Texas based 
upon the determination of a single adult specimen (Randolph 
and O'Neil 1945) but it is now generally recognized that the 
adults of Orihopodomyia alha and its relative, 0. signifera 
(Coquillett) are so similar that at present there are no known 
characteristics which will invariably distinguish them. In a 
recent paper in which the ecology and distribution of tree 
hole breeding mosquitoes were considered (Jenkins and Car- 
penter 1946) only larval collections of O. alha were recognized 
as definite evidence of the presence of this species, and as of 
that date, the mosquito had been collected from only twelve 
localities. Since that time, a few other collections have been 
reported, but all that the writer has noted have been from 
old localities. 

During the past several months, the writer has been making 
regular collections of mosquitoes from tree holes at Austin, 
Texas. On June 16 search was made for additional tree holes, 
and a small cavity was discovered in an elm (Ulmus crassi- 
clava). The mouth of this hole was covered by a spider web, 
and after the web was broken, examination revealed no free 
water at the bottom of the cavity and only faint traces of 
moisture. The hole was filled with water, since it was hoped 
to attract tree hole breeding species. Within a few minutes, 
several mosquito larvae and some pupae were noted within 
the water. Consequently, this water was collected in a con- 
tainer and the hole refilled. 

Examination in the laboratory revealed that most of the 
larvae were Orthopodomyia alha, while the remainder were 
Aedes triseriatus (Say). Twelve fourth instar and several 
younger instar larvae of 0. alha were present, as well as two 
pupae that subsequently emerged as adults. A single pupa 
and some half dozen second and third instar larvae of A. 
triseriatus were also collected. Other larvae and pupae were 
obtained on June 20, and at this time an adult male, presum- 
ably 0. alha, was observed resting within the tree hole. Sub- 

lEntire printing costs paid by. author to secure immediate publication. 

186 PROO. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBER, 1947 

sequently coUeetions from this same tree have yielded addi- 
tional specimens of 0. alha and A. triseriatus, but as yet no 
other species of mosquitoes have been recovered. In previous 
reports, Orfhopodoiiiyht skjnifera has been an almost invari- 
able associate of 0. alha. Althonjih the former species is well 
represented in this locality, it has not as yet been found in 
the tree hole with 0. alha. O. alha has not been collected else- 

Several facts regarding- the present collections should be 
noted. The known distribution of the species, A'erified by 
larval determination, has been extended considerably. New 
Orleans, Louisiana and Camp Crowder, Missouri are the 
closest localities previously reported for larvae of the si:)ecies 
(Jenkins and Carpenter 1946). 

Of the twelve larval collections ' recorded by Jenkins and 
Carpenter (li336). five are represented by a single specimen, 
and so far as could be determined, the largest number of 
larvae that have ever been collected have been thirty (Shields 
and Miles 1937). Only six adults were obtained from these lat- 
ter collections because of pupal mortality. In three collections 
from June 16 through June 24, the writer has counted more 
than fifty late instar larvae, and at least as many younger 
instar larvae w^ere obtained. These larvae have been kept in 
the laboratory in tree hole water. 

As of June 28, twenty-seven adults have emerged, and as 
yet there is no indication of high larval or pupal mortality. 
The pupal period appears to be rather long. Of seven pupae 
upon which observations were made, the pupal period was 
three days for five specimens, while the two others emerged on 
the morning of the fourth day. Preliminary efforts at labora- 
tory breeding of the species have not been successful. The 
adults have not reacted well to laboratory conditions, and have 
never been observed to feed or mate in the breeding cage. 

Perhaps one of the most interesting facts relative to the 
first collection of 0. alha on June 16, is the occurence of viable 
larvae and pupae in a situation where no free water was 
observed. As noted above, an. examination of this hole with a 
flash light revealed no free water, and only faint traces of 
moisture at the bottom. It is possible that some unobserved 
crack may have contained water, but the writer does not be- 
lieve this to be true, and laboratory observations indicate that 
free water is not necessary for the survival of larvae and 
pupae. Two larvae and three pupae were placed in a staining 
dish upon the bottom of Avhich was a piece of moist toweling 
paper, but no free water was present. The top was placed on 
the dish, and observations of the insects made from time to 
time. Ijarvae survived for more than twentv-four hours, but 

PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBER, 1947 187 

were dead at the end of thirty-six hours. All pupae emerged 
as adults thirty-six to forty-eight hours after they were placed 
in dishes. 

Bick and Penn (1947) have noted the resistance of larvae 
of Aedes vexans. Anopheles walkeri and Wyeoniyia sinithii to 
drouth, and these workers, using a large number of larvae of 
each species, found that some larvae would survive in the ab- 
sence of free water from 96 to 192 hours, depending upon the 
species. It seems that if a large series of larvae of 0. alha be- 
come available for testing that some will survive longer than 
tlie time indicated by the writer's observations of only two 
larvae. The above workers also succeeded in obtaining emer- 
gence from the pupae of Aedes vexans placed on moist filter 


Bnkei-, F. C. 1936. A new species of Ortliopodomyia, O. allia s[i. n. 
(Diptera: Culieidae.) Proe. Eiit. Soc. Wash. 3S: 1-7. 

Bick, George H., and Penn, George Henry. 1947. Resistance of mos- 
quito larvae and pupae to experimental drought. Ann. Eiit. Soc. 
Am. 40: 82-86. 

Jenkins, Dale W., a)id Carpenter, Stanley J. 1946. Ecology of the tree 
holi' Ijreeding mos(]uitoes of neartic North America. Ecological 
Monographs 16: 31-47. 

Randolph, Neal M., and O'Neill, Kelly, 1944. The mosquitoes of Texas. 
Bull. Texas State Health Department, Austin. 

Shields, S. E., and Miles, Yirgil I. 1937. The occurrence of Ortliopodo- 
myia alba in Alal)ama (Diptei-a : Culcidae.) Proc. Ent. Eoc. Wash. 
39: 237. 


By J. F. Gates Clarke, Bureau, of Entomology and FUint Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

For the last 10 years the species described below has been 
received occasionally from correspondents for determiuation, 
but it was not until 'l 941 and 1942, and again in 1946, that the 
species Avas received iu series. Several specimens from Michi- 
gan, not included in the type series, are in the possession of 
Sherman Moore, of Detroit. 

Because of repeated requests for a name for this striking 
Dichonieris. I am describing it. 


Dichomeris glenni, new spt'cics 

Alai- L'XiKiiixt' l(i-22 mm. 

Laliiiil palpus with second segnu'iit shining blackish fuscous exteriorly, 
silvery fuscous inwardly shading through gray to white in the tuft ; 
third segment sordid whitish, fuscous to blackish-tipped. Antenna 
fuscous with gray annulations; scape black, except tip, which is white 
anteriorly. Head, thorax and forewing cinereous; face white; base of 
tegula and scales around eye, except dorsally, black; on the thorax are 
three small black spots forming the three corners of a triangle, the ajiical 
spot at the posterodorsal end and the other two spots anterolaterad to it; 
the foiewing is speckled with numerous minute, black irrorations; jiear 
the liase are three ill-defined, small black spots; at basal two-fifths, in 
the fold, is a large black spot sometimes separate, but frequently con- 
fluent, witli a larger one of the same color in the cell; at the end of cell 
is a bilobed, transverse, black spot; these prominent discal spots are 
edged Avith golden ocherous; at outer four-fifths a narrow, ill-defined, 
outwartlly angulate black fascia extends to vein 6, then straight to tornus 
(in most flown specimens this line is scarcely discernible) ; around ter- 
ineu a series of small black spots lies between the veins ; extreme edge of 
eosta yellowish ; cilia light yellowish fuscous with a broad, fuscous basal 
band. Hind wing grayish fuscous, darker toward the margins; cilia 
yellowish fuscous with a narroAv fuscous subbasal band. Legs shining 
ocherous white heavily overlaid and banded with blackish fuscous. In 
the nuile there is a pocket situated at the bases of the second and third 
coxae, and apparently involving the episternum and epimeron, from 
which arises a conspicuous, expansible hair pencil. The pocket is lined 
with short, closely set, golden scales and the long hairlike scales of the 
tuft are golden basally shading to white. When not expanded the tuft 
lies between the second and third coxae. Abdomen grayish fuscous above 
Avath the segments narrowly edged with Avhite, and oclierous white beneath 
somewhat suffused with fuscous. 

Type. — United States National Musenm Xo 58309 (^Murray 
0. Glenn No. 420). 

Tyjye locality. — Putnam County, 111. 

Described from the S type and six $ and six 9 paratypes as 
follows : Florida : Vero Beach, 2$ 5,29 $ (April 1941. May 
1942, August 1941, J. R. Malloch) ; Illinois: Putnam County. 
4 5 5,2$ $ (July and August dates, 1935-1946, Murray 0. 
Glenn) ; Kansas; 9 (1 specimen with no further data) ; Michi- 
gan ; Sharon, Washtenaw County, $, 9 (18-VII-36, 15-VII- 
39, Sherman Moore). Paratypes in the United States National 
Museum and British Museum, in Mr. Glenn's collection at 
Masnolia, 111., and in the collection of Sherman Moore. 

The two conspicuous black spots of the forewing distinguish 
this species from any other described North American Dicho- 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBER, 19-1/ 


Tills species is named for Murray 0. Glenn, who supplied 
most of the type series and who has made many contributions 
to our knowledge of North American Microlepidoptera in 
recent rears. 

Dichomcris glenni, n. sp. Fig. 1. Male genitalia: Lateral aspect of right 
harpe and right side of vinculum; la, left side of vinculum; lb, 
lateral aspect of aedeagus; Ic, lateral view, in outline, of gnathos, 
uncus and tegvmien. Fig. 2. Female genitalia, ventral view with 
ovipisitor omitted. 

190 PKOr. ENT. 80C. WASH., VOL. 49, SO. 7. OCTOBER, 1947 


By J. LiNSLEV Gressitt, Lingnan Xahnal History Survey and Museum, 
Lingnein University, Canton, China 

The subfamily Lepturinae is a very doiuiiiantly liolai'L-tic 
group, with a large proporuun oi its one thousand-odd species 
occurring in the temperate parts of North America, Asia 
and Europe. The group is also well represented in Madagas- 
car by many endemic genera. Relatively few species have 
been described from the tropical parts of Africa, Asia and 
the Americas, and almost none from the Australasian Region. 
AYitli the group centered as it is in the Ilolarctic Region, it is 
to be expected that many genera, and even some species, should 
be possessed in common by the Palearctic and Nearctic sub- 
divisions^. Examples of species already known to have liol- 
arctic distribution are StenocorUs inquisiior^ Pachyta lamed, 
Acmaeops pratensis, Anoplodera rubra and A. sexmacidata. 

The Lepturinae undoubtedly merits subfamily rank, but 
some of its components merge with the subfamilies Prioninae. 
Aseminae and Cerambycinae through a series of links. For 
instance, the tribe Philini has been placed in both the Prion- 
inae and the Lepturinae, and its status is still debated-. The 
Xecydalini lias been considered as a link between the Leptur- 
inae and the Cerambycinae. Aurivillius, and others preceding 
him, preferred to treat the lepturids as a tribe of the sub- 
family Cerambycinae, but Craighead showed that on the basis 
of larval characters this group as Avell as the Aseminae must 
be treated as subfamilies. 

The species of the subfamily are dominantly borers in 
conifers, and for that reason undoubtedly had the best oppor- 
tunity to migrate freely between Asia and North America 
during the latter part of the last period of connection between 
the two continents, when the land bridge was covered with 
coniferous forests. A large part of the subfamily seems to 
represent an actively evolving or "plastic" group. Tribal and 
generic boundaries are difficult to recognize, and the divisions 
must be somewhat arbitrarv and artificial. 

^In discussing a conspicuously nortliein group such as this, the divi- 
sions Palearctica and Neaictica are ahnost superfluous, or are to be con- 
sidered as convenient groupings of subregions. Moreover, the species in 
Eastern Siberia and Alaska, for instance, may be more closely related 
than those in the Manchurian and Central Asiatic Subregions. In many 
other groups of different bistorico-geographical development, the terms 
Palearctica and Nearctiea are applicable, as in the subfamilies Hispinae 
and Cassidinae of the Chrysomelidae, where the palearctic and nearctie 
elements have little in common. 

-See Gressitt, 1940. Phil. Journ. Sci. 72: 13. 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBER, 1947 191 

111 attempting to arrive at the correct generic determina- 
tions of the Chinese Lepturinae, a number of changes have 
been found necessary, involving both Old and New AVorld 
nomenclature. Some of these changes are set forth below, with 
the addition of some notes on certain Japanese species. 

1. Microrhahdiuui Kraatz, 1879, is a synonym of Encijclops 
Newman, 1838. Mkrorhahdium jozanensis Matsushita, 1933, 
is a synonym of Encyclops oUvacea Bates, 1884 (Japan). The 
type of Microrhabdinin is Encyclops macilenta (Kraatz), 
1879, new combination (Siberia). The eyes of Microrhabdinin 
have been incorrectly stated to be coarsely facetted, following 
Bates' assumption, arrived at by inference only. The beetle 
figured in the Genera Insectorum (Boppe, pars 178, 1921) 
pi. 6, fig. 10 as Encyclops oJivacea Bates is actually the green 
jihase of Encyclops coernlca LeCoute (W. North America). 

2. Leptorhabdium. ornatuni (LeConte), new combination. 
Xylosteus ornatus Lee, 1873 (California) must be transferred 
to Leptorhahdiuni Kraatz, 1879. It is very similar in appear- 
ance to the type of the latter: illyricum Kraatz (Berl. Ent. 
Zeits. 14 (1870) 415, pi. 3, fig. 6a {Xylosteus illyricus: SE. 
Europe) . The latter illustration is labelled Xylosteus spinolae, 
male, from Illyria, but in the text above the explanation, the 
name illyricus is proi)Osed for what was thought to be the 
male of spinolae. The "female", fig. 6e, is correctly labelled 
Xylosteus spinolae. The principal character separating Lep- 
forhahdinm from Xylosteus is the insertion of the antennae in 
the former close to the anterior margin of the eyes, and in the 
latter on tubercles situated far anterior to the eyes. 

3. Toxotiniis Bates, 1884, (type: T. longicornis B., 1884 
^=Toxotns minutus var. reini Heyden, 1879) is at best a 
subgenus of Toxotus Dejeau, 1821. 

4. 0.rt//»fri(s Mulsant, 1863, (type: Ceramhyx cursor Linn., 
1758) is no more than'a weak subgenus of Toxotus. 

5. Apatophysis Chevrolat, 1860, should probably be con- 
sidered a subgenus of Cent rod era LeConte, 1850. The former 
is distributed in central Asia and the latter in North America. 

6. Sachalinohia koltzei Heyden. This species may be newly 
recorded from Honshu (Japan) : two specimens [one in the 
California Academy {»f Sciences (Gressitt collection)] collect- 
ed at Inamachi, Nagano Prefecture, central Honshu, May 23. 
1931, 0. Yoshie, collector. 

7. Acmaeops viridula Matsumura appears to be a valid 
species, though it has been synonymized with A. smaragdula 
Pabr. The former is narrower, with the prothorax almost 
carinate mediall.y. 

8. Gaurotes doris Bates, 1884 (Japan) should be relegated 
to a snbspecies of G. iissuriensis Blessig, 1873 (Siberia). 

192 PROC. KXT. SOC . WASH., VOL. 49, XO. 7, OCTOBER, .1947 

9. The o-enus Anoplodera ^vas established by Mulsant in 
1840 for the European species Leptura scxguttata Fabricius. 
However, the genus has hardly been used by European or 
Japanese workers. The species have been generally retained 
in the genus Leptura Linnaeus. The following Japanese 
species, among others, should be placed in Anoplodera: granu- 
lata. Bates, succedanea Lewis, variiconiis Dabnan and virens 

10. Leptura succedanea Lewis (.Japan) should become 
Anoplodera rubra succedanea (Lewis) new combination. 

11. Many species congeneric with Leptura quadrifasciata 
Linn., the type of Leptura, have long been placed in Stran- 
galia. Some Japanese and Formosan species in this category 
are: aethiops Poda, auratopilosa Matsushita, duodeciniguttata 
Fabr., Jiorishana Matsushita, maindroni Pie, ochraceofasciata 
Bates, regalis Bates, tattakana Kano and thoracica Creutzer. 

12. Leptura vicaria Bates, 1884, of Japan, is a subspecies 
of L. ohliterata Haldeman, 1847, of W. Xortk America, and is 
almost identical with L. ohliterata soror LeConte. It thus 
becomes Leptura ohliterata vicaria Bates. Actually soror (or 
vicaria) appears to be the ancestral form, and ohliterata a 
dark coastal ofif shoot of the former, merging with the an- 
cestral stock in British Columbia. L. deleta LeConte is an 
isolated offshoot in E. North America, but is also closely re- 
lated to the ancestral stock of the complex. 

13. The variet.v of intergrading characters possessed by 
many East Asian species placed in St>'augalia Serville, in- 
cluding those described in Strangalina Aurivillius, suggest 
that NeoheUamira Swaine and Hopping, Ophistomis Thomson 
and possibly Bella mira Leconte, may not deserve full generic 
status, and also that some or all of them are represented in 
Bast Asia. The filling in of gaps between recognized genera 
with the discovery of additional species renders the delimiting 
of supraspecific catergories in Lepturinae more and more dif- 
ficult. Many generic names now in use must undoubtedly be 
relegated to subgeneric status, or synonymized. 


The following correction should be made in Vol. 49 (6) : 
149. 1947, seventh line from end of article by Austin H. Clark : 

AEGYNNIDAE Subfamilies Limexitixae (with tribe.^^ 
Euthaliidi and Limenitidi), Argyxxixae (with tribes Cyn- 
thiidi and Argynnidi), Helicoxiixae (with tribes Heliconiidi. 
Dionidi and Cethosiidi). 

PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, XO. 7, OCTOBER, 1!U7 193 




By H. E. Millirox, Bureau of EniomoUxjn and PUnil (Jiiar<nil inr. 
Uiiifed States Department of Agrieulturc 

Duriiiy the late sumiiier and early fall of 1946, Avliile the 
biology of the fSaratoga spittlebug-, Aphrophora sarafogensis 
(Fitch), was being studied in the vicinity of Lakewood. "Wis- 
consin, two chalcidoid egg parasites of the above insect Avere 
discovered, both of which appear to be inidescribed. The au- 
thor has since described one of these, a mymaricl.- The one 
here described, an aphelinid, belongs in the genus Tumidisca- 
pus Girault. 

In the following description F-I, F-II, etc., refer to seg- 
ments of the antennal funicle, and the wing veins are indi- 
cated by Sm (submarginal), M (marginal), Pm (postmargi- 
nal). and S (stigmal). 

Tumidiscapus cercopiphagus, n. sp. 
Female. — Length, including ovipositoi- sheaths, about 1 mm. Xatuial 
shape of head from above transverse oval, as wide as the thorax; fionto- 
vertex as limited posteriorly by imaginary transverse line just behind 
lateral ocelli, and anteriorly by imaginary transverse line located for- 
ward approximately one-third the inner eye margin, granularly sculp- 
tured, remainder of head, thorax, and abdomen minutely reticulose; 
eyes hairy; antenna six-segmented (without considering possible oc- 
currence of a simple ring segment), finely pubescent, scape subeylindri- 
cal, slightly l>ent, longer than the funicle and almost as long as the 
pedicel and funicle combined; pedi;-el slightly longer than F I and F-II 
combined, subequal to F-II and F-III; (a small, narrow ring segment 
appears to be evident on a few specimens well mounted on slides) ; F-I 
somewliat triangular, the upper margin much less than the lower margin 
(less than one-half at most), the distal margin obliquely truncate; F-II 
one and one-half times as long as thick, about equal to F-III liut some- 
what narrower ; F-III almost as thick as long and as thick as the club ; 
club solid, about three times as long as its greatest thickness, about 
equal in length to the funicle, and terminating in a sharp curved a]H'x; 
mandibles tridentate. Parapsidal grooves well defined, complete; scutel- 
lum broader than long, nearly circular except for anterior margin which 
is straight, it and the praescutum with a very faint median longitudinal 
impression ; strong median carina on propodeum due to collapse of 
lateral integument (best seen on dried specimens). Abdomen longer than 

iThe writer is indebted to A. B. Gahan, of the Bureau of Entomolgy 
and Plant Quarantine, for checking the manuscript. 

-Milliron, H. E., 1947. A mymarid which parasitizes the eggs of the 
Saratoga spittlebug. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 40: 217-220. 

194 PROC. KXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, XO. 7, Ol TOBER, 1947 

liead and thorax, and about as wide as thorax, sessile, acuminate pos- 
teriorly; ovipositor exserted approximately one-sixth the length of the 
abdomen or about the length of the hind basitarsus. Forewing about 
three times as long as the greatest width, and extending beyond tip of 
the ovipositor; Sm and M about equal. Pm absent, S very short and 
apparently acutely incised at apex; distinct hairless line extending 
obliquely proximad from end of S to inner wing margin, and base of 
wing to end of Sm nearly bare, otherwise discal cilia rather dense; 
longest marginal cilia about equal to one-fourth the greatest wing width ; 
hind wing with weak discal cilia, the longest marginal cilia almost equal 
to the greatest wing width. Legs rather slender; first hind tarsal seg- 
ment longer than the second, the latter longer than the third, the fourth 
and fifth nearly equal. Color: Fronto-vertex (granularly sculptured 
area) and narrow line bordering eye posteriorly yellow, remainder of 
head inf useated ; area surrounding mouth somewhat lighter, but dark 
Ijosterior region sharply differentiated below a straight transverse line 
.just above occipital foramen; pronotum and sides of thorax deep ful- 
vous ; thorax above tlavotestaceous, usually somewhat more pallid to 
light yellow along margins of praescutum, over parapsidcs and axillae, 
along lateral and anterior margins of scutellum, along entire median 
longitudinal impression, on postscutellum at least medially, and on 
propodeum ; abdomen brownish yellow or amber, being darker or slightly 
infuscated on the venter near origin of ovipositor and at sides of basal 
segments; ovipositor sheaths broAvnish yellow; antennae fuscous; legs 
mostly fulvous, the front tibia and tarsus slightly darker; wings subhya- 
liiie with distinct infuscated spot located below proximal one-third of 3/ 
and distad of the sparsely ciliated basal area. 

Male. — Length, about 0.7 mm. Structurally similar to the female ex- 
cept that the scape is much enlarged and minutely granularly sculptured 
(with living specimens this segment is bulbous or inflated and about as 
large as the head, but after death it soon collapses and its shape is tlien 
distorted) ; remainder of antenna like that of female except shorter, 
and F-I is proportionately larger and less obliquely truncate at its apex; 
F-II subequal to F-III; club about two-fifths as thick as long and equal 
to the f unicle ; abdomen nearly as long as head and thorax, acute at 
apex but not acuminate; forewing proportionately narrower than that of 
female, its longest marginal cilia equal to one-third the greatest Aving 
Avidth, while the longest marginal cilia of the hind wing are longer than 
the greatest Aving Avidth. Coloration similar to that of female except 
antennae lighter; head and thorax above more ]iallid, and pronotum, 
sides of thorax and the abdomen usually darker; infuscated spot at 
base of forewing weaker. 

Type localitii: Lakevvood. Wisconsin. 

Type: Cat. No. 58268 U. S. N. M. 

Described from a series of 37 females and 19 males, all 
reared by the writer October 6-25, 1946, from e^o's of Aphro- 
phnra saratogensis (Fitch) collected September 16-26, 1946. 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBER, 1947 


Ilolotype (female), allotype (male), and 14 paratypes (8 
females," 6 males) are mounted on slides; 40 paratypes (28 
females, 12 males) are mounted on card points; all deposited 
in the collection of the United States National Museum, ex- 
cept 3 paratypes (2 females, 1 male), at the Milwaukee lab- 
oratory of tlie Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

Variations: The lightest colored females examined are without the 
deep fulvous on the head, proiiotum, and sides of the thorax, but there is 
a definite brownish tinge to these parts. The yellow on the head, and at 
least parts of the thorax above, may be light or lemon yellow, rather than 
^e;olden yellow. Sometimes the female antenna are deep fuscous. The 
male antennae, while usually paler than those of the fcnmle, may be 
deep fulvous. 

In size, including the ovipositor sheaths, females examined range from 
(1.8 to 1.2 mm., and males from 0.5 to 0.8 mm. Apparently the ovipositor 
sheaths are rarely exserted slightly more than the length of the hind 

Cohn- characterization of the species as "iven applies chiefly 
to specimens mounted on card points rather than to the types, 
as slide specimens usually appear paler throughout. 

Tiimidi.scapus cercopipliagns, w. sp. A. Female antenna. B. Male an- 
tenna. ('. Lateral aspect of male scape (and pedicel) of a dried specimen. 

The foregoing species is the fourth of the known North 
American representatives which have been described. T. aus- 
traUensis Gir. occurs in Queensland, Australia, and T. oopha- 
(fus Gir. in southern India. T. cercopiphagus, particularly fe- 
males, may be distinguished without great difficulty by the 
characters' given in the following key, which is essentiall>- 
that published by Gahan-"* with certain slight modifications. 

Key to the North American Species of Tiimidi.scapiis Girault 

1 . Females - 

Males '^ 

2. Ovipositor sheaths extending beyond apex of abdomen about equal 

to length of hind basitarsus or slightly less 3 

^Gahan, A. B., 1932. Miscellaneous descriptions and notes on parasitic 
Ilymenoptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 25: 736-757. 

19(i PROf. ENT. 800. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OtTOKER, 1947 

Ovipositor sheaths exteudiiig beyond apex of abdomen a distance 

distinctly greater than the length of the hind basitarsus -i 

.3. Forewings with distinct infuscation near base; head behind eyes, 
pronotnm and sides of thorax mostly deep fulvous 

ccrcopiphagus, n. sp. 
Wings hyaline; body color nearly uniformly pale testaceous 

flaws Gir. 

4. Ovipositor sheaths extending beyond apex of abdomen a distance 

equal to first and second segments of hind tarsus combined, Init 

not nearly half the length of the abdomen; body color fuseo- 

testaceous — orclielwuimis Gah. 

Ovipositor sheaths extending beyond apex of abdomen a distance 
equal to first four segments of the hind tarsus, nearly or half 
the length of the abdomen; body color yeWow... .or thoptcrae Gah. 

•5. Scape very broad, subquadrate to nearly circular 6 

Scape ovoid or elliptical, distinctly longer than broad 7 

6. Color of head beneath distinctly, sides of thorax and abdomen 

somewhat, fuscous; forewing with at least a fuscous tinge near 
base; fourth and fifth antenna! segments distinctly less than 

twice as long as thick cercopiphagus, n. sp. 

Color uniformly pale yellowish; wings hyaline; fourth and fifth 
antennal segments approximately twice as long as thick 

orthoptcrae Gab. 

7. Scape uniformly testaceous; body <'olor nearly uniformly testa- 

ceous; wings hyaline flaviis Gir. 

Scape Avith a large blackish or dark fuscous area on lower apical 
margin; body color fusco-testaceous; wings with a distinct 
fuscous tinge orehclimumis Gah. 

Biological Ohservatiojis 

Limited observations lla^'e shown that either one or two 
cercopiphagus may occur in an egg of its host. In one in- 
stance where emergence was carefully observed, a pair of 
opposite sex issued from the same egg: through an irregular, 
(.'ircular hole. The female emerged first, followed at once by 
the male, which, being the smaller, was able to walk freely 
through the exit hole cut by the female. Parasitized host eggs 
become turgid, but not noticeably distorted or enlarged ; they 
usually appear blackish with a superficial dark pearly luster. 

After emergence females remain close to the host eggsliells 
until the wings are dried and the integument harded. ]\Iales 
on the other hand, are very active immediately after enier- 
gence, but confine their movements to a small area about the 
liost eggshells and the females. Males have been observed 
attempting to mate within a few seconds after issuance and 
before either male or female had become drv. Males a few 

PKOC. KNT. «0r. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBKK, 1947 197 

(lays old also have been observed attempting to mate with 
dead females. 

In S'ood lijrht the parasites usually do not remain motionless 
for more than a few seconds. This is one of the most active 
parasites the writer has yet observed, its movements bein<> 
extremely rapid and almost constant, with frequent cliant>- 
ing, or reversing- of direction, so that it is difficult to make 
microscopic observations of livin«' adiilts. 

THRIPS UZEL (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) 

By .(. C. Okavv'FOR©, Bureau, of Entomology and Flanl Quaranlim , 
United States Department of Afiricidiure 

Tip to the present time thi-ee North American species have 
been described in this genus, but hesperus Moulton, having 
the characters of Megathrips, Avas transferred to that genus by 
Karny in 1919. To the two remaining in the genus is now 
added a new species from Oregon. 

Key to Females of Megalothrips 

1. Antennae entirely dark; tube about 0.9 the length of head 

spinosus Hood 

Antennal segments 3 and 4 at least partly yellow 2 

2. Antennal segment 3 yellow in basal three-fourths, 4 in basal two- 

fifths, other segments all dark; tube about 0.75 the length of 

head picticornis Hood 

Antennal segment 3 yellow, except extreme tip, 4 in basal three- 
fifths, 5 in basal one-half, 6 lightened or yellow basally; tube 
about as long as head schvhi, new species 

Megalothrips schuhi, new sjiecies 

Fcniuh- (macropterous liolotype). — Length (distended) about ."i.l.l 
mm. Black, antennal segment 2 lighter apically, 3 yellow, with extreme 
apex brown, 4 yellow in basal three-fifths, a in basal one-half, (i dis- 
tinctly lightened or yellow in basal one-fourth; tarsi light brownish; 
wings almost clear, each with a median, narrow, hingitndinal, dark stripe 
in basal half; ma.ior body setae pointed, brown. 

Head elevated dorsally along median line as normal in the genus, 
cheeks in outline slightly concave .iust back of eyes, then somewhat 
convex to narrow basal collar; posterior ocelli about 2 m from eyes; 
postocellar setae well-developed, postoculars situated almost on lateral 
lateral margins of head, 28 M back of eyes; cheeks in outline usually 
with two short setae, dorsal aspect of head with about four pairs of 
short setae, of which one pair about midway from eyes to base of head 

1<)S I'HOC. KXT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOHKK. 1 i)47 

may ))e longer (4(5 ij.) ; head dorsally with transverse anastomosing 
striae, in outline minutely serrulate; antennal segments 3-5 elavate, 6-8 
pedicellate; triangular prolongation apically on ventral side of antennal 
segments apparent only on 6 and 7; sense cone formula: III, 1-1, IV, 
2-2, V, 1-1 i+, VI, 1-1 +1, VII, 1 dorsally. 

Pronotiiin with transvei-se, anastomosing lines, those on median portion 
anteriorly, except extreme foremargin, subretieulate; meso- and metano- 
tum reticulate; forewings with 29 (22-32) accessory setae on posterior 
margin; epimeron posterioily fused with pronotum. 

Abdomen having tergum 1 with large median lobe reticulate, the 
small lateral lobes with transverse, anastomosing lines; terga 2-7 
each more heavily sclerotized in basal half and more or less distinctly 
set off from the apical half (especially when treated with caustic), on 
terga 8 and 9 this separation not distinct and replaced by a darkened 
line; anterior portion of terga 2-9 in more than median half coarsely 
reticulate, laterad of which the terga with transverse anastomosing 
lines; posterior portion of terga with close transverse anastomosing 
lines; terga 2-7 each with two pairs of wing-retaining setae, the posterior 
pair of which is much larger and more strongly sigmoid than the an- 
terior; tube Avith many short setae; sides of tube back of basal enlarge- 
ment almost straight for most of length, somewhat convergent. 

Measurements (in microns) : Head, median length 647, greatest width 
across cheeks 332, greatest width across eyes 300, least width back of 
eyes 297, least subbasal width 262; eyes, dorsal length 12S, ventral 
length 80, interval 112; frontal process medially extending beyond eyes 
about 48; prothorax, median length 200, Avidth 512, Avidth, including 
coxae, 632; ninth tergum length 143, tube (X only) length 640, great- 
est basal Avidth 164, least subapical Avidtli 68; setae, interocellar 70, 
postocellar 36, postocular 50, anterior angular 48, anterior marginal 44, 
midlateral 47, epimeral, 176, posterior marginal 100, pair betAveen pos- 
terior marginals 30; on tergum IX, 1, 396, 2, 400, 3, 280; on tergum 
X, both pairs, 260. 

Antennae: 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 

64 92 176 160 152 120 64 68 

^lale, (macropterous allotype). — Length (distended) about 4.3 nmi. 
Similar to the female in color and form, except for sexual differences, 
but Avith smaller measurements. Tergum VI Avith hornlike processes ex- 
tending 320 M beyond apical margin, surpassing apical margin of tergum 
VII Avhich measures in length from subbasal costa 180 M, no process on 
tergum VII, that on VIII minute, Avartlike; sternum IX measured at 
side, extending 123 M beyond apical margin of its tergum, the turned- 
up sides someAvhat prolonged, fingerlike, the ventral portion between 
turned-up sides strongly couA-ex apically; tergum IX ]81 m long, tube 
(X only) 474 m. 













132 ' 



HKOC. ENT. sue. WASH.. VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOHKR, lil47 ]!)!) 

Type locality. — Portland, Oregon. 

Holotvpe female July 8, 1940, allotype male July 1, 1940, 
ex breeding cages of Crypiorhynclius lapaihi, J. Schuh, col- 

Type catalog No. 58333, United States National Museum. 

Paratypes from the same breeding cages as follows : July 
4, 16 females, 2 males; July 5, 3 females, 2 males; July 6, 19 
females, 3 males; July 7, 2 females; July 8, 58 females, 3 
males; July 9, 2 females; all 1940. Also 1 female from the 
gall of a goldenrod gall fiy, Portland, Oregon, April 1940, 
J. Schuh, collector. 

The species is named after J. Schuh. wlio collected all of the 
materia] seen. 


Hul>l);ird. ^uV.^ pp., five plates am! 23.') sets of figures. The Iowa 
State College Press, Ames, Iowa, 1947. $6.00. - 

To date there has been no modern refereuc-e to which ojie could turu 
ill an effort to determine the species of the sixty-six genera of fleas 
known to occur in western North America. This book presents the 
available information on the classification, host relationship, and distri- 
bution of the known fleas west of the one hundredth meridian. 

A chapter on the medical importance of fleas follows one on the his- 
tory of Siphonaptera research. Field and laboratory techniques are 
next discussed and then there is a very short chapter on the anatomy of 
fleas. A very large section on systematic classification follows. The 
classifications of Fox (1940) and Ewing and Fox (1943) are quoted 
regarding suliorders and/or families. 

The hook is arranged according to families and keys to the genera 
and species are given. In the consideration of each species there are 
notes on such sub.jects as: structure of head, modified segments, rec- 
ords, length, range, sex ratio, season distribution, bionomics, and, occa- 
sionally, economic and medical importance and control. There are draw- 
ings of important taxonomie characters for virtually all of the 230 spe- 
cies and subspecies listed. One new genus and four new subspecies arc 

The summary includes five pages of tables, constituting a geographic 
index of western fleas. There is also a two-page index of the fleas of 
the eastern United States based upon the records of Fox (1940). The 
selection of the one hundredth meridian as a delimiting factor means 
that much of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Texas 
and Oklahoma is deleted. Records from Mexico, D. F. and Nuevo Ijcon, 
Mexico, are apparently deleted for the same reason. 

2U() I'KOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 7, OCTOBEk, l!i-i7 

"J'lioio is ail extensive host index of about 120 pages in whicli the 
liosts are described by classes or orders. The ho.sts are arranged accord- 
ing to scientific names of genera. 

The bibliography provides only titles not appearing in Jellison and 
Good (1942). The synonymic index covers only the period subsequent 
to 1938. There is an author index, general index, and a so-called rapid 
index which lists all the species and subspecies discussed but not the 

The generic and specific keys are in the main original. Many are 
dichotoinous and are terse and quote well -illustrated characters. Figure 
references are not included. Various non-dichotomous keys are employed. 

The drawings are numbered according to species, not figures, and are 
arranged in small neat plates. The lines are clear and the legend com- 
plete, although there is occasional crowding. 

The book is attractively printed and typographical onors seem to be 
at a minimum. 

In a comprehensive monographic work such as this, errors are inevi- 
table. It is unfortunate that the author employed a family key which 
considers seven genera to be in the Dolichopsyllidae, while the author 
discusses them in the Hystrichopsyllidae. Catallagia, Atypliloeeras and 
certain other genera will therefore not key down properly because they 
Avill be sought in a family where they are not mentioned. Similarly, 
there is no alternate to couplet 2 in the family key. In the generic key 
to the Hystrichopsyllidae there does not seem to be any way to get to 
NeopsjiUa and Kpitedia. Certain confusing terms such as "F. more or 
less leg-shaped" are used. The key to Mcyahoihris does not include all 
of the species figured. 

It is to be regretted that there was a necessary time interval be- 
tween preparation of the plates and publication. In the figures of some 
of the new suljspecies the reference is given as Hubbard 1945, while 
the text cites Hubbard 1946 but the book was published in 1947. 

Epitedia jordani Hubbard is said to be distinct from E. scapani 
(Wagner) but the latter is not considered further in the text. 

While the author is to be commended for his conservative treatment 
of the higher classification of the Order, inclusion of Polygenic and 
Arciopsylla in the Dolichopsyllidae will meet criticism. 

This book presents in an interesting manner much text and illustrative 
material that is otherwise unobtainable. It will be useful to those Av'ork- 
ing in or studying parasitology, mammalogy and ecology, and can be 
used by both beginners and specialists. The beginner will have some 
difficulty with some of the keys. The author merits congratulations for 
liaving spent so much time, effort and money in coHecting the extensive 
data which made this book i)ossi})l('. 

T-{o»EKT Tkaub, Major, V. (■. 
Ann If Medical Center, U'a.shiiigiov, D. C. 

ArliKil (Idtr of pKbliralioii, Octubtr -17. n>-i7 

VOL. 49 

November, 1947 

No. 8 


of the 



'V0V14194? '^. 

PoBLisHEO) Monthly Except JuLT.'SlWtTSfXMTB September 





Entered as second-class matter March 10. 1919. at the Post Office at Washington. 
D. C, under Act of August 24. 1912. 

Accepted for mailins at the SDecial rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 




Oboanized M/ech 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National 
on the first Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiaMon fee fl.OO. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President _ _ - L. 0. Howard 

President AUSTIN H. Clark 

First Vice President E. H. Siegler 

Second Vice President T. E. Snydee 

Recording Secretary In A L. Hawes 

Corresponding Secretary R. I. Sailer 

Treasurer L. B. Reed 

Editor Karl V. Krombein 

Executive Committee.-..^ P. N. Annand, F. W. Poos, C. A. Weigel 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences C. F. W. Muesebeck 


Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society 
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The Corresponding Secretary and Treasnrer Bhotdd be addressed 

proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 49 NOVEMBER. 1947 No. 8 


By Alan Stone, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United 

States Department of Agriculture, and Willis W. Wirth, United States 

Puilic Health Service, Honolulu, T. H. 

The purpose of this paper is to describe five new species, 
to present a revised key to the males, and to give bioloo-ical 
notes on certain of the new species in the genus Clunio Hali- 
day. Three of the new species were collected by the junior 
author in the Hawaiian Islands, and the other two were col- 
lected in Florida and in the Galapagos Islands, respectively. 
The discovery of this genus in the United States and in the 
Galapagos Islands is of particular interest, the genus not 
having been reported previously from the New World. Be- 
cause of their small size and unusual and restricted habitat, 
species are infrequently collected, and it is probable that 
they will be found to be much more generally distributed 
along the ocean shores than is now reported. 

The genus Clunio was proposed by Haliday (1855) for the 
species marinus, which he described from Ireland. Since that 
time marinus has been recorded from England, France, and 
Egypt (= syzgialis Chevrel 1894, hicolor Kieffer 1901, mari- 
nus var. aegyptius Kieffer 1925), and there have been de- 
scribed: adriaticus Schiner 1856 (= adriaticus var. halearicus 
Bezzi 1913) from the Mediterranean; pacificus Edwards 1926 
from Samoa, Japan, the Ryukvu Islands, and the Marianas 
Islands (Oka 1930, Tokunaga 1938a) ; africanus Hesse 1937 
from South Africa; setoensis Tokunaga 1933 from Japan and 
the Ryukyu Islands (Tokunaga 1938a) ; tsnshimensis Toku- 
naga 1933, tsushimensis var. minor Tokunaga 1933, and 
aquilonius Tokunaga 1938a from Japan, and takaJiashii Toku- 
naga 1938 from Formosa. The only previously described spe- 
cies seen by the authors are pacificus and africanus, the infor- 
mation contained in this paper for the other species being 
derived from the literature. The two most useful papers are 
the full historical review of the genus up to 1913 by Bezzi, 
and Tokunaga 's (1935) detailed account of the biology of the 
Japanese species. Williams (1944, p. 170) published the first 
records of this genus from the Hawaiian Islands, figuring the 

Tonv l4iad? 

202 FKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. S, NOVEMBER, 1947 

female pupa, male and eggs, but he did not name the species. 

The ratios used in this paper are not all based on the same 
unit of measurement, so they cannot be used to indicate the 
relative size of the different species. They are also based on a 
single specimen, usually the holotype in the case of the males, 
and do not represent the mean of variation. Likewise, the 
drawings, even of homologous structures, are not necessarily 
drawn to the same scale. 

The types of the new species here described are deposited 
in the United States National Museum. Paratypes have been 
presented to the United States National Museum, the Bernice 
P. Bishop Museum, the British Museum, the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences, and the South African Museum. 

CLUNIO Haliday 

Clunio Haliday, 1855, Nat. Hist. Rev. 2: 62. 

Edwards (1929) has given the most satisfactory definition 
of the genus Clunio to date, but as some of the species de- 
scribed since then do not fall within the limits set by Ed- 
wards, while obviously belonging to the genus, it is proposed 
to modify Edwards' diagnosis as follows: 

Male. — Eyes pubescent (except in schmitti). Clypeus and vertex 
without setae. Mouthparts reduced, the maxillary palpus consisting of 
a single small segment. Antenna 11-segmented (8-segmented in takah- 
ashii), almost bare, the basal segment or scape (antennaria of authors) 
triangular, the second or pedicel large and bulbous, the third or post- 
pedicel or first flagellar segment elongate, segments fourth through 
penultimate subspherical, and the distal segment long and slightly 
clavate. Pronotal lobes small, Avidely separated, bare. Mesoscutum 
robust, emarginate anteriorly and overhanging the head, bare except for 
a few setae in each subdorsal row and supra-alar patch. Wings well 
developed, rather broadly rounded and petiolate, the anal angle promin- 
ent, surface without microtrichiae, the fringe rather long, squama bare. 
"Venation: Ri rather indistinct, variable in length; Rs ends well before 
wing tip ; costa not produced ; r-m short ; M straight or slightly upcurved 
distally; cubital fork at or slightly beyond r-m, Cui nearly straight, Cus 
curved caudad; M, Cui and Cua usually atrophy before wing margin, 
anal veins atrophy at about level of fCu. Legs stout; tibial spurs single 
(absent on fore and mid legs in brevis) ; tarsi short, first segment two to 
three times the second, second to fourth broader than long except on 
hind legs, where third segment is about twice as long as broad and 
swollen dorsally; fifth segment cordiform and larger than preceding 
segment ; the claws simple, stout and strongly curved, each with a hyaline 
lamella and usually with a tuft of hyaline setae on ventral side; pulvilli 
absent; empodium as large as claws, thickly plumose, forming a large 
pad arising ventrally between the claws and curving upward and back- 
ward. Genitalia large, at least half the total length of abdomen, rotated 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 203 

through 100-180°, the termites appearing ventral and sternites dorsal. 
Basistyles enormously enlarged, often immovably fused mesad for most 
of length; the ninth tergite forming a large pubescent median ventral 
plate conieally produced distally into a median nipple — or knoblike 
titillator; the penis opens above, flanked by tveo thin lateral sclerotized 
lips which are connected to a pair of arcuate heavily sclerotized para- 
meres piercing the mesal sides of the basistyles. The dististyles are 
folded inwards in repose, flattened, arcuate or triangular in profile, the 
mesal corner with a small tooth and distolateral angle usually with 
several minute retrorse spines. Vestiture of genitalia of fine pubescence 
except for a few long hairs on caudomesal margin of basistyles. 

Female. — Head small, the eyes pubescent, with the facets reduced in 
number ; antenna bare, short, appearing to be 5 or 7-segmented, the scape 
reduced. Mouthparts reduced. Wings and halteres absent, the legs being 
the only sclerotized structures of the thorax; these short, tibial spurs 
absent, first four tarsal segments very, short, fifth moderate, not bilobed, 
the claws stout, curved and simple, with lamellae; empodium reduced. 
Preapical abdominal segments setigerous, seventh sternite with a promi- 
nent trfinsverse patch of setae; last two segments pubescent only. Cerci 
small, about as wide as long, folded mesad. Spermathecae two, oval, the 
duets usually partially sclerotized. 

Clunio littoralis, new species 
(Figs. 2, 9, 10, 21) 

Male. — Length 2 mm.; wing 1.4 mm. long, 0.7 mm. wide. Color of 
freshly preserved alcoholic specimens: Vertex, pedicel of antenna, entire 
thorax except for scutellum, coxae, trochanters, articulations of femora 
and tibiae and of tarsal segments, and genitalia rich brownish; flagellum 
of antenna, wings, halteres, bulk of femora, tibiae, and tarsi, scutellum, 
and venter of abdomen milky yellowish white; abdominal tergites 
grayish, darkening on posterior segments; eyes and tarsal claws blackish. 

Head: Interocular width at vertex about half total width of head 
and slightly less than eye height ; eyes with facets small, the interf acetal 
spaces with dense fine hairs. Antenna (fig. 2) with the scape prominent 
and triangular; the pedicel bulbous, slightly longer than wide, somewhat 
narrowed on proximal end, without setae; third segment neaily five times 
as long as broad, slightly darkened at each end, with two small setae 
near middle; segments IV to X subequal, slightly longer than wide; 
distal segment clavate and somewhat flattened, swollen toward apex to 
almost twice the diameter of proximal segments, length subequal to 
preceding four to five and a half segments combined; segments IV to XI 
slightly infuscated, segments III to X each with a pair of hyaline 
sensory organs near apex; distal segment with numerous sensory pits; 
ratio of lengths of flagellar segments beginning proximad, 45:12:12:9: 
9:12:12:13:60. Maxillary palpus thumb-shaped, with the apex slightly 
darkened and bearing a few minute setae. 

Thorax: Mesoscutum bare except for 7-8 small setae in each sub- 

204 PROC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, no\t:mber, 1947 

dorsal row and about 4 in each supra-alar patch; light spots surround 
the bases of these setae. Scutellum with about 14 short hairs, the longest 
of these about half the length of the scutellum; postscutellum and pleura 

Wing (fig. 131) : Appearing smoky brown by transmitted light, milky 
white by reflected light ; radius with a few minute setae, membrane 
bare; anal lobe rather acutely rounded and situated well toward base of 
wing, making the stem of the wing rather short for Cliinio ; wing widest 
at distal third. Wing fringed with fine hairs, bare toward base of costa, 
hair of costal margin curved and dense, those posterior to wing tip 
straight and alterbating short and long, gradually lengthening toward 
anal angle, where they are decidedly long. Vein Ei rather long, more 
than two-thirds the length of Es; the latter almost straight, ending in 
costa at most anterior portion of wing beyond which wing margin curves 
posteriorly to apex; veins M, Cui and Cua each atrophied well short of 
wing margin; distal section of M rather straight at base, curved forward 
toward apex; Cui in a line (which is slightly sinuous) with base of Cu, 
fCu narrow at base, Cu3 gently curved proximad, sharply bent and re- 
curved at distal third or fourth. 

Legs: Stout; coxae and trochanters each with but a few fine setae 
distally; fore femur and mid and hind femora and tibiae each with 
sparse rows of strong setae; tibial spurs all strongly curved apically, 
that on hind leg largest. Basitarsus about three times as long as broad 
on all legs; tuft of setae present on ventral side of claws. Eatio of 
lengths of segments: 










orelegs : 










[id legs: 










Ind legs: 










Abdomen: A transverse row of 5-10 fine long hairs about halfway 
back across each- tergite except on last segment which bears a sublateral 
patch of 3-4 on each side. Genitalia: Basistyles immovably fused mesally 
on proximal half, tapering strongly beyond to articulation of dististyles 
on laterodistal extremity; dististyle (fig. 10) flattened, broadly expanded 
and triangular in outline with the lateral margin thickened and slightly 
arcuate concavely; the apical angle rounded with two sharp retrorse 
spines on upper margin; the mesal angle about 90° but gently rounded 
with a large flat blunt cephalo-projecting tooth on margin just distad of 
angle; the pubescence of dististyle quite long, grading into extremely 
fine hairs toward base. Phallosome complex quite prominent, with the 
ninth tergite conically produced caudad to level of tips of basistyles 
and ending in a small, nipplelike, bare titillator. The penis projects 
upward through a large opening just caudad of fused portions of 
basistyles, with a lateral pair of sclerotized lips bare internally, pubes- 
cent externally, connected laterally with each basistyle by a strongly 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 205 

sclerotized paramere which pierces the basistyle on upper aspect about 
midway of the caudomesal margin. 

Female. — Length 1.9 mm. Yellowish white with the head, legs, and 
genitalia sclerotized and light brown; integument with scattered, irregu- 
lar bluish pigment spots. 

Head: Very small, triangular in anterior view with the vertex broad, 
clypeolabrum produced triangularly ventrad; eyes small, each with about 
15 small widely separated facets. Antenna (fig. 9) apparently 5-seg- 
mented; the first segment (pedicel) about as broad as long, bare, 
brownish in color; second segment nearly twice as long as broad, con- 
stricted in middle; third and fourth segments subspherical, last segment 
about twice as long as broad, ovoid; distal four segments whitish, with- 
out setae, but segments II to IV each bear a pair of hyaline sensory 
organs near apices; ratio of lengths of segments beginning with the 
pedicel 7:12:6:6:10. 

Legs: Short; coxae and trochanters relatively large, femora and 
tibiae short and stout; first four tarsal segments of all legs very short, 
much broader than long, fifth segment about as long as preceding 3 
segments combined, not bilobed and with a pair of stout curved simple 
claws, these dark brown and without evident setae or lamellae ; empodium 
present but vestigial. Eatio of lengths of segments: 










Forelegs : 










Mid legs: 










Hind legs: 










Abdomen: Preapieal segments unselerotized, with a vestiture of num- 
erous- small setae; seventh sternite with a transverse band of longer 
hairs. CerCi flattened trapezoidal in outline, broader than long and 
broadest distally. Spermathecae brown, the duets also sclerotized and 
brown half the length and curved back on the spermathecae. 

HOLOTYPE. male, Waimanalo, Oalm, VI.15.1946, W. W. 
Wirth; ALLOTYPE, female, Kalmku, Oahii, 1.1946, W. W. 
Wirth (mounted on slides). PARATYPES : Oahii: 2 $ $, 
Hanauma Bav. 1.4.1946 (WWW) ; Koko Head, 2 $ $ , VI.25. 
1946 (WWW), 6 5 c5 , VIII.27.1946 (AVWW) ; 5 5 5 , Wai- 
manalo, 11.15.1946 (WWW), 28 <? 5 , 6 5 2, Lanikai, XII. 

1945 (light trap at beach), 1 <? , 1 ? in copulo, Kaneohe 
Hospital, X. 25. 1945 (light trap, 2 miles inland) ; Kahuku, 44 

$ $, 2 9 2, 1.1946 (lig-ht trap near shore), 9^5, IL8. 

1946 (WWW) ; 11 5 $ , Waimea, XII.21.1945 (WWW) ; 1 
$, Maile, 1.8.1946 (WWW). Hawaii: 12 5 5 , Hilo, IV.22. 
1946 (light trap near bav shore). Kauai: 1 $, Nawiliwili. 
IX.8.1946 (WWW, at light) ■,!$$, Wailua, IX.8.1946 
(WAA^W). Except as otherwise noted all material was col- 

206 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 

lected from rocks between tide marks at the seashore ; all 
females were taken in copulo with males. 

Clunio littoralis seems to be the most widespread of the 
Hawaiian species. The immature stages Avere not discovered, 
but the males with the Avingless females attached were often 
taken while flitting over algae-covered rocks exposed at low 
tide where doubtless breeding occurs. This species has never 
been taken on shores exposed to quantities of fresh water. A 
male Clunio, from those reported by Williams (1944, p. 171) 
from Midway Atoll, collected in June 1941, was examined 
through the kindness of Dr. AVilliams and appears to be 

C. littoralis is closest to marinus and aquilonius which it 
resembles in the sharply curved vein Cuo and short terminal 
antennal segment. C. marinus diifers from the present species, 
however, in the very short vein Ri (less than a third tlie 
length of RJ, the markedly up-curved vein M, and the disti- 
styles with recurved mesal angle; and aquilonius differs in 
the shorter Ri (about a third the length of Rs), the vein Cu 
curved through its entire length rather than abruptly re- 
curved beyond middle, and the absence of retrorse teeth on 
distal angle of dististyle. 

Clunio vagans, new species 

(Pigs. 4, 7, 8, 13-19, 23) 

Male. — Length 1.5-2 mm. ; wing 1.5 mm. long, 0.7 m. wide. Color of 
freshly preserved alcoholic specimens: Vertex, pedicel of antenna, en- 
tire thorax except for scutellum, coxae, trochanters, articulations of 
femora, tibiae, and tarsal segments, and genitalia rich brownish ; third 
and last antennal segments whitish, intermediate segments infuscated, 
especially toward apices; wings, halteres, scutellum, and bulk of femora, 
tibiae, and tarsi yellowish white ; preapieal abdominal segments grayish, 
darkening on posterior segments; eyes and tarsal claws blackish. 

Head: Interocular width at vertex much less than half the total width 
of head and slightly less than eye height in anterior, view; eyes with the 
facets small, the interfacetal spaces large and clad with dense fine hairs. 
Antenna (fig. 4) with scape prominent and triangular; pedicel bulbous, 
about half again as long as broad and slightly tapering distad, without 
setae; third segment about four times as long as broad, slightly 
darkened at each end, with two small setae before distal third ; segments 
IV to X subequal, and about as broad as long; distal segment very long 
but length variable, longer than preceding seven segments combined, 
slightly clavate distally; segments IV to XI without setae; III to X 
each with a pair of hyaline sensory organs near apex; distal segment 
with numerous minute sensory pits. Eatio of lengths of flagellar segments 
beginning proximad, 43:11:10:9:9:8:9:9:75. Maxillary palpus unseg- 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 207 

mented and thumb-shaped, the apex infuscated and bearing a few minute 

Thorax: Mesoscutum bare except for about 3 small setae in each sub- 
dorsal row and about 5 in each supra-alar patch; these arising from 
light-colored ocellate spots. Scutellum with 12 short hairs, the longest 
of these about half the length of scutellum; postscutellum and pleura 

Wing (fig. 23) : Appearing smoky brown by transmitted light, milky 
white by reflected light; radius with 10-12 minute setae, membrane bare; 
anal lobe more or less acutely rounded, stem of wing rather short for 
the genus; wing widest at distal third. Wing fringed with fine hairs, 
these sparse toward base of costa, denser toward apex; ot\ posterior 
margin of wing the fringe consists of alternating long and short hairs 
gradually lengthening toward anal angle where they are rather long. 
Vein El short, about a third the length of Rs, which is straight, meeting 
the costa toward wing tip, and subequal in length to proximal section of 
R; distal section of M almost straight, not up-curved; M, Cui, and Cua 
all atrophied just short of wing margin; fCu rather narrow at base, 
Cui slightly sinuous, Cu2 distinctly but gently curved through entire 
length ; 1st and 2nd A atrophy at about level of f Cu. 

Legs: Stout, coxae and trochanters each with a few long fine hairs 
distally; femora and tibiae of all legs with sparse rows of fine setae, 
those of front tibia short; tibial spurs all moderately curved apically, 
that on hind pair slightly the largest. Basitarsus about twice as long 
as broad on all legs; tuft of setae present on ventral side of claws. 
Ratio of lengths of segments : 








Ta4 Ta5 









1 3 

Mid legs: 








1 3 

Hind legs: 








1 3 

Abdomen: A transverse row of 5-15 long setae about halfway back 
across tergites I to V, sixth tergite with a row of 5 setae along posterior 
border on each side, seventh with 3 setae on each side in corresponding 
position. Genitalia: Basistyles immovably fused mesally on proximal 
third, tapering strongly beyond to articulation of dististyles on latero- 
dorsal extremity. Dististyle (fig. 8) flattened, broadly expanded upward 
and inward and triangular in outline with the lateral margin thickened 
and slightly, concavely arcuate; apical angle rounded with one or two 
minute retrorse spines on upper lateral margin; the mesal angle is about 
100° and broadly rounded, with a large, flat, appressed cephalopro- 
jecting tooth on margin just distad of angle; vestiture of dististyle of 
very fine minute hairs, mesal angle bare. Phallosome complex prominent, 
the ninth tergite conically produced caudad to level of tips of basistyles 
and ending in a small bare flattened nipplelike titillator (fig. 7) ; surface 
of tergite densely pubescent. The penis opens above just caudad of 
fused portions of basistyles, the lips of the opening sclerotized laterally 

208 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 19-47 

and connected on each side by a heavily sclerotized arcuate paramere 
with the caudomesal margin of the basistyles; these parameres extend 
nearly straight laterally turning distally only slightly. 

Female. — Length 1.5-2 mm. Yellowish white with the head, legs and 
genitalia sclerotized and light brown; integument with scattered, irregu- 
lar bluish pigment spots. 

Head: Very small, triangular in anterior view with the vertex broad, 
clypeo-'abrum produced triangularly ventrad; eyes small, each with about 
15 small widely separated facets. Palpi and mouthparts reduced. An- 
tenna small, apparently 5-segmented; scape reduced; first segment 
(pedicel) about as broad as long, bare, brownish; second segment about 
2.5 times as long as broad; third and fourth segments subspherical; 
last segment about twice as long as broad, ovoid; distal four segments 
whitish, without setae; segments II to IV each with a pair of hyaline 
sensory organs near apex; ratio of lengths of segments beginning with 
the pedicel 9:18:8:8:14. 

Legs: Short; coxae and trochanters relatively large, femora and 
tibiae short and stout; first four tarsal segments of all legs very short, 
much broader than long; fifth segment about as long as preceding three 
segments combined, not bilobed; the stout, simple, curved claws dark 
brown and without evident setae or lamellae; empodium short, extending 
but slightly beyond base of claws; legs bare of setae except for a few 
on outer side of tibiae. Ratio of lengths of segments: 










Forelegs : 










Mid legs : 










Hind legs: 










Abdomen: Preapical segments unsclerotized, with a vestiture of num- 
erous setae; seventh sternite with a dense transverse band of similar 
setae. Cerci flattened, triangular in outline, the bluntly pointed apices 
directed mesad. Spermathecae sclerotized and brown, the ducts slightly 
curved and lightly sclerotized for about a third the length of the sper- 

Larva. — Length (mature) 4-5 mm., head capsule about 0.3 mm. long 
by 0.2 mm. wide. Body whitish, head capsule and hooks of pseudopods 
sclerotized and light amber. 

Head oval, widest at posterior third, roundly tapering and downcurved 
forward, flattened slightly in cross section; integument quite smooth. 
Frons long, two-thirds of total length of head, the median arm of 
epicranial suture an additional one-sixth and the clypeolabrum the other 
one-sixth of length of head. Frons widest midway of length, roundly 
pointed caudad at junction of frontal sutures, truncated anteriorly by the 
frontoclypeal suture which is half as long as greatest width of frons. 
The antennae (fig. 16) are borne laterally at ends of frontoclypeal suture; 
each is about half the length of this suture and five-segmented; the first 
segment is barrel-shaped, about half again as long as broad, and about 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 209 

three times as broad as second segment; second segment slightly longer 
than first, about three times as long as broad, cylindrical and bearing at 
the apex the peglike third segment which is about a fifth as long and a 
third as broad as second ; fourth and fifth segments minute, spinelike, to- 
gether about as long as third, the fifth about half as long as fourth; first 
segment also bears a fine hair on the side and at apex a prominent Lau- 
terborn's organ as long as distal segments combined, biramous midway, 
the proximal portion cylindrical and lightly sclerotized, the distal arms 
bladelike and hyaline; apex of second segment also bears several long 
setae and fine hairs. The clypeolabrum is about twice as wide as long 
and rather crescent-shaped, the anterolateral margins thickened; without 
median sclerites; bearing a lateral pair of fine hairs on anterior margin. 
A pair of submedian setae are borne in the frontoelypeal suture and two 
pairs of fine long setae on lateral margins of anterior half of frons. 
The vertex bears a pair of very irregular dorsolateral eyespots each con- 
sisting of a large posterior spot and a contiguous small anterior spot 
just laterad of frontal suture at anterior tfiird of head; there is a pair 
of fine setae just ventrad of eyespots, a pair of fine setae just caudad of 
eyespots with a pair of seta-less tubercles just mesad adjacent to frontal 
sutures at level of posterior frontal setae; a pair of fine setae adjacent 
to frontal sutures about midway between eyespots and posterior junction 
of sutures; and a pair of seta-less tubercles on each side of the median 
posterior arm of the epicranial suture. 

