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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF 

WASHINGTON 



Volume 71 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1969 

President -— Helen Sollers-Riedel 

President-Elect Karl V. Krombein 

Recording Secretary John A. Davidson 

Corresponding Secretary David R. Smith 

Treasurer Arthur K. Burditt, Jr. 

Editor Paul M. Marsh 

Custodian ^ Robert D. Gordon 

Program Committee Chairman Donald H. Messersmith 

Membership Committee Chairman H. Ivan Rainwater 

Delegate to the Washington Academy of Sciences - W. Doyle Reed 



Published by the Society 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 

1969 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, VOLUME 71 

ALLEN, H. W. — Three species of Mexican Krombeinia having an elongated 
tegula with an extended apical angle (Hyinenoptera: Tiphiidae) 99 

BAKER, E. W. — Oriolella, a new name for Oriola (Acarina: Tydeidae) 204 

BAKER, E. W.: See TUTTLE, D. M. 

BARR, W. F. — New species of Chnjsohothris from the Pacific Northwest 
( Coleoptera: Buprestidae ) — 117 

BARRERA, A. — Notes on the behaviour of Loberopsyllus traubi, a cucujoid 

beetle associated with the volcano mouse, Neotomodon alstoni in Mexico 481 

BISSELL, T. L.— The subcoxa of the aphid hind leg (Homoptera: Aphididae) 133 

BLAKE, D. H. — Fourteen new chrysomelid beetles from Jamaica 161 

BLANTON, F. S.: See WIRTH, W. W. 

BOULANGER, L. W. — A new record for a parasite of the alfalfa weevil in 
Eastern United States, Eriplanus micator ( Gravenhorst ) ( Hymenoptera : 
Ichneumonidae ) 149 

BUCKETT, J. S. and M. R. GARDNER— A new genus of xystodesmid 
milliped with the description of a new species from Idaho (Diplopoda: 
Xystodesmidae ) 65 

BURKS, B. D. — New Perilampidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea ) 73 

BURKS, B. D. — The North American species of Arthrolytus Thomson 
( Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae ) 298 

CAPEK, M. — An attempt at a natural classification of the family Braconidae 
based on various unconventional characters (Hymenoptera) 304 

CHAPIN, E. A. — New synonymy and generic reassignment in South Ameri- 
can Coccinellina (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae ) 467 

CLADY, M. D. — Use of freshwater sponge in case construction of Limneph- 
ilus species (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) 98 

COPPEL, H. C.: See LOAN, C. C. 

CRABILL, R. E., Jr. — On the true identity of Cyclorija attems (Chilopoda: 
Geophilomorpha : Ballophilidae ) 242 

CRABILL, R. E., Jr. — A new Californian Garriscaphus: report of the 
Bothriogastrinae in the New World (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himan- 
tariidae: Bothriogastrinae ) 494 

DAVIS. R.: See FINCHER, G. T. 

DESSART, P. — Description complementaire d'Uroscelio luteipes Kieffer, 
1914 (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea: Scelionidae) 328 

DONAHUE, J. P.: See LATTIN, J. D. 

DUCKWORTH, W. D. — A new species of Aegeriidae from Venezuela pre- 
daceous on scale insects (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea ) 487 

EDNEY, E. B.: See FRIAUF, J. J. 

EMERSON, K. C. and R. D. PRICE— New species and records of Mal- 
lophaga (Trichodectidae) from Nigerian mammals _... 335 

EVANS, H. E. — West Indian wasps of the subfamily Pristocerinae (Hyme- 
noptera : Bethylidae ) 514 

FINCHER, G. T., R. DAVIS and T. B. STEWART— Three new records 
of the genus Fhanaeus from Georgia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae ) 71 

FISCHER, M. — Die nearktischen Aspilota-Arien der Sektion B (Hymenop- 
tera: Braconidae ) ! 361 



FLINT, O. S., Jr. — Studies of Neotropical caddis flies, VIII: The immature 
stages of Barypenthns claudens (Trichoptera: Odontoceridae) 24 

FLINT, O. S., Jr. — Studies of Neotropical caddis flies, IX: New genera and 
species from the Chilean Subregion (Trichoptera) 497 

FOOTE, B. A.: See VALLEY, K. 

FOX, R. C. and H. R. HARRIS— A new locality, host, and habit record for 
Rhtjacionia sonia Miller (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae ) - 475 

FRANCLEMONT, J. G.— The generic name Callarctia and its type (Lepi- 
doptera: Arctiidae ) 256 

FRIAUF, J. J. and E. B. EDNEY — A new species of Arenivaga from desert 
sand dunes in southern California ( Dictyoptera : Polyphagidae ) — — 1 

GAGNE, R. J. — A new genus and two new species of Cecidomyiidae associ- 
ated with Pariana spp. (Gramineae) in South America (Diptera) 108 

GARDNER, M. R.: See BUCKETT, J. S. 

GORDON, R. D. — A new Glaresis from the western United States ( Scarabae- 
idae: Coleoptera ) 147 

GREGG, R. E. — Geographic distribution of the ant genus Formica (Hyme- 
noptera: Formicidae ) 38 

HAEUSSLER, G. J.— Carl Frederick William Muesebeck (biography) 258 

HARRIS, H. R.: See FOX, R. C. 

HEDQVIST, K.-J. — Notes on Cerocephalini with descriptions of new genera 
and species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae ) 449 

HIGGINS, H. G.: See WOOLLEY, T. A. 

HIGGINS, H. G. and T. A. WOOLLEY— A new genus and species of 
oribatid from North Carolina (Acari: Cryptostigmata : Amerobelbidae ) — . 544 

HODGES, R. W. — Synonymy of Keiferia glochinella (Zeller) and related 
names (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) 34 

HODGES, R. W. — Two species of apple-feeding gelechiids new to science 
( Lepidoptera ) _.. — 202 

HOOGSTRAAL, H. — Ornithodoros ( Alectorobius) muesebecki, n. sp., a 
parasite of the Blue-faced Booby (Sula dactylatra melanops) on Hasikiya 
Island, Arabian Sea (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) 368 

HUANG, Y. M. — A new species of Aedes ( Stegomyia ) from Thailand ( Dip- 
tera: Culicidae ) 234 

HUANG, Y.-M. — A description of a topotypic male of Aedes scutellaris 
(Walker) (Diptera: Culicidae) -- 471 

JACKSON, D. — A technique for removing appendages from small, dry- 
mounted insects for microscopic examination 93 

JACKSON, D. — New characters for generic separation in the Synopeas- 
Lap^acw complex (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae ) — 400 

JOHNSON, P. T. — Hamophthirius galeopitheci Mjoberg rediscovered; with 
the description of a new family of sucking lice (Anoplura: Hamoph- 
thiriidae) 420 

KINGSOLVER, J. M. — A new species of Neotropical seed weevil affecting 
pigeon peas, with notes on two closely related species (Coleoptera: Bruchi- 
dae: Bruchinae) - - 50 

KLEIN, J. M. — A new species of Ficalbin (Revenalites) from Cambodia 
( Diptera: Culicidae ) .— -- - 215 



KLEIN, J. M. and S. SIRIVANAKARN— Four new species of Culex, sub- 
genus Mochthogenes from Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae) 582 

KLEIN, M. G.: See LOAN, C. C. 

KOSZTARAB, M. and B. McDANIEL — A new species of Antonina Signoret 
from South Dakota with new records for A. botitelouae Parrott (Homop- 
tera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae ) — 111 

KROMBEIN, K. V. — The generic placement of two Nearctic Holopyga with 
biological notes (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) 351 

KUMAR, P.: See TANDAM, B. K. 

LATTIN, J. D. and J. P. DONAHUE — The second record of Picromerus 
hidens (L. ) in North America (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Asopinae) — . 567 

LOAN, C. C, M. G. KLEIN and H. C. COPPEL— Microcfanws glijptosceli 
n. sp., a parasite of Glyptoscelis pubescens (F. ) in Wisconsin (Hymenop- 
tera: Braconidae: Euphorinae & Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae 230 

LOAN, C. C. — A summary of species of Microctonus north of Mexico with 
five new species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) 404 

LYON, R. J. — The alternate generation of Callirhytis quercussuttonii (Bas- 
sett) (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) 61 

MACKAUER, M. — Sexual behaviour of and hybridization between three 
species of Aphidius Nees parasitic on the pea aphid (Hymenoptera: 
Aphidiidae) 339 

MacKAY, M. R. — The larva of Synanthedon coccidivora Duckworth (Lep- 
idoptera : Aegeriidae ) 490 

MARSH, P. M.: See MATTHEWS, R. W. 

MARSH, P. M. — Lectotype designations in the genus Heterospilus (Hyme- 
noptera: Braconidae ) 210 

MARSH, P. M. — Two new species of Aphaereta with notes on other Nearctic 
species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) 416 

MASNER, L. — A scelionid wasp surviving unchanged since Tertiary (Hyme- 
noptera: Proctotrupoidea ) 397 

MASON, W. R. M. — Muesebeckiini, a new tribe of Braconidae (Hyme- 
noptera) 263 

MATTHEWS, R. W. and P. M. MARSH— On the status of Cresson's 
Stenophasmus species from Cuba (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) 94 

McDANIEL, B.: See KOSZTARAB, M. 

McDANIEL, B. — Lectotype designation from seven syntypes of Tetrapolipus 
rhijnchophori Ewing (Acarina: Podopolipidae ) 551 

MENKE, A. S. — A new Nitela, subgenus Teniln, with a key to the species 
of the subgenus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) 197 

NELSON, R. H. — C. F. W. Muesebeck and the Entomological Society of 
America ._._ ___ 260 

NIELSEN, L. T. — Aedes cacothius Dyar, a synonym of Aedes ventrovittis 
Dyar (Diptera: Culicidae) .._ 530 

NIXON, G. E. J. — Two new species of Platystasius NLxon with a note on 
the generic relationship between Platystasius and Fidiobia Ashmead 
( Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae ) 445 

POLHEMUS, J. T. — A new Velia from Peru, and the description of the 
male oi Velia helenae Hungerford (Hemiptera: Veliidae) 55 

iv 



POOLE, R. W. — Gonodontis peplaria Geyer, a noctuid, not a geometric! 

( Lepidoptera ) - — 107 

POOLE, R. W. — The genus Nepitia Walker (Lepidoptera: Geometridae ) - 546 
PRASAD, V. — Record of the moth ear mite, Dicrocheles phalaenodectes, in 

Ohio (Acarina: Mesostigmata) 7 

PRASAD, V. — Description of immature stages of Noctuiseius treati Prasad 

( Acarina: Phytoseiidae ) 151 

PRASAD, V. — New species of bat mites from Southeast Asia and the Pacific 

Region, with a note on Periglischrodes gressitti Bak. & Delf. (Acarina: 

Spinturnicidae ) 533 

PRASAD, V. — Two new species of Spinturnix mites from the Pacific Region 

( Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) — - 572 

PRICE, R. D.: See EMERSON, K. C. 

QUINTANA, v.: See WALKER, D. W. 

ROTH, M. — A new cockroach of the genus Nelipophygus from Dominica 

(Dictyoptera: Blattaria: BlatteUidae) 569 

ROZEN, J. G., Jr. — Biological notes on the bee Tetralonia minuta and 

its cleptoparasite, Morgania histrio transvaalensis ( Hymenoptera : Antho- 

phoridae) 102 

SAGLE, W. B.: See THOMPSON, P. H. 

SHENEFELT, R. D. — Notes on some rogadine genera (Hymenoptera: 

Braconidae) 428 

SIRIVANAKARN, S.: See KLEIN, J. M. 

SMILEY, R. L. — Further studies on the Tarsonemidae, II (Acarina) -.. 218 

SMITH, D. R. — The genus Stisana Rohwer and Middleton (Hymenoptera: 

Tenthredinidae ) 13 

SMITH, D. R. — The genus Craterocercus Rohwer (Hymenoptera: Tenthre- 
dinidae) 153 

SMITH, D. R. — Symphyta of the West Indies, including those collected 

during the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica 

( Hymenoptera ) -- 540 

SNELLING, R. R. — Notes on the systematics and dulosis of some western 

species of Formica, subgenus Raptiformica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ._ 194 

STARY, P. — Aphids and their parasites associated with oaks in Iraq 279 

STEWART, T. B.: See FINCHER, G. T. 

STEYSKAL, G. C. — Notes on the morphology of the male copulatory appa- 
ratus in the Agromyzidae (Diptera) 531 

STIBICK, J. N. L. — Hijpnoklus riparius (Fabricius), a possible agricultural 
pest from Europe (Coleoptera: Elateridae) 191 

STONE, A.— The black flies of Dominica (Diptera: Simuliidae) 312 

SYNAVE, H. — Some African Fulgoroidea in the United States National 
Museum 174 

TANDAM, B. K. and P. KUMAR— Mallophaga from birds of the Oriental 
Region. Part IX. Sturnidoecus philippensis, n. sp. (Ischnocera: Philop- 
teridae) - -- -- 205 

THOMPSON, F. C. — First record of Rhagio scolopaceus (Linne) in North 
America (Diptera: Rhagionidae) - - 141 

THOMPSON, P. H. and W. B. SAGLE— Extensions of range for three 
species of Maryland Tabanidae (Diptera) 493 

V 



TODD, E. L. — New distribution records for Meropleon titan Todd ( Lepidop- 

tera: Noctuidae ) — 9 

TODD, E. L. — Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Gonodonta ohesa 

(Walker) ( Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) 58 

TOWNES, H. — The neotropic species of Xanthopimpla ( Hymenoptera : Ich- 

neumonidae) — 82 

TRAUB, R, — Muesebeckella, a new genus of flea from New Guinea, with 

notes on convergent evolution ( Siphonaptera : Pygiopsyllidae ) 374 

TUTTLE, D. M. and E. W. BAKER — Hemibrtjobia, a new name for Para- 

bnjobia (Acarina: Tetranychidae ) 193 

VALLEY, K., T. WEARSCH and B. A. FOOTE— Larval feeding habits of 

certain Chloropidae (Diptera) 29 

WALKER, D. W. and V. QUINTANA— Mating and oviposition behavior of 

the coffee leaf miner, Leiicoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) _.._ 88 
WATANABE, C. — Notes on the genera Zele Curtis and Xiphozele Cameron 

with special reference to the species in Japan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) 318 
WEARSCH, T.: See VALLEY, K. 

WILLIAMS, D. J. — A new species of Eriococcus infesting American beach- 
grass in North Carolina (Homoptera: Coccoidea) 90 

WIRTH, W. W. and F. S. BLANTON — New species and records of 

Ctdicoides from western North America (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae ) — 556 

WOOLLEY, T. A.: See HIGGINS, H. G. 

WOOLLEY, T. A. — A new and phoretic oribatid mite (Acarina: Crypto- 

stigmata: Licnodamaeidae ) 476 

WOOLLEY, T. A. and H. G. HIGGINS— A new genus of Suctobelbidae 

from northwestern United States (Acari: Cryptostigmata) 10 

WOOLLEY, T. A. and H. G. HIGGINS— A new species of Platyliodes from 

the N. W. United States (Acari: Cryptostigmata: Liodidae) 143 

WOOLLEY, T. A. and H. G. UlGCmS—M etrioppia in the western United 

States (Acari: Cryptostigmata: Metrioppiidae ) 580 



^ - 

^ol. 71 



MARCH 1969 



No. 1 



PROCEEDINGS 



of the 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

of WASHINGTON 



U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20560 




ALLEN, H. W. — Three species of Mexican Krombeinia having an elongated 
tegula with an extended apical angle (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae) — — 99 

BUCKETT, J. S. and M. R. GARDNER— A new genus of xystodesmid milli- 
ped with the description of a new sptcies from Idaho (Diplopoda: Xysto- 
desmidae) 65 

BURKS, B. D. — New Perilampidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea ) .— 73 

CLADY, M. D. — Use of freshwater sponge in case construction of Limnephilus 
species ( Trichoptera : Limnephilidae ) - 98 

FINCHER, G. T., R. DAVIS and T. B. STEWART— Three new records of 
the genus Phanaeus from Georgia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) - 71 

FLINT, O. S., JR.— Studies of Neotropical caddis fhes, VIII: The immature 
stSLges oi Barypenthus claudens (Trichoptera: Odontoceridae ) .— 24 

FRIAUF, J. J. and E. B. EDNEY — A new species of Arenivaga from desert 
sand dunes in soutliern California ( Dictyoptera: Polyphagidae ) 1 

GAGNE, R. J. — A new genus and two new species of Cecidomyiidae associ- 
ated with Pariana spp. ( Gramineae ) in South America ( Diptera ) - _ 108 

GREGG, R. E. — Geographic distribution of the ant genus Formica (Hyme- 
noptera: Formicidae ) - _.. _ 38 

HODGES, R. W. — Synonymy of Keiferia glochinella (Zeller) and related 
names ( Lepidoptera : Gelechiidae) 34 

JACKSON, D. — A technique for removing appendages from small, dry- 
mounted insects for microscopic examination 93 

(Continued on back cover) 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 



Organized March 12, 1884 



OFFICERS FOR 1969 



Mrs. Helen Sollers-Riedel, President 
Arg. Res. Ser., USDA 
Room 466, Federal Center Bldg. 
Hyattsville, Maryland 20782 

Dr. Karl V. Khombein, Present-Elect 
Department of Entomology 
U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

Dr. John A. Davidson, Recording Secretary 
Department of Entomology 
University of Maryland 
CoUege Park, Maryland 20740 



Dr. David R. Smith, Corresponding Secretary 
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA 
c/o U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 



Dr. Arthur K. Burditt, Jr., Treasurer 
Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA 
Plant Industry Station 
Beltsville, Maryland 20705 



Dr. Paul M. Marsh, Editor 

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA 
c/o U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

Dr. Robert D. Gordon, Custodian 

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA 
c/o U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

Dr. Donald H. Messersmith, Program Committee 
Chairman 
Department of Entomology 
University of Maryland 
College Park, Maryland 20740 

Mr. H. Ivan Rainwater, Membership Committee 
Chairman 
Plant Quarantine Division, USDA 
Room 564, Federal Center Bldg. 
HyattsviUe, Maryland 20782 

Mr. W. Doyle Reed, Delegate to Washington 
Academy of Sciences 
3609 Military Rd., NW. 
Washington, D. C. 20015 



Honorary President 
Dr. T. E. Snyder, U.S. National Museum 

Honorary Members 
Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck, U.S. National Museum 

Dr. F. W. Poos 

Dh. E. N. Cory 



MEETINGS. — Regular meetings of the Society are held in Room 43 of the U.S. National Museum on the first 
Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are published regularly 
in the Proceedings. 

MEMBERSHIP. — Members shall be persons who have demonstrated interest in the science of entomology. 
Annual dues for members are $5.00; initiation fee is $1.00 (U.S. currency). 

PROCEEDINGS. — Published quarterly beginning with March by the Society at Washington, D.C. Members in 
good standing are entitled to the Proceedings free of charge. Nonmember subscriptions are $8.00 per year, 
both domestic and foreign (U.S. currency), payable in advance. All remittances should be made payable to 
The Entomological Society of Washington. 

The Society does not exchange its publications for those of other societies. 

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP 

Title of Publication: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 

Frequency of Issue: Quarterly (March, June, September, December). 

Location of Office of Publication, Business Office of Publisher and Owner: The Entomological Society of 

Washington, c/o Department of Entomology, U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560. 
Editor: Dr. Paul M. Marsh, same address as above. 
Managing Editor and Known Bondholders or other Security Holders: none. 



This issue mailed March 25, 1969 



Second Class Postage Paid at Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A. 66044 

ALLEN PRESS, INC. ''"'!,!^° LAWRENCE, KANSAS 66044 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 

Vol. 71 MARCH 1969 No. 1 

A NEW SPECIES OF ARENIVAGA FROM DESERT SAND DUNES 
IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA' - 

( DiCTYOPTERA : POLYPHAGIDAE ) 

James J. Friauf^ and E. B. Edney* 

ABSTRACT — Arenivaga investigata, n. sp., is described and illustrated from 
Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California. 

A revision of the genus Arenivaga Rehn, 1903 is being undertaken 
by one of us (J.J.F.), but in view of the fact that the present species 
is the subject of physiological study (Edney, 1966, 1968), we have 
decided to name and describe it ahead of time. The taxonomic affin- 
ities of the present species will be considered when the complete 
revision is published. 

Males and females ascribed here to the same species have been 
observed by Mr. David Gibo in copulo. Both sexes occur in large 
numbers at the type locahty together with immatures of all stages, 
and only one male of another species has ever been caught there. 
Consequently, we feel justified in concluding that the sexes here 
described are indeed conspecific. 

The collection of Ernest Tinkham and his recognition of the dis- 
tinctiveness of this cockroach have contributed in large measure to 
the description of this species. 

Arenivaga investigata, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1, 2) 

Holotype male and allotype female: Palm Springs, Riverside County, 
California, June 8, 1968. Holotype and allotype in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Sixty-four paratypes (31$ S , 33 9 9 ) 
are included in the type series. 

Individuals of Arenivaga erratica Rehn, 1903, and A. apacha (Saus- 



^ Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges — Editor. 

- Supported in part by National Science Foundation Gnmt No. GB-6279 to 
E. B. E. 

^ Department of General Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 
37203. 

* Department of Life Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 
92502. 



MAD AO 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MAKCH, 1969 




Fig. 1, Arenivaga investigata, n. sp.: a, dorsal view, adult S ; b, ventral view, 
adult $; c, adult 5; d, left genital hook, $ ; e, right ventral phallomere, 
showing posteriorly directed mesal spinous process; f, right dorsal phallomere, 
showing meso-ventrally directed process and hook. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 










# 



Fig. 2, Arenicaga invcstigota, n. sp.: a, pronotum, adult S ; b, pronotuni, 
adult 9 ; c, front leg, i ; d, middle leg, $ ; e, hind leg, S ; i, 6 hypandrium, 
also showing genital hook and cerci; g, front leg, 9. (Scale indicators = 1 mm.) 

sure), 1893, have been confused with the species now to be described. 
Examination of the male genitalia will, however, separate them easily. 
In A. enatica the two dorso-anteriorly directed spinous processes from 
the meso-dorsal border of the right dorsal phallomere, and the very 
differently shaped right ventral phallomere are sufficient for differen- 
tiation. The rather deeply concave posterior face of the right ventral 
phallomere, and the conspicuous sharp-pointed process at the dorsal 
end of the middle lobe of the phallic complex of A. apacha readily 
separate that species from A. investi^ata. The proportions of the 
tegmina (width length = 0.50 ± 0.017) distinguish A. investi^ata 
from another closely related species to be described later, whose 
tegmen ratio is 0.40 ± 0.006. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 



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PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, M.\RCH, 1969 5 

Description of the Male Holotype 

Size about average for the genus, approximately that of A. erratica and A. 
apacha. Shortest interocular distance, which is on the vertex, 0.5 mm; interocellar 
distance 0.60 mm; width of head 2.6 mm. Interocular area abiiost flat frontally, 
convex sagittally, with four shallow transverse wrinkles on each side of the mid- 
line. Ocelli of the usual broadly oval shape and prominence; interocellar area 
of the frons shallowly and broadly concave, relatively smootli, and its lateral 
edges below the ocelli more prominent; clypeus and labrum of the usual form 
for the genus. 

Pronotum elliptical (fig. 2a), convex over the head and anterior thorax, 5.0 mm 
long and 7.8 mm wide, its anterior margin with rather long setae evenly spaced 
with shorter ones, the setae increasing distinctly in length laterally towards the 
widest part of the pronotum; posterior marginal setae very short. Setae are also 
present on the disc of the pronotum, those immediately behind the anterior 
border being longer and more densely distributed. 

Wings 0.9 mm longer than the tegmina, extending beyond the end of the 
abdomen by 1.3 mm. Tegmina (fig. la) 13.8 mm long and 6.9 mm wide, their 
apices broadly and evenly rounded. 

The exposed portion of the hypandrium, in nonnal position, has a general 
outline as shown in fig. 2f. Length on the right side 1.4 mm, on the left 0.9 mm, 
width 2.9 mm; the relative lengths and distribution of the setae on this sclerite 
similar to the other species in the genus. Cerci with 10 visible segments. 

Some components of the concealed genital complex are shown in fig. 1, d-f. 
The bulbous right dorsal phallomcre with a meso-ventrally projecting process 
which bends abruptly dorsad to form a sharp-pointed, hook-like structure similar 
to that in A. genitalis Caudell, 1918. The independent dorsal plate from the 
right dorsal phallomere rather hea\ily sclerotized, more so basally and distally 
along the ventral margin, strongly concave ventrally, bending ventrally more 
sharply near the distal one-third. The ventral face of the right ventral phallomere 
flattened to slightly convex, its posterior surface sloping dextro-laterad to a more 
prominent, posteriorly directed arcuate lobe. The most conspicuous structure 
on the right ventral phallomere is a somewhat laterally flattened, posteriorly 
directed, mesal spinous process, which is distinctive for this species. 

Vertex of the head very pale ochreous, with darker margins and lateral ridges; 
ocelli very light amber; eyes l:)lack in life but becoming golden brown with black 
streaks and blotches after death and drying; frons and clypeus opaque and cream 
colored, the lateral ridges of the upper portion of the frons light tan; labrum 
darker — yellow brown. Antennae and the under surface of the body ochreous, 
somewhat paler in life; leg spurs distinctly darker than the rest of the legs. 
Pronotum, except for the disc, rather translucent, but with an opaque white deposit 
in each lateral half below the cuticle; the usual disc pattern of orange and brown 
with darker tentorial spots present. A thin orange line on each tegmen runs 
from the middle of the anal margin rather sinuously to the distal end of the 
costal margin, and a similar but shorter line runs transversely across each wing 
near the distal margin. In dry specimens these lines tend to fade. 

Subcostal vein of the tegmina reddish brown at the base, the remainder of 
the tegmina and wings mostly translucent and nearly colorless. Small opaque 
white areas occur along the basal portion of the subcostal vein, and distally near 
the costal margin. These white areas, together with those in the pronotum and 



6 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

elsewhere on the ventral surface of the body are deposits of uric acid ( kindly 
identified as such by Dr. Vaughan Shoemaker). Costal margin of the tegmina 
bearing long golden brown setae. 

Description of the Female Allotype 

Generally nymphlike. Vertex of the head smoothly rounded, clypeus with a 
feeble median longitudinal groove, eyes narrowly kidney-shaped, ocelli absent, 
antennae shorter than those of the male. Pronotum elliptical (fig. 2b), convex 
transversely and longitudinally, its anterior and lateral margins with a fringe 
of long and short setae as in the male. Abdomen with ten visible tergites, cerci 
very short, composed of about ten segments. Tegmina and wings absent. Posterior 
margins of each thoracic tergite with a fringe of short setae. The surface of each 
thoracic tergite bears a sparse covering of short setae; the abdominal tergites 
nearly glabrous on the disc, becoming more setaceous laterally, their lateral 
margins with longer, and their posterior margins with much shorter, setae. 

Color in life generally dark reddish brown, the head ochreous, the frons 
between the eyes yellowish with a small area corresponding to each absent 
ocellus nearly white; labrum darker — muddy grey; eyes black. Antennae and 
ventral surface of the thorax light reddish brown, becoming darker posteriorly 
on the abdomen. Patches of white uric acid deposits are present below the 
cuticle laterally on the thorax, and on much of the ventral surface. Spines on 
the legs dark reddish brown, nearly black apically. Setae generally golden brown. 

Variability from the Type Specimens 

Variability in respect of measurements in table 1. There is little 
variability so far as shape and sculpture are concerned. As regards 
color, dead, dry male specimens are distinctly darker than living 
ones, but the effect is less marked in females. Apart from this, there 
is some variability in the extent and darkness of the colored patterning 
on the pronotum, particularly in males, and there is considerable 
variability in the amount and distribution of the opaque white areas 
(uric acid) on the tegmina and wings. These are usually associated 
with branches of the subcostal and radial veins. 

The male hypandrium is always longer on the right than on the 
left side, but there is considerable variability in these lengths owing 
to different degrees of protraction of that sclerite. 

In females, fully hydrated specimens in the laboratory are longi- 
tudinally extended, so that the overall length to width ratio is greater 
than it is in dehydrated specimens; for this reason, that ratio is 
unreliable. In hydrated females the light colored bases of the thoracic 
and abdominal tergites are exposed. 

Distribution 

So far the known distribution of this species is limited to the 
Coachella Valley in southern California. Tlie type locality is at 
"Windy Point" in sand dunes at the foot of the San Jacinto mountains, 
six miles west of Palm Springs on California Highway 111. The species 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 7 

extends east towards Indio, but it is there replaced by a related 
species to be described in the forthcoming revision of the entire genus. 

References 
Caudell, A. N. 1918. Two new species of the blattid genus Arenivaga (Orth.). 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 20(7): 154-157. 
Edney, E. B. 1966. Absorption of water vapor from unsaturated air by 

Arenivaga sp. ( Polyphagidac, Dictyoptera). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 19: 

387-408. 
. 1968. The effect of water loss on the haemolymph of Arenivaga 

sp. and Pcriplancta americana. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 25:149-158. 
Relin, J. A. G. 1903. A revision of the orthopterous genus Homocogamiu. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 55:177-192. 
Saussure, H. de 1893. Revision de la Tribu des Heterogamiens ( Orthopteres 

de la Famille des Blattides). Rev. Suisse Zool. 1:289-318. 



RECORD OF THE MOTH EAR MITE, DICROCHELES 
PHALAENODECTES, IN OHIO^ 

( AcARiNA : Mesostigmata ) 

V. Pr.\sad, Biology Department, Wayne State University, 
Detroit, Michigan 48202 

ABSTRACT — The moth ear mite, Dicrocheles plwlaenodectes (Treat) is 
reported from Ohio. The adult specimens show some variation in number of 
setae on the dorsal shield and in the setae on dorsal membranous integument. 

Since the original description of Dicrocheles phalaendotectes ( Treat ) 
in 1954 from the moth, Pseudaletia iinipmicta, collected in Tyringham, 
Massachusetts, this mite has been reported from several States of this 
country (Treat, 1955). However, no record of this moth ear mite is 
kno\\ai from Ohio State. Recently, I had an opportunity' to collect 
two dead moths (Leucania imipitncta) on the campus of Ohio 
State University, Columbus, that yielded several immature and adult 
stages of D. phalaenodcctes. Only the left ear of both moths was 
found infested with this mite, the right ear being normal and without 
any mites. One moth had 73 eggs, 2 larvae, and 5 females; the other 
moth had 92 eggs, and 4 females. Very light feeding punctures were 
visible in the ears. 

The adult females of the present collection differ from each other 
in the number of setae on the dorsal shield and on the dorsal mem- 



^ Contribution no. 227 of Biology Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, 
Michigan. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Figs 1-5 Dicwcheles phalaenodectes (Treat): 1, 2, dorsal shield; 3, sternal 
shield; 4, ventrianal shield in flattened specimen; 5, genital shield. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 9 

branous integument (figs. 1, 2). The number of setae on the dorsal 
shield varies from 11-14 and on the dorsal idiosomal integument 
varies from 84-88. The podosoma has 16-18 setae and opisthosoma 
has 68-70 setae on the dorsal membranous integument. The number 
of ventral setae between the genital and ventrianal shield varies from 
18-20. A pair of pores, mentioned as absent in original description, 
is present on the sternal shield between the second and third pair of 
sternal setae. The second pair of sternal setae are placed closer to 
the third pair in longitudinal row than to the first pair (fig. 3). The 
genital shield is typical in shape as shown in fig. 5. The ventrianal 
shield has 2 parrs of preanal setae (fig. 4). The para-anal setae are 
longer than all the setae on ventrianal shield and are placed in line 
with the posterior end of the anal pore in the well flattened specimens. 
In remaining characters, the specimens agree with the original de- 
scription of the species. 

I am thankful to Mr. F. J. Moore, Entomology Museum, Biology 
Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, for the 
identification of the moths. 

References 
Treat, A. E. 1954. A new gamasid mite inhabiting the tympanic organs of 

phalaenid moths. Jovir. Parasitol. 40:619-631. 
. 1955. Distribution of the moth ear mite (Mynnonyss^tis phalaeiiu- 

dectes). Lepid. News 9:55-58. 



NEW DISTRIBUTION RECORDS FOR MEROPLEON TITAN TODD 

( Lepidoptera : Noctuidae ) 

Two specimens of the noctiiid moth, Meropleon titan Todd, examined since 
pubhcation of the description of the species ( 1958, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
48(1):27) extend the known range of occurrence from Clemson, South Carohna 
to soudiem Missouri and west central Mississippi. A female reared from corn 
{ wet, low end of field ) , Howell County, Missouri, September 26, 1957 ( emergence 
date), was received from George W. Thomas in 1958. The specimen is now in 
the collection of the U. S. National Museum. Recently, a male from Clinton, 
Hinds County, Mississippi, Octolier 10, 1967, Bryant Mather, has been examined. 
This specimen is in the Mather collection, Jackson, Mississippi. — E. L. Todd, 
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology Research Division, ARS, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, c o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 
20560. 



10 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

A NEW GENUS OF SUCTOBELBIDAE FROM 
NORTHWESTERN UNITED STATES' 

( AcAHi ; Cryptostigmata ) 

Tyler A. Woolley- and Harold G. Higgins'^ 

ABSTRACT — Rhinosuctobelba dicerosa, n. gen. and n. sp., is described 
from Lake Goodwin, Washington, and is distinguished from Zeasuctobelba 
Hammer and Suctobelba Paoli by the absence of rostral teeth and notogastral 
projections, larger size, lateral rostral horns, type of scnsillus and 6 genital hairs. 

Forsslund (1941, 1958) discussed the characteristics of the genus 
Suctobelba PaoH and described several species. He reduced the 
genera Siictobelbella and Siictobelbila of Jacot (1937, 1938) to sub- 
generic status. Hammer ( 1952 ) described a new species of Suctobelba 
from Canada and recorded three of Forsslund's species from that 
locality. She also (1958, 1961, 1962) described several new species 
of Suctobelba from various areas of South America. 

In her first volume of the oribatids of New Zealand, Hammer ( 1966 ) 
also described a new genus of suctobelbid mites characterized by 
lateral tips on the rostrum, the absence of rostral teeth, and a bi- 
furcated acanthion on the palp tarsus. This genus, Zeasuctobelba, 
appears to be a complex of forms judging from some if its characters, 
but is comparable in certain aspects to new forms we have studied. 

In a collection of mites from Washington we found a series of 
suctobelbid mites, most closely resembling Suctobelba and Zeasucto- 
belba, yet differing in a number of ways. We consider that this series 
of mites represents a new genus and species within the Suctobelbidae. 
The bases for these distinctions and designations are discussed below 
with the diagnosis and description of the new genus and species. 

Rhinosuctobelba, n. gen. 

Diagnosis: Rostrum without lateral rostral teeth, elongated into a snout or 
nose with two large lateral horns, sensillus elongated and clavate, anterior margin 
of notogaster entire, without tooth-like projections, six pairs of genital setae 
present. The generic name is derived from the Greek, rhinos, implying snout or 
nose and refers to the anterior rostral prominence as well as the lateral projections 
of this snout. The general appearance of tlie organism is like Stictobelba, but 
larger, without rostral teeth and the anterior notogastral projections. The lateral 
horns on the rostrum and the bifurcated acanthion of the palp tarsus resemble 
Zeasuctobelba, but the larger size, the length of the rostrum and prodorsum, the 



^ Research supported in part by TG T01-AI0009-09 NIH NIAID. 

- Department of Zoology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 
80521. 

^ Participant in NSF Research Participation for High School Teachers Program, 
Colorado State University, Summer, 1968. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 



11 



-X 



Mm 





Figs. 1-6, Rhinoscutobelba dicerosa, n. gen., n. sp.: 1, dorsal view, legs partially 
omitted; 2, ventral view, legs omitted; 3, tibia-tarsus, dorsolateral view; 4, 
infracapitulum, showing fused spatulate gena and rutella, palp with bifurcated 
acanthion; 5, chelicera; 6, genital plate, showing positions of genital setae. 



ratio of prodorsal length to notogastral length, the type of sensilli, the lack of 
anterior marginal notogastral projections and the presence of six genital setae 
distinguished the new genus from Zeasuctohelba and other known genera. 
Type-species: Rhinosiictohciha dicerosa, n. sp. 

Rhinosuctobelba dicerosa, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1-6) 

Diagnosis: With characteristics of the genus, infracapitulum and chelicerae 
attenuated as in other Suctobel]:)idae, but with fusion of rutella into long, spatulate 
or spoon-like projections; the name is derived from the Creek, dikcros, implying 
double horn, referring to the rostral horns. 

Description: Color reddish-brown; rostrum attenuated, narrowly rounded 
anteriorly, appearing as a tube from above, with a lateral triangular, blunt tooth 
or horn each side; rostral hairs curved, slightly barbed, longer than rostrum 
anterior to lateral horns, inserted in anterior surface of each horn; central surface 
of prodorsum smooth except in region of lamellar hairs, tuberculatcd as in fig. 1; 
tutorial ridges curved, tuberculatcd laterally, confluent with anterior sclerotization 
of rostral horns; lamellae small knobs at level of posterior distal tips of tutorial 
ridges; lamellar hairs simple, about three times as long as distance between 
insertions; translamella (?) an anteriorly projecting point between insertions of 
lamellar hairs; interlamellar hairs short, fine, separated by about twice their 
lengths; pseudostigmata rounded, with cup-like depressions and rough rims; 
sensillus elongated, club-like, curved upward and laterally in most specimens; 
pedotecta I angled anterolaterally, pedotecta II, III nearly absent, acetabulae 
of legs II, III pits in lateral margins of body, pedotecta IV blade-like, decurved 
posteriorly, tuberculatcd on surface. 



12 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

Hysterosoma oval in outline, anterior margin without projections, dorsosejugal 
suture indistinct medially (in dissected specimens the anterior margin is separable); 
dorsum with 10 pairs of long hairs (fig. 1 ). 

Camerostome with a broadened base, attenuated anteriorly, infracapitulum 
elongated (fig. 4), mentum squarish, gena-rutella fused and spatulated 
anteriorly; chelicerae attenuated, fixed digits and movable digits elongated (fig. 
5); palps with bifurcated acanthion at distal tip; ventral setae, apodemata as in 
fig. 2; pre-genital apodeme arched anterior to genital opening; genital covers with 
six pairs of simple setae, g:l-4 in line in anterior half of cover, g:5-6 posterior; 
anal opening squarish, each anal cover with two setae; aggenital setae longer 
than genital setae, displaced laterally, closer to genital opening than to anal; 
ad: 3 longest of three adanal setae, others subequal in length; fissure wd between 
insertion levels of anal setae near margin of anal opening. 

Legs monodactylous (fig. 3). 

Measurements: length: 642/u, prodorsum 222/i, hysterosoma 420^; width: 318/li. 

Collection data: Fourteen specimens, 13 males and 1 female, were 
collected at Lake Goodwin, near Marysville, Washington, 29 June 
1968, by H. G. Higgins. The type, a male, and a paratype will be 
deposited in the U. S. National Museum. 

Discussion: The new species is similar in some respects to Zea- 
suctobelba quinqiienodosa Hammer, 1966, but in the new species the 
rostrum is much more elongated, the lateral rostral horns are more 
pronounced, the surface of the prodorsum is more tuberculate, the 
sensilli more elongated clubs; the ventral groove behind the camero- 
stome is absent, and the anterior margin of the hysterosoma is lacking 
the four anterior projections of Zeasuctobelbo. A principal difference 
between the new genus and the other genera is the six pairs of genital 
setae instead of the five pairs found in Zeasuctobelba and Suctobelba. 

It appears that the genus Zeasuctobelba, as Hammer ( 1966 ) de- 
scribed it, is really a complex of related species rather than a well- 
defined genus. The anterior hysterosomal projections are similar to 
species of Suctobelba, but the sensilli in the three species of Zeasucto- 
belba are of several varieties — from nearly globose-capitate to lanceo- 
late and spindleform. The complex of representatives is apparently 
related to other genera in the family like Suctobelba, but the definitive 
nature of these relationships has yet to be worked out. 

Jacot ( 1937 ) was cognizant of the genus Suctobelba and, although 
he did not describe species in this genus from the United States, he 
segregated the genera Suctobelbella and Suctobelbila as related to 
that genus. Rhinosuctobelba dicerosa is a new representative of the 
Suctobelbidae. It represents a new record for the family in the United 
States inasmuch as Suctobelbella and Suctobelbila of Jacot are of 
uncertain status though tentatively included in Suctobelba. Species 
of Suctobelba are known in the collections within the U. S., but none 
is described in the literature to our knowledge. 

Another remarkable feature of the new species is the peloptiform 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 13 

chelicerae, the spatulate tips of the infracapitulum and the tube-like 
extension of the rostrum. The adaptive features are probably cor- 
related with the type of food consumed, but they represent another 
interesting modification of mouth parts in the oribatids that has yet 
to be related to the biology of the mites. 

References 

Forsslund, K.-H. 1941. Schwedische Arten der Gattung Suctobelba Paoli 
(Acari: Oribatei). Zoologiska Bidrag 20:381-396. 

. 1958. Notizen iiber Oribatei (Acari). II. Ent. Tidskift 79(1-2): 

75-86. 

Hammer, M. 1952. Investigations on the Microfauna of Northern Canada, 
Part I, Oribatidae. Acta Arctica 4:1-108. 

. 1958. Investigations of the Oribatid Fauna of the Andes Moun- 
tains, I. Argentina and BoHvia. Bio. Skifter det Kongehge Danske Viden- 
skabernes Selskab 10(1): 1-129. 

1961. Investigations of the Oribatid Fauna of the Andes Moun- 



tains, II. Peru. Ibid. 13(1):1-157. 

1962. Investigations of the Oribatid Fauna of the Andes Moun- 



tains, III. Chile. Ibid. 13{2):l-96. 

1966. Investigations on the Oribatid Fauna of New Zealand, Part 



I. Ibid. 15(2):1-108. 
Jacot, A. P. 1937. Journal of No. Amer. Moss Mites, J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 

45:353-375. 
. 1938. New Moss Mites Chiefly Midwestern III. Amer. Midi. Nat. 

19:647-657. 



THE GENUS SUSANA ROHWER AND MIDDLETON 

( Hymenoptera : Tenthredinidae ) 

David R. Smith, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology Research 
Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — A key and descriptions are given for the six known species of 
Susana. Four new species, annulata, oregoneiisis, punctata, and rufa, are 

described. The larvae of the genus are also described. Susana is found only in 
western North America where it is associated with Junipcrus and Cupressus. 

Rohwer and Middleton (1932) described the genus Sttsarm and 
included only the type species, S. cupressi, described at the same 
time. Later, a species described by Rohwer (1911) as Platycampus 
jtiniperi was transferred to Susana by Ross (1937). These have been 
the only known species in Susana. After I examined the specimens 
of this genus in the collection of the U. S. National Museum, and 



Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. 



14 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

specimens sent to me by Kenneth Goeden of the Oregon Department 
of Agriculture and Joe Schuh of Klamath Falls, Oregon, it was ap- 
parent that there were 4 undescribed species present. These species 
are described here and a key is given for the separation of all the 
species of Siusana; the larvae of Siisana are also described. The new 
species from Oregon considerably extends the range of this genus. 

Susana was placed in the tribe Hemichroini of the Nematinae by 
Rohwer and Middleton (1932). The Hemichroini included those 
Nematinae with a small basal anal cell in the forewing. Ross ( 1937 ) 
also placed Susana in this same group of Nematinae, but he did not 
distinguish tribes. Later, Ross ( 1951 ) erected a new subfamily, the 
Susaninae, for the genus Susana, a position which emphasized the 
unique and intermediate characters of the genus. The absence of a 
well-defined prepectus in the adult, and, in the larva, the presence 
of prolegs on abdominal segments 2 to 8 and 10 and the absence of 
ventral abdominal eversible glands, excluded Susana from the Nema- 
tinae. The adults of Nematinae all have a well-defined broad prepec- 
tus, and the larvae have prolegs on abdominal segments 2 to 7 and 
10, and possess ventral abdominal eversible glands. 

A relationship between the Diprionidae and Tenthredinidae, specifi- 
cally the Nematinae, was pointed out by Maxwell ( 1955 ) in her study 
of internal larval anatomy. The "intennediate-advanced" Malpighian 
tubule arrangement found only in the Diprionidae and the Nematinae 
of the Tenthredinidae, is also present in Susana. Futhermore, she 
stated that oesophageal diverticula are found only in the Diprionidae 
and the genus Susana of the Tenthredinidae. These two characters 
were evidence in support of her view that Susana may represent a 
hypothetical intermediate between the two families. 

After evaluating adult and larval characters, it is apparent that 
Susana does not belong in the Nematinae. It seems best, therefore, 
to retain Susana in a separate subfamily near the Nematinae, a position 
which does not obscure its distinctiveness and intermediate position. 

Susana Rohwer and Middleton 

Susana Rohwer and Middleton, 1932, p. 93; Ross, 1937, p. 77; Ross, 1951, 
p. 28; Maxwell, 1955, p. 53. 

Type-species. — Susana ctipressi Rohwer and Middleton. Monotypic and original 
designation. 

Adult. — Antenna of female long and slender, 3rd segment subequal in length 
to 4th segment; of male, 3rd segment broadened and laterally flattened, remaining 
segments flattened, but not as distinctly as 3rd segment, and 4tli segment longer 
than 3rd segment. Malar space equal to or slightly less than diameter of front 
ocellus. Clypeus truncate to very shallowly, circularly emarginate. Prepectus 
reduced to a very narrow sclerite, sometimes difficult to see. Tarsal claw with 
a moderate inner tooth. Forewing with 2r present or absent (absent only in 
jitniperi); 2A and 3A curved up and meeting lA forming a small basal anal cell; 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 15 

vein M meeting Sc + R proximal to junction of Sc + R and Rs + M and veins 
M and Im-cu divergent, as in the Nematinae. 

Key to Species 

1. Female 2 

Male 7 

2. Mesopleiiron and outer orbits with distinct punctures 3 

Mesopleuron and outer orbits without punctures, smooth and shining 4 

3. Thorax and abdomen black; lancet with 12 annuli, teeth of annuli large, 

usually less than 12 teeth on annuli 1 to 4; serrulae with 2 or 3 posterior 

subbasal teeth (fig. 3) punctata, n. sp. 

Prothorax, mesonotum, and abdomen, except for apical segment and sheath, 
rufous; Lancet with 10 annuli, teeth of annuli small, usually 14 or more 
on annuli 1 to 4; serrulae with 3 to 5 posterior subbasal teeth (fig. 2) 
cupressi Rohwer and Middleton 

4. Abdomen, except sheath, entirely rufous 5 

Abdomen with apical 2 or 3 segments black __. — - 6 

5. Lateral lobes black; forewing with 2r absent; lancet short, with 9 annuli 

(fig. 4) juniperi (Rohwer) 

Lateral lobes rufous; forewing with 2r present; lancet long, with 12 annuli 
( fig. 5 ) ruf a, n. sp. 

6. Legs, except each coxa and hindtarsus, orange; lancet with 11 annuli, teeth 

of annuli large; serrulae with 4 or 5 large posterior subbasal teeth ( fig. 6 ) 

oregonensis, n. sp. 

Hindlegs black, coxae and basal Vi of femora on front and middle legs 
black; lancet with 14 annuli, teeth of annuli small; serrulae with several, 
very fine posterior subbasal teeth (fig. 7) annulata, n. sp. 

7. Mesopleuron and outer orbits with distinct punctures - 

cupressi Rohwer and Middleton 

Mesopleuron and outer orbits smooth and shining annulata, n. sp. 

Larva. — Larvae of Siisana are more commonly collected than adults. 
About 100 specimens were examined including at least 3 different 
species, but there are few differentiating characters. S. juniperi has 
been associated by rearing, but only 1 specimen is available. S. 
cupressi has been reared, but larvae were evidently not saved, and 
the larvae are associated only by locality and host. S. oregonensis 
has not been reared, but larvae have been taken from juniper in 
eastern Oregon where this is the only known species. 

The following description includes characters that all the specimens 
examined have in common: 

Head oblong when viewed in full face. Antenna conical, 5-segmented. Large 
l)lack area surrounding each eye. Clypeus with 2 setae on each side. Labriun 
slightly asymmetrical with a small median notch; 2 setae on each side of dorsal 
surface; epiphar>'nx with setal lobes narrow and far apart, 3 to 5 spines on each 
side (fig. 20). Each mandible with 1 seta on outer basal angle; left mandible 
with 1 rounded tooth with a small acute tooth at anterior edge and 1 small 
acute tooth on ventral surface, 1 large apical tooth, and 1 truncate and 1 large 



16 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Fig. 1, Distribution of Stisana species: solid circles, oregonensis, n. sp.; half 
circle, rufa, n. sp.; open circle, juniperi (Rohwer); triangles, annulata, n. sp.; 
rectangles, cupressi Rohwer and Middleton; X, punctata, n. sp. 



acute dorsal tooth (fig. 19); right mandible with 2 ventral teeth, 1 large apical 
tooth, and 1 large dorsal tooth widely separated from apical tooth by a large 
U-shaped furrow (fig. 18). Maxillary palpus 4-segmented, 2nd segment with 1 
seta; palpifer with 2 setae; subgalea with 1 seta; galea conical; lacinia with 6 or 8 
spines located in groups of 3 or 4 on anterior and posterior edges with a space 
void of spines separating tliem (fig. 21). Labial palpus 3-segmented; prementimi 
with 3 setae on each side. 

Thoracic legs 5-segmented, tarsal claw present; prothoracic and mesothoracic 
legs reduced in size in contrast to the larger metathoracic legs; segments of all 
legs of same proportions; numerous setae on inner surface of each coxa and 
trochanter (some specimens with setae on outer surface of each femur and tibia). 
A pair of setiferous lobes on each thoracic sternum. Thoracic spiracles lightly 
winged. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 17 

Abdominal segments 1 through 8 each 6-annnlate; small inconspicuous tubercles 
on 2nd and 4th annulets, each postspiracular lobe, and subspiracular and surpedal 
lobes. Abdominal spiracles hghtly winged. Prolegs on segments 1 to 8 and 10; 
inner surface of each proleg with several setae. Sternum of 10th abdominal 
segment and suranal and subanal areas setiferous. Ventral abdominal eversible 
glands absent. 

The larvae are most likely to be confused with some Allantinae and 
those Blennocampinae lacking spines and with 6-annulate abdominal 
segments; however, the shape and position of the apical and dorsal 
teeth and lack of a mesal ridge in the right mandible, the position of 
the spines of the lacinia, and the lack of small tubercles on the 1st, 3rd, 
5th, and 6th annulets of each abdominal segment will separate the 
larvae of Stisona. 

Larvae have been examined from the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA: Pasadena, IV-18-1944, ex cypress; Pauma Valley, 
San Diego Co., V-12-1964, ex Italian cypress; Oroville, Butte Co., ex 
cypress; Santa Barbara, IV-20-1960, ex Thuja; Bakersfield, Kern Co., 
ex Italian cypress; San Carlos, San Mateo Co., V-13-1960; Fresno, 
IV-19-1960,' V-25-1964, ex Cupresstis sp.; Sacramento, V-19-1952, 
V-16-1966, ex Cupresstis forhesi; Highland, Santa Barbara Co., V-12- 
1967, ex Juniperus chinensis; Pasadena, 5-16-1929, on cypress; Wood- 
side, VI-2-1950, ex Italian cypress; Saticoy, IV-25-1950, ex Tecate 
cypress; Riverside, IV-29-1953, on Juniperus; Santa Susana, Ventura 
Co., Apr. 26, 1932, ex cypress hedge; Escondidio, San Diego Co., 
V-23-1967, ex cypress. 

OREGON: Simnasho, Wasco Co., June 10, 1963, beating juniper. 

NEW MEXICO: Las Vegas Hot Springs, August, 1901, on juniper. 

Much of the larval material was kindly loaned to me by Dr. Marius 
Wasbauer of the California Department of Agriculture, Sacramento. 

Specific determinations of larvae will be impossible until more 
infonnation is available. Tlie following key is based on the larval- 
adult associations presviously stated: 

1. In frontal view, head rounded; basal width of frons more than medial length 

(fig. 22); on Cupressus (Santa Susana, California) 

cupressi Rohwer and Middleton 

In frontal view, head more oblong; basal width of frons subequal to medial 
length (fig. 23); on Juniperus 2 

2. Head amber, labrum dark brown (Simnasho, Oregon) oregonensis, n. sp. 

Head and labrum concolorous, light brown (Las Vegas Hot Springs, New 

Mexico) juniperi (Rohwer) 

Susana cupressi Rohwer and Middleton 
Susana cupressi Rohwer and Middleton, 1932, p. 94; Ross, 1951, p. 28; Max- 
well, 1955, p. 53. 

The punctures on the mesopleuron and outer orbits will separate 
cupressi from all other species of Susona except punctata. The color 



18 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 





^rV'xwi^^ 



Figs. 2-7, Siisana species, $ lancets: 2, ciipres^i Rohwer and Middleton; 3, 
punctata, n. sp.; 4, juniperi (Rohwer); 5, riifa, n. sp.; 6, oregonensis, n. sp.; 7, 
annulata, n. sp. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 19 

and lancet characters given in the key will separate cupressi from 
punctata. The sheath (fig. 8) is less truncate at its apex than that of 
punctata (fig. 9). 

The male may be distinguished from annulata, the only other Susana 
species for which the male is known, by the punctures and genitalia. 
In cupressi, the parapenis and penis valve are wider (fig. 14, 15). 

Distribution.— CALIFORNIA: Riverside, March 10, 1928; Glen- 
dale, March 26, 1931; Santa Susana, Ventura Co., February 9, 1931; 
Mint Canyon, March 8, 1932; San Gabriel, March 9, 1932; Altadena, 
May 2, 1948. 

Type.— USNM 44063. Female. Santa Susana, Ventura Co., Cahf., 
2-9-31, reared from Monterey cypress, Cal. Dept. Agr. No. 31123. 

Host. — Cupressus spp. Records on adult specimens: Monterey 
cypress, Arizona cypress. 

Susana punctata, n. sp. 

Female. — Length, 7.7 mm. Entirely black with the following whitish: maxil- 
lary and labial palpi, tegula, upper margins of pronotimi; apex of each femur, 
front and middle tibiae, basal Vz of hindtibia, and line on posterior margin of 
each abdominal segment; labrum and spots on lateral sides of each abdominal 
segment brownish. Wings hyaline. 

Head and thorax, especially mesopleuron and outer orbits, with distinct 
punctures. Sheath truncate at apex (fig. 9). Lancet with 12 annuh; annular 
teeth large, less than 12 on annuli 1 to 4; central serrulae each with 2 or 3 
posterior subbasal teeth ( fig. 3 ) . 

Male. — Unknown. 

Holotype. — Female, 7 mi. E. Big Pine, Inyo Co., CalLfomia, juniper, 
March 29, 1966, Joe Schuh, collector. USNM 69875. 

Host. — The type was collected from juniper (Juniperus sp.). 

Discussion. — This species is known only by the holotype. It may 
be separated from all the other Susana species, except cupressi, by 
the punctate mesopleuron and outer orbits. The predominately black 
coloration, 12 annulate lancet, larger and fewer annular teeth, and 
fewer subbasal teeth of the serrulae will distinguish punctata from 
cupressi. 

Susana juniperi ( Rohwer ) 

Platycampiis juniperi Rohwer, 1911, p. 386. 

Susana juniperi: Ross, 1937, p. 82; Ross, 1951, p. 28. 

The short lancet with only 9 annuli will separate this species from 
all other Susana species. The smooth and shining mesopleuron and 
outer orbits will distinguish this species from cupressi and punctata; 
the entirely rufous abdomen will separate it from oregonensis and 
annulata; and the black lateral lobes and lancet will separate it from 
nifa. The sheath is similar to that of rufa. The male is not known. 



20 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Figs. 8-13, Susana species, 5 sheaths: 8, cupressi Rohwer and Middleton; 
9, punctata, n. sp.; 10, rufa, n. sp., lateral view; 11, same, dorsal view; 12, 
annulata, n. sp., lateral view; 13, same, dorsal view. Figs. 14-17, $ genitalia: 
14, cupressi Rohwer and Middleton, harpe and parapenis; 15, same, penis valve; 
16, annulata, n. sp., harpe and parapenis; 17, same, penis valve. 



Only two specimens, one of which is the type, are known. In the 
forewing of these specimens, vein 2r is absent and veins 2m-cu and 
2r-m are interstitial. These characters are not present in the other 
species of Stisatm, but, with only two specimens available, it is im- 
possible to determine if these are valid or variable characters. 

Distribution. — Known only from type locality and "Las Vegas, N.M." 
Type. — USNM 13994. Female. Las Vegas Hot Springs, New Mexico, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 21 

bred from Junipenis, adult emerging April 7, 1902. There is a single 
larval specimen in the USNM collection from the same locality col- 
lected in August 1901. 
Host. — Jiiniperus sp. 

Susana rufa, n. sp. 

Female. — Length, 7.0 mm. Head and antenna black; maxillary and labial palpi 
orange. Thorax rufous with anepimeron and pectus black. Legs with front and mid- 
dle coxae dark orange, hindcoxa black; all trochanters black; all femora black with 
white at extreme apex of each; front and middle tibiae white, hindtibia with 
basal Mi wliite, apical V2 black; front and middle tarsi infuscate, hindtarsus black. 
Abdomen rufous with basal plates and sheath black. Wings hyaline. 

Mesopleuron and outer orbits smooth and shining. Sheath straight above, 
rounded below (fig. 10). Lancet with 12 annuH; teeth on annuli 1 and 2 large 
and distinct; central serrulae each with 4 or 5 posterior subbasal teeth (fig. 5). 

Male. — Unknown . 

Holotype. — Female, 5 mi. W. Portal, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, 
August 22, 1958, D. D. Linsdale, collector. USNM 69876. 

Paratype. — "N. Mex." (1 2 ). At the Illinois Natural History Survey. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Discussion. — This species may be distinguished from ciipressi and 
punctata by the smooth mesopleuron and outer orbits, from anmdata 
and oregonensis by the entirely red abdomen, and from jtiniperi by 
the red lateral lobes and lancet. The lancet of juniperi has fewer 
annuli, and the lancet of annulata has more annuli than that of rufa. 
The presence of large and distinct teeth on the 1st and 2nd annuli 
of rufa will separate it from oregonensis. 

Susana oregonensis, n. sp. 

Female. — Length, 7.5 mm. Antenna and head black; maxilla and labium 
whitish. Thorax black with pronotum, upper half of mesepisternum, posttergite, 
anterior lobe, mesal half of each lateral lobe, and scutellum rufous. Legs rufous, 
with each coxa, trochanter, extreme apex of hindtibia, and hindtarsus black; 
front and middle tarsi infuscate. Abdomen rufous with first 2 tergites and apical 
3 or 4 segments and sheath black. Wings hyaline. 

Mesopleuron and outer orbits smooth and shining. Sheath straight above, 
rounded below, truncate at apex (as in fig. 12). Lancet with 11 annuli; teeth 
of annuli 1 and 2 very fine and indistinct, teeth larger on remaining annuli; 
central serrulae each with 4 or 5 posterior subbasal teeth (fig. 6). 

Male. — Unknown. 

Holotype. — Female, Klamath Falls, Oregon, June 6, 1956. Joe Schuh, 
collector. USNM 69877. 

Paratypes.— OREGON: Crook Co., 32 mi. S. Prineville, 3550', Bear 
Creek, May 20, 1965, beating juniper, David L. Mays (1 ? ); Harney 
Co., 10 mi. N. of Alford Ranch, June 11, 1964, beating juniper, Ken- 
neth Goeden (19 ); 15 mi. E. of Sisters, May 15, 1967, sticky board 



22 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Figs. 18-23, Larvae, Susana species: 18, cupressi Rohwer and Middleton, right 
mandible, ventral view; 19, same, left mandible, ventral view; 20, same, epi- 
pharynx; 21, same, maxilla, ventral view; 22, same, head, frontal view; 23, 
oregonensis, n. sp., head, frontal view. 



in juniper, Kenneth Goeden (1 ? ) . Deposited in the collections of 
the U. S. National Museum, Oregon State University, and Oregon 
Department of Agriculture. 

Host. — Adults have been collected from Juniperus sp. 

Discussion. — The impunctate mesopleuron and outer orbits will 
separate oregonensis from cupressi and punctata. It differs from 
juniperi and rufa by the black apical abdominal segments, and from 
annulata by the rufous legs. The lancet differs from that of annulata by 
the larger posterior subbasal teeth of the serrulae and the larger 
annular teeth, and from that of rufa, to which it is most closely related, 
by the smaller teeth on annuli 1 and 2. 

This species has been collected only from eastern Oregon. 

Susana annulata, n. sp. 

Female. — Length, 8.0 mm. Antenna and head black; maxilla and labimn 
whitish. Thorax rufous with the following black; lateral area of lateral lobes, 
scutellum, mesepimeron, pectus, and metonotum. Front and middle legs rufous 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 23 

with base of each coxa, trochanter, and basal % of femur black, tarsus infuscate; 
hindlegs black with basal V.i of tibia whitish. Abdomen rufous with basal plates, 
apical 2 or 3 segments (sometimes rufous on apical segment), and sheath black. 
Wings hyaline. 

Mesopleuron and outer orbits smooth and shining. Sheath straight above, 
rounded below, truncate at apex (fig. 12). Lancet with 14 annuli, teeth of each 
annulus small; serrulae truncate, directed anteriorly, each with several fine 
posterior subbasal teeth (fig. 7). 

Male. — Length, 7.3 mm. Antenna, head, and thorax black. Legs rufous with 
the following black: coxa, trochanter, base of front and middle femora, hind- 
femur except extreme apex, and apical 4 segments of each tarsus. Abdomen rufous 
with basal plates and apical 3 segments black. 

Antenna with 4th segment longer than 3rd segment; 3rd segment enlarged, 
laterally flattened, remaining segments flattened, but not as distinctly as 3rd. 
Hypopygium rounded; genitalia as in fig. 16, 17. 

Holotype.— Female, Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, California, IV-1933, 
rec'd from H. E. Burke, Hym. Lot. No. 9924. USNM 69878. 

Allotype. — Male, same data as holotype. 

Paratypes.— CALIFORNIA: same data as holotype (5 $ 9, 10 S $) 
Sausalito, VII-L3, J. C. Thomson (19 ); Hopk. U. S. 19074K1 (4 S S ) 
Palo Alto, coll. from Cupressus macrocarpa, III-11-1932, Keifer (15) 
Sausalito, Marin Co., V-19-13, J. C. Thompson, Surgeon, USN (19). 
All in the collection of the U. S. National Museum and Illinois Natural 
History Survey. 

Host. — One adult "coll. from Cupressus macrocarpa." 

Discussion. — The lancet of this species is very distinct. There are 
14 annuli, more than in any other species of Susana, the serrulae are 
tnmcate, directed anteriorly, and bear very fine posterior subbasal 
teeth, and the teeth of the annuli are very fine. Externally, annulata 
may be separated from cupressi and punctata by the smooth meso- 
pleuron and outer orbits, from juniperi and rufa by the black apical 
abdominal segments, and from oregoncnsis by the darker legs. 

References 

Maxwell, D. E. 1955. The comparative internal larval anatomy of sawflies 
(Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Can. Ent. 87(Suppl. 1):1-132. 

Rohwer, S. A. 1911. New sawflies in the collections of the United States 
National Museum. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 41:377-411. 

Rohwer, S. A. and W. Middletoii. 1932. Descriptions of five Nearctic sawflies 
of the tribe Hemichroini. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 34:93-98. 

Ross, H. H. 1937. A generic classification of the Nearctic sawflies (Hyme- 
noptera: Symphyta). 111. Biol. Monogr. 15, 173 pp. 

1951. Symphyta. In Muesebeck ct ah, Hymenoptera of America 
North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monogr. 2:4-89. 



24 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

STUDIES OF NEOTROPICAL CADDIS FLIES, VIII: 
THE IMMATURE STAGES OF BARYPENTHUS CLAUDENS 

( Trichoptera : Odontoceridae ) 

Oliver S. Fllnt, Jr., Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

ABSTRACT — The larvae, pupae, and case of the Brazilian Barypenthus claudens 
( Walk. ) are described and figured. The balance of the characteristics shown by 
these stages suggests that the genus occupies a rather isolated position in tlie 
Odontoceridae. 

The Odontoceridae is a rather small family of Trichoptera with 
two genera presently recognized as occurring in the Neotropical 
Region. The cases of one of the genera, Marilia, have been known from 
the time Miiller first described the genus ( M tiller 1880) and the 
larvae and pupae have been described more recently (Ulmer 1955, 
Ross 1959 ) . However, only the cases of the second genus, Baiypervthus 
Burmeister, are known (Thienemann 1909, Miiller 1921). Recent 
collections received from Brazil have contained many larvae, pupae, 
and male and female metamorphotypes of B. claudens (Walker). I 
am indebted to Sr. Alberto A. da Costa, Jr., for sending this and other 
most valuable material. 

Barypenthus claudens ( Walker ) 

The species was detennined by comparison of the male genitalia 
from a metamorphotype with the excellent figures of the genitalia 
of the type in Betten and Mosely (1940). With the exception of this 
species, the species of the genus are inadequately described, and I 
expect that many will prove to be synonymous. 

Larva. — Length to 27 mm., width to 6 mm. Head rather rectangular in frontal 
view, slightly flattened; posterior two-thirds covered witli spicules. Posterior 
quarter fuscous, anterior three-quarters yellowish with fuscous muscle scars, with 
an oblique black band ventrally. Labriun about as long as broad, witli setae 1 
extremely long and broad. Mandibles without mesal brushes, witii low teeth. 
Maxillolabium elongate, witli a sparse brush anteriorly on palpifer. Pronotum 
yellowish with a fuscous transverse band anteriorly and fuscous muscle scars 
posteriorly; anterior margin with a row of short, pale, bladelike setae, with 3 
pairs of scalelike setae; anterolateral angle produced into a point. Prosternum 
completely covered by a sclerite which articulates widi enlarged posteroventral 
portion of pronotum and coxa. Mesonotinn yellowish, marked with fuscous; with 
an arcuate anterior depression. Mesosternum with a pair of sclerites nearly filling 
venter. Metanotum with a pair of large fuscous central and small anterolateral 
sclerites. All legs generally similar in structure, increasing in length posteriad; 
femora of mid- and hindlegs with a row of setae from ventral margin. First 
abdominal segment with well developed dorsal and lateral spacing humps; with 
a few scattered setae; with a branched sublateral gill cluster. Gills consisting of 
several main trunks, branching profusely into many filaments (diagram shows 



PnOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 1, MAnCH, 1969 



25 










FlS^M^^^' ^"'■yPf'''^"« claudens (Walk.): 1, larval case lateral (driwn Iw 



26 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Figs. 7-17. Barypenthus claudens (Walk.): 7, larval hincUeg, posterior; 8, 
larval midleg, posterior; 9, larval foreleg, posterior; 10, larval thorax, dorsal; 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 



27 



GILL DIAGRAM 





o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 






















o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


/~\ 


o 


u 


















o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 


1 


11 


III 


IV 




V 


VI 


VII 


VIM 



placement of clusters, not number of filaments). Lateral line from anterior of 
segment 3 to posterior of segment 7. Ninth tergite with a pair of scalehke setae 
and 4 pairs of normal setae. Anal claw with seta 2 scalelike; with a comb of 
small, pale, accessory denticles. 

Pupa. — Length 30 mm., width 7 mm. Labrum subpolygonal, with 7 pairs of 
setae. Mandible serrate along inner margin of blade, without apical appendage. 
Head with a seta above base of mandible, 2 pairs frontally, 1 pair posteriad to 
antennal bases, 1 posteriad to eye. Basal antennal segment with about 10 setae 
dorsally and 5 ventrolaterally; extending posteriad to seventh segment. Pronotum 
witli a pair of dorsal fingerlike lobes, each with about 15 setae. Meso- and 
metanota with a scattering of short setae. Forecoxa with a single lateral seta; 
hindcoxa with an apicoventral scabrous lobe. Fore- and midtarsi with well 
developed swimming fringes. Abdomen with large clusters of gills, similar to 
those of larva. Lateral line from posterior fourth of segment 5 to the posterior 
of segment 8. First segment with dorsolateral scabrous knobs. Hookplates 
anteriorly on segments 3-7, posteriorly on 5; anterior plates with 2 hooks each, 
posterior plate a continuous band of small spicules along margin of segment 5. 
Apical processes elongate, sUghtly divergent, compressed, tips attenuate and 
decurved. 

Case. — Larval case up to 45 mm. long, 9 mm. in diameter. Tapering and 
curved; rigidly constructed of sand grains 1-2 mm. in diameter. Posterior opening 
partially closed by a large grain; with a small semicircular dorsal opening. Before 
pupation, case shortened and made nearly cylindrical. Pupal case about 35 mm. 
long, 9 mm. in diameter. Posterior end closed by a convex plate of small sand 
grains with small rounded openings between most; anterior end of tube with 
a row of larger grains forming a slightly wider flange, closed by a single large 
grain within the flange, with a narrow, slitlike opening between flange and 
closure for about a fifth of circumference. 

Material. — Brazil, Prov. Rio de Janeiro, Petropolis, Correas, Rio 
Bomfim, 1200m., 19 Oct. 1967, A. A. da Costa, Jr., mary larvae, pupae, 
S and 9 metamoq^hotypes; same but, Itaipava, Rio Jaco, 600 m., 7 May 
1967, 1 larva, 2 cases. 



11, pupal mandible, anterior; 12, larval thorax, ventral (legs removed); 13, 
lar\al anal claw, lateral; 14, larval ninth tegrite, dorsal; 15, pupal hookplates, 
dorsal; 16, pupal apical processes, dorsal; 17, pupal labrum, dorsal. 



28 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

Discussion. — The larvae of this species seem to substantiate the 
placement of the genus in the Odontoceridae. The following char- 
acteristics are typically odontocerid: the slightly flattened head, the 
comparatively narrow labrum, the lack of mesal brvishes on the 
mandibles, the similarity of structure of all legs and the presence of a 
strong row of setae ventrally on the femora, the large spacing humps 
on the first abdominal segment, the profusely branched gills, and the 
lack of ventral teeth or large accessory teeth on the anal claw. The 
labrum, anterior bookplates, branched gills, and apical processes of 
the pupae are also typically odontocerid. The structure of the case 
and manner of anterior closure at pupation are also typical. 

There are, however, numerous very distinctive characteristics in 
the larvae and pupae. The long and very wide seta 1 of the labrum 
is different from anything described elsewhere. The large sternal 
sclerites of the thorax, and especially the rigid enclosure of the 
prothorax, differs from the weak sclerites of the sterna in Psilotreta 
Banks and Mar ilia. Although the metanotum still retains the small 
anterolateral sclerites, the typical transverse anterior and posterior 
sclerites have apparently fused, and then divided longitudinally on 
the midline. The abdomen is rather typical, although the gills contain 
many more filaments than known in the other genera. The possession 
of a comb of small teeth on the anal claw is distinctive, as is the pos- 
session of scalelike setae on the pronotum, ninth tergite, and anal 
claw. The pupae also possess a number of unique characters: the 
lack of an apical appendage on the mandibles, the scabrous knobs 
on the hindcoxae and first abdominal tergum, and the dorsomesal 
lobes of the pronotum. The bookplate 5P is very different from that 
of the other genera which all possess a typical plate with 2 hooks. 

The balance of these characteristics seems to suggest that Bary- 
penthus occupies a rather isolated position within the Odontoceridae. 

References 

Betten, C. and M. E. Mosely. 1940. The Francis Walker types of Trichoptera 

in the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History), London, 248 pp. 
Miiller, Fritz. 1880. Sobre as casas construidas pelas larvas de insectos 

Trichopteros da Provincia de Santa Catarina. Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio Janeiro 3 

[for 18781:99-134. 
. 1921. Werke, Breife, und Leben, gesammelt und herausgegeben 

von Alfred Mciller, vol. 2. 
Ross, H. H. 1959. Trichoptera, in W. T. Edmondson, Fresh-Water Biology, 

2nd edition: 1024-1 049. 
Thienemann, August. 1909. II. Die metamorphose einer Macronematinae. 

Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. [19091:308-311. 
Ulnier, Georg. 1955. Kocherfliegen ( Trichopteren ) von den Sunda-Inseln, 

Teil II. Arch. f. Hydrobiol., Suppl. 21:408-608. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 29 

LARVAL FEEDING HABITS OF CERTAIN CHLOROPIDAE 

( DlPTERA ) 

Karl Valley,^ Teresa Wearsch, and B. A. Foote, Department of Biological 
Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44240 

ABSTRACT — Information is presented on the larval feeding habits of 26 
Nearctic species of Chloropidae. Four species were found to be unselective 
scavengers on decaying plant materials, 3 were scavengers in birds' nests, 8 were 
secondary invaders of herbaceous plants, 10 were primary invaders of herbaceous 
monocots, and 1 species was associated with a bracket fungus. 

The efforts of C. W. Sabrosky (partial bibliography in Stone, et at, 
1965) have placed the taxonomy of the North American Chloropidae 
on a relatively firm footing. However, our knowledge of natural 
history, larval feeding habits, and moq^hology of the immature stages 
of the approximately 264 Nearctic species is very inadequate. Most 
of the papers that have been published on the developmental stages 
are restricted to a handful of species that are of medical or agricul- 
tural significance. Perhaps the best studied genus is Hippelates 
Loew, a group that includes the eye-gnats that are believed to be 
important in the spread of conjunctivitis. 

Recently, several authors ( Fedoseyeva, 1966; Ibbotson, 1960; Jepson 
and Southwood, 1960; Narchuk, 1956; and Nye, 1958, 1959) have 
presented host plant information, life cycle data, and descriptions of 
the immature stages for several of the Palearctic species. 

This paper presents observations on the larval feeding habits of 26 
species and is based on numerous rearings that were conducted in 
northeastern Ohio between 1965 and 1967 and in northwestern Mon- 
tana during the summer of 1966. We are indebted to Mr. Sabrosky 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture at the U. S. National Museum 
for identifying the reared Chloropidae, and to A. W. Cusick and T. S. 
Cooperrider of Kent State University for determining the vascular 
plants. 

The arrangement of genera follows that of the recently published 
Diptera Catalog (Stone, et ah, 1965). 

Subfamily Oscinellinae 
Elachiptera costata ( Loew ) 

Larvae of this species were abimdant on the decaying petioles and spathes of 
skunk cabbage (Symplocarptis foetidtis (L.) Nutt. ) growing in woodland seepage 
areas. They fed as scavengers on the rotting tissues and did not attack the healthy 
portions of the plants. Associated with Elachiptera were numerous larvae of 
Drosophila quinaria Loew and D. iripunctata Loew (Drosophilidae). Ohio. 



^Present address: Department of Entomology, Cornell University. Ithaca, New 
York 14850. 



30 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

Elachiptera decipiens ( Loew ) 

Larvae of this species fed as scavengers on the decaying petioles of yellow 
skunk cabbage ( Lijsichitum americanum Hulten & St. John ) growing in shaded 
seepage areas. The larvae were very abundant and easily collected. Adults 
were rarely captured by sweeping, but were found occasionally on the ground 
near the decaying plants. Montana. 

Elachiptera nigriceps ( Loew ) 

This species fed as a scavenger on decaying skunk cabbage, although its larvae 
were never as abundant as those of E. costata. Larvae were found also as sec- 
ondary invaders of the shoots of Carex crinita Lam. and the partially opened 
flowers of 7m Pseudacorus L. Undetermined larvae of Lepidoptera were the 
primary invaders of these plants. Ohio. 

Elachiptera pechumani Sabrosky 

A single larva of this species was found as a secondary invader of Iris 
Pseudacorus. Ohio. 

Eribolus longulus ( Loew ) 

Larvae of this species were secondary invaders of various herbaceous monocots 
that were being attacked by other species of Diptera. Larvae were found in 
stems of manna grass (Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. ) infested by larvae of 
Cordilura sp. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae ) , in stems of barnyard grass {Echinochloa 
crusgalli (L.) Beauv. ) damaged by larvae of Eumetopiella rttfipes (Loew) 
(Diptera: Otitidae), in shoots of wool grass (Scirptis ctjperinus (L. ) Kuntli) at- 
tacked by larvae of Cordilura gagatina Loew, and in shoots of Carex comosa 
Boott infested by larvae of an undetermined species of Anthomyiidae. The 
Eribolus larvae fed as scavengers on the moist, decaying tissues that had been 
partially macerated by the feeding of the primary invader. Ohio. 

Eribolus nanus ( Zetterstedt ) 

This species also fed as a secondary invader of herbaceous monocots. Larvae 
were found near the bases of shoots of an undetermined species of Carex that 
were being attacked by larvae of Cordilura varicornis Curran. Infested plants 
were recognized easily by the browned central leaves. Usually each infested 
shoot contained 1 Cordilura larva and up to 10 Eribolus larvae. Pupation occurred 
within the shoots. Montana. 

Oscinisoma alienum ( Becker ) 

A single larva was found feeding on macerated tissues near tlie base of a 
damaged shoots of Scirpus microcarpus Presl. A larva of Chaetopsis massyla 
(Walker) (Otitidae) was also feeding as a secondary invader of this plant. The 
primary invading larva was not determined. Montana. 

Stenoscinis articeps ( Loew ) 

Larvae of this species were secondary invaders of the shoots of Carex comosa 
that had been attacked by larvae of the anthomyiid Cordilura varipes (Walker). 
Usually several Stenoscinis larvae were found in each infested shoot, where they 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 31 

fed on the decaying vascular tissues that had been damaged by the feeding of 
the primary invader. Larvae of Chaetopsis ftdvifrons ( Macquart ) also were 
secondary invaders of the sedge stems and may have competed with the Seno- 
scinis larvae for the available food. Ohio. 

Oscinella earbonaria ( Loew ) 
Several adults of this species were reared from shoots of Carex interior Bailey 
that were being attacked by larvae of Loxocera cijlindrica ctjlindrica Say (Diptera: 
Psilidae). The chloropid larvae were secondary invaders and fed on tissues that 
had been damaged by the primary invader. Ohio. 

Oscinella frit ( Linnaeus ) 
Larvae were reared from stems of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), 
where they fed on the succulent peduncles of the inflorescences. No feeding 
occurred below the node at the base of a peduncle. Infested plants were 
recognized by a browned central leaf that protruded out of the sheath. Ohio. 

Oscinella soror (Macquart) 

Larvae of O. soror were found to be secondary invaders of herbaceous plants 
that had been damaged by the feeding of other insect larvae. They were dis- 
covered in stems of barnyard grass that were infested by larvae of the otitid 
Etimetopiella rufipes; in stems of a nettle, Uriica sp., that contained larvae of 
an undetermined species of Lepidoptera; in the receptacles of a coneflower, 
Rudbeckia laciniata L., that were being attacked by larvae of 2 species of Lepi- 
doptera and or larvae of Melanagromtjza minimoides Spencer (Diptera: Agromy- 
zidae); and in shoots of Carex interior attacked by the psilid Loxocera c. cijlindrica. 
The Oscinella larvae fed mostly on moist, decaying tissues tliat had been 
macerated by the feeding of the primary invader. Each infested plant usually 
contained several Oscinella larvae. Ohio. 

Gaurax atripalpus Sabrosky 

A few larvae of this species were found in decaying portions of a bracket 
fungus (Polyporaceae: Fomes sp. ) tliat was growing on a dead beech tree. The 
fungus was heavily infested by larvae of an undetermined species of Coleoptera, 
and it appeared that the Gaurax larvae were feeding mostly on damaged fimgal 
tissues and on beetle frass. Overwintering must have occurred as nearly mature 
larvae, as pupation began about a week after tlie larvae were collected on April 
5, 1966. Associated with Gaurax and also feeding as secondary invaders were 
larvae of Lonchaea winnemanae Malloch (Diptera: Lonchaeidae ) . Ohio. 

Gaurax fumipennis (Malloch) 
Several larvae of this inconspicuous species were found with those of G. pal- 
lidipes Malloch in a passerine bird's nest that was collected at the edge of a 
mesic woods. The larvae fed on the decaying plant materials composing the 
nest. Ohio. 

Gaurax pallidipes Malloch 

Larvae were taken abundantly in small passerine birds' nests that were col- 
lected in marshy habitats during the winter months. The nests were taken from 



32 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

small trees or shrubs and represented at least 4 species of birds. The larvae were 
concentrated in the floor of the nests, where they fed on the decaying plant 
materials. In the laboratory, they fed also on a mixture of feces and nest material 
and readily attacked damaged pupae within ruptured puparia of another common 
nest inhabitant, PseudocaUiope flavipes (Loew) (Diptera: Lauxaniidae ) . The 
lauxaniid puparia were usually enclosed in hard mud cases that also contained 
occasionally a Gatirax larva. However, the chloropid larvae seemed unable to 
penetrate undamaged puparia. G. pallidipes was the most abundant of the 3 
species of Gaurax that were found in nests. Ohio. 

Gaurax pilosulus ( Becker ) 
A few larvae were found in passerine birds' nests that were collected in marshy 
areas. The larvae appeared to feed primarily on the decaying plant materials that 
composed the floor of the nest. Ohio. 

Tricimba sp. ( near cincta Meigen ) 
Several larvae of this apparently new species were found feeding as scavengers 
on the decaying petioles of yellow skunk cabbage. Montana. 

Subfamily Chloropinae 

Chlorops certimus Adams 

Larvae of this species were found to be primary invaders within the stems of 
Carex hijstricina Muhl. and C. pensijlvanica Lam. Eggs were laid on the sheath 
surrounding the developing inflorescence. The newly hatched larvae moved 
down tlie stem, and nearly mature larvae were found during the spring months 
near tire base of the culm. Ohio. 

Chlorops obseuricoriiis Loew 
Second and third-instar larvae of this species were found during April and May 
in the shoots of the spike rush Eleocharis smalli Britt. They fed as primary 
invaders and occasionally occurred together in the same stem with larvae of 
another phytophagous chloropid, Diplotoxa nigripes ( Coquillett ) . Ohio. 

Lasiosina approxiniatonervis ( Zetterstedt ) 
This species fed as larvae on the developing achenes witliin the flower heads 
of Eleocharis ohtusa (Willd.) Schultes and E. smalli. Eggs were deposited on 
the outer surfaces of the scales of the inflorescence. Ohio. 

Lasiosina canadensis Aldrich 
This species was a secondary invader of stems of Carex interior that had been 
damaged by larvae of Loxocera c. cylindrica, stems of Scirpus cyperinu^ attacked 
by larvae of Cordilura gagatina, and shoots of Carex hijstricina infested by larvae 
of an undetermined dipteran. In all plants the Lasiosina larvae fed as scavengers 
near the bases of the shoots on the moist, decaying tissues that had been damaged 
by the feeding of the primary invader. Ohio. 

Diplotoxa messoria ( Fallen ) 
Adults of D. messoria were taken abundantly in stands of a spike rush, 
Eleocharis macrostachya Britt., that were located along the margins of a cattail- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 33 

sedge marsh. Eggs were found near the bases of Hving shoots of the Eleocharis, 
and eggs and a few larvae were discovered in decaying stems that were floating 
in shallow water. Montana. 

Diplotoxa iii^ripes ( Coquillett ) 

Larvae of this species were found to be primary invaders of tlie developing 
shoots of E. smalli. Eggs were laid at the tip of tlie reddish-brown sheath that 
enveloped the basal portion of each shoot. The newly hatched larvae crawled 
down the stem and entered the young shoots at the base of the plant. Ohio. 

Diplotoxa versicolor (Loew) 

Adults of this species were taken commonly in stands of Eleocharis ohtusa 
tliat were growing in very shallow water of unshaded sedge marshes. Eggs were 
found near the bases of the Eleocharis stems. Newly hatched larvae were 
observed to crawl down the stems until they reached the crown, where tliey 
penetrated into young shoots and fed as primary invaders. Ohio. 

Diplotoxa sp. (near inclinata Becker) 

Larvae of this possibly new species were found abundantly in the rhizomes of 
E. smalli. Females deposited their eggs on the stems of the plant just above the 
water surface. The first-instar larvae crawled down the stems and penetrated 
into the young shoots developing at the crown. The second-instar larvae moved 
to the rhizomes, where they fed until growth was completed. Puparia were 
formed either at the end of a rhizome or near one of the nodes. Ohio. 

Ellipoiieura debilis Loew 

This species was found to be a primary invader of the inflorescences of the 
spike rushes E. ohtusa and E. smalli. Eggs were deposited on the scales tliat 
enclosed the individual florets. The larvae fed on the developing achenes, with 
each larva consuming up to 25 seeds. The lar\'ae and puparia were bright green 
and thus were well concealed among the green scales of the flower head. Pupa- 
tion occurred next to a scale in the position formerly occupied by an achene. Ohio. 

Meroniyza saltatrix ( Linnaeus ) 

Larvae of this species were primary invaders of the stems of fo.xtail barley, 
Hordeum jubatimi L. The larvae attacked first the base of the peduncle of the 
inflorescence, thus preventing further development of tlie flowers, and then 
migrated upward to attack the young achenes. Pupation occurred in the in- 
florescence in the spaces formerly occupied by the destroyed achenes. Montana. 

References 

Fedoseyeva, L. I. 1966. Larval diagnostics of grain-grass flies of the genus 
Meromyza Mg. (Diptera, Chloropidae ) . Ent. Obozr. 45:197-202. (In Russian). 

Ibbotson, A. 1960. Observations on tlie oviposition behavior of frit fly 
{Oscinella frit L. Dipt. Chloropidae). Ent. Exp. Appl. 3:84-92. 

Jepson, W. F. and T. R. E, Southwood. 1960. The recognition of the im- 
mature stages of Elachiptera cornuta (Fallen) (Diptera: Chloropidae), with 



34 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

notes on its association with Oscinellu frit ( L. ) in oatfields. Proc. Roy. Ent. 

Soc. Lond. (A) 35:24-29. 
Narchuk, E. P. 1956. Species of Oscinella Beck. (Diptera: Chloropidae) in 

the European part of the USSR and their food plants. Ent. Obozr. 35:856-880. 

( In Russian). 
Nye, I. W. B. 1958. The external morphology of some of the dipterous larvae 

living in the Gramineae of Britain. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond. 110:411-487. 
. 1959. The distribution of shoot-fly larvae (Diptera, Acalypterae) 

within pasture grasses and cereals in England. Bull. Ent. Res. 50:53—62. 
Stone, A. et al., eds. 1965. A Catalog of the Diptera of America north of 

Mexico. U. S. D. A. Agr. Handbk. 276. 1696 pp. 



SYNONYMY OF KEIFERIA GLOCHINELLA (ZELLER) 
AND RELATED NAMES 

( Lepidoptera : Gelechiidae ) 

Ronald W. Hodges, Stjstematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology 
Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — The relationships among three species of Gelechiidae, Keiferia 
glochinella (Zeller), K. inconspicuella (Murtfeldt), and Isophrictis similiella 
(Chambers), are discussed; and the scientific name of the eggplant leaf miner 
is shown to be K. inconspicuella. 

Study of the type specimens of Keiferia glochinella (Zeller) and 
of those of related species has led me to propose the following 
association of names. 

Keiferia glochinella ( Zeller ) 

Gelechia glochinella Zeller, 1873: 263. Chambers, 1878b: 144. Riley, 1891: 101. 
Phthorimaea glochinella: Busck, 1903a: 502. Busck, 1903b: 779, 822. Kearfott, 

1903: 110. Barnes and McDunnough, 1917: 156. Meyrick, 1926: 93. Gaede, 

1937: 260. McDunnough, 1937: 73. In part. 
Keif eria glochinella: Busck, 1939: 572. In part. 
Keiferia peniculo Heinrich, 1946: 35, ff. 1^. New Synonymy. 

Keiferia inconspicuella ( Murtfeldt ) 

Gelechia cinerella Murtieldt, 1881: 244. Preoccupied. 

Gelechia inconspicuella Murtfeldt, 1883: 139. Replacement name for cinerella 

Murtfeldt. 
Gelechia piscipellis : Riley, 1891: 102. In part. 
Phthorimaea glochinella: authors. Busck, 1903a: 502. Busck, 1903b: 779, 822. 



^ Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 35 

Kearfott, 1903: 110. Jones, 1923: 567-570, pi. 1. Essig, 1926: 717. Busck, 
1928: 171, pi. 2, f. 2, pi. 3, f. 5. Needham, Frost, and Tothill, 1928: 160, 290. 

Isophrictis siniiliella ( Cliambers ) 
Gelechia similiella Chambers, 1872: 193. Chambers, 1873: 176. Chambers, 

1878b: 147. 
Paltodom similiella: Busck, 1903a: 495. Busck, 1903b: 779, 822. Kearfott, 

1903: 109. Busck, 1906: 722. Barnes and McDunnough, 1917: 153. 
Isophrictis similiella: Braun, 1921: 8. Heinrich, 1921: 813. Bottimer, 1926: 

808, f. 2E. Clarke, 1935: 246. Gaede, 1937: 34. McDunnough, 1939: 65. 
Isophrictis similella: Meyrick, 1926: 35. Misspelling. 
Gelechia solaniiella Chambers, 1873: 176. Invalid replacement name. Chambers, 

1878a: 117. Chambers, 1878b: 147. 
Gelechia solaniella: Chambers, 1875: 239. Misspelling. 
Gelechia piscipellis Zeller, 1873: 277. Riley, 1891: 102. In part. 
Gelechia piscipalis: Chambers, 1878: 145. Misspelling. 

Various authors have incorrectly associated names with the three 
species whose synonymy is given above. Chambers (1873: 176) 
proposed solaniiella as a substitute name for G. similiella upon receiv- 
ing specimens ( later described as inconspicuella ) from Miss Murtfeldt. 
The Murtfeldt specimens (Busck, 1903b: 779) were reared from 
Solanum carolinense L. and were judged to represent the same species 
as Chambers had collected in Kentucky the preceding year. The 
original description of similiella is adequately vague so that no de- 
termination can be made from it. When I studied the Chambers' 
material at the Museum of Comparative Zoology in 1963, no authentic 
specimens of similiella were found. However, Busck (1903b: 779) 
indicated that he had seen an authentic specimen of similiella and 
that the species was referable to Paltodora Meyrick (now Isophrictis 
Meyrick). On the basis of Busck's observation, I am treating similiella 
as a species of Isophrictis. 

Chambers' (1873: 176) proposal to substitute solaniiella for simi- 
liella because the food plant was known was not a valid action. A 
replacement name is valid only when the name it replaces is treated 
as a junior homonym. In this instance Gelechia similiella is a valid 
name. The treatment by subsequent workers of solaniiella as a sep- 
arate species based on material reared from Solanum is incorrect. A 
replacement name is a synonjm of the name it replaces. It does not 
or cannot be applied to another species. 

Murtfeldt (1881: 244) described Gelechia cinerella [a homonym of 
Gelechia cinerella (Clerck), 1759 at that time] and subsequently 
(1883: 139) proposed Gelecli'.a inco)]sj)iciiella as a replacement name 
for her cinerella. 

Busck (1903a: 502) synonymized inconspicuella and iilochinella . 
Unfortunately, he had not studied the genitalia of the two and thus 
did not realize that two species were involved. Subsequent determina- 



36 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

tions of gjochinella appear to be based on his action. All of the 
material in the USNM identified as ^JochincUa is inconspicueUa, and 
all of the literature citations in which specimens are figured refer to 
inconspictieUa. Only Heinrich's description (1946: 35-36) of penicido 
is referable to gJochineUa. As a result the scientific name of the egg- 
plant leaf miner should be Keifcria inconspicueUa (Murtfeldt), not 
K. glochinella (Zeller). 

In order to stabilize the nomenclature for the names involved, I 
present the following: 

Gelechia cinerella Murtfeldt. Miss Murtfeldt's collection apparently 
was subdivided, part of it is in the Cornell University Collection, and 
part is in the USNM Collection. I have found no specimens of cine- 
rella in the Cornell University material. Of the specimens in the 
USNM I have selected as lectotype (present designation) one that 
bears a Murtfeldt determination of cinerella and was reared prior to 
publication of the name. The female specimen bears the following 
labels: 1) No. 2519. 2) 97-M, 8/6/81. 3) Gelechia cinerella Murt. 
4) 9 genitalia on slide, AB Oct. 30, 1927. 5) Lectotype, Gelechia 
cinerella Murt., by R. W. Hodges. 

Gelechia glochinella Zeller. A lectotype has been selected by Dr. 
K. Sattler: male, Bosque Co., Texas; 16.VII, 1876, Belfrage; BM slide 
no. 7277. This specimen is in the British Museum (N.H.). 

Gelechia inconspicueUa Murtfeldt. G. inconspicueUa is a replace- 
ment name for Gelechia cinerella Murtfeldt. 

Keiferia peniculo Heinrich. The male holotype is in the USNM. 

Gelechia piscipeUis Zeller. A lectotype has been selected by Dr. K. 
Sattler: female; Bosque Co., Texas; 1876, 16/8, Belfrage; BM slide 
7281. The specimen is in the British Museum (N.H.). 

Gelechia similiella Chambers. No original material is extant. I 
treat this species as the one figured by Bottimer (1926: 808, ff. 2E, 
3D-F) based on an identification by Busck. I do not feel that it is 
necessary to designate a neotype for the species. 

Gelechia solaniiella Chambers. G. solaniiella is an invalid replace- 
ment name for G. similiella Chambers. 

References 

Barnes, Wni. and J. McDunnough. 1917. Check list of the Lepidoptera of 

boreal America, viii + 1-392. Decatur. 
Bottimer, L. J. 1926. Notes on some Lepidoptera of eastern Texas. Jour. 

Ent. Res. 33{ 9 ) :797-819, ff. 1-3. 
Braun, Annette F. 1921. Notes on Microlepidoptera with descriptions of new 

species. Ent. News 32:8-18. 
Busck, A. 1903a. In Dyar, Harrison G. A list of North American Lepidoptera 

and key to the literature of this order of insects. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 52: 

495-518. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 37 

. 1903b. A revision of the American moths of the family Gelechiidae, 

with descriptions of new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns. 2.5 ( 1304) : 767-938, 
pi. 28-32. 

. 1906. Tineid moths from southern Texas, with descriptions of new 



species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 30 ( 146.5) : 72 1-736. 

1928. Phthorimaea lijcopersicella, new species (family Gelechiidae) 



a leaf feeder on tomato. (Lep.) Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc. 7( 1 ): 171-176, pi. 2, 3. 
1939. Restriction of the genus Gelechia (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), 



with descriptions of new genera. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 86 ( 3064) : 563-593, pi. 

58-71. 
Chambers, V. T. 1872. Micro-Lepidoptera. Can. Ent. 4:191-196. 

. 1873. Micro-Lepidoptera. Can. Ent. 5:17.3-176. 

. 1875. Teneina (sic) of the United States. Cincinnati Quart. Jour. 

2:226-259. 
. 1878a. Tineina and tlicir food-plants. Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. 



Surv. Terr. 4:107-123. 
. 1878b. Index to the described Tineina of the United States and 



Canada. Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Serx-. Terr. 4:125-167. 
Clarke, J. F. G. 1935. Notes and new species of Microlepidoptera from Wash 

ington state. Can. Ent. 67:244-254, pi. 13. 
Essig, E. O. 1926. Insects of western North America, xi + 1-1035. New York. 
Gaede, M. 1937. In Bryk, F. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, vol. 79. Gelechiidae. 
Heinrich, Carl. 1921. Some Lepidoptera likely to be confused with the pink 

bollworm. Jour. Agr. Res. 20( 11) :807-836, pi. 93-105. 
. 1946. A new species of Keiferia on eggplant (Lepidoptera: 

Gelechiidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 48:35-36. 
Jones, Thomas H. 1923. The eggplant leaf-miner, Plithoiiniaea glochinella 

Zeller. Jour. Agr. Res. 26( 11 ) : 567-570, pi. 1. 
Kearfott, W. D. 1903. In Smith, J. B. Check list of the Lepidoptera of boreal 

America, pp. 87-125. 
McDunnough, J. 1939. Check list of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the 

United States of America. Part II, Microlepidoptera. Mem. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 

2(1):1-171. 
Meyrick, E. [19261. In Wytsman, P. Genera Insectorum, fasc. 184. fam. 

Gelechiadae. 
Murtfeldt, Mary E. 1881. New species of Tineidae. Can. Ent. 13:242-246. 

. 1883. Zeller's collections, errata, etc. Can. Ent. 15:138-139. 

Needham, James G., Stuart W. Frost, and Beatrice H. Tothill. 1928. Leaf- 
mining insects, viii -|- 1-351. Baltimore. 
Riley, C. V. 1891. In Smith, J. B. List of the Lepidoptera of boreal America. 

pp. 94-111. 
Zeller, P. C. 1873. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der nordamericanischen Nachtfalter, 

besonders der Microlepidopteren. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 23:201-334, pi. 

3, 4. 