Labrum as seen from below emarginate anterolaterally in an over- 
hanging lip, the lateral sclerotized bridge being continued mesoposteriorly 
forming a submedian articulation for the paired triserrate premandibular 
appendages and forming a median epipharynx with numerous setae, 
spurs and pegs as figured (fig. 17). Mandible (fig. 15) rather slender, 
with 5 blunt teeth on distal third, with 2 long setae on ventrolateral 
margin and a brustia of about 6 long feathered hyaline hairs on dorsal 
side toward base. Maxilla (fig. 14) membranous, bilobate distally; the 
lateral lobe bears 2 long setae about midway; at apical margin a very 
short 3 -segmented palpus with minute sensillae on basal segment, the 
distal segments minutely spinelike, and an adjacent palpuslike sensory 
disc with minute apical sensillae; mesal lobe bears in order a fringe of 
2 bluntly rounded fringed scalelike projections, a stout flattened hyaline 
bladelike spine, 2 capitate and about 5 sharp long setae, and a mesal 
hyaline comblike projection; ventral surface bears several sensory pegs 
and there are 2 long setae near base between the lobes. Mentum (fig. 
13) transverse and heavily sclerotized, with a large rounded median and 
4 pairs of smaller and slightly shorter lateral teeth; a lateral pair of 
plumose hairs arises near base. Hypopharynx membranous, supported 
by 2 small lateral sclerites, the transverse lobe between fringed with a 
beard of fine hairs. 

Thoracic and preapical abdominal segments without evident setae. 
Prothoracic pseudopod shallowly bilobed at tip, each lobe with a crown 
of hooklets ranging from minute retrorse spinules on posterior side to 

210 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 

long slender hook-tipped spines minutely serrate on concave side of 
anterodistal margin. Last (ninth) abdominal segment rounding dorso- 
posteriorly, with a pair of short stout pseudopods borne ventrolaterally ; 
about 15 strongly curved unserrated hooks in 3 irregular rows at apex, 
those of distal row much the longest and least curved; a pair of long 
fine hyaline hairs are borne on dorsoposterior extremity of ninth seg- 
ment, another pair are borne just beloAv on a pair of blunt moundlike 
caudal protuberances; there is another pair of small blunt hyaline 
protuberances just anterior to anus between the pseudopods which may 
be vestiges of anal gills. 

Male pupa. — Length, 2-2.8 mm. ; exuviae sclerotized and pale amber 
throughout. Cephalic region short, broadly emarginate anteriorly, with 
the long antennal cases arising laterally, curving posteriorly over the 
eyes and extending caudad along dorsolateral margins of thorax to 
level of bases of wing cases; a submedian pair of short setae arise on 
dorsal margin of head between bases of antennal cases. 

No trace of prothoracic respiratory organs; dorsum of thoracic region 
bears several submedian pairs and paired groups of minute setae; leg 
and wing cases extend caudad along the lateroventral side of body to 
level of third sternite; the wing cases lateral in position above the leg 
cases with the costal margin contiguous with the cases of the hind legs. 

Abdominal segments transverse, slightly narrowing posteriorly; with 
transverse spinous bands as follows (figs. 18, 19) ; Tergite II with 
widely separated laterobasal patches of sharp spinules, tergites III-VII 
with complete broad basal bands of sharp spinules across anterior 
margin; tergites III-VII with a single row of strong recurved spines 
from posterior margin; sternites VI and VII with a row of smaller re- 
curved spines from posterior margin; sternite VIII with a median oval 
patch of sharp spinules toward posterior margin ; ninth segment reduced 
to a median dorsal lobe conically produced between the prominent 
sheaths of the gonostyles; at each lateral junction with the sheaths a 
pair of minaret-shaped spines. The sheaths of the gonostyles quite 
large, the lateral margins triangularly tapering mesad on caudal half, 
the apices each with a single blunt hyaline tooth. 

HOLOTYPE, male, ALLOTYPE, female, Wailua Falls, 
Kanai, IX.4.1946, W. W. Wirth. PARATYPE, 8 5 5,599, 
same data as type; 300 5 5 , 10 $ 9 , Punaluu, Oahu, 1.15. 
1946, W. W. Wirth; 36 5 5 , 11 9 9, Hilo, Hawaii, III.2. 
1946, W. W. Wirth. 

At Punaluu, Oahu, swarming was observed on the end of a 
large iron drain pipe about a foot and a half in diameter ex- 
tending about 50 feet from the beach into the sea at a level 
Avhieh was just covered by the highest tides. A reef about a 
quarter of a mile off shore protected the beach from heavy 
breakers so that the wave action was relatively gentle. The 
pipe was thickly covered with a growth of algae, chiefly Viva 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 211 

sp., in which the Clunio were colonizing. The larvae and 
pupae were found in their silken nests among the bases of 
the algae. The females were also seen crawling about among 
the algae, and the males in their characteristic half-fijdng, 
half -running motion, wdth wings outstretched and vibrating 
rapidly, were seen to crawl into the algal growth seeking the 
females. At times the males would emerge from the algae and 
run or fly around with the females attached m copulo, much 
too small and helpless to impede the males' progress. The con- 
centration of these midges on the algae-covered pipe was re- 
markably great, resembling those previously described for 
C. marinus, adriaticus, and tsushimensis, which at times ap- 
pears *'as if the rocks were covered with powdery snow seen 
at distance" (Tokunaga, 1935, p. 4). Several hundred speci- 
mens were easily collected in a few minutes by sucking them 
off the algae with an aspirator. Occurring with Clunio vagans 
on the pipe were numerous ephydrids, Scatella sexnotata 
Cresson and Canace nudata Cresson, as well as a few of the 
predaceous dolichopodid, Cymatopus acrosticalis Parent. 

At Hilo, Hawaii, the colony was found on a flat benchlike 
rocky expanse of several hundred square yards' area which 
was exposed at low tide just in front of the beach at the water- 
front in Hilo Bay. These rocks were covered with a luxuriant 
growth of the algae. Viva sp. and Enteromorpha sp., and re- 
ceived a considerable proportion of fresh water from an along- 
shore drift from the mouth of the Wailuku River. The Hilo 
breakwater afforded protection from heavy wave action. C 
vagans males and females in copulo were taken in numbers 
from the algal growth at low tide, but were not swarming in 
tremendous numbers as in the Punaluu incident. 

A most unusual and almost inexplicable occurrence of C. 
vagans was discovered at Wailua Falls, Kauai. The Wailua 
River is a rather rapid stream Math a rocky bed about a hun- 
dred feet wide at the falls. The falls are located about 4 
miles from the sea, the lower expanse of about 3 miles con- 
sisting of a rather broad sluggish tidal stream, while the up- 
per mile below the falls forms a rapid with a drop of about 
50 feet. The Clunio males with wingless females attached in 
copulo were observed flitting at the water line around the 
spray-drenched and ripple-washed boulders in the rapid where 
the water ran swiftest. As immature stages were not taken it 
is not known whether breeding occurred at this rapid or 
whether these numerous specimens had migrated all the way 
up from the sea. A search was made above the falls (height 
about 200 feet) for Clunio without success. One would hardly 
expect these small fragile midges to migrate in such large 
numbers up this particular stream from breeding places in the 

212 PKOC. KNT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 

sea, though such might be the present situation ; on the other 
hand no species of Cliinio has ever before been found breed- 
ing or even occurring in streams. No characters were found 
which would separate the specimens taken at Wailua Falls 
from those found breeding on the seacoasts of Oahu and Ha- 
waii. If, however, a colony had become established in the 
stream and had been isolated for many years, one could ex- 
pect speciation to occur. 

There is a somewhat parallel situation in another genus of 
Clunioninae, the marine genus Telmatogeton, which in the 
Hawaiian Islands has succeeded in evolving at least five spe- 
cies in the torrential mountain streams. It may be supposed, 
whether Clunio vagans may be found breeding at Wailua 
Falls, or whether a large number had merely wandered up the 
stream, that here is a similar instance of a species trying to 
escape a distasteful environment to which competition had 
long ago forced its clunionine ancestors. In Telmatogeton we 
see the results of such a successful escape after many years; 
it is possible that in C. vagans we are witnessing the mani- 
festations of the means by which such a transition was made. 

C. vagans is intermediate between pacificus and tsushimen- 
sis, the three species forming a closely allied group quite sim- 
ilar in general facies and especially in antennal characters. 
Using characters of the wing and tibial spurs, however, the 
three species can be separated as stated in the key at the end 
of this paper. 

Clunio brevis, new^ species 
(rigs. 5, 12, 24) 

Male. — Length 1-1.2 mm., wing 0.9 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide. Color 
of freshly preserved alcoholic specunens: Head, pedicel of antenna, 
thorax and abdomen, including genitalia, brownish; the mesonotum and 
abdominal tergites darker; the pleura, scutellum, postscutellum, coxae, 
trochanters, and articulations of femora, tibiae, and tarsal segments 
light brown; flagellum of antenna, wings and halteres, and bulk of 
femora, tibiae, and tarsal segments yellowish white; eyes and tarsal 
claws blackish. 

Head: Interocular width at vertex about a third of total width of 
head and a little less than eye height; eyes with facets small, the inter- 
facetal spaces with dense fine hairs. Antenna (fig. 5) Avith the scape 
broad and triangular, the pedicel enlarged, about as long as broad at 
tip, markedly tapering at base, its greatest diameter slightly less than 
scape and about twice that of flagellar segments; third segment about 
twice as long as broad with 2 small setae about midway, segments IV to 
X subequal, each slightly longer than broad; distal segment short, not 
quite as long as preceding 3 segments combined, slightly flattened, its 
greatest width slightly greater than preceding segments; segments IV 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 213 

to XI without setae, III to X each with a pair of hyaline sensory organs 
near the apex ; distal segment with minute sensory pits. Eatio of lengths 
of flagellar segments beginning proximad, 21:10:10:10:11:11:11:11:31. 
Maxillary palpus unsegmented, rather long and fingerlike, about as long 
and thick as distal antennal segment, with a few minute setae. 

Thorax: Mesoscutum full, the dorsum slightly carinate mesad, with 
the subdorsal furrows rather deep, each with 3-5 long fine setae; the 
shoulders full, 3 long fine setae in a row above each wing base. Scutellum 
with about 5 setae, these about as long as scutellum ; postscutellum and 
pleura bare. 

Wing (fig. 24) : Appearing smoky brown by transmitted light, milky 
white by reflected light ; radius with about 8 fine setae. Wing wide in rela- 
tion to its length, broadest through the middle, anal lobe angulate, direct- 
ed toward wingbase ; stem of wing fairly long, nearly a fourth of total 
length of wing. Wing fringed with relatively long hairs, these sparse 
towards base of costa, shortest at apex of wing, quite long at anal angle; 
posterior fringe of alternating long and short hairs. Vein Ei about a 
third the length of Es, which is straight, meeting costa toward wing tip, 
and is slightly shorter than base of E; distal section of M nearly 
straight, slightly upcurved, not quite reaching wing margin ; Cui gently 
downcurved through its entire length, atrophied slightly before margin; 
Cu2 also gently curved caudad to meet wing margin; 1st and 2nd A 
atrophy at about level of fCu. 

Legs: Stout, coxae and trochanters with a few fine hairs distally; 
femora and tibiae with a few sparse rows of fine setae, those of front 
legs much shorter than on mid and hind legs; tibial spurs absent on 
front and mid legs, on hind legs single, small, and nearly straight; 
apices of tarsal segments also with fine setae. Basitarsus about 2.5 times 
as long as broad on front legs and 1.5 on mid and hind legs; tufts of 
seta present on ventral side of claws. Eatio of lengths of segments: 




















Mid legs: 










Hind legs: 










Abdomen: Genitalia (fig. 12) rotated through 100-150°; about 8-10 
long fine setae in an irregular transverse row about halfway back on 
tergites I-VII, VIII with 2 lateral pairs of long setae and about 8 in a 
medioposterior patch. Basistyles fused mesally at base, slender, gradually 
and slightly tapering to apex; mesal margin concave, with a fringe of 
very fine setae above, basistyles otherwise bare. Dististyles flattened 
lateromesally, arcuate with convex side mesad; in lateral profile they 
are almost semilunar, the lower margin thickened and slightly concave, 
the upper margin convexly expanded and bearing a flattened blunt tooth 
on outer side about midway of margin; distal apex slightly hooked 
downward with several minute retrorse spines on lateral aspect; vesti- 
ture of dense pubescence. Phallosome complex with the ninth tergite 

214 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 

produced caudad nearly to level of tips of basistyles, beneath with a 
narrow selerotized longitudinal median line; distally the tergite is 
abruptly constricted and produced in a prominent knoblike titillator. 
On upper side of phallosome the lateral lips of the penis opening but 
very slightly selerotized, opening just cephalad of the titillator; para- 
meres very prominent, selerotized and dark brown, broad, stout and 
sharply bent cephalad in middle; mesal ends almost contiguous just 
cephalad of penis opening, the flattened apices finely serrated into about 
20-30 fine sharp spinelike teeth; lateral ends rodlike and produced 
through the mesal concavities into interior of basistyles about midway 
of their length. 

HOLOTYPE, male, Waimanalo, Oahu, III.15.1946, W. W. 
Wirth. PARATYPES, 36 S $ , Waimanalo, Oahu, 11.15.1946 
(2), III.11.1946 (11), III.15.1946 (13), IV.11.1946 (10), W. 
W. Wirth, 1 $ , Makapu Point, Oahu, V.1.1946, W. W. Wirth ; 
11 5 5 , Koko Head, Oahu, VI.25.1946, W. W. Wirth. 

All of the above localities are within about 5 miles of the 
coast line on eastern Oahu, featured by a rugged rocky coast 
without the protection of an outer coral reef. As this coast 
lies in the direct path of the northeast trade winds, the surf is 
very heavj^. In each locality, C. lirevis occurred in about equal 
numbers with C. littoralis from which it could readily be 
distinguished by its smaller size. Its habit of flight was simi- 
lar to that of littoralis, possibly a little weaker. The males 
were collected at low tide. The females were not seen, but it 
is presumed that breeding occurred on the rocks covered with 
brown algae fringing the shore which were exposed at the 
lowest tides, but which were kept constantly drenched by the 
heavy waves. 

C. hrevis is a, Yery much reduced form of Clunio, the small- 
est in the genus, and unique for the vestigial tibial spurs on 
the front and mid legs, the short broad petiolate wings, and 
genitalic structure, particularly the enlarged knoblike titilla- 
tor, the arcuate dististyles, and prominent serrated parameres. 
The next smallest species, takahasJiii from Formosa, shows a 
reduction along a different line, the male antenna being only 
8-segmented, there being only four short flagellar segments 
present, the species apparently otherwise normal except that 
the wings are also more petiolate. The close relationship of 
hrevis to any known species is not apparent. 

Clunio marshalli, new species 
(Figs. 3, 11, 22) 

Male. — Length 1.5 — 1.75 mm.; wing 1.18 — 1.34 mm. long, 0.5 mm. 
wide. Color generally yellowish brown ; vertex, mesoscutum, and genitalia 
darker; the legs except for the articulations of the segments, wings. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 215 

halteres, and abdominal sternites yellowish white; abdominal tergites 
with bluish gray pigment; eyes and tarsal claws blackish. 

Head: Intercoular width at vertex about half total width of head 
and distinctly less than eye height; vertex broadly convex above with a 
distinct swelling on each side adjacent to tops of eyes. Antenna (fig. 
3) with the scape triangular; the pedicel bulbous, about as wide as long 
and slightly wider than scape,, about half as long and nearly twice as 
wide as the third segment which is about four times as long as broad, 
with 2 setae just beyond middle; segments IV-X from 1 to 1.5 times 
as long as Avide, becoming longer distally; distal segment cylindrical or 
slightly swollen distally, slightly longer than the preceding 4 segments 
combined; apex of third and all of segments IV-X slightly infuscated, 
also each of these segments with a pair of hyaline sensory organs near 
apex, distal segment with numerous sensory pits; ratio of lengths of 
flagellar segments beginning proximad, 35:10:11:13:15:15:14:14:60. 
Maxillary palpus thumb-shaped, only slightly narrowed at base. Facets 
of eyes rather widely separated, the interfaeetal hairs abundant, about 
as long as width of 1 facet. 

Thorax: Mesoscutum bare except for 2-4 small setae from light-colored 
ocellate spots in each subdorsal row and 2-3 longer setae in each supra- 
alar group. Scutellum with a pair of submedian and 1 or 2 pairs of 
lateral setae; postscutellum and pleura bare. 

Wing (fig. 22): Kadius with several small setae, membrane bare; 
anal lobe acutely rounded; wing fringed with fine hairs, bare on basal 
third of costa, these hairs progressively shorter toward wing tip and 
quite long toward anal angle. Vein Ri a little less than half the length 
of Rs, the latter nearly straight, ending in costa at most anterior portion 
of wing beyond which wing margin curves posteriorly to apex; distal 
section of M rather straight, only very slightly upcurved; Cui in a 
straight line with base of Cu, fCu narrow at base, Cu2 gently and gradu- 
ally curved. 

Legs: Coxae and trochanters unarmed; femora of forelegs and femora 
and tibiae of mid and hind legs each with several sparse rows of strong 
setae; tibial spurs with tips weakly curved, that of hind tibia large, 
Half as long as basitarsus. Basitarsus longest on all legs, about twice as 
long as broad on fore — and mid legs and three times as long as broad 
on hind legs. Ratio of lengths of segments: 










Foreleg : 










Mid leg: 










Hind leg: 










Abdomefi: Sclerotized margin of eighth tergite with a semicircular in- 
dentation posteriorly. Genitalia large, the width at apex of basistyles 
equal to length of basistyles, these fused incompletely mesally on basal 
half, tapering strongly beyond to apex, caudomesal hairs moderately long. 
Dististyles flattened, triangular and scapuliform, the outer margin 

216 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 

thickened basally, the distal margin appearing folded over on lateral 
two-thirds, a few recurved spines on the rounded distolateral angle; the 
mesal angle rounded, with a small flat cephalo-projeeting tooth on distal 
margin about a fourth way toward distolateral angle. Phallosome com- 
plex (fig. 11) with the ninth tergite produced to level of tips of 
basistyles, the broadly rounded apex with a small nipplelike titillator 
bare of pubescence, somewhat depressed into the extreme mesodistal 
margin. The penis opening flanked on each side by a pair of flattened, 
distally sclerotized, rounded liplike plates, the widely separated bases 
of which articulate with the parameres. The latter very heavily sclero- 
tized and exceptionally sharply curved in a semilunar outline, the closely 
approximated, posteriorly projecting mesal ends finely dentate apically 
while the lateral ends pierce the basistyle on each side for about half 
their length, curving sharply caudad distally. The dististyle and ventral 
plate are decidedly pubescent. 

Female. — Length 1.8 — 2.1 mm. Color yellowish white, with the head, 
legs, and genitalia sclerotized and light brown; abdomen with scattered 
patches of dark pigment. 

Head: Small, about as broad as long: distance between eyes about 
twice the height of one eye. Eye small, round, prominent, each with 10- 
15 widely separated facets, the interfacetal hairs abundant. Ante una 
apparently 5-segmented, scape reduced, first segment (pedicel) globulai 
and distinctly broader than distal segments, bare, brownish in color; 
second segment about twice as long as broad ; 2 adjacent segments often 
fused; distal 4 segments without setae; segments II to IV each bear a 
pair of hyaline senory organs near apex; ratio of lengths of segments 
beginning with scape, 20:30:15:15:30. Clypeolabrum projecting conically 
ventrad, the maxillary palpus a short lobe. 

Thorax. The notum in profile broadly convex, extending forward over 
head; no scutellum visible. 

Legs: Sclerotized and brown, the coxae, trochanters, apices of 
femora and apices and bases of tibiae darker; first 4 tarsal segments 
shorter than broad, the fifth swollen, twice as long as broad; claws 
nearly as long as fifth segment. Eatio of lengths of segments: 




















Mid legs: 










Hind legs 










Abdomen : Membraneous except for seventh and genital segments, with 
a vestiture of numerous small hairs; seventh sternite and sides of sev- 
enth tergite with abundant long hairs. Cerci flattened and roundly tri- 
angular in outline, much broader than long and broadest at base. 
Spermathecae heavily sclerotized and brown, the ducts not apparently 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 217 

HOLOTYPE, male, Biscayne Channel, Dade County, Fla., 
X.18.1945, Nelson Marshall; ALLOTYPE female and PARA- 
TYPES, 32 S $ and 229 5 9, same data as holotype. 

This species is named in honor of Nelson Marshall who first 
discovered it. Professor Marshall first saw the species "Sep- 
tember 7, 1945, running around a conch partially exposed at 
low tide on the sand flats adjacent to Biscayne Channel." 
These were not collected, but "on October 18th they were ob- 
served dipping' below the 3-inch waves along the water line of 
our boat and laying eggs on the barnacles there as the boat lay 
anchored in Biscayne Channel which is a good three-fourths 
mile from the nearest point of land" and some of these were 
collected. The barnacles taken from the boat were Balanus 
amphitrite, and in among the barnacles were tangled masses 
of egg strings in which both males and females of the Clunio 
were embedded. None of the specimens was in copula. 

Clunio marshalli differs from pacificus, tsushiniensis, and 
takahashii in having the last antennal segment much .shorter 
than the preceding seven combined ; it differs from setoensis, 
marinus, and adriaticus in having the first flagellar segment 
shorter than the distal segment. It is close to africanus, but 
marshallii differs in having the tip of the ninth tergite rather 
broad and emarginate so that the titillator arises from a de- 
pression, and the lateral prolongations of the parameres are 
turned sharply caudad. 

Clunio schmitti, new species 
(Figs. 1, 6, 20) 

Male. — Length 2.5 mm.; wing 2.0 mm. long, 0.9 mm. wide. Color pale 
yellowish throughout, the genitalia slightly darker. 

Head: interocular width of vertex not measurable in the specimen. 
Eyes with the facets very close together, the interfacetal spaces reduced 
and entirely without evidence of interfacetal hairs. Antenna (fig. 1) 
with the scape triangular, the pedicel bulbous, slightly longer than broad 
and slightly narrowed basally, subequal in diameter to the scape and 
about twice as broad as the third segment; the latter about five times 
as long as broad with a pair of setae near middle; segments IV to X 
subequal, each about 1.6 times as long as broad; distal segment some- 
what swollen on basal two-thirds, markedly tapering distally to a small 
nipplelike tip, about four times as long as maximum breadth, broadest 
at proximal third; sense organs not apparent on flagellum, but these 
probably lost through over maceration ; distal segment pitted. Eatio of 
lengths of flagellar segments, beginning proximad: 57:16:14:14:15: 
15:13:12:56. Maxillary palpus thumb-shaped, constricted considerably 
at base, with a few minute setae at apex. 

Thorax: Mesoscutum apparently bare, the subdorsal and supra-alar 

218 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 

setae exceedingly minute. Scutellum with about 20 very fine setae; post- 
seutellum and pleura bare. 

Wing (fig. 20) : Widest at distal third, the anal lobe prominent and 
acutely rounded; wing fringed with very fine hairs but these reduced 
toward base of costa, the fringe becoming longer on posterior margin 
toward anal angle. Vein Ei short, less than half the length of Rs, the 
latter nearly straight, ending in costa just before most anterior portion 
of wing; distal section of M slightly sinuous proximally, markedly up- 
curved distally and atrophied before wing margin; Cui nearly straight, 
atrophied about two-thirds the way from fCu to wing margin; Cua 
straight proximally, sharply recurved at about 90° at distal two-thirds 
and then turned slightly toward wing tip, not quite reaching wing 
margin; fCu rather broad at base. 

Legs: Coxae and trochanters unarmed; setae of remainder of legs very 
fine and inconspicuous; tibial spurs greatly reduced on forelegs, small 
with weakly curved tips on mid legs, and very short and heavy with a 
hooked tip on hind legs; spurs not at all darkened. Basitarsus longest 
on all legs, about four times as long as broad on forelegs, 2.5 on mid 
legs, and 3.0 on hind legs. Eatio of lengths of segments: 










Foreleg : 










Mid leg: 










Hind leg: 










Abdomen: Genitalia (fig. 6) with the width of the combined basistyles 
across the tips as great as length of basistyles; these fused along median 
line for about three-fourths their length, tapering strongly toward apex, 
the caudomesal margin being short and transverse with a definite, low 
protuberance and a patch of fine setae about midway. Dististyles flat- 
tened and scapuliform, the lower lateral margin thickened and slightly 
concave, the upper mesal margin angularly (about 100°) expanded and 
bearing a large, flattened, blunt tooth on outer side at the mesal angle; 
a prominent laterally projecting tooth on outer side at extreme distal 
angle of dististyle; ninth tergite rather narrow, the apex produced coni- 
cally to about level of tips of basistyles and ending in a prominent nip- 
plelike titillator; on upper side of ventral plate the sclerotized, rounded 
lips of the penis opening closely flank the titillator, while their bases 
articulate caudally with the arcuate, heavily sclerotized parameres; the 
latter have their flattened mesal tips closely approximated and extend- 
ing caudad between the lateral lips of the penis opening nearly to their 
apices, while the lateral .ends of the parameres pierce and extend lateral- 
ly about two-thirds their length within the basistyles ; the dististyles and 
the ventral plates are strongly pubescent. 

HOLOTYPE, male, Narborono-h Island (Isla Fernandina), 
Galapagos Islands, 1.14.1934, W. L. Schmitt. (Mounted on 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 219 

The single specimen was collected by Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt, 
for whom the species is named, from soil in a rock pocket on 
the beach. It is the first species known from the western con- 
tinental shelf of the New World. 

This species is not closely related to any of those yet de- 
scribed, differing most strikingly in lacking hairs on the eyes, 
and in the tapering tip of the last antennal segment. Other 
distinguishing characters are found in the apical tibial spurs, 
particularly the very short, hooked spur of the hind leg, and 
in the proportions and structure of the male genitalia in which 
the basistyle bears a distinct caudomesal protuberance, the dis- 
tistyle bears a distinct blunt tooth at the distal angle, and the 
phallosomal structures take a characteristic shape and posi- 

Clunio pacificus Edwards 

This species has a wide distribution in the Pacific. Origi- 
nally described from Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa, it has since 
been reported from Pago Pago, Tutuila, Samoa (Edwards, 
1928, p. 60), Misaki, Japan (Oka, 1930, p. 279) and Ishigaki- 
Jima, Ryukyu Islands (Tokunaga, 1938a, p. 126). Henry K. 
Townes collected a single male of this species at Rota, Rota 
Island, Marianas Islands, VI. 23. 1946. A single male was also 
collected on a trans-Pacific plane at Sumay, Guam, III. 20. 
1939, by R. G. Oakley, but the origin of this specimen is in- 
determinable. Both of these specimens are in the collection of 
the United States National Museum. 

Key to Species of Clunio (Males) 

1. Eyes with interfacetal hairs ..._ 2 

Eyes without interfacetal hairs (Galapagos Islands) 

schmitti, new species 

2. Antenna 11-segmented (fig. 1) 3 

Antenna 8-segmented (Formosa) takahashii Tokunaga 

3. Apical tibial spurs present on all legs 4 

Apical tibial spurs present only on hind legs (last antennal 

segment subequal to preceding 3 segments (fig. 5) ; wing 
short, broad and rounded (fig. 24) ; dististyles not angularly 
produced on mesal margin (fig. 12); titillator prominent and 
knoblike (fig. 12)) (Hawaiian Islands) brevis, new species 

4. Last antennal segment usually shorter than preceding 7 seg- 

ments combined (figs. 1, 2, 3, 5) 5 

Last antennal segment usually longer than preceding 7 seg- 
ments combined (fig. 4) __ ___ 11 

5. Wing vein Cua gently and slightly curved (fig. 22) 6 

Wing vein Cu2 abruptly and strongly curved (fig. 21) 8 

220 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 

6. Last antennal segment subequal to preceding 3 segments com- 

bined (South Africa) ..africanus Hesse 

Last antennal segment subequal to or slightly longer than pre- 
ceding 4 segments combined (figs. 2, 3) 7 

7. First flagellar segment subequal to distal segment (Japan and 

the Eyukyu Islands) setoensis Tokunaga 

First flagellar segment not greater than two-thirds the length 
of distal segment (fig. 3) (Florida, U. S. A.) 

viarshalli, new species ■ 

8. "Wing vein Es shorter than twice the proximal section of M 

(fig. 21 ) 9 

Wing vein Es siibequal to or longer than twice the proximal 
section of M (Mediterranean) „ adriaticus Schiner 

9. "Wing vein Ei shorter than half the length of Es 10 

"Wing vein Ei longer than half the length of Es (fig. 21) 

(Hawaiian Islands) littoralis, new species 

10. "Wing vein Ei shorter than a third the length of Es (Europe) 

marinus Haliday 
"Wing vein Ei subequal to a third the length of Es (Japan) 

aquilonius Tokunaga 

11. Last antennal segment distinctly shorter than rest of flagel- 

lum (fig. 4) 12 

Last antennal segment subequal to or longer than the rest of 
the flagellum _.. _ _ _. _ 13 

12. "Wing vein Cu2 distinctly although not abruptly curved (fig. 

23); hind tibial spur slightly curved at tip (Hawaiian Is- 
lands) vagans, new species 

"Wing vein Cu2 slightly curved; hind tibial spur hooked at tip 
(El about half the length of Es; distal section of M nearly 
straight) (Samoa, Japan, the Eyukyu Islands, and the Mari- 
anas Islands) _ pacificus Edwards 

13. Last antennal segment shorter than preceding 9 segments (Ja- 

pan) tsushimensis Tokunaga 

Last antennal segment subequal to or longer than preceding 9 
segments (Japan) tsushimensis var. minor Tokunaga 

ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 PLATE 17 

6 . schmitti 

8. vagans 

12 brevis 

Plate 17. Clunio spp. Figs. 1-5. Male antennae. Fig. 6. Male geni- 
talia, dorsal view. Fig. 7. Apex of ninth tergite. Fig. 8. Dististyle. 
Fig. 9. Female antenna. Fig. 10. Dististyle. Fig. 11. Phallasome com- 
plex, dorsal view. Fig. 12. Male genitalia, dorsal view. 



Plate 18. Clunio vagans, n, sp. Fig. 13. Mentum of larva, ventral 
view. Fig. 14. Eight maxilla of larva, ventral view. Fig. 15. Mandible 
of larva, dorsal view. Fig. 16. Antenna of larva. Fig. 17. Labrum of 
larva. Fig. 18. End of abdomen of pupa, ventral view. Fig. 19. End 
of abdomen of pupa, dorsal view. 



23 vagans 24,brevis 

Plate 19. Chinio spp. Figs. 20-24. Wings, 


224 proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 49, no. 8, november, 1947 


Bezzi, M. 1913. Clunio adriaticus Schiner var. balearicus nov. (Dip- 
teres). Arch, de Zool. Expt. et Gen. 51: 501-519. 

Chevrel, R. 1894. Sur un diptere marii; du genre Clunio Haliday. Arch, 
de Zool. Expt. et Gen. 28: 583-598. 

Edwards, F. W. 1926. On marine Chironomidae (Diptera) ; with de- 
scriptions of a new genus and four new species from Samoa. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London 51: 779-806. 

. 1928. Nematocera. Insects of Samoa, Part VI, fasc. 2 — 

Diptera, pp. 23-102, British Museum Nat. Hist. London. 

. 1929. British non-biting midges (Diptera — Chironomidae). 

Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 77: 279-430. 

Haliday, A. H. 1855. Descriptions of insects figured, and references to 
plates illustrating the notes on kerry insects. Nat. Hist. Rev. 2: 

Hesse, A. J. 1937. A new species of Clunionine chironomid from the 
coast of southern Africa (Diptera). Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc, London 
(B), 6: 165-168. 

Kieffer, J. J. 1901. In Gadeau de Kerville, Description par M. Pabbe 
J. J. Kieffer, d'une nouvelle espece de Diptere marin da la familie 
des Chironomides (Clunio bicolor), etc. Bui. Soc. Amis Sci. Nat. 
Rouen (4), 36: 72-73, 

. 1925. Chironomides d'Egypte (Dipt.). Bui. Soc. Roy. Ent. 

d'Egypte, 1924: 244-313. 

Oka, H. 1926. Ein interessanter Fall von Korpertorsion bei Insekten. 
Zool. Anz. 68: 205-208. 

. 1930. Morphologie und Okologie von Clunio pacificus Ed- 
wards (Diptera, Chironomidae). Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Syst. 59: 253- 

Schiner, J. R. 1856. Anmerkungen zu dem im Bande V, pag. 13 dieser 
Verhandlungen abgedruckten Aufsatze Frauenfelds: Beitrag zur 
Insekten-Geschichte. Vehr. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien 6: 215-224. 

Tokunaga, M. 1933. Chironomidae from Japan (Diptera). I. Clunioni- 
nae. Philippine Jour. Sci. 51 : 87-99. 

— . 1935. Chironomidae from Japan (Diptera). V. Supple- 
mentary report on the Clunioninae. Mushi, Fukuoka 8: 1-20. 

. 1938. Chironomidae from Japan (Diptera). X. New or 

little-known midges, with descriptions of the metamorphoses of 
several species. Philippine Jour. Sci. 65: 313-383. 

. 1938a. The Fauna of Akkeshi Bay. VI. A new species of 

Clunio (Diptera). Annot. Zool. Jap. 17: 125-129. 
Williams, F. X. 1944. Biological studies in Hawaiian water-loving in- 
sects. Pt. III. Diptera or flies. D. Culicidae, Chironomidae, and 
Ceratopogonidae. Proc. Hawaii. Ent. Soc. 12: 149-180. 

PBOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 225 


By George C. Steyskal, Grosse He, Michigan 

Some years ago George E. Bohart presented the writer with 
a remarkable fly that was clearly a rhopalomerid, but which 
did not agree with any described species nor fit in any genus. 
In the interim it has become apparent that a new genus would 
have to be erected for the species. It is therefore described 
at this time as a new species belonging to a new genus. It was 
captured in the State of Sonora, Mexico, several hundred 
miles from the limits of the previously known distribution of 
its family, which is restricted to tropical and subtropical 
America, north to southern Florida {Rhytidops fioridensis 
[Aldrich], v. Malloch, 1941) and Volcan de Colima, Mexico 
{Willisto7iiella pleuropunctata [Wied.], v. Lindner, 1930). 

MEXICOA, new genus 

Differs from the described genera most obviously in the 
densely plumose arista, the hairs of which are black and flat- 
tened. The genus is further characterized by the presence of 
distinct vertical, ocellar, and postvertical bristles ; flat upper 
face; convex, 4-bristled, short scutellum lying in the same 
plane as the mesonotum ; broad cheeks ; 5-6 long, stout, upper 
metaspiracular hairs; and the lack of humeral bristles. 

In the generic keys of Curran (1934, p. 300) and Lindner 
(1930, p. 125) Mexicoa runs to couplet 4 in each case, but 
differs from Apopliorhynchus by the presence of strong ocellar 
and postvertical bristles, from Willistoniella by the non- 
carinate face and non-projecting front, and from both by the 
character of the arista. In the key of Malloch (1941, p.50) 
it runs to couplet 3, but differs from Apophorhijnchus as 
mentioned and from Rhytidops by the plumose arista, non- 
projecting front, and lack of antennal grooves. 

Generotype, the following new species. 

Mexicoa mexicana, new species 

Male. Length of body and wiug, each 7 mm. > 

Head as figured, generally brown in color, the broad cheeks almost 
yellow, ocellar region and upper occiput dark brown. The third antennal 
joint is blackish above and at tip. The occiput is largely shining, with 
a white-pruinose stripe from eye to neck, a similar spot below the lateral 
end of the stripe, and another similar elongate mark farther ventrad, 
which extends well onto the cheek and which appears in most lights as 
a pair of spots. On either side of the ocellar triangle is yellowish pruino- 
sity which extends backward as a stripe on either side of the cerebral 
area. Anterior to the ocelli is a triangle of white pruinosity which 

22G PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. S, NOVEMBER, 19-47 

extends halfway to the frontal margin. The anterior frontal orbits are 
very narrowly white-pruinose and there are a pair of white-pruinose 
spots on each parafacial. The anterior half of the cheeks and the entire 
face is dully pruinose, with a more lucid spot under each antenna. The 
prelabrum is also pruinose, at least anteriorly. The palpi are yellowish. 
Arista as figured, the flattened plumose hairs black, the base of the arista 
itself yellowish. Eyes bare. Head, except face and ocellar region, 
covered with rather coarse yellowish hairs; only a few upper postocular 
ciliae, small hairs on the basal antennal joints, and a single one in 
the middle of the lower side of the palpi, black. The bristles, as follows, 
are black: one inner and one outer vertical, one postvertical, one fine 
ocellar, one minute frontal. 

Thorax dark brown. The peculiar laterally concave humeri are shining, 
as are also the upper pleural regions. The pleura, however, rapidly 
grade into the strong whitish pruinosity of the pectus. The thoracic 

Mexicoa mexicana, new genus and species. Anterior view of left half 
(Fig. 1) and left profile of head (Fig. 2). 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 227 

<lorsum is covered with a fine tomentum which gives it a strongly pruin- 
ose appearance of a clayey yellow color with a pair of dark brown dull 
spots on each side, one a short distance before the transverse suture 
and one an equal distance behind, as well as a pair of adjacent discal 
brown spots between the wing bases. The scutellum is shining at the 
extreme tip, but is otherwise furnished with a vestiture similar to the 
mesonotum, clayey yellow laterally and basally, and brown in the middle 
toward the apex. There is a small shining depression at each mesal end 
of the transverse suture. An indistinct middorsal dark stripe is visible 
at the anterior end of the mesonotum. The mesonotum is furnished with 
numerous short, stubbly, scattered setulae. There are longer black hairs 
on the notopleura, posterior mesopleura, pteropleura beneath the wings, 
and a few at the upper end of the lateral metanotal callus. Long pale 
yellowish hairs, white toward the pectus, are present on the humeri, 
propleura, sparsely above the fore coxae, and densely on the prosternum, 
sternopleura and pectus. There is a group of five or six long bristly 
hairs on the upper side of the metathoracic spiracle. There are no 
hairs on the protuberances just below the wing base. True bristles are 
present on the thorax as follows: 2 notopleural, 1 supra-alar, 2 postalar, 
3 on each side just anterior to base of scutellum, 1 apical scutellar, 1 
preapical scutellar somewhat dorsal in position, 1 strong mesopleural, 1 

Legs with coxae, especially the fore ones, covered with white pruin- 
osity and furnished with white hairs; femora subshining, more pruinose 
above and preapically, the fore and middle femora with white hairs 
basiventrally, otherwise with numerous black hairs; fore femora with 
3 or 4 heavy apical anteroventral bristles, the middle femora with 4 or 5 
such posteroventrally and 7 or 8 anteroventrally, the hind femora with a 
complete, somewhat irregular row of more than a dozen such antero- 
ventrally and about 4 posteroventrally; tibiae cream yellow at base, 
especially middle and hind ones, and without distinct bristles, but with 
many black hairs; tarsi cream-colored basally, brown apically, Avith 
black hairs above and creamy yellow plantar brush. All the femora are 
strongly swollen, the middle ones gently concave above. The middle 
femora have two small apical bristles and the hind femora have a group 
of about 6 preapical anterodorsal bristles. The hind tibiae are somewhat 
compressed beyond the basal pale part, but are only half as thick as the 
hind femora, not distinctly carinate above and without distinct bristles, 
but with several erect, long hairs. 

Wings brownish, with a strong brown spot around the anterior cross- 
vein, rather darker at the ends of veins 2 and 3, and with an indistinct 
transverse band from the tip of the auxiliary vein to the end of the 
second basal cell; the discal cell and a wide area either side of the 
anterior crossvein is practically hyaline. The wing veins are yellowish 
at the base of the wing, otherwise blackish. The venation is very similar 
to that figured for Rhopalomera by Williston (1908, p. 280) and copied 
by Curran (1934, p. 299), but the anterior crossvein is a little closer to 

228 PKOr. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. S, NOVEMBER, 194:7 

the tip of the first vein and the anal vein is complete to the wing margin. 
The squamae and their fringes and the halteres are cream-colored. 

The abdomen is short and rather broad basally, dark brown in color, 
grayish pruinose with an indistinct brownish mid-dorsal stripe, and 
furnished evenly with longish mixed black and whitish hairs, the longer 
of which are whitish. The hypopygium is semi-globose, shining reddish- 

Holotjjpe, male, Rio Mayo, Sonera, Mexico, No. 58337 in the 
United States National Mnseum. 

Literature Cited 
Curran, C. H. 1934. The Families and Genera of North American 

Diptera. Privately published. 
Lindner, E. 1930. Eevision der amerikanischen Dipteren-Familie der 

Ehopalomeridae. Deutsch. Ent. Zts. 1930: 122-137. 
Malloch, J. E. 1941. Florida Diptera, Family Eliopalomeridae. Florida 

Entomologist 24 (3): 49-51. 
Williston, S. W. 1907. Manual of North American Diptera, 3d ed.. 

New Haven, Conn. 


By William F. Buren, Asst. Sanitaiion (B), Foreign Quarantine 
Division, TJ. S. Public Health Service 

It is to be regretted that this species must be described from 
females only. However, it is so distinct from anything oc- 
curring in North America or from anything known to me in 
the tropics that it needs to be named. The specimens were 
taken in light traps at Key West and Marathon. The Key 
AVest trap is operated by Mr. Eddie Fernandez and the Mara- 
thon trap by Mr. C. G. Hicks. The Public Health Service is 
grateful to these men for their generous assistance. I also 
wish to thank Dr. Alan Stone of the U. S. National Museum 
for his opinion regarding the taxonomic status of this species. 

Aedes (Ochlerotatus) keyensis, n. sp. 

Female: Average body length, 4.0 mm.; proboscis, 2.0 mm.; palpi, 
0.45 mm,; thorax, 1.5 mm.; wings, 3.0 mm. 

Proboscis and palpi dark brown scaled. Occiput with pale, nearly 
white, erect, and appressed scales on vertex, the erect scales rather 
slender and scarcely if at all bifurcate at tip. An area behind each eye 
with dark, broad, appressed scales. Mesonotum with long, slender, pale 
amber scales, a broad median stripe of slightly more brownish scales 
usually noticeable. Pleura with white bristles and broad white scales. 
Abdominal dorsum dark brown scaled, with broad basal white bands of 
broad scales ; the bands prolonged medially for at least two thirds of the 
segments' length so that the abdomen has the appearance of having a 
broken longitudinal stripe. Basal bands not reaching the lateral white 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 1947 229 

spots which are elongate, reaching nearly the whole length of the seg- 
ment. Venter entirely white scaled. Front and middle femora usually 
dark brown scaled on anterior side, pale on at least basal two thirds of 
posterior side. Hind femora pale on basal two thirds anteriorly, usually 
efntirely pale on posterior side. No knee spots. Ventral or interior side 
of tibiae and 1st tarsal joints pale. Dorsal or external portion of these 
joints and other tarsal joints dark brown scaled. Wings entirely dark 
scaled, the scales mostly slender except on costa, subcosta, and vein 1. 

The specimens were taken as follows : 2 females — Oct. 14, 
1946; 3 females— Oct. 15, 1946; 1 female— Oct. 16, 1946; 1 
female — Oct. 17, 1946, in a light trap at the Naval Hospital, 
Key West, Florida ; 1 female — Nov. 9, 1946, in a light trap at 
Marathon, Vaca Key, Florida. One of the specimens taken at 
Key West on Oct. 15, 1946, has been chosen as the holotype. 
Holotype and one paratype in the author's collection; other 
paratypes in the National Museum. 

Aedes keyensis runs to Aedes alhifasciatus (Macquart) in 
Dyar 's ' ' The Mosquitoes of the Americas ' ' but may be easily 
distinguished by its broken rather than complete dorsal ab- 
dominal stripe, much paler, less brownish mesonotal scaling, 
absence of white scales on the wings, and absence of white 
speckling on the legs. It is also smaller in size. 

Aedes solUcitans (Walker), nigromaculis (Ludlow), mitch- 
ellae (Dyar), spencerii (Theobald), campestris Dyar and 
Knab, and dorsalis (Meigen), of the North American fauna 
have dorsal abdominal stripes but are quite different in other 
respects. Aedes fluviatilus (Lutz) and A. lithoecetor Dyar 
and Knab of South America have broken abdominal stripes 
but may be distinguished from keyensis by their tarsal band- 


By J. C. Crawford, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

This new species, the second in the genus, though described 
from only one specimen, is amply distinct, in having the head 
darker than the intermediate portion of the body rather than 
the reverse, and especially in the obvious median constriction 
of tlie mid- and hind femora. 

Metriothrips secundus, new species 
Female (apterous). — Length (distended) about 1.7 mm. Brown, with 
head and distal abdominal segments distinctly darker, tube in basal two- 
thirds blackish brown, apically light brown; coxae and femora apically 
almost yellow; fore- and midtibiae yellow, tinged with brown basally. 

230 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBEB, 1947 

hind tibiae tinged almost to apices; tarsi yellow; antennae almost con- 
colorous with head, the apical segments darker, third segment light 
brownish in apical two-thirds, yellow basally. 

Head with eyes small, not protruding, ventrally distinctly produced 
caudad; ocelli present, small, posterior pair 8 M in diameter, median one 
12m, directed forward; cheeks almost straight in outline, converging 
caudad to an indistinct neck, rather abruptly curved to eyes and meeting 
them Avith a slight incision; head back of eyes with Aveak transverse 
anastomosing striae, and feebly serrate in outline; one pair of minute 
anteocellar and one pair of similar postocellar setae; postocular setae 
brown, With slightly dilated pale tips, inserted 20 /* back of eyes and 
24/i from lateral margins of head; frontal projection of head measured 
laterad, 8 M to juncture with antennae; frontal costa with a broad V- 
shaped emargination ; front grooved from in front of median ocellus to 
frontal costa and with sides of groove thickened. 

Prothorax without sculpture, anterior margin with a dark apodemal 
thickening, median apodeme short, in front of middle of pronotum; all 
major setae present, brown with clear tips, dilated, except the minute 
anterior angulars and the short, blunt, anterior marginals and coxals; 
fore tarsi with a short hooked tooth on inner surface at apex of first seg- 
ment; forelegs not enlarged, mid- and hind legs slender, short; hind 
femora distinctly and midfemora slightly, constricted medially. 

Abdomen normal, Avithout sculpture ; setae on terga I-VIII dark broAvn 
with pale tips, all blunt or slightly dilated, on IX long, attenuated, 

Measurements (in microns) : Head, median length 188, Avidth across 
eyes 160, greatest Avidth back of eyes 174, least subbasal width 154; 
eyes, dorsal length 49, ventral length 62; prothorax, median^ length 96, 
width 224, width, including coxae, 284; tube (X only), length 172, basal 
width 68, apical width 29. Setae: postocular 60, anterior marginal 36, 
midlateral 80, epimeral 78, posterior marginal 92, coxal 22; on tergum 
IX, 1, 156, 2, 132, 3, 132; on X, both pairs 80. 

Antennae: 1 2 34 5 6 7 8 

34 50 60 76 70 66 48 40 

Described from one female from Saint Augustine, Trinidad, 
taken from detrital soil sample November 23, 1943 to March 
1, 1944. 

Type catalog No. 58524, United States National Museum. 

Agrees closely with the genotype M. midas Hood in all 
generic characters, but that species has the head yelloAvish, 
lighter than the body, the body setae pointed, according to 
the original specific description (though the generic descrip- 
tion says that the prothoracic setae are not pointed and the 
illustration shows them as not pointed), the tube only about 
0.8 the length of head and the posterior femora not con- 
stricted medially. 


VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVKMBER, 1947 231 




By DwiGHT M. DeLong and Euth V. Hershberger. 
Department of Zoologij-EntomoJogy, Ohio State University 

A unique white male leafhopper with a brown spot on the 
disc of the elytra has been the subject of study regarding 
generic placement for some time. Recently two female speci- 
mens were discovered in the National Museum collection 
through the kindness of Dr. Paul Oman. These three speci- 
mens have formed the basis for the description of the follow- 
ing new genus and new species. 

ALANUS, new genus 

Related to Atanus. The vertex is narrow, bluntly produced, 
distinctly sloping to apex and rounding to front. The clypeus 
is a little wider at base than at apex. The cross veins of the 
apical cells of the elytra form a broken diagonal line extending 
posteriorly from the apex of the clavus to the posterior portion 
of the costal margin. The first apical cell is short, the third 
apical cell is long. The first anteapical cell is short and 
narrow; the second is decidedly longer and there is no cross 
vein forming a third. Antennae long, more than half the 
length of the entire insect. 

Genotype: Alanus alhidns, new species. 

Alanus albidus, n. sp. 

A milky white species with an elongate brown spot on the disc of 
elytron. Length 4.5-5 mm. 

Vertex narrow, bluntly produced. Apex blunt, only a little longer at 
middle than next to eyes ; not quite twice as wide between eyes as length 
at middle. 

Color: Vertex and pronotum milky white, unmarked. Scutellum milky 
white to pale brownish. Elytra milky white with a small, elongate, dark 
brown spot on elytra, from which a pale brownish band extends obliquely 
to apex of clavus then along veins of apical cells to costal margin. 

Genitalia: Female: Last ventral segment angularly produced to a 
blunt apex. Male plates triangular, coneavely narrowed to long attenuate 
apices. The styles are elongate, triangular and gradually tapered to 
narrow apices with a short tooth on the outer margin at apex. The 
aedeagus is tubular, elongate, with a basal process extending dorsally 
and caudally. There are two pairs of spine-like processes at the apex. 
The pair at apex, one on either side of median notch, extend laterally 
and curve slightly anteriorly. A second pair are more dorsal and are 
more slender but about as long as the ventral pair. 

232 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 8, NOVEMBER, 11)47 

\\ IN / /A 

Explanation op Figures. 1. Dorsal view of head, pronotum and 

seutellum; 2. ventral view of male genitalia; 3. lateral view of male 

genitalia; 4. ventral view of female last ventral segment. 

Holotype male from Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico (M. F. 
1653) collected in May 1930 by Dr. Alfonse Dampf is in the 
senior author's collection. Allotype female from Cocoli, 
Panama, Canal Zone collected November 2, 1946 by N. L. H. 
Krauss and paratype female from Waldeck, Costa Rica col- 
lected June 10, 1936 from cacao by S. & C. H. Ballon, in the 
U. S. National Museum. 

Actual date of publication^ November 12, 1947. 

VOL. 49 December, 1947 </^ No. 9 


of the 



PcBUSHKD Monthly Except July, August and Shptkiibi 





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Eonorary President L. O. Howard 

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First Vice President E. H. Siiglee 

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Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President 

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proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 49 DECEMBER, 1947 No. 9 


By William E. Hoffmakx, Lingnan rnivemil ij, Canton, China 

From time immemorial insects have been consnmed as hu- 
man food either as tid-bits or as more or less staple diet and 
in some cases also used as internal medicine and in crude 
surgery. Various Indian tribes in North America and the 
aborigines of Australia ate insects fairly extensively and 
insects enter into the normal diet to some extent in most if 
not all countries of the world — more extensively so in times of 
famine. Coleoptera and Lepidoptera have figured prominently 
in this but the Heteroptera and several other orders have also 
been included. 

DvTi.sriR AND Hydrophilid Beetles 

Settles of these two families are very commonly eaten in 
Kwangtung Province and in other places where Cantonese 
dwell. Although usually kept in separate containers customers 
very frequently buy some of each family. They care less for 
the hydrophilids and consequently they are cheaper than the 
dytiscids (and both are cheaper than the giant waterbugs 
discussed below). It is curious to note that the common people 
believe these insects to belong not only to the same family but 
to the same species, the hydrophilids according to their view 
being the males. These beetles are eaten both as medicine and 
as confection, but primarily for the former purpose, being 
considered as an anti-diuretic. They are prepared by dropping 
into hot brine ; they appear very greasy as offered for sale, 
the cooking apparently having hastened the process of oil 
coming to the surface. The odor of some of these beetles is 
even more offensive when cooked than when fresh — at least to 
the nostrils of Westerners. The elytra, legs, and certain other 
chitinons parts are discarded when eating. 

One or two medium-sized species and a number of larger 
species are used as food. The species eaten include at least 
the following: Hydrous palUdipaJpis MacLeay {acuminatus 
Mots.) of N. China and Tibet; H. hiliueatus MacLeay of So. 
China and Indo-China ; H. cavisternum Bedel of Hainan 
Island; H. hastatus Herbst of IvAvaiigtung and Indo-China; 
Cyhister hengalensis Aube, C. guerini Aube, C. japonicus 
Sharn. C. limhatus Fabr., C. sugillatiis Er., and C. tripnncta- 
tus 01. 

JAi\i 2 1943 

284 pror. ent. soc. wash., vol. 49, no. 9, december, 1947 

Silkworm Pupae 

Silkworm pupae are used extensively as food in the silk 
districts of Kwangtung Province, Sont hChina. In reeling, 
the eoeoons are dropped into very hot water and the reeling- 
girls have a plentiful supply of freshly cooked food before 
them all day long. They seem to eat off and on all day long 
since they work rapidly for long hours at a stretch and the 
cooked morsels are ever before them. One gets a pleasant 
odor of food being cooked as he passes through a reeling labor- 
atory. I understand that the pupae are also roasted and have 
seen pupae in the food stalls which had the appearance of hav- 
ing been roasted. The pupae are offered for sale throughout 
the silk district in the south and to some extent in other areas. 
I am told that there are other ways of preparation employed 
in the silk districts in central China. The pupae, along wath 
waste material from the reeling factories, are used as fish 
food in pondfish culture. Even more extensively used as 
fish food is the waste from silkworm rearing (feces, dead 
worms, and mulberry leaves). The insect under discussion, 
of course, is Bonihyx mori L. which produces the silk of com- 

Caterpillars Infected with Cordyceps 

Hepialid and other caterpillars, are commonly found infected 
with fungus of the genus Cordyceps. Szechwan Province, 
China, is famous for this material and from here the eater- 
pillars with fungus are sent to various provinces in China 
and abroad as well. About a dozen of the infected caterpillars, 
each witli a long strand of fungal growth, are tied into neat 
bundles of uniform size. The shriveled caterpillar with a 
fungal filament longer than its own body is somewhat remi- 
niscent of a rat-tailed maggot. These caterpillars are con- 
sidered a tonic food and are made into a broth — both the 
caterpillars and the broth being consumed. These caterpillars 
are expensive with the result that only the middle classes or 
the well-to-do can afford to eat them as a delicacy or as tonic 
food. I have sampled this material myself and found it quite 
tasty, but since I felt fine both before and after doing so, I 
cannot testify as to its efficacy. 

This or related species of Cordyceps attacks insects other 
than caterpillars. I once knew of three peasants in the Can- 
ton area who had a large number of fresh cicada nymphs 
infected with Cordyceps. These were being sold as medicine 
but the.v w^ere unable to sell all of their supply so decided to 
have a feast on the remainder. The next few days they spent 
in the hospital as very sick men. Dry cicada .skins are used 
extensively in old style Chinese medicine, but this was my 
first knowledge of the entire nymph, plus the Cordyceps, 
being so used. 

proc. ent. soc. avash., vol. 49, no. 9, decembek, 1947 285 

Green-bottle Fly Larvae 

The ditty of our early school days "Ride in \vat>on and 
team, Eat maogots and cream" does not sound quite so un- 
realistic when we learn that in the Canton area some people 
make a business of rearing fly larvae for medicine and food. 
I did 2iot learn of this enterprise until after the Japanese 
invasion of Canton and was, therefore, not able to personally 
investigate the industry. I sent one of my assistants to pur- 
chase several catties of the dried larvae and to secure data on 
the method of rearing and drying this material. He also 
obtained some Hying larvae which we bred out and found to 
comprise chiefly Chrysomyia megacephala (Fabr.), a species 
widely distributed in East Asia and southward — even in the 
Hawaiian Islands. It is a green-bottle fly closely resembling 
a screw-worm fly. Pieces of fish and meat were exposed for 
the deposition of eggs. I have forgotten what food was used 
in rearing these flies and my notes are no longer available, 
though I recall that the larvae were washed and dried in the 
sun before being sold. I am unable to say if this practice is 
carried on elsewhere or even in Canton in normal times. 
However, since these observations were made only a few 
months after the arrival of the Japanese and long before the 
food situation became desperate, it was probably not a war- 
borne industry. The chief market was Canton where the medi- 
cine shops were apparently large buyers. In the case of these 
dried maggots, as with most of the insects used as food or 
medicine in this area, one cannot help but reflect on the pos- 
sibility of germ intake. Still more cause for reflection is that 
the larvae are reared at all inasmuch as they may be obtained 
by the quarts from the numerous night-soil kangs in any 
village. I hope I may be able to find out the answers to 
some of these questions in the future. Incidentally one of tlie 
chief objections to growing privet an as ornamental hedge in 
Canton is that its flowers attract green-bottle flies by the thou- 

Giant Waterbug 

The giant waterbug (Lethocerus tndicus) is widely dis- 
tributed in the oriental faunal region. It is called Kwai Fa 
Shim or Henna Flower Cicada because it has a rather pleasant 
odor not unlike that of the flowers of henna or Lawsonia, an 
Old World shrub, the leaves of which produce a dye used for 
tinting the hair and fingernails red. 

In Canton these bugs are prepared for eating by dropping 
into boiling water to which has been added a little salt. More 
rarely they are placed briefly into deep fat to which some 
spices have been added. In Singapore a specially flavored 
salt is sold with these bu<is — it is called Kwai Fa Shim Im, 

236 PKOC. F.XT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, XO. 9, DECEMBER, 19-47 

in other words Kwai Fa Shim salt. It is fragrant and probably 
has had lienna flowers added to it. Before the war these 
bugs sold for three or four coppers each and were considered 
expensive. They are considered a delicacy and are eaten be- 
cause they are relished ; no medicinal value is ascribed to 
them. Tliese bugs, like the liydrophilid and dytiscid beetles, 
are displayed by the gallons in large cylindrical glass jars 
in numerous shops and food stalls in cities like Canton, Hong 
Kong, and Shanghai. These insects are offered for .sale in 
Shanghai because of the large number of Cantonese living 
there and are exported abroad for the same reason. The 
Cantonese seem to be the chief insect eaters among the Chinese 
although I am informed that the people in the Peiping area are 
fond of grasshoppers cooked in sesamum oil. 

The above-mentioned bugs and beetles are collected by 
men who follow the business as a profession or so I am told. I 
have often come across them in the country carrying their 
catch and their paraphernalia but only once observed a collec- 
tor at work and he promptly discontinued upon being aware 
of my presence. I have not been able to determine if these 
collectors are the ones who collect frogs for the market, but 
it seems certain that the professional grasshopper collectors 
have nothing to do with the lowly aquatic professions. The 
grasshoppers are caught and sold, alive, as bird food. 

Not the least interesting fact about the giant waterbugs 
is that their being consumed as human food occasions an 
annual saving of several hundred thousand dollars to the 
pond-fish culturists of Kwangtung Province, since these bugs 
are great destroyers of young fish in the breeding ponds. 
They also occasionally trouble in establishments devoted 
to the outdoor rearing of goldfish and other aquarium fishes. 

Edible Stink-bugs 

At a half dozen species of stink-bugs are eaten in 
Africa, India and Mexico, as indicated below. 

Coridius chinensis (Dallas) (Aspongopus chinensis) is 
eaten by one or more Assamese tribes. This species occurs in 
Bhutan, China, India and elsewhere and in China is a pest 
of beans, castor-oil plant and cucurbits. This species is very 
commonly used in China in an aphrodisiacal medicine and is 
on sale in Chinese medicine shops throughout China. It is 
called Chu Shan Chung or Hai Tao Chung and was written 
about in 1590 by Li Shih Chen and in 1890 by Fang Shui. 

Coridius nepalensis (Westw.) {Aspongopus nepalensis) is 
found in Assam, Nepal, and Sikkim. The natives of Assam 
are very fond of these bugs which they pound up and mix with 
foods that are made of rice to improve tlie taste. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1M47 237 

Cyclopeltu suhhimalayensis Strickland, like the two fore- 
going species, is eaten with rice by the Assamese who believe 
that eating any of these species withont first removing the 
stink gland is followed by paralysis. However, investigations 
which included ingestion of entire bugs by monkeys and intra- 
venous injection of material from the gland into cats, did not 
confirm this paralytic effect. We have here a belief somewhat 
akin to one which concerns the eating of snakes by the Can- 
tonese. They eat various species of poisonous and non-poison- 
ous snakes but the former are preferred, and commonly five 
species of poisonous snakes are cooked together because they 
believe the poisonous effects are thus counteracted. The 
poison, of course, affects the blood stream not the alimentary 
canal and, more important, the poison sacs are removed when 
the snakes are dressed. Coridius and Cyclopeltu belong to the 
subfamily Coridiinae and it is likely that more species are 
eaten than the three discussed here. 

Erthesina fullo Thunb. is eaten by the Nagas, an Assamese 
tribe. It belongs to the Pentatominae and is widely distributed 
throughout the oriental faunal region. It is very variable in 
coloration and feeds on the trunks of many species of trees. In 
China this species is greatly relished by a large species of 
mantid. It is occasionally intercepted from the Orient by the 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

Encosiernum delegorguei KSpin. {Haplosterna deleguvyuei) . 
This tessaratomine, known as "Mjele," is about an inch in 
length and is very commonly eaten by the native tribes in 
Eastern Transvaal and in Southern Rhodesia. 

Euschistus zopilotensis Distant. Aneona, Avriting in Ann. 
Inst. Biol (Mex.) in 1933 states that this pentatomine species, 
popularly known as "jumiles" as are many other species of 
Heteroptera, is extensively used as food in Cuautla, State of 
Morelos, Mexico. Mr. N. L. 11. Krauss, in a letter to Dr. R. I. 
Sailer in 1945 states that he has seen them sold alive in buckets 
at Cuernavaea, Morelos, by the Indians who say that they 
scrape the bugs off trees in the nearby mountains. He further 
states that they are usually sold in paper cones, in handful 
lots, by venders, the price being about two pesos (about 42 
cents IT. S. cy. ) per kilo. They are supposed to cure kidney, 
liver, and stomach complaints, and are eaten alive or dropped 
into stew just before serving*. Only a few are used since they 
have a strong taste. 

Thus we see that edible pentatomids represent five genera in 
the subfamilies Coridiinae (Dinidorinae), Pentatominae and 
Tessaratominae. The tessaratomine bug is eaten in Africa, the 
Coridiinae in India, and one pentatomine species each in India 
and Mexico. 

238 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 



By Z. P. Metcalf, State College of Agriculture and Engineering of the 
University of North Carolina 

This is a small family of fulgorids, containing 42 genera 
and 111 species. All bnt three genera and five species are from 
the Eastern Hemisphere. These five species are known from 
Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. In the Eastern Hemisphere the 
species range from fSenegal and the Belgian Congo to South 
Africa and Tanganyika across Persia, India, the Malay Penin- 
sula, Siam, the East Indies, and New Guinea to Australia, 
and north through Formosa and the Philippines to Manchuria 
and Japan. The addition of a new genus and species from 
Brazil is therefore of some little interest to students of this 
family. Recently Dr. P. Silva, Agronomo-Chefe of the In- 
stituto de Cacau da Bahia, Brazil, sent to Dr. Paul Oman of 
the V. S. National Museum, several specimens of what proved 
to be a new genus and species of this interesting family from 
Agua Preta, Bahia, Brazil on Britou acida. The fact that 
this species was collected on a native tree seems to indicate 
that it is a native of Brazil and not an introduction from 
the Eastern Hemisphere. I take pleasure in dedicating this 
new genus to Dr. Silva and the new species to Dr. Oman. 

This genus apparently has no close relatives in either the 
Eastern or Western Hemispheres. In Meliehar's key, Meliehar 
1915b : 388 it falls in the Tribe Elicini ; but both Baker 1925d : 
271 and Muir 1930c :478 remark that Meliehar's classification 
of the sub-families and tribes is not entirely satisfactory. 

SILVANANA, new genus 

Genotype: Silvunana omani, new species. 

In general structure this genus approaches Elica AYalker. 
It differs from that genus, however, in having no median 
carina on the face, and a single spine on the hind tibiae, the 
tegmina opaque and coriaceous, not hyaline as in EJica and 
with entirely different venation. 

Head narrower than pronotum, the crown broadly extended with the 
apex triangular, all margins carinate; the median carina forking near 
the apex; face broad and flat, ecarinate. Clypeus small. Pronotum 
short, broad, tricarinate ; mesonotum large, tricarinate ; tegulae large. 
Tegmina large, somewhat triangular, broadest just beyond the apex of the 
clavus ; apical margin broadly rounded, costal area broad with numerous 
crossveins; subcosta longer than the clavus; radius narrowly separated 
from the subcosta, arising from the basal cell and joining the subcosta 
near the apex; media branching close to the basal cell, the anterior 
branch branching again just before the apex of the clavus, the posterior 


Fig. 1. Lateral view. X ^- Fig. 2. Dorsal vieAV of head and tliorax. X 
16. Fig. 3. Frontal view of head. X 16. Fig. 4. Hind leg. Fig. 5. 
External female genitalia, ventral view. Fig. 6. Hind wing. Fig. 7. 
External male genitalia, lateral view. Fig. 8. External male genitalia, 
ventral view. Fig. 9. Internal male genitalia, lateral view. 


240 PROC ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 

brsiiuli luiuichiug near the basal cell; a distinct subapical line on the 
coiiuni and numerous irregular transverse veins on the corium, the 
claval veins united, the common stem running to the apex of clavus. 
Venation of hind wing variable. Eadius and media branching on apical 
third; culntus one branching before the middle, cubitus one a branching 
at about the same level as media, second branch frequently liranching 
again. Hind tibiae with a single si)ine. 

Silvanana omani, new species 

General color of head, thorax, and l)asal half of tegmina light greenish, 
fading to oehraceous tawny or russet brown; the. lighter half of the 
tegmina variously spotted and clouded with black; the apical half of 
the tegmina chiefly blackish ; the veins and crossveins in the tegmiiui 
more or less marked with bright red. The venter chiefly dull dark 
green fading to russet. -' 

Crown nearly one and one-half times as long as the width between the 
eyes, the anterior margin triangularly produced; median carina forked 
near apex, the branches running parallel and close together to near the 
middle, then diverging slightly and continuing to the posterior margin. 
The whole surface of the crown is irregularly pustulate with a pair of in- 
termediate carinae starting near the anterior margin, diverging and end- 
ing before the anterior border of the eyes. Face about one-third longer 
than the greatest width, all the margins except the clypeal margin slightly 
elevated, the lateral margins triangularly produced at the lower level 
of the compound eyes. Pronotum short and broad, nearly four times 
as broad as the median length; the median carina distinct; shallow 
punctures on either side; mesonotum tricarinate. Tegmina somewhat 
rugulose, the venation typical; venation of hind wing typical. 

Male genitalia with the pygofer broad and short, anal segment 
elongate, broadly truncate at the apex, genital plates elongate triangular, 
ventrally and laterally, with elongate tooth on the dorsal apical angle; 
aedeagus elongate, strongly curved, with a strong spine directed caudad 
on the apical third. 

Length of apex of tegmina 7.7 mm. 

llolotvpe $ : Agua Preta, Bahia, Brazil; 13 June 1946; 
P. Silva; on Britoa acida. [U. S. N. M. Type No. 58562]. 

Allotype $ : Agua Preta, Bahia, Brazil; 13 June, 1946; 
P. Silva; on Britoa acida. [U. S. N. M.]. 

Paratypes 12 <5 5 and 8 $ $ , all : Agna Preta, Bahia, 
Brazil ; 13 June, 1946 ; P. Silva ; on Britoa acida. [2 paratypes 
in U. S. X. M. ; 4 paratypes returned to Dr. Silva ; 14 para- 
types in author's collection.] 

PKOC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DKCEJIBEK, 1947 241 



By Ross H. Aknett, Jr., Cornell UniversHy, Ithaca, X. T. 

Fifty years have passed since George H. Horn presented his 
review^ of the North American Oedemeridae. In this work 
he added sixteen new species and one genus to the then known 
forms. During the intervening years only two new species 
have been described from the Nearctic Region, and there have 
been no comprehensive reviews or revisions. 

In the course of preparation of a revision of the North 
American forms of this famil.v, a number of specimens of a 
very distinctive new species have been discovered. This has 
prompted me to present this survey of the western Nearctic 
genus Rhinoplatia, hitherto known only from the genotype. 

I wish to express here my sincere thanks to Dr. E. A. 
Chapin, Curator of Insects of the United States National 
Museum for the loan of material and Dr. Henry Dietrich of 
Cornell Uuiversity for aid in procuring specimens. 

Bhinoplatia Horn, Trans Amer. Ent. Soc, 2:137 (1868). — LeConte & 

Horn, Class, of N. Amer. Col., ed. 2, p. 405, (1883).— Horn, Proc. 

Calif. Acad. Sei. (2) 6:420, (1896).— Seidlitz, Naturgesch. Ins. 

Dentehl. V, 2:815, (18P9). 
Genotype: Rhinoplatia ruficollis Horn, 1868, (monobasic). 
The genera Copiclita LeConte, Asclera Schmiclt and Oxacis 
LeConte are probably the closest relatives of this genus. Yet 
this genus in external appearance is quite different from any 
of these. The structure of the male genitalia indicates that 
Rhinoplatia is more closely related to Copidita LeConte than 
to the other North American genera, but falls in the same 
group with Asclera Schmidt and Oxacis LeConte. However, 
the external diagnostic characters of the genera of Oedemeri- 
dae are too inadequately worked out to make any further state- 
ment here as to their relationship. 

Generic Features 
Head very elongate, at least three times as long as the width at the 
l)ase of the antennae, not narrowed behind the eyes; last joint of the 
maxillary palpi narrowly triangular, widest near the middle; mandibles 
elongate, arcuate at tip and acute; labrum elongate, quadrate, angles 
rectangular; eyes distant from the antennae, oval, not emai'ginate, and 
only slightly protruding; antennae inserted midway between the eyes 
and the base of the mandibles, filiform, eleven segmented in both sexes, 

^Horn, George -H., The Oedemeridae of Boreal America, Proc. Calif. 
Acad. Sci. (2) 6:382-421, (1896). 

242 fKO( . ENT. SOC. WASH., VOU 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 

female with the apical segment ringed at the center, giving the appear- 
ance of two segments. 

Thorax elongate, one and a half to two times as long as wide. Legs 
long, uniform; anterior tibiae with two apical spurs; penultimate joint 
of the tarsi alone spongy beneath, claws simple. 

Elytra elongate, acute at the tip and covering the abdomen, pubescent 
and punctate, with at most very vague costae. Abdomen of five visible 
segments in both sexes, the terminal segment conical in the male, broader 
in the female. 

Male genitalia. — Median lobe with a large apical ventrally projecting 
hook, and two dorsally projecting basal processes, the posterior one 
curved anteriorly and the anterior one semi-chitinous ; lateral lobes deeply 
bifid both basally and apically, with the basal process large, forming 
two flaps which extend dorsally and surround both of the basal processes 
of the median lobe; ninth abdominal segment with the ventral plate 
armed with two teeth which are hook-like and bend towards the dorsal 
plate; base of the ventral plate long, narrow and somewhat dorsally 
curved ; a small, semi-chitinous, palpus-like lobe present on the inner 
surface of the ventral plate of the ninth segment; eighth abdominal 
segment with both plates deeply bilobed and setigious. 

Biology.- — Nothing- is known of the habits of the inimatnre 
stages of these species. The adults are found on flowers. 

Distribution. — The genus Rhinoplatia as here understood 
comprises two species for the world, both of which are con- 
fined to the western United States. 

Both species may be readily distinguished on external fea- 
tures as well as those of the male genitalia. 

Rhinoplatia ruficoUis Horn 

Rhinoplatia ruficoUis Horn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, 2:138, (1868); [$ 
& 9: Owen's Valley, California].— Horn, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sei., (2) 
6:421, (1896); [$ & $: Owen's Valley, on the east of the Sierras, 
Kern County to the westward in California]. 

Tijpe.— Owen's Vallev, California. [Type No. 8071, Acad. 
Nat. Sci., Phila.]. 9. 

The shorter, broader thorax and the uniform color of the 
pubescence of the elytra readily differentiates ruficoUis from 
the following new Death Valley form, mortivallicola. Other 
differences are explained in more detail under mortivallicola. 

Diagnostic Features 

Head elongate, three times as long as wide at the base of the antennae, 
sparsely punctate; antennae filiform, inserted midway between the eyes 
and the base of the mandibles, eleven segmented ; eyes oval, not emargi- 
nate, not protruding; mandibles long, acute at the apex and not bifid; 
apical segment of the maxillary palpi triangular, widest near the middle. 

Thorax about one and a half times as long as wide, sides sinuate, wider 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 243 

towards the head, sparsely punctate; legs narrow, penultimate tarsal 
segment bilobed and spongy beneath. 

Elytra elongate, acute at the apex, sometimes with vague costae, 
densely punctate. 

Entire insect clothed with moderately dense griseous pubescense; color 
bluish-black; the head black, or sometimes with the apical half reddish- 
orange; thorax reddish-orange; legs and antennae piceous; elytra rarely 
with a purple tinge. 

Length 5-12 mm., males usually somewhat smaller than females. 

Male genitalia. — Small; the median lobe long, curved, with a large 
ventrally projecting apical hook, basally Avith a dorsally recurved process 
and a slightly anterior semi-chitinous dorsal process of the same length; 
lateral lobes deeply bifid both apically and basally, basal pieces large and 
dorsally projecting ; ninth abdominal segment with a long liasal, ventral, 
slightly dorsally curved process, dorsal apical plate moderately acute at 
the apex, ventral plate armed with two outwardly curved, somewhat 
hooked, moderately long and thin teeth, median ventral lobe attached 
interiorly and projecting beyond apical edge of ventral plate; eighth 
abdominal segment with both plates deeply bilobed. Setae present on 
the following: ninth segment: apical row on the dorsal plate, basal row 
before the basal process; apex of the lobe of the ventral plate; eighth 
segment: lobes of both the dorsal and the ventral plates. 

Distribution. — The present species ranges from the western 
part of the Great Basin in Nevada and California southward 
into the Mojave and Colorado Deserts and thence westward 
into the Piedmont and Transverse Ranges (Los Angeles) 
district of southern California. 

Specimens examined. — 31 : 16 (5 , 15 $ . 

Nevada: 25 mi. n. w. Gerlach, Washoe Co.; 29-V-39 ; (P. 
C. Ting, M. A. Cazier, J. A. Downes, T. Aitken) : 2 9 ; [Cazier 
Coll.]. 25 mi. n. Wadsworth, Lyon Co.; 28-V-39 ; (P. C. Ting, 
M. A. Cazier, J. A. Downes, T. Aitken) : 1 $ [Cazier Coll.]. 
Goldfield, .Esmeralda Co. : 2 $ [Chicago N.H.M.]. Esmeralda 
Co.: 1 $ ; [Chicago N.H.M.]. 

California: Upper Soda Springs, Siskiyou Co.; (J. E. 
Cottle) : 4 5,5 9 ; [R.H.A.]. Coalinga, Fresno Co.; below 
500 ft. alt.; 1-3-VI-07; (J. C. Bradlev) ; 1 9 ; [C.U.] ; 14-V- 
38; (M. A. Cazier) : \ $ ■ [Cazier Coll.]. Inyo Co.; l-VI-37 : 
1 $ ; [Cazier Coll.]. Westgard Pass Plateau, Inyo Co.; 3-VI- 
37: 1 $ ; [Cazier Coll.]. Cajon Pass, San Bernardino Co.; 
(J. C. Cottle); 1 9 ; [R.H.A.]. Los Angeles Co.: 1 $ ; 
[Chicago N.H.M.]. Palm Springs, Riverside Co.; Mav; (A. 
Fenyes) : 5 S , 2 9 ; [C.U.]. 

Rhinoplatia mortivallicola^, new species 

The longer, narrower thorax and the sparse, black pubes- 
cence at the subapex of the elytra readily differentiates this 

2from mors, death + vallis, valley. 

244 PKOr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. H, DECEMBER, lit47 

species from the preeeding' foniu rupcollis. In addition, 
the liead is entirely reddish-oranjie, wliile the preceding 
species has the head either all black, or black with the apical 
half reddish-orange. The thorax of mnriivalUcola is devoid 
of pubescence and is shiny, while rupcoUis has the thorax 
densely clothed with griseous pubescence. The male genitalia 
differ in that the ninth segement is armed with two short, 
hook-like teeth at the apex of the ventral plate ; ruficollis has 
these teeth long, narrow and slightly curved laterally. 

Type.— 6 ; Death Vallev, California ; 28-TII-32 ; [IT. S. N. 
M. Cat. No. 58426]. 

Male. — Length: 14 mm. Head elongate, three times as long as wide 
at the Lase of the antennae, sparsely punctate; antennae filiform, eleven 
segmented, placed midway between the eyes and the base of the mandi- 
bles; eyes oval, not emarginate, not protruding; mandibles long, acute 
at the tip and not bifid; apical segment of the maxillary palpi triangu- 
lar, Avidest near the middle. 

Thorax two times as long as wide, sides slightly sinuate, somewhat 
wider towards the head, sparsely and very obscurely punctate, and very 
shiny ; legs narrow, penultimate segment bilobed and spongy beneath. 

Elytra elongate, acute at the apex, without vague costae, densely and 
closely punctate. 

Entire insect clothed with moderately dense griseous pubescence except 
at the subapex of the elytra and the thorax; subapex of the elytra with 
sparse, black pubescence. Color bluish-black; the following reddish- 
orange: head, antennae, thorax, anterior coxae, and tarsi; blackish- 
orange: middle and hind coxae, all femora and tibiae. 

Male genitalia. — Large; the median lobe long, curved, with a ventrally 
projecting apical hook, a smaller subapical, ventrally projecting hook 
located at approximately two-thirds the distance from the base, basally 
with a dorsally recurved process and a slightly anterior semi-chitinous 
dorsal process of the same length; lateral lobes deeply bifid both apically 
and basally, basal pieces large and dorsally projecting; ninth abdominal 
segment with a long basal, ventral, slightly dorsally curved process, 
dorsal apical plate evenly rounded at the apex, ventral plate armed with 
two laterally bent, short, blunt, somewhat hooked teeth, median ventral 
lobe attached interiorly and not projecting beyond apical edge of ventfal 
plate; eighth abdominal segment with both plates deeply bilobed, dorsal 
plate medianly membranous. Setae present on the following: ninth 
segment : apical row on the dorsal plate ; basal row before the basal 
process ; apex of the lobe of the ventral plate ; eighth segment : lobes of 
both the dorsal and ventral plates. 

Allotype. — 9 ; same data as the type. [U. S. N. M.]. 

Female. — Length: >12 mm. Agrees with the type in all essential re- 
spects except for the following: the apical segment of the antennae is 
falsely ringed giving the appearance of two segments. 


Male Genitalia (Dissected) fig. 1, B. mortivalUcola, n. sp., median 
lobe, lateral view; fig. 2, J?. mortivalUcola, n. sp., lateral lobes, lateral 
view; fig. 3, R. ruficoUis Horn, median lobe, lateral view; fig. 4, B. 
ruficollis Horn, lateral lobes, lateral view; fig. 5, B. mortivalUcola, n. 
sp., ninth segment, ventral view; fig. 6, B. rnficollis Horn, ninth segment, 
ventral view; fig. 7, B. mortivalUcola, n. sp., eighth segment, ventral 
view; fig. 8, B. ruficoUis Horn, eighth segment; ventral view. 


246 PKOO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. U, DECEMBER, 1947 

Pdratjipc. — <? ; same data as the type. [U. S. N. M.]. Length: 9 mm. 
This specimen agrees with the type in all details except size. 

Distribution. — This species is known only from the three 
type specimens, all of Avhich Avere collected in Death Valley, 


(Hymenoptera, Formicidae) 

By Jane Enzmann,' Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 

Boston, Mass. 

The construction of the nests of various ants, the choice of 
the materials used and the selection of the site of the formi- 
caries are subjects of considerable interest to the myrmecolo- 

Wheeler (Ants, 1926, The Columbia University Press, p. 
192) remarks in the introduction of the chapter dealing with 
ant nests: "Nothing is better calculated to illustrate the 
marvellous plasticity of ants than the study of their nesting 
habits. Not only may every species be said to liave its own 
plan for nest construction, but this plan may be modified in 
manyfold ways in order to adapt it to the particular environ- 
ment in which the species takes up its abode. ' ' 

Recently the writer has accidentlly found a method of 
formicary architecture and choice of building material which 
seems to be novel. 

The nest described below is that of the "Bog Ant," 
Myrmica hrevinodis variety canadensis (Wheeler, 1907, Bull. 
Wise. Nat. Hist. Soc, 5: 76) which is inclined to nest in very 
wet meadows or even in swamps. This ant is widely distributed 
in northeastern North America ; the Collection of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, contains speci- 
mens from Colebrook, Connecticut (type locality), various 
localities in Massachusetts, Maine, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, 
Nova Scotia, British Columbia, etc. 

The spring of the year 1946 was rather wet in New England 
and the ground water table was higher than usual in the 
locality where the formicaries described below were found. 
The nest figured here was discovered in a very wet meadow 
occupying the site of a former peat bog bordered by glacial 
deposits of sand and rounded stones. In drier weather the 
ground is sufficiently dry to permit the nesting of forms 

iThe Avriter wishes to acknowledge her indebtedness to Dr. M. E. 
Smith U. S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Insect Identification, 
for help given in the preparation of this paper. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 194; 


of Lasius niger, Formica sanguinea, Aphaenogaster fulva 
and Myrmicu hrevinodis. Camponotus herculeanus subsp. 
ligniperdus var. novehoracensis (Fitch) is also abundant in 
rotting wood. During the most of the spring- of 1946 the 
ground was under 1-7 em. of water and to all appearances 
devoid of ant nests. 

While trimming the grass and sedges for the purpose of 
drying up the land, a considerable number of nests of Myrmica 
canadensis were encountered ; all these nests were of more or 
less uniform construction and were different from any formi- 
cary described. More than 40 such nests were counted in an 
area the size of a regulation tennis court. 

The nests consisted of chimneys of loose felt work of matted 
fragments of grass ; the chimneys were about 5-14 cm. in 
height, and were supported by stems of grass. All the nests 

Figure 1. A tuft of grass growing from a cushion of peat with some 
of the stems slieared away in order to expose a nest of Myrmica brevi- 
nodis var. canadensis Wheeler. The relative size of the nest can be in- 
ferred from the size of the aiit in the upper left corner on a stem of grass. 

248 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. H, DECEMBER, 1947 

were located in elevated places, preferably in tussocks of grass. 
The nests were suspended, with their bases touching the 
ground, each nest in the center of a dense tussock, and entirely 
hidden from the casual observer. They were difficult to find, 
even when the approximate location was known. 

A typical nest is shown in figure 1. The entire nest was 
removed from the soil by cutting out the tuft of grass on its 
cushion of peat. The inflorescences of the grass were removed 
for convenience of transporting the specimen and for photo- 
graphing it. Some vegetation was sheared away in order to 
expose the construction of the nest. 

In the nest shown here the matted chimney rests on the 
surface of the peat; most of the nests were so constructed, 
but there were exceptions in which the woven nest was sus- 
pended several inches from the ground, so that the formicary 
resembled the abode of Swiss Lake Dwellers. The interior 
of the nest is often partially lined with peat, presumably for 
the purpose of conducting the ground water into the nest 
to keep it moist. Inside the nest there are usually several 
chambers in which the brood may be stored when the ground 
water level rises above the surface of the soil. In dry weather 
the chambers above ground were found empty and the brood 
was kept in excavations between the roots of the grass. 

The writer was particularly interested in the question of 
whether the ants migrate from this area in winter to seek 
shelter on higher ground, or whether they remained in this 
area which was sure to be completely under water in late fall 
and winter. Three of the nests were marked with stakes driven 
into the ground and one of the marked nesting sites was 
excavated in mid-January 1947. The ants were found in 
a cavity inside the porous ice. They had formed a small ball, 
similar' to that described for Solenopsis when the colony floats 
on water, or in bees when they cluster for hibernation. The 
ants revived speedily at room temperature and began to 

Though the nest described here seems to present a novel ap- 
proach to ant architecture similar constructions have been 
seen bv other observers. Huber (reported by Forel, "The 
Social'World of the Ants," English Edition, 1928, p. 475) 
describes Lasius niger as using grass as structural material. 
The grass blades however served only as supports, furnishing 
vertical and horizontal beams, while the real nest building 
material was soil. Furthermore the nest was not suspended 
and was of an entirely different shape. Wheeler (loc. cit. p. 
214) in describing the nest of Myrmica canad crisis reports that 
this ant accumulates heaps of soil around the stems of herba- 
ceous plants in order to raise the nest above the w'ater level. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 249 

He does not mention the suspended construction of matted 
grass fragments glued together possibly by salivary secretions. 
Wheeler's description fits the nests of Myrmica canadensis on 
ground which is not exposed to inundations according to the 
present writer's observations. 

The classical example of a woven nest is that of Oecophylla 
smaragdma of Ceylon which is constructed of leaves fastened 
together with silk derived from the serictaries of the larvae. 
Suspended nests are built by several species of ants, notably 
some Azteca of South America, which even transport soil from 
the ground to their nesting sites high up in trees. 

Ants use a great variety of building materials for the con- 
struction of their nests, including soil, sand, stones, carton, 
wood, bark and various materials left on the ground by pic- 
nickers. This is in our experience the first case of an elaborate 
construction of woven and sized vegetable fibres shaped into 
a suspended nest lined with water-retaining material. 



Reinhard (1981, U. S. Nat. Mus. Proe. 79:11) described 
Winthemia tibialis from two specimens in the National 
Museum, each bearing a date and lot number "3101 G," to- 
gether with Townsend dissection numbers TD 4764 (paratype) 
and TD 4765 (type). Both were presumed to be from Mas- 
sachusetts, since they were apparently associated with the 
work of the former Gypsy Moth Laboratory at Melrose High- 
lands. Townsend later stated that they were from Piura, 
Peru (1936, Manual of Myiology, 4:203). An investigation, 
suggested by the marked similarity of the types to a European 
species, lias now disclosed that the Laboratory records show 
the material under the above lot number to have come from 
Hyeres, France. The respective dates of emergence and sex 
of the above two specimens appear in the records exactly as 
they are on the labels. Townsend 's original dissection records 
for the TD numbers are in the Museum files, and they make 
no mention of Peru but merely quote the above lot number. 

It is accordingly clear that W. tibialis must be considered in 
the Palaearctic fauna rather than in the Neotropical or 
Nearctic. No adequate material is available to determine the 
synonymy more definitely, but it is apparently the species 
labeled Chaetoiin/ia cnissiseta (Rond.) in the Museum collec- 

Curtis W. Sabrosky, 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 

250 PKOC. EXT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49. NO. ii, DFXEMBER, 1947 


(Thysanoptera, Phlaeothkipidae) 

By J. C. Crawford, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 

United States Department of Agricidture 

The first species of the genus Haplothrips, subgenus Uado- 
thrips, from the United States is described herein. In the 
structure of the third antennal segment it is allied to tenehri- 
cosus Priesner, 1925, from Mexico. I have named it after its 
discoverer, Paul W. Oman. 

Haplothrips (Hadothrips) omani, new species 

Female (apterous). — Holotype. Length (distended) 2.35 mm. Dark 
chestnut brown; legs concolorous, with fore tibiae much lighter and 
yellow in about apical half, mid tibiae yellow in about apical third, hind 
tibiae yellow apically, all tarsi yellow, each with a black spot beneath 
apically; antenna segments 1 and 2 brown, 2 distinctly lighter apically, 
3-6 yellow, tinged with grayish, more distinctly so in segment 6, seg- 
ments 7 and 8 light brown. 

Head about 1.37 times as long as Avide, slightly constricted behind 
eyes, checks almost parallel, slightly convex but slightly concave just 
before posterior margin; dorsally almost smooth but with a distinct 
transverse line about 20 fJ- in advance of posterior margin of head; eyes 
92 M long, slightly flattened exteriorly, not protruding; vertex someAvhat 
produced and with median ocellus near anterior margin; median ocellus 
only half as large as posterior ocelli; dark oeellar crescents apparent; 
frontal costa not emarginate; mouth cone broadly rounded apically; 
postocular setae pointed, tinged brownish, 30/^ long, 12 /J- back of eyes, 
8 M from sides of head, brownish, 148 M apart; antenna II strongly 
constricted near base, 14 M across narrowest part, slightly bent outward 
at constriction. III pedicellate, with a ringlike swelling beyond pedicel, 
the ring wider than beyond it, IV club shaped, V-VII pedicellate, V-VI 
gradually widening to near apex thence narrowed, VII cylindrical, VIII 
very slightly narrowed basally, conical; pedicel of VI 9 M wide, of VII 
12 /I. 

Prothorax without sculpture, anterior angular and midlateral setae 
minute, pointed, other setae blunt or slightly expanded apically; all 
setae slightly brownish; anterior angulars 24m, epimerals 36 M, posterior 
marginals 40 M, coxals 24 m long; metanotum with posterior lateral 
angles produced posteriorly and elevated; fore femora somewhat thick- 
ened, fore tarsi Avith a minute tooth near apex of first segment. 

Abdomen elongate, narrow, hardly wider than pterothorax, without 
sculpture; all setate pointed, tinged with brown; tube basally with sides 
almost parallel, then narrowed, with sides straight, to apex; posterior 
margin of basal and intermediate segments each with only one major 
seta, these pointed, on tergum III 60 fJ-, on VIII 72 M, long; lateral 

PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECKMBER, 1947 251 

setae short; setae on tergum IX, 1, 80, 2, 76, 3, 88 m, on X, 1, 128, 2, 
148 M, those on X finely attenuated. 

Measurements (in microns) : Head, total length 258, length from 
anterior margin of eyes, 238, width across eyes, 178, least width back 
of eyes, 172, greatest width across cheeks, 188, least width near base of 
head, 178; prothorax, median length, 164, width, 268, width, including 
coxae, 304; pterothorax, length, 232, width 300; abdomen, tube (X only) 
length 128, basal Avidth 80, apical,width, 40. 

Antenna: 12345678 

28* 48 51 63 59 54 52 28 

Male unknown. 

Type locality. — Tucson, Ariz. 

Described from holotype and 6 female paratypes collected 
April 25, 1940, by Paul W. Oman, on Johnson grass. 

Type catalogue No. 58477, United States National Museum. 

This species has the third antennal segment as in tenehrico- 
SHS Priesner, but that species in the apterous form lacks the 
ocelli, has the antennae entirely dark, the legs, except tips of 
fore tibiae and all tarsi, dark, and the fore tarsus without a 



It has recently been discovered that Aineles limhata (Brulle) 
[r= Mayitis limhata Brulle, 1838 {in Webb & Berthelot, Hist. 
Nat. lies Canaries, II, 2nd Pt., Ent : 76, pi. 5)] of the Canary 
Islands is a primary homonym of Stagmomantis limhata 
(Hahn) [= Mantis limhata Hahn, 1836 (Icones Orth. : pi. A, 
fig. 2)] of the southwestern United States and Mexico. If the 
former is distinct from Ameles gracilis (Brulle), also from the 
Canaries, and other congeners, a new name is required, but it 
is not clear to me whether that is the case. 

Werner (1928, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 14: 39) has rede- 
scribed the female of limhata Brulle, and Willemse (1936, 
Natuurh. Maandb. 25: 56-57, 86, 89) has redescribed both 
sexes of gracilis and listed both of the Canary Island species 
as distinct. In view of the characters said to distinguish lim- 
hata from gracilis, however, it is conceivable that variation 
and dimorphism account for the apparent specific differences, 
and to this matter I would invite the attention of entomolo- 
gists having adequate series of Ameles from the Canaries. 

A. B. Gurnet, 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaraniine, 

*Visible portion only. 

252 PROC. ENT. SOC. ^VASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 



By Preston W. Mason, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

The species which is the subject of this paper Avas first 
discovered on Anjou pear trees b^- L. G. Gentner, of the 
Southern Oregon Branch Experiment Station, Medford, Ore., 
who has conducted biological studies on it. It is described at 
this time so that the name may be used in publications cover- 
ing those investigations. No other hosts have been discovered. 
It is named after Mr. Gentner. 

Macrosiphum gentneri, new species 
Alate viviparous female. — Antennae slightly longer than body; dusky; 
hairs inconspicuous; III with 18 to 28 sensoria scattered over the entire 
length, not in a straight row ; IV with occasionally one sensorium ; 
length of segments: III, 0.42-0.53 mm.; IV, 0.29-0.38 mm.; V, 0.26-0.38 
mm.; VI, base 0.10-0.12 mm., unguis 0.56-0.71 mm. Head, 0.38-0.39 mm. 
across eyes. Beak not reaching second coxae. Abdomen with a large, 
dorsal, more or less irregularly broken, dark patch, and with dark lateral 
areas. Cornicles 0.32-0.38 mm. long, slender, imbricated at tip, flange 
distinct. Cauda 0.14-0.18 mm. long, slightly constricted, with 3 sets of 

Apterous viviparous female. — Light colored, no conspicuous markings. 
Antennae somewhat longer than body; hairs inconspicuous; III occa- 
sionally with one small sensorium; length of segments: III, 0.34-0.46 
mm.; IV, 0.19-0.37 mm.; V, 0.19-0.35 mm.; VI, base 0.08-0.09 mm., 
unguis 0.56-0.71 mm. Head 0.34-0.39 mm. across eyes; vertex produced 
forward into a small rectangular process. Beak reaching just past second 
coxae. Cornicles 0.29-0.40 mm. long, somewhat curved, imbricated, flange 
distinct. Cauda 0.18-0.22 mm. long, slightly constricted, with 3 sets of 

Stem mother. — Antennae shorter than body; hairs inconspicuous; III 
often with one sensorium ; length of segments : III, 0.34-0.42 mm. ; IV, 
0.20-0.33 mm.; V, 0,19-0.27 mm.; VI, base 0.11-0.12 mm., unguis 0.27- 
0.35 mm. Head 0.42-0.48 mm. across eyes; vertex some what produced 
forward but not to the extent as in the apterous viviparous female. 
Beak extending beyond the second coxae. Cornicles 0.42-0.54 mm. in 

Explanation of Plate 22. 

Macrosiphum gentneri Mason. 1. antenna, la. dorsal view of head, lb. 
cornicle and eauda, of alate viviparous :female; 2. antenna, 2a. dorsal 
view of head, 2b. cornicle, 2c. cauda, of apterous viviparous female; 
3. antenna, 3a. cornicle, 3b. cauda, of stem mother; 4. antenna, 4a. 
cornicle, 4b. cauda, of male; 5. antenna, 5a. cornicle, 5b. eauda, 5c. 
hind tibia, of apterous oviparous female. (Drawings by Arthur D. 



254 PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, XO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 

length, imbricated, iiange distinct. Cauda 0.24-0.27 mm. long, slightly 
constricted, with 3 sets of hairs. 

Apterous oviparous female.- — Antennae subequal with length of body; 
hairs inconspicuous; III often with one sensorium; length of segments: 
III, 0.39-0.51 mm.; IV, 0.29-0.37 mm.; V, 0.24-0.34 mm.; VI, base 0.08- 
0.11 mm., unguis 0.61-0.78 mm. Head 0.42-0.44 mm. across eyes. Beak 
reaching second coxae. Cornicles 0.39-0.49 mm. in length, imbricated, 
flange distinct. Cauda 0.18-0.20 mm. long, slightly constricted, with 3 
sets of hairs. 

Apterous oviparous female. — Antennae subequal with length of body; 
hairs inconspicuous; III often with one sensorium; length of segments: 
III, 0.39-0.51 mm.; IV, 0.29-0.37 mm.; V, 0.24-0.34 mm.; VI, base 
0.08-0.11 mm., unguis 0.61-0.78 mm. Head 0.42-0.44 mm. across eyes. 
Beak reaching second coxae. Cornicles 0.39-0.49 mm. in length, im- 
bricated, flange distinct Cauda 0.18-0.20 mm. long, slightly constricted, 
with 3 sets of hairs. 

Male. — Winged. Antennae longer than body; dusky; hairs incon- 
spicuous; III with 23-30 sensoria, IV with 10-17 sensoria, V with 10-13 
sensoria; length of segments: III, 0.50-0.64 mm.; IV, 0.32-0.41 mm.; V, 
0.32-0.38 mm.; VI, base 0.08-0.11 mm., unguis 0.67-0.91 mm. Head 
0.41-0.42 mm. across eyes. Beak hardly reaching second coxae. Ab- 
domen with more or less broken, dark patch, and with dark lateral 
areas. Cornicles 0.27-0.32 mm. long, imbricated, flange distinct. Cauda 
0.08 mm. long, slightly constricted, with 3 sets of hairs. 

Cotypes. — Described from the following- cotype specimens, 
all taken on Anjou pear at Talent, Ore., by L. G. Gentner : 
Five alate viviparous females mounted on 2 slides, 25 apterous 
viviparous females on 12 slides, 4 stem mothers on 1 slide, 6 
oviparous females on 3 slides, 7 males on 3 slides. All slides 
deposited in the United States National Museum under cata- 
logue No. 58467. 

MEETING, MAY 1, 1947 

The 573d regular meeting of the Society was held at 8 P.M., Thursday, 
May 1, 1947 in Room 43 of the U. S. National Museum. President Clark 
presided and 41 members and 24 visitors were present. The minutes of 
the previous meeting were read and approved. 
New members elected were: 

Ealph W. Sherman, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Dr. Kathryn M. Sommerman, Army Medical Center, Washington, 

D. C. 
Nathan Stahler, Department of Malariology, Naval Medical Re- 
search Institute 
President Clark read a letter, dated Apr. 10, 1947, which he had 
received from Dr. N. D. Riley, Honorary Secretarv of the Royal Ento- 

PROC. EXT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 255 

mologieal Society of London. This letter acknowledged the greetings of 
the Entomological Society of Washington as conveyed by Mr. J. F. Gates 
Clarke and requested President Clark to "present our compliments to 
your Society at its next meeting. ' ' 

Insects used as food or for medicinal purposes in the Orient and 
elsewhere were exhibited and discussed by W. E. Hoffmann. The speci- 
mens included: a gaint waterbug, several species of Hydrophilidae and 
Dytiseidae, Hepialidae and other moths infested with Cordyceps, larvae 
of Chrysomyia megacephaJa and several species of Pentatomidae. (See 
article elsewhere in this issue). 

Mr. Snodgrass referred to the strong digestive fluids injected into 
their prey by large, predatory spiders and suggested that the medical 
prescriptions prepared from insects might actually have some beneficial 
effects on human digestion. 

Mr. Muesebeck discussed the sucking louse, Haemaiopiniis quadriper- 
tusus Fahrenholz found on cattle in Florida. Unlike the sucking louse 
usually found on cattle in the United States it clusters on the tail and 
lays its eggs on the brush. It has been misidentified or not recognized in 
literature since its description in 1916. The National Museum collections 
contain several specimens from various localities. This species has 
suddenly become abundant in Florida and there are also records from 
Texas and Alabama. Cattlemen are much concerned, but it is difficult 
to say what its economic signficance will be. The Division of Man and 
Animals is working on the biology of the species and its effect on the 

Mrs. Clark exhibited and commented on the Bibliography on Aviation 
and Economic Entomology, compiled by Ina L. Hawes and Eose Eisen- 
berg (U. S. Department of Agriculture. Bibliographical Bulletin No. 
8, April 1947). 

Mr. Krombein reported that the committee consisting of Muesebeck, 
Snodgrass, and Heinrich had made excellent progress on obtaining 
material for the special June number of the Proceedings voted at the 
December meeting. 

The first paper on the regular program was present by Mr. Sasscer, 
U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, who discussed ' ' Some 
Post War Foreign Plant Quarantine Problems. ' ' 

Foreign plant quarantine postwar problems following World War I 
and World War II Avere contrasted and it was emphasized that there was 
an enormous increase in the amount of nursery stock imported following 
each of these wars. The severe winter of 1946/1947 in Europe so affected 
the normal lifting of nursery stock that the Inspection House at Hoboken 
was flooded Avitli importations during the spring months of 1947. There 
has been a great increase in the amount of fruits such as grapes, pears, 
plums, and melons offered for inspection during the present shipping 
season, and an excess of 6,000 cars of vegetables crossed at Nogales, 
Arizona, which sets an all-time record. Italian broomcorn arrived at 
New York and New Orleans infested with Sesamia crciica and the 

256 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. H, DECEMBER, 1947 

European corn borer. The Sesamia is recorded in Iraq, Sudan, Yugo- 
slavia, Italy and Bulgaria where it attacks corn, broomcorn, and sorghum. 
Love temperature conditions which prevailed in New York in January 
made it exceedingly difficult to kill Sesamia cretica. Vehicular traffic on 
the Mexican Border had increased by more than 1,000,000 cars during 
the past year, the result of tourist traffic. 

The following recent insect interceptions were briefly discussed: 
Epicaeriis cognatus in potatoes from Mexico 
Stenoma catenifer in avocados from Central America 
Ceratitus capitata in various fruits from a number of countries 
Aleurocanthus woglumi on citrus and other foliage from Mexico at 

El Paso, Texas on 22 occasions 
Lily beetle, Crioceris lilii, in lily bulbs from France 
Pink bollworm in okra from Puerto Rico and in cottonseed fiom a 

number of foreign countries 
Kalotermes bequaerti in gnarled branches of Bermuda cedar 
Dacus dorsalis in Kamanii nuts, avocados, and Spondias dulcis in 

mail at Honolulu post office 
Exosoma lusUanica in Capollini from Italy 
Anastrepha hidejis in grapefruit and mangoes from Mexico 

Tlie insect pest risk associated with planes arriving from foreign 
countries was discussed in considerable detail, and information Avas 
given concerning the finding of 401 species of living insects in planes by 
representatives of the U. S. Public Health Service, Army, Navy, Bureau 
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, and the Hawaiian Sugar Planters ' 
.\ssoeiation. Entomologists in Hawaii believe that some 16 insects 
arrived during the war. The most important are Dacus dorsalis which in 
HaAvaii attacks some 39 fruits, and Polydesma nmbricola Avhieh defoliates 
the much-prized shade trees known locally as the ' ' monkey pod tree. ' ' 

Other subjects discussed included the Air Coordinating Committee 
and its Subcommittee on Facilitation of International Civil Aviation, 
on AA-hich Subcommittee the Department of Agriculture has a representa- 
tive, the Interdepartmental Committee on Airports of Entry, the preflight 
inspection of planes in HaAvaii prior to departure for the mainland, and 
the spraying for agricultural pests of foreign planes arriving in HaAvaii. 
(, Author's abstract). 

W. D. Reed, Insect and Rodent Control Section, Office of the Chief 
of Engineers, gave the second paper entitled "Entomological Problems 
of the Army in the Pacific. ' ' 

At the request of the Far East Command, U. S. Army, Tokyo, a 
survey was made in cooperation Avith the Office of the Surgeon General 
of insect and rodent control Avork at military installations in Japan, 
the Philippines Islands, Hawaiian Islands and other islands of the 
Pacific Ocean area. 

Japan. The mosquito borne diseases in Japan Avere found to be of 
paramount interest. Anopheles sinensis is the most common species of 
the Anophelinae and Avas regarded as the only important vector of ma- 

PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DP^CEMBER, 1947 257 

laiia ill Japan. Dengue fever is prevalent among Japanese nationals 
ill the wanner areas of southern Japan and the main vectors were 
reported to be Aedes aegypti and Aedes alhopictus. Filariasis was re- 
ported to be widespread in central and southern Japan and trans- 
mitted by species of Cidex and Aedes mosquitoes. Much interest was 
manifested in Japanese B. Encephalitis and the possibility of an out- 
break occurring among Japanese nationals and military personnel. 
Species of Cidex and Aedes mosquitoes are considered to be vectors of 
this disease. 

Typhoid, dysentery, and other pathogenic bacteria are transmitted by 
flies. Species involved include houseflies, blowflies, and fleshflies. Factors 
reported in the high death rate for Japanese nationals included malnu- 
trition, improper medical care, and slow diagnosis and treatment. Sources 
of fly infection observed outside military installations were as follows: 
exposure of food and beverages; water contamination; improper waste 
disposal; lack of sewage treatment; open public toilets; and lack of 

Abundant shelter exists for rats in burned out and wrecked areas 
of the principal cities. Due to improper waste disposal and lack of 
sewage treatment the rats have access to a large food supply. Eats serve 
as a reservoir 'for such diseases in Japan as bubonic plague, murine 
typhus, bacterial food poisoning, dwarf tapeworms, infectious jaundice, 
scrub typhus, rat bite fever, and trichinosis. 

Philippines. During the battles fought for that country and for the 
period of Japanese occupation, mosquito and other insect controls were 
neglected with the result that a great increase has occurred in the rates 
of malaria, dengue, and filariasis. No reliable statistics were reported on 
these rates for the civilian population. Anopheles minimvs for malaria, 
Aedes alhopictus and Culex quinqnefasciatus for filariasis, and A. 
alhopictus and A. aegypti for dengue were reported to be the principal 
vectors. Flies implicated in the transmission of disease included Musca, 
Clirysomyia, Sarcophaga, and Lucilia. Other disease bearing arthropods 
of great interest include fleas for plague and typhus, Phlebototnus for 
sandfly fever, and mites for scrub typhus. Lice were not reported to 
occur in the Philippines on humans except in the Mountain Province 
around Baguio. 

Eat control is most difficult under the conditions found in the Philip- 

Other insects of economic importance observed in the Philippines 
included termites (Kalotermitidae), roaches (B. orientalis and B. ger- 
manica), wood borers destructive to bamboo (EeterobostrycJius) , poAvder 
post beetles (Diiwderns), and palm borers (Scarabeidae) . 

Hatcaii. Insect and rodent borne diseases reported from the islands are 
dengue, plague and the dysenteries. This area was reported to be prac- 
tically malaria free. Insects observed included mosquitoes of the genus 
Aedes and Culex, flies, cockroaches, ants, bedbugs, termites, scale insects, 
aphids. and leaf eating caterpillars. 

258 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 49, NO. !l, DECEMBER, 1947 

Rats observed were principally the brown or Norway rat. (Author's 

An additional note on Mecoptera was presented by Miss Sophy I. 
Parfin. A female specimen of Brachypanorpa sent in with one male from 
Lake of the Woods, Klamath Co., Oregon (elevation 5100 ft., July 5, 
1946, B. Malkin) is of particular interest because of the length of the 
wings (approximately 7% mm., width 2 mm.), reaching to the end of the 
last segment of the abdomen or slightly beyond. This wing length 
exceeds that of any of the three described species so far as now reported : 
B. oregonensis (MacL.), found in Oregon, described as having a fore- 
wing length of 1.8 mm., width .2 mm., not reaching beyond the first 
segment of the abdomen; B. carolinensis (Bks.), found in N. Carolina, 
5-6 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, not quite reaching the end of the abdomen; 
and B. moniana Carp., thought to be synonymous with B. oregonensis 
(see Carpenter, 1939, Bui. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, vol. 34, p. 162). In view 
of the fact that Lake of the Woods is only about 6 miles from Mt. 
McLoughlin, Oregon, the type locality of moniana, there is a strong pos- 
sibility that the long-winged female here recorded is the heretofore 
undescribed female of moniana. The same collector also sent in a female 
specimen of Panorpa, supposedly from Coburg Hills, 8 mi. NE of Eugene, 
Oregon (elevation 2000 ft., collected June 29, 1941). This is unusual 
in that the genus Panorpa as a rule is more eastern, not extending within 
the U. S. beyond Kansas (other more western "discoveries" thought 
to have been errors), and as far as known no species of Panorpa has 
ever been recorded from Oregon. The genitalia have been dissected and 
studied and found to approach in structure those of P. subfurcata 
Westw., though a definite identification has not been made. The latter 
species has not been recorded definitely from west of Pennsylvania. 
(Author's abstract). 

Visitors introduced to the Society were: L. B. Holthuis and Paul 
Illg of Holland and Johannes Keiding from Denmark. The Society 
was also pleased to have Dr. S. Leefmans present once more. 

The meeting adjourned at 10 P.M. 

Ina L. Hawes, Bccordlnq Secreian/ 

MEETING, JUNE 5, 1947 

The 574th meeting of the Society was held on June 5, 1947 at 
Jesup Blair Park as a joint picnic with the Insecticide Society of Wash- 
ington. About 100 members and friends of the Societies enjoyed good 
food and perfect weather. The feature attraction of the evening was two 
movie films shown through the courtesy of the Sherwin-Williams Com- 

Ina L. Hawes, Recording Secretary 

Actual date of publication, December 26, ]947. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1947 259 


Acalymnia, n.g., gouldi, n.sp.l54, 
n.combs. vittata 155, trivittata 
157, pallipes 158 

Acariiia, 112, 133 

Aedes scutellaris 85, auriniaigo 
103, keyeiisis, n.sp.228 

Aeschnidae, 171 

Agallia quadripunetata, partheno- 
genesis in 19 

Alanus, n.g., albidus, n.sp.231 

Ameles, homonymy in 251 

Aniphelasma, n.g.l58,n.combs. cav- 
um, bipuneticolle, decoratuni, 
unilineatnm, trilineatum 159 

Aphelinidae, 193 

Aphidae, 252 

Apidae, 81, 170 

Article VIII of By-Laws, new 172 

Atricholaelaps megaventralis, n.sp. 

Beloniierus,n.spp.,marieopa 54, po- 
tawatomi 57 

Callimantis, 163 

Carbonell, C. S., talk liy 70 

Cerambycidae, 190 

Chalcididae, 136 

Christenson, L. D., talk by 174 

Chrysomelidae, 151, 169 

Cicadellidae, 19, 231 

Clark, A. H., note by 70 

Clark, Mrs. A. H., reviews by 

175, 255 
Clunio 202, n.spp.. littoralis 203. 

vagans, 206, brevis 212, schniitti 

217, key to males 219 
Coeeotvdeus turneri, n.sp. 134 
Coleoptera, 1, 22, 41, 123, 151, 169, 

190, 241 
Conotrachelus, key 43, peeanae,n. 

Corresponding Secretary, Report 

of 90 
Cory, E. N., report by 116 
Cryptocerus varians 30, rohweri 

34, texanus 37 
Ciilex,n.spp., pedieellus G-^, caeru- 

leus 67 
Culicidae, 65, 85, 97, 103, 117, 171, 

185, 228 
Curculionidae, 41, 123 

Davis, L. G., talk by 143 
Dermestes, larval kev 4 

Dermestidae, 1 

Diabrotica undecimpunctata how- 

ardi, n.subsp.l53, mauliki, n.n* 

Dichomeris glenni, n.sp. 188 
Diptera, 20, 65, 85, 86, 97, 103, 

117, 168, 171, 177, 185, 201, 225. 

228, 249 
Dirhinus, n.spp., paoli 137, peri- 

deus 138 
Dolichopodidae, 20 
Dysdercus, 15 

Eecritotarsus distaiiti, n.n. 59 
Ephydridae, 20 
Erineda elyella, 165 
Errata, 122, 192 
Eucharidae, 77 

Formicidae, 29, 73, 75, 101, 246 

Gelechiidae, 187 

Grass Insects, 149 

GURNEY, A. B., notes by 91, 141 

Haplothrips oniani, n.sp. 250 

Harned, R. W., re])ort by 176 

Heliodinidae, 165 

Heniiptera, 15, 59 

Hesperioidea, 162 

Hoffman, W. E., notes by 142 

Homoptera, 19, 231, 238, 252^ 
Ilymenoptera, 54, 73, 75, 77, 81, 

'lOl, 106, 107, 136, 170, 193, 246 

Insects, as human food 233 
Ischnopsyllidae, 182 
Isoptera, 167 
Ivy, E. E., talk ])y 176 

Jones, M. P., reports by 116, 141, 

Kapala sp., 77 

Krcmbein, K. v., report by 255 

Laelaptidae, 112 

Laj^gford, G. S.. talk by 92 

Larvaevoridae, 249 

Lepidoptera, 148, 162, 165, 187 

Lophopidae, 238 

Lorryia ehiapensis, n.sp. 135 

260 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 49, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 194( 

McGovKAN, E. E., talk by 93 
Maerosiplmm geiitneri, n.sp.252 
Madwar, S. M., address by 72 
Mantidae, 1(52, 2nl 
^Mecolaemus,n.g. 60, n.spp., fasei- 

atns 61, costalimai 61 
Mesachilidae, 106 
^Icgalomyrmex incisus,n.sp.l02 
Mega loth rips schulii,ii.sp.l97 
.M('gainiiis,n.g.63, vittatus,n.sp.64 
Melaiithidiiim,n.g., carri, n.sp.l06 
Metapone kiombeini,ii.sp.76 
Metriothrips secundus, n.sp.229 
.Mexicoa, n.g., mexieaiia,n.sp.225 
Miridae, 59, 63 
MuESEBECK, C. r. W., report by 

116, note by 255 
Myochrous, n.spp., cubensis 23, 
hispaniolae 24, portoricensis 25, 
jamaicensis 26, barbadensis 26 
Myrmica brevinodis var. canaden- 
sis, nest of 246 

Neochrysops globosus, 168 
Nymphaloidea, interrelationships 

Odonata, 171 
Oedemeridae, 241 
Oides, synonymy 153 
Orr, L.'w., "report by 116 
Orthopodomyia alba, 185 
Orthoptera, 163, 251 

Packarj), C. M., report by 176 
Parfin, S. I., note by 258 
Perdita, n.spp., mitchelli 81, graen- 

icheri 82 
Pettit, E. H., obituary of 87 
Pheidole quadriprojectus, n.sp.74 
Phlaeothripidae, 197, 229. 250 
Phlebotomus osornoi, 177 
Pissodes, larva 123 
POPHAM, W. L., talk by 143 
Porter, B. A., reports by 116, 176 
Psychodidae, 86, 177 
Pyrrhocoridae, 15 

Eeed, W. D., talk by 256 
Eetetydeus doddsi, synonymy 133 
Eeticulotermes virginieus, enemies 

-of 167 
Bhinoplatia mortivallieola, n.sp.243 
Ehopalomeridae, 225 
EOHWER, S. A., report by 116 
Eufoeinctobombus, synonymy 170 

Sasscer, E. E., talk by 255 
Shannonomyina, n.n.86 
Silvanana,n.g.238, omani,n.sp.240 
Smith, P.P., report by 116, talk 

by 173 
Snodgrass, E. E., note by 91 
Sphecidae, 54, 107 
Stone, A., note by 143 
Suctoria, 182 

Tabanidae, 168 
Tendipedidae, 201 
Thaumapsylla breviceps, dina 182 
Thysanoptera, 197, 229, 250 
TowNES, H. K., note by 115 
Traub, E., review by 174, 199 
Treasurer, Eeport of 88 
Tridilatydeus validation of spp.133 
Tumidiscapus cercopiphagus,n.sp. 

Tydeidae, 133 

Tydeus zempoalensis, synonymy 

Vecht, J. VAN DER, address by 71 

Weeds, biological control of 169 
Weigel, C. a., talk by 115 
Williamsita, n.g.l07, novoeale- 

donica 109 
Winthemia tibialis, 249 
WooDWORTH, C. E., talk by 176 
Wyeomyia melanopus 37, haynei, 


YuiLL, J. S., talk by 96 


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Address: Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 

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Volume 50 

Published by the Society 




Anderson, W. H.: A Key to the Larvae of Some Species of Hypei a 
Germar, 1817 (= Phytonomiis Sehoenherr, 1823) (Coleopteia, 
Curculionidae) 25 

: A Note on Synonymy in Scolytidae (Coleop- 

tera) 215 

Baker, Edward W.: A New Tiichadenid Mite which Indicates a 
Phylogenetie Eelationship between the Tetianychidae and Erio- 
phyidae (Aearina) 59 

Barber, H. G.: The Genus Cligenes in the United States (Hemip- 
tera, Lygaeidae) 157 

Bates, Marston: (See Komp) 

Blake, Doris H.: Six New Species of West Indian Chrysomelidae 

(Coleoptera) 121 

Blakeslee, E. B.: A Laboratory Technique for Testing Insecticide 

Residues against Ants 224 

Bohart, George E.: (See Hall) 

Bohart, Richard M. : Differentiation of Larvae and Pupae of Aedes 

dorsaUs and Aedes squamiger (Diptera, Culicidae)— 216 

Boyd, Elizabeth M.: A New Mite from tlie Respiratory Tract of 

the Starling (Aearina, Speleognathidae) ... !) 

Breland, Osmond P.: A New Species of Torymus, Parasite of a 

Sunflower Gall Maker (Hymenoptera, Torymidae) ... 57 

Bromley, S. W.: Insect Predators of Mosquitoes 23.") 

Clark, Austin IL: A New Subspecies of Jygdamus 

(Lepidoptcra, Lycaenidae) 17j6 

Cole, A. C: A Synonym of Pheidole deniata var. commidata Mayr 
(Hymenoptera, Formicidae) 82 

Crawford, J. C: A New Genus of Urothripidae from Guatemala 

( Thysanoptera ) 39 

: On the Neotropical Species of the Genus 

Taeniothrips ( Thysanoptera, Thripidae) 53 

: A New Species of FranMinieUa on Hemerocallis 

( Thysanoptera , Thripidae ) 83 

: A New Parallothrips from Cyprus (Thysanop- 
tera, Phlaeothripidae) 213 

DeLong, Dwight M. and Ruth V. Hershberger: A New Genus, 
Dampfiana, and New Species of Leafhopper Related to Stoneana 
(Honioptera, Cicadellidae) 229 

DOS Passos, Cyril Franklin: The Eye Color of Some Colias Col- 
lected in New Jersey (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) 35 

Drake, Carl J.: Notes on Philippine Bhagovelia (Hemiptera, Ye- 
liidae) 61 

: The Genus Compseuta Stfil (Hemiptera, Tingi- 

dae) 197 

Evans, Howard E.: A New Subgenus of Pompilus (Hymenoptera, 
Pompilidae) :... 141 

Ewing, H. E.: a Note on the Effect of Engorgement on the Ar- 
rangement of the Dorsal Abdominal Setae in Chiggers (Aearina) 219 


PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1948 Hi 

Field, William D.: The Correct Name for the North American But- 
terfly Variously Called Nymphidia, Calephelis or Lephelisca 
(Lepidoptera, Eiodinidae) 207 

Fisher, W. S.: A Change of Name in Buprestidae (Coleoptera) - 40 

Gregg, Egbert E.: An Unusual Nest of the Prairie Mound-building 

Ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) - — - 183 

GuRNEY, Ashley B.: The Taxonomy and Distribution of the Gryllo- 
blattidae (Orthoptera) - - 86 

Hall, David G. and George E. Bchart: The Sarcophagidae of 
Guam (Diptera) - 127 

Hershberger, Eiith v.: (See DeLong) 

Hill, Samuel O. : (See Eings) 

Hitchcock, John D.: (See Kuitert) 

KOMP, W. H. W. and Marston Bates: Notes on Two Mos:iuito 
Gynandromorphs from Colombia (Diptera, Culicidae) 204 

Knight, Kenneth L. : The Aedes (Finlaya) albotaeniatus Group 

of Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) 1 

: A New Name for an Aedes (Mucidus) Sub- 
species of the Solomon Islands, with Two Additional Notts on 
Aedes (MwciV/i/s) Species (Diptera, Culicidae) 68 

Kromeein, Karl Y. : An Advrntive Megachile in Washington, 

D. C. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) 14 

: New Prey Eecords in Oxybelus (Hymenoptera, 

Spheeidae ) 67 

Kuitert, Louis C. and John D. Hitchcock: Observations on Ano- 
pheles leucosphyrus Don. at Shingbwiyang, Burma (Diptera, 
Culicidae) 77 

Lane, Merton C. : Some Generic Corrections in the Elateridae. I. 

(Coleoptera) - - 179 

: Some Generic Corrections in the Elateridae. II. 