38 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE ANT GENUS FORMICA 

( Hymenoptera : Formicidae ) 

Robert E. Gregg, Department of Biology, University of Colorado, 
Boulder, Colorado 80302 

ABSTRACT — The ant genus Formica is characterized briefly with respect to 
the morphology of the worker, female, and male castes. A resume of the subgeneric 
divisions of the genus, together with certain diagnostic traits of each subgenus 
are included. The geographic distribution of Formica is treated in greater detail, 
with the occurrence of various species having direct bearing upon the limits of 
the range of the genus receiving special attention. A generalized distribution map 
is provided which attempts only to show the over-all pattern, necessarily omitting 
minute details of occurrence. The genus is shown to be holarctic, but apparently 
absent from most of the areas of arctic tundra. The southern boundary in North 
America embraces the table land of Mexico, the northern portion of Lower 
California, and all but the southern part of Florida. In the Old World the 
southern boundary includes northwestern Mediterranean Africa, the Near East 
to tlie mountains of Afghanistan, high elevations in the Himalayas, and across 
central China to the island of Formosa. An isolated occurrence in the Ahaggar 
Mountains of Africa is recorded. A species claimed to have been found within 
the tropics ( northern Sumatra ) is also discussed. And a limited consideration of 
the difficult topic of altitudinal distribution is attempted. 

In Wheeler's (1913) revision of the genus Formica L., there were 
recognized 144 forms representing species, subspecies, and varieties, 
and these ants were shown to have a broad circumpolar distribution 
ranging through Europe, most of Asia, and the greater part of North 
America. Emery (1925) hsts 62 full species in the world fauna, with 
many subspecies and varieties. Since then some forms have been 
relegated to synonymy, others have been raised from infraspecific 
to specific status, and in addition new forms have been discovered 
and described by various authors. It is not the intention, however, of 
this paper to review or revise the taxonomy of this genus. The group 
contains the greatest number of ant species in the boreal parts of the 
world, and is in many respects a dominant assemblage of insects. 
Very significant advances in our knowledge of Formica were made 
by Creighton ( 1940 ) in his re-evaluation of certain members of the 
rtifa group, and again (1950) when all North American forms in the 
genus were thoroughly examined. In the latter work also, the varietal 
category for all species of ants in our fauna was dropped completely, 
only the species and subspecies categories being held to be valid. 
This action greatly improved and simplified both the taxonomy and 
the nomenclature of ants, and paved the way for other studies in 
myrmecology. Creighton recognized and treated 95 forms of Formica 
as constituting the New World segment of the genus, and not only 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 



39 




Fig. 1. Fonnica ub.'icuripea Forcl. A, large worker; B, small worker. 



40 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 





B 

Fig. 2. A, Formica obscuripes Forel, lateral view of large worker; B, anterior 
wing of Formica integroides colotadcnsls Wheeler. C — costal cell, MC — marginal 
cell, SM — submarginal cells, MD — median cell, SMD — submedian cell, D — dis- 
coidal cells, A — anal cell, AP — apical cell. (Wing terminology follows Borror 
and DeLong, An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 1964, p. 522. ) 



was the classification of these ants extensively revised, but a state- 
ment concerning the geographic distribution of each taxon was sup- 
pHed. Wheeler had done this for all the species some 37 years earlier, 
so far as his data would pennit, but Creighton was able to extend 
the known ranges of many species and to make corrections resulting 
from the improved taxonomy. From an intensive study of the ants 
in the State of Colorado alone, I have added many localities for 
different species of Formica and have shown that certain of them 
tolerate greater altitudinal ranges than previously suspected (Gregg, 
1963). The Catalog of Hymenoptera for America North of Mexico 
(sections on Formicidae by M. R. Smith, 1951, 1958, 1967) gives the 
distributions of species in a very general way by citing the states and 
provinces from which each has been recorded. Various persons are 
actively engaged in the collecting of ants, and it is to be expected that 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 41 

maiiv gaps in the know n ranges of all the species will continue to be 
filled. 

Tlie present contribution is an attempt to summarize the salient 
taxonomic features of the genus Formica, based primarily on the 
worker caste, and to provide a generalized distribution map for the 
group as a whole. The nomenclature and diagnoses that follow con- 
forni to those of Emery ( 1925 ) .^ 

Genus Formica Linne 

Formica (part.) Linne, Systema Naturae, lOtli ed., 1758, p. 579; Emery, Genera 
Insectorum, 1925, Fasc. 183, p. 241. 

Characteristics: 

Worker. — Size and shape of species variable; usually monomorphic though 
some foniis, particularly in the ruja group, are more or less polymorphic. Eyes 
placed toward the posterior portion of the head, well developed and consisting 
of many facets; ocelli distinct. Mandibles broad with a denticulate apical border. 
Maxillary palps 6-segmented, except in a few foniis of F. exsecta Nylander, with 
the 4th article a little longer than the 5th; labial palps 4-segmented. Funicular 
segments of the antenna diminishing in length from the second to the penultimate, 
except in the subgenus Proformica Ruzsky. Dorsum of the thorax more or less 
deeply impressed in front of the epinotum; metanotum reduced to a narrow band 
across the thoracic dorsum; metathoracic spiracles dorso-lateral but well sep- 
arated. Scale of the petiole vertical or slightly inclined, the superior border either 
sharp or rounded, in some cases blunt and truncated. The crest may also be entire 
or notched (fig. 1, A and B: fig. 2, A). 

Female. — Ordinarily much larger than the worker of the same species, however, 
in some species the queens are no larger than the major worker and may even be 
smaDer (microgyrm group and some members of the rufa group). Mesonotum 
moderately elevated above the pronotum but not overhanging it. Anterior wing 
with two closed discoidal cells and one open discoidal (fig. 2, B). 

Male. — About the same size as the female in most species; in those species with 
diminutive females, the males may be larger. Masticatory border of tlie mandible 
rarely toothed, but mandible never linear. Genitalia robust, stipes lacks appendage. 
Anterior wing furnished with discoidal cell, except in F. krausi Forcl. 

Subdivisions of the Genus Formica ( workers and females ) 

Subgenus Proformica Ruzsky 

Funicular segments two and three together only slightly longer than the first, 
and often no longer than the first. 



^ In the recent paper b>' Buren ( 1968 ) on certain aspects of tlie taxononn- of 
Formica, I am in accord with some of his conclusions. However, I do not agree 
for example, witli his proposal to raise Proformica to generic rank, nor with the 
suggestion that subgenus Ncoformica should be abandoned. The subgenus Pro- 
formica could be restricted to those Old World species which confonn closely 
to the characters of Formica nasnta, especially to its mandibular dentition, as 
given by Buren. As stated above, this article concerns primarih- the general 
geographic distribution of Formica, not a re\ision of its nomenclature. 



42 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

Subgenus Formica Linne 

Antennal scape no longer or only slightly longer than the distance from the 
center of the clypeal border to the center of the occipital border. Epinotiim 
usually angular. Contains fusca, rufa, microgyria, and exsecta groups. 

Subgenus Raptifonnica Forel 

Anterior clypeal border with a median concave emargination which may be 
narrow and pronounced or shallow and inconspicuous. 

Subgenus Neoformica Wheeler 

Antennal scape always notably longer than the distance from the center of the 
clypeal border to the center of tlie occipital border. Head relatively long and 
narrow. Epinotum with rounded dorsal profile, basal and declivious faces not 
sharply separated. 

Distribution 
The zoogeography of Formica, as will be seen from the accompany- 
ing map (fig. 3), is extremely broad in the northern hemisphere. This 
map, it must be remembered, represents a number of compromises 
and therefore has to be generalized. It is quite impossible on a world 
chart of so small a scale to show all the minutiae of distribution; 
furthermore, not all the desirable details are available and won't be 
until all regions are intensively searched for specimens. Although our 
collection contains a very large number of records from North America, 
and a substantial number also from Europe and from Asia, no attempt 
is made to place locality dots on this map because sufficient accuracy 
could not be achieved and their presence would probably clutter the 
picture. A large scale map with dots large enough to register when 
reduced to page size would certainly render the dots fused into a 
shaded map. Therefore, in attempting to delineate here the circum- 
polar distribution of a genus, I am obliged to employ one type of 
shaded map. The actual boundaries portrayed are smoothed owing 
to the impracticality of trying to show the precise limits toward the 
edges of a range. There are, no doubt, isolated outliers of the group 
that exist in ecologically suitable sites beyond the territory that is 
generally favorable to these ants. Thus large areas in Mexico, in 
North Africa, and in Persia are included within the boundaries, whereas 
in fact few colonies are adapted to exist in such places. Tlie occurrence 
of the ants there must be very discontinuous, for in these arid regions 
only local spots with enough permanent moisture would be expected 
to support the insects. In Mexico, for example, Formica is able to live 
in the higher mountains, but its distributional pattern is "spotty." Both 
the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Sierra Madre Occidental represent 
high-level pathways from southwestern United States into tropical 
Mexico. There are gaps in both pathways, but the elevations in each 
mountain range are high enough to support Nearctic fauna and flora 
along the crests. West of Durango, at altitudes of 8000 feet or more. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 



43 



180 go 




60 60 

Fig. 3. Geographic distribution of the genus Formica Linne. 



there are pine groves essentially similar to those in the mountains of 
southern Arizona, and the same is true of the eastern Sierra, although 
only broken ranges in Coahuila serve to connect it with the Chisos 
Mountains of Texas (Creighton, in litt. ). Similar discontinuities must 
attend the distribution of Formica at extremely high arctic and sub- 
arctic latitudes, but the factors involved (e.g. low temperature) are 
obviously different, or their combined effects operate in a different 
manner. Mountain ranges of high elevation are also blanketed by the 
symbol for the occurrence of Formica, despite the fact that the known 
distribution for these ants does not include the very high altitudes 
above timberline and above snowline on most ranges. It would be 
futile to indicate the upper altitudinal boundaries on this kind of map, 
though I have elsewhere tried to show these limits for certain species 
in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, where a few fonns do establish 
colonies in the alpine zone. Based on experience in these mountains, 
I have also pointed out the unreliability of certain altitudinal records 
cited by previous authors (Gregg, 1963). This map, then, is an esti- 
mate of the probable overall territory in which the genus Formica 
occurs. 

The greatest number of species of Formica in North America appear 
to be dispersed between the parallels of 35° and 50° north latitude, 
and in Eurasia between 40° and 55°. Actually, this is an over-simplifi- 
cation since the area of greatest concentration of species may depart 



44 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MAKCH, 1969 

radically from these parallels in particular regions, as, for instance, 
in eastern North America where a rich assortment of forms by no 
means reaches as far north as 50°. Although the total horizontal range 
of the genus in North America extends from beyond the Arctic Circle 
to the Tropic of Cancer and below, there is a notable disappearance 
of species as one proceeds toward these extremes. A few forms are 
decidedly boreal ( or while widely dispersed may tolerate far northern 
conditions ) and may be found from central Alaska and interior Canada 
to Labrador and Newfoundland. Examples of these include such ants 
as F. fusca L., F. sanguinea suhnuda Emery, F. marcida Wheeler, and 
the subspecies of F. neoriifU)orhis Emery. In a similar manner, the hot 
and arid Sonoran areas of southwestern North America support a very 
meager sample of species, and the ones usually found are F. perpilosa 
Wheeler, F. pilicornis Emery, and F. rufiharhis gmwa Buckley in ap- 
propriate parts of their respective ranges. Other species may reach 
quite far south in Mexico, but characteristically they occur at elevated 
stations in mountainous terrain. 

It will be useful to point out those records which seem to represent 
the most remote localities for any species of the genus. In 1913 
Wheeler reported on Formica collected by W. M. Mann at several 
locahties in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, primarily at Guerrero Mill, 
elevation 9000 feet. The species involved were F. microgyria rasilis 
var. nahua Wheeler, F. subcyanea Wheeler, F. rufiharhis gnava, and 
F. cinerea altipetens Wheeler. Wheeler gives other Mexican localities 
also and the species found therein as follows: F. perpilosa in Coahuila, 
F. ftisca (probably argentea Wheeler) from Durango at 8100 feet and 
from Atoyac in Vera Cruz, F. rufiharhis (probably occidiui Wheeler) 
from Sonora and Omilteme in Guerrero, F. rufiharhis (probably 
gnava ) from Durango at 8100 feet, and F. rtifa obscuripes Forel, whose 
exact location in Mexico is unknown, but which he thinks may occur 
in the mountains of northern Mexico. The precise identification of 
the last form seems also to be in doubt. All of these records, with 
the exception of perpilosa, were attributed to Forel. 

In 1922, Wheeler discussed the presence of Formica in far southern 
and in tropical locations. Most of these records are considered not to 
be representative of the original range of Formica. F. rufiharhis F. 
cited from Pretoria, South Africa, by Bingham is the only instance 
from the southern hemisphere, but Wheeler regards this case as a 
direct importation from Europe. He also agrees with Emery that 
F. fusca gleharia Nylander, a common species in southern Europe, 
has been introduced into the gardens of Algiers through human ac- 
tivity. Among ants received from Dumaguete, Island of Negros, Phil- 
ippines, Wheeler recognized two species, F. fusca and F. neogagates 
lasioides Emery, which appeared to be identical with North American 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 45 

specimens of these ants, and he conckided that they must have been 
inadvertently imported from the United States in materials for several 
Americans who were teaching at the Silliman Institute in Dumaguete. 
In a later paper (1927), however, he decided that these specimens 
had probably been left in some vials which Dr. Chapman took with 
him \\'hen the latter left Boston for the Philippines! 

Despite the fact that the foregoing records have been disposed of 
as unnatural, Wheeler beHeves that two cases exist of tropical relicts 
in the genus Formica. Again in 1922, he regards F. picea var. formosae 
Forel which had been collected at Taihorin, Formosa, as probably 
part of the indigenous fauna of that island. The typical picea is a 
boreal ant of the peat bogs of Europe, so Wheeler infers that since 
the mountains of Formosa rise to great heights (9000 to 14,000 ft.), 
Forel's variety may be resident at considerable elevations as remnant 
populations under climatic conditions not unlike those in northern 
Europe. I have therefore included Formosa in the range map of the 
genus, but until further collections can be made to substantiate these 
assumptions, this extension of occurrence may be accepted with some 
doubt. Emery (1925) records another species, F. obsidiana Emery 
also from Formosa. That any form of Formica should occur so far 
into the tropics as northern Sumatra, within 5° of the Equator, seems 
incredible. However, Wheeler ( 1927 ) described a new variety, F. 
fusca var. fairchilcU, from Kota Dah, Sumatra, taken in a pine forest 
at an altitude of 4000 feet. The specimens are obviously close to the 
typical fusca, but according to the description are nevertheless dis- 
tinct. Wheeler's reasons for believing this ant to be a true tropical 
relict include the remote locality of its occurrence, the considerable 
altitude of the station, and its pine forest habitat. He further points 
out that F. fusca is closely allied, if not identical, with F. flori Mayr 
found in the Baltic Amber, of Oligocene age, which preserves numer- 
ous examples of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate organisms. 
Thus Formica could at one time have had a much wider distribution, 
and its present restriction mostly to boreal temperate regions could 
be a more recent phenomenon. Wheeler postulates that more investi- 
gations in the higher altitudes of Sumatra, and even of Borneo and 
Java, may show isolated surviving populations of some form of fusca. 
The above suppositions are at least plausible, and may be accepted 
tentatively until further information comes to hand. I have included 
Sumatra on the map, but have used only an open circle to indicate 
justifiable uncertainty. If Formica is e\er unquestionabh' demonstrated 
from Indonesia, or other comparable tropical regions, it is logical to 
expect the species to represent somt» variant of fusca since this ant is 
the most eur>'thermic and most adaptable member of the genus. 

Other southern extremities of distribution for the genus Formica 



46 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

have been extracted from the summary presented by Emery (1925) 
in the Genera Insectorum. F. riifibarbis var. clarissima Ruzsky 
(Emery) is cited from Zaidam (or Cham-e Zeydun, Iran) near the 
coast at the head of the Persian Gulf. F. siibcyanea is Hsted for the 
state of Guerrero, Mexico (and according to Wheeler at about lat. 
18°). In North Africa, F. (P.) metiozzii Santschi occurs at Ain Sefra, 
Algeria, and F. (P.) kraussi Forel is known only from southern Algeria, 
and since most of this region is intense desert, I presume the area to 
be the Ahaggar Mountains or surrounding plateau. This species must 
be a relict from a moister geological period in the Sahara when the 
continuous range of Formica may have included much more of northern 
Africa than it does today. F. fiisca var. pyrenaea Bondroit has been 
recorded from Morocco. 

The species, Formica cmmae Forel, comes from Biskra, in northern 
Algeria, and is in certain ways a very unusual ant. It resembles 
Cata<ijyphis Forster in that the fourth maxillary joint is curved and 
unusually long, the thorax saddle-shaped, the petiole is thick, and the 
mentum bears ammochaetae. Wheeler treated it in 1913 as a species 
of Proformica (as Forel had done in 1909). Forel made it the 
representative of a separate subgenus, Paraformica Forel, in 1915, and 
Wheeler followed this lead in 1922. Then in 1925, Emery elevated 
Paraformica to full generic rank, which is probably the correct pro- 
cedure, but in view of the nomenclatural history of this ant, I think 
we may rightfully include the insect in the present discussion. 

Formica piUcornis is characteristic of the foothills of the Coastal 
Range of central and southern California, and according to Creighton 
(1950) it reaches into Lower California. However, the existence of 
Formica in Baja California is very likely restricted to the northern end 
of the peninsula. There, only the Sierra Juarez and the Sierra San 
Pedro Martir support stands of pine at their crests, and hence offer 
a highway for Nearctic species. In the central portion of the peninsula, 
the mountains are bare except for xerophytic shrubs, and in the 
southern part the vegetation is composed of thorn forest. Neither of 
the latter two situations is conducive to the occurrence of boreal ants. 

Documentation of the most northern records of occurrence of 
Formica can be obtained in part from several papers of Wheeler 
(1913, 1917, and 1922), and may be summarized in the following 
manner. In Europe it has been found at North Cape which is beyond 
70° N. In Asia ( 1913, footnote, p. 384 ) it is reported, and presumably 
represented by F. ftisca, as far north as 67° 34' at Werchojansk (Verk- 
hoyansk) on the Jana River in Siberia. F. picea Nylander is a cold 
stenotherm that is broadly distributed across all of northern Europe 
and Asia to China and eastern Siberia. In North America, F. fusca 
and F. marcida were reported from Fort Yukon on the Arctic Circle, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 47 

and F. neorufibarbis gelida Wheeler has been taken at Rampart and 
Nulato, Alaska, both of which are approximately 65° N. Other Alaskan 
localities for various species of Formica include Metlakatla, Ketchikan, 
Sitka, Skagway, Homer, Seward, Kasiloff Lake on the Kenai Peninsula, 
and Kodiak Island. Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada, has also 
yielded several of the above species. Eastward, F. ftisca is found as 
far north as Point Comfort on James Bay, Quebec, in New Brunswick, 
Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Wheeler also reports F. fmca gelida 
(the form now regarded as the subspecies al^ido Wheeler of F. 
neorufibarbis) from such northeastern stations as Anticosti Island, 
Quebec, several localities in Newfoundland, and Square Island and 
St. Lewis Inlet, Labrador. By far the northernmost site for the genus 
in the New World is that of the Mackenzie River Delta, reported by 
Brown (1949), where nests of F. fiisca were found by Marie Hammer. 
This occurrence is well above the Arctic Circle. 

The altitudinal range of Formica is impressive, being known from 
sea level in most parts of its distributional territory to relatively high 
elevations in numerous mountain systems. Wheeler notes fusca from 
as much as 2400 meters (7872 ft.) in the Alps. I have collected 
Formica pratensis Retzius at 6275 feet near Montenvers, above Cha- 
monix, France. In North America, Wheeler (1913) gives altitudinal 
data for a few species that \\'ere known at that time to reach remark- 
ably high elevations, and some of his figures follow: F. fusca 10,200 
ft.; sanguinea subnuda 12,000 ft.; dakotensis montigena Wheeler 
11,500 ft.; adamsi alpina Wheeler (now whymperi alpina) 11,000 ft.; 
fusca argentea 11,000 ft.; fusca subaenesccns Emery (= fusca) 11,000 
ft.; and fusca geJida (now neorufibarbis gelida) 13,000 ft. F. sub- 
aenesccns was also reported from 7000 feet in British Columbia, and 
F. gelida from 3840 feet on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, \\'hich 
represent environmental conditions that are to be found at approxi- 
mately two to three times these elevations, respectively, in the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado and New Mexico. 

I have recently published data (Gregg, 1963, 1964) extending the 
altitudinal limits of Formica in Colorado, and these possibly represent 
the maxima for the continent. There follow the most striking examples 
for high altitude residency (established colonies): F. altipetens 11,000 
ft.; cinerea lepidu Wheeler 11,000 ft.; ra.silis densiccntris Viereck 
11,542 ft.; ichijmperi alpimi 12,500 ft.; integroides coloradensis Wheeler 
11,600 ft.; dakotensis montigena 11,500 ft.; fusca 12,500 ft.; fusca 
argentea 11,000 ft.; songuinea subnuda 13,000 ft.; neorufibarbis 11,542 
ft.; and neorufibarbis gelida 14,260 ft. While this final record is based 
upon a worker specimen taken at the summit of Mt. Evans by Dr. 
Harold Grant, we have been unable to duplicate the find or to discover 
actual colonies. The species is, howe\er, quite common at high alti- 



48 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

tilde, reaching its greatest abundance between 10,500 and 12,000 feet. 
Unequivocal records of gelida have been obtained as high as 13,500 
feet. 

In Mani's study ( 1962 ) of the insects of the North-West Himalayas, 
there are brief references to the ants of this region. He regards all 
territory above timberline (approx. 3000 m. or 9840 ft.) as the nival 
zone, ( I would restrict the term "nival" to the zone of perpetual snow, 
that is, above snowline) and states that more than a dozen species of 
ants occur widely in this zone. These include F. gagates Latreille, 
F. truncicola Nylander, and F. picea, which are also broadly distributed 
in north and central Europe, Tibet, and in north and central Asia. 
F. picea, he reports, extends from 2800 meters (9186 ft.) to 4800 
meters (15,744 ft.), making this the highest known occurrence for the 
genus Formica. It is still considerably below the line of permanent 
snow, which is placed by Mani in excess of 5000 meters ( or more than 
16,400 ft. ) in the western Himalayan ranges. 

In summary, the distribution of Formica is essentially holarctic, 
except for most of the extreme northern portions of the Eurasiatic and 
North American continents, the Arctic islands, Greenland, and Ice- 
land. It is absent also from southern Florida, probably from most of 
Mexico, and from islands off the west coast of Africa. It has been 
introduced, according to Emery, into Corsica and Sardinia. Ectopic 
locations include the Ahaggar Mountains, and possibly high elevations 
in northern Sumatra. 

AcKNOWLEDG> I ENTS 

The author gratefully acknowledges support for this work by the National 
Science Foundation, Grant GB 2165, and academic leave for 1965-66 by the 
University of Colorado. My wife, Ella Virginia Gregg, has assisted in all aspects 
of field work. Dr. W. S. Creighton has reviewed the manuscript and contributed 
helpful improvements. 

References 
Brown, W. L. 1949. A few ants from the Mackenzie River Delta. Ent. News 

60:99. 
Buren, W. F. 1968. Some fundamental taxonomic problems in Formica. Jour. 

Georgia Ent. Soc. 3:25-40. 
Creighton, W. S. 1940. A revision of the North American variants of the ant 

Formica rufa. Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 1055, 10 pp. 
. 1950. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 

1-585. 
Emery, C. 1925. Hymenoptera: Family Formicidae; Subfamily Fonnicinae. 

Gen. Insect., Fasc. 183, pp. 241-261. 
Gregg, R. E. 1963. The ants of Colorado. Univ. Colo. Press, Boulder, 792 pp. 
. 1964. Distribution of the ant genus Formica in the mountains of 

Colorado. In Natural History of the Boulder Area, Univ. Colo. Mus., Leaflet 

No. 13, pp. 59-69. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 49 

Mani, M. S. 1962. Introduction to high altitiide entomology. Insect life above 

the timber-line in the North-West Himalya. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London, 

302 pp. 
Smith, M. R. 1951. In Muesebeck et al., Hymenoptera of America north of 

Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monogr. 2:778-875. 
. 1958. In Krombein et al., Hymenoptera of America north of 

Mexico, Synoptic Catalog, First Svipplement. ihid. pp. 108-162. 

1967. In Krombein et al., Hymenoptera of America north of 



Mexico, Synoptic Catalog, Second Supplement, ihid. pp. 343-374. 
Wheeler, W. M. 1913. A revision of the ants of the genus Formica (Linne) 

Mayr. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 53:379-565. 
. 1914. The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schrift. Physik.-okonom. 

Gesell. Konigsberg 55:1-142. 
. 1917. The mountain ants of western North America. Proc. Amer. 



Acad. Arts Sci. 52:457-569. 

. 1917a. Tlie ants of Alaska. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 61:15-22. 

. 1922. Ants of the genus Formica in the tropics. Psyche 29:174—177. 

1922a. Contributions to a report on the ants of the Belgian Congo. 



Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 45: Pt. 7, Keys to the genera and subgenera 
of ants, pp. 631-710. 
. 1927. The occurrence of Formica fusca L. in Sumatra. Psyche 



34:40-41. 
"Wilson, E. O. and W. L. Brown. 1955. Revisionary notes on the .sanguinea 
and neogagates groups of the ant genus Formica. Psyche 62:108-129. 



50 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

A NEW SPECIES OF NEOTROPICAL SEED WEEVIL AFFECTING 
PIGEON PEAS, WITH NOTES ON TWO CLOSELY RELATED SPECIES 

(CoLEOPTERA: BRUCHmAE: Bruchinae) 

John M. Kingsolver, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, 
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — A new species of briichid, Acanthoscelides zeteki, destructive 
to pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan (L. ) Millsp.), is described from Mexico, Central 
America, northern South America and the West Indies; comparative characteristics 
of two closely related species, A. ochraceicolor (Pic) and A. distinguendus (Horn), 
are given. New Synonymy noted: A. armitagei (Pic) (= A. obreptus Bridwell). 

A common and potentially destructive bruchid pest of stored pigeon 
peas, Caianus cajan (L.) Millsp. (C. flavus DC, C. indicus Spreng., 
auct. ), in Panama and adjacent areas has been identified for several 
years as Acanthoscelides armitagei (Pic) following J. C. Bridwell's 
identifications in the U. S. National Museum collection. 

Through the kindness of Mme. A. Bons of the Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, I have been allowed to examine the 
presumed type (lectotype, see below) of A. armitagei and a series 
of 7 additional specimens placed with it in the Pic collection. The 
type and 7 specimens are representative of 2 genera including 5 species 
entities, none of which is the Panamanian species in pigeon peas. 
Furthermore, the type of A. armitagei is identical to the lectotype of 
A. obreptus Bridwell and becomes a senior synonym of that species. 
I have not been able to assign the pigeon pea bruchid to any de- 
scribed species, therefore I here describe it as new and name it after 
James Zetek, the collector of the type series. 

Acanthoscelides zeteki, n. sp. 

Measurements. — Length, 3.0-3.25 mm.; width, 2.0 mm. 

Color. — Integmnent including legs and antennae evenly red; vestiture of 
golden and gray setae in typical mottled Acanthoscelides pattern (fig. 6), middle 
of third interval of each elytron with elongate gray spot dehmited anteriorly and 
posteriorly by rounded golden brown spots, intervals 5 and 7 gray at apices, 
8 and 9 with elongated gray spots; pygidium with golden vestiture evenly distrib- 
uted except for indistinct median condensation. 

Head very finely punctate, densely covered with yellowish hairs converging 
toward distinct frontal carina extending from elongated frontal fovea to clypeo- 
labral suture; antenna not strongly serrate (fig. 7), segments 4-10 flattened, 
expanded eccentrically. Pronotum subconical, lateral margins slightly arcuate; 
disk evenly convex; lateral marginal carinae obsolete; front coxae separated only 



Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 51 

at their bases by acutely triangular prostemum; front and middle legs normal; 
hind femur expanded (fig. 8), about as wide as coxa, ventral margin with 1 long 
tooth and 1 or 2 shorter denticles beyond it; hind tibia with mucro 0.6 as long 
as width of tibia at apex, external spine at apex 0.5 as long as mucro. Elytra 
with intervals of nearly equal width in basal two-thirds; striae well-marked but 
not deep, striae .3 and 4 each with deep pit at extreme base which usually bears 
a blunt denticle on anterior rim. Scutellum quadrate, bidentate at apex. Pygidium 
finely punctate. Male genitalia (figs. 4 and 5) with median lobe flattened, 
slightly expanded apically; ventral valve broad, evenly rounded except for median 
marginal tubercle; internal sac with fine spicules for more than one-half its length, 
a pair of curved spines toward apex, a denticulate sleeve-like gonopore sclerite 
and a helmet-shaped apical closure valve. Lateral lobes cleft nearly to base, 
slightly bowed medially, flattened and expanded apically. 

HOLOTYPE.— ^, Panama, CANAL ZONE: Barro Colorado Is., 
Apr. 13, 1927, in seeds Cajaniis indicus {sic), J. Zetek, coll. USNM 
69238. 

ALLOTYPE (9) and PARATYPES {i and 9 ).— Ca. 900 speci- 
mens, same data as holotype. 

Oriier localities. — Many specimens intercepted in U.S.D.A. Plant 
Quarantine inspections in pigeon peas from the following sources: 
PANAMA: Panama Citv, Paraiso, Taboga Is.; VENEZUELA; TRINI- 
DAD; CURAgAO; GUATEMALA; PUERTO RICO; BAHAMAS. 
One interception from MEXICO in RJujnchosia pyromidalis (Lam.) 
Urb. 

Acanthoscclides zcteki belongs to a group of New World species 
which includes A. distingiiendus (Horn), A. ochraceicolor (Pic) and 
a number of undetermined or undescribed South American species. 
Each is somewhat variable in intensity of color and pattern and can 
be distinguished with certainty only by the excellent characteristics 
in the male genitalia. These are illustrated for the above three species. 

The Bruchus armitagei of Bondar (1936) may be any of three 
presently recognizable species from Brazil closely related to but 
distinct from A. zeteki. In the original description of A. armitagei. 
Pic also describes a variety scmiconjuncius. Specimens of this \ariety 
identified by Pic and kindly loaned to me by Mr. Henry Dybas from 
the Bondar material in the Field Museum of Natiual History in 
Chicago belong to a different group of species in AcanthosceJides 
than does either A. zeteki or A. armitagei. 

Dr. J. U. McGuire, ARS, USDA, has observed very heavy field 
populations and storage infestations of A. zeteki in Panama. The 
single record from Rhynchosia pyramidalis, the close relationship of 
A. zeteki to other RliyncJiosia-inicsimg bruchids, and the close rela- 
tionship of Rliyncliosia to Cajamis strongly indicate that A. zeteki is 
a native bruchid which transferred to the introduced Cajanus and 
was not introduced with the legume. 



52 



PBOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Figs. 1-9, Acanthoscelides spp. Figs. 1-2, distinguendus (Horn): S 1, median 
lobe, ventral; 2, lateral lobes, ventral. Fig. 3, ochraceicolor (Pic), 6, median 
lobe, ventral. Figs. 4-8, zeteki n. sp.: 4, median lobe S, ventral; 5, lateral lobes, 
ventral; 6, dorsal habitus; 7, head and antenna, frontal; 8, hind leg, lateral. 
Fig. 9, disiingiiendtis S , antenna. 



PBOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 53 

Acanthoscelides ochraceicolor ( Pic ) 
Bruchus ochraceus Schaeffer 1907, p. 303 (not Baudi, 1886, p. 39 and 61); 

Cushman, 1911, p. 501. 
Bruchus ocliraccicolor Pic, 1913, p. 110, new name. 
AcantJiosccIkles ochraceicolor: Blackwelder, 1946, p. 760. 

This species is similar in body shape and general color to A. zeteki 
except that the elytra are nearly iiniformh- yellowish with a very faint 
pattern. Its average size is smaller than either A. zeteki or A. dis- 
tinguendus, with a range of 2.0-2.5 mm. in length. 

The geographical range of A. ochraceicolor is largely Caribbean and 
circum-Caribbean. 

Localities represented in the U. S. National Museum Collection. — 
FLORIDA: Paradise Key, Mar. 3, 1919; Marathon, Mar. 21, 1967, in 
Gahcfia striata (Jusq.) Urban, C. Stegmaier. LOUISIANA: Alexan- 
der, Mar. and Sept., 1919, in Spanish Moss, B. R. Coad; Baton Rouge, 
Sept. 22, Oct. 10, 1922, C. E. Smith; Forbing, Sept. 18, 1907, B. R. 
Coad; Jeanerette, Oct. 17, 1932, J. B. Thompson; Opelousas, Mar. 12, 
1912, B. R. Coad. TEXAS: Brownsville, Feb. 25, 1942, in Abutilon 
hypoleucum A. Gray; Shiller, Mar. 19, 1908, May 1, 1904, Nov. 15, 
1950, in Rhynchosia minima (L. ) DC, D. J. Smith; Columbus, May 19 
to Aug. 21, Hubbard and Schwarz; Sugarland, Sept. 7, 1937, L. D. 
Christenson; Victoria, Jan. 18, 1907, Apr. 2, 1907, Apr. 13, 1911, May 
8, 1908, June 22, 1906, June 25, 1911, Aug. 15, 1944, the latter in 
RhyncJwsia minima; San Antonio, June 22. MEXICO: Cuernavaca, 
Mor., Apr. 1945, N.H.L. Krauss; Gutierrez, Aug. 12, 1953, in Rhynclwsia 
longeracemosa (Mart, and Gal.), H. Y. Gouldman; Oaxaca, May 13, 
1938, R. Greenfield; Tampico, E. A. Schwarz. COSTA RICA:' San 
Jose, Jan. 30, 1917, in yellow vetch, E. R. Sasscer. COLOMBIA: Apr. 
16, 1959, in Rhynchosia seed, J. E. Mabry. PERU: Chosica, Nov., 1961, 
N.H.L. Krauss. GUYANA: Sept. 1, 1947, in pigeon pea. PUERTO 
RICO: Aguadilla, Jan., 1899, A. Busck, May 4, 1948; Aguirre, Apr. 
25-May 3, 1925, H. E. Box; Ensenada, Dec. 1960, M. Beauchamp; 
Lajas, Sept.-Nov., 1960, M. Beauchamp; Ponce, 1933, R. G. Oakley; 
San Juan, June 29, 1948. ST. CROIX: Christiansted, Jan. 28-Feb. 22, 
1968, in Rhynchosia minima, W. H. Pierce; Exp. Sta. Grounds, June 
11, 1917, H. E. Morrison; Hamilton Field, Nov., 1950, N.H.L. Krau.ss. 
TORTOLA IS.: Apr. 20, 1932, H. Y. Gouldman. ST. JOHN: Cruz 
Bay, July 10, 1958, M. W. Sanderson. ST. VINCENT: Mar., 1937, 
S. T. Danforth. GRENADINES: Union Is., Apr., 1937, S. T. Danforth. 
GRENADA: Pt. Saline, Nov., 1950, N.H.L. Krauss. TRINIDAD: Mar. 
8, 1932, in Erioscma violaceum (Auble.) E. Meyre, H. Y. Gouldman. 
JAMAICA: St. Catherine, Guanaboa Vale, Feb. 7, 1960, T. H. Farr; 
Trelawney, 5 mi. W. Duncans, Feb. 13, 1960, T. H. Farr. BONAIRE: 
N. Washington, July 26, 1962, J. Maldonado C; Aruba, Jul\- 26, 1962, 
J. Maldonado C. 



54 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MAKCH, 1969 

Acanthoscelides distinguendus ( Horn ) 
The lectotype designation and synonymy are given by Bottimer (1968). 

This species is similar in body shape and elytral pattern to A. zeteki 
and A. ochraceicolor but the basic color is piceous instead of reddish. 
The antennae of A. distingiienchis are serrate (fig. 9) instead of 
merely eccentric as in A. zeteki (fig. 7). The male genitalia bear 
consistent characteristics (figs. 1 and 2) distinguishing it from others 
in the group. 

In addition to the Spalding Co., Ga. and Nacogdoches, Tex. local- 
ities listed by Bottimer, the following records are in the U. S. National 
Museum collection. — FLORIDA: Crescent City, April, 1908, Van 
Duzee; Leon Co., July, 1924, C. O. Handley, in seeds of Rhynchosia 
tomentosa (L.) H. & A. ALABAMA: Marion Co., July 12, 1964, 
E. U. Balsbaugh. I have seen no specimens from south of the Rio 
Grande. 

Acanthoscelides armitagei ( Pic ) 

Brtichiis armitagei Pic, 1931, p. 35. 
Acanthoscelides armitagei: Blackwelder, 1946, p. 758. 

Acanthoscelides ohrcptus Bridwell, 1942, p. 256; Kingsolver, 1968, p. 5. New 
synonymy. 

Pic lists only "Colombie" in his description. In the series examined 
from the Pic collection, only one specimen bears a Colombia label, 
i.e., "Colombia, Honda, 11- 1927, per Dr. F. Zacher, ex beans. Imp. 
Bur. Entom." A label in Pic's handwriting identifies it as this species. 
I am presuming that this specimen is the holotype although it is not 
so labeled. In the event that other specimens in this series exist, I 
designate this specimen lectotype and I have so labeled it. 

Acanthoscelides armitagei is found only in Phaseohis spp. beans and 
DoIicJios lablab L., and its geographic range extends from Mexico 
to Chile. Illustrations of the male and female genitalia and other 
diagnostic characteristics are given by Kingsolver ( 1968 ) . 

References 

Baudi, F. 1886. Rassegna delle specie della famiglia dei milabridi (Bruchidi 

degli autori) viventi in Europa e regioni finitinie. Natural. Sicil. Ann. 5:1-138. 
Blackwelder, R. E. 1946. Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, 

Central America, the West Indies, and South America. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 

185. Part 4, p. 757-763. (Bruchidae). 
Bondar, G. 1936. Notas biologicas sobre bruchideos observados no Brasil. 

Arch. Inst. Biol. Veg. 3:7-44. 
Bottimer, L. J. 1968. On the location of types of five species of Bruchidae 

with notes on early American literature of Acanthoscelides ohtecttis. Can. Ent. 

100: 284-289. 
Bridwell, J. C. 1942. Two new American bean bruchids ( Coleoptera ) . Rev. 

Chilena Histor. Nat. 44 ( 1940): 249-258. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 55 

Cushman, R. A. 1911. Notes on the host plants and parasites of some North 

American Bruchidae. Jour. Econ. Ent. 4(6) :489-510. 
Horn, G. H. 1873. Revision of the Bruchidae of the United States. Trans. 

Amer. Ent. Soc. 4:311-342. 
Kingsolver, J. M. 1968. A review of the ohtcctus group in Acanthoscelides 

Schilsky, with designations of lectotypes (Coleoptera: Bruchidae: Bruchinae). 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 70( 1 ) :4-9. 
Pic, M. 1913. Coleopterorum Catalogus, pars 55, Bruchidae. Jmik and Schenk- 

Hng, BerUn, 74 p. 
. 1913. Coleopteres exotiques en partie nouveaux (suite), fichange 

29:106-110. 
. 1931. Nouveautes diverses. Mel. Exot.-Ent. 58:1-36. 



Schaeffer, C. 1907. New Bruchidae, with notes on known species and list of 
species known to occur at Brownsville, Texas, and in the Huachuca Mts., Ari- 
zona. Mus. Brooklyn Inst. Arts Scien., Scien. Bull. 1( 10) : 291-306. 



A NEW VELIA FROM PERU, AND THE DESCRIPTION 
OF THE MALE OF VELIA HELENAE HUNGERFORD 

(Hemiptera: Veliidae) 

John T. Polhemus, 3115 South York, Englewood, Colorado 80110 

ABSTRACT — The male of Velia hdenae Hungerford, found in bromeliads, and 
a new species, Velia atra, are described from Peru. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. P. Wygodzinsky of the American 
Museum of Natural History, I have been permitted to study a small 
collection of semi-aquatic Hemiptera from South America, which 
included the veliids treated below. 

Velia heleiiae Hungerford 1929 
Vclia hdenae Hungerford, 1929, Ent. Tidskrift 50: 146-147 (Callanga, Peru. 
Type in Riksmuseum, Stockholm ) . 

This beautiful species was described from a single female, and the male hiis 
been unknown. As males are included in the present series, tliey arc described 
below. 

Macropterous male: 

Of moderate size; head, thorax and entire venter orange red; beak, antennae, 
and legs rather uniform deep brown; hemelytra velvety blackish brown, almost 
black, veins not prominent, each with two large white spots, one near tlie base 
and another on membrane; last two genital segments brownish. Pronotum and 
head sparsely clothed with short deciunbent brownish pubescence, longer and 
denser on lateral margins of pronotum, collar and frons, the latter witli 10 to 12 
minute conical black setae on each side of midline. Venter sparsely clothed with 
longer brownish pubescence. 



56 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




A. 



l . », .. ^ ..y. r ..,. „.^v . f y ■ ,, y , „ , y. , , -^r , „Y ' 



/ m yr\ 







Fig. 1, Velia spp. A-C, atra, n. sp.: A, posterior femur and part of trochanter 
(hairy vestiture not shown); B, genital segments, ventral view; C, left $, genital 
clasper. D-G, helenue Hungerford: D, posterior femur, posterioventral view 
(hairy vestiture not shown); E, middle femur, posterior view (hairy vestiture 
not shown); F, left $ genital clasper and tip of clasper; G, genital segments, 
ventral view. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 57 

Pronotiim faintly carinate on midline, deeply pitted posteriorly, pits shallower 
anteriorly; lateral margins narrowing anteriorly, slightl>' convex, hvmieral angles 
not prominent, slightly raised, lateral margins at shoulders parallel; rear margin 
sinuate, slightly thickened, lengthened posteriorly, broadly rounded; collar set 
off by a row of pits, interrupted medially; anterior angles wider than eyes, sharply 
rounded; width/length: 123/123. (For all measurements, 60 units equal 1 mm.) 

Head impressed on midHne; vertex convex, higher than eyes; with a deep pit 
near the rear of each eye on vertex, each with a shallower pit between it and 
posterior margin; rostrum reaching between middle coxae. 

Antennae moderately long, slender; first segment curved, thickest; second 
segment thicker than three and four; length of antennal segments I-IV, 48: 40: 
45 (including nodule): 44. 

Legs relatively short; femora thickened, posterior and middle femora armed, 
as shown in fig. 1 D and E respectively; tibiae unarmed, slender; measurements 
of front, middle and hind femora, 88: 103: 134; measurements of front, middle 
and hind tibiae, 76: 108: 140; front tarsi, I-III, 5: 12: 20; middle, 6: 16: 21; 
hind, 6: 20: 23. 

Genital segments as shown in fig. 1 G. Male paramere as shown in fig. 1 F, 
curved into the plane of the paper and twisted slightly; distal portion as shown; 
thin, blade-like. 

Length, 5.6 mm.; width, 2.1 mm. across humeri. 

Material examined: 5 i $ ,1 9 9,1 nymph, all macropterous, Peru, 
Huacapistana, 1800 m., Dep. Junin, July 27-30, 1965, P. & B. Wygod- 
zinsky. Most specimens in the American Museum of Natural History, 
2 $ $ and 2 9 9 in the author's collection. 

Dr. Wygodzinsky has kindly furnished the following notes on the 
ecology of this interesting Velia: "All specimens were found in the 
moist portion inside large terrestrial bromeliads growing on cliffs. 
Generally, there were from 2 to 4 specimens inside one plant. The 
area where these plants grew was quite dry; possibly secondarily 
because it is situated within the level of a cloud forest. The forest, 
however, has been cut down and burned completely and the vegeta- 
tion is quite changed. It is possible, therefore, that these bromeliads, 
the name of which I do not know, are invaders." 

Other veliids of striking appearance live in bromeliads, and this 
species, the prettiest veliid known to me, is added to that list. It is 
easily separated from its congeners by the coloration and armature 
of the femora. 

Vclia atra, n. sp. 
Holotijpe: Macropterous male. 

Large, brown, slender. Head and thorax brown to light lirown: hemelytra 
velvety chocolate brown, \eins lighter, each with a small white spot at base and 
large ovate white spot in membrane; venter dark brown; legs fuscous to dark 
brown; first antennal segment dark brown. 

Pronotiun slightly carinate on uu'dline, carina weak behind middle, evanescent 
anteriorly; deeply pitted posteriorly, replaced by weaker pits on anterior lobe; 
lateral margins narrowing anteriorly, more sharply from humeri to demarcation 



58 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 

of anterior lobe; anterior lobe marked off by rough row of pits; collar marked 
off by row of pits which is evanescent medially; humeri raised slightly, moderately 
prominent, lateral margins at shoulders parallel; posterior margin sinuate, slightly 
thickened, weakly acuminate at apex; width/length, 154/184 (For all measure- 
ments, 60 units equal 1 mm. ) ; dorsal surface sparsely clothed with short golden 
pubescence, longer on anterior lobe. 

Head with median longitudinal furrow, terminating before posterior margin; 
with a large pit near the rear of each eye on vertex, another smaller pit between 
large pit and posterior margin and slightly more central; thickly clothed with 
short brown pubescence; ratio of widtli of eye/interocular space, 22/36; width of 
head through eyes/length, 78/50; rostrum reaching to middle coxae. 

Antennal segment 1 stout, curved, 68 units (1.13 mm.) long; segments 2, 3, 
and 4 missing. 

Legs moderately long, thickly clothed witli semi-short brown hairs; longer 
hairs on posterior surface of femora and tibiae, as long as diameter of tibiae; 
measurements of front, middle, and hind femora, 126: 154: 190; of front, middle 
and hind tibiae, 110: 150: 203; of front tarsal segments I-III, 7: 20: (missing); 
of first tarsal segments of middle and hind legs, 4: 4; all other tarsal segments 
missing; armature of hind femora and part of trochanter as shown in fig. 1 A; 
posterior trochanter armed with many evenly set small teeth and one larger tooth 
as shown; middle and anterior legs unarmed. 

Genital segments as shown in fig. 1 B. Male paramere as shown in fig. 1 C. 

Length 7.9 mm., width (across humeri) 2.64 mm. 

Holotype, macropterous male, Tingo Maria, Huan., Peru, Oct. 10, 
1946, Alt. 2200 ft., J. C. Pallister; in American Musemn of Natural 
History. 

Velia atra, n. sp., is set off from its congeners by its large size, color 
markings, and the character of the male genitalia. 



TAXONOMIC AND NOMENCLATURAL NOTES ON 
GONODONTA OBESA (WALKER) 

( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) 

E. L. Todd, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, 
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — The following new synonymies are noted: Gonodonta Hiibner 
( := Dosa Walker); G. obesa (Walker) (= Canodia ? camora Felder and Rogen- 
hofer ) . 

In 1864, Walker (List of the specimens of lepidopterous insects in 
the collection of the British Museum, pt. 31, pp. 131-146) placed 13 
genera and 24 species in the family Melameridae. The family was 



^ Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. G. 20560. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 



59 




Fig. 1 Gonodonta obesa (Walker), paralectotype 9, Ega, Amazonas, Brazil. 



placed systematically between the Ctenuchidae and the Dioptidae. 
The family had no type genus and was a conglomerate composed of 
genera belonging to several families, i.e., Dioptidae, Ctenuchidae, 
Arctiidae, Glyphipterigidae and Noctuidae (Agaristinae and Erebinae). 
All of these except the erebine noctuid genus, Dosa Walker, have been 
moved to their proper families. There has been no reference in the 
literature subsequent to the original description for the combination 
Dosa obesa Walker. Two of the nomenclators incorrectly assign the 
genus Dosa Walker to the family Zygaenidae, the others indicate only 
that the genus is a group of the order Lepidoptera. 

In 1965 I found the type series of Dosa obesa Walker in the Erebinae 
in the collection of the British Museum ( Natural History ) . The person 
responsible for the transfer of the specimens to the Noctuidae is 
unknown, but a manuscript key to the Erebinae by Sir George Hamp- 
son prepared between 1913 and 1920 indicates he was aware of the 
proper familial and subfamilial placement of the species. It is sur- 
prising to me that Hampson did not recognize that the species is a 
member of the genus Gonodonta Iliibner. Had he recognized this 
fact, it seems unlikely that the type series would have been left 
misplaced within the subfamily in the collection. 

While studying the types of Felder and Rogenhofer which are also 
in the British Museum ( Natural Historx' ) I discoxered that ''Canodia ? 
camara Felder and Rogenhofer" also refers to the same species. In 



II 



60 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

view of the preceding comments the following nomenclatiiral and 
taxonomic actions are now necessary. 

Dosa Walker, 1864, List nf the specimens of lepidopterous insects in the collec- 
tion of the British Museum, pt. 31, p. 144 (Type-species: Dosa obesa Walker, 
monobasic) = Gonodonta Hiil^ner, 1818, Zutriige zur Sammlung Exotischer 
Schmettlinge [sic], Erstes Hundert, p. 11 (Type-species: Phal. [aena] Noct. [ua] 
sicheas Cramer, designated by Todd, 1959). New synonymy. 



Gonodonta obesa (Walker), n. comb. 
Dosa obesa Walker, 1864, List of the Specimens of lepidopterous insects in the 

collection of the British Museum, pt. 31, p. 144. 
CanocUa ? camora Felder and Rogenhofer, 1874, Reise der Osterreichischen 

Fregatte Novara um die Erde, Zoologischer Theil, v. 2, Abt. 2, Atlas, pi. Ill, 

fig. 20 and explanation; 1875, ibid, Inhalts-Verzeichniss Tafeln CVII bis 

CXL, Heterocera, p. 5. New synonymy. 

Types: The type series of obesa was composed of three specimens, 
one male and two females, collected at Ega, Amazonas, Brazil, by 
Bates. Walker labeled one of the females as type, but as this action 
was not indicated in the original description selection of a lectotype 
is necessary. I have selected and labeled as the lectotype the female 
specimen labeled type by Walker. The type of camora, another female, 
was also collected by Bates in Amazonas. Both types are in the col- 
lection of the British Museum ( Natural History ) . 

Examples of this species may be keyed to Gonodonta ditissima 
Walker in my paper on the genus ( 1959, U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull., 
No. 1201, p. 7). Both species lack a toothlike projection of the fore- 
wing at the tornus. The absence of a pale costal margin on the fore- 
wing in obesa separates it from ditissima. Gonodonta obesa belongs 
to the chorinea group and, therefore, differs also from ditissima, a 
member of the sicheas group, in the nature of the scaling of the front 
of the head and the ventral margin of the second segment of the 
labial palpus and in the type of male and female genitalia. 

A photograph of the paralectotype female of Gonodonta obesa ( fig. 
1 ) is provided to illustrate the general habitus and the pattern of 
maculation. The specimen is now in the collection of the United 
States National Museum as a result of an exchange with the British 
Museum (Natural History). The illustration of Felder and Rogen- 
hofer is a fair reproduction of the coloration of the species except that 
the details of the maculation of the forewing are not very accurate. 
The general ground color of the forewings is dull brown, darkest 
along the apical half of the costal area and yellow brown along the 
inner margin and the posterior half of the termen. The irregular, 
dentate elements of the transverse bands are composed of alternating 
lines of yellow brown and red brown scales. Five white spots are 
present in the concavities of the dentations of the postmedial band 



I 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 61 

of the forewing. In the original description Walker stated that six 
spots were present. I believe he may have counted the spot in cell 
M2 as two spots. It is not as developed basally as are the other spots. 
The forewing, especially the subterminal area and the pale oval 
terminal spots, is dusted with single or clumps of opalescent scales. 
The inner margin of the hindwing is covered with brown hair and it 
is slightly paler than the dark marginal band distad of the orange 
medial area. The underside of the forewing is uniformly pale brown 
except the fringe is yellow brown. The underside of the hindwing 
is Hke the upperside except a diffuse, yellow brown, tenninal line is 
present from vein Cu2 to the apex. The abdomen is brown dorsally, 
gray brown ventrally. Length of the forewing: male, 22 mm.; female, 
22 to 23 mm. 



THE ALTERNATE GENERATION OF CALLIRHYTIS 
QUERCUSSUTTONII (BASSETT) 

( H YMENOPTERA : CyNIPOIDEA ) 

Robert J. Lyon, Life Sciences Department, Los Angeles City College, 
Los Angeles, California 90029 

ABSTRACT — The cynipid wasp, Callirhytis quercussiittonii ( Bassett ) produces 
a large twig gall that is sometimes quite destructive to its host oaks Qtiercus 
agrifolia Nee and Quercus Wislizenii A. DC. in California. The life cycle requires 
two years for completion and since the developmental stages of the insect are 
protected by the gall tissue, this pest has been difficult to control. The species 
has previously been known only from the agamic generation of females. Experi- 
mental rearings, supplemented by field observations have shown that the species 
has an alternate, bisexual generation which produces tiny bhster galls on the 
spring leaves of the oaks. Control can be achieved by spraying at this time. 
The bisexual generation is described and the galls are illustrated. 

The cynipid wasp, Callirhytis quercussuttonii (Bassett) produces 
one of the most conspicuous of the large twig swellings that occur 
on the black oaks of the Pacific Slope region. Its galls appear as 
abrupt, woody twig enlargements on the oaks, Quercus ai^rifolia Nee, 
Q. Wislizenii A. DC, and Q. KeUoogii Newb. The galls vary con- 
siderably in size and shape, some appearing as stem enlargements, 
25-100 mm long, with diameters of 15-40 mm. Others are shorter 
and more globular attaining diameters of as much as 60 mm (figs. 1 
A, B). The gall is polythalamous and its size is determined by the 
number of tubular, larval cells that extend from the center to the 
outer bark. Development begins in late summer and continues 
throughout the fall with the galls growing rapidly until they reach 



62 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Fig. 1, CalUrhytis quercussuttonii (Bassett): A, woody, polythalamous, twig 
gall produced by the agamic generation; B, a sagittal section of the same showing 
the arrangement of the larval cells; C, monothalamous leaf galls of the bisexual 
generation; D, petiole gall of the same; E, galls in the staminate flower bud; 
F, gall on staminate flower stem. 



full size during the spring months of the following year. Larval growth 
is completed in late spring and early summer with pupation occurring 
in late summer and early fall. Mature adults can be cut out in No- 
vember and December; however, normal emergence takes place in 
late January, February and early March of the second year. 

The species was originally described by H. F. Bassett (1881:54). 
CalUrhytis polythyra Kieffer is a synonym (Weld, 1951:652). Kinsey 
(1922:137) described a variety lustrior that occurred on Querciis 
Wislizenii. At the present time, the species is known from descriptions 
of the agamic or unisexual females only. No males have been de- 
scribed. 

The galls of this species are sometimes quite destructive to the host 
oaks, particularly Querciis agrifolia, when growth is very heavy on 
single, isolated trees. When species of oaks occur as part of a natural 
woodland and the individual trees are not widely separated, the 
gall-producing cynipids usually distribute themselves rather evenly 
through the area without heavy infestation of the individual trees. 
When individual trees or small groups of trees become isolated, gall 
infestation frequently becomes very heavy since the wasps are not 
as inclined to fly to other trees. For this reason, single ornamental 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 63 

oaks, growing in parks or estates are sometimes damaged by the galls 
of Callirhytis qucrcussuttonii. The ehalcid wasp Etidecatoma isis 
(Girault) is the most common parasite and is usually reared from 
mature galls along with the gall maker. Woodpeckers frequently 
open the galls along with those of other species, in order to reach the 
developing insects. Chalcids, under natural conditions, seem to be 
the most important control factor. 

In February and March of the past two years, mature, agamic 
females emerged from rearing cages and were placed on young 
Qucrciis agrifolia growing in large containers. The insects were al- 
lowed to move freely on the trees and were not confined to the cloth 
bags that have frequently been used in this work. Some of the insects 
flew off the plants but a number immediately began to oviposit in 
the tightly packed, unopened leaf buds. Most females remained on 
the buds for periods of 20-25 minutes, moving from bud to bud and 
remaining on the tree for most of the day. All sites of oviposition 
were carefully marked. 

When the new leaves opened in early March, there were no signs 
of gall growth and another month passed before it became evident 
that tiny, green blister galls were developing in the leaf veins and 
on the leaf petioles. On the mature oaks in the field, these blister 
galls could also be located on the stems of the staminate flowers. 
The galls were completely mature in May and the males and females 
of the bisexual generation emerged from May 7 to May 26. Mating 
took place immediately and the females began to explore the trees 
in search of appropriate twigs for oviposition. They invariably selected 
small twigs, 3-5 mm in diameter, preferably green twigs of the 
previous year's growth; however, some females laid their eggs in the 
older growth. The ovipositing females remained all day in one loca- 
tion, moving spirally around the twig as they deposited their eggs. 
Nearly all twigs, both new and older ones, subsequently developed 
galls. 

Shortly after the bisexual generation has oviposited into the twigs, 
the inquiline Euceroptres maiitiiims Weld emerges from the old twig 
galls and places its eggs in the stems at the same places. Tliis inquiline 
develops in the gall along with the gall maker and may be a predator 
feeding on its host, rather than a "guest." W^hen the new galls appear 
in the fall, they are parasitized by the ehalcid Eudecatoma isis, and 
the adults of this parasite can often be observed as they deposit their 
eggs in the thickened tissue of the developing galls. 

Description of the Gidl (figs. IC, D, E, F). The adults of the 
bisexual generation develop in small, monothalamous, blisters that 
appear mostly on the leaves or leaf petioles. They are 3-4 mm in 
length and the young galls are the same color as the leaves; thus in 



64 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

the early stages of development they are very difficult to detect. At 
maturity they are larger and easier to locate since the thickened cell 
can be contrasted with the thin leaf blade. Exit is made either through 
the upper or lower surface of the leaf. A few galls develop in the 
stems or buds of the staminate flowers. This leaf blister had been 
known to others although its maker had never been reared. Photo- 
graphs of it appear in Weld's "Cynipid Galls of the Pacific Slope," 
figures 125 and 129. It is quite similar to the gall produced by the 
bisexual generation of Callirhytis qiiercusagrifoliae ( Bassett ) however, 
the latter develop earlier in the year, are reddish-green during de- 
velopment and tan at maturity. 

BISEXUAL GENERATION. Female: Smaller than the agamic females though 
similar in color and appearance. The cheeks behind the eyes are only slightly 
broadened whereas the cheeks of the agamic females bulge conspicuously so that 
when viewed from the front, the outline of the head completely frames the eyes. 
Antennae 15-segmented in both generations. Mesoscutum: only sparsely pubescent, 
coriaceous, shining with scattered punctures in the anterior part; agamic females 
more pubescent, the punctures more numerous and conspicuous. Bisexual females 
with complete parapsidal furrows; in most agamic females, these are incomplete 
or inconspicuous and the anterior and lateral lines are more distinct than those 
of the bisexual generation. Wing veins of the bisexual females dark brown with 
a distinct cloud along the basal portion of the median; agamic females with light 
amber veins and no cloud. Abdomen: distinctly higher than long with very short 
ventral spine, 2x as long as broad; agamic females with much longer ventral 
spine, 5x as long as broad. Range in length of 84 females, 2.0-2.8 mm. Average 
length 2.4 mm. Agamic females range from 2.5-5 mm in length. 

Male: Similar to females but smaller; head black with very large eyes; 
interocular space twice as wide as high; malar space narrow, one-sixth the length 
of the eye; antennae with 15 segments; mesoscutum smooth and shining as in 
the genus Dnjocosmus; pubescence limited to a few scattered hairs along the 
parapsides and periphery of the mesoscutum; mesopleuron bare and shining with 
a few hairs along the edges; scutellum smooth and shining with only a trace of 
the rugosity found in the females; foveal pits represented by a wide shining 
groove; abdomen with tergites II and III visible along the dorsal curvature. 
Range in length of 40 specimens 1.8-2.3 mm. Average length 2 mm. 

Since Callirhytis quercnssuitonii is of considerable economic im- 
portance, there have been many attempts, most of them unsuccessful, 
to control this species through the use of a spray. An eastern species 
Callirhytis cornigera (O.S.) has caused extensive damage to oaks in 
the Buffalo-Niagara area. Since the developmental cycle of twig galls 
usually requires a two year period and the insects are well-protected 
by the gall tissue, insecticides are not very effective unless used during 
the relatively short time when the adults emerge. This time of emer- 
gence may be extended over a period of several weeks, thus the 
timing of an effective spray is critical and difficult. For those species 
in which there is a known alternate bisexual generation that produces 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 ' 65 

galls on the leaves or staminate flowers, the problem is greatly simpli- 
fied. Leaf galls of this generation mature very rapidly and adult 
insects emerge immediately; thus, a spray applied at this time is more 
effective than when applied to the slowly-maturing twig galls. A 
spray applied to the leaves of Qiierciis agrifoUa in early May and 
repeated the following year should effectively control the spread of 
CoUirhytis quercussiittonii. 

Types: The types of the bisexual generation and ten paratypes are 
in the collection of the U. S. National Museum. Other paratypes 
have been placed in the collection of the Los Angeles County Museum. 

Host: Quercus ag,rifoU(i Nee. 

Habitat: The types were reared from galls produced on oaks in 
containers at La Canada, California. Additional specimens were 
reared from galls collected on the native oaks in the Los Angeles area. 

Acknowledgment: The writer wishes to e.xpress his appreciation to Gerhard 
Bakker of Los Angeles City College for the illustrations in this paper. 

References 
Ashmead, W. H. 1885. A bibliographical and Synonymical Catalogue of the 

North American Cynipidae, with descriptions of new species. Trans. Amer. 

Ent. Soc. 12:294. 
Bassett, H. F. 1881. New Cynipidae. Can. Ent. 13:54. 
Kinsey, A. C. 1922. Studies of Some New and Described Cynipidae ( Hyme- 

noptera). Ind. U. St. 9(53) : 137. 
Weld, L. H. 1957. Cynipid Galls of the Pacific Slope. Privately published. 

Arlington, Virginia. 64 p. 



A NEW GENUS OF XYSTODESMID MILLIPED 
WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES FROM IDAHO 

( DiPLOPODA : Xystodesmidae ) 

John S. Buckett' and Michael R. Gardner^ 

ABSTRACT — A new genus and species of xystodesmid milliped, Metaxycheir 
prolate, is described from Idaho. This entity is a member of the subfamih 
Oropiiinae and is related to Chonaphe Cook. Orophinae has been modified to 
include the following genera: Chonaphe Cook, Harpaplie Cook, Hyl)aphe Cook, 
Metaxycheir Buckett and Gardner, Orophe Chamberlin, Panielaphe Hoffman, and 
probably Montaphe Chamberlin. 

During field work conducted in Idaho by Richard L. Westcott in 
1965, casual collections of milhpeds have revealed startling new 
species, one of which required the erection of a new famih* ( Buckett 

^ Bureau of Entomology, California Department of Agriculture, Sacramento, 
California 95814. 

- Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California 95616. 



66 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Figs. 1 and 2, Metaxycheir prolata, n. gen., n. sp., holotype S : 1, right gonopod, 
mesal view; 2, right gonopod, cephalic view. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 67 

& Gardner, 1967), and another of which is described herein as repre- 
senting an heretofore unknown new genus. Related to the genus 
Chonaphe Cook, Metaxycheir, new genus, possesses modifications 
which make it seem affihated with the subfamily Orophinae. 

Metaxycheir Buckett and Gardner, n. gen. 

Type species: Metaxycheir prolato Buckett and Gardner, n. sp. 

Diagnosis: Related to Chonaphe Cook and Montaphe Chamberlin, but differing 
from those genera in the femoral process of the gonopods being long, simple 
and slender; further differing from Chonaphe in the presence of a rounded anterior 
process on third coxae of male, in the absence of sternal swellings on fourth coxae 
and absence of sclerotized sternal remnant between gonopods. 

Description: Head with coronal suture prominent; antennae short, extending 
caudad through third segment along paranotal margins; an oval sense area 
present on sixth antennal segment; body cylinder subcircular in cross-section, 
tergites smooth; paranota small, projecting strongly downward and originating 
at middle of body, posterior corners rounded and produced only slightly caudad; 
segment 19 with paranota distinct, of same relative size as on preceding body 
segments; legs generally long, slender, and sparsely setose; legs of anterior 
segments, however, with strongly setose mesal surfaces; prefemoral spines poorly 
developed; second legs with cylindrical coxa! processes; third legs with small 
but distinct anterior coxal processes; legs 5-8 shorter and much more robust 
than succeeding legs; gonopod socket very large, excavated laterad, exposing 
gonopod coxae, posterior margin l^roadly rounded, a small sclerite protruding 
into socket from postero-lateral margin; socket extended to very near anterior 
margin of segment, tlie anterior portion concealed under segment 6; gonopods 
with coaxe very broad, sub-quadrate, coxal apophyses apparently lacking; 
telopodite erect, immovably joined to coxa, composed of a long, slender tibiotarsus 
which curves cephalad in a spiral, and possesses a long meso-distally curving 
process which arises on cephalic face of femur; seminal canal originating on mesal 
surface of telopodite, crossing anterior surface of femur, indicating gonopod 
twisting of over 180°. 

Metaxycheir prolata Buckett and Gardner, n. sp. 
Holotype male: Head with coronal suture prominent from vertex to region 
between antennae, then becoming no longer evident; a pair of setae situated 
on each side of suture, another adjacent pair of setae present between antennae; 
a paramedial pair of frontal setae present below antennae and separated by 
two-thirds inter-antennal width, and another pair slightly lower on frons and 
separated slightly more; ventral area of frons \\'ith transverse row of 10 stout 
setae; clypeus with 30 stout setae, lateral margins of clypeus each with a tuft of 
8 long hairs; labrum with a transverse row of 24 setae; antennae short, reaching 
back along paranotal margins only through tliird body segment, and separated 
by distance equal to second antennal segment; antennal segments 2—6 sub- 
cylindrical, narrower at basal end; segment 6 longest, with an apical sense area 
on mesal margin; segments 2-5 all sub-equal in length and slightK shorter; 
antennal segment one short, cylindrical, as broad as long and twice as broad as 
segment 2 at base; seventh segment slightK- shorter than first and slightly 
narrower than sixth, evenly rounded apically, possessing four terminal sense cones. 



68 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 






Figs. 3-6, Metaxycheir prolata, n. gen., n. sp., holotype S ■ 3, sixth leg, caudal 
view; 4, sternal and coxal regions of second, third and fourth legs, ventral view; 
5, twelfth segment, posterior view; 6, gonopod aperture with left gonopod in situ 
( dashed line illustrates extent of overlap of sixth segment ) . 



Body segments oval, almost circular, paranota small, rounded, projecting 
down about 50° from horizontal, produced from roughly the middle of the body; 
all tergites minutely pitted; collum much broader than head and just slightly 
nsuTOwer than segment 2, with strong dorsal curvature, lateral corners not visible 
from dorsal aspect; paranota of middle body segments with antero-lateral corners 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 69 

more broadly rounded than the posterior comers, the latter projecting only 
slightly caudad, their apices acutely produced only on caudal body segments; 
lateral margins of paranota broadly rounded, the aperture of repugnatorial pore 
on caudal third of margin; tracheal aperture oval, anterior aperture of each 
segment more elongate than posterior aperture. Caudal four body segments 
increasingly reduced in size, segment 19 two-thirds length of 18, distinctly 
narrower, but with distinct paranotal projections proportional to segment size; 
epiproct sub-triangular, three-fourths as long as broad, lateral margins appearing 
strongly concave from dorsal aspect; mucro extending well beyond anal lips; 
epiproct with three pairs of lateral, two pairs of dorsal and one pair of apical 
setae; anal valves rough, coriaceous; anal lips strongly produced and lined by 2 
pairs of setae; hypoproct smooth, sub-lenticular in shape, almost equally roimded 
cephalad and caudad. 

Legs with femur longest, followed in lengdi by tarsus, coxa, prefemur, post- 
femur, tibia; legs of anterior segments with many long setae on mesal surface; 
setae diminishing in number by eleventh leg-pair to two long setae on tarsi, a 
few more on other segments, with tarsi wholly covered by loosely spaced rows 
of short setae and bearing prominent apical claw; prefemoral spine greatly 
reduced, almost obsolete, its sub-tending seta of normal large proportions; second 
legs with large, cylindrical coxal processes; third pair of legs with low pair of 
sternal swellings, coxae with small anterior rounded projections; legs 5-8 extremely 
stout, their segments nearly as broad as long. 

Sternal areas distinctly projected from body, slightly lower medially than 
laterally, with a shallow, inconspicuous transverse groove between leg-pairs of 
each segment, and a shallow median longitudinal groove. 

Gonopods with coxae extremely wide laterally, though longitudinally oiiK- about 
twice as broad as telopodite, appearing trapezoidal from anterior aspect, with distal 
and basal margins horizontal, lateral and mesal margins sloping ventromesad; coxal 
apophysis apparently obsolete, a small semi-circular setiferous shelf projecting 
mesad from position basad of solenite origin; coxal foramen oval, subequal to 
circumference of coxa, and opening proximomesad; telopodite originating from 
disto-mesal region of coxa and produced directly meso-distad; femoral process 
branching from femur in proximal part of telopodite; tibiotarsus immediately 
curving gradually cephalad, this curvature increasing progressively in intensity, 
producing a spiral effect continuing for slightly more than one revolution; 
tibiotarsus half as wide and thick as liasal region of telopodite, flattened, glabrous, 
narrowing gradually its entire length to acute, extremely narrow apex; femoral 
process blade-like, broader than tibiotarsus, produced from cephalo-lateral margin 
of femur, and curving evenly mesodistad, narrowing distally and notched at 
apex; solenite emerging from swollen area on meso-cephalic margin of coxa, 
fitting immediately into seminal canal at base of telopodite; seminal canal crossing 
anterior face to lateral margin of femur distad of origin of femoral process, 
proceeding up tibiotarsus on caudal surface near lateral margin for about half 
tibiotarsus length, then along center of surface to apex. 

Specimens examined: Holotype male and two immaturcs, 7 miles 
northeast of Moscow, Nez Perce County, Idaho, 16 May 1965 (R. L. 
Westcott ) . 

The type is deposited in the Type Collection, Department of 
Entomology, University of California, Davis. 



70 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

The relationships of Metaxycheir present some interesting problems 
which should be considered in relation to the recent paper by Hoff- 
man (1964), in which the subfamily Orophinae has been defined. 
Hoffman diagnosed the subfamily as follows : "A disjunct group within 
the Xystodesmidae characterized by the retention of a prominent, 
sclerotized gonopodal sternum; by the greatly elongated gonopod 
telopodites which are rotated through a 180° torsion just beyond the 
prefemur; by the presence of a distinct sensory area on the 6th 
antennomere; and by the reduction of the prefemoral spines of the 
walking legs." 

As presently defined, the Orophinae must include Metaxycheir, as 
it possesses all of the characteristics mentioned above with the excep- 
tion of the gonopodal sternum. This character should not impede 
inclusion of Metaxycheir into the Orophinae, however, for the reasons 
given below. Chonaphe Chamberlin is a genus apparently closely 
related to Metaxycheir. In addition to the characters of the Orophinae, 
Chormphe possesses the following similarities to Metaxycheir: a long, 
spiral tibiotarsus of the gonopod, a prominent, expanded femoral 
process, a broad gonopodal coxa, a wide gonopod aperture with an 
excavated caudal margin and crassate anterior male legs. However, 
Chonaphe differs from Metaxycheir in possessing a prominent, stout 
gonopodal sternum. We agree with Hoffman that the presence of 
this sternum reflects a primitive condition, but also feel that certain 
generic lines such as Metaxycheir may have lost this condition through 
evolutionary reduction after the origin of the subfamilial group. 

Two other genera which should be included in the Orophinae, as 
it now stands, are Harpaphe Cook and Hybaphe Cook. Both genera 
possess the gonopodal torsion, the elongate telopodite, and the sense 
organ on the sixth antennomere. Hybaphe and Metaxycheir possess 
greater prefemoral spine reduction than Harpaphe and Chonaphe, 
but this character, like the gonopodal stemite, probably experienced 
reduction subsequent to the origin of the Orophinae. 

Thus, as it now stands, the subfamily Orophinae has been broadened 
to include Chonaphe Cook, Harpaphe Cook, Hybaphe Cook, Metaxy- 
cheir Buckett and Gardner, Orophe Chamberlin and Pamelaphe Hoff- 
man. There are certain probable tribal affinities within the group, but 
prior to tribal division, the other genera of Northwestern North America 
and Asia must be more thoroughly studied. 

References 

Buckett, J. S. and M. R. Gardner. 1967. A new family of cavernicolous 
millipedes with the description of a new genus and species from Idaho. Michi- 
gan Ent. 1 ( 4 ): 1 17-126, figs. 1-8. 

Hoffman, R. L. 1964. A new subfamily of Xystodesmid miUipeds from North 
America and China. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 90:301-311, figs. 1-10. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 71 

THREE NEW RECORDS OF THE GENUS PHAIVAEUS FOR GEORGIA' 

(COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE ) 

G. Truman Fincher', Robert Davis" and T. Bonner Stewart* " 

ABSTRACT — Three new records for the beetle genus Phanaeus were recorded 
in Georgia during the period of 1966-1968. These were P. vindex cijanellus 
Rol^nson, P. igneiis nigrocyanctis MacLeay and P. torrens niger D'Olsoufieff. 

To a large extent the effectiveness of nature's sanitation system is 
dependent upon coprophagous beetles. Few people realize the im- 
portant role of dung beetles in our ecosystem. Without them, our 
environment, as we know it today, would probably be very different. 
The burying of feces by these beetles is an important part in the 
decomposition of organic waste materials, particularly in the nitrogen 
cycle. Gillard (1967) reported that in the absence of dung beetles 
on pastures with cattle in North Queensland, Australia, 80% of the 
nitrogen from the cattle feces was lost by volatilization. When 
coprophagous beetles were present, this loss was reduced to 5-15%. 
The role of coprophagous beetles serving as intermediate hosts for 
certain animal parasites is also of economic importance due to the 
losses incurred from unthriftiness, morbidity, or death of parasitized 
animals. 

Investigations of the clinical and ecological aspects of the nematode- 
dung beetle relationships in south Georgia have been underway for 
the past several years at the USDA, Animal Disease and Parasite 
Research Laboratory, Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station, 
Tifton, Georgia (Stewart and Kent, 1963). This paper reports the 
capture of three dung beetles which establish new geographical 
records of the genus Phanaeus MacLeay for Georgia. 

During the period from August 1966 to June 1968, an intensive 
dung beetle trapping study was conducted in several areas of south 
Georgia using feces baited pit traps. These traps were made of 1-lb 
coffee cans 5^/2 inches deep and 4 inches in diameter buried to their 
rims in the ground. Funnels 4 inches in diameter and 3 inches deep 
were inserted in the cans. The top of each funnel had a 2^A inch metal 
disk attached across the funnel opening to hold the bait. There was 



' Journal series Paper No. 327, University of Georgia, College of Agriculture, 
Coastal Plain Station, Tifton. 

- Research Assistant, USDA, Animal Disease and Parasite Research Laboratory, 
Tifton 31794. 

^ Assistant Professor, Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Atliens 
30601. 

* Director, USDA, Animal Disease and Parasite Research Lal)orator\ , Tifton 
31794. 

''The authors wish to acknowledge and thank O. L. Cartwriglit, USNM, Wash- 
ington, D. C. for identifying the Phanaeus spp. 



72 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

a clearance of 1 inch between the edge of the disk and the top edge 
of the funnel to permit the beetles to fall through into the can. A 
paper cup that fitted the inside of the can was placed in the bottom 
of each can for ease in emptying. The traps were baited and emptied 
daily. Swine feces was used as bait. 

Three species and three subspecies of the genus Phanaeus were 
trapped. These were: Phanaeus vindex MacLeay, P. vindex cyanelhis 
Robinson, P. igneus MacLeay, P. igneiis nigrocyaneus MacLeay, and 
P. torrens niger D'Olsoufieff. Phanaeus vindex and P. igneus have 
been previously reported from Georgia. 

Only two specimens of P. vindex cyanelhis were captured and these 
were trapped in Tift County. Thirty nine specimens of P. igneus 
nigrocyaneus were trapped about 8 miles west of Tifton ( Tift County ) 
near three natural ponds surrounded by Cypress trees. This is a very 
sandy area resembling a coastal area and sand could be found to a 
depth of 5 ft or more. The soil type in this particular area is Rains 
Loamy Sand which is composed of 90% sand and 10% silt and clay. 

One hundred twenty three specimens of P. torrens niger were cap- 
tured in a swampy area about 20 miles west of Albany, Georgia, in 
Dougherty County. The soil in this area is mostly a mixture of red 
and chalky clay with scarcely any or no topsoil and is known as 
Greenville Sandy Loam. This soil type is composed of 20-30% silt 
and sand and the remaining 70-80% is clay. 

Specimens of P. torrens niger were at first found only in one area 
between two branches of Chickasawhatchee creek. They could not 
be found within one-half mile on either side of this particular trap 
site. Later trappings proved they could be found in other areas, but 
only near these particular branches. The two branches joined about 
2 miles below the first trap site and specimens of P. torrens niger were 
captured as far as 3 miles up each of the branches from the original 
trap site and 10 miles down the main creek. These beetles have now 
been found in 3 adjoining counties (Dougherty, Calhoun and Baker) 
through which this particular watershed runs. 

References 

Gillard, P. 1967. Coprophagous beetles in pasture ecosystems. Jour. Aus- 
tralian Inst. Agr. Sci. 33:30-34. 

Stewart, T. B. and K. M. Kent. 1963. Beetles serving as intermediate hosts of 
swine nematodes in southern Georgia. Jour. Parasit. 49:158-159. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 73 

NEW PERILAMPIDAE 

(Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea ) 

B. D. Burks, Systematic Entomologij Laboratory, 
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Sere, USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — Descriptions of Echthrodape africana, n. gen. and n. sp., para- 
sitic in nests of bees of the genus AUodapuh Cockerell in Kenya, East Africa; 
Perilampus philembia, n. sp., parasitic on a sclerogibbid primary parasite of 
Emhia hatesi MacLachlan in Peru; Euperilampus krombeini, n. sp., from Ari- 
zona; Chrysolampus anobii, n. sp., from wood infested with anobiid beetles in 
the state of Virginia. The genus Euperilampus Walker is recharacterized. 

In this paper I describe four new members of the family Perilampi- 
dae. First, there is a new genus for a new species that is parasitic 
in the nests of bees belonging to the genus AUodapuh Cockerell 
in Kenya, East Africa. Secondly, a new species of Perilampus Latreille 
that is a secondary parasite of the embiopteron Emhia hatesi Mac- 
Lachlan in Peru; then, a new species of Euperilampus Walker that 
was taken in collecting from flowers in southem Arizona; and, finally, 
a new, minute species of Chrysolampus Spinola that was reared from 
wood that was infested with anobiid beetles in Virginia. In addition, 
I present a characterization of the genus Euperilampus Walker, be- 
cause that genus has not before been adequately defined. 

Echthrodape, n. gen. 

Female. — Head and thorax with irregular, umbilicate punctation, gaster smooth 
and polished basally, apically faintly sculptured and with hair punctures and 
setae laterally. Head transverse, as wide as thorax; antennae inserted above level 
of ventral margins of compound eyes but below center of frons; apex of scape 
not reaching level of anterior ocellus; pedicel short, 1 ring segment, 7 funiculars, 
a 3-segmented club, the latter obscurely differentiated from funicle, fig. 1. 
Mandibles not meeting on meson when closed, almost edentate, each mandible with 
faint indication of 2 teeth, fig. 2; maxillary palp with 4 segments, labial with 3, 
fig. 3; mouthparts semirostrate. Irregular occipital carina present. Clypeus 
protruding, arcuate on meson, surface smooth, lateral margins obscure, dorsal 
margin impressed; eyes sparsely hairy and protruding laterally, height of eye 
1M> times width of malar space, the latter slightly concave; malar furrow straight, 
extending from eye to base of semirostrate mouthparts. Margins of scrobe cavity 
ecarinate; ocelli arranged in a broad triangle, lateral ocellus the same distance 
from compound eye as from median ocellus; posterior ocelli connected by 1-3 
slightly irregular, transverse carinae; occiput lacking transverse carinae. 

Pronotum anteriorly ecarinate, relatively short on dorsmn, as in North American 
species of Chrysolampus (s.s.); prepectus triangular, anterior margin not fused 
with posterior margin of pronotmu; notaulices complete, deep; each scapula with 



^ Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. 



74 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 




Figs. 1-5, 7-8, Echthrodape africana, n. gen., n. sp.: 1, antenna; 2, mandible; 
3, maxillary and labial palpi; 4, apex of exserted ovipositor; 5, basal portion of 
forewing; 7, male genitalia; 8, portion of hind leg, showing trochanters, femur. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 1, MARCH, 1969 75 

a small smooth area at its posterior marjfin, otherwise entire mesosciitum uniformly 
covered with iimliilicate punctation; axillae meeting on meson, surface of each 
axilla smooth anteriorly, sculptured posteriorly; scutellum with umbilicate puncta- 
tion, subapical crossfurrow wanting; apex of scutellum truncate, slightly up- 
turned. Forewing with costal cell relatively narrow, fig. 5; marginal vein short, 
broad, stigmal vein sessile, postmarginal vein extremely short; hindwing with 
4 hamuli. Hind coxa enlarged, rounded in cross-section, hind femur enlarged, 
with a single large, triangular tooth on ventral margin; hind tibia straight, 2 
apical spurs present; basal tarsal segment as long as second and third combined. 

Propodeum with irregular, rugose sculpture; spiracles broad, obliciue slits; neck 
absent. Very short, rudimentary petiole present, its surface smooth. Caster as 
long as thorax, its dorsal surface flattened, first gastral tergum comprising % 
length of gaster; spiracles borne by sixth tergum visible on ventral side; cerci 
borne by seventh tergum slightly protruding and located at posterior margin 
of terginn, on ventral side of gaster; ovipositor normally not visible, its apex 
not reaching apex of gaster, but when extruded it can be seen to possess strong 
rasping teeth at apex; hypopygium produced almost to apex of gaster. 

Male. — Antigeny not great; gaster slightly longer than thorax, first gastral 
tergum comprising Vi length of gaster; spiracles of sixth tergiun and cerci borne 
by seventh tergimi visible on ventral surface. Penis valve broad, tapering abruptly 
at apex to a minute, recurved point; each sagitta broad, rounded, bearing 4 
acute apical teeth. 

Type-species. — EchtJirodape africana, n. sp. 

This genus is allied to Chnjsolampus as represented by its type- 
species Diplolepis splendidida Spinola, in that the head is transverse, 
the antennae have the formula 1:1:1:7:3, the thorax has rugose sculp- 
ture dorsally, and the gaster is approximately as long as the thorax. 
The two differ in that Chnjsolampus has an elongate petiole, each 
mandible is elongate, with 2 large teeth, the marginal vein is long 
and slender, and the cerci are not exserted. In Echthrodape the 
abdomen is virtually sessile, each mandible is reduced to a short, 
rudimentary structure with 2 minute teeth, the marginal vein is short 
and thick, and the cerci are exserted. 

Family placement of this genus presented a problem. It might 
almost with equal reason have been assigned to the Torymidae, 
Pteromalidae, or Perilampidae. It seems, however, to have a slight 
preponderance of perilampid characters, so I have placed it in that 
family. 

Echthrodape africana, n. sp. 

Female. — Length, 3.5-4.0 mm. All pubescence silvery except on hind legs, 
where it becomes golden; head metallic blue, shading to brassy-green on face; 
antennae black, scape with metallic green luster; thorax bright metallic blue 
with purple highlights, tegulae tan, wingveins black; forewing shaded with dark 

tibia and basal 2 tarsal segments. Figs. 6, 9, EupcriUmipiis kromhcini, n. sp.: 6, 
dorsal aspect of scutellum, showing transverse, arcuate rugae and apical flange; 
9, lateral aspect of head. Fig. 10, Chrysohimpiis anohii, n. sp., anterior aspect of 
head. Fig. 11, EuiuTilarnpiis hyalinu.s (Say), lateral aspect of head. 



76 PHOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

brown behind marginal and stigmal veins and along paths of obsolete veins; 
trochanters brown, mid femora brown, apices yellow, hind femora metallic bine, 
apices yellow; all tibiae tan shaded with brown in the middle; all tarsi tan; 
propodeum and gaster metallic blue with purple highlights. 

Pedicel of antenna IMj times as long as wide, ring segment V2 as long as 
pedicel, funicular segments 1-7 slightly wider than long, club as long as 2 basal 
funiculars. Apical segment of maxillary palp as long as second and third segments 
combined, apical segment of labial palp almost as long as first and second seg- 
ments, fig. 3; ocellocular line equal to long diameter of lateral ocellus and % the 
postocellar line. 

Punctation of pronotum and anterior area of praescutum somewhat obscured 
by short, irregular, transverse carinulae; mesoscutum with clear-cut umbilicate 
punctation over most of its extent, interstices on praescutum with minute, closely 
set striae, interstices on scapulae and scutellum smooth; prepectus with faint, 
closely set, linear striae; dorsal sector of mesepimeron almost entirely smooth, 
ventral sector shagreened; metapleuron densely setose and punctate; hind coxa 
densely setose ventrally, shagreened and asetose dorsally; hind femur punctate, 
setose on outer side, interstices dull, sculptured, tooth on outer ventral margin, 
fig. 8, located at 2.3 the distance from base to apex of femur; inner side of 
femur smooth, shining; hind tibia densely covered with short, golden setae. 
Forewing, fig. 5, with submarginal vein 4 times as long as marginal, postmarginal 
% as long as marginal, and stigmal Ms as long as marginal; fringe at margin of 
wing absent anteriorly and apically, very short and inconspicuous posteriorly; 
hindwing with 1 or 2 straight and 2 hooked hamuli. 

Propodeum witli rugose, irregular sculpture, a shallow, pentagonal pit located 
on meson at base; spiracles not quite touching anterior margin of propodeum. 
Rudimentary petiole smooth, shining, twice as broad as long. Gaster as long 
as thorax, flattened dorsally, first tergum smooth, asetose and comprising M3 
dorsal surface of gaster, its posterior margin with a minute, median emargination; 
following gastral terga lightly sculptured and bearing hair punctures and short 
setae in basolateral areas; rudimentary eighth tergum present, bearing about 
10 long bristles. Ovipositor, fig. 4, bearing strong rasping teetli. 

Male. — Length, 3.5-4.5 mm. Color and structure essentially as in female; 
transverse carinulae hardly visible on thoracic dorsum; forewing with marginal 
fringe well developed; gaster slightly longer than thorax; first gastral tergum 
comprising % dorsal length of gaster; hair punctures and setae on terga 2-6 
more extensive than in female, covering most of dorsal surface; eighth tergum 
not visible; male genitalia as in fig. 7. 

Type locality. — Nairobi, Kenya. 

Holotype.— USNM 69936. 

Described from the holotype 9 , allotype i , and 15,3c? paratypes 
from Nairobi, Kenya, reared May 11, 1967, from the nests of AUo- 
dapula sp. in dead stems of Lantana camara by C. D. Michener. The 
holotype, allotype, and 2 S paratypes are deposited in the USNM 
collection; I 9, I S paratypes are deposited in the British Museum 
(Natural History) collection. 

Biological relationships. — This species is apparently a primary para- 
site of the larva of a bee belonging to the genus Allodapida. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 77 

Perilanipus philenibia, n. sp. 

Female. — Lengtli, 1.75-2.50 mm. Black, thoracic dorsum with metallic blue 
or green luster; antennae tan; wings hyaline, venation dark brown; hind coxae 
and all femora dark brown with faint metallic blue luster, tibiae yellow shaded 
with tan at bases, tarsi yellow with apical segment of each tan. Head, body, 
and legs sparsely clothed with silver>' pubescence. 

Head smooth and shining, occiput with closely set, parallel striae, these extend- 
ing onto lateral area of each gena; clypeus as broad as high, clearly deUmited 
laterally and dorsally liy impressed sutures; right mandible with .3 teeth, left 
with 2; malar groove present, but weak, straight; width of malar space % eye 
height; eyes bare; frons and vertex entirely without carinae or other sculpture; 
apex of antennal scape not reaching level of anterior ocellus, pedicel IV^ times 
as long as wide, ring segment % length of pedicel all funicular segments broader 
than long, club as long as basal .3 funiculars; vertex broad, rounded, ocelli in a 
broad triangle; ocellocular line -'f, as long as postocellar line. 

Pronotum with carinate anterior margin dorsally, laterally with a few umbilicate 
pimctures continued from lateral surface of pronotum onto anterior face of 
segment; prepectus clearly separated from pronotimi by a complete anterior 
suture, prepectus smooth and shining on disc, with a row of large, semiquadrate 
punctures along lateral and ventral margins; mesal half of each scapula smootli, 
shining; axilla with closely set, longitudinal surface striae; anterolateral area of 
scutellum smooth, shining, with 2 or 3 incomplete, quadrate pimctures at anterior 
and ventral margins, apical frenum with a dorsal and ventral row of large, quadrate 
punctures, scutellum otherwise umbilicate-punctate; mesopleuron mostly smooth 
and shining, but with a vertical row of large round punctures on episternum, a 
broad, dull, depressed area at femoral groove, and usually 2 large, round punc- 
tures on epimeron; metapleuron with depressed, irregular scidpture dorsalK , 
smooth and shining ventrally; all coxae smooth and shining, hairy on anterior 
surface; femora clothed with slender setae, tibiae with stout, short setae; forewing 
with marginal and postmarginal veins equal in length, stigmal half as long as 
marginal, and sul^marginal 3Vi times as long as marginal; hindwing with 1 
straight and 2 hooked hamuli. 

Propodeum with strong median carina, 2 ovate pits on each side of it at base, 
a pair of semiquadrate pits on each side of median carina posterior to basal ones; 
space between these pits and spiracidar areas smooth, but not shining; neck at 
apex of propodeum short, a pair of ovate pits on meson at its base, surface 
otherwise with closely set, transverse striae. Rudimentary petiole broader than 
long, surface shining, slightly roughened. Giister smooth, shining, % as long as 
thorax; ovipositor sheaths, visible on venter, densely hairy. 

Male. — Length, 1.75-2.0 mm. Color as in female, structure essentially as in 
female; anterior surface of antennal scape minutely shagreencd on apical %: 
gaster % as long as thorax; subgenital plate sparsely clothed with short hair, 
apex rounded. 

This species is related to Pcrilampus politifrons Howard (1894), 
described from the West Indies island of St. Vincent, in that the vertex 
is broad, the frons lacks carinae or sculpture of any kind, the mesal 
half of each scapula is smooth and shining, and, in the male, the 
gaster is % as long as the thorax and the subgenital plate is sparsely 



78 PBOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

hairy with the apex rounded. The two differ in that the thoracic 
dorsum in politifrons is completely black, but has metallic blue or 
green luster in ])hileTnbia., the malar space is short in politifrons, only 
Vs the eye height, but it is % the eye height in this species; the prepectus 
is partly fused with the pronotum in politifrons, but is clearly separated 
in this species; and the postmarginal vein in politifrons is % as long 
as the marginal, but it is as long as the marginal in this species. 

Type locality. — Tingo Maria, Peru. 

Holotype. — In the California Academy of Sciences collection, San 
Francisco, California. 

Described from the holotype 9 , allotype £ , and 2 9 9,1 6 paratypes 
reared from cocoons of an unidentified sclerogibbid primary parasite 
of the embiopteron Embio batesi MacLachlan at Tingo Maria, Peru, 
Nov. 1-12, 1954, by E. I. Schlinger and E. S. Ross. The holotype, 
allotype, and 1 9 paratype are deposited in the California Academy 
of Sciences collection; 19,16 paratypes are deposited in the U. S. 
National Museum. 

Biological relationships. — This is a secondary parasite, emerging 
from the cocoons of a sclerogibbid ( Hymenoptera, Bethyloidea) pri- 
mary parasite of Embia batesi MacLachlan ( Embioptera ) . 

Ferilampus politifrons Howard ( 1894 ) , the species with which I 
compare philembia, was described from 2 £ S cotypes, 1 of which is 
in the U. S. National Museum. 

Genus Euperilampus Walker 

The genus Euperilampus Walker ( 1871) is customarily characterized 
as a perilampid with the scutellum "produced into a long spine" 
(Ashmead, 1904). However, this is a highly variable character and 
one that also occurs in other perilampid genera, such as Monacon 
Waterston ( 1922 ) . The significant difference between Euperilampus 
and other perilampids is that the prepectus in Euperilampus is reduced 
to a minute sclerite, much smaller than the tegula, that is visible at 
the dorsolateral angle of the pronotum. In other perilampids the 
prepectus is a triangular sclerite, much larger than the tegula, with 
its long anterior margin in contact with the posterior margin of the 
pronotum. Riek (1966) has also pointed out that Euperilampus has 
the postmarginal vein much longer than the marginal. 

Inasmuch as Euperilampus has never been adequately defined, and 
I am describing a new species in it in this paper, I present the follow- 
ing characterization of the genus: 

Malar furrow absent; left mandible with 2 large teeth, right mandible with 3; 
clypeus broader than high or as broad as high, ventral border with a broad, 
shallow, median emargination. Antenna with the formula, 1:1:1:7:3, with 
appendiculate segment clearly visible at apex of club. Scrobe cavity strongly 
carinate, anterior ocellus located just inside the cavity. Ocelli lying almost in a 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 79 

straight transverse line. Parascrobal spaces with vertical carinae, occiput with 
transverse carinae. 

Anterior margin of pronotum strongly carinate, projecting shghtly anteriorly 
so as to form a shallow cavity into which occiput of head normally fits. Prepectus 
reduced to a minute structure smaller than tegula. Forewing with postmarginal 
vein longer than marginal, stigmal and marginal veins subequal or equal in length. 
Hind tibia with 2 spurs of approximately the same length. Scutellum produced 
over propodeum and base of gaster, apex of scutellum may be spinelike, shelflike, 
ligulate, or produced as a narrow truncation. 

Propodeum with a median, longitudinal indentation which may be a groove, 
an elongate triangle, or a furrow. Gaster broad, shorter than thorax in both sexes, 
with terminal tergites reflexed anteriorly on venter, dorsum composed of fused 
first and second terga, with basal portion of third terguni usually dorsal, but 
most of third tergum lying obliquely ventrad. 

Type-species. — Perilampus gloriosus Walker. 

Euperilanipus krombeini, n. sp. 

Female. — Length, 5.0-6.0 mm. Head metallic blue with purple highlights, 
shading to green on vertex; antennal scape dark metallic blue, pedicel and 
flagellum dark brown; thorax metallic green, pleura tinged with blue and purple; 
propodeum and gaster green; wings hyaline, veins and paths of obsolete veins 
brown; coxae, trochanters, and femora blue, tibiae dark brown, tarsi tan; all 
pubescence silvery. 

Width of malar space V^ eye height; ocellocular line % the postocellar line; 
vertical carinae of parascrobal spaces weak, irregular; height of clypeus ''4 its 
maximum width; lateral margins of scrobe cavity, fig. 9, not produced near 
bases, as in iriangularis ( Say), fig. 11. 

Dorsum of pronotum and mesoscutum with sculpture formed of rows of closel\- 
set punctures interspersed among somewhat irregular, transverse rugae; scutellum 
with stronger, arcuate rugae, apex of scutellum, fig. 6, rounded, projecting over 
propodeum and base of gaster; forewing with marginal and stigmal veins equal 
in length, postmarginal 3 times as long as marginal and V2 as long as submarginal; 
hindwing with 1 straight and 2 hooked hanuili, the two types separated by a 
space as great as length of straight hamulus. 

Propodeum vertical, with a median, vertical furrow, space on each side of 
furrow with slightly irregular, closely set, transverse carinulae; spiracles touching 
anterior margin of propodeum. Minute, smooth petiole visible. Gaster % as long 
as thorax, smooth and shining; 2 small, ovate, roughened areas at base of first 
gastral tergum and a median, longitudinal row of closely set punctures extending 
from base % the distance to apex of first tergum, a pair of broadly arcuate lines 
of punctures joining apex of median pimctate line; second tergiun bearing hair 
punctures laterally; third tergum with a Ijand of hair punctures completely crossing 
basal half; following terga reflexed beneath gaster, fourth tergum usually visible 
beneatli third, following terga not visible without dissection, but apex of ovipositor 
.sheaths and cerci usually protruding beneath reflexed fovirth tergum. 

Male. — Length, 4.0-5.5 mm. Antigeny slight; antennal flagellum usuaih- dark 
tan and propodeum metallic blue with purple highlights. Gaster slightly shorter 
than in female. 

This species differs from tiian^iilaris (Say) in having the scutelkim 



80 PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

less produced at the apex, in having the parascrobal carinae weaker, 
in lacking a prominent projection on the lateral scrobe margin, and 
in having a median vertical groove on the propodeum instead of a 
triangular depression. This species agrees with triangularis in all the 
generic characters listed above, and the two are much alike in color, 
both being predominantly metallic green. This species certainly is 
different from the type-species of Euperilampus, gloriosus, described 
from Mexico, because gloriosus has the scutellum produced as a long 
spine and the gaster is copper colored. I have not seen the type of 
gloriosus, but the late A. B. Gahan studied it in 1927 and made detailed 
notes on it. These notes are preserved in the U. S. National Museum, 
and I have made full use of them. 

Type locality. — Tucson, Arizona. 

Holotype.— USNM 69937. 

Described from the holotype $ , allotype $ , and 1 $ , 4 S S paratypes 
collected on flowers at Tucson, Arizona, Aug. 6, 1959, by K. V. Krom- 
bein, and 1 9,2 S S paratypes collected on flowers at Continental, 
Arizona, Aug. 2-4, 1959, by K. V. Krombein. 

Biological relationships. — Nothing is known of the host of this 
species; the types were taken on flowers along with aculeate Hymenop- 
tera. It is likely, however, that this species is a secondary parasite. 

Chrysolanipus anobii, n. sp. 