(Coleoptera) 221 

McGregor, E. A.: A Newly Detected Structure in Certain Tetrany- 
chid Mites (Acarina) 173 

Maldonado Capriles, Jenaro: Three New Neotropical Species of 

the Eeduviid Genus Ploiaria Seopoli (Hemiptcra) .. . — . 18 

: A New Enicocephalus from Puerto Eico (Hemip- 

tera, Enicoeephalidae) 159 

Masters, Charles 0.: Some Notes on the Identification of Ano- 
pheles philippinensis and A. pallidus (Diptera, Culicidae) 178 

Michener, Charles D.: Notes on the American Bees of the Genus 
Melecta (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) — - -- 15 

Oman, P. W.: Distribution of Balduhis maidis (DcLong and Wol- 
cott) (Homoptera, Cicadellidae) - 34 

Penn, George Henry (See Stone) 

: Biological Notes on "Dry Season" Mosquitoes 

from Caminawit Point, Mindoro, P. I. (Diptera, Culicidae) 241 

Bees, Bryant E.: The Larva of Catana clauseni Chapin, and Its 
Comparison with the Larva of Delphastus pusiUus (Lee.) (Co- 
leoptera, Coccinellidae) 231 

Eings, Eoy W., and Samuel O. Hill: The Taxonomic Status of 
Aedes mathesoni (Diptera, Culicidae) 41 

Eohwer, S. a.: Theodore Dru Alison Coekerell 103 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 9, DECEMBER, 1948 

Ross, Herbert H. : New Species of Serieostomatoid Trichopteia ... 151 

Sabrosky, Curtis W.: Winthemia citheroniae, new species, with 
Notes on the Correct Name of TV. cecropia (Diptera, Larvae- 
voridae) 63 

: A Dipteron New to North America 85 

: The Identity of " Sarcophaga vericauda Coquil- 

lett ' ' (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) ..— .__. 248 

Smith, Marion R.: A New Species of Myrmecina from California 

(Hymenoptera, Formicidae) ._ ._ 238 

Sommerman, Kathryn M.: Two New Nearctic Psocids of the Genus 
Trichadenotecmtm with a Nomenclatural Note on a Third Spe- 
cies ( Corrodentia ) 165 

Stone, Alan: A Change of Name in Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culi- 
cidae) 161 

and George Henry Penn: A New Subgenus and 

Two New Species of the Genus Culex L. (Diptera, Culieidae).— . 109 
Strandtmann, R. W.: Atricholaelaps fraubi and A. chinchilUdae, 

from CaUosciunis and the Chinchilla Respectively (Acarina) 187 

TOWNES, Henry: Pyrex Bottles for Potassium or Sodium Hydrox- 
ide Solution 85 

Walkley, Luella M.: Notes on Nomenclature in the Lathridiini 
(Coleoptera, Lathridiidae) 149 


Number 1 — pages 1-24 inclusive January 23, 1948 

Number 2 — pages 25-52 inclusive February 27, 1948 

Number 3 — pages 53-76 inclusive March 25, 1948 

Number 4 — pages 77-108 inclusive April 30, 1948 

Number 5 — pages 109-140 inclusive — — May 14, 1948 

Number 6 — pages 141-164 inclusive ..June 23, 1948 

Number 7 — pages 165-196 inclusive ..October 18, 1948 

Number 8 — pages 197-228 inclusive — November 30, 1948 

Number 9 — pages 229-256 inclusive December 29, 1948 


VOL. 50 


of the 







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Accepted for mailins at the special rate of postaee provided for in Section 1103. 
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Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 50 JANUARY, 1948 No. 1 


(diptetja, culicidae)^^ 
By Kenneth L. Knight, Lt. Commander, MSC, USN 

Edwards (1932) placed all of the species of Aedes {Fin- 
lay a) having the following characters in Group F {alhotaenia- 
tus-grouip: Danielsia) : (1) Hind tarsi with at least the first 
three segments basally white-banded (rarely one or more seg- 
ments with a few apical white scales). (2) Neither femora nor 
tibiae lined anteriorly with pale scales for nearly their whole 
length. (3) Scutal markings various in type, or absent, but 
not consisting solely of a pattern of distinct thin longitudinal 
pale lines (a. var. mikiranus has three indistinct pale lines, but 
also possesses a white patch before the wings). This definition 
has created a very large group, containing many more or less 
unrelated forms. Consequently, in order to facilitate the 
identification of species belonging in Group F, some system of 
subdivisions is badly needed. 

The discovery of an unnamed Philippine species of Finlaya 
belonging in Group F has led to a re-examination of all the 
species of the group, a study which was greatly facilitated by 
the opportunity to study nearly all of the types (most of 
which are in the British Museum). 

As a result of this study, it is proposed here to subdivide 
Group F into eight divisions, which it is hoped represent more 
or less homogeneous groups of species. In addition, these divi- 
sions are defined and keyed. 

All of the species included in Group F are either Oriental 
or Australasian, except for two American species: zoosophus 
Dyar and Knab and knahi Coquillett. The former can tenta- 
tively be placed in one of the divisions created here, but the 
latter species is impossible to place at present (the male being 

Division I — albotaeniatus s. str. Distinct because of the possession of 
a tuft of modified scales on the inner sternal membranous surface of the 
basistyle. Also: male palpi with the apex of segment III slightly up- 

iThis is the ninth paper of a series prepared in part on collections 
made in the Philippine Islands under the auspices of U. S. Naval Medi- 
cal Research Unit No. 2. The work was done in space furnished by the 
Division of Insects, U. S. National Museum. Mr. N. D. Riley and Mr. 
H. Oldroyd gave the fullest assistance in making it possible to examine 
the types in the British Museum. 

2 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 

turned, segments IV-V somewhat concave medially and both depressed 
from the plane of III, numerous long ventro-lateral hairs arising from 
the apex of III and all along IV and V; vertex with the dorsum largely 
covered with broad flat scales; scutal scales generally lying unevenly in 
some areas and consisting of more than one size scale, the margins of 
any pale scaled areas not sharply defined; hind tarsi with the first three 
to four segmients with basal white bands, sometimes a very few apical 
white scales on one or more segments; femora not sprinkled with pale 
scales anteriorly ; and, Oriental in distribution. All of the included spe- 
cies have been reared solely from bamboo stumps. 

Included species: alhotaeniatus (Leicester), a. var. mikira- 
nus Edwards, lepchana Barraud (possibly a synonym of alho- 
taeniatus), stevensoni (Barraud), and the new Philippine 
species described in this paper. 

Division II — papuensis. Distinct on the nature of the scutal scaling. 
Scutum marked with either a large area or a median longitudinal stripe 
of pale scales (either silvery white or golden) on the anterior two-thirds, 
this pale area sharply delinited from the surrounding dark scaled areas, 
all of the scutal scales uniform in size and arrangement. Also: male 
palpi as in Division I; hind tarsi with broad basal bands on at least the 
first four segments (sometimes all five), no apical pale scaling; vertex 
with dorsal scales narrow; basistyle without a tuft of scales on the inner 
sternal surface; and, Australasian in distribution. 

Included species : anggiensis Bonne- Wepster (not seen, pos- 
sibly does not belong to this division), argenteit arsis Brug, 
cliritoni Taylor (not seen, but possibly a synonjan of liollan- 
dius), derooki Brug, dohodurus King and Hoogstraal, Jiol- 
landius K. and H., novalbit arsis K. and H. (n. n. for alhitarsis 
Taylor), palmaruni Edwards, papue^isis (Taylor), and suMl- 
Mt arsis K. and H. 

This division was first created by King and Hoogstraal 
(1946), and called the '^papne^isis group." From the divi- 
sion, as treated by them, auridorsum Edwards and australien- 
sis (Theobald) have been excluded on the nature of the scutal 

Division III — simlensis. As in Division I, except that the basistyle 
lacks a mesal tuft of modified scales. 

Included species: albocinctus (Barraud), gilli (Barraud), 
and simlensis Edwards. The Korean species seoidensis Yama- 
da was placed in the giiJ)e mat oris group by Edwards (1932), 
but on the basis of the markings of the hind tarsi I believe it 
should be placed in the alhotaeniatus group; where it would 
probably fall in this division. However, this cannot be defi- 
nitely determined until the male is known. 

Division IV — pnrpureus (Molpernyia) . Distinctive on general habitus. 
Large species, resembling Megarhinus in the large brush-like female pal- 

PROC. ENT. SOO. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 3 

pi, and in the strong metallic luster of the body scales; scutum with 
several restricted silvery markings, which are characterized by being 
largely made up of rather broad plate-like scales ; males unknown ; 
dorsum of vertex narrow scaled; femora as in Division I; first three hind 
tarsal segments basally banded; and, Australasian in distribution. 

Included species: pecuniosus Edwards (synonym of pecii- 
niosus: hamadryadis Cooling), priestleyi (Taylor), and piir- 
pureus (Theobald). According to Taylor (1944), pecuniosus 
is a s.ynonym of purpureus. 

Division F — subsimilis. Male palpi with terminal segments neither 
particularly modified, nor bearing hair tufts; scutum all dark scaled; 
and, first four hind tarsal segments basally banded. Otherwise as in 
Division III. 

Included species: suhsimilis (Barraud). This is apparently 
the only species in Group F which has the claspette appendage 
ijeedle-like instead of blade-like. 

Division VI — alhoannulatus. Distinctive because of the pale scales 
sprinkled anteriorly on the femora and sometimes on the tibiae. Male 
palpi as in Division I; dorsum of vertex with narrow scales; scutal scal- 
ing not as in Division II; the first four hind tarsal segments basally 
banded; and, Australasian in distribution. 

Included species: aVbommulatus (Macquart), a. var. milsoni 
(Taylor), occidentalis (Skuse) (synonyms of occidentalis: 
cumpstoni Taylor, demansis Strickland, qiieenslaridis Strick- 
land, and similis Strickland). 

Division VII — auronitens. Male palpi with terminal segments not 
modified, and not bearing hair tufts; dorsum of vertex with narrow 
scales; scutal sealing not as in Division II; femora not pale-speckled 
anteriorly; first three to four hind tarsal segments banded basally, 
sometimes a few pale scales apieally; basistyle without scale tufts; and, 
Oriental in distribution. 

Included species: auronitens Edwards, and christophersi 

Division VIII — australiensis. Male palpi as in Division I; dorsum 
of vertex with narrow scales; scutal scaling not as in Division II; femora 
not speckled anteriorly with pale scales; first three to four hind tarsal 
segments basally banded; and, Australasian and American in distribu- 

Included species: zoosoplius Dyar and Knab (U.S.A.) (syn- 
onym of zoosophus: alleni Turner), australiensis (Theobald), 
auridorsum Edwards, Mocellatus Taylor, and mackerrasi Tay- 

This division is separable from Division VII on the posses- 
sion of scales on the paratergite (this character not known for 
mackerrasi, however). 

Only one of Edwards' (1932) originally included species 

4 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1 i»4.S 

has been omitted from the group, quasiruhithorax (Theobald). 
This has been done on the basis of its scutal markings, which 
consist of narrow pale longitudinal pale lines. 

Key to the Divisions of Group F 

1. Vertex with dorsum largely broad scaled 2 

Vertex with dorsum largely narrow scaled 4 

2. Scutum dark scaled (subsimilis) Division V 

Scutum with pale markings — 3 

3. Basistyle with a prominent tuft of elongate broadened scales aris- 

ing from the inner sternal surface (albotaeniatus) Division I 

Basistyle without an inner scale tuft (simlensis) Division III 

4. Large species, resembling Megarhinus in the large brush-like fe- 

male palpi, and in the strong metallic luster of the body scal- 
ing; scutellar scales broad, silvery white; several restricted 
silvery scutal marking which are characterized by being largely 
made up of rather broad platelike scales (males not known) « 

(purpureas) -— Division IV 

Not with the above combination of characters 5 

5. Femora, and sometimes the tibiae, heavily speckled anteriorly with 

pale scaling (alboannulatus) Division VI 

Neither femora nor tibiae speckled anteriorly with pale scaling.... 6 

6. Scutum marked with either a large area or a median longitudinal 

stripe of pale scales (either silvery white or golden) on the 
anterior two-thirds, this pale area sharply delimited from the 
surrounding dark scaled areas, all the scutal scales uniformly 

very small and evenly arranged (papuensis) Division II 

Scutum with the anterior half largely pale scaled (or at least not 
with a pale area that is sharply set off from the dark scaled 
background), the scales generally lying unevenly in some areas, 
and consisting of more than one size scale, the margins of the 
pale scaled area seldom sharply defined 7 

7. Male palpi with terminal segments scarcely modified or decurved, 

and only very sparsely haired (not with pronounced tufts) ; 

paratergite bare (auronitens) Division VII 

Male palpi with prominent hair tufts on the apical segments; 
paratergite scaled (this character not known for macTcerrasi) 
(australiensis) Division VIII 

Aedes (Finlaya) harperi, new species 
(Figs. 1, 2, and 3) 
ADULT. Male. Wing approximately 2.5 to 2.7 mm. in length. Head. — 
Proboscis equal to the front femur in length; black, marked with a 
broad complete white band just beyond the middle and with a few 
ventro-apical white scales. Palpus longer than the proboscis by about 
one-half the length of the apical segment; black; the apex of segment 
III upturned, segments IV and V somewhat concave medially and both 
depressed from the plane of III; numerous long yellowish ventro-lateral 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 5 

hairs from the apex of III, and all along IV and V. Torus bare. Ver- 
tex with broad scales, dark except for a white line along either side of 
the midline and along the eye margins (this latter line broadened lateral- 
ly and consisting of narrowed scales), a narrow band of short dark 
upright forked scales on the nape and another near the ocular margin. 
Thorax. — Scutal integument dark brown; no acrostichal bristles, a few 
posterior dorsocentrals and some prescutellars however; densely clothed 
with small narrow and narrow-curved scales, these dark except for a 
large rectangular white area just before the wing base and a white 
median stripe that tapers posteriorly to the beginning of the prescutellar 
bare space, where it broadens into a patch of white scales (this latter 
area rubbed on holotype). Scutellum with a small patch of broad w-hite 
scales on the mid lobe, a few narrow pale and dark scales on the lateral 
lobes. Apn with a small patch of broad white scales; ppn almost com- 
pletely covered with broad white scales (2 bristles present). Following 
pleural areas each with a patch of broad white scales: proepisternum, 
prealar (below the knob; connected with the upper sternopleural patch), 
upper sternopleural, ventro-posterior sternopleural (usually connected 
with the upper patch), and mesepimeron. About 2 postspiracular bristles. 
Fore coxa with white scales above, dark scales below; mid coxa bare of 
scales; hind coxa with a small patch of white scales. Fore femur with 
anterior surface dark, a few sub-basal ventral pale scales may be pres- 
ent ; posterior surface with slightly less than apical one-half white scaled, 
this extending onto the ventral surface. Mid femur dark, anterior sur- 
face with a ventral white area on the apical two-fifths, this continued 
across the ventral margin and repeated on the posterior surface. Hind 
femur dark, marked with a complete broad white band just before the 
middle and with a wide ventro-apical white area that encroaches well 
onto both the anterior and posterior surfaces. Fore tibia white, a com- 
plete longitudinal dark band anteriorly, also dorsally except at apex; 
mid and hind tibiae dark except for a ventro-basal white area that ex- 
tends slightly onto the anterior and posterior surfaces. Fore tarsus dark, 
marked with a small basal white patch on II (may be all dark) ; mid 
tarsus with basal white bands on I -II, sometimes basal white scales on 
III; hind tarsus with broad basal Avhite bands on I-IV, that on IV 
incomplete ventrally, a few pale scales may occur at the base of V, 
sometimes a very few apical white scales on III. Fore and mid tarsal 
claws unequal, the larger tooth bidentate, the smaller unidentate; hind 
claws equal, simple. Wing with a ventro-basal line of white scales on 
the costa ; bases of fork cells approximately on a level ; crossvein 4-5 
slightly over twice its length basally removed from crossvein 3-4. Halter 
stem pale, knob black scaled. 

.4&(Zome«.— Tergites black, I with a broad lateral white band; III- 
V with a complete basal white band, slightly narrowed medially ; VI-VII 
with a baso-lateral white patch; II-VI strongly compressed laterally. 
Sternites III-VII with broad basal white bands. Genitalia (Fig. 3) : — 
Inner tergal surface of basistyle with a well developed basal lobe, this 

6 PROC. KNT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 

bearing a large number of setae; margin of inner sternal surface with 
an elongate group of stout pale setae and a clump of elongate broad 
yellowish scales. Apex of mesosome with a group of small erected 
papillae. Claspette stem with 2 large setae and about 2 small ones; 
blade with a dorsal crest. Ninth tergite lobes each with 2 broadened 
setae. Ninth sternite with a pair of stout setae and one small hair. 

Female. Wing approximately 2.9 mm. in length. Largely similar to 
the male. However: proboscis with white band incomplete dorsally, ven- 
trally occupying nearly one-half of the length of the proboscis. Palpus 
approximately one-third the length of the proboscis. Median white area 
of vertex confined to the anterior one-half. Scutum with median white 


Fig. 1. Aeiles (Finlaya) harperi. Larval head (mouth parts omitted): 

half ventral, right half dorsal. 
Pig. 2. A. harperi. Lateral aspect of larval terminal segments. 
Fig. 3. A. harperi. Tergal aspect of male genitalia. 

PROC. HNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 7 

line confined to a small wedge-shaped patch on the anterior margin, 
only a few white scales at the prescutellar bare space. Tarsal claws 
equal, fore and mid each uuidentate, hind simple. Tergite VIII all 
white scaled. 

LARVA (description and figures from larval skins only). Head (Fig. 
1) : — Antenna smooth; antennal hair tuft very short, with 2 stiff parallel 
divisions. Hair 4 with 9-10 branches; 5 with 1-2; 6 with 2; 7 with 2-3; 
8 with 2; 9 with 2-3; 12 with 3; 13 single; 14 with 2; 15 with 6-7; 
17 with 10-11 (elongate, stellate) ; 18 with 4 (stellate) ; 20 double. 
Mentum with about 12 lateral teeth. 

Thorax. — Numerous thin stellate hairs present. Prothoracic hair 9 
stellate, with about 10 branches; 10 and 12 elongate, single; 11 short, 
single. Mesothoracic hair 9 large, double; hairs 10 and 12 elongate, 
single (12 with slighter diameter than 10) ; hair 11 not seen. Meta- 
thoracic hairs 9 and 10 as with mesothorax; 11 very short, with 1-3 
branches; 12 slender, single, distinctly shorter than 10. 

Abdomen (Fig. 2) : — Numerous thin stellate hairs present. Dorso-lat- 
eral hair of III Avith 2 branches; lateral hair of III single, of III-V 
double. Pentad hairs 1, 3, and 5 with about 5-8 branches; hairs 2 and 4 
single. Comb consisting of a row of 6-9 large stout dark spines, a very 
fine fringe present basally. Siphon short, broad, dark; hair tuft with 
2-3 branches; pecten with 2-3 acutely-tapered teeth, a few very fine 
fringe elements ventro-basally. Anal plate with a posterior fringe of 
slender spines, some of these ventral to Ih; Ih single; isc double. Ventral 
brush composed of 8 tufts, all except the basal one arising from a 
barred area, each tuft with 2 branches. Anal gills broad, elongate- 
lanceolate; dorsal pair slightly longer than the ventral and approxi- 
mately twice the length of the anal plate. 

Holotyi)e.— Male (No. 1118.9), with associated larval and 
pupal skins and mounted genitalia (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 58523), 
Zig-Zag Pass, Subie Bay, Zambales Province, Luzon Island, 
Philippines, August 13, 1945 (L. E. Rozeboom and M. J. 
MacMillan), reader from a bamboo stump. 

Paratypes. — Two males, 1 female, 1 set of adult-associated 
larval and pupal skins, Olongapo, Subie Bay, Zambales Prov- 
ince, Luzon Island, July 4, 1945, reared from bamboo stump ; 
1 female, Matain, Subie Bay, Zambales Province, Luzon Is- 
land, July 16, 1945, reared from cut bamboo. Collectors: L. E. 
Rozeboom, M. J. MacMillan, and E. S. Zolik. Paratypes de- 
posited in the U. S. National Museum. 

REMARKS. This species, which is a member of Division I, 
is closely related to stevensoni (Barraud). However, the lat- 
ter species differs as follows ! vertex without a white median 
area; only the first 3 hind tarsal segmputs banded (sometimes 
a trace of a marking on IV) ; female tergites without complete 
bands except VIII, which is all white ; and, basal white scaled 
area on cost a verv small. 

8 PROC. KNT. SOl-. AVASH., VOL. 50, XO. 1, .TAXLARY, 1H48 

Both harperi and stevensoni are separable from alhotaenia- 
tus and a. var. mikiranus on the scutal markings. The scu- 
tum of alhotaeniatus is all white sealed before the wing bases 
except for a large lateral spot in the area of the scutal angle. 
The scutum of mikiranus has a white patch before each wing 
base, but the remainder is dark scaled except for a very thin 
median longitudinal pale line that forks at the prescutellar 
area, and an indistinct sub-dorsal line. Also, these two species 
each have a scale patch on both the postspiracular and sub- 
spiracular areas, whereas in harperi and stevensmii these 
areas are without scales. 

A specimen of the new species has been compared with the 
types of stevensoni, alhotaeniatus, lepchana, and a. var. miki- 

The larva of stevensoni and a. var. mikiranus are unknown, 
and that of alhotaeniatus has been described only from a draw- 
ing of a specimen from the Federated Malay States (Edwards, 
in Barraud, 1934). It differs from the larva of harperi as 
follows: comb composed of about 14 teeth in a patch; siphon 
six times as long as the diameter of the base, tapered on distal 
one-third only; and, pecten composed of about 10 teeth, with 
one widely detached. 

It seems likely that harperi may prove to be only a geo- 
graphical subspecies of stevensoni, but determination of this 
point cannot be accomplished until more collecting is done in 
the intervening areas. 

This species is dedicated to Dr. Paul A. Harper who, as a 
member of the U. S. Army Medical Corps, did so much to 
further malaria control work in the South Pacific during the 

Literature Cited 
Barraud, P. J., 1934. Fauna of British India. Diptera, vol. 5, 463 pp. 

Taylor and Francis, London. 
Edwards, F. W., 1932. Genera Insectorum. Family Culicidae. Fasc, 194, 

285 pp. P. Wytsman, Brussels. 
King, W. V, and H. Hoogstraal, 1946. Proc, Ent, Soe. Wash. 48: 135-157. 
Taylor, F. H., 1944. Proc. Soc. N. S. Wales 69 : 120-128 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANTJARY, 1948 9 



By Elizabeth M. Boyd,i Mount HolyoTce College, South Hadley, Mass. 

During a survey of parasitism in the starling;, Sturmis vul- 
garis h., in North America, undertaken in 1945-46, a new 
species of mite was discovered inhabiting the respiratory pas- 
sages of this host. It was first observed in the trachea, and 
was present in this location in 13 of the 300 birds examined 
and in representatives from four different states — Indiana, 
Massachusetts, New York and Ohio. However, subsequent 
investigation of the nasal cavities revealed that it occurred 
more frequently and in greater numbers here, in association 
with the turbinals, than in the treachea, both larvae and adults 
being present. A specimen of the mite was collected by G. G. 
Rohwer in 1940 from the boat-tailed grackle, Cassidix mexi- 
canuSf at St. Louis, Mo., but no data pertaining to this finding 
are available. 

The mites were mounted either in PVA-lactic mixture or 
were treated with mercurochrome, cellosolve and finally eu- 
paral. The larval and adult stages of the species of mite are 
described below. 

Speleognathus sturni, new species 

Larva (Figs. 10, 11) shows a marked similarity to the adult except 
in the following respects: Size, 330-400M in length and 270-330/i maxi- 
mum width. Genital aperture absent. Sclerotized support less well 
developed, not being visible in the rostrum, chelicerae or palpi, and in 
the legs present only as far as the femur, but in the case of leg I ex- 
tending into the tibia. Terminal segment of palpus a half, instead of a 
third, the size of the penultimate segment. Legs three in number, the 
first of which is characterized by prominent claws. Coxa as well as 
trochanter devoid of setae; remaining segments, omitting the tarsi, vdth 
two to five pilose setae as illustrated. Tarsi II and III terminate bluntly 
in two lobes, between which arise two claws and a median bifurcated 
pilose pulvillus. Tarsi bearing ventrally a pair of terminal pilose setae 
and dorsally three, one on either side of a median subapical larger seta 
that arises from a prominent lobe. Additio;ial setae occur on tarsi I and 
II, the latter with an extra seta on each side of the claws ventrally, as 
in the adult, and dorsally a pilose and a nude seta situated on the an- 
terior surface. Tarsus I lacks the claws and pulvillus characteristic of 
the other legs and those of the adult, but instead a large double-headed 
claw, approximately 100m in length is present ventrally between the 
tarsus and the tibia. Pour additional pilose setae occur on its anterior 
surface, and a single pilose and a nude seta on the posterior surface. 

^The author wishes to express appreciation to Br. Edward W. Baker, 
United States Department of Agriculture, for his helpful criticism. 

]() PKOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, XO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 

Setae of dorsum number 10 iu place of 11 pairs, the last pair being 
absent, while the sensory seta measures 26m and is relatively longer, six 
instead of three times the length of the average body seta. Venter 
possesses eight instead of 15 pairs of setae, four epimeral, two medial, 
one genital and a single anal. A pore similar in form to that from 
which the setae arise is present anterior to the genital seta. The genital 
seta is twice the length of the body setae. 

Adult Female (Figs. 1, 9) : Body color translucent white with an 
opaque median longitudinal band running the length of the abdomen. 
Cuticle soft with fine tuberculate striations. Egg-shaped and sparsely 
haired. Eyes lacking. No suture betAveen propodosoma and hystriosoma. 
Dorsal and ventral shields absent. Size very small, 393-620/* in length 
including captiulum. Maximum width between legs II and III, 270- 
330/i, thus the body is approximately 1.4 times as long as broad. Anus 
ventral to subterminal. Genital aperture a median slit posterior to coxa 
IV. Genital suckers absent. 

Bostrum (Fig. 14) bilobed terminating in two minute hook-like projec- 
tions, its latero-basal region with network-like armature. Two pairs of 
small pilose setae situated on labial portion of rostrum. Pharynx clearly 
visible as a strongly sclerotized cone projecting between rostrum and 
mandibles. Chelicerae (Fig. 2) dorsal, devoid of setae and two-seg- 
mented. Distal segment extremely small, sharp; proximal segment con- 
tains a chitinized support in its latero-basal region. 

Palpi (Figs. 2, 14) composed of three rounded segments placed later- 
ally and between the chelicerae and rostrum, shorter than the latter. 
First and second segments devoid of seate, the second segment possess- 
ing some sclerotized armature. Terminal segment, a third the size of the 
second, with four setae, two pilose and one nude setae on internal ven- 
tral surface and more apically a single pilose seta. 

Legs (Figs. 1, 9) : Thick, shorter than body, sclerotinized network- 
like support present in all segments, but to a lesser extent in the tarsi. 
The first two pairs of legs directed anteriorly, and the last two pos- 
teriorly. Leg I a little longer and broader than the rest of the legs; 

Explanation of Plate 1 
Spefeognathiis sUorni. Fig. 1. Dorsal view of mite; sclerotized support 
shown on right half only; female. Fig. 2. Chelicerae; sclerotized sup- 
port shown on right portion only. Fig. 3. Portion of body to show the 
structure of the cuticle, the internal vertical seta modified as the sensory 
thoracic seta, and alongside this the extremely small external vertical 
seta. Fig. 4. Dorsum of tarsus I. Fig. 5. Dorsum of tarsus II. Fig. 6. 
Venter of tarsus I. Fig. 7. Venter of tarsus II. Fig. 8. Genital region 
of male. Fig. 9. Ventral view of mite; female. Fig. 10. Dorsal view 
of larva. Fig. 11. Ventral view of larva. Fig. 12. Venter of tarsus III. 
Fig. 13. Dorsum of tarsus III. Fig. 14. Venter of rostrum. Fig. 15. 
Terminal portion of a \es with claws displaced to expose the bifurcate 
pilose pulvillus. 



12 PROC. KiVT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JAXLAKY, 19-4S 

next in size is leg IV; legs II and II being shorter and approximately 
of equal size. Epimera I and II and those of III and IT are contiguous. 
The space between right and left anterior epimera is a little smaller 
than the space between' the anterior and posterior epimera of the same 
side. Legs of six segments and, except for the tarsi, possessing a few 
setae. Segments short and rounded, tarsus longer than tibia, Avhich 
is small and equal in size to patella. Femur broader and longer than 
tarsus. Trochanters III and IV devoid of setae; rest of segments omit- 
ting the tarsus bearing one or more pilose setae as figured. 

Tarsi (Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13 and 15) terminate bluntly in two lobes 
between which arise' two claws and a median bifurcated pilose pulvillus. 
Pilose setae arrangement complex, reminiscent of the slug-mites, Biccar- 
doella: Ventrally, two on each side of the claws; dorsally, one on either 
side of a median subapical larger seta arising from a prominent lobe. 
Additional setae present on tarsi I and II, tarsus III with an extra an- 
tero-dorsal seta; tarsus I with a latero-apical pair of setae between dor- 
sal and ventral surfaces, and towards the anterior edge ventrally, three 
pilose (one of whicli is apical) and a single nude seta. A peculiar sac- 
like structure, terminating in a flagellum, is to be found internally in 
tibia I. 

Body setae (Figs. 1, 3, 9) ovoid, short and pilose, the majority of 
uniform size. Dorsum, 11 pairs as in the Ereynetidae except that the 
abdominal sensory seta is replaced by an unspecialized body seta. Thus, 
according to Thor's terminology (Thor, 1933), the setae consist of four 
thoracic (external vertical very small; internal vertical, the modified 
sensory seta, which is three times the length of the average body seta; 
internal and external scapula) and seven abdominal (internal and ex- 
ternal humeral; internal dorsal; internal lumbar; internal and external 
sacral, the latter not modified as a sensory seta; and caudal). Sensory 
seta approximately 30/t in length and arising from an enlarged pore. 
Venter with 15 pairs of setae, five epimeral, two on the first and a single 
one on the rest of the epimera; three medial; five genital and two anal. 
The genital setae are arranged in two groups, two in the first group and 
three in the second, the anterior one of which is extremely small and 
occasionally absent. The two anal pairs are slightly larger than average. 

Male similar to female except smaller in size (330-380M by 236-285/*) 
with a smaller genital aperture (Fig. 8). 

Type Host. The starling', Sturnns vulgaris L. 

Type locality. Ithaca, N. Y. 

Type hahitat. Respiratory tract, the trachea, bronchiole 
tubes and in particular the nasal chambers. 

Type material. Holotype and paratype deposited in the 
United States National Museum. 

The mite is described from four specimens, type female 
and three female paratypes. No eggs are visible inside the 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 13 

Speleognathus sturni bears a striking resemblance to the 
sing mites, members of the genus Riccardoella, family Ereyne- 
ticlae, iii the structure of the cuticle, the chelicerae, the palpi 
and in the general setal arrangement of the entire body. 
However, it differs from this genus in fundamental features, 
namely in the absence of genital suckers and in the possession 
of only the anterior pair of sensory seta. Nevertheless, this 
latter characteristic also holds true for both the larva of 
Riccardoella limacum. and for the adult B. crassipes. The 
original description of R. crassipes Berlese and Tronesart, 
1889, unfortunately is unobtainable in this country, but ac- 
cording to Thor (1933) its body color is reddish, its thoracic 
setae short, sclerotized support absent and the palpi terminate 
in two pilose setae. It was reported from the English spar- 
row. Passer domesticus L., from France, but its habitat was 
not included in the description. Due to the absence of genital 
suckers Speleognathus sturni has not been placed in the 
family of the slug-mites, Ereynetidae, but in the family 
Speleognathidae. This latter family was established by Wo- 
mersley (1936) to contain Speleognathus australis, a free- 
living mite. Speleognathus australis and ^S'. sturni both lack 
genital suckers and have similar features in common, in par- 
ticular the sclerotized armature in the legs. However, it is 
now necessary to alter the description of the family by the 
omission of "eyes present and palpi one-segmented." These 
two characteristics should now be employed to differentiate 
the two species from each other. 

Since Speleognathus sturni so closely resembles species of 
Riccardoella, the slug-mites, undoubtedly they are related and 
probably arose from a common ancestor. It is of interest to 
note that both mites live in a warm, well-aerated mucous en- 
vironment, the former in the nasal passages of the starling, 
while the latter is associated with the skin and mantle cavity 
of snails. In addition, it should be pointed out that snails 
constitute part of the diet of starlings. The question may 
thus be asked, could Speleognathus sturni have arisen from 
the ancestors of the present-day Riccardoella species, when 
their host, the snail, was consumed as food by this bird, 
thereby gaining entrance via the mouth to the nasal passages ? 
The subsequent structural specializations that would ensue 
in such a condition, would account for the divergence of 
characteristics existing between these Uvo mucous-loving mites. 


Thor, S., 1933. Acarina : Tydeidae, Ereynetidae. Das Tierreich. Leip- 
zig 60, No. 1. 

14 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 

Turk, F. A. and Phillips, S. M., 1946. A monograph of the slug mite, 
Biccardoella limacum. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, (B) 115:448-472. 

Womersley, H., 1936. On a new family of Acarina, with description of 
a. new genus and species. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 18:312-31.5. 



On August 15, 1947 C. W. Sabrosky captured a tiny female 
Megachile flying in his office in the U. S. National Museum. 
It was apparent at once that this was a Megachile (Eutri- 
charea) and that it was a different species from the Palaearctic 
tic M. (E.) apicalis (Spinola) [^ virginiana Mitchell] which 
is adventive in North America in Virginia, New Jersey (?) 
and Canada. The specimen was sent to Prof. T. B. Mitchell 
who reported (Aug. 27th) — "I can find no significant differ- 
ences between it and some specimens [European] identified 
as rotundata by Alfken." Mitchell (1937, Trans. Amer. Ent. 
Soc, 63: 417) mentions the possibility that some of the males 
recorded by him as apicalis might actually be rotundata. 

In the meantime a second female had been submitted on 
August 19th by a resident of Arlington, Va., who reported it 
as causing damage in her garden and requested control mea- 
sures. I compared this with European material in the USNM 
collection and found that it agreed with specimens determined 
as rotundata by Friese and also with Friese's descriptions of 
that species in Die Bienen Europa's (1899, pt. 5: 60-1) and 
Das Tierreich (1911, Lief. 28: 178). 

Therefore, Megachile (Eutricharea) rotundata (Fabricius) 
is to be considered an established member of the North Ameri- 
can fauna in at least the Washington metropolitan area. It is 
the tiniest Megachile in this country (9,7-9 mm. in length). 

Karl V. Krombein, 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 


The Congress will assemble in Stockholm from August 9th 
to 14th, 1948. The following sections are provided for dis- 
cussion : S.ystematic entomology ; physiology ; ecology and zoo- 
geography; morphology and anatomy; embryology; agricul- 
tural and horticultural entomology; apiculture; forest ento- 
mology; stored products insects; medical and veterinary ento- 
mology; methods of control and insecticides; nomenclature 
and historj^; bibliography; arachnids. Specific information 
about the program of the Congress and the arrangements in 
connection therewith will be forwarded shortly. 

Address of the Congress Office: Stockholm 50, Sweden. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 15 


(Hymenoptera, Apoidba) 

By Charles D. Michener, Associate Curator, American Mvseum of 

Natural History 

The American species of Melecta were revised by Linsley 
(1939) and a supplementary paper by the same author was 
published in 1943. It is evident from these papers that the 
American distribution of this holarctic genus is anomalous. 
In this hemisphere most of the species are western, there being- 
twenty or more western species and subspecies. There is, 
however, a single rare species in the eastern United States, 
and another in Puerto Rico. Curiously, it is only in the 
Greater Antilles that the tribe Melectini is known from the 
American tropics. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Karl V. Krombein and the 
authorities of the United States National Museum, I have re- 
cently been permitted to study an interesting melectine bee 
from the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles. This 
Haitian bee is a member of the genus Melecta, and, like M. 
pantalon (Dewitz) from Puerto Rico, is closely related to the 
subgenus Melectomorpha of western North America. It agrees 
with that subgenus in the bidendate inner margin of the man- 
dibles, the thickened male flagellum, the short pubescence, the 
fasciate abdomen, and the broad inner rami of the claws of 
the middle and posterior tarsi. It differs from Melectomorpha 
as indicated below. 

Nesomelecta, new sultgenus 

A subgenus of Melecta, related to Melectomorpha Linsley (1939) from 
which it differs as follows: Antennae of male more elongate, the flagel- 
lar segments scarcely broader than long ; maxillary palpi very small, 
less than one-fourth as long as first segment of labial palpus, two- or 
three-segmented, first segment fixed and globular; dorsal lobes of scu- 
telluni each provided with a long, posteriorly-directed spine. 

Type species : Melecta haitensis, new species. 

As can be seen from Dewitz' (1881) figures and description, 
M. panta,lo7i (Dewitz) obviously belongs to this subgenus. 
Although in M. haitensis the maxillary palpi are three-seg- 
mented (second and third segments subequal and each about 
twice as long as broad), Dewitz states that the maxillary palpi 
of pantalon are two-segmented. This may be an observational 
error, as the palpi are minute. More probabl.y, in view of the 
excellence of the Dewitz description and figures, the palpi are 
actually two-segmented in pantalon, three-segmented in hai- 
tensis. It is interesting to note that Nesomelecta, the most 
specialized of all American subgenera of Melecta as indicated 
by the extreme reduction of the maxillary palpi, is also 

16 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, XO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 

farthest removed geographically from the generally holaretic 
meleetine distributional area. The known localities for Neso- 
melecta are over 1,500 miles southeast of the nearest locality 
for the related subgenus Meleotomorpha and over 1,000 miles 
from the nearest known locality for any M elect a. 

A key to the American subgenera of Melecta, modified from 
that of Linsley (1939) and Miehener (1944), is given below: 

Key to the American Subgenera op Melecta 

1. Dorsal lobes of seutellum each acute or armed with a tooth or 

spine ; wings lightly inf useated or mottled 2 

Dorsal lobes of seutellum rounded; wings blackish 

Xeromelecta Linsley 

2. Mandibles with inner margin edentate or unidentate; scutellar 

lobes acute dorsally or armed with a dorsal spine; thorax and 
usually second abdominal (first metasomal) tergum with long, 

erect pubescence; marginal cell rounded at apex — — 3 

Mandibles with inner margin bidentate; scutellar lobes each with 
posterior tooth or spine; thorax and second abdominal tergum 
Avith patches or fasciae of appressed pale pubescence; marginal 
cell subtruncate at apex 4 

3. Mandibles with inner margin unidentate; maxillary palpi Ave - 

segmented or with a short sixth segment ; scutellar lobes acute 
or armed with a stout spine exceeded by surrounding pubes- 
cence; second abdominal tergum usually clothed with erect pale 
hair; pygidial plate slender apically, not covering its tergum 

Melecta, Latreille, s. str. 
Mandibles with inner margin edentate or with a very feeble tooth; 
maxillary palpi six-segmented, last segment nearly as long as 
fifth; scutellar lobes each armed with a slender curved spine as 
long as surrounding pubescence ; second abdominal tergum with- 
out pale hairs; pygidial plate of female broad, covering ex- 
posed dorsal surface of seventh tergum Melectomimus Linsley 

4. Maxillary palpi less than one-fourth as long as labial palpi, three- 

segmented ; scutellar lobes each armed with posterior spine; 
male flagellar segments mostly scarcely broader than long 

Nesomelecta, new subgenus 
Maxillary palpi more than half as long as labial palpi, four-seg- 
mented; scutellar lobes armed with mere teeth; male flagellar 

segments mostly much broader than long Meleciomorpha 


Melecta (Nesomelecta) haitensis, new species 
Male: Length 10 mm. Black, the labrum, apical margin of clypeus, 
middle portions of mandibles, tegulae, and legs reddish broAvn ; antennal 
flagella, pronotum, seutellum, metanotum, and posterior abdominal seg- 
ments brown. Wings mottled apically with brownish in a pattern similar 
to that of MeJeclomorpJia ; veins and pterostigma brown. Punctation fine 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 17 

and dense except on lower portions of mesepisterna where the punctures 
are large and well separated. Antennal scape only about twice as long 
as broad; first flagellar segment on under side shorter than any other 
flagellar segment. Pubescence of type badly matted, apparently due to 
wetting, so that the following description may require amplification 
when fres,h specimens are available; pubescence of face cream color, 
that of vertex and cheeks brown ; pubescence of mesocutum short and 
appressed, brown Avith a longitudinal median band of cream and with 
cream along scuto-scutellar suture and at extreme sides near tegulae; 
sides of thorax with cream pubescence; pubescence of legs cream col- 
ored, very dense and conspicuous on outer sides of middle tibiae; ab- 
dominal terga two to four with pubescence short and appressed, black 
except for very broad continuous subapical bands of a dark cream color; 
remaining abdominal terga apparently without such bands, the pubes- 
cence being dark brown, progressively paler apically. Apex of eighth 
tergum shallowly emarginate. 
Female: Unknown. 

Holotype: Port au Prince, Haiti, 1925 (G. N. Woleott) ; 
[USNM Type No. 58428]. 

This species differs from Melecta pantalon (Dewitz) (penta- 
lon Linsley, 1943) by the unbroken abdominal bands and ap- 
parently by several other characters, including the three-seg- 
mented maxillary palpi. 

Melecta (Melectomorpha) californica californica Cresson 

A specimen of this form was collected by the author at 
Fresnillo, Zacatecas. Mexico, August 15, 1947. This is the 
southernmost record for a melectine bee in continental Amer- 

Melecta (Melecta) fulvida Cresson 

This form is apparently a species distinct from M. pacifica 
Cresson for the two forms occur together throughout the 
entire Rocky Mountain region from British Columbia to 
Colorado without intergradation. There are, moreover, struc- 
tural differences between the species in the males. In M. 
fulvida (male) the apical abdominal tergum is bidentate while 
in M. pacifica it is truncate. The ventral apical process of 
the male gonocoxite which projects beneath the base of the 
gonostylus is provided with very short, sparse, pale hairs in 
fulgida while it bears a brush of long black hairs in paeifica. 

Melecta (Melecta) atlantica Linsley 

This species is very similar to M. pacifica Cresson, the py- 
gidial plate of the female being the same shape. Unlike the 
type (as described by Linsley, 1943) a female from Yonah 
Mountain, Georgia, has some Avhite hairs intermixed with the 

18 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 

black on the first metasomal tergum. The long hairs on this 
tergnm are almost all white in pacifica. 

Male: Similar to M. pacifica, the long hairs of first metasomal ter- 
gum being very largely white, but somewhat sparser, especially medially, 
than in pacifica so that the pale band is less distinct than in that species. 
Apical tergum strongly bideutate (truncate in pacifica). Apical ventral 
process of male gonocoxite (which projects beneath the base of the 
gonostylus) provided with short sparse hairs (with long hairs in 
pacifica). Gonostylus short and rounded (in pacifica more elongate and 
acutely pointed). 

Neallotype male : Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, March 3, 
1936 (P. 'W. Fattig) in the United States National Museum. 
This species was described from a single female from Kenne- 
saw Mountain, Georgia (Linsley, 1943). Thanks to Mr. Karl 
V. Krombein a male from the same locality has been sent me 
for study, together with a female from Yonah Mountain, 
Georgia, May 3, 1941 (P. W. Fattig). The species is evi- 
dently widespread in the east for there is a male from New- 
foundland, New Jersey, May 30, 1910, in the collection of the 
American Museum of Natural History. 

Literature Cited 
Bewitz, H., 1881. Hymenoptereu von Portorico, Berliner Ent. Zeit., 25: 

197-208, Taf. V. 
Linsley, E. Gorton, 1939. A revision of the nearctic Melectinae (Hy- 

menoptera, Anthophoridae), Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 32: -429-468, 

figs. 1-9. 
— - — ■, 1943. The genus Melecta in eastern North America and 

Porto Bico (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae), Jour. New York Ent. 

Soc, 51: 225-227. 
Michener, Charles D., 1944. Comparative external morphology, phylog- 

eny, and a classification of the bees (Hymenoptera), Bull. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., 82: 157-326, diagrams 1-13, figs. 1-246. 


By Jenaro Maldonado Caprices, Bureau of Malaria Conirol, Health 
Department, San Juan, Puerto Bico 
Examination of specimens "of Ploiaria collected at A^arious 
localities in Puerto Rico, along the coastal plain and at El 
Yunque National Forest, has shown the presence of three 
new species closely related to Ploiaria (Luteva) gundlachi 
(Dohrn). Description of these species is given herein. A key- 
is given to separate the three new species and P. gundlachi. 
Drawings of the male hypopygium of P. gundlachi (det. 
McAtee and Malloch) are included for comparison; these 
were made from specimens kindly loaned by Dr. R. I. Sailer 

PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 19 

from the U. S. National Museum. Types of the new species 
have been deposited in the U. S. National Museum and para- 
types in the author's collection. The author is much indebted 
to Dr. R. I. Sailer for his invaluable help in writing' this paper. 

Ploiaria (Luteva) yunquensis, uew species 

Male: Agrees with the characters given in the generic key of McAtee 
and Malloch's paper "Eevision of the American Bugs of the Eeduviid 
Subfamily Ploiarinae" (Proc. XJ. S. Nat. Museum, No. 2573, Vol. 67: 
No. 1, 1925) except that the tibia is not "over half as long as the fore 
femur" as mentioned in the key. Fore trochanter with a few fine hairs. 
Fore femur with the spines on the posteroventral surface in single line 
in an irregular pattern, no noticeably outstanding spines. Apical anten- 
nal segment slightly shorter than subapical (6.5:7). Antenna covered 
with long hairs. Fore coxa nearly twice as long as fore tibia (8.7:4.5), 
two-thirds longer than pronotum (8.7:5). Pronotum constricted before 
posterior margin which is suddenly dilated. Mesonotum widened pos- 
teriorly. Body covered with fine decumbent pubescence. Eye narrower 
than interocular space (1.8:2.5). 

Pale yellowish species with distinct but variable reddish-brown marks. 
Faint markings on pronotum; mesonotum with three longitudinal vittae, 
the central divided in two, the caudad darker; variable. A reddish 
brown stripe from the side of the head, starting behind the eye, along 
the pleura to the abdomen ; may be formed by several narrower bands. 
The most constant markings are on the fore femur and before the apices 
of the hind and mid femora. Fore femur with incomplete brown annuli 
at base, middle, and before tip; a few brown spots between the annuli. 
Mid femur with a very faint subapical band. Hind femur unmarked. 
Eyes purplish, prominent (Fig. 14). Forewing venation typical of the 
genus (Fig. 15) ; apical cross vein located about midway from base to 
apex of the vein produced from apex to discal cell. Wings with many 
radiating spots; three more prominent spots near costa; the elongate 
dark mark in the middle of discal cell and the cell below the cross-vein 
dark, conspicuous but not chitinized, radiating. 

Male hypopygium (Figs. 1-3) : Last abdominal segment with two sharp, 
tapering dorsolateral processes ; subequal in length to claspers. This 
process is not present in any of the other species of the genus, except 
in the next species described in this paper. Claspers stout, bent at upper 
two thirds, ending in a sharp point, swollen at middle, covered with long 
fine hairs. Two groups of about eight or ten short, blunt, heavily pig- 
mented spines crown the processes of the ventral margins of the hy- 

Female: Similar in coloration to the male. Antenna bare. Wing 
markings more conspicuous than in the male. 

Described from two males and one female collected at El 
Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico, October 16 and No- 
vember 27, 19-18, from bromeliads while feedino- on small 

20 PHOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, XO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 

Fulgoroidea and from light traps. 

Holotype — male. El Yiinque, Puerto Rico, October 16. 1943. 
U. S. National Museum Cat. No. 58491. 

Allotype — female, same locality, November 27, 1943 ; [U. S. 
National Museum]. 

Paratype— male, same locality, October 27, 1943 ; [in the 
author's collection]. 

Ploiaria (Luteva) maria, new species 

Male: Generic characters similar to P. yunquensis n. sp. Fore tro- 
chanter and fore femur similar to yunquensis. Apical antennal segment 
shorter than subapieal (5.7:7); antenna covered with long fine hairs. 
Fore coxa one half longer than fore tibia and pronotum (6:4:). Pro- 
notum and mesonotum as in yunquensis n. sp. Pronotum subequal to 
mesonotum in length. Body covered with fine decumbent pubescence. 
Eye narrower than interocular space (1.6:2.1). 

Pale yellowish species with blackish-brown markings, variable. Mark- 
ings on mesonotum similar to yunquensis but fainter. Fore femora with 
many blackish-brown spots; these may group to form incomplete annuli. 
Mid and hind femora each with a dark subapieal band. Eyes very deep 
red, almost blackish; less prominent than in yunquensis (Fig. 13). Fore- 
wing venation tjiJical of the genus (Fig. 16) ; apical cross vein located 
about midway from base to apex of the vein produced from apex of 
discal cell. Many round blackish spots on wing; radiations very weak 
or absent. Three more prominent spots near costa. A small dark spot 
in discal cell about one fourth from apex. Spot below apical cross vein 
not chitinized or radiating, circular. 

Male hypopygium (Figs. 4-6) : last a])dominal segment with two dorso- 
lateral processes, pointed at tip, shorter than the claspers. Claspers long, 
slender, bent at upper two-thirds, ending in a sharp point; covered with 
long fine hairs. The two groups of spines crowning the processes of the 
ventral margins of the hypopygium consisting of 4 or 5 spines on the 
ventral side located behind 5 or 6 shorter spines. 

Holotvpe — male, collected in a light trap at Ponce, Puerto 
Rico, March 10, 1946. U. S. National Museum Cat. No. 58492. 

Paratvpes — 1 male, same data as holotvpe ; 1 male, same lo- 
cality, Sept. 10, 1946; 2 males, L. Tortuguero, P. R., Feb- 
ruary 27, 1943; [U. S. National Museum]. Two males, Ponce, 
P. R., April 15, 1947; [in the author's collection]. 
Ploiaria (Luteva) poncei, new species 

Male: generic characters as in yunquensis and maria. Fore tibia half 
as long as fore femur. Fore trochanter with a few fine hairs. Fore 
femur with the spines on the posteroventral surface in a single line in 
an irregular pattern, no noticeably outstanding spines. Apical antennal 
segment shorter than subapieal (f).8:7). Antenna covered with long 
hairs. Fore coxa less than two thirds as long as fore tibia and pro- 
notum (7:4.7). Pronotum constricted before posterior margin which is 
suddenly dilated. Pronotum longer than mesonotum (shorter in Ploiaria 

PROC. ENT. SOG. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 PlATB 2 

P. poncei 

Explanation of Plate 2 
Hypopygium of Ploiaria yunquensis, n. sp. Fig. 1, ventral view. Fig. 2, 
lateral view. Fig. 3, dorsal view. Hypopygium of Ploiaria maria, n. sp. 
Fig. 4, ventral view. Fig. 5, lateral view. Fig. 6, dorsal view. Hypopy- 
gium of Ploiaria gundlachi (Dohrn). Fig. 7, ventral view. Fig. 8, 
lateral view. Fig. 9, dorsal view. Hypopygium of Ploiaria poncei, n. sp. 
Fig. 10, ventral view. Fig. 11, lateral view. Fig. 12, dorsal view. Fig. 
13, Head of Ploiaria maria, n. sp., dorsal view. Fig. 14, Head of Ploiaria 
yunquensis, n. sp., dorsal view. Fig. 15, Fore wing of Ploiaria yunquen- 
sis, n. sp. Fig. 16, Fore wing of Ploiaria maria, n. sp. 


22 PROO. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 

(J II nd lac III) . Mesonotum slightly widened posteriorly. Body covered with 
fine decumbent pubescence. Eye narrower than interocular space 1.6:2.4). 

Pale yellowish species with pale or blackish-brown markings, variable. 
Markings on pronotum, mesonotum, and body similar to yunquensia, 
variable in pattern and intensity. Fore femur as in maria. Mid and 
liind femora each with a dark subapieal band. Eyes blackish, not very 

Forewing venation typical of the genus. Apical cross vein located 
about midway from base to apex of the vein produced from apex to 
discal cell. The location of the cross vein varies in individuals of the 
species. Many round blackish spots on wing, radiations weak. Three 
more prominent spots near costa. Spot on discal cell elongate, radiating. 
Spot below apical cross vein elongate, radiating. The cell before the 
apical cross vein with 7 or 8 subcircular spots in a line and parallel to 
costal margin. 

Male hypopygium: (Figs. 10-12) last abdominal segment wtihout dorso- 
lateral processes. Claspers long, slender, bent at upper two-thirds, end 
ing in a sharp point, slightly swollen near base, covered with long fine 
hairs. The groups of spines crowning the processes of the ventral mar- 
gins of the hypopygium consisting of 10 or 12 long sharp spines; the 
longest on the ventral side. 

Holotype — male, collected at Ponce, Puerto Rico, March 
10, 1946, in a light trap. U. S. National Museum Cat. No. 

Paratypes — 2 males, same locality, February 27, 1947 ; 1 
male, same locality, October 7, 1946 ; 1 male, same locality, 
March 10, 1947; [U. S. National Museum]. One male same 
locality, March 10, 1947; [in the author's collection]. 

Key to the Males of the PueiRto Rico Species of Ploiaria 

1. Male hypopygium with dorsolateral process 2 

Male hypopygium without dorsolateral process 3 

2. Dorsolateral process long, slender, tapering throughout; hind 

femur without preapical band— PZoiarifl (Luteva) yunqnensis, n. sp. 
Dorsolateral process short, bluntly pointed at tip; hind femur 
with preapical band Ploiaria (Luteva) maria, n. sp. 

3. Cell before apical cross vein with 7 or 8 subcircular spots; hypo- 

pygium as in Fig. 7 Ploiaria (Luteva) poncei, n. sp. 

Cell before apical cross vein with 5 larger subcircular spots; 
hypopygium as in Fig. 8. Ploiaria (Liiteva) gundlacJii (Dohru) 



The 575th regular meeting of the Society Avas held at 8 P.M., October 

2, 1947, in Eoom 43 of the U. S. National Museum Avith President Clark 

in the Chair. There were 49 members and 29 guests present. The minutes 

of the previous meeting were approved as read. 

New members were elected as follows: Miss Fern R. Bell, Fruit 
Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 23 

Dr. Elizabeth M. Boyd, Assistant Professor of Zoology, Mount Holyoke 
College, South Hadley, Massachusetts; O. D. Deputy, P. O. Box 909, 
Brownsville, Texas; Paul T. Eiherd, College Station, Substation No. 3, 
Angleton, Texas. 

Dr. Mcludoo reported on the progress of his experiments in the 
binding of separates. He displayed samples of his work together with 
various types of materials tested. 

Dr. P. L. Campbell discussed the content and purposes of the Scientific 
Monthly of which he is the Editor. 

Gurney discussed briefly the family Ascalaphidae as found in the 
United States. Two species occur in the region about Washington, D. C, 
Ululodes quadrimaculata (Say) and Ne^iroptynx apiyendiculatus (P.), 
the former being the more commonly collected, though both are seldom 
seen. He spoke particularly of his attempts to rear quadrimacidata from 
egg to adult, and exhibited life history materials from studies in prog- 
ress. Notes on the acceptable prey of the larvae, their habits and 
molting have already been obtained. Adults have not yet been reared, 
but if obtained they may support certain views regarding the synonymy 
of color forms and sexually dimorphic forms now carried as distinct on 
taxonomic lists. (Author's abstract) 

Mr. Packard stated that specimens of a solitary bee received by the 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine had been determined by 
Mr. Krombein as Andrena solidaginis Robertson. An unusual photo- 
graph, supplied by the correspondent, showed a lawn containing 449 
burrows of the colony in an area 14 x 20 feet. 

The first paper on the regular program was presented by Dr. J. F. 
Yeager: "A Physiological Discussion of the Mode of Action of DDT 
and some Other Insecticides." 

An informal discussion of some recent literature dealing with the 
mode of insecticidal action, especially that of DDT. Thus far, various 
researches have indicated that DDT does not act as an anticholinesterase 
but does have at least two sites of action in the roach: on certain 
sensory cells in the integument and, at higher concentrations, on motor 
neive fibers. Certain aspects of DDT penetration of the cuticle were 
briefly considered particularly the possible role of chitin, and the possible 
relation of carbohydrate depletion to DDT action and neuro-motor 
symptoms was touched upon. (Author's abstract). 

Dr. Mclndoo inquired if it is known exactly how DDT kills an insect. 
Dr. Yeager replied that, although much had been learned about its 
action, the exact mechanism causing death is still unknown. In mammals 
the central nervous system, especially the cerebellum, is affected. There 
are no peripheral effects similar to those observed in insects. 

The second regular i)aper was given bj' Major P. W. Whittemore, Jr., 
and Dr. Alan Stone: "The Alaska Mosquito Control Project, 1947." 

The purpose of this project was to study the insects attacking man iii 
the arctic and subarctic regions, particularly the mosquitoes, and to 
conduct research in their control. This was carried out under Bureau 

24 PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL,. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1948 

of Entomology, Army, and Navy funds. Excellent cooperation was 
received from the Alaska Command in carrying out the work. An 
advance party of five reached Anchorage May 4th and found that the 
mosquito larvae were well along in the icy pools and that the over- 
wintering Culiseia, Ciilex, and Anopheles were already on the wing. This 
party conducted preliminary surveys in the Anchorage area and along 
the highways to Fairbanks. By the middle of June the party increased 
to 21, including 11 entomologists, 3 botanists, 2 cliniatologists, 1 ecol- 
ogist, 1 aquatic biologist, 1 biophysieist, 1 smoke generator operator, 
and 1 laboratory technician. The last members of the party left Alaska 
September 3rd. Several general surveys were made covering all of the 
roads in Alaska, from Valdez and Anchorage to Fairbanks, Circle City, 
Livengood, and Willow. Various members of the party made trips by 
train or air to Mt. McKinley National Park, Umiat, Barrow, Nome, 
Nenana, Whittier, and Adak. Study of the mosquito breeding places 
included careful observations on the plant associations and other ecologi- 
cal relationships. Many living mosquito larvae and blackfiy pupae 
were collected and brought into the laboratory for rearing, and nearly 
600 adults emerged from isolated larvae and pupae. The bloodsucking 
species collected consisted of 18 mosquitoes, at least 19 blackflies, 8 
punkies, and 14 horseflies. Due to unusually dry conditions the adult 
populations of mosquitoes were low. The principal mosquitoes were 
Aedes functor, A. communis, Culiseia alasTcaensis, and C. impaUens. One 
large punky was extremely abundant and annoying at Valdez. As soon 
as the breeding areas were found larvicide experiments were started 
against the mosquitoes, and later in the season much time was devoted to 
experiments in the eradication of blackfly larvae from the streams. 
Along with the latter went tests to determine the effect of the various 
poisons on fish and fish foods. It was impossible to conduct insect 
repellent or protective clothing tests due to the relatively few mosquitoes, 
and adult control operations were not very successful due to the diffi- 
culty of getting the equipment to the right place at the right time. 
Before leaving, many plots were treated for prehatching control, both 
by hand and by airplane, and others were laid out for treatment early 
next year. Some work was done on calibration of spraying equipment 
and on droplet size. (Authors' abstract). 

Visitors Were introduced to the Society as follows: S. Sandara 
Raman, Entomologist, Public Health Department, Madras, India; Dr. 
Helen W. Kaan and Marian E. Pohl from the Biological Coordination 
Center, National Besearch Council. 

Mr. Raman addressed the Society briefly. He cited the terrific malaria 
problem in India and stressed the necessity for cooperation from 
entomologists of all countries to control it successfully. Aerial applica- 
tion of DDT is particularly adapted to the great rice fields of India. 

The meeting adjourned at 10 P.M. 

Ina L. Hawks, 
Recording Secretary 

Actual Date of Publication, January 33, 1948 

VOL. 50 February, 1948 ^9^2^ 


of the 



Published Monthlt Except JuI/T, Auottbt akd Skfteubxb 





Entered as second-clsss matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at WashincUm, 
D. C, under Act of Anffast 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1108, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 3, 1918. 