Female. — Length, 1.8 mm. Black; antennal scape dark brown, flagellum tan; 
mandibles tan; tegulae tan, wings hyaline, veins pale tan; legs shining brown, with 
tarsi pale tan. 

Head smooth and shining, occiput with transverse, closely set striae; malar 
furrow faint but present; left mandible with 2 large, acute teeth, right mandible 
with 3; clypeus IV2 times as broad as high, ventral margin broadly rounded, 
fig. 10; antennae inserted well above level of ventral margins of compound eyes; 
scrobe cavity shallow, margins ecarinate; pedicel and first funicular segment 
equal in length, second funicular % as long as first, second to seventh funiculars 
equal in length, club 1% as long as pedicel. Vertex smoothly rounded and broad, 
without sculpture or carinae; ocellocular line % as long as postocellar line; head 
wider than thorax. 

Pronotiun with a strong, transverse carina and 2 rows of gross, quadrate, 
umbilicate punctures; praescutum with gross, semiquadrate, umbilicate punctures, 
interstices lamellate; scapulae mostly smooth and shining, becoming sparsely 
punctate laterally; prepectus large, triangular, and flat, anterior margin not fused 
with pronotal margin, surface smooth and shining, a row of large punctures along 
dorsal and ventral margins; scutellum with gross, quadrate or pentagonal, umbili- 
cate punctures, interstices lamellate; axillae almost smootli, very faintly aciculate. 
Forewing with submarginal vein 2^ times as long as marginal, postmarginal % 
as long as marginal, and stigmal V4 as long as marginal; stigmal vein lying almost 
at right angles to marginal vein; marginal fringe of wing long. 

Propodeum with median carina and sculptured lateral and posterior margins, 
otherwise smooth; small nucha at apex of propodeum. Petiole almost as long as 



PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 81 

hind coxa, twice as long as wide, surface dull, minutely sculptured. Gaster 
smooth, shining; entire dorsal surface of gaster composed of the fused first and 
second giistral terga, following terga telescoped beneath these and not visible 
without dissection; gaster slightly wider than thorax, both narrower than head; 
gaster and thorax equal in length. 

Male. — Length, 1.8 mm. Identical to female except in structure of subgenital 
plate. Antennal scape not modified, as in males of Perilampttfi. 

This species is related to Chnjsolampus lycti Crawford in having 
the same type of distinctive sculpture on the thoracic dorsum, in 
having a strong, transverse carina on the dorsum of the pronotum, 
and in having the abdomen petiolate. They differ in that anohii is 
much smaller (only 1.8 mm. as against 3.0-4.0 mm. in lycti) \ anohii is 
black, while lycti has metallic coloration; and the irons in anohii is 
smooth, but it is heavily sculptured in lycti. 

Type locality. — Williamsburg, Va. 

Holotype.— USNM 69940. 

Described from the holotype 9 , allotype $ , and I 9 ,2 i i paratypes 
reared in 1961 at Williamsburg, Va., from wood infested with unde- 
teiTuined anobiid beetles by Sims. The holotype and allotype are in 
the USNM collection; the paratypes are deposited in the British Mu- 
seum (Natural History) collection. I am indebted to G. J. Kerrich 
for sending me this interesting species for description. 

References 
Ashmead, W. H. 1904. Classification of the Chalcid Flies. Mem. Carnegie 

Mus. 1(4):225-551. 
Howard, L. O. 1894. In C. V. Riley, William H. Ashmead, and L. O. Howard, 

Report upon the Parasitic Hymenoptera of the Island of St. Vincent. Linn. Soc. 

London Jour.-Zool. 25:56-254. 
Riek, E. F. 1966. Australian Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Family Pteromalidae, 

Subfamily Perilampinae. Austr. Jour. Zool. 14:1207-1236. 
Walker, F. 1871. Notes on Chalcidiae, pt. 4. London, E. W. Janson, pp. 55-70. 
Waterstoii, J. 1922. On Chalcidoidea. Indian Forest Records 9:51-94. 



82 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

THE NEOTROPIC SPECIES OF XANTHOPIMPLA 

( Hymenoptera: Ichxeumoxidae ) 

Henry Townes, American Entomological Institute, 
5950 Warren Road, Ann Arhor, Michigan 48105 

ABSTRACT — There is a key to all the known Neotropic species of Xanthopimpla 
Saussure, synonymy, descriptions, distributional data, and figures of propodea. 
The names olfersi Krieger and phoenicura Krieger are synonymized with aiirita 
Krieger. X. rhabdomera, from Brazil, is described as new. 

XantJwpimpIa Saussure, 1892, is a tropical genus, represented in 
the Old World by about 300 species, and about 20 species groups. 
In the New World there is only one species group with 5 known 
species. The genus is easy to recognize, containing stout-bodied 
ephialtines of lemon-yellow color (rarely fulvous or ferruginous), 
usually with black spots on the thorax and abdomen, and often with 
black markings on the hind leg. The mandible is quite narrow at the 
tip, with only its upper tooth visible from front view, the lower tooth 
being shorter and behind the upper tooth. The clypeus is divided 
across the middle by a transverse suture. The hosts of Xanthopimpla 
are lepidopterous pupae. 

All the Neotropic species may be included in a single species 
group, which is here called the Aurita Group. Krieger recognized 
7 species of Xanthopimpla in the Neotropic Region ( 1914. Arch, 
f. Natvirgesch. (A) 80 (6 & 7) ). One of them (macnira Krieger) was 
based on a mislabeled specimen of the Oriental X. regina Morley 
(see Townes, 1961. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 63: 175). The other 
6 are in the treatment below, two of them as synonyms. 

The present author, and Miss Shui-Chen Chiu are working on a 
revision of the Indo-Australian species of Xanthopimpla, financed by 
a grant from the National Science Foundation. As a by-product of 
this investigation the small number of Neotropic species is reported 
upon here. I am indebted to the National Science Foundation for 
financial support, to Dr. E. Konigsmann for loan of the Krieger 
material in the Berlin museum, to Dr. Max Fischer for loan of a 
Krieger type in Vienna, to Dr. Howard Evans for loan of specimens 
at Cambridge, to Dr. W. R. M. Mason for loan of those at Ottawa, 
and to Miss Luella Walkley for loan of those at Washington. The 
drawings were made under the supervision of Prof. Masaaki Tokunaga, 
of Kyoto. 

Description of the Aurita Group 

Front wing 6.4 to 11.5 mm. long. Body stout. Dorsal part of occipital carina 
present or absent. Lower front corner of pronotum a sharp angle of about 115°. 
Mesoscutum covered with hairs that arise from small punctures, the setiferous 
punctures separated by about 0.7 the length of the hairs. Notaulus reaching to 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 83 

an imaginary line connecting the front 0.3 of tegulae, the crest at its front end 
moderately high to very high. Mesopleurum with sparse hairs on most of its 
surface, the punctures on its lower front third small and weak, separated by 
about 4 times their diameter. Lower part of mesopleurum without a sternaulus- 
like horizontal furrow. Postpectal carina a high crescentic flange, the flange 
with a shallow notch at center. Scutellum evenly convex, its lateral flanges 
ratlier low, reaching to or nearly to apex, gradually becoming lower posteriad. 
Middle and hind tibiae with 3 to 7 preapical bristles. Largest bristle of tarsal 
claws uniformly pale-colored and not expanded near apex. Areolet complete, 
receiving second recurrent vein about 0.35 from its apex. Nervulus opposite 
basal vein. Brachiella pigmented 0.1 to 0.8 the distance to wing margin. First 
tergite of moderate proportions, its dorsolateral carina complete or mostly com- 
plete, its median dorsal carinae ending between spiracle and the oblique grooves. 
Ovipositor sheath 0.33 to 1.1 as long as hind tibia. Ovipositor tip weakly de- 
curved, its dorsal valve with distinct transverse ridges. 

This species group is confined to the Neotropic Region. Five species are 
known, as treated below. 

Key to the Neotropic Species of Xanthopiinpla ( AuRi ta Group ) 

1. Propodeum with only the apical transverse carina present (fig. 5); abdomen 

entirely yellow — - 5. peruana Krieger 

Propodeum with both basal and apical transverse carinae (figs. 1-4); ab- 
domen usually with brown or black markings 2 

2. Dorsal part of occipital carina lacking; ovipositor sheath about 1.1 as long 

as hind tibia; mesepimeron and stripe on front edge of mesopleurum nearly 

always dark brown 3. aurita Krieger 

Dorsal part of occipital carina present (but weak); ovipositor sheath 0.33 
to 0.70 as long as hind tibia; mesepimeron and front edge of mesopleurum 
entirely yellow, or sometimes the dorsal end of mesepimeron brown 3 

3. Outer side of second lateral area of propodeum completely open (fig. 4); 

hind femur with a brown stripe on front side 4. rhabdoniera, n. sp. 

Outer side of second lateral area of propodeum partly or entirely closed 
by a carina (figs. 1 and 2); hind femur entirely yellow or striped with 
black _ 4 

4. Areola separated from second lateral area by a complete or subcomplete 

carina; hind first trochanter and nearly always also hind coxa marked 

with blackish — 1. craspedoptera Krieger 

Areola confluent with second lateral area; hind first trochanter and hind 
coxa entirely yellow 2. spiloptera Krieger 

1. Xanthopimpla craspedoptera Krieger 
(Fig. 1) 
Xanthopimpla craspedoptera Krieger, 1914. Arch. f. Naturgesch. (A) 80 (6): 26. 
key; (A) 80 (7): 67. 9. description, figures. Type: 9, Colombia: Bogota 
( Berlin ) . 

Front wing 6.4 to 8.5 mm. long. Occipital carina complete above (but weak). 
Transverse crests at front end of mesoscutum high. Lateral flange of scutellum 
about 0.25 as high at its midlength as tlie flagellum is wide. Propodeum as in 



84 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 





4. X. rhabdomera 




3. X. aurita 
Figs. 1-5. Propodea of the Neotropic species of Xanthopimpki. 



fig. 1. Ovipositor sheath 0.33 to 0.44 as long as hind tibia. Ridges on ovipositor 
tip moderately numerous and moderately strong. 

Yellow, with variable dark markings, typically as follows: Ocellar area, often 
two small spots on occiput, band on center of mesoscutum, short band in front 
of scutellum, band on base of propodeum, hind half of tegula, spot on upper 
division of metapleurum, often a stripe on under side of middle femur, spot on 
front side of hind coxa, basal part of middle and hind first trochanter, small 
stripe on front and larger stripe on hind face of hind femur, and bands on all 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 85 

tergites, black. Scape and pedicel usually brownish above. Flagellum brown 
to blackish, paler at base and at extreme ape.x. Upper end of mesepimeron 
sometimes brown. Wings with a weak tinge of yellowish brown, the apical 
margin of front wing faintly to moderately infuscate. Ovipositor sheath yellowish, 
brownish near apex. 

Sometimes the mesostemum is marked with black. The blackish markings on 
the legs are variable and sometimes absent. The small black spot on upper 
division of metapleurum is a characteristic color marking for the species, but 
sometimes this is absent. Often some of the abdominal bands are brown rather 
than black, or the basal and apical ones may be lacking. Some of the hairs on 
the legs and abdomen may be brown. 

Specimens : 9 ( type ) , Bogota, Colombia, Lindig ( Berlin ) . 9 , Puerto 
Libre, Dept. Choco, Colombia, Dec. 17, 1967, C. A. Triplehorn 
(Townes). 5, Turrialba, Costa Rica, May 21, Heyne (Berlin). $, 
3 9, Turrialba, Costa Rica, Aug., 1963, C. C. Porter (Cambridge). 
9 , Coca, Ecuador, May, 1965, Luis Pena (Townes ). 9 , Barro Colorado 
Is., Canal Zone, Panama, 1956, C. W. & M. E. Rettenmeyer (Ottawa). 
9, Caiio Saddle, Gatim Lake, Panama, May 3, 1923, R. C. Shannon 
(Washington). 9, Avispas (near Marcapata), Peru, Sept., 1962, Luis 
Pefia (Townes). 9, Quincemil, Peru, Oct. 20-30, 1962, Luis Peiia 
(Townes). 9, Tingo Maria, Peru, Oct. 5-12, 1964, C. C. Porter 
(Cambridge). 9, "South America" (Berlin). 

This species ranges from Costa Rica to Peiii. 

2. Xanthopimpla spiloptera Krieger 

(Fig. 2) 
Xanthopimpla spiloptera Krieger, 1914. Archiv. f. Naturgesch. (A) 80 (6): 26. 
key; (A) 80 (7): 69. 9. description, figures. Type: 9, Brazil (Vienna). 

Front wing 8.0 to 9.5 mm. long. Occipital carina complete dorsally (but weak). 
Transverse crests at front end of mesoscutum high. Propodeum as in fig. 2. 
Lateral flange of scutellum about 0..35 as high at its midlength as the width of 
flagellum. Ovipositor sheath 0.66 to 0.70 as long as hind tibia. Transverse 
ridges on ovipositor tip of moderate number and strength. 

Yellow. Ocellar area, sometimes two spots on occiput, a transverse row of 3 
adjacent spots across center of mesoscutum, short band in front of scutelhmi, 
band at base of propodeum, and hind half of tegula, black. Scape and pedicel 
yellow, tinged with brown above. Flagellum yellowish, brownish yellow near 
middle, its apical 0.4 blackish brown with the tip light brown. Wings sub- 
hyaline, the apex of front wing weakly infuscate. Abdomen of type with a dark 
i brown, wedge-shaped mark, covering area near spiracle on each side of tergite 
1, and central part of all tergites fulvous brown. Abdomen of specimen from 
Nova Teutonia yellow with a black liaiul on tergites 3-5. 0\ipositor sheath 
blackish, brown basally. 

Specimens: 9 (type), "Br." and an illegible word (Berlin). 9, 
Nova Teutonia, Santa Catarina, Brazil, Mar. 20, 1948, Fritz Plaumann 
I ( TowTies ) . 



86 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MAKCH, 1969 

3. Xanthopinipla aurita Krieger 

(Fig. 3) 

Xanthopimplu phoenicura Krieger, 1914. Arch. f. Naturgesch. (A) 80 (6): 25. 

key; (A) 80 (7): 64. $. description, figures. Type: 9, Brazil (Vienna). 

New synonym. 
Xanthopimplu olfersi Krieger, 1914. Arch. f. Naturgesch. (A) 80 (6): 26. 

key; (A) 80 (7): 66. 9. description. Type: $, Brazil (Berlin). New 

synonym. 
Xanthopinipla aurita Krieger, 1914. Arch. f. Naturgesch. (A) 80 (6): 26. 

key; (A) 80 (7): 71. 5- description, figures. Type: ?, Bolivia: Mapiri 

(Berlin). 

Front wing 7.7 to 11.5 mm. long. Occipital carina lacking from upper 0.35 
of its nomial circle. Transverse crests at front end of mesoscutum very high. 
Lateral flange of scuteUum about 0.33 as high at its midlength as the flagellum 
is wide. Propodeum about as in fig. 3, the areola sometimes separated from 
second lateral area by a partial carina and the carina closing outer side of second 
lateral area sometimes incomplete or absent. Ovipositor sheath about 1.1 as 
long as hind tibia. Transverse ridges on ovipositor tip numerous and strong. 

Yellowish with variable darker markings, typically as follows: Ocellar area, 
two spots on occiput, band on center of mesoscutum, short band in front of 
scuteUum, band at base of propodeum, hind 0.4 of tegula, front margin of 
mesopleurum, mesepimeron, pleural margins of sockets of middle and hind coxae, 
spot on lower part of base of hind coxa, spot on lower part of first hind trochanter, 
stripe on under side of middle and hind femora, and irregular area on each side 
of first tergite basad of the oblique grooves, dark brown. Scape and pedicel light 
brown, yellowish below. Flagellum brown, its subapical portion blackish. Hind 
femur with some indefinite fulvous or light brown areas. Wings tinged with 
brownish, the apex of front wing faintly darkened. Central part and spiracular 
area of tergites 2 and following fulvous to dark brown. Ovipositor sheath light 
brown, darker near apex. 

The stripes on the femora are sometimes lacking and sometimes the dark brown 
pleural markings are reduced or lacking. The dark brown mesepimeron and front 
margin of mesopleurum, though sometimes lacking, are a characteristic of the 
species. 

Specimens: 2 (type of aurita), Bolivia, bought from Staiidinger 
(Berlin). 9 (type of olfersi), Brazil, Olfers (Berlin). 9 (type of 
phoenicura), Brazil, Beske (Vienna). ?, Campina Grande (near 
Curitiba), Brazil, Feb. 17, 1966, H. & M. Townes (Townes). ?, 
Capital, Sao Paulo, Brazil, John Lane (Cambridge). 2 S, 4 9, 
Represa do Rio Grande, Guanabara, Brazil, Jan., June, Oct., & Nov., 
1966 & 1967, M. Alvarenga (Townes)." S,5 9, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
March 4, 5, & 6, 1966, H. & M. (Townes). 5 5, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
Sept. 1938 & Jan. 1939, R. C. Shannon (Washington). 9, Monteverde, 
Costa Rica, Jan. 5, 1962, Charles Palmer (Townes). S, Turrialba, 
Costa Rica, 1963, C. C. Porter (Cambridge). 9, Mexico, Sept. 31, 
collector's name illegible (Berlin). 2, Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama, 
Aug. 6, 1924, N. Banks (Cambridge). 9, Barro Colorado Is., Canal 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 87 

Zone, Panama, Mar. 22, 1937, S. W. Frost (Washington). 9, Barro 
Colorado Is., Canal Zone, Panama, July 16, 1924, N. Banks (Cam- 
bridge). ?, Cano Saddle, Gatmi Lake, Panama, May 3, 1923, R. C. 
Shannon ( Washington ) . i , reared from pupa of Alabama argillacea, 
Guacara, Venezuela, June 30, 1943, C. H. Ballon (Washington). 9, 
El Valle, Districto Federal, Venezuela, July 18, 1939, G. Vivas Berthier 
(Townes). $, "Santigo Maria, May 16, 1954, M. S. V." (Washington). 

This species ranges from Mexico to southern Brazil. In the author's 
experience, adults occur in low dense herbage, along the edges of 
damp forests. 

4. Xanthopimpla rhabdomera, n. sp. 
(Fig. 4) 

Front wing 8.2 to 9.2 mm. long. Occipital carina complete above (but weak). 
Transverse crests at front end of mesoscutum high. Lateral flange of scutellum 
about 0.2 as high at its midlength as the flagellum is wide. Propodeum as in 
fig. 4. Ovipositor sheath 0.40 to 0.47 as long as hind tibia. Transverse ridges 
on ovipositor tip few and weak. 

Yellow. Ocellar area, two spots on occiput, band across center of mesoscutum 
and a shorter one in front of scutellum, hind 0.4 of tegula, band across base of 
propodeum, band on tergites 1 and 3-6, and usually band on tergite 2, black. 
The band on tergite 1 (when present), turned forward at the sides, and often 
this band brown rather than black. Central part of base of tergite 7 brown. 
Scape and pedicel often brown above. Flagellum blackish brown, yellowish at 
base. Front side of hind coxa often with a brown area. Front side of hind femur 
with a broad brown stripe. Last segment of middle tarsus brownish apically. 
Last segment of hind tarsus brown. Wings tinged with brownish, the ape\ of 
front wing infuscate. Ovipositor sheath black. 

Type: 9, Nova Teutonia, Santa Catarina, Brazil, Dec. 18, 1952, 
Fritz Plaumann (Townes). 

Paratypes: 2, same data as type but dated Jan. 12, 1953 (Townes). 
2 9, Nova Teutonia, 27° 11' S., 52° 23' W., 300-500 m., Fritz Plaumann 
( Ottawa ) . 

5. Xanthopimpla peruana Krieger 
(Fig. 5) 
Xanthopimpla peruana Krieger, 1914. Arch. f. Naturgesch. (A) 80 (6): 25. 
Key; (A) 80 (7): 73. $, 9. description, figures. Lectotype: 9, Peru: 
Dept. Cuzco (Berlin). Lectotype designated by Townes & Townes, 1966. 

Front wing 7.6 to 8.2 mm. long. Occipital carina complete dorsally (but weak). 
Transverse crests at front end of mesoscutum of medium height. Lateral flange 
of scutellum about 0.17 as high at its midlength as the flagellum is wide. 
Propodeum as in fig. 5. Ovipositor sheatli about 0.60 as long as hind tibia. 
Transverse ridges on ovipositor tip moderately strong and moderately numerous. 

Yellow. Ocellar area, transverse band on middle of mesoscutum and a shorter 
one in front of scutellum, black. Hind half of tegula brown. Scape and pedicel 
brownish, yellow below. Flagellum ])lack, brownish at base. Fifth segment 
of hind tarsus brown. Wings sulihyaline, the apex of front wing infuscate. 
Ovipositor sheath black, its base brownish. 



88 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

Specimens: S, 4 9 (lectotype 5 and paratypes), Dept. Cuzco, 
Peru, Carlepp, (Berlin). 9 (paratype), "Cajon, Bergland," 1500 m., 
Dept. Cuzco, Peru, May 1, 1901, Carlepp (Berlin). 9, Abitagua, 
1200 m., Ecuador, May 27, 1939, Wm. Clarke-Maclntyre (Townes). 



MATING AND OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR OF THE 
COFFEE LEAF MINER, LEUCOPTERA COFFEELLA^ 

( Lepidoptera : Lyonetiidae ) 

David W. Walker and Victor Quintana, Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, 
Matjaguez, Puerto Rico 00708- 

ABSTRACT — Observations were made on the mating and oviposition habits of 
the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guerin-Menevilla), in Puerto Rico, 
El Salvador and Guatemala. Mating takes place at mid-morning under conditions 
of reduced light and gentle air movement. Oviposition occurs only on coffee leaves, 
and the leaves of the third and fourth whorl are preferred. Oviposition occurs at 
dusk and is accompanied by darkness and gentle upward air movement. 

The coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guerin-Menevilla), is 
a serious pest in the coffee producing areas of the new world. The 
mines formed by larvae feeding interrupts carbohydrate production 
in leaves by the extensive damage to parenchyma tissue, and multiple 
infestations cause defoliation. The life history of other species of 
this genus has been reported by Crowe (1964), and this species is 
reported by Castillo ( 1964 ) . 

In Puerto Rico, the life cycle is approximately 36 days. Egg develop- 
ment requires from 5 to 7 days, the four larval stages require 16 to 21 
days, and the pupal stage from 7 to 14 days, and the adult may live 
as long as 14 days. The duration of various life stages is dependent 
upon temperature. Population increase occurs in local outbreaks 
during the early summer months in Puerto Rico. When conditions 
become ideal for development, the larval population builds up rapidly. 

More than 100 mating observations were made in Las Marias, 
Puerto Rico and 30 were made in El Salvador, Central America. Over 
200 observations were made of oviposition in Guatemala and El 
Salvador, and more than 50 in Las Marias, Puerto Rico. Mating 
observations were also made in the laboratory at the Instituto Nacional 
del Cafe in Santa Tecla, El Salvador. 

Mating Behavior. — Mating takes place late in the morning after 



^ Work performed under the Atoms for Peace Program of the U. S. Atomic 
Energy Commission, Contract AT (40-l)-1833, with the Puerto Rico Nuclear 
Center, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez 00708. 

- Chief Scientist and Research Assistant respectively. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 89 

the dew has evaporated from the leaves and the humidity has dropped 
below 80 percent. Temperature does not appear to be an important 
factor in inducing mating, and mating occurs within the range of 75 
and 90 degrees Fahrenheit. The most important factor responsible 
for initiation of mating appears to be reduced light, usually brought 
about in nature by clouds obscuring the direct sunlight. Reduction 
of relative humidity and gentle air movement, 5 to 6 feet per second, 
was observed during each mating observation. 

Mating was only observed on the upper leaf surface of the plants 
growing under coffee bushes, or in the lower leaves of the coffee plant 
itself. No matings occurred above 5 feet nor below 1.5 feet from the 
ground. The female selected the mating site, and the male landed 
on the same surface shortly after she had landed. Courtship was brief, 
the main recognition was contact of the male antenna to the female 
abdomen. The female landed on the lower surface of the leaf, ran 
rapidly to the leaf apex, and then remained on the upper surface of 
the leaf slightly posterior of the leaf apex until the male arrived. After 
contact and the genitalia became in contact, the females head was 
directed toward the leaf axil. 

The pairs remained en copula in an anterior to anterior posture 
with the female's abdomen elevated for 1 to 2 minutes; after this the 
pair assumed a posterior to posterior orientation. Individual matings 
required from 5 to 40 minutes. Twenty to thirty mated females were 
examined after copulation for spermatophores, but none have been 
found as yet. It is believed that a spermatophore is transferred be- 
cuase of the relatively long period en copula. 

Shortly after mating the male leaves the female, and she remains 
stationary for as long as ten minutes. 

Adults are plentiful in the herbaceous plants under coffee trees 
during this time of day. 

Oviposition Behavior. — Oviposition occurs at dusk, and is initiated 
by reduction of light. It is possible that the change of light (iualit\- 
is as important as light reduction since oviposition activity reaches a 
peak immediately before the onset of darkness when there is still 
background light from the sky. Females oviposited only on coffee 
leaves. This would indicate that the leaves present some form of 
ovipositional stimulus. None of the females observed laid more than 
four eggs during each night, and none laid eggs on more than one leaf. 
Temperature was between 80 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit, and there 
was a gentle upward air movement of 8 to 10 feet per second dining 
every oviposition observed. The lack of air movement in cages ma\- 
account for poor egg production in laboratory colonies of this species. 

The female flight pattern is erratic before oviposition. A female 
may visit several leaves before lading eggs. Some leaves appear to 



90 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

be immune to attack regardless of age or succulence. Semi-mature 
leaves at the third and fourth whorl were preferred sites, and many 
of these leaves sustained multiple attacks. 

After landing, the female remains on the same spot on the leaf and 
rapidly rotates her abdomen in a circular motion, pausing briefly four 
times to place a single egg at each position 90 degrees from the 
previous egg. Normally eggs are laid within 3 seconds after she has 
selected the leaf, and in some observations egg laying was completed 
in 1 second. Flight prior to selecting a leaf was usually 12 to 30 
seconds, but some females required 2 minutes to select a leaf. 

The diurnal movement of this insect is not known. Trapping during 
the night with black lights does not yield adults of either sex. The 
ovipositional stimulus appears to be a promising method for trapping 
females. Aerial fogging or fine droplet mists applied to coffee planta- 
tions at the time of oviposition might be an effective means for sup- 
pressing populations. 

The authors wish to acknowledge Milton Campbell, Kees Eveleen, 
Mario Perez-Escolar, and Oscar A. Ramirez for their help and sug- 
gestions. 

References 
Crowe, T. J. 1964. Coffee leaf miners in Kenya. I. Species and life histories. 

Kenya Coffee, May, pp. 174-83. 
Castillo, J. A. 1964. Ensayo con Diferentes Insecticidas para Controlar de 

minador de la Hoja del Cafeto ( Leucoptera coffeella Guer. ) Durante la Epoca 

Lluviosa. Boletin Infomiativo, Suplemento No. 21, Institute Salvadoreano de 

Investigaciones del Cafe, Santa Tecla, El Salvador, C. A.: 10 pp. 



A NEW SPECIES OF ERIOCOCCUS INFESTING AMERICAN 
BEACH-GRASS IN NORTH CAROLINA 

( HOMOPTEBA : COCCOIDEA ) 

D. J. Williams, Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, 
c/o British Museum (Natural History), London S.W. 7, England 

ABSTRACT — Eriococcus carolinae, n. sp., infesting American beach-grass 
{Ammophila hreviligulata Fern.) in North Carolina, is described and illustrated. 
Comparative notes are given for related species. 

The following species was submitted for identification originally 
by Dr. W. V. Campbell of North Carolina State University at Raleigh 
in connection with work in progress there by Mr. E. A. Fuzy. It 
attacks American beach-grass, Ammophila hreviligulata Femald to 
such an extent that it has reached the status of a pest. 

So far as is known the insect is found only on the upper surfaces 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 91 

of the leaves. These leaves usually roll or cup and conceal the insect. 
Where there are large aggregations the leaf finally dries up. If all 
the leaves of a given plant are damaged then that plant will fail to 
come out the following spring. 

Eriococcus carolinae, n. sp. 

(Fig. 1) 

Adult female enclosed in an elongate, white, felted sac of the type common 
to the genus. 

Body of adult female slender and elongate, measuring up to 3.0 mm long. 
Dorsum sparsely covered with small conical setae which become slightly longer 
towards the head. Margins with noticeably longer conical setae but varying in 
size and forming a group on each segment. The longest setae disposed towards 
the head and posterior end of tlie body. Within each group the smallest setae 
are approximately the same size as the dorsal setae. Each marginal seta either 
straight or slightly curved with a blunt tip. Ventral setae long and slender. 
Anal lobes moderately sclerotized and elongate, each with a terminal seta about 
twice as long as a lobe. Dorsal surface of lobe with three conical setae as large 
as the largest marginal setae but more slender, the inner seta particularly so. 
Tubular ducts numerous, each with a deep cup; a large type numerous on the 
dorsum and around the ventral margins; a smaller type on the dorsal surface 
of the last segment and in the mid-regions of tlie ventral segments. Disc pores 
mainly quinquelocular but often replaced by a multilocular type of the same 
diameter, on the mid-regions of the thorax and abdomen. Anal ring displaced 
to the ventral surface, with 8 setae and situated beneath a small caudal process. 
Antennae with 6 segments, 200At-250/u long, the third segment longest. Legs 
slender, femur 220/i-240/i long, tibia -f tarsus 290;u-320/ti long. Posterior coxa 
with numerous translucent pores; a few also on posterior femur. Claw with a 
small denticle near the tip. 

Holotype 9, Manteo, 17 Aug. 1965, D. A. Mount, in USNM. 3 9 $ 
paratypes in USNM, 2 9$ paratypes in BM(NH), same data as 
holotype; 8 99 paratypes USNM, 5 99 paratypes BM(NH), Dare 
Co., Hatteras Is., 29 June 1966, W. V. Campbell; 19 USNM, Manteo, 
R. L. Robertson, 17 Nov. 1965; 4 9 9 paratypes USNM, 3 9 9 para- 
types BM(NH), Dare Co., E. A. Fuzy, 21 Aug. 1967. All above 
specimens from North Carolina on Ammophila breviligulata. 

Among the North American species on grasses, Eriococcus diaboli 
Ferris known from California and New York comes close to the new 
species. It differs in lacking the long setae around the margins. In 
the general pattern of the dorsal setae, E. carolinae comes very close 
to E. euphorhiae Ferris but this is a more rotund species and the 
large tubular ducts are much sparser. 

Balachowsky (1933) described Eriococcus ammo pJuI us from Corsica 
on Ammophila arenaria var. arundinacea. This species differs in 
possessing distinctly pointed setae and a body only twice as long as 
wide. Trimble (1928) recorded Eriococcus kcmptoni Parrott on 
Ammophiki breviUgulata from Presque Isle, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania. 



92 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Fig. 1. Eriococcus carolinae, n. sp. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 93 

Tliis is a distinct species as figured in Ferris ( 1955 ) . Specimens of 
E. kemptoni are at hand from Pea Is., Dare Co., North Carolina on 
Sparthm patens, collected by E. A. Fuzy, 23 Aug. 1967. It is reported 
that this species never attacks Ammophila brevilifiulata and it is 
possible that the Presque Isle specimens may have been misidentified. 
Within the genus Eriococcus Targioni-Tozzetti, Borchsenius ( 1949 ) 
recognized only the type species E. btixi (Fonscolombe) which possesses 
some very large tubular ducts. Borchsenius placed the related species 
without these special ducts in Acanthococcus Signoret and on these 
grounds the new species could be included in this genus. It is left in 
Eriococcus following the classification of Ferris ( 1955 ) to facilitate 
identification and pending a critical study of E. btixi. 

References 
Balachowsky, A. 1933. Contribution a I'etude des Coccides de France. ( 14e 

Note). Nouvelles recherches sur la faune indigene de la Corse. Ann. Soc. Ent. 

de France 102:35-50. 
Borchsenius, N. S. 1949. Fauna of USSR. Homoptera, Pseudococcidae. Akad. 

Nauk Zool. Inst. (n.s. 38) 7, 383 p. 
Ferris, G. F. 1955. Atlas of the scale insects of North America, v. 7. The 

families Aclerdidae, Asterolecaniidae, Conchaspididae, Dactylopiidae and Lac- 

ciferidae. Calif., Stanford Univ. Press, 233 p. 
Trimble, F. M. 1928. Scale Insects of Pennsylvania (Homop. : Coccidae). 

Ent. News 39:42-47. 



A TECHNIQUE FOR REMOVING APPENDAGES FROM SMALL, 
DRY-MOUNTED INSECTS FOR MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 

From time to time it is necessary to remove appendages from small diy-mounted 
insects for microscopic examination. Two problems freqtiently arise; a) the 
appendage may be damaged in removal; h) the part may be lost during transfer 
to the slide. 

A simple, but effective technique which obviates these difficulties is to coat 
a fine needle with optical mountant, touch the appendage ( as close to the base 
as possible) so that it adheres to the needle, move the needle slightly for a few 
seconds until the basal membrane and muscles rupture, then transfer the ap- 
pendage to the slide. I have found it useful to first place a drop of mountant 
on a slide, dip the needle into that drop and quickly touch the specimen, as the 
mountant rapidly fonns a surface skin. If the process of removal takes more 
than a few seconds it is helpful to add a drop of solvent to the mountant on the 
slide before placing the appendage in it, so that the surface film can be dispersed 
and the mountant on the needle dissolved. 

This technique has been routinely used for removal of legs and antennae 
averaging only 0.3 mm in length from microhymenoptera. — D.\le Jackson, 
Department of Biology, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44304. 



94 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

ON THE STATUS OF CRESSON'S STENOPHASMUS 
SPECIES FROM CUBA 

(Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) 

Robert W. Matthews and Paul M. Marsh^ 

ABSTRACT — Two species of the genus StenopJiasmus Smith described by 
Cresson from Cuba, gundlachii and megischoides, are transferred to the genus 
Ptesimogaster Marsh; redescriptions are given for both species, including the first 
description of the female of megischoides. Stenophasmus cuhensis Cresson and 
S. pusillus Cresson are synonymized under gundlachii. The distribution of 
gundlachii is extended to the Bahamas, the Florida Keys, and the Cayman Islands. 

The genus Stenophasmus was described by Smith (1859) based on 
a single female from Am Island. In 1865, Cresson described four new 
species from Cuba, including the first males. He did not, however, 
examine the type-species but remarked only that his own specimens 
seemed "to accord sufficiently well with Mr. Smith's description of 
Stenophasmus. . . ." In 1904, Szepligeti made Stenophasmus a synonym 
of Spathius Nees. Although he gave no reason for this action, sub- 
sequent authors ( with the exception of Enderlein, 1912 ) have accepted 
this synonymy. 

In the case of the type-species, Szepligeti was undoubtedly correct. 
However, Cresson's four Cuban species clearly do not belong to 
Spathius as currently defined.- Furthermore, three are definitely 
conspecific. These facts became evident when, in connection with 
studies on the New World Spathius ( RWM ) , we were able to examine 
specimens which Dr. Pastor Alayo D., Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, 
had compared with Cresson's types in the Gundlach collection.^ 
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to correct the status of Cresson's 
Cuban Stenoplmsmus species, redescribe those which are valid, and 
transfer the names to the genus Ptesimogaster, described from North 
America by Marsh ( 1965 ) . This will enable their proper placement 



^ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts 02138 (present address: Dept. of Entomology, U. of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 
30601 ) and Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agr. Res. Ser., U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560, respectively. 

^ Ashmead ( 1894) described the only other New World species of Stenophasmus, 
S. terminalis from St. Vincent, which like the others has been subsequently 
treated as Spathius. In the USNM are 10 specimens (co-types?) of this species 
bearing Ashmead's label. While very alike typical Spathius, they differ signifi- 
cantly in wing venation, having the recurrent vein received by the first cubital 
cell and the sudiscoideus arising below the middle of the brachial cell. This 
venation is widespread among Neotropical "Spathius" and can be dealt with only 
after further study in this complex. 

^ According to Dr. Alayo, the Cresson types are intact, but in poor condition. 
While it was not possible to study the types personally, we are confident that 
the comparisons made by Dr. Alayo are accurate and we are grateful to him 
for his help. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Figs. 1-7. Ptesimogaster spp.: 1, pundlachii (Crass.), fore and hind wings; 
2, megischoides (Cress.), $ genitalia; 3, same, $ ninth sternum; 4, gundlachii, 
$ genitalia; 5, same, 5 ninth sternum; 6, parkeri Marsh, 1st abdominal tergum; 
7, giindhchii, thorax, dorsal view. 



in the forthcoming World Catalog of Braconidae being prepared by 
Dr. Roy D. Shenefelt. 

Subfamily Doryctinae 
Genus Ptesimogaster Marsh 
Ptesimogaster Marsh, 1965, p. 691. Type-species: P. parkeri Nhirsh. Monotypic 
and original designation. 

Diagnosis. — Forewing (fig. 1) with .3 cubital cells; recurrent vein entering 
second cubital cell; subdiscoideus leaving first brachial cell at its base; media 
sinuate; propodeum swollen on sides, nearly horizontal, rugose, not areolated; 
abdomen subpetiolate, widening gradually from base to near apex, sides of first 



96 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 

tergum forming nearly continuous line with remainder of abdomen; first abdominal 
tergum with winglike projections on each side at base, spiracles prominent ( fig. 6 ) . 

Stenophasmiis megischoides and S. gundlachii share all the above 
characters and are here transferred to Ptesimogaster. The fact that 
the wings of these two Cuban species are infumated rather than 
banded as in the type-species is insufficient to exclude them from 
Ptesimogaster, since wing banding is of little generic importance in 
the Doryctinae. The sculpturing of the body is somewhat more 
strongly developed in the two Cuban species but still within the limits 
of the genus as presently defined. The genus is apparently widespread 
in the West Indies, southern United States, and Mexico. 

Ptesimogaster gundlachii (Cresson), n. comb. 
Stenophasmus gundlachii Cresson, 1865, p. 85. 
Stenophasmiis cuhensis Cresson, 1865, p. 86. New synonymy. 
Stenophasmiis pusiUiis Cresson, 1865, p. 87. New synonymy. 

Female. — Length of body, 8-15 mm; ovipositor, 5-11 mm. Color of body 
varying from orange to deep rust red, abdomen occasionally dark brown. Head 
cubical; vertex and frons coarsely transversely striate, temples weakly striate or 
smooth, face rugose; malar space slightly less than Vz eye height, temples less 
than eye width; ocellocular distance about equal to length of lateral ocellus; 
antennae at least 50-segmented, about as long as body; scape constricted at 
base, with a small raised tubercle on outer edge near base. Pronotum rugose; 
propleural groove wide and deep, with strong crosis carinae; remainder of 
propleuron rugose; proepistemum rugose; mesonotum (fig. 7) transversely rugose 
along areas of notauli and outer edges of lobes, mesonotal lobes granular medially; 
scutellar furrow shallow, with about 5 cross carinae; scutellar disc smooth; 
mesopleural disc smooth; mesostemum finely granular; mesopleural furrow as 
long as mesopleuron, shallow, foveolate; subalar groove wide, deep, foveolate; 
only basal carina of propodeum somewhat distinct. Foretibia with a row of about 
5 stout spines; hindcoxa transversely rugose dorsally; hindtibia laterally flattened, 
widest before apex; foretibia about 1.75 times as long as forefemur. Wings 
entirely infumated, venation as in fig. 1. First abdominal tergum about 3.5 times 
as long as wide at apex, transversely rugose; remainder of abdominal terga finely 
granular; tergum (2 + 3) only slightly longer than apical width, with 2 shallow 
longitudinal grooves on basal V2 which meet a shallow transverse sinuate line 
across middle; ovipositor about as long as abdomen plus V2 thorax. 

Male. — Essentially as in female; prothorax lengthened; pronotum somewhat 
swollen; abdomen longer and narrower, first tergum about 4.5 times as long as 
apical width, tergum (2 + 3) about 2.5 times as long as wide; genitalia as in 
figs. 4, 5. 

Distribution. — Cuba, Bahamas (South Bimini Island), Cayman Islands (Cayman 
Brae ) ; Florida ( Key Largo ) . 

This species, redescribed from 17 females and five males, can be 
separated from megischoides by its orange or rust red color, mesonotal 
lobes which are granular medially, smooth mesopleural disc, striate 
vertex, and .shorter foretibia. The males differ in having the cuspis 



PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 97 

of the genitalia extended and the ninth sternum short and broadly 
angled (figs. 4, 5). E.xamination of Dr. Alayo's specimens revealed 
that gundlachii and cubensis, both described from females, are clearly 
conspecific.^ Regarding cubensis, Cresson (1865, p. 86) stated, 
"Smaller than S. gundlachii, the form and sculpture being the same, 
but the color is darker, and the legs, even in the palest of specimens, 
are almost black." Size and color are highly variable in the parasitic 
Hymenoptera and in this case the two types fall well within the 
range of variation of a series of 10 additional specimens sent to us 
by Dr. Alayo which are undoubtedly this species. Although reared 
series are most desirable for sex associations, the male pusilhis agrees 
with the above females in all important morphological features and 
we are confident that the association is correct. 

Ptesiniogaster megischoides (Cresson), n. comb. 
Stenophasmus megischoides Cresson, 1865, p. 86. 

Female. — Length of body, 15 mm; ovipositor, 15 mm. Color deep maroon. 
Head cubical; vertex and temples smooth, frons rugose and excavated, face 
coarsely rugose; malar space about Ms eye height, temples less than eye width; 
ocellocular distance about equal to length of lateral ocellus; scape constricted 
at base, with a small raised tubercle on outer edge near base; antennae broken 
in only specimen we have seen (longer than body according to Cresson's de- 
scription). Prothorax coarsely rugose; pronotum transversely rugose, raised 
posteriorly into a prominent ridge separated from mesonotum by a deej} groove 
which continues laterally as propleural grooves; proepistemum weakly nigose; 
mesonotum entirely coarsely transversely nigose, notauli distinct; scuteUar furrow 
obscured by pin; scuteUar disc smooth; mesopleural disc nigose; mesopleural 
furrow as long as mesopleuron, foveolate; subalar groove wide, deep; mesosternum 
finely granular except 2 small rugose areas near forecoxae; basal carina of 
propodeum indistinct. Foretibia 2.25 times as long as forefemur, with a rou- 
of 7 stout spines; hindcoxa rugose dorsally; hindtibia flattened laterally. Wings 
infumated, venation as in gtindlachii. First abdominal tergum shghtly more than 
3 time as long as apical width, coarsely transversely rugose; tergum (2 + 3) 
1.25 times as long as apical width, with 2 wide, deep diverging furrows at base 
and a fine transverse sinuate line across middle, basal V2 finely rugose, apical V2 
finely granular; remainder of abdominal terga granular; ovipositor as long as body. 

Male. — Essentially as in female; abdomen longer and narrower; color of thorax 
lighter maroon; genitalia as in figs. 2, 3. 

Distribution. — Cuba. 

This species, redescribed from one male and one female, can be 
distinguished from gundlachii by its dark maroon color, entirely 
rugose mesonotum and mesopleural disc, smooth vertex, and longer 

* One of the two specimens of cubeusis, upon which Cresson based his descrip- 
tion is in the type collection at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and is labeled "Lectotype 2785." We have not been able to find out who 
designated this lectotype or if it was ever published; but the specimen agrees 
well with the description of gundlucliii. 



98 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

foretibia. The males differ in having the cuspis of the genitaha not 
greatly extended and the ninth sternum longer and acutely angled 
basally (figs. 2, 3). 

References 
Ashniead, W. H. 1894. In C. V. Riley, W. H. Ashmead, and L. O. Howard. 

Report upon the parasitic Hymenoptera of the island of St. Vincent. Jour. Linn. 

Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 25:56^254. 
Cresson, E. T. 1865. On the Hynienof)tera of Cuba. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 

4:1-200. 
Enderlein, G. 1912. Neue Gattungen und Arten von Braconiden. Arch. 

Naturgesch. 78 ( A ) ( 6 ) : 94-100. 
Marsh, P. M. 1965. The Nearctic Doryctinae, 1. A review of the subfamily 

with a taxonomic revision of the tribe Hecabolini. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 58: 

668-699. 
Smith, F. 1859. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. 

Wallace at the islands of Aru and Key. Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 3:132- 

178. 
Szepligeti, G. V. 1904. Braconidae. In P. Wytsman, Genera Insectorum 22: 

1-253. 



USE OF FRESHWATER SPONGE IN CASE CONSTRUCTION 
OF LIMNEPHILUS SPECIES 

( Trichoptera : Limnephiludae ) 

On June 6, 1968, I noticed that four trap nets set 6 to 10 feet below the water 
surface for fish population research in Katherine Lake, Gogebic County, Michigan, 
appeared to be outlined in bright green. Closer observation showed that the nets 
were covered with hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Limnephilus Leach larvae, 
the great majority of which had incorporated pieces of living freshwater sponge 
into their cases. Of 38 caddis fly specimens preserved, 31 showed obvious 
segments of sponge. 

Llmnephilid larvae will use abnost any available vegetable or mineral material 
in the construction of their cases. However, the use of animal matter, especially 
living organisms, is much rarer, and I have found no previous record of the use 
of freshwater sponge. Katherine Lake is an unproductive, darkly-stained, acid-bog 
lake with only 3 ppm of total alkalinity and a very sparse growth of aquatic 
plants. However, due to the slow rate of decomposition, the lake bottom is 
composed of an abundance of coarse detrital material and it would appear that 
there is no shortage of more conventional case-building matter in the areas 
inhabited by the Limnephilus. 

Dr. Herbert H. Ross identified the specimens as members of the species group 
rhombicus but could not make a final species identification due to the lack of 
adults. Dr. Justin W. Leonard of the University of Michigan encouraged me to 
bring this observation to the attention of aquatic entomologists. 

Contribution from Dingell-Johnson Project F-28-R, Michigan. — Michael D. 
Clady, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Institute far Fisheries Research, 
Museum Annex, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 99 

THREE SPECIES OF MEXICAN KROMBEINIA HAVING 
AN ELONGATED TEGULA WITH AN EXTENDED APICAL ANGLE' - 

( Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae) 

Harry W. Allen, Research fellow. Deportment of Entomologij, 

Academy of Natural Scietices; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103 and 

Collahorator, Entonwhgy Research Division, Agricidtural Research Service, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Moorestown, New Jersey 08057 

ABSTRACT — Kromheinia evansi, n. sp., from Mexico is described and illus- 
trated and notes are given for K. veracruzae Allen and Krombein and K. nayarita 
Allen and Krombein. 

The author has recently identified a long series of males of a new 
species of Kromheinia which runs in key by Allen and Krombein 
(Allen & Krombein, 1964) to couplet 11. Since there was some doubt 
as to the identity of this species, both Krombein and Allen compared 
it with the holotype of veracruzae Allen & Krombein and Allen com- 
pared it with paratypes of naijarita Allen & Krombein from San Bias, 
Nayarit, the type locality of nayarita. It is a new, undescribed species 
which I have named in honor of Dr. Howard E. Evans who has col- 
lected a fine series, one of many such series of tiphiine species he has 
collected from western North America. It is difficult to overestimate 
the value of long series in detennining the speciation within this group. 

Krombeinia evansi, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1, 2) 

Male. — Front, to level of lowest ocellus with coarse punctures of first-degree 
density, but not contiguous, interspersed with numerous secondaries. 

Dorsal pronotum with coarse, round punctures ranging in density from third- 
to first-degree; medially apical two-fifths impunctate. Lateral pronotum with 
anterior process very prominent, particularly the broad, massive tooth at humeral 
angle; disc crossed by a fairly distinct groove. Mesopleuron on outer disc with 
primary punctures separated in most directions by much more than their average 
diameter; with minute secondaries everywhere somewhat more numerous than 
primaries. Tegula conspicuously elongated with parallel sides and a prominent 
extension of inner apical angle; 2.0 times as long as middle width (3 measured 
were 2.0, 1.9, and 2.1 ). Forewing hyaline. 

Dorsal propodeum with areola ( fig. 1 ) usually tapered with nearly straight 
sides, length about equal to basal width and about one and one-half times apical 
width; area beside areola highly polished; transverse carina very high and 
prominent. Lateral propodeum with rugulae on upper part fine, widely .separated 
and generally parallel; lower part flat, polished. Posterior aspect of propodeimi 



^ This is the twelfth paper by the author ( tlie first as co-author with K. V. 
Krombein ) prepared luider National Science Foundation Grants GB-1240 and 
GB-,517I. 

- Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges. — Editor. 



100 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 




Figs. 1-5, Krombeinm spp.: 1, evansi, n. sp. from Jacotepec, Jalisco, propodeal 
areola; 2, same, abdominal terga III and IV; 3, nayarita Allen and Krombem from 
San Bias, Nayarit, propodeal areola; 4, veracruzae Allen and Krombein from 
Santiago Tuxtla, Vera Cruz, propodeal areola; 5, same, abdominal terga III and 
IV. ( Illustrations by Mary H. Fuges. ) 



slightly dished with an encircling rim of projecting carinae. Tergum 1 with 
anterior aspect almost perpendicular to body axis, highly polished, almost im- 
punctate; transverse carina high and scalariform; dorsum with very coarse punc- 
tures, somewhat uniformly distributed. Tergum 2 with coarse punctures of 
nearly uniform size and distribution. Terga 3 and 4 (fig. 2) each with an anterior 
and posterior row of punctures closely spaced along an escarpment, intermediate 
area irregularly set with very large, dimpled punctures. Support of terminal fork 
broadly inflated; its impunctate area not continued as an elongated median vitta. 

Length, 6.6 to 11.2 mm. 

Female. — Vertex punctures over a broad median area of close first-degree 
density without a median row of minute punctures. Front on lower third with 
punctures of first- and second-degree density, on upper third with some inter- 
spaces as wide as an ocellus; median carina high enough to be visible in profile. 

Dorsal pronotum with transverse carina complete; punctures largely of first- 
degree density. Lateral pronotum only obsecurely sculptured with fine acicula- 
tions, scattered punctures and faint irregular rugulae. Mesopleuron with pre- 
pectal carina present from near tegula to ventral aspect. Tegula similar to that 
of male, elongate, with parallel sides, and a prominently extended posterior inner 
angle. Membrane of forewing only faintly infumated; finely and sparsely liirsute. 

Dorsal propodeum with areola tapered to an apex about three-fourths width 
of base; area beside areola almost bare of microsetae. Puncturas of intermediate 
terga, especially 3 and 4, very coarse with conspicuously polished interspaces. 

Length, 8.4 to 11.2 mm. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 101 

Holotype.— i; Guadalajara, Jalisco, 23 to 28-VII-'65 (H. E. Evans) 
[USNM]. 

Allotype.— 9 ; Guadalajara, Jalisco, 17 to 20-VII-'65 (H. E. Evans) 
[USNM]. 

Paratypes. — 14 S$, 39 9; same data as holotype [Evans]. 7 SS, 
4 5 9; same data as allotype [Evans]. 2 $ S,6 $ 9; Guadalajara, Jal., 

10 to ll-VIII-'65 (H. E. and M. A. Evans). 2 5 5; 9 mi. south of 
Guadalajara, Jal., 24-VIII-'65 (H. E. Evans) [Evans]. 3 5 5 ; 9 mi. 
south of Guadalajara, Jal., 29-VII-'65 (H. E. Evans) [Evans]. 1 6; 
Pt. Barrancas, Jal., 9lVIII-'65 (H. E. and M A. Evans) [Evans]. 3 S 6 ; 

11 mi. north of Tabasco, Zacatecas, 5,500 ft., 12-VIII-'65 (H. E. Evans) 
[Evans]. 2 S S ; Arroyo RafeHon, near Compostela, Nayarit, 8-VII- 
'65 (H. E. Evans) [Evans]. 10 5 5 ; Jocotepec, Jal, 5,000 ft., 11-VII- 
'59 (H. E. Evans) [CU]. 1 $ ; previously labeled paratype of K. 
nayarita. La Primavera, Jal., 8-VIII-'56 (R. and K. Dreisbach). 

Discussion. — K. evansi in both sexes differs from other described 
species of Kromheinia except nayarita and veracruzae on having a 
much elongated tegula which is parallel-sided and has a prominent 
extension of the inner apical angle. The male of evansi is generally 
smaller than that of nayarita and does not have a barrel-shaped areola. 
The female is also smaller but structurally is very close to natjarita. 
In specimens I have examined the female of evansi has a slightly less 
densely punctate front, dorsal pronotum and scutum, and it has a 
nearly hyaline forewing with only fine, sparse, hairs. 

Krombeinia veracruzae Allen and Krombein 
(Figs. 4, 5) 
Allen and Krombein, 1964, p. 220. 

Discussion. — The holotype from Santiago, Tutla, Vera Cruz was 
recently reexamined, and found to agree in detail with the original 
description except that a sensorial stripe occurs on the posterior tibia, 
not on the coxa. This species is distinguished from evansi by the in- 
fumated forewing; by finer more widely separated punctures of front 
and thorax; by a longer and more slender areola ( fig. 4 ) ; and most 
conspicuously by much finer punctation of the abdominal terga (fig. 
5). I have identified as this species 3 males collected by D. Cavagnaro 
and M. E. Irwin from Quezaltepeque, El Salvador, two on August 4, 
1963, and the other on June 22, 1963 [Univ. of California, Davis]. 

Krombeinia nayarita Allen and Krombein 

' (Fig. 3) 
Allen and Krombein, 1964, p. 218. 

Discussion. — K. nayarita males average larger than either evansi or 
veracitizae (10.8 to 12.0 mm.). The male consistently has a short. 



102 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

barrel-shaped areola (fig. 3); it has a relatively low anterior process 
on the lateral pronotum; and in common with evansi, it has coarse 
punctures on the abdominal terga. The female is also larger than the 
other two species. It has heavily infuscated fore wings which are 
frequently densely pubescent. 

The holotype of this species is from San Bias, Nayarit. Specimens 
have been identified from several localities distributed through the 
states of Oaxaca, Guererro, Morelos, Michoacan, Jalisco, Nayarit, San 
Luis Potosi, Vera Cruz, and Tamaulipas. I have identified a total of 
26 males and 13 females. 

Refekence 
Allen, H. W. and Karl Y. Kronibein. 1964. A revision of Neotiphia Malloch 

and Kromheinia Pate ( Hymenoptera : Tiphiidae). Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 

89:211-275. 



BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE BEE TETRALONIA MINUTA AND ITS 
CLEPTOPARASITE, MORGANIA HISTRIO TRANSVAALENSIS 

( Hymenoptera : Anthophoridae ) 

Jerome G. Rozen, Jr., Department of Entomology, 
The American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024 

ABSTRACT — The biologies of the South African eucerine bee Tetralonki 
minuta Friese and of its nomadine parasite, Morgania histrio tratisvaalensis 
Bischoff, are discussed. 

On a recent trip to South Africa I had a chance to observe briefly 
the nesting habits of a bee belonging to the genus Tetralonia Spinola 
and the biology of its cuckoo bee parasite Morgania Smith. Because 
little is known about the biology of either genus, these notes are 
presented here. Adults of the Tetralonia are conspecific with the 
type of T. minuta Friese in the Institut fiir Spezielle Zoologie und 
Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin, and those of the 
Morgania agree with the male type of M. (Omachthes) histrio 
transvaalensis Bischoff in the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, Republic 
of South Africa. 

Adults, immature stages, and samples of cells and cocoons are in 
the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. The 
research for this paper was supported by National Science Foundation 
Grant GB-5407X. 

Biology of Tetralonia minuta Friese 
Description of Nesting Area: Mr. Denis Brothers found this species 
nesting in the ground at 3 miles west of Grahamstown, Republic of 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 



103 









Fig. 1, Nesting site of Tctnilnnin ininutu Tricsc, 3 miles west oi Craliainstown, 
Republic of South Africa. 



South Africa, on November 29, 1966. The shghtly sloping site (fig. 
1), approximately 30 feet long and bare except for widely scattered 
low vegetation, occurred in a region that was predominantly grass- 
land. The even-grained, clay-like soil was very hard and dry near 
the surface but was moist and softer below a depth of 10 cm. The 
surface had a thin crust in many places. 

Nesting Activity: The nests were irregularly scattered over most 
of the barren area. Where they were most dense, 15 to 25 holes per 
square meter were visible. However, some may have been emergence 
holes rather than nest entrances. Although a few openings were in 
small clumps of vegetation, others were not associated with vegetation 
or other objects. None had a turret, and most lacked tumuli which 
were probably blown away because the excavated soil did not adhere 
to the hard surface crust. The few with tumuli were eccentricalK- 
located. The fine, dry nature of the tumuli indicates that Tetralania 
does not excavate with water. One tumulus was low and about 4 cm. 
across. 

The main burrow is circular in cross section, about 5.0 mm. in 
diameter, open, unlined, and without an antechamber. It descends 
vertically in a meandering fashion even though the soil lacked rocks. 



104 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




FECES 



COCOON 



PROVISIONS 



MULTILAYERED 




TOP 



FECES 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 105 

So far as is known, only one female occupies a nest. Side tunnels 
leading to completed cells are filled. 

Numerous cells from both the current generation and previous 
generations were situated at a depth between 15 and 30 cm. Their 
elongate, parallel-sided shape (fig. 2) is nearly identical to that of 
the cells of Svostra obliqua obliqua (Say) (Rozen, 1964) and Xeno- 
glossa (Bohart, 1964; Linsley, MacSwain, and Smith, 1955), and 
apparently to those of Florilegus condignus (Cresson) (LaBerge, 
1966) and Melissodes (Hurd and Linsley, 1959; Thorp and Chemsak, 
1964), and they are vertical or tilted at most 30 degrees from the 
vertical. Approximately 12 mm. in length and 6 mm. in maximum 
diameter, they are lined with a thin, waterproof coating of waxlike 
material, but, in contrast to the cells of Svastra, they possess no 
"built-in" wall insofar as could be determined. The wall, however, 
is probably impregnated with some secretion because it is harder 
than the surrounding soil. The cell closure is a spiral, slightly concave 
on the inside. Some cells are arranged in linear series of two, whereas 
others are single. 

The female Tetralonia provisions the bottom of the cell to a depth 
of about 4.25 mm. with orange-colored pollen and nectar. In several 
cells containing eggs, the upper half of the provisions were moist, 
the lower part was nearly diy, and the upper surface was concave. 
There was no odor of fermentation in any of the cells, which, however 
contained only freshly deposited eggs; fermentation in the cells of 
Svastra (Rozen, 1964) developed while the eggs incubated. 

The eggs are cylindrical, blunt at both ends, and possess an opaque 
white chorion. They appear identical to those of Svastra except that 
they are more arched at one end than at the other and that they are 
smaller (one measured 2.8 mm. long and 0.65 mm. at maximum 
diameter). The female deposits the egg near the center of the top 
surface of the food (fig. 2). 

Many mature postdefecating larvae were excavated, all in cocoons. 
White and flaccid, the larvae are oriented as showTi in figure 4, with 
the dorsum of abdominal segments IV to VI adhering, as if glued, 
to the cocoon. Defecation is completed before cocoon spinning, as 
evidenced by the fact that all feces are deposited at the upper end 
of the cell above the cocoon. All of the cocoon (fig. 3), except for 
the top, is appressed to the cell wall. Semitransparent, brown, and 
parchment-like, the lower part seems to consist of but a single layer. 



Figs. 2-5, Tetralonia mimita Friese: 2, cell containing provisions and egg; 
3, cell containing cocoon; 4, cross-section of cocoon with mature, postdefecating 
larva; 5, cell containing mature, postdefecating larva of Morgania histrio traius- 
vaalemis Bischoff. 



106 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

Careful examination, however, reveals that a number of closely ap- 
plied, thin layers are involved. The top of the cocoon (fig. 4) con- 
sists of even more layers which, however, are somewhat separated, 
forming a central nipple-shaped projection. The heavily insulated 
top and the feces perhaps help exclude potential parasites. In general, 
the cocoon and meconial mass resemble closely those of Melissodes 
paUidisigtmta Cockerell (Thorp and Chemsak, 1964), Svastra (Rozen, 
1964), and Xenoglossa (Linsley, MacSwain, and Smith, 1955; Bohart, 
1964), and to a lesser extent those of Flohlegus (LaBerge, 1966). 

The adult bee emerges from the cell by chewing through the top 
of the cocoon and the feces or by chewing a hole in the side of the 
cocoon. 

Adult Activity: Males of Tetralonia searching for females were 
commonly seen flying low and swiftly over the nesting site, and pairs 
occasionally buzzed and tumbled on the ground. Both females and 
males were already active on a clear warm day at 9:40 A.M. 

At the time the observations were made many males and females 
were flying, and the cells constructed by these females were at most 
only freshly provisioned. However, many quiescent, mature larvae, 
but not pupae, were also excavated; they undoubtedly were individuals 
that had not developed from the previous generation. 

Parasites: In addition to the larvae of Morganki, larvae of a meloid 
and mutillid cocoons were found in the cells. 

Biology of Morgaiiia hislrio transvaaleiisis Bischoff 

Flying low over the nesting site and slower than the males of T. 
minuta, females of M. histrio transvaaleiisis stopped momentarily to 
examine burrows like those of the Tetralonia. Occasionally a female 
descended into a nest, only to reappear in seconds, obviously before 
she had time to deposit an egg. 

Two mature postdefecating larvae and two active pupae of M. 
histrio transvaalensis were discovered in the cells of T. minuta. Both 
larvae (fig. 5) and pupae were oriented head highest in the cell. 
The feces had been deposited primarily at the extreme upper end 
of the cell (fig. 5) in contrast with those of other nomadine parasitic 
bees, which deposit the meconial material over the entire cell wall. 
No cocoon is spun and the larvae have a rigid integument in contrast 
with the flaccid integument of the host. In several parasitized cells 
a hole in the cell wall was detected just below the cell closure. These 
punctures are believed to be where the Morgania eggs had been 
inserted. 

References 
Bohart, G. E. 1964. Notes on the biology and larval morphology of Xenoglossa 
strenua (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Pan-Pacific Ent. 40:174-182. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 107 

Hurd, P. D., Jr. and E. G. Linsley. 1959. Observations on the nest-site be- 
havior of Melissodes composita Tucker and its parasites, with notes on the 
communal use of nest entrances ( Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Ent. News 70: 
141-146. 

LaBerge, W. E. and D. W. Ribble. 1966. Biology of Florilegus condi^^nus 
(Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae), with a description of its larva, and remarks 
on its importance in alfalfa pollination. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 59:944-950. 

Linsley, E. G., J. W. MacSwain, and R. F. Smith. 1955. Biological observa- 
tions on Xenoglossa ftdva Smith with some generalizations on biological char- 
acters of other eucerine bees (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae). Bull. S. Calif. 
Acad. Sci. 54:128-141. 

Rozen, J. G., Jr. 1964. The biology of Svastra ohliqua obliqua (Say), with 
a taxonomic description of its larvae (Apoidea, Anthophoridae). Amer. Mus. 
Novitates, no. 2170, pp. 1-1.3, 15 figs. 

Thorp, R. W. and J. A. Chemsak. 1964. Biological observations on Melissodes 
(Eitmelissodes) pallidisignata (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Pan-Pacific 
Ent. 40:75-83. 



GONODONTIS PEPLARIA GEYER, A NOCTUID, NOT A GEOMETRID 

( Lepidoptera ) 

Zethcs peplaria (Geyer) n. comb. 

Gonodontis peplaria Geyer, 1832, in Hiibner, Zut. Samm. E.xot. Schmett. 4:27, 

plate [122], figures 709-710. 
Azelim ? peplaria: Walker, 1860, List Spec. Lepid. Coll. Brit. Mus. 20:186. 
Azelina peplaria: Hulst, 1895, Ent. News 6:14. 

The association of the name peplaria Geyer with the genus Pero (= Azelina) 
is incorrect, and this species is a noctuid and not a geometrid. Walker first placed 
peplaria in the genus Azelina, and it was subsequently used for the common 
eastern North American species of Pero, P. honestarius, until Grossbcck ( 1910, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 38:365) stated that it was not this species. Unfortunately, 
he was not able to identify it, and the name has remained unplaced since then. 

It is almost certain that this is a species of the genus Zethes ( Noctuidae ) , and 
probably Zethes insularis Rambur, although I hesitate to make the synonymy 
without having seen the type of peplaria. This species, Z. in.s\daris, comes from 
southern Europe and not North America as given in the description of peplaria. 

I wish to thank Mr. B. Nye, Mr. W. H. T. Tams, and Mr. D. S. Fletcher of 
the British Museum of Natural History, Dr. E. L. Todd of the United States 
National Muesum, and Dr. J. G. Franclemont of Cornell University for help with 
this matter. — Robert W. Poole, Department of Entomology, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York 14850. 



108 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MABCH, 1969 

A NEW GENUS AND TWO NEW SPECIES OF CECIDOMYIIDAE 

ASSOCIATED WITH PARIANA SPP. (GRAMINEAE) 

IN SOUTH AMERICA 

( DiPTERA ) 

Raymond J. Gagne, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, 
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — A new genus, Chauliodontomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: 
Clinodiplosini ) , and 2 new species, parianae and egregia, collected from spikes 
of Fariana (Gramineae) in South America, are described. 

The extraordinary new genus and 2 species described here were 
discovered by Dr. T. E. Soderstrom and Dr. Cleofe E. Calderon, 
Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, in connection with 
their study of South American rain forest grasses of the genus Pariana 
(Gramineae), These midges were observed in great numbers on 
spikes of Pariana in Venezuela and Brazil by Soderstrom and Calderon 
and appear to be part of a complex of insects that may effectively 
pollinate Pariana spp. 

The new genus, Chauliodontomyia is included in the tribe Clino- 
diplosini of the subfamily Cecidomyiinae mainly on the basis of the 
male and female genitalia. The genus differs from all other Clino- 
diplosini in the unique modification of the labellum: instead of the 
usual bulbous form, the 2nd labellar segment is strongly sclerotized, 
elongate, and bent at midlength to form a tusklike structure. Other 
differences between Chauliodontomyia and most other genera in the 
tribe are the simple claws on all legs and the almost complete lack 
of sexual dimorphism in the antennal flagellomeres. 

Chauliodontomyia, n. gen. 
Adult. — Eyes large, broadly contiguous on vertex. Postvertical peak present 
with 2 long, anteriorly directed setae. Antenna (figs. 9, 10) with 12 flagellomeres, 
basal ones slightly constricted near midlength, especially in males; 1st and 2nd 
flagellomeres connate, the 12th with a very long terminal nipple; circumfila not 
evident. Palpus 4 segmented, the segments short. First labellar segment large, 
second segment well sclerotized, glabrous, tuskshaped. Labrum bulbous apically, 
covered with many long, fine hairs. Wing (fig. 7) with Rs joining C behind 
apex of wing; Rs present but weak; Cu evanescent beyond fork. Legs long, thin, 
with approximately same diameter tliroughout; foreleg about 1% as long as wing; 
approximate proportions of parts of foreleg as follows: femur, 1.00; tibia, 0.90; 
tarsomere I, 0.09; II, 0.56; III, 0.30; IV, 0.23; V, 0.15. Tarsal claws long, 
untoothed, gently curved (fig. 4); empodium very short in relation to claws. 
Male abdomen: terga I-VI with very few setae other than the transverse apical 
row; terga VII-VIII bare except for the 2 anterior sensory setae; sterna II-VIII 
with many evenly distributed setae; tergum X bilobed, each lobe slightly 



1 Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 



109 






Fig. 1. Head of Chauliodontomyia parianae, n. sp (frontal view). Fig. 2. 

Same (lateral view). Fig. 3. Head of C. egregia, n. sp. (lateral view). Fig. 4. 

Foretarsal cla\\s of C. parianae. Fig. 5. Male genitalia of C parianae. Fig. 6. 
Male genitalia of C. egregia. 

scalloped; sternum X linear, scalloped apically; aedeagus as long or longer than 
sternum X; basimere large, expanded medially; distimere long, variously shaped. 
Female abdomen: terga I-VH and sterna H-VH with many evenly distributed 
I setae; ovipositor not fully retractile, with 2 large lateral lamellae and a small 
ventral lamella. 

Larvae (only tentatively referred here). — Typical for the Clinodiplosini with 
its bifid sternal spatula, long setae of the dorsal and pleural papillae, and typical 
terminal papillae, 6 with spiniform setae and 2 with long setae. 

Type species. — Chauliodontomijia parianae, n. sp. 

The generic name means "tusked fly" and refers to the remarkable 
i modification of the labella. 



no 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 






Fig. 7. Wing of Chaulidontomtjia parianae, n. sp. Fig. 8. Third flagellomere 
of C. egregia, n. sp. Fig. 9. Shape of male antenna of C. parianae. Fig. 10. 
shape of female antenna of C. parUinae. 

The larvae presumed to belong here were removed from florets of 
Pariana imbcrbis Nes from Belem, Para, Brazil (collected VII-6 
8-1934, J. R. Swallen. They presumably belong to Chaidiodontomyia 
because they are typical clinodiplosine larvae and were found in male 
florets of Pariana. Some uncertainty will remain, however, until adults 
are reared from such larvae. 

The 2 new species described below may be separated by the shape 
of the head (figs. 2-3) and male genitalia (figs. 5-6). 

Chauliodontomyia parianae, n. sp. 
Adult. — Male flagellomeres I-IV without setulae on constriction near mid- 
length. First labellar segment large and directly behind second segment with 
lower part of head consequently quadrate in profile ( fig. 2 ) ; second labellar 
segment lateral to labrum. Wing length, 1.70-2.05 mm. Male genitalia (fig. 5): 
sternum X widest apically; aedeagus narrowest before apex; distimere curved; 
tapering gradually from base to narrow apical tooth. 

Types. — Holotype, S , collected on spike of Pariana sterwlemma 
Tutin, in rain forest, Rancho Grande, near Maracay, Venezuela, 
8-VI-1967, T. R. Soderstrom, USNM 70060. Paratypes: 4 6 $,7 2 5, 
same data as holotype, in USNM; 1 S, 1 5, same data as holotype, 
in British Museum (N.H.); 1 9, on inflorescence of Pariana sp., 
Belem, Para, Brazil, 27-1-1968, Cleofe E. Calderon, in USNM. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 111 

Chauliodoiilomyia egregia, n. sp. 
Adult. — Male flagellomeres covered from base to neck with .setulae. First 
labellar segment dorsad of second segment and not as large as in C. parianae, 
with lower part of head con.sequently not quadrate in profile (fig. 3); second 
labellar segment posterior to labrum in profile. Wing length, 1.63-190 mm. 
Male genitalia ( fig. 6 ) : sternum X narrowing towards apex; aedeagus narrowest 
at ape.x; distimere straight, parallel sided, with broad apical tooth. 

Types. — Holotype, S, collected on spike of Pariana stenolemma 
Tutin, in rain forest, Ranclio Grande, near Maracay, Venezuela, 
8-VI-1967, T. R. Soderstrom, USNM 70061. Paratypes: 5 S $, 4 9 5, 
same data as holotype, in USNM; 1 S , 1 2, same data as holotype, in 
Briti.sh Museum (N.H.). 



A NEW SPECIES OF ANTONINA SIGNORET FROM SOUTH DAKOTA 
WITH NEW RECORDS FOR A. BOUTELOUAE PARROTT^ 

(Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae ) 

Michael Kosztarab'- and Burruss McDaniel^ 

ABSTRACT — Description and figures are given of the adult female of a new 
species, Antoi^ina dakotensis. This mealybug was collected from Custer County, 
South Dakota on hairy grama grass. It differs from the other species of Ai^tonina 
in the possession of 6-, and 7-locular pores, also of oral rim ducts, and in the 
absence of anal ring hairs, 3-locular and multilocular pores. 

Although there are 18 species of Antonina Signoret known from the 
world, only five were previously represented in North America. We 
have prepared the description of an unusual new species found in 
North America. A revision of the genus by the senior author is in 
the concluding stage, and a key to all the species of Antonina will be 
given in that publication. 

Antonina dakotensis, n. sp. 

(Figs, a-1) 

Description of the holotype female. — General shape (fig. a) globose. Length 
1,772/u; width 1,817/t. No body segmentation or sclerotization detected. Color of 
live female reddish pink. 

Dorsal surface. — Sma'l oral collar tu])ular ducts (fig. b): few in number, 2An 
long; 2.4^ in diameter. 

Oral rim ducts (fig. c): numerous, 5.7 fi long; 7.2/x in diameter, scattered on 
the entire dorsum. 

Setae: hairlike, 7.8^ in length. 



^ Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges — Editor. 

- Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia 
24061. 

^ Entoniology-Zoolog>' Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, 
South Dakota 57006. Approxed for publication by the Director of the South 
Dakota Agricultural E.xperiment Station as Journal Series No. 486. 



112 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 




Antonina dakotensis, n.sp., female 



No dorsal ostiole or anal tube developed. 

Anal ring (fig. d): subcircular, 47.5/i long; 70.4/u in diameter, with one row 
of large irregularly shaped pores, and with some scattered small pores, but without 
hairs. Setae latero-caudad of anal ring, 9 in number; length 11.9/1 (11.5-12.3). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 113 

Apical setae tapering, 34.6fi long, located laterally from anal ring. A sclerotized, 
curved, internal structure between the anal ring and apical setae. 

Ventral surface. — Eye bases: hardly visible, transverse, lO^i wide; l4Afj. long. 

Antennae (fig. e): one-segmented, 23.5-27.4^ long; antenna! base 29/i in 
diameter. Apex of antenna with 6 setae, 14-23^1 long. 

Labium: triangular in shape, 117^ long, 78/u wide; with four setae, 11.5-14.4/ii 
long. 

Clypeolabral shield: subcircular, 195/^ long and 218,a wide. 

Legs ( fig. f ) : anterior pair of legs indicated by an unsegmented, fleshy 
structure between anterior spiracles and clypeolabral shield. 

Spiracles: Anterior pair 78^ long; atrium 54. 7^ in diameter; with a group of 
30-36 seven-, six-, and five-locular pores anterior of the spiracles. Posterior pair 
(fig. g) 98^ long; atrium 35/jl in diameter; with a group of 36-46 seven-, six-, 
and five-locular disc pores anteriorly. 

Seven-locular disc pores (fig. h): 6.6/u in diameter (5.8-7.2). Confined to 
the venter on the head and thoracic regions. 

Six-locular disc pores (fig. i): 7.2/u in diameter, few located anterior to and 
laterad of the spiracles. 

Five-locular disc pores (fig. j): 6.5/x in diameter (5.8-7.2). Most on the head, 
a few scattered on the thorax. 

Small oral collar tubular ducts ( fig. b ) : as on the dorsum. 

Oral rim ducts (fig. c): few scattered on the abdomen. 

Pore plate ( fig. k ) : oval in shape, with rasplike surface, located posteriorly 
of hind spiracles, 78-82/i long and 39-43/i wide. 

Spinelike minute structures (fig. 1): in rows on the abdomen, always 2 to 4 
in a cluster. 

Holotype. — Deposited in the Coccoidea collection of the U. S. 
National Museum. 

Described from a single adult female found on the crown within 
the leaf sheath of hairy grama grass, Bouteloua hirsuta Lag., Custer 
State Park, Custer County, South Dakota, 5 August, 1967; Burruss 
McDaniel collector. 

To obtain more specimens for this description, the junior author 
checked over 500 samples of the host during August 1967, and at- 
tempted re-collecting at the type locality during the 1968 summer 
season, but was unsuccessful. 

Because of the short summers at the type locality, it is assumed 
that this species has only one yearly generation. 

We have assigned this new species to the genus Antonina with some 
reluctance. It is expected that its generic assignment will change 
after more specimens are studied and compared with the type species 
of related genera. The main morphological differences from the other 
species of Antonina are as follows: A. dakotensis does not possess 
anal ring hairs, trilocular or ten-locular pores as found in the known 
I species of Antonina. It has six-, and seven-locular pores and also oral 
I rim ducts, none of which are present in any other species of this genus. 
The generic assignment is based on the absence of middle and hind 



114 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

legs, ventral ciiculi, dorsal ostioles, and the reduction of antennae 
to a one-segmented stub, also the association with grass as host. 

The description and illustration of this species were made with the 
aid of a Zeiss phase contrast microscope. A maximum magnification 
of 2,000x was used for the study of pores. 

Antonina boutcloiiae Parrott was previously known only from Arizona, 
Kansas and Texas (Ferris, 1953). The only known hosts were the 
grasses Boiiteloua hirsuta Lag., B. chondrosioides (H.B.K. ) Benth. 
(= B. havardii Vasey) and an unidentified Boutelotia. The junior 
author collected fully developed females and one first instar nymph 
of this species from a new host, the blue grama grass, B. iiracilis 
(H.B.K.) Lag. at Gary, South Dakota on September 6, 1967. This 
provides a new state record, which is also the most northern distribu- 
tion record of this and of any known species of Antonina. 

Acknowledgments 
Collecting trips were supported under South Dakota State University Experi- 
ment Station, Project H-469. The equipment used for the study and description 
of this species was provided through the National Science Foundation, Grant 
N.S.F.-GB 6885X. The authors extend their sincere thanks to L. M. Russell of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, for reviewing this manuscript and for 
making valuable comments. 

Reference 

Ferris, G. F. 1953. Atlas of the scale insects of North America (Vol. 6). The 
Pseudococcidae. (Pt. II). Stanford Univ. Press, VII + 279-506 p., illus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 115 

SOCIETY MEETINGS 

761st Regular Meeting — May 2, 1968 

The 761st regular meeting of the Society was called to order by the President, 
R. H. Foote, on May 2, 1968 at 8:15 p.m. in room 43, U. S. National Museum. 
Thirty-four members and 27 guests were in attendance. Minutes of the previous 
meeting were approved as read. Dr. Carlos Flechtmunn was received into the 
Society. The name of F. H. Khattat was read for the first time as a candidate 
for membership. 

Dr. Foote regretfully announced the recent deatlis of L. D. Christenson and 
R. W. Hamed and brief eulogies were presented by A. K. Burditt and M. Leonard 
respectively. Dr. Foote also announced the recent retirements of the following 
members: H. H. Shepherd, L. G. Davis, J. A. Beal, and Mrs. L. W. Yates. 

Helen Sollers-Riedel announced that the annual dinner meeting with the 
Insecticide Society of Washington will be held on June 3, 1968. Miss L. M. 
Russell exhibited a recent publication, "The Mealybugs of California" by H. L. 
McKenzie and published in 1967 by the University of California Press. 

The evenings scheduled program began with exhibits and presentations by 
two outstanding local Science Fair winners. The first, Miss Sally Cannon, dis- 
cussed her experiments with chromatography of Drosophila pteridines. The 
second student, Mr. Richard Lober, apprised the audience of his genetic experi- 
ments on the affects of lethals in Drosophila melunogaster. Dr. Michael G. 
Emsley then presented a delightful and stimulating account of his experiences 
studying mimicry in South American butterflies. A lively discussion followed. 

Following the introduction of visitors, the meeting was adjourned by President 
Foote at 10:15 p.m. Respectfully submitted, Ralph A. Bram, Recording Secretary 

762nd Regular Meeting — ^June 3, 1968 

The 762nd regular meeting of the Entomological Society of Washington was 
held as an annual dinner at the CPO Club, Navy Yard, 10th & M Streets, S. E., 
on Monday, June 3, 1968. The Insecticide Society of Washington was co-host. 

The program, with Past President Louis C. Davis as Master of Ceremonies, 
featured Alfred the Magician as entomological entertainer. The principal address 
was given by Sloan E. Jones, Chief, Cotton Insects Research Branch, ENT, ARS. 
Dr. Jones spent six weeks reviewing plant protection activities in West Pakistan 
and brought much of his interesting experiences with him to share with the 
approximately 180 attendees. Respectfully submitted, Ralph A. Bram, Record- 
ing Secretary 

763rd Regular Meeting — October 3, 1968 

The 763rd regular meeting of the Society was called to order by President 
R. H. Foote on October 3, 1968 at 8:00 p.m., in room 43, U. S. National Museum. 
Thirty-two members and 19 guests were in attendance. Minutes of the 761st 
and 762nd meetings were approved as read. F. H. Khattat was received into 
the Society. The following names were read for the first time as candidates for 
membership: E. A. Cohen, Jr., R. E. Crahill, Jr., J. P. Dtiret, M. K. Elias, J. W. 
Fox, R. C. Fox, G. Galindo-Toro, Yiau-Min Huang, W. P. McCafferty, E. L. 
Peyton, R. R. Smiling, H. Synave, and F. C. Thompson. 

Dr. Foote announced that the New York Entomological Society will hold its 
75th Anniversary celebration on October 29, 1968 in New York. Society members 
I wishing to attend will be most welcome. 



116 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 1, MARCH, 1969 

The evenings scheduled program centered on brief, illustrated reports on the 
Xlllth International Congress of Entomology which was held in Moscow from 
2 to 9 August 1968. Those presenting reports included Dr. C. W. Sabrosky, Mrs. 
Helen Sollers-Riedel, Mr. Ralph Sherman, and Dr. Karl V. Krombein. 

Following the introduction of visitors, the meeting was adjourned by President 
Foote at 10:15 p.m. Respectfully submitted, Ralph A. Bram, Recording Secretary 

764th Re^ar Meeting — November 7, 1968 

The 764th regular meeting of the Society was called to order by the President 
on November 7, 1968 at 8:00 p.m. in room 43, U. S. National Museum. Thirty 
members and seven guests were in attendance. Minutes of the previous meeting 
were approved as read. President Foote called on the Chairman of the Nominating 
Conmiittee, Dr. W. E. Bickley, to present the slate of candidates for 1969 which 
is as follows: President, Helen Sollers-Reidel; President-Elect, Karl V. Krombein; 
Recording Secretary, John A. Davidson; Corresponding Secretary, David R. Smith; 
Treasurer, Arthur K. Burditt, Jr.; Editor, Paul M. Marsh; Custodian, Robert D. 
Gordon; Program Committee Chairman, Donald H. Messersmith; and Membership 
Committee Chairman, H. Ivan Rainwater. 

The following individuals were received into the Society: E. A. Cohen, Jr., 
R. E. Crabill, Jr., J. P. Duret, M. K. Elias, J. W. Fox, R. C. Fox, G. Galindo-Toro, 
Yiau-Min Huang, W. P. McCafferty, E. L. Peyton, R. R. Snelling, H. Synave, 
and F. C. Thompson. The following names were read for the first time as 
candidates for membership: Sunthorn Sirivanakarn, E. J. Allen, P. M. Schroeder, 
J. J. Friaiif, and B. K. Tandan. 

L. M. Russell and R. Sherman presented brief accounts of the Eastern Branch 
Meeting of the Entomological Society of America. R. H. Foote reported on the 
75th Anniversary celebration of the New York Entomological Society. V. Adler 
stimulated a general discussion on broadening the scope of papers published 
in the Proceedings. It was concluded that the Proceedings is universally recognized 
as an established outlet for systematic papers and, although other types of papers 
would readily be published if submitted, the trend is unlikely to change in the 
forseeable future. 

Dr. R. I. Sailer exliibited two jars containing Opuntia leaf pads collected at 
Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, on October 19, 1968. Most of the pads were hollow 
shells since the interior tissue had been completely devoured by larvae of 
Melitara prodeniali^ Walker. When collected on October 19, the larvae were 
very small and would normally grow very little until spring when they would 
cause greatest damage to the cactus plant. Dr. Sailer reported that he collected 
mature larvae of the moth at the same site on April 18, 1959. Pupation occurred 
about May 1 and adult emergence started May 16 and continued for 10 days. 
Eggs laid by the moths started hatching June 1. On April 18, 1959, less than 
5% of the Opuntia pads had escaped damage from M. prodenialis and Dr. Sailer 
expressed the opinion that this moth is the most important single factor that 
prevents Opuntia from becoming a serious problem in the dune areas behind 
the beaches along the Atlantic Coast. 

The scheduled speaker for the evening, Mr. Charles N. Bebee, presented an 
informative discussion on Scientific and Technical Information. Following the 
introduction of visitors, the meeting was adjourned by President Foote at 9:45 
p.m. Respectfully submitted, Ralph A. Bram, Recording Secretary 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
Information for Contributors 

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alphabetically in the following format: 

Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1963. Host relationships of the Euphorini (Hyme- 
noptera: Braconidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 65(4): 306. 

and L. M. Walkley. 1951. in Muesebeck et ah, Hymcnoptera 

of America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. 
Monogr. 2: 90-184. 

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Figure legends — Legends should be typewritten double-spaced on separate 
pages headed Explanation of Figures and placed following References. Do 
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be charged to the author. 



CONTENTS 
(Continued from front cover) 

KINGSOLVER, J. M. — A new species of Neotropical seed weevil affecting 
pigeon peas, with notes on two closely related species (Coleoptera: Bruchi- 
dae: Bruchinae ) 50 

KOSZTARAB, M. and B. McDANIEL— A new species of Antonina Signoret 
from South Dakota \\dth new records for A. boutelouae Parrott (Homop- 
tera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae ) 111 

LYON, R. J. — The alternate generation of Callirhytis quercussuttonii ( Bas- 
sett) (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) 61 

MATTHEWS, R. W. and P. M. MARSH— On the status of Cresson's Steno- 
phasmus species from Cuba (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) - 94 

POLHEMUS, J. T. — A new Velia from Peru, and the description of the male 
of Velia helenae Hungerford (Hemiptera: Veliidae) 55 

POOLE, R. W. — Gonodontis peplaria Geyer, a noctuid, not a geometrid 
( Lepidoptera ) - 107 

PRASAD, V. — Record of the moth ear mite, Dicrocheles phalaenodectes, in 
Ohio (Acarina: Mesostigmata) 7 

ROZEN, J. G., JR. — Biological notes on the bee Tetralonia minuta and its 
cleptoparasite, Morgania histrio transvaalensis (Hymenoptera: Anthopho- 
ridae) 102 

SMITH, D. R. — The genus Susana Rohwer and Middleton (Hymenoptera: 
Tenthredinidae ) 13 

TODD, E. L. — New distribution records for Meropleon titan Todd ( Lepidop- 
tera: Noctuidae ) 9 

TODD, E. L. — Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Gonodonta obesa 
(Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) 58 

TOWNES, H. — The neotropic species of Xanthopimpla (Hymenoptera: Ich- 
neumonidae) ___ 82 

VALLEY, K., T. WEARSCH and B. A. FOOTE— Larval feeding habits of 
certain Chloropidae ( Diptera ) 29 

WALKER, D. W. and V. QUINTANA— Mating and oviposition behavior of 
the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) 88 

WILLIAMS, D. J. — A new species of Eriococcus infesting American beach- 
grass in North Carolina (Homoptera: Coccoidea) 90 

WOOLLEY, T. A. and H. G. HIGGINS— A new genus of Suctobelbidae from 
northwestern United States (Acari: Cryptostigmata ) 10 

SOCIETY MEETINGS 1 15 



Vol. 71 



JUNE 1969 



No. 2 



PROCEEDINGS 



of the 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

of WASHINGTON 



U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20560 




"ATJI3 — n^ 

CONTENTS ^V ^KAR1J 3 

BAKER, E. W. — Oriolella, a new name for Oriola (Acarina: Tydeidae) 204 

BARR, W. F. — New species of Chrysohotliris from the Pacific Northwest 



( Coleoptera : Buprestidae ] 



117 



BISSELL, T. L. — The subcoxa of the aphid hind leg (Homoptera: Aphidi- 
dae - - 133 



BLAKE, D. H. — Fourteen new chrysomeHd beetles from Jamaica 



161 



BOULANGER, L. W. — A new record for a parasite of the alfalfa \vee\'il in 
Eastern United States, Eriplanus micator (Gravenhorst) ( Hymenoptera : 
Ichneumonidae ) -— — ,-- 149 

CRABILL, R. E. — On the tnie identity of Cyclorya attems (Chilopoda: 
Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae) .-. 242 

FRANCLEMONT, J. G.— Tlie generic name Callarctia and its type (Lepi- 
doptera: Arctiidae ) - 256 

GORDON, R. D. — ^A new Glaresis from the western United States (Scarab- 
aeidae: Coleoptera ) 147 

HODGES, R. W. — Two species of apple-feeding gelcchiids new to science 
( Lepidoptera ) ..._ _ 202 

HUANG, Y. M. — A new species of Aedes (Stegomyia) from Thailand (Dip- 
tera: Culicidae ) „ 234 

KLEIN, J. M. — A new species of Ficalbia (Revenalites) from Cambodia 

(Diptera: Culicidae) 215 

(Continued on back cover) 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884 



OFFICERS FOR 1969 



Mrs. Helen Sollers-Riedel, President 
Arg. Res. Ser., USDA 
Room 466, Federal Center Bldg. 
Hyattsville, Maryland 20782 

Dr. Karl V. Krombein, President-Elect 
Department of Entomology 
U. S. National Musevmi 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

Dr. John A. Davidson, Recording Secretary 
Department of Entomology 
University of Maryland 
College Park, Maryland 20740 



Dr. David R. Smith, Corresponding Secretary 
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA 
c/o U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 



Dr. Arthur K. Burditt, Jr., Treasurer 
Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA 
Plant Industry Station 
Beltsville, Maryland 20705 



Dr. Paul M. Marsh, Editor 

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA 
c/o U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

Dr. Robert D. Gordon, Custodian 

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA 
c/o U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

Dr. Donald H. Messersmith, Program Committee 
Chairman 
Department of Entomology 
University of Maryland 
College Park, Maryland 20740 

Mr. H. Ivan Rainw^ater, Membership Committee 
Chairman 
Plant Quarantine Division, USDA 
Room 564, Federal Center Bldg. 
Hyattsville, Maryland 20782 

Mr. W. Doyle Reed, Delegate to Washington 
Academy of Sciences 
3609 Military Rd., NW. 
Washington, D. C. 20015 



Honorary President 
Dr. T. E. Snyder, U.S. National Museum 

Honorary Members 
Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck, U.S. National Museum 

Dr. F. W. Poos 

Dr. E. N. Cory 



MEETINGS. — Regular meetings of the Society are held in Room 43 of the U.S. National Museum on the first] 
Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are published regularlyr 
in the Proceedings. 

MEMBERSHIP. — Members shall be persons who have demonstrated interest in the science of entomologyJ 
Annual dues for members are $5.00; initiation fee is $1.00 (U.S. currency). I 

PROCEEDINGS. — Published quarterly beginning with March by the Society at Washington, D.C. Members inj 
good standing are entitled to the Proceedings free of charge. XoiimcmlK-r subscriptions are $8.00 per year 
both domestic and foreign (U.S. currency), payable in advance. All remittances should be made payable tc 
The Entomological Society of Washington. 

The Society does not exchange its publications for those of other societies. 

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP 

Title of Publication: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 

Frequency of Issue: Quarterly (March, June, September, December). 

Location of Office of Publication, Business Office of Publisher and Owner: The Entomological Society ol 

Washington, c/o Department of Entomology, U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560. 
Editor: Dr. Paul M. Marsh, same address as above. 
Managing Editor and Known Bondholders or other Security Holders: none. 



This issue mailed June 30, 1969 



Second Class Postage Paid at Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A. 66044 

ALLEN PRESS, INC. """TJ^" LAWRENCE, KANSAS 66044 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 

Vol. 71 JUNE 1969 No. 2 

NEW SPECIES OF CHRYSOBOTHRIS FROM THE 
PACIFIC NORTHWEST! 2 

( COLEOPTERA : BUPRESTIDAE ) 

William F. Barr, Department of Entomology, University of Idaho, 
Moscow, Idaho 83843 

ABSTRACT — The new species described are as follows: Chrysobothris horningi 
from southern Idaho, C westcotti from eastern Oregon, C. potcntillae from west 
central Oregon, C. idahoensis from southern Idaho, C. breviloboides from south- 
ern Idaho, C. beeri from western Oregon and southcentral Washington and C. 
Columbiana from southeastern British Columbia and eastern Washington. 

Detailed studies of the Buprestidae in the region encompassing the 
states of Idaho, Oregon and Washington and the province of British 
Columbia preparatory to a presentation of the species in the final 
volume of Hatch's "Coleoptera of the Pacific Northwest" has resulted 
in the discovery of a number of previously undescribed species. Seven 
such species belonging to the genus Chrysobothris Eschscholtz are 
described herein in order that their names may become immediately 
available. 

Many individuals have offered specimens for study for which I am 
very grateful. I am especially indebted to F. M. Beer, Oregon State 
University; M. H. Hatch, University of Washington; D. S. Horning, Jr., 
University of California, Davis; M. T. James, Washington State Uni- 
versity; H. B. Leech, California Academy of Sciences; and R. L. West- 
cott, Oregon Department of Agriculture, for their cooperation and 
assistance. 

Chrysobothris horningi Barr, n. sp. 
(Figs. 1 and 8) 

Male: Moderately elongate and convex; black with a faint aeneous tinge, front 
of head dark blue-green, abdominal sternites strongly shining. 

Head rather finely and densely punctured, moderately clothed with short, 
inconspicuous, subrecumbent, white hairs; vertex with a median, longitudinal 
integumental line, not carinate; front convex with a faintly indicated, smooth 



^ Published with the approval of the Director of the University of Idaho Agri- 
culUiral Experiment Station as Research Paper No. 782. 

- Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges — Editor. 



118 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 










Figs. 1-7. Male genitalia of Chrysobothris spp., dorsal apsect: 1, C. Iwrningi, 
n. sp.; 2, C. westcotti, n. sp.; 3, C. potentillae, n. sp.; 4, C. idahoensis, n. sp.; 
5, C. breviloboides, n. sp.; 6, C. foeeri, n. sp.; 7, C. columbiana, n. sp. 



callosity on either side of middle; clypeus somewhat roughened except for a small, 
smooth area at middle, front margin broadly, shallowly emarginate at middle and 
broadly rounded laterally; antenna serrate from third segment which is approxi- 
mately twice as long as second segment and slightly longer than the more con- 
spicuously serrate fourth segment, segments four to ten slightly wider than long. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 119 

Pronotum convex, one and three-fourths times wider than long, widest behind 
front; sides subparallel except near front where they are arcuately narrowed and 
near base where they are sinuately narrowed; hind angles obtuse; lateral margin 
associated with a narrow, smooth, distinctly arcuate and shghtly elevated Una that 
extends from behind anterior margin to posterior margin beneath the side; front 
margin subtruncate with a very broad, feebly developed median lobe; hind margin 
broadly, rather strongly lobed at middle; surface rather finely and sparsely 
punctured, very feebly, transversely strigose between punctures, pubescence 
indistinct except for a small concentration of short, suberect, white hairs at 
hind angles. 

Elytra approximately one and three-fourths times longer than wide; base of 
each elytron broadly rounded; sides when viewed from above very shghtly 
widening from humeri to middle and then gradually, arcuately narrowing to 
apices which are more or less separately rounded, not serrate, but with an indica- 
tion of a small sutural tooth; each elytron with a small, subbasal pit at middle and 
a small, subbasal depression near humerus, two very faintly indicated discal foveae 
present, one in front of middle, the other at about apical third, and four very 
faintly indicated costae present as follows, a sutural and a discal costa extending 
from near base to apex, a humeral costa extending from humerus to the faintly 
indicated apical fovea and a sublateral costa extending from humerus to apex; 
surface finely, densely punctured basally, becoming faintly, transversely strigose 
at about basal third, punctures finer and more sparsely placed at middle, and 
very feebly roughened and scabrous behind apical tliird, pubescence consisting 
of uniformly but sparsely placed, very short, suberect wliite hairs. 

Prosternum moderately clothed with rather long, subrecumbent white hairs at 
middle; front margin with a broad, moderately developed median lobe. 

Abdomen finely, shallowly indistinctly punctured, first sternite distincth- 
punctured, without elevations along sides of sternites one to five but with small 
smooth spaces; last sternite with lateral margins entire, hind margin broadly, 
shallowly arcuately emarginate. 

Legs blackish; profemur with a broad, blunt triangular tooth at middle which 
IS slightly broken, but not serrate on outer margin; protibia moderately long, 
arcuate, with a distinct, shghtly sinuate, subapical dilation; mesotibia neady 
straight, slightly expanded apically; metatibia straight, first segment of metatarsus 
with a small plantula at apex. 

Length, 5.7 mm.; width, 2.2 mm. 

Female: Differs from the male by having the front of head coppery, the 
pubescence more sparsely placed, and with a broad inverted "V"-shaped callosity 
joining the integumental line of the vertex; pronotum with a coppery cast, more 
densely punctured; abdomen shghtly brassy along sides, last sternite with hind 
margin broadly rounded, shallowly arcuately emarginate at middle; protibia 
gradually and very shghtly expanded apically, without a subapical deletion. 

Lengdi, 7.0 mm.; width, 3.0 mm. 

Holotype male and allotype female (California Academy of Sci- 
ences, on indefinite loan from the University of Idaho) and one male 
paratype from Craters of the Moon National Monument, Butte County, 
Idaho. Holotype collected on June 18, 1965 on cinders (D. S. Homing, 
Jr.), allotype July 7, 1966 (R. L. ^^'estcott) and the parat>'pe June 23, 



120 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

1966 from Eriogonum depressum Rydberg (W. F. Barr). Paratype 
in the writer's collection. 

This species is most closely related to C. fragariae Fisher and runs 
out to that species in Fisher's key ( 1942 ) . The small size and black 
coloration of C. harningi readily differentiate it from Fisher's species. 
In addition, the two species are widely separated geographically. 
C. fragariae is known only from areas adjacent to the lower Columbia 
River in Oregon and Washington whereas C. horningi has been taken 
only in the Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho. 