Organized Maech 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum 
on the first Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President L. O. Howabd 

President E. H. Sieqleb 

First Vice President T. E. Snydee 

Second Vice President W. B. Wood 

Recording Secretary Ina L. Hawes 

Corresponding Secretary A. B. Gurnet 

Treasurer Howabd Bakee 

Editor Kael V. Keombeik 

Executive Committee..,— F. W. Poos, C. A. Weigel, Austin H. Ciaek 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President of the 

Washington Academy of Sciences C. P. W. Muesebeok 


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proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 50 FEBRUARY, 1948 No. 2 



By W. H. Anderson, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

Larvae of several of the species of Hypera have been de- 
scribed or figured by various authors during- the past century, 
and accounts of life cycles and habits have been published. 
Some of the principal papers dealing- with these subjects are 
those by Goureau, 1844^ ; Perris, 1851 ; Heeg-er, 1851 ; La- 
boulbene, 1862; Rosenhauer, 1882; Titus, 1911; Urban, 1923 
and 1929 ; and Servadei, 1944. While the published descrip- 
tions contain some of the characters peculiar to larvae of the 
genus none is complete. Furthermore the distinguishing- 
characters for the species discussed have not been indicated. 
For this reason it has not been pos-^ible to incorporate into the 
key which follows any reference to species not available for 

Of the 14 named forms which were studied in the prepara- 
tion of the present paper, 6 are found in Europe and North 
America, and 7 are found in Europe but not in North Amer- 
ica. The fourteenth species, Hypera compta (Say), is record- 
ed from North America onl3^ Identification of nearly all the 
larvae is based upon that for reared adults by competent 
systematists. Larvae of all the species studied are in the col- 
lection of the United States National Museum, a specimen of 
Hypera pedestris (Payk.) having been kindly given to that 
collection b}' Dr. F. van Emden of the Imperial Institute of 
Entomology, London, England. As will be noted nearly all 
the specimens received from Europe were collected by J. P. 
Kryger, Thoreby Gl. Skole, Flintinge, Denmark, and de- 
posited in the United States National Museum through his 
continuing kindness. 

The following- diagnosis is believed to be sufficient to dis- 
tinguish mature (4th stage) larvae of Hypera from those of 
the other genera of Rhynchophora which are known. 

iSee Literature Cited. 

5MR 1 - t9l§ 

26 PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBKU.ARY, 194S 

Hypera Germar 
Larva sleuder, slightly to strongly curved, rarely straight (in pre- 
served specimens). Eusterna- bilobed, forming at least moderately dis- 
tinct, short ampullae. Head often darkly pigmented, free, as broad as 
or broader than long. Two pairs of ocelli present, each ocellus convex, 
distinct. Antenna consisting of one membranous article which bears a 
conical accessory sensory appendage and several minute setae. Cata- 
pophyses in same plane as frons. Frontal suture distinguishable through- 
out its length, incomplete anteriorly. Endocarina absent. Frons with 
four, rarely three {H. rumicis (L.)) pairs of setae, frontal seta 5 elon- 
gate. Anterior margin of labrum with distinct emargination at the mid- 
dle. Paired lateral and unpaired median sensilla present on labrum. 
Labral rods present. Epipharynx with four anteromedian setae. Labial 
palpus with one article. Postmentum with three pairs of setae, the setae 
of posterior pair separated by a distance equal to one-third or one-fourth 
that between the middle pair. Maxillary palpus with two articles, the 
basal article not bearing a free accessory process, the apical article with- 
out lateral seta. Mala with five ventral and six dorsal setae. All spira- 
cles bicameral, the air tubes annulated. Spiracular area of mesothorax 
with three setae, one minute the other two longer, subequal. Alar area 
of mesothorax and metathorax with two setae. Typical abdominal seg- 
ments with three dorsal folds (fold III apparently absent in H. compta) , 
fold I developed laterally, and five postdorsal setae. Epipleurum of ab- 
dominal segments with two setae. Pleurum of abdominal segments with 
two setae. Eusternum with one very short seta. Sternellum present. 

The key which follows is based upon 4th stage larvae only 
and, except in a few instances, the key characters will not 
hold for younger larvae. I realize that the difficulties of rec- 
ognizinq- the various stages in a population are considerable. 
In most infestations, however, all stages may occur together 
and larvae making a pupil cell or already within the cell will 
be mature. The width of the head of 4th stage larvae of the 
various species has been incorporated into the key. These mea- 
surements will be of only slight value in differentiating the 
species but may help to make 4th stage larvae recognizable 
as such. 

The available larvae seem to fall into four natural groups, 
although arundinis (Payk.) is rather distinct and may repre- 
sent a fifth group. The first of these groups contains eight 
species which in turn represent two subgroups, the first sub- 
group including nigrirostris (F.), triUneata (Marsh.) and 
meles (F.), the second subgroup including pedestris (Payk.), 
plantaginis (Deg.), iranssylvanica (Petri), postica (Gyll.) 
and hrunneipennis (Boh.). The second group of species is 

2For an explanation of this and other terms employed in the descrip- 
tion and key see Anderson, 1947. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 27 

represented by punctata (F.). The third "roup includes 
rumicis (L.) and compta (Say). The fourth includes arator 
(L.), arundinis (Payk.) and adspersa (F.). For the most 
part these groupinos agree with those found in the compre- 
hensive study, based upon the adults, published by Petri, 
1901. Judging- from that classification of the adults it ap- 
pears that larvae of three of the species which are available 
for study are incorrectly placed. Petri places nigrirostris, 
pedestris and arator in three separate groups each different 
from those indicated by the larvae. It is quite possible that 
as larvae of more species become available for study it will 
be found that the characters, by which eacli of the above-men- 
tioned three species is separated, are common to unrepresented 
species. In that case the classification of the adults will be 
more closely borne out by that of the larvae. 

The species which have been most difficult to separate in the 
following ke.y are pedestris, plantaginis, transsylvanica , pos- 
tica and hrunneipennis. The principal differences found lie 
in the comparative length and shape of setae on various parts 
of the body. Characters of a comparative nature are unsatis- 
factory at best, but it is hoped that by the use of the accom- 
panying illustrations my meaning will be understood. 

Key to the Species 

1. Principal dorsal setae on abdomen cylindrical to club shaped, 

short (figs. 9, 22-25) ; head capsule orange anteriorly, brown 
or mottled posteriorly (often nearly completely orange in 
nigrirostris) ; (abdomen not distinctly darker dorsally than 

ventrally) 2 

Principal dorsal setae on abdomen cylindrical to attenuate, 
not enlarged apically, usually elongate (figs. 3-5, 8) ; head 
capsule brown to dark brown, without transverse orange band 
anteriorly; (abdomen often distinctly darker dorsally than 
ventrally) 8 

2. Frons smoothly convex; mandible with two apical teeth (fig. 6).. 3 
Trons with broad, blunt projection anteriorly; mandible with 

four apical teeth (fig. 7). Head width: 1.17 to 1.25 mm. 

piinciata (Fabricius) 

3. Dorsal area of prothorax not covered with asperities, an appre- 

ciable shiny sclerite present; frontal setae 1 and 2 very short 
to minute, usually one-third or less than one-third as long as 

seta 4 (fig. 13) 4 

Dorsal area of prothorax covered with blunt asperities, an appre- 
ciable sclerite absent ; frontal setae 1 and 2 short to moderately 
long, usually two-thirds as long as seta 4 (fig. 12) 5 

28 PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOU 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 

4. Head capsule orange, usually with a narrow infuscated band 

along margin of occipital foramen and one along epicranial 
suture; typical abdominal segments with postdorsal seta 2 
very short, not more than one-third as long as seta 3 (fig. 29). 
Head width (nigrirostris) : 0.52 to 0.55 mm. 

trilineata (Marsham) and nigrirostris (Fabricius)^ 
Posterior half of head capsule brown ; typical abdominal seg- 
ments with , postdorsal seta 2 longer, more than one-half as 
long as seta 3 (fig. 30). Head width: 0.56 mm. 

meles (Fabricius) 

5. Principal dorsal setae on body lightly but distinctly pigmented ; 

prodorsal setae on typical abdominal segments slender (fig. 
27), the length of each not greater than that of spiracle on 
> the same segment (fig. 28). Head width 0.77 mm. 

pedestris (Paykull) 
Principal dorsal setae on body not pigmented; prodorsal setae 
on typical abdominal segments stouter (figs. 23-25), the length 
of each greater (as much as twice as great) than that of 
spiracle on same segment (figs. 25, 26). Head width: 0.55 to 
0.63 mm. , 6 

6. The three most dorsal setae on pronotum either cylindrical or 

slightly to distinctly enlarged apically (fig. 2); postdorsal 
seta 2 on abdominal segments V and VI distinctly clubbed 
(figs. 16-19) : 7 

The three most dorsal setae on pronotum attenuate although 
some may be blunt (fig. 1); postdorsal seta 2 on abdominal 
segments V and VI slender, not or scarcely enlarged apically 

.^^ (figs. 20, 21). Head width: 0.55 to 0.62 mm. 

brunneipennis (Boheman) and postica (Gyllenhal) 

7. Postdorsal seta 3 on abdominal segments V (fig. 16) and VI 

(fig. 17) more slender than and approximately twice as long as 
seta 2 (figs. 16, 17). Head width: 0.63 to 0.65 mm. 

plantaginis (Degeer) 

Postdorsal seta 3 on abdominal segments V (fig. 18) and VI 

(fig. 19) not more slender nor appreciably longer than seta 

2 (figs. 18, 19). Head width: 0.61 mm. transsylvanica (Petri) 

8. Head capsule with fine dorsal and lateral granulations; abdomi- 

nal segments distinctly darker a'love epipleura than below; 
posterior half of each aV)donii!iJil pleuiuni, ))ohiiid longer seta, 

without asperities 9 

Head capsule without granulations; abdominal segments only 
slightly or not darker above epipleura than below; posterior 
half of each abdominal pleurum, behind longer seta, with 
pigmented asperities 10 

^For a possible means of separating 3rd stage larvae of these, two 
species see below under trilijieaia. 

PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO, 2, rEBRUABY, 1948 29 

9. Frons with three pairs of setae (fig. 15) ; pronotum nearly uni- 
formly covered with blunt asperities; dorsal fold III distinct 
on typical abdominal segments. Head width: 0.81 to 0.85 

mm. rumicis (Linnaeus) 

Frons with four pairs of setae (fig. 14) ; pronotum mth a shiny, 
pigmented sclerite which is not covered with asperities; dorsal 
fold III apparently absent on typical abdominal segments. 

Head width: 0.65 mm. compta (Say) 

10. Pigmented tubercles from which postdorsal setae 2 and 3 arise, 
on typical abdominal segments, adjacent or fused, not sep- 
arated by as much as one-half the diameter of either tubercle ; 
typical abdominal segments with postdorsal setae 2 and 4 
distinctly in front of a line connecting setae 1, 3 and 5; prin- 
cipal dorsal body setae long (fig. 3). Head width: 0.72 to 

0.75 mm. _ _____ arator (Linnaeus) 

Pigmented tubercles from which postdorsal setae 2 and 3 arise, 
on typical abdominal segments, separated by more than the 
diameter of either . tubercle ; typical abdominal segments with 
postdorsal setae 2 and 4 only slightly or not at all in front 
of a line connecting setae 1, 3 and 5; principal body setae 

short (fig. 5). 11 

11. Abdominal segments with oval, distinctly pigmented area im- 
mediately above and behind spiracle. Head width: 1.0 mm. 

arundinis (PaykuU) 

Abdominal segments without oval, pigmented area above and 

behind spiracle. Head width: 0.82 adspersa (Fabricius) 

Hypera nigrirostris (Fabricius), the lesser clover leaf weevil 

Specimens from North America were collected at Belling- 
ham, Wash., St. Helens and Portland, Ore., and Alton, Calif. 
The larvae attack clover, one series from Oregon being taken 
in young flower heads and buds. Specimens from Europe 
bear the data: Bovsierg, Denmark, August 4, 1946, Trifolium 
fragiferum L., J. P. Kryger. 

Hypera trilineata (Marsham) 

Specimens studied bear the data: Lemvig Fjord (Den- 
mark), July 12, 1938, in flowers and green fruits of Anthyllis 
vulneraria L., H. P. S. Sonderup. 

This material (received through J. P. Kryger) consists of 
several third-stage larvae, pupae in pupal cases together with 
cast (fourth-stage) larval skins, and reared adults. The cast 
larval skins have been mounted on slides but these prepara- 
tions are not satisfactory for careful study and comparison 
with well-preserved fourth-stage larvae of nigrirostris. At 

30 PROO. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 

the present time no significant differences have been found 
which will separate fourth-stage larvae of trilineata from the 
corresponding stage of nigrirostris. However, there seems to 
be a significant difference in the comparative lengths of the 
postdorsal setae in third-stage larvae of the material identified 
as these two species. These differences may be expressed as 
follows : 

Typical abdominal segments with postdorsal setae 1, 2, 4 and 5 
minute, scarcely one-fifth as long as seta 3 (fig. 10) 

nig rirost ris (Fabricius) 

Typical abdominal segments with postdorsal setae 1, 2, 4 and 5 

short, one-half or more than one-half as long as seta 3 (fig. 

11) trilineata (Marsham) 

Hypera males (Fabricius) 
Specimens studied bear the data : Gedser, Denmark, July 
21, 1946, Trifolium arvense, J. P. Kryger. This species is 
present in the United States but no larvae from this country 
are present in the collection of the United States National 

Hypera pedestris (Paykull) 
Specimens studied bear the data: Sehonebeck a. d. Elbe, 
July 1914, C. Urban. 

Hypera plantaginis (Degeer) 
Specimens studied bear the data : Flintinge Byskov, Lol- 
land, Denmark, July 12, 1942, Lotus, J. P. Kryger. A second 
series of specimens received from Kryger, and reported by 
Kryger and Sonderup (1940, p. 108) as Phytoiiomus trilinea- 
tus, was taken at Gronholt, Denmark, June 23, 1940, in flowers 
of Lotus and Anthyllis. I have reidentified those specimens, 
on the basis of larvae only, as H. plantaginis. 

Hypera transsylvanica (Petri) 
The single larva and a cast larval skin were received with 
the Hajoss collection of European weevils, November 6, 1929. 
No data accompany the specimens. 

Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), the alfalfa weevil 
Numerous larvae are available for study, most of them col- 
lected at Salt Lake City, Utah, 1939, on alfalfa, received from 
J. Hamlin. 

Hypera brunneipennis (Boheman) 
Careful comparative studies of a series of specimens identi- 
fied as Hypera hrmineipennis, collected at Yuma, Ariz., 

PROC. ENT,. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, lft48 31 

March-April, 1940, by W. C. McDuffie, have failed to indicate 
any consistent differences by which larvae of hncnneipennis 
may be separated from those of postica. 

Hype'ra punctata (Fabrieius), the clover leaf weevil 

Numerous larvae are available for study, collected in various 
parts of the United States. 

It should be noted that larvae of Listroderes ohliquus Klug 
and L. apicalis Waterhouse resemble those of H. punctata. 
The characteristics of the mandibles and frons as well as the 
number of setae on frons and on abdominal segment VIII 
will serve to distinguish larvae of H. punctata from those of 

Hypera rumicis (Linnaeus) 

Specimens studied bear the data : New Jersey Interstate 
Park, June 30, 1930, on Riunex, J. C. Bridwell; Ravenkilde, 
Rebild, Jutland, Denmark, July 14, 1917, on Eumex, J. P. 
Kryger; Holmegaards Mose (Denmark) July 9, 1939, Rumex 
hydrolapathum, J. P. Kryger. 

Hypera compta (Say) 

Specimens studied bear the data: Havana, 111., April 30, 
1898, on Polygonum; Canada, June 6, 1922, on Polygonum: 
Priest Bridge, Md., May 21, 1939, and June 2, 1940, on Poly- 
gonum, W. H. Anderson. 

Hypera arator (Linnaeus) 

Specimens studied bear the data : Tibirke, Seeland, Den- 
mark, July 7, 1918, on Spergula sativa, J. P. Kryger, Boto 
By, Denmark, August 17, 1942, Spergula arvensis, J. P. 

Hypera arundinis (Paykull) 

Specimens studied bear the data: Virum Mose, Seeland, 
Denmark, July 16, 1894, E. Rosenberg; Huseo Mose, Den- 
mark, August 13, 1940, Phellandrium, J. P. Kryger. 

Hypera adspersa (Fabrieius) 

Specimens studied bear the data: Maribo So, Denmark, 
July 18, 1913, in stems of Phellandrium, J. P. Kryger; Al- 
lerod So, Denmark, August 12, 1939, Phellandrium, J. P. 

32 pkoo. knt. soo. wash., vol. 50, no. 2, february, 1948 

Explanation of Figures 

All figures drawn by author, with the aid of a camera lueida (except 
figures 8 and 9). 

Fig. 1. Eypera postica, three most dorsal setae on pronotum, X 130. 

Fig. 2. H. trans^-ylvanica, three most dorsal setae on pronotum, X 130. 

Fig. 3. H. arator, prodorsal seta, abdominal segment II, X 60. 

Fig. 4, H. rumicis, prodorsal seta, abdominal segment II, X 60. 

Fig. 5. iT. arundinis, prodorsal seta, abdominal segment II, X 60. 

Fig. 6. H. rumicis, left mandible, X 60. 

Fig. 7. H. punctata, left mandible, X 60. 

Fig. 8. H, compta, abdominal segment II, X 12. 

Fig. 9. E. punctata, abdominal segment II, X 10- 

Fig. 10. H. nigrirostris, postdorsal setae, abdominal segment II (third- 
stage larva), X 260. 

Fig. 11. H. trilineata, postdorsal setae, abdominal segment II (third- 
stage larva), X 260. 

Fig. 12. H. postica, frons, X 40. 

Fig. 13. H. nigrirostris, frons, X 40. 

Fig. 14. E. compta, frons, X 40. 

Fig. 15. E. riimicis, frons, X 40. 

Fig. 16. E. plantaginis, postdorsal setae 1, 2 and 3, abdominal segment 

V, X 60. 

Fig. 17. E. plantaginis, postdorsal setae 1, 2 and 3, abdominal segment 

VI, X 60. 

Fig. 18. E. transsylvanica, postdorsal setae 1, 2 and 3, abdominal 
segment V, X 60. 

Fig. 19. E. transsylvanica, postdorsal setae 1, 2 and 3, abdominal 
segment VI, X 60. 

Fig 20. E. postica. postdorsal setae 1, 2 and 3, abdominal segment 

V, X 60. 

Fig. 21. E. posik-a, postdorsal setae 1, 2 and 3, abdominal segment 

VI, X 60. 

Fig. 22. E. punctata, prodorsal seta, abdominal segment III, X 130. 

Fig. 23. E. transsylvanica, prodorsal seta, abdominal segment III, 
X 130. 

Fig. 24. E. postica, prodorsal seta, abdominal segment II, X 130. 

Fig. 25. E. plantaginis, prodorsal seta, abdominal segment II, X 130. 

Fig. 26. E. plantaginis, spiracle, abdominal segment II, X 130. 

Fig. 27. E. pedestris, prodorsal seta, abdominal segment II, X 130. 

Fig. 28. E. pedestris, spiracle, abdominal segment II, X 130. 

Fig. 29. E. nigrirostris, postdorsal setae 1, 2 and 3, abdominal segment 
II, X 130. 

Fig. 30. E. meles, postdorsal setae 1, 2 and 3, aljdominal segment II, 
X 130. 

•ROC*. ENT. sor. WASH., VOL. 50, xo. 2, rKBRUAKv, l!)48 Platk 3 


Pds 2 






Pds 9^ 















(1 /pdsi 

I -pds 2 







27 28 



( \ 








:^4 i'koc. knt. soc. wash., vol. 50, no. 2, febkuary, 1948 

Literature Cited 

Anderson, W. H. 1947. A terminology for the anatomical characters 

useful in the taxonomy of weevil larvae. Ent, Soc. Wash. Proe. 49: 

123-132, illus. 
Goureau, C. C. 1844. Note pour servir a I'histoire du Phytonomvs 

rumicis. Soc. Ent. de France Ann. (ser. 2) 2: 49-59, illus. 
Heeger, Ernst. 18.51. Beitrage zur Fauna von Osterreich. Sitzungs- 

berichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 7: 348-351, 

Kryger, J. P. og Sonderup, H. P. S. 1940. Biologiske lagttagelser over 

200 Arter af danske Billclarver. Ent. Meddel. 22: 102-103. 
Laboulbene, Alexandre. 1862. Descriptions de plusieurs larves de 

Coleppteres, avec remarques. Soc. Ent. de France Ann. (ser. 4) 2: 

559-575, illus. 
Perris, Edouard. 1851. Notes pour servir a I'histoire des Phj/ionomus 

et des Phytohius. Mem. Acad. Lyon, Classe de Sciences (n. s.) 1: 

Petri, Karl. 1901. Monographic des Coleopteren-Tribus Hyperini. 

Herausgegeben vom Seigenbiirgischen verein fiir Naturwissen- 

schaften zu Hermannstadt. Berlin, 208 pp., illus. 
Rosenhauer, W. G. 1882. Kiifer-Larven. Stettin Ent. Ztg. 43: 137-139. 
Servadei, Antonio. 1944. Contributi alia conoscenza dell' entomofauna 

delle leguminose foraggere III. Phytonomiis nifirirostris F. (Col. 

Curculionidae). Eedia 30: 129-179, illus. 
Titus, E. G. 1911. The genera Hypera and Phytonomus (Coleoptera, 

family Curculionidae) in America, north of Mexico. Ent. Soc. 

Amer. Ann. 4: 383-494, illus. 
Urban, C. 1923. Phytonomus pedestris Payk. und seine Entwicklung. 

Ent. Bl. 19: 127-128. 
, 1929. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte einiger Riisselkafer. I. 

Ent. Bl. 25: 19 21. 



Baldulus maidis, described in the genus Cicadula from 
Puerto Rican material, has been recorded at times as a 
serious pest of young corn. Records from Argentina indicate 
that it also attacks sugar beets. Following are the available 
distribution records: UNITED STATES— Arizona (Pata- 
gonia, Sedona, Tucson) ; California (Alhambra, Colton, Tem- 
ple) ; Florida (Sanford) ; North Carolina (Raleigh) ; Texas 
(McAllen. Nueces Countv, Richland Springs); CUBA: 
(Monoclova) ; COSTA RICA (San Pedro de Montes de Oca) ; 
VENEZUELA (El Valle) ; BRAZIL (Campinas. Viscosa) ; 
PERU (Canete); ARGENTINA (Tucuman). 

P. W. Oman, 
Biirrau of Eviomolofjy and Plant Qiiaraniine 

i>KOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOI.. 50. NO. 2, FEBRUARY, li)48 35 


(LEPinoPTf^KA, Pieridae) 

By Cyrii. Franklin dos Passos, Research Associate, 
The American Museum of Natural Hi-storif 

Between October 3 and November 2, 1947, the writer col- 
lected, at random, a series of 96 specimens (45 males, 51 
females) of Colias near Mendham, Morris County, New Jer- 
sey. These specimens belong to what may be called the philo- 
dice-eury theme complex. The area in which they were taken 
does not exceed an acre in extent. About three-quarters of 
the specimens were in perfect condition when captured, and 
apparently had been on the wing- for a short while only. 

All of the specimens were killed in vials containing cyanide 
Df potassium, and, with the exception hereinafter noted, they 
were left in the vials until the following day when they were 
spread. While spreading one of the earlier catches, the writer 
observed that the insects varied, among other ways, in the 
color of their ej^es, some having black and the others yellow 
green eyes. This appeared to be unusual, so thereafter the eye 
colors were observed carefully as soon as the insects were 
placed in the killing vials. These colors have not changed 
greatly from the time the insects were captured until the 
present (November 21, 1947), although recently in some speci- 
mens there appears to have been a slight fading of the black 
to black brown, and the yellow green to olive green. Since 
being spread the specimens have not been exposed to any 
light, except while under examination. A few specimens (2 
males, 5 females) not having been well spread in the first 
instance were placed overnight in a relaxing box containing 
some paradichlorobenzene, and respread the following day. 
The moisture to which these specimens were subjected appears 
to have affected slightly the color of their eyes, the black now 
being more black brown, and the yellow green a brown olive. 
Both dampness and length of time apparently cause a change 
in the color of the eyes of dead specimens of Colias, but the 
age of .specimens while living, as shown by their fresh or worn 
condition when captured, does not seem to have any bearing 
on their eye colors. It is believed that genetic factors and the 
blood are responsible for the eye colors (Gerould, 1921, p. 
410), but that no changes take place in those colors during the 
life of the insect. 

■"Entire printing costs paid by author to seenre immediate publication. 
— Editor. 

36 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 

The following table gives a breakdown of the captures as 
between the various wing colors and the two eye colors of the 
specimens involved, from which it will be seen that in the 
total number abovit 53% have black eyes and about 47% 
yellow green eyes. Among the males these percentages are 
60%. and 40%. and among the females they are 47% and 53% 
respectively. The males classified as having an ' ' orange flush ' ' 
have very little orange on the primaries. The "discal spot," 
of course, refers to the spot in the cell on the upper side of 
the secondaries. 

2 12 


Black Eyes "5 



(a) yellow discal spot 



(b) yellow orange discal spot 



(c) orange discal spot 




Orange Flush 

(a) yellow discal spot 


(b) yellow orange discal spot 


— . 

(c) orange discal spot 





(a) yellow discal spot 


(b) yellow orange discal spot 


(c) orange discal spot 






(a) yellow discal spot 

(b) yellow orange discal spot 

(c) orange discal spot 

(a) yellow discal spot 

(b) yellow orange discal spot 

(c) orange discal spot 






(a) yellow discal spot 

(b) yellow orange discal spot 

(c) orange discal spot 






During the past summer while the author was at Rangeley, 
Franklin County, Maine, he collected between August 13 and 
September 14 a small series (13 males, 1 female) of the philo- 
dice-eurytheme complex. These were killed also in vials 
charged with cyanide of potassium, and papered the follow- 
ing day. A recent examination of these papered specimens, 
which theretofore had not been exposed to the light, reveals 

PROC. BNT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 37 

that the single female has black eyes, 10 males have yellow- 
green eyes. 1 male has red brown eyes, and 2 males have 
brown eyes. Of course, it cannot be said how much change 
in the color of the eyes of these specimens may have taken 
place since their capture, but probably the black has not 
changed at all. Possibly red brown and brown are the usual 
faded eye colors that come with the aging of the specimens. 
Therefore, it is apparent that the study of freshly captured 
material, or of bred insects is necessary in a thorough in- 
vestigation of this phenomenon. 

A search of the literature and correspondence with the 
leading authority in this country in the genetics of Colias 
does not disclose any information on the subject of black 
eyes. Gerould (1921! p. 395; 1926, p. 418) has commented 
upon yellow green, blue green, and olive green colors in 
Colias larvae and in the imagoes. These were studied alive 
in breeding cages. He believes that the eye color is connected 
with the chemistry of the blood. Yellow green is the normal 
eye color. No one appears to have observed, or at least pub- 
lished anything concerning specimens of the philodice-eury- 
theme complex with black eyes. 

For the present purposes it is not necessary to determine 
whether the specimens mentioned herein are C. philodice La- 
treille (1819, p. 100), or C. eurytheme Boisduval (1852, p. 
286), or hybrids between these two species, if indeed they are 
two species. These insects seem to fall within Forbes' (1923, 
p. 8) definition of a single species as "A group of individu- 
als separated from all others by tangible characters, breeding 
freely among themselves, but not with other individuals. ' ' By 
this test the Nearctic species now recognized as constituting 
the philodice -eurytheme complex would appear to be conspe- 
cific, and should be known, therefore, hy the earlier name, 
i.e., philodice with several more or less fairly well-defined sub- 
species. The author does not believe that the name C. chryso- 
theme (Esper) ([1781], p. 89), proposed for a Palaearctic 
species, should be employed for the Nearctic species in de- 
fault of evidence that these insects will interbreed and pro- 
duce fertile offspring. In this respect it seems preferable to 
follow the opinion of Gerould (1946, p. 392) rather than that 
of Clark (1941, p. 224), and Hovanitz (1943, p. 1). 

The author desires to his sincere thanks and appre- 
ciation to Prof. John H. Gerould, Department of Zoology, 
Dartmouth College, for making valuable suggestions concern- 
ing the subject matter of this article and furnishing reprints 
of his valuable and interesting papers on the genetics and dis- 
tribution of the philodice-eurytheme complex in North Amer- 
ica. Series of the specimens discussed have been sent to Pro- 

38 VKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBKUARY, 19-i8 

fessur Gerould and Dr. William Hovanitz, Collaborator, Lab- 
oratory of Vertebrate Biology, University of Michigan, and 
will be sent also to Dr. E. B. Ford, Reader in Genetics in the 
University of Oxford. The others will remain in the collection 
of the author. 


Boisduval, J. B., 1852. Lepidopteies de la C'aliforiiie. Ann. Soe. Eiit. 

France, ser, 2, vol. 10, pp. 275-324. 
Clark, A. H., 1941. The genus Colias iii North America (Lepidoptera : 

Pieridae). Ent. News, vol. 52, pp. 185-187, 220-225. 
Esper, E. J, C, [1780-1783]. Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildnngen nach 

der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Fortsetzuug der europaischen 

Schmetterlinge. Erlangen, Wolfgang Walthers, pt. 1, bk. 2, 190 pp., 

pis. 51-93 (cont. pis. 1-43). 
Forbes, W. T. M., 1923. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring 

states. Mem. Cornell Univ. no. 68, 729 pp., 439 figs. 
Gerould, J. H., 1921. Blue-green caterpillars: The origin and ecology of 

a mutation in hemolymph color in Colias (Eurymus) philodice. 

Journ. Exp. Zoo!., vol. 34, pp. 385-415, pi. 1 (colored), fig. 1. 
, 1926. -Inheritance of olive-green and blue-green, variations 

appearing in the life-cycle of a butterfly, Colias philodice. Ibid., 

vol. 43, pp. 413-425, pi. 1 (colored), figs. 1-8. 
, 1946. Hybridization and female albinism in Colias philodice 

and C. eurytheme. A New Hampshire survey in 1943 with subsequent 
data. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 39, pp. 383-396, pis. 1-2. 

Hovanitz, W., 1943. The nomenclature of the Colias chrysotheme com- 
plex in North America (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Amer. Mus. 
Novitates, no. 1240, pp. 1-4. 

Latreille, P. A., and [in part] J. B. Godart, 1819- [1823]. Encyclopedic 
methodique. Histoire naturelle. Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle 
des crustaces, des arachnides et des insectes. Paris, Agasse, vol. 9 
and supplement, 828 pp. 

PROC. BNT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 39 



By J. C. Crawford, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

This paper describes the tenth genus in the family, Uro- 
thripidae, which so far includes no forms known to possess 
wings. Though apterism is general, the generic name given is 
in allusion to the fact that all progress is by walking. 

BAENOTHRIPS, new genus 

Antennae 7-segmented, with III and IV longer than broad, V sub- 
quadrate, VII longest; eyes small, ocelli and wings absent; vertex with 
three pairs of forwardly directed setae on tubercles; head, prothorax 
and legs tuberculate, some on head and prothorax and most of those on 
legs bearing short pointed setae; tubercles of head in irregular trans- 
verse rows, a single transverse row of setae on terga I-VIII but tergum 
VIII with 2 or 3 similar setae in front of row, tergum IX with about 
14 scattered setae in basal half; tergum IX about twice as long as 
VIII, X about twice as long as IX, fully 10 times as long as greatest 
width, with 4 terminal setae about 2.7 as long as tube. 

Type : Baenothrips guatemalensis, new species. 

Close to Brady thrips Hood and Williams, which, however, 
has only one pair of forwardly directed setae on vertex, tuber- 
cles of head not arranged in transverse rows, pronotum not 
sculptured, terga with two transverse rows of setae, and ter- 
gum IX almost 3 times as long as VIII and almost two-thirds 
as long as X. 

Baenothrips guatemalensis, new species 

Female. — Length (distended) 1.7 mm. Head, pro- and mespthorax 
brown, head darker in each lateral third due to internal reddish-brown 
pigment, prothorax and mcsothorax with scattered masses of similar 
internal pigment; metathorax and abdomen whitish, with sides of meta 
thorax and of terga I-VIII brownish and with abundant reddish-brown 
internal pigment mostly arranged in a longitudinal band near each lat- 
eral margin, metathorax with irregular masses of grayish (under trans- 
mitted light) internal pigment and abdominal segments I-VII with simi- 
lar pigment, mostly in a transverse band near apical margin of each 
segment; segment IX narrowly brown along each side; tube light brown- 
ish yellow; legs whitish with coxae brown, fore tibiae lightly clouded 
with brown medially, mid and hind femora in apical half brownish, 
deeply so above, mid and hind tibiae each with a broad brown band 
medially, tarsi very lightly tinged with Vrown, darker beneath ajHcally; 
antennae Avhitish, very lightly tingec' with ])rown, more apparent in 
■segment VI, segment VII light brown. 

-{0 PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 

Head densely tuberculate, tubercles in irregular transverse rows, about 
ri-6 of those in a lateral outline with short setae, head anteriorly pro- 
longed and overhanging bases of antennae, so that segment I is largely 
concealed, the three pairs of forwardly directed setae on tubercles, the 
median pair pointed, 60 /a long, the two lateral pairs expanded apically, 
52 M long, eyes of a few large facets, not protruding. 

Prothorax with only the epimeral setae developed, these on tubercles, 
gradually thickening from base to apex, there truncate; fore coxal seta 
thin, pointed, sculpture mostly of tubercles but anteriorly of transverse 
lines, near posterior margin with a thickened transverse line; mesonotum 
in basal half with transverse lines, apical half with tubercles. 

Abdomen with lateral apical margins of terga II-VIII produced to 
tubercles, each armed with a seta, those on II small, pointed, those on 
IlI-VII similar to epimeral setae, on VIII narrowed from base to a 
long thin point; setae on tube 830 /i long; segment IX with sides almost 
straight but narrowed to base, apical width 50 M, greatest width near 
base 118 M; tube slightly narrower medially than near base or apex. 

Measurements (in microns) : Head median length 190, width across 
eyes 152, greatest width across cheeks 164; prothorax, median length 116, 
width 228, width including coxae 260; pterothorax median length 152, 
width 232; tergum VIII, length 76, tergum IX length 160, tube (X 
only) 308, basal width 27, apical width 29, median width 23. 

Antenna: 2 3 4 5 6 7 

36 40 36 31 32 48 

Type locality. — Guatemala City, Guatemala. 
Type catalogue No. 58476, United States National Museum. 
Described from one female taken at Quarantine at San 
Francisco, Calif., on Odontoglossum grande, May 29, 1946. 



During the early part of this year a number of separates 
were received from Dr. Jan Obenberger of his papers on 
Buprestidae published during the war. In one of these papers 
he described a species from California under the name 
Chrysohothris chamberlini, which preoccupies a name pro- 
posed by me, his publications not being available to me during- 
the war. The new name Chrysohothris chamherlinianus is 
therefore proposed for Chrysohothris chamherlini Fisher, 
1942, U. S. Dept. Agri., Misc. Pub. No. 470, pp. 40-42, figs. 6, 
11, not Chryohothris chamherlini Obenberger, 1940, Sbornik 
entom. odd. Nar. Mus. v. Praze, XVIII, pp. 93-94, fig. 5. 

W. S. FiSHEiR, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 

PROO. HNT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 -ll 



By Roy W. Rings^ and Samuel O. Hill- 
Third Army Medical Laboratory, Fort McPherson, Georgia^ 

The present work deals with a comparative study of the 
scale patterns of the adults and larval chaetotaxy of Aedes 
mathesoni Middlekauff and Aedes canadensis (Theobald). 
Rings and Hill (1946) have indicated that A. maihesoni bears 
a close phylogenetic relationship to A. canadensis. Morpho- 
logical examinations of the larval stages of both species have 
shown that the primary distinguishing charactistics inter- 
grade to such an extent that positive identification of 
mathesoni is impossible. The data here presented are in- 
terpreted by the authors as evidence that mathesoni is a 
melanistic, geographical variation of .1. canadensis. 

Comparison of Adult Females 
The most striking difference between the females of the 
two forms is the greater prevalence of black scales and the 
more intense purplish-black coloration in mathesoni as com- 
pared with canadensis. The latter has varying shades of 
brownish scales, those on the mesonotum usually golden- 
brown, and a proportionately greater amount of white scaling. 
The mesonotum of mathesoni appears blackish-brown with 
certain characteristic areas of silvery or yellowish-white scales 
as illustrated in Figure 1, A. This figure has been drawn from 
Middlekauff 's description and perhaps does not represent an 
exact replication of a typical mathesoni pattern. A paratype 
female from MacDill Field, Tampa, Florida, was kindly 
loaned to the authors by Dr. Alan Stone but the specimen 
had been trap-collected and the mesonotal pattern was indis- 
tinct. Figure 1, B represents a typical mesonotal pattern of 
intergrades from Camp Blanding, Florida, and it is quite 
possible that this figure more closel.y resembles a true 
mathesoni pattern than does A. In these intergrades there is 

iFirst Lieutenant, Sanitary Corps Reserve, 1158 Oakland Avenue, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. 

2Major, Sanitary Corps, Army of the United States. 

^It is desired to express appreciation to the following entomologists 
for the loan of specimens: Dr. Alan Stone, U. S. National Museum; 
Colonel G. H. Bradley and Captain Roy F. Fritz, U. S. Public Health 
Service, Atlanta, Georgia; Lieutenant D. C. Thurman, U. S. Public 
Health Service, Jacksonville, Florida ; Dr. C. E. Mickel, University of 
Minnesota; Dr. William R. Horsfall, University of Arkansas; Dr. George 
W. Cox, Texas State Board of Health; Dr. G. E. Shewell, Canadian 
Department of Agriculture; to Mrs. Winona Brown, P-2, Third Army 
Medical Laboratory and to many others in various states for their co- 
operation in this study. 

4l2 rRor. knt. so( . ■wash., vol. 50, no. 2, febrvary, 1W48 

B .msm. c 

Figure 1. Mesonotal patterns of subspecies of Aedes canadensis: A, 

Aedes canadensis mathesoni; B, Intergrade; C, D, E and F, variations 

in pattern of Aedes canadensis canadensis. 

a narrow, longitudinal, median line of curved, very small, 
dark golden-brown scales extending nearly to the antescutellar 
space. The median line is bordered on either side by a similar 
line which extends only half the length of the mesonotum. 
There are elongate patches of silvery or yellowish-white scales 
bordering the anterior mesonotum when viewed dorsally. In 
reared specimens these elongate patches are continuous with 
curved lines of silvery white scales which extend to the pos- 
terior borders as illustrated. There are in addition patches of 
silvery scales in the supraalar region and surrounding the 
antescutellar space. Figure 1, C represents a specimen pattern 
of what is probably an intergrade although it was originally 
determined as canadensis. This mosquito was collected in 
Atlanta, Georgia. An interesting variation is presented in 
Figure 1, D where nearly parallel longitudinal lines of scales 
extend the length of the mesonotum. Figure 1, E represents 
a fairly common pattern of canadensis and has been observed 


•2, FEBRUARY, 1948 


Figure 2. Hind tarsal patterns of subspecies of Aedes canadensis : A, 

Aedes canadensis canadensis; B, C, D, intergrades; E, Aedes canadensis 


in specimens from Round Hill, Connecticut; Drew County, 
Arkansas; Eitzon, Minnesota; New Brunswick and Wayne, 
New Jersey. The most common mesonotal pattern of canaden- 
sis is depicted in Figure 1, F and it may be well to point out 
that the mesonotal vestiture of specimens C, D, E and F is 
much lighter than illustrated and i^ actually shades of g'olden 
brown. The intergrades from Florida and Georgia exhibited 
patterns which varied nearly as much as the six patterns in 
Figure 1. . . 

The difference in tarsal patterns of the two forms is quite 
apparent and provides a simple method of separation provided 
that intergrades are not encountered. The hind tarsal patterns 
of mathesoni, canadensis and intergrades are illustrated in 
Figure 2. The intergrades represent selected individuals 
oriliinallv believed to be mathesoni. They w^ere obtained as 
larval collections from Camp Blanding, Florida, and were 
reared to maturity in the laboratory at Fort McPhereon, 
Georgia. A series of intergrades was also provided by Lt. 
Robert M. Russell, Sanitary Corps, who collected and reared 
the specimens at Camp Gordon, Augusta. Georgia. The tarsal 
pattern in this series of 15 male and 10 female specimens was 
typically that of canadensis except two females which had 
very narrow, white tarsal rings. In general, however, the dark 
scales of the tarsi were blacker in all specimens than in normal 
canadensis. The mesonotal coloration and pattern in these 
individuals most closely resembled mafhowni. It should be 
pointed out that the proportion of black and white scales on 
the hind tarsi is not consistent. The extent of white scales 
on the fifth tarsal segment apparently depends upon which 
surface is examined, some individuals having all dark scales 

44 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, ly48 

on one .side and all pale scales on the opposite. The tarsal 
patterns in Figure 2 are drawn from an anterior view. 

It is interesting to note that Coqnillett (1904) described as 
new, Culex nivitarsis, a male and female specimen which were 
undoubtedly aberrant forms of Aedes canadensis. The tarsal 
pattern of these individuals was unique in that the corre- 
sponding opposite tarsal segments were dissimilar. In the 
female, the first segment of the right mid-tarsus, the fourth 
and fifth segments of the left mid-tarsus and the first and 
fifth segments of the hind tarsi were entirely white. The 
remaining segments were either black or white with black 
median rings. In regards to this Howard, Dyar and Knab 
(1917) state that, "Dr. C. S. Ludlow suggested to us that 
these specimens were only aberrations of A. canadensis, and 
we have adopted this view. We have examined the types (one 
male and one female in the collection of Dr. John B. Smith) 
and find the markings of the legs dissimilar on the two sides. 
The larvae of the two forms are indistinguishable. ' ' 

An examination of a series of canadensis from Connecticut, 
New York, New Jersey, Minnesota, Nebraska, Arkansas and 
Georgia revealed that no apparent variation occurred in the 
tarsal pattern. The intergradation of the normal canadensis 
pattern into the intermediate patterns in northern Florida 
is most illustrative of geographical variation. 

Several other minor differences in color pattern of the two 
subspecies are evident upon closer examination. These differ- 
ences are similar to those cited for the mesonotal and tarsal 
patterns and are apparently based upon the distribution and 
concentration of melanin in the scales. The abdominal tergites 
of mathesoni are covered with purplish-black scales without 
markings dorsally w^hile in canadensis the scales are blackish, 
sometimes with a greenish reflection, but with narrow bands 
of pale scales on each segment. These bands widen laterally 
and are interrupted medianly on the sixth and seventh ab- 
dominal segments. A lateral view of the abdomen of mathesoni 
reveals small, triangular, basal, segmental areas of white scales 
which extend over the basal third of the segments ventrally. 
It is apparent that the narrow dorsal bands in canadensis have 
been obscured by darker pigmentation in mathesoni. The 
palpi also show differences in the distribution of melanin 
while the scales of the proboscis and wings differ in pigment 

The series of intergrades from Camp Blanding, Florida as 
mentioned previously were reared to maturity in the labora- 
tory at Fort McPherson, Georgia. A series of A. canadensis 
larvae were collected at Jonesboro, Georgia and reared to the 
adult stage at the same time as the above series from northern 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 45 

li'lorida. The rearing i-oom of the laboratorj^ was equipped 
with temperature and humidity control apparatus and was 
operated at 80° F. and 80 per cent relative humidity. Al- 
though both series were reared to maturity under identical 
environmental conditions the adults emerging from the two 
collections were markedly different. These results would in- 
dicate that either the melanistic tendency was due to heredity 
or was a manifestation of the indirect effects of temperature 
upon certain physiological processes in early larval develop- 
ment. Johnson (1910) has shown that color variations, even 
minor ones, were inherited in lady beetles. 

There are numerous publications which point out the fact 
that melanism is correlated with climatic factors. Tempera- 
ture is probably the most important of these in producing 
melanistic races or individuals although in some instances 
humidity has also been shown to play an important role. Color 
variation in insects, generally, is in agreement with Glogler's 
rule. This biological law states that the melanistic individuals 
increase in the warm and humid parts of the range of the 
species. One investigator, Knight (1924), however, found that 
the reverse was true in the predaceous Perillus hioculatus 
(Hemiptera), if the species was reared under different tem- 
peratures in a given localit^^ 

A comparison of the observations in the present study and 
those made bj^ Michener (1945) in studying seasonal varia- 
tion in Culex apicaUs is extremely interesting. This worker 
found that the darker summer form was present in certain 
areas in Florida throughout the year and present in other 
areas northward to Maryland only during the summer period. 
The winter form, characterized by more prominent, whitish, 
abdominal bands apparently retained its color pattern 
throughout its northern range. Winter and summer forms 
occurred seasonall}' in North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Tennessee, Georgia, Mississippi and Alabama. An apparent 
subspecies, Culex derivator, is mentioned which lacks the 
pale scaling on the abdominal terga altogether, or, at most 
has small white areas latero-apically. 

Comparison of Adult Males 

The differences in color patterns of the male specimens of 
mathesoni and canadensis are essentially the same as those 
mentioned for female individuals. It is interesting to note 
that in the allotype mathesoni male the hind tarsi are all dark- 
scaled with the exception of a narrow band of whitish scales 
at the base and apex of the basitarsus and the base of the 
second tarsal segment. This specimen was collected at Camp 
Murphy, Florida which is considerably south of the type 



VOL. 50, NO. 2, FKBKIAKV, 1948 

In the original description of mathesoni (1944) Middle- 
kauff states that "The' itiale genitalia of canadensis differ 
only slightly, the spines of the ninth tergite being less regu- 
larly placed and more abundant, and the tenth sternite being 
somewhat curved and acute apicallj^" The genitalia of the 
northern Florida intergrades differed slightly from the de- 
scription of the mathesoni male. The tenth sternite more 
closely resembled that of canadensis than mathesoni and the 
spines of the ninth tergite were more irregularly placed. 

Comparison of Larvae 
It has previously been mentioned by Rings and Hill (1946) 
that the only apparent difference between the larvae of the 
two subspecies is the degree of branching in the head hair 
and antennal hair tufts. The number of branches in head 
hair tufts increase as the warmer regions of natural distribu- 
tion are approached. The head hair tufts have been used as a 
measure of this peculiar characteristic since they are most 
often used in determination procedures. When the annual 
mean temperatures of the larval collection localities are com- 
posed with the mean number of upper and lower head hair 
branches of the larvae of both subspecies a close correlation 
is apparent. These data are presented in Table 1. 

Table 1. Correlation between number of branches in upper and lower 

head hair tufts with the annual mean temperature of the collection 


Annual mean 



Mean number 

Mean number 

Number of 

locality of i 











ir branches 


ir branches 
























The annual mean temperatures have been grouped in units 
of 10 due to the fact that only a small series of larvae were 
available for study from widely separated localities. A larger 
series of specimens from fewer, well selected localities should 
show a much better correlation. 

Other instances of temperature effects upon structure have 
been reported by several zoologists. Hegner (1919) states that 
the spines of certain Protozoa are longer when developed at 
higher temperatures than at lower temperatures. , Also, 
Roberts (]918) reports in Drosophila that an increase of a few 

PROC. BNT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 


degrees temperature gave longer wings in mutant forms than 
did 29 generations of selective mating. 

Distribution op the Subspecies 
The general distribution of the subspecies of Aedes 
canadensis is presented in Figure 3. Locality records indicate 
that the range of the subspecies overlaps from approximately 
the middle of Florida northward into eastern Georgia and 
South Carolina. The species is apparently confined to the 
humid climatic areas of North America extending from the 
lower Canadian coniferous forests to the semi-tropical areas 
of Florida. Aedes canadensis occurs in apparently isolated 
areas on both the lower forested slopes of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. It is known to occur in British Columbia and probably 
extends southward into California, however, no record of the 
species occurring in Washington, Oregon or California is 
known to the authors. Most of the Floridian records of 
canadensis were obtained through the courtesy of the U. S. 
Public Health Service, Jacksonville, Florida and include data 
from Army installations. These records show that a single 
male specimen of canadensis was collected at West Palm 
Beach, Florida and was determined by an examination of the 
genitalia. However, since the genitalia of the two subspecies 
are so similar this record is not included as canadensis. Aedes 
canadensis mathesoni has been collected as far south as West 
Palm Beach, Florida. 


Figure 3. Distriliution of the subspecies of 
United States. 

Aedes canadensis in the 

48 PROC. KNT, SOC. WAaii., VOL. 50, NO. 2, t'EBRUARY, 1948 


The phylogenetic rank of subspecies is generally applied to 
a part of a species showing geographical variations which 
intergrade with a subspecies occupying different though 
usually adjacent and overlapping parts of the general range 
of the species. Geographical variation is generally considered 
to be due to the influence of climatic factors, either directly or 
indirectly. Aedes canadensis mathesoni, when considered as 
a subspecies or geographical variation of Aedes canadensis 
exhibits charactistics that would be expected when the higher 
temperatures are encountered in the warmer parts of its 
natural range. Intergradation in color pattern of the adults 
and structures of the larvae of the two forms have previously 
been shown. Temperature is considered to be the most im- 
]5ortant climatic factor since observation has shown that other 
factors do not influence pigmentation in this species. The 
present study indicates that differences in color are especially 
obvious in this species with respect to latitudinal distribution. 
These color variations may be reduced to two phases of modifi- 
cation, (a) a general increase in intensity at the southward; 
and (b) an increase in the extent of dark or black markings 
at the expense of the intervening lighter or white ones, or 
conversely, the reduction in size of white areas. Under the 
general increase in intensity, the iridescence becomes greater 
and the browns appear much darker and assume a blackish 
hue. An exception to this principle is evident in the mesonotal 
pattern wherein the isolated lines of pale scales seem to in- 
crease in number and extent in the warmer regions. 

Literature Cited 
Carpeuter, S. J., R. W. Chamberlain and J. F. Wanamaker, 1945. New 

distribution records for the mosquitoes of the southeastern United 

States in 1944. Journ. Econ. Ent. 38 (3) : 401-402. 
Coquillett, D. W., 1904. New North American Diptera. Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash. 6 (1):168. 
Hegner, R. W., 1919. The effects of environmental factors upon the 

hereditable characters of Arcclla dentata and Polypora. Journ. Exp. 

Biol. 29:427-441. 
Howiird, L. O., H. G. Dyar and F. Knab, 1917. The mosquitoes of North 

and Central America and the West Indies. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 4 

(2) : 525-1064. 
Jolui.son, R. H., 1910. Determination evolution in the color pattern of 

the lady beetles Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 122:1-104. 
Knight, H. H., 1924. On the nature of color patterns in Heteroptera 

with data on the effects produced by temperature and humidity. 

Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 17:258-273. 

PROC. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 49 

Mayr, Ernst, 1942. Systematics and the origin of the species. Columbia 

Biol. Ser. (13): 1-334. 
Michener, C. D., 1945. Seasonal variation in certain species of mosquitoes 

(Diptera, Culicidae). Journ. N. Y. Eut. Soc. 53:293-300. 
Middlekauff, W. W., 1944. A new species of Aedes from Florida. Proc. 

Ent. Soc. Wash. 46 (2) : 42-44. 
Rings, R. W. and S. O. Hill, 1946. The larva of Aede.^ (OcholerotaUis) ' 

mathesoni Middlekauff {Diptera, Cvlicidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 

Roberts, E., 1918. Fluctuations in a recessive mendalian character and 

selection. Journ. Exp. Biol. 27:157-192. 


The 576th regular meeting of the Society was held at 8 P.M., Thurs- 
day, Nov. 6, 1947 in Room 43 of the United States National Museum. 
President Clark presided and 45 members and 15 visitors were present. 
The minutes of the previous meeting were approved as read. 

The following persons were elected to membership: 

Cyril F. dos Passos, Washington Corners, Mendham, N. J. 

John G. Franclemont, Division of Insect Identification, U. S. Bureau 
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 

George B. Vogt, Assistant Professor of Entomology, University of 

President Clark appointed committees as follows: 

Nominating Committee: R. E. Snodgrass, Chairman, Paul W. Oman, 
E. R. Sasscer. 

Committee to Report on the Condition of the Reserve Stock of Pub- 
lications: William D. Field, Chairman, Alan Stone. This Committee 
was appointed at the request of the Corresponding Secretary, Dr. 

A letter from Irstou R. Barnes, President of the Audubon Society of 
the District of Columbia, was read by President Clark. This letter 
notified our members of two seminars to l)e held this winter by the 
Audubon Society, one on Birds, Wildlife and Man, the other on the 
Geography of Birds. 

Dr. Sailer exhibited year-old specimens of sweet potatoes infested 
with lepidopterous larvae. He called special attention to the presence of 
termites also living in the potatoes. 

Dr. Shepard displayed a new book by V. G. Dethier entitled Chemical 
Insect Attractants and Repellents. It contains 289 pages and was pub- 
lished by Blakiston. Seven of the ten chapters refer specifically to attract- 
ants, one to repellents, and .two are devoted to more general discussion. 

Dr. W. R. Kirner, Director of the National Research Council Chemical- 
Biological Coordination Center briefly described the work of the various 

50 PROC. BNT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 

war agencies, particularly on insect and rodent control problems, which 
led to the organization of the Chemical-Biological Coordination Center 
on July 1, 1946. The primary objective of the Center is to assemble and 
organize information which relates the effect of structure of chemicals 
upon their biological activity so that such information may be readily 
available to scientists. The biological and chemical codes which have 
been developed, and which permit placing such data on punched cards, 
were described. The punched cards will be used for correlation studies 
since they can be rapidly sorted by machines and their use thus greatly 
facilitates such studies. Knowledge of the relationship of structure to a 
given biological action is essential in the continued, intelligent, prosecu- 
tion of research. The Center is also sponsoring the screening of com- 
pounds against a wide variety of animal and plant life. The compounds, 
new and old, are being solicited from government, industrial and univer- 
sity laboratories. This screening program Avill not only lead to additional 
chemical and biological data for incorporation into the files of the Center 
but will also provide for the testing of compounds which otherwise would 
probably not be tested at all. Practical uses may be discovered for some 
of these compounds. This program should avoid a repetition of the delay 
between the date of synthesis of a compound and the discovery of an 
important use such as occurred in the case of DDT and sulfanilamide. 

(Author's Abstract). 

Dr. John B. Buck, National Institute of Health, next addressed the 
Society on: "Physiology of Light Production in Fireflies." 

It has been shown that bioluminescence will occur, even in a test tube 
in the absence of living material, providing that oxygen, water, luciferin 
and lucif erase are present. The photogenic organs of "fireflies" vary 
in histological structure from the primitive patches of oenocyte-like cells 
of the larviform female of Phengodes to the adult organs of PhoturiH, 
PJwtinus, Luciola, etc. with their profusely branched and precisely 
arranged tracheation. There is a good correlation between increasing 
degree of tracheal complexity and increasing degree of control of photo- 
geny, and all species which are able to emit sharp flashes (e.g. Photiiris, 
Photinus, Luciola), and only these species, are charactized by the 
presence of tracheal end-cells. High speed records of the flashes of 
fireflies indicate, in conjunction with microscopic observations on living 
animals, that the control mechanism must operate in the order of 0.001 
second, or even less. There are a number of theories of flash control, none 
of which is supported by sufiicient experimental evidence. A few workers 
have proposed that sufficient photogenic material for a single flash is 
synthesized each time the nervous system stimulates the organ. This, 
however, is difficult to reconcile with the fact that fireflies, or their 
extirpated organs, can glow for many hours after apparent death. Most 
Avorkers now believe that flashing is controlled either by the nervous 
system or by the tracheal system (oxygen). Unfortunately, no one has 
devised a method for distinguishing whether the action of either of these 

PROC. ENT. SOC. AYASH., VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY, 1948 51 

systems is direct (upon the photogenic cell) or indirect (upon the other 
system). That flashing is under nervous influence is shown clearly by 
the characteristic system of mating signals used by various species, and 
by the facts that flashing is elicited by electrical stimulation of the 
afferent nerve to the organ and that voluntary flashing is inhibited by 
decapitation. The observation that anesthesia may abolish control 
without preventing luminescence indicates that the nervous control is 
inhibitory, rather than stimulatory ; that is, that the firefly nervous sys- 
tem operates to keep the organ dark, rather than to initiate a flash. 
Several mechanisms have been proposed for controlling luminescence by 
making oxygen limiting. One of the most ingenious of these involves the 
inward and outward movements of air in the tracheoles in response to 
osmotic changes in the photogenic cells, but it appears that the rates of 
movement are too low. Perhaps the most widely held view regards the 
tracheal end-cells as mechanical valves (possibly nerve-controlled) which 
regulate the access of oxygen to the photogenic cells. This theory is sup- 
ported by the correlation already discussed between ability to flash and 
presence of end-cells, by the strategic location of the end-cells at the 
point where the tracheoles enter the photogenic tissue, and by the fact 
that structures interpretable as contractile fibrils have been seen within 
the en(|-cell cytoplasm. Any real evidence or understanding of their 
action is, however, lacking. (Author's Abstract). 

In reply to questions from Leonard, Siegler, Sailer, and Kirner, Dr. 
Buck stated that: the appearance of a stronger light on the upswing 
during flight is probably caused by the position of the abdomen; spec- 
trostyjpic studies have shown that the light has a range almost identical 
with that of the visible spectrum of man; as the temperature lowers the 
light shifts toward the red; the presence of carbon dioxide has an in- 
hibiting effect on the mechanism by which the light is controlled. 

Visitors introduced to the Society were: Dr. Elizabeth Deichmann, 
Dr. E. Gorton Linsley, Dr. H. F. Dietz, and T. B. Blivens. 

The meeting adjourned at 10 P.M. 

Ina L. Hawbs, Becording Secretary 

.,)2 PKOO. EXT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 50, \0. 2, FKBKUARY, 194:8 

DEC. 1, 1946 TO NOV. 30, 1947 

Letters written — 136. 

Proceedings acquired — 427 (m-t gain in 9 numbers); 96 numbers re- 
turned by members; total — - 523 

Back numbers sold as complete sets , 1348 

Back numbers sold _ 473 

Numbers sent as advertising , 1 

Net change in stock, a loss of .. - ' ^ 1361 

Old reprints sold i . 4 

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Literature sales, total |771.0"> 

Membership changes of record 

Elected 27 

Resigned 5 

Dropped -... 3 

Net Gain „_ , : 19 

Present list of members, including 8 not receiving the Pro- 
ceedings ...... . 328 

Subscribers added 26 

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(Seven of these represent American Library Association 
subscriptions for which there is no evident continuation) 

Present list of domestic subscribers 93 

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Present list of gift subscribers -..-..—_ :.....:. 6 

Total list of subscribers 169 

Total circulation of tlie Proceedings 489 

From a business viewpoint, this has been one of the best years in the 
Society's history. Total literature sales exceed last year's figure by 
|i579.74, and that of previous record year of 1941 by $78.81. As a result 
of cessation of exchanges and elimination of subscribers with bad pay 
records, the circulation of the Proceedings is on a sounder basis than at 
any previous time for which records are available. 

Respectfully submitted, 
R. T. Sailer, Corresponding Secretary 

Acl.dl date of pnliUcation. Frhruary f7, 194S. 

VOL. 50 

March, 1948 

No. 3 


of the 



PiTBLiSHXD Monthly Except JiHiY, Auoust akd Septxubeb 





Entered m gecond-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washin^toiu 
D. C. under Act of Aaerast 24. 1912. 