C. horningi apparently is restricted to Eriogonum depressum that 
commonly grows on cinder cones of the Monument. A number of 
specimens of this fast flying and elusive beetle have been observed 
on this plant but only three specimens were collected. No specimens 
of this species have been associated with E. ovalifolium Nuttall which 
may occur in the same habitat. 

Chrysobothris westcotti Barr, n. sp. 
(Figs. 2 and 9) 

Male: Moderately elongate, distinctly convex; blackish, clypeus slightly brassy, 
elytra with a purplish cast; sides of abdominal sternites shining, brownish. 

Head rather finely, densely punctured, more coarsely and irregularly punctured 
on lower portion of front, densely but inconspicuously clothed with short, sub- 
recumbent, white hairs; vertex with a weakly indicated, longitudinal, median 
carina that joins with a pair of indistinct, oblique carinae on upper portion of 
front to form a "Y"; front convex with a faintly indicated smooth callosity on either 
side of middle; clypeus with front margin broadly, deeply, triangularly emarginate 
at middle and broadly rounded laterally; antenna serrate from the third segment 
which is approximately twice as long as second segment and one and one-third 
times longer than fourtli segment, segments four to ten slightly wider than long. 

Pronotum nearly twice as wide as long, widest at middle, convex except sub- 
flattened medially; sides more or less evenly arcuate except at extreme base; 
hind angles rectangular; lateral margin associated with a broad, smooth, distinctly 
arcuate and slightly elevated line that extends from anterior margin to posterior 
margin beneath the side; front margin very broadly emarginate with a broad, 
feebly developed median lobe; hind margin strongly lobed at middle; surface 
sparsely, rather finely punctured on disk, more densely punctured laterally and 
more coarsely irregularly punctured along sides, somewhat transversely strigose 
between punctures, especially near base, pubescence indistinct except for a small 
concentration of short, suberect white hairs at hind angles. 

Elytra not reaching apex of abdomen, about one and two-thirds times longer 
than wide; base of each elytron nearly semi-circularly rounded; sides when viewed 
from above feebly narrowed at about basal third, broadest behind middle; apices 
more or less separately, narrowly rounded, not serrate, but slightly irregular and 
with a small sutural tooth; each elytron with a small subbasal pit and a shallow 
depression at middle and with a shallow, elongate, subbasal depression at humerus, 
foveae absent, sublateral costa faintly indicated and sutural costa very faintly 
indicated behind middle; surface densely, rather finely punctured, becoming more 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 121 

finely and sparsely punctured apically, uniformly clothed with sparsely placed, 
short, subert'ct white hairs. 

Prostemum densely clothed with rather long, suberect white hairs at middle; 
front margin with a broad, well-developed median lobe. 

Abdomen rather finely and sparsely punctured, with slightly elevated, elongate 
smooth areas along sides of sternites one to five; last stemite with lateral margins 
slightly broken apically but not serrate, hind margin broadly, shallowly, acurately 
emarginate. 

Legs blackish widi a faint aeneous luster; profemur with a broad, blunt tri- 
angular tooth at middle which is irregularly serrate on outer margin; protibia 
short, strongly arcuate with a distinct, strongly sinuate subapical dilation; meso- 
tibia nearly straight, evenly but slightly expanded apically; metatibia straight, 
first segment of metatarsus with a small plantula at apex. 

Length, 9.1 mm.; width, 3.7 mm. 

Female: Differs from the male as follows: vertex with a median, longitudinal 
integumental line, not carinate; pronotum with a shallow, sublateral depression, 
disk more densely punctured; presternum sparsely clothed with short, suberect, 
white hairs; protibia gradually but slightly expanded to before apex, without a 
subapical dilation, mesotibia straight; abdomen with hind margin of last stemite 
broadly rounded and broadly, shallowly emarginate at middle. 

Holotype male and allotype female (California Academy of Sci- 
ences) and nine male and eight female paratypes from 11.5 miles 
northwest of Lime, Baker County, Oregon. The holotype was collected 
from Eriogonum compositum on July 26, 1968 and the allotype reared 
from this plant on July 26, 1968 by R. L. Westcott. The paratypes 
were reared during the period June 21 to July 25, 1968 or collected 
from E. compositum on July 26, 1968 by K. J. Goeden and R. L. 
Westcott. Additional paratypes as follows: six males and six females 
from one mile southeast of Lime, Baker County, Oregon, July 26, 1968 
( K. J. Goeden, R. L. Westcott ) and one male and one female from six 
miles northwest of Lime, Baker County, Oregon, July 26, 1968 (R. L. 
Westcott). All specimens were taken from E. compositum. Paratypes 
in the collections of the California Academy of Sciences, Oregon 
Department of Agriculture, U. S. National Museum, W. F. Barr, F. M. 
Beer, J. Davidson, G. H. Nelson and David Verity. 

C. icestcotti runs to C jragariae Fisher in Fisher's key but can be 
recognized by its larger size, more convex appearance, blackish colora- 
tion, the denser, more uniformly distributed elytral pubescence and 
by the shape of the male genitalia. 

This species exhibits slight variation in color, in fonn and in structure. 
The clypeus may be uniformly darkened or coppery, the apices of 
the elytra may be conspicuously coppery, the ventral surface may 
have a brassy luster, the carina of the vertex may be reduced to an 
integumental line, the disk of the pronotum may be distinctly depressed 
or uniformly convex, there may be a sublateral depression on the 
pronotum with the sides somewhat angulate, and the elytra may lack 



122 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




8 








Figs. 8-14. Protibia of male Chrysobothris spp., rear aspect: 8, C. horningi, n. 
sp.; 9, C. westcotti, n. sp.; 10. C. potentillae, n. sp.; 11, C. idahoensis, n. sp.; 
12, C. breviloboides, n. sp.; 13, C. foeerf, n. sp.; 14, C. columbiana, n. sp. 



any indication of costae, but may have one or two pairs of very faintly 
indicated foveae. A range of 8.1 mm. to 11.8 mm. in length is evident 
in the type series. 

R. L. Westcott has made several biological observations on this 
species at the type locality. He found the larvae to concentrate their 
activities in the "leaf crown" of E. compositum above the soil surface 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 123 

with only an occasional specimen in the lower stem. The "leaf crowns" 
were 90 plus percent infested on September 6, 1968 and usually con- 
tained one larva each. The position and boring of the early instar larva 
suggest that the female oviposits on the "leaf crown" and perhaps 
inserts the egg on the inner side of the expanded base of the petioles. 
Overwintering occurs as two larval instars. Pupation takes place 
inside the "leaf crown" in a larval boring. The larva appears to be in 
competition with an aegeriid moth larva which usually works in the 
lower stem and the primary crown. 

Chrysobothris potentillae Barr, n. sp. 
(Figs. 3 and 10) 

Male: Moderately elongate, convex; dark brown, slightly shining, front of head 
green, areas behind eyes with reddish reflections, abdomen violaceous-brown, 
strongly shining and with purplish reflections laterally. 

Head rather finely, densely punctured, more coarsely and irregularly punctured 
on lower portion of front, densely but inconspicuously clothed with short, sub- 
erect and subrecumbent, white hairs; vertex with a median, longitudinal integu- 
mental line, not carinate; front convex, without callosities; clypeus with front 
margin broadly, deeply, triangularly emarginate at middle and broadly rounded 
laterally; antenna serrate from third segment which is approximately twice as 
long as second segment and subequal in length to fourth segment, segments four 
to ten slightly wider than long. 

Pronotum approximately one and three-fourths times wider than long, widest 
near front, convex except for a slight, median, longitudinal depression; sides 
subparallel except at front where they are broadly rounded and narrowing and 
at base where they are sinuately constricted; liind angles subrectanguhir; lateral 
margin associated with a rather broad, smooth, distinctly arcuate and slightly 
elevated line that extends from behind anterior margin to posterior margin 
beneath the side; front margin subtruncate with a very broad, feebly developed 
median lobe; hind margin strongly lobed at middle; surface rather finely, densely 
punctured, more coarsely and irregularly punctured near sides, somewhat trans- 
versely strigose between punctures near base, pubescence consisting of scattered, 
short, suberect, white hairs which become more numerous and longer at hind angles. 

Elytra slightly more than one and three-fourths times longer than wide; base 
of each elytron nearly semicircularly rounded; sides subparallel behind humeri 
then broadly but feebly expanded to behind middle and then broadly narrowing 
to apices which are separately rounded, not serrate and which are without a 
distinct sutural tooth; each elytron with a small, deep, subbasal, circular depression 
at middle and a shallow, elongate, subbasal depression near humerus, three, weakly 
developed, greenish discal foveae present, the first behind apical third about in 
line with the deep subbasal depression, the second behind middle about in line 
with the subbasal humeral depression and the third in front of apical third about 
in line with the deep subbasal depression, sutural, humeral and sublateral costae 
very weakly developed, discal costa not evident; surface finely, densely punctured 
becoming more shallowly and finely punctured apically, uniformly clothed with 
rather sparsely placed, short, suberect, white hairs. 



124 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Prosternum densely clothed with rather long, subrecumbent white hairs at 
middle; front margin with a broad, well-developed median lobe. 

Abdomen sparsely, shallowly punctured, except finely, densely punctured 
toward sides; sternites one to five with a slightly elevated, elongate, smooth area 
near sides; last sternite with lateral margins indistinctly serrate, hind margin 
nearly semicircularly emarginate. 

Legs blackish with a distinct coppery cast; profemur with a broad, but acutely 
developed triangular tooth at middle, which has the outer margin irregularly 
serrate; protibia short, arcuate with a well-developed, strongly sinuate, subapical 
dilation; mesotibia slightly sinuate and slightly expanded apically; metatibia 
straigth, first segment of metatarsus with a small plantula at apex. 

Length, 7.9 mm.; width, 3.2 mm. 

Female: Differs from the male by having the front of head shining coppery 
with a pair of indistinct transverse callosities at middle; pronotum with sides very 
broadly arcuate, hind angles more or less acute; elytra with discal foveae reddish 
and with sutural, discal, humeral, and sublateral costae faintly indicated; posternum 
sparsely clothed with short, suberect, white hairs; abdomen with hind margin of 
last sternite broadly rounded and shallowly emarginate at middle; legs with protibia 
very gradually expanded apically, without a subapical dilation; mesotibia straight. 

Length, 8.8 mm.; width, 3.8 mm. 

Holotype male (California Academy of Sciences) and allotype 
female (Oregon State University) and five male and three female 
paratypes from Corvallis, Oregon, July 24, 1940 (F. M. Beer). Para- 
types in the collections of Oregon State University, W. F. Barr, F. M. 
Beer and G. H. Nelson. According to Beer the specimens were found 
on the foliage and stems of Potentilla sp. growing on a dry south- 
facing slope a few miles northwest of Corvallis. 

This species is a member of the fragariae complex and it runs out in 
Fisher's key to C. fragariae Fisher and C. oregona Chamberlin. It can 
be distinguished from these species by the abdominal sternites being 
finely, densely punctured laterally, by its usually convex shape, the 
elytral being more uniformly pubescent, the front of the head of the 
male being bright brassy green to a brilliant green and by the shape 
of the male genitalia. 

As with most members of the fragariae complex, C. potentillae shows 
variation of the pronotum. Some specimens have the sides broadly 
arcuate to somewhat angulate and broadest near the front or at middle. 
Also, the disk may lack a longitudinal flattening or a depression. In 
one specimen the pronotum is conspicuously reddish. 

Chrysobothris idahoensis Barr, n. sp. 
(Figs. 4 and 11) 

Male: Moderately elongate, sub-depressed; dark coppery, feebly shining, front 
of head and clypeus coppery-green, ventral surface strongly shining with purplish 
reflections especially near sides. 

Head rather finely, densely punctured, more coarsely and very densely punctured 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 125 

on lower portion of front, densely but inconspicuously clothed with very short, 
subrecumbent, white hairs; vertex with a median, longitudinal integumental line 
that joins with a pair of indistinct, oblique, smooth carinae on upper portion of 
front to form a "Y"; front convex with an elongate, smooth callosity on eitlier side 
of middle; clypeus irregularly punctured except for a smooth median area, front 
margin broadly, rather shallowly triangvilarly emarginate at middle and broadly 
rounded laterally; antenna conspicuously serrate from fourth segment, third 
segment weakly serrate and approximately one and one-half times longer than 
second and fourth segments which are subequal in length, segments four to ten 
distinctly wider than long. 

Pronotum approximately one and three-fourths times wider than long, distinctly 
widest near front, moderately convex, with a narrow median longitudinal depres- 
sion and a shallow, circular, sublateral depression; sides broadly, evenly arcuate, 
except at base where they are sinuately constricted; hind angles more or less 
acute; lateral margin associated with a smooth, distinctly arcuate and slightly 
elevated line that extends from anterior margin to posterior margin beneath the 
side and which is narrow in front and broad at base; front margin subtruncate 
with a broad, moderately developed, median lobe; hind margin strongly lobed 
at middle; surface sparsely, rather finely punctured medially, becoming more 
closely and irregularly punctured laterally, disk with an irregularly elongate, 
slightly elevated smooth area on either side of median depression, pubescence 
indistinct, consisting of very short, suberect, white hairs near sides and a small 
concentration of hairs at hind angles. 

Elytra slightly more than one and three-fourths times longer than wide; base 
of each elytron nearly semicircularly rounded; sides when viewed from above very 
gradually expanded from humerus to behind middle then broadly, arcuately 
narrowing to apices which are narrowly, separately rounded and slightly broken 
with faint indications of coarse serrations, sutural tooth feebly developed; each 
elytron irregularly contoured, with a small subbasal pit at middle which is asso- 
ciated with a shallow, irregular depression and with a shallow, elongate, subbasal 
depression at humerus, three discal foveae faintly indicated, the first located at 
about basal third in line with the subbasal median depression, the second behind 
middle about in line with the humeral depression and the third at about apical 
third nearly in line with the subbasal median depression, sutural and sublateral 
costae moderately distinct behind middle, humeral costa faintly indicated from 
humerus to behind middle; surface rather finely, densely punctured becoming 
more finely, sparsely punctured and slightly rugose apically except foveae more 
finely and densely punctured, pubescence very sparsely placed, consisting of very 
short, subrecumbent, white hairs along sides and near apex. 

Prostenium rather densely clothed with long, subrecumbent, white hairs at 
middle; front margin with a broad, moderately developed, median lobe. 

Abdomen finely, sparsely, sliallowly punctured, with slightly elevated, elongate, 
smooth areas along sides of sternites one to five; last stemite with sides entire, 
hind margin broadly, shallowly, arcuately emarginate. 

Legs dark aeneous with some coppery reflections; profennir with a broad, blunt 
triangular tooth at apical third, which is feebly serrate on outer margin; protibia 
arcuate, with a distinct, strongly sinuate, subapical dilation; mcsotibia nearly straight, 
slightly expanded apically; metatibia straight, first segment of metatarsus with a 
small plantula at apex. 



126 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Length, 7.0 mm.; width, 2.7 mm. 

Female: Differs from the male by being more strongly shining, coppery; front 
of head coppery with a faint greenish cast; disk of pronotimi uniformly punctured 
except for the more finely, densely punctured median, longitudinal depression; 
elytra with sutural, discal, humeral and sublateral costae faintly indicated; 
prosternum sparsely clothed with short, sumrecumbent, white hairs; abdomen 
with hind margin of last sternite more or less broadly rounded, broadly but 
shallowly notched at middle; protibia very gradually expanded apically, without 
a subapical dilation. 

Length, 7.0 mm.; width, 2.8 mm. 

Holotype male and allotype female ( California Academy of Sciences 
on indefinite loan from the University of Idaho) and three male and 
five female paratypes from Alturas Lake, Blaine County, Idaho, August 

2, 1964 (R. L. Westcott) on Eriogonum sp.; two male and one female 
paratype from Dollarhide Pass, 25 miles west of Ketchum, Blaine 
County, Idaho, August 13, 1962 (N. L. Rumpp) and August 1, 1964 
(R. L. Westcott) on Eriogonum sp.; and one female paratype from 
Craters of the Moon National Monument, Butte County, Idaho, July 

3, 1965 (D. S. Horning, Jr.) on Eriogonum ovalifolium. Paratypes in 
the collections of the California Academy of Sciences, the University 
of Idaho, W. F. Barr, and R. L. Westcott. Three female specimens 
assigned to this species but not designated as paratypes are from five 
miles northeast of Midvale, Washington County, Idaho, July 9, 1952 
( W. F. Barr) and six miles west of Twin Springs, Boise County, Idaho, 
July 4, 1956 ( W. F. Barr ) on the flowers of Eriogonum sp. 

This species falls within the fragariae complex and is best placed' 
next to C. oregona Chamberlin on the basis of the sculpturing of the 
pronotum and elytra. It can be differentiated from the species in the 
fragariae complex by its usually coppery color, the more sparsely 
punctured pronotal disk, the more densely and deeply punctured 
basal fourth of the elytra and by the apically subtruncate median 
lobe of the male genitalia. 

Chrysobothris breviloboides Barr, n. sp. 
(Figs. 5 and 12) 

Male: Moderately elongate and convex; blackish, front of head yellowish-green, 
becoming more bronzy on upper portions and black on vertex, pronotum dark 
purplish in depressed areas, elytra purplish-brown in depressed and densely 
punctured areas, ventral surface dark purplish, becoming blackish at middle of 
metastemum and first abdominal sternite, along sides of abdomen and along hind 
margins of abdominal sternites. 

Head rather coarsely, irregularly foveolate-punctate, densely clothed with 
rather short, subdepressed, white hairs; vertex with a well-developed, longitudinal, 
median carina; front sub-flattened, upper portion with a small, narrow, median 
carina which does not join carina of vertex; clypeus with front margin rather 
broadly, deeply, arcuately emarginate at middle and obliquely subtruncate laterally; 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 127 

antenna strongly serrate from fourth segment, third segment moderately serrate, 
nearly twice as long as second segment and one and one-half times longer than 
fourth segment, segments four to ten about as wide as long, broadly subtruncate 
along outer margins. 

Pronotum about one and two-thirds times wider than long, widest slightly 
behind middle, slightly convex, irregular, with a pair of smooth, longitudinal 
callosities on either side of middle that are irregularly joined at base and near 
front margin and between which is formed a narrow, longitudinal depression and 
with small, irregular callosities near sides; sides irregularly and broadly arcuate; 
lateral margin associated with a broad, smooth, arcuate and slightly elevated 
line that extends from anterior margin to posterior margin beneath the side; 
front margin very broadly, shallowly emarginate, subtnmcate at middle; hind 
margin broadly lobed at middle; surface densely, rather coarsely punctured 
between callosities, inconspicuously clothed with a few, fine subrecumbent hairs 
near hind angles. 

Elytra distinctly broader than pronotum, twice as long as wide; base of each 
elytron nearly semicircularly rounded; sides subparallel from about basal fourth 
to slightly behind middle, then gradually arcuately narrowing to the separately, 
narrowly rounded apices; lateral margins coarsely but feebly serrate on apical 
third; each elytron with a pair of subbasal depressions and with numerous, 
irregular, slightly elevated smooth spaces which give the surface a somewhat 
"blotchy" appearance and which are associated with the costae, intervening areas 
densely, rather coarsely punctured, sutural costa entire and straight, extending 
from about basal fourth to apex, discal costa irregular, broken and merging with 
smooth spaces, extending from behind base to near apex, humeral costa weakly 
developed, broken at middle, sublateral costa irregular, more or less entire, extend- 
ing from about basal fourth to near apex, pubescence consisting of very sparsely 
placed, very short, inconspicuous hairs along sides. 

Prostemum densely clothed with long, subrecumbent white hairs at middle; 
front margin with a feebly indicated broad median lobe. 

Abdomen with slightly elevated, smooth callosities at sides of each sternite; 
last sternite with lateral margin entire except for a few small serrations near 
apex; hind margin broadly, nearly semicircularly emarginate. 

Legs dark purplish, outer surface of profemur dark greenish, tibiae more or 
less blue-black and tarsi dark blue; profemur with a broad, blunt tooth at middle 
which is serrate on outer margin; protibia strongly arcuate, inner margin slightly 
expanded at about apical third then broadly, deeply notched, subapical dilation 
short, abruptly and evenly expanded; mesotibia arcuate, slightly but evenly 
expanded apically; metatibia straight; metatarsus with a small plantula at apex 
of first segment. 

Length, 11.7 mm.; width, 4.5 mm. 

Female: Differs from the male by having the front of the head uniformly 
purplish; the presternum less densely pubescent; the abdomen uniformly dark 
purplish with the last sternite more elongate, the lateral margin conspicuously 
serrate and the hind margin rather broadly, deeply triangularly emarginate; the 
protibia not notched and without a subapical dilation. 

Length, 12.6 mm.; width, 5.0 mm. 

Holotype male and allotype female ( California Academy of Sciences 
on indefinite loan from the University of Idaho) from Craters of the 



128 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Moon National Monument, Butte County, Idaho, June 22, 1965 ( Carol 
J. Horning). Paratypes from the same locality as follows: one male 
June 22, 1965 (D. S. Homing, Jr.) one female July 5, 1965 (D. S. 
Homing, Jr.); one male July 7, 1965 (D. S. Homing, Jr.); one male 
July 7, 1966 (R. L. Westcott); one male July 9, 1964 (D. S. Horning, 
Jr.); two males and two females July 19, 1948 (F. M., F. S. and V. S. 
Beer); two females, summer 1964 (D. S. Horning, Jr.); and one male 
summer 1965 (D. S. Horning, Jr.). One additional female paratype 
from Sunset Crater, Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho, 
June 28, 1965 (D. S. Homing, Jr.). The majority of the specimens 
were collected or reared from Pinus fJexiUs James. Paratypes in the 
collections of the University of Idaho, U. S. National Museum, W. F. 
Barr, F. M. Beer, G. H. Nelson and R. L. Westcott. 

C. breviloboides is most closely related to C. breviloba Fall but is 
readily separated from that species. It has the punctured areas of the 
elytra predominately a dark dull purplish or blackish and the abdomen 
a dark purplish whereas in C. breviloba the punctured areas of the elytra 
are more extensive and of a shining brown color and the abdomen is 
more shining and more conspicuously purple. In addition, the male 
of C. breviloboides has the front of the head greenish rather than 
golden, the protibial dilation is abruptly expanded, rounded, and not 
sinuate, the protibia has a broad, deep notch before the dilation and 
the lateral lobes of the male genitalia are much more abruptly expanded 
and the median lobe narrowly rounded not subtruncate at its apex. 
The female of C. breviloboides is distinguished from the female of C. 
breviloba by having the hind margin of the last abdominal stemite 
broadly triangularly emarginate rather than narrowly triangularly 
notched. C. breviloboides is known only from the type locality but 
probably is present in other areas of the Intermountain West where 
its host plant occurs. C. breviloba is knov^m from the central Rocky 
Mountains and does not range into the Pacific Northwest. 

C. breviloboides runs out in Fisher's key to C. monticola Fall or 
C. trinervia Kirby depending on one's interpretation of the distinctness 
of the lobe on the front margin of the prostemum. From the former, 
C. breviloboides is distinguished by the partial development of this 
lobe, by the color of the front of the head of the male, by the deep 
notching of the male protibia and by the structure of the median lobe 
of the male genitalia. From the latter it can be recognized by the 
coloration of the abdomen, the lack of cupreous elytral apices and 
the shape of the male genitalia. 

Chrysobothris beeri Barr, n. sp. 
(Figs. 6 and 13) 

Male: Moderately elongate, distinctly convex; blackish with coppery and faint 
greenish reflections in punctured areas, front of head green, ventral surface shining, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 129 

pro- and niesosterna green, nietasternum and abdomen purplish except along 
junctures of abdominal sternites which are coppery green. 

Head finely, densely punctured; verte.\ nearly glabrous with a broad, feebly 
developed, longitudinal, median carina; front convex, densely but inconspicuously 
clothed with short, subdepressed, white hairs, with an oblique, elongate callosity 
on either side of middle; clypeus more finely, densely punctured, front margin 
broadly, deeply triangularly emarginate at middle and broadly rounded laterally; 
antenna green except for outer portions of segments four to eleven, strongly 
serrate from fourth segment, third segment feebly serrate, twice as long as second 
segment and one and one-half times longer than fourth segment which is tri- 
angularly serrate, segments five through ten subequal in width and length, narrowly 
subtruncate along outer margins. 

Pronotimi one and three-fourths times wider than long, indistinctly widest 
behind the front, convex, with a pair of irregular longitudinal callosities on either 
side of middle that join at base and between which is a narrow longitudinal 
depression, with a small but distinct depression located behind front margin 
outside of the median callosities and with a small depression along sides at middle; 
sides subparallel, broadly rounded at front, obtuse at hind angles; lateral margin 
associated with a broad, smooth, arcuate carina that extends from anterior margin 
to posterior margin beneath the side; front margin broadly but feebly emarginate 
with an inconspicuous, broad, median lobe; hind margin rather narrowly lobed at 
middle; surface finely, densely punctured, becoming more coarsely punctured 
towards sides and somewhat transversely strigose basally and laterally, incon- 
spicuously clothed with a few, fine, suberect, short hairs along sides and at hind 
angles. 

Elytra approximately one and three-fourths times longer than wide; base of 
each elytron broadly rounded; sides broadly but feebly sinuate from humerus 
to behind middle where they are slightly expanded then gradually arcuately 
narrowing to the separately narrowly rounded apices; lateral margins finely serrate 
behind middle; each elytron irregular with a pair of small but distinct, subbasal 
depressions and large, irregular, somewhat broken, smooth callosities at alraut 
basal fourth, at middle and at about apical third, intervening areas finely, densely 
punctured, sutural costa moderately well-developed and joining the three large 
callosities, discal costa poorly developed, evident on basal half, interrupted at 
middle, evident only on apical half in front of apex where it joins with sutural 
costa to form a "Y," sublateral costa feebly developed; surface clothed with a few, 
very short and inconspicuous hairs apically. 

Prosternum densely clothed with long, subrecumbent, white hairs at middle; 
front margin with a broad, moderately developed median lobe. 

Abdomen finely, sparsely, shallowly punctured, except more coarsely punctured 
near front angles of sternites two to five; sternites one to four with small, irregular, 
smooth, raised areas near sides; last sternite without a distinct sublateral ridge, 
lateral margin serrate, broadly arcuate, hind margin broadly, nearly semicircularly 
emarginate. 

Legs multicolorous, but predominately shining coppery, tarsi dark blue-green; 
profemur with outer surface green, bearing a broad, blunt tooth at middle which 
is inconspicuously serrate on outer margin; protibia strongly arcuate, outer surface 
dark puq^lish to shining green, inner margin slightly expanded at apical third, 
then broadly, deeply notched, subapical dilation .short, abruptly expanded, sinuate; 



130 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

mesofemur brassy green on outer surface; mesotibia arcuate, sinuately expanded 
apically; metatibia straight; metatarsus with a small plantula at apex of first 
segment. 

Length, 10.6 mm.; width, 4.5 mm. 

Female: Differs from the male by having the head, the femora, the tibiae and 
the ventral surface shining coppery except for lateral raised areas of the abdominal 
stemites which are purple; the prostemum moderately pubescent; the last ab- 
dominal sternite more elongate, with the sides vaguely sinuate and the hind margin 
subtruncate with a broad deflexed plate at middle; the protibia not notched and 
without a subapical dilation. 

Length, 11.8 mm.; width, 5.2 mm. 

Holotype male and allotype female (California Academy of Sci- 
ences) and two male and one female paratypes from Horse Lake 
Ranger Station, Lane County, Oregon, September 3, 1955 (F. M. Beer). 
Additional paratypes as follows: one male from Mt. Ashland, Jackson 
County, Oregon, July 27, 1962 (F. M. and V. S. Beer); one male from 
Tiller, Douglas County, Oregon, August 20, 1948 (F. M., F. S. and 
V. S. Beer); one male from O'Brien, Josephine County, Oregon May 
30, 1952 ( V. Roth ) ; two males from Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, 
August 9, 1939 (F. M. Beer); one male from west rim of Crater Lake, 
Klamath County, Oregon, August 3, 1968 (R. L. Westcott); one female 
from Lost Prairie, Linn County, Oregon, July 23, 1966 (F. M. Beer); 
one female from Lava Lake, Deschutes County, Oregon, July 31, 1955 
(F. M. Beer); one female from Suttle Lake, Jefferson County, Oregon, 
July 18, 1962 (F. M. and V. S. Beer); one female from Breitenbush 
Lake, Marion County, Oregon, August 16, 1942 (F. M. Beer); one 
female from Stay ton, Oregon, June 29, 1946 (F. M. Beer); one female 
from Mt. Hood, Oregon, 3000-6000 ft., June 22, 1925; one female from 
Cloud Cap, 6000 ft., Mt. Hood, Oregon, July 16, 1933 (K. E. Gibson); 
one female from Seattle, Washington, July 5, 1913; one male and one 
female from Olympic Hot Springs, Washington, July 22, 1938 (F. M. 
Beer); one male from Mt. Adams, West Klickitat, Washington, 3000', 
July 1, 1925 (L. A. Morley); one female from Ricksecker Point, Mt. 
Rainier, Washington, 4400^, July 19, 1935; 17 males and four females 
from Nelson Siding, Kittitas County, Washington, July 28, 1968 (R. 
L. Westcott); one female from Blackwall, Mamiing Park, British 
Columbia, 6000 ft., August 16, 1953 (J. B. McGillis); Paratypes in the 
collections of the California Academy of Sciences, Canada National 
Collection, Oregon State University, University of Idaho, U. S. National 
Museum, W. F. Barr, F. M. Beer, J. Davidson, M. H. Hatch, J. N. 
Knull, G. H. Nelson, David Verity and R. L. Westcott. 

C. beeri shows relationships with C. sijlvania with which it occurs 
sympatrically and C. laricis with which it occurs allopatrically. It can 
be distinguished from these species by having the sutural and a discal 
elytral costae forming a "Y" near the apex, by the distinctive shortened 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 131 

and blunt lateral lobes of the male genitalia and by the usually sub- 
truncate hind margin of the last abdominal sternite of the female which 
frequently bears a small angulate lobe at the middle. 

An unusual amount of variation has been noted in this species. The 
small concentration of densely placed punctures at the front angles 
of the abdominal sternites may be absent, the lateral margins of the last 
abdominal sternite may be entire, the notching of the male protibia 
may be much reduced in some populations and the hind margin of 
the last abdominal sternite of the female may be somewhat scalloped 
or emarginate with the median lobe absent or very conspicuous and 
feebly notched. The length of the paratypes ranges from 9 to 12 mm. 

Chrysobothris coIumbiana Barr, n. sp. 

(Figs. 7 and 14) 

Male: Moderately elongate and convex; blackish, front of head with a faint 
bluish cast in small depressions on either side of middle, elytra purplish-brown 
on depressed and densely punctured areas, ventral surface with coppery and 
bluish reflections, legs with very faint coppery and bluish reflections. 

Head rather coarsely, irregularly foveolate-punctate, densely clothed with short, 
subdepressed, white hairs; vertex with a broad, conspicuous, longitudinal median 
carina; front slightly convex with a smooth, somewhat transverse and inconspicuous 
callosity on either side of the middle; clypeus with front margin broadly, deeply, 
triangularly emarginate at middle and obliquely subtruncate laterally; antenna 
strongly serrate from fourth segment, third segment feebly serrate, approximately 
twice as long as second segment and one and one-fourth times longer than fourth 
segment which is triangularly serrate, segments five to ten slightly longer than 
wide, narrowly subtruncate along outer margins. 

Pronotum slightly more than one and one-half times wider than long, indistinctly 
widest at middle, convex, with a pair of irregular, longitudinal callosities on 
either side of middle that are joined near front margin and between which is a 
narrow, longitudinal depression, additional small, irregular, broken callosities 
present laterally, a rather broad, shallow but distinct depression located behind 
front margin outside the median callosities; sides broadly arcuate but more or 
less subparallel at middle; lateral margin associated with a broad, smooth, distinctly 
arcuate and slightly elevated line that extends from anterior margin to posterior 
margin beneath the side; front margin very broadly emarginate with a broad, 
feebly developed, median lobe; hind margin broadly lobed at middle; surface 
densely, rather coarsely punctured in median depression, irregularly and trans- 
versely foveolate-punctate between callosities, inconspicuously clothed with a 
few, fine, subrecumbent hairs near hind angles. 

Elytra about one and three-fourths times longer than wide; base of each elytron 
nearly semicircularly rounded; sides subparallel from about basal fourth to slightly 
behind middle then gradually arcuately narrowing to the separately, narrowly 
rounded apices; lateral margins coarsely but feebly serrate along apical third; 
each elytron with a pair of basal depressions, sutural costa indistinct on basal 
half, moderately distinct on apical half, angulate in front of apex where it 
indistinctly joins with the discal costa which is indistinct and interrupted, humeral 
costa also indistinct and intermpted, sublateral costa absent, costae joining a few. 



132 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

slightly elevated, irregular, smooth callosities; surface densely, rather coarsely 
punctured between smooth spaces and costae, with a few, very inconspicuous, 
short hairs along sides. 

Prostemum densely clothed with rather long, subrecumbent, white hairs at 
middle; front margin with a broad, feebly developed, median lobe. 

Abdomen finely, shallowly punctured, more coarsely punctured at base of 
sternite one; stemites one to four without small, elevated callosities along sides 
but with small, non-punctured areas; last sternite thickened apically, sublateral 
elevation distinct and strongly serrate, lateral margin conspicuously serrate, liind 
margin broadly, deeply, arcuately emarginate. 

Legs darkened; profemur with a broad triangular tooth at middle which is 
serrate on its outer margin; protibia strongly arcuate, not notched on inner margin, 
with a feebly developed, feebly sinuate, elongate subapical dilation; mesotibia 
arcuate, evenly but slightly expanded apically; metatibia straight; metatarsus 
with a small plantula at apex of first segment. 

Length, 11.2 mm.; width, 4.2 mm. 

Female: Differs from the male by having the front of head and ventral surface 
dark coppery; the prosternum sparsely pubescent; the last abdominal sternite more 
conspicuously thickened and roughened apically, with the hind margin slightly 
notched at middle; the protibia without a subapical dilation. 

Length, 11.8 mm.; width, 4.9 mm. 

Holotype male and allotype female (California Academy of Sci- 
ences) from Midday Valley, Merritt, British Columbia (R. Hopping) 
on Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Holotype collected July 23, 1923 and 
labeled "Exp. 17051, Lot 1066," the allotype August 4, 1923 and "Exp. 
17051, Lot 1097." Three male paratypes from type locality July 2, 
3 and 11, 1925 (Wm. Matthews) on Pinus ponderosa and labeled 
respectively "17155, lot 32, 33 and 40." One male paratype from North- 
port, Washington, July 20, 1929 on Pinus contorta Douglas and one 
female paratype from Easton, Washington. Paratypes in the collec- 
tions of the California Academy of Sciences and W. F. Barr. 

The thickened last abdominal sternite and the structure of the male 
protibia necessitate the placement of this species next to C. blanchardi. 
However, in Fisher's key it runs out to C. trinervia. It can be separated 
from these species on the basis of distribution, by the conspicuous 
sublateral elevation of the last abdominal sternite, by the more weakly 
developed elytral costae and by the distinctively shaped male genitalia. 
C. Columbiana ranges in length from 11.7 to 14 mm. 

The holotype apparently was preserved in a liquid before mounting 
as indicated by its dull coloration and the matted pubescence on the 
ventral surface. In a fully colored, but damaged male specimen, the 
front of the head is distinctly green and the abdomen shining coppery 
with purplish reflections. 

Reference 
Fisher, Warren S. 1942. A revision of the North American species of buprestid 

beetles belonging to the tribe Chrysobothrini. LTSDA Misc. Publ. No. 470, pp. 

1-274. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 133 

THE SUBCOXA OF THE APHID HIND LEG 

(HoMOPTERA: Aphididae)^ 

Theodore L. Bissell, Department of Entomology, 
University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 

ABSTRACT — The hind leg of an aphid is based on the subcoxa which shows 
varying degrees of development and prominence. The main element in the subcoxa, 
and the one on which the coxa ordinarily hinges, is the pleural ridge. Other 
previously described parts are horizontal apodeme, orifice and sternal apophysis. 
Newly described parts are inner apodeme and median apodeme. Drawings of the 
subcoxa of sixteen species of aphids are included. The structure of the subcoxa 
may be of value in phylogenetic studies and the marks on this part sometimes 
have taxonomic value. 



In a study of two American walnut aphids, Monelliopsis canjae 
(Monell) and M. tuherculata Richards, it was found that the hind leg 
bears a prominent mark on the basal part ( fig. 1 ) and that this part, 
the subcoxa, has been overlooked in descriptions. Thereupon a number 
of other aphids were studied to make comparisons on the structure 
of this part. 

Snodgrass ( 1935 ) defines subcoxa as the proximal part of the limb 
basis when differentiated from the coxa. He also calls it pleuron and 
states that in most insects the sclerites of the subcoxa have been 
absorbed into the body wall. Then the coxa becomes the proximal 
segment, as is commonly recognized. 

Weber (1928), writing of Aphis fabae ScopoH states that the leg 
base "has the appearance of a subcoxa" but in his drawings he uses 
the general term metaepisternum for the part. In ''Aphis frongulae 
Koch" Roberti (1946) calls the leg base the precoxale. I follow 
Snodgrass in nomenclature as far as his names are available. 

The subcoxa in Monelliopsis Richards and other aphids stands out 
like a separate part but a study of live aphids {M. caryae) shows it 
has no movement and hence no articulation with the body wall. Leg 
motion starts with the coxal corium or membrane connecting coxa 
to subcoxa. In Profopterocallis Richards (fig. 13) the membrane was 
seen to telescope into the subcoxa as the leg was mo\ed by the aphid. 

The subcoxa varies greatly in degree of pigmentation, sclerotization, 
and in the form of its several elements. I discern five parts in addition 
to the outer wall and the coxal corium. 

1. Pleural ridge. The dominant structure (fig. 2, P) seen in all 
aphids, and the part by which the leg is hinged to the bod>'. This is 



^ Scientific Article No. A1482, Contribution No. 4120, of the Maryland Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Department of Entomology. 



134 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




Fig. 1, Monelliopsis tuberculata Richards, hind leg showing subco.xa with external 
color band, coxa, trochanter and end of femur; also middle leg. 



a fold in the body wall separating the epistemum from the epimeron, 
but it looks like a somewhat irregular rod. Weber calls is pleural 
ligament. In winged aphids the wing base is attached to the upper 
end and the coxa to the lower. One-half or more of the pleural ridge 
is contained in the subcoxa. It connects with a notch in the thickened 
proximal edge of the coxa (pleural hook of Weber; subcoxal process 



Fig. 2, coxa and subcoxa of hypothetical aphid showing parts found in different 
species: C, coxa; H, horizontal apodeme; I, inner apodeme; M, median apodeme; 
O, orifice; P, pleural ridge; SA, sternal apophysis S, subcoxa. Figs. 3-5, Longi- 
stigma cartjae ( Harris ) : 3, aptera; 4, alate; 5, 1st instar nymph. Figs. 6-7, 
Protrama flavescens (Koch); 6, aptera; 7, alate. Fig. 8, Monelliopsis caryae 
(Monell), right side of body showing relative position of fore, mid and hind legs 
and the two wings. Fig. 9, M. tuberculata Richards, adult showing subcoxa, coxa, 
trochanter and femur. These and the following drawings are arranged phylogeneti- 
cally from the tribe Lachnini to the subfamily Eriosomatinae. Except as noted, 
alate adult aphids are figured. In each case the subcoxa is at the tojj of the drawing 
with the pleural ridge to the left and the coxa at the bottom. This is as one views 
the right leg from below, head of the aphid forward. Most of the drawings were 
made from aphids cleared and mounted on slides. Those of L. caryae, aptera and 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 



135 







.ifv^^i ,*^'^"'f'' ^'""" ^''''^^"' (Sanderson) (fig. 26) are from aphids treated 
with KOH, cleared with a mixture of equal parts phenol and chloral hydrate and 
observed by transmitted light without mounting. This allows a better \ iew without 
distortion than obtained from most slides. 



136 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 









PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 137 

of Robert! ). In the "normal" flattened position of an aphid on a slide 
the ridge lies parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body but when the 
leg is twisted or revolved the ridge appears at an angle. 

2. Horizontal apodeme. In some species there is a thickening 
( fig. 2, H ) across the base of the subcoxa which seems to be the hori- 
zontal apodeme of Weber. He shows it as a branch of the pleural 
ridge running toward the mid ventral line of the body. Of the aphids 
studied it is most prominent in Melanocallis Oestlund (fig. 11), Uni- 
pteriis Hall (fig. 16), Myziis Passerini (fig. 25) and Rhopalodphum 
Koch (fig. 26). It may be represented by Roberti in his drawing of 
Aphis frangulae (fig. 21) but he does not show it as meeting the 
pleural ridge. A similar condition exists in Frociphilus Koch (fig. 27). 

3. Inner apodeme. A brace (fig. 2, I) on the side opposite the 
pleural ridge, that is, on the wall of the subcoxa nearest the median 
line of the body. It is the part that makes the subcoxa stand out in 
MoneUiopsis. It is shorter than the pleural ridge and lighter. It may 
be rod-like or plate-like. The lower end may touch the coxa but is 
not attached to it, although there is sometimes a hook on the coxa or 
a hook on the apodeme which presumably engages the other part. 
This apodeme has not heretofore been named. 

There is an inner apodeme also in the alates of Aphis craccivma Koch 
(fig. 20), A. gossypii Glover (fig. 23), Melanocallis (fig. 11), Unipterus 
(fig. 16) and Pwciphiliis (fig. 27). Tlie first instar of Longistigma 
Wilson (fig. 5) has the suggestion of an inner apodeme but there is 
none in the adult (figs. 3 & 4). There is a very prominent hook on 
the coxa of Rhopalosiphiim (fig. 26) though no inner apodeme can 
be seen. 

4. Median apodeme. Longistigma caryae ( Harris ) differs from all 
the other aphids studied in having an apodeme paralleling the distal 
edge of the subcoxa ( fig. 2, M & fig. 4 ) where it merges into the coxal 
corium. The apodeme has a branch on the cephalic side going toward 
the orifice. This can hardly be the horizontal apodeme of Weber as 
it is not attached to the pleural ridge. This also has not been named 
heretofore. 

5. Sternal apophysis. This projects internally from an orifice (fig. 
2 SA and O ) in the ventral wall, forward of the inner apodeme. The 
apophysis usually extends half way to the pleural ridge. It seems to 



Fig. 10, MoneUiopsis sp., alatoid nymph. Figs. 11-12, Melanocallis carijae- 
foliae (Davis): 11, aptera; 12, alatoid nymph. Figs. 13-15, ProtopterocaUis 
canadensis Richards: 13, right sicle of body showing legs, subcoxa (S), coxa (C), 
articular coria (AC), and wing bases (W); 14, detail of hind leg, adult; 15, 
alatoid nymph. 



138 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 







PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 



139 







25 





Fig. 22, Aphis fabae Scopoli, aptera. Fig. 23, A. gossypii Glover, alate. Figs. 
24-25, Myzus persicae (Sulzer): 24, aptera; 25, alate. Fig. 26, Rhopalosiplnnn 
fitchii (Sanderson). Fig. 27, Prociphilus tessellatus (Fitch). 



Fig. 16, Unipterus papillatus Hall. Fig. 17, Chromaphis juglandicola (Kalten- 
bach). Fig. 18, Neosymt/dohius alhasiphns (Davis), wingless sexual 9. Figs. 
19-20, Aphis craccivora Koch: 19, aptera; 20, alate. Fig. 21, "Aphis frangulae 
Koch" copied from Roberti, 1946. 



140 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

be cylindrical and has a rounded distal end, or it may be open at 
the end. 

The orifice from which this part arises may appear as a ring or only 
a rounded notch. The orifice (and apophysis?) is called a fiu-ca by 
Weber. Apophysis and orifice are landmarks for the base of the sub- 
coxa in many aphids. These parts are probably present in all aphids 
but sometimes cannot be seen. They are less visible in nymphs than 
in adults. In Melanocallis (fig. 11), Unipterus (fig. 16) and Prociphilus 
(fig. 27) the apophysis is hidden by the heavy horizontal apodeme, 
or may be fused to the underside of it. The orifice in Prociphilus is 
comparatively large. The apophysis is especially evident in the two 
species of Aphis L. ( figs. 19, 20, 22, 23 ) and Myziis persicae ( Sulzer ) 
(fig. 24). 

I do not find the apophysis described in Weber's work although as 
I noted above he uses the term "furca." Roberti figured the apophysis 
for Aphis frangulae (fig. 21) but did not label it. 

ACKNOAVLEDGMENTS 

I am indebted to Dr. W. E. Bickley, University of Maryland, College Park, Md.; 
Dr. M. D. Leonard, Washington, D. C; Miss Louise M. Russell, Entomology 
Research Division, U.S.D.A., Washington, D. C; Dr. D. Hille Ris Lambers, 
Bennekom, The Netherlands; and to Mr. H. L. G. Stroyan, Harpenden, England 
for many suggestions and encouragements in this work. The last two pointed out 
the unusual inner apodeme in Monelliopsis and suggested the name for the part. 

Aphids were determined by Miss Russell: Aphis, Mtjzus and Rhopalosiphum; 
Dr. Clyde F. Smith: Prociphilus; and Dr. A. N. Tissot: Neostjmydohius. 

Dr. G. F. Knowlton, Logan, Utah supplied specimens of Monelliopsis tuher- 
culata and Mrs. Daisy P. Liu, College Park, Md. made the photograph of this 
species. Mr. Stroyan supplied the specimen of Unipterus, collected in East Africa; 
and Dr. Hille Ris Lambers supphed two species of Protrama, collected in Europe. 

Mr. Stroyan helped further by examining adult aphids from many genera in the 
"Callaphididae" and gave the following report: A well developed inner apodeme 
is present in Melanocallis, Monaphis, Monellia, Monelliopsis, Neophyllaphis, 
Pterasthenia, Sarucallis, Tinocallis, and Unipterus. The inner apodeme is pale in 
Appendiseta and Chromaphis, and is a weakly indicated thickening in Callaphis, 
Clethrohitis, and Eticeraphis. No inner apodeme is found in Calaphis, Callipteri- 
nella, Cepegilletea, Drepanaphis, Drepanosiphum, Eticallipierus, Lineomijzocallis, 
Myzocallis, N eomyzocallis, Neosywydohius, Patchia, Phyllaphis, Pterocallis, Symy- 
dobius, Tuherculatus, and Tuherculoides. He also found the apodeme in Tamalia, 
a genus "not included among the Callaphididae in most classifications." 

References 
Roberti, D. 1946. Monografia dell' Aphis (Doralis) frangulae Koch. Boll. Lab. 

Ent. Agr. Port. 6:127-312. 
Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of Insect Morphology. McGraw-Hill, New 

York, 667 p. 
"Weber, H. 1928. Skelett Muskulatur und Darm der schwarzen Blattlaus Aphis 

fabae Scop. Zoologica 28:1-120. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 141 

FIRST RECORD OF RHAGIO SCOLOPACEUS (LINNE) IN 
NORTH AMERICA 

( DiPTERA : Rhagionldae ) 

F. Christian Thompson,^ Department of Entomology, 
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01002 

ABSTRACT — The occurrence of the European species Rhagio scolopaceus in 
North America is recorded for the first time from the Boston area (Massachusetts). 
Its differences from other native species are noted and Chillcott's key ( Can. Ent. 
97:785) to the eastern nearctic species is emended to include scolopaceus. The 
question of its introduction is also discussed. 



Recently while collecting syrphids an unusual rhagionid was noticed. 
Its large size and striking markings set it off from the local species. 
Although the fly was recognized as new to me, an intensive search 
for additional specimens was not made at the time because the 
abundance of uncommon syrphid flies distracted me. However, after 
the identity of the fly was learned, I returned to the original area 
where it was found and made a thorough search for more individuals. 
No additional specimens were collected. 

The original female specimen was collected in a wet grove of 
deciduous trees opposite Regis College on Wellesley Street in Weston 
on 7 June 1968. Tliis is the habitat and time of occurrence of the 
common native Rhagio mijstaceus (Macquart). The fly's behavior 
was also similar to that of the common mystaceus. When it was 
disturbed, it made a short flight to another spot and turned around 
to face the pursuer. The behavior and the coloration of these flies 
(mystaceus and scolopaceus) is reminiscent of scorpion flies and is 
perhaps a form of mimicry of these predaceous insects. Apparently 
these two species are ecological equivalents on either side of the 
Atlantic Ocean and are now occupying the same (?) niche in the 
Weston area. 

A search was made of the local collections for additional material, 
which might help to indicate the time and extent of the introduction. 
No material of scolopaceus (Linne) was found in either the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology or the University of Massachusetts collection, 
despite the fact that there were many specimens of mystaceus from 
the greater Boston area, particularly Wellesley. However, two more 
specimens were found in the private collection of Mr. David Meissner, 
a local collector. One was from the same spot in Weston as my first 
and was collected a day earlier, 6 June 1968. The other was a specimen 



^Contribution #1391 from the Department of Entomology, Systematics and 
Mori:)hology Research Laboratory, Uni\crsity of Massachusetts. 



142 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

from Wellesley collected on 9 June 1963. The Wellesley specimen is 
particularly interesting in that it was collected in the Wellesley College 
area, presumably the same area in which A. P. Morse, who taught at 
the college, in the early part of this century collected the mijstaceus 
material now in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. It is hardly 
likely that a local collector, like Morse, who was collecting rhagionids 
at the same place and time of year, which is indicated by the mystaceus 
and other material in the MCZ, would have overlooked a larger and 
more showy species like scolopaceus. This fact strongly suggests that 
scolopaceus was not present in Morse's time. 

This supposition naturally leads to the question of mode and time 
of introduction. Chillcott ( 1965 ) in his revision of the eastern species 
of Rhagio stated that the "Larvae of Rhagio are frequently intercepted 
in the soil on imported plant materials and the establishment of local 
colonies of European species is probably more widespread than this 
paper indicates." He recorded only two European species in North 
America. They are lineola (Linne) (Ottawa, Ontario) and tringarius 
(Linne) (Lockeport, Novia Scotia). The discovery of scolopaceus 
(Linne) in Massachusetts is the partial fulfillment of Chillcott's pre- 
diction. Although presently the facts are too meager to say anything 
with certainty, it seems probable that scolopaceus is a recent immigrant 
introduced through nursery or floricultural importations. Lindroth 
( 1957 ) stresses ship ballast as the means of introducing various 
European soil-inhabitating forms into North America. It is very 
unlikely that scolopaceus was introduced by this means for two princi- 
pal reasons : 1 ) ballast was not used in the Massachusetts area ( Lind- 
roth, 1957, p. 169 ) ; 2 ) the use of ballast virtually stopped when steam 
replaced sail in the late part of the last century ( Lindroth, 1957, p. 157, 
161) [whereas scolopaceus appears to be a recent introduction]. Since 
submitting this manuscript, Dr. Wirth has called to my attention still 
another specimen of scolopaceus from the Boston area — Hyde Park, 
1 June 1949. Apparently this specimen was overlooked by Chillcott 
in his revision ( 1965 ) . In short, Rliagio scolopaceus, with a short flight 
period during the first part of June, appears to be a recent introduction 
to the metropolitan Boston area. 

Rhagio scolopaceus is easily separated from other North American 
species of Rhagio. In habitus it looks like a vertebratus (Say) with 
the wings of mystaceus: the abdomen is generally orange with the 
black lateral margins and a mid-dorsal row of black spots and the 
wings are strongly patterned with brown. Chillcott's key ( 1965 ) to the 
eastern species can be modified as follows to include scolopaceus. 

4. Notopleural shelf and metepimeron bare 4a 

Notopleural shelf and metepimeron haired 5 

4a. Wings strongly patterned; proepisternum haired scolopaceus (Linne) 

Wings clear; proepisternum bare tringarius (Linne) 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 143 

The only species that scolopaceus is Hkely to be confused with is 
strigosa Meigen. However, strigosa is bare on the proepistemum, 
extensively yellow on the pleuron and scutellum, and with the medial 
wing spot restricted to the Ri cell, whereas scolopaceus is haired on 
the proepistemum, dark on the pleuron and scutellum, and with the 
brownish color of the medial wing spot extended to r4+5 vein. Strigosa 
has not yet been found in North America. 

The determination of scolopaceus was made with Verrall ( 1909 ) 
and verified by comparison with several European specimens in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cambridge, Mass.). The original 
specimen will be deposited in the Canadian National Collection at 
Ottawa (Ontario). 

Acknowledgments 

I would like to thank Dr. Willis W. Wirth for his suggestions on this manuscript 
and his records of scolopaceus; Dr. John F. Lawrence for the use of facilities of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology; and Mr. Charles H. Nelson for his critical 
reading of this manuscript. 

References 
Chillcott, J. F. 1965. A revision of the eastern nearctic species of Rhagio 

Fabricius (Diptera: Rhagionidae). Can. Ent. 97:785-795. 
Lindroth, C. H. 1957. The faunal connections between Europe and North 

America. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 344pp. 
Verrall, G. H. 1909. British flies, volume 5. Gurney & Jackson, London. 

780 pp. 



A NEW SPECIES OF PLATYLIODES FROM THE N. W. UNITED STATES 

( AcARi : Cryptostigmata : LionroAE ) ^ 

Tyler A. Woolley- and Harold G. Higgins^ 

ABSTRACT — A brief review of the genus Platyliodes is given as well as a 
description of P. macroprionus, n. sp., distinguished by long, serrate, inner 
apophyseal hairs. The new species is compared with P. doderleiuii Berlese, P. 
scaliger (Koch) and P. graecus Sellnick and a key to the species included. 

The genus Platyliodes was based on a subgenus attributable to 
Berlese ( 1916 ) and was elevated to generic rank by Sellnick ( 1927, 
1928) and Willmann (1931). Balogh (1961, 1965) "listed the genus 
in the family Liodidae Grandjean, 1954, and distinguished it from 
the other genera by the open ventral plate posterior to the anal 



1 Research supported in part by TG TOI-A100094-09-NIH-NIAID. 

- Department of Zoology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 
80521. 

•' Participant NSF Research Participation for High School Teachers Program, 
Colorado State University, Summer 1968. 



144 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




/.< 



V ^•,;a.-.:-l .^ I 







->. 



■Vl'.'lV, 







B 









/'/'i 
/■/'/ 



# 4 '^ 









/P' 






Figs. 1-7, Platyliodes macroprionus, n. sp.: 1, dorsum of type specimen with 
nymphal scalps in place, legs omitted; lA, enlarged view of sensillus, inter- 
lamellar and exobothridial hairs from dissected paratype; IB, enlarged view of 
hysterosomal integument of adult with sclerotized patches and minute pores from 
dissected paratype; 2, venter of paratype, nymphal scalps removed, legs partially 
omitted; 3, nymphal scalps removed from dissected paratype, dorsal aspect; 4, 
posterior hysterosomal apophyses and setae from dissected paratype; 5, enlarged 
pabnate rostral hair from dissected paratype; 6, genital plates from dissected 
paratype showing tuberculate insertions of g:l; 7, left palp from dissected paratype 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 145 

covers. Sellnick (1927) reviewed characteristics common to Neoliodes 
Berlese and Platyliodes, genera both known in Europe. He described 
and figured P. graecus as a new species from the Island of Thera and 
compared it with and figured the two other European species, P. 
doderleinii Berlese, the type species of the genus, and P. scaliger 
(Koch). The latter species was also listed and figured by Balogh 
( 1943 ) before his more recent series on the keys to the world oribatid 
genera. 

In a collection of oribatids from moss taken in Washington were 
four specimens of Platyliodes. These were compared with character- 
istics of the known species and were found to be different in a number 
of features. We assume these represent a new species of the genus and 
an exceptional find for the United States. This new species is described 
below. 

Platyliodes macroprionus, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1-7) 

Diagnosis: The new species exhibits palmate rostral hairs like those of P. 
doderleinii. The four posterior apophyses resemble those of P. doderleinii, P. 
scaliger and P. graecus, but the apophyseal hairs are different; the inner apophy- 
seal hairs of the new species are ribbed, serrated and about seven times longer 
than the outer apophyseal hairs. The sensillus of the new species resembles most 
closely the sensillus of graecus, but is barbed and less globular though capitate; 
it differs from the sensilli of doderleinii and scaliger, each of which is elongated 
and more clavate. The new species differs from doderleinii, scaliger and graecus 
in the small spatulate lamellar and interlamellar hairs. Minor differences are also 
noticeable in the genital covers, in the distinctive palp, the nymphal scalps and 
the integumental structure of the hysterosoma of the new species. The trivial 
name was compounded from the Greek, makros, "long," and prion, "saw," inasmuch 
as the very long, inner, serrated, apophyseal hairs at the posterior margin of the 
hysterosoma distinctively separate the species from all others in the genus. 

Description: Color dark reddish-brown, nymphal scalps tan and cream-colored 
when removed, translucent in place, wrinkled at margins and on surface with 
posterior apophyses and hairs as in figs. 1, 2, 4; body shape elongated, narrowed 
posteriorly, more rectangular with nymphal exuviae in place; rostrum rounded, 
rostral hairs palmate, wider than head of sensillus, veined, inserted in erect 
tubercles lateral and posterior to tip of rostrum; lamellae narrow, curved trans- 
verse ridges anterior to legs 1, interrupted medially; lamellar hairs spatulate, about 
as long as pedicel of rostral hairs, subequal in length to interlamellar hairs, inserted 
in emarginate tubercles on anterior face of lamellae; interlamellar hairs spatulate, 
subequal in length to lamellar hairs, inserted mediad of pseudostigmata; exo- 
bothridial hairs smaller than interlamellar hairs, inserted laterad and slightly 
posterior to pseudostigmata; pseudostigmata rounded, slightly raised above level 
of prodorsum, sensillus capitate, head of sensillus finely barbed (figs. 1, lA). 



showing thumb-palm tarsus. Figs. 8-10, posterior apophyses, setae and integument 
(after Sellnick, 1927): 8, P. doderleinii Berlese; 9, P. scaliger (C. L. Koch); 
10, P. graecus Sellnick. 



146 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Hysterosoma narrowed posteriorly into four cylindrical apophyses, medial longer 
than lateral, each apophysis with hair inserted in distal tip; middle pair of 
apophyseal hairs about seven times as long as lateral hairs, ridged, serrated with 
fine tooth-like projections; surface of hysterosoma with polygonal, sclerotized areas 
and tiny pores between (fig. IB); other details of hysterosoma as in fig. 3. 

Camerostome and infracapitulum elongated, rutella short and broad; palp tarsus 
witli short thumb-palm arrangement (fig. 7), solenidion extending from thumb, 
three acanthions from distal tip of palm; ventral setae, apodemata and sclerotiza- 
tion as indicated in fig. 2; genital covers divided transversely, with five genital 
setae in anterior half of cover, two genital setae in posterior half, g:l inserted in 
anteromedial tubercle (fig. 6), other genital setae inserted near medial margin; 
preanal plate triangular; anal covers with diagonal fissure in anterior end, two 
anal setae in each cover, inserted near middle of medial margin; two spatulate 
adanal setae present; ventral plate open behind anal covers. 

Legs homotridactylus with heavy spatulate setae. 

Measurements: Length: prodorsum with scalps in place 258 /u, without scalps 
228 n, hysterosoma 618 /x to tips of apophyses; Width: with scalps in place 
498 ju; without scalps 390 fi. 

Collection data: Three males and a female were collected from 
moss in Wenatchee National Forest, near Easton, Washington, 27 June 
1968, by H. G. Higgins. The type, a male, and one paratype will be 
deposited in the U. S. National Museum. The other paratypes will 
be retained by the authors. 

Artificial Key to the Species of Platyliodes 

1. Sensillus capitate to spatulate 2 

Sensillus elongated clavate 3 

2. Inner apophyseal hairs ribbed, serrate, and about seven times longer than 

outer hairs P. macroprionus, n. sp. 

Inner apophyseal hairs not ribbed or serrate, and about twice as long as 
outer apophyseal hairs P. graecus Sellnick 

3. Inner and outer apophyseal hairs palmate P. doderleinii Berlese 

Inner apophyseal hairs spatulate, outer apophyseal hairs palmate 

P. scaliger ( Koch) 

References 
Berlese, A. 1916. Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. Redia 12:303-338. 
Balogh, J. 1943. Conspectus Oribateorum Hungariae. A. Magyar Tudomanyos 
Akad. Kiadasa. 39:1-202. 

. 1961. Identification keys of world Oribatid (Acari) families and 

genera. Acta Zoologica 7 ( 3/4 ) : 243-344. 

1965. A synopsis of the world Oribatid (Acari) genera. Acta 



Zoologica 11 (1/2): 5-99. 

Sellnick, M. 1927. Acari. Blatter fiir Milbenkunde. Herausgeben Max Sell- 
nick, Lotzen. Nr. 4:23-29. 

. 1928. Formenkreis: Hornmilben, Oribatei. In: Die Tierwelt mit- 

teleuropas 3(3): 1-42. 

Willmann, C. 1931. Moosmilben oder Oribatiden. 7ji: Tierwelt Deutschlands 
22(5):79-200. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 147 

A NEW GLARESIS FROM THE WESTERN UNITED STATES 

(SCARABAEIDAE: COLEOPTERA ) 

Robert D. Gordon, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology Research 
Division, Agricultural Research Service, USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — Glaresis niedialis, n. sp., from the western United States is 
described and pertinent characters are illustrated. 

This description was to have been pubhshed in a comprehensive 
review of the genus for North America, but the necessity of making 
the name available for inclusion in M. H. Hatch's forthcoming volume 
of "Beetles of the Pacific Northwest" has prompted earlier publication. 

Glaresis medialis, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1-4) 

Male. — Length 3.50 mm., width 2.10 mm. Form robust, slightly wider poster- 
iorly; reddish brown, teeth of protibia and mandibles piceous. Head slightly 
tuberculate, basal one-fourth smooth; anterior clypeal margin broadly emarginate 
with traces of tubercles, each anterior angle with a blunt tooth ( fig. 1 ) ; mandible 
obtusely angulate on outer margin. Pronotum two-thirds as long as wide; short 
longitudinal carinae present except in impressions; surface with short sparse setae, 
lateral and posterior margins with a fringe of coarse setae; median identation 
very feebly recessed; feeble indentation near apical margin on each side of middle; 
shallow fovea on each lateral margin extending from near hind angle to middle; a 
shallow fovea on each side of middle near median impression. Elytral striae each 
with a single row of coarse punctures; intervals slightly convex with traces of 
costae present; sparsely pubescent, pubescence originating adjacent to space 
between punctures. Mesotibia very slightly sinuate on outer margin, four spines 
present on outer margin from middle nearly to apex, projecting at apex ( fig. 2 ) . 
Postero-superior margin of hind trochanter with a single tooth near femur ( fig. 3 ) ; 
postero-superior margin of hind femur with one small, blunt, median tootli (fig. 
3); metatibia broadly triangular, moderate projection on outer margin medially, 
tubercles irregularly scattered over surface, inner margin strongly pubescent 
(fig. 3). Genitalia with aedeagus flat, spatulate, tip rounded; paramere slightly 
sinuate on inner margin, tip bluntly rounded (fig. 4). 

Female. — Length 3.55 mm., width 2.20 mm. Similar to male except tuljercles 
on the head slightly coarser and anterior clypeal margin more strongly tuberculate. 

Holotype $ .—Utah; Logan, June 23, 1936, G. F. Knowlton; USNM 
70408. 

Allotype 9.— Utah; Richfield, June 15, 1930, Light trap; USNM. 

Paratypes. — 1, same data as allotype; USNM. 1, Washington; Top- 
penish, June 24, 1957, David Bishop; Hatch collection. 

This species most nearly resembles G. confusa Brown, which is 
known only from the unique type collected at Cedar City, Utah. 
Unlike medialis, G. confusa lacks a tooth on the postero-superior 

^ Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. 



148 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




,ci 





Figs. 1-4, GJaresis medialis, n. sp., holotype $ : 1, head, frontal view; 2, 
mesotibia; 3, posterior trochanter, femur and tibia; 4, genitaha, dorsal view. 



margin of the hind femur, and the male genitaha are quite distinctive 
for each species. 

Thanks are due H. D. Blocker, Kansas State University, for the 
loan of the type of confttsa. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 149 

A NEW RECORD FOR A PARASITE OF THE ALFALFA WEEVIL IN 
EASTERN UNITED STATES, ERIPLANUS MICATOR (GRAVENHORST)i - 

( H\"MENOPTERA : ICHNEUMONIDAE ) 

L. W. BouLANGER, Department of Entomology, 
University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04473 

ABSTRACT — Pupae of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica ( Gyll. ) collected in 
July 1968 in Westbrook, Maine, were found to be parasitized at about a 10 per 
cent level by Eriplanus micator (Grav. ). Of 17 hymenopteran fonns recovered 
from 145 pupae, 15 were identified as E. micator and 2 as Itoplectes conquisitor 
(Say). The latter species can assume the role of either a primary or secondary 
parasite; its status in this case is unknown. This is the first record of E. micator 
as a parasite of the alfalfa weevil east of Utah and only the second in North 
America. 



The detection of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica ( Gyllenhal ) , in 
Maine in 1967 confirmed suspicions of its presence. Tlie range of 
captures left little doubt that the insect had moved into the state prior 
to 1967. Additional studies on the infestation in 1968 disclosed 
that the pest is present in essentially all of the suitable alfalfa growing 
areas with the exception of those in Aroostook County and the northern 
part of Penobscot County. The region now occupied by the weevil 
lies within a Hne running from Andover near the New Hampshire 
border through Fannington and Skowhegan, up to Dover-Foxcroft, 
south through Waldo County and southwest to Bath on the coast. 
Infestation levels have reached substantial proportions in York and 
Cumberland counties where, in some cases, up to 1250 larvae per 100 
sweeps were taken in 1968. 

During preliminary studies on the biology of the insect under Maine 
conditions, 145 cocoons were collected in Westbrook (Cumberland 
County) on July 17, 1968, and were brought to the Experiment Station 
Farm in Monmouth. These were caged and kept in an insectary to 
determine if parasitism was occurring and if so, at what degree. 

By August 7, all cocoons had been vacated. Seventeen hymenopteran 
forms had also emerged of which 12 were in good condition; two 
species were found to be present. Identification by the Systematic 
Entomology Laborator}^ of the U.S. Department of Agriculture showed 
that 10 individuals were Eriplanus micator ( Grav. ) and 2 were 
Itoplectes conquisitor (Say). The remaining 5 specimens were badly 



' The author wishes to acknowledge the aid of Miss Luella M. Walkley, Syste- 
matic Entomology Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture, who identified 
the specimens of E. micator and /. conquisitor. 

- Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges — Editor. 



150 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

damaged but comparison with the identified material indicated that 
these were also E. micator. 

This capture proves to be only the second recorded instance of 
E. micator as a parasite of H. postica in North America, and the first 
record of its presence in that role in the United States east of Utah. 
The Utah record is that of Cushman (1922); he stated that the de- 
scription of Aenoplegimorpha phytonomi n.s. (= E. micator) by Vierech 
in 1912 was from a single specimen reared as a parasite of Phytonomus 
postica ( = H. postica ) at Hoytsville, Utah. 

The meagre literature on the parasite is mainly systematic. Townes 
( 1944 ) gives the synonymy. The species was originally described as 
Ichneumon micator by Gravenhorst in 1807. 

Viereck, whose description of phytonomi was based on a 5 specimen, 
later (1917 (1916)) described the same species as Hemiteles (Eriplanus) 
metacomet from a single ? specimen taken in West Haven, Connecti- 
cut, in 1905. 

Townes ( 1951 ) gives the range of E. micator in North America as 
extending from Atlantic to Saskatchewan and Utah. The only other 
reference to its biology on this continent is that by Webster (1912) 
who received the species in a shipment of 8 potential parasites of the 
alfalfa weevil from Italy. Webster stated that very little was known 
of its habits and was "therefore being handled with the utmost caution, 
none having been liberated either in fields or in field cages." 

It is of more than casual interest that except for I. conquisitor, no 
other parasitic forms were taken from the material we collected. While 
not ignoring Webster's admonition that E. micator could prove to be 
a secondary parasite, it is doubtful that this role could be so efficiently 
filled as to effect complete hyperparasitism of any primary forms 
present. 

We have no indication of the status of E. conquisitor in this case; 
this species is both a primary and secondary parasite and we hope to 
determine its activities in the near future. 

References 

Cushman, E. A. 1922. The identity of a hymenopterous parasite of the alfalfa 

leaf weevil. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 24:64. 
Townes, H. K. 1944. A catalogue and reclassification of the eastern Palearctic 

Ichneumonidae. Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. No. 11, Part 1. 
. 1951. In Muesebeck et al., Hyinenoptera of America North of 

Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monogr. 2:247. 
"Webster, F. M. 1912. Preliminary report on the alfalfa weevil. U.S.D.A. Bur. 

Ent. Bull. 112:39. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 151 

DESCRIPTION OF IMMATURE STAGES OF 
NOCTUISEIUS TREATI PRASAD 

( AcARiNA : Phytoseiidae ) 

V. Prasad, Biology Department, Wayne State University, 
Detroit, Michigan 48202 

ABSTRACT — The immature stages of Noctuiseius treati Prasad are described 
for the first time. The specimens were collected on Oahii Island, Hawaii from 
the moth, Achaea janaia. 

Noctuiseius treati Prasad is known from the moth, Achaea Janata 
(L. ), collected in Hawaii and Easter Island. The adult and immature 
stages are found in external parts of both ears, between the thorax 
and the abdomen, under the tegulae, and around the wing bases 
(Prasad, 1968). 

With the courtesy of Mr. William J. Voss, B. P. Bishop Museum, 
Honolulu, Hawaii, the immature and adult stages of N. treati were 
received for study that contained all stages of this moth ear mite. 
The present descriptions of the immature stages of this mite are based 
on this material and the material collected previously by the author. 
The help of Mr. W. J. Voss in supplying the material is highly ap- 
preciated. 

Egg: Oval (fig. 1), smooth, white, with transparent cuticle; 28.5-289 m long 
and 208-210 fi wide (2 specimens). 

Larva: Idiosoma 242-327 /j. long and 204-289 ^ wide at the widest point (4 
specimens). Nine pairs of very small setae (ji to js, Zi, z^, Sz, Ss) on lightly sclero- 
tized podonotal shield in the podonotal region (fig. 2), opisthonotal region with 
a very lightly sclerotized pygidial shield which bears 2 pairs of pores. 

Ventrally 3 pairs of sternal setae present between the intercoxal region and 
fourth pair of setae (V2) located anterior to the anal shield in tlie opisthonotal 
region. Anal shield with 3 setae near the anus, anus in ventral position. Many 
small, oval to round, lightly sclerotized platelet like structures between the sternal 
setae in the intercoxal region (fig. 3). Parallel striations on dorsal and ventral 
membranous integument with dotlike spots interspersed on them. Tritostemum 
absent. Peritremes absent. Tectum with rounded anterior margin. Movable digit 
of chelicera with 2 teeth (fig. 6). Number of setae from coxa to tibia on legs 
as follows: I. 2,4,10,8,8; II. 2,4,7,6,7; III. 2,4,5,6,7. 

Protonymph: Idiosoma 370-412 /j. long and 269-290 fi wide at the widest point 
(4 specimens). Ten pairs of small setae (st is added here) on lightly sclerotized 
podonotal shield and 1 pair of sublateral setae (rs) on the integument lateral to 
this shield in the podonotal region (fig. 4). Two pairs of pores and 2 pairs of 
setae, the most iX)sterior pair of setae (z,-.) being serrated and longest of all dorsal 
setae, on the pygidial shield. One pair of setae (J-) on integument between the 
podonotal shield and pygidial shield. 

Ventrally 3 pairs of sternal setae between the intercoxal region and 2 pairs of 
setae (V,, V^ anterior to the anal shield (fig. 5). A pair of post-ventral setae 



152 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




Figs. 1-11, Noctuiseius treati Prasad: 1, egg; 2, dorsum of larva; 3, venter of 
larva; 4, dorsum of protonymph; 5, venter of protonymph; 6, movable chela of 
larva; 7, movable chela of protonymph; 8, dorsum of deutonymph; 9, venter of 
deutonymph; 10, peritreme of deutonymph; 11, a portion of dorsal membranous 
integument. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 153 

(Vs) present lateral to the anal shield. Anal shield with 3 setae near anus, anus 
in ventral position. Many small, oval to round, sclerotized platelet like structures 
between the sternal setae. Tritosternum absent. Peritremes very small, 21-24 /* 
long, present between coxae III and IV. Parallel striations on dorsal and ventral 
membranous integument with dotlike spots more prominent than in larvae (fig. 11). 
Tectum rounded anteriorly. Movable digit of chelicera with 3 teeth (fig. 7). 
Number of setae on legs from coxa to tibia as follows: I. 2,4,10,8,8; II. 2,4,7,6,7; 
III. 2,4,5,6,7; IV. 1,4,4,6,7. 

Deutonijmph: Idiosoma 421-559 /j. long and 308-389 /^ wide at the widest 
point (5 specimens). Ten pairs of small setae on sclerotized podonotal shield and 
1 pair of sublateral setae (rs) on the integument lateral to the shield in the 
podonotal region as in protonymph (fig. 8). Two pairs of pores and 2 pairs of 
setae, Zs being serrated and longest of all dorsal setae, on the pygidial shield. 
Setae J2 on integument between the podonotal shield and pygidial shield. 

Three pair of sternal setae ventrally between the intercoxal region and 3 pairs 
of setae (genital, Vi, V2) anterior to the anal shield (fig. 9). Setae V.^; present 
lateral to the anal shield. Anal shield with 3 setae near anus, anus in ventral 
position. Tritosternum absent. Many small, oval to round, sclerotized platelet 
like structures between the sternal setae. Peritremes 26—31 fi long, present between 
coxae III and IV. Parallel striations on dorsal and ventral membranous integument 
with dotlike spots more prominent than in protonymph. Tectum rounded anteriorly. 
Movable digit of chelicera with 3 teeth as in protonymph. Number of setae on 
legs from coxa to tibia as follows: I. 2,4,11,8,8; II. 2,4,8,6,7; III. 2,4,5,6,7; IV. 
1,4,4,6,7. 

Reference 
Prasad, V. 1968. Noctuiseius treati, a new genus and species of moth mite 

from Hawaii and Easter Island. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61 ( 2) :411-413. 



THE GENUS CRATEROCERCUS ROHWER 

( HrMENOPTERA : Tenthredinidae ) 

David R. Smith, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, 
Entomology Research Division Agr. Res. Serv., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — A key and descriptions are given for five species of Craterocercus 
Rohwer. One new species, C. furcatus from Conn., N.J., and 111., is described. 
This genus is found only in North America where two species occur in the West 
and three in the East. Species of this genus are associated with Quercus. 



Rohwer (1918) revised Craterocercus and iiicluded six species, 
some of which were based on characters now found to be variable. 
Ross (1951) hsted nine species in this genus. In the present paper, 
five species are recognized, one of them described as new. Cratero- 



Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. 



154 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

cercus is found only in the Nearctic region and is associated with 
Quercus L. 

Cralerocercus Rohwer 

Craterocercus Rohwer, 1911, p. 385; MacGillivray, 1916, p. 106; Rohwer, 1918, 
p. 162; Ross, 1937, p. 75; Ross, 1951, p. 35. Type-species: Hemichroa phyto- 
phagica Dyar. Orig. desig. 

This genus is in the group of Nematinae in which vein 2A and 3A 
of the forewing curves up to meet lA to form a small basal anal cell. 
It may be distinguished from other genera in this group by the follow- 
ing characters: antenna stocky and of about the same thickness 
throughout; 2nd antennal segment wider than long; clypeus deeply 
and circularly emarginate; malar space less than diameter of front 
ocellus; tarsal claw with an inner tooth; vein 2r present in forewing. 
The female sheaths of all species are short, rounded, and thick, and 
the lancets are heavily sclerotized with well defined lateral teeth. 
This genus is close to the European Mesoneura Hartig, but Mesoneura 
lacks the basal anal cell in the forewing. 

Larvae are not available for study. Dyar ( 1898 ) described the larvae 
of phytophagica ( Dyar ) , albidovariata ( Norton ) , and fraternalis ( Nor- 
ton), but the specimens cannot be located and his descriptions do not 
permit characterization of the larvae of this genus. 

Key to Species 

1. Abdomen entirely red; western; S and 9 cordleyi MacGillivray 

Abdomen mostly black 2 

2. Abdomen with a basal yellow band; eastern; $ and 9 

albidovariatus ( Norton ) 

Abdomen entirely black dorsally 3 

3. Female 4 

Male 6 

4. Lancet with 11 serrulae, 1st and 2nd serrulae far apart (fig. 2); western 

albipes ( Cresson ) 

Lancet with 9 serrulae, 1st and 2nd serrulae close together (fig. 3, 4); 
eastern 5 

5. Mesopleuron rufous; serrulae of lancet simple (fig. 4) ._ fraternalis (Norton) 
Mesopleuron black; serrulae 4 to 8 of lancet with a large posterior subbasal 

tooth (fig. 3) furcatus, n. sp. 

6. Western (California, Nevada) - — - albipes (Cresson) 

Eastern (east of 100° meridian) fraternalis (Norton) 

Craterocercus albidovariatus ( Norton ) 

Hemichroa albidovariata Norton, 1872, p. 81, $ ; Cresson, 1880, p. 39; Dalla 
Torre, 1894, p. 282; Dyar, 1898, p. 125; Konow, 1905, p. 49. 

Opisthoneura albidovariata: Viereck, 1910, p. 588. 

Craterocercus albidovariata: Rohwer, 1911, p. 385; MacGillivray, 1916, p. 106; 
Rohwer, 1918, p. 163; Ross, 1951, p. 35; Burks, 1958, p. 13. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 155 

Hemichroa phytophagica Dyar, 1898, p. 125, 9 , larva. New synonymy. 

Opistlwneiira phytopfiagica: Viereck, 1910, p. 588. 

Craterocercus phytophagica: Rohvver, 1911, p. 385; MacGillivray, 1916, p. 106; 

Rohwer, 1918, p. 163; Ross, 1951, p. 35; Burks, 1958, p. 13. 
Craterocercus floridanus Rohwer, 1912, p. 238, S , 9 ; Rohwer, 1918, p. 163; 

Ross, 1951, p. 35. New synonymy. 

Female. — Average lengtli, 9.0 mm. Antenna and head black; clypeus and labrum 
whitish. Thorax black; pronotum, tegula, posttergite, and spot on each side of 
prescutum white to yellowish. Front and middle legs yellowish with each coxa 
and middle femur infuscate; back legs with coxa and femur black, tibia and tarsus 
yellowish. Abdomen black with at least terga 2 to 4 yellow, basal plates and 5th 
tcrgum yellow or black; lateral areas of each tergum and apical segment sometimes 
yellowish. Wings lightly yellowish infuscate. 

Lancet as in fig. 5; 8 serrulae; teeth of 2nd annulus small; tooth above each 
serrula largest, rest of teeth of each annulus about subequal in size; dorsoapical 
margin protuberant. 

Male. — Average length, 7.5 mm. Color similar to that of female except for 
mesonotum and basal plates which are usually black. Genitalia as in fig. 7, 11. 

Types. — H. albidovariata Norton ( 5 ) is type no. 10318 at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia with the data "Tex." 
H. phytophagica Dyar (?) is U.S.N.M. type no. 4130 with the data 
"7A" and "Collection H. G. Dyar." Dyar's "7A" is from VanCortlandt 
Park, New York. C. floridanus Rohwer (?) is U.S.N.M. type no. 14593 
with the data "Bisc. Bay, Fla." 

Distribution. — Widespread in eastern North America: ARKANSAS: 
Washington, Co., April 17. CONNECTICUT: Windsor, May 14, 16, 
23, 29. FLORIDA: Bisc. Bay; Jacksonville; Haulover, March 19; 
Tampa, April 21; Ocala, April 1. ILLINOIS: Herod, May 1; Carlin- 
ville. KANSAS: Manhattan, May 2; Riley Co., April 6, 12, bred from 
oak. NEW YORK: E. Marion, L.I., May 29; VanCourtlandt Park; 
Ithaca. TEXAS: "Tex." VIRGINIA: "Va." 

Host. — Quercus spp. Dyar (1898) reared this species from white 
oak and black oak "Quercus coccinea." 

Discussion. — The yellow band on the dorsum of the abdomen and 
yellowish infuscate wings will distinguish both sexes of this species. 
The genitalia also offer good characters. Rohwer ( 1918 ) used the 
depth of the middle fovea, color of the basal plates, convexity of the 
supraclypeal area, shape of the ocellar basin, and shape of the stigma 
to separate albidovariatus, phytophagicus and floridanus. All of these 
characters are variable, consequently these names are considered to 
represent a single species. 

Craterocercus albipes (Cresson) 

Mesoneura albipes Cresson, 1880, p. 11, 9; Dalla Torre, 1894, p. 184; Konow, 

1905, p. 78. 
Craterocercus albipes: Ross, 1951, p. 3.5. 



156 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 





Figs. 1-5. Lancets of Craterorercus spp.: 1, cordletji MacG.; 2, albipes (Cress. 
3, furcatus, n. sp.; 4, fraternalis (Nort.); 5, albidovariatus (Noit.) . 



Craterocerciis californiciis Rohwer, 1917, p. 234, $ ; Rohwer, 1918, p. 163; Ross, 
1951, p. 35 ( = albipes Cresson). 

Female. — Average length, 6.5 mm. Head and antenna black; labrum and 
maxillary and labial palpi whitish; clypeus white or black. Thorax black with 
pronotum and tegula white and spots on each side of prescutmn yellowish; 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 157 

mesopleuron and pectus entirely yellowish, entirely black, or with mesopleuron 
yellowish and pectus black. Legs entirely whitish; back tarsus infuscate. Abdomen 
black above, yellowish below; sheath black. Wings hyaline. 

Lancet as in fig. 2; 11 serrulae; 1st and 2nd serrulae far apart; teeth of each 
annulus about equal in size, tooth above each serrula largest. 

Male. — Average length, 6.0 mm. Entirely black with labrum, all or part of 
pronotum, tegula, and each leg beyond basal half of femur whitish. Genitalia as 
in fig. 8, 12. 

Types. — M. albipes Cresson (?) is type no. 364 at the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia with the data "Nev." C. californicus 
Rohwer is U.S.N.M. type no. 19884 with the data "Eldorado Co., Cal, 
VI-09, altitude 8400', W. M. Giffard, coll." 

Distribution. — California, Oregon, and Nevada: CALIFORNIA: El 
Dorado Co., June; Mill Valley, Marin Co., March 1, 6; Yosemite Valley, 
April 24, May 17; Paicines, San Benito Co., March 20, ex Quercus 
agrifolium Nees; Lyon's Dam, Tuolumne Co., Jime 6; Belden, May 1; 
Mt. Wilson, from Ceanothus, June 6; Lake Henshaw, San Diego Co., 
April 10. NEVADA: "Nev." OREGON: Jackson Co., Squaw Lk., 7 
mi. E. Copper, May 19, 1962. 

Host. — Probably Quercus sp. I swept an adult of this species from 
Quercus near Paicines, CaHf., along with many Periclista Konow 
specimens which are associated with this host. 

Discussion. — This species may be distinguished from cordleyi Mac- 
Gillivray, the only other western species, by its smaller size, black 
abdomen, and genitalia. It may be separated from the eastern species 
by its smaller size, coloration, and genitalia. 

Craterocercus cordleyi MacGillivray 
Craterocercus cordleyi MacGillivray, 1923, p. 9, 9 ; Ross, 1951, p. 35. 

Female. — Average length, 8.0 mm. Antenna and head black; labrum and 
maxillary and labial palpi whitish. Thorax black with pronotum and tegula red. 
Front and middle legs red with each tarsus infuscate; back legs with coxa and 
femur red, tibia and tarsus black. Abdomen red with basal plates and sheath black. 
Wings hyaline. 

Lancet as in fig. 1; 9 serrulae; 1st and 2nd serrulae far apart; teeth of each 
annulus about equal in size, tooth above each serrula largest. 

Male. — Length, 7.0 mm. Color similar to that of female. Genitalia as in fig. 
9, 13. 

Type. — MacGillivray 's type ( 9 ) is in the collection of the Illinois 
Natural History Survey with the data "Corvallis, Ore., May 6." 

Distribution. — Cahfomia and Oregon: CALIFORNIA: San Diego 
Co., Apr. 20; hills near Fairfax, March 31; Mt. Diablo, Contra Costa 
Co., April 22; Hopland, April 14; New Cayama, Santa Barbara Co., 
March 29. OREGON: Corvallis, May 6; 5 mi. N.W. Cor\'allis, May 
12; Griffin Creek, Jackson Co., May 3. 

Host. — Unknown. 



158 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Discussion. — The red abdomen, pronotum, tegula, and legs will 
separate this species from other Craterocercus species. The male is 
described and illustrated from a single specimen from "S. Cal." 

Craterocercus fraternalis (Norton) 

Hemichroa fraternalis Norton, 1872, p. 81, $ ; Cresson, 1880, p. 39; Dalla Torre, 

1894, p. 283; Dyar, 1898, p. 124; Konow, 1905, p. 50. 
Craterocercus fraternalis: Rohwer, 1911, p. 385; Rohwer, 1918, p. 163; Ross, 1951, 

p. 35. 
Craterocercus quercivorus Rohwer, 1918, p. 164, i , 9 ; Ross, 1951, p. 35; Burks, 

1958, p. 13. New synonymy. 
Craterocercus cervinus MacGillivray, 1923, p. 9, 9 ; Ross, 1951, p. 35. New 

synonymy. 
Craterocercus circulus MacGillivray, 1923, p. 9, 9 ; Ross, 1951, p. 35. New 

synonymy. 

Female. — Average length, 8.0 mm. Antenna and head black; labrum and maxil- 
lary and labial palpi whitish. Thorax black with pronotum and tegula white, most 
of mesopleuron rufous, prescutum entirely reddish or black with margins reddish, 
scutellum black, posttergite reddish or black, metanotimi reddish or black. Front 
and middle legs entirely whitish; back legs with coxa and femur mostly black, 
tibia and tarsus whitish. Abdomen black, basal plates and front margin of first 
several terga sometiines reddish, lateral portions of terga and sometimes apical 
sterna reddish; sheath black. Wings hyaline. 

Lancet as in fig. 4; 9 serrulae; dorsal tooth of each annulus larger than rest 
of teeth. 

Male. — Average length, 7.0 mm. Entirely black with labrum, maxillary and 
labial palpi, pronotum entirely or partly, tegula, and all legs, except for each coxa 
and basal part of each femur, whitish. Genitalia as in figs. 6, 10. 

Types. — H. fraternalis Norton (?) is type no. 10319 at the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia with the data "697." In the original 
description, Norton (1872) stated the specimen was from Texas. 
C. quercivorus Rohwer (?) is U.S.N.M. type no. 21702 with the data 
"FA" and "H. G. Dyar Collection." Rohwer (1918) stated the type 
was from Bronx Park, New York City, New York. MacGillivray's types 
are at the Illinois Natural History Survey: C. cervinus ( 9 ) has the 
data "Durham, N. H., 1937, W. and F.," and C. circulus ( 9 ) has the 
data "Lake Forest, 111., J. G. Needham." 

Distribution. — Widespread in eastern North America: CONNECTI- 
CUT: Windsor, May 10, 14, 16, 17, 19, 23; Lyme, May 1; Mansfield, 
Msiy 1, Quercus. ILLINOIS: Lake Forest. INDIANA: Demotte, May 
15. KANSAS: Manhattan, May 3. MASSACHUSETTS: Eastern, June 
6, Quercus alba L.; N. Saugus; W. Springfield, May 15; Wellesley, June 
6, 13; Lunenburg, April 27, Quercus alba; Natick, April 5, Quercus 
alba. MICHIGAN: Ag. Coll., May 13; E. Lansing, May 5; Reed City, 
June 1; Manistee, June 15. NEW HAMPSHIRE: Durham. NEW 
YORK: Ithaca, May 5, 8; Orient, L. I., Aug. 26; Selden, May 23; 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 



159 




Figs. 6-13. Male genitalia, Craterocerciis spp. Figs. 6 & 10, fraternalis ( Nort. ) : 
6, harpe & parapenis; 10, penis valve. Figs. 7 & 11, albidovariatus (Nort.); 7, 
harpe & parapenis; 11, penis valve. Figs. 8 & 12, albipes (Cress.): 8, harpe & 
parapenis; 12, penis valve. Figs. 9 & 13, cordleyi MacG.: 9, harpe & parapenis; 
13, penis valve. 



Bronx Park; Pelham Bav Park; Franklin Park. OHIO: Minerva, May 
14. PENNSYLVANIA:' Hunter Run, June 6; Spring Br., May 9. 
TEXAS: "Tex." WISCONSIN: Madison, May 19. 

Host. — Qiiercus sp. Labels on specimens indicate this species has 



160 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

been reared from Quercus alba, and Dyar (1898) also reared this 
species from white oak. 

Discussion. — The mostly black abdomen, reddish mesopleuron, red- 
dish areas on the mesonotum, and lancet characters will separate 
the females of this species from others. The male is easily separated 
by the coloration and genitalia. Rohwer (1918) separated quercivorus 
by the head sculpturing and color of the prescutum and abdomen, all 
of which are variable characters. 

Craterocercus furcatus, n. sp. 

Female. — Length, 8.0 mm. Antenna and head black; labnim and maxillary 
and labial palpi whitish. Thorax black with upper margin of pronotum and 
tergula white; small spot on each side of prescutum whitish. Each front and 
middle leg beyond coxa whitish with femur and tibia infuscate; back legs with 
coxa and femur black, tibia and tarsus whitish. Abdomen black, apical sterna 
sometimes whitish. Wings hyaline. 

Lancet as in fig. 3; 9 serrulae; serrulae 4 to 8 each with a large posterior 
subbasal tooth; annuU 3 and 4 slightly divergent; teeth of each annulus of about 
same size, tooth above each serrula largest. 

Male. — Unknown. 

Holotype.— Female, Brown's Mill Jc, N.J., May 13, 1906. U.S.N.M. 
type no. 69982. 

Paratypes.— CONNECTICUT: Windsor, May 16, 1951, James B. 
Kring (2 9 $ ). ILLINOIS: White Heath, May 1, 1938, herbs No. 2a 
(19 ); Villa Ridge, April 17, 1883 (19 ). All deposited at the Illinois 
Natural History Survey, Urbana. 

Host. — Unknown. 

Discussion. — The black mesopleuron and abdomen and the furcate 
appearance of the serrulae of the lancet will separate this species from 
all other Craterocercus species. There are no associated males; how- 
ever, the male may be similar to that of fraternalis and could be 
masquerading under that species name. 

Acknowledgments 
I would like to thank Dr. H. H. Ross, Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, 
and Dr. Michael G. Emsley, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 
kindly allowing examination of type specimens. Most of the material on which 
this study is based is in the collections of the Illinois Natural History Survey and 
U. S. National Museum. 

References 

Burks, B. D. 1958. Symphyta. In Krombein et al., Hymenoptera of America 

North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2, Suppl. 1, 

pp. 8-18. 
Cresson, E. 1880. Descriptions of new North American Hymenoptera in the 

collection of the American Entomological Society. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 

8:1-52. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 161 

Dalla Torre, C. G. 1894. Catalogus Hymenopterorum, Vol. I. Tenthredinidae 

incl. Uroceridae ( Phyllophaga and Xylophaga ) . Lipsiae, 459 pp. 
Dyar, H. G. 1898. On the larvae of certain Nematinae and Blennocampinae, 

with description of new species. Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 6:121-138. 
Konow, F. 1905. Genera Insectorum, Hymenoptera, Fam. Tenthredinidae, 

29th Fasc, 176 pp. 
MacGillivray, A. D. 1916. Tenthredinidae. In Hymenoptera of Connecticut. 

Conn. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv., Bull. 22, pp. 25-175. 

. 1923. A century of Tenthredinoidea. Univ. 111. Bull. 20(50): 1-38. 

Norton, E. 1872. Notes on North American Tenthredinidae, with descriptions 

of new species. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 4:77-86. 
Rohwer, S. A. 1911. New sawflies in the collections of the United States 

National Museum. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 41:377-411. 
. 1912. Notes on sawflies, with descriptions of new species. Proc. 

U.S. Nat. Mus. 43:205-251. 

1917. A report on a collection of Hymenoptera (mostly from 



California) made by W. M. Giffard. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 53:233-249. 

1918. Notes on, and descriptions of sawflies belonging to the 



Tenthredinid tribe Hemichroini (Hym. ). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 20:161-173. 

Ross, H. H. 1951. Symphyta. In Muesebeck, et al. Hymenoptera of America 
North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monogr. 2, pp. 4-89. 

. 1937. A generic classification of the Nearctic sawflies ( Hymenop- 
tera: Symphyta). 111. Biol. Monogr. 15, 173 pp. 

Viereck, H. L. 1910. Hymenoptera. In Annual Report of the New Jersey 
State Museum, 1909. Trenton, pp. 579-699. 



FOURTEEN NEW CHRYSOMELID BEETLES FROM JAMAICA 

Doris H. Blake, Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

ABSTRACT — Fourteen new species in nine genera of chrysomelid beetles are 
described from Jamaica. 

The following new beetles were described from the collection at 
the Science Museum, Institute of Jamaica at Kingston, from the Cana- 
dian National Collection at Ottawa and from Mrs. Anne Howden's 
collection. 

Oedionychus janiaicensis Jacoby 
(Fig. 5) 

Oedionychus jamaicensis Jacoby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1894, p. 621. 

In his description of this species Jacoby wrote that it was the only 
Oedionychus in Jamaica. Recently I have described a second one, 
O. gurneiji, from this island. Because I had not seen any specimen of 
Jacoby's species in any collection until I examined the Howden col- 



162 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 






Sidfaya biculor n.sp. 2. Sidfaya entima n.sfj. 5.CI-iaetocneniQ sTenura il.Sp. 

I; 











''iHermoeoplia^U fcrri n.sp. '?^'''=i 

b. Oedi'onychus jutnoicensis uocoby 



(It (I -3, G.CliaeTocnenia brunnescens 

<:S"^7> JamaicensiS n.SSp 





7. Herniaeojal-iai^u becKeri fi.sp. 



S.CyrayluS jomaicanus asp 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 163 

lection made in the summer of 1966, when Mrs. Anne Howden collected 
one, a female, at Hardwar Gap, alt. 4000 ft., I am illustrating this 
apparently rare beetle. It has much the same appearance as O. bicolor 
L. which is found in Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico but is larger 
and the entire undersurface and legs are pale yellow brown. In O. 
bicolor the posterior femora are metallic blue or green. The difference 
in size and the coloring of the hind femora are the only marks of dis- 
tinction between the two species. 

Lactica albiterniinata, n. sp. 

(Fig. 13) 

Elongate oblong oval, lustrous violet blue with black antennae having three 
terminal joints yellowish white. 

Head entirely dark and shiny, impunctate, with well marked frontal tubercles, 
a strong carina down front. Antennae black, extending half length of beetle, 
joints three to seven long, terminal three joints shorter and pale yellowish white. 
Prothorax about twice as wide as long with arcuate sides and strong basal 
sulcus limited at ends, shining, impunctate, deep blue. Scutellum lustrous, dark. 
Elytra elongate, wider behind middle, a short intrahumeral sulcus, prominent 
humeri, moderately convex with no other depressions, lustrous violet blue, im- 
punctate. Body beneath and legs dark with deep bluish lustre. Length 2.9 mm.; 
width 1.5 mm. 

Type, female, Canadian National Collection, temporarily on loan 
from Mrs. Anne Howden's collection. 

Type locality. — Barbecue Bottom, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, August 
10, 1966, A. f . Howden. 

This resembles L. darlingtoni Blake also from Jamaica, but instead 
of being blue or bluish green, this species is a violet blue and the 
dark antennae have the three terminal joints yellowish white, L. jamai- 
censis Blake is metallic green with a coppery or rosy lustre and has 
entirely dark antennae. 

Crysylus jamaicanus, n. sp. 

(Fig. 8) 

Elongate oblong oval, lustrous reddish brown with piceous antennae and deep 
blue elytra; occiput of head and pronotum mirror smooth, elytra very incon- 
spicuously punctate in basal half and not at all in apical half. 

Head with interocular space half width of head, occiput smoothly rounded 
and impunctate, uninterrupted by frontal tvibercles, down to antennal sockets. 
A short interantennal carina, lower front depressed. Antennae extending nearly 
to middle of elytra, deep brown to piceous, third joint shorter than fourth, sixth 
and seventh joints long, remainder slightly shorter. Prothorax with arcuate sides 
and obtuse angles anteriorly, nearly twice as wide as long, mirror smooth, orange 
yellow. Scutellum deep reddish brown. Elytra about four times as long as 
prothorax and somewhat wider with small humeral prominences and nearly 
impimctate surface, a very inconspicuous punctation tending to be striate in which 
faint fine punctures are discernible only in basal half. Body beneath and legs 



164 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 






9. MedistopS rinobdota n.sp- lO.HeDCertmg'erellajQrnalcae nsp ll.HelKtiti'n^eieDa jamaicne n.sp. 





12. ne^istojos porvulo n.Sp. IS-Laclica albireririnata n.sp. M.Me^istops parvula n.sp. 



f 



V /ri - i\ 



■r/- 



15. /Ipraeo maculata n.sp. l6.Lon^itQrsuS tiowdeni n.sp. '7. Apraea anneaen.sp 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 165 

reddish brown, first hind tarsal joint in male dilated as in related species in tlie 
West Indies. Aedeagus with divided apex also as in other species of the group. 
Length 3.4 mm.; width 1.6 mm. 

Type, male, Canadian National Collection. 

Type locality. — Hardwar Gap, Jamaica, July 25, 1966, Howard and 
Becker. 

Other locality.— Fentyne Castle, St. Thomas Parish, July 20, 1966, 
A. T. Howden. 

This is the sixth species of the genus to be collected in the West 
Indies. This group in the West Indies is as homogeneous as the species 
of Homoschema, and this very homogenity may warrant putting them 
in a genus by themselves. All of them have a distinctive aedeagus 
that has a peculiar two-pronged apex, and in this respect they differ 
from C. recticollis Jac, the only Central American species that I have 
examined. C. jamaicanus differs from the others in the West Indian 
group in small details; it is smaller than C. cuhensis Blake, larger than 
C. montserrati Blake, narrower and smaller than C. hispaniolae Blake, 
and although of about the same size as C. cyanipennis (W'eise) of 
Puerto Rico, it has longer and dark instead of pale yellow antennae. 
It differs from C. trinitatis Blake in size and coloring, C. trinitatis 
varying from having the elytra the usual deep blue to being entirely 
reddish brown, although sometimes with a bluish lustre. This last 
species, unlike the others, resembles C. recticollis Jac. in having 
distinctly striate punctate elytra, and in this regard, the elytral puncta- 
tion of C. jamaicanus also appears to be striate. 

Chaetocnema stenura, n. sp. 

(Fig. 3) 

Elongate oblong oval, shining black with pale yellow brown antennae and pale 
tibiae and tarsi, femora more or less piceous, head and prothorax distinctly 
alutaceous and finely and rather densely punctate; elytra shining, not at all 
alutaceous with small, regular, not deeply impressed striate punctures, apex of 
elytra strongly attenuated. 

Head entirely dark piceous, interocular space half width of head, occiput 
rounded, dull alutaceous with fine punctures, a deep sulcus from eye to antennal 
sockets, a transverse sulcus separating clypeus; interantennal area broad, slightly 
produced and shining, not alutaceous. Antennae with basal joints pale yellow 
and joints six to eleven deeper yellow brown, not extending below middle of elytra, 
two basal joints a little inflated, seventh joint long, rest subequal. Prothorax twice 
as wide as long, not as wide as elytra with slightly rounded sides and obtuse 
angles anteriorly, slightly convex, strongly alutaceous and with fine, rather dense 
pimctures; faintly shining black. Scutellum small, shining black. Elytra fully 
four times as long as prothorax and wider with small humeral prominences and 
short intrahumeral sulcus and faint transverse depression below; apical half strongly 
attenuated; striate punctures small, close set and not deeply impressed with wide, 
flat intervals, except near lateral margin below humeri where they are slightly 
raised, scarcely costate, and near apex where punctures become very fine with 



166 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

only an impressed line to mark them; surface very shiny, not at all alutaceous. 
Body beneath shining piceous with femora more or less piceous but tibiae and 
tarsi yellow brown. Length 2-2.2 mm.; width 1.1 mm. 

Type, female, and one female paratype, Canadian National Collec- 
tion, one female paratype U.S.N.M. 

Type locality.— Hardwar Gap, 4000 ft. alt., Jamaica, July 2, 9, 1966, 
Howden and Becker. 

The only species of Chaetocnema so far described from Jamaica is 
C. pallidicornis Baly (Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1877, p. 303), a 
"cupreous" beetle which is "at once separated by the transverse depres- 
sion of the elytra." He describes the elytral striae as "distinctly sulcate" 
with the interspaces "finely granulate." In all these points C. stenura 
differs from Baly's description. 

Chaetocnema brunnescens jamaicensis, n. ssp. 

(Fig. 6) 

Elongate ovate, piceous, somewhat shiny, head and prothorax alutaceous and 
densely punctate, elytra lustrous with closely set, small, striate punctures, intervals 
with finer punctures; antennae and legs pale yellow brown, hind femora reddish 
brown to piceous. 

Head with widely set eyes, smoothly rounded over occiput, a deep transverse 
sulcus separating front from clypeus and a .short, rounded interantennal area, 
lower front short, occiput densely punctate and alutaceous, shining faintly, some- 
times with an aeneous lustre. Antennae pale yellow, not reaching middle of elytra. 
Prothorax approximately twice as wide as long with slightly rounded sides, surface 
densely but shallowly punctate and alutaceous; entirely dark piceous, somewhat 
shiny. Scutellum small, shining, black. Elytra nearly four times as long as prothorax 
and at base not much wider with very inconspicuous humeri, gradually widening 
and with moderately deeply impressed close set striate punctures that on the side 
have slightly costate intervals; wings below short. Body beneath entirely shining 
piceous, legs reddish brown and hind femora varying from deep reddish brown to 
piceous. Length 1.7-1.9 mm.; width 1 mm. 

Type and one paratype Canadian National Collection, one paratype 
U.S.N.M. 

Type locality. — Palisadoes, Kingston, Jamaica, August 25, 1966, 
Howden and Becker. 

Other locality. — Near Falmouth, Trelawny Parish, August 9, 1966, 
Howden and Becker. 

This so closely resembles Horn's Florida species, C. brunnescens, 
that I believe it can be only a subspecies. None of the Jamaican speci- 
mens, however, are brown, but all shining piceous black, and the 
elytral punctation appears a little finer and more closely set. 

Chaetocnema platicephala, n. n. 

Chaetocnema laticeps Blake, 1941, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 43:176 (Haiti). Pre- 
occupied by C. laticeps Baly, 1877, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 315 (Australia). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUXE, 1969 167 

Longitarsus howdeni, n. sp. 

(Fig. 16) 

Elongate oblong oval, shining, varying in color from yellow brown to deep 
reddish brown with pale legs and bicolored antennae; prothorax finely punctate 
in basal half, elytra more distinctly but not coarsely punctate. 

Head with interocular space half width of head, occiput rounded, impunctate, 
polished with httle trace of frontal tubercles, a narrow carina from between 
antennal sockets down lower front, on either side of this shallowly excavate. 
Antennae more than half as long as beetle, basal joints pale, joints six to eleven 
deeper brown and wider. Prothorax not twice as wide as long, with nearly straight 
sides and oblique angles anteriorly, somewhat convex, lustrous, varying from 
yellow brown to deep reddish brown, almost piceous; finely punctate in basal 
half. Scutellum small, rounded. Elytra wider than prothorax, convex, with small 
humeri and no depressions, distinctly and moderately densely punctate; punctures 
becoming much finer and fainter at apex; color varying from yellow brown to deep 
reddish brown. Body beneath shining and as in upper surface varying in color; 
hind femora tending to be deeper brown; first hind tarsal joint unusually long 
even for a species of Longitarsus, tind with the usual spur at end of hind tibiae. 
Length 1.5—1.6 mm.; width 0.8 mm. 

Type, male and one paratype, Canadian National Collection, one 
paratype U.S.N.M. 

Type locality. — Duncans, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, Aug. 13-23, 
1966, Howden and Becker. 

Other localities. — Good Hope, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, August 8- 
17, 1966, Howden and Becker; Mizpah, Manchester Parish, Jamaica, 
Aug. 5-13, 1966, Howden and Becker. 

This is not so coarsely punctate a species as L. felis Blake. It has 
unusually long hind tibiae and the first tarsal joint is long even for 
Longitarsus, and in addition the antennae are more than half as long 
as the beetle. 

Hermaeophaga beckeri, n. sp. 

(Fig. 7) 

Elongate oval, shining blue, elytra often with violet lustre, antennae with 
second and third and apical joints tending to be pale yellow brown, remainder 
darker, tarsi also brown, pronotum impunctate, elytra very finely punctate. 

Head with polished impunctate occiput, a deep sulcus across to frontal tubercles, 
frontal tubercles clearly cut. Antennae stout and hairy, reaching to middle of 
elytra, in many specimens joints two and three and apical four joints paler yellow 
brown. Prothorax appro.ximately twice as wide as long with arcuate sides and 
obtuse angle anteriorly, a deep curving sulcus near base that extends across entire 
prothorax, surface lustrous dark blue, impunctate. Scutellum small, triangular, 
shining dark blue. Elytra wider and more convex than prothorax with small 
humeri and smooth lustrous blue or violet blue surface, ver>' finely geminate striate 
punctate in basal half, in some specimens punctation nearly invisible. Body beneath 
entirely dark with some bluish lustre especially noticeable on prostemum and 
femora, tarsal joints reddish brown. Length 2-2.5 mm.; width 1.1-1.4 mm. 



168 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Type, male, and 2 paratypes Canadian National Collection, 2 para- 
types in U.S.N.M. 

Type locality. — Duncans, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, July 22, 1966, 
Howden and Becker. 

Other localities. — Mahogany Vale, St. Andrews Parish, Jamaica, July 
20, 1966, Howden and Becker. 

The blue species of Her7naeophag,a resembling the Jamaican one in 
other West Indian islands are H. cuhana Bryant from Cuba, a larger 
species, and H. cylindrica Weise from Puerto Rico, a longer, more 
slender species with dense and more distinct punctation. In the Jamai- 
can material a large series from Mahogany Vale in St. Andrews Parish 
are somewhat smaller than the ones from Duncans on the north coast, 
and with darker antennae, and, in some instances, more apparent 
punctation. Otherwise, I can see no differences. The aedeagi of all 
these species are very much alike so that character cannot be relied 
upon for differentiating the species. 

Hemiaeophaga farri, n. sp. 

(Fig. 4) 

Ovate, shining, head, prothorax and legs reddish brown, elytra piceous, shining 
with a bronzy, sometimes rosy or green histre, prothorax not so shiny, rugosely 
punctate, elytra with coarse semigeminate striate punctation, intervals especially 
on sides being costate. 

Head with interocular space less than half width of head, occiput pohshed, 
rounded, impimctate with deep Hne running to frontal tubercles, a short carina 
and short lower front, deep reddish brown with paler yellowish brown mouthparts. 
Antermae not extending to middle of elytra, with stouter and deeper brown outer 
joints, basal joints pale yellow brown. Prothorax with rounded sides and oblique 
angles anteriorly, sinuate over scutellum, moderately convex, a basal sulcus 
extending across pronotum, surface with somewhat strigose punctation, dense but 
rather obsolete, deep reddish brown, not very shiny. Scutellum reddish brown. 
Elytra broad and convex with small humeri and dense deep coarse punctures in 
somewhat irregular semi-geminate striate rows. Body beneath reddish brown to 
piceous with legs yellowish or reddish brown, hind femora enlarged. Length 1.8-2 
mm.; width 1 mm. 

Type and 1 paratype U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 70067, 1 paratype in Science 
Museum, Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica. 

Type locality. — St. Thomas Parish, Morant Point, Jamaica, May 8, 
1964, T. H. Farr. 

Other locality. — Hardwar Gap, Portland Parish, Aug. 8, 1965, T. 
H. Farr. 

This is a small species with a deep reddish brown head and prothorax 
as is so often the case in this genus, but instead of blue or green 
elytra, it has bronzy black elytra often with a rosy or aeneous lustre, 
and very coarse dense punctures tending to be in double rows all over 
the elytra. The density of this elytral punctation is unusual in the genus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 169 

Sidfaya entima, n. sp. 

(Fig. 2) 

Oval, lustrous black, in two of the four specimens with a slight greenish tinge, 
tarsal joints yellow brown and antennae with bicolored joints; prothorax moderately 
coarsely and not very densely punctate, elytra with coarser, denser punctures in 
liasal half becoming finer and less dense after the middle. 

Head witli interocular space less than half widtli of head, occiput polished, 
impunctate, a sulcus from eye nmning across to frontal tubercles which are 
polished and a little swollen, a short interantennal carina, lower front depressed, 
almost declivous. Antennae with basal and seventh and eighth joints dark, 
remainder pale, not extending to middle of elytra. Prothorax approximately twice 
as wide as long, moderately convex, with sides showing a median angularity and 
sharply defined obtuse angle behind eye; surface lustrous, with coarse but not 
\ery dense punctures. Scutellum black. Elytra convex, widest behind middle, 
witli prominent humeri and a transverse depression below basal lunbones; surface 
lustrous black, faintly greenish in two of the four specimens, punctures in basal 
ludf coarser than in apical half and not as dense as in Sidfaya pinictatisshua Blake. 
Body beneath and legs shining dark brown to piceous, tarsal joints yellow brown. 
Length 1.9-2.3 mm.; width 1.1-1.3 mm. 

Type, female, in Canadian National Collection, 1 paratype U.S.N.M. 

Type locality.— Hardwar Gap, 4000 ft. alt, Jamaica, July 3, 14, 1966, 
Howden and Becker. 

Other localities. — Blue Mt. Peak, 7200 ft. alt., Jamaica, Howden and 
Becker. Mahogany Vale, St. Andrews Parish, Jamaica, July 12, 1966, 
A. T. Howden. 

This is the fourth species of the genus to be described and the second 
from Jamaica. It is a little smaller and less coarsely and densely 
pimctate than S. punctatissima, from Jamaica, and has a slight color 
difference in that the tarsal joints are pale and two of the four speci- 
mens have a greenish tinge. There is also a color difference in the 
antennal joints, which are bicolored. This species so far has been 
collected in three localities, all not far apart, in the Blue Mountain 
region of eastern Jamaica. 

Sidfaya bicolor, n. sp. 

(Fig. 1) 

Ovate, shining, head, prothorax, legs except tarsal joints, and base of elytra 
piceous, antennae piceous except two pale reddish brown apical joints, elytra 
below piceous base reddish brown, metastemum and abdomen also reddish brown; 
pronotum not densely but distinctly punctate, elytra with coarser punctures in 
l)asal part becoming fine and not so dense in apical half. 

Head with interocular space less than half width of head, occiput polished, 
impunctate; a deep cut line from eye to frontal tubercles and short, rounded 
interantennal area, lower front depressed and short. Antennae with outer joints 
wider and appearing rounder than basal ones, all but two apical joints black, apical 
ones reddish brown, two basal joints swollen. Prothorax not twice as wide as long, 
slightly convex with obtuse angle anteriorly and wide angularity at middle of side, 



170 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

and at base a small tooth, surface lustrous black with punctures only moderately 
dense. Scutellum small, black. Elytra more than three times as long as prothorax, 
wider behind middle, strongly convex, with small prominent humeri and short 
intrahumeral sulcus and a transverse depression below basal callosities; punctation 
near base and about humeri coarser and denser than in apical half, becoming faint 
at ape.x, with a slight tendency to being striate especially on sides and in transverse 
depression; shining black over humeri and basal umbones and reddish brown over 
rest of elytra. Body beneath with prosternum dark, metasternum and abdomen 
reddish brown, legs black except the reddish brown tarsal joints. Length 2.2 mm.; 
width 1.1 mm. 

Type, ? female, Canadian National Collection. 

Type locality. — St. Peters, St. Andrews Parish, Jamaica, July 7, 1966, 
Howden and Becker. 

This is the fifth species of the genus to be described and the third 
from Jamaica. Unlike the rest this one is not all dark but has the elytra 
bicolored with a basal dark area over humeri and umbones, the rest 
being entirely reddish brown. It closely resembles S. entima in puncta- 
tion and also in having pale tarsal joints, but unlike that species only 
the last two joints of the antennae are pale. The one specimen examined 
is a little larger than any of the four known specimens of S. entima. 

Apraea anneae, n. sp. 

(Fig. 17) 

Oblong oval, shining yellow brown with a small piceous spot on humerus and 
often another in middle near apex, punctation on pronotum scattered, not dense, 
striate punctures on elytra close set with intervals somewhat costate and often 
with finer scattered punctures. 

Head with large eyes and interocular space less than a third width of head, 
frontal tubercles sharply defined, a short knob of a carina between antennal 
sockets, lower front declivous, entirely yellow brown. Antennae not extending 
much below humeri, with three basal joints pale yellow brown, remainder deep 
brown, first joint long, joints three to six longer than rest. Prothorax approximately 
twice as wide as long with rounded sides and a deep sinuous curve of basal margin 
over scutellum, moderately convex, surface shining yellow brown, slightly rugose 
with scattered, not dense punctures. Scutellum yellowish or reddish brown, small, 
triangular. Elytra nearly three times as long as prothorax and not much wider 
with poorly defined humeri and close set striate punctures that are distinct to 
apex, intervals somewhat costate with numerous finer punctures, occasionally 
striate punctures irregularly geminate, yellow brown with a small piceous spot 
on humerus, and usually another near apex. Body beneath entirely yellow brown, 
legs short, femora, especially hind ones, enlarged. Length 3.4-4.4 mm.; width 
1.8-2.5 mm. 

Type, male, and 8 paratypes, Canadian National Collection, 3 para- 
types U.S.N.M., 1 paratype in Institute of Jamaica. 

Type locality. — Duncans, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, Aug. 5-22, 1966, 
Howden and Becker, Mrs. Anne Howden. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 171 

Other locality.— Uardwar Gap, July 19-23, 1966, Howden and 
Becker. 

This is the third species of Apraea to be described from Jamaica, 
The first species of the genus, A. jansoni Baly, from Jamaica, is a tiny 
bronze beetle with regular striate punctate elytra and a smooth surface. 
The second species which 1 described as A. jamaicensis (Blake, 1963, 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 65:19) is also a bronzy beetle but has a much 
rougher surface with more irregular striate punctation and costae. 
Tlie present species resembles those from Cuba and Puerto Rico in 
being yellow brown and has fairly regular elytral striae and a tendency 
to being costate. The fourth and following species from Jamaica, A. 
maculata, n. sp., has unusual elytral dark markings. The present species 
is dedicated to Mrs. Anne Howden who on this trip collected seven 
new species of Chrysomelidae. 

Apraea maculata, n. sp. 

(Fig. 15) 

Oblong oval, shining, pale yellow brown with dark brown to piceous markings 
on pronotum over scutellum and about scutellum on elytra, and a dark humeral 
blotch and long semivittate median hne extending from below middle to near apex, 
also dark sutural edges near apex, pronotiun with scattered, not dense punctures, 
elytra with irregularly geminate striate punctation. 

Head with interocular space considerably less than half width of head, eyes 
very large, frontal tubercles clearly cut and a short interantennal carina, lower 
front somewhat dechvous. Antennae extending below humeri, third joint long, 
first three joints pale, remainder dark brown. Prothorax nearly three times as wide 
as long, not very convex with rounded sides, and somewhat uneven surface, with 
scattered, not dense punctures, pale yellow brown, in one specimen with a darken- 
ing over the scutellum. Scutelkim dark. Elytra pale yellow brown witli darkening 
about scutellum and a round dark area over humeri, a vittate median dark area 
down from before middle to apical curve, a small spot near it on side, and sutural 
edges before apex also dark. Striate punctation irregularly geminate and punctures 
distinct to apex. Body beneath and legs pale yellow brown, legs short, femora, 
especially hind ones, enlarged. Length 3.5 mm.; width 1.6 mm. 

Type^ male, in Canadian National Collection. 

Type locality. — Duncans, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, August 23, 1966, 
Howden and Becker. 

Other locality.— Uardwar Gap, 4000 ft. Jamaica, July 19, 1966, How- 
den and Becker. 

The distinctive characters of this species are the coloring and the 
elytral pimctation. The pale yellow^ brown background of the beetle 
is flecked with dark brown to piceous markings, sometimes along the 
base of the pronotum and base of elytra with a dark humeral blotch 
and a somewhat curving median vitta from before middle to apical 
curve. The elytral striae are more or less irregularly geminate, in this 
respect differing from A. anneae in which the striate punctation is 



172 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

even and not geminate. There are two darker specimens collected 
at Hardwar Gap on July 19 also, in which the elytral spots are more 
or less united into a large irregular median area and the humeral dark 
blotch is connected in the transverse depression with the median dark 
area. 

Megistops rhabdota, n. sp. 

(Fig. 9) 

Elongate oval, rather dull alutaceous yellow brown with four deep brown 
vittae on each elytron extending nearly the entire length, intervening pale vittate 
intervals narrower, base, suture and margin brown, antennae brown. 

Head with large eyes meeting on occiput, well developed frontal tubercles and 
a short broad carina crowded between huge eyes, lower front declivous. Prothorax 
strongly convex with slightly curved sides, dirty yellowish brown with faint traces 
of spotting, alutaceous, not shiny. Scutellum small, triangular, dark brown. Elytra 
smoothly convex, without any depressions, faintly shining although alutaceous, 
yellow brown with all margins and suture dark brown, five long pale vittate 
intervals between four long straight dark brown vittae on each elytron narrower 
than the dark vittae, dark vittae not quite reaching base. Body beneath mostly 
yellow brown, shining, legs short with much enlarged femora, pale yellow brown, 
hind tibiae with the usual broad apical spur. Length 3.4-4 mm.; width 1.7-2 mm. 

Type, male, and 2 paratypes, Canadian National Collection, 2 para- 
types in U.S.N.M. 

Type locality. — Duncans, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, August 7-22, 
1966, A. T. Howden and H. F. Howden and E. C. Becker. 

From Cuba, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola there have been described 
species of Megistops with short vittae instead of the usual spots found 
in most species of the genus. In this, the first species of the genus 
found in Jamaica, these short vittae such as occur in the other West 
Indian islands are replaced by four long straight vittae on each elytron, 
which while they do not quite reach the base extend the whole length, 
at the apex vanishing in the dark margin that runs along the base, sides, 
apex and sutural edges. While all these vittate species are closely 
related, they do show distinct peculiarities in each island, and the 
aedeagi in some such as M. bryanti Blake are very unlike. 

Megistops parvula, n. sp. 

(Figs. 12, 14) 

Elongate ovate, not shiny, alutaceous, head and prothorax dull dark reddish 
brown, elytra piceous, a large reddish brown apical spot or two spots one near 
base, one apical, on each elytron, legs and undersurface yellowish brown. 

Head with large eyes meeting on occiput, frontal tubercles swollen, only a 
remnant of carina between antennal sockets, lower front shallowly scooped out, 
reddish brown with piceous labrum. Antennae filiform, two basal joints a little 
enlarged and paler, remainder dark brown, fourth joint twice as long as third, 
fifth longer than fourth, remainder diminishing slightly. Prothorax twice as wide 
as long, convex, with nearly straight sides narrowing anteriorly and with an obtuse 
angle behind eye, basal margin slightly sinuous over scutellum, surface granular. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 173 

not at all shiny, dark reddish hrown. Scutellum small, triangular, piceous. Elytra 
smoothly convex, without depressions, alutaceous, faintly shining, deep piceous with 
a large irregularly rounded reddish brown spot at apex of each elytron or with two 
spots, one basal, the other apical, basal one cylindrical. Body beneath and legs 
yellowish brown, hind femora darkened at apex, and much enlarged, hind tibiae 
with broad spur at tip. Length 3.1 mm.; width 1.5 mm. 

Type, male, and one paratype, Canadian National Collection, one 
paratype in U.S.N.M. 

Type locality. — Duncans, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, Aug. 22, 1966, 
Howden and Becker. 

This small species bears the same locahty label as well as date of 
collection as that on specimens of the previous species, M. rhabdota, 
n. sp. It is, however, quite distinct, not only in size and coloration 
but also in genitalia, from the vittate species, and is more closely 
related to the species with dark elytra having pale round spots, such 
as M. fabebuiae Blake from Puerto Rico. The three specimens at hand 
are unusually small for the genus and also darker than most, one speci- 
men having only tlie two apical spots, the others as in the other spotted 
species, having four spots. 

Heikertingerella jamaicae, n. sp. 

(Figs. 10, 11) 

Ovate, shining, yellowish or reddish brown, sometimes head, prothorax and 
base of elytra piceous, and then legs also more or less piceous, very indistinctly 
punctate. 

Head with interocular space less than half its widtli, occiput smoothly rounded, 
front with a few fine punctures, very faint, indistinctly marked frontal tubercles, 
and a short, narrow carina below. Antennae filiform, two basal joints inflated, 
third joint short, joints four, five, six and seven long, apical joints shorter, deeper 
in coloring than paler yellow basal ones. Prothorax twice as wide as long at base, 
contracting in a nearly straight line to eyes, an oblique angle anteriorly, basal 
margin sinuate over scutellum, disc somewhat convex, polished and very finely 
punctate. Scutellum shining. Elytra more tlian three times as long as prothorax, 
convex, well rounded at apex, without depressions, lustrous, with very fine, 
inconspicuous punctures becoming indistinct after middle. Body beneath and 
legs reddish brown, hind femora much enlarged, hind tibiae grooved with outer 
margin at apex widely emarginate and with a tooth, first tarsal joint a little longer 
than in anterior tarsi. Length 2-2.5 mm.; width 1.3-1.5 mm. 

Type, male, U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 70068 and 3 paratypes, 11 paratypes 
in Science Museum, Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica. 

Type locality. — Long Mt., St. Andrews Parish, Jamaica, June 27, 
1954, R. P. Bengry. 

Other localities. — 12 miles east of Kingston, Morant Bay Rd., St. 
Thomas Parish, 11 Nov. 1957, T. H. Farr. Hardwar Gap, 4000 ft. alt., 
July 25, 1966, Howden and Becker. 



174 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

There appears to be some variation in the coloring of this species. 
I have seen two specimens, one in the type series, the other collected 
by Howden and Becker, with the head, prothorax and base of elytra 
piceous. Dr. Farr writes that there is a blue variant of it also, although 
he can find no blue specimen in the collection to substantiate this. 
He states that this species occurs so commonly on Tecoma stans ( L. ) 
that he has called it the "Tecoma beetle." In its most common color 
form, yellowish or reddish brown throughout, it resembles closely other 
yellow brown species of the genus in the West Indies. But the aedeagus 
is unlike the others, and it is undoubtedly the Jamaican race of a very 
homogeneous group of species found in the West Indies. 

In Jacoby's description of H. variabilis (Jacoby, 1885, Biol. Centr. 
Amer., Coleoptera 6(1):292, under Euplectroscelis) he wrote that "the 
amount of piceous of the elytra is extremely variable, either being 
confined to the base and apex only, or to the sutural and lateral margins 
to a greater or smaller degree." This Jamaican species appears to have 
a similar variability. 



SOME AFRICAN FULGOROIDEA IN THE UNITED STATES 
NATIONAL MUSEUM 

H. Synave, Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels 

ABSTRACT — A list is given for 92 species of African Homoptera representing 
58 genera and 11 families. Capenopsis krameri, n. sp., from South Africa, 
Myndus liberianus, n. sp., from Liberia, and Sabecoides ornatus, n. sp., from 
Liberia, are described and illustrated. 

The present note concerns a small collection of African Homoptera 
from the United States National Museum sent to me for study on the 
recommendation of Dr. James P. Kramer, Systematic Entomology 
Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. It contains the diagnosis of three new species, two from Liberia 
and one from South Africa. 

The value of this collection lies in the great diversity of forms repre- 
sented and in the opportunity to add to the knowledge of their 
distribution. 

Eleven families are represented by the approximately 400 specimens, 
as follows: 

Fulgoridae 22 (6 genera, 13 species and forms) 

Dictyopharidae 72 ( 11 genera, 16 species of which one is new to the science) 

Ci.\iidae 152 (9 genera, 17 species of which one is new to science) 

Flatidae 48 ( 10 genera, 15 species ) 

Ricaniidae 1 ( 1 genus, 1 species ) 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUXE, 1969 175 

Achilidae 28 (6 genera, 7 species of which one is new to tlie science) 

Tropiduchidae 7 ( 3 genera, 4 species ) 

Meenoplidae 30 ( 4 genera, 9 species ) 

Derbidae 17 (5 genera, 6 species) 

Issidae 6 ( 2 genera, 2 species ) 

Lophopidae 19 ( 1 genus, 2 species) 

Family Fulgoridae 
Genus Holodictya Gerstaecker 
Gerstaecker, A., 1895, Mitt. Naturw. Ver. Greifswald 27: 70. 

Holodictya maculata (Distant) 
Distant, W. L., 1878, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 323. Polydictya. 
Congo: Luebo, D. W. Snyder, 1 specimen. 

Genus Anecphora Karsch 
Karsh, F., 1890, Berl. Ent. Z. 35: 63. 

Anecphora torrida (Walker) 
Walker, F., 1851, List of the Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British 

Museum 2: 281. Aphaena. 
Congo: Luebo, D. W. Snyder, 2 specimens. 

Anecphora torrida form sanguineopunctata Schmidt 
Schmidt, E., 1905, Stettin Ent. Zeit. 66: 363, 370. 
Congo: Luebo, D. W. Snyder, 1 specimen. 

Anecphora torrida form angulosa Strand 
Strand, E., 1911, Wiener Ent. Zeit. 30: 24. 

Liberia: Mt. Coffee, November 1, 1897, R. P. Currie. Ghana: Gold Coast, Axini. 
■'West Africa: Elat Cam, F. H. Hope." 5 specimens. 

Genus Malfeytia Schmidt 
Schinidt, E., 1905, Stettin Ent. Zeit. 66: 360. 

Malfeytia hilaris (Gerstaecker) 
Gerstaecker, A., 1895, Mitt. Naturw. Ver. Greifswald 27: 9. Anecphora. 
Tanzania: "Deutsch Ost Afrika." 1 specimen. 

Omalocephala Spinola 
Spinola, M., 1839, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 8: 259. 

Omalocephala intermedia Bolivar 
Bohvar, I., 1879, Ann. Soc. Espanola Hist. Nat. 8: 145. 
Tanzania: Dares Salaam, 1 specimen. 

Metaphaena Schmidt 
Schmidt, E., 1905, Stettin Ent. Zeit. 66: 360. 

Metaphaena basiflava form tricolor Schmidt 
Schmidt, E., 1905, Stettin Ent. Zeit. 66: 363. Metaphaena tricolor. 
Congo: Luebo, D. W. Snyder, 1 specimen. 



176 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




Figs. 1-5, Myndus Uberianiis, n. sp.: 1, elytron; 2, pygophore, latero-ventral 
view from right; 3, aedeagus, latero-ventral view from left; 4, anal tube, latero- 
ventral view from left; 5, right paramere, lateral view. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 177 

Metaphaena basirufa Schmidt 
Schmidt, E., 1905, Stettin Ent. Zeit. 66: 363. 
Congo: Luebo, D. \V. Snyder, 1 specimen. 

Metaphaena novemmaculata ( Distant ) 
EHstant, W. L., 1878, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 323. 
"West Africa: Elat Cam, F. H. Hope." 1 specimen. 

Genus Zanna Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, G. W., 1902, Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 47. 

Zanna tenebrosa ( Fabricius ) 
Fabricius, J. C, 1775, Systema entomologiae, p. 674. Fulgora. 

Liberia: Bendja, W. M. Mann; Monrovia, February 3, 1954, W. Frankhn. 
Mozambique: "Portuguese East Africa." 4 specimens. 

Zanna clavaticeps ( Karsch ) 
Karsch, F., 1890, Berl. Ent. Z. 35: 62. Pijrops: 
Congo: Luebo, D. W. Snyder. 1 specimen. 

Zanna punctata (OHvier) 
Olivier, G. A., 1791, Encyclopedic methodique histoire naturelle insectes 6: 569. 

Fulgora. 
Mozambique: Lourenco Marques, C. W. Howard. 1 specimen. 

Zanna pustulosa ( Gerstaecker ) 
Gerstaecker, C. E. A., 1873, Baron Carl Claus von der Decken's Reisen in Ost- 

Afrika in den Jahren 1859-1865 3: 427, pi. xvii, fig. 9. 
Southern Rhodesia: Salisbury, February 8, 1920, J. A. O'Nell. 1 specimen. 

Family Dictyopharid.\e 
Genus Raphiophora ( Schaum ) 
Schaum, H., 1850, Allgemeine Encyklopadie 51: 67. Nematophora. 
Schaum, H., 1851, Arch. Nat. 17: 268. Raphiophora. 

Raphiophora zephyrus ( Gerstaecker ) 
Gerstaecker, A., 1895, Mitt. Naturw. Ver. Gerifswald 27: 14. Simotettix. 
Liberia: Mount Coffee, R. P. Currie; Suakoko, May 12, 1952. 4 specimens. 

Genus Paranagnia Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1912, Abh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 7: 54. 

Paranagnia f uniinervis ( Lethierry ) 
Lethierry, L. F., 1892, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, p. 208. Dicttjophora. 
Liberia: Mount Coffee, R. P. Currie; Suakoko, May 12, 1952. 3 specimens. 

Genus Engela Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1906, Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. 16: 415. 

Engela niinuta Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1906, Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. 16: 416. 
South Africa: Cape Town, January-April, 1915, J. C. Bridwell. 4 specimens. 



178 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




Figs. 6-12, Sabecoides ornatus, n. sp.: 6, elytron; 7, paramere; 8, aedeagus, 
latero-ventral view from right; 9, aedeagus, dorsal view; 10, anal tube, dorsal view; 
11, medio-ventral appendage of pygophore; 12, aedeagus, ventral view. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 179 

Genus Aselgeia Walker 
Walker, F., 1851, List of the Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British 
Museum 2: 324. 

Aselgeia ramulifera Walker 
Walker, F., 1851, List of the Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British 

Museum 2: 324. 
Mozambique: Lourenco Marquez, C. W. Howard. 1 specimen. 

Genus Philotheria Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1912, Abh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 7( 1 ) : 92. 

Philotheria ceryx Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1961, Mem. Inst. Franc. Afr. Noire 62(2): 315, fig. 5a-e. 
Liberia: Suakoko, May 12, 1952; February 24, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 
Sierra Leone: "Njala," December 4, 1935, van Zwaluwenburg and Mc Gough. 

Philotheria senegalensis (Spinola) 
Spinola, M., 1839, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 8: 295. Dictyophora. 
Cape Town, Soutli Africa : J. C. Bridwell. 3 specimens. 

Philotheria natalensis ( Stal ) 
Stal, C., 1855, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 1855, p. 91. Pseudophana. 
Cameroon, West Africa: Yaounde, 2,600 feet, May 29, 1930, van Zwaluwenburg 
and Mc Gough. 

Philotheria rochetii (Guerin) 
Guerin, F. E., 1849, In Lefebvre, Voyage en Abyssinie, execute pendant les annees 

1839-1843, Ins., p. 342, pi. 6, fig. 8. Fulgora. 
Sudan: September 29, 1943, J. M. Mc Gough. 1 specimen. 

Genus Pseudophanella Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige 59: 93. 

Pseudophanella regina sollenis Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige 59: 95. 

Liberia: Suakoko, February 24, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff; id.. May 13, 1952; id.. 
February 16, 1952; id., March 2 and 9, 1952. 5 specimens. 

Genus Neodictya Synave 
Synave, H., 1965, Expl. Pare Nat. Garamba 47: 37. 

Neodictya suavis ( Fennah ) 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige 59: 87. Paradictya. 
Liberia: "Cape Mount," M. M. Mann. 4 specimens. 

Neodictya izzardi Synave 
Synave, H., 1965, Expl. Pare Nat. Garamba 47: 37, figs. 86, 89, 100. 
Tanzania: Jomalema Range, Exped. Chanler-Hohnel. 1 specimen. 

Genus Afronersia Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige 59: 65. 



180 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 





Figs. 13-16, Capenopsis krameri, n. sp.: 13, dorsal view, 14, anal tube, dorsal 
view; 15, paramere, lateral view; 16, aedeagus, dorsal view. 



Afronersia discrepaiis Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige 59: 72, figs. 44a-e. 
Liberia, Suakoko, May 12, 1952, F. S. Blanton. 1 specimen. 

Afronersia liriope Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1958, Bull. Inst. Franc. Afrique Noire (ser. A) 20: 215, fig. 19. 
Liberia: "Gibi," W. M. Mann. 1 specimen. 

Genus Phaenodictyon Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige 59: 88. 

Phaenodictyon ellipticuni ( Walker ) 
Walker, F., 1851, List of the Homopterous Insects in the Collection of the British 

Museum 2: 312. Dictyophara. 
Liberia: Belle Yella, W. M. Mann; Lenguatowa, near Kakata, M. M. Mann; 
Suakoko, May 12, 1952, F. S. Blanton; idem. May 13, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 
12 specimens. 

Genus Strongylodemas Stal 
Stal, C, 1853, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 10: 265. 

Strongylodemas circulare Stal 
Stal, C, 1855, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 12: 92. 
South Africa: Cape Town, January to April, 1915, J. C. Bridwell. 25 specimens. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 181 

Genus Capenopsis Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1912, Abh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 7(1): 181. 

Capenopsis krameri, n. sp. 

(Figs. 13-16) 

Vertex, with its projection, about three times as long as its width at base 
between eyes (64:24); ocliraceous, with small black dots on the lateral borders 
and the median carina; lateral borders not elevated, strongly convergent anteriorly, 
slightly concave beyond the anterior margin of the eyes; median carina strongly 
prominent for its full length, in profile practically straight. Front long and narrow, 
angularly rounded at base, lateral borders regularly divergent until just in front of 
the anterior margin of the eye, then subparallel to apex; lateral carinae shghtly 
diverging on the anterior half, then slightly convex and converging to the clypeus; 
median carina distinct, extended to the clypeus, ochraceous, with small, black 
l^oints on the lateral borders and the carinae. Clypeus ochraceous, with small 
black points on its apex, lateral borders and median carina, slightly narrower 
anteriorly and strongly constricted posteriorly. Rostrum yellow, surpassing 
posterior coxae; apex of last segment black. Antennae globose, blackish, with a 
yellow spot on base of second segment. Pronotvmi ochraceous, with a more or less 
clear transverse, median, reddish band; with numerous small black points on the 
other part of the disc and on the median carina; broader than the head across 
the eyes; anterior border of the median lobe very slightly convex, almost straight; 
posterior border very broadly and shallowly concave medially; median carina 
distinct; pectoral plates very long, depressed apically; basal half brown, sprinkled 
with small black dots; anterior half white, with equally numerous black points; 
a transverse black band separating the two lobes. 

Scutellum more or less reddish ochraceous; posterior angle white, anteriorly 
delimited by a transverse, narrow black band; with black points along the median 
carina. Elytra reaching second visible segment of the abdomen, nearly as long 
as wide, dark grey ( sometimes yellow ) with several black points along the 
ochraceous veins; borders of costa and scutellum slightly convex, sutural and 
apical borders straight; apical angle rectangular, sutural angle rounded. Abdomen 
wide, sutures slightly prominent medially; ochraceous, with numerous small 
black points, especially along lateral border where they form a darker, longitudinal 
band. Anterior and median tibiae and femora slightly dilated, ochraceous, with 
transverse bands and points black; posterior surface of hind femora ochraceous 
with black points, especially at the apex; anterior .surface brownish black; 
posterior tibia ochraceous with black points, except on external surface which 
is nearly wholly dark brown; with four lateral spines, of which one is at femoro- 
tibial articulation; apically with seven spines. 

GenitaHa $ , see figs. 14-16. 

Holotype S : South Africa: near Melkbosstrand, C. P., 9-11-48, A. 
J. Duke (Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique). Para- 
types (15,299): same locality as holotype; Cape Town, J. C. Brid- 
well; Cape Town, January-April, 1915, J. C. Bridwell (Institut Royal 
des Sciences Naturelle de Belgique and U. S. National Museum). 



182 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Family Cixiidae 
Genus Mnemosyne Stal 
Stal, C, 1866, Hemiptera Africana 4: 150. 

Mnemosyne camerunensis Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1907, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 7) 19: 283. 
Cameroon, West Africa: Yaounde, Zwaluwenburg and Mc Gough. 1 specimen. 

Mnemosyne evansi Muir 
Muir, F., 1923, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 9)2: 558. 
Liberia: Lenguatowa, near Kakata, W. M. Manns. 

Genus Oliarus Stal 
Stal, C., 1862, Berl. Ent. Z. 6: 306. 

Oliarus lootensi Synave 
Synave, H., 1956, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaine 53: 365, figs. 1-4. 
Liberia: Mount Coffee, R. P. Currie; Suakoko, March 1-9, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff, 

2 specimens. 

Oliarus limbifera Hesse 
Hesse, A. J., 1952, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 23: 151, pi. 7, fig. 4. 

Mozambique: Lourenco Marques, 1910, C. W. Howard. Nigeria: Oloke Meji, 
Ibadan. 3 specimens. 

Oliarus africanus Synave 
Synave, H., 1959, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaine 59: 15, figs. 43-45. 
Liberia: Suakoko, May 12, 1952, F. S. Blanton. 3 specimens. 

Oliarus orithyia Fennah 

Fennah, R. G., 1958, Bull. Inst. Franc. Afrique Noire (ser. A) 20: 4621, pi. 1, 
figs. 1-5. 

Liberia: "Cape Mount," W. M. Manns; Suakoko, March 1-9, 1952, C. C. Blicken- 
staff; ibid. May 12, 1952, F. S. Blanton. 11 specimens. 

Oliarus formosus Synave 
Synave, H., 1960, Expl. Pare Nat. Garamba 18(2) : 35, figs. 62-66. 
Nigeria: Oloke Meji, Ibadan. 1 specimen. 

Genus Cixius Latreille 
Latreille, P. A., 1804, Histoire Naturelle, Insectes 12: 310. 

Cixius stigmaticalis Melichar 
Mehchar, L., 1911, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1911, p. 114. 
Congo: Lubumbashi, December, 1951, C. Seydel. 21 specimens. 

Genus Ptoleria Stal 
Stal, C, 1859, Bed. Ent. Z. 3: 321. 

Ptoleria straeleni Synave 
Synave, H., 1953, Expl. Pare Nat. Albert 79: 32, fig. 8. 
Liberia: Suakoko, March 21, 1952, C. C. BHckenstaff; ibid. May 3-4, 1952. 

3 specimens. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 183 

Genus Brixia Stal 
Stal, C, 1856, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 13: 162. 

Brixia speciosa Muir 
Miiir, F., 1923, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 9) 2: 554. 
Mozambique: Lourenco Marques, C. W. Howard. 1 specimen. 

Genus Achaemenes Stal 
Stal, C., 1866, Hemiptera Africana 4: 170. 

Achaemenes kilimanus Jacobi 
Jacobi, A., 1910, Swedischen Zoologischen Expedition Kilimandjaro 12: 107. 
Mozambique: Lourenco Marquez, C. VV. Howard. 4 specimens. 

Achaemenes seydeli Synave 
Synave, H., 1959, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaine 59(1-2): 8, fig. 21-23. 
Congo: Lubumbashi, December 1951, C. Seydel. 12 specimens. 

Achaemenes flavescens Synave 
Synave, H., 1953, Expl. Pare Nat. Upemba 23: 11. 
Congo: Lubumbashi, 1951, C. Seydel. 39 specimens. 

Genus Myndus Stal 
Stal, C, 1862, Berl. Ent. Z. 6: 307. 

Myndus apicemaculatus Synave 
Synave, H., 1959, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaine 59(1-2): 13, figs. 36-38. 
Congo: Lubumbashi, December 1951, C. Seydel. 5 specimens. 

Myndus liberianus, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1-5) 

Front ochraceous, borders and median carinae yellow; longer than the greatest 
width (36:31); narrow at base, strongly widening to clypeus (apical width twice 
as great as basal width). Front-clypeal suture straight. Apical ocellus distinct, 
yellow. Clypeus ochraceous, lateral and median carinae yellow. Labium slightly 
surpassing middle coxae. Vertex ochraceous, lateral and median carinae yellow, 
the anterior half with two longitudinal black stripes limited by a transverse carina; 
median length slightly longer than width across posterior angles (28:25); breadth, 
at the level of the apex of the basal emargination, about two times greater than 
the apical width (20:11); lateral borders slightly concave, strongly diverging to 
the base; transverse carina situated near midlength, longitudinal carinae distinct 
to the base of the posterior compartment. Pronotum yellow. Scutellum ochraceous 
brown, darker medially; lateral carinae concolorous, emphasized by a brown color; 
median carina yellow. Elytra ( fig. 1 ) hyaline; nervures, except for the brow n 
crossveins and apical part of some of the longitudinal veins, yellow, punctate with 
brown; with a brown blotch opix)site the anterior border of stigma, several others 
on the posterior margin of the apical cells, and especially a large and darker one 
on apex of third apical branch of vein M; branching of Sc+R generally in front 
of cell Cu; vein M leaving the common trunk of Sc-f-R near base; clavus long, 
reaching posterior third of elytron, bifurcation of claval nerves near middle of 



184 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

clavus. Legs yellow, posterior tibiae unarmed. Genitalia of male as in figs. 2 to 5. 
Total length, about 6 mm. 

Holotype, male: Liberia, Suakoko, March 1-9, 1952, C. C. Blicken- 
staff (USNM type No. 69927). Paratypes: Locality, year and collector 
same as for holotype, taken January 25, February 24, March 1-9, 21 
(34, in United States National Museum and Institut Royal de Sciences 
Naturelle de Belgique ) . 

Genus Volcanalia Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1917, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 279. 

Volcanalia funiosa Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1917, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 282. 
Seychelles: Silhouette, 1908. 1 specimen. 

Genus Adolendana Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1917, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 278. 

Adelendana typica Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1917, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 278. 
Seychelles: Silhouette, 1908. 1 specimen. 

Family Flatidae 
Genus Phromnia Stal 
Stal, C., 1862, Bidragtill Rio Janeiro-traktens Hemipterfauna 2: 68. 

Phromnia angolensis Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1910, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 5: 300. 
Sierra Leone, Mitford, 1896. 1 specimen. 

Phromnia superba Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1901, Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 16: 206. 
Liberia: Suakoko, Jaunary 15, 1952; Nigeria: Olokemji, Ibadan. 2 specimens. 

Genus Flatina Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1901, Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 16: 214. 

Flatina chloris Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1901, Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 16: 215. 
Sierra Leone: Mitford, 1896. 1 specimen. 

Flatina circellaris Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1901, Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 16: 217. 
Ghana: Gold Coast, Axim, 1896. 1 specimen. 

Genus Scarpanta Stal 
Stal, C., 1862, Bidragtill Rio Janeiro-traktens Hemipterfauna 2: 69. 

Scarpanta mortuif olia ( Stal ) 
Stal, C., 1861, Stettin Ent. Zeit. 22: 150. Poeciloptera. 
Liberia: Lenguatowa near Kakate, M. M. Manns. 1 specimen. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 185 

Genus Lawana Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1906, Fauna British India, Rhynch. 3: 420. 

Lawana exsoleta ( Melichar ) 
Melichar, L., 1902, Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 17: 45. Phtjma. 
"West Africa: I-IX-32," F. H. Hope. 1 specimen. 

Genus Phlebopterum Stal 
Stal, C., 1854, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 1854, p. 248. 

Phlebopterum praemorsum Stal 
Stal, C., 1854, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 1854, p. 248. 
Congo: Lubumbashi. 1 specimen. 

Genus Calauria Stal 
Stal, C., 1866, Hemiptera Africana. 4: 245. 

Calauria sulciceps Stal 
Stal, C, 1866, Hemiptera Africana 4: 245. 
South Africa: Cape Town, January-April, 1915, J. C. Bridwell. 11 specimens. 

Genus Aulophorina Strand 
Karsch, F. A. A., 1890, Berl. Ent. Z. 35: 69. Aulophorus. 
Strand, E., 1926, Arch. f. Naturg., 93 (A8): 46. Aulophorina. 

Aulophorina canaliculata ( Karsch ) 
Karsch, F. A. F., 1890, Berl. Ent. Z. 35: 69. Aulophorus. 

South Africa: Transvaal, February, 1957; Nelspruit, November, 1957, N. L. H. 
Krauss. 2 specimens. 

Genus Paranotus Karsch 
Karsch, F. A. F., 1890, Berl. Ent. Z. 35: 66. 

Paranotus rufilinea (Walker) 
Walker, F., 1858, List of the Homopterous Insects in the Collection of the British 

Museum, Suppl., p. 116. 
Liberia: Lenguatowa, near Kakata. Mozambique: Lourenco Marquez, C. W. 

Howard, 1910. 4 specimens. 

Genus Juba Jacobi 
Jacobi, A., 1910, Schvvedischen Zool. Exped. Kilimandjaro 12: 103. 

Juba plagosa ( Distant ) 
Distant, W. L., 1907, Insecta Transvaaliensia 8: 204, pi. 19, figs. 10, 10a. Seliza. 
Mozambique: Lourenco Marquez, 1910, C. W. Howard. 1 specimen. 

Genus Cryptoflata Mehchar 
Melichar, L., 1902, Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 17: 19. 

Cryptoflata unipunctata (Olivier) 
Olivier, G. A., 1791, Encyclopedic Methodique HLstoire Naturelle Insectes 6: 576. 

Fulgora. 
Tanzania: Dar es Salaam. 1 specimen. 



186 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Cryptoflata zielensis Synave 

Synave, H., 1963, Mem. Inst. Franc. Afrique Noire 66: 460, figs. 5-7. 
Nigeria: Warri, 1897, Dr. Roth; Oloke Meji, Ibadan. Liberia: Lenguatowa, near 
Kakata, M. M. Manns. 8 specimens. 

Cryptoflata nimaensis Synave 

Synave, H., 1963, Mem. Inst. Franc. Afrique Noire 66: 463, figs. 11-13. 
Liberia: Lenguatowa, near Kakata, M. M. Manns; Suakoko, December 28, 1951. 
Nigeria: Warri, July 1897, Dr. Roth. 11 specimens. 

Cryptoflata viridis ( Synave ) 

Synave, H., 1953, Expl. Pare Nat. Upemba 32(2): 38. Lawam. 

South Africa: Transvaal, November, 1951, N. L. H. Krauss. 2 specimens. 

Family Lophopidae 
Genus Elasmoscelis Spinola 
Spinola, M., 1839, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 8: 388. 

Elasmoscelis cimicoides Spinola 

Spinola, M., 1839, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 8: 391, pi. 16, fig. 4. 

Angola: Cundenuria, May 11, 1956. Congo: Luebo, D. W. Snyder. Mozambique: 
Lourenco Marquez, 1910, C. W. Howard; Umbelusi, March 5, 1909. South 
Africa: Durban, May 13, 1915. Zambia: Kafne R., Dec. 1919, H. O. Raven. 
16 specimens. 

Elasmoscelis guineensis Synave 

Synave, H., 1963, Mem. Inst. Franc. Afrique Noire 66: 468, fig. 14. 
Nigeria: Oloke Meji, Ibadan. 3 specimens. 

Family Ricaniidae 
Genus Ricanopsis Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1898, Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 13: 251. 

Ricanopsis nebulosa ( Fabricius ) 

Fabricius, J. C., 1794, Entomologia Systematica Emendata et Aucta 4: 40. Cicada. 
Liberia: Suakoko, January 26, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 1 specimen. 

Family Achilidae 
Genus Achilla Haglund 
Haglund, C. J. E., 1899, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 1899, p. 62. 

Achilla marginatifrons Haglund 

Haglund, C. J. E., 1899, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 1899, p. 63. 
Cameroons, West Africa: Yaounde, van Zwaluwenburg and Mc Gougli. Nigeria: 
Oloke Meji, Ibadan, 1914, J. C. Bridwell; Warri, Dr. Roth. 13 specimens. 

Genus Lanuvia Stal 
Stal, C., 1866, Hemiptera Africana 4: 182. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 187 

Lanuvia luteovittata Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1950, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Entom. 1: 75. 
Cameroons, West Africa: Yaounde, 1930, van Zwaluwenburg and Mc Gough. 
1 specimen. 

Ballomarius Jacobi 
Jacobi, A., 1941, Zool. Jahrb. 74(4): 294. 

Ballomarius kawandanus Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1950, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Entom. 1(1): 130, figs. 87a-b. 
Liberia: Lenguatowa, near Kakata, M. M. Manns; Mount Coffee, R. P. Currie; 
Suakoko, December 1-10, 1951, C. C. Blickenstaff. 5 specimens. 

Ballomarius wittei Synave 
Synave, H., 1959, Expl. Pare Nat. Albert 96: 78, figs. 221 and 225. 
Liberia: Suakoko, May 3-4, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 1 specimen. 

Genus Ciiidus Stal 
Stal, C., 1866, Hemiptera Africana 4: 185. 

Cnidus naevius (Jacobi) 
Jacobi, A., 1910, Schwedischen Zool. Exped. Kilimandjaro 12: 105, pi. 1, figs. 

14a-b. Necho. 
Liberia: Mount Coffee; Suakoko, May 3-4, 1952, C. C. BHckenstaff. 4 specimens. 

Genus Epiusanella Synave 
Synave, H., 1959, Expl. Pare Nat. Albert 96: 91. 

Epiusanella bimaculata Synave 
Synave, H., 1959, Expl. Pare Nat. Albert 96: 93, figs. 263-268. 

Liberia: Languatowa, near Kakata, M. M. Manns; Suakoko, May 3-4, 1952, C. C. 
Blickenstaff. 2 specimens. 

Genus Sabecoides Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1958, Bull. Inst. Franc. Afrique Noire (ser. A) 20: 507. 

Sabecoides ornatus, n. sp. 

(Figs. 6-12) 

Front about 1.5 times as long as maximum width (40:27); lateral borders 
strongly divergent to the apex (basal width : apical width :: 12 : 27), at first 
slightly concave, then convex to the clypeus; median carina distinct and prominent 
for the full length; ochraceous brown, with two transverse, white bands, one at 
the level of the ocelli, the other at the clypeo-frontal suture. Clypeus with a pro- 
longation of the frontal carina; ochraceous brown, with a whitish spot along the 
lateral borders. Lateral surface of head, except for black area above ocelli, 
ochraceous. Vertex longer than broad ( length to apex of basal emargination : width 
at that level : : 19 : 14); transverse carina acutely angled and with carina separating 
front from vertex, delimiting two triangular fossae; median carina distinct for full 
length, very sharp on ix)sterior part, broadening anteriorly; brownish black except 
for anterior fossae, transverse carina, and anterior part of median carina which are 
yellow. Pronotum orange, except for anterior brown part of median lobe; tricari- 



188 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

nate, lateral carinae concave, reaching to posterior margin. Scutellum brown, with 
three subparallel carinae, the lateral ones slightly convex. Elytra about three times 
as long as broad (fig. 6), clavus attaining its midlength; claval nervures uniting 
far from claval apex; forking of Sc+R and Cu at same level, cell M at the level 
of the stigma; slightly browned, with orange marks distributed at follows: a large 
spot along the clavus followed by a spot at the transverse vein uniting Ch to the 
suture; limited interiorly by CI2, bordered exteriorly by Cu; a second elongate spot 
between R and M, limited posteriorly by crossvein uniting R and M shortly after 
branching of M; finally, a mark on the stigma which is more or less prolonged 
along the costal border. Feet yellowish white; posterior tibiae unarmed. Genitalia 
of male as in figures 7a and 12. 
Total length, about 4.5 mm. 

Holotype male: Liberia, Lenguatowa, near Kakata, M. M. Manns 
(USNM type number 69928). 

One female specimen similar to and from the same locality as the 
type, and with the further information "copulating, 12-8-35," is 
assigned to the species. I do not consider this the allotype female 
because it is multilated and lacks the abdomen. This specimen is 
brownish and without the orange spots on the type. 

It is a remarkable coincident that the type of Sabecoides cacus Fennah 
is a female that is strongly marked with red. The lack of color mark- 
ings, therefore, does not seem to be a characteristic peculiar to the 
females. 

Family Tbopiduchidae 

Genus Catulliaria Muir 

Muir, F., 1931, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 10) 7: 300. 

Catulliaria njalae Muir 
Muir, F., 1931, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 10) 7: 300, fig. 3. 
Liberia: Suakoko, March 1-9 and 21, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 3 specimens. 

Genus Tropiduchodes Schmidt 
Schmidt, E., 1910, Stettin Ent. Zeit. 71: 188. 

Tropiduchodes coleoptratus Schmidt 
Schmidt, E., 1910, Stettin Ent. Zeit. 71: 189. 
Nigeria: Oloke Meji, Ibadan. 2 specimens. 

Tropiduchus Stal 
Stal, C., 1854, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 1854, p. 248. 

Tropiduchus anceps Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige 59: 125, figs. 74a-b. 
Cameroon, West Africa: Douala, van Zwaluwenburg and Mc Cough. 1 specimen. 

Tropiduchus asturco Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige 59: 126, figs. 75a-e. 
Liberia: Suakoko, March 21, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 1 specimen. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 189 

Family Issidae 
Genus Trienopa Signoret 
Signoret, V., 1860, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (ser. 3)8: 188. 

Trienopa paradoxa ( Gerstaecker ) 
Gerstaecker, C. E. A., 1892, Jahrb. Wiss. Aust. 9(2): 58. Eriphyle. 
Nigeria: Oloke Meji, Ibadan. 1 specimen. 

Genus Mithymna Stal 
Stal, C., 1861, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 18: 207. 

Mithymna perganiena Stal 
Stal, C., 1861, Stettin Ent. Zeit. 22: 150. 
South Africa: Cape Town, January to April, 1915, J. C. Bridwell. 5 specimens. 

Family Meenoplidae 
Genus Nisia Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1903, Homoptera — Fauna von Ceylon, p. 53. 

Nisia atrovenosa (Lethierry) 
Lethierry, L. F., 1888, Ann. Mus. Genova (ser. 2) 6: 466. 

Liberia: Cape Mount, M. M. Manns; Roberts Airfield, Sept., N. L. H. Krauss; 
Suakoko, January 25, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 7 specimens. 

Nisia albinotata Muir 
Muir, F., 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 9) 19: 199, figs. 3-5. 
Congo: Cangala-na-Bodio, April 29, 1955, Baker and Schmidt. 3 specimens. 

Genus Kermesia Melichar 
Melichar, L., 1905, Homopteren — Fauna von Ceylon, p. 52. 

Kermesia albinorvosa Muir 
Muir, F., 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 9) 19: 203, figs. 11 and 12. 
Liberia: Suakoko, February 20 and May 6, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 2 specimens. 

Genus Meenoplus Fieber 
Fieber, F. X., 1866, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 16: 498. 

Meenoplus stramineus Muir 
Muir, F., 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 9) 19: 206, fig. 19. 
Liberia: Lenguatowa near Kakata, 1935-36, H. Mann; Suakoko, February 24 and 
March 21, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 6 specimens. 

Meenoplus albinervosus Muir 
Muir, F., 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 9) 19: 208, fig. 20. An/grus. 
Liberia: Suakoko, February 29, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 1 specimen. 

Meenoplus rotula Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Bull. Inst. Franc. Afrique Noire 19: 1279. 
Liberia: Suakoko, March 21, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. 1 specimen. 



190 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Meenoplus actor Fennah 
Fennah, R. G., 1957, Bull. Inst. Franc. Afrique Noire 4: 1280, figs. 3f-i. 
Cameroons, West Africa: Douala, November 10, 1936, van Zwaluwenburg and 
Me Gough. Nigeria: Oloke Meji, Ibadan, 2 specimens. 

Genus Anigrus Stal 
Stal, C., 1866, Hemiptera Africana 4: 172. 

Anigrus lugens ( Stal ) 
Stal, C., 1855, Ofv. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forh. 12: 93. Delphax. 
Liberia: Suakoko, March 21, 1952, C. C. Blickenstaff. Sierra Leone: Njala, 
November 17-20, 1935, van Zwaluwenburg and Mc Gough. 8 specimens. 

Family Dekbidae 
Genus Diostronibus Uhler 
Uhler, P. R., 1896, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 19: 283. 

Diostrombus dilatatus (Westwood) 
Westwood, J. O., 1851, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 2)7: 209. Derhe. 
Sierra Leone: Najala, November 16, 1935, van Zwaluwenburg and Mc Gough. 4 
specimens. 

Genus Proutista Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, G. W., 1904, Entomologist 37: 279. 

Proutista f ritillaris ( Boheman ) 
Boheman, C. H., 1838, Handl. Svenska Vet. Akad. 58: 227, pi. 7, figs. 8-9. Derbe. 
Nigeria: Ibadan, van Zwaluwenburg and Mc Gough. 3 specimens. 

Genus Zoraida Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, G. W., 1900, Entomologist 33: 242. 

Zoraida sinuosa ( Boheman ) 
Boheman, C. H., 1837, Handl. Svenska Vet. Akad. 58: 225, pi. vii, fig. 1-2. Derbe. 
Sierra Leone: Njala, van Zwaluwenburg and Mc Gough. 1 specimen. 

Genus Kamendaka Distant 
Distant, W. L., 1906, Fauna British India, Rhynchota 3: 310. 

Kamendaka albomaculata Muir 
Muir, F., 1926, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 9) 18: 230, figs. 4-6. 
Liberia: Cape Mount, W. M. Mann; Lenguatowa near Kakata, W. M. Mann, 
193.5-1936. 6 specimens. 

Kamendaka hargreavesi Muir 
Muir, F., 1928, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 10) 1: 507, figs. 12-13. 
Liberia: Lenguatowa near Kakata, W. M. Mann, 1935-1936. 2 specimens. 

Genus Patara Westwood 
Westwood, J. O., 1840, Proc. Linn. Soc. London 1: 85. 

Patara hargreavesi Muir 
Muir, F., 1930, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 10) 5: 82, figs 4-5. 
Liberia: Lenguatowa near Kakata, W. M. Mann, 1935-1936. 1 specimen. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 191 

HYPNOIDUS RIPARIUS (FABRICIUS), A POSSIBLE AGRICULTURAL 
PEST FROM EUROPE! 

(COLEOPTERA: ElATERIDAe) 

Jeffrey N. L. Stibick, 3617 N. Rockingham St., 
Arlington, Virginia 22213 

ABSTRACT — Hijpnoidus ripariiis (Fabricius), a European pest, is known to 
reach North America in ballast from ships. To date, it apparently has not estab- 
lished itself in this area. In Europe, it is found in moist, low-lying areas attacking 
grains, vegetables, and grasses. Identifying characters for both adults and larvae 
are given, including a key to the larvae of related species living along the Atlantic 
Seaboard of North America. 



Recently (Sept. 1968), I came across five examples of Hijpnoidus 
riparius (Fabricius) in the United States National Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. These specimens were intercepted from ships and 
identified by Valentine shortly thereafter (1943-44). There is, ap- 
parently, no public record of this discovery, probably because it did 
not seem significant. However, H. riparius has been recorded as a 
pest of grain and vegetable crops. 

Evans ( 1921 ) reports larvae feeding on the roots, doing much 
damage in local areas, and adults attacking the fruiting structures, 
although the latter seldom do much hann. Gurjeva (1961), reported 
that this species inhabits moist open meadows or dry meadows with 
marshy areas. Damage occurs to clover sowings where low-lying 
meadows have been replowed. Her earlier (1958) study on soil 
preferences indicated that meadow-light loam was preferred. The life 
cycle took as little as a year to complete. Zacharuk ( 1963 ) found that 
the larvae prefer blowfly maggots, wheat seeds, and rye seeds, in 
this order. 

These observations indicate that H. riparius is omnivorous and indict 
it as an agricultural pest of some minor importance in suitable areas. 
Additional notes on this species are found in papers by Dolin, Jeuniaux, 
and Tscherepanov ( see literature cited ) . 

Apparently, H. riparius has not established itself in North America. 
I have seen specimens supposedly from Greenland, but the labels 
are questionable, and in any case Lindroth's 1968 paper makes it clear 
that invasion of the continent is highly unlikely. Transportation by 
ship is another matter (see Eidt, 1953). 

H. riparius may easily be distinguished from related representatives 
occurring along our Atlantic Coasts. For the adults, Arnett's ( 1968 ) 
key to genera should be used; Ilypnoidus will key out to Hypolithus 
(I do not regard riparius, the type-species of Hijpnoidus Stephens, 

! Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges — Editor. 



192 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

to be congeneric with littoralis Eschscholtz, the type-species of Hypo- 
lithus Eschscholtz; hence, Hijpnoidtts is used in this paper. The true 
Hijpolithus will not key out as above, but since it is restricted to the 
Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska, it is outside the political limits 
of this key). The robust and convex pronotum, the sparse scutellar 
and pronotal pubescence, the absence of any setae in the elytral striae, 
and the black body color will serve for specific identification. The 
larvae may be identified to genus in Glen's work (1950, see Crypto- 
hypnus, now regarded as a synonym of Hypolithus, but applied by him 
to the true Hypnoidiis discussed in this paper ) . Since all the Hypnoidus 
larvae from this area are now known, a key to them is provided as 
follows. 

Key to the Larvae of Hypnoidus Occurring Along 
THE Atlantic Seaboard^ ^ 

1. Posterior lobe of frontoclypeal region tapering to apex 2 

Posterior lobe of frontoclypeal region obese at apex 3 

2. Basal segment of labial palpus with three prominent setae ventrally; nasale 

with several small denticles on each side of base of median tooth 

lecontei ( Leng ) 

Basal segment of labial palpus with one prominent seta ventrally; nasale 

tridentate, lateral denticles sometimes absent through erosion 

sanborni ( Horn ) 

3. Inner prongs of urogomphi subequal to outer prongs 4 

Inner prongs of urogomphi longer than outer prongs 5 

4. Galea with only one prominent seta; inner prongs usually partially enclosing 

caudal notch; body light yellow abbreviatus (Say) 

Galea with five to seven prominent setae; inner prongs straight; body red- 
dish-brown impressicoUis (Mannerheim)* 

5. Caudal notch narrowly V-shaped rivularius (Gyllenhal) 

Caudal notch broadly U-shaped 6 

6. Subnasale with four teeth (sometimes absent through erosion); terminal 

seta of galea longer than last segment riparius (Fabricius)^ 

Subnasale with three teeth; terminal seta of galea shorter than last segment 
bicolor ( Eschscholtz ) 

The following data are from the intercepted specimens; all in the U. S. National 
Museum: Scotland, via New York, II-9-43-1819, in soil, ballast, 1 larva; Iceland, 
via New York, III-20-43-2481, 1 larva; England, via New York, 1-26-1944, Ship's 
ballast, sod 2453, 2 adults (female); England, via New York, V-19-44-13129, sod, 
1 larva. 



- Useful East of the Rocky Mountains, with the exception of one rare species, 
H. grandicollis LeConte (larva unknown), occurring from Missouri to Ontario. 

^ Key characters illustrated or understood from Glen's (1950) paper. 

* Normally found in the West, but some adults are known from the Hudson 
Bay area. 

^ H. riparius is generally larger (7.8-9.8 mm. vs 4.8-8.4 mm.), and a pale yellow 
to white color. H. bicolor is smaller and of a darker shade of yellow. But these 
features may be ambiguous. 



proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 71, no. 2, june, 1969 193 

Acknowledgments 

I wish to express my thanks to Mr. T. J. Spilman (U.S.D.A. ) for the privilege 
of examining these specimens, and to Mr. G. C. Steyskal ( U.S.D.A. ) for transla- 
tions of the Russian texts. 

References 

Arnett, R. H. 1968. The beetles of the United States, fascicle 46, Elateridae. 

Amer. Ent. Inst., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1112 pp. (2nd printing). 
Dolin, V. F. 1964. Larval beetle-snappers, European Part of U.S.S.R. Acad. 

Urozhai, Kiev, pp. 74-77. 
Eidt, D. C. 1953. European wireworms in Canada with particular reference to 

Nova Scotian infections. Can. Ent. 72:65-78. 
Evans, W. 1921. C. riparius, a click-beetle as a possible agricultural pest. 

Scottish Nat., pp. 119-120, 181-2. 
Glen, R. 1950. Larvae of the elaterid beetles of the tribe Lepturoidini. Smith- 
sonian Misc. Coll. 101:183-185. 
Gurjeva, E. 1958. The main features of the stational distribution of elaterid 

beetles in Leningrad Region. Zoolog. Zhurnal 37:531-541. 
. 1961. The elaterid-beetles of Leningrad Region. Trudy Vscsoyuz- 

novo Entomologicheskovo Obshestva 48:38-62. 
Jeuniaux, Ch. 1951. Notes sur la Faune de Hautes-Fagnes en Belgique, Cole- 

optera, Elateridae. Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 87:211-212. 
Lindroth, C. H. 1968. Distribution and distributional centers of North Atlantic 

insects. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 14:91-95. 
Tscherepanov, A. I. 1957. Die Schnellkafer West Sibiriens. Akad. Nauk, 

Novosibirsk, pp. 214-225. 
. 1965. Wireworms of Western Siberia. Akad. Nauk, Moscow, pp. 

34-40. 
Zacharuk, R. Y. 1963. Comparative food preferences of soil, sand, and wood 

inhabiting wireworms. Bull. Ent. Res. 54:161-165. 



ERRATUM 



Vol. 70(4) :310. The name for the illustrations on this page should read 
Molothrognathus rosci Smiley and Moser instead of M. kilei. [Smiley and Moser: 
New species of mites from pine]. 



HEMIBRYOBIA, A NEW NAME FOR PARABRYOBIA 

( AcARiN.\ : Tetranychidae ) 

Hemihryobia is proposed as a new name for Parahrtjobia Tuttle and Baker, 1968 
(Univ. Ariz. Press, p. 12), which is preoccupied by Parahrtjobia Reck, 1952 
(Acarina: Tuckerellidae ) . — Donald M. Tuttle, VniversiUj of Arizona, Tucson, 
Arizona 85721 and Edward W. Baker, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agr. 
Res. Ser., USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250. 



194 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

NOTES ON THE SYSTEMATICS AND DULOSIS OF SOME WESTERN 
SPECIES OF FORMICA, SUBGENUS RAPTIFORMICA 

( Hyaienoptera : Form icidae ) 

Roy R. Snelling, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, 
Los Angeles, California 90007 

ABSTRACT — Formica parcipappa Cole is placed in the synonymy of F. curiosa 
Creighton. The morphological variation, distribution and known habits of this 
species are discussed; F. manni Wheeler is recorded as a slave of this species in 
Oregon. Formica hradleyi Wheeler is noted to function as a slave to F. puherula 
Emery in Colorado. Brief comment is made on the status of Raptiformica as a 
subgenus. 

Recent years have seen numerous changes proposed in the status 
of our western ants assigned by Creighton (1950) to the subgenus 
Raptiformica Forel. Wilson and Brown ( 1955 ) synonymized many 
of the specific and subspecific names; the subgeneric name itself they 
sank as a synonym of Formica L., s. str. A number of species formerly 
included in Raptiformica were also shown to be unrelated to those 
species which comprised Raptiformica, s. str. Gregg ( 1963 ) reinstated 
the subgenus as constituted by Creighton, but advanced little objective 
evidence for so doing. Finally Buren ( 1968 ) reinvestigated the entire 
problem and proposed a new arrangement of the names involved. 
This objective, and very thorough, study has embodied some concepts 
from the work of Wilson and Brown and some from Gregg. 

The subgenus Raptiformica was reinstated to include ten species 
which are obviously closely allied to the type species of Raptiformica- 
several of these were resurrected from the synonymy proposed by 
Wilson and Brown and one new species was described. The species 
which Wilson and Brown had excluded were left in Formica, s. str. 
A revised key to the species of Raptiformica was provided and the 
synonymy and morphological characters of each species were discussed. 
Buren's effort seems the best answer yet proposed in this particularly 
vexatious group of ants. I believe, however, that he overlooked one 
case of synonymy, but merely because the names involved are known 
from very few specimens. 

Formica (Raptiformica) curiosa Creighton 

Formica curiosa Creighton, 1935, Amer. Mus. Novit. 773: 5-8. ^ 9. 

Formica parcipappa Cole, 1946, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 39:616-618. ?. New 

synonymy. 
Formica (Raptiformica) curiosa: Creighton, 1950, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 

464; Buren, 1968, Jour. Georgia Ent. Soc. 3: 32r-33. 
Formica (Raptiformica) parcipappa: Creighton, 1950, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

104: 467; Buren, 1968, Jour. Georgia Ent. Soc. 3: 33. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 195 

Formica curiosa: Wilson and Brown, 1955, Psyche 62: 123 (in part). 
Formica parcipappa: Wilson and Brown, 1955, Psyche 62: 12.5. 

On June 10, 1967, collecting on an alkali flat at the western edge 
of the Harney Lake basin, 44.2 miles southwest of Burns, Hamey 
County, Oregon, I had the good fortune to take a colony of a uni- 
colorous reddish Raptiformica together with its host species. The host 
proved to be Formica (F. ) manni Wheeler, an especially common 
species in that area. The identity of the dulotic species was not so 
easily attained, for in Creighton's key ( 1950) and in Buren's key ( 1968) 
some individuals ran to F. ( R. ) parcipappa Cole and others to F. ( R. ) 
curiosa Creighton, although the majority of specimens seemed to 
better fit the description of Cole's species, described from Nampa, 
Idaho. In both of these keys the separating character was the con- 
colorous body of F. parcipappa versus the bicolored condition of F. 
curiosa in which the gaster is darker than the head and alitnmk. 

Buren noted what seemed to be better features in his discussions 
of these species, especially in the shape of the petiole. That of F. 
parcipappa was said to be rather broadly fan-shaped when viewed 
from behind, and the crest with a sharp edge which has a distinct 
median notch. The worker of F. curiosa was noted to possess a nar- 
rowly fan-shaped petiole, its crest moderately sharp and without a 
median notch. Some of my specimens from Oregon have the petiole 
rather narrow, with its sides only moderately convergent toward the 
base, very similar to the condition seen in paratypes of F. curiosa which 
I have examined. In these specimens the crest, when viewed from 
behind, is usually gently and evenly convex from side to side, without 
a trace of a median notch. In a few specimens the crest is much the 
same, but with a slight sinuation in the middle. One specimen, which 
has the least fan-shaped petiole of those in my series, has a very 
distinct median notch. From the narrowly fan-shaped petiole without 
a notch (as in F. curiosa) my series runs the full gamut to the broader, 
notched petiolar condition typical of F. parcipappa. It should be 
pointed out that some of the broad petiole specimens also lack the 
median notch. I think it is safe to state that the petiolar difference 
noted by Buren is of no significance in separating F. parcipapfxi 
from F. curiosa. 

According to Buren, also, the scapes of F. parcipappa were equal to 
or slightly longer than the maximum head length, while they are 
shorter than the head length of F. curiosa. The one paratype of F. 
parcipappa in my possession has the scape distinctly shorter than 
the length of the head, and this condition prevails among my Oregon 
specimens. In only a few are the scapes as long as the head length; 
none which I have examined for this character have longer scapes. 



196 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Because my specimens completely bridge the gap separating F. par- 
cipappa and F. curiosa I think it necessary to place F. parcipappa in 
the synonymy of F. curiosa. 

Little is known of the habits of this species. The type series of 
F. curiosa was taken by Creighton at Lake McGregor, Montana, the 
nest in sandy soil under a small stone in open pine woods near the 
edge of the lake. Cole's name was based on sixteen foraging workers 
in a greasewood-shadscale habitat; the nest was not located. The 
Oregon colony which I collected was located in fine sand forming a 
hummock around a cluster of greasewood shrubs, on an alkali flat. 
Three other ant species were common in this microhabitat: Manica 
mutica (Emery), Pogonomyrmex otvyheei Cole and F. (F.) manni. 
The colony was discovered late in the afternoon; workers of F. manni 
were active outside the nest, but no individuals of F. curiosa were 
seen until the colony was exposed. Both species in this compound 
nest were timid when the nest was opened, and actively gathered 
brood up and carried it out of sight. 

Few larvae, and no pupae, were in evidence, although the nest 
apparently was thoroughly excavated. The total population collected 
consisted of one gravid female, 21 ergatogynes, 182 workers of F. 
curiosa and 45 workers of F. manni. However, at least as many workers 
of the host species were ignored in my effort to secure as many speci- 
mens as possible of the slave-maker. Creighton recorded F. lasioides 
Emery as the host of the colony which he collected in Montana. That 
species, although present in the area of the Oregon site, was not found 
in the immediate vicinity. 

Formica ( Raptiformica ) puberula Emery 

Formica sanguinea puberula Emery, 1893, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 7: 648; Wheeler, 

1913, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 53: 413. 
Formica {Raptiformica) puberula: Creighton, 1950, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 

468; Gregg, 1963, Univ. Colo. Press, Boulder, p. 613-616; Buren, 1968, Jour. 

Georgia Ent. Soc. 3: 30-31. 
Formica siibintegra: Wilson and Brown, 1955, Psyche, 62: 120--123 (in part). 

While collecting in eastern Colorado I devoted some time to an 
area of grassland and sandhills south of Limon, Lincoln County. Here 
I found one mixed colony in which the slave species was F. (F. ) 
bradleyi Wheeler and the dulotic species was F. (Raptiformica) 
puberula Emery. This evidently is the first record of F. bradleyi 
serving as a slave-species. 

Both F. manni and F. bradleyi had formerly been included in the 
subgenus Raptiformica, but were removed, along with other species, 
to Formica, s. str., by Wilson and Brown. Gregg returned them to 
Raptifoi'mica but Buren again excluded them. With these species 
excluded the subgenus Raptiformica could then be adequately char- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 197 

acterized on morphological and behavioral characters. The behavioral 
distinction between Raptiformica and such species as F. manni, F. 
bradlcyi and their relatives have not been emphasized to the fullest 
extent. Raptiformica, as interpreted and characterized by Buren, 
contains only dulotic species. Tliose species which have been excluded 
from Raptiformica do not, so far as currently available data would 
indicate, ever take other species as slaves. Indeed, two of these ex- 
cluded species may function as slaves to Raptiformica. I believe that 
this still further justifies the exclusion of these species from Rapti- 
formica. 

References 

Buren, W. F. 1968. Some fundamental taxonomic problems in Formica. Jour. 

Georgia Ent. Soc. 3:25-40. 
Cole, A. C, Jr. 1946. A description of Formica parcipappa, a new ant from 

Idaho. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 39:616-618. 
Creighton, W. S. 1935. Two new species of Formica from western United 

States. Amer. Mus. Novit. 773:1-8. 
. 1950. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 

1-585. 
Gregg, R. E. 1963. The ants of Colorado. Univ. Colo. Press, Boulder, 1-792. 
Wilson, E. O. and Brown, W. L., Jr. 1955. Revisionary notes on the sanguinea 

and neogagates groups of the ant genus Formica. Psyche 62:108-129. 



A NEW NITELA, SUBGENUS TENILA, WITH A KEY TO THE 
SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS 

( Hymenoptera : Sphecidae ) 

A. S. Menke, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, 
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — Nitela (Tenila) bifida, n. sp., is described from Costa Rica. The 
male is unknown. A key is provided for separating bifida from amazonica Ducke 
and giiiana (Williams), the other two species of the subgenus Tenila. 

The taxon Tenila was described by Brethes (1913) for Nitela 
amazonica Ducke (1903). Brethes separated Tenila from Nitela 
Latreille because of rounded pronotal humeri and hairy eyes in the 
former. As Pate ( 1937 ) suggested, neither character is of generic 
significance. Recently I reviewed the situation (Menke, 1968) and 
proposed that Tenila be given subgeneric status under Nitela. The 
distinctive lamelliform frontoclypeal carina separates Tenila from 
typical Nitela (figs. 1, 2). Also, I pointed out that Rhinonitela <i,uiana 



^ Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum Washington, D. C. 20560. 



198 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




10 




Figs. 1-11, Nitela (Tenila) spp.: 1, bifida, n. sp., head, lateral view; 2, bifida, 
head, anterior view (see footnote on page 199 concerning fig. 2); 3, amuzonica 
Ducke, S genitalia, ventral view; 4, bifida, mandible apex; 5, anmzonica, lateral 
outline, left side of propodeum (arrow points to posterolateral process in fig. 5 
& 6); 6, guiana (Williams), lateral outline, left side of propodeum; 7, amazonica, 
last stemite, $ ; 8, guiana, clypeal outline; 9, bifida, clypeal outHne; 10, ama- 
zonica, $ clypeal outline; 11, amazonica, 5 clypeal outline. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 199 

Williams ( 1928) should be assigned to Tenila. A third and undescribed 
species has since been found in the collection of the U.S. National 
Museum. 

I would like to thank J. Linsley Gressitt, Bemice P. Bishop Museum, 
Honolulu, Hawaii, for lending the type of N. guiana, and R. O. Schu- 
ster, University of California, Davis, for the loan of specimens of iV. 
amazonica. 

Nitela (Tenila) bifida Menke, n. sp. 

HOLOTYPE: Female, length 4 mm. 

Color: Black; scape, pedicel, flagellomere I, frontoclypeal lamella, mandible, 
palpi, and pronotal lobe yellowish; flagellomere II, tegula, and humeral plate 
brownish; foreleg yellowish except femur, which is brownish; middle and hindlegs 
brown except for yellow trochanters and yellow base of hindfemur; tergite I 
yellowish laterally below lateral carina, remaining tergites with a brown tint 
laterally; wings clear, but forewing with faint clouding across middle of medial 
cell and around vein shared by marginal and submarginal cells, veins yellow except 
brown at points of clouding. 

Vestiture: Antennal socket basins and clypeus with appressed silver hair; rest 
of body with the usual short, decumbent, pale hair found in other Nitela species. 

Structure: Inner orbit straight from lateral ocellus to lower angles (fig. 2); 
ratio of least interocular to greatest interocular distance, 11:35; lateral ocellus 
almost touching inner orbit, separated from it by about one-third an ocellar 
diameter-; frons finely granulate, dull; frontal carina ending half the distance 
from the dorsal margin of the antennal socket basin to the anterior ocellus-; 
contour of frontal lamella as in fig. 1; clypeal margin with a small rounded median 
projection (fig. 9); malar space narrow, width equal to one-third the diameter 
of the mid ocellus; mandible bifid at apex and with a subapical inner tooth (fig. 
4); pronotal humeri rounded, disk of collar with a posteromedian prominence 
defined by weak lateral depressions; surface of collar with fine arcuate rugulae 
laterally which curve toward scutum and which become stronger in depressions 
bounding posteromedian prominence; scutum dull, very densely, finely punctate, 
the punctures almost confluent; scutellum and metanotum dull, minutely roughened, 
scutellum with a slight median longitudinal elevation, and bordered anteriorly by 
nine pits; propodeal dorsum longitudinally ridged, the ridges connected by trans- 
verse ridges giving the surface a reticulate api^arance, interspaces smooth and 
weakly shining; posterior surface of propodeum bordered by a circumferential 
carina which bears a thornlike process laterally (similar to fig. 5), surface smooth 
and shining, although there are a few scattered rugulae and a wedgeshaped median 
longitudinal area defined by a fine carina; propodeal side longitudinally ridged and 
with some crossridges, interspaces smooth, shining; mesopleuron dull anteriorly, 
somewhat shining posteriorly, minutely roughened; hypersternaulus ending op- 
posite level of scrobe; gaster shining, impunctate; recurrent vein of forewing 
without an appendix. 

MALE: Unknown. 



- Not correctly shown in fig. 2. 



200 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

TYPES: Holotype: female, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 24 June 1949, K. 
W. Cooper, U.S.N.M. type no. 70227. One female paratype with same 
data except collected June 14. 

Nitela bifida is readily separated from amazonica and guiana by 
the characters given in the key. 

Nitela (Tenila) amazonica Ducke 

The type of this wasp presumably is in the Museu Paraense "Emilio 
Goeldi" in Belem, Brazil. My interpretation of amazonica is based on 
a female from Para (= Belem), Brazil, that was collected by Ducke 
and bears his determination label. This specimen is in the collection of 
the University of California, Davis. 

The female clypeal lobe is distinctive (fig. 11). In the male the 
clypeal outHne is somewhat different (fig. 10). The male genitalia 
and subgenital plate are shown by figures 3 and 7, respectively. The 
trons of amazonica is rougher than that of bifida. The surface appears 
to be either minutely reticulate or very closely, shallowly punctate. 
The collar is similar to that of bifida, but the rugulae are somewhat 
stronger and instead of curving toward the scutum, they are straight 
and run across the disk of the collar. The scutal sculpture in amazonica 
varies in the specimens at hand (6 females, 1 male). Anteriorly the 
scutum may be finely transversely rugulose, but in some specimens 
the rugulae are irregular and very weak. Many fine longitudinal 
rugulae extend from the posterior margin nearly to the center of the 
scutum. Compared with bifida the propodeal dorsum of amazonica 
is more uniformly, strongly, longitudinally ridged and there are fewer 
cross ridges. 

Distribution: Ducke (1908) recorded amazonica from Belem (the 
type locality) and Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brethes (1913) 
cited it from Nova Friburgo, Brazil. I have seen material from the 
following localities: Brazil: Nova Teutonia, Santa Catarina, 9 October 
to 10 April, Fritz Plaumann, 1 male, 4 females (Univ. of California, 
Davis); Trinidad, April, E. McC. Callan, 1 female (U. S. National 
Museum ) . 

Nitela (Tenila) guiana (Williams) 

As indicated in the key, guiana differs from amazonica and bifida 
in a number of structural features. The color of guiana is also dis- 
tinctive. The antenna, clypeus, frontoclypeal lamella, mandible, palpi, 
legs, prothorax, scutum (except posteromedially), scutellum, metano- 
tum, and the mesopleuron above the hypersternaulus are yellowish. 
The gaster is brownish with yellowish sides, and the last segment is 
yellow. Because guiana is known only by the holotype, it is impossible 
to teU whether this color pattern is constant. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 201 

The clypeal outline of guiana is intermediate between that of bifida 
and amazonica (fig. 8). The collar of guiana lacks transverse rugulae 
and does not have the posteromedian prominence and attending de- 
pressions found in the other two species. The scutum appears to be 
finely granulate and shallowly punctate. Approximately twelve longi- 
tudinal ridges originate at the posterior margin of the scutum. The 
propodeal dorsum does not have regular longitudinal ridging, but 
instead is reticulate or foveolate and shiny. The posterior surface of 
the propodeum is weakly, irregularly rugulose. The last tergite is 
weakly flattened and has a discal dimple. The surface of the last 
tergite in amazonica and bifida is uniformly arcuate. 

The type locality of guiana is Blairmont, Guyana. 

Key to the Species of the Subgenus Tenila^ 

1. Propodeum with a thornlike projection posterolaterally (fig. 5); hyper- 

sternauhis not reaching base of midcoxa but ending at level or slightly 
beyond level of scrobe; malar space present; thorax black except for pro- 

notal lobe and tegula 2 

Propodeum with a lamelliform projection posterolaterally (fig. 6); hyper- 
sternaulus attaining precoxal sulcus (which is in front of anterior margin 
of midcoxal cavity); malar space absent; pronotimi completely and 
mesopleuron extensively yellowish guiana (Williams) 

2. Clypeal margin with a truncate median lobe, the free edge of wliich is 

sinuate (fig. 11); mandible apex simple; posterior surface of propodeiun 
reticulate or irregularly rugulose; lateral ocellus separated from inner orbit 
by a distance equal to two-thirds or more of an ocellus diameter; inner 

orbit sinuate amazonica Ducke 

Clypeal margin with a small median projection ( fig. 9 ) ; mandible apex bifid 
(fig. 4); posterior surface of propodeum smooth except for marginal rugu- 
lae; lateral ocellus separated from inner orbit by a distance equal to less 
than one-third of an ocellus diameter; inner orbit straight _. bifida Menke 

References 

Brethes, J. 1913. Himenopteros de la America Meridional. Anal. Mus. Nac. 

Hist. Natur. Buenos Aires 24:3.5-165. 
Ducke, A. 1903. Neue Grabwespen vom Gebiete des unteren Amazonas. Verb. 

Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 53:265-270. 
. 1908. Contributions a la connaissance des Hymenopteres des deux 

Ameriques. Rev. Ent. (Caen) 27:28-55. 
Menke, A. S. 1968. Two new species of Nitela with notes on the taxa Tenila, 

Rhinonitela and Nitela rugosa. Mushi 42( 10): 133-139. 
Pate, V. S. L. 1937. The third Nearctic species of Nitela, with remarks on 

the genera Tenila Brethes and Rhinonitela Williams. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 

32:5-7. 
Williams, F. X. 1928. Studies in tropical wasps — their hosts and associates. 

Bull. Exper. Sta. Hawaiian Sugar Planter's Assoc, Entomol. Ser. 19:1-79. 



Based on females; the male is known for only one species, amazonica. 



202 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

TWO SPECIES OF APPLE-FEEDING GELECHIIDS NEW TO SCIENCE 

( Lepidoptera ) 

Ronald W. Hodges, Systematic Etitomologij Lahoratonj, 
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — Two species of apple-feeding gelechiids from New York are 
described: Pseudotelphusa incana, n. sp., and Filatima epulatrix, n. sp. In addi- 
tion, quercinigracella (Chambers) and fuscopunctella (Chambers) are transferred 
to Pseudotelphusa Janse. 

Two species of Gelechiidae are being described to provide names 
for the work of P. J. Chapman of Geneva, New York. He has been 
conducting an extensive rearing program of apple insects, particularly 
Lepidoptera, over several years. The two species described below were 
encountered during the course of his studies. Illustrations of the 
maculation and the male and female genitalia are being deferred 
until the two genera are treated by me in my revision of the Nearctic 
Gelechiidae. 

Pseudotelphusa incana Hodges, n. sp. 

A small, gray moth. Head: tongue pale gray; labial palpus pale gray, outer 
surface of first segment mainly brown, bordered with pale gray, outer surface of 
second segment with brown at base, middle, and just before apex, inner surface 
with brown scales ventrally, third segment with brown at base, two-fifths, and 
four-fifths; scape of antenna pale yellowish gray on ventral surface and anterior 
margin of dorsal surface, individual segments of shaft half brown, half pale gray; 
frons, vertex, and occiput pale gray, scales in front and above eye with brown 
before apices, apices pale gray. Thorax: mainly brown, individual scales pale 
basally and apically. Forewing: mainly gray, many scales off-wliite before apices; 
a dark brown to black dot at base of fold, a pair of dark dots at one-fourth length 
(dorsal one farther from base than costal one), a pair just before middle, and a 
very small one at end of cell, dots with a few light orange scales preceding and 
succeeding the brown scales. Hindwing: gray. Abdomen: dorsal surface pale 
grayish orange on first two segments, apices of remaining segments pale gray; 
ventral surface pale yellow. Proleg: mainly brown, scale bases pale gray; apex 
of coxa pale gray; tibia with a white band at base, another just beyond middle, 
with some white scales at apex; base and apex of first tarsal segment white, apices 
of second, fourth, and fifth segments white. Midleg: much as for proleg but with 
a larger number of pale scales. Hindleg: coxa pale yellowish white; femur mainly 
yellowish white with some dark scales; tibia medium gray, a pale gray fascia 
at one-sixth, one-half, and apex, dorsal tuft pale yellowish white, spurs mottled 
gray and pale gray, apices pale; tarsus brown, base and apex of first segment and 
apices of remaining segment off-white. Male genitalia: valva very slender, arcuate, 
apex reaching apex of juxta; aedeagus sublinear, expanded slightly at base, apex 
tapered to point, ankylosed with juxta; juxta a pair of lobes, fused medially at 



Mail address: c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 203 

base, becoming distant (as pair of arms of letter "x") apically; vinculum a 
sclerotized band; tegumen with a heavily sclerotized anterior margin, ventrodistal 
margin developed to supix)rt anal tube ( probably basal portion of gnathos ) ; uncus 
a stout prong, tapering to apex, heavily setose laterally from one-fourth length 
nearly to apex. Eighth abdominal tergite comprised of three lobes placed almost 
at 120 degrees with each other, a sclerotized ridge on anterior margin; width 
of eighth abdominal sternite about four times length, posterior margin cleft almost 
to one-half length medially, a sinuous, sclerotized ridge on anterior margin for 
one-half width. Female genitalia: apophyses posteriores slender, more than twice 
length of apophyses anteriores; eighth abdominal segment with a heavily sclero- 
tized band on anterior margin of sternite, tergite divided medially; ostium bursae 
near posterior margin of eighth sternite; ductus bursae and corpus bursae very 
lightly sclerotized; signum single, with four lobes. Alar expanse: 10-12 mm. 
Food plant: Mains sylvestrLs Mill, (apple). 

Holotype: Male, Adams, New York, issued 1 April 1962, ex Pijnis. 
USNM Type No. 70577. 

Paratypes: 2 $ $, 6 9 9, same locality as for holotype, 1-7 April 
1962. 4 5 5 , 10 ? 9 , same locality as for holotype, reared in laboratory 
from apple, issued 20 March-13 April 1962, 1963, 1964 ( RWH slides 
4456, 4457). Cornell University, USNM. 

Specimens of incana vary somewhat in the amount of gray and brown 
present on various surfaces, but the basic pattern remains much as 
described above. 

Pseudotelphusa incana is very similar to Pseudotelphusa quercinigracella 
(Chambers), new combination, and Pseudotelphusa fuscopunciella (Chambers), 
new combination, in maculation. Incana can readily be recognized by the female 
having the anterior margin of the eighth sternite a heavily sclerotized band. In 
the latter two species this heavily sclerotized band is inteiTupted medially. 

Filatima epulatrix Hodges, n. sp. 

A small, brown and yellow-brown moth. Head: yellowish white, almost white; 
outer surface of first and second segments of labial palpus with scattered gray 
scales, third segment with numerous dark scales, more numerous distally; antenna 
mainly gray-brown, ventral surface yellowish white, apex of scape pale, shaft 
mottled with yellowish white; scales immediately in front of eye dark gray, scales 
behind eye dark brown, scales above eye tipped with pale yellowish gray. Thorax: 
scales pale yellowish white, many tipped with grayish orange; apex of mesothorax 
dark brown. Forewing: streaked with pale yellowish white, brownish orange, 
and dark gray (with purple reflections at some angles of light incidence); anterior 
half paler than dorsal half, latter mainly dark gray overlaid with metallic purple; 
cilia mainly yellowish white, many scales tipped with dark gray-brown. Hindwing: 
mainly pale gray, veins darker gray, cilia pale yellowish gray. Foreleg: coxa and 
femur mainly dark gray-brown, apices yellowish white; tibia gray-brown, a light 
gray fascia at one-half length, apex off-white; tarsus dark gray, almost black, apex 
of first segment off-white, apex of second and fifth segments with pale scales. 
Midleg: coxa and femur mottled pale yellowish white and dark gray, apices pale; 
tibia mainly off-white, tufted at three-fifths length and apex; tarsus almost black, 



204 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

base and apex of first segment off-white, apices of second and fifth segments 
witli yellowish white scales. Hindleg: coxa and femur mottled dark gray and 
off-white, apices pale; tibia with a dorsal tuft, dorsal half of segment, apex and 
middle, and tuft off-white, spurs and ventral half of segment dark gray; tarsus 
dark gray, base and apex of first segment off-white, apices of remaining segments 
with yellowish white scales. Abdomen: yellowish white and pale yellow dorsally, 
streaked with dark gray ventrolaterally. Male genitalia: valvae asymmetrical, left 
valva with posteriorly directed projection from end of medial extension to aedeagus; 
saccal region of vinculum slightly twisted to left; gnathos upturned at apex, two 
or three pointed projections from posterior surface; caudal margin of uncus very 
gradually produced; heavily sclerotized lateral margin of aedeagus with a pointed 
projection just before one-half length, heavily sclerotized, free margin with a 
pointed projection at middle and just before apex. Female genitalia: connection 
between seventh and eighth abdominal segments heavily sclerotized laterally, 
forming a pair of broad pouches; ductus bursae broad, heavily sclerotized with 
numerous spicules, corpus bursae lightly sclerotized, spiculose; a single signum; 
apophyses posteriores about three times length of apophyses anteriores; caudal 
margin of eighth stemite incurved medially, a small scoop-shaped sclerite at middle. 
Alar expanse: 15.5-17.5 mm. 

Food plant: Malus sylvestris Mill, (apple). 

Holotype: Male, Potsdam, N.Y., apple, 63-319-9-325-318, X-lab. 
4-10-1964 (RWH slide 4473). USNM Type No. 70576. 

Paratypes: 2 SS, 1 9, same locality as for holotype, issued 5-10 
April 1964 (RWH slides 4454, 4455, 4472). 3 9 9, Geneva, N.Y., apple, 
issued 10, 11 April 1965. 2 9 9, Salmon River Area, N.Y., apple, 62-394, 
X-lab. 3-19, 20-1963 (RWH slides 4474, 4767). Cornell University, 
USNM. 

Filatima epulatrix lies in a complex of four species, F. pseudacaciella 
(Chambers), F. biminimaculella (Chambers), epulatrix, and a new 
species from several eastern localities. Specimens reared from apple 
are very likely to be epulatrix. Males can be recognized by having a 
medial spine developed on the left valva on an extension to the aedea- 
gus. In the female the apophyses anteriores usually being shorter than 
the ductus bursae and the caudal margin of the eighth stemite being 
incurved anteriorly will separate specimens from pseudacaciella. 



ORIOLELLA, A NEW NAME FOR ORIOLA 

( AcAmNA : Tydeidae ) 

Oriolella is proposed as a new name for Oriola Baker, 1968 (Ann. Ent. Soc. 
Amer. 61(4) :968), which is preoccupied by Oriola Giebel, 1875 (Aves). — 
Edward W. Baker, Systerr\atic Entomology Laboratory, Agr. Res. Ser., USDA, 
Washington, B.C. 20250. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 205 

MALLOPHAGA FROM BIRDS OF THE ORIENTAL REGION. PART IX. 
STURNIDOECUS PHILIPPENSIS, N. SP. 

( ISCHNOCERA : PhILOPTERIDAE ) 

B. K. Tandan and P. Kumar, Department of Zoology, 
University of Lucknow, India, 

ABSTRACT — Sturnidoecus philippensis, n. sp., is described and illustrated 
from specimens collected off Basilornis mirada (Hartert) from Davao, Mindanao 
Island, Philippines. 