Accepted {or mailine at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1108, 
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Organized March 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National 
on the first Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President L. O. Howard 

President E. H. Siegleb 

First Vice President T. E. Sntder 

Second Vice President W. B. Wood 

Recording Secretary Ina L. Hawes 

Corresponding Secretary A. B. Gurnet 

Treasurer Howard Baker 

Editor. Karl V. Krombein 

Executive Committee F. W. Poos, C. A. Weigel, Austin H. Clark 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President of the 

Washington Academy of Sciences C. F. W. Muesebeck 


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proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 50 MARCH, 1948 No. 8 


(Thysanoptera, Thripidab) 

By J. C. Crawford, Bureau of Entoviology and Plant Quarantine, 

Vnitecl States Department of Agriculture 

Specimens have been seen of all the Neotropical species of 
Taeniothrips included herein except lagoenacollis Moulton, 
mexicanuff Priesner and addendna Priesner. A key to the 
species known from the region, including' two new species, is 

Key to Females 

1. Yellow species I . xaiifhi 

Dark species 

2. With five or more setae on distal lialf of fore vei 

wing _ 

With nornuilly only -'4 distal setae on fore vein 
A. With no accessory abdominal sternal setae .. inconsequens Uzel 

With accessory abdominal sternal setae simulex (Morison) 

4. With normally only two distal setae on fore vein 5 

With normally three setae on fore vein, of which one is just be- 
yond middle of wing _ 8 

.". ('omb on abdominal tergum 8 complete cfianthi Priesner 

Comb on abdominal tergum 8 incomplete or wanting 6 

(). Basal row of setae on fore vein extending beyond middle of 

wing aberrant Crawford 

Basal row of setae on fore vein not extending beyond middle of 
wing _...,.-..^ 7 

7. Antennal segment 4 of female 73 m long, of 6, 60 M; males with 

6-7 sternal abdominal glandular areas in an irregular row 

lagoenacollis Moulton 
Antennal segment 4 of female 5.") M long, of 6, 50 fi; males with 
about twice as many sternal abdominal glandular areas, ar- 
ranged in two rows silvestris Hood 

8. Antennal segment 3 normal in shai)e 9 

Antennal segment 3 greatly enlarged above (see fig. 1) 

Jcraassi, new species 

9. Middle and hind tibiae dark 10 

Middle and hind tibiae yellow tibialis, new species 

10. Forewing hyaline basally mexicanus Priesner 

Forewing entirely dark II 

ius Williams 

n of anterior 


54 PROr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH, 1948 

11. Aiitennal segment 3 dark 64 fi long, 4, 68 M; hind vein of 

forewing with 10 setae gracilis Moultoii 

Antennal segment 3 yellowish, dusky above apically, 56 ft long, 
4, oO M, hind vein of foreAving with 12-15 setae 

addendus Piiesiicv 

Taeniothrips kraussi, new species 

Ftmulv liolotype. — Length (distended) 1.85 mm. Dark brown, witli 
most of antenime concolorous; antennal segment III light brown (or 
only dorsal half, of enlarged dorsal portion of segment light brown with 
rest of segment yellowish in some specimens), basal 2/5 of IV and basal 
4/5 of V whitish; femora dark brown, fore tibiae yellow tinged with 
brown, extreme bases and tips of mid and hind tibiae and all of tarsi 
very light yellow; forewing dark brown, Avith a broad basal hyaline 
band; hind wing tinged brown, with a narrow, median dark brown stripe 
extending almost to tip; narrow ocellar crescents red; all body and wing 
setae blackish brown. 

Head very slightly longer than wide, slightly (4 m) produced at inser- 
tion of antennae, slightly constricted back of eyes, eyes not protruding; 
cheeks about parallel, slightly arched ; dorsum of head at base Avith about 
three distinct, transverse lines in front of subbasal carina, of which the 
anterior one strongest, in front of this a fcAV very weak similar lines; 
cheeks in outline faintly serrulate; posterior ocelli large, almost 18 fi in 
diameter, anterior ocellus smaller, directed somewhat forAvard; frontal 
cdsta Avith a shallow notch; interocellar setae 20 fJ- apart, slightly in 
front of a line tangent to anterior margins of posterior ocelli; antenna 
111 and IV vasiform apically, Avith antenna III strongly elevated dorsally 
(see fig. 1), Avith pedicel and constricted apical part of segment almost 
at extreme ventral part of segment; elevation basally ending almost 
A-ertically, apically ending at circlet of hairs at an angle of about 45° ; 
dorsal pair of apical circlet of hairs on segment III about 52 /^ long. 

Prothorax at rear Avith a strong transverse apodeme and back of it 
two Aveak lines, otherAvise Avithout sculpture; anterior angles each Avith 
a forAvardly directed seta 36 /^ long; anterior margin Avith a roAv of 7-9 
juinor setae; posterior margin normally Avith three pairs of setae, inner- 
most longest (40 m) ; mesonotum Avith Aveak transverse anastomosing 
lines, nu'tanotiim Avith similar longitudinal lines and with median pair of 
setae inserted on basal margin, 80 M long, extending almost to apical 
margin; fore vein of forewing normally Avith seven basal setae, one be- 
yond niiddle and tAvo near apex of Aving (left side of holotype has three 
near apex) ; hind Vein with 13-15 setae. 

Abdomen Avith terga 1-8 each Avith a strong black subbasal costa, 
back of Avhich on each of terga 2-8 a single fine transverse line, other- 
Avise Avithout apparent sculpture; segment X split open above almost 
to base; comb on tergum VIII long (20 m), of closely set setae; abdomen 
Avith no accessory sternal setae. 

Measurements (holotype in microns) : Head, length 172, width across 
dyes and also back of eyes 168 ; prothorax, median length 152, width, 

mOC. ENT. SOC. WA8H., VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH, 1948 


282; setae: interocellars 88, posterior angulars, outer, S14, inner, lO-t; on 

terguin IX, median pair 128, lateral ]7fi, ventro-lateral, 148; on terguni 
X, botli pairs, 1H2. 

Antenna (from a [lartypc): 

1 " 2 3 4 5 (i 7 S 

Length 28 42 56 70 .'.2 (i8 10 12 

Width 32 32 30' 2(; 20 22 S 7 

Hrreatest dorso-ventral diameter. 

Male (allotype). — Length (distended) l.H.l mm. Very similar to the 
female but smaller and with measurements corres])ondiiigly less ; all 
tibiae yellow slighty tinged with brown; elevation of antenna III as 
pronounced as in female; tergum IX medially near rear with a pair of 
short very heavy spines, Ki M apart, back of them a slender pair of short 
(20 f^) setae; anteriad of the spines Imt much further apart (60 m) a 
jiair of setae 32 M long; near each posterior lateral margin a heavy seta 
!(4-100 M long; back of each of these setae a short heavy seta 24 /i long; 
tergum X laterally with a long (108 z^), curved, heavy seta on each side, 
and back of it a long (100 m), straight, slender seta; sensory areas on 
sterna III-YII, these transverse, narrowed medially, that on sternum 
III 88 X 12 M. 

Type locality. — Mexico City, Mexico. 

Type Cataloji' No. 58656, United States National Museum. 

Described from 10 females and 8 males collected July 29, 
]!144, by N. L. H. Krauss. No host o-iven. 

The liolotype has the left prothoracic inner j^osterior angu- 
lar seta replaced by a minor seta. The allotype has three setae 
on fore vein near apex in the right wing. In addition one 
female paratype has the right wing with three equidistant 
distals, one has the left forewing 2 4-1 and one has the right 
wing with 1 -f- 2 setae. 

The species is named in honor of its collector. 

Easily distinguished by the unusual third antennal seg- 
ment, the long dorsal setae on antenna ITT and the long 

Fig. 1. Taeninthrip.t Jcraii.<si, u. sj). Female. Thiid antennal segment, 
a dorsal view, b lateral view. 

56 PKOC. KNT. S0(. WASH., VOL. 50, XO. 8, MARCH, 194:8 

Taeniothrips tibialis, )ie\v species 

Female Jiolotype. — Length (somewhat distended) 1.78 mm. Dark red- 
dish brown, abdomen somewhat darker, coxae and femora concolorous 
with body, fore and mid femora yellowish at extreme bases lightened 
apically, tibiae yellow, stained with l)ro\vn, all tarsi clear yellow; ocellar 
crescents red; antennal segments I and II concolorous with head but II 
lighter apically, III yellow stained with brownish and light brown in 
about apical third, IV yellow in about basal half, brown beyond, V yel- 
low, brown in about apical fifth, VI-VIII darker brown; antenna III 
and IV strongly narrowed apically, not vasif orm ; f orewing with a broad 
basal hyaline band, brown beyond darkest proximad and only faintly 
brownish at extreme apex; hind wing light brown and with a narrow 
median dark brown stripe extending almost to tip; setae of body and 
wings blackish brown, of legs almost hyaline, of antennae light brown. 

Head slightly wider than long, slightly produced at insertion of an- 
tennae, very slightly constricted back of eyes; eyes not protruding, 
cheeks almost straight and parallel; with faint transverse lines in front 
of ocelli, back of ocelli with similar lines of which one near base of 
head is much stronger than the others; cheeks in outline faintly serru- 
late in anterior half, strongly so in basal half; frontal eosta shallowly 
notched; middle ocellus directed somewhat forward; interocellar setae 
minute, 17 M apart, in front of a line tangent to the anterior margins 
of lateral ocelli; postocular setae very small, the next to innermost 
located behind the innermost (right) or almost behind it (left) ; dorsal 
pair of setae of apical circlet on antenna III about 38 M long. 

Pronotum with transverse lines appearing light on a dark background, 
near base with a strong nearly black transverse apodeme; forwardly 
directed seta at each anterior angle 28 m long; 4 pairs of posterior 
marginal setae, the median pair only slightly longer than the others; 
mesonotum with tine transverse anastomosing lines; metanotum laterally 
fine, close, longitudinal lines sparsely anastomosing, median third reticu- 
late; median pair of metanotal setae inserted close to base, 68 M long; 
fore vein of forewing basally with 4+4 setae, one beyond middle and 
two near apex; hind vein with 16-17 setae. 

Abdomen with terga I-VIII each with a subbasal dark strong trans- 
verse line, back of which on terga II-VIII a fine distinct transverse line 
followed by 2-3 indistinct lines; tergum X split open above almost to 
base; comb on tergum VIII sparse, complete; abdomen, no accessory 
setae on sterna. 

Measurements (in microns): Head, length ]o(i, width across eyes, 164, 
width back of eyes, 170; pronotum, median length, 120, width 236; 
pterothorax, median length, 276, width, 324; setae: prothoracic posterior 
angulars, outer, .58, inner 64; on tergum IX, inner, 100, outer, 148, 
latero-ventral 132; on tergum X, both pairs, 112. 

Antenna 1 2 3 4 .t 6 7 8 

24 42 68 71 44 64 9 16 

PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH, 1948 57 

Described from one female labeled, "Cueriiavaca Kd., 60 
km. on Mexico City, Mexico, September 18, 1944, N. L. II. 

Type Catalo<>' No. r)8657, Tiiited States National Museum. 
Taeniothrips gracilis Moiiltuii 

This species, lieretofore recorded only from Japan. Formosa, 
and the Hawaiian Islands, has been intercepted at quarantine 
many times from Bermuda on Anurryllis, Frecsiu, carnation, 
Easter lily and other flowers, and other material in the collec- 
tion of the United States National Museum was collected as 
early as 1922. 

Tliis is the species referred to by Sakimui'a (Proc. Hawaii. 
Ent. Soc. IH (1): 68, 1947) an Physothrijjs cucharii Morgan 



Os.MOM) ]'. Bkelax)),' T]k' V iiivcr.sliii of Tc.tas 

For many years, both the <ieneric names (Udlimoiiu and 
Tonjmns have been used for this group of parasitic wasps. 
American workers had a tendency to use Cnllimoiiie, Avliile 
the European workers prefei-red Torynms. According to a 
recent decision of tlie International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, the genus Caliimoiiie Spinola has been perma- 
mently rejected and replaced by Torymus Dalman.- 

This species is described at this time so tliat a name will be 
available for use in a paper to l)e published later dealing with 
tlie biology of tlie sjiecies. 

Torymus brevis, now .species 

Vinutlv: Leiiytli of liddy 2..") to H..! iiiiii., civenige ;il)out 3 mm. Ovi- 
j)Ositor ;iii|iio\im;itcly tlie same leiigtli ;is the :il)clome!i. Lleneral liody 
color bright green to greenish blue, frequently ^vith ;i distinet golden 
or coppery tinge on some parts; an occasional specimen with a blue 
abdomen or almost entirely blue. Legs yellow to light brown. 

Face green with white pubescence. Facial ridge between antennae 
prominent, fading out veutrally. Mandibles when exserted prominent, 
toothed, brownish in color. Scape of autemia yellow on anterior surfaces, 
frequently dark green distally on the lateral and posterior surfaces. 
Funicle green, flagellum black. Ring .joint small, joints of fuiiicle joiigcr 

^The writer greatly appreciates the assistance of the following: A. B. 
(iahan, who compared the specimens with insects in the National Mu- 
seum; the late E. P. Felt, who deteimined the host of the parasite; and 
Mrs. Roland Schmitt, who collected so)ne of the insects used for the 
type series. 

-Opinion l.";.";. Opinions and declarations rendered by the International 
Commission on Zoological Xomcm-latui e, Vol. 1' : 227-1^38, July 12, l!U-t. 

58 PKOC. KNT. S0( . WASH., VOL. 50. NO. 3, MARCH, li'i-lS 

than wide. Club of antenna short, not promiuent. Basal segment of 
funicle more slender than other funicular segments. Parai)sidal grooves 
clear cut; no definite furrow on seutellum, although an indication of one 
may be seen on some specimens at certain angles. Secondary epimeral 
plate distinct, lightly sculptured; remainder of epimeron smooth and 
shiny. Anterior abdominal tergites incised in the mid-dorsal line. An- 
terior coxa yellow to light brown; middle and hind coxae green. Tro- 
chanters, femora and tibiae yellow to light brown, those of posterior 
legs usually slightly darker than others. Anterior tarsal segments yel- 
lowish, sometimes with last segments darker. First three segements of 
mid tarsus usually yellow or broAvn with the last two darker; first two 
segments of hind tarsus yellow or brown with the last three darker. 
Stigmal vein petiolate; post marginal less than half the length of the 

Male: Differs from the female in sexual features and the following: 
length - to 3 mm; scape of antenna green latlier than yellow. Body 
sometimes shows more golden or copjjer}- color than the female. 

Type Locality: Austin, Texas. 

Types: 77 females and 50 males. ITolotype and paratypes 
to be deposited in the V. S. National Museum. Paratypes in 
the writer's collection. Labeled: Austin 5 XW, 9.7.40, 
Emerged 9.17.40. Sunflower, T. heJianthi, Breland coll. Other 
paratypes labeled : Austin. Texas. Summer '47. Snnflower T. 
helianthi, Schmitt coll. 

Host: Trishormomyia helianthi (Brodie), Family Cecido- 
myiidae. (Pelt det.) 

Distribntion: This parasite lias so far been recovered only 
from Texas, although it is probably widely distributed. In 
addition to the type locality, it has been collected at Dripping- 
Springs, Johnson Citv, Mason, Bastrop and New Braunfels. 

Mr. A. B. Gahan, who lias examined specimens of this 
species states that it greatly resembles Torymus rudbeckiae 
Ash., but that the present species has a shorter ovipositor. 

Torymus brevis is probably closely related to Torymus 
helianthi Brodie. Brodie (1894) published a very generalized 
description of a parasite reared in Canada from the galls of 
T. helianthi. This brief description in general fits the present 
species fairly well, but it could also be applied to other species. 
So far as the writer could determine, the types of T. helianthi 
are not in existence, and since they are not available for 
comparison, the similarity and differences between the two 
species could not be definitely determined. 

Literature Citm) 
Brodie, William, 1894. Canadian galls and their occupants. (Viplosis 
hclionihi, ii. s\).). Biol. Rev., Ontario ]: -14 4(i. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOU 50, NO. 3, MARCH, li'4S 5J^) 




( Acakixa) 

By Edward W. Bakkr, Bhihih of Enloiiiolofii/ and Plant Qvarant'nie, 

V. S. Dcparfmcnt of Agriculture 

The adults of this mite are not known, but since the 
nymphal forms seem to offer evidence of relationship between 
two large families of mites, the species is described from 
nymphal material. The nymphs vary from the typical form 
more or less similar to the adults in ratio of len<ith to width, 
to the extremely elongated form figured. This has not been 
noted in the few other species studied. In the related genus 
Brevipalpus molting nymphs may become more elongate than 
usual, but the mite described is not in the molting stage, 
although it may be approaching it. The interesting point in 
this species in its elongate state is its general resemblance to 
the eriophyid mites. The shape of the body, as well as the type 
of transverse striation, are similar, and these may be another 
link between the Tetranychidae, to which the Trichadenidae 
are closely related, and the Eriophyidae. Erio])hyid mites 
possess only four legs and a vermiform body, and have been 
placed in a separate suborder, the Tetrapodili (Vitzthum, 
1943). However, the biology, mouth parts, and tarsal claws 
liave led other acarologists to believe that these mites are 
related to the Tetranychidae (Ewing. 1922), and this tricha- 
deuid may be one more indication of that connection. 

Tenuipalpus eriophyoides, now tipecies 
Nympli. II : Size varies from the typical form, which is 300 jx long by 
1(30 fi wide, to the elongate form, which is 430 /i* long hy l."i8 wide, this 
latter being eriophyidlike in appearance. The body setae are as figured^ 
the two anterior pair short, possibly serrate; the third pair located lat- 
L'rad of the eyes long, serrate; the marginal pair just anterior to legs III 
short, serrate; five pairs of marginal setae on posterior fifth of body 
serrate, the next to last pair being long, whiplike, and the remaining 
pairs of medium length, the anterior pair being about half as long as the 
others. The rest of tlie body setae appear to be more or less typical of 
the genus. 

This mite differs from the nymph of Toutipalpus granati 
Sayed, an Egyptian species, in that the setae laterad of the 
eyes and anterior to legs TTI are not equal in length, iior are 
the four shorter posterior marginal setae. 

Type (specimen figured) in U. S. National Museum, No. 
1800. Four other specimens, including three typical foi-ms and 
one elongate form, on same slide. Material collected by A. 
Dutt, January 1, 1929, at ]Margil, Basra, Mesopotamia (Ira(i). 
Host unknown. 

go PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASUR, VOr.. 50; NO. IS, MARCH, 1048 

Explanation of Figures 

T> in('ni(ili)ii.s ( yinphi/oides, new species. Figure 1. Dorsal view of elon- 
gate iiyniiili IT. Figure 2. Ventral view of elongate nymph II. 

Eeferkxces Cited 

EwiX(;. 11. K., 1V22. The phylogeny of tlie gall mites and a new classifi- 
cation of the suliorder Prostigniata of tlie order Acarina. Ent. Soe. 
Amer. Ann. ir, (3): 213-222. 

VITZT^r^[. H., 1!»43. Acarina. Bronns Klassen nnd Ordnungen des Tier- 
rcichs, vol. •"), part 4, book •"), no. 7, ji. !*24. 

new spt'cu' 











liaml in 

margins of 





!, tlie 


"^Of first 

PKOC, EXT. .SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, XO. o, MAKCII, li.-tS (j 1 



By Cakf. J. Drake, Ames, Iowa 

The present paper contains the deseriptioii of a new species 
and notes on two other species of water-striders of the genus 
Rluigovclia Mayr from tlie Philippine Islands. The specimens 
collected by C. F. Baker belong to the U. S. National Mnsemii. 
including the type of NJnn/orelid fereiis, n. sp. All 'three 
s])ecies have large ]n-onota. Avhicli cover all or most of 

Rhagovelia teretis, 

ApivroHS form: Muderatel.v large, 
lieueatli, tlie pronotnni with a broad, 
front, the pronotnni behind and onter 
with dai'k brown. Appendages dark 
antennal segment, all eoxac and trochanters, and base of hind femur, 
testaceous. Antennae nioderatel.v long, proportions — I, 36, 11, 22-; III, 
-o; IV, 21. Pronotum distinctly punctate, large, broadly rounded l)ehind, 
its median length a little less than width through humeri. 

Male: Venter brownish black, narrowed and sharply ridged ventrally, 
very densely and rather widel.v clothed posteriorly with extremely long, 
golden hairs along each side of the median longitudinal ridge. First 
genital segment of male extremely large, very long, with apical two- 
thirds bent strongly downwards; second segment small, mostly inserted, 
the (•]as|)ers broad, pointed jiosteriorly. Last tergite long, sliiny, sub- 
equal in length to tirst genital segment, hairy along hind margin, the 
connexiva suberect, moderately wide. Hind femur considerably swollen, 
armed beneath with two rows (and some scattered ones between) of 
short, dark teeth, without long spines; tibiae considerably bent, armed 
with short spines beneath. 

Female: Connexiva strongly retlexed inward posteriorly, meeting about 
the seventh segment and then continuing in contact to near apex, the 
apex acuminate and pro,iectiug posterioily. Hind femur considerably 
swollen, distinctly smaller than in male, beneath armed with a row of 
short dark teeth and one long, black-tipped spine just behind the 
middle. Venter broadly rounded, brownish, the last segment nearly as 
long as the two preceding segments. 

Length, -t.lO mm.; width, l.L'lt mm. 

Type (male) and allotype (female) Los Banos. Luzon. 
Philippines, Carl Bakei- collection, U. S. National Museum. 
Catalogue No. 5860L Two paratypes, male and female taken 
with the type. 

The extremely long and stout first genital segment and 
shape of elaspers of the male, and the hind femur and con- 
nexiva of female separate this species from other members of 
the genus found in the soutli Pacific and Australian regions. 

(l2 I'KOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. ?,, MARCH, 11148 

The female is a little shorter than the male. The Avinjjed form 
is unknown. 

Ehagovelia luzonica LuiHll)la(l 
MluifiovrJia Inzohica J.uiidblad, 1937. Eiit. Tids., .58: 6, fig. 4. 

The type, a macropterous male, was described from Los 
Baiios. Luzon. Seven apterous specimens, one male and 6 
females, have been kindly sent to me by Dr. Lloyd Rozeboom. 
These were taken in a river near Ba«»uio, Luzon, Philippine 
Islands. The apterous forms are described below. 

Apterous form: head brown, flavous in front; pronotuni 1)rown, the 
anterior lobe and side flavo-fulvous, the hind lobe with a rather indistinct 
median, yellowish line; mesouotum dark fuscous; abdomen yellowish 
brown to brown, connexivum yellowish, margined with brownish black; 
abdomen beneath yellowish brown, witli a black fuscous stripe on each 
side. Antennae fuscous-black, finely densely pubescent, the first two 
segments with a few long bristles, the first segment with considerable 
flavous; proportions — I, 4.5; II, 2.5; III, 30; IV, 2.5. Head with a median 
impressed, dark longitudinal line, with a few scattered, short, black bris- 
tles. Rostrum stout, flavous; terminal segment black, extending to mid- 
dle of mesosterum. Sternum flavo-fulvous, also most of sides of thorax. 

Legs moderately long, with long, blackish bristles, pale flavous 
beneath, l>rownish black externally, the intermediate tarus entirely 
brownish ))laek ; hind femur of female slender, with a few short spines 
within apically; hind femur of male very strongly swollen. 

Rhagovelia philippina Lundblad 
Hhagorclia 2}hilipin)ia Lundblad, 193(5. Arkiv. Zool., 28A, No. 21: 36, 
PI. 6. text-fig. 18. 

Miales and female, Los Baiios (8 specimens) and Baguio. 
Luzon (6 specimens) ; 1 specimen Surigao Island, Philippine 
Islands, Baker collection. 

The last tergite of female is somewhat hairy. The con- 
nexiva are entirely dark. The transverse rectangular spot 
near the front margin of pronotum varies from yellow to deep 
orange in color. 

I'KOC. EXT. SOC. -WASH., VOL. 50, XO. 3, MARCH, 11)48 t)3 



By Curtis W. Sabrosky, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
United Statex Department of Agrienlture 

The present paper eontaiiis the description of a new species 
of Winthcmia reared from the pupae of the rejral moth, 
(-ithcro)iia rcgalis (P.), and a discussion of tlie correct name 
of its closest relative, Winthemia cecropia (Riley). 

I am indebted to Dr. A. N. Tissot, of the University of 
Florida, for permission to deposit the type of the new species 
in the United States National Muvseum; to Dr. Pedrito Silva, 
entomolojiist of the Instituto de Cacau da Bahia, Brazil, for 
the loan of a reared series of Promasiporia pinguiokles Town- 
send, and to Miss E. I. McDaniel, Department of Entomology, 
Michigan State C()lle<>e, for the loan of a reared series of W . 

Winthemia cecropia (Bile.y) 

ExoriNta cecropia Eili'v, 1870, Amer. Eiit. 2: 101 (brief dosciiptioii ; con- 
sidered a varietA' of E. miiitaris Walsh). 
Exorista leucaniae Kirkpatrick var.; Riley, 1870, Second Missouri Rpt., 

pp. 50-ol (mention, thougli unnamed, as a variety of leucaniae, bred 

from cecropia larva). 
Exorista leucaniae var. cecropiae Riley, 1872, Fourth Missouri Rpt., pp. 

108-109 (description, essentially the same as Riley, 1870) ; Riley, 

1881, Gen. Index Missouri Rpts., p. 60. 
Exorista cecropiae Riley; Osten Sacken, 1878, Catalogue Diptera N. 

Amer., p. 151. 
Winthemia cecropiae Reinhard, 1931, T^. S. Natl. Mus. Proe. 79 (art. 

20): 34-35. 
Exorista plati/samiae Townsend, 1892, Amer. Kiit. Soe. Trans. 19: 288. 

Keinhard considered that cecropiae (scu cecropia) Riley 
was a nomen nudum and described the species as new from 
one of Riley's original specimens in the National Museum. 
T believe that the name must technically be credited to Riley, 
however, for even though the latter 's description is admittedly 
inadequate, some descriptive matter was given and the name 
was consequently validated. To argue that it was not would 
bring one to the fact that Coquillett cited "Exorista cecropiae 
Riley MS" under Winthemia quadripustnlata (F.). If there 
were no previous validation, under the Rules the name 
cecropiae Avould have to be considered as validated by Coquil- 
lett by citation in synonymy under quite a different species. 
The type of platysamiae Townsend cannot be located, but it 
is probably the same species that Rilev had, as Townsend has 
maintained (3936, Manual, v. IV. p. 203). 

64 PKOC. KNT. SOC. \V.\.SII., VOL. 50, XO. ?>, MARCH, IIU^ 

W:iuthe)iiia cecropia is characterized principally by the ab- 
sence of densely matted patches of hairs on the underside of 
abdominal segments III and IV (though the hairs are fine 
and close toge^ther, and sometimes appear weakly matted on 
the fourth segjnent) ; front relatively broad, width at vertex 
0.28 times the width of the head ; frontal vitta obviously wider 
than a parafrontal, about 1.6 times; parafacial hairs coarse. 
feAver in number than in cithero)iiae, and not extending beloM' 
the level of the uppermost facial bristle; middle tibia anterola- 
terally with one strong and two smaller bristles; claws and 
pulvilli short, at most subequal to the length of the distal 
tarsal segment. Though I have seen only males of cecropia. I 
believe that the tibial and tarsal characters are common to 
both sexes, judging from cHheroniae, but the others are sexual- 
ly dimorphic in citheroniae and will have to be checked for 
that in other species. 

The presence or absence in' the males of densely matted 
patches of hairs on the undersides of abdominal segments III 
and IV has usually been considered one of the significant 
differences between species of Trn(f/(.ej»/cf, and indeed they 
often appear to be very characteristic. Reinhard (1931) has 
used the character as the primary division in his key to the 
males of the genus. I do not question its general usefulness, 
for there is a great difference in appearance between species 
with dense black mats of numerous, closely placed liairs and 
other species without matted hairs, in which the ventral 
surfaces of segments III and IV are the same as on the pre- 
ceding segments, the hairs stouter and more widely separated 
at their bases. 

In some border-line cases, however, of which W. cecropia is 
one. it is impossible to say that distinct mats of haii-s are pres- 
ent and yet the hairs in these positions are long, fine and set 
closer together than usual, and sometimes even slightly nuitted 
together at the tips. In the t.vpe of cecropia, the third segment 
shows no sign of matting, though the hairs are fairly numer- 
ous and fine, while the fourth segment has a small area in 
which the tips of the hairs are matted together. On a speci- 
men of cecrojna (Harrisburg, Pa. May 20, 1908, "ex Sainia 
cecropia''^), in which the hairs on segment IV are fine, close 
and numerous, but not matted, it was easy to demonstrate that 
a little water applied with a camel's-hair brush would cause 
a certain degree of matting where the hairs were sufficiently 
close together. There is such a great difference between 
cecropia and citheroniae, however, that moisture conditions 
alone would not cause any specimens of the former to be con- 
fused with the lattei". In some other cases, it is important to 
note that- a certain amount of confusion may arise in inter- 
pretiug the character. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, XO. 3, JtARCH, 1948 G5 

An interesting variation was noted in a series of 10 males 
reared from eecropia larvae at East Lansing, Mieli., May 25. 
1932 [Michigan State Coll. Colin.]. Thongh males of W. 
eecropia normally lack proelinate orbital bristles, two speci- 
mens have one well-developed pair, and one male had two 
bristles on the left side and one on the right. 

Winthemia citheroniae, new species 

A Winihemia in the sense of Reinhard (1931) and Cnrran 
(1934), close to W. eecropia and agreeing wuth the description 
of the latter (Reinhard, 1931. pp. 34-35) except in the follow- 
ing particulars : 

Male. — Width of the front at tlie vertex 0.28-0.^4: times the width of 
the head; abdominal segments III and IV ventrally with large and dense 
]y matted patches of long l^lack hair; middle tibia anterodorsally Avith 
only one bristle, which is large and strong; legs 'l)lack and seutellum 
predominantly so, but the apparent ditt'erencc in cdlor may be due to 
the condition of the type; otherwise as described for eecropia. In addi- 
tion, the parafacials are densely and finely haired, with an estimated 60 
hairs on each side, the hairs continuous from the lower frontal bristle 
to a level opposite the vibrissa and separated only by a narrow groove 
from being continuous with the hairs of the cheek. The frontal ' vitta 
is only slightly wider than a parafrontal, liy 1.1-1.2 times, the inner 
genital forceps are slightly broader than in eecropia, strongly keeled 
behind, and the distal end of the aedeagus is strongly flared. 

Female. — Like the male, except for the following secondary sexual 
characters: Mesonotum and seutellum more heavily pollinose, and ac 
eordingly lighter in color and less shining, than in the male; width of the 
front at the vertex 0.3 times the width of the head ; no median marginal 
bristles on the first abdomiiml segment but one strong pair on the second; 
no areas of matted hairs ventrally on segments III and TV; parafacials 
as finely but not as densely haired as in the male, witli 30-40 hairs in 
about three irregular rows. 

I>ength, males, 11. .1-1.3 mm.; females. 10-11 mm. 

liolotype male, allotype, and 14 paratypes (7 i,l 9). 
Gainesville, Fla., November 17, 1946 {A. N. Tissot), from 
pnpae of Cither onia regal is; 21 paratypes (10 5 , 11 9). 
Kensington, Md., October 11, 1946 (Bruce Burdette), from 
pnpae of Citheronia regalis. Type No. 58501 in the United 
States National Mnsenm, deposited through the courtesy of 
Dr. Tissot. Paratypes in the National Museum and the collec- 
tion of the Department of Entomology, University of Florida. 

The larvae of the Kensington specimens were observed 
emerging from pupae of Citheronia regalis on September 24, 
and all had pupated by September 26. The adults emerged on 
October 11. ■ 

66 PKOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. S, MAKCH, 1948 

Tlie species is closely related to W. cecropia, much more so 
than would be indicated by Reinhard's key, wliere the 
presence in cithcroniuc of large and dense patches of matted 
liairs on abdominal segments III and IV will place it in a 
different group of species. The males of cecropia and cith- 
eroniae have short claws and pulvilli which are not as long 
as the distal tarsal segment, a feature which distinguishes 
them from all other known American species of Winthemia 
except the South American W. xanthocera. The female sex 
of cithcroniue will run easily in Reinhard's key as far as 
couplet 15, and is definitely unlike any of the remaining 

The series from Maryland is almost identical with that from 
Florida. The only difference that can be found from a detailed 
comparison of Ijoth males and females is that the Florida 
specimens have the hind tibia evenly ciliate anterodorsally. 
wherea,s those from Maryland consistently have one slightly 
stronger bristle about midway in the cilia. When the two 
series are placed side by side, the specimens from Maryland 
appear to be a trifle smaller, but this is probably due to the 
fact that they are slightly teneral. It is possible that the 
presence of the bristle in the anterodorsal series of cilia on the 
hind tibia is an indication of a different subspecies or even a 
species. With only these two series available, however, it is 
also possible, in the absence of any other differences, that we 
have here merely a Mendelian character, with two homozygous 
local populations, or perhaps even siblings, which differ in the 
presence or absence of the bristle. In view of the generally 
close resemblance of the two series, the identity of the host, 
and the reasonably close geographical location, I regard them 
as representing the same species. Relatively little is known of 
subspecies in the higher flies, however, and it is always i>os- 
sible that a large amount of material from many localities 
would show that Winthemia citheroniae as treated here is 
composed of two subspecies. 

Variation. — The entire series of 37 specimens was examined 
for any variation in certain characters commonly used as 
specific and even by some authors as generic criteria. No 
variation was found (1) in the presence in both sexes of only 
one bristle, a strong one, midway on the anterodorsal surface 
of the middle tibia, (2) in the absence of median marginal 
bristles on both first and second abdominal segments in the 
males, and (3) in their absence on the first segment, but the 
presence of one pair of strong bristles on the second segment, 
in the females (though four out of 11 from Maryland had 
only one bri-stle of the pair present). Considerable variation 
was found in the males in the presence or absence of a pair of 

PROC. ENT. SOr. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. H, ilAKCH, lli4S (ij 

strong reeliiiate u])per frontal bristles situated opposite tlie 
anterior oeelhis. 

Florida S i Maryland $ c 

One pair, strong 2 4 

Bristle on one side onh', 

either left or right 5 3 

None 1 "5 

In Reinhard's key to males (1981, p. 7). the prese}K'e or ab- 
sence of these stont upper frontals was used in couplet 2o to 
distinguish sevei-al species, but the above notes indicate tliat 
the character should be used with caution. 

In Townsend's key to the tribe Sturmiini, females of 
citheroniae run fairly well to Promasipoda, and can scarcely 
be distinguished from the holotype female of P. pinguiokles 
Townsend, from Para, Brazil. Fortunately, a long series of 
the latter species, containing both males and females, shows 
that the males of pinguioides are quite different, having the 
claws and pulvilli decidedly longer than the distal tarsal seg- 
ment (nearly 1.6 times as long, on the foreleg), the densely 
matted hairs in smaller patches on segments III and IV, and 
typically lacking a pair of strong reclinate upper frontal 


(Hyjiknoptera, Sphecidae) 

During the collecting season of 1947 several female Oxyhelus 
were captured on sandy loam in Arlington Co., Virginia, car- 
rying adult flies for provisioning their nests. Inasmuch as 
these prey records are new it seems wortliAvhile to record 
them. I am indebted to C. W. 8abrosky for identification of 
the Diptera. 

Oxyhelus hipunctatunt Oliv. One female on June 15th with 
a male muscid, Hylemyia cilicrura (Rond.), the seed corn 
maggot; one female on August .3rd with a male lonchaeid, 
Lonchaea nudifemorata Mall. 

Oxyhelus quadrinoiaium Say. One female on June loth 
with a male sarcophagid, Sarcophaga rapax Walker. 

Oxyhelus cressonii Robt. One female on June 15th with a 
female chloropid, Thaumatomyia histriata (Walker). 

The above record extends the range of 0. cressonii consid- 
erably as it was known previously from Illinois, Iowa and 
Nebraska. The species was moderately common during the 
first half of June and then was not taken again till August, 
indicating a partial or complete second generation in tliis 

Karl V. Krombein, 
Biinau of EntomoJogii and Plant Qnarnniiiif 

(;> I'KOC. EXT. S0( . A\ ASH., VOL. 50, SO. 'A, MARCH, lti-4S 





By Kenneth L. Knight, Lt. Coiumaudcr, ^ISC, VSX 
Naval Medical Kescarch Institute, Beilicuda, Md. 

It has been called to nn- attention by Dr. xVlan Stone that 
Aedes {Mucidus} aurantius nigrescens (Edwards) [z=Favdo- 
inyia aurantia \ar. nigrescens Edwards, 1929 (in Paine and 
Edwards, Mosquitoes from the Solomon I.slands. Bull. Ent. 
Res. 20:31-1:)] is a homonym of Aedes nigrescens Theobald 
|Mon. Cul. 4:540. 1907; =^Cidex (Mochthogenes) malayi 
Leicester, in part]. It is proposed at this time, therefore, to 
rename this subspecies Aedes {Mucidus) aurantius i^ainei n. n. 
in lionor of the collector of the holotype. 

Since the publication of my paper [Kni<>ht, K. L.. 1947. 
Tlie Aedes {Mucidus) mosquitoes of the Pacific (Diptera : 
Culicidae), Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 37(9) :315-325.] on the sub- 
genus Mucidus, I have made an effort to corroborate the dis- 
tinctness of Aedes {Mucidus) aurantius chrysogaster (Tay- 
lor). 1927. Personal communications from Dr. AV. V. King 
(Bureau of Entomolooy and Plant Quarantine, T"'^. S. D. A.) 
and Mr. D. J. Lee (Dei:)artment of Zoology, University of 
Sydney, both of whom have examined the types, have dis- 
closed that this subspecies (at least the type specimens) differs 
from either aurantius aurantius (Theobald) or a. painei 
Knight in possessing a narrow basal white band on the fourth 
liind tarsal segment. Also, Mr. Lee reported that the scutal 
scaling of the holotype is strictly as described by Taylor, but 
that the differentiation of the pattern in the paratype is less 
obvious. The types are now in the School of Public Health 
and Tropical Medicine, LTniversity of Sydney, Sydney, Aus- 

I am indebted to Dr. A. Stone for calling my attention to 
the above homonymy, to Mr. Lee and Dr. King for their notes 
on the type of chrysogaster, and to Miss Elizabeth Marks, 
University of Queensland for referring my inquiry to the 
proper source. 

Also, I am indebted to Mr. P. F. Mattingly, British Museum 
(Natural History) for pointing out that the larva of Aedes 
(Mucidus) grahami (Theobald) has been described in the fol- 
h)wing references: (1) Shield, G. W., 1944. Description of 
4th-instar larvae of Aec/es {Mucidus) grahami Theobald (Dip- 
tera). Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond., A, 19:129. (2) Wolfs, J., 
194o. Aedes {Mucidus) grahami Theobald: description de la 
larve et de la nymphe. Rec. Trav. Sci. Med. Congo Beige 4 :64, 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH, 1948 (iO 

(3) Mattinjily, P. P.. 1!)47; Notes on the early stages of cer- 
tain Ethiopian niostiuitoes. ^vith some locality records from 
British West Africa. An)i. Trop. Med. & Parasit. 41:244. I 
liad made the statement in tlie paper referred to above ( p. 
31 (i) tliat tlie larva of tliis s]iecies is nnknown. 


The .177th regular meeting of the Society was held at S I'.M.. 
Thursday, December 4, 1947 in Koom 43 of the IT. S. National Museiiui. 
There were .14 members and 27 visitors present. President Dark an- 
nounced that R. E. Snodgrass had been elected an honorary member of 
the Entomological Society of France. Tlic minutes of the ]ircct<liMi; 
meeting wei'e approved as icad. 

Mr. Charles S. Laubly, 190 North Ave., N.W., Atlanta, (Jeorgia was 
elected to membership in the Society. 

Annual reports Avere i)i'esented l)y the Treasurer, L. B. Reed; the 
Corresponding Secretary, R. I. Sailer; the Editor, K. V. Kromliein. 
President f'lark then requested a lejiort on the work of tlie new Com- 
mittee on Notes and Exhibitions. IT. K. Townes stated that the Coin- 
mittee had considered its function was to arouse interest among mem- 
bers and to provide an opportunity for voluntary participation in the 
meetings rather than to solicit specific contributions. He reported tliat 
75 percent of the notes presented had been spontaneous in origin. W. 
D. Field, as Chairman of the special Committee to Eeport on the Condi- 
tion of the Reserve Stock of Publications, stated that botli the records 
of the Corresponding Secretary and the stock on hand had been found 
in excellent condition. The Committee had been impressed by the amount 
of work handled by the Cori'esponding Secretary and the time required. 
Mr. Field moved that a vote of thanks be accorded the Corresponding 
Secretary. The motion was passed. Mr. Weigel moved that recognition 
also be extended to the other officers of the Society for their work 
during the past year. This motion was accepted. 

The following announcement was made by the I'resident: At the 
last meeting of the Executive Committee it was the unanimous opinion 
of those present that there should be appointed a Standing Cojnmittee 
on Memoirs to examine and evaluate manuscripts submitted or suggested 
for publication in the Society's series of memoirs. The members of this 
Committee shall serve for three years. In order to assure u continuous 
policy a new member shall be appointed each year. For the Committee 
on Mejnoirs I appoint: Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck, Chairman, for 3 years; 
Mr. William D. Field, for 2 years; the Editor, ex-officio. The members 
of this Committee will select anotlier member to serve for 1 year. Future 
members of the Committee shall be appointed for a term of 3 years. 

70 PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH, li.48 

President Clark next called for the Report of the Nominating Com- 
mittee, which was presented by R. E. Snodgrass. Annual election of 
officers followed and the officers for the coming year are: 

Honorary President L. O. Howard 

President - E. H. Siegler 

First Vice-President T. E. Snyder 

Second Vice-President -_ — . W. B. Wood 

Recording Secretary Ina L. HaAves 

Corresponding Seeretarj' R. I. Sailer 

Treasurer Howard Raker 

Editor - - Karl V. Krombein 

Executive Committee (new member) Austin H. Clark 

Representative of the Society as Vice-President C. F. W. Muesebeck 
of the Washington Academy of Sciences 

Mr. Clark, after expressing his appreciation for the cooperation 
received during his term in office, requested the new President, Dr. E. 
H. Siegler, to take the Chair. 

When President Siegler called for niiscellaiieons liusiness, L)r. Townes 
arose to discuss the traditional meeting time for the Society, 8-10 P.M. 
He stated that several members thought an earlier hour desirable and 
presented the motion that tAvo written ballots be taken at the January 
meeting : 1 ) a ballot to decide Avhether the meetings of the Society shall 
be held at a time earlier than 8 P.M.; 2) if ballot No. 1 directs an 
earlier time, a second ballot to decide whether the time of meeting shall 
be set at 7 or 7:30 P.M. The motion Avas approved. 

Dr. Sailer expressed his personal appreciation for the cooperation and 
helpfulness of the retiring Treasurer. He had found it a real pleasure 
to work with Mr. Reed. 

Because of the croAvded program the presentation of Notes and 
Exhibitions Avas omitted and the first paper on the regular program Avas 
presented by Stephen S. Easter, Food and Agriculture Organization of 
the United Nations: "London Meeting on Wastage of Food Stuffs." 

A short report Avas given of the International Meeting on Infestation 
in Stored Food Stuff held in London 5-12 August, 1947. This meeting 
Avas convened by FAO in response to requests from a number of nations. 
Twenty-six countries AA^ere represented by sixty-tAvo delegates and ob- 
servers. The keynote of the meeting Avas a general discussion of the 
entire problem of infestation control. Time did not permit detailed 
discussion Avhich Avould have been highly desirable. The basic reason 
for the meeting Avas the enormous loss in stored foodstuffs reported from 
many countries. FAO opened the meeting by presenting an appraisal of 
the annual Avorld losses of grain and cereal products only. The figures 
Avere obtained from a questionnaire sent to all FAO Member nations. 
The estimates of losses from the tAventy-nine nations submitting ansAA'ers 
tended to confirm the figure of 107^ of the total Avorld production 
previously arrived at by an FAO committee of experts. From many 
countries this figure excluded farm storage losses as being impossible 

PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH, li'»48 71 


to estimate. There was some question raised as to the validity of the 
estimates, but all agreed that the data indicate a loss of enormous 
dimensions. Some countries have highly developed organizations for 
the control of infestation; others leave much to be desired in this 
respect. Thus, in some countries — and these are to be found mainly in 
the tropical and subtropical belts — the organization for actual pre- 
vention and control of infestation are quite inadequate. In these latter 
territories the problem is great by reason of the specially favorable 
climatic conditions for the development of pests, the amount of food 
largely in the control of peasants, and storage and transport difficulties. 
Not only are stocks retained and others imported for native use en- 
dangered, but the exports have carried and continue to carry serious 
infestation of susceptible foodstuffs and the fouling of food premises 
and ti-ansport. Papers were presented by notable experts from Canada, 
United States, United Kingdom and other countries. The subjects 
covered the economics and dissemination of infestation; control of 
insects., rodents, and fungi ; storage construction and grain drying ; 
dissemination of knowledge and research needs. The delegates indicated 
particular interest in all the new pesticides, in the use of methyl 
bromide as a fumigant, methods and machinery for drying of grain and 
machinery for the application of pesticides with main emphasis on 
sprayers and dusters. It Avas evident that while technical information 
eventually reaches the field through the medium of the Eeview of Applied 
Entomology and other journals, it is delayed and frequently the original 
papers are inaccessible. There was quite unanimous agreement that tlie 
greatest need in combatting infestation was to put into practice over 
the world the presently known methods of control. (Author's Abstract). 

A color film taken at the Conference Avas shown as a conclusion to Mr. 
Easter's paper. 

W. D. Reed inquired if plans liad been made to follow up the Con- 
ference in any way. Mr. Easter replied that the papers presented would 
be available in about a month and that information for the small grain 
dealers Avould be circulated back to the member nations. 

The next paper, accompanied by lantern slides, was given by J. C. 
Evenden, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine: "Northern 
Idaho's Tussock Moth Control Campaign 1947." 

In 1946 a serious outbreak of the Douglas fir tussock moth (Hemero- 
campa paendoimgata McD.) occurred in the Douglas fir and grand fir 
timber stands of northern Idaho. Local officers of the Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine and the Forest Service, recommended 
an extensive control campaign for 1947, which was approved by private. 
State and Federal timberland managing agencies involved. By agree- 
ment of all agencies the United States Department of Agriculture was 
designated to conduct the proposed project, with the Forest Service 
handling the fiscal and administrative details, and the Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine tlie technical phases. The estimated 
cost of treatment had been placed at $1.70 per acre. A' formula of 

72 I'KOf. KNT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. o, .MAK( H, li>48 

pjiyineuts on clift'eieiit liuul owiuMsljips was appioved by which the 
United States would pay for coiitiol on all Federal lauds, the State of 
Idaho for all State and county lands, and for private lands the cost 
would be shared as follows: 50 percent by the United States, 2o percent 
by the State of Idaho, and 2o percent by the owner. The following 
allotments wcie made available. Potlach Timber Protective Association 
$HH;272, State of Idaho .t2I0,0(){), I'nited States !i:i39o,000. Subsequent 
payments by owjiers of small timbered areas reduced the State and Fed- 
eral expenditures proportionately. Prior to the start of actual spraying 
a number of preparatory work projects were completed. These included 
air strips, determination of land ownerships, surveys to determine the 
areas to be treated, programs of public education, flying contracts, and 
obtaining 175 tons of DDT. Actual spraying started on May 22, and 
was completed July 2, 1947. During this period only 30 days were favor- 
able for spraying. A spraying contract was awarded to the Central 
Aircraft Company, Yakima, Washington, and Johnson Flying Service 
of Missoula, .Montana. Eight single motored small planes of different 
makes, two Ford trimotors, and one Douglas C-17 were used on the 
project. These planes made 2,120 spray runs, and deposited 390,878 
gallons of spray on 413,469 acres of forest land. In addition to the 
Idaho area this acreage included 4,375- acres in Washington and 13,559 
in Oregon. Contracts were awarded for a formulated spraj', consisting 
of one pound of technical DDT in a solvent with light fuel oil to make 
one gallon. One gallon of spray, containing one pound of DDT, was 
applied to each acre. This spray was shipped to Moscow, Idaho in tank 
cars and transported to airstrips in 4,000 gallon Army tank trucks. The 
United States Weather Bureau installed a complete Aveather forecast 
station at project headquarters, Moscow, Idaho. Their forecasts proved 
invaluable to the project and were relied upon in determining suitable 
flying weather. Eadio telephone communications were established l)e- 
tween headquarters and air strips, local field weather observers, con- 
tractor's headquarters, and the field supervisor's headquarters. Morning 
spraying was conducted between the hours of 4 and 9 a.m. when weather 
conditions permitted. Evening flying was done between 5 and 7:30 ]^.m. 
on the few days that Aveather ijermitted. Spraying Avas stopped at least 
one hour before rainstorms and Avhenever the Avind exceeded 8 m.p.h. 
A large creAV of spray checkers Avas used to obtain data on the effective- 
ness of the spray coverage. The effects of DDT on animal, bird, and 
aquatic life Avere studied by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. No 
harmful effects Avere recorded. Game fish Avere not harmed but other 
aquatic life suff'ered in Aarying degrees from the effects of DDT de- 
posited in mountain streams. The project AA'as entirely successful. Small 
tussock moth caterpillars were quite susceptible to the effects of DDT, 
but as they reached maturity they became more resistant. Although not 
all caterpillars Avithin the treated areas were killed, the mortality Avas as 
near 100 percent as could be expected. It is estimated that the spraying 
prevented the almost certain defoliation of 1^1> billion board feet of 

PKOO. KNT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 50, NO. 3, M.\RCH, 1948 73 

luercliantable fir timber valued at $4,328,000. A total of 150,000 acres of 
fir forests which were almost completely defoliated in 1946, but which 
showed signs of recovery in 1947, would have been defoliated again and 
killed had it not been for the timely application of the spray in 1947. 
'J'he project was completed on time, the cost was less thaii estimated, the 
work was highly successful, and there were no serious accidents. 
(Author's Abstract). 

Dr. Annand commented on the remarkable cooperation received from 
State and Federal agencies but stressed the fact that it was the energy 
and organizing ability of Mr. Evenden which made possible the full 
use of this cooperation and ensured the success of the project. Further 
discussion by Mr. W. D. Eeed, A. B. Gurney and others brought out 
that: the contractors were able to make a good profit at 58 cents per 
acre; 413,000 acres were covered during the season; no marking of 
areas was done because it proved satisfactory to depend on the excellent 
aerial photographs available if supplemented by observation flights; 63 
to 70 cents per gallon was paid for the DDT formulated spray used; 
very little of the timber killed in 1946 had been salvaged. 

The following foreign visitors were introduced to the Society : 

Dr. C. J. Briejer, Chief, Phytopathological Service of the Netherlands, 
Wageningen, Holland. 

Dr. B. J. Hermans, Phytopathologist of the Netherlands Ministry of 
Agriculture, The Hague, Netherlands. 

Dr. V. Prabhaker Eao, New Delhi, India. 

Dr. Sven G. Larsson, Denmark. 

Other visitors introduced to the Society were: E. L. LeClerg, R. R. 
Whitten, D. A. Isler, N. D. Wygant, H. A. Bess, R. C. Brown, and R. 
.1. Kowal. Attention. was also called to the presence of J. A. Beal and R. 
L. Fnrniss, out-of-town memliers. 

Ina Ij. Hawes, Becordinfi Secretary 


The .")78th regular meeting of the Society was held at 8 P.M., Thurs- 
day, January 8, 1948 in Room 43 of the U. S. National Museum. Sixty- 
two members and twenty-two guests signed the register. The minutes 
of the previous meeting were read and approved. President Siegler 
extended the congratulations of the Society to S. A. Rohwer on his 
election to the presidency of the American Association of Economic 

Committees were appointed by the Chair as follows: 

I'rogram Committee: P. W. Oman, Chairman, Helen Trembley, L. D. 

Christenson, L. B. Reed, W. D. Reed. 
Memherahip Committee: Elizabeth Haviland, Chairman, Louise Russell, 

W. H. Anderson, F. L. Campbell, R. H. Nelson. 
Committee on Note.t and Exhihi1ion.<i : A. B. Gurney, Chainnan, C. 
W. Sabrosky, R. A. St. George. 

74 I'KOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH, 1948 

The report of the Auditors, G. J. Ilaeussler and Howard Baker, was 
presented by Mr. Baker. The records and accounts of the Treasurer had 
been examined and found correct and in good order. Mr. L. B. Eeed 
was complimented on the condition of his records and on his simplifica- 
tion of the accounting procedures. A motion to accept the report 
seconded and passed. 

The following persons were elected to membership in the Society : 

Robert R. Dreisbach, 201 Helen St., Midland^ Michigan. 

Howard E. Evans, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

The next business before the meeting was the proposed change in 
the hours for the regular meetings. After discussion by Mclndoo, Weigel, 
Anderson, Townes, and Snodgrass a vote was taken by written ballot. 
Tlie result was later announced by the tellers as 45 to 12 in favor of the 
present hours, 8-10 P.M. No further vote was therefore required. 

Attention Avas called to the 8th International Congress of Entomology 
which will meet in Stockholm, August 9-14, 1948. 

Dr. ToAvnes exhibited a cabinet wliich he has designed for the picserva- 
tion of his personal insect collection. The dimensions are 27Mi x 34% x 
lo inches. Each cabinet has three shelves which hold 10 Schmitt boxes 
standing on edge. The door is entirely removable and clamps against 
a sponge rubber gasket. There is a Avire basket frame set in a drinking 
glass. The wire basket is filled Avith calcium chloride to control moisture. 
Material for each cabinet cost about eleven dollars plus tAvo dollars for 
cutting in the furniture shop. 

A. B. Gurney noted the use of grasshoppers as food by' various 
groups of Filipinos. In La Union Province, Luzon, in 1945, he ob- 
served one of the Ilocano people catching various species, principally 
Gastrimargus marmoratns (Thunb.), with a flat net stretched across a 
ring at the end of a bamboo handle. This Avas clapped over the grass- 
hopper Avhile the insect Avas resting on the ground. In that locality 
there are several methods of cooking grasshoppers, including roasting 
and boiling, and they are considered nutritious delicacies reserved 
mainly for groAving children. (Author's abstract). 

Specimens of the grasshoppeis Avere exhibited. 

W. B. Wood circulated a vial containing specimens of weevil larA-ae 
found during inspection of potatoes from Central America and Mexico. 
The species is not at present found in the United States. Judging from 
the severity of the infestation in the potatoes examined it Avould be a 
most dangerous importation. Identification as Epicaerns cognatus Sharp 
is only tentative and it is hoped to rear some of the larvae to determine 
the species Avith certainty. 

The first paper on the regular program Avas the address of the retiring 
president, Mr. Austin H. Clark: "Surveying the Butterflies of Virginia 
—Prom the Human as Avell as the Scientific VicAvpoint." 

Mr. Clark said that for the past fcnirteen years Mrs. Clark and he had 
devoted practically all their spare time to an intensive study of the 
hutterflv fauna of A^irginia. In this Avork they Avere so fortunate as to 

PKOt". ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 'A, MARCH, 1948 75 

have tlie assistance of inimeious friends wlio sent in thousands of speci- 
mens and records. The localities from which records Avere secured num- 
bered more than 870, distributed among all the 100 counties. The 
number of species and subspecies known to occur in Virginia is 151. 
FolloAving a brief account of the ecological relationships of the buttev- 
tlies of Virginia Mr. Clark remarked that in considering the present 
distribution of the local butterflies it is important to bear in mind that 
it is by no means a natural one, for local conditions have been greatly 
altered since the coming of the Europeans. The lowlands have long 
been under intensive agricultural development, and the endemic flora has 
been greatly restricted in area and profoundly modified both by the 
changed conditions and by the introduction of many European and 
other weeds. The mountains have been almost wholly deforested by 
lumbering or by fire, the original forests being now replaced by second 
growth more or less extensively invaded by foreign weeds from the low- 
lands or from the north. Swamps, bogs and marshes have been partly 
or completely drained, damp mountain valleys have become dry valleys, 
and in general there is greater uniformity over the State than there was 
in the past. The present uniformity in conditions is reflected in the 
distribution of the butterflies. About 100 species, or two-thirds of all 
those known from Virginia, are found in all sections of the State from 
the western mountains to the coast. These are all hardy and adaptable 
species, able to maintain themselves and often to increase under changed 
conditions. These are almost the only butterflies that occur on the pied- 
mont, except locally in tlie north, and over the cultivated areas on the 
coastal plain. To the west they become somewhat less numerous, liut 
Ihey occur in all the valleys and cleared areas, some of them also in the 
woods. This faunal complex, in origin a secondary association of 
vigorous, liardy aggressive types chiefly of local origin but with 
immigrant elements from the south and west and also from Europe, is 
distantly suggestive of the floral associations characteristic of abandoned 
fields in the same area. Within this area certain species are so variable 
as to suggest that there is here a mixture of northern and southern or 
eastern and western forms, with resultant extensive hybridizatio)i. Su- 
perimposed upon this originally secondary but now primary faunal coin- 
l)lex of recent origin — one of the most characteristic elements flrst 
appeared Avithin the State scarcely more than 25 years ago — are fairly 
distinct faunal divisions corresponding to the well known life zones. The 
Canadian Zone is represented by a few isolated areas in the west and 
southwest above 4,000 feet in Augusta, Highland, .Giles, Montgomery, 
Grayson and Washington Counties. The Transition Zone includes practi- 
cally all the higher areas from the Blue Eidge westward. The Lotcer 
Austral Zone is represented at the present time by more or less restricted 
and sometimes isolated areas — river bottoms, extensive swamps, marshes, 
and pine barrens — on the coastal plain north to Mobjack Bay and west 
to Petersburg and Emporia. The coastal section of this area south of 
Virginia Beach is inliabited by a few species not found elseAvhere. A 

7(i f'ROr. EXT. SOI. WASH., vol-. OU, .\0. ;;, .\IAK( H, 1!)4.S 

few butterflies, as Hpeyeria diana, occur locally iji tiie Traiisition and 
Lower Austral Zones only, apparently having died out in the intervening 
area. Some of the butterflies found in Virginia, including a few very 
common ones, are summer residents only, dying back each winter to the 
Carolinas. A few others are only occasional visitors, though sometimes 
common. One of the more frequent casual visitors is the tropical DanmtM 
plexippiis megalippe, of which we have several records from the general 
vicinity of Norfolk. We suspect that it is brought here on boats from 
tropical ports. Mr. Clark concluded his address with a brief account of 
the adventures he and Mrs. Olark had had in the more remote sections 
of the State, particularly in the eastern swamps and the western moun- 
tains. (Author's abstract). 

Discussion of various aspects of the Chicago meetings was next in 
order. E. F. Kiiipling spoke on the American Association of Economic 
Entomologists, J. F. Yeager covered the Physiological Section of the 
Entomological Society of America, and S. B. Fracker discussed the 
status of the American Institute of Biology. 

The next regular paper was by Curtis W. Sabrosky : ' ' Report on- 
Eecent Discussions of Zoological Nomenclature." 

A review of the visit to America, sponsored by the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, of Mr. Francis Hemming, of London, England, Secretary of 
the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Mr. Hemming 
addressed a number of groups in Washington, in Chicago at the AAAS 
meetings and the Chicago Museum of Natural History, in Ottawa at the 
annual meetings of the Paleontological societies, and in New York at 
the American Museum of Natural History, as well as having a number 
of individual conferences, and a special conference at Princeton, N. J. 
with the four International Commissioners from the United States. The 
main problems of nomenclature discussed with and by Mr. Hemming 
were briefly discussed by Mr. Sabrosky. Manj' of these concerned the 
reaction of American zoologists to important propostions now before 
the Commission, such as a new edition of the International Code, the 
Official List of Generic Names, and possible ametidments to the Code. 
(Author's abstract). 

Visitors introduced to the Society were: Dr. H. C. Kan from China 
wiio addressed the meeting briefly, Jose A. Pastrana from Argentina, 
and B. V. Travis from the Orlando Laboratory of the U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology. Attention was also called to the presence of an out-of-town 
member, Dr. W. V. King, also from the Orlando Laboratory. 

The meeting ad.iourncd at 10 P.M. 

Ina L. Hawes, Eecording Secretary 

Actual date of piibliratioii , March J5, 1946' 

Vol. 50 

April, 1948 

No. 4 


of the 




Published Monthly Except July, August and Skptembee 





Entered as lecond-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, 
D. C, under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Accepted for mailing at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3. 1917. authorized July 8, 1918. 




Organized March 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Museum 
on the first Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President L. O. Howaej) 

President E. H. Sieoleb 

First Vice President T. E. Snydee 

Second Vice President W. B. Wood 

Recording Secretary Ina L. Hawes 

Corresponding Secretary A. B. GtrsNEry 

Treasurer Howaed Baker 

Editor. Karl V. Krombein 

Executive Committee F. W. Poos, C. A. Weigel, Austin H. Claek 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President of the 

Washington Academy of Sciences C. F. W. Muesebectk 


Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society 
at Washington, D. C. Terms of Subscription: $4.50 per annum, both 
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Authors vrill be furnished not to exceed 10 copies of the number in 
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The Corresponding. Secretary and Treasurer should be addressed 


Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 50 APRIL, 1948 No. 4 



By Louis C. Kuitert, Captain, Sanitary Corps, TJ. S. Army 


John D. Hitchcock, Staff Sergeant, Medical Department, TJ. S. Army 

Shingbwiyang lies at one end of the broad Hukawng valley 
in Northern Burma at approximately 26 degrees 40" N — 96 
degrees 12" E. The Ledo Road, after descending eircuitously 
and sharply down steep mountains at the noi'thwest end of the 
valley, follows along the Tawa River (a tributary of the 
Tanai) until the river bends southward. The road then makes 
a sharp bend around one end of the airstrip and becomes 
ribbon proceeding east-southeast through the valley. On 
either side of the airstrip, and adjacent to the river, there are 
numerous flat swamps, some open and other densely wooded. 
North of the road, the land rises sharply in extremely jagged 
and irregular hills with dense jungle vegetation and innumer- 
able winding streams. The soil is soft and deep so that large 
ruts and holes are formed wherever vehicles travel. Clearing 
of camp sites provided all degrees of shade on various 
pools which form everywhere throughout the rainy season, 
from April through Sej^tember. The streams and rivers have 
numerous large rocks with potholes etched in them. These 
holes become filled when the streams are high or during the 
rains and they retain the water for long periods. Rocks, fallen 
trees, and brush serve to form relatively slow-flowing pools in 
the streams. This great variety and abundance of water 
affords ample opporunity for the development of mosquitoes 
of various species throughout the area. 