This is the second paper based on Mallophaga received from the 
collections of the U. S. National Museum, and contains the description 
of a new species of Sturnidoecus Eichler. Explanations to abbrevia- 
tions used in describing the length and position of important setae 
are given in Kumar & Tandan ( 1968 ) . 

Genus Sturnidoecus Eichler, 1944 

Sturnidoecus philippensis sp. n. 

(Figs. 1-7) 

Type host: Basilornis miranda (Hartert) 

Length of the sexes shows slight dimorphism but no overlap. 

General characters of head and thorax as in figs. 1-3. Hyaline margin evident 
laterally between the 2 anterior setae, and deeply incised and slightly thickened 
medially. Ventral carinae extend forwards and fused to hyaline margin at about 
tlie level of anterior setae 3. Dorsal anterior plate long and posteriorly produced 
into a heavily sclerotized point which overlaps the dorsal preantennal suture; 
its anterior margin greatly curved and antero-lateral ends pointed; in female it is 
more rounded posteriorly, than in the male. Ventral plate narrow and faint. 
Dorsal margin of head between preconal and preantennal setae slightly swollen. 
Cornea not evident. Tip of conus reaches almost to middle of antennal segment I. 
Important setae as follows: anterior dorsal sp, lies in the dorsal preantennal 
suture; anterior seta 1 m or sh, fine, and the only other anterior seta (probably 
3) sh; dorsal submarginal or 1 + also, sh to ml; preantennal sp; preconal sh; 
mandibular ml; ocular sp, well on temporal margin; postnodal absent postemporal 
absent or m. Marginal temporal 4 elg, and remaining five sp; in 1 male 4-6 absent 
on one side. Ventral submarginal 1 and 2 are outer relative to the margins of 
ventral plate; 1 is anterior to 2 and on changing the focus the dorsal submarginal 
appears at about the same level as 2. Of much importance is the position of 
the more anterior setae relative to each other ( fig. 1 ) . 

Abdominal segmentation typical. Tergal thickening of segments II-VIII appears 
as lateral tergites. In the male, segment IX + X also with lateral tergitcs; and 
tergum XI, bearing the anal setae, unhardened (fig. 4). In the female, segment 
IX + X continuous, medially characteristic in shape; segment XI either as lateral 
tergites or continuous across the segment (fig. 5). Terminal segment in male 
rounded. Sternal thickening of segments II-VI appear as narrow plates. Segment 
II heavily sclerotized and extends acro.ss the segment (fig. 3); III-VI are less 



206 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




Figs. 1-3. Sturnidoecus philippensis, n. sp.: 1, head, male, marginal temporal 
setae 4-6 absent on right-hand side, ventral setae shown by broken lines; 2, thorax, 
female, one-half only; 3, meso- and meta-sterna and sterna II, III, male. 



intensely sclerotized median plates. Behind stemite VI is the sub-genital plate 
of which the shape is characteristic. In male external genitalia, the mesosome 
and parameres are short, the former is much wider than long, and the latter are 
directed obliquely towards the midline ( figs. 6, 7 ) . 3 + 3 setae present centrally 
in the mesosome of other congeneric species not evident due possibly to dark 
stain. In the female there are no supra- or post-vulval sclerites. Spermatheca 
has a sclerotized calyx; opening of spennathecal duct is strengthened anteriorly 
by a characteristic sclerite. 

Chaetotaxy. Pronotal; 1 + 1 ml to Ig, relatively close to midhne. Pteronotal; 
19 or 20; 1 + 1 are sp, 1 + 1 are the thoracic trichobothria, and 15 or 16 are Ig 
to elg. The sp seta is the first (or outer most) and slightly ventral to the second 
or thoracic trichobothrium, and these two are usually separated by a distinct gap. 
On botli meso- and meta-stemum, 1 + 1 Ig setae. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 207 





Figs. 4, 5. Sturnidoecus philippensis, n. sp.: 4, male terminalia; 5, female 
terminalia. 



208 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




Figs. 6, 7. Sturnidoecus philippensis, n. sp. 
and mesosome. 



6, basal apodeme; 7, parameres 



Abdominal. That of holotijpe or allotype is given first; of paratype, if it differs, 
follows. 

Male (2). Tergal. II, no ant tc. Posterior. II, III, 8; IV, V, 12; VI, 14, 12; 
VII, 14; VIII, 2tr + 15, tr on tergite but sclerotization around it feeble; IX + X, 
(fig. 4) 9 sh to elg + 11, 5 + 5 only Ig to elg no sh apparent; anal ml to Ig. 
Pleural. II, III, 0; IV, 2 + 2; V, 3 + 3, 2 + 4; VI, 4 + 4, 3 + 5; VII, 4 + 3, 
4 + 4; VIII, 3 + 4, 3 + 3; setae c, 2 + 2 ( 1 Ig, 1 elg), 2 + 1 (as Ig absent). 
Sternal. II, 2 + 2 not too close to the midline; IIl-VI, 2 + 2; no setae on or lateral 
to sub-genital plate. Posterior to ano-genital crypt, 15 + 10, 10 + 9 Ig to elg dorsal, 
marginal and ventral setae. 

Female (2). Tergal. II, no ant tc. Posterior. II, 8; III, 11, 10; IV, V, 15, 14; 
VI, 15; VII, 16, 15; VIII, 2 tr + 13, 2 + 9, tr as in male; IX + X, (fig. 5) 3 Ig 
to elg + 3, 3 + 4. Pleural. II, III, 0; IV, 3 + 2, 3 + 3; V, 3 + 3, 4 + 3; VI, 4 + ?, 
4 + 4; VII, 4 + 3, 4 + 4; VIII, 3 + 3; c, not identifiable. Sternal. II-IV, 2 + 2; 
V, 2 + 3, 3 + 1; VI, 1 + 1; shghtly posterior to pleural on VIII, 19 + 19, 15 + 14 
all Ig, none sp, some of these might be homologous to c described for the male; 
on sub-genital plate, 5 + 5, 5 + 4 sh; on margin of vulva, 70 (45 peg-like, 16 sh 
rather lateral, 9 sh rather central), 67 (47 + 12 + 8). Anal, 2 dorsal, 4 ventral, 
all ml. 

On terga IV-VII, 1 + 1 outer most setae in female and 1-3 each side ( total 3-5 ) 
in male are separated from the rest of the tergal setae by a distinct gap. These 
could perhaps be regarded as the post-spiracular setae. 

Measurements of types given in Table 1. 

Type series. Collected in the city and Province of Davao, Mindanao 
Island, Philippine Islands. Holotijpe male, and allotype female, from 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 209 

Table 1. Measurements in mm, corrected to two decimal places, of Sturnidoecus 
philippensis, n. sp., mounted in Canada balsam. 









Male 




Female 




Holotype 


Paratype 


Allotype 


Paratype 


Head 


Length 


0.61 


0.59 


0.68 


0.69 




Breadth 


0.55 


0.57 


0.62 


0.61 


Prothorax 


Length 


0.12 


0.12 


0.15 


0.14 




Breadth 


0.35 


0.35 


0.39 


0.37 


Pterotorax 


Length 


0.17 


0.19 


0.21 


0.22 




Breadth 


0.48 


0.47 


0.55 


0.51 


Abdomen 


Length 


0.82 


0.75 


1.06 


0.94 




Breadth 


0.77 


0.76 


0.86 


0.79 


Total length 




1.71 


1.66 


2.10 


1.99 


Head index 




0.91 


0.95 


0.92 


0.88 



Basilornis miranda (Hartert, 1903), on August 23, 1946. Paratypes; 
1 male and 1 female, from the same host and locality, on August 8, 
1946. 

Discussion. Sturnidoecus philippensis is distinguished from the con- 
generic species given in the check list of Mallophaga by Hopkins & 
Clay ( 1952, 1953 ) , and described since then by Ansari ( 1955 ) , Carriker 
( 1956 ) and Tendeiro ( 1963 ) , by the following combination of char- 
acters: shape of the preantennal region of head and position of anterior 
head setae; the deep median incision in the hyaline margin and the 
posteriorly pointed dorsal anterior plate; position of pronotal setae 
and number of setae on meso- and meta-stema; the characteristic 
stemite II; shape of the sub-genital plate. Further in the male by the 
shape of the last abdominal segment and details of genitalia, and in 
the female by the number of lateral setae posterior to pleural setae on 
VIII and on margin of vulva, and the absence of post- or supra-vulval 
sclerites. 

Acknowledgments 

We are most grateful to Dr. K. C. Emerson for the loan of material and for 
several valuable suggestions. As this research has been financed in part by a grant, 
FG-In-179 (A7-ENT-28), made to B. K. T. by the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
under P. L. 480, thanks are expressed to the U. S. D. A. and to the scientists who 
sponsored tlie grant. P. K. is thankful to the Govt, of India also for the award of 
a Research Training Scholarship. 

References 
Ansari, M. A. R. 1955. Studies on Ischnoceran Mallophaga parasitic on Turdi- 

dae (sens. lat.). Pakistan J. Hlth. 5:47-76. 
Carriker, M. A., Jr. 1956. Report on a collection of Mallophaga, largely 

Mexican (Part II). Florida Ent. 39:19^3. 
Hopkins, G. H. E. and T. Clay. 1952. A check list of the genera and species 

of Mallophaga. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London. 



210 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Hopkins, G. H. E. and T. Clay. 1953. Additions and corrections to the check 

hst of Mallophaga. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 6:424-448. 
Kumar, P. and B. K. Tandan. 1968. Three new species of the Mallophaga 

genus Ardeicola Clay, 1935 (Isclinocera: Philopteridae ) . Trans. R. Ent. Soc. 

Lond. 120: in press. 
Tendeiro, J. 1963. Observations sur des Ischnocera africains, avec description 

de 12 especes et 2 sous-especes nouvelles (suite et fin). Bol. Cult. Guine 

Portiig. 69:13-106. 



LECTOTYPE DESIGNATIONS IN THE GENUS HETEROSPILUS 

( Hymenoptera : Braconidae ) 

Paul M. Marsh, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, 
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Ser., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — Lectotypes are designated for 14 Nearctic species of the genus 
Heterospilus Haliday in the U. S. National Museum collection. 

As a preliminary step to a revision of the Nearctic species of Hetero- 
spilus Haliday, I have found it necessary to study the type specimens 
of several species in the U.S. National Museum and to designate lecto- 
types. Whenever possible I have selected a female as the lectotype. 
In several instances one or more of the syntypes bore a "type" or "para- 
type" label, but I did not consider these as type designations if they 
were not so indicated by the author in the original description. In 
all cases I chose as the lectotype a specimen which was without question 
part of the original syntypical series. This choice was dictated by the 
original description and/or notes in the files of the U.S. National 
Museum and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

I have placed a black and red lectotype label on all lectotypes and 
similar paralectotype labels on all the remaining syntypes. The species 
considered here are arranged alphabetically with the original generic 
combination indicated in brackets. 

I wish to thank Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck for his advice and many 
helpful suggestions during the preparation of this paper. 

aciculatus (Ashmead), 1893, p. 76. [Caenophanes] 

This species was described by Ashmead only as he included it in 
his key to the genus Caenophanes. He indicated that he had seen both 
males and females but did not designate a type nor indicate a type 
locality. The museum type catalog indicates the type locaUty as being 
"Virginia." The collection contains 1 female from Virginia and 1 female 
and 2 males from Jacksonville, Florida, labeled by Ashmead as Caeno- 



Mailing address: c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 211 

phanes aciculatus. I consider these 4 specimens to be the syntype 
series. The female from Virginia also bears a large U.S. National 
Museum type label of the kind Ashmead used. Lectotype: 9 syntype, 
"Virginia, May 15, 1881, USNM Type No. 2160, Caenophanes aciculatus 
Ashm. ms." Paralectotypes: 1 9,2 $ i, "Jacksonville, Fla., Collection 
Ashmead." 

anthaxiae (Ashmead), 1893, p. 77. [Caenophanes] 

Of the 14 specimens in the National Collection reared by Hopkins 
in West Virginia and labeled by Ashmead as Caenophanes anthaxiae, 
I was able to find notes concerning only 8. Because Ashmead gave no 
indication of how many specimens he used, I have not considered the 
remaining 6 as part of the syntypical series. Lectotype: 9 syntype, 
"5186 ( refers to notes stating that tliis specimen was reared at Morgan- 
town, West Virginia, June 24, 1892, from Anthaxia viridicornis infesting 
willow), USNM Type No. 2155, Caenophanes anthaxiae Ashm." Para- 
lectotypes: 4 5 9,3 S S, bearing labels numbered 3678, 3241b, 5168, 
and 5164 (each refers to rearings at Morgantown; the first 3 are from 
Anthaxia viridicornis Gory in willow, and the last is from Agrilus sp. 
in dogwood). All paralectotypes are labeled "Caneophanes anthaxiae 
Ashm" in Ashmead's handwriting. 

atrata (Ashmead), 1890, p. 16. [Caenophanes] 

This species was described from 4 specimens, 1 male and 3 females. 
Lectotype: 9 syntype, "West Cliff, Col., Type, Ashmead Collection, 
USNM Type No. 2128." Paralectotypes: 2 9 9,1 $, same data. The 
male paralectotype bears a label "Caneophanes atrata Ashm." The 
red USNM Type Number labels on each of these specimens indicate 
that one is the type, one the allotype, and the others para types. How- 
ever, these were placed on the specimens long after Aslimead's descrip- 
tion, probably by Crawford, and do not constitute lectotype designa- 
tions. 

bruchi Viereck, 1909, p. 210. [Heterospihis] 

The National Collection contains 13 specimens from Viereck's type 
series. One female and 1 male are labeled with red USNM type labels 
as types, and the rest of the series as paratypes, but Viereck did not 
designate a t>'pe specimen in his description. Lectotype: 9 syntype, 
"Hunter no. 1450 (refers to notes that this specimen was reared at 
Forbing, Louisiana), B7-I-3, USNM Type No. 12586, Heterospilus 
bruchi Vier. Type 9" (the latter label is in Viereck's handwriting). 
Paralectotypes: 4 9 9, 5 $S, same data, 2 labeled as parasites of 
Spermophag,us robiniae; 1 9,2 S 6 , "Hunter no. 1700, Bmsville., Tx., 
11-20-07, Par. Bruchus." One of the male paralectotypes is labeled 
in Viereck's handwriting "Heterospilus bruchi Vier. Type S ." 



212 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

chittendeni (Ashmead), 1893, p. 77. [Caeiiophanes] 

This species was described only as Ashmead included it in liis key 
to Caenophanes, and no indication was given of the number of speci- 
mens in the type series, only that there were males and females. Lecto- 
tijpe: 9 syntype, "locust bred, Possibly on Xyleborus pubescens, Col- 
lection Ashmead, USNM Type No. 52645, Caenophanes chittendeni 
Ashm. 9 ." Paralectotypes: 1 S , "Collection Ashmead, USNM Allotype 
No. 52645, Caenophanes chittendeni Ashm. S"; 1 6, "Rosslyn, Va., 
Note No. 1393 ( I could find no reference to this note ) , Caenophanes 
chittendeni Ashm. $." The determination labels on all specimens are 
in Ashmead's handwriting, but the USNM type number label was 
certainly affixed later as the number is higher than those given by 
Ashmead during his time. 

hylotrupidis (Ashmead), 1893, p. 78. [Caenophanes] 

No indication of how many specimens Ashmead had for his descrip- 
tion is given, although he described both sexes. Lectotype: 9 syntype, 
"2667 (refers to note that this specimen was reared by Hopkins at 
Morgantown, West Virginia, from longicome larvae in Juniperus vir- 
giniana), USNM Type No. 2157, ex. Hylotrupes ligneus, Morgantown, 
W. Va., 4-4-91 (these last two labels, host and locality, were subse- 
quently affixed by Muesebeck), Caneophanes hylotrupidis Ashm." 
Paralectotypes : 1 9,1 $, same data. Although the notes concerning 
this species do not indicate a specific host, Ashmead's description states 
that it was reared from Hylotrupes ligneus F. 

koebelei (Ashmead), 1893, p. 77. [Caenophanes] 

Ashmead described this species only by including it in his key to 
Caenophanes and gave no indication of the type locality or of the 
number of syntypes. Of the 55 specimens listed below, 3 bear large 
USNM Type Number labels of the type used by Ashmead, one also 
being labeled in his handwriting "Caenophanes koebelei Riley." Be- 
cause the remainder of the specimens have the same host and locality 
data as these 3 specimens, I am sure that all were included in Ashmead's 
syntypical series. The species was presumably given a manuscript 
name of koebelei by Riley. Lectotype: 9 syntype, "4013 (refers to 
notes that this specimen was reared from Prodoxus marginatus Riley 
in the petiole of yucca pods in Los Angeles County, California), Oct. 
13, 1886, Thro. C. V. Riley 1888, Los Angeles Co., Cal., USNM Type 
No. 2162." This specimen also bears host and determination labels 
subsequently affixed by Muesebeck. Paralectotypes: 27 9 9, 10 5 <5, 
same data; 7 9 9,1 5, bearing labels numbered 3909 referring to 
notes that they were reared from Prodoxus aenescens Riley in yucca 
stems in Los Angeles Co., Calif., 2 9 9,1 S , bearing labels numbered 
4012 referring to notes that they were reared from Pronuba maculata 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 213 

Riley on yucca in Los Angeles Co., Calif., 6 9 9, bearing labels num- 
bered 96 which corresponds to number 4013 above. 

languriae (Ashniead), 1893, p. 77. [Caenophanes] 

Lectotype: 9 syntype, "1477 (refers to notes that this specimen 
was reared at Morgantown, West Virginia, from Languria sp. in 
Ambrosia artemmaefolia L. ), USNM Type No. 2154, Caenophanes 
languriae Ashm." Paralectotypes: 1 £ , broken, on same pin as lecto- 
type; 1 9, bears label numbered 877 referring to notes that it was 
reared from Languria sp. in Ambrosia trifida L. at Morgantown, West 
Virginia. 

melleus (Ashniead), 1893, p. 77. [Caenophanea] 

Lectotype: 9 syntype, "No. 2466 (refers to notes that this specimen 
was reared from Mompha sexnoteUa Chamb. on Trichostema dichoto- 
mum L. at Georgiana, Florida), July 11, 1882, USNM Type No. 2161, 
Caneophanes melleus (Riley) Ashmead ms." Paralectotypes: 1 9, 
same data; 4 S S , "no. 3149 ( refers to notes that these were reared from 
Gnorimoschema gallaeasteriella Kell. at Bladensburg, Md.), July 5, 
1883, Thro. C. V. Riley 1888, Riley's Type (only on two specimens), 
Caenophanes melleus Riley (also on only two specimens)." 

mordellistenae Viereck,1911, p. 403. [Hetcrospihis] 

Lectotype: 9 syntype, "Wilmington, Ohio, W. J. Phillips collector, 
Webster No. 6332, M. {ordellistetm) ustidata parasites, USNM Type 
No. 13343, Heterospilus mordellistenae Vier. Type 9." Paralectotype: 
1 9 , same data. 

pityophthori (Ashmead), 1893, p. 78. [Caenophanes] 

Lectotype: $ syntype, "1478 (refers to notes that this specimen 
was reared by Hopkins at Morgantown, West Virginia, February' 24, 
1892, from Pityophthorus sp. in Abies nigra), USNM Type No. 2156, 
Caneophanes pityophthori Ashm." Paralectotype: 1 6, "5204 (refers 
to notes that this was reared by Hopkins at Morgantown, West Vir- 
ginia), USNM Type No. 2156." 

prodoxi (Riley), 1880, p. 156. [Exothecus] 

There is no indication of a definite type locality either in Riley's 
notes or description. However, the locality is listed as St. Louis, 
Missouri, by Ashmead in the National Museum type catalog, and I am 
assuming that this is correct. Lectotype: 9 syntype, "270L (refers to 
notes that this specimen was reared from Prodoxus quinquipunctellus 
(Chamb.), Mo., USNM Type No. 2768 (this label probably attached 
by Ashmead)." Paralectotypes 3 6 6, same data, one bears a label 
"Exothecus prodoxi Riley" in an unknown handwriting (possibly 



214 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Riley's) and another bears a label "Caenophanes prodoxi Riley" in 
Ashmead's handwriting. 

prosopidis Viereck, 1910, p. 381. [Meter ospilus] 

Viereck indicated in his discussion of this species that there is a 
"type female and male" and 74 paratypes, but he did not designate 
either of the syntypes as the type. Lecfotype: 2 syntype, "Kingsville, 
Texas, June 6, 1909, Bred from Bruchus in Prosopis juliflora, USNM 
Type No. 12587, Heterospilus prosopidis Vier. Type 2." Paralecto- 
types: 1 2,1 S, same data; 35 2 2, 35 $ S, Hunter No. 1451 (Dallas, 
Texas, parasite of Bruchus exiguus Horn), Hunter No. 1410 (Victoria, 
Texas, parasite of Bruchus pi'osopis Lee), Hunter No. 1455 (Forbing, 
Louisiana) and Hunter No. 1454. 

selandriae (Ashmead), 1889, p. 629. [(?) Rhtjssalus] 

This species was described from 2 female specimens glued to the 
same card on one pin. No locality data are given, nor was I able to 
find any notes concerning these specimens. The only indications that 
these are the specimens used by Ashmead are the USNM type label 
and determination label in his handwriting. Lectotype: 2 syntype 
(marked by red arrows on the card upon which the syntypes are 
mounted), "Prob. par. on Selandria cerasi, Iss. July 5/79, USNM Type 
No. 2934, Rhyssalus Ashm. Ms." Paralectotype: 1 2, same data, on 
same pin as lectotype. 

References 

Ashmead, W. H. 1889 (1888). Descriptions of new Braconidae in the col- 
lection of the U.S. National Museum. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 11:611-671. 

. 1890. On the Hymenoptera of Colorado; descriptions of new spe- 
cies, notes, and a list of the species found in the state. Bull. Colo. Biol. Assn. 
1:1-46. 

1893. Descriptions of new braconids bred by Prof. A. D. Hopkins. 



Can. Ent. 27:67-79. 
Riley, C. V. 1880. A parasite of Prodoxus decipiens. Amer. Ent. 3:156. 
Viereck, H. L. 1909. Hymenoptera for the New York list of insects, and 

other Hymenoptera. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 11:208-211. 
. 1910. Descriptions of new species of ichneumon-flies. Proc. U.S. 

Nat. Mus. 38:379-384. 
. 1911. New species of reared ichneumon-flies. Proc. U.S. Nat. 



Mus. 39:401-408. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 215 

A NEW SPECIES OF FICALBIA (RAVENALITES) FROM CAMBODIA 

(DiPTERA.: Culicidae)^ 

J. M. Klein, Institut Pasteur du C(imJ)odge, Phnom-Penh; 
Office de ki Recherche scientifique et technique Outrc-Mcr 

ABSTRACT — Ficalhia (Ravenalites) kiriromi, n. sp., is described from Kom- 
pong-Speu Province, Cambodia. 

Ficalbia (Ravenalites) kiriromi, n. sp. 

The adults are morphologically near to fusca (Leicester, 1908), but can be 
easily separated by the wholly dark hind tarsi. The male phallosome and IXth 
tergum present differentiating characteristics. Larva and pupa are still unknown. 

FEMALE. Head. Proboscis dark brown, about the apical % swollen; palp dark 
brown, about a quarter of the length of proboscis; antenna with the first flagello- 
mere only slightly longer than the second; numerous broad silvery scales on the 
tori; decumbent scales of the vertex all broad and dark; upright forked scales more 
or less dark brown. Thorax. Integument of scutum dark brown with a very small 
pale area near the wing root in front of the lateral lobe of the scutellum; scutum 
covered with narrow, curved, dark brown scales; acrostichal bristles small and 
dorsocentrals large and numerous; scutellum covered with numerous broad flat 
dark brown scales; postnotum dark, pale on lateral basal corners; no scales on 
anterior and posterior pronotum; postspiracular area bare; propleuron, stemopleuron 
and mesepimeron with large patches of broad silvery scales; about 7 upper mesepim- 
eral bristles in a row, followed by .5—7 bristles along posterior margin of mesepim- 
eron; no lower mesepimeral bristle; integument of pleura more or Ies»i uniformly 
dark browni, with the exception of the area near the wing base. Wing. ( length 2.6 
mm) Entirely dark brown, with numerous large asymmetrical plume scales and 
large heart-shaped squame scales; anterior fork cell nearly one and one half times 
as long as its stem. Halter with stem light and knob dark. Legs. Coxae with some 
silvery scales; femora, tibiae and tarsi all dark but mid- and hind femora lighter 
below and along ventral margin on anterior surface; hind surface of hind femur 
pale on basal half. Abdomen. Terga dark brown with metallic lustre; small basal 
lateral creamy spots present on all segments; sterna I-II mainly pale, the others 
with a more or less broad apical dark band. 

MALE. Similar in general appearance to the female. Proboscis more strongly 
swollen; palp a little less than half the length of proboscis; basal lateral creamy 
spots on abdominal terga more or less visible, sometimes well developed; tergum 
IX (figs. 1 and 3) narrow with lateral setal patches more or less well separated; 
each patch consists of 3-5 setae, which are long and stout. Terminalia. As repre- 
sented in figs. 1-3. 

TYPE DATA. Holotype male (no. 433) and allotype female (no. 
446), from Kirirom hills, O Tachat (altitude 300-400 m), Kampouo- 
Speu Province, CAMBODIA, along torrents in forest, 27.12.1968. Para- 
types, 5 males, same locality, 27.1.1969, J. M. Klein, legit. Holotvpe 

^ Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges by Southeast 
Asia Mosquito Project — Editor. 



216 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




Figs. 1-3, Ficalbia {Ravenalites) kiriromi, n. sp., male terminalia: 1, basimere, 
paraprocts and IXth tergum (holotype, no. 433); 2, phallosome and paraprocts 
(paratype); 3, variation of IXth tergum setal ornamentation (paratype). Figs. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 217 

male (no. 433), paratype male (no. 444) with terminalia on slides, 
and allotype female (no. 446) in U.S. National Museum; other para- 
types in Centre ORSTOM, Bondy, France. 

TAXONOMIC DISCUSSION. F. (R.) kiriromi is easily distin- 
guished from the other two known species in the subgenus Ravenalites 
from the Indomalayan area, fusca ( Leicester, 1908 ) and deguznmnae 
Mattingly, 1957 by its wholly dark hind tarsi. The last species differs 
from the others in having the abdominal terga and sterna completely 
dark and in the male palp distinctly longer (about % to % the length 
of proboscis against about '•; ) . Phallosome structure in the subgenus 
was not considered by Mattingly ( 1957 ) but seems to be of good 
diagnostic value as shown by kiriromi which differs notably from 
fusca in this respect (figs. 2 and 5). Regarding the IXth tergum, the 
lateral setal patches are each of 3-5 setae in kiriromi n. sp. and of 5-7 
in fusca; the patches in both species are more or less closely approxi- 
mated or sometimes well separated (figs. 3 and 4). 

Acknowledgments 

The author is indebted to Drs. Alan Stone, USDA and Botha de Meillon, SEAMP 
for reviewing the manuscript and arranging for its publication and to Dr. P. F. 
Mattingly, British Museum, for advice and suggestions for further work. 

References 

Leicester, G. F. 1908. The Culicidae of Malaya. Stud. Inst. Med. Res. F.M.S. 

(3): 102-105. 
Mattingly, P. F. 1957. The Culicine Mosquitoes of the Indomalayan Area. 

Part I. Genus Ficalbia Theobald. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, p. 1-61. 



4-5. F. (R.) fusca (Leicester, 1908), male terminalia: 4, IXth tergum; 5, phallo- 
some and paraprocts ( Bokor forest — altitude 700 m — Kampot Province, Cambodia, 
25.4.1968, J. M. Klein, legit.). 



218 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

FURTHER STUDIES ON THE TARSONEMIDAE, H 

( ACARINA ) 

Robert L. Smiley, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology Research 
Division, ARS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washingto1^, D.C. 20250 

ABSTRACT — A new genus and four new species of tarsonemid mites, Tarsone- 
mus summersi, T. adamsi, Daidalotarsonemus jamesbakeri and Heterotarso- 

nemus lindquisti, are described and illustrated. The mites were collected during 
ecological sttidies of the eriophid blueberry bud mite, Acalitus vaccinii (Keifer), 
and of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman. Tarsonemus 
confusus Ewing is redescribed and illustrated. 

This paper includes studies on tarsonemids collected during ecologi- 
cal studies of the eriophyid bluberry bud mite, Acalitus vaccinii 
(Keifer), in North Carolina and of the Southern pine beetle, Dendroc- 
tonus frontalis Zimmerman, in Louisiana. 

Two new species of Tarsonemus Canestrini and one new species of 
Daidalotarsonemus De Leon are described. The new tarsonemids were 
found in association with the blueberry bud mite and were submitted 
for identification by James R. Baker, Department of Entomology, North 
Carolina State University at Raleigh. Beer ( 1963 ) describes social 
parasitism involving tarsonemid and eriophyid mites, but the relation- 
ship of the new tarsonemids and A. vaccinii (Keifer) does not seem 
to be the same (James R. Baker, personal communication). A new 
genus, Heterotarsonemus, is proposed for a mite discovered in the 
course of research on the seasonal ecology of D. frontalis Zimmerman 
by John C. Moser, U.S. Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment 
Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pineville, Louisiana. 

Tarsonemus confusus Ewing which was found associated with the 
blueberry bud mite in the field as well as with the nematode Aphelen- 
cus sp. in a laboratory culture is redescribed and figured. 

Tarsonemus summersi, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1-4) 

The large, dorsal, spurlike apophysis on femur IV of the male will separate 
this species from other known species of the genus. The female is not known. 

Male. Body oval, broadest in region of metapodosoma. Dorsal propodosomal 
setae simple, long and slender; third pair of propodosomals longest, more than 
twice as long as first, second, and fourth pairs; second pair two-thirds as long as 
first pair; fourth pair shortest, about two-thirds as long as second pair. Hysterosoma 
with three pairs of finely serrated setae; two pairs of setae above suture twice as 
long as single pair below suture; a pair of simple lateral setae present. Venter of 
propodosoma as figured; apodeme I short, forming Y-shaped juncture with anterior 
niedian apodeme; apodeme II long, strong and curving inward to anterior median 
apodeme to form apodemal plate II; apodemal plate I with pore, a short seta, and 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 



219 




;Mi 5 



Figs. 1-4, Tar.soiwmus summersi, u. sp.; £ : 1, dorsum; 2, venter; 3, right dorsal 
tibiotarsus I; 4, leg IV. Fig. 5, T. confusux Evving, S, dorsum. 



220 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




Figs. 6-9, Tarsonemus confusus E wing: 6, c? , venter; 7, c? , right dorsal leg IV; 
i, 9 , dorsum; 9, 9 , venter. Fig. 10, f. adamsi, n. sp., 6 , dorsum, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 221 

with fine striae; apodemal plate II with strong dot-like striae, a pore, and a simple 
seta longer than seta on apodemal plate I. Venter of hysterosoma as figured; 
apodemal plates III and IV with longitudinal striae, plates III each with pair of 
simple setae. Legs I and II similar in size and length; legs II short and strong 
and with strong solenidion on each tarsus as figured; legs V with apophysis on 
inner lateral margin of each femur; setae for these legs as figured. Body 159 /i 
long by 89 /m wide. 

The male holotype, USNM 3282, and 5 male paratypes were taken 
from a laboratory culture of necrotic blueberry bud scales and agar 
13 February 1967, Department of Entomology, University of North 
Carolina at Raleigh. Two male para types were collected from blue- 
berry buds, Ivanhoe, North Carolina 11 January 1966 and 1 male para- 
type 11 September 1965 by J. R. Baker. One paratype is deposited in 
the Canadian National Collection. The species is named for Dr. F. M. 
Summers, Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, 
CaHfomia. 

Tarsonemus confusus Ewing 
(Figs. 5-9) 

Tarsonemus confusus Ewing, 1939, U.S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 653: 1-63. 

The male of this species may be recognized by the finely serrated hysterosomal 
setae, and the ventral striation pattern. The female may be recognized by the 
transverse apodeme having inverted U-shapd bends near the base of the anterior 
median apodeme. 

Male. Body small, oval, broadest in the region of metapodosoma. Dorsal 
propodosoma with four pairs of long, slender simple setae; third pair longest, one- 
third longer than first pair, first pair about one-third longer than second and 
fourth pairs; second pair shortest; fourth pair slightly longer than second pair. 
Hysterosoma with two pairs of long subequal, finely serrate setae caudally; a 
short pair on posterior margin of idiosonia; and a pair of simple lateral setae. 
Venter of propodosoma as figured; apodeme I short, curving to coxal condyles, 
and forming Y-shaped juncture with anterior median apodeme, anterior median 
apodeme well defined, but becoming small and faint at transverse apodeme; 
apodeme II strong but not converging with anterior median aixjdeme; apodemal 
plate 1 with ix)re, a simple seta, and with fine punctations near anterior median 
apodeme and apodeme II; apodemal plate II without pore, with a simple seta, 
and finely punctate. Venter of hysterosoma as figured; with fine punctations 
adjacent to apodeme III and distal to posterior median apodeme; apodemal plates 
III and IV with finely broken striae and each plate with a single simple setae. 
Legs I and II subequal in length and size; legs III smaller in size, but almost as 
long as legs I and II; leg IV as figured, with long femur bearing a proximal 
inner, simple seta, a simple seta medially and a simple seta dorsodistally; tibia I\' 
with a small solenidion and saberlike seta; tarsus IV terminating with short, strong 
tarsal claw. 

Female. Body elongate, broadest in region of hysterosoma. Propodosoma bear- 
ing two pairs of simple setae; first pair about one half as long as second pair; 
pseudostigmatic organs global, with small spurlike projections, pedicel not as long 
as width of expanded distal portion. Dorsum of Insterosonia with six distinct 



222 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 223 

transverse segments; first segment with a pair of simple setae; second and third 
segments without setae; fourth segment with two pairs of simple setae, the inner, 
median pair being about one-third longer than outer pair; fifth segment with a 
pair of simple setae medially, subequal in length to the outer pair on fourth 
segment. Venter of propodosoma and hysterosoma lightly punctate. First pair of 
ventral apodemes Y-shaped, converging with anterior median apodeme; a pair of 
simple setae adjacent to the first pair of apodemes; apodeme II longer and stronger, 
not converging with anterior median apodeme, with a pair of simple setae; anterior 
median apodeme discontinued as figured and not connecting with the transverse 
apodeme; transverse apodeme inverted U-shaped as it connects on each side with 
the anterior median apodeme. Venter of hysterosoma with a pair of lateral plates. 
Apodeme III not converging with the posterior median apodeme, above this 
apodeme a simple seta; apodeme IV longer and stronger than apodeme III, 
distally with a simple seta subequal in length to the seta above apodeme III. 
Legs robust, as figured. 

Seven males and 36 females were collected on a culture of Aphelen- 
cus sp. (nematode) by Roy Burrill at the Department of Entomolog\', 
North Carolina State University at Raleigh, 22 February 1968 and 12 
females from blueberry buds by J. R. Baker of the same University at 
Ivanhoe, North Carolina, September 1965, 11 January and 7 November 
1966. 

Tarsonemus adanisi, n. sp. 

(Figs. 10-12) 

This species, which is known only from the male, is characterized by the short, 
stubby femur of leg IV and by the extreme length of the third pair of propodosomal 
setae. 

Male. Body oval, broadest in region of metapodosoma. Dorsal propodosomal 
setae simple, long and slender; third pair of propodosomals longest, three times 
longer than the first, second, and fourth pair; first and fourth pairs subequal in 
length and longer than the second pair. Hysterosoma with three pairs of finely 
scabrous setae; first two pairs subequal, lying transversely near the posterior 
margin; a shorter pair distally. Venter of propodosoma as figured; apodeme I 
short, forming a Y-shaped juncture with anterior median apodeme; apodeme II 
long and strong, curving inward to anterior median apodeme; anterior median 
apodeme discontinued, not converging with apodeme II, but connecting to trans- 
verse apodeme; apodeme plate II with dotlike punctations. Venter of the hystero- 
soma as figured; two lateral plates each with a simple seta; apodemal plate III 
with a simple seta; apodemal plate IV without setae. Legs I and II subequal in 
length and size; tarsus II with large solenidion, about twice the size of the soleni- 
dion on tarsus I; leg III smallest; leg IV with short, stubby femur, bearing a short, 
simple seta proximally and long, saberlike seta distally; tibia IV as figured, with a 



Figs. 11-12, Tarsoneimis adam.si, n. sp., c? : 11, venter; 12, left dorsal leg IV. 

Figs. 13-18, Hetewtarsonemus Undquisti, n. gen., n. sp.: 13, S, dorsum; 14, 

venter; 15, S , left dorsal leg IV; 16, 6 , left dorsal tarsus II; 17, 6 , left dorsal 
tarsus I; 18, larva, dorsum. 



224 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 225 

strong scabrous seta; tarsus IV terminating with short, strong, tarsal claw. Body 
146 M long by 82 fx wide. 
Female. Not known. 

The male holotype, USNM 3280, was taken from a laboratory culture 
of necrotic blueberry bud scales and agar at the Department of Ento- 
mology, University of North Carolina at Raleigh, 13 July 1967, by 
James R. Baker. The species is named for Mr. G. G. Adams, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Heterotarsoiiemus, n. gen. 

Type-species: Heierotarsonemus Undquisti, new species. 

The generic characters for the female are as follows: Pretarsi I with vestigial 
claws. Pretarsi II and III each with only a single outer lateral claw. Leg I tarsus 
and tibia fused. Femur II with ventral apophysis. The male is heteromorphic with 
the following characters: propodosomal and hysterosomal setae serrated; the 
venter of the propodosonia and hysterosoma, each with two pairs of simple setae. 
Leg IV is robust with the femur having a triangular shaped flange. 

Heterotarsonenius lindquisti, n. sp. 

(Figs. 13-25) 

Female. Dorsum of body oval and finely punctate. Propodosonia dorsally with 
two pairs of setae; anterior pair short and stout, posterior pair long and slender 
and located above the macelike pseudostigmatic organs. Hysterosoma with six 
dorsal segments; first segment largest, with a pair of simple setae medially and 
posteriorly; second and third segments without setae; fourth segment with a pair 
of simple setae medially, subequal in length to those on the first segment; fifth 
segment with two pairs of setae, medial pair longer and subequal in length to those 
of first and fourth segments, a pore above each lateral seta; sixth segment with a 
pair of short setae marginally. Venter of propodosonia and hysterosoma as figured. 
Apodeme I short, converging with anterior median apodeme; aixideme II stout 
and longer, not converging with anterior median apodeme; anterior median 
apodeme converging with transverse apodeme. Seta on apodemal plate II longer 
than seta on apodemal plate I; seta on apodemal plate III not as long as seta on 
II; seta on plate IV subequal in length to seta on II. Leg I strong and robust; 
tarsus and tibia fused; femur ventrally with a strong dagger shaped seta. Leg II 
subequal in length to leg I; pretarsus with a small spur \entrally, dorsally with 
two stronger spurs; femiu" with a strong ventral apophysis. Leg IV longest, but 
not as stout as legs I and II; pretarsus ventrally with a long spur, longer than 
ventral spurs on tarsus II: pretarsus with a single outer lateral claw. Leg IV 
slender, temiinating in a short and a long saberlike seta, each with a longitudinal 
ridge. Body 165 ^ long b>' 108 ^l wide. 



Figs. 19-25, Heierotarsonemus Undquisti, n. gen., n. sp.: 19, larva, venter; 
20, larva, right dorsal tarsus and tibia I; 21, larva, right dorsal tarsus and tibia II; 
22, 9, dorsum; 23, 9, venter; 24, 9, left dorsal tarsus I; 25, 9, left dorsal 
tarsiLs II. 



226 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




t 



Figs. 26-27, Daidalotarsonemus jamesbakeri, n. sp.: 26, $, venter; 27, 9, left 
dorsal leg I. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 227 

Male. Body elongate and l^roadest in region of the metapodosoma. Dorsal 
proix)dosomal and hysterosonial setae serrated. Proi>odosomal setae slender with 
the exception of the third pair; third pair longer and stronger than first, second, 
and fourth pairs; first, second, and fourth pairs subequal in size and length. 
Hysterosomal setae stronger and longer than first, second and fourth pairs of 
propodosomals with the exception of the pair on posterior of opisthosoma being 
shorter; two pairs located in a transverse row, inner pair longer than outer pair 
which is subequal in length to lateral setae. With two small curved internal 
structures on die dorsal posterior portion of the hysterosoma (see figure 13). 
Venter of the propodosoma and hysterosoma as figured; with small dotlike puncta- 
tions. Apodeme I curving inward to anterior median apodeme; apodeme II longer 
and stronger than apodeme I not converging with the anterior median apodeme; 
seta on apodemal plate I shorter than setae on apodemal plates II and III, setae 
for these two latter plates subequal in length; apodemal plate III with two pairs 
of setae; apodemal plate IV without setae. Legs I and II similar in size and 
length; legs III longer than legs I and II; tarsi I-III each ventrally with a small 
spur; leg IV robust, femur as figured with a triangular shaped flange, a small, 
simple seta projecting adjacently from the flange, and a dagger shaped serrated 
seta; tibia with a short dorsal sensory rod and terminating with a long serrated 
whiplike seta; tarsal claw strong. Body 114 m long by 89 /i wide. 

Larva. Body elongate, broadest in the region of the hysterosoma. Dorsal 
propodosomal shield with three pairs of serrate setae; integument adjacent to 
the shield with fine striae. Hysterosoma divided into four distinct shields; first 
shield with a pair of lateral and a pair of posteromedial serrate setae; second shield 
with a pair of long, serrate medial setae which are longer than rest of dorsal body 
setae; third shield with two pairs of serrate setae, the lateral pair shorter than the 
medial pair; fourth shield with a shorter pair of serrate setae. Venter of the 
propodosoma and hysterosoma as figured. Legs I-III subequal in size and length; 
each tarsus with a small spur. Body 146 m long by 76 ^ wide. 

The female holotype, USNM 3284, and 15 female paratypes and 
7 males and 7 larvae were collected from inner bark of loblolly pine 
with Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman at Elizabeth, Louisiana, 20 
July 1965, by John C. Moser. Three paratype female, one male, and 
one larva are deposited in the Canadian National Collection. The 
species is named for Dr. Evert E. Lindquist, Canada Department of 
Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

Daidalotarsonemus jamesbakeri, n. sp. 

(Figs. 26-31) 

The contiguous dorsomedian longitudinal plates of the hysterosoma will separate 
this species from the others in the genus. 

Female. Body broadly oval, broadest at metapodosoma. Dorsum of propodosoma 
with two piurs of setae; first pair slightly longer, finely scabrous; second pair 
simple and saberlike; a notch on lateral margin of capitulum; platelets of propodo- 
soma irregular in shape and size, two platelets punctate. Dorsum of hysterosoma 
with six pairs of setae; lateral seta simple and saberlike, shorter in length than 
first similar dorsomedian seta; three pairs of serrated lanceolate setae each with 
a longitudinal ridge; a pair of small simple caudal set; with a pair of lateral pores 



228 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 229 

and adjacent to these pores a lightly punctate plate; dorsoniedian plates contiguous, 
as figured, and with few smaller irregular shaped platelets. Venter of propodo- 
sonia and hysterosoma as figured. Apodeme I short, converging with anterior 
median apodeme; apodemal plate I with simple seta; apodeme II longer and 
stronger, not converging with the anterior median apodeme; apodemal plate II 
with a simple seta twice the length of seta on apodemal plate I; anterior median 
apodeme discontinued below apodeme II, a small posterior portion connecting 
with transverse apodeme; posterior median apodeme Y-shaped proximally, not 
converging with apodeme III, but converging with apodeme IV; apodemal plate 
II with a simple seta, longer than seta on apodemal plate IV. Genitalia as figured. 
Legs I-III short, robust; legs III longest. Tarsal claws large and strong. Body 
223 /i long by 134 fx wide. 

Male ( associated with the above female ) . Body oval, broadest in region of 
metapodosoma. Dorsum of propodosoma with four pairs of long, slender, barbed 
setae; third pair longest, more than one half longer than second pair; second pair 
shortest; first and fourth pairs subequal in length. Hysterosoma with two pairs 
of setae located above suture and a pair below suture. Ventral apodeme of 
propodosoma and hysterosoma as figured. Apodeme I shorter than apodeme II; 
apodeme III and IV longer than anterior median apodeme; apodemal plate I with 
a simple seta which is shorter than seta on plates II and III; apodemal plate II 
lightly punctate, with a simple seta subequal in length to the seta on apodemal 
plate III. A pair of lightly sclerotized lateral plates slightly posterior to the 
prodosomal and hysterosomal suture. Legs I and III subequal in size and length; 
leg II robust, widi extremely large solenidion; leg IV as figured. Body 185 /x 
long by 95 fi wide. 

The female holotype, USNM 3283, and 5 female paratypes were 
collected from blueberry buds, 8 March 1967, Ivanhoe, North Carolina. 
One female paratype and the associated male were reased in a lab- 
oratory culture, Department of Entomology, North Carolina State 
University at Raleigh. After the illustrations were made for the 
associated male, this single specimen was accidentally destroyed in 
an attempt to remount the specimen. All specimens were collected 
and reared by James R. Baker for whom this species is named. One 
paratype is deposited in the Canadian National Collection. 

References 

Baker, J. E. 1968. Personal communication. 

Beer, R. E. 1963. Social parasitism in the Tarsonemidae, with description of 

a new species of tarsonemid mite involved. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 56(2): 

153-160. 
Ewing, H. E. 1939. A revision of mites of the subfamily Tar.soneminae of 

North America, the West Indies, and the Hawaiian Islands. U.S. Dept. Agr. 

Tech. Bull. 653:1-63. 



Figs. 28-31, Daidalotarsonemus jamesbakeri, n. sp.: 28, 9, dorsum; 29, $, 
venter; 30, 5, dorsum; 31, ^ , left dorsalleg IV. 



230 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

MICROCTONUS GLYPTOSCELI N. SP., A PARASITE OF 
GLYPTOSCELIS PUBESCENS (F.) IN WISCONSIN^ 

( Hymenoptera : Braconidae: Euphorinae & Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae ) 

C. C. Loan,- M. G. Klein^ and H. C. Coppel^ 

ABSTRACT — Microctonus glyptosceli, n. sp., is described from Wisconsin and 
differentiated from its nearest congener, M. pachylobii Mues. The rearing of 
M. glyptosceli from Glyptoscelis pitbescens (F.), its field incidence, and cocoon 
are briefly noted. The cephalic structures of the final instar larva are figured. 

Klein and Coppel ( 1969 ) recorded an unknown species of Microc- 
tonus Wesmael reared from adult Glyptoscelis pubescens (F.) in Wis- 
consin. This paper describes the species and provides biological notes 
on the parasite-host association. 

Microctonus glyptosceli, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1-4) 

Holotijpe.— Female (C.N.C. no. 10699) reared VII 64 from adult 
Glyptoscelis pubescens (Fab.), breeding on Pinus strobus L. at Amery, 
Wisconsin, U.S.A. (M. G. Klein, H. C. Coppel). 

Length 1.9 mm. Light reddish yellow; stemmaticum, stigma, and veins of 
fore-wing pale grey-brown; lateral lobes of mesonotum, remainder of dorsum of 
thorax, and dorsum of propodeum reddish brown. 

Head (figs. 1, 3) 1.8 times as wide as long, 1.5 times as wide as thorax; 
face finely pubescent, slightly longer than wide between antennal sockets and 
clypeus; malar space 0.7 times as wide as base of mandible; eye 1.2 times as long 
as wide, with transverse diameter 2.0 times width of cheeks, distinctly wider than 
face; antennae with 18 segments, slightly longer than head, thorax, and propodeum 
combined; scape 0.6 times as long as flagellar segment 1, subequal to flagellar 
segments 2 and 3; pedicel 0.4 times as long as flagellar segment 1, width subequal, 
0.8 times as wide as scape; POL slightly less than OOL; anterior face of lateral 
ocellus somewhat anterior to posterior margin of eye; occiput finely margined on 
sides, immargined medially the width of anterior margin of scutum. 

Scutum of mesonotum completely covered with fine hair, indistinctly punctate; 
lateral lobes hairy anteriorly, remainder glabrous, finely punctulate; prescutal 
sutures narrowly, deeply impressed, indistinctly foveolate, with area of convergence 
small, rugulose, not separated by a median carina; antescutellar groove carinate 
behind and divided medially; propodeum (fig. 2) rugulose-reticulate, very short, 
2.4 times as wide as long, with sides hairy, rounded, its posterior face vertical 
behind, relatively flat, not excavated; stigma 2.4 times as long as wide, with distal 
and proximal margins behind subequal; radial cell 0.6 times as long as stigma. 



^ Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges — Editor. 

^Research Institute, Canada Department of Agriculture, Belleville, Ontario. 

^ Student assistant and professor, respectively. Department of Entomology, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. Supported in part by funds 
provided by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 



231 




0.5mm 



Fij?. 1-4, Microctonus glyptosceli, n. sp.: 1, head, front view; 2, piopodeum and 
tergite I, dorsal view; 3, head, dorsal view; 4, head of final instar larva, front view. 



sUghtiy longer than width of cell from wing margin at stigma to middle of second 
abscissa of radius; first abscisca of radius perpendicular, very short, 0.2 times as 
long as stigma width; parastigma narrow; submediellan cell quadrate at ape.\ of 
nervellus; basella broken at about its middle; nervellus as long as or slightly longer 
than abscissae of basella, almost 2.0 times as long as marginal cilia of hind wing. 

Tergite I of gaster (fig. 2) short, almost 1.7 times as long ;is apical widtli; 
spiracles slightly behind middle; petiole at narrowest point 0.4 times as wide as 
apical margin; postpetiole superficially smooth but weakly aciculate, its sides 
weakly carinate; ovipositor sheath slender, 1.3 times as long as tergite I, 1.2 times 
as long as posterior femora, 0.9 times as long as posterior tibia. 

Allotype. — Male. Data as cited for female holotype. 



232 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Habitus like that of female holotype, differing as follows: cheeks, frons, vertex, 
and mesepisternum reddish; lateral lobes of mesonotum reddish brown; apical 0.4 
of gaster behind tergite I dark reddish yellow; mesepisternum hairy; anterior face 
of lateral ocellus distinctly anterior to posterior margin of eye; eye almost 0.6 times 
as wide as long, subequal in width to upper cheek; face slightly wider than long, 
wider than eye; basella broken below its middle, nervellus slightly longer than 
basal abscissa; tergite I very short, 1.2 times as long as wide at apex, with aciculae 
and lateral carinae more distinct. 

Paratypes. — 2 9 2,1 S , data as cited for holotype and allotype 
specimens: 1 9 (U.S. National Museum); 1 2,1 c5 (University of 
Wisconsin. ) 

Variation. — Females, 1.9-2.0 mm long; ovipositor sheath 1.3-1.4 times 
as long as tergite I; antennae with 19 segments. 

Larva V. — Cephalic sclerites as in fig. 4. 

Remarks. — M. glypto.^celi is a distinctive species that could be con- 
fused only with M. pachylobii Mues. Both are small species, of a 
similar color, and share the striking characters of unusually short 
antennae and unusually large eyes. Differences are summarized as 
follows : 

M. glyptosceli M. pachylobii 

Occiput immargined medially behind Occiput margined behind 

Flagellum widest near apex Flagelliun widest at middle 

Transverse diameter of eye 2.0 times Eye more than 2.0 times as wide as 

as wide as cheeks cheeks 

Posterior face of propodeum flat Propodeum excavated medially behind 

Stigma less than 3.0 times as long as Stigma more than 3.0 times as long 

broad; distal, proximal mar- as broad; distal margin not 

gins behind subequal as long as proximal 

First abscissa of radius much less than First abscissa of radius more than 0.5 

0.5 times width of stigma times as long as width of 

stigma. 

Host: Glyptoscelis pubescens (Fab.) Pachylobitis picivariis Germar 

(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae ) 

M. carabivorus Mues. and M. invictus Mues. also have large eyes, 
but are readily distinguishable from M. glyptosceli and M. pachylobii 
by long antennae and other characters noted by Muesebeck (1936, 1961) 
and Loan (in press). 

The sharp, pronounced hypostomal spur of the stipital sclerite of 
the final instar larva (fig. 4) is distinctive. 

Biology. — The development of M. glyptosceli is gregarious hke that 
of M. morimi Ferriere (Grandi, 1931), M. eleodis Vier., (McColloch, 
1918, and M. disonychae Loan ( Loan, 1967 ) . A total of 23 final instar 
larvae emerged from an adult G. pubescens collected July 4, 1964. 
This host apparently died shortly before emergence of the braconid 
larvae. The larvae emerged between abdominal stemite 5 and tergite 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 233 

8 and spun cocoon.s in a glass vial within 18 hours at room temperature. 
The cocoons were white, 1.1-1.2 mm wide by 2.5-2.6 mm long, and 
had an outer covering of loose, fine silk. A total of five A/, glyptosceli 
emerged 12 days after cocooning at room temperature. The adult cut 
a more-or-less circular opening in one side near the top of the cocoon. 
The remainder of the cocoons contained dead larvae, pupae, and adults. 
In 196.3-65, 212 adult G. ptihescens were field-collected and held in 
laboratory. Of these, 108 were dissected upon death and six (5.5 per 
cent) were parasitized by M. glyptosceli. 

Acknowledgments 

We gratefully acknowledge the help of Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck, U.S.N.M., 
Washington, who detennined M. glyptosceli as undescribed, provided the first 
author with information, and read the manuscript. 

References 

Crandi, G. 1931. Scorperta di un nuo\'o Braconidae {Perilitus maximi Ferr. ) 
parassita degU adulti del Morhnus asper Sulz. ( Coleoptera — Cerambycidae ) E 
Descrizione della sua larva. Boll. Lab. Ent. R. 1st. Sup. Agr. Bologna 4:1^. 

Klein, M. G. and H. C. Coppel. 1969. The pine chrysomelid, Ghjptoscelis 
pubescens in Northwestern Wisconsin. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62:1-6. 

Loan, C. C. 1967. Studies on the taxonomy and biology of the Euphorinae 
( Hymenoptera : Braconidae). I. Four new Canadian species of Microctonus. 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60:230-235. 

. New species of Microctonus Wesmael with a key to species north 

of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Euphorinae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 
(In press). 

McColloch, J. W. 1918. Notes on false wireworms with especial reference to 
Eleodes tricosiata Say. J. Econ. Ent. 11:212-224. 

Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1936. The genera of parasitic wasps of the braconid 
subfamily Euphorinae with a review of the Nearctic species. Misc. Pubis. U. S. 
Dep. Agric. 241. 

. 1961. A new Opitis and two new species of Microctonus (Hy- 
menoptera: Braconidae). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 56:57-61. 



234 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

A NEW SPECIES OF AEDES (STEGOMYIA) FROM THAILAND 

(Diptera: Culicidae)^'^ 

YiAu-MiN Huang, Southeast Asia Mosquito Project, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 

ABSTRACT — Both sexes, larva and pupa of Aedes (Stegomtjia) seatoi, n. sp., 
from Thailand are described. Characters for separating the new species from 
closely allied ones are given. 

It was previously reported (Huang, 1968) that Aedes pseudalbopic- 
tus (Borel) and one or more members of the scutellaris subgroup were 
being mistaken for albopictus (Skuse). The new species described 
here, which looks so much like albopictus in the adult and aegypti ( L. ) 
in the larval stage, now compHcates the picture still further, especially 
as it has also been found in the same larval habitats. 

In view of this unfortunate situation it has been considered desirable 
to describe the new species at the earliest opportunity. Nothing is 
known about its biting habits or its potentiality as a vector of human 
pathogens and hence it is also hoped that this note will stimulate 
investigations on these subjects and help to clear up what appears to 
be a rather confused situation. In order to facilitate such work diag- 
nostic characters for separating the new species from those most likely 
to be mistaken for it are also given. 

Aedes ( Stegomyia ) seatoi, n. sp. 

(Fig. 1) 

Tliis species is named for the SEATO Medical Research Laboratory, Bangkok, 
Thailand, in recognition and appreciation of the valuable contribution that the 
Department of Medical Entomology has made to our knowledge of the mosquito 
fauna of Thailand. 

MALE. Head. Proboscis dark scaled, as long as fore femur; palpus longer than 
proboscis, with a white basal band on each of segments 2-5, those on segments 
4, 5 incomplete dorsally, segments 4, 5 subequal, slender, upturned, and with only 
a few short hairs; antenna plumose, slightly shorter than proboscis; clypeus bare; 
torus covered with white scales on inner and outer sides; decumbent scales of vertex 
all broad and flat; erect forked scales dark, not numerous, restricted to occiput; 
vertex with a median stripe of broad white scales, similar dark ones on each side 
interrupted by a lateral stripe of broad white scales followed by a patch of white 
scales ventrally. Thorax. Scutum with narrow dark scales and a prominent median 
longitudinal stripe of similar white ones, the median stripe reaches from the anterior 
margin to the middle of the scutum where it becomes very narrow or broken and 



^ This work was supported by Research Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2672 from 
the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the 
Surgeon General. 

^ Immediate publication secured by full payment of page charges by Southeast 
Asia Mosquito Project. — Editor. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 



235 



Fig.1 




Fig. 1. A-D, Aedes (Stegomym) seatoi n. sp.: A, lateral aspect of the terminal 
segments of the fourth instar larva with enlarged comb scale; B, meso- and meta- 
pleural spines of the larva: C, dorsal aspect of the holotype thorax; D, tergal 
aspect of the holotype terminalia. E-F, A. (S.) alb&pictus (Skuse): E, comb 
scale of the hm^a; F, tcrgum IX of the male termindia. G-I, A. (S.) aegypti (L.): 
G, comb scale of tlie larva; H, ventral brush of the larva; I, meso- and metapleural 
spines of the larva. 



236 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

is followed by an inverted Y-shaped marking which forks at the beginning of the 
prescutellar space. There is on each side of this: (1) a posterior dorsocentral 
white hne which does not reach to the middle of the scutmn and which sometimes 
becomes very narrow or broken at the level of wing root, ( 2 ) a small white patch 
of similar scales at a little distance anterior to the posterior dorsocentral white line, 
(3) a few narrow white scales on the anterior prescutal area and some narrow 
white ones on the scutal angle area where they form a small white patch, (4) a 
patch of broad flat white scales on the lateral margin just before the level of the 
wing root and a few similar scales on the posterior portion of the supraalar area; 
there is no complete supraalar line of broad white scales; acrostichal bristles absent; 
dorsocentral bristles present; scutellum with broad white scales on all lobes and 
with a few broad dark ones at the apex of mid lobe; anterior pronotum with broad 
white scales; posterior pronotum with broad white scales and some dark narrow 
ones dorsally; paratergite with broad white scales; postspiracular area without 
scales; patches of broad white scales on propleuron, on the subspiracular area, on 
the upper and lower portions of the sternopleuron and on the upper and lower 
portions of the mesepimeron; mesepimeron scale patches connected forming a 
V-shaped white scale patch, the open side of the V being directed backwards; 
lower mesepimeron without bristles; metameron bare. Wing. Wing with dark 
scales on all veins except for a minute basal spot of white scales on the costa. 
Halter. With dark scales. Legs. Coxae with patches of white scales; kneespots 
present on all femora; fore and mid femora dark with some pale scales scattered 
anteriorly, more so on the mid than on the fore femur, paler posteriorly; hind femur 
anteriorly with a broad white longitudinal stripe which widens at the base and is 
narrowly separated from the apical white scale patch; fore and mid tibiae dark 
anteriorly, paler posteriorly; hind tibia dark; fore and mid tarsi with basal white 
bands on tarsomeres 1-3; hind tarsus with basal white bands on 1-4, 5 all white; 
fore and mid legs with tarsal claws unequal, the large one toothed, the smaller 
one simple; hind leg with tarsal claws equal, simple. Abdomen. Abdominal 
segment I with white scales on the laterotergite, tergum I with a large median 
patch of white scales. Terga II-VI each with a basal transverse white band which 
widens laterally except on tergum II where it widens in the middle; all segments 
with lateral white spots wliich are not connected with the basal transverse bands; 
sterna I-III largely covered with white scales; IV-VI each with a basal white band. 
Terminalia. Basimere 3 times as long as wide; its scales restricted to dorsolateral, 
lateral and ventral areas; with a patch of hairs on the basomesal area of dorsal 
surface; claspette long, reaching to 0.75 of basimere, with numerous setae and 
several widened specialized curved ones on the slightly expanded distal part; 
distimere simple, elongate, 0.75 as long as basimere; with a spiniform process at 
the apex and with some hairs; aedeagus with a distinct lateral sclerotized toothed 
plate on each side; paraprocts without teeth; cereal setae absent; ninth tergum 
with middle part produced into a large rounded lobe and with two small hairy 
lateral lobes. 

FEMALE. Essentially as in the male, differing in the following respects: palpus 
0.2 of proboscis, with white scales on apical half. Fore and mid legs with tarsal 
claws equal, simple. Abdominal tergum II with basal white band also widening 
laterally. 

PUPA. CepJudothorax. Both hairs 1-C and 3-C single, longer than 2-C; hair 
6-C single, shorter than 7-C; hair 5-C branched. Metanotum, Hair 10-C branched, 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 237 

mesad and caudad of 11-C; hair U-C single. Abdomen. Hair l-I well developed, 
with more than 10 branches, dendritic; hair 2-1 single; hair 3-1 single; hair 2-1 and 
3-1 not widely separated, the distance behveen them as the distance between 4-1 
and 5-1; hair l-II branched; hair 2-II laterad of hair 3-II; hair 2-IV-V mesad of 
hair I; hair 3-II and 3-III simple, shorter than segment III; hairs 5-IV, 5-V and 
,5-VI single or double, not reaching beyond the posterior margin of the following 
segment; hair 9-III-VII strongly developed, thickened; hair 9-VIII with a strong 
main stem and lateral branches of varying length; paddle margins with fringe; 
hair 1-P single. 

LARVA. Head. Antenna 0.5 length of head, without spicules; 1-A inserted near 
middle of shaft, single; inner mouth brushes pectinate at tip; head hair 4-C well 
developed, branched, closer to 6-C than 5-C, cephalad and mesad of 6-C; hairs 
5-C single, 6-C single, 7-C 2-branched; mentum with 10-12 teeth on each side. 
Thorax. Basal spine of meso- and metapleural hairs stout and straight or slightly 
curved. Abdomen. Comb of 8-10 scales in a single row, each scale with prominent 
denticles at base of the apical spine; pentad hair 2-VIII distant from 1-VIII; siphon 
short, less than 2 times as long as wide, acus absent; pecten teeth 8-12 in number, 
evenly spaced, each tooth with 2-4 basal denticles; 1-S 4-branched, inserted 
beyond last tooth and in line with the teeth; saddle incomplete; marginal spicules 
very small and inconspicuous; 1-X 2-branched; 2-X 2-branched; 3-X single; ventral 
brush with 4 pairs of hairs on grid, each hair usually single, sometimes, however, 
one or two of the proximal ones double; without precratal tufts; gills longer than 
the saddle, lanceolate. 

TYPE DATA. Holotype male (BC-03019-1) with associated larval 
and pupal skins and terminalia on a slide, Bangphra, Chon Btiri, THAI- 
LAND, collected as a larva in a bamboo cup. 2-3 m. height above 
ground, partially shaded, in an orchard plantation, 27. IX. 1968, (Kol's 
Team collectors). Deposited in the U.S. National Museum. Allotype 
female (BC-03019-3) with associated larval and pupal skins, all with 
same data as holotype. Deposited in the U.S. National Museum. Ptira- 
types: 3 males, 2 females as follows: 2 males (BC-02965-3, 4) with 
associated larval and pupal skins and terminaha slides, 1 male (BC- 
02965-100) with associated pupal skin and terminalia sHde, Bangphra, 
Chon Biiri, THAILAND, collected as larvae or pupa in a bamboo pot, 
set on the ground, partially shaded, in a village, altitude 13 m., 
23.IX.1968, (Kol's Team collectors); 1 female (BC-02998-4) with 
associated larval and pupal skins, Bangphra, Chon Buri, THAILAND, 
collected as a larva in a bamboo pot, set on the ground, heavily shaded, 
in a mangrove forest, altitude 5 m., 17.IX.1968, (Kol's Team collectors); 
1 female (BC-03005-2) with associated larval and pupal skins, Bang- 
phra, Chon Biiii, THAILAND, collected as a larva in a bamboo pot, 
set on a mangrove tree, partially shaded, altitude 5 m., 17. IX. 1968 
(Kol's Team collectors). Deposited in the U.S. National Museum and 
British Museum. 

DISTRIBUTION. Known only from THAILAND where specimens 
have been collected from Hinlub village, Kanchanahur, Khao Mai Kaeo 



238 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

and Bangphra, Chon Buri. Material examined consisted of 24 adults 
(17 males, 7 females), 23 pupae, 28 larvae, 17 male terminalia slides; 
23 adults from individual rearings. 

TAXONOMIC DISCUSSION. A. seatoi n. sp. is a very interesting 
species which superficially resembles Aedes (Stegomijia) imilineatus 
Theobald (Barraud, 1934; Muspratt, 1956) in the adult stage in the 
scutal markings. It can easily be distinguished from unilineatus, how- 
ever, by the presence of a large median patch of white scales on 
abdominal tergum I and by the absence of a prominent white spot on 
the anterior surface of the mid femur. It is closely related to albopictus 
(Skuse) with which it shares the presence of a prominent median longi- 
tudinal white scutal stripe, a patch of broad flat white scales on the 
lateral margin just before the level of the wing root and similar pleural 
and abdominal markings. It can be separated from albopictus by the 
presence of a small white patch of narrow scales on each scutal angle 
and a similar white patch just anterior to the posterior dorsocentral 
white line on each side. When scutal markings are rubbed off seatoi 
can easily be misidentified as albopictus. However, it can be dis- 
tinguished by the large median patch of white scales on abdominal 
tergum I which in albopictus is dark scaled. The male terminalia of 
seatoi though very similar to those of albopictus differs in having the 
ninth tergum with the middle part produced into a large rounded lobe 
whereas there is a conspicuous horn-like median projection in albopic- 
tus. The pupa of seatoi resembles that of albopicttts but can be recog- 
nized by having abdominal hairs 9-V-VI strongly developed and 
thickened whereas they are weak and thin in albopictus. The larva of 
seatoi is also very similar to that of albopictus but can easily be identi- 
fied by having the comb scale with prominent basal denticles at the 
base of the apical spine. In albopictus the comb scale has only very 
fine denticles or fringes in this position. Having the aegi/pti type of 
comb scales, seatoi can easily be mistaken for aegijpti. However, it 
differs in having the ventral brush with 4 pairs of hairs, each of which 
is usually single whereas in aegypti there are 5 pairs of these hairs, 
each of which is branched, also the meso- and metapleural spines in 
aegypti are thicker and hooked apically. 

BIOLOGY. The immature stages of seatoi have been collected in 
bamboo pots placed: (1) in an orchard plantation and in a village 
(BC-02965, BC-02986, BC-03009, BC-03019), (2) set on the ground 
in a mangrove forest (BC-02982, BC-02998), (3) set in a mangrove 
tree (BC-03005). It was also found in banana trees (KB-51-12, CL- 
12-100). On two occasions the immature stages were associated with 
albopictus (BC-02965, BC-02986); on two others with aegypti (BC- 
02998, BC-03005) and once with albopictus and Armigeres sp. (BC- 
03009). 



proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 71, no. 2, june, 1969 239 

Acknowledgments 

1 am grateful to Drs. Botha de Meillon and Alan Stone for the helpful assistance 
in connection with this paper and for critical review of the manuscript. 1 also 
extend my thanks to Mr. Vichai Malikul of the South East Asia Mosquito Project 
for his help in making the drawings. 

References 

Barraud, P. J. 1934. The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. 

Diptera 5, family Culicidae, tribes Megarhinini and Culicini. Taylor and Francis, 

London, 463 pp. 
Huang, Y. M. 1968. Neotype designation for Acdes (Stegomyia) albopictus 

(Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 70(4):297-302. 
Muspratt, J. 1956. The Stegomyia mosquitoes of South Africa and some 

neighbouring territories. Mem. Ent. Soc. S. Afr., No. 4, 138 pp. 



BOOK REVIEW 



Ecology and Biogeography of High Altitude Insects. M. S. Mani. 1968. W. 
Junk, The Hague, Netherlands, Series Entomologica, Vol. 4. xiv + 527 pp., 
80 figs. $27.80. 

This book is likely to be useful to graduate students and investigators studying 
the ecology and distribution of insects; it contains ample discussions of principles 
and numerous and well-documented references. Tlie autlior, of St. Jolm's College, 
Agra, India, became well known in 1962 when he published a book entitled 
"Introduction to High Altitude Entomology," which dealt mainly with the 
Himalayan Mountains. Since then, he has broadened his scope by studying col- 
lections from various European and Central Asiatic mountains and by collecting 
personally in several ranges in Russia. Here, he provides introductions to the 
terrain and insect fauna of most of the world's important mountains. The emphasis 
is on ecology so far as principles are concerned, and the book presents the char- 
acteristics of high altitude insects well, though a larger portion of tlie book is 
devoted to the review of different mountain ranges. 

Among the ecological specializations of high altitude insects are the following: 
1. Melanism, frequently including deeper tones of yellow, orange, etc., than at 
low altitudes, in addition to black and brown. 2. Reduction or loss of wings; 
percentages of brachyptery and apterism increase with altitude. 3. Smaller body 
size. 4. Sometimes an increase in insulation, as in more air space under the elytra 
of some beetles. 5. More species with protective hairs, scales, body waxes, in some 
cases thus retarding evaporation from the body. 6. Greater ability to withstand 
cold. Though the special peculiarities of mountain insects often are marked, nearly 
every one of the peculiarities occurs in some lowland fonns. 

On mountain tops some important factors are the protective snow cover, ability 
to withstand or avoid strong winds and intense light, development of favorable 
hibernation habits and life cycles, and the very frequent utilization of open surfaces 
of snow or glacial ice as foraging areas. Glaciers are "storehouses of food" both 



240 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

on their upper surfaces and at their mouths where organic debris occurs in the 
melt-water. 

The ecological interrelationships of insects on mountains may be quite different 
from those in lowland forests and grasslands. Some insects spend their entire 
lives high up, others go tliere by choice after reaching maturity, and many others 
are carried there by air currents. Patterns of food habits at high altitudes favor 
monophagy instead of polyphagy in plant feeders, the decrease or entire lack of 
night-flying insects and with that condition little or no pollination of plants at 
night. Collembola and Acarina are very abundant at high altitudes, as they are 
in the polar areas that support arthropods. A great variety of ecological niches 
occur on mountains, ranging from snow surface to caves, beneath stones, and 
aquatic situations. Examples of maximum recorded altitudes for breeding arthro- 
pods are 6,700 meters (21,976 ft.) for spiders, 6,300 m. (20,664 ft.) for Collembola, 
5,600 m. (18,368 ft.) for Coleoptera, and 5,490 m. (18,007 ft.) for Acrididae 
( grasshoppers ) . There is an abrupt decrease in the number of species in most 
groups when the upper limit of trees is reached. 

The book closes with a bibliography of 1,141 titles and a 70-page index. It is 
a substantially constructed and very informative volume which may stimulate 
more thorough study of mountain insects. In the U. S. there have been some 
memorable studies, such as the early reports from the White Mountains of New 
Hampshire by Samuel H. Scudder and Annie Trumbull Slosson, the 1940 review 
by C. P. Alexander of the Presidential Range, N. H., as a biological environment, 
and the recent penetrating observations of high altitude Orthoptera In Colorado 
by Gordon Alexander and his students. However, there are numerous U. S. 
mountains which have not been examined critically for localized insects, to say 
nothing of refined studies of their ecology. 

Readers unfamiliar with the special vocabulary of ecology will find fairly 
numerous poorly defined terms, such as hypolithic, hypsoblont, cryophlle, Isophypse, 
and terricoly, and I think a short glossary would have been helpful. Although 
some small sketch maps are included, somewhat larger ones would better orient 
readers unacquainted with foreign mountain ranges. A few statements based on 
literature review are misleading, for Instance the statement that dead grasshoppers 
imbedded in the Grasshopper Glacier, Montana, are at least 600 years old, when, 
in fact, carbon-14 tests suggest they may well be less than 200 years of age. 
Naturally enough, a compilation such as some lists of typical mountain insects 
contains some out-of-date scientific names. Though references to Old World 
mountains, especially those of Asia, are very full, discussions of the New World 
mountains and their insect inhabitants are less detailed and obviously not based 
on first-hand experience. 

In spite of minor criticisms, this is a scholarly work, combining field experience, 
seasoned analysis of ecological factors, and extensive library work into a book I am 
delighted to recommend, not for hght reading, but for careful study or occasional 
consultation. — Ashley B. Gurney, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology 
Research Division, ARS, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 241 

SUMMARY REPORTS OF SOCIETY OFFICERS FOR 1968 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY 

(For the fiscal year 1 November 1967 to 31 October 1968) 

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Membership on 31 October 1968 483 

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The membership is distributed among 43 states, the District of Columbia, 2 Terri- 
tories, and 15 foreign countries. 

Circulation of the Proceedings (September, 1968 issue): 

States 501 

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Total 784 

Distribution of the Proceedings (September, 1968 issue): 

To members 461 

To subscribers 323 

Total - -- 784 

The Proceedings go to members and subscribers in 50 states, the District of 
Columbia, 2 Territories, and 44 foreign countries. Respectfully submitted, Da\id 
H. Smith, Corresponding Secretary. 

TREASURER 

(For the period 1 November 1967 to 31 October 1968) 

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Resi;)ectfully submitted, Arthuh K. BumMTT, Jr., Treasurer 



242 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

EDITOR 

(For tlie calendar year 1968) 

Four numbers of the Proceedings were published in 1968. All of the 386 pages 
were devoted to scientific papers, notes, book reviews, minutes of meetings and 
announcements. Seventy-nine scientific papers and notes were published during 
the year. The Society and the Proceedings benfitted from 8 paid papers of 46% 
pages. This did not cause the articles of regular contributors to be delayed. 
Respectfully submitted, Paul M. Marsh, Editor. 

CUSTODIAN 

( For the period 1 November 1967 to 31 October 1968) 

The value of stock sold by the Custodian's office amounted to $1226.46. Of 
this, $246.25 was for 41 copies of tlie Memoirs, $17.00 for 9 copies of the Weld 
Vokmies and $1043.88 for complete sets and miscellaneous numbers of the 
Proceedings. Sales of the Memoirs were: No. 1, 3 copies; No. 2, 2 copies; No. 3, 
19 copies; No. 4, 14 copies; No. 5, 3 copies. A copy of the complete detailed 
report is on file with the Recording Secretary. Respectfully submitted, Robert 
L. Smiley, Custodiun. 



ON THE TRUE IDENTITY OF CYCLORYA ATTEMS 

( ChILOPODA : GeOPHILOlM01\PHA : BALLOPHILmAE ) 

In 1947 (Sonderab. Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 55:55) Attems proposed a new 
geophilomorph genus and species from Peru, Cijclorya porosa, intimating but 
not stating outright that it was a tremantoryine oryid. Reading the original descrip- 
tion, one is led to two suspicions, (a) that porosa is almost certainly not an oryid, 
(b) that it is either a schendylid or, more likely, a ballophilid. 

Working in tlie Attems' collection at Vienna, I came upon the holotypic ma- 
terial. There is a single slide marked type in Attems' handwiiting, whereupon 
are mounted in gelatin mixture: the cephalic plate with attached antermae, both 
maxillae and mandibles, and the final half dozen body segments. Separately in 
a vial is the remainder of the body, which has been treated with a strong corrosive. 
In spite of their very unsatisfactory state of preservation, these parts are sufficient 
to permit a confident generic identification. 

The specimen is not an oryid, as must be clear from Attems' description; it is 
a ballophilid. Furthemiore, considering the specimen and in addition Attems' 
description, in my judgment it is plainly referable to Diplethmiis Cook, 1899 (Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Wash. 4:306. Type-species: D. mexicantis Cook, 1899, monotypic). 
Unfortunately, so fragmented is the specimen and in such poor condition, and so 
imprecise (and in places so erroneous) is its original description that it is not 
possible confidently to determine its specific identity. 

In summary, Ctjclonja, a ballophilid, whose type-species by original designation 
and monotypy is C porosa Attems, is a subjective junior synonym of Diplethmus 
Cook, 1899. 

Undertaken with the aid of a grant from the National Science Foundation. For 
his hospitality and generous cooperation I am indebted to Dr. Gerhard Pretzmann, 
Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. — R. E. Crabill, Jr., Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, B.C. 20560. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 243 

MEMBERSHIP LIST OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
OF WASHINGTON 

(On record as of June 1, 1969) 

* Honorary Member • Life Member Others — Active Members 

Abe, Dennis F., P.O. Box 17134, Dulles Intl. Airport, Washington, D.C. 20041 
Adams, Jean R., Insect Path. Lab., ARS, USDA, Agr. Res. Center, Beltsville, 

Md. 20705 
Addington, R. J., Box 17134, Dulles Intl. Airport, Washington, D.C. 20041 
Adler, Victor E., 5024 Townsend Way, Bladensburg, Md. 20710 
Aitken, Thomas H. C, Rockefeller Found., Belem Virus Lab., Caixa Postal, 

636, Belem, Para, Brazil 
Alford, Harold C, Pesticides Reg. Div., ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250 
Allen, Edward J., 227 Lastner La., Greenbelt, Md. 20770 
Allen, Harry W., ARS, USDA, P.O. Box 150, Moorestown, N.J. 08057 
Altman, Robert M., A.F.P.C.B., Walter Reed Army Medical Ctr., Washington, 

D.C. 20012 
Anderson, Donald M., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
Anderson, L. D., Ent. Dept., Univ. Calif., Riverside, Calif. 92502 
Anderson, W. H., Rt. 2, Snow Hill, Md. 21863 
App, B. A., Entom. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, Md. 

20705 
Arnaud, Paul H., Ent. Dept., Calif. Acad, of Sci., San Francisco, Calif. 94118 
Arnell, J. Hal, Zool. & Ent. Dept., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 
Ashlock, Peter D., Ent. Dept., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 66044 
Autry, Homer V., 201 Post Office Bldg., 13th & Alice St., Oakland, Calif. 94612 
Baker, Edward W., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Room 3137 South Bldg., 

Washington, D.C. 20250 
Baker, W. L., 4418 Underwood St., Hyattsville, Md. 20782 
Balduf, Walter V., 1509 Delmont Ct., Urbana, 111. 61801 
Ball, George E., Ent. Dept., Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 
Bare, Clarence O., 6019 Bonneau Road, Chamberlayne Heights, Richmond, 

Va. 23227 
Barker, Z. Allen, Plant Quar. Div., ARS, USDA, Room 554, Fed. Cent. Bldg., 

Hyattsville, Md. 20781 
Barnhart, Clyde S., Sr., 715 Joppa Farm Road, Joppatown, Joppa, Md. 21085 
Barnum, Andrew, 581 S. 600 E., St. George, Utah 84770 
Barr, A. Ralph, Div. of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, School of Pub. Health, 

Center for Health Sciences, Univ. Calif., Los Angeles, Calif. 90024 
Barr, Wm. F., Ent. Dept., Univ. Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83843 
Barry, Cornelius, Inst. Intl. Medicine, School of Medicine, Univ. Md., Balti- 
more, Md. 21201 
Beal, R. S., Jr., Div. of Genl. Studies, Arizona St. Coll., Flagstaff, Ariz. 86001 
Bechtel, Robert C, Nevada State Dept. Agr., P.O. Box 1209, Reno, Nev. 89504 
Becker, Edward C, Ent. Res. Inst., K. W. Neatby Bldg., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 
Belkin, John N., Zool. Dept., Univ. Calif., Los Angeles, Cahf. 90024 
Bell, R. T., Zool. Dept., Uni\'. Vt., Burlington, Vt. 05401 



244 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Bender, Alva H., 4610 Amherst Rd., College Park, Md. 20740 

Bender, Edward K., 506 Midland Rd., Silver Spring, Md. 20904 

Bennett, Wm. H., Southern Forest Exp. Sta., 2500 Shreveport Hwy., Pineville, 

La. 71360 
Berg, George H., Plant Prod. & Prot. Div., FAO-UN, Via Delle Temie, Di 

Caracella, Rome, Italy 
Bergman, Paul W., Fed. Ext. Serv., Room 5408 S. Bldg., USDA, Washington, 

D.C. 20250 
Berlin, O. G. W., Zool. Dept., Univ. Calif., Los Angeles, Cahf. 90024 
Bemer, Lewis, Bio. Dept., Univ. Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32603 
Bick, George H., Bio. Dept., St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Ind. 46637 
Bickley, Wm. E., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
Billings, S. C, Plant Pest Control Div., ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250 
Bishopp, F. C, 848-6th St., Manhattan Beach, Calif. 90266 
Bissell, T. L., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
Blake, Doris H., 3416 N. Glebe Rd., Arlington, Va. 22207 
Blanchard, Andre, 3023 Underwood, P.O. Box 20304, Houston, Texas 77025 
Bodenstein, W. G., Box 168C, Rt. 1, Crownsville, Md. 21032 
Boettcher, Richard A., 4901 41st St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20016 
Bohart, Richard M., Ent. Dept., Univ. Calif., Davis, Calif. 95616 
Bohnsack, Kurt K., Zool. Dept., San Diego St. Coll., San Diego, Calif. 92115 
Bongberg, J. W., Forest Service, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250 
Boyd, Ehzabeth M., Mount Holyoke Coll., South Hadley, Mass. 01075 
Bram, Ralph A., Beltsville Parasit. Lab., USDA, Bldg. 104F, Agr. Res. Ctr., 

Beltsville, Md. 20705 
Braun, Bernard H., P.O. Box 287, Beltsville, Md. 20705 
Bravi, Eugene M., MSC, USNR, Navy Med. Field Res. Lab., Camp Lejeune, 

N.C. 28542 
Breland, Osmond P., Zool. Dept., Univ. Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 
Buckett, John, Bur. Ent., Calif. Dept. Agr., Sacramento, Calif. 95814 
Bullock, Howard R., Cotton Insect Res. Br., USDA, P.O. Box 1033, Old Ft. 

Brown, Brownsville, Texas 78521 
Bunn, Ralph W., Box 411 A, Rt. 3, Wild Rose Shore, Annapolis, Md. 21403 
Burditt, Arthur K., Jr., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, 

Md. 20705 
Burks, B. D., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Busbey, Ruth L., 4819 Delaware St., Berwyn, Md. 20741 
Butler, Linda, Hort. Dept., W. Va. Univ., Morgantown, W. Va. 26506 
Callaway, Minnie B., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250 
Camin, Joseph H., Ent. Dept., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 66044 
Camp, Marjorie J., 2630O S.W. 162nd Ave., Rt. 1, Homestead, Fla. 33030 
Campbell, Frank L., 2475 Virginia Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037 
Campbell, John M., Ent. Res. Inst., Cent. E.xp. Farm, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 
Campbell, Roy E., 9649 El Venado Dr., Whittier, Calif. 90603 
Carbonell, C. S., Casilla De Correo 490, Montevideo, Uruguay 
Carr, Jane, Bangall, N.Y. 12506 

Carrington, Juliet H., 415 Palm Lane, Clermont, Fla. 32711 
Cartwright, O. L., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 245 

Casebeer, Richard S., Educ. Dept., Amer. Nat. Hist., Central Park W. at 

79th St., N.Y., N.Y. 10024 
Cashatt, Everett, 111. State Museum, Springfield, 111. 62706 
Cerqueira, Nelson L., I. N. P. A., Caixa Postal 478, Manaus, Aniazones, Brasil 
Charpentier, Philip O., Dept. of Health, W. Hartford, Conn. 06107 
Chermock, Ralph L., Bio. Dept., Parsons College, Fairfield, Iowa 52556 
Chittick, Howard A., Fairfax Biol. Lab., Clinton Corners, N.Y. 12514 
Clady, Michael D., Inst, for Fisheries Res., Univ. Museums Annex, Ann Arbor, 

Mich. 48104 
Clarke, J. F. Gates, Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Clausen, C. P., Ent. Dept., Univ. Calif., Riverside, Calif. 92502 
Cohen, Edgar A., Jr., 1311 Cresthaven Dr., Silver Spring, Md. 20903 
Cole, Frank R., 2100 Carlson Blvd., Richmond, Calif. 94804 
Compton, Charles C, Parktown House Apts., #A-2, 11 Raritan Ave., Highland 

Park, N.J. 08904 
Cook, David R., Bio. Dept., Wayne St. Univ., Detroit, Mich. 48202 
Cooper, James F., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, Md. 

20705 
Cooper, Kenneth W., Life Sci. Dept., Univ. Calif., Riverside, Calif. 92502 
Cortes, Raul, Estacion Experimental Agronomica, Univ. de Chile, Maipu (Santi- 
ago), Chile 
Cory, E. N., 4710 College Ave., College Park, Md. 20740 
Coulson, Jack R., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, Md. 

20705 
Crabill, Ralph E., Jr., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Craig, G. B., Bio. Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556 
Crooks, E. Elliot, 7521 Riverdale Road, New Carrollton, Md. 20784 
Cross, Hansen F., Bio. Dept, Ga. St. Coll., Atlanta, Ga. 30303 
Crossley, D. A., Jr., 190 Hancock Lane, Hancock Est., Athens, Ga. 30601 
Cunhffe, Frederick, Prospect Hill, Walpole, N.H. 03608 
Curtin, Thomas J., 1937 Birkdale Rd., Columbus, Ohio 43227 
Cuslmian, Helena G., 1342 Windy Hill Rd., McLean, Va. 22101 
Custer, Claude C, P.O. Box 46, New Waterford, Ohio 44445 
Dahms, R. G., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, Md. 20705 
Darling, Thomas G., Plant Quar. Div., ARS, USDA, Fed. Ctr. Bldg., Hyatts- 

ville, Md. 20782 
Darsie, Richard F., Jr., USAID/METC, APO, San Francisco, Calif. 96528 
D'Ascoli, Alfredo, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, 

Apartado 4579, Maracay, Venezuela 
Davidson, John A., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20740 
Davidson, Ralph H., Ent. Dept., Ohio St. Univ., Columbus, Ohio 43210 
Davis, D. R., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Davis, Louis G., 364 Windover Ave., N.W., Vienna, Va. 22180 
Davis, Robert, Ent. Dept., Univ. Ga., Athens, Ga. 30601 
Dean, Herbert A., P.O. Box 942, Weslaco, Texas 78596 
Dearborn, Richard G., Spring Hill Farm, Rt. 1, Readfield, Maine 04355 
DeLong, D. M., Ent. & Zool. Dept., Ohio St. Univ., Columbus, Ohio 43210 
De Meillon, Botha, Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Denning, D. G., 2016 Donald Dr., Moraga, Calif. 94556 



246 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Dews, Samuel C, Apt. 405, 415 Kennebec St., Oxon Hill, Md. 20021 

Dicke, F. F., 1430 Harding Ave., Ames, Iowa 50010 

Dimmitt, Wm. A., 2214 Jervis Rd., Columbus, Ohio 43221 

Dodge, H. R., Bradenton Trailer Park, Bradenton, Fla. 33505 

Donley, David E., 287 W. Heffner St., Delaware, Ohio 43015 

Donnelly, Thomas W., Geol. Dept., State Univ. N.Y., Binghamton, N.Y. 13901 

Donohoe, H. C, Mill Race Fam, Clinton, N.J. 08809 

Dos Passes, Cyril F., Wasliington Corners, Mendham, N.J. 07945 

Dow, Richard P., P.O. Box 1232, Vero Beach, Fla. 32960 

Dozier, Herbert L., 3715 Marlborough Way, College Park, Md. 20740 

Drummond, R. O., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, P.O. Box 232, Kerrville, Texas 

78028 
Duckworth, W. Donald, Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 

20560 
Duret, Jose Pedro, Venezuela 2130, Buenos Aires, Argentina 
Durkee, Helen Trembley, 113 Sonora Ave., Danville, Calif. 94526 
Dutky, S. R., Insect Path. Lab., ARS, USDA, Bldg. EC, Agr. Res. Ctr., Belts- 

ville, Md. 20705 
Eads, Richard B., U.S. Quar. Sta., Room 3015, Ferry Bldg., San Francisco, 

Calif. 94111 
Easter, Stephen S., Port Republic, Md. 20676 

Edmunds, George F., Jr., Bio. Dept., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 
Edmunds, Lafe R., 6003 Leawood Dr., Alexandria, Va. 22310 
Elgert, Gerald G., 2816 Munster Rd., Baltimore, Md. 21234 
Elias, Maxim K., 4520 MacArthur Blvd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007 
Elkins, Joe C, 7010 Alderney Dr., Houston, Teaxs 77055 
Emerson, K. C, 2704 N. Kensington St., Arlington, Va. 22207 
Enns, Wilbur R., Ent. Dept., Univ. Mo., Columbia, Mo. 65201 
Evans, Howard E., Museum of Comparative Zool., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, 

Mass. 02138 
Evans, Wm. G., Ent. Dept., Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 
Fairchild, Graham B., P.O. Box 42, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone 
Fales, John, Ridge Rd., Neeld Est., Huntington, Md. 20639 
Fedde, Gerhard, Div. of Forest Prot. Res., S.E. Forest Exp. Sta., P.O. Box 2570, 

Asheville, N.C. 28802 
Fennah, R. G., 28 Clareville St., London, S.W. 7, England 
Field, Gordon, Plant Path. & Ent. Dept., Univ. Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I. 

02881 
Field, Wm. D., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Fisk, Frank W., Faculty of Ent., Ohio St. Univ., Columbus, Ohio 43210 
Flechtmann, Carlos, Escola Superior de Agricultura, "Luis de Aueiroz," Caixa 

Postal 9, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil 
Fhnt, Oliver S., 2901 Woodlawn Ave., Falls Church, Va. 22042 
Flint, Ruth A., 2901 Woodlawn Ave., Falls Church, Va. 22042 
Floore, Thomas G., 3314 Kirby Lane, Jeffersontown, Ky. 40029 
Fluno, John A., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, Md. 

20705 
Foote, Benjamin A., Bio. Dept., Kent St. Univ., Kent, Ohio 43130 



PHOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 247 

Foote, Richard H., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, 

Md. 20705 
Forattini, Osvvaldo P., Univ. Sao Paulo, Ave. Dr. Arnadlo 715, Caixa Postal 

8099, Sao Paulo, S.P., Brazil 
Foster, James R., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
Fox, Jean Walker, Insects & Spiders, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213 
Fox, Irving, Medical Zool. Dept., Sch. Trop. Med., San Juan, Puerto Rico 00905 
Fox, Richard C, Ent. & Zool. Dept., Clemson Univ., Clemson, S.C. 29631 
Fracker, S. B., 4545 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Apt. 931, Washington, D.C. 20008 
Franclemont, John C, Ent. Dept., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 14850 
Friauf, James J., P.O. Box 1612 Sta. B., Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tenn. 37203 
Froeschner, Richard C, Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Furniss, Robert L., 6750 S.W. 35th Ave., Portland, Ore. 97219 
Gagne, Raymond J., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
Gahan, James B., 3845 S.W. 3rd Ave., Gainesville, Fla. 32601 
Gahndo-Toro, Dario, Apartado Aereo 59-23, Bogota, D.E., Columbia, S.A. 
Gammons, John G., 3123 Gofer Road, Falls Church, Va. 22042 
Garrett, Wallace T., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
Cell, Gordon D., Bio. Dept., Northern Mich. Univ., Marquette, Mich. 49855 
Centner, Louis G., 22 S. Groveland Ave., Medford, Ore. 97501 
Gentry, James W., 2918 Southview Rd., Ellicott City, Md. 21043 
Gerberg, Eugene J., Insect Control & Res. Inc., 1111 N. Rolling Rd., Baltimore, 

Md. 21228 
Gilbert, Engel, 2608 Graybill Dr., Burtonsville, Md. 20730 
Gjullin, C. M., Space 11, 1500 Villa Ave., Clovis, Calif. 93612 
Godek, Theodore D., 13605 Adiania St., Silver Spring, Md. 20906 
Good, N.E., N.Y. Health Dept., 901 N. Broadway, White Plains, N.Y. 10603 
Gordon, Robert D., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
Gorski, Leon J., Central Conn. St. College, New Britain, Conn. 06050 
Graf, J. E., 2035 Parkside Dr., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20012 
Granovsky, A. A., 2101 Scudder St., St. Paul, Minn. 55108 
Grant, Donald C, 955 Cambridge Rd., Redwood City, Calif. 94061 
Greenbaum, Harold N., Ent. Dept., Univ. Del., Newark, Del. 19711 
Gregg, R. E., Bio. Dept., Univ. Colo., BoiJder, Colo. 80302 

• Gressitt, J. Linsley, Pacific Science Board, Bisliop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii 

96819 

• Gurney, Ashley B., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 

ington, D.C. 20560 
Habeck, Dale H., Ent. Dept., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 32603 
Haeussler, G. J., Rt. 1, P.O. Box 423A, Epping Forest, Annapolis, Md. 21401 
Hagen, Kenneth S., Bio. Cont. Dept., Univ. Calif., 1050 San Pablo Ave., Albany, 

Calif. 94611 
Haines, K. A., Intl. Prog. Div., ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250 
Haller, H. L., 4407 38th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20016 
Hambleton, Edson J., 5140 Wortliington Dr., Washington, D.C. 20016 
Hamman, Robert E., 1545 18th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 



248 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Hansel, Gary J., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Hanson, John F., 670 Amherst R., South Hadley, Mass. 01075 
Harding, Wallace C, Jr., 7708 Topton St., Hyattsville, Md. 20784 
Hannan, Dan M., Nat. Resources Inst., Univ. Md., La Vale, Md. 21504 
Harmston, F. C, 1940 Larkspur Dr., Ft. Collins, Colo. 80521 
Harrison, Floyd P., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
Haskins, Caryl P., Carnegie Inst, of Wash., 1530 P. St., N.W., Washington, 

D.C. 20005 
Hatch, M. H., Burke Museum, Univ. Wash., Seattle, Wash. 98105 
Heimpel, A. M., Insect Path. Lab., ARS, USDA, Bldg. EA, Agr. Res. Ctr., 

BeltsviUe, Md. 20705 
Hendrickson, Wm. H., Nat. Park. Ser., 1100 Ohio Drive, S.W., Washington, 

D.C. 20242 
Herman, Lee H., Jr., Amer. Museum Nat. Hist., Central Park West at 79th 

St., N.Y., N.Y. 10024 
Herring, Jon, Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Hetrick, L. A., 1614 N.W. 12th Rd., Gainesville, Fla. 32601 
Higgins, Harold G., 2965 So. 14th East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84106 
Hirst, John M., Naval Medical Fid. Res. Lab., Camp Lejeune, N.C. 28542 
Hitchcock, Jim C., Jr., Div. Infect. & Trop. Dis., Sch. Pub. Health, Univ. Calif., 

Los Angeles, CaUf. 90024 
Hodges, Ronald W., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
Hoffman, Richard L., 1904 8th Street, Radford, Va. 24141 
Hoffmann, C. H., 6906 40th Ave., Hyattsville, Md. 20782 
Hoffmann, Wm. E., 938 Connecticut St., Lawrence, Kan. 66044 
Hoogstraal, Harry, NAMRU-3, Fleet Post Office, N.Y., N.Y. 09527 
Hopla, Cluff E., Zool. Dept., Univ. Okla., Nonnan, Okla. 73069 
Horning, Donald S., Jr., Ent. Dept., Univ. Cahf., Davis, Calif. 95616 
Howden, Henry F., 23 Trillium Ave., Ottawa 5, Ontario, Canada 
Howes, Gordon C, P.O. Box 201, El Centro, CaM. 92243 
Huang, Yiau Min, Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Hubbell, T. H., Museum of Zool., Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. 48104 
Hubert, Philip A., Jr., P.O. Box 513, Bell Port, L.I., N.Y. 11713 
Huckett, H. C, P.O. Box 38, Rt. 1, Riverhead, N.Y. 11901 
Hughes, John H., 2140 Briarwillow Dr., N.E., Atlanta, Ga. 30329 
Hull, W. B., Parasitology Div., Naval Medical Res. Inst., Bethesda, Md. 20014 
Hunter, Preston E., Ent. Dept., Univ. Ga., Athens, Ga. 30602 
Hutton, George L., 6304 Kirby Rd., Bethesda, Md. 20034 
Imai, Edwin M., USDA, 641 Washington St., Room 910, N.Y., N.Y. 10014 
Jacklin, Stanley W., 1009 Harris Dr., Fort Valley, Ga. 31030 
Jackson, Dale L., Bio. Dept., Univ. Akron, Akron, Ohio 44304 
Jacot-Guillannod, C, Albany Museum, Grahamstown, S. Africa 
James, Maurice T., Ent. Dept., Wash. St. Univ., Pullman, Wash. 99163 
Johnson, PhyUis T., Path. Proj., Faculty Res. Annex, Univ. Calif., Irvine, Calif. 

92664 
Jones, Robert H., 60 Hillside Dr., Lakev/ood, Colo. 80215 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 249 

Jones, Sloan E., 7115 Claymore Ave., Hyattsville, Md. 20782 

Joseph, Stanley R., Rt. 2, Eden, Md. 21822 

Keathley, J. Phillip, Dis. Vector Contr. Center, Naval Air Station, Alameda, 

Calif. 94501 
Kellen, Wm. R., 1836 N. Arthur, Fresno, Calif. 93705 
Khattat, Fadhil H., 6813 Nashville Rd., Lanham, Md. 20801 
Kidwell, Arthur S., 6754 Lisa Lane, Dunwoody, Ga. 30338 
Kimball, C. P., West Barnstable, Mass. 02668 

King, Edwin W., Ent. & Zool. Dept., Clemson Univ., Clemson, S.C. 29631 
Kingsolver, John, Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Kinzelbach, Regner K., Inst, fur Allgemeine Zoologie, Universitat Mainz, 65 

Mainz, Saarstrasse 21, Gennany 
Kissinger, David G., Bio. Dept., Atlantic Union College, South Lancaster, 

Mass. 01561 
Knight, Kenneth L., Ent. Dept., N.C. St. Univ., Raleigh, N.C. 27607 
Knipling, E. F., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, Md. 

20705 
Knowlton, George F., Utah St. Univ., Logan, Utah 84321 
Knutson, Lloyd V., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
Kohls, Glen M., Rocky Mt. Lab., U.S. Pub. Health Serv., Hamilton, Mont. 59840 
Kono, Tokuwo, 1806 Haussler Drive, Davis, Calif. 95616 
Kormilev, Nicholas A., Ent. Dept., Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii 96819 
Koski, Joe, P.O. Box 1026, Delran, N.J. 08075 

Krafsur, Elliot S., NAMRU-3 Field Facility Ethiopia, APO, N.Y., N.Y. 09319 
Kramer, James P., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
• Krombein, Karl V., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Kruseman, G., Zool. Museum, Af deling Entomologie, Zeeburgcrdijk 21, Amster- 
dam (C), Neth. 
Laffoon, Jean L., Zool. & Ent. Dept., Iowa St. Univ., Ames, Iowa 50012 
Lamore, Donald H., 419 W. Walnut, Nevada, Mo. 64772 
Lanchester, Horace P., 10805 Huntley Place, Silver Spring, Md. 20902 
Lane, C. J., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Lane, M. C, 3313 Bridgeport Way, Tacoma, Wash. 98466 
Langford, George S., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
La Rivers, Ira, Biol. Soc. of Nevada, P.O. Box 167, Reno, Nev. 89439 
Lassmann, Guenther W., 20 de Noviembre Oriente 327, Jalapa, Ver., Mexico 
Lattin, John D., Ent. Dept., Oregon St. Univ., Corvallis, Ore. 97331 
Laudani, Hamilton, ARS, U.S. Embassy, APO, N.Y. 09794 
Leon, Luis A., Casilla De Correos 457, Quito, Eucador, S.A. 
Leonard, David E., Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta., P.O. Box 1106, New Haven 4, 

Conn. 06405 
Leonard, Justin W., Sch. of Nat. Resources, Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

48104 
Leonard, M. D., 2480 16th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009 
Levine, Harvey R., Bio. Dept., Quinnipiac Coll., Hamdcn, Conn. 06518 
Lewis, Robert E., Zool. & Ent. Dept., Iowa St. Univ., Ames, Iowa 50010 



250 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Lien, J. C, Medical Ecology Dept., U.S. Naval Medical Res. Unit #2, 7-1 

Kung Yuan Lu, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China 
Lin, Cheng Shan, Bio. Dept., Huston-Tillotson College, Austin, Texas 78702 
Lin, Norman, West Va. Univ., Morgantown, W. Va. 26506 
Linam, Jay, Dept. of Biol., Southern Colo. St. Coll., Pueblo, Colo. 81005 
Linkfield, Robert L., 2.3 Hopatcong Dr., Trenton, N.J. 08638 
Lipovsky, Louis J., Rt. 1, Brunswick, Maine 04011 
Luginbill, Philip, Jr., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, 

Md. 20705 
Lund, Horace O., Ent. Dept., Univ. Ga., Athens, Ga. 30602 
Lyon, Robert J., Life Sci. Dept., Los Angeles City College, Los Angeles, Calif. 

90029 
Mabry, Jean E., 1248 Sunset Ave., Lakeland, Fla. 33801 
Magner, J. M., Monsanto, 800 N. Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 63166 
Main, Andrew J., Jr., Encephalitis Field Sta., Lakeville Hospital, Middleboro, 

Mass. 02346 
Maldonado-Capriles, J., Cayez Regional College, Cayez, Puerto Rico 00633 
Mallack, Jerry, 2138 Apple Tree Lane, Silver Spring, Md. 20904 
Manglitz, George R., Ent. Dept., Univ. Nebr., Lincoln, Nebr. 68504 
Marinkelle, C. J., Microbio. Dept., Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, D.E., 

Colombia 
Marsh, Paul M., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Mason, H. C, Truck Crops Bldg., EB, Agr. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, Md. 20705 
McCafferty, Wm. P., Zool. & Ent. Dept., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 

84112 
McComb, Charles W., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
McDaniel, Burniss, Ent.-Zool. Dept., S. Dak. St. Univ., Brookings, S. Dak. 57006 
McFadden, M. W., Ent. Dept., Wash. St. Univ., Pullman, Wash. 99163 
McGovran, E. R., 7404 Radcliffe, College Park, Md. 20740 
McGregor, E. A., 6317 S. Wash. Ave., Apt. F, Whittier, Calif. 90601 
McGuire, J. U., Biometrical Services, ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, 

Md. 20705 
Mclntyre, Thomas, 1515 Circle Dr., Winchester, Annapolis, Md. 21401 
Medler, J. T., Entom., Russell Labs., Univ. Wis., Madison, Wis. 53706 
Menke, A. S., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Messersmith, Donald H., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
Michael, Albert S., 17605 Dominion Dr., Sandy Spring, Md. 20860 
Mitchell, Lewis E., Shell Chemical Co., 1700 K St. N.W., Suite 1103, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20006 
Mitchell, Robert T., Patuxent Wildlife Res. Ctr., Laurel, Md. 20810 
Mockford, Edward L., Bio. Div., 111. St. Nonnal Univ., Normal, 111. 61761 
Moore, Thomas E., Div. Insects, Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

48104 
Morgan, C. V. G., Ent. Div., Canada Dept. Agr., Res. Sta., Summerland, B.C., 

Canada 
Morrill, A. W., Jr., Pacific Div., Nav. Fac. Engineering Cmd., FPO, San 

Francisco, Calif. 96610 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 251 

* Muesebeck, C. F. W., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Munson, S. C, Bio. Dept., George Washington Univ., Washington, D.C. 20005 
Murdoch, Wallace P., 13220 Lime Tree Road, Silver Spring, Md. 20904 
Murray, Wilham S., 1281 Bartonshire Way, Rockville, Md. 20854 
Murrill, Robert D., 574 Cottonwood Dr., Williamsville, N.Y. 14221 
Nakahara, Sueo, 9014 Federal Office Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 98104 

Neff, Stuart E., Water Res. Lab., Univ. Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 40208 

Nelson, Charles H., Ent. Dept., Univ. Mass., Amherst, Mass. 01003 

Nelson, G. H., Anat. Dept., Kans. City Coll. of Osteopathy & Surgery, Kansas 

City, Mo. 64124 
Nelson, R. H., 7309 Finns Lane, Lanham, Md. 20801 
Neunzig, H. H., Ent. Dept., N.C. St. Coll., Raleigh, N.C. 27607 
Newkirk, Richard A., Plant Pest Contr, Div., ARS, USDA, Fed. Ctr. Bldg., 

Hyattsville, Md. 20782 
Newson, Harold D., Prev. Med. Div., Office Surg. Genl., Dept. Army, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20315 
Nielsen, Lewis T., Invert. Zool. & Ent., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 
Oakjones, D. E., 1920 Letitia Ave., Baltimore, Md. 21230 
Oakley, R. G., 1914 Franklin Ave., McLean, Va. 22101 

Olive, A. Thomas, Bio. Dept., Wake Forest Coll., Winston-Salem, N.C. 27102 
Oman, Paul W., Ent. Dept., Oregon St. Univ., Corvallis, Ore. 97331 
O'Neill, Kellie, Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250 
Owens, Howard B., 11208 Stephen Lane, Beltsville, Md. 20705 
Parrish, Dale W., Ent. Dept., Oklahoma St. Univ., Stillwater, Okla. 74074 
Parsons, Margaret, Rt. 1, Lucas, Ohio 44843 
Peck, Oswald, 6 Mt. Pleasant Ave., Ottawa 1, Ont., Canada 
Peterson, B. V., Ent. Res. Inst., Central Exper. Farm, Ottawa, Ont., Canada 
Peyton, E. L., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Phillips, Wm. G., 1497 W. 10th St., Frederick, Md. 21701 
Pipkin, Sarah B., Zool. Dept., Howard Univ., P.O. Box 138, Washington, 

D.C. 20001 
Polhemus, John T., 3115 S. York, Englewood, Colo. 80110 
Pomerantz, Charles, 900 Atlantic Shores Blvd., Hallandale, Fla. 33009 
Poole, Robert W., Ent. Dept., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 14850 

* Poos, F. W., 3225 N. Albemarle St., Arlington, Va. 22207 
Porter, Bennet A., 8420 Navahoe Dr., Silver Spring, Md. 20903 
Poyner, Martin M., 1104 William St., Fredericksburg, Va. 22401 
Prasad, V., Biology Dept., Wayne St. Univ., Detroit, Mich. 48202 
Pratt, Harry D., 879 Glen Arden Way, N.E., Atlanta, Ga. 30306 
Price, Roger D., Ent. Dept., Univ. Minn., St. Paul, Minn. 55101 
Rainwater, C. F., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Beltsville, Md. 20705 
Rainwater, H. Ivan, Plant Quar. Div., ARS, USDA, Fed. Ctr. Bldg., Hyatts- 
ville, Md. 20781 

Ramos, J. A., Bio. Dept., Univ. Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00709 
Ramsey, Maynard J., Plant Quar. Div., ARS, USDA, Fed. Ctr. Bldg., Hyatts- 
ville, Md. 20781 
Reed, L. B., 1909 Blackbriar, Silver Spring, Md. 20903 
Reed, W. D., 3609 Military Rd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20015 
Rees, Don M., Zool. & Ent. Dept., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 



252 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Reeves, Joseph A., P.O. Box 887, Fern Park, Fla. 32730 

Reichard, Charles V., Bio. Dept., Providence Coll., Providence, R.I. 02918 

Richardson, H. H., Environ. Sci. & Engr. Dept., Sch. of Public Health, Univ. 

N.C., Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514 
Riegel, Garland T., Zool. Dept., Eastern 111. Univ., Charleston, 111. 61920 
Riherd, Paul T., P.O. Box 247, La Feria, Texas 78559 
Ritcher, Paul O., Ent. Dept., Oregon St. Univ., Corvallis, Ore. 97330 
Roberts, Donald R., Ent. Div., First U.S. Army Med. Lab. No. 1, Fort G. G. 

Meade, Md. 20755 
Robinson, Harold, Botany Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Rohwer, C. Gregor, Circle Drive, Winchester-on-Severn, Annapolis, Md. 21401 
Roth, Louis M., Brush Hill Rd., Sherbom, Mass. 01770 
Roth, Marc, Ent. Dept, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Rozeboom, L. E., 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, Md. 21205 
Rozen, Jerome G., Jr., Amer. Museum Nat. Hist., N.Y., N.Y. 10001 
Russell, Louise M., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250 
Ryckman, R. B., Microbio. Dept., Loma Linda Univ., Loma Linda, CaUf. 92354 
Saborsky, C. W., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20250 
Sailer, Reece, I., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, Md. 

20705 
Sanderson, Milton W., State Nat. Hist. Survey, Urbana, 111. 61801 
Santana, Frederick J., U.S. Navy Dis. Vector Contr. Ctr., U.S. Naval Air Sta. 

Alameda, Calif. 94501 
Scanlon, John E., Dept. Pathobiol. & Compar. Med., Univ. Texas, Sch. Pub. 

Health, P.O. Box 20186, Astrodome Sta., Houston, Texas 77025 
Schroeder, Philip M., Room 415, Admin. Bldg., Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, 

Md. 20705 
Schuster, Robert O., Ent. Dept., Univ. Calif., Davis, Calif. 95616 
Sedman, Y., Bio. Sci. Dept., Western 111. Univ., Macomb, 111. 61455 
Selander, Richard B., Ent. Dept., Univ. 111., Urbana, 111. 61803 
Shands, W. A., 17 Peters St., Orono, Maine 04473 
Shaw, Frank R., Ent. Dept., Univ. Mass., Amherst, Mass. 01003 
Shenefelt, Roy D., Entom., Russell Labs., Univ. Wis., Madison, Wis. 53706 
Shephard, Harold H., 2701 S. June St., Arlington, Va. 22202 
Sherman, Ralph W., 1713 Luzerne Ave., Silver Spring, Md. 20010 
Shewell, G. E., Ent. Res. Inst., Res. Br., Can. Agr., Cent. Expl. Farm, Ottawa, 

Ont., Canada 
Shockley, C. W., 1890 Bockman Rd., San Lorenzo, CaHf. 94580 
Shriver, David, 3612 Chase Terrace, Beltsville, Md. 20705 
Sims, George L., Jr., 5121 Hillcrest Lane, Virginia Beach, Va. 23462 
Sirivanskam, Sunthom, Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Skinner, Frank E., 1050 San Pablo Ave., Albany, Calif. 94706 
Slater, J. A., Zool. Dept., Univ. Conn., Storrs, Conn. 06268 
Smiley, Robert L., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250 
Smith, Clyde F., Ent. Dept., N.C. St. Univ., Raleigh, N.C. 27607 
Smith, David R., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Smith, Floyd F., 9022 Fairview Rd., Silver Spring, Md. 20910 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 253 

Snelling, Roy R., Los Angeles County Museum, 900 Exposition Blvd., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 90007 

• Snyder, Thomas E., Honorary President, 2801 Adams Mill Rd., N.W., Wash- 

ington, D.C. 20009 

• Sollers-Riedel, Helen, P.O. Bo.x 19009, Washington, D.C. 20036 
Sommennan, Kathryn M., Arctic Health Res. Lab., U.S. Pub. Health Serv., 

College, Alaska 99701 
Spangler, Paul J., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Spencer, C. B., Jr., 1211 Griffith Rd., Lake Forest, 111. 60045 
Spilman, Rose Ella, Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
Spilman, T. J., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Stage, Gerald I., Ent. Dept., U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 
Stanford, Chester L., 1120 Anesbury Lane, Alexandria, Va. 22308 
Stannard, Louis J., State Nat. Hist. Survey, Urbana, 111. 61801 
Starcke, Helle, 3040 Idaho Ave., N.W., Apt. 728, Washington, D.C. 20016 
Stegmaier, Carl E., Jr., 11335 N.W. 59th Ave., Hialeah, Fla. 33012 
Stehr, Wm. C, P.O. Box 199, Belmont, Wis. 53510 
Steinhauer, Allen L., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
Steyskal, George C, Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
St. George, R. A., 3305 Powder Mill Rd., Adelphi, Md. 20783 
Stibick, Jeffrey N. L., 3617 N. Rockinham St., Arlington, Va. 22213 
Stoltzfus, Wm. B., 1513 College Ave., Harrisonburg, Va. 22801 
Stone, Alan, Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Strandtmann, Russell, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii 96819 
Sullivan, W. N., Jr., 3601 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Apt. 802, Washington, D.C. 

20016 
Suman, Theodore W., Bio. Dept., Towson St. Coll., Baltimore, Md. 21204 
Summers, Francis M., Ent. Dept., Univ. Calif., Davis, Calif. 95616 
Swartzwelder, Ernestine B., Louisiana St. Univ., Sch. of Med., New Orleans, 

La. 70112 
Synave, H., Inst. Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium 
Tandan, B. K., Zool. Dept., Univ. Lucknow, Lucknow, India 
Tanner, Vasco M., Brigham Young Univ., Prove, Utah 84601 
Teller, Leslie W., Jr., Dis. Vector Contr. Ctr., Naval Air Sta., P.O. Box 43, 

Jacksonville, Fla. 32201 
Terbush, Lee E., Div. Microbiol., Food & Drug Admin., Washington, D.C. 
20204 

• Thomasson, Raymond F., 211 Wyoming St., Charleston, W. Va. 25302 
Thompson, Frederick, Ent. Dept., Univ. Mass., Amherst, Mass. 01002 
Thompson, John V., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Bldg. EA, Agr. Res. Ctr., 

Beltsville, Md. 20705 
Thompson, Patrick H., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Agr. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, 

Md. 20705 
Thornburg, Margaret C, 667 Euclid Ave., Glen Ellyn, 111. 60137 
Tibbitts, Ted, P.O. Box 967, Moab, Utah 84532 



254 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

Timberlake, P. H., 5438 Grand Ave., Riverside, Calif. 92504 
Tipton, Vernon J., Zool. Dept., Brigham Univ., Prove, Utah 84601 
Townes, George F., P.O. Box 10128, Fed. Sta., Greenville, S.C. 29601 
Townes, Henry, Amer. Ent. Inst., 5950 Warren Rd., Ann Arbor, Mich. 48105 
Townes, Marjorie, Amer. Ent. Inst., 5950 Warren Rd., Ann Arbor, Mich. 48105 
Townsend, L. H., Ent. Dept., E. Agr. Exp. Sta., Lexington, Ky. 40501 
Trager, Leonard, Jr., U.S.A. F. Hospital, Box 700, APO New York 09220 
Trapido, Harold, Rockefeller Found., Apartado Aereo 6555, Cali, Colombia 
Traub, Robert, MSC, 5702 Bradley Blvd., Bethesda, Md. 20014 
Traver, Jay R., 19 Moorland St., Amherst, Mass. 01002 
Travis, C. W., Municipal Ctr. Bldg., 3rd & C Sts., N.W., Washington, D.C. 

20001 
Turner, Eugene R., 1720 Albion Pi., Davis, Calif. 95616 
Varley, George C, Hope Dept. Ent., Univ. Museum, Oxford, England 
Vazquez, Alberto, 4812 Powell Rd., Fairfax, Va. 22030 

Vogt, George B., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 20560 
Wadley, F. M., 3215 N. Albemarle St., Arlington, Va. 22207 
Walker, D. W., Puerto Rico Nuclear Ctr., Univ. Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto 

Rico 00708 
Walker, Harry G., Los Angeles State & Co. Arboretum, P.O. Box 688, Arcadia, 

Calif. 91006 
Walker, Robert L., 7949 18th Ave., W. Hyattsville, Md. 20783 
Walkley, Luella M., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
Wallis, Robert C, Sect. Med. Ent., Yale Univ. Sch. Med., New Haven, Conn. 

06519 
Wallis, Robert L., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, 3706 Nob Hill Blvd., Yakima, 

Wash. 98902 
Walton, Margaret, 4323 XLidison Ave., Hyattsville, Md. 20781 
Webb, Ralph E., 5006 57th Ave., Apt. 5-B, Bladensburg, Md. 20710 
Weber, Neal A., No. 1 Whittier Pi., Swarthmore, Pa. 19081 
Weems, Howard V., Jr., Rt. 4, Box 355-N2, Gainesville, Fla. 32601 
Weisman, Donald M., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
Wendleton, Dan S., Margold Farm, Rt. 2, Lansdale, Pa. 19446 
Werner, Floyd, Ent. Dept., Univ. Ariz., Tucson, Ariz. 85717 
Wester, Clifford, 911 N. Ninth St., Stroudsburg, Pa. 18360 
Weisman, Kenneth E., Land O'Lakes, Wis. 54540 

Wharton, George W., Zool. & Ent. Dept., Ohio St. Univ., Columbus, Ohio 43210 
Wheeler, George C, Univ. Nevada, Desert Res. Inst., Reno, Nev. 89507 
Whitcomb, Robert F., Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA, Plant Ind. Sta., Beltsville, 

Md. 20705 
White, Richard E., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20560 
Whitsel, Richard H., San Mateo Co. Mosq. Abatement Distr., 1350 N. Carolan 

Ave., Burlingame, Calif. 94010 
Wilford, B. H., P.O. Box 524, Rt. 3, Ft. ColUns, Colo. 80521 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 255 

Williams, D. J., Commonwealth Inst. Ent., Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Cromwell 

Rd., London, S.W. 7, England 
Williams, Roger W., Sch. Pub. Health, Columbia Univ., N.Y., N.Y. 10032 
Wilson, Charles S., P.O. Box 5, Anchorage, Alaska 99501 
Wilson, Nixon, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii 96819 
Wirth, Willis W., Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington, 

D.C. 20560 
Woke, Paul A., 7213 Beacon Terrace, Bethesda, Md. 20034 
Wolbarsht, Myron L., Opthalmology Dept., Duke Univ. Med. Ctr., Durham, 

N.C. 27706 
Wood, F. E., Ent. Dept., Univ. Md., College Park, Md. 20742 
Wood, W. B., 4545 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008 
Yates, Lucile W., 1325 Windy Hill Rd., McLean, Va. 22101 
Young, David A., Jr., Ent. Dept., N.C. St. Univ., Raleigh, N.C. 27606 
Zimmennan, E. C, Hunter Farm, MacDowell Road, Peterborough, N.H. 03458 



256 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 2, JUNE, 1969 

THE GENERIC NAME CALLARCTIA AND ITS TYPE 

( Lepidopteba : Arctiidae ) 

In his proposal of the generic name Callarctia Packard states, "Tliis genus was 
first estabhshed by Godart, under the name Chelonia, which was previously 
used in the Mammalia {sic) in 1800. As it now stands I would restrict it to the 
two European species Chelonia fasciata and pudica, and to the new Californian 
species." This last is Callarctia ornata Packard. 

There is no question whatsoever but that Callarctia was proposed by Packard 
in 1864 as a replacement name for the then current, but preoccupied generic name, 
Clielonia Godart, 1823. Inasmuch as this is so, the type is ipso facto P[halaena] 
Bomhijx caja Linnaeus, 1758, which had been designated as the type of Chelonia 
in 1843. (See; International Code of Zoological Nomenclature adopted by the XV 
International Congress of Zoology, 1964, Article 67i). All designations of Callarctia 
ornata Packard, 1864, as the type of the genus are ultra vires. Thus the use of 
Callarctia Packard, 1864, as a valid name for either a subgenus of Apantesis Walker, 
1855, or a genus, by those who would divide Apantesis into a number of genera, 
is not possible. It is an isogenotypic synonym of Arctia Schrank, 1802. 

The following citations simimarize the facts: 
Arctia Schrank, 1802, Fauna Boica, Band 2, Abth. 2, p. 152. 

TYPE: P{halaena] Bomlnjx caja Linnaeus, 1758. Designated by Boisduval, 
1836, Histoire Naturelle des Insectes, Species General des Lepidopteres, vol. 1, 
p. 143. (There is considerable doubt in my mind about the validity of the "type 
designations" in the introduction of this work. The designation that follows is 
available. ) 

TYPE: P{halaena] Bornhyx caja Linnaeus, 1758. Designated by Westwood, 
1840, Synopsis of the Genera of British Insects, p. 92, in An Introduction to the 
Modern Classification of Insects, vol. 2. (Opinion 71, International Commission 
on Zoological Nomenclature. ) 
Chelonia Godart, [1823], Histoire Naturelle des Lepidopteres ou Papillons de 

France, vol. 4, p. 229. ( Title page date, 1822. ) 

TYPE: P[lialaena] Bornhyx caja Linnaeus, 1758. Designated by D[uponchel], 
1843, Dictionnaire Universel d'Histoire Naturelle, vol. 3, p. 460. 

Preoccupied by Chelonia Brongniart, 1800, in the Reptilia. 
Callarctia Packard, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 3:114. 

New name for Chelonia Godart, [1823], not Chelonia Brongniart, 1800. 

TYPE: P{halaena] Bornhyx caja Linnaeus, 1758. Ipso facto. 

A new name is not proposed for Callarctia Auctorum at this time because revi- 
sional studies on the Arctiidae are in progress in England at the British Museum 
( Natural History ) and here in the United States, and thus it seems unwise to 
anticipate any conclusions that may be reached when the studies are completed. — 
John G. Franclemont, Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
New York 14850. 



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Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1963. Host relationships of the Euphorini (Hyme- 
noptera: Braconidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 65(4): 306. 

and L. M. Walklcy. 1951. in Muesebeck et al, Hymcnoptera 

of America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. 
Monogr. 2: 90-184. 

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be charged to the author. 



CONTENTS 

(Continued from front cover) 

LOAN, C. C, M. G. KLEIN and H. C. COPPEl^M icroctonus glyptosceli 
n. sp., a parasite of Glyptoscelis pubescens ( F. ) in Wisconsin ( Hyme- 
noptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae & Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae 230 

MARSH, P. M. — Lectotype designations in die genus Heterospilus (Hyme- 
noptera: Braconidae) -_. 210 

MENKE, A. S. — A new Nitela, subgenus Tenila, with a key to the species of 
the subgenus ( Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) — 197 

PRASAD, V. — Description of immature stages of Noctuiseius treati Prasad 
( Acarina: Phytoseiidae) 151 

SMILEY, R. L. — Further studies on the Tarsonemidae, II (Acarina) 218 

SMITH, D. R. — The genus Craterocercus Rohwer (Hymenoptera: Tenthre- 
dinidae) — — 153 

SNELLING, R. R. — Notes on the systematics and dulosis of some western 
species of Formica, subgenus Raptiformica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) __ 194 

STIBICK, J. N. L. — Hypnoidus riparius (Fabricius), a possible agricultural 
pest from Europe (Coleoptera: Elateridae) _ — - 191 

SYNAVE, H. — Some African Fulgoroidea in the United States National 
Museum 174 

TANDAM, B. K. and P. KUMAR^Mall.ophaga from birds of the Oriental 
Region. Part IX. Sturnidoeeus philippensis, n. sp. (Ischnocera: Philop- 
teridae) _..— '. 205 

THOMPSON, F. C. — First record of ^hagio scolopaceus (Linne) in North 
America (Diptera: Rhagionidae) •_ — 141 

TUTTLE, D. M. and E. W. BAKER— Hemibnjobia, a new name for Para- 
bryobia (Acarina: Tetranychidae ) 193 

WOOLLEY, T. A. and H. G. HIGGINS— A new species of Platyliodes from 
the N. W. United States (Acari: Cryptostigmata: Liodidae) __ 143 

BOOK REVIEW 239 

ERRATUM .- 193 

SUMMARY REPORTS OF SOCIETY OFFICERS FOR 1968 241 

MEMBERSHIP LIST OF THE SOCIETY 243 



'^ Vol. 71 



SEPTEMBER 1969 



No. 3 



PROCEEDINGS 



of the 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

of WASHINGTON 




U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20560 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 




CONTENTS V / . ^ 

Dedication of this issue to CARL FREDERICK WILLIAM MUESEBECK 



257 



BURKS, B. D. — The North American species of Arthrolytus Thomson 
( Hymenoptera: PteromaHdae ) — - 298 

CAPEK, M. — An attempt at a natural classification of the family Braconidae 
based on various unconventional characters (Hymenoptera) 304 

CHAPIN, E. A. — New synonymy and generic reassignment in South Ameri- 
can CoccjrieZ?fna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae ) 467 

DESSART, P. — Description complemcntaire d'Uroscelio luteipes Kieffer, 

1914 (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea: Scelionidae) 328 

EMERSON, K. C. and R. D. PRICE— New species and records of Mal- 
lophaga ( Trichodectidae ) from Nigerian mammals 335 

FISCHER, M. — Die nearktischen Aspilota-Arten der Sektion B (Hyme- 
noptera: Braconidae) -— 361 

HAEUSSLER, G. J.— Carl Frederick WilHam Muesebeck (biography) 258 

HEDQVIST, K.-J. — Notes on Cerocephalini with descriptions of new genera 
and species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae ) 449 

HOOGSTRAAL, H. — Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) muesebecki, n. sp., a 
parasite of the Blue-faced Booby ( Sula dactijlatra melanops ) on Hasikiya 
Island, Arabian Sea (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) — 368 



(Continued on back cover) 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884 

OFFICERS FOR 1969 



Mhs. Helen Sollers-Riedel, President 
Arg. Res. Ser., USDA 
Room 466, Federal Center Bldg. 
Hyattsville, Maryland 20782 

Dr. Karl V. Krombein, President-Elect 
Department of Entomology 
U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

Dr. John A. Davhsson, Recording Secretary 
Department of Entomology 
University of Maryland 
College Park, Maryland 20740 



Dr. David R. Smith, Corresponding Secretary 
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA 
c/o U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 



Dr. Arthur K. Burditt, Jr., Treasurer 
Ent. Res. Div., ARS, USDA 
Plant Industry Station 
Beltsville, Maryland 20705 



Dr. Paul M. Mabsh, Editor 

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA 
c/o U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

Dr. Robert D. Gordon, Custodian 

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA 
c/o U. S. National Museum 
Washington, D. C. 20560 

Dr. Donald H. Messersmith, Program Committee 
Chairman 
Department of Entomology 
University of Maryland 
College Park, Maryland 20740 

Mr. H. Ivan Rainwater, Membership Committee 
Chairman 
Plant Quarantine Division, USDA 
Room 564, Federal Center Bldg. 
Hyattsville, Maryland 20782 

Mr. W. Doyle Reed, Delegate to Washington 
Academy of Sciences 
3609 Military Rd., NW. 
Washington, D. C. 20015 



Honorary President 
Dr. T. E. Snyder, U.S. National Museum 

Honorary Members 
Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck, U.S. National Museum 

Dr. F. W. Poos 

Dr. E. N. Cory 

MEETINGS. — Regular meetings of the Society are held in Room 43 of the U.S. National Museum on the firi 
Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are published regularl 
in the Proceedings. 

MEMBERSHIP. — Members shall be persons who have demonstrated interest in the science of entomolog] 
Annual dues for members are $5.00; initiation fee is $1.00 (U.S. currency). 

PROCEEDINGS. — Published quarterly beginning with March by the Society at Washington, D.C. Members i 
good standing are entitled to the Proceedings free of charge. Nonmember subscriptions are $8.00 per yea 
both domestic and foreign (U.S. currency), payable in advance. All remittances should be made payable t{ 
The Entomological Society of Washington. 

The Society does not exchange its publications for those of other societies. 

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP 

Title of Publication: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 

Frequency of Issue: Quarterly (March, June, September, December). 

Location of Office of Publication, Business Office of Publisher and Owner: The Entomological Society 

Washington, c/o Department of Entomology, U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560. 
Editor: Dr. Paul M. Marsh, same address as above. 
Managing Editor and Known Bondholders or other Security Holders: none. 



This issue mailed October 6, 1969 



Second Class Postage Paid at Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A. 66044 



ALLEN PRESS, INC. 



LAWRENCE, KANSAS 66044 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 



Vol. 71 



SEPTEMBER 1969 



No. 3 




CARL FREDERICK WILLIAM MUESEBECK 

Honorary member and past president of 
the Entomological Society of Washington, 
to whom this issue of the Proceedings is 
respectfully and affectionately dedicated 
on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, 
September 24, 1969 



258 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

CARL FREDERICK WILLIAM MUESEBECK 



Three quarters of a century — a long time in any man's life — finds 
Carl Frederick William Muesebeck still industrially and productively 
pursuing his career as an insect taxonomist. 

Carl Muesebeck was born at Medina, New York, September 24, 
1894 to William and Marie Koch Muesebeck. After graduating from 
the Brockport, N. Y. high school, he entered Cornell University where 
he received the B. S. degree in Entomology in 1916. This was followed 
by 2V2 years of graduate studies in entomology, zoology, plant pathol- 
ogy and botany at that same institution. 

In December of 1916 he accepted an appointment at Melrose 
Highlands, Massachusetts in the then Bureau of Entomology, USDA. 
Here he served for nearly two years as a Scientific Assistant in bio- 
logical studies on parasites of the gypsy and brown-tail moths. He 
returned to Cornell in August, 1918 as Instructor in Entomology. His 
duties included teaching the biological control of insects and research 
in the taxonomy of parasitic Hymenoptera. In April of 1921 he again 
joined the Bureau of Entomology at Melrose Highlands and for the 
next ten years conducted research, and directed the work of other 
employees, on the biology and taxonomy of parasitic Hymenoptera 
introduced into the United States for the control of the gypsy, brown- 
tail and satin moths. For about 2Mi years, beginning in 1926, he 
travelled extensively throughout Central Europe, with headquarters at 
Budapest, Hungary. He was responsible for directing the Bureau's 
studies there on the biology of European parasites of those same forest 
pests and for collecting, rearing and shipping the useful species to the 
United States. 

Carl Muesebeck's primary interest has always been the taxonomy of 
insects. In the fall of 1931 the opportunity arose for him to transfer 
to Washington, D. C. to be responsible for the Bureau's taxonomic 
research in parasitic Hymenoptera comprising the Braconidae, Bethyl- 
oidea, Serphoidea and certain minor related groups. In this position 
he also served as Assistant Leader of the Division of Insect Identifi- 
cation. In addition he assumed responsibility for supervising the 
further development of the very extensive insect host-parasite catalog 
which had previously been under the supervision of Dr. L. O. Howard. 
In November of 1935 Mr. Muesebeck became leader of the Division 
of Insect Identification in the then Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine. Despite the many and time-consuming administrative 
and related responsibilities involved in this position, he still maintained 
the insect identification assignments he had previously performed in 
the parasitic Hymenoptera and also made identifications, where ur- 
gently needed, of fleas and lice for which no specialist was available. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 259 

Most of these added duties were performed outside his regular official 
hours. 

Mr. Muesebeck retired from government service at age 60 on Sep- 
tember 30, 1954. This relieved him of the administrative responsi- 
bilities he apparently never really enjoyed. He had no intention, 
however, of relinquishing his research on the classification and identifi- 
cation of insects. He received appointment as Collaborator with the 
Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Section of the then 
Entomology Research Branch, USDA, and as Honorary Collaborator 
in the Division of Insects of the U. S. National Museum. This arrange- 
ment has enabled him to continue the taxonomic activities and associ- 
ations which have meant so much to him during his entire career. 

Rarely has the world seen a more dedicated and conscientious ento- 
mologist than Carl Muesebeck. Always an early riser, he is usually 
at his desk by 6:00 or 6:30 a. m. Most of his Saturdays, Sundays and 
holidays have also been spent on the job. He has been a member of 
several scientific societies, including the Entomological Society of 
America (President 1946), Entomological Society of Washington (Presi- 
dent 1940 and Honorary Member), Biological Society of Washington, 
Society of Systematic Zoologists, Washington Academy of Sciences, 
Sigma Xi, and was a member of the Cosmos Club from 1936 to 1954. 
He has often willingly accepted committee and other assignments in 
furtherance of the work of these societies and carried out such re- 
sponsibilities with exceptional intelligence and promptness. In 1951 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture presented him its Distinguished 
Service Award. During his long career he has authored more than 
100 major publications in addition to numerous scientific notes and 
book reviews. 

One wonders how, with such a full schedule, Carl can find time 
for any hobbies. He has, however, for many years been an ardent 
grower of roses and his backyard rose garden with its many varieties 
and exceptionally well-kept appearance is really a sight to behold. At 
one time he became interested in bowling and here, as in everything 
else he has undertaken, his main effort was directed toward becoming 
as proficient as possible. 

I first met Carl Muesebeck in the spring of 1929, about a year after 
he had returned from Europe to Melrose Highlands. In preparing 
for my own transfer to Europe on a biological control assignment, it 
was suggested that I visit him for advice, suggestions and information 
on European contacts that might prove useful. I was extremely im- 
pressed with the helpful and painstaking efforts he took to pro\idc 
advice and information based on his knowledge and experience. He 
later sent me a large Hst of names and addresses of European ento- 
mologists and other possible contacts, gleaned from his methodical files. 



mr 



260 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

A long time later, when for several years I was responsible for the 
informational activities of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine, I had to frequently call upon Carl for various kinds of 
information relative to the work of his Division. These contacts were 
always a pleasure because of the promptness, wilHngness and thorough- 
ness with which, despite his very crowded schedule, he provided the 
needed cooperation. 

During most of his career Carl Muesebeck's duties and responsi- 
bilities have occasioned close contact, both through correspondence 
and visits, with many scientists in a variety of agencies, universities 
and museums throughout this country and the entire world. Many 
scientists come here to study material in the collections and to receive 
taxonomic and related aid on their specific problems. Mr. Muesebeck 
has always considered it a part of his duty to spend at least some time 
with such visitors in the interest of maintaining good cooperative re- 
lations and, in many instances, to provide technical guidance. 

Carl Muesebeck and his wife, the former Ida Caroline Praedel, 
whom he married at Brockport, New York on September 12, 1917, 
reside as they have for many years at 4312 Sheridan Street, Hyatts- 
ville, Maryland. His sister, Elfreda Muesebeck, also lives there with 
them. Early every morning he still drives to his office and many addi- 
tional hours are still spent doing taxonomic research and bibliographical 
work at his home. 

In helping Carl Muesebeck celebrate his 75th birthday, his many 
friends and associates do homage to a most dedicated and distinguished 
scientist. 

G. J. Haeussler 
Annapolis, Maryland 



C. F. W. MUESEBECK AND THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

An opportunity to do proper homage to a fellow scientist, who is 
eminently deserving, is not often offered. Such an opportunity has been 
given this writer and it is fully appreciated. 

Carl Muesebeck joined the Entomological Society of America in 
1915 and the American Association of Economic Entomologists in 1917. 
Thus for more than 50 years, as this is written, he has demonstrated 
his interest and appreciation of the many facets of professional ento- 
mology. At the time of his affiliation with the parent organizations of 
the present Entomological Society of America he was a teacher of 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 261 

entomology at Cornell University, the alma mater of so many American 
entomologists who are well and widely known. His long career in 
entomology, which has brought him to his present place of leadership 
among us, was just getting under way in those pre-World War I days. 
Throughout these long years of changing times his loyalty to organized 
entomology as represented by the Entomological Society of America 
and its predecessor groups has not diminished and his courage and 
insight have been increasingly evident. 

The papers, of which this is a part, might well be termed an 
anthology — an anthology of appreciation. Others will write of the 
Carl Muesebeck's rapid advancement in his chosen field of taxonomic 
entomology; of his world-wide recognition as one of our foremost 
authorities on the Hymenoptera; of his impressive bibliography of 
books and papers and the light these works have, are and will shed; 
and of his judgment and clarity of expression in the recognition and 
description of species, genera and higher taxa in the immensely com- 
plicated order of the wasps and their relatives. This writer, however, 
wishes to present a few too-brief lines on his service to the profession 
and the organization of entomology as represented by the Entomo- 
logical Society of America. 

His more than 50 years of unbroken membership in the Entomo- 
logical Society of America and its predecessors has been mentioned. 
In this more than half a century of distinguished membership Mr. 
Muesebeck has received such recognition as election as a Fellow in 
1934, selection as Second Vice President in 1938 and election as Presi- 
dent in 1946. In 1949 each of the parent organizations appointed a 
committee of 3 to consider possible consolidation. These six leaders 
of entomology in North America included Mr. Muesebeck. In 1950 
these same six became the Joint Committee on Consolidation. The 
Committee reported on August 25, 1950 the unanimous opinion that 
consolidation was desirable. A quote from the committee report, 
since Mr. Muesebeck was a framer, seems apropos. 
"The Committee has been influenced in its thinking by the increasing 
size and complexity of the field of entomology, and the increasing 
number of persons engaged in its many phases. It is evident that the 
profession has long since reached a point where a form of organization 
carried on almost entirely by volunteer workers is inadequate to meet 
its needs. It has also grown too large for effective conduct of its 
business affairs in the three or four hours of the annual meeting that 
can be scheduled for this purpose. The major features of the pro- 
posed organization are therefore the employment of a full-time 
Executive Secretary, and a Governing Board ( 14 \oting members ) 
larger than either of the present Executive Committees. The pro- 
posed Board should be given much greater responsibility and au- 



262 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

thority in the conduct of the affairs of the organization. The make-up 
of the Board as proposed has been planned so that it will be as repre- 
sentative as possible of the various interests in the profession, both 
geographically and as to subject matter. In fact, we feel that the 
proposed plan provides for a more uniformly representative govern- 
ing Body than is now possible in either national organization." 
The proposal for consolidation of the two societies was adopted by 
their respective memberships in 1952 along with the Constitution and 
Bylaws developed by the Committee in the light of their quoted 
philosphy. A member of the Interim Governing Board which saw 
the new Entomological Society of America through its first year and 
first annual meeting December 7-10, 1953 in Los Angeles was C. F. W. 
Muesebeck. 

Service on various Committees and Boards, which are the framework 
of the organization, has been unselfishly and meaningfully given by 
Mr. Muesebeck through the years. We cannot hope to list all these 
services but must not neglect two. He served as Chairman of the 
Committee on Common Names of Insects, from 1942 through 1950, 
and during that time prepared the lists of Common Names of Insects 
as published in the Journal of Economic Entomology in 1942, 1946 
and 1950. His erudition and his knowledge and understanding of 
classical taxonomy made it possible for him to render real service and 
guidance to the proposal and selection of common names that were 
and are etymologically and entomologically correct. The present ex- 
tensive list of common names used by the Society in all its publications 
reflects and follows his guiding work. 

For more than 25 years Mr. Muesebeck served as an editorial con- 
sultant or as a member and as chairman of the Editorial Board of the 
Index to the Literature of American Economic Entomology. The Index, 
a joint project with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, appeared at 
intervals in book form. In later editions it was issued annually. It 
served a purpose and met a need for many years until the complexities 
of burgeoning publications and of printing costs necessitated its dis- 
continuance. Here again, Mr. Muesebeck's counsel was asked and 
freely given. 

More recently, as Advisory Editor in 1961 and as Editor since 1962, 
Mr. Muesebeck has been the one person most clearly responsible for 
the excellence of presentation in the quarterly publication. Entomo- 
logical Review. This is an English translation of the leading Russian 
quarterly entomological journal Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye and 
fills a need for English-speaking scientists. For several years the Ento- 
mological Society of America has obtained and administered grants 
from the National Science Foundation to support this translation 
project. The translators are first-class students of language, but they 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 263 

are not entomologists. Mr. Muesebeck must make sure that not only 
the narrative portions but also the illustrations, tables and citations 
make clear entomological sense as well as being in good English. 
Those who read the Entomological Review know how well he has and 
is succeeding. 

Finally, though not in chronological sequence, we wish to make par- 
ticular mention of one high-light. In 1959 the voting membership 
of the Entomological Society of America added the name of Carl 
Frederick William Muesebeck to its most select category — Honorary 
Membership. The writer therefore speaks for many, the membership 
of the Entomological Society of America, in expressing love and 
admiration for this man — scientist, gentleman, friend, and devotee 
of service. 

R. H. Nelson 

Executive Secretary Emeritus, 

Entomological Society of America 



MUESEBECKIINI, A NEW TRIBE OF BRACONIDAE 

( Hymenoptera ) 

W. R. M. Mason, Entomology Research Institute, Canada Department 
of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario 



ABSTRACT — A new tribe of the subfami y Ichneutinae, Muesebeckiini, is 
erected for the genera Oligoneurus SzepHgeti, Paroligoneurus Muesebeck, Muese- 
beckia Mason and three new genera. Keys are given for the genera and the 8 
species of Muesebeckia. New taxa described are: M. sinaloa, n. sp. from Mexico; 
M. coelebs, n. sp. from Mexico; M. durango, n. sp. from Mexico; M. concordia, 
n. sp. from Mexico; M. chota, n. sp. from Ecuador; M. palmito, n. sp. from 
Mexico; M. serrata, n. sp. from Mexico; Lispixys avispa, n. gen. and n. sp. from 
Peru; L. levis, n. sp. from Mexico; Pulchaukia godavari, n. gen. and n. sp. from 
Nepal; Ciliosa peruana, n. gen. and n. sp. from Peru. 



This paper began as a revision of Muesebeckia Mason but before its 
completion I was convinced that there were three new genera in\oh'cd. 
These four genera differ from Oligoneurus Szepligeti and Paroligo- 
neurus Muesebeck (neither treated here) by the presence of notauli 
and mesopleural groove, but share no other characters not also shared 
with the latter two genera. Altogether they form a compact but fairly 
isolated group, apparently related to Ichneutes Nces. Therefore I 



264 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

erect a new tribe, Muesebeckiini, to hold them and assign it to the 
Ichneutinae. 

The relationships of this small group are problematical, but they 
appear to me to be derived from Ichneutes or some ancestral ichneutine. 
There are many resemblances, but the most noteworthy common 
features are: basal vein strongly curved at its anterior end, maxillary 
palpi 5-segmented, labial palpi 4-segmented, occipital carina absent, 
tibial spurs small and stout, a foveolate mesopleural furrow slanting 
downward and backward and passing above mid coxa, tarsal claws 
simple, ovipositor comparatively small, strongly narrowed subbasally 
to a thin apical portion. 

Oligoneiirus, Muesebeckia, Ciliosa n. gen., and Lispixys n. gen., 
are all New World elements, mostly Neotropical. Pulchaukia n. gen. 
is known only from the Himalayas but Paroligoneurus is almost world 
wide, absent only in Europe and perhaps the Australian Region. Since 
the species are rarely taken except by Malaise traps, the world distri- 
bution is probably much wider, and significantly different, from that 
now known. 

Nothing is known of the life history except that some species of 
Paroligoneurus have been reared from Lepidopterous leafminers. 

Muesebeckiini, new tribe 

Stout, small (2-3 mm.), mostly black species resembling Apanteles Foerster; 
sculpture mostly smooth and finely, but not densely, punctate. 

Head transverse; eyes prominent; occipital carina absent; antennae far apart 
near top of eyes; frons short and nearly horizontal; face flattened and broad; 
clypeus flattened, its base and apex not differentiated, apical margin thin and 
rounded; mandible long, tapered and strongly twisted, anterior tooth longer, 
maxillary palpi 5-jointed, labial palpi usually 4-jointed with the 3rd minute, rarely 
3-jointed. 

Thorax short and stout; prepectal carina usually absent, but occasionally the 
upper end developed; tibial spurs small and weak; tarsal claws simple. 

Venation reduced; apical abscissae of radius and cubitus represented only by 
a crease in the wing membrane or by a very weakly pigmented line; recurrent 
and intercubital veins unsclerotized, weakly pigmented or absent; tenninal part 
of discoideus and all of subdiscoideus not sclerotized but merely pigmented; 
brachius and interanals absent; basal vein curving strongly distad just behind its 
junction with the cubitus; radiella absent basally but represented by a crease 
apically; cubitella very weakly pigmented to a crease only. Postnervellus, brachi- 
ella, and interanella absent; submediella and posterior end of nervellus represented 
only by a curving crease. 

Abdomen sessile, short and somewhat depressed; first segment with con- 
spicuous membranous lateral areas; spiracles on first tergite; fourth and follow- 
ing tergites distinct and occupying apical 0.2-0.4; hypopygium large, pointed, 
and V-shaped in cross-section; ovipositor with no subapical notch, sheaths not 
protruding beyond apex of abdomen by more tlian length of first tergite. 

The venation of the forewing is completely diagnostic (Mason, 1957). 



proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 71, no. 3, september, 1969 265 

Key to Genera of Muesebeckiini 

1. Notauli absent; mesopleural groove absent — 2 

Notauli present; mesopleural groove present, sometimes weak __. 3 

2. Eyes densely hairy - Oligoneurus Szep. 

Eyes glabrous - Paroligoneurus Mues. 

3. Eyes densely hairy; labial palpi 3-jointed; tergite II glabrous and basally 

aciculate — . Ciliosa, n. gen. 

Eyes glabrous or very sparsely hairy; labial palpi 4-jointed, the 3rd 

joint minute — - 4 

4. Oriental; propodeum with no median carina; tergite I smooth polished 

and ecarinate behind spiracles Pulchaukia, n. gen. 

American; propodeum with a strong median carina; tergite I dull and 

rugulose or, if polished, with strong lateral carinae behind spiracles 5 

5. Mesopleural groove shallow and incomplete, tergite I polished and bear- 

ing a median groove; tergite II glabrous; ovipositor sheath much 

longer than tergite I Lispixys, n. gen. 

Mesopleural groove deep, at least anteriorly, tergite I coriaceous, gran- 
ular, or rugose; tergite II with median or dorsolateral hair patches; 
ovipositor sheath shorter than tergite I Muesebeckia Mason 

Muesebeckia Mason 
Muesebeckia Mason, 1957, Can. Ent. 89:355. 

Type of the genus: Muesebeckia eximia Mason. 

Flagellum of the female (except in M. sinaloa, n. sp. ) with the central joints, 
and usually also the apical, higher than wide; the ventral surfaces of these joints 
flattened and covered with dense pile, resembling tyloids of male Ichneumonidae. 
These "tyloids" interrupt the regular distribution of longitudinal sensoria that 
occur throughout the rest of the flagellar joints. 

Notauli deep and crenulate, not extending back as far as the level of the 
tegulae (farther in M. eximia). A strong and more or less foveolate mesopleural 
furrow extending from about halfway up the anterior margin of the pleuron in a 
generally downward slant to about half way, thence upward above the middle 
coxa to the posterior margin; the posterior part usually shallow and unsculptiired. 
Propodeum and metapleuron dull and rugose to coriaceous, the former with a 
strong median carinae and sometimes also lateral longitudinal carinae and more 
or less well defined costulae. 

First tergite broadening rapidly to the prominent spiracles at about the middk, 
thence parallel sided or slightly widening; length of tergite 1 0.8 to 1.5 times its 
apical width; the surface rugose, coriaceous or granular with a basal groove and 
usually median apical intumescence; a pair of dorsolateral carinae always present 
basally and prolonged, more or less continuously, to near the posterior <orners. 
Sides of tergite I always rough and rugulose or rugose; lateral membranous margins 
broad. Remaining tergites smooth or very weakly reticulate (except in M. 
eximia) and bearing sparse hairs. Ovipositor straight or weakly decurved, about 
as long as tergite I, strongly narrowed about midway to an extremely thin point; 
sheaths 0.6 to 0.8 as long as tergite I, polished with a few apical hairs. 



266 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Key to Species of Muesebeckia 

1. Nearctic; mesopleviral furrow equally sharp and foveolate from pre- 

pechis to margin of metapleuron (fig. 10) 2. eximia Mason 

Neotropical or Mexican; mesopleural furrow contrastingly shallower 

and unsculptured in the posterior 0.4 2 

2. First tergite wider than long (length/width = 0.8-0.9); $ flagellum 

24-segmented; prepectal carina complete above mesopleural furrow 

3. coelebs, n. sp. 

First tergite longer than wide (length /width = 1.1-1.4); flagellum 
less than 22-segmented; prepectal carina rarely complete above 
mesopleural furrow 3 

3. Flagellum of 9 without ventral tyloids, all joints terete (fig. 9); hair 

patches on tergites II-III not or only vaguely paired; posterior half 

of mesopleural furrow absent 1. sinaloa, n. sp. 

Flagellum of 9 with ventral tyloids and joints of apical half deeper 
than wide; hair patches of tergites II-III usually paired; posterior 
half of mesopleural furrow present as a shallow unsculptured groove __- 4 

4. Flagellum of 9 15-jointed and little tapered (fig. 13); costulae strong; 

mesopleural furrow without sculpture; Ecuador 6. chota, n. sp. 

Flagellum of 9 longer or more tapered; mesopleural furrow foveolate; 

Mexico 5 

5. Females 6 

Males 9 

6. Flagellar joint 8 greatly prolonged distally, over twice as high as long 

(fig. 15) 8. serrata, n. sp. 

Flagellar joints more uniform, joints 8-10 similar and about as long 

as deep 7 

7. Last 2-3 joints of flagelhim terete, twice as long as high and not nearly 

so deep as central joints (fig. 14); clypeus yellow 7. palmito, n. sp. 
Last 2-3 joints of flagellum higher than wide or moniliform, about as 
long as high and almost as deep as central joints; clypeus brown or 
blackish 8 

8. Apical flagellar joints moniliform and about half as deep as central 

joints ( fig. 11); face, clypeus and basal flagellar joints uniformly 

black or blackish 4. durango, n. sp. 

Apical flagellar joints much deeper than wide and almost as deep 
as central joints (fig. 12); clypeus and center of face contrastingly 

brown, rest of face blackish; basal flagellar joints yellow 

5. Concordia, n. sp. 

9. Head yellow below level of antennal sockets 7. palmito, n. sp. 

At least cheeks and sides of face black or dark brown 10 

10. Clypeus and face uniformly black or dark brown 4. durango, n. sp. 

Clypeus and face above it contrastingly brown to yellow; remainder 

of face dark brown or black 11 

11. Strong costulae setting off apical areas that are much more jxjlished 

than the dull remainder of propodeum 8. serrata, n. sp. 

Costulae indistinct; propodeum rather uniformly rugose and dull 

- 5. Concordia, n. sp. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 267 

1. Muesebeckia sinaloa, n. sp. 

(Fig. 9) 

DIAGNOSIS. The only species of Muesebeckia without tyloids; also char- 
acterized by having unpaired hair patches on basal tergites and by lacking the 
posterior, normally shallow, part of the mesopleural furrow. 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: female, length 2.5 mm. 

Head. Eyes with a very few minute sparse hairs; height of eye 3.7 times length 
of malar space; inner margins of eyes subparallel; face weakly intumescent, 
slightly raised above center of clypcus. In lateral view length of eye 1.9 times 
length of cheek. Flagellum 21-jointed, without tyloids; not very long and slender, 
about as long as forewing, all joints terete, the central and apical ones fusiform, 
1.6-1.8 times as long as wide, the apical joints about 0.6 as wide as the central 
ones ( fig. 9 ) . 

Thorax. Mesopleural furrow extending less than half way across mesopleuron, 
with weak irregular sculpture and no posterior depression; propodeum with a strong 
median longitudinal carina, the surface otherwise dull and partly irregularly rugose. 

Abdomen. First tergite 1.2 times as long as wide, surface of tergite generally 
smooth and coriaceous with a low rounded median elevation posteriorly. Remain- 
ing tergites smooth and shining, tergite II as long as tergite I; tergite III 0.7 
times as long as tergite 11; remaining tergites about as long as combined tergites 
II and III; suture between tergites II and III shallowly indicated centrally. All 
tergites from II-VI with large transverse patches of sparse hair that are not or 
only vaguely separated on the median line. Hypopygium 2.0 times as long as 
tergite I. 

Color. Black, with mouth parts, legs and coxae, scape and pedicel yellowish, 
the following parts brown: clypeus, and elevated central part of face immediately 
above it, a small area above mandible base, antenna basally, wing veins, base of 
abdomen below, hind tarsus, apex of hind tibia. 

TYPE: Holotype: female, 15 miles west of El Palmito, near Potrer- 
illos at 5,000 ft., Sin., MEXICO, 30 July 1964, W. R. M. Mason. (Ca- 
nadian National Collection No. 10830.) 

2. Muesebeckia exiniia Mason 

(Fig. 10) 

Muesebeckia eximius Mason, 1957. Can. Ent. 89: 355-357. 

DIAGNOSIS. This species may be easily recognized by its occurrence in 
Eastern Canada and U.S.A., by the broad first tergite (as broad as long), long 
malar space, and complete foveolate mesopleural furrow extending to posterior 
margin. 

DESCRIPTION. Female, length 2.5-3.0 mm. 

Head. Eyes glabrous; malar space long, height of eye 2.5 times malar space. 
Inner margins of eyes curved but slightly divergent below; face very weakly 
intumescent with two well defined but shallow grooves nmning upward from 
tentorial pits. In lateral view length of eye 1.5-1.6 times length of cheek. Flagel- 
lum 19-, to 20-jointed, long and slender, the shortest joints about 1.5 times as 
long as wide; ventral tyloids from segment 8 or 9 to apex; antenna slightly 
tapered toward apex, apical joints about 0.6 times as deep as central joints (fig. 10). 



268 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3^ SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Thorax. Notauli unusually long, sometimes extending weakly almost to 
scutellum; mesopleural furrow irregularly foveolate, extending the full length 
of the mesopleuron without an angulation; propodeum strongly rugose or rugulose. 

Abdomen. First tergite 0.9 to 1.0 times as long as wide; longitudinally strongly 
arched, with a broad median groove on the basal half and transversely flattened 
apically; the surface moderately to very strongly rugose and rugulose, dorsolateral 
carinae strong basally, often percurrent and irregular apically, widely separated; 
tergite II about as long as tergite I, tergite III about 0.6 times as long; remainder 
of abdomen about as long as tergite I. Suture between tergites II and III sharp 
and conspicuous centrally but absent laterally; tergite II mostly granular and often 
weakly aciculate at anterior margin; surface of abdomen behind tergite II smooth 
and shining, often with faint granular sculpture; lateral hair patches on tergites 
II to III consisting of 10 to 20 sparse hairs which become irregular rows on the 
more posterior tergites. Hypopygium 1.2 to 1.3 times as long as petiole. 

Color. Black, mouthparts, legs and coxae yellowish, the following parts various 
shades of brown: clypeus, scape, pedicel, basal part of flagellum, tegula, wing 
veins, apical parts of mid and anterior tarsi, usually hind tibia and hind tarsus, basal 
parts of abdomen below. 

Male. Resembling female except for the following details: antenna 20-, to 21- 
jointed, without tyloids; central joints not so deep, therefore appearing longer and 
proportionately thinner; eye 1.7 times as long as cheek; hind tibia and tarsus 
varying from brown to yellowish. 

DISTRIBUTION. QUE., Wakefield, Hull; ONT., Ottawa, Stitts- 
ville, Innisville; N.C., Pink Beds at 3,300 feet in Pisgah National Forest. 
Specimens seen; 25 c5 <5 , 25 9 9 . 

3. Muesebeckia coelebs, n. sp. 

DIAGNOSIS. Strongly characterized by the wide tergite I, wide cheek, and 
prepectal carina extending from mesopleural furrow to tegula. 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: Male, length 3 mm. 

Head. Eyes completely glabrous, inner margins divergent below at about 15°. 
Height of eye 2.7 times malar space; a pair of shallow grooves nmning upward from 
the tentorial pits, the area between them slightly elevated. Cheek long in lateral 
view, length of eye 1.0-1.1 times length of cheek. Flagellum 24-]ointed, long 
and slender, basal joints about 3 times as long as wide, central and apical joints 
about twice as long as wide; flagellum tapered, apical joints only half as wide 
as basal and central joints. 

Thorax. Anterior half of mesopleural furrow deep and crossed by a few 
costulae, prolonged as a prepectal carina above; propodeum rugose, with a strong 
median carina and weak irregular costulae. 

Abdomen. First tergite 0.9 times as long as wide, arched centrally, with a 
median groove and strong dorsolateral carinae on the basal half; surface of 
tergite with weak irregular rugosities but mostly granular and weakly shiny; 
remainder of abdomen polished and without sculpture. Groove between tergites 
II and III sharply defined centrally; tergites II and III occupying half remaining 
length of abdomen. Tergite 11 as long as tergite I; tergite III tvvo-thirds as long 
as tergite II; following tergites successively shorter. Tergites II, III and IV with 
dorsolateral clumps of sparse hairs, irregular subapical fringes on posterior tergites. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 269 

Color. Black, legs yellow, the following parts brown to dark brown: mandible, 
tegula, wing base, veins, coxae, and tarsi. 

TYPES. Holotype: Male, 8 miles west of El Palmito at 6,500 ft.. 
Sin., MEXICO, 16 July 1964, W. R. M. Mason (Canadian National 
Collection No. 10831). 

Paratype: Male, same data as holotype (CNC). 

4. Muesebeckia durango, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1, 7, 11) 

DIAGNOSIS. The unifonnly black face and clypeus of both sexes is char- 
acteristic. 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: Female, length 2.5 mm. 

Head. Eyes with a few short sparse hairs; malar space long, height of eye 2.8 
times malar space; inner margins of eyes subparallel; face weakly intumescent at 
sides, central area raised above the clypeus. In lateral view length of eye 1.7 
times length of cheek, flagellum 18-jointed, comparatively short and stout, central 
and apical joints deeper than wide and about as deep as long, central joints slightly 
prolonged distad on the ventral side and almost twice as deep as the moniliform 
apical joints; ventral tyloids present from joint 9 to apex. 

Thorax. Mesopleural furrow broad and deep with a little irregular sculpture 
anteriorly; posterior third of furrow very shallow and smooth; propodeum rugose, 
with a strong median and a pair of lateral longitudinal carinae; prescutellar furrow 
foveolate, with a stronger median transverse carina. 

Abdomen. First tergite 1.2 times as long as wide, and ahnost evenly tapered 
from base to apex, with widely separated percurrent dorsolateral carinae; an- 
teriorly bearing a median rugulose groove; posterior half rugose with some longi- 
tudinal aciculation. Tergite II smooth and shining, as long as tergite I; tergite III 
0.6 times as long as tergite II; remaining tergites about half as long as combined 
tergites II and III; suture between tergites II and III indicated only centrally. 
Tergites II and III with dorsolateral patches of sparse hair; tergites IV and the 
following with irregular bands of sparse hairs. Hypopygium 1.5 times as long as 
tergite I. 

Color. Black, mouth parts, legs and coxae yellowish, the following parts brown: 
scape, pedicel, wing veins, apex of front tarsus, all of hind and middle tarsi, apex 
of hind tibia. 

Variation. Female paratypes: resembling the holotype except in the following 
details: flagellum 17-, to 18-jointed, tyloids from segment 8 or 9; in lateral view 
length of eye 1.7-1.9 times length of cheek; first tergite 1.2-1.4 times as long 
as wide; sculpture of tergite I varying from coriaceous to rugulose with apical 
quarter aciculate; hair patches of tergite II often united. 

Male paratypes: resembling the holotype except in the following details: 
flagellum 20-, to 22-jointed and without tyloids, central and apical joints fusiform 
and about twice as long as wide, apical joints about % as wide as central joints, 
eyes glabrous, tergites II and HI equal in length and each about 0.7 times as long 
as tergite I, apical third to two-thirds of hind tibia brown. 

TYPES. Holotype: Female, 24 miles west of La Ciudad at 7,000 
feet, Dgo., MEXICO, 2 July 1964, W. R. M. Mason (Canadian Na- 
tional Collection No. 10832). 



270 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Paratypes: 2$ $ , 49 9 , same data as holotype but collected between 
28 June and 4 August 1964; 19, 15 miles west of El Palmito, near 
Potrerillos at 5,000 feet, Sin., MEXICO, 8 July 1964, W. R. M. Mason 

(CNC). 

5. Muesebeckia concordia, n. sp. 

(Fig. 12) 

DIAGNOSIS. The female is recognized by the strongly deepened terminal 
antennal joints. 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: Female, length 2 mm. 

Head. Eyes with a few sparse hairs. Height of eye 3.4 times malar space. 
Inner margins of eyes subparallel; face very weakly intumescent, area directly 
above clypeus weakly elevated. Length of eye in lateral view 1.7 times length 
of cheek. Flagellum 19-jointed, comparatively short and stout; tyloids from joint 
10 to apex; basal joints long and cylindrical, central and apical joints squarish to 
submoniliform, about 1.3 to 1.5 times as high as wide, apical joints 0.7 to 0.8 
times as long, and almost as high, as largest central joints. 

Thorax. Mesopleural furrow extending half length mesopleuron, mostly smooth 
but weakly sculptured anteriorly; propodeum rugose, with a strong median carina. 

Abdomen. First tergite 1.2 times as long as wide, dorsolateral carina strong and 
percurrent; basal median groove rugulose, apical 0.3 longitudinally aciculorugose, 
remainder of surface granular and weakly shiny. Tergite II 0.8 times as long as 
tergite I; tergite III 0.4 times as long as tergite II; remainder of abdomen about 
two-thirds as long as combined tergites II and III. Groove between tergites II 
and III shallow and poorly defined; surface of abdomen (except tergite I) smooth 
and shiny. Tergites II and III with dorsolateral patches of 3 to 10 sparse hairs; 
tergite IV and those following with a transverse row of sparse hairs. Hypopygium 
1.6 times as long as tergite I. 

Color. Black, the following parts yellowish: mouth parts, scape, pedicel, basal 
two or three joints of flagellum, all legs and coxae. The following parts brown: 
clypeus, lower central part of face, remainder of flagellum, tegula, wing veins, 
apex of hind tibia, apex of middle tarsus and all hind tarsus, base of abdomen 
ventrally. 

Male Paratype. Resembles the female except for the following details: flagelhmi 
longer with all joints terete and with no tyloids, central and apical joints some- 
what fusiform and about twice as long as wide; length of eye 1.9 times length of 
cheek; tergite I about 1.1 times as long as wide, the apical aciculations much less 
prominent, a median apical carina present; only first joint of flagellum yellow, 
hind coxa brown basally. 

TYPES. Holotype: Female, 20 miles east of Concordia at 3,000 ft., 
Sin., MEXICO, 4 August 1964, W. R. M. Mason (Canadian National 
Collection No. 10833). 

Paratype: Male, same data as holotype (CNC). 

6. Muesebeckia chota, n. sp. 

(Fig. 13) 

DIAGNOSIS. Characterized by the smooth mesopleural groove, short antenna 
of the female and strong costulae. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 271 











Figs. 1-7. 1, Miie.sebeckia durango, n. sp., abdomen, dorsal view and ovipositor 
lateral view; 2, Lispixijs levis, n. gen., n. sp., abdomen, dorsal view; 3, L. avispa, 
n. sp., propodeum and first tergum dorsal view and ovipositor, lateral view; 4, 
Pulchaukia godavari, n. gen., n. sp., abdomen, dorsal view and ovipositor, lateral 
view; 5, Ciliosa peruana, n. gen., n. sp., ovipositor, lateral view; 6, P. godavari, 
n. sp., mesopleuron; 7, M. durango, n. sp. mesopleuron. 



DESCRIPTION. Holotype: female, length 2.0 mm. 

Head. Eyes with a few short sparse hairs; lieight of eye 3.1 times malar space; 
inner margins of eyes convex throughout their length; face scarcely intmnescent, 
a pair of broad shallow grooves e.xtending from tentorial pits about half way up 
face. In lateral view length of eye 1.9 times length of cheek. Flagellum 15-jointed, 
comparatively short and little tapered, central joints 1.4 times as high as wide; 



272 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

apical joints 0.8-0.9 times as high as central joints; central joints prolonged distad 
at the lower distal corners; ventral tyloids present from joint 9 to apex. 

Thorax. Mesopleural furrow without any sculpture; posterior 0.4 very shallow 
and broad; propodeum rugose, with a strong median carina, costulae and a pair of 
lateral longitudinal carinae. 

Abdomen. First tergite 1.2 times as long as wide; spiracles prominent; a pair 
of conspicuous percurrent dorsolateral carinae passing above spiracles; surface 
of tergite weakly and irregularly rugulose. Tergite II smooth and shiny, 0.9 times 
as long as tergite I; tergite III 0.7 times as long as tergite II; remaining tergites 
about as long as tergite II; suture between tergites II and III very shallow and 
smooth and indicated only centrally. Tergites II and III with small dorsolateral 
patches of sparse hair; tergites IV and following with irregular rows of sparse 
hairs. Hypopygium 1.3 times as long as tergite I. 

Color. Piceous-black with yellow legs and the following parts brown: mouth- 
parts, scape, pedicel, wing veins, hind coxa, middle and hind tarsi, hind tibia 
apically above. 

TYPE. Holotype: female, Rio Chota, at 1,800 meters, ECUADOR, 
10 June 1965, Luis E. Peiia (American Entomological Institute, Ann 
Arbor ) . 

7. Muesebeckia palmito, n. sp. 

(Fig. 14) 

DIAGNOSIS. The mostly yellow head of the male and the yellow clypeus and 
central part of the face in the female are characteristic. 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: female, length 2.5 mm. 

Head. Eyes with a few sparse and very short hairs; malar space long, height 
of eye 2.8 times malar space; inner margins of eyes very weakly divergent below; 
face weakly but uniformly intumescent. In lateral view length of eye 1.5 times 
length of cheek. Flagellum 20-jointed; basal joints cylindrical but central joints 
much stouter and squarish in lateral view with the ventrodistal corners prolonged 
distally; central joints 1.4 times as deep as basal joints; central joints almost as 
wide as deep and bearing large, round, flat tyloids ventrally; apical joints partly 
collapsed but obviously not as deep as central joints although of about the same 
length; the last two joints apparently without tyloids and fusiform, about twice as 
long as wide; large ventral tyloids beginning at joint 9 and extending to joint 18 
or 19. 

Thorax. Mesopleural furrow deep, polished and bearing weak transverse costae 
in the anterior 0.6; posterior 0.4 of furrow very shallow and polished; prescutellar 
furrow deep and weakly foveolate; propodeum rugose to rugulose, median carina 
poorly defined. 

Abdomen. First tergite 1.2 times as long as wide; dorsolateral carinae poorly 
defined; a median rugulose groove on the anterior 0.6; posterior part coriaceous, 
the apical margin bearing several longitudinal aciculations. Tergite II shiny but 
bearing faint reticulate sculpture, 0.8 times as long as tergite I; tergite III 0.6 
times as long as tergite II; remainder of tergites slightly shorter than combined 
tergite II plus III; suture between tergites II and III shallow but visible across its 
entire width and very weakly foveolate. Tergites II and III with dorsolateral 
patches of sparse hair; tergites IV and the following with irregular transverse bands 
of sparse hair. Hypopygium 1.8 times as long as tergite I. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 273 

Color. Black, with yellow legs and the following parts brown: upper part and 
sides of face, cheek below eye, flagellum, posterior corner of pronotum, tegula, 
wing veins, middle and hind tarsi and apex of hind tibia above. The following 
parts, in addition to the legs, yellow: mouth parts, clypeus, lower central part of 
face, scape, pedicel. 

Male paratype; resembles the holotype except in the following details: flagellum 
21-jointed and without tyloids, central and apical joints all fusiform and about 
twice as long as wide, apical joints about two-thirds as wide as central joints; 
face, temple, and postocciput completely yellow below level of antenna sockets; 
propleuron yellow, pronotum yellow behind, brown anteriorly; tegula and wing 
base yellow, prepectus and mesopleural furrow brown, middle tarsus yellowish. 

TYPES. Holotype: female, 4M> miles west of El Palmito at 6,500 
ft.. Sin., MEXICO, 25 July 1964, W. R. M. Mason (Canadian National 
Collection No. 10834). 

Paratype: male, same data as holotype but collected, 4 August 1964 

(CNC). 

8. Muesebeckia serrata, n. sp. 

(Fig. 15) 

DIAGNOSIS. The strongly serrate female antenna distinguishes this species. 
Males have strong costulae and often a striate first tergite. 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: female, length 2.5 mm. 

Head. Eyes with a few sparse and short hairs, height of eye 4.5 times malar 
space; inner margins of eyes slightly convergent below; face intumescent, lower 
central area raised above central part of clypeus. In lateral view length of eye 
1.7 times length of cheek. Flagellum 15-jointed, short and stout; central and 
apical joints deeper than wide and the central strongly prolonged distally at the 
ventrodistal corners, joint 8 exceptionally strongly pointed, joints 10 to 12 about 
1.5 times as high as wide, joints 14 and 15 submoniliform, ventral tyloids present 
from joint 8 to apex. 

Thorax. Anterior 0.6 mesopleural furrow deep and vaguely sculptured; posterior 
0.4 very shallow, broad and polished; prescutellar furrow deep and foveolate with 
a stronger median transverse costa; propodeum rugose with a strong median longi- 
tudinal carina. 

Abdomen. First tergite 1.1 times as long as wide, anterior part bearing u broad 
median rugulose furrow; posterior half coriaceous and bearing several longitudinal 
carinae on the posterior 0.2 to 0.3. Tergite II smooth and shiny, 0.9 times as long 
as tergite 1; tergite 111 0.7 times as long as tergite II; remaining tergites about as 
long as tergite II; suture between tergites II and HI very shallow but extending 
full width of abdomen. Tergites II and III with dorsolateral patches of sparse 
hair; tergites IV and following with irregular bands of sparse hair. Hypopygium 
1.5 times as long as tergite I. 

Color. Black, with yellow legs and the following parts brown: mouth parts, 
clypeus, elevated lower part of face above it, suffusions below antennal sockets, 
entire antenna except for the yellowish underside of scape, pedicel, and basal two 
or three joints of flagellum, wing veins, middle and hind tarsi, hind tibia apically 
above. 

Variation. Female paratypes: resembling the holotype except in the following 



274 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

details: flagellum 15-, to 16-jointed, length of eye 1.6-1.7 times length of cheek, 
apical 0.2-0.5 of first tergite with weak to very strong longitudinal carinae. 

Male paratypes: resembling the holotype except in the following details: 
flagellum 18-jointed, all joints fusiform, central ones about 2.5 times as long as 
wide, apical ones about twice as long as wide; length of eye 1.7 times length of 
cheek; entire face and lower cheeks dark brown, but clypeus and raised area above 
it lighter brown as in the female; apical 0.4-0.6 of first tergite bearing strong 
longitudinal carinae, the dorsal carinae visible basally. 

TYPES: Holotype: female, 15 miles west of El Palmito near Potrer- 
illos at 5,000 ft., Sin., MEXICO, 25 July 1964, W. R. M. Mason (Ca- 
nadian National Collection No. 10835). 

Paratypes, 2 <5 S , 2 9 $ , same data as holotype but collected 30 July 
1964; 1 9 , 41/2 miles west of El Palmito at 6,500 ft., 20 July 1964, W. R. 
M. Mason; IS, 30 miles west La Ciudad, Dgo., at 6,500 ft., 25 July 
1964, W. R. M. Ma.son (CNC). 

Lispixys, n. gen. 

Type of the genus: Lispixys avispa, n. sp. 

This genus differs from Mueseheckia by the glabrous second tergite, the very 
shallow and incomplete mesopleural furrow, the more or less completely carinated 
propodeum and by the long straight ovipositor with large deep compressed sheaths, 
which are deeper than the basal flagellar joint and much longer than the first 
tergite. In addition the first tergite is smooth and glabrous with a pair of per- 
current dorsolateral carinae and a median groove. The first tergite is widest at 
the spiracles, the female antennae are without tyloids, and the head is unusually 
wide (width of head/height of face from antennal sockets to apex of clypeus = 
1.9-2.1). 

Key to Species of Lispixys 

Fulvous; areas of propodeum smooth, carination regular avispa, n. sp. 

Black; areas of propodeum rugulose, carination irregular levis, n. sp. 

Lispixys avispa, n. sp. 

(Figs. 3, 17) 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: female, length 3.0 mm. 

Head. Eyes glabrous; height of eye 4.0 times malar space; inner margins of eyes 
subparallel; face weakly intumescent, a pair of shallow depressions extending 
upward from central part of clypeus. 

In lateral view length of eye 2.7 times length of cheek. Flagellum 24-jointed, 
long and slender, all joints terete; length of joints from about seventh to apex 
remaining rather constant while their width decreases; apical joints about 0.7 
times as wide as central ones; central joints about 1.5 times as long as wide, apical 
ones twice; tyloids absent. 

Thorax. Mesopleural furrow very shallow, smooth and incomplete centrally, 
only anterior 0.2 and posterior 0.3 present; propodeum shining and completely 
carinate, carinae strong and sharply defined; notauli incomplete anteriorly (com- 
plete in all other species ) . 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



275 




Figs. 8-18, Antennae of females. 8, Pukhaukia godavari, n. gen., n. sp.; 9, 
Muesebeckia shmloa, n. sp.; 10, M. eximia Mason; 11, A/, durango, n. sp.; 12, M. 
Concordia, n. sp.; 13, M. chota, n. sp.; 14, M. palmito, n. sp.; 15, M. serrata, n. sp.; 
16, Lispixys levis, n. gen., n. sp.; 17, L. avispa, n. sp.; 18, Ciliosa peruana, n. gen., 
n. sp. 



276 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Al^domen. First tergite 1.2 times as long as wide; surface smooth and shining; 
a pair of strong, perciirrent dorsolateral carinae passing above spiracles; a broad, 
smooth median groove on basal 0.8 of tergite. Remaining tergites smooth and 
shining; tergite II 1.1 times as long as tergite I; tergite III the same length; re- 
maining tergites about as long as tergite II; suture between tergites II and III very 
poorly defined. Tergite II glabrous; tergite III and those following with a subapical 
row of sparse hairs. Hypopygium 2.5 times as long as first tergite. Ovipositor 
straight, sheaths deep and compressed, twice as long as first tergite and almost 
twice as deep as basal flagellar joint. 

Color. Fulvous, the following parts dark brown: tip of mandible, stemmaticum, 
eyes, ovipositor sheath, tarsal claws, wing veins. Wing membrane moderately 
fulvous; hind tarsus brown. 

TYPE. Holotype: female, Avispas, 400 m., Madre de Dios, PERU, 
12-20 Sept. 1962, Luis E. Pena (Canadian National Collection No. 
10837). 

Lispixys levis, n. sp. 

(Figs. 2, 16) 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: female, length 2.3 mm. 

Head. Eyes with a very few sparse hairs; height of eye 3.5 times malar space; 
inner margins of eyes convergent below at about 10°; face almost flat, weakly 
intumescent at the sides, median longitudinal area weakly raised. In lateral view 
length of eye 2.5 times length of cheek. Flagelluni 22-jointed, slender and long; 
central and apical joints all fusifonii, and 1.6 to 1.8 times as long as wide; the 
apical joints about 0.7 times as wide as central ones; tyloids absent. 

Thorax. Mesopleural furrow absent anteriorly but represented by a very 
shallow polished groove above the middle coxa; propodeum with a median longi- 
tudinal (divided into two anteriorly), a pair of lateral longitudinal, and costulae, 
represented by irregular strong carinae, areas rugulose to rugose. 

Abdomen. First tergite 1.5 times as long as wide; surface completely smooth 
and shining except for a weakly foveolate central median groove. Tergites II 
and III smooth and shining, subtriangular in outline; tergite II 0.6 times as long 
as tergite I, tergite III as long as tergite II; remaining tergites 1.3 times as long 
as combined tergites II and III; suture between tergites II and III broadly, but 
very weakly, indicated centrally. Tergite II glabrous, tergite III with a multiple 
subapical row of sparse hair; row broken in middle; successive tergites with 
similar bands of sparse hairs. Hypopygium 2.0 times as long as tergite I. Ovi- 
positor straight; sheath about 1.4 times as long as tergite I and deeper than basal 
flagellar joint. 

Color. Black with yellow legs, the following parts brown: moutiiparts, scape, 
pedicel, flagellar joint 1, tegula, wing veins, apical margins of third and following 
tergites, hind tarsus, apical joint of middle tarsus. 

TYPE. Holotype: female, 20 miles east of Concordia at 3,000 ft., 
Sin., MEXICO, 4 August 1964, W. R. M. Mason (Canadian National 
Collection No. 10836). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 277 

Pulchaukia, n. gen. 

Type of tlie genus: Pulchaukia godavari, n. sp. 

This genus is the only Old World member of the tribe with notauli. It differs 
from Muesebeckia by the almost ecarinate propodeum (only a pair of stubs 
diverge from the median apex ) , by the part of the first tergite behind the spiracles 
being glabrous, polished and without any sculpture or carinae, by the angulate and 
forked mesopleural furrow, and by the long straight ovipositor with sheaths longer 
than the first tergite. In addition the female antenna is ver>' long, slender, and 
without tyloids and the second tergite extends the entire width of the abdomen, 
eliminating all trace of membranous margins. 

Pulchaukia godavari, n. sp. 

(Figs. 4, 6, 8) 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: female, length 2.0 mm. 

Head. Eyes with a few short sparse hairs; height of eye 3.2 times malar space; 
inner margins of eyes weakly divergent below; face weakly intumescent with a 
pair of shallow grooves running up from tentorial pits. In lateral view length of 
eye 2.2 times length of cheek. Flagellum 21-jointed, long and thin, without 
tyloids, apical and central joints fusiform and about twice as long as wide. 

Thorax. Mesopleural furrow comparatively narrow, deep and with weak 
foveolae for its anterior two-thirds; posterior third meeting anterior part a little 
in front of its apex at a sharp but obtuse angle ( ca. 120° ) and only about half as 
deep; propodeum rugulose apically, coriaceous and partly polished basally, with- 
out a median carina, but with a pair of carinae diverging forward from the 
median apex. 

Abdomen. First tergite 1.5 times as long as wide; completely highly polished 
and strongly intumescent apically, and with no carinae behind spiracles; partly 
shining, coriaceous, irregular, and with a weak pair of dorsal carinae basally; 
membraneous lateral margins confined to tergite I; remaining tergites highly 
polished, tergite II as long as tergite I; tergite III 0.7 times as long as tergite II; 
remaining tergites about as long as tergite III; suture between tergites II and III 
invisible. Tergite II with a median patch of sparse hair; tergites III and follow- 
ing with irregular transverse bands of sparse hairs. Hypopygium about twice 
as long as tergite I. Ovipositor long and straight, sheaths about 1.3 times as long 
as tergite I and about as deep as basal flagellar segment. 

Color. Black, with yellow legs and mandibles, the following parts brown: 
mouthparts, scape, pedicel, tegula, wing veins, all coxae, all tarsi, hind tibia. 

TYPE. Holotype: female, Godavari, Kathmandu at 6,000 ft., 
NEPAL, 20-22 July 1967, Canadian Nepal Expedition (Canadian 
National Collection No. 10839). 

Ciliosa, n. gen. 

Type of the genus: Ciliosa peruana, n. sp. 

This genus differs from Muesebeckia chiefly in its densely hair\' eyes: the 
hairs are closer together than their own lengths; the length of each hair is two or 
three times the diameter of an ommatidium. Ciliosa differs also in having three- 
jointed labial palpi, a very short malar space ( < 0.2 times height of eye), a 



278 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

glabrous second tergite with strong basal aciculations, and a long thick ovipositor 
that is as deep and wide as the first flagellar joint. The flagellum of the female is 
not deepened centrally and is without specialized ventral sensory areas (tyloids). 

Ciliosa peruana, n. sp. 

(Figs. 5, 18) 

DESCRIPTION. Holotype: male, length 2.5 mm. 

Head. Eyes hairy, the hairs about half as numerous as the ommatidia and 2-3 
times as long as an ommatidium. Malar space very short, height of eye seven 
times malar space. Inner margins of eyes convergent below at about 10°; face 
weakly intumescent, area directly above clypeus slightly elevated. In lateral view 
length of eyes 1.9 times length of cheek measured along the longitudinal axis of 
the body. Flagellum 18-jointed, long and slender, shortest joints over twice as 
long as wide; flagellar joints without tyloids; antenna only slightly tapered toward 
apex, apical joints being about 0.6-0.7 times as wide as central ones. 

Thorax. Mesopleural furrow broad and shallow with weak irregular sculpture 
posteriorly; strongly angulate just behind the middle; propodeum granular to 
rugose, with a strong median carina and irregular costulae and lateral longitudinal 
carinae. 

Abdomen. First tergite 1.4 times as long as wide; strong percurrent dorsolateral 
carinae passing above spiracles; surface of tergite weakly irregular, somewhat 
shining and generally granular. Tergite II three-quarters as long as tergite I and 
2.3 times as wide as long; tergite III the same length but a little wider. Both 
tergites II and III gradually widening from base to apex; tergites II and III 
divided by a shallow but well-marked groove. Surface of tergite II mostly 
granular with laterobasal longitudinal aciculation; surface of tergite III smooth 
and shining except for a central granular area; remaining tergites smooth and 
shining; tergites III-VII each with an apical fringe of hairs. 

Color. Piceous-black, clypeus, scape, and pedicel brown; mouthparts yellow; 
tegula I'lrown; wing base yellow, veins brown, wing membrane hyaline. All legs 
and coxae yellow except for the brown hind tarsus and apical tarsomere of 
anterior and middle legs. Membranous margins of tergites I and II yellowish. 

Female. Similar to holotype but granular sculpture of basal abdominal tergites 
greater in area and intensity; hypopygium about 1.3 times as long as tergite I; 
ovipositor long, thick and decurved; sheaths about 0.8 times as long as tergite I 
and as deep as basal flagellar joint. 

TYPES. Holotype: male, Quincemil, 750 meters, near Marcapata, 
Cuzco, PERU, 15-30 October 1962, Luis E. Pena (Canadian National 
Collection No. 10838). 

Paratype: $ Peru, same data as holotype (American Entomological 
Institute ) . 

Reference 

Mason, W. R. M. 1957. A new genus and species of Microgasterinae ( Hyme- 
noptera: Braconidae). Can. Ent. 89:355-357. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 279 

APHIDS AND THEIR PARASITES ASSOCIATED WITH OAKS IN IRAQ 

Petr Stary, Institute of Entomology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 
Praha and Biological Research Centre, Council of Scientific Research, Baghdad 

ABSTRACT — Aphids, para.sites and aphid-attending ants found on oaks are re- 
viewed and divided into several groups in accordance with their ecological niches. 
Interrelationships in the oak forest community and relationship to other communi- 
ties are dealt with. Deforestation has been ascertained to affect deeply the com- 
position and occurrence of aphids and parasites. The problem of the Kurdish 
"Manna" is dealt with. Some aphid species seem to be pests of oak scrub. Trioxys 
(Trioxys) quercicola, n. sp. (Hym., Aphidiidae) is described. 

Oak forests are very old communities in Iraq. The exploitation of 
forests and deforestation of large areas since very ancient times has 
caused a considerable decrease in original areas and deep changes in 
present forests. Reforestation and associated problems represent one 
of the long-term research topics in Iraqi silviculture. Although there 
is no doubt that the deforestation is due to the activities of man 
(mostly uncontrolled wood-cutting, charcoal-burning, etc.) the re- 
search on fauna associated with oaks represents a necessary part of a 
complex research. The emphasis of this paper is on aphids and their 
parasites. 

I am indebted to the authorities of the Biological Research Centre, 
Council of Scientific Research, Baghdad, for supporting this research. 
My thanks are due to the following specialists for the identification of 
material: Dr. J. Holman and Dr. J. Pintera (aphids). Dr. J. Pisarski 
(ants). Plants were kindly identified by the Staff of the Agric. Res. 
Station, Min. Agric. Iraq, at Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad, and by Prof. Dr. 
E. Hadac. 

Oaks ( Quercus spp. ) and Their Distribution in Iraq 

Guest and Al-Rawi ( 1966 ) divided the oak forests of Ira(i into three 
groups according to their specific composition and vertical distribution. 

1. Lowest zone. — Quercus aep,iIops. This is the lowest and driest 
sub-zone of the forest. Q. aegilops is the dominant tree, with a larger 
or smaller admixture of other oaks ( Q. infectoria ) or trees ( Pistacia ) . 

2. Medium zone. — Q. ae^ilops and Q. infectoria. These two species 
are co-dominant. 

3. Highest zone. — Q. infectoria and Q. lihani. This zone ranges 
from about 1200 to 1800 m, where the t\vo mentioned species are 
co-dominant. 

In most areas of the Kurdistan mountains the oak forests have been 
deeply affected by the acti\'ity of man. A xarying degree of de- 
forestation can usually be found: either the place has been completely 
deforested and reduced to steppe conditions, or there is oak scrub 



280 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

around the stumps of cut trees, or old trees are present. The oak forests 
in Iraq are generally open, the steppe widely penetrating into them. 
Closed oak forests are reported to be found only in less accessible parts 
of the territory. Old oak trees, even in a deforested area, may usually 
be found in or near villages ( Moslem cemetaries ) . 

Our studies were undertaken mostly in the zones 1 and 2. 

Review of the Aphlds 
Lachnus sp. ( Lachnidae ) . 

Biology. — A holocyclic monoecious species associated with Quercus 
sp. in Iraq. It occurs mainly on young shoots, feeding on the smooth 
bark, but also on the lower side, upper side and petiole of nearby 
leaves. Young shoots at the base of old trees and oak scrub are clearly 
preferred, whereas in the tops of old trees this species seems to be 
rare. Its colonies can be found in shaded and semi-shaded niches as 
well as in those exposed to sunshine, but a certain tendency to avoid 
too intensive sunshine by migration to the opposite shaded part of the 
stem has been observed. In the initial phase of the development of a 
colony the aphids — mostly alate virginogeniae — can be found isolated 
(fig. 9), but soon the colony becomes more numerous (fig. 10). With 
the exception of early instars, the aphids in a colony are never found 
very close to each other; a certain distance is strictly kept and larger 
colonies are relatively widely dispersed over an oak shoot. The damage 
caused to the oak seems mainly to be through sucking of plant juices 
and by production of honeydew. Young oak shoots seem to suffer 
most, both because of greater aphid abundance and lower quantity 
of juices. The aphid is a big producer of honeydew; leaves under and 
near the colonies are covered with honeydew, the drops of which fuse 
together and gradually accumulate near the petiole, where relatively 
large drops can often be observed. The aphid was found to be very 
abundant on the young shoots of old trees and especially of oak scrub. 

Material examined. — Quercus aegilops: 6 km Salahuddin to Shaq- 
lawah, Kurdistan, 10-7-68 (Stary); Salahuddin, nr. Shaqlawah, Kur- 
distan, 10-7-68 (Stary); Sari Rash, nr. Salahuddin, Kurdistan, 10-7-68 
(Stary). Note: numerous samples were taken. 

Parasites. — No parasites of this species have ever been observed, 
although a considerable number of aphids has been reared. A similar 
situation is known to occur in Europe, where Lachnus roboris L. is 
completely free of parasites. 

Ant-attendance. — The aphid was very frequently attended by various 
species of ants, and it seems to be much preferred to the other oak 
aphids: Acantholepis sp., Camponotus kurdistanicus Em., C. gestroi 
creticus For., C. sp., Cataglyphis protuberata Crawl., Crematogaster 
auberti jehovae For., Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis Em., 
Tapinoma simrothi karavaievi Em. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 281 

Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini (Aizenberg et Moravskaya) (Callaphididae). 

A single specimen was collected on oak scrub. No detailed informa- 
tion was obtained. 

Material examined. — Sari Rash, nr. Salahuddin, Kurdistan, 10-7-68, 
on Qiiercus aegilops ( Stary ) . 

Myzocallis picta ( Ferrari ) ( Callaphididae ) . 

Biology. — This is a holocyclic monoecious speciea associated with 
Quercus spp. in Iraq. Its ecological niche is very strictly defined as 
the aphids can be found solely on the upper side of old leaves in shaded 
parts in the top of old oak trees. The aphids are almost isolated; 
usually we did not find more than 1 or 2 aphids per leaf. The aphids are 
usually found sucking at the central rib of the leaf, not far from the 
basal third. The early instar aphids usually can be found a little closer 
to the virginogenia. If more aphids occur on a leaf, they keep a con- 
siderably wide distance apart (fig. 4), so that if we speak about a 
colony, it is widely scattered. It seems that practically no damage is 
caused to the attacked leaves through sucking. The production of 
honeydew is very low and only small droplets can be found on nearby 
leaves. The aphids were very rare in the studied localities. 

Material examined. — Quercus aegilops: 6 km Salahuddin to Shaq- 
lawah, Kurdistan, 10-7-68 (Stary); Salahuddin, nr. Shaqlawah, Kur- 
distan, 10-7-68 (Stary). 

Parasites. — No parasites of this aphid were reared. 

Ant-attendance. — Not observed. 

Tuberculoides sp. (Callaphididae). 

Biology. — A holocyclic monoecious aphid associated with Quercus 
sp. in Iraq. It is found on the lower side of older leaves in various parts 
of the tops of old trees. The colonies are scattered (figs. 5, 13). The 
damage caused to the leaves seems to be low. The production of 
honeydew is low; only small droplets can be found on leaves under a 
colony. The aphid is not rare on the old oaks. 

Material examined. — Quercus aegilops: Salahuddin, nr. Shaqlawah, 
Kurdistan, 10-7-68 (Stary). Quercus infectoria: Salahuddin, nr. Shaq- 
lawah, Kurdistan, 10-7-68 (Stary). 

Parasites. — Aplielinus sp., Praon flavinode (Hal.), Trioxys pallidus 
(Hal.). In some cases, several mummies were found on a single leaf, 
being dispersed in the same way as live aphids (fig. 13). 

Ant-attendance. — Not observed. 

Thelaxes suberis (del Gu. ) (Thelaxidae). 

Biology. — This is a holocyclic monoecious aphid associated with 
Quercus sp. in Iraq. It occurs on young leaves, mostly on their lower 
side, but if the colony is more numerous the aphids can be found even 



282 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Fig. 1. Oak forest, environs of Salahuddin near Shaqlawah, Kurdistan. Fig. 2. 
Same, deforested area, with oak scrub around stumps. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



283 




Fig. 3. Curling of a young oak shoot by Thehxes suheris {Quercus aegilops). 
Fig. 4. MyzocalUs picta on upper side of leaf of Q. aegilops. Fig. 5. Tuherculoides 
sp. on lower side of leaf of Q. infectoria. Fig. 6. Thelaxes suberis on shoot of Q. 
aegilops. Fig. 7. T. suberis on acorns of Q. aegilops. 



284 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Fig. 8. Lachmis sp. on lower side of leaf of Qiiercus aegilops. Fig. 9. Lachnus 
sp. on young shoot. Fig. 10. Lachnus sp., alate virginogeniae. Fig. 11. Thehxes 
suheris on young shoot of Q. aegilops, mummified by Ltjsiphlebus thelaxis. Fig. 
12. Phylloxera sp. on lower side of leaves of Q. infectoria. 






PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 285 




Fig. 13. Tuberculoides sp. on lower side of leaves of Quercus itifectoria nuini- 
mified by (a) Trioxijs pallidus, (b) Praon flavitwde, and (c) Aphelimis sp., 
small black mummies. Fig. 14. Thelaxes sttberis on Q. infectoria, high percentage 
of mummies (Trioxys quercicola) in colony. Fig. 15. T. stiberii- on Q. aegilops, 
young shoot, showing "Manna" or drops of honeydew on upper side of leaves. 
Fig. 16. T. suheris on lower side of leaves of Q. aegilops showing ant-attendance 
by Tapinoma simrothi karacaievi. 



286 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 










18 





Figs. 17-20. Trioxijs (Trioxys) quercicola, n. sp., 5 paratype: 17, fore wing; 
18, abdominal tergite I; 19, propodeum; 20, genitalia. 



on the upper side and petiole. The developing colony is at first con- 
centrated along the central rib; later the lateral ribs are attacked as 
well as the nearby surface. The colonies are very dense and in bigger 
colonies — due to the close mutual attachment of aphids — it appears 
that the aphids occur in several layers. Young acorns can also be 
attacked, the aphid colonies covering the whole surface (fig. 7). The 
aphid obviously causes certain damage to the attacked leaves and 
shoots. We observed heavy curling of leaves on many of the attacked 
shoots (fig. 3), but in other cases the attacked leaves were quite 
normal (fig. 6). Consequently, the question still remains whether the 
aphid itself is responsible for the curling. The aphid is a big pro- 
ducer of honeydew. The nearby leaves are covered first by small drops, 
which later fuse and form large drops which usually can be found at 
the base of leaves and later fall to the ground. The aphid was very 
abundant, particularly on the young shoots of old trees and on oak 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 287 

scrub; its occurrence in the top of old trees seems to be less common 
( acorns ) . 

Material examined. — Quercus aegilops: Tadzhike, nr. Sarsang, 
Kurdistan, 24-5-68 ( Stary ) ; 6 km Salahuddin to Shaqlavvah, Kurdistan, 
9 and 10-7-68 (Stary); Salahuddin, nr. Shaqlawah, Kurdistan, 10 
and 11-7-68 (Stary); Sari Rash, nr. Salahuddin, Kurdistan, 10-7-68 
(Stary). Quercus infectoria: Sarsang, Kurdistan, 24-5-68 (Stary). 
Note: numerous samples were taken. 

Parasites. — Lysiplilebus thelaxis Stary: mummies were observed in 
many colonies; in some of them even the aphids at the youngest leaf 
on the top were mummified. Trioxys quercicola, n. sp.: found in a 
single sample taken from an old tree. 

Ant-attendance. — The aphid is attended by several species of ants: 
Acantholepis sp., Camponotus kurdistanicus Em., C. gestroi creticus 
For., C. sp., Crematogaster auberti jehovae For., C. sordidula maijri 
Mayr, C. sp., PheidoJe pallidida arenarum var. orientalis Em., Tcipinoma 
simrothi karavaievi Em. 

Phylloxera sp. ( Phylloxeridae ) . 

Biology. — A holocyclic monoecious species associated with oaks in 
Iraq. It occurs on old leaves, exclusively on their lower side. Only the 
leaves in the tops of old trees were attacked; the aphid was never ob- 
served on oak scrub. The aphids in colonies are dispersed, but many 
specimens can be found on one leaf. Their sucking causes the develop- 
ment of small reddish-orange spots around each aphid (fig. 12). 
The production of honeydew by the aphid is very low and only a very 
thin sticky cover can be found under the infested leaves. The occur- 
rence of this aphid was rare. 

Material examined. — Quercus aegUops: Salahuddin, nr. Shaqlawah, 
Kurdistan, 10- and 12-7-68 (Stary). 

Parasites. — No parasites were reared. The group does not seem to 
be attacked by the parasites at all. 

Ant-attendance. — Not observed. 

Another phylloxerid species was found on Quercus aegdops scrub in 
Sari Rash, nr. Salahuddin, Kurdistan, 10-7-68 (Stary) and 6 km of 
Salahuddin to Shaqlawah, Kurdistan, 9-7-68 (Stary). 