Breeding Habits of Anopheles leucosphyrus , 

A. leucosphyrus larvae were first found in pot-holes in large 
rocks along the river and among floatage in pools of mountain 
streams, in March 1944. Since then, they have been found in a 
great variety of habitats, as follows : standing water in rain 
puddles with either muddy or grassy bottoms, slit trenches in 
bright sunlight or shaded by tall grass and trees, a large 
reservoir formed by damming a stream, a tiny rain puddle in 
a footprint inside a tent, in rock potholes with clear water or 
with water made brown from decaying leaves, shallow seepage 
pools, small shady swamps, and even artificial containers — old 
tin cans and barrels. Table I shows the relative abundance of 



PROC. BNT. SOC. ^VASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

the larvae of this species at Shingbwiyang by monthly periods. 
It appeared in early March, showing a marked increase in 
early May, and became the predominant species in late May. 
Throughout June and July it was found in over 50% of the 
collections, and more than 60% of all larvae identified were 
this species. Another increase was noted in October and early 

Few rearings were attempted, mostly from pupae collected 
in the field. Table II indicates that A. leucosphyrus comprised 
over 50% of all adults reared in June and July, correlating 
well with the predominance of larvae of this species during 
those months. 

Table I: Anopheles 

No. of days 

on which 


Month were made 

Feb. 12 

March 21 

April 18 

May 21 

June 17 

July 19 

August — . 16 

Sept. - 19 

Oct. 17 

Nov 10 

Dec. 14 

leucosphyrvs Larvae in Collections at Shingl)wiyang. 

Larval collections Anopheline larvae identified 
Containing All 

Total A. leucosphyrus Species A. leucosphyrus 
Number Percent Number Number Percent 













Table II: Anopheles leucosphyrvs Adults Reared at Shingbwiyang. 

Total Anopheles roared Anopheles levcosphyrns reared 

Month Number Number Percent 

April 90-5 6 

May - 185 50 27 

June - 162 143 88 

July - 255 147 58 

August - 62 8 13 

Sept 88 40 45 

Oct.' 105 53 50 

Nov. „- -- 87 63 72 

Dec. . 29 4 13. i 

Adult Collections 
Table III shows the total anopheline adults of all species 
and of A. leucosphyrus caught from May through November. 

PROC. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 79 

The latter species was predominant throughout June, July, 
and August comprising 80% or more of all adults captured 
during the latter two months. The great majority of all speci- 
mens were found outdoors in abandoned machine-gun dug- 
outs, mossy slit trenches, dark embankments and on tree 
trunks, but a few were caught inside tents and warehouses 
proving that they do enter human habitations in search of a 
blood meal. Relatively few searches for adults were made 
after August, but even in apparently ideal resting places, 
including many in which adults had previously been captured, 
practically none was found. No adult searches were made 
outside the controlled zone. The reduction in the October and 
November collections may be partially attributed to the fact 
that the area was sprayed from the air with 5% DDT oil 
solution on 28 September, 12 October, and 18 November 1944. 
Residual spraying of quarters with 5% DDT oil solution was 
also initiated at this time, and all quarters in the area had 
been sprayed by early November. 

Adult Dissections 

Table III also summarizes the dissections made. Of 195 
female anopheline mosquitoes dissected, 112 or 57.4% were A. 
leucosphyrns and 3 of this species or 2.7% contained malaria 
sporozoites in their salivary glands. One infected specimen 
was caught on a stream bank near warehouses in June and it 
contained sporozoites typical of human malaria. The other 
two infected mosquitoes were caught in July in dugouts near 
horse stables at a Chinese camp. Their salivary glands con- 
tained some slightly curved or sickle-shaped rods typical of 
sporozoites of human malaria, but the majority of the parasites 
though similar in size and refraction of light were of a 
peculiar shape resembling miniature sea-gulls seen head-on. 
That is, there was a central globular mass from which two 
pointed processes extended at an angle to each other, usually 
of about 125 degrees, though frequently at a much smaller 
angle. Slight motility was observed in a few. The explanation 
of the atypcial appearance of the forms is unknown, but it is 
possible that it may have resulted from distortion due to 
technical methods. With Giemsa stain, the central globular 
portion was reddish-purple and the pointed projections ap- 
peared bluish-purple. 

Further evidence that A. leucosphyrus is a serious malaria 
vector was obtained in the Ledo, Assam area (mile 9-19). 
There were 668 adult anopheline dissections made in this area 
during the period July through November. Of this number, 
172 specimens or 25.7% were identified as A. leucosphyrus. 
Four of the dissections of salivary glands were found infected 
with sporozoites for a 2.3% Plasmodium infection rate. All of 

80 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

the infected specimens were captured at a native labor camp 
inside of native quarters. These, together with dissections 
reported in the literature,* indicate that A. leucosphyrus is 
a suitable host for the development of the malaria parasite to 
the sporozoite stage. 

Table III: Anopheline Adult Collections niul Dissections at 

No. days 


Month made 

of man- 

Total Anopheles 

Male Female 


A. lencosphyrus adults 
Total collected No. dissected 
Male Female Total Positive 



























































Weather data are meager for this area as the Army weather 
bureau station was not established until April and did not 
have facilities for complete temperature recordings until later. 
The average monthly temperatures and total precipitation at 
the air-strip are presented in table IV, The average minimum 
temperature during June to October inclusive was 72 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and the average maximum temperature was 88 
degrees Fahrenheit, neither varying more tlian 6 degrees from 
one month to another during this period. The total rainfall 
from April to October inclusive was 161 inches, or 23 inches 
per month. Three months : June, July, and September aver- 
aged one inch or more of rain each day. June had the highest 
rainfall : 45.47 inches. 

These data do not appear to be closely correlated with the 
abundance of A. leucosphyrits, but, in any case, heavy rainfall 
which appeared detrimental to the breeding of certain other 
species did not hinder this one. 

Eblation to Malarl\ 

Plate 4 shows the malaria rate per 1000/year. The sharp 
rise in the malaria rate correlates significantly with the rain- 

*Clark & Choudbury, June, 1941. Journal of Malaria Institute of 

Covell, G., Dec. 1944. Journal of Malaria Institute of India. 



82 PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, iVPRIL, 1948 

Table IV: Weather Data at Shingbwiyang Airstrip, 1944. 

Average temperatures in Total rainfall 

degrees Fahrenheit in inches 
Month Minimum Maximum Mean 

April .__ ? ? ? 10 

May ....- -..- ^ ? ? 15 

June 73 87 80 45 

July 74 89 81 36 

August 73 91 82 19 

September _ 72 85 78 30 

October _ 68 88 78 6 

November 49 83 56 .25 

fall and A. leucosphyrus breeding graphs. The larval collec- 
tions reached the highest peak during late May, while the 
highest malaria incidence rate took place during July. The 
rise in the larval collections during October and November 
was not indicated in the malaria incidence. However, adult 
collections during the same period continued to decrease, 
perhaps partially attributed to factors already mentioned. 

Because A. leucosphyms is the predominant species of 
anopheline mosquito in the Shingbwiyang area during June 
and Jul}^, because it breeds in a wide variety of habitats, be- 
cause it does enter human habitations in search of a blood 
meal, and because dissections have shown that this species is a 
suitable definitive host for the malaria parasite, this species is 
an efficient vector of malaria in this area. 

The authors are indebted to the members of the 18th Malaria 
Survey Detachment, United States Army, for their assistance 
in the collection and identification of specimens, and to Doctor 
K. V. Goldsmith of the Assam Eailway and Tea Co. for con- 
firming tlie identificatioii of the sporozoites in the Ledo area. 


I wish to call to the attention of myrmecologists a synonym 
of Pheidole dentata var. commutata Mayr. In 1938 (Amer. 
Midi. Nat. 19 :238) I described some workers of this variety as 
Leptothorax tennesseensis. Since that time it has been found 
that the specimens belong to Pheidole dentata var. commutata 
Mayr and the name Leptothorax tennesseensis Cole must there- 
fore be relegated to the synonomy. 

A. C. Cole, 
University of Tennessee 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 83 


(Thysanoptera, Thripidae) 

By J. C. Crawford, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 

While Hemerocallis had long been thought to be quite free 
from injurious insect pests, it now develops that at least three 
species of Frankliniella — i.e., fusca (Hinds), tritici (Fitch), 
and the new species described below^ — injure the flowers. It 
appears unusual that no brachypterous representatives of the 
new species were collected, since short-winged individuals of 
the closely related fusca (Hinds) are commonly found in the 

Frankliniella hemerocallis, new species 

Female (macropterous holotype). — Length (fully distended) 1.55 mm. 
Very dark blackish brown, the head and apex of abdomen darkest; 
femora and mid and hind tibiae dark brown, fore tibiae brownish in 
basal two-thirds, yellow apieally; mid and hind tibiae at apices and all 
tarsi yellow; ocellar crescents dark crimson; antennal segments I and II 
lighter brown than body, with II distinctly lighter at apex, III and IV 
golden yellow, obscurely dusky at apices, V, except yellowish base, and 
VI-VIII brown ; f orewing, except hyaline band at base, dark gray 
brown, hind wing clear; body setae dark brown. 

Head distinctly wider than long, back of eyes with 4-.') transverse 
anatomosing lines; cheeks subserrate in outline, subparallel but slightly 
narrowed medially; interocellar setae always located between line 
tangent to the outside and inside margins of lateral and median ocelli; 
3 pairs of microsetae between the very short postoculars; antenna VI 
narrowed to base where it is 13 ^ in diameter, both of its sense cones 
about attaining apex of VII. 

Pronotum with distinct transverse anastomosing lines on anterior third 
and at rear with a few similar lines of which 1 or 2 are more distinct 
than the others, dorsum between those areas very indistinctly, similarly 
sculptured, more distinctly so laterally; 1 pair of microsetae between 
anterior marginals, the latter only about half as long as anterior angu- 
lars; disc of pronotum with very few microsetae (only 3 pairs visible 
in holotype) ; posterior margin of pronotum between posterior angulars 
with 5 pairs of setae, the next to innermost pair about 28 ^ long but 
slender, the others short and weak. Costa of forewing with 21 setae, 
fore vein with 18, hind vein usually with 12-14 setae (only 1 of 20 
specimens with less than 12 setae on each wing). Metanotum vdth close, 
longitudinal anastomosing lines, except medially on basal half where 
they are polygonal. 

Abdomen with sub-basal apodeme of terga very distinot, broad, almost 
black, behind each one a single complete, strong, transverse line; terga 
sculptured with less distinct transverse anastomosing lines at sides, these 
ending abruptly so that the median third shows no sculpture; comb on 
tergum VIII complete, composed of short teeth on broad, triangular 

84 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

bases; exceptionally, a few teeth in the middle are very short or are 
absent from tlie triangular bases. 

Measurements (in microns) : Head, median length 122, greatest width 
across eyes 176, greatest width behind eyes 174, least basal width 158, 
distance between interocellar setae 34 (32-40) ; prothorax, median length 
128, greatest width 228; pterothorax, median length 254, greatest width 
284; setal lengths: interocellar 68, anterior marginal 43, anterior 
angular 80, forwardly projecting seta at anterior angle 30, posterior 
angular, inner 88, outer 76; on tergum IX, inner 117, median 130, outer 
132, on X, inner 136, outer 140. 

Antenna: 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 

26 37 52 47 37 52 11 11 

Male (macropterous allotype). — Length (slightly distended) 1.06 mm. 
Very similar to the female, but somewhat lighter in color and with 
antenna IV more distinctly dusky apically; yellow apically on tibiae 
more extensive, tibiae somewhat lightened in color basally, all femora 
similarly lightened at extreme apices and mid and hind femora also 
basally; antennal segments only slightly shorter than in female; sculp- 
ture less apparent; comb on tergum VIII almost completely Avanting; 
glandular areas present on sterna III-VII, these narrow, that on IV, 
12 (—13) X 80 ( — 94) fx,; median pair of subapical setae on tergum IX 
30 fi long, hardly stouter than other setae; a short weak seta on each 
side laterocaudad of the median pair. 

Type locality. — Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. 

Host. — Flowers of HemerocalUs. 

Type Catalog No. 58495, United States National Museum. 

Described from 47 females and 8 males, collected by Pro- 
fessor E. J. Kraus, Department of Botany, University of 

This species is close to fusca (Hinds), which in the female 
is smaller (the largest measure, fully distended, was only 
1.43 mm.), much lighter in color in the summer form (over- 
wintering females may be dark brown), especially the head 
and thorax, and with much paler legs but darker antennae, 
normally with only 2 pairs of microsetae between the postocu- 
lar setae, sense cones on antenna VI about attaining the middle 
of segment VII, antenna VI more narrowed to base where it 
is only 10 /x in diameter, forewing lighter in color and its hind 
vein usually with fewer setae, interocellar setae distinctly out- 
side the ocellar triangle (when closest together they are ex- 
teriorly tangent to a line tangent to the outside margins of 
lateral and median ocelli) ; comb on tergum VIII either absent 
or confined to 2-3 teeth on each side, these on triangle bases, 
between these teeth the margin often showing a series of 
irregular, broadly transversely rectangular small plates ; 
sculpture of abdominal terga extending entirely across median 
areas. In the male the glandular area on sternum IV measures 
16 ( — 18) by 52 (—74). 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 194S 85 


Several hundred specimens of a small fly of the family 
Sphaeroceratidae (=Borboridae), collected at Thomasville, 
Georgia, in October 1947, and received for determination from 
the U. S. Pnblic Health Service, have been identified as Lep- 
tocera acutangula (Zett.). This is believed to be the first pub- 
lished record for this European species in North America. The 
species is noteworthy in that the sexes are strikingly dimor- 
phic in wing venation. The females have the typical venation 
for the genus, but the males have the hind erossvein and the 
penultimate section of the third vein almost in a straight line, 
the discal cell is thus pointed apically, and a short portion of 
the wing margin just behind the apex is folded back and 
fringed with unusually long, recurved, black hairs. Photo- 
graphs of the wings of both sexes are published in Duda's 
monograph of the family in Lindner's "Die Fliegen der 
Palaearktischen Region" '(1938). 

Curtis W. Sabrosky, 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 


Use of 10 to 15 per cent potassium or sodium hydroxide 
solutions for insect skeletal preparations has become very com- 
mon, and many entomologists keep a bottle of the solution 
handy for use. In ordinary bottles the solution quickly at- 
tacks the glass with a resulting flocculent precipitate that 
causes annoyance, and often mars preparations by lodging 
among fine setae. One way to escape this precipitate is to 
make a fresh solution frequently. Another is to use a Pyrex 
bottle, which is not attacked so readily. Pure chemical and 
distilled water for the stock solution will remedy another com- 
mon cause of precipitates. 

I have just emptied from a 500 ce Pyrex bottle the last of a 
12 per cent solution of potassium hydroxide made up four 
years ago. It contained only a small amount of precipitate — 
about as much as would accumulate in an ordinary bottle in a 
few. daj^s. 

Another problem with the caustic bottle is that of a stopper. 
Cork or rubber are quickly attacked, and a ground glass stop- 
per sticks. I have found a slender brass insect pin bent to 
hook under the edge of the lip and extend down the throat of 
the bottle will keep a ground glass stopper from sticking, and 
being hooked under the edge of the lip will not fall in or out 
when the stopper is out for pouring. 

Henry Townes 

86 PKOt-. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, XO. 4, APKIL, lU-lS 



By Ashley B. Gurney, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 

During- the approximatel.y 35 years since the Grylloblattidae 
were first recognized as a distinct group, the morphology oi: 
these insects has been studied in detail, and at least the more 
important facts of their biology and ecology have become 
known. Scarcity of adequate samples of several named forms 
makes much more collecting essential to a thorough knowledge 
of the taxonomy and distribution of the Grylloblattidae, but 
those aspects are here reviewed with the hope of providing a 
basis, as well as a stimulus, for further investigations. 

I began the present paper, which supplements my "Synop- 
sis^' of 1937, after studying the first adult female of Galloisi- 
ana known to be represented in American collections. This 
specimen was collected on Mount Fujiyama, Japan, by P. J. 
Darlington, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
College, and it was loaned by Joseph Bequaert, curator of 
insects at that institution. 

I also wish to thank the following persons who have gen- 
erously loaned material or contributed notes and specimens : 
W. J. Brown, Science Service, Ottawa, Ontario; G. Clifford 
Carl, Provincial Museum, Victoria. British Columbia; J. E. 
Elsea, University of California ; J. D. Gregson, Dominion 
Entomological Laboratory, Kamloops, British Columbia; 
Donald J. Pletsch, Montana State College, Bozeman, Mont. ; 
and G. J. Spencer, Uniyersity of British Columbia, Vancouver, 
British Columbia. John L. Bauer, of Tokyo, Japan, has trans- 
mitted notes on the distribution of Japanese Grylloblattidae, 
obtained through the kindness of Kenji Nakamura of Kyoto 
Imperial University. I am indebted to T. Y. Hsiao, now of 
Nankai University, Tientsin, China, for translating several 
Japanese works. My colleague, H. S. Barber, has again been 
helpful in connection with aspects of geographic distribution. 
Notes on Generic Characters 

The female of Galloisiana nipponensis in alcohol is better 
preserved than the dry male holotype of that species, and it 
affords several additions to our knowledge of generic charac- 
ters. In Galloisiana the base of the middle valve of the ovi- 
positor (fig. 2, x) is remote from the bases of the dorsal and 
ventral valves, unlike the condition in Gryllohlatta (fig. 3). 
In ventral view, sternum VIII of Galloisiana has a heavily 
selerotized, narrowly V-shaped, specialized area (fig. 7, y). 
This is in contrast to sternum VIII of Gryllohlatta, which is 

PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 PLATE 5 

Fig. 1. GalJoisiana nipponensis (Caudell and King), adult female. 
Length, to apex of posterior tergum, 22 mm. (Outlines of three 
apical segments of cerci sketched by the author, because of indis- 
■ tinct. photograph.) Photograph by Marcel L. F. Foubert, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture; 


88 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

weakly obtuse niesially and has a weakly selerotized median 
portion (fig. 10, z) bordered laterally by strongly selerotized, 
arcuate, longitudinal bands. The lacinia of Galloisiana has 
two well-spaced preapical teeth, in contrast to one in Gryllo- 
hlatta (figs. 6. 9). The first cervical sclerite (fig. 5, Ic) has 
heavy spinelike setae borne along a distinct lateral margin, 
instead of weak setae not confined to the margin as in Gryllo- 
hlatta (fig. 8). The abdominal sterna of Galloisiana show 
large, sparse setae, arranged mainly in two transverse rows on 
each sternum. The species of Gryllohlaiia have many small 
ventral abdominal setae arranged with little indication of 

It is clear from a study of the female of Galloisiana nippo- 
nensis that the cerci include only eight segments, which is true 
of Grylloblatta. In dry material the limits of the more basal 
segments are difficult to determine, and it was previously 
thought (Caudell & King, 1924; Gurney, 1937, p. 163, fig. 3) 
that nine segments occur in Galloisiana. Though the funda- 
mental difference between the two genera with respect to 
pronotal shape holds, as brought out in 1937, some specimens 
of Gryllohlatta campodeiformis do not have the lateroposterior 
angles so nearly right-angled as shown in my illustration 
(1937, fig. 7) oi G. sculleni. Figure 4 of G. campodeiformis 
occidentalis is typical of certain specimens which have the 
posterior half of the lateral pronotal margins .sufficiently 
curved ventrally to create very broadly rounded lateropos- 
terior angles when seen in a dorsal view. The pronotum of 
Gryllohlatta nvmphs does not have well-deveh^ped latero- 

Plate 6 

Fig. 2. Same, apex of abdomen, lateral view. 

Fig. 3. Grylloblatta campodeiformis campodeiformis Walk., adult fe- 
male, same view as fig. 2, cereus omitted. Fairy Lake area, Mont. 

Fig. 4. G. camp, occidentalis Silvestri, male, pronotum, dorsal view. Mt. 
Baker, Wash. 

Fig. 5. Galloisiana nipponensis, female, prosternum, ventral view. 

Fig. 6. Same, male holotype, right lacinia, ventral view. 

Fig. 7. Same, female, base of ovipositor, ventral view. 

Fig. 8. Grylloblatta camp, campodeiformis, prosternum, ventral view. 
Same specimen as fig. 3. 

Fig. 9. Same, right lacinia, vential view. Same specimen as fig. 3. 

Fig. 10. Same, base of ovipositor, ventral view. Same specimen as fig. 3. 

f — membranous inner flap of lower valve. Ic — first laterocervical sclerite. 
S8— sternum VIII. T9, TIO— tergum, IX, X. x— base of middle valve 
of ovipositor, y — selerotized V-shaped area, z — weakly selerotized me- 
dian area. 


/. Gal loisia.ina. 

0. GrylloblatU 


90 PROr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

posterior angles. The posterior margin is sinuate in Gryllo- 
hlatta, evenly and broadly rounded in Galloisiana. The female 
of nipponensis agrees with male in pronotal shape. 

Silvestri (1927) considered Galloisiana a synonmy of 
Gryllohlatta and proposed Ishiana as a subgenus of the latter. 
I believe that Ishiana should be recognized for the present a>s 
a subgenus of Galloisiana, but study of adults will be neces- 
sary to determine the relationship to Gryllohlatta and Galloisi- 
ana and whether Ishiana should be retained. As shown by the 
catalogue, names of the Japanese grylloblattids have been 
confused because of the differing opinions of writers regarding 
the genera. 

Grylloblatta Walker 

The known distribution of Gryllohlatta is shown in figure 
11. Localities from which the species have been recorded are. 
as follows (numbers correspond to those on the map) : 

Grylloblatta campodeiformis campodeiformis Walker 1914 

10. Jasper Park and Mount Edith Cavell, Alberta. 

11. Lake Louise, Lake Agnes, and Moraine Lake, Alberta. 

12. Sulphur Mountain, Mount Bundle, and Banff, Alberta (Type lo- 
cality: Sulphur Mountain). 

20. Emerald Lake and the Yoho Valley, British Columbia. 
9. Toby Creek, Selkirk Mountains, Invermere, and Paradise Mine, 

British Columbia. 
8. Mount Paul, Kamloops, British Columbia. 
7. Manning Park, Timberline Valley, British Columbia. 
6. Grouse Mountain, near Vancouver, British Columbia. 
5. Forbidden Plateau, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 

14. Fairy Lake Area, Bridger Mountains, Mont. 

15. Spring Hill Area, Bridger Mountains, Mont. 

16. Cascade Creek, Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Mont. 

17. Portal Creek, Mont. 

18. Eldridge, Mont. (Localities 14-18 in Gallatin National Forest, 
16-18 in Gallatin Canyon). 

19. Specimen Creek, Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. 

13. East Fork Eoad, 10 miles east of Sula, Ravalli County, Mont. 
G. campodeiformis occidentalis Silvestri 1931 

4. Mount Baker, Wash. (Type locality.) 
j 21. Garibaldi Park, British Columbia. 
G. sculleni Gumey 1937 

3. Scott Camp, Three Sisters, Cascade Mountains, Oreg. 
G. barberi Caudell 1924 b 

1. North Fork of Feather River, Plumas County, Calif. 
G. sp. (identity uncertain) 

2. Crater Lake, Oreg. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 PLATE 7 

Fig. 11. Map showing distribution of Grylloblatta. 


92 PROr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, .\PRIL, 1948 

With the exception of 5, 6, 16, 18. and 21, I have examined 
material from each area represented by a number and from 
most of the specified individual localities. Walker (1937) 
states that an adult female of occidentalis with somewhat 
longer hind legs than typical campodeiformis was taken in 
Garibaldi Park, British Columbia. Spencer (1945) says that 
campodeiformis has been reported from the Forbidden Plateau 
and Grouse Mountain, British Columbia, but no further in- 
formation has become available and it is doubtful if typical 
campodeiformis is involved, in view of the Garibaldi Park 
record. The Forbidden Plateau, discussed by Carl (1944), is 
of considerable biological interest, and if GrylloMntta occurs 
there, it may be a distinct species. The Cascade Creek and 
Eldridge, Mont., records were obtained from Dr. Pletseh, who 
carefully indicated for me on an enlarged map all of the 
localities near Bozeman. 

The species from Crater Lake, Oreg., is that reported as 
campodeiformis by Elsea (1937), the material of which con- 
sisted of two females about 16 mm. long, found beneath a 
stone at an altitude of 6,500 feet. One specimen deposited in 
the National Museum has the apical half of the cerci missing, 
but the segments of the basal half are much shorter than in 
caynpodeiformis or sculleni. The unbroken right antenna has 
29 segments, markedly less than either sculleni or harheri, 
both of which are large species. The condition of the specimen 
does not warrant description, particularly in view of the fact 
that adults of barberi are unknown, and more material from 
both Crater Lake and the Mount Lassen area is needed to 
clarify the situation. The type locality of barberi is about 20 
miles southwest of Westwood, Calif., near an entrance of the 
Sunnyside Mine, on the North Fork of the Feather River just 
above the junction of Butte Creek and about 3 miles below 

For identification of the species of Grylloblatta , reference 
is made to my 1937 key. There is still uncertainty about the 
correct status of occidentalis. Although several specimens of 
camp, campodeiformis with 30 antennal segments have been 
examined from Montana and from Kamloops. British Co- 
lumbia, in addition to those I reported in 1937, material thus 
far studied suggests the subspecific distinctness of camp, occi- 
dentalis. Further material may show that the possession of 
32-36 antennal segments is not a sufficiently constant character 
to distinguish occidentalis. 

The only adult males of Grylloblatta of Avhich I have studied 
the genitalia are two Montana specimens of camp, campodei- 
formis and one Mount Baker, Wash., specimen of occidentalis. 
The two forms apparently agree in the shape of the coxites, 

PROC. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 


supra-anal plate, and both left and right ventral processes of 
the latter. Minor differences occur in the phallic sclerites of 
males examined. In camp, campodeiformis the apical lip of the 
copulatory process (text-fig. A, e) is more acute and the apical 
lobe (g) of the accessory sclerite of the right phallomere is 
differently shaped than those of occideiitalis (text-fig. B). 
These organs and associated structures of camp, campodei- 
formis have been illustrated by Walker (1919, pi. 8; 1943, fig. 
11) and by Snodgrass (1937, fig. 6). The differences would 
seem to be of no more than subspecific value, and a series of 
males of each form is needed to test the taxonomic worth of 
these genital features. In fact, when extensive collections of 
GrylloMatta are ultimately available from localities through- 
out its range, conceptions of what constitute species in this 
group may undergo considerable modification. 

It is important to distinguish between adults and large 
male nymphs of GrylloMatta. In the case of camp, campodei- 
formis the shape of the right coxite (text-figs. C, D) is useful, 
in addition to the absence in the nymph of phallomeres and 
phallic sclerites. 

Text-figures. A. Phallic sclerites of Grylloblatta camp, campodeiformis 
Walk., male, dorsoposterior view. B. Same view, G. camp, occidentalis 
Silv. C. Eight coxite of nymphal male of G. camp, campodeiformis, 
lateral view, specimen from Fairy Lake area, Mont. D. Same view of 
adult male of G. camp, campodeiformis from Gallatin Canyon, Mont, 
e — apical lip of copulatory process, g — apical lobe of accessory sclerite 
of right phallomere. s — stylus. 

94 PKO( . ENT. SOC. WASH.. VOF,. 50, NO. i, .\PRIL, 194S 

It is of that Gryllohlatta was collected some years 
before its original description. I have seen a nymphal male in 
the Canadian National Collection taken at Banff, Alberta, No- 
vember 5, 1906, by N. B. Sanborn. Tillyard (1921) noted 
that Mr. Sanborn, then Curator of the Rocky Mountain 
Museum at Banff, made collections considerably earlier than 
those on which the description was based, and several speci- 
mens found by him in 1910, 1908, and 1906 are cited by 
Walker (1919). 

Seasonal distribution and habitat of Gryllohlatta: Most of 
the observations dealing with the seasonal distribution, ecol- 
ogy, and biology of Gryllohlatta concern typical campodei- 
formis, though the other forms are evidently very similar. 
The most complete summary of these aspects has been given 
by Walker (1937), from whose paper I have drawn freely. 
Most specimens have been collected during the late fall or 
^^dnter months; this is especially true in habitats usually dry 
and hot in summer, as exemplified by the collecting site at 
Kamloops, British Columbia, described by Gregson (1939), 
and at Gallatin Canyon, Mont. Of the more than 100 speci- 
mens collected by Montana entomologists, only two were taken 
earlier than autumn, these being found in May. The explana- 
tion of the seasonal occurrence apparently lies in the tempera- 
ture and humidity requirements of these insects. Most of the 
habitats are of a nature that permits Gryllohlatta to withdraw 
deeply to a region of very low temperature and high humidity, 
or advance to the open air, depending upon outside climatic 
conditions. Frequent habitats are hillsides marked by coarse 
rock slides with innumerable deep crevices into which the 
insects may penetrate for long distances during unfavorable 
seasons. In the Canadian Rockies the margins of glacial bogs 
have often yielded Gryllohlatta from beneath stones or in or 
beneath decaying, moss-covered logs or stumps. The optimum 
temperature is a little above freezing, though 16° C. is tol- 
erated if the temperature is raised gradually. Temperatures 
a few degrees below freezing are not injurious, though —10° 
C. is said to be fatal if experienced quickly. Suitable habitats 
evidently must combine the above temperature range with 
high atmospheric humidity, at least in the sheltered retreats. 

Entomologists searching for Gryllohlatta will be more likely 
to be successful, and will avoid much extremely hard work, 
if field conditions favor the likelihood of the insects being near 
the surface of the ground and not beneath a great deal of 
snow or ice. Beamer (1933), Carl and Hardy (1945), Mills 
and Pepper (1937), and Silvestri (1931) give photographs of 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 95 

the terrain where Gryllohlatta occurs.^ 

The midwinter activity of GYyllohlatta is evidenced by col- 
lections made in January by J. D. Gregson at Kamloops, 
British Columbia, and by H. S. Barber in California. Walker 
(1937) states that on mild days of winter or spring, speci- 
mens sometimes are found crawling on the snow. W. L. Jelli- 
son took a male nymph 14.5 mm. long in this way in Ravalli 
County, Mont.. January 26, 1947. 

Gryllohlatta has usually been collected at altitudes above 
5,000 ft., but records at 1,500 ft. at Kamloops, British Co- 
lumbia, and at less than 2,000 ft. in Plumas County, Calif., 
indicate that high altitudes are not essential if required eco- 
logical conditions are otherwise supplied. 

An understanding of these insects, primitive yet closely 
adapted to their environment and appropriately called living 
fossils by Dr. Walker, is further clarified by information on 
the slow rate of growth apparently- suited to a habitat where 
life is often at low ebb many months of the year. He reports 
that at least five years seem necessary for nymphs to become 
adult, with no eggs being laid until a year later, and an addi- 
tional year being thought necessary for incubation of the eggs. 
The last stage nymph is described as being white except for 
the eyes ; it lives about six weeks, probably always in the dark- 
ness of its shelter. In the laboratory one feeding in three or 
four months has been found most satisfactor.y. Under natural 
conditions soft-bodied insects are probably the principal food 
— sometimes immature insect material, and at other times 
various insects disabled b.v the cold after temporary periods 
of activity in boreal surroundings. Small pieces of plant 
material are occasionally eaten. Frequently, but by no means 
always, Gryllohlatta is nocturnal. 

Galloisiana Caudell 

Galloisiana nipponensis (Caudell & King) 

(Figures 1, 2, 5-7) 

Descriptive notes (female).— General structure and appearance as in 
male. Right antenna Avith 43 segments, left with 35 (broken?); seg- 
ments of apical half about three times as loiig as broad. (Left tarsus 
4-segmented, reduced in size and lacking large lateral pulvilli, apparently 
the result of an injury.) Apex of abdomen (fig. 2) with 8-segmented 
cerci, the apical segment slightly shorter than segments 4-7. Dorsal valve 
of ovipositor reaching to middle of third cereal segment, apex acute; 
middle valve attached basally to dorsal valve at about one-eighth the 

^Photographs of several localities where Gryllohlatta occurs in the 
Canadian Rocky Mountains appear in "On the Ridgepole of the Rock- 
ies," by W. M. Edwards, 1947 (Natl. Geog. Mag., vol. 91, pp. 745-780). 

96 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, XO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

distance from the latter 's base; ventral valve with mesal membranous 
flap (fig. 2, f) normally concealed; apical sternum (fig. 7) with narrow, 
median, subacute process, the apex being the point of a V-shaped area 
more heavily sclerotized than laterad of it, the mesal enclosed area 

Coloration: Head Vandyke brown; nota and ovipositor somewhat paler. 
Palpi, antennae, legs, cerci, terga, and sterna pale amber; intersegmental 
areas of abdomen ash gray; spines and principal setae brown. 

Measurements (in millimeters: Body, 22; antenna, 13; eye, 0.2 
(left), 0.5 (right) ; pronotum, 4; hind femur, 4.5; hind tibia, 4.8; dorsal 
valve of ovipositor, 3.8; cercus, 10.6. Widths: Head, 4.2; pronotum, 
3.6; hind femur, 1.2. 

Previously unreported material examined : Mount Fuji- 
yama, Japan, wooded southern slope, October 23-24, 1945, 
P. J. Darlington (1 9 ) (M.C.Z.). 

Dr. Darlington has kindly furnished the following note : 
' ' The grylloblattid was collected in heavy maple forests on the south- 
ern slope of Fujiyama at four or five thousand feet elevation. It was 
under a stone, fairly deeply set in the ground. It was the only one I 
saw. During the two days which I spent on Fuji, I Avorked up through 
the deciduous forest from 3,000 feet to above tree line, which as I re- 
member it is at about 6,000. The mountain forest at four or five thou- 
sand feet is magnificent, dominated by huge maple trees and some other 
hardwoods. Collecting there was very good. Above tree line there was 
only an open cinder slope, completely dry and more or less without insect 
life. I did not see any insects at all and I doubt if many of them exist in 
the loose cinders." 

In addition to the Fujiyama specimen, I have seen only the 
type series from an altitude of about 4,500 ft. on the slope 
of Nantai San, a mountain located at Chuzenji, about 12 miles 
west of Nikko, which in turn is about 120 miles northeast of 
Mount Fujiyama. Kishida (1929) has recorded the species 
from Saitama Prefecture immediately north of Tokyo, and 
from the vicinity of Kyoto. Matsumura (1931) adds Takayo- 
yama, on Honshu, and I suspect this is in the Tokyo area, 
though there are several Japanese mountains of that name. 

Dr. Nakamura of K^^oto states that grylloblattids have been 
taken at the following localities (which records apparenth' 
apply to nipponensis) -. Chichibu, about 55 miles northeast of 
Mount Fujiyama; Japanese Alps, region about 100 miles west 
of Tokyo ; Kisenyama, near Kyoto ; Mino, near Osaka. 

I do not know of any records of Galloisiana notahilis (Sil- 
vestri) from other than the Nagasaki area of Kyushu. The 
type locality is the village of Michino-o. 

The habitat and habits of the two- Japanese species of 
Grjdloblattidae are essentially like those of the Nearctic forms, 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, liHS 97 

except that the climate is milder"* and, according to Silvestri 
(1931). the species are more rapid in their movements than 
Gryllohlatta campodeiformis. Dr. Nakamura reports that, by 
searching under rocks, a collector may easily find two dozen 
specimens a day in the Japanese Alps, and that near Kyoto, 
Osaka, and Nagasaki they occur on quite low mountains. He 
found that they readily ate live termites in his laboratory. 
At Chuzenji, J. L. King collected nipponensh within and be- 
neath decaying logs. There are no records from the northern 
and decidedly boreal island of Hokkaido, and, if the group is 
there, a distinct endemic species may be involved. 

Catalogue of the Grylloblattidae^ 
Grylloblatla Walker, 1914 (pp. 93-99) ; Brues and Melauder, 1915, 1932; 
Caudell and King, 1924; Crampton, 1915; Essig, 1942; Gurney, 1937; 
Silvestri, 1927. (Genotype, GryllobJatta campodeiformis Walker, mono- 

Grylloblatta campodeiformis campodeiformis Walker 
GrylloUaita campodeiformis Walker, 1914 (pp. 93-99), 1919, 1937; 
Buekell, 1922, 1925, 1928, 1930; Carl and Hardy, 1945; Caudell, 1923a, 
1923b; Caudell and King, 1924; Crampton, 1915, 1926, 1927, 1933; 
Criddle, 1926; Elsea, 1937; Essig, 1926, 1942; Eyer, 1924; Ford, 1923, 
1926, 1937; Gibson, 1915; Gregson, 1938, 1939; Gurney, 1936, 1937; 

2ln a persoiuil letter to me. Dr. Nakamura has mentioned a third 
Japanese species. Since I have found no description of this form, it may 
be only a manuscript species. I am much indebted to Dr. Pletsch, who 
is currently in Tokyo, and to Mr. Niimura, a Japanese entomologist who 
collected the insect in Nagano Prefecture,' for the considerable effort 
with which they are attempting to clarify the status of this supposed 
additional species. 

^In October 1945 I spent a day in the mountains between Sendai and 
Yamagata, about 175 miles north of Tokyo, and was impressed by the 
temperate character of the vegetation. At an altitude of 3,000 ft., oaks, 
birches, maples, hemlocks, and other trees belonging to genera well known 
in North America were common, and the^ climate seemed comparable to 
that of central New England. There was little opportunity to search for 
grylloblattids, and none were found, though they probably inhabit that 

^Page references to all but original descriptions are omitted for the 
sake of brevity. Except in the case of short papers, however, they are 
given by annotations in the bibliography. Most entomological textbooks 
have been omitted; also most of the many morphological papers by 
Crampton and Walker. The more important of Crampton 's papers deal- 
ing with grylloblattids are cited by Gurney (1936), while nearly all of 
Walker's more important morphological papers appeared in the Annals 
of the Entomological Society of America. Many papers on insect mor- 
phology by other authors contain brief comments on grylloblattids, and 
it does not seem practical or important for the present purpose to refer 
to them all. 

98 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

Hebard, 1930; Imms, 1927a; Kennedy, 1928; Lameere, 1935; Lefroy,. 
1923; Mills and Pepper, 1937; Silvestri, 1927, 1931, 1934; Snodgrass,- 
1937; Spencer, 1945; Strand, 1937; Tillyard, 1921. 

Grylloblatta campodeifonnis occidentalis Silvestri 
Grylloblatta campodeiformis var. occidentalis Silvestri, 1931 (p. 293) ; 

Beamer, 1933; Essig, 1942; Walker, 1937.' 
Grylloblatta campodeiformis occidentalis Silvestri, Silvestri, 1934; Gur- 
ney, 1937. 

Grylloblatta sculleni Gurney 
GrylloUatta scidleni GTurney, 1937 (pp. 164-166). 

Grylloblatta barberi Caudell 
Grylloblatta barberi Caiideil, 1924b (pp. 369-371); Chopard, 1938; 

Crampton, 1926, 1927; Essig, 1942; Giirney, 1937; Silvestri, 1931; 

Walker, 1937. ' 
Grylloblatta camp&deiformis Walker, Caudell, 1923a^ 1923b. 

Subgenus GAIiIiOISIAIfA Caudell 
Galloisiana Caudell, 1924a (p. 92); Crampton, 1927; Imms, 1927b; 
Gurney, 1937; Silvestri, 1927. (Subgenotype, Ga^Zoisia nipponensis 
Caudell and King, monobasic.) 
Galloisia Caudell and King, 1,924 (pp. 53-60). (Preoccupied.) 

Galloisiana (Galloisiana) nipponensis (Caudell and King) 
Galloisia nipponensis Caudell and King, 1924 (pp. 54-59). 
Galloisiana nipponensis (Caudell and King), Caudell, 1924b; Crampton, 

1926, 1927; Gurney, 1937; Kishida, 1929; Matsumura, 1931. 
Grylloblatta nipponensis (Caudell and King), Lameere, 1935 ; Silvestri, 

1927, 1934; Walker, 1937. 

Grylloblatta (Galloisiana) nipponensis (Caudell and King), Silvestri,. 

1931; Essig, 1942. 
Galloisidea (Sic!) nipponensis Caudell and King, Shiraki, 1932. 

Subgenus ISHIAITA Silvestri 
Ishiana Silvestri, 1927 (p. 113); Gurney, 1937; Walker, 1937. 

Subgenotype, Grylloblatta (Ishiana) notabilis Silvestri, monobasic. 

Galloisiana (Ishiana) notabilis (Silvestri) 

Grylloblatta (Ishiana) notabilis Silvestri, 1927 (pp. 113-118), 1931,. 

1934; Essig, 1942; Walker, 1937. 
Ishiana notabilis Silvestri, Kishida, 1929. 
Galloisiana (Ishiana) notabilis Silvestri, Gurney, 1937. 

Beamer, R. H. 

1933. Collecting Grylloblatta campodeiformis var. occidentalis Syl.. 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 26, pp. 234-236, illus. 
[Rediscovery of occidentalis on Mount Baker, Wash.] 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 99 

Brues, C. T., and Melander, A. L. 

1915. Key to the Families of North Americau Insects, pp. 1-140, illus. 
Boston, Mass., and Pullman, Wash. [Family in key, p. 13.] 

1932. Classification of Insects. Bui. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 73, 672 pp., 
illus. [Family in key, p. 3.5, discussed pp. 47-48.] 
Buekell, E. E. 

1922. A list of the Oithoptera and Dermapteia recorded from British 
Columbia prior to the year 1922, with annotations. Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Brit. Columbia, No. 20, pp. 9-41. [G. campodeiformis men- 
tioned on p. 13, not yet found in B. C] 

1925. Notes on some British Columbia Grylloblattaria Dermaptera and 
Orthoptera for the year 1925. Ibid., No. 22, pp. 35-36. [First 
B. C. record of campodeiformis, from Selkirk Mountains near 
Invermere; note on temperature tolerance.] 

1928. British Columbia Orthoptera. Rpt. Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist. An- 
trop., 1927, pp. 15-16. [Invermere record of carnpodeiformis, 
p. 16.] 

1930. The Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Vancouver Island, British 
Columbia. Proc. Ent. Soc. Brit. Columbia, No. 27, pp. 17-51. 
[Occurrence of Gryllohlatia on Vancouver Island thought prob- 
able, p. 19, no record given.] 
Carl, G. Clifford 

1944. The natural history of the Forbidden Plateau area, Vancouver 
Island, British Columbia. Rpt. Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist. Anthrop., 
1943, pp. 18-40, illus. [No record of GryllohlaUa included.] 

Carl, G. Clifford, and Hardy, George A. 

1945. Flora and fauna of the Paradise Mine area, British Columbia. 
Ihid., 1944, pp. 18-38, illus. [Record of campodeiformis, p. 35.] 

Caudell, A. N. 

1923a. Grylloblatta in California. Canad. Ent., vol. 55, pp. 148-150. 
1923b. [Record of campodeiformis in California.], p. 261, In Rpt. of 

356th Meeting of Ent. Soc. Wash., Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 

13, pp. 260-263. [Record of species described in 1924 as har- 

1924a. Change of a preoccupied generic name. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 

vol. 26, p. 92. 
1924b. Note on Grylloblatta with description of a new species. Jour. 

Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 14, pp. 369-371. [G. barieri described.] 
Caudell, A. N., and King, J. L. 

1924. A new genus and species of the notopterous family Grylloblatti- 

dae from Japan. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 26, pp. 53-60, illus. 
Chopard, Lucien 

1938. La Biologic des Orthopteres. Encyclopedie Entomologique, vol. 

20, 541 pp., illus. Paris. [Various aspects of family discussed, 

pp. 35, 155, 172, 180, 273, 380.] 

100 PKOC. K.NT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, l'J48 

Crampton, G. C. 

1915. The thoracic scleiites and systematic position of Giylloblatta 
campodeifonnis Walker, a remarkable annectent "Orthop- 
teroid" insect. Eat. News, vol. 26, pp. 337-350, illus. 

1926. The affinities of Grylloblatta indicated by a study of the head 
and its appendages. Psj'che, vol. 33, pp. 78-84, illus. 

1927. The abdominal structures of the orthopteroid family Grylloblat- 
tidae and the relationships of the group. Pan-Pacific Ent., vol. 
3, pp. 115-135, illus. 

1933. The affinities of the archaic orthopteroid family Grylloblattidae, 
and its position in the general phylogenetic scheme. Jour. N. Y. 
Ent. Soc, vol. 41, pp. 127-166. 

1935. A defense of the view that the grylloblattids are descended from 
the Protorthoptera and lead to the tettigonioid family Stenopel- 
matidae — a reply to Dr. E. M. Walker. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 
vol. 43, pp. 97-111. 
Griddle, Norman 

1926. The entomological record, 1925. 56th Ann. Ept. Ent. Soc. On- 
tario, pp. 94-107. [Toby Creek, Invermere, B. C. record of 
cavipodeiformis, p. 107.] 

Elsea, J. E. 

1937. A neAv locality for Grylloblatta. Pan-Pacific Ent., vol. 13, p. 57. 
[Records campodeiformis from Crater Lake, Oreg.] 
Essig, E. O. 

1926. Insects of Western North America. 1035 pp., illus. New York. 
[Brief discussion of Grylloblatta, p. 102.] 

1942. College Entomology. 900 pp., illus. New York. [Brief treat- 
ment of family, pp. 105-108.] 
Eyer, John E. 

1924. The comparative morphology of the male genitalia of the 
primitive Lepidoptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 17, pp. 275- 
342, illus. [States (erroneously) on p. 289, that campodeiformis 
is from Australia; genitalia figured.] 
Ford, Norma 

1923. A comparative study of the abdominal musculature of orthop- 
teroid insects. Trans. Eoy. Canad. Inst., vol. 14, pp. 207-319, 

1926. On the behavior of Grylloblatta. Canad. Ent., vol. 58, pp. 66-70, 

1937. [Grylloblatta], In Needham, J. G., et ah, Culture Methods for 
Invertebrate Animals, p. 282. Ithaca, N. Y. [Brief discussion 
of laboratory rearing methods.] 
Gibson, Arthur 

1915. The entomological record, 1914. 45th Ann. Ept. Ent. Soc. 
Ontaria, pp. 123-150. [Cites, p. 147, Walker's original record 
of campodeiformis.] 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 101 

Giegson, J. D. 

1938. Grylloblatta cainpodeiformis Walker — a new record. Canad. 
Eat., vol. 70, pp. 63-64. [First record from Kamloops, B. C] 

1939. Notes on tlie occurrence of Grylloblatta campodeiformis Walker 
in the Kamloops District. Proc. Ent. Soc. Brit. Columbia, No. 
35, pp. 29-30. 

Gurney, A. B. 

1936. The external morphology and pliylogenetie position of the wood- 
land cave cricket (Ccuthophilus hrevipes Scudder; Orthoptera; 
Tettigoniidae). Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, vol. 44, pp. 281-315, illus. 
[Gryllobblatia compared to Cevthophilus.] 

1937. Synopsis of the Grylloblattidae with the description of a new 
species from Oregon (Orthoptera). Pan-Pacific Ent., vol. 13, 
pp. 159-171, illus. 

Hebard, Morgan 

1930. The Orthoptera of Alberta. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 
82, pp. 377-403. [G. campodeiformis mentioned, p. 381.] 

Imms, A. D. 

1927a. The biology and affinities of Grylloblatta. I/i Exhibits. Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Lend., vol. 1, p. 57. [Illustrated by drawing exhibited 
by W. J. Lucas.] 
1927b. On the affinities of the Grylloblattidae. Psyclie, vol. 34, pp. 
Kennedy, C. H. 

1928. Evolutionary level in relation to geographic, seasonal and diur- 
nal distribution of insects. Ecology, vol. 9, pp. 367-379. [Tem- 
perature requirements of Grylloblatta mentioned, life cycle of 
campodeiformis said to occupy about three years, p. 368.] 

Kishida, K. 

1929. Miscellaneous notes on Japanese insects of the order Notoptera. 
Lansania, vol. 1, pp. 104-108, illus. [General discussion in Jap- 

Lameere, August 

1935. Precis de Zoologie. Vol. 4, 4(58 pp., illus. Brussels. [General 
treatment of family, pp. 287-290.] 
Lefroy, H. M. 

1923. Manual of Entomology. 541 pp., illus. London. [Discussion 
and figure of campodeiformis, p. 72.] 
Matsumura, S. 

1931. 6,000 Illustrated Insects of Japanese Empire. 1719 pp., Tokyo. 
[Brief account of nipponensis, p. 1373; figure of male on col- 
ored plate.] 

Mills, H. B., and Pepper, J. H. 

1937. Some observations on Grylloblatta campodeiformis Walker. Ann. 
Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 30, pp. 269-274, illus. [Eecords and biol- 
ogy of campodeiformis in Montana.] 

102 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

Shiraki, T. 

1932. [Grylloblattidae.] In Esaki, T., et aJ., Iconographia Insectorum 
Japonieonim, p. 2038, illus. Tokyo. 
Silvestri, F. 

1927. Contriljuzione alia conoscenza del Grylloblattidae. Portici R. 
Seuola Super di Agr., Bol. Lab. Zool., vol. 20, pp. 107-121, illus. 
(Discussion of genera, description of notabilis.) 

1931. Notes on Grylloblatta campodeiformis and a description of a 
new variety (Grylloblattidae). Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 57, 
pp. 291-295, illus. (Description of occidentalis.) 

1934. Compendio di Entomologica Applicata. Parte Speciale, vol. 1, 
Parte 1, pp. 1-448, illus. Portici. [Grylloblattidae briefly treated, 
pp. 18-20.] 

1939. [Short bibliography.] Ibid., vol. 1, Parte 2, pp. 887-888. 
Snodgrass, R. E. 

1937. The male genitalia of orthopteroid insects. Smithsn. Misc. 
Collect., vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 1-107, illus. [Male genitalia of 
campodeiformis discussed and figured, pp. 19-22, contributed 
partly by E. M. Walker.] 
Spencer, George J. 

1945. On the incidence, density and decline of certain insects in 
British Columbia. Proc. Ent. Soc. Brit. Columbia, vol. 42, pp. 
19-23. [Distribution and habitat of campodeiformis, pp. 20-21.] 
Strand, A. L. 

1937. Twenty-sixth Report of State Entomologist. Mont. Expt. Sta. 
Bui., 333, 39 pp., illus. [First Montana record, and habitus il- 
lustration, pp. 38-39.] 
Tillyard, R. J. 

1921. On some interesting archaic insects (with exhibitions). Proc. 
Hawaiian Ent. Soc, 1920, vol. 4, pp. 525-530. [Reports collect- 
ing campodeiformis on Sulphur Mt., Alberta, during snowstorm, 
Oct. 12; comments on other records and phylogeny.] 
Walker, E. M. 

1914. A new species of Orthoptera, forming a new genus and family 
Canad. Ent., vol. 46, pp. 93-99, illus. 

1919. On the male and immature state of Grylloblatta campodeiformis 
Walker. Ibid., vol. 51, pp. 131-139, illus. 

1920. The life cycle of the orthopteroid orders. I7i Folsom, J. W., 
et al., Symposium on "The life cycle in insects." Ann. Ent. 
Soc. Amer., vol. 13, pp. 137-141, illus. [Grylloblattids men- 
tioned, p. 139.] 

1937. Grylloblatta, a living fossil. Proc. and Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, 

Ser. 3, Sect. 5, vol. 31, pp. 1-10. [Best general account of 

1943. On the anatomy of Grylloblatta campodeiformis Walker. 4. Exo- 

skeleton and musculature of the abdomen. Ann. Ent. Soc. of 

Amer., vol. 36, pp. 681-706, illus. 

PKOO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 103 



Another great man has left us — but only in the flesh. To- 
day, tomorrow and for many years to come he is and will be 
with us. This scientist, teacher, humanitarian and friend will 
long- continue to influence the work, thinking and happiness 
of the many who use his writings or enjoyed the privilege of 
acquaintanceship. Investigator, poet, zoogeographer, natural- 
ist Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell died in San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, on January 26, 1948, after a great many years of fruit- 
ful endeavor. He was born in Norwood, England, August 22, 

From early boyhood this keen observer and patient collector 
was a naturalist of the type of which there have been far too 
few. Health caused him to leave his home in England as he 
was reaching manhood, in 1887, and move to the small town 
of Westcliif, Colorado. His three years' stay in this commu- 
nity assures its continued record in our literature. The many 
specimens collected, data reported, and articles discussing cli- 
matic effects on zoogeography pay tribute to the industry of 
one with an indomitable determination to contribute to knowl- 

Returning to England after three years' absence the young 
naturalist worked in the British Museum of Natural History 
with interests in man}' fields. During his stay there he became 
acquainted with Alfred Russel Wallace. The close friendship 
that developed continued through the years and was charac- 
teristically symbolized by references to Wallace in many con- 
versations and the fine picture of him which in later years 
had a prominent place in Professor Cockerell's office at the 
University of Colorado. His stay in England was brief, for 
in June 1891 he reported at the Public Museum of Kingston, 
Jamaica as curator. Here he developed intense interest in 
scale insects and began his work on the Cocciclae which con- 
tinued for many years. 

Intriguing as this part of the tropics was to the naturalist, 
liis stay in Jamaica was not free from worry and sorrow. 
Developments there would have discouraged all creative effort 
for one with less determination. His old illness reappeared, 
made worse by the prevalent malaria. His wife, Annie Fenn, 
too was very frail and their infant son, Austin, died soon 
after birth. He then went to Las Cruces, New Mexico, ex- 
changing positions with C. H. Tyler Townsend, and became 
Entomologist of the Experiment Station and Professor of 
Entomology and Zoology of the Agricultural College in 1893. 

Shortly thereafter his wife, Annie Fenn, died when a sec- 

PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 PLATE 8 


PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL., 1948 105 

oncl son, Martin, was born. This boy lived somewhat more 
than eight years when he died from diphtheria. The loss 
broiio'ht another sorrow and disappointment to the Professor. 
This was shared with his second wife and constant companion, 
Wilmatte Porter. 

The work in new envirtuiment in New Mexico brought to the 
fore the ability to teach and was perhaps the beginning of 
the teacher — the characteristic more dominant than his devo- 
tion to research. New surroundings also developed new fields 
of interest and vigor to continue work already begun. 

It was perhaps natural that the Hymenoptera, and espe- 
cially bees, should attract his interest for this group of insects 
is well represented there, but little was known concerning 

The parasitic, wasp-like bees of the genus Nomada and the 
small, inconspicuous species of Perdita, exhibiting great varia- 
tion in structure and of restrictive habitat and special habits, 
were studied intensively and many new species were collected 
and described. It was while collecting species of Perdita, and 
perhaps a new one restricted to one kind of flowering plant, 
that Professor Cockerell first met Wilmatte Porter, the new 
teacher of biology in the local high school. She, at the sugges- 
tion of the State Superintendent of Education, sought his ad- 
vice on plants and animals inhabiting a country new to her. 
The Professor occasionally fondly referred to the incident 
with a chuckle saying, "And I found the young Stanford 
graduate so ignorant that I took her on as a permanent pupil. " 

The happenings of these years, the two periods in the west, 
with health as the major objective had far reaching influence 
on the thinking and habits of the man. That of the first so- 
journ in the west was perhaps of greater significance. It de- 
veloped the realization that others were interested in him and 
his efi^orts. More than that, it was while at AVestelitf he fully 
recognized that there is no substitute for independent think- 
ing and analysis as a basis for interpreting what one observes. 
This belief had a powerful influence on the teacher in the 
years to come. That careful observation, honestly recorded, 
could contribute to the world's knowledge was the encourag- 
ing- vision instilled in all who sought to learn under this great 
teacher's guidance. One never was told that what you must 
see is this, or that only this is right. You were urged to report 
what you observed and helped to interpret it in light of what 
was knoAvn. In what better way can initiative, accuracy, hon- 
esty and creative ability be developed? 

The Cockerells moved to Boulder, Colorado, the year I en- 
tered the State Preparatory School. Mrs. Cockerell was my 

106 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

teacher of high school biology. All of us were enthused, stim- 
ulated, and charmed with the interesting and perhaps unusual 
way the subject was presented. It was not the customary text 
and laboratory manual course. It was a humanized presenta- 
tion and we soon found we were learning fundamentals with- 
out quite knowing how. They seemed to become a part of our 
knowledge and thus had lasting influence on our development. 
Professor Cockerell was associated with the University and 
often frequented the laboratory and lecture room of the 
*'Prep" school. More than that, occasionalh^ he would talk to 
us. The word "talk" is used rather than "lecture" since it 
describes more accurately the delightful way these treats were 
presented. In fact, this was true of all the many "lectures" 
that I heard in succeeding years — either in the IJniversity or 
on more formal occasions. One never thought of Professor 
Cockerell as a lecturer, yet there are few who could hold an 
audience as well. With informal, natural presentation, almost 
as if it was directed personally to you, he would tell his story, 
logically and effectively in simple words, with appropriate wit 
and humor to emphasize significant points. Clear and direct 
as his writings are, the talks were even better. 

The stimulating effect of personal contact with this teacher 
and developer of initiative were increased by the various 
means he used to encourage associates to contribute to the 
wealth of knowledge. If you had learned a new fact or truth, 
to share it with others was a guiding motto, but first be sure 
that it is new. Looking backward it will no doubt be easy for 
the many who have been associated with Professor Cockerell 
to see hoAV these ideas were instilled and developed. An early 
personal experience may illustrate. 

In the fall of 1907 while collecting in Boulder I observed 
quite a number of butterflies and netted a few. Considerable 
search on my part led to the identification of the specimens 
as Terias mexicmia Bdv., a species well known in localities far 
to the south. With misgiving and no little uncertainty I 
brought my conclusion to Professor Cockerell. He verified the 
determination and suggested ways through which it could be 
found if others had recorded apparent northward movement 
of the southern butterfly. All these, and later others, were 
explored and after study it seemed that here was a "new" 
observation. My part in all this was that of the beginner and 
was well repaid by what was learned in methods of study and 
in the literature. The effectiveness of the lesson and the shar- 
ing-knowledge philosophy was implanted when it was sug- 
gested the observation be written up and sent to Entomological 
News for recording in print. Whatever benefit to others may 
have resulted from this is due entirelv to Professor Cockerell, 

PROC. ENT. SOC. "WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 107 

yet this brief note is the first title in the bibliography of my 
writings. Many are the students, far and wide, who have 
been similarly aided. Only occasionally, however, have the 
printed articles been under joint authorship. 

To contribute to knowledge, our ideas, observations, and dis- 
coveries must be made available to others. The significance of 
this was realized early in the development of this keen thinker 
and observei:. None, however, appreciated better than he the 
value and iniportanee of the encyclopedic treatises and mono- 
graphic reviews. He urged that they be prepared and highly 
commended those who published such works. He fully recog- 
nized, however, that incomplete and unpublished articles of 
this nature contribute nothing to our knowledge. Like others 
he fully recognized that opportunity for publication of exten- 
sive contributions was inadequate and that to find such op- 
portunity required intimate, if not personal, knowledge of a 
source where and time when such publication could be at- 
tained. Living away from large centers, with an uncertainty 
that conditions would permit continuous effort, and with 
marked ability to observe, think and write created in Pro- 
fessor Cockerell a habit of publication of chapters and small 
unit contributions. This habit is well known. Circumstances 
and a sincere desire to contribute to knowledge are the basic 
reasons for the large number of titles under his authorship. 

During two summer seasons, 1906 and 1907, it was my privi- 
lege to live with the Cockerells and explore with them the 
fossil beds at Florissant, Colorado. The memories of those 
days are cherished, the results from much of the labor have 
been published and are well known. How the leader of these 
expeditions planned and directed operations, carefully se- 
lected sites for diggings, discarded locations where the ''finds'' 
developed only more of the same, encouraged shale splitters 
when little of interest was discovered, will always be an out- 
standing example of the kind of leadership worthy of the 
name. These days meant more than the collection of fossils, 
and more than how to display leadership. They taught all of 
us the satisfaction of creative endeavor, initiative, and inde- 
pendent thinking and observing. We learned, better than we 
then knew, the joy of living in a simple way and the value of 
seeing, trying to understand and to interpret what nature is 
and how she behaves. Tolerance and consideration of the ideas 
and actions of others were lessons learned through example of 
one who believed in the brotherhood of man and the value of 
cooperative effort. 

In his thinking and interest Professor Cockerell was ever 
young. He was always willing and anxious to help others help 
themselves. Students, young and old, found ready counsel 

108 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL, 1948 

and opportunity to exchange ideas whenever they communi- 
cated with him. Many investigators have marveled at his 
willingness to aid in various jDrobleuLs they were seeking to 
solve. Specimens, references to literature and constructive 
criticism were supplied without restraint. Never, as a student 
or as an associate, was advice or guidance withheld or put off 
because of press of personal interest. This commendable char- 
acteristic, one all too infrequently found these busy days, 
did much to keep the professor young. It did more to aid 
others and inspired respect for the counselor as well as favor- 
able recollections of him. 

Modesty, simplicity and humanity were all characteristics of 
this man and each contributed to his greatness. Accuracy of 
expression, written or spoken, directness of thought, clearness 
of vision and statement, honesty in purpose and action were 
attributes whicli made him loved and respected by all. 

When only twenty-six years old he was elected to member- 
ship in our Society on October 6, 1892. He continued interest 
throughout the years, contributed to our publication, and on 
rare occasions participated in our meetings. 

Entomologists the world over regret his passing. They have 
honored him by electing him to serve in various capacities in 
their organizations. Such recognition was given and well de- 
served. It was never sought and was accepted only as it pro- 
vided another means of serving a cause of common good. 

Others will record the doings and accomiDlishments of this 
scientist, philosopher, poet and humanitarian. They will tell 
of the various expeditions, special projects, interests, disposi- 
tion of collections, and a host of other things needed to com- 
plete the story of a great man. During recent years circum- 
stances have caused the paths of professor and student to 
diverge and direct contacts with him have been all too few. 
Interest in him and his work has, however, assured news of 
his various undertakings. All these items have disclosed the 
same continuing enthusiasm and stimulating influence. The 
1947 expedition to Honduras was just another example of his 
energy, vigor and desire to learn more and to teach and help 

The foregoing is a tribute from a student who loved, re- 
spected, and admired him, and gets joy and consolation in 
counting him a friend. 


Actual date of pithlication, April SO, 1948 

VOL. 50 

MAY, 1948 

No. 5 


of the 



M'lV g' 4a 


PoBiiisHED Monthly Except July, Augxtst and Sbptbmbee 





Entered as second-class matter March 10, 1919, at the Post Office at Washington, 
D. C. under Act of August 24. 1912. 

Accepted for mailins: at the special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3. 1917. authorized July 3, 1918. 




Oeganized Mabch 12, 1884. 

The regular meetings of the Society are held in the National Mnsemn 
on the first Thursday of each month, from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. 

Annual dues for members are $3.00 ; initiation fee $1.00. Members are 
entitled to the Proceedings and any manuscript submitted by them is 
given precedence over any submitted by non-members. 


Honorary President _ L. O. Howaed 

President _ E. H. Sibqleb 

First Vice President.^ ....- T. E. Snyder 

Second Vice President...... _.. _.. W. B. Wood 

Becording Secretary Ina L. Hawxs 

Corresponding Secretary..- A. B. GtraNE? 

Treasurer _ _ Howabd Bakxb 

Editor KAMi V. Kkombein 

Executive Committee F. W. Poos, C. A. Weigel, Austin H. Ci*abk 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice-President of the 

Washington Academy of Sciences. C. F. W. Mttesebece 



Published monthly, except July, August and September, by the Society 
at Washington, D. C. Terms of Subscription: $4.50 per annum, both 
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Authors will be furnished not to exceed 10 copies of the number in 
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The Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer should be addressed 


Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 50 MAY, 1948 No. 5 




By Alan Stone, Bureau of Entomolofm and Flani Qu'nranliiic, United 

States Department of Agriculture 


George Henry Penn, Tulane Vniversity, New Orleans, Louisiana 

When'tlie writers^ described (Uilex bieki they mentioned the 
uncertain taxonomie position of this speeies and its relative 
Culex hinigroUnentus Kni«ilit and Rozeboom,- and suu'iiested 
that a new subgenus was probably needed for these two species 
from New Guinea and for tAvo from the Solomon Islands not 
yet described. It is the purpose of the present paper to de- 
scribe this new subgenus and the two new species, and to 
present keys for separating the four included species. 

We are indebted to the collectors for making these speci- 
mens available to us and particularly to Dr. John N. Belkin. 
who first recognized the St)l()n)on Islands species as being new 
and unusual. 

ACALLYNTRUM, iumv suI. genus 

ADULT CHARACTERS.— Katlior small Vertex with a large 
central area of narrow, curved, i)ale scales; broad, tlat, white scales lat- 
erally, but not bordering the eye margin above tlie lower edge of cen- 
tral patch of narrow scales. Antenna of male unmodified. Palpus of 
female not more than one-fourth length of proboscis. Third segment of 
male palpus with a ventral row of several to many long thin hairs; the 
last two segments bristly. Proboscis of male with some long hairs from 
ventral surface. Scales of scutellum narrow. One lower mesepimeral 
bristle; pleurou Avithout scale patches. Wing scales narrow, dark. Hind 
femora almost completely white; all tarsi dark. Pale markings of ab- 
domen, if present, basal on the segments. Male genitalia : Basistyle 
without scales but with a number of long hairs ; subapical lobe with two 
large spines or filaments and several smaller filaments or setae, but no 
leaf ; dististyle simple, tapering apically, with a small hair on inner sur- 
face; terminal spine short, broad; mesosome rather simple, compoised of 
one pair of dentate plates joined by a ventral bridge; tenth sternite 
Avith a large tooth or a number of serrations on inner margin and with a 
reduced apical tuft. 

iWashington Acad. Sci., Jour 37(3):89-91, 1047. 

-Ent. Soc. Washington Proc. 47(0) :289, 104.1. ,^ 

110 PKO(. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. ."), MAY. lit4S 

LARVAL CHARACTERS.— Head hair A multiple; B and C triple to 
multiple. Antenna with tuft large, near middle, the part beyond not 
much smaller. Siphon of moderate length ; three pairs of prominent 
siphonal tufts, all beyond the pecten ; selerotization of anal segment not 
forming a complete ring, the hind margin with short spines; ventral 
hairs of anal segment reduced to a single pair of simple or trifid hairs 
with no barred area at base. 

Type of subgenus: Culex (AcaUyntrnm) perkinsi, new species. 

This sub<>:enus appears to lie between Neoculex and Ciili- 
ciomyia. The subgenus Neoculex lacks the row of thin setae 
projecting down from the third segment of the male palpus, 
the pale markings of the abdomen, if present, are usually 
apical on the segments, the subapical lobe of the basistyle of 
the male usually has a leaf, and the larva has a well developed 
ventral brush on the anal segment. The subgenus Culiciomyia 
differs in having a row of long translucent scales on the 
ventral surface of the third segment of the male palpus which 
are always distinctly modified and expanded beyond simple 
hairs. Also, the dististyle of the male genitalia is usually 
expanded and crested before the tip and the larva has a well 
developed ventral brush. The most striking character of the 
subgenus Acallyntrum is the great reduction of the ventral 
hairs of the anal segment of the larva, but the adult charac- 
ters also show considerable homogeneity, the close relation- 
ship of the species being readily seen. 

An examination of the four keys presented at the end of 
this paper will show that in each, the species from New^ Guinea 
are separated from those of the Solomon Islands in the first 
couplet. This appears to indicate that we have two distinct 
species groups within the subgenus. 

Culex (Acallyntrum) perkinsi, new species 
(Figs. 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11) 

FEMALE.— Rather small, the wing length 3 mm. 

Head: Proboscis dark, about as long as fore tibia. Palpus dark, about 
one sixth length of proboscis. Clypeus bare. Antenna considerably 
longer than proboscis; torus with a few scales and minute setae medial- 
ly, yellowish brown, darkest dorso-medially ; flagellar segments dark with 
pale pubescence and dark verticils. Vertex with a large central area of 
narrow pale scales and abundant, upright, brown, forked scales; a patch 
of broad, flat, white scales laterally extending only very slightly upward 
along eye margin. 

Thorax: Prothoracic lobes bare, with several long dark bristles. Pos- 
terior pronotum bare with several long dark bristles near posterior bor- 
der. Mesoscutum dark brown, the narrow scales a lighter brown : a pair of 
narrow submedian lines anteriorly, the prescutellar area, and a pair of 
sublateral lines posteriorly, bare. Several rows of long dark bristles on 

PliOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. "), MAY, 1948 HI 

raesoscutuiii and a number of similar bristles above and in front of 
wing base. Scutellum bare of scales except for a small patch of narrow 
brown ones on median lobe; scutellar bristles long, dark, brown. Post- 
notum brown. Pleuron mostly greenish, the postspiracular area darker, 
brown; a row of pale bristles along posterior border of mesopleuron ; 
one lower and several upper mesepimeral bristles. Knob of halter with 
brown scales. 

Wings: Scales all dark. First fork cell about twice length of its stem, 
its base slightly proximad of that of second fork cell; anterior and pos- 
terior crossveins well separated. 

Legs: Coxae and trochanters pale greenish; fore femur with anterior 
surface dark brown except for a luirrow ventral stripe of pale scales; 
posterior surface pale-scaled ventrally, dark-scaled dorsally, the line of 
demarcation not sharply defined; fore tibia dark dorsally, pale ventrally; 
mid legs colored almost the same as fore legs; hind femora entirely 
creamy white, with at most a few dark scales in a median stripe on hind 
surface near apex; hind tibia dark brown, sometimes with some light 
scales in a line ; all tarsi dark brown. 

Abdovien: First tergite bare except for a median patch of dark scales 
and pale bristles; rest of tergites dark-scaled with small, basolateral 
pale spots on tergites IV or V to VII; venter yellowish green, the distal 
segments with broad pale scales. 

MALE. — Color, scales, and setae essentially as in female. Proboscis 
with scattered, rather long hairs from ventral surface of apical half. 
Palpus extending beyond end of proboscis by a little more than length 
of terminal segment ; third palpal segment with an even row of hairs on 
apical half or more, the hairs curving downward and forward so that 
their tips touch and form an unbroken line; fourth and fifth palpal seg- 
ments upturned with abundant, long dark hairs. Antenna about as long 
as proboscis. White basolateral patch of seventh tergite larger than.;: on 
other segments. Genital segments yellowish with long yellow hair. 
Genitalia (Figs. 1, 3, 5): Basistyle conical, narrowed apically, without 
scales, but with 10-12 stout hairs and a number of finer ones; two of 
the stout hairs on the dorsal (convex) surface near the apex and 
longer than the dististyle; subapical lobe rather large, with two groups 
of filaments ; outer group of four of equal length, the tips pointed, broad- 
ened, and turned toward dististyle; inner group consisting of a slender, 
straight, sharply pointed filament and two longer, stout, flattened fila- 
ments with their tips curved toward base of basistyle; the straight fila- 
ment is about as long as those of the outer group, the more distal stout 
filament is much longer, and the more basal stout filament is intermediate 
in length. Dististyle curved, tapering abruptly beyond the middle, with 
one or two fine setae just beyond middle; terminal spine short and 
broad. Lateral plate of mesosome columnar, the apical third abruptly 
narrowed to form a curved prong bearing a stout subapical tooth and a 
series of irregular teeth near the base of the prong more or less sur- 
rounding a swollen, pilose area ; near base of column a very sharp late- 

111! CKOC. KXT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 50, NO. ."i. MAY, 1!>4S 

ral tooth. Inner edge of tentli steiiiite with a single large tooth, and its 
apex with an irregular tuft of spines; basal arm short, stout. Ninth 
tergite simple, without lobes, clothed with long curved hairs except 

LARVA.— 7?f«fZ (Fig. 8) : About three fourths as long as wide, lightly 
pigmented. Antenna about half as long as the length of the head, with 
small spinules near the base. Antennal tuft consisting of 7 to !) plumose 
hairs, not reaching the apex of the shaft, and situated just proximal to 
the midpoint. Anteantennal tuft (A) i)lumose, 9- to 11-branehed, usual- 
ly 11; upper head hair (B) plumose, 7 to 11 l)ranched, usually 8; lower 
head hair (C) plumose 6- to D-branched, usually 8; posterior clypeal 
tuft (D) short. 4 to .")-branclied, usually 4; inner occipital hair (E) 
2-branched; outer (K-(i)(ital hair (F) 4-l)ranched ; orbital hair (G) single. 

Abdomen (Fig. 7): Stellate hairs on segnuMits II to VIII 4- to 9- 
branehed, length of hairs almost equalling that of the segment. Comb of 
segment VIII in a triangular patch of about 2 or 3 rows, consisting of 
14 to 20 teeth, usually about 16: each tooth consisting of a central spine 
fringed apically by a few short hairs. Pentad hairs of VIII : 1 usually 
double, range from 2- to 4-branched; 2 and 4 always single; 3 plumose, 
6- to 9-branched, usually 9; o plumose, 3- to 4-branched, usually 4. 
Siphon : Index ranging from 2.8 to 3.7, average in 10 specimens 3.3 ; 
pecten averaging 3 teeth with a range of 2 to o, usually situated close 
to the base of the siphon, each tooth a simple, acute, flat spine; 3 pairs 
of siphonal tufts, plumose, usually .o-branched. Anal segment with dorsal 
plate almost encircling the segment and Mith a number of well-developed 
short spinules on its posterior dorsal boi'der; ventral brush consisting 
of a pair of 3- to 4-branched, short, plumose hairs; lateral hair of dorsal 
plate 2-branched, plumose; dorsal brush with inner hair consisting of a 
tuft of 2 to 4 long hairs, the outer hair single, longer than inner hairs, 
and about eight times as long as dorsal plate. Anal gills subequal in 
length, the dorsal pair about four times the length of dorsal plate, each 
with a definite constriction about 0.37 from its base. 

PUPA. — Crphalothorax: Lightly pigmented and without any darker 
markings except on the metathorax which is darker medially and at the 
posterior tips of the lateral triangular plates. Trumpets darkly pig- 
mented in the tracheoid portion only, long and narrow, the pinna not as 
long as in belkini, being not quite one-fourth of length of trumpet. All 
setae except those of the metathorax the same as in bellcini. Postero- 
thoracic setae of metathorax as follows: 10 a multibranched, fine-haired 
tuft; 11 large, stout, simple and plumose; 12 3- to 4-branched; all 
setae subequal in length. 

Abdomen (Fig. 11) -.^ Segments I to III conspicuously more darkly 

3For reasons which will be fully explained in a forthcoming publica- 
tion on the pupae of New Guinea mosquitoes by the junior author, the 
designation of the setae of abdominal segment II given in the figure of 
C. bicki by Stone and Penn (1947, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 37:90, fig. 7) 
has been revised for the subgenus as ]iresented herein. 

PKOC. KXT. SOf. WASH.. VOL. 50, XO. ."), MAY, ] !»4S 113 

pigim'nted tlinii tho others. All setae on dol•s^^l side non-plumose except 
A-\ll and A-VIII. Seta K of segment I single, well-developed; seta 
S single, equal in length to T which is single or 2-branched. Seta A a 
small simple spine on segments II through VI; 3-branched, plumose and 
well developed on VII; 8-branehed, plumose and prominently developed 
on VIII. Seta B a well developed, 2-l)ranched hair twice the length of 
the segment on IV, V and VI ; well developed, but only half as long and 
single on II and III; inconspicuous on VII. Seta C a small -1- to multi- 
branched tuft on II; medium sized, 4- to 7-branched tuft on III, IV and 
V; 2-branched on VI and VII. Seta C laterad of B on II, mesad of C 
on III througli VII; a small simple seta on all segments. Seta 1 a well 
developed, forked hair on II, a simple hair on III through VI; incon- 
spicuous on VII. Seta 2 equal to B on segment II; a snmll simple or 
variously branched hair on III through VII. Seta 3 a small simple haiv 
on II, represented by its socket only on III to V, absent on the other 
segments. Seta -l a small simple hair on all segments. Seta A' on VIII 
a forked, simple hair. Paddle with an inconspicuous fringe of hairs on 
its lateral margins and notched at tiie aiiex; midrib not as strong as in 
belliiii, but almost reaches the apex; width of paddle equal to about two- 
thirds the length, the medial portion definitely wider than the lateral 
portion; paddle-hair small, simple. 

IIolottiiH'.-~Mi\]i\ V. S. National Miiseuin No. 58628 P.(4kin 
No. (i70-ir» (s("? followiim- data). 

Type li)C(ililif. — liinasiiii Kiver. Guadalcanal. Solomon 

Mdfcrial examined (Ilolotype and paratypes). — 1 larval 
skin and 1 jiupal skin, associated from tree hole, Tenaru xVrea. 
(Inadalcanal, X[I.3.48, A. B. Gnrney No. 35; 1 larval skin, 1 
l)upal skin, associated, from Pandanus leaf axil, First MAC 
Camp, (inadalcanal V.25.44, Coll. Ciiccio, Belkin No. 405; 1 
female, 1 male, from Paiiddiius leaf axils, Umasini River. 
Guadalcanal, V.29.44, Coll. Civinski, Belkin No. 416; 2 
females, 2 males. 2 larvae, 1 larval skin. 1 pupal skin, asso- 
ciated, from P(nida)ius leaf axils. Umasini Kiver, Guadalcanal. 
VI. 16.44, Colls. Lipovsky, Roa, Cnecio, AVysocki, and Mc- 
Cormick. Belkin No. 447; 19 females, 22 males. 12 larval skins 
and 12 pnpal skins, associated, from Pandanus leaf axils, 
Tanasini River, Guadalcanal. X.4.44, Colls. Belkin, Laflfoon. 
and Rozeboom, Belkin No. 670 and Kni<>ht No. 123; 1 female. 

4 males, 5 larval skins and 5 pupal skins, associated, from 
Pandiunis leaf axil, Sprapfue Swamp, Guadalcanal, XI. 15.44. 
Colls. Belkin and Cohen, Belkin No. 740 ; 3 females, 8 males, 1 
larva, Pandanus trees. Empress Auousta Bay, Bougainville, 
Solomon Islands, IV.27. 44. A. B. Gurney No. 357 ; 2 females. 

5 males, from Pandanus leaf axils, Arundel Island, New 
Georgia Group, Solomon Islands, May 1944, J. G. Franclemout 
No. 92. Paratypes in the U. S. National Museum, Cornell Uni- 

114 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 5, MAY, 1948 

versity, British Museum, University of Queensland, and J. N. 
Belkin collections. 

The species is named in honor of Mr. F. A. Perkins, 
Lecturer in Entomology at the University of Queensland, 
Brisbane, Australia. 

Culex (Acallyntrum) belkini, new species 
(Figs. 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12) 

FEMALE. — Agreeing with perlinsi, with the following exceptions: 
Usually slightly smaller. Tori and pleura darker, the latter not so 
greenish. Hind femur usually with a noticeable patch or streak of dark 
scales on apical third dorsally or posteriorly. 

MALE. — Like the female, slightly darker than perlcinsi. Curved hairs 
of third palpal segment on apical fourth ; long hairs of fourth and fifth 
palpal segments fewer and shorter; proboscis with scattered hairs ven- 
trally. Abdominal tergites with scarcely any white, the patch on the 
seventh tergite small. Genital segments not so yellow as in perkinsi. 
Genitalia (Figs. 2, 4, 6) : Basistyle conical, narrowed apically without 
scales, but with 12 to 14 stout hairs and a number of finer ones; two of 
the stout hairs on dorsal (convex) surface near the apex and longer than 
the dististyle ; subapical lobe rather long, with seven filaments as follows : 
Distally a group of four of equal length, the tips pointed, broadened 
and turned toward dististyle; below this a long stout filament with a 
swollen, curved, two-pronged tip; below this a stout filament with a 
swollen, modified head and a strongly curved stem as figured; close to 
this a slender, short, straight filament. Dististyle tapering abruptly at 
apical two-fifths with a bend and a minute seta at this point; terminal 
spine short and broad. Latei'hl plate of mesosome curved medially at 
distal half and narrowed, this portion finely pilose and bearing about 10 
irregular teetli; extreme base of plate, below median bridge with a 
number of short, slender spines. Inner edge, of tenth sternite Avith a 
stout, bidentate projection, and its apex with an irregular tuft of spines ; 
basal arm short, stout. Ninth tergite with weakly developed, broad, lat- 
eral lobes, bearing long, curved hairs. 

LARVA. — Head (Fig. 10) about three-fourths as long as wide, lightly 
pigmented. Antenna about half as long as the length of the head, with 
a number of small spinules near base. Antennal tuft consisting of 6-11 
plumose hairs, reaching well beyond apex of shaft, and situated just 
proximal to the mid point. Anteantennal tuft (A) plumose), 8- to 11- 
branched, usually 9; upper head hair (B) plumose, 6- to 10-branched, 
usually 9; lower head hair (C) plumose, 6- to 8-branched, usually 6; 
posterior clypeal tuft (D) short, usually 4-branched; inner occipital 
hair (E) 2-branched; outer occipital hair (F) 4-branched; orbital hair 
(G) single or 2-branched. 

Abdomen (Fig. 9) : Stellate hairs present on segments I-IV, 7- to 9- 
branched, short and stout, not equalling more than half length of seg- 
ment. Comb on segment VIII in a triangular patch of about 3 or 4 rows, 

PliOr. ENT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 50, NO. T), MAY, 1948 115 

and consisting of about' 3.") teeth ; each tooth witli a central blunt spine 
fringed on either side by a large number of short, fine hairs. Pentad 
hairs on VIII: 1 usually 4-branched, range from 3 to 4; 2 and 4 always 
singk-; 8 plumose, 7- to S-branched, usually 8; .") plumose, 2- to 4- 
branchcd, usually 2. Siphon: Index ranging from 4.4 to 5.4, usually 
about 4.C>; pecten averaging r, teeth with a range of 3 to 8, and usually 
situated away from base of siphon; each tooth a short, blunt, flat scale 
with an apical fringe of acute spinules; three pairs of plumose siphonal 
tufts, 4- to 6-branched, usually 5. Anal segment with dorsal plate almost 
encircling the segment and with a number of well developed short 
spinules on its posterior border; ventral brush consisting of a pair of 
3-branched, plumose hairs; lateral hair of dorsal plate plumose, single 
or 2-branched, usually 2; dorsal brush with inner hair consisting of a .'>- 
branched tuft of long hairs and outer hair single, longer than the inner 
hair, and about eight times as long as the dorsal plate. Anal gills sub- 
equal in length, the dorsal pair about five times the length of dorsal 
plate; each gill with a definite constriction about 0.45 from its base. 

p-[]p A.— Cephalothorax: Lightly pigmented and without any pattern 
of darker color. Respiratory trumpets darkly pigmented in the tracheoid 
portion onb'. long and narrow, the pinna elongate and comprising nearly 
one third of length of trumpet. Most of the setae small to medium in 
length, the median post-ocular being the most conspicuous, 3-branched, 
slightly plumose and nearly twice as long as the other cephalothoracic 
setae. The posterothoracic setae of the metathorax (Fig. 12) as fol- 
lows: All approximately equal in length and non-plumose, 10 being 2- 
brauched, 11 single, stout, and 12 2-branched. 

Abdomen (Fig. 12): Lightly pigmented on all segments. All setae 
on dorsal side non-plumose except A-VII and A-VIII. Seta K on seg- 
ment I single, well developed, equalled in size by S which is also single 
and T which is single or 2-branched. Seta A on segments II through VI 
a small, simple spine; A-VII plumose, 3-branched and well developed; 
A-VIII plumose, 8-branclied, very well developed. Seta B the most prom- 
inent hair on IV, V and VI, 2-branched, slightly more than twice the 
length of the segment. Seta C a medium-sized tuft, about 20-branched 
on II, 7- or S-branched on III and IV, and 2-branched or simple on V. 
VI, and VII. Seta C a small simple hair, laterad of fe on segment II, 
mesad of C on segments III through VII. Seta 1 two or more branched 
on II ; a small simple hair on III through VI ; a 4-f orked hair on VII. 
Seta 2 a long, simple hair equal to B on segment II; small, variously- 
branched on III through VII. Seta 3 a small, branched hair on II, repre- 
sented only by a socket on III, IV and V, absent on VI through VIII. 
Seta 5 always a minute simple hair. Seta A' on segment VIII a long 
single hair forked near the tip. Paddles with a light fringe of fine hairs 
on the lateral margins and notched slightly at the apex; midrib strong, 
but not reaching the apex; width of paddle equal to about half of 
length, the midrib dividing the paddle into approximately equal lateral 
and medial portions; paddle hair simple. 

IKi IM;0C. V.ST. HOC. \V.\HH.. V01>. 50, NU. .">, MAY. 11I4S 

Holotijp_c.—M-A\e, U. S. National Museum No. 58621) Belkin 
No. 461-15. (See following- data). 

Type locality. — West Cape, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. 

Material examined (Holotype and paratypes) : 1 female. 
5 males, from Pandanns leaf axils, Rendova Island, New 
Georgia Group, Solomon Islands, Jan. 1944, J. G. Francle- 
mont No. 93 ; 3 larvae, 1 larval skin, 1 pupal skin from axils 
of large, wide-leafed Pa ndarufs, the leaves of which persist only 
within a few inches of the growing tip and are not arranged 
in an obvious spiral, Segi Point, New Georgia, Feb. 7, 1944, 
C. O. Berg No. 97; 4 males, from Pandanns axils, Munda. New 
Georgia, Feb. 17, 1944, J. G. Fraiiclemont No. 45 ; 1 female. 
1 male, 8 larvae, from Pandanns axils, Sasavele Island. New 
Georgia Group, Feb. 1944, J. G. Franelemont No. 77 ; 1 male, 
Guadalcanal, March 1, 1944, Lechner No. 29; 2 males, 5 
larvae, 2 larval and 2 pupal skins, associated, from Pandanns 
leaf axil, West Cape, Guadalcanal, June 28, 1944, Belkin No. 
461. Paratypes in the U. S. National Museum, Cornell Uni- 
versity, British Museum, University of Queensland, and J. N. 
Belkin collections. 



1. Scutum predominately Avhite-scaled, Avitli a pair of dark stripes 

converging posteriorly L ._: M.' 2 

Scutum with the scaling uniformly brown .I ?..'..-——'..:. 3 

2. Dark stripes of scutum nearly covered with dark brown scales 

: _. VicTci Stone and Penn 

Dark stripes of scutum mostly bare with a few dark scales along 
edges . hinigrolineatus Knight and Rozeboom 

3. Hind femur usually with a patch or streak of dark scales on apical 

third dorsallj' or posteriorly; pleuron mostly brownish 

beJJcini, u. sp. 

Hind femur entirely creamy Avhite, with at most a few dark 
scales in a median stripe on hind surface near apex; pleurou 
decidedly greenish i^crVinsi, n. sp. 

Male Genitalia 

1. Inner margin of tenth sternite Avith a number of irregular serra- 

tions - - 2 

Inner margin of tenth sternite with one or two large teeth, but 
not irregularly serrate - 3 

2. Lateral plate of mesosome with about 5 teeth; lower arm of 

mesosomal plate projecting lateroposteriorly, the apex obliquely 

truncate .. -iichi Stone and Peun 

Lateral plate of mesosome with 10 or more teeth; lower arm of 

I'KOC. KNT. S'OC. WASH.. VOL. 50, NO. •"), MAY. 1!I4S UJ 

inesosomal pliito projcfting laterall.v, sliaiply poiiited .... 

hi)ii(/rolineal Ks Knight and Rozoboom 

Subapical lobe of basistylc witli tlio proximal one of the two 
filaments strongly emved; inner margin of tenth sternite with 
two stout teeth in middle bclhini, n. sp. 

Sulia])ieal lo))e of l)asistyle with both stout filaments nearly 
straight exeej)t for the bent tips; inner margin of tenth sternite 
with one stout tooth near Ijase perJcinsi, n. sp. 

Fourth Instar Larvae 

Abdomen without stellate tufts of hairs dorso-ventrally on the 
first four segments; upper and lower head hairs not more than 
4-bi'anclied ; anal gills not constricted 2 

Abdomen with stellate hair tufts on the dorso-lateral margins of 
at least the first four segments; upper and lower head hairs 
more than 6-branehed; anal gills constricted at a point about 
one-third of distance from base - 3 

Lateral comb of segment YIII composed of a single row of 8 to 11 
teeth hiclci Stone and Penn 

Lateral comb of segment YIII composed of a more or less tri- 
angular patch of teeth in two to four rows and consisting of 
from 14 to 43 teeth binigrolineatus Knight and Eozeboom 

Hairs of antennal tuft extending beyond the apex of the shaft; 
stellate tufts of hairs on segnw^nts I to IV of the abdomen less 
than half the length of the segment ; pecten teeth short blunt 
scales with an apical fringe of acute spines belkini, n. sp. 

Hairs of antennal tuft not reaching to the apex of the shaft; 
stellate hairs on segments II to YIII of the abdomen nearly 
equal to the length of the segment ; pecten teeth .simple, acute 
spines pcrl'msi, u. sp. 


Paddles without terminal setae 2 

Paddles with terminal setae 3 

Lateral margins of paddles finely serrate; only the larger setae 
of segments III to YII plumose, all other setae non-plumose 
,.. hicM Stone and Penn 

Lateral margins of paddles smoothly rounded, not serrate; nearly 

all of the dorsal abdominal setae finely plumose 

binigrolineatus Knight and Eozeboom 

Width of paddle equal to about half the length, lateral and 
medial portions about equal in width; setae B and C of seg- 
ment VII single belTcini, h. sp. 

Width of paddle about two-thirds of length; medial portion 
distinctly Avider than lateral portion; setae B and C of seg- 
ment VII 3- and 2-branched respectively perJciim, n. sp. 

HROC. ENT. SOf. WASH.. VOL. 50, SO. ."), MAY, 1948 

Plate 9. Male Genitall\ (Drawn by Alan Stone) 

1. Cnlex perlcinsi, n. sp., basistyle and dististyle. 

2. Culex belTcini, n. sp., basistyle and dististyle. 

3. Culex perlcinsi, n. sp., mesosome and tenth sternites. 

4. Culex bellcini, n. sp., mesosome and tenth sternites. 

.5. Culex perTcinsi, n. sp., lateral plate of mesosome, lateral view. 

6. Culex belTcini, n. sp., lateral plate of mesosome, lateral view. 


PKOC. ENT. soc. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. 5, MAY, 1948 Plate 10 

Plate 10. Larvae (Drawn by G. H. Penn) 

7. Citlex perlcinsi, n. sp., end of abdomen. 

8. Culex perlcinsi, n. sp., head. 

9. Culex helkini, n. sp., end of abdomen. 
10. CuleX belhini, n. sp., head. 


Pl.-ltf Jl I'l;()( . KXT. .S0( . WASH.. VOL. 50, .\U. ■'), .MA'i. ll>4." 


Plate 11. Pupae (Drawn by G. H. Peini) 

11. Culcx perJcinsi, n. sp., abdomen (male). 

12. Cnlex bell-ini, ii. sp., abdomen (male). 


PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 50, NO. •"), MAY. Ilt48 121 



By UoKi.s H. Blakk. W(i.'<liiii(i1(>n. D. C. 

Ill this paper are described a half dozen new species of 
Chrysomelidae from the West Indies that have come to light 
in the collections at the Musenni of Comparative Zoology and 
National Mnseum. 

Exochognathus limbatus Blake 

(Fig-. .-,) 

A female specimen of Exochognathus linihatus Blake^ has 
recently been sent in from Kancho Mnndito, Sierra de los 
Organos, elevation 1,500 ft., Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba, 
collected 26 May 1946 by S. C. Brnner and J. Acuiia. Since, 
at the time it was described, the species was kno-\vn only from 
a single male, and since the female differs so markedly from 
the male in having greatly developed nodnles and excrescences 
on the shoulders, sides and apex as well as more definite 
costae on the apical half of the elytra, as is so frequently the 
case in eumolpid females, an illustration is here given, so that 
future workers may not be misled into describing the female 
of the species as another species. 

Dicoelotrachelus violaceus, ii. sp. 

(Fig'. 2) 

About 3 111111. in Iciigtli, oblong, sliining; antennae, Lead, thorax, 
SL-utellum and legs reddish or yellowish brown, elytra violaceous, under- 
siufaee brown; thorax with a deep transverse snlciis across the middle. 

Head polished and with fine, scattered punctures, smoothly rounded 
over occiput, a transverse groove aliove the somewhat elevated frontal 
tuliercles, interocular space over half the width of the head; eyes entire, 
lower front short, labrum small. Antennae extending below the humeri 
but not to the middle of the elytra ; except for the second .joint, the 
.joints subequal. Prothorax about twice as wide as long, with rounded 
sides and a small tooth at the basal angle; an impressed line all around 
sides and a transverse median groove almost across the thorax, ending 
on either side in a shallow pit; surface polished, very finely and sparsely 
punctate except in the sulcus Avhere the punctures are coarser and denser. 
Elytra polished, distinctly but not coarsely punctate in basal portion, 
less distinctly at apex; epipleura ending at the middle of the elytra. 
Body beneath deeper reddish brown, shining, legs pale. First tarsal 
joint long, claws with a long liasal tooth, almost bifid. Length 2.(S-3 
mm.; w'idth 1.3 mm. 

Type. — Male, and one paratype. M.C.Z. Type No. 27790. 

iBlakc, Proc. Eiit. Roc. Wash., 4S, (r,):ll(i. Iil4(;. 

122 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. ."), MAY, 1948 

Tyj^e locality. — Ponce, Puerto Rico, collected 2 Oct. 1934 by 
R. G. Oakle}', from the collection of Stuart T. Danforth, Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology. 

Remarks. — This is closely related to Dicoelotrachelus gldher 
Blake from the Dominican Republic. That species has bright 
green elytra and is more heavily punctate. 

Chthoneis hispaniolae, n. sp. 

(Fig. 4) 

About 6 mm. in length, elongate, shining piceous with irregularly 
shaped pale spots arranged transversely, one set before, the other be- 
hind the mfddle of the elytra, apex pale; femora in part and the body 
beneath paler brown; thorax transverse, surface uneven, with a median 
basal depression and two small roundish elevations anteriorly, punctate; 
elytra also uneven and irregularly rugose, with fine punctures; antennae 
extending to the middle of the elytra. 

Head smooth and shining over occiput with a large puncture on 
either side near the eye and above the frontal tubercles; frontal 
tubercles well marked by a groove between and above; a slight carina 
between antennal bases, labrum long, mandibles heavy, eyes entire with 
interocular space about half the Avidth of head. Antennae not extending 
below the middle of the elytra (in female at least), slender, dark and 
shining, 4th joint longest, nearly twice as long as 3rd, remainder sub- 
equal. Prothorax small, considerably wider than long, not very convex 
and almost rectangular^ with thickened angles, a narrow impressed line 
all around the margin, surface shining, distinctly and not densely 
punctate, with a shallow median depression in basal half and a pair of 
small roundish elevations, scarcely tubercles, anteriorly. Elytra wider 
than thorax and nearly five times as long, moderately convex with small 
humeri; surface fairly densely but not coarsely punctate, uneven, with 
irregular transverse wrinkling, shining piceous with two sets of spots, 
irregularly shaped, one before and the other behind the middle, the 
latter almost forming a pale transverse fascia, apex also pale. Epipleura 
becoming indistinct soon after the middle of elytra. Body beneath 
somewhat paler brown, shining, nearly glabrous; anterior coxae very 
narrowly separated by a thin produced carina. Legs with the femora 
paler on top, and dark and very pubescent tibiae and tarsi, the first 
tarsal joint very long, claws appendieulate. Length 6.1 mm. ; width 
2.6 mm. 

Type.— Female, M.C.Z. Type No. 27791. 

Type locality. — Constanza to Jarabocoa, elevation 2-4,000 
ft., Dominican Republic, collected in August 1938 by P. J. 

Remarks. — Although considerably larger, this species bears 
a certain likeness to the only other species of Chthoneis at 
present known from the West Indies, Chthoneis insulana 
Blake, from Cuba. Both are dark piceous and with a pale 

PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. •'), MAY. 1948 123 

apex to the elytra, but the Cuban species has also a pale head 
and thorax. Both these species, unlike the South American 
ones, have antennae which do not come below the middle of 
the elytra. Otherwise they agree very well Avith the generic 

Glyptobregma bruneri, n. sp. 

(Fig. 3) 

About 2 mm. in length, oblong oval, shining yellowish brown with 
piceous antennae ; aedeagus forked at tip. 

Head with interocular space about half its width, front with a 
small pit-like depression above antennal sockets and the usual sulcus, in 
this species made up of a row of coarse punctures around the inner side 
of the eye; lower front short; antennae extending about to the middle 
of the elytra, piceous Avith paler basal joints. Prothorax over tAvice 
as wide as long at the base, narrowed anteriorly, basal margin sinuate 
over the scutellum, disk Avith irregularly placed, coarse, deep and not 
A'ery dense punctures, an impressed line of punctures along the basal 
margin. Elytra with deeply impressed, striate punctation but not 
really costate, the punctures becoming finer towards apex; a AA-ell marked 
basal callosity on each elytron Avith a depression beloAv; epipleura ex- 
tending to the apical narroAving. Body beneath yelloAV brown, shining, 
very lightly pubescent, legs pale, tibiae faintly sulcate, the usual spur 
at apex of hind tibiae, claAvs toothed at the base. Length 2.2 mm.; 
width 1.2 mm. 

Type.— A male, U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 58658. 

Type locality. — Buenos Aires, Trinidad Mts., elevation 
2,350-2,800 ft., Cuba, collected 4 May 1932 by S. C. Bruner 
and A. Otero. 

Eemarks.- — This is the tiniest species of the genus yet to be 
described. It is of a brownish coloration similar to the other 
yellow brown species and is superficially similar to G. tur- 
quinense Blake, although smaller. As is not the ease in the 
truly costate species, G. clathrum Suifrian and puertoricense 
Blake, the elytral punctures are single and not at all geminate, 
although there is some tendency towards that condition occa- 
sionally. The aedeagus is remarkable in the shape of the tip, 
being forked like a fish tail, a shape such as I have never 
before seen in chrysomelid beetles, although Dr. E. A. Chapin 
has shown me something similar but not so widely forked in 
a coccinellid beetle. 

Glyptobregma orphninum, n. sp. 

(Fig. 1) 

About 2.5 mm. in length, oblong oA-ate, reddish brown to piceous. 

124 . PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. .'), MAY, 19-18 

often with a bronzy lustie, with paler legs and antennae, very shiny, 
thorax irregularly and elytra striately punctate. 

Head with interocular space half its width, rounded and polished over 
occiput, a deep dejiression a'love anteniial bases and below the tubercles, 
and a groove running up on the inner side of the eye. Antennae extend- 
ing to the middle of the elytra, pale, third joint almost as long as fourth, 
remainder subequal. Prothorax at base over twice as broad as long, 
narrowed anteriorly with almost straight sides, basal margin deeply 
sinuate over the scutelluni ; surface shining and with irregular, not very 
dense punctures, a lather deeply impressed group of punctures on either 
side near the margin. Elytra smoothly convex with a distinct but not 
large basal callosity and a slight depression below this, the rows of 
striate punctures rather deeply impressed. p]pipleura Ijecoming indis- 
tinct before apex. Body beneath paler yellowish brown, shining, finely 
pubescent. Tibiae with the usual slight sulcus and hind tibiae with 
spur, first tarsal .ioint of hind tarsi as long as the next two. Length 
2.') nun.; width 1.4 mm. 

Typc.—Mi\\e and 4 paratypes, M.C.Z. Type No. 27792. 1 
l^aratvpe in the U.S.N. M. Cat. No. 58727. 

Ti/pe locality.— ^yhiine\d Hall, Blue Mts., eirea 4,500 ft. 
elevation, Jamaica, collected in August 1930 by P. J. Darling- 

Re inorJfs.— This, the first Glyptohregma to be described 
from Jamaica, is considerably smaller than the Cuban species. 
It is close to G. furquinense Blake, being of similar coloration 
and with well spaced eyes. The head is not so long and has 
a deep groove across the front, unlike that of tKi'quinensc. 
Three other specimens, all females, a little larger and deep 
piceous in coloring with fainter and finer elytral striae, have 
been doubtfully placed under this name, but may not be the 
same. They were collected at the same time and place as G. 
orphniniDu specimens. 

Glyptobregma aeneiim, n. sp. 

(Fig. 6) 

Nearly 3 mm. in length, oblong oval, lustrous, reddish or yellowish 
brown, the elytra aeneous green, the thorax having a slight tinge of 
aeneous near the base. 

Head with interocular space about half its Avidth, the usual pit-like 
depression above the antennal sockets and a sulcus around the inner 
side of eye, in this species not close until along the top of the eye. 
Antennae of the usual proportions, scarcely reaching the middle of the 
elytra (in female specimen). Prothorax twice as wide as long at base, 
narrowed anteriorly, rather convex and smoothly rounded, the usual 
sinuation over the scutellum and an impressed line of punctures along 
the basal margin. Punctation on disk scattered, irregular, coarse but 
not verv dense. Elytra rather convex, with a basal callosity and a 

^ ENT. sor. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. '), MAY, 1948 Plate 12 

SGlLjptobre^mo bruneri j^ ~^'^ V S.Exocho^iialliuslimbatuS ii 

r tf^js,^ -'^ 4.ChthoneiS hiipaniolae 

6.GlL)pTobre^ma aeneuo 

|7. GlL|p1bbic(j'nia ci|Oiicllu 

Plate 12. 
Adults and male genitalia of West Indian Chrysomclidae. 


}-2{) PKO( . 1:NT. S0( . WASH.. VOL. 50, so. '>, .MAY, Jil4^ 

slight transverse depression below this; the rows of striate i)Uiietures 
well marked but becoming finer and less impressed at the apex, some- 
times with a slight tendency towards gemination as in the larger, eostate, 
yellow brown species; a trace of fine punctures between the coarse 
striate rows. Epipleura becoming very narrow at apical angle. Body 
beneath yellow brown, nearly glabrous, tibiae with very short and 
shallow sulcus near the apex, first joint of hind tarsi long, claws at 
base toothed. Length 2.7 mm.; width 1.6 mm. 

Type.— Female, M.C.Z. Type No. 2779k 

Type locality. — Loma Vieja, south of Constaiiza, about 
6,000 ft. elevation, Dominican Republic, collected in August 
1938 by P. J. Darlington. 

Remarks. — This species with lustrous green elytra is the 
first to be reported from Hispaniola. 

Glyptobregma cyanellum, n sp. 

(Fig. 7) 

From 2 to o nun. in length, broadly oblong oval, lustrous blue violet 
or sometimes with a blue green thorax, the antennae, lower part of 
face, legs and undersurface brownish or yellowish; thorax at the 
base about the same width as the elytra. 

Head with interocular space about a third of its width, upper part 
of head from tubercles up shining blue or green, lower part of head 
and antennae reddish brown, occiput and front finely punctate, a small 
depression over antennal sockets and a sulcus along inner margin of 
eyes, lower front short. Antennae not reaching the middle of the 
elytra, usually pale brown, third joint not so long as fourth, joints five 
to eleven subequal. Prothorax over twice as wide as long at base, and 
approximately as wide as the elytra at base, narrowed anteriorly, not 
very convex, basal margin sinuate over scutellum, surface lustrous, 
finely and rather densely punctate. Elytra broad, moderately convex, 
without distinct depressions or elevations, the rows of striate punctures 
not coarse and becoming at apex somewhat indistinct, on sides more 
deeply impressed, a very fine indistinct row of punctures between the 
coarser rows. Epipleura disappearing before the apex. Body beneath 
reddish or yellowish brown, very finely pubescent, tibiae faintly sulcate 
almost their entire length, a spur at the tip of the hind tibiae; claws 
toothed at base. Length 2.2-3.3 mm. width 1.3-1.8 mm. 

Type.— A male, U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 58659, 28 paratvpes. 2 
in M.C.Z. 

Type locality. — Ponce, Puerto Rico, collected on leaves of 
Serjania polyphylla by R. G. Oakley, 3 Nov. 1933, and also on 
the leaves of Dioscorea sp. and on Ewgenia sp. Also collected 
at Adjuntas, Puerto Rico, by R. G. Oakley, in August 1933. 
this specimen in the Stuart T. Danforth collection at the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 


SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. H, MAY, li»4S ]27 

Remarks.— Thi^i species is similar to Suffrian's G. rohustnm 
ill coloration except that Siiffriaii described the outside of the 
legs of robustum as being also steely blue. The two Cuban 
specimens that I have rather doubtfully identified as robustum 
are twice as large as this little Puerto Ricaii species and much 
more heavilj^ punctate. 


By D.wid G. Hall and George E. Bohakt, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 

Six species of Sarcophagidae occur on Guam, largest of the 
Marianas Islands, in the western Pacific. Five of these species 
are widely distributed in the Pacific Ocean areas. Two have 
not been described hitherto. 

Shortly after the attack on Guam early in August 1944, the 
fly population there was so great that it became essential to 
inaugurate various control measures. Human and animal re- 
mains were heavily blown by various species of muscoid flies 
and it was necessary to poison the corpses and carcasses with 
sodium arsenate. Chrysomya rufi fades (Macq.) and Sarco- 
phaga dux Thorn, were the species most involved in the blow- 
ing, but S. ruficorriis (Fabr.) was also frequently reared from 
such remains. 

Human excrement deposited on the open ground was also 
a source of many flies. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabr.), 
normally a breeder in latrines, as well as Sarcophaga knabi 
Park., S. peregrhm (R.D.), and 8. dux, were frequently 
reared from this type of refuse. 

Other muscoid flies, particularly those of the genus Musca, 
made life miserable for everyone. Musca flies swarmed every- 
where. No single species of insect, even mosquitoes, caused so 
much complaint among the men as did Musca sorbens Wied., 
a most persistent, though nonbiting fly. 

The aerial distribution of approximately 30,000 gallons of 
5-percent DDT solution in fuel oil over Army installations 
and their surroundings by means of C-47 type cargo-carrying 
aircraft in October and November 1944 so -reduced the entire 
fly population that it became nonprofitable for several months 
thereafter to collect them in treated areas either by trap or by 
hand net. In September and October 1945 the entire island 
was sprayed again in the same manner with the same formula, 
with similar results. 

This island was visited by the senior author a number of 
times during the 14-month period from August 1944 through 

128 HKO( . EXT. SOC. A\ ASH.. VOL. 50, NO. 5, MAV, 1948 

()L-tober 1945. Considerable colled iiiy was accomplished on 
each visit. The jnnior author, with J. E. Gressitt, collected 
there during 1945 and 1946. The combined collections, pins 
others forwarded to the United States National Mnsenm by 
members of both military services, represent nearly 16 months 
of continuous collections on this island. 

This paper is based on about 65,000 specimens taken on 
Guam durinji' 1944, 1945, and 1946 by Bohart, Gressitt, and 
Hall. Only about 10 percent of these specimens Avere sent to 
this country. The remainder were discarded immediately 
after identification. Trapped specimens were often too badly 
damaged to keep, and only tlie best specimens were retained 
for collections. 

Sarcoijhaga knahi, a species supposedly occurring in India, 
China, and on various islands in the Pacific, is probably the 
most abundant species ot^avcophaga on Guam. It is attracted 
into traps baited witli almost any sort of filth, particularly 
decaying meat and carnivorous excrement, and also to decay- 
ing fruits, vegetables, and mixed garbage. Adults were fre- 
quently found in deep pit latrines, but larvae were never 
reared from feces in such pits; nevertheless, larvae were re- 
covered from human exrement dejiosited on the top of the 
ground. Carcasses of animals were almost invariably bloAvn 
by this species, and larvae were frequently collected from dead 
sea urchins above high-tide lines. It is the most abundant 
species of Sarcoijhoga on Pacific islands where the pig popu- 
lation is high. This is believed to be the only species of 
^(ircopJiaga recovered from cases of human myiasis on Guam. 
In August and September 1944 it was frequently recovered 
from blood-soaked blankets at evacuation hospitals. Sarco- 
phaga knahi must be considered an important public health 
factor wherever it occurs because of its tendency toward 
myiasis and its undoubted tie-in with excrement of carnivores. 

SarcoijJiaga dux is said to occur throughout the Palaearctie, 
Oriental, and Australian Regions. On Guam it is the second 
species in order of abundance. Adults were collected in traps 
baited with decaying meat, and less frequently in traps baited 
witli excrement of cai-nivores or garbage such as decaying 
fi-iiits and vegetables. Almost every corpse or carcass was 
blown with this species. Dead birds, toads, and other similar 
types of carrion are doubtlessly the reason for the high inci- 
dence of this species in areas where it occurs. The larvae of 
this species were frequently encountered in blood-soaked 
blankets at evacuation hospitals. 

Sarcophaga dux, together Avith S. hnahi, must be considered 
the most important sarcophagids on Guam, and in all other 
Pacific ocean areas where they occur. 

PKOr. ENT. soc. WASH., voi.. 50, xo. .'>. :mav, lli-ts 129 

Sarcophaga ruficoriiis was taken in considerable numbers in 
meat-baited traps, and less frequently in traps baited with 
human excrement. Larvae were often collected from corpses, 
carcasses, and from fish and other similar bodies found swept 
up on beaches by waves and tides. It was never reared from 
excrement, but adults are attracted to the excrement of carni- 
vores. It was frequently found in mess halls, but never in 
deep pit latrines. This species, has been identified from 
Africa, India, China, and various Pacific Islands. On Guam 
8. ruficornis is the third species of Sarcophaga in order of 

Sarcophaga peregriua, fourth in order of abundance of 
flesh-fly species on (iuam, is definitely tied up in the complex 
of flies involved in the blowinp' of human and animal remains. 
It was frequently reared from corpses in 1944, and later from 
carcasses of toads, fish, and sea urchins. It was not trapped 
with decaying fruits or vegetables, and only rarely with 
excrement of carnivores. Adults were sometimes collected 
over freshly deposited human excrement, and one series was 
recovered from collections made in a shallow-pit latrine. 
Key to Species 

1. First vein bare _ _ 2 

First vein setulosc Sdrcopluif/a (jressiili, new species 

2. I'alyus, aiiteiuin, aiul genital segments black or deep brown 3 

Palpus, antenna, and genital segments orange red 

SarcopJiacia ruficornis (Fabr.) 

0. Squamal lobes white or only slightly infnscated 4 

'Squamal lobes bright yellow to orange 

Sarcophaga .stricllandi, new species 

4. Propleuron totally bare 5 

Proplenron pilose at least in i-t^ntev Sarcophaga peregrina (E. D.) 
-■). Second abdominal segment of male with one strong lateral bristle 
and a pair of Aveak median bristles; female with first hypo- 
pygial tergite not cleft medially and with marginal bristles 

only at the lateral margins Sarcophaga l-nahi Park. 

Second abdominal tergite of male with two lateral bristles but 
without a distinct median pair; female with the first hypopygial 
tergite cleft medially, the marginal bristles extending nearly to 

the mid dorsal line Sarcophaga dux Thom. 

Larvae (Third Instar) 

1. Posterior spiracles separated by a distance equal to one-half the 

diameter of one spiracle; abdominal tergites usually with ex- 
tensive smooth areas . 2 

Posterior spiracles separated by less than one-third the diameter 
of one spiracle; abdominal tergites nearly or entirely covered 
with microtuberculae , .- 

130 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, XO. .1, MAY, 1948 

2. Posterior spiracles with ventral sclerotized margin extending as 

far, or almost as far, medially as the inner spiracular margin ... 3 
Posterior spiracle with ventral sclerotized margin extending only 
slightly further -medially than the portion of the lateral slit 4 

3. Abdominal tergites with smooth areas more extensive than the 

microtuberculate areas - - dux 

Abdominal tergites with microtuberculate areas much more ex- 
tensive than smooth areas ruficornis 

4. Anterior spiracle with about 10 to 12 branches in a single row, 

each branch appearing laterally as subequal egg-shaped struc- 
ture gressitti 

Anterior spiracle with over 20 to 22 branches in two or more 
irregular rows, some small and difficult to discern stricTclandi 

5. Dorsal surface completely and closely covered with microtubercu- 

lae ; a smooth protuberant area present on the anterior margin 
of anus; a pair of small tubercles generally present at bases of 
the usual ventral pair at posterior end; anterior spiracle with 

about 12 to 15 short branches - Tcnabi 

Dorsal surface with narrow transverse smooth areas; anterior 
margin of anus without conspicuous smooth area ; only one pair 
of posteroventral tubercles; anterior spiracle with about 18 to 
20 branches peregrina 


1. Surface with alternate bands of asperate punctures and minute 

ridges, the latter areas often restricted or with weak asperities; 
opening of posterior cavity not deeply emarginate in lateral 

outline _. 2 

Surface almost entirely covered with minute transverse asperities 
or subasperate punctures; posterior cavity with the opening 
deeply emarginate in lateral outline, bordered with asperities 
but not distinctly tuberculate; faces of spiracular plates nearly 
in line with long axis of puparium (with 17 fingerlike projec- 
tions in an irregular row on anterior spiracle.) Tcnabi 

2. Posterior cavity generally deeper than diameter of opening; 

spiracular plates usually almost in same plane with longitudinal 

axis of puparium __ .._. 3 

Depth of posterior cavity generally much less than diameter of 
opening; spiracular plate often placed almost horizontally in 
relation to transverse axis of puparium; (anterior spiracle 
with 11 to 14 fingerlike projections; puparium with a smooth 
appearance, its striate areas extensive and rather satiny) .gressitti 

3. Anterior spiracle with 11 to 14 fingerlike projections; margin 

of posterior cavity with low, rounded tubercles; posteroventral 
tubercles sometimes large but usually not erect; asperities of 
surface rarely in form of reclining teeth in contiguous oblique 
series _ 4 

PKOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 50, NO. '), MAY, 19-18 131 

Anterior spiracle with L'l fiiigerlike projections; margin of 
posterior cavity with a niun'ier of conspicuous subvermiculate 
tubercles, the ventral subcaudal pair prominent and erect; 
asperities of surface in form of reclining, triangular teeth 
which are in an oblique, almost contiguous series stricklandi 

4. Dorsolateral portions of third, fourth, and fifth abdominal seg- 

ments with posterior halves asperate; asperities generally small 

and not almost touching 5 

• Dorsolateral portions of third, fourth, and fifth abdominal seg- 
ments with posterior half completely ridged, without asperities; 
with strong ridges and large closely spaced asperities which 
have broadly oval bases which almost touch in many areas 

: clux 

5. Posterior two-thirds of tergites in middle portion of puparium 

largely with narrowly elliptical transverse tubercles, sometimes 
bearing feeble, transparent teeth; third tergite, except for a 
very narrow band, covered with elliptical or prostrate triangular 

tubercles rnficoniis 

Posterior two-thirds of tergites in middle portion of puparium 
with strong ridges bearing narrow, anteriorly directed scalelike 
teeth; third tergite in large part coarsely ridged and without 
tubercles peregrina 

Sarcophaga gressitti, new species 

A small, grey, rather smooth, and more or less glabrous 
-species with the first vein setulose and the propleuron witli 
several hairs. 

Male. — Head:Bucca with scattered medium-length, black hairs, none 
pale before the metacephalic suture, and with greyish-yellow- pollen 
on the anterior half; parafrontale with greyish-yellow pollen, with 
some hairs in rows which extend to the parafaeiale; frontal bristles 
about nine, the rows extending to the middle of the second antenna! 
segment, only narrowly diverging from the other anteriorly; inner 
vertical bristles straight; clypeus yellowish-golden; parafaeiale with 
greyish-yellow pollen, with scattered minute, black hairs near eye; 
palpus black; antennal segments black, third segment one and one-half 
times as long as second; back of head with two and a partial third 
row of postocular cilia, and with whitish hair below. 

Thorax black, with thick greyish, yellow, and brown pollen, and with 
brown and black longitudinal stripes; propleuron with a few black 
setae on the anterior margin; no anterior acrostichal bristles; two 
anterior dorsocentral bristles; three sternopleural bristles arranged 
1-1-1 ; four postsutural dorsocentral bristles, strong only in the prescutel- 
lars; one postsutural acrostichal bristle; scutellum with one subapical 
.discal bristle, one apical bristle, and two lateral bristles. 

Legs black, hind tibia with long hairs. 

];i2 PKU( . ENT. ISO( . WASH., VOL. 50, NO. .'i, MAY, lt)48 

Wing hyaline, with a small costal spine, first and third vein 
squainal lobes infuscated, white. 

Abdomen black with silvery and l)rown pollen, tesselated; third ap- 
parent segment with long, eicet, median marginal l)ristles; fourth 
segment with a marginal row of bristles, fifth sternite deft, with 
strong short, inward-pointing spines 

Genital segments black; first segment large, globose, with thin silveiy 
pollen; second segment globose, shining. Internal features as illustrated. 

Female. — Similar to male, but front of head wider, claws nearly equal 
in length, and scutellum without apical bristles. Genital segments some- 
what similar in shape to those in orchidca Boett. 

Leiif/th ')-{] mm. 

Tijix' material. — llolotype : Male, No. 58664, IT. S. National 
Museum, reared from a corpse, June 19, 1945, Point Ritidian, 
(ruam (Bohart and Gressitt). Allotype; Collected from 
corpses of man, xViigust 24, 1944, Agana beach, Guam (Hall). 
Paratypes: A series of 113 male and female specimens col- 
lected in several beach areas or in the immediate vicinity of 
beaclies on Guam, during 1944 and 1945. 

Adult hahit.s. — Specimens of this species are collected only 
on or near ocean beaches, where they take stations in the sun 
on rocks, pebbles, or shells. Females are attracted to various 
types of filth, mainly carrion such as dead fish or crayfish 
cast up on shore by tide or wave action, or to dead land c'rabs 
and snails immediately behind beaches. They are infrequently 
attracted to the excrement of carnivores, including that of 
humans. Of all baits tried in traps, human excrement proved 
least, decaying liver most, attractive. 

Larval habits. — Larvae are found typically in carrion, al- 
though Bohart and Gressitt reared two adults from larvae col- 
lected in human excrement. Adults were reared from human 
dead, from the decaying skin of a pig, and from ground beef. 
Decaj^ing ground lean beef was used as a larval medium in the 
laboratory bj^ Hall, decaying- liver by Bohart. Larvae re- 
covered from gravid females reached maturity in about 72 
hours; adults were recovered from pupae in 9 to 15 days. 
The total cycle requires from 14 to 20 days. 

Remarks. — Adults which appear to be very similar, if not 
identical, to gressitti, occur on many island groups in the 
western Pacific ocean areas. Specimens were first collected 
and reared by Hall in July and August 1944 on Kwajalein, 
island of the Kwajalein Atoll, in the Marshall Islands. Later 
in 1944 specimens were collected or reared on the Eniwetok 
Atoll and Majuro Atoll in the Marshall group; on Makin, 
Tarawa, and Apamana in the Gilbert Islands group ; on 
Nanomea and Funifuti in the Ellice Islands group ; as well as 
on Saipan, Tinian, and Rota, in the Marianas Islands group. 

PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 50, NO. .'), MAY, 1948 133 

These specimens are not included in the type series of gressitti 
because of minute differences between series from different 
islands and island yrpups. If these differences prove to be 
subspecific, the typical form will be that described herein from 

The length of the type series of gressitti might indicate that 
gressitti was fairly common. However, its distribution was 
localized along the beaches. Conditions of warfare, and later 
recreation, resulted in a great amount of collecting in re- 
stricted areas where this species was abundant. 

The species seems to have little i)ublic health significance. 
It may occur periodically in cases of human and animal 
myiasis, but no single rearing was so recorded during 1944 
and 1945 by the Medical Department of the Army so far as 
we are aware. It is an uncommon species which must be 
searched for with considerable diligence. It occurs throughout 
the year, but adults appear to be most frequent from May to 

Named for J. L. Gre.ssitt, Avitli whom Bohart served in the 
Pacific during IJ. 8. Naval duty in 1945. 

Sarcophaga stricklandi, new speties 

A black and yellowish, medium-sized species with the 
abdomen mostly shining black, the wing base and sqnamal 
lobps bright orange. 

Male. — Head: Bucea witli abundant, medium-length, black hair, with 
many pale hairs before the metaeepha