Review of the Parasites 
Aphelinus sp. ( Aphelinidae ) . 

Biology. — The larva pupates inside the parasitized aphid. The 
coloration of the mummy is black. The parasite female seems to prefer 
early instar aphids as the larxae mummify the aphids before they reach 
maturity. The dispersal of the mummies corresponds to that of live 
aphids. The mummies were found on the underside of leaves in 



288 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

various parts of the tops of old trees. No attendance of the mummies by 
ants was observed. 

Material examined. — Tuberculoides sp.: Salahuddin, nr. Shaqlawah, 
Kurdistan, 9-7-68, Quercus infectoria ( Stary ) . 

Host range. — Unknown. 

Lysiphlebus thelaxis Stary ( Aphidiidae ) . 

Biology. — The fully grown larva pupates inside the mummified 
aphid. The coloration of the mummy is yellowish brown and becomes 
lighter when the mummy is older. The mummies were found dis- 
persed in the colonies of live aphids, never occurring in dense groups; 
obviously, there is a certain egg dispersal by female parasites. The 
mummies were found both on the underside and upperside of leaves 
in old trees, scrub and young shoots. Mummies were observed to be 
attended by ants in the same way as the live aphids. 

Material examined. — TJieJaxes suheris (del Gu.): Salahuddin, nr. 
Shaqlawah, Kurdistan, 10-7-68, 11-7-68, Quercus aegilops (Stary); 6 km 
Salahuddin to Shaqlawah, Kurdistan, 9-7-68, Quercus aegilops ( Stary ) ; 
Sari Rash, nr. Salahuddin, Kurdistan, 10-7-68, Quercus aegilops ( Stary ) . 
Note: this species was reared from numerous samples. 

Host range. — The species is a typical parasite of Thelaxes spp. in 
deciduous and mixed forests. It is known from Europe; its occurrence 
in the Kurdistan mountains seems to be an extension of the Mediter- 
ranean part of its distribution. 

Praon f lavinode ( Haliday ) ( Aphidiidae ) . 

Biology. — The larva pupates in a separate cocoon, the empty aphid 
skin being mounted on its top. The cocoon is whitish, the aphid skin 
is translucent. Mummies were found to be dispersed over the lower 
side of leaves in the same manner as the live aphids in various parts 
of the tops of old trees. No ant-attendance was observed. 

Material examined. — Tuberculoides sp.: Salahuddin, nr. Shaqlawah, 
Kurdistan, 10-7-68, Quercus infectoria ( Stary ) . 

Host range. — The species is known as a parasite of quite a number 
of dendrophilous callaphidid aphids in Europe; it was also introduced 
to some other areas. It occurs in deciduous and mixed forests; its 
occurrence in the mountains of Kurdistan is obviously an extension of 
the Mediterranean part of its distribution. 

Trioxys pallidus (Haliday) (Aphidiidae). 

Biology. — The fully grown larva pupates inside the mummified 
aphid. The coloration of the mummy is yellowish and becomes 
yellowish-white when the mummy is older. The mummies were found 
dispersed on the underside of leaves in the same way as live aphids. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 289 

They were found in various parts of the tops of old trees. No ant- 
attendance was observed. 

Material examined. — Tuberculoides sp. : Salahuddin, nr. Shaqlawah, 
Kurdistan, 10-7-68, Quercus infectoria (Stary). 

Host range. — It is known as a parasite of a number of dendrophilous 
callaphidid aphids. It is distributed from Europe to the Caucasus, 
Central Asia and Asia Minor, being also introduced to other areas. It 
occurs in deciduous and mixed forests and orchards (walnut). Also 
it was reared as a parasite of Chromaphls juglandicola (Kalt. ) on 
walnut in a riverain forest community in Kurdistan ( Iraq ) . 

Trioxys (Trioxys) quercicola, n. sp. ( Aphidiidae ) . 

Diagnosis. — It is related to T. (T.) pallidus (Haliday) and similar 
species by having 1 dilated claw-shaped bristle at the apex of prongs. 
It can be easily distinguished from its relatives by slightly curved 
prongs and lack of hairs on their dorsal surface. 

Female. — Head svibquadrate as seen from above, arcuately narrowed beyond 
the eyes to the occiput, smooth, shiny, sparsely hairy, as wide as thorax at tegulae. 
Face smooth, shiny, with several hairs near the orbits. Clypeus suboval, frontally 
margined, slightly convex, separated from face by a shallow, narrow and arcuate 
groove, with a deep and small tentorial pit on either side. Tentorio-ocular line 
equal to H of intertentorial line. Eyes long, oval (3:4), frontolaterally prominent, 
convergent with the clypeus. Antennae 11-semented, filifonii, reaching nearly to 
middle of abdomen; Fi equal to F^, slightly more than three times as long as 
wide. Socket-ocular line equal to half the socket-diameter. 

Mesoscutum falling vertically to the prothorax. Notaulices narrow, deep, slightly 
crenulate; developed at the ascendant part of mesoscutum and effaced on the 
disc, at the end being traced by two long hairs to about the middle of the disc. 
Praescutellar groove arcuate and wide. Scutelkmi widely triangular, with sparse 
hairs. Propodeum (fig. 19) areolated, the central areola incomplete due to 
irregular carinae, with sparse hairs. Wing ( fig. 17 ) : pterostigma triangular, 
almost three times as long as wide; metacarp equal to half of the pterostigma- 
length; radial vein arcuate, equal to the length of pterostigma. Legs normal. 

Abdomen lanceolate. Tergite 1 (fig. 18) ahnost parallel-sided, 2.5 times as 
long as wide at spiracles, smooth, shiny. Primary (spiracular) tubercles situated 
at the end of the first third, slightly prominent laterally. Following tergites smooth, 
shiny, sparsely hairy. Genitalia ( fig. 20 ) : prongs slightly arcuate, distinctly sepa- 
rated from each other, with 1 dilated claw-shaped apical bristle, without any 
long hairs on the dorsal surface. 

Head brown black; clypeus, lower part of genae, mandibles (except darkened 
apexes) yellowish. Palpi yellow. Scape, pedicel Fi and F^ yellow, the rest of 
antennae brown. Thorax brown black; prothorax brown, lighter at the base. Pro- 
podeum brown. Wings hyaline, pterostigma and a part of venation yellowish- 
brown. Tegulae yellowish-brown. Legs yellow, praetarsi of all legs darkened. 
Abdomen yellow; ovipositor sheaths and prongs yellow. 

Length of body about 1.4 mm. 

Male. — Antennae 13-segmented. Coloration much darker than in the female. 



290 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Head black, mandibles, lower margin of clypeus and genae brownish. Antennae 
brownish. Thorax black. Wings hyaline, venation light brownish. Legs yellowish- 
brown, praetarsi darkened. Abdomen brown black, tergite 1 and basal spot at 
tergite 2 yellowish-brown. 

Type. — Holotype ? : Salahuddin, nr. Shaqlawah, Kurdistan, Iraq, 
10-7-68, reared from Thelaxes suheris on Quercus infectoria, open oak 
forest (Stary). Deposited: Coll. Stary. 

Allotype S : Topotypical, with the same data as the holotype 9 . 
Deposited: Coll. Stary. 

Distribution. — Iraq ( Kurdistan ) . 

Habitat. — Mountain forests ( Quercetum ) . 

Material examined. — Thelaxes suheris (del Gu): Salahuddin, nr. 
Shaqlawah, Kurdistan, 10-7-68, on Quercus infectoria, open oak forest, 
old tree, holotype 2 , allotype i , paratype 9 ( Stary ) . 

Host range. — Probably a strictly specialized parasite. 

Note. — Mummified aphids are yellowish. In several cases dense 
groups of mummies were observed on the oak leaves and it seems that 
the parasite female is capable of ovipositing gradually in a number of 
aphids. 

Review of Aphid- Attending Ants 

Some of the oak aphids were found to be very frequently attended by 
various species of ants. 

Acantholepis sp.: Lachmis, Thelaxes. It also attended other aphids (Aphis, 
Chaitophorus ) . 

Camponotus kurdistanicus Em.: Lachmis, Thelaxes. Some other aphids 
(Aphis) were also attended. 

Camponotus gestroi creticus For.: Lachnus, Thelaxes. It was fonnd to attend 
only these aphids. 

Camponotus sp.: Lachnus, Thelaxes. 

Cataglyphis protuberata Crawl.: Lachnus sp.; no other aphids were attended. 

Crematogaster auberti jehovae For.: Lachnus, Thelaxes. No other aphids 
were attended. 

Crematogaster sordidula mayri Mayr: Thelaxes. No other aphids were at- 
tended. 

Crematogaster sp.: Thelaxes. 

Pheidole pallidula arenarum var. orientalis Em.: Lachnus, Thelaxes. Some 
other aphids (Aphis) were also attended. 

Tapinoma simrothi karavaievi Em.: Lachnus, Thelaxes. This is the most 
common ant attending various aphids in Iraq ( Aphis, Hijalopterns, Pterochloroides, 
Chaitophorus, Lachnus, Thelaxes, etc. ) . 

Both Thelaxes and Lachnus belong to the group of aphids which 
are obligatorily attended by ants. The reason seems to be obvious as 
these two aphid species are producers of abundant honeydew. 

As to the attendance-range of separate species of ants, most of them 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 291 

exhibit a wide range including also other aphids, besides some oak 
aphids. Only some species associated with oak aphids were found to 
be specialized, but this is believed to be due more to our poor knowl- 
edge of their range than to their ecological pecularities. 

As no parasites of LacJinus aphids were recognized, only the relation- 
ship of the ants to Thelaxes aphids mummified by Lijsiphlebus thelaxis 
was dealt with. This relationship exhibited the common feature of 
ant-aphid-parasite relationship in that the mummies were ignored by 
ants and protected by them in the same way as the other aphids in 
the colony. 

When collecting aphids and ants on the oaks, we have also observed 
an anthicid beetle (Formicomus sp. )^ to occur in or near several 
aphid colonies. As this was not a single case, its occurrence should 
have a certain reason. Moreover, the general appearance of the beetle 
resembles very closely the Tapinoma ant. The beetles behaviour in 
aphid colonies was very similar to that of the ants, while its responses 
to adverse mechanical stimuli had solely the character of escape. The 
anthicid beetles are a group which occurs mostly in old wood and 
other organic material (litter, river banks, etc.). This was not the 
case of our observations. It seems that Formicomus sp. feeds on fresh 
or dry honey dew of aphids on the oaks. 

Considering the fact that the ants disregarded the Formicomus 
beetles, a somewhat closer relationship seems to occur, the morpho- 
logical resemblance of the former still supporting this opinion. The 
beetles were observed only on the oak scrub. 

Ecological Niches of Separate Aphid Species 
AND Associated Parasites 

Ecological niches of aphids on oaks can be classified from several 
points of view, as listed below. 

1. Age of the host plant: young plants (also shoots at the base of 
old trees) — Thelaxes siiheris, Lachnus sp.; old plants — MyzocaUis picta, 
Tuberculoides sp., PhijUoxera sp., Lachnus s-p., Thelaxes suheris. 

2. Parts of the host plant: bark — Lachnus sp. (both on very young 
and older branches if the bark is smooth, not occurring on old bark); 
shoots — Thelaxes suheris (sometimes), Lachnus sp.; leaves — MyzocaUis 
picta, Tuberculoides sp.. Phylloxera sp., Thelaxes suheris, Lachnus 
sp. (sometimes); acorns (young) — Thelaxes suberis (.sometimes). 

3. Side of the leaf: upper side of the leaf — MyzocaUis picta, Thelaxes 
suberis (sometimes), Lachnus sp. (sometimes); lower side of the leaf 
— Tuberculoides sp.. Phylloxera sp., Thelaxes suberis, Lachnus sp. 
(sometimes); petiole — Lachnus sp. (sometimes), Thelaxes suberis 
( sometimes ) . 



^ Identified through kindness of Dr. Jeh'nek. 



292 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

4. Age of the leaf: young leaves — Thelaxes suberis, Lachnus sp.; 
old(er) leaves — Myzocallis picta, Tuber culoides sp., Phylloxera sp., 
Lachnus sp. 

5. Vertical distribution of aphids on the host plant: trees, lower parts 
of the top — Myzocallis picta; trees, various parts of the top — Tubercu- 
loides sp.. Phylloxera sp., Lachnus sp., Thelaxes suberis; scrub, young 
shoots, upper parts — Thelaxes suberis, Lachnus sp. 

6. Exposure to sunshine or shade: exposed parts, often in full sun- 
shine — Thelaxes suberis, Lachnus sp.; shaded parts (in the tops of 
trees) — Myzocallis picta, Tuberculoides sp.. Phylloxera sp., Lachnus 
sp., Thelaxes suberis. 

The parasites were found to attack their host aphids in all the niches 
in which they occur. The only exception could be Trioxys quercicola, 
which attacked Thelaxes aphids only in the tops of old trees; never- 
theless, more material should be dealt with. 

Interrelationships in an Oak Forest Community 

The evaluation of the parasite spectra of separate oak aphid species 
and host ranges of the parasites has clearly shown that each of the 
aphid species and its associated parasites represents an isolated food 
chain; the food chains are independent of each other except the in- 
fluence of the common food source, the host plant. In Lachnus sp.. 
Phylloxera sp., and Myzocallis picta the parasites were not established 
at all, so that we may suppose that their numbers are limited through 
the action of predators or other factors. Thelaxes suberis is attacked 
by strictly specialized parasites and a close population relationship may 
be expected to occur. Tuberculoides sp. is attacked by 3 species of 
parasites and their interrelationship in limiting the host population 
may be more complicated; moreover, some of the parasites can attack 
other hosts in other ecosystems. 

The aphid-attending ants are not strictly limited to a certain food 
chain, but they are, nevertheless, connected with only some of the 
oak aphid species ( Thelaxes, Lachnus ) , having no relation to the others. 

Relationship of the Oak Forest Community to Other Coxcmunities 

The open character of the oak forest in Iraq, the occurrence of 
steppe as the undergrowth, the close neighbourhood of those forests 
and the steppe character of damaged forests could indicate a certain 
relationship between the forest and steppe elements in the oak forest 
community. However, in aphids and associated parasites just the 
opposite is true. The oak aphids and their parasites are exclusively 
associated with the oaks and do not have any relationship to the steppe 
community. The research of aphids and their parasites occurring in 
the steppe has shown that they are represented mostly by Dactynotus, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 293 

Brachycaudus, Aphis, Brevicoryne, etc., and associated parasites. A 
single relationship has been found in aphid-attending ants which 
occurs both in the trees and steppe plants. 

Only the parasite species attacking Tuberculoides sp. are more widely 
specialized, attacking a number of dendrophilous callaphidid aphids, 
and they also occur in the riverain forest communities. There, Juglans 
regia, the walnut, occurs naturally or is cultivated, being infested by 
Chromaphis juglandicola (Kalt); the latter aphid belongs in the host 
range of the mentioned parasites. They were also found to attack it 
in Kurdistan ( Iraq ) . 

Deforestation and its Infxuence on Aphids and Parasites 

The cutting of oak trees represents a factor which deeply influences 
the oak forest community. The lack of suitable food and change of 
microclimate seem to be the main reasons. Aphids and associated 
parasites are a group that demonstrate well the influence of deforesta- 
tion on the fauna. 

Three types of oak forests may be distinguished in the Kurdistan 
mountains, with regard to deforestation. 

1. Virgin oak forest. No trees are cut there. The old trees usually 
have a certain number of shoots near the base of the trunk. This type 
of forest seems to have a scattered distribution in the original open 
forest woodland because of considerable deforestation (fig. 1). 

2. Cut oak forest, with oak scrub around the stumps (fig 2 ) . This 
type means a changed forest, but if the shoots are left untouched by 
man (pastures, cutting), a new forest develops in the course of 
years. This seems to be the most common type recently in the oak 
forest woodland in Iraq. 

3. Cut oak forest, with the stumps removed. This type represents 
a complete deforestation and basic change in the type of community. 
Re-forestation is possible only by artificial re-planting of such areas. 

In the section on ecological niches we have shown how strict the 
distribution is of aphids and parasites over oak trees and/or scrub. 
In virgin oak forest community the distribution of aphids and parasites 
is typical as mentioned in the review of niches. In cut forest with oak 
scrub there is a lack of aphids associated with the tree layer, as they 
are incapable of living solely on the scrub. Thus, Myzocallis picta and 
Tubercidoides sp. are absent. On the contrary, the species connected 
with the oak shoots, i.e. Lachmis sp. and TJielaxes suheris, have found 
the oak scrub to be a quite suitable habitat and may be very common 
in such places. In entirely deforested areas there are no oak aphids 
at all, as all of them are strictly specialized to the oaks as their food 
source. 

The occurrence of the parasites of oak aphids, which are mostly 



294 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

specialized and connected with the occurrence of their host aphids, 
exhibits similar features. Although in the virgin oak forest all the 
parasites can be found, only Lysiphlebus thelaxis occurs in the oak 
scrub. 

The aphid-attending ants were observed to be much more common 
on the scrub and shoots than in the tops of the trees. There seems 
to be two reasons for this: first, there are more aphids (Thelaxes, 
Lachnus) on the shoots and scrub than in the top; second, the distance 
from the ant nest is important. The mentioned features of ant occur- 
rence allow us to conclude that the ants are more common in oak 
scrub forests. 

HONEYDEW OF APHIDS AND THE PROBLEM OF "MaNNa" 

"Manna" is a phenomenon characteristic of the more arid areas of 
the Middle East. Bodenheimer and Swirski ( 1957 ) paid considerable 
interest to this problem. According to these authors the mannas are 
classified as abundant excrements of sap-feeding aphids, coccids and 
cicadas, which harden and/or crystallize in dry air. The abundant 
manna-years are in hot and dry summers. The Sinai Manna of the 
Bible is the excretion in June-July of two coccids on tamarisks. The 
"mann-es sinah" (the manna of the skies) of the Kurdish oak forests 
from Elazig and Urmia to Sulemanyia is also mentioned as belonging 
to this group: 

"The first specimen obtained came from Elazig, looking like a whitish stone 
with abundant greenish inclusions. Only much later it was understood 
that this stone was actually the Kurdish manna mixed with many small 
fragments of oak leaves. We learnt at Shuarta that these "stones" are boiled 
and purified by pressing the liquid substance through cloth. Peasants con- 
sume the manna as a sweet with their breakfast, prepare from it sweet 
sherbet drinks and mix it with flour and nuts to make delicious cakes. J. 
Leibowitz ( 1943 ) analyzed two of our samples and described them as a 
half syrupy, half crystahne mass. Their dry matter contained 30% and 
45% respectively of the rare dissachride trehalose, and 70% and 80% of the 
total were carbohydrates, the remainder being sucrose and invert sugar with 
an excess of glucose. Most of the manna usually appears in May-June, 
with some in autinnn. Unfortunately, we did not discover any on two 
visits to Iraqi Kurdistan in 1943 and this could not verify which oak aphid 
species produces this manna .... We add some details from an un- 
published report by Mr. Jafar al Khayat from Northern Iraq. He regards 
as the source of this manna a small green aphid; the manna begins to 
appear on the lower surface of the leaves, from where it drops to the upper 
surface of lower leaves and to the soil. It is collected in the early morning. 
Rainfall and wann cloudy weather decrease its production, cold winds in- 
crease it. The collectors cut the branches on which manna is abundantly 
formed. The branches are beaten until the manna has fallen off. Then it 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 295 

hardens together with the tiny fragments of oak leaves with which it 
became mixed during the beating. This manna is preserved in skin bags 
and brought to the markets where the confectioners buy it. The local pro- 
duction sold on the market of Sulemaniya is estimated at about 10,000 kilos, 
and about 20,000 additional kilos are brought there from Northern Iraq." 

The above description solves the problem of manna in many ways, 
but some significant infomiation has been omitted. We paid attention 
to such gaps when dealing with the oak aphids as well. First, there 
is the question of which aphid species is responsible for such a big 
production of honeydew. We presume that we have collected most of 
the oak aphid species during our research in Kurdistan, at least the 
commonest species, so that there is no doubt that the main manna- 
producer is also included in the material. When we climbed the old 
trees, there was relatively little honeydew on the leaves, i.e. there 
were fine droplets on the upper side of the leaves but no large drops; 
there were the callaphidid aphids, Mijzocallis picta and Tuberculoides 
sp., and Phylloxera sp. present in such trees. Larger drops of honeydew 
were found only on the leaves near or under the Lachnus colonies, 
but these aphids — as mentioned earher — were not abundant in the 
tops of old trees. The same is true of Thelaxes suheris. Thus, the first 
important conclusion is that the callaphidids and Phylloxera do not 
produce much honeydew and since the Lachnus and Thelaxes aphids 
are rare there, the manna obviously can not be collected from the old 
oak trees. Quite an opposite situation was found in the oak scrub 
around the stumps of cut trees. There, a large number of drops were 
often observed on the upper side of leaves (fig. 15). In many cases 
there was a complete cover of small drops; in other cases, beside these 
small drops, drops of 0.5 to 1 cm in size were observed. Such big 
drops were mostly found at the bases of leaves, being obviously the 
result of gradual fusing of smaller drops or of honeydew excretion 
at one place by a large aphid colony. The big drops were also observed 
to fall down to lower leaves and to the ground as well. In many cases 
a large part of a shoot was covered with the honeydew. As to the 
aphids, Thelaxes suheris, which is obviously the "small green aphid" 
of Bodenheimer and Swirski (1957), and Lachnus sp. were present 
on such shoots and they consequently are considered to be the pro- 
ducers of honeydew ( manna ) . Nevertheless, large quantities of honey- 
dew were not found near or under each larger colony of those aphid 
species. Obviously, the physiological state of the plant, the period of 
day or year, and, last but not least, the ant-attendance play a certain 
role. 

According to our opinion, the collecting of the manna may be 
detrimental to the de\'elopment of new oak forests, especialK' if it is 
done without regard to the selection of shoots as the future young 
oak trees. 



296 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

EcoNOAoc Significance of Aphids and Associated Parasites 

The aphids infesting oaks cause damage to the host plants in the 
following ways. 

1. Sucking of plant juices. In older trees it does not seem to have 
a great significance. The infestation of the young acorns (Thelaxes) 
could be dangerous, but it seems to be less common. In the shoots 
(scrub) the sucking seems to be more significant. 

2. Deformation of leaves. The aphids are most probably responsible 
for a heavy curling of leaves or curling of whole tops of young shoots 
(Thelaxes suberis, Lachmis sp). This curling is sometimes very 
common. 

3. Reddish or yellowish-red spots on leaves. Phylloxera sp. is re- 
sponsible for the appearance of small spots on the leaf -surface at the 
places of sucking. The aphid and, consequently, this type of damage 
seem to be rare. 

4. Production of honeydew. Honeydew can cover a great part of 
the leaf surface and consequently cause the decrease in assimilation, 
etc., as it is known in other plants. Furthermore, various moulds may 
secondarily develop on such a substrate. 

As to the economic significance of the damage caused to the oak 
trees it seems that the aphids are generally less important when occurr- 
ing on old(er) trees. Nevertheless, they are very common and ob- 
viously can be classified as pests on young shoots. This is important for 
the development of new forests in deforested areas where oak scrub 
near stumps is common. 

The role of parasites can be considered economically significant 
only in the case of Lysiphlebiis thelaxis, which parasitizes the Thelaxes 
aphids infesting young shoots; the percentage of parasitization ob- 
served in the colonies (number of mummified aphids) is very high. 
Lachnus species, another pest, is not attacked by the parasites at all. 

Host Plant — Aphid — Parasite List 

Quercus aegilops L. 

Lachnus STp.: no parasite. 

Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini ( Aizenberg et Moravskaya) : no parasite. 

Myzocallis picta ( Ferrari ) : no parasite 

Tuberculoides sp.: no parasite. 

Thelaxes suberis ( del Gu. ) : Lysiphlebus thelaxis Stary. 

Phylloxera sp. : no parasite. 

Quercus infectoria Oliv. 

Tuber culoides sp.: Aphelinus sp. 

Praon flavinode ( Haliday ) 
Trioxys pallidus ( Haliday ) 
Thelaxes suberis ( del Gu. ) : Trioxys quercicola n. sp. 



proc. ext. soc. wash., vol. 71, no. 3, september, 1969 297 

Conclusions 

1. The following aphids and associated parasites were found to 
occur on Quercus spp. in Kurdistan (Iraq): Lachnus sp. (0), Hoplo- 
diaetaplus zachvatkini (Aizenberg et Moravskaya) (0), Myzocallis 
picta (Ferrari) (0), Ttihercidoides sp. {Aphelinus sp., Praon flavinode 
Haliday, Trioxijs pallidus Haliday), Thelaxes stiberis (del Gu. ) 
{Lysiphlebus thelaxis Stary, Trioxys quercicola n. sp.), Phylloxera sp. 
(0). 

2. Aphids and their parasites can be divided into several groups 
according to the ecological niches. The aphid-attending ants seem 
to be less specialized in this respect. 

3. Each oak aphid species and associated parasites represent a 
separate food chain independent of each other except for the common 
food base. Ants attend several aphid species. 

4. Deforestation has a basic influence on the composition and occur- 
rence of aphids and parasites on oaks. There is a basic difference 
between the virgin oak forest, oak scrub and a completely deforested 
area. 

5. The Kurdish "Manna" is originally the honeydew of Thelaxes 
stiberis and Lachnus sp. It occurs on oak scrub, but it does not seem 
to be common on the top of old trees where also the mentioned aphids 
are rare. The aphids which occur solely in the tops of old trees 
(Myzocallis picta, Tubercidoides sp.) are neither great honeydew 
producers, nor are they abundant. 

6. Aphids do not seem to have any economic significance in the 
old trees while Thelaxes and Lachnus can be classified as serious pests 
of young shoots (scrub) in newly developing (cut) forest areas. 

7. Among the parasites associated with oak aphids only Lysiphlebus 
thelaxis can be classified as significant; it attacks the Thelaxes aphids 
occurring on young shoot ( scrub ) , also in the newly developing ( cut ) 
forests and often achieving a high degree of parasitization. Lachnus 
aphids do not have parasites. 

References 

Agnew, A. D. Q. 1962. A study on the oak forests of Gara Mountain, Mosul 

Liwa. Proc. Iraqi Scient. Soc, Baghdad 5:31—43. 
Bodenheimer, F. S. 1929. Uber das Tamariskenfauna des Sinai. In F. S. 

Bodenheimer and Theodor O., Ergebnisse der Sinai-Expedition, Leipzig, pp. 

45-89. 
and E. Swirski. 1957. The Aphidoidea of the Middle East. Weiz- 

man Sci. Press, Jerusalem, 378 pp. 
Ermin, R. 1950. Untersuchungen zur Honigtau- und Tannenhonigfrage in der 

Turkei. Rev. Fac. Sci. Univ. Istanbul 15:185-224. 
Guest, E. (Editor). 1966. The Flora of Iraq, Vol. I. Introduction to the Flora, 

by E. Guest and A. Al-Rawi. Min. Agric. Iraq, Baghdad, 213 pp. 



298 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Leibowitz, J. 1943. A new source of Trehalose. Nature 152:414. 

Mackauer, M. and P. Stary. 1967. Hym. Ichneumonoidea, World Aphidiidae. 
In Delucchi V. and Remaudiere (Editors), Index of Entomophagous Insects. 
Le Francois, Paris, 195 pp. 

Stary, P. 1966. Aphid parasites of Czechoslovakia. Academia, Prague and 
Dr. W. Junk Publ., The Hague, 242 pp. 

. 1966. Aphid parasites ( Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and their re- 
lationship to aphid attending ants, with respect to biological control. Ins. 
Sociaux 13(3): 185-202. 

1968. Geographic distribution and faunistic complexes of parasites 



(Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in relation to biological control of aphids (Homop- 
tera: Aphidoidea). Acta Univ. CaroHnae, Biologica 1967:23-89. 



THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF ARTHROLYTUS THOMSON 

( Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae ) 

B. D. Burks, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture^ 

ABSTRACT — A history of the genus Arthrolytiis Thomson in North America is 
given, with redescription of A. fasciatus ( Provancher), occurring in northeastern 
states, and description of A. muesebecki, n. sp., from California, reared from 
cynipid galls on oak. 



Arthrolijtus Thomson has had a curious history in North America. It 
was a quite commonly used chalcidoid generic name in the Nearctic 
Hterature for about 40 years, but passed out of use, and very recently 
has again been used. 

Several European species of Arthrolytus had been known since 
1878, but no Nearctic species were described until 1893. In that year 
Ashmead recognized what he took to be this genus from Ohio and 
described Arthrolytus apatelae. In 1894 he characterized another spe- 
cies, A. pimplae, from Virginia. Also in 1894 Ashmead transferred 
Cleonymus clisiocampae Fitch, described from New York state, to 
Arthrolytus. Thus, in the 1890's Arthrolytus had 3 Nearctic species, 
the names of which appeared in numerous economic reports, faunal 
lists, and catalogues, because they were often identified as primary or 
secondary parasites of common lepidopterous hosts. However, these 
names gradually disappeared from the literature. 

In 1897 Howard synonymized Arthrolytus clisiocampae under the 



^ Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 299 

European Dibrachys houcheanus (Ratzeburg), although the name 
clisiocampae persisted for some years in papers based on old determin- 
ations. In 1911 Girault transferred ArtJirolytus pimplae to Dibrachys. 
In 1920 Girault synonymized pimplae under apatelae and repeated that 
the species belonged in Dibrachys. This placed these 3 species of 
Arthrohjtus elsewhere, but in the meantime Girault had described 
Arfliroh/tiis aeneoviridis in 1911. 

In his 1920 paper, Girault transferred Habrocytus kansensis Girault, 
1917, to Arthrohjtus. So by 1920 the genus, having lost its 3 original 
Nearctic species, had acquired 2 others. However, by the 1930's, A. B. 
Gahan, Division of Insect Identification of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, had decided that these 2 .species did not belong in Ar- 
throhjtus, but should be placed in Catolaccus instead. Consequently 
he began sending out identifications of Catolaccus aeneoviridis and 
Catolaccus kansensis. As he was the only one making identifications 
of chalcid-flies in North America at that time, and workers needing 
names for use in publications relied entirely on him, the name Ar- 
throhjtus quickly disappeared from the current literature. 

It should be mentioned that Mr. Gahan's decision to drop the name 
Arthrohjtus from use in North America was a result of his study of the 
parasites of the Hessian fly, published in 1933. One of the well known 
European parasites of the Hessian fly is Arthrohjtus mactdipennis 
(Walker). After Mr. Gahan had studied this European species, it 
was obvious to him that the Nearctic species Girault had placed in 
Arthrohjtus were not congeneric with it [unpublished Gahan manu- 
script notes in the U.S. National Museum]. Logically they had to be 
placed elsewhere, and he placed them in the genus Catolaccus, leaving 
Arthrohjtus vacant for North America. 

After the mid-1930's, the generic name Arthrolytus does not appear 
in North American publications. When the Catalog of Hymenoptera 
of America North of Mexico (Peck, 1951) was published, the name 
Arthrolytus did not appear in the index, although it had been a rather 
common generic name in Nearctic catalogues and indices of North 
American economic entomology in the early years of this century. 

When I studied the Provancher types in Quebec in 1963, however, I 
saw that Semiotellus fasciatus Provancher, a species that had been un- 
placed for more than 80 years, was congeneric with the type-species of 
Arthrolytus and should be placed there. As I remarked in my report 
( 1964 ) on the Provancher species of Chalcidoidea, "Several other North 
American species at various times have been referred to Arthrohjtus, 
but all have subsequently been transferred to other genera. Thus 
fasciatus remains the only described North American species now 
referred to ArtJirolytus." 

Quite recently I have secured reared material in good condition 



300 PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

of an undescribed Nearctic species of Arthrohjtus that was formerly 
represented in the U.S.N.M. collection only by fragmentary specimens. 
In this paper I describe this new species and redescribe Provancher's 
species. I also present a description of the genus Arthrohjtus, because 
that generic name was misapplied in the Nearctic literature for 40 years. 

Genus Arthrolytus Thomson 

Pteromalus subg. Arthrohjtus Thomson, 1878, Hym. Scand. 5: 147, 158. Type- 
species: {Arthrohjtus pnnctattts Thomson) = Pteromalus maculipennis 
Walker. Desig. by Ashmead, 1904. 

Girault (1911) published an extended dissertation on Arthrolytus, 
based entirely on the literature. He unfortunately had never seen the 
type-species, and his conclusions about the genus are largely mistaken. 
Authentic specimens of the type-species of Arthrohjtus were secured 
for the U.S.N.M. collection by Mr. Gahan from the Mayr collection in 
Vienna in 1927. 

Generic description. — Head and thorax dull, sculptured, gaster smooth and 
shining. Head with clypeal margin truncate or with 2 very obscure teeth; right 
mandible with 4 teeth, left mandible with 3, dorsal tooth of each mandible 
truncate, ventral teeth acute; maxillary palp with 4 segments, apical one long; 
labial palp with 3 segments, second segment short. Antennae inserted slightly 
below center of frons, but above level of ventral margins of compound eyes, face 
slightly produced anteriorly at level of antennal bases; antennal scapes not quite 
reaching level of anterior ocellus; female antenna with 2 ring segments and 6 
funiculars, first funicular clavate, as long as or longer than pedicel, both elongate, 
apical funiculars semiquadrate or transverse; club small, subequal in length to 
pedicel; scrobe cavity shallow, margins ecarinate. Eyes large, ovate, bare. Occiput 
not carinate; vertex not broad; head transverse in dorsal aspect. 

Pronotum with anterior margin ecarinate; dorsum of thorax not flattened; notauli- 
ces incomplete posteriorly. Forewing with stigmal vein long, from % as long as to 
equal in length to marginal vein; postmarginal vein equal in length to marginal or 
slightly longer; in female dark shading usually present in area behind marginal 
vein, male wing hyaline; marginal fringe present or absent. Hindwing with 
prominent vestige of crossvein Ir-m preserved. Legs with femora stout; hind tibia 
with 1 apical spur. Scutellum lacking frenal crossgroove. 

Propodeum without apical neck and lacking dense hair laterally; median carina 
present, lateral carinae present, absent, or partially present. Gaster subflattened 
dorsally, usually lighter in color at base; in female, apex acute, with maximum 
width of gaster equal to or slightly greater than maximum width of thorax, length 
of gaster sUghtly greater than that of thorax and propodeum combined; male gaster 
blunt at apex, shorter than or equal in length to thorax, and with a prominent pale 
spot near base. 

Key to North American Species 

Female forewing shaded behind marginal vein, marginal fringe of wing 
present; propodeum with a transverse ridge; antennal pedicel yellow, 
first funicular segment tan; gaster mostly black — . fasciatus (Provancher) 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 301 

Female forewing hyaline, marginal fringe of wing absent; propodeum 
lacking a transverse ridge; antennal pedicel yellow or tan, first funicular 
segment brown; gaster mostly brown muesebecki, n. sp. 

Arthrolylus f asciatus ( Provanclier ) 

Semiotellus fasciatus Provancher, 1881, Nat. Can. 12: 294, 5,9; Dalla Torre, 
1898, Cat. Hym., 5: 211; Gahan and Rohwer, 1918, Can. Ent. 50: 171 [lecto- 
type designation]; Peck in Muesebeck et al., 1951, USDA Agr. Monog. 2: 594; 
Burks in Krombein et al, 1958, USDA Agr. Monog. 2, Sup. 1: 84; Peck, 1963, 
Can. Ent. Sup. 30: 901. 

Arthrolytus fasciatus (Provancher) Burks, 1964, Can. Ent. 95: 1262; Burks in 
Krombein and Burks, 1967, USDA Agr. Monog. 2, Sup. 2: 265. 

Female: Length, 3.4-4.5 mm. Black; antennal scape and pedicel and all legs 
beyond coxae yellow; first funicular segment tan; base of gaster tan or deep 
yellow; middle and hind coxae, propodeum, and base of gaster with iridescent 
blue or green sheen; submarginal vein of forewing yellow, other veins brown; 
wing shaded behind marginal vein, otherwise hyaline. 

Head with clypeal margin truncate; minute, closely set, slightly irregular rugae 
converging on anterior mouth opening; width of malar space % as great as eye 
height; ocellocular line % as long as postocellar. Relative proportional lengths of 
parts of antenna — scape, 42; pedicel, 14; first funicular segment, 17; second, 11; 
third, 10; fourth, 9; fifth, 8; sixth, 6; club, 15. 

Thoracic dorsum with minute alveolate sculpture and scattered, short, recumbent 
bristles; punctures in apical area of praescutum only moderately larger than those 
in median basal area of scutellum; forewing with submarginal vein 2^2 times as 
long as marginal, stigmal and marginal equal in length, postmarginal % longer 
than marginal; marginal fringe well developed; wing bare in area behind sub- 
marginal vein. 

Propodeum with lateral carinae interrupted in the middle, a transverse costula 
or ridge present midway between base and apex of propodeum; surface of 
propodeum anterior to this costula sculptured, surface posterior to costula smooth 
and shining; strong median carina present. Gaster Vs longer than thorax and 
propodeum combined, its maximum width equal to that of thorax; gastral terga 
1-4 completely bare dorsally, fifth tergum with a few setae near lateral margins, 
sixth and seventh with moderately dense dorsal bristles. 

Male: Length, 3.0 mm. Head and thorax black with slight greenish cast, 
noticeably more hairy than female; gaster dark brown, shining, with yellow spot at 
base; antennal scape and pedicel yellow, flagellum dark brown; coxae, propodeum, 
and base of gaster with iridescent blue or green luster; femora mostly brown, tibiae 
and tarsi yellow; wings hyaline, veins tan. 

Antenna with relative proportional lengths of parts — scape, 25; pedicel, 7; 
first funicular segment, 16; second, 10; third, 9; fourth, 9; fifth, 8; sixth, 8; 
club, 15. Gaster and thorax-propodeum equal in length. 

Type locality: Quebec. 

Type: Lectotype ?, Provancher Collection, La\'al University, Stc. 
Foy, P. Q. 

Distribution: Que., N. H., Mass., Pa. 



302 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Host relationships: Unknown. The few available specimens of this 
species were taken by sweeping. 

Arlhrolytus muesebecki, n. sp. 

This handsome species agrees with fasciatus in having the female 
thorax black and the gaster light colored at the base, with the antennal 
scape pale and the flagellum dark, but the two species differ in that 
this species lacks the marginal fringe of the forewing, and lacks the 
transverse costula of the propodeum that fasciatus has, and in having 
the female forewing hyaline, rather than clouded. 

Female: Length, 3.5-5.0 mm. Head and thorax black, gaster dark brown, tan at 
base and with variable tan cross-stripes on dorsum; antennal scape pale yellow; 
pedicel and legs beyond coxae pale tan; wing veins tan, wings hyaline; middle and 
hind coxae, propodeum, and base of gaster with iridescent blue or green luster. 

Head with clypeal margin obscurely bidentate; minute, closely set, slightly 
irregular rugae converging on anterior mouth opening; width of malar space % 
height of compound eye; ocellocular line % as long as postocellar. Relative 
proportional lengths of parts of antenna — scape, 47; pedicel, 14; first funicular 
segment, 19; second, 11; third, 10; fourth, 9; fifth, 8; sixth, 7; club, 18. 

Thoracic dorsum with minute alveolate sculpture, short, scattered, recumbent 
bristles present, punctures in apical area of praescutum much larger than those in 
median basal area of scutellum; forewing with submarginal vein 2% times as long 
as marginal, stigmal and marginal veins equal in length, postmarginal slightly longer 
than marginal, stigmal knob enlarged; marginal fringe of wing absent; wing bare 
behind submarginal vein. 

Propodeum with lateral carinae present only in apical third; median carina 
not so strongly developed as in fasciatus; transverse costula absent; surface in 
most of median area of propodeum smooth, sculptured only in a small area near 
each lateral margin midway between base and apex. Gaster 1% times as long 
as thorax and propodeum combined, its maximum width equal to that of thorax; 
gastral terga 1-3 dorsally completely bare, fourth tergum with a few setae near 
each lateral margin, fifth with 3 short rows of minute setae near each lateral 
margin, sixth and seventh covered with relatively sparse dorsal bristles. 

Male: Length, 3.0-3.5 mm. Head and thorax dark green, gaster dark brown, 
shining, with a yellow cross-band near base; antennal scape yellow, pedicel tan, 
flagellum dark brown; all coxae, propodeum, and base of gaster with iridescent 
brassy or blue-green luster; legs beyond coxae pale tan; wings hyaline, veins tan. 

Antenna with relative proportional lengths of parts — scape, 37; pedicel, 9; first 
funicular segment, 20; second, 12; third, 10; fourth, 10; fifth, 9; sixth, 8; club, 18. 
Gaster and thorax-propodeum equal in length. 

Type locality: Folsom Lake, Placer Co., Calif. 

Holotype: U.S.N.M. Catalog No. 70491. 

Described from 6 female, 2 male specimens: Holotype $, allotype 
$ , and 5 9 , \$ paratypes all reared at Folsom Lake, Placer Co., Calif., 
June 1968, from gall of Andricus hrunneus Fullaway on blue oak, 
Quercus douglasii by Charles Dailey. Four paratypes are deposited in 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, iNO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 303 

the University of California, Davis, collection; the other types are in 
the U.S.N.M. 

In addition to the types, there are 29, 6 S specimens in poor con- 
dition of this series in the U.S.N.M. collection. These are not included 
in the type species because they are fragmentary. They bear the data, 
Berkeley, Calif., Oct. 7, 1921, reared from CaUirhytis quercusagrifoliae 
(Bassett), C. T. Dodd. Another female specimen, also in poor con- 
dition, was collected in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Calif, (no further 
data with the specimen ) . All this material was submitted for identifi- 
cation more than 45 years ago by E. O. Essig. 

Host relationships: This parasite was reared from cynipid galls, 
but it is not certain that it was parasitic on the gall makers. Some of 
the galls from which specimens emerged showed evidence that 
lepidopterous larvae had also lived as inquilines in the galls. 

References 

Ashmead, W. H. 1893. Descriptions of new Parasitic Hymenoptera bred by 
F. M. Webster. Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Ser. Bull. 1(3): 159-165. 

. 1894. Descriptions of new Parasitic Hymenoptera. Trans. Amer. Ent. 

See. 21: 318-344. 

. 1904. Classification of the Chalcid FHes. Mem. Carnegie Mus. 1(4): 



xi + 225-551. 

Burks, B. D. (1963) 1964. The Provancher species of Chalcidoidea (Hyme- 
noptera). Can. Ent. 95(12): 1254-1263. 

Cahan, A. B. 1933. The serphoid and chalcidoid parasites of the Hessian fly. 
USDA Misc. Pub. 174, 147 p. 

Girault, A. A. 1911. Miscellaneous notes on the Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea: 
the genus Arthrohjtus Thomson .... Can. Ent. 43: 346-354, 370-377. 

. 1917. Descriptiones Hymenopterorum Chalcidoidicarum Variorum 

cum Observationibus. V, 16 p. (private publication). 

. 1920. New serphoid, cynipoid and chalcidoid Hymenoptera. Proc. 



U.S. Nat. Mus. 58: 177-216. 
Howard, L. O. 1897. A study in insect parasitism. USDA Div. Ent. Tech. Ser. 

5, 57 p. 
Peck, O. 1951. in C. F. W. Muesebeck et al USDA Agr. Monog. 2: 410-594. 



304 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

AN ATTEMPT AT A NATURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE FAMILY 
BRACONIDAE BASED ON VARIOUS UNCONVENTIONAL CHARACTERS 

( HrNlENOPTERA ) 

M. Capek, Forest Research Institute, Zvolen, Research Station, 
Ranskd Stiavnica, Czechoslovakia 

ABSTRACT — An attempt is made to modify the existing classification of the 
family Braconidae on the basis of some unconventional characters such as larval 
taxonomy, biology and host relations. 

Even the earliest names given to Braconidae by the first authors, 
e.g. Ichneumones minuti of Linne or Ichneumones adsciti of Nees, 
indicate their close relationship to Ichneumonidae. In fact, they are 
considered as a family of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea by all 
modern hymenopterologists. But the limits of Braconidae within 
Ichneumonoidea are far from the same in all authors. While Wesmael 
( 1835-1838 ) included in his "Braconides" all ichneumonoid forms 
with only the first recurrent vein, which was then followed by some 
later authors, e.g., Foerster (1862), Marshall (1888-1897), Dalla 
Torre (1898), Szepligeti (1904), Muesebeck et al. (1951), and 
Capek ( 1966 ) , some authors did not consider the Braconidae so 
broadly and excluded one or even more subfamilies as independent 
families within the superfamily Ichneumonoidea. Thus the number 
of groups included in Braconidae varies from the maximum of 
Wesmael to the minimum in the system of Viereck (1918). Since the 
wing venation is one of the basic characters in which the phylogeny 
of Hymenoptera is illustrated, the conception of Braconidae by Wes- 
mael or its modern form by Muesebeck as regards to their limitation 
within Ichneumonoidea will be followed in this paper. 

But also the inner structure of the Braconid system which should 
illustrate the phylogenetic relationships within the family is not uni- 
form by far in all authors. It was conditioned first of all by the 
circumstance that until recent years its classification was based on 
only a few characters of external morphology of adults, and namely 
on the type of mouth parts, venation of front wing, and the form of 
abdomen. These characters are very useful, easily applicable and thus 
quite suitable for identification keys. But as they need not be identical 
with the characters of fundamental importance for the phylogenetic 
classification, the identification tables need not always agree with the 
classification system. Further this approach seems to be onesided as it 
cannot reliably eliminate the cases of morphological convergence. 
Thus it appears that the more characters and criteria that are con- 
sidered the truer picture the classification will give of phylogenetic 
relations. One very important point has to be considered here which 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 305 

has not always been evaluated properly. The phylogeny manifests 
itself in many characters, but not in a parallel manner in all of them: 
in one more rapidly, in a second more slowly (e.g., Macrocentrus Curt, 
has very generalized adult and larval morphology, but its biology has 
reached very specialized form — polyembryony; on the contrary the 
tribe Hecabolini with rather specialized adult and larval morphology 
has still preserved the primitive ectoparasitism ) . Thus one must be 
very careful in properly evaluating the importance of a single char- 
acter for the phylogenetic classification. Regarding our relatively in- 
sufficient complex knowledge of Braconidae, the taxonomy of adults 
must be considered as the most important character whose importance 
will decrease, however, with increasing knowledge of this family. 

A few recent authors have tried to vitalize the onesided approach 
based on adult taxonomy by using some new characters, e.g., male 
genitaha (Telenga, 1952; Tobias, 1967, 1968), host relations (Telenga, 
1952; Capek, 1964, 1966; Tobias, 1967, 1968), biology (Capek, 1966, 
1968; Tobias, 1967, 1968), larval morphology (Short, 1952; Capek, 
1966), and ovaries (Iwata, 1959; Boyko, 1964). In both papers by 
Tobias, he tried to combine the results of his own studies on mor- 
phology of adults with the findings of other authors. The aim of 
the present paper is to try to construct a natural system of Braconidae 
based on the objective evaluation of as many characters as possible. 

There is almost complete agreement among the cited authors that 
the cyclostomi Braconidae with larvae living externally on paralyzed 
host larvae belong at the bottom of the braconid system. The cyclostomi 
classification should be as follows. 

Doryctinae: the most primitive group with mostly large species 
with cubic head and margined occiput parasitizing mainly woodboring 
or mining larvae of beetles. It forms two tribes: Doryctini. — the 
more primitive forms with generalized wing venation and larval 
morphology. This agrees with the concept of Muesebeck et al. ( 1951 ) 
with one exception — the genus Rhyssalus Hal. of Exothecini, whose 
larvae resemble the species of members of the following tribe. On the 
base of wing venation it belongs to Doryctini. HecahoJini. — a closely 
related group with more specialized wing venation and larval mor- 
phology. Mostly small forms parasitizing the larvae of bark beetles 
or related beetles. The grouping is identical with the conception of 
Muesebeck. 

Spathiinae: the species with conspicuously petiolated abdomen, 
transverse or semicubic head and margined occiput. The wing venation 
is generalized as well as the larval morphology. The subfamily seems 
to be more specialized than the tribe Doryctini, but less so than 
Hecabolini. Its distribution is concentrated to the Indo-Malayan 
region, in others less frequently ( Nixon, 1943 ) . 



306 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Braconinae: a very large subfamily of species with transverse or 
semicubic heads, occiput margined or not. They parasitize mostly the 
larvae of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. It can be divided into the 
following tribes: Exothecini. — the margination of occiput incomplete, 
but present at least on the sides, wing venation generalized as well as 
the morphology of larvae. Mostly parasites on hidden Hving larvae of 
Lepidoptera (tortricids, miners), rarely of Coleoptera and Hyme- 
noptera. I agree with Tobias' ( 1968 ) conception of this tribe only 
partially: the genus Rhyssalus Hal. on the basis of its larvae and host 
relations (Anobiidae, cf. Fahringer, 1934) cannot belong here as well 
as probably Neurocrassus Snofl. The same can be said about the 
genus Clinocentrus Hal., whose larvae live endoparasitically in the 
larvae of Lepidoptera and pupate inside the mummified host larva, 
as is typical for Rogadinae where Clinocentrus doubtless belongs. On 
the contrary, Gnaptodon Hal., considered by all authors to be a mem- 
ber of Opiinae on the basis of larvae and host relations, should be 
classified in this tribe (Capek, 1964) as is also accepted by Tobias 
(1967). Braconini. — the wing venation more specialized as well as 
the larval morphology. In general, it can be stated that the more 
primitive genera parasitize the woodboring or barkmining larvae of 
Coleoptera, the more advanced parasitize the larvae of Lepidoptera. 
I fully agree with the classification of this tribe by Muesebeck. 
Hormiini and Pambolini. — closely related tribes, mostly parasites on 
larvae of Microlepidoptera. I propose no changes in the conception 
of Muesebeck. 

The passage from external to internal parasitism represents a very 
important point in the phylogeny of Braconids and has to be con- 
sidered in their classification. The internal parasites within the 
cyclostomi section of Braconidae form a well-characterized group from 
not only the viewpoint of their biology, but also of their larval 
taxonomy. 

Rogadinae: these form a highly specialized group of cyclostomi, 
including only internal parasites in lepidopterous larvae. Their larvae 
can be easily recognized from other cyclostomi. Thus their associ- 
ation with Exothecini by some authors, e.g., Muesebeck et al. ( 1951 ) 
cannot be accepted. Also their pupation inside the mummified host 
larva is very typical for them. The following genera should belong 
here: Rogas Nees, Petalodes Wesm., Megarliogas SzepL, Clinocentrus 
Hal., Yelicones Cam., Tetrasphaeroptjx Ashm., Pelecijstoma Wesm., 
Spinaria Brulle, and perhaps Bucculatriplex Vier. The placement of 
the aberrant genus Spinaria by various authors is not the same: in 
Braconinae (Dalla Torre, 1898; Watanabe, 1937) or in Exothecinae 
(Szepligeti, 1904). But on the basis of biology (internal parasites, 
pupation inside the mummified host larva) and larval taxonomy, it 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 307 

belongs to Rogadinae (Capek, 1966), which is not contradicted by 
the adult morphology. As regards Bticciilatriplex its placement in 
Rogadinae or in E.xothecini will be solved definitely when its biology, 
larval taxonomy, morphology of genitalia, etc., are known in greater 
detail. 

The non-cyclostomi groups follow. 

Meteorideinae: a small subfamily formed for the genus Meteoridea 
Ashm. (Capek, 1964; Tobias, 1967). By most previous authors it was 
classified in Diospilinae (Nixon, 1941; Muesebeck, et al., 1951), which 
cannot be accepted on the basis of larval morphology and biology. 

Opiinae: with the exception of Gnaptodon Hal. which belongs to 
Exothecini ( see above ) I see no objection to the conception of Muese- 
beck. 

Alysiinae: there are two tendencies: to unite Alysiini with Dacnu- 
sini into one subfamily (e.g., Griffiths, 1964) or to regard them as 
two independent subfamilies (e.g., Muesebeck, et al., 1951). On the 
basis of larval morphology, host relations and biology, it is not possible 
to distinguish them reliably (Capek, 1966) and thus I am convinced 
the opinion of Griffiths is right. Alysiini. — contains the more gen- 
eralized forms. Dacnusini. — includes the more specialized forms mostly 
parasitizing the larvae of Agromyzidae. 

Helconinae: they are internal parasites of coleopterous larvae living 
in wood or other plant tissues. It is a rather large group which could 
be divided into the following tribes: Helconini. — most primitive 
group with robust forms with very generalized wing venation and 
larval morphology which parasitize the larvae of Cerambycidae or 
other woodborers. Similarly as for the following tribe I have no 
changes to the conception of Muesebeck et al. ( 1951 ) . Cenocoeliini. — 
closely related to the foregoing group, but a more specialized tribe, 
which can be seen also in the larval morphology. DiospiUni. — the more 
primitive genera of this tribe are known as the parasites in the larvae 
of coleopterous woodborers, the more specialized in the larvae mining 
various plant tissues. Thus the placement of Meteoridea Ashm. — a 
parasite of Lepidoptera — here on the basis of larval morphology is 
incorrect (Capek, 1966). Blacini. — the most specialized tribe mostly 
with the parasites in the larvae of Curculionidae or related beetles. It 
could be easily classified on the basis of larval taxonomy. I include 
here the genera Urosigalphits Ashm., Calyptus Hal., Blacus Nees, 
Triaspis Hal., and Aliolus Say. Only the placement of the genus 
Blacus may be doubted as very little is known about its biology, host 
relations, etc. It is classified as an Euphorinc genus by Tobias ( 1965, 
1966), but according to the study of Umited larval material (Capek, 
1964, 1966) it is related to Calyptus Hal. 

Macrocentrinae: mostly endoparasites of lepidopterous larvae show- 



308 FROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

ing in some genera very primitive characters as in the morphology 
of adults (e.g., wing venation), but some very progressive ones as in 
the biology (e.g., polyembryony ) . The limitation of this group varies 
from the conception of Muesebeck et al. (1951) followed by Tobias 
(1967) which include here only the genus Macrocentrus Curt., and 
other authors which add the further genera: Zele Curt. (Foerster, 
1862) and Eubadizon Nees (Capek, 1964). Tobias (1967) criticized 
the placement of both genera, but a detailed study of larval char- 
acters of Zele approved this criticism to a certain extent only. Also as 
regards the genus Eubadizon I persist in my opinion (Capek, 1964) 
about the close relation of this genus to Macrocentrus. This was re- 
jected by Tobias (1967), because of the polyembryony of Macro- 
centrus, which I consider insufficient reason. At the same time, I 
agree with Tobias' view on the relationship of Eubadizon to the tribe 
Orgilini, often incorrectly put together with Agathidinae (Fahringer, 
1937; Capek, 1966). The classification of Macrocentrinae should be 
as follows: Macrocentrini. — a small tribe for whose species poly- 
embryony is typical even for the sohtary ones (Daniel, 1932). Euba- 
dizonini. — a closely related group, whose biology is not known in 
detail. They parasitize the larvae of Lepidoptera and perhaps of 
Coleoptera also. The genus Calyptus Hal. is definitely distinct from 
Eubadizon and belongs to Blacini. Zelini. — a small tribe formed for a 
single genus Zele Curt., whose placement and phylogenetic relationship 
is considered so differently by various authors. Although Tobias 
( 1967 ) is probably right in criticizing the opinions about its inter- 
mediate relationship to Macrocentrus, it belongs to the group of Macro- 
centrinae in any case. Orgilini. — the most specialized group of Macro- 
centrinae at least as regards the morphology of adults and larvae. 
Tobias (1967) doubts the close relationship of Orgilus Hal., Micro- 
typus Ratz., and Stantonia Ashm., but on the basis of biology and 
larval taxonomy they form a natural group. 

Agathidinae: a large group of parasites of lepidopterous larvae 
which form a rather uniform and natural group. I have no changes 
in the conception of Muesebeck et al. ( 1951 ) . 

Microgasterinae: typical endoparasites of lepidopterous larvae form 
this very numerous group, but various authors consider its limits 
differently. Thus Telenga ( 1955) includes here Microgasterini, Cardio- 
chilini, and Acoeliini, which is followed by Capek ( 1966 ) . Other 
authors comprehend the group more narrowly, e.g., Nixon ( 1965 ) 
followed by Tobias ( 1967 ) excluded Adeliini. Microgasterini sensu 
Nixon forms a very homogenous and natural group from many aspects : 
in adult as well as in larval morphology, biology, host relations, etc. 
Especially the larvae with elongated labial sclerite, mandibles clearly 
differentiated in base and blade are very typical. As the other two 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 309 

groups, and namely Cardiochilini sensu Nixon and Acoeliini sensu 
Telenga resemble by their larvae much more Cheloninae than Micro- 
gasterinae, I prefer to limit the Microgasterinae to the tribe Micro- 
gasterini sensu Nixon only. The examination of larvae of Fornicia 
Brulle as well as SneUenius West, confirmed Nixon's opinion that both 
are typical genera of Microgasterinae. 

C ardiochilinae : for the reasons mentioned above I prefer to con- 
sider this group as independent from Microgasterinae in contradiction 
to Telenga (1955) and Nixon (1965), but consistent with Muesebeck 
et al. ( 1951 ) . They are endoparasites in the larvae of Lepidoptera and 
have very typical larvae: mandibles saber-shaped with teeth, labial 
sclerite transverse to square, but not elongate, hypostoma together 
with large hypostomal spur form a hook-shaped formation. Cardio- 
chilini. — the most generalized group of this subfamily. I have no 
objection to Nixon's (1965) conception of it. Miracini. — on the base 
of adult characters it is difficult to place the genus Mirax Hal. rightly 
in the Braconid system. Already Viereck ( 1918 ) formed for it a 
special subfamily placed between Apantelinae and Elasmosominae. I 
agree with Nixon ( 1965) that it is not immediately related to Adeliini. 
The mandibles of larvae as well as the boomerang-shaped complex of 
hypostoma and hypostomal spur indicate its relation to Adeliini, but 
it differs from them by the reduction of labial sclerite. The genus 
Paroligoneurus Mues. does not belong to this group; some of its char- 
acters suggest certain similarity to Orgilini, but it may be a con- 
vergence. Without a further detailed study it is impossible to solve 
this problem. Adeliini. — a highly specialized group of parasites of 
mining Microlepidoptera. Their larvae resemble very much those of 
Cheloninae and thus Capek ( 1964 ) stated their relation to Cheloninae, 
which is accepted by Nixon (1965). It is no doubt that the genus 
Dirrhope Foerst. belongs to this tribe on the base of larval morphology. 
Not very much is known about the biology of Adeliini, but it is 
probable that they oviposit in the host eggs: if this is confirmed, it 
will be another evidence of their relation to Cheloninae. 

Cheloninae: also parasites in the larvae of Lepidoptera; as adults 
characteristic with their carapace-like abdomen. They could be 
divided into two tribes: Sigalphini. — the more generalized tribe with 
two genera Sigalphiis Latr. and Acampsis Wesm. Their biology is not 
known in detail, but probably they do not oviposit in the host eggs 
(they are rather robust forms). Also their larval morphology is more 
generalized than that of Chelonini and resembles a little Orgilini. In 
any case Tobias ( 1967 ) is right in isolating them from Chelonini. 
Chelonini. — typical egg-larval endoparasites; they o\iposit in host eggs, 
but their larvae develop in the host larvae only. It is a homogenous 



310 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3^ SEPTEMBER, 1969 

natural group in all studied aspects. Its unification with Triaspidini 
(e.g., by Telenga, 1941) is artificial and thus incorrect. 

Ichneutinae: a small group of parasites of sawfly larvae. The host 
is oviposited as an egg, but its larva develops normally, forms its 
cocoon and only there the Braconid larva finishes its development. 
I have no changes in the conception of Muesebeck et al. (1951). 

Neoneurinae: the parasites of adult ants. Their biology as well as the 
larval morphology is similar to that of Euphorinae. 

Centistinae: they are the parasites of adult beetles. The genera 
Pyg,ostoIus Hal., Centistes Hal., and Syrrhizus Forst. which are classi- 
fied by Muesebeck et al. ( 1951 ) as Blacini, differ from them not only 
by their biology (parasitism in adults), but also by their completely 
different larval morphology. With them I put together the genus 
Cosmophorus Ratz., which is closely related to Syrrhizus (Capek, 
1964). 

Euphorinae: a rather large group which could be well characterized 
in the adult stage as a homogenous group. The same can be said about 
the larval taxonomy of its species. But from the viewpoint of biology 
two tribes can be classified: Meteorini. — here belongs the genus 
Meteorus Hal. whose numerous species are known as endoparasites in 
lepidopterous larvae and few of coleopterous larvae. It is interesting 
that the species parasitizing Lepidoptera have the larvae of more gen- 
eralized type than those parasitizing Coleoptera. The last ones re- 
semble very much the larvae of the following tribe. Euphorini. — typical 
parasites of adult insects or nymphs of Hemimetabola of many orders 
(Muesebeck, 1963). It is a group well characterized in adults as 
well as in larvae. With the exception of the genus Meteorus Hal. I 
do not propose any changes to the conception of Muesebeck et al. 
(1951). 

The above three subfamilies with some further genera (e.g., Blaciis) 
were brought together by Tobias (1965, 1966). I am not in favor of 
that: the groups are related, no doubt, but their unification would 
produce a very large and heterogenous group. 

Aphidiinae: a rather numerous group whose forms are typical 
parasites in the nymphs or adults of aphids. Although Mackauer and 
Stary ( 1967 ) consider them as an independent family, I do not see the 
reason for excluding them from Braconidae, as their characters with 
few exceptions fit in the limits of Braconidae quite well. 

Paxylommatinae: not very much is known about the few species of 
this group. They are probably parasites of larvae of ants. Some 
authors (e.g., Tobias, 1967) excluded this aberrant group from 
Braconidae, but my attitude to that is the same as in the foregoing 
group. 



proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 71, no. 3, september, 1969 311 

References 

Boyko, N. L. 1964. The main types of reproductive organs in females of the 
family Braconidae ( Hymenoptera, Insecta ) ( in Ukrainian ) . Tvarinn. svit. 
zakhidn. rayoniv Ukraini, AN URSR, Nauk.-prirodozn. muz. Kiev: 35-42. 

Capek, M. 1964. The classification of Braconidae ( Hym. ) in relation to the 
host specificity. Xllth Int. Congr. Ent. London, 8 pp. 

. 1966. A critical consideration of the classification of the family 

Braconidae ( Hymenoptera ) ( in Czech ) . Unpublished thesis presented to the 
Forestry Faculty of Agricultural College at Brno in April 1966: 90 pp. 

1968. The classification of Braconidae ( Hym. ) from the viewpoint 



of their biology. Xlllth Int. Congr. Ent. Moscow, 4 pp. 
Dalla Torre, C. G. 1898. IV. Fam. Braconidae Newm. In: Catalogus Hyme- 

nopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus, Lipsiae: 323 

pp. 
Daniel, D. M. 1932. Macrocentrus anctjlivorus Rohwer, a polyembryonic bra- 

conid parasite of the Oriental fruit moth. Tech. Bull. N.Y. St. Agric. Exp. Stn. 

187: 101 pp. 
Fahringer, J. 1934-1937. Opuscula braconologica. Pal. Reg. Bd. 2: 594 pp.; 

Bd. 3: 520 pp. 
Foerster, A. 1862. Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Braconen. Verb. 

naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. Westph. 19(N.F. 9): 225-288. 
Griffiths, G. C. D. 1964. The Alysiinae (Hym. Braconidae) parasites of 

Agromyzidae (Diptera). Bcitr. Ent. 14: 823-914. 
Iwata, K. 1959. The comparative anatomy of the ovary in Hymenoptera. Part 

III. Braconidae (including Aphidiidae) with descriptions of ovarian eggs. 

Kontyu 27: 231-238. 
Mackauer, M. and P. Stary. 1967. World Aphidiidae (Hym. Ichneumonoidea ) . 

In: Index of Entomophagous Insects. Le Francois, Paris: 195 pp. 
Marshall, T. A. 1888-1897. Les Braconides. In: Species des Hymenopteres, 

d'Europe et d'Algerie, T.4: 609 pp.; T.5: 635 pp.; T.5 bis: 373 pp. 
Muesebeck, C. F. W., et al. 1951. Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico. 

Synoptic Catalog. U.S. Dept. Agric., Agric. Monogr. 2: 1420 pp. 
Nixon, G. E. J. 1941. New braconid parasites of Antestia lineaticollis Stal. 

and of Sylepta derogata F. Bull. Ent. Res. 32: 93-101. 
. 1943. A revision of the Spathiinae of the Old World (Hymenoptera, 

Braconidae). Trans. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. 93: 173-456. 

1965. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera: 



Braconidae). Bull. Brit. Mns. (N.H.), Entom., Suppl. 2: 284 pp. 
Short, J. R. T. 1952. The morphology of the head of larval Hymenoptera with 

special reference to the head of Ichneumonoidea, including a classification of 

the final instar larvae of the Braconidae. Trans. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. 103: 27-84. 
Szepligeti, V. 1904. Braconidae. In: Genera Insectorum 22: 253 pp. Bruxelles. 
Teienga, N. A. 1941. Fam. Braconidae: sous-fam. Braconidae (cont. ) et 

Sigalphinae. In: Faune de I'URSS, Insectes Hymenopteres, Vol. V, no. 3: 455 pp. 
. 1952. The origin and evolution of parasitism in parasitic H\nie- 

noptera and the formation of their fauna in USSR (in Russian). Izd. AN USSR, 

Kiev: 139 pp. 

1955. Family Braconidae: subfamily Microgasterinae and Agath- 



inae. In: Fauna of USSR, Hymenoptera (in Russian), Vol. V, no. 4: 311 pp. 



312 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Tobias, V. I. 1965-1966. Genera groups and evolution of the subfamily 

Euphorinae ( Hymenoptera, Braconidae) (in Russian). Rev. Entom. URSS 44: 

841-865; 45: 612-633. 
. 1967. A review of the classification, phylogeny and evolution of 

the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera) (in Russian). Rev. Entom. URSS 46: 

645-669. 

1968. The problems of classification and phylogeny of the family 



Braconidae (Hymenoptera) (in Russian). Chteniya pamyati N.A. Kholodskogo 

1967 g., AN USSR, Izd. Nauka, Leningradsk. otdel.: 1-43 pp. 
Viereck, H. L. 1918. A list of families and subfamilies of Ichneumon-flies or 

the super-family Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 31: 

69-74. 
Watanabe, C. 1937. A preliminary revision of the genus Spinaria Bmlle 

( Hymen., Braconidae ) . InsectaMatsum.il: 106-117. 
Wesmael, C. 1835-1837-1838. Monographic des Braconides de Belgique. 

Nouv. Mem. Acad. Sci. R. Bruxelles 9: 1-252; 10: 5-68; 11: 1-166. 



THE BLACK FLIES OF DOMINICA 

( DiPTERA : SrMULIIDAE ) 

Alan Stone, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, 
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA^ 

ABSTRACT — Three species of Simttlium were found on Dominica: S. antillarum 
Jennings (= S. wolcotti Fox), S. spilmani, n. sp. (female, male, pupa, larva), and 
S. tarsale Williston (female, male, and possible pupa and larva). 

The material on which this paper is based primarily was collected 
by Dale F. Bray, J. F. G. Clarke, R. E. Darsie, Jr., O. S. Flint, Jr., P. J. 
Spangler, T. J. Spilman, G. C. Steyskal, and W. W. Wirth for the 
Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey ( 1956-1966 ) . 

The fauna of Dominica consists of three species, none previously 
reported from Dominica and only one of them a new species. All three 
are confined to the Antilles or adjacent Mexico. 

Simulium (Psilopelmia) antillarum Jennings 

Simulium antillarum Jennings, 1915, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 17: 200 { $, $ ; St. 
Croix, Virgin Islands and Jamaica); Smart, 1940, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
90: 4(9, Jamaica, Montserrat); Floch and Abonnenc, 1946, Inst. Past. Guyane 
et Terr. Inini, Publ. 130: 1(9, Guadeloupe); Lewis, 1958, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (13) 1: 729 (pupa, Jamaica). 



^ Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 313 

Simnlimn (Lanca) antillarum Jennings: Vargas and Diaz Niijera, 1951, Rev. Soc. 

Mex. Hist. Nat. 12: 150, figs. 23-27 { i , 9 ; Cuba). 
Simtiliiim wolcotti Fox, 1953, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 55: 138, figs. 5, 6, 8-10 ( 6 , 

9 ; Puerto Rico ) . New synonymy. 
Simulium {Psilopelmia) antillarum Jennings: Diaz Najera, 1961, Rev. Inst. Salubr. 

Enferm. Trop. (Mex.) 21: 79-92, figs. 1-23, 25, 26 {i, 9, pupa; Mexico). 
Psilopelmia antillarum (Jennings): Rubzov, 1968, Parazitologiya 2: 354, figs 1-2 

{ $ , 9 , pupa, larva; Cuba ) . 

Type localities: S. antillarum, 1.5 miles W. of West End ( Frederiksted ) , St. 

Croix, Danish West Indies [Virgin Islands]; S. wolcotti, Henry Barracks, near 

Cayey, central Puerto Rico. 

Simulium antillarum is a small species with brillant orange thorax. 
It has been described and figured well by Vargas and Diaz Najera 
1951, Diaz Najera 1961, and Rubzov 1968. Although Diaz Najera gave 
characters to separate wolcotti from antillarum, I have been unable 
to see these differences in Puerto Rico specimens of the former, includ- 
ing a topotype, and I therefore synonymize the two. The type material 
of antillarum in the U. S. National Museum consists of 20 5 9 and 
12 6 6 from St. Croix and Jamaica. I select a male collected November 
24, 1913 at the type locality as lectotype. Much of the original material 
was reared from pupae and many of the slides of larval parts and pupal 
gills are in the collection. Subnumbers on these slides suggest indi- 
\'idual rearing, but no adult specimens have been found with these 
numbers. The species ranges from Mexico (northeastern Chiapas) to 
Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, St. Croix, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, 
Dominica and Trinidad. On Guadeloupe it was reported as biting man. 

Dominica records. Antrim, 1000 ft., March 12, 1 S, March 20, 1 S ; 
March 25, 13 9 9 (all 1956, Clarke); Springfield, March 9, 1964 2 
9 9 ( Brav ) ; Clarke Hall, January 22, 1965, mango flowers, 1 9 ( Wirth ) ; 
February 11-20, 1965, 1 9 (Wirth); March 1-10, 1965, Hght trap, 2 9 9 
(Wirth); July 1964, Hght trap, 1 6 ( Spilman); September 1, 1964, 2 $ S 
(Spilman); October 3-8, 1964, 1 9 (Spangler); October 13, 1964, 
48 9 9 (Spangler); Garholm Estate, February 7, 1965, 1 9 (Wirth). 

Simulium (Simulium) spilmani, n. sp. 

(Figs. 3-6) 

Female. Frons shiny black, nearly bare, slightly divergent above, the width 
at narrowest about half width of one eye as viewed anteriorly; antenna with 9 
flagellomeres; scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere reddish, rest of flagellum dark 
with gray pilosity; clypeus dark, thinly gray pollinose, with sparse pilosity; 
mandibles and maxillae with the usual teeth; palpus dark; sensory vesicle of third 
segment about 0.4 length of segment; base of cibarium flat, unarmed. Scutum 
when viewed anteriorly gray pollinose with slender median black stripe, a pair of 
sinuous sublateral stripes broadened anteriorly and posteriorly, and a lateral black 
stripe; the median stripe ends anteriorly at level of narrowest space between sub- 
lateral stripes; an iridescent area on anterior portion of sublateral stripe, on lateral 



314 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Figs. 1-2. Simulium tarsale Will.: 1, male terminalia; 2, female terminalia. 
Figs. 3-6. Simulium spilmani, n. sp.: 3, pupal respiratory organ; 4, male 
terminalia; 5, male ventral plate; 6, female genital fork. 



stripe, and a round spot in front of scutellum; scutellum nearly black with erect 
black hairs; postnotum dark with thin gray pollinosity; pleuron dark with a thin 
layer of pinkish pollinosity, the membraneous areas reddish; hairs of upper 
mesepimeron dark. Wing length 2.0 mm; veins yellowish brown, the costa with 
heavy black spinules; hairs on costa basad of humeral vein and on stem vein black; 
no hairs on subcosta ventrally; vein R bare above. Knob of halter pale yellow, the 
stem and base somewhat darkened. Legs: coxae with gray pollinosity; femora 
yellow, the posterior femur slightly darkened with yellowish hair; fore tibia dark 
at tip, the anterior surface mostly white; mid tibia yellow brown, slightly darkened 
distally; hind tibia brownish, the basal third or more white; fore tarsus black, the 
first three tarsomeres compressed; mid and hind tarsi with basal three fourths of 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 315 

first tarsomere and basal half of second pale; calcipala reaching to pedisulcus, 
broad and rounded; claw weakly curved, untoothed. First abdominal tergum dark 
with long dark hair; second with iridescent spot on side; terga 2-5 velvety black, 
6-8 shiny black. Genital fork as figured ( fig. 6 ) . 

Male. Holoptic, the upper facets large, reddish brown, sharply differentiated 
from the small gray lower facets; clypeus with thin gray pollinosity. Scutum as 
viewed antero-dorsally velvety black with recumbent brown hair; a pair of oblique 
metallic siKery stripes on frontal declivity, a broad blue to gold (depending on 
light incidence) lateral stripe, and the posterior declivity shiny, gun metal blue 
more iridescent on anterior border, with sparse black hairs. Stem of halter with 
dark hair. Abdomen velvety black with tergum 2 anteriorly and laterally, and 
the sides of terga 5-7 with iridescent areas. Coloration of antenna, pleuron and 
legs as in female. Terminalia as figured (figs. 4, 5). 

Pupa. Length 2.2 mm. Dorsum of head finely spiculate, of thorax glabrous; 
trichomes of head 2 on each side, each bifid from near base, stout, pale yellow; 
thoracic trichomes well developed, about 6 along anterior margin simple, a pair 
farther back, central, bifid; respiratory organ (fig. 3) about 1.5 mm long, with 5 
filaments; filaments distinctly serrate in profile; microspicules extremely small. 
Description of abdomen which in this specimen is in poor condition must await 
better material. Cocoon simple, wall-pocket shaped, rather loosely woven with 
anterior margin somewhat irregular. 

Larva. Length 5.5 mm. Antenna pale yellow slender, extending length of 
terminal two segments beyond end of fan stem. Cephalic apotome pale yellow, 
with pale brown darkening centrally on posterior half, behind and narrowly above 
eye spot, and to either side of postgenal cleft. Postgenal cleft triangular, extending 
about .60 of distance to hypostomium. One specimen has 3 stout setae to either 
side of cleft, two posterior and one anterior. Hypostomal teeth consisting of a 
stout central tooth, a slightly smaller corner tooth, three small Intermediate 
teeth, and small irregular serrations laterally; sides of hypostomium with a row of 
setae, gradually larger anteriorly, and a few scattered small setae on disk. Sclerite 
of thoracic proleg about as long as distal width, somewhat narrower basally, with 
distal filaments in a single irregular row. Abdomen not greatly enlarged posteriorly. 
A pair of blunt ventral protuberances from posterior end. Posterior arms of anal 
sclerite darker and more slender than shorter anterior arms. 

Distribution: Dominica. 

Specimens examined: Holotype £ , Clarke Hall, August 1-8, 1964, 
light trap (Spilman) (USNM No. 70735). Paratypes: Clarke Hall, 
January 8-10, malaise trap, 1 9; 11-20, malaise trap, 4 9 9; 21-31, 
malaise trap, 3 9 9; same, light trap, 4 99,4 S $ ; February 1-10, light 
trap, 3 9 9,1 £; 21-28, light trap, 1 9,3 $ S ; March 1-10, light trap, 
2 $ S; 21-31, Hght trap, 2 9 9 , 3 6 <^ (all Wirth, 1965); July, light trap, 
1 S; August 1-8, light trap, 2 9 9,1 <5 ; 9-15, light trap, 1 9 (all Spil- 
man, 1964); South Chiltern Estate, February 20, light trap, 4 9 9; 
Cabrits Swamp, February 23, light trap, 2 9 9; Macoucheri, March 5, 
at light, 1 6 ; 0.5 miles east of Pont Casse, January 27, at light, 1 i 
(all Wirth, 1965); G'leau Gommier, March 17, 1 6; Antrim, 1,000 ft., 
March 17, 1 9, 2 6 <J (both Clarke, 1956); Freshwater Lake, February 



316 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

21, 1964, 4 9 9 (Bray). In addition to these pinned paratypes, non- 
paratypic specimens in alcohol consist of 2 pupae and 24 larvae 
collected along the Pont Casse to Castle Bruce Road, 2 miles east along 
Donkey River, April 19, 1959 (Darsie) and 119 9 9, 31 $ $ collected 
at Clarke Hall from January to October by Flint, Spangler, Spilman, 
and Wirth. 

Simulium spilmani is related to S. metallicum Rondani of Central 
America and northern South America but differs in several characters 
as follows: Female, when viewed from in front with central dark 
stripe not reacliing anterior margin and three dark stripes not fused 
anteriorly; hind femur distinctly yellow; tarsal claws untoothed; inner 
posterior projections of genital fork long, narrow, heavily sclerotized; 
male with inner basal lobe of telomere round, strongly spiculate; 
ventral plate narrowed distally, the median lobe slender; pupal respira- 
tory organ of five rather short filaments; microspiculation of filaments 
very small. In the female of metaUicum the median dark stripe of 
the scutum joins the two sublateral stripes in a darkened area; hind 
femur usually nearly black; inner posterior portion of genital fork 
short, broad, weakly sclerotized; tarsal claw toothed; male with inner 
basal lobe of telomere flattened, not strongly spiculate; ventral plate 
broader distally, the median lobe broad and flat; pupal respiratory 
organ of six very long filaments; microspiculation of filaments strong. 
S. jobbinsi Vargas is also closely related but it differs in the scutal 
pattern of the female, which is as in metallicum, by the male ter- 
minalia, which have a broad, rounded ventral plate, and by the six 
rather than five respiratory filaments. 

Simulium tarsale Williston 

(Figs. 1, 2) 

Simulium tarsale Williston, 1896, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1896: 268 (2; St. 

Vincent); Smart, 1942, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 11: 48 (type study, 

synonymy); Floch and Abonnenc, 1946, Inst. Pasteur Guyane et Inini, Publ. 

130: 3(9). 
Simulium clavipes Malloch, 1914, U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Tech. Ser. 26: 40 

( 9 , Guadeloupe ) . 

Type localities: S. tarsale. Windward side St. Vincent, W. I., 1,000 ft; S. 

clavipes, Guadeloupe, West Indies, 4,000 ft. 

Female. Wing length 2.6—3.1 mm. Frons and clypeus gray pruinose, the 
margins narrowly whitish; front distinctly narrowed below. Scape and pedicel 
yellow, flagellum slightly darker. Palpus dark. Scutum dark brown with thin gray 
pollinosity on anterior half and three faintly indicated slender darker stripes; 
scutum and scutellum with abundant recumbent thin yellow hairs; erect black 
hairs on posterior declivity of scutimi and on scutellum. Basal portion of vein R 
bare; subcosta with short hairs beneath. Halter yellowish brown. Coxae brownish 
or yellowish brown; femora dusky yellow; tibiae slightly darker; hind tibia slightly 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 317 

swollen, usually with long erect or recurved hairs; tarsi black except for white basal 
half of first hind tarsoniere; first fore tarsomere somewhat flattened and tarsomeres 
2-3 of fore legs flattened, broad; fore tarsomeres 1 and 3 each with a pair of 
long recurved subapical setae; calcipala large; pedisulcus deep; claws short and 
curved, untoothed. Abdomen dark; tergum II silvery laterally and V-VIII shiny 
black; basal fringe yellow; hairs of posterior sterna recurved. Terminalia (fig. 2). 
Stem and arm of genital fork subequal, the arm with an anterolateral triangular 
lobe; ovipositor lobe triangular, rather large, not produced posteriorly; spermatheca 
slightly longer than wide, smooth. 

Male. Coloration essentially as in female except that tergum II nearly entirely 
and narrow fore margins of terga IV-VI narrowly silvery; posterior terga not 
shiny. Terminalia (fig. 1). Basimere subquadrate, somewhat lengthened laterally; 
telomere broad and flat, slightly narrowed basally and with apical third abruptly 
narrowed; tip blunt with no tooth; telomere covered with long recurved dark 
hairs; ventral plate not strongly sclerotized; median portion heavily setose, slender, 
compressed, with blunt tip and a straight ventral keel; basal arms rather stout with 
rectangular lateral shoulders; median sclerite slender; endoparameral organ with 
short stout teeth. 

Distribution: St. Vincent, Guadeloupe, Dominica. 

Dominica records: Clarke Hall, January 8-10, malaise trap, 10 9 ? ; 
11-20, malaise trap, 14 9 9 ; 21-31, malaise trap, 28 9?; February 
1-10, 1 9 (all Wirth, 1965); May 30, 1 9; June 7, 1 9 (both Steyskal, 
1966); October, light trap, 3 9 9; October 12-1§, 3 9 9; November 
5-11, 1 9 (all Spangler, 1964); Freshwater Lake, February 22, 1964, 
at light, 1 9 (Bray); Antrim, 1,000 ft., March 17, 1956, 1 £ (Clarke); 
August, 1905, 1 9 (Busck). The last is labeled as a paratype of 
clavipes although not mentioned in the original description. 

I have examined 23 specimens from Guadeloupe, including the type 
and 21 paratypes of clavipes and agree with Smart's synonymizing of 
clavipes. The subgeneric position of this species is uncertain. It has 
many characteristics of Hemicnetlm Enderlein, but the short flat fore 
tarsomeres 2-3 and the untoothed claw are at variance. 

Simulium sp. 

Two pupae and a larva were collected on the Springfield Estate, 
July 26, 1963 by Flint. They are probably S. tarsale, but the imagos 
are not sufficiently developed to permit positive identification. One of 
the pupae does show an indication of the slender black stripes on the 
thorax found in tarsale, and these immatures are also quite Hemicnetha- 
like, which supports the probable species identity. 1 describe them and 
hope that eventually the relationship of adults and immatures can be 
positively established. 

Pupa: Length 2.9 mm. Head flat above, entirely margined by a distinct carina; 
along lateral and anterior margin many irregularly placed, short peglike setal bases. 
Scutal trichomes small, slender, pale. Respiratory organ of 8 clumped, dark fila- 



318 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

ments, shorter than cephalothorax; retrorse hooklets on terga 3 and 4, and sterna 
4 to 6; no tail hooks. Cocoon closely woven, tlie aperture antero-dorsal; a short, 
distinct collar anteroventrally. 

Larva: Length 6 mm. Cephalic apotome yellow, darkened posteriorly, with a 
weak pattern of dorsal dark spots; antenna pale yellow, scarcely exceeding cephalic 
fan stem; gular cleft narrowly reaching base of hypostomium; hypostomium with 
evenly curved anterior margin; central tooth slender, rather small; all other teeth 
smaller; an oblique row of closely set yellow hairs on side of hypostomium; anal 
sclera te slender; apex of abdomen abruptly truncate ventrally in profile; no 
subapical ventral papillae. 



NOTES ON THE GENERA ZELE CURTIS AND XIPHOZELE CAMERON 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SPECIES IN JAPAN^ 

( Hymenoptera : Braconidae ) 

Chihisa Watanabe, Entomological Institute, Faculty 
of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan 

ABSTRACT — The Japanese species of the braconid genera Zele Curtis (Hel- 
coninae ) and Xiphozele Cameron ( Macrocentrinae ) are reviewed and keys pre- 
sented for their identification. 



The present paper deals with the genera Zele Curtis and Xiphozele 
Cameron, between which the relationship is still open to discussion. 
On this occasion I will give a revision of the Japanese species belong- 
ing to these genera. 

Subfamily Helconinae 

Tribe Zelinini 

Genus Zele Curtis 

Zele Curtis, 1832, Brit. Ent. 9: 415. Type-species: Zele testaceator Curtis. 
Phylax Wesmael, 1835, Nouv. Mem. Acad. Sci. Bruxelles 9: 159 (non Dahl, 1832). 

Type-species: {Rogas annulicornis Nees) = Zele testaceator Curtis. 
Homolobus Foerster, 1862, Verb, naturh. Ver. preuss. Reinl. 19: 256. Type-species: 

Phylax discolor Wesmael. 
Phylactor Reinhard, 1863, Berl. Ent. Zeitschr. 7: 348 (replacement name for 

Phylax Wesmael, 1835). 
For a long time the genus Zele was placed in the subfamily Macro- 
centrinae by previous authors, following the publication of Foerster's 
classification of the Braconidae (1862). The systematic position of 



^ Special Project Research supported by the Ministry of Education of Japan 
"Studies on the Dynamic Status of Biosphere." This study was carried out as 
part of JIBP. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 319 

this genus, however, has been discussed by recent authors, namely, 
Muesebeck (1932), Nixon (1938), Stary (1957) and Watanabe (1967). 
The most adequate placement, I believe, is for Zele to be referred to 
the tribe Zelini, a subdivision of the subfamily Helconinae, as Muese- 
beck and Walkley ( 1951 ) have already done. 

This genus may be briefly characterized as follows: 

Occiput completely margined; eyes slightly emarginate; 3rd segment of labial 
palpi very short, hardly elongate; pronotum with a triangular area enclosed by two 
keels; insertion of abdomen not completely above upper level of hind coxae; 
ovipositor short except in Zele daurica (Shestakov) and Z. testaceator Curtis, the 
sheath being more or less curved downward. 

Insofar as their habits are known the species of Zele are parasites 
of lepidopterous larvae belonging to Noctuidae, Geometridae and 
Pyralidae. However, no host record has been given in Japan. 

In 1932 I gave a revision of the Japanese species of Zele, and yet 
there is much further material before me to be examined. In the 
present investigation I include six species, of which one is new to 
Japan and another one new to the Kurile Islands. Furthermore, Zele 
testaceator, f. japonica Watanabe, 1932, should be suppressed as a 
synonym of Zele infumator Lyle, 1914. 

The species mentioned in this paper may be distinguished by the 
following key: 

Key to the Species of Zele 

1. Radial cell of hind wing divided by a transverse vein. 2 

Radial cell of liind wing not thus divided. 4 

2. Body dark brown; nervulus interstitial or slightly postfurcal; basalis of hind 

wing widely antefurcal. Larger species, 8-9 mm 3 

Body red-testaceous; nervulus clearly postfurcal; ovipositor short, the sheath 
being half as long as the basal segment of hind tarsus. Smaller species, 
6-7 mm. geminator Lyle 

3. Ovipositor shorter, the sheath being half as long as the basal segment of 

hind tarsus; ocellocular line as long as or a little shorter than the long 

diameter of a posterior ocellus. Male unknown. discolor (Wesmael) 

Ovipositor longer, the sheath being 1.5 times as long as hind tarsus in 
female. Ocellocular line rather longer than the long diameter of a 
posterior ocellus in both sexes. daurica (Shestakov) 

4. Radius of hind wing conspicuously sinuate, basalis interstitial. - 5 

Radius of hind wing slightly sinuate or almost straight, basalis strongly 

antefurcal; nervulus interstitial in both sexes. Ovipositor short, the 
sheath half as long as basal segment of hind tarsus in female. Larger 
species, 8-9 mm simplex Watanabe 

5. Ocellocular line longer, more than half the long diameter of a posterior 

ocellus in length; 1st and 2nd abscissae of radius forming an angle; 
nervulus distinctly postfurcal in both sexes. Ovipositor longer, the sheath 
as long as two basal segments of hind tarsus taken together in female. 



320 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Abdomen tinged with dark brown dorsally in male. Larger species, 

9-10 mm testaceator Curtis 

Ocellocular line shorter, less than half the long diameter of posterior ocellus 
in length; 1st and 2nd abscissae of radius almost straight; nervulus inter- 
stitial or slightly antefurcal in both sexes. Ovipositor shorter, the sheath 
half as long as basal segment of hind tarsus in female. Abdomen red- 
testaceous as in other parts of body in both sexes. Larger species, 
9-10 mm. infumator Lyle 

Zele discolor ( Wesmael ) 
(Fig. 3) 

Phylax discolor Wesmael, 1835, Nouv. Mem. Acad. Sci. Bruxelles 9: 62. 
Homolobus discolor: Foerster, 1862, Verb, naturh. Ver. preuss. Reinl. 19: 256. 
Zele discolor: Watanabe, 1932, Ins. Mats. 6: 136; Nixon, 1938, Bull. Ent. Res. 29: 
120. 

This species seems to be widely distributed in the Palaearctic region, 
being characterized by the divided radial cell of the hind wing, and 
by the dark brown body as well as the short ovipositor. In the present 
specimens the ocellocular line is a little shorter than the long diameter 
of a posterior ocellus. The nervulus of the fore wing is interstitial or 
slightly postfurcal. The male is still unknown. 

Specimens examined.— JAPAN: Honshu— Kyoto, 3 9 9, 24-9-65 (H. 
Takada); Chuzenji, 1 $, 7-8-15 (E. Gallois); Hira, 1 9, 8-6-29 (C. 
Teranishi); Hamasaka, 1 2, 18-7-30 (I. Okada). Shikoku— Kochi, 1 9, 
8-9-33 (Y. Sugihara). 

Distribution. — Europe and Japan. 

Zele daurica ( Shestakov ) 

(Figs. 1, 2) 

Homolobus dauricus Shestakov, 1940, Ark. Zool. 32A(18): 16. 

This species was originally described from a single female repre- 
sentative taken at Sedanka near Vladivostok, East Siberia, its type 
being deposited in the Riksmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden. In this 
paper I will give Japan as a locality of this species for the first time. 
On the basis of the specimens examined I give the following brief 
description. 

Female. — Antennae with 42-46 segments (46 segments in the original de- 
scription); ocellocular line as long as or a little longer than the long diameter of 
a posterior ocellus; 1st and 2nd abscissae of radius forming an angle; nervulus 
interstitial or slightly postfurcal; basalis of hind wing wddely antefurcal; ovipositor 
conspicuously long, the sheath being 1.5 times as long as hind tarsus. Length 
8-9 mm. 

Male. — The male was previously unknown; it is essentially like the female 
except for usual sexual differences. In the present representatives the antennae 
are 44- or 45-segmented. Length 7-8 mm. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



321 




Figs. 1-3. Wings of Zclc spp.: 1, Z. dmirica (Shestakov), 9 tore wing; 2, 
Z. daurica, 9 hind wing; 3, Z. discolor (Wesmael), $ hind wing. 

Specimens examined.— JAPAN: Hokkaido— Sapporo, 1 9,1 6% 27- 
8-64 (H. Takada). Honshu— Taisen, 1 9,1 6, 18-8-52 (I. Okada); 
Hirakura, 1 9, 4 i i, 10-63 (M. Matsuura); Tsu, 1 9, 9-7-62 (M. 
Matsuura); Fujihara, 1 i, 15-5-62 (M. Matsuura). Kyushu— Hikosan, 
2 i c^, 4-9-58 (K. Kamijo). 

Distribution. — East Siberia and Japan. 



322 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 323 

Zele geminator Lyle 

Zele geminator Lyle, 1914, Entomologist 47: 289. 
Zele geminator: Nixon, 1938, Bull. Ent. Res. 29: 420. 

In the course of the present investigation I have come to the con- 
clusion that a female specimen taken at the Kurile Islands might be 
referred to this species; it has the follow^ing characters: 

Female. — Body predominantly red- testaceous; nervulus clearly postf ureal; radial 
cell of hind wing divided by an almost complete transverse vein; ovipositor .short, 
the sheath half as long as the basal segment of hind tarsus. Length 6 mm. 

It should be noted that in the present specimen the basalis of the 
hindwing is slightly antefurcal. 

Specimen examined. — KURILE IS.: Uruppu I. — Tokotan, 1 9, 
2-9-27 (K.Doi). 

Distribution. — Europe and the Kurile Islands. 

Zele testaceator Curtis 
(Fig. 6) 

Zele testaceator Curtis, 1832, Brit. Ent. 9: 415. 

Rogas annulicornis Nees, 1834, Hymen. Ichneum. affin. Monogr. 1: 201. 
Zele testaceator: Watanabe, 1932, Ins. Mats. 6: 135; Nixon, 1938, Bull. Ent. Res. 
29:421. 

This species appears to have a wide distributional range in the 
Palaearctic region. It has been sometimes confused with infumator, 
especially in the male, but is readily separated from the latter by the 
characters mentioned in the present key. It should be noted that in 
the specimens examined the nervulus is clearly postfurcal without 
exception. 

Specimens examined. — ^JAPAN: Hokkaido — Sapporo, 1 ?, 6 S S, 
3-5-28 (T. Uchida), 19 S S , 9-6-29 (C. Watanabe), and 1 9, 20-7-64 
(H. Takada); Tomuraushi, 2 9 2,1 5, 24-8-54 (C. Watanabe). Honshu 
—Kyoto, 2 9 9,1 c? , 23-5-61 (H. Takada). Kyushu— Hikosan, 3 9 9, 
20-5-54 (K. Kamijo). SAGH ALIEN: Kawakami, 1 9, 30-7-29 (S. 
Matsumura ) . 

Distribution. — Europe, Saghalien and Japan. 

Zele infumator Lyle 
(Fig. 7) 

Zele infumator Lyle, 1914, Entomologist 47: 7. 

Zele testaceator, i. japonica Watanabe, 1932, Ins. Mats. 6: 135. New synonymy. 

Zele infumator: Nixon, 1938, Bull. Ent. Res. 29: 421. 

<- 

Figs. 4-7. Wings of Zele spp.: 4, Z. simplex Watanabe, S fore wing; 5, 
Z. simplex, S hind wing; 6, Z. testaceator Curtis, 9 hind wing; 7, Z. infumator 
Lyle, 9 hind wing. 



324 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

This species is closely related to testaceator, from which it may be 
distinguished by the combination of the characters mentioned in the 
present key. However, these characters, except for the length of the 
ovipositor, are not always available for the identification. In the 
present material there are a few males to which I am unable to give a 
definite determination immediately. 

Having re-examined its type I am convinced that Zele testaceator, f. 
japonica should be suppressed as a synonym of Zele infumator, as 
Nixon (1938) has already pointed out. It should be noted, however, 
that in the type of f. japonica the nervulus is not interstitial nor ante- 
furcal, but clearly postfurcal. 

Specimens examined. — JAPAN: Hokkaido — Nopporo, 1 9. 4 S$, 
15-9-32 (C. Watanabe); Sapporo, 2 9 9,4 6 6, 18-8-32 (I. Okada). 
Honshu — Takao, 1 9 (type of Z. testaceator, f. japonica), 23-10-32 (K. 
Takeuchi); Hirakura, 5 9 9, 7 6 6, 12-11-63 (M. Matsuura); Goza- 
isho, 5 9 9, 15-6-63 (M. Matsuura); Kyoto, 1 9,6 6 6, 24-10-65 (H. 
Takada ) . 

Distribution. — Europe, India, Japan and Korea. 

Zele simplex Watanabe 

(Figs. 4, 5) 

Zele simplex Watanabe, 1932, Ins. Mats. 6: 135. 
Zele simplex: Nixon, 1938, Bull. Ent. Res. 29: 420. 

This species was originally described from a single female repre- 
sentative. It resembles infumator at first sight, but may be readily 
distinguished by the venation of the hind wing. On account of the 
shape of the radial cell of the hind wing it is similar to Zele chlo- 
rophthalma (Nees, 1834), from which it is immediately separated by 
the claws with a definite basal tooth together with the basalis of the 
hind wing being widely antefurcal. 

This insect is large in size, and is to be placed near testaceator or 
infumator rather than chlorophthalma. It may be briefly characterized 
below: 

Female. — Nervulus of fore wing more or less interstitial; 1st and 2nd abscissae 
of radius forming an angle as in testaceator, while ocellocular line more than half 
the long diameter of a posterior ocellus in length together with ovipositor short as 
in infumator; claws with a basal tooth; radius of hind wing more or less sinuate 
but not so conspicuously as in testaceator or infumator; basalis of hind wing 
widely antefurcal; longer tibial spur of hind leg three-fourths as long as the basal 
segment of hind tarsus. Length 9 mm. 

Male. — The male was not previously known. It differs from the female, apart 
from usual sexual differences, only in the radius of the hind wing, which is almost 
straight, not so sinuate as in the female. Length 8 mm. 

Specimens examined. — JAPAN: Hokkaido — Jozankei, 1 9 (type of 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 325 

Zele simplex), 15-6-25 (T. Uchida); Sapporo, 1 i, 17-7-64 (H. 
Takada ) . 

Distribution. — Japan. 

Subfamily Macrocentrixae 
Genus Xiphozele Cameron 

Xiphozele Cameron, 1906, Entomologist 39: 204. Type-species: X. compressiventris 

Cameron. 
Cerotopia Enderlein, 1920, Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(11): 219. Type-species: C. 

corneimacula Enderlein. 

This aberrant genus is represented by only a single species, Xiphozele 
compressiventris Cameron (= Cerotopia corneimacula Enderlein), 
which is widely distributed in Asia. It has been referred to the sub- 
family Macrocentrinae by Cameron (1906), Enderlein (1920), Brues 
(1926), Muesebeck (1931), and Watanabe (1932 and 1937), being 
placed near the genus Zele Curtis which is situated in the subfamily 
Helconinae at present. Having examined the present material at 
hand, however, I am convinced that Xiphozele should be retained in 
the Macrocentrinae, because it appears to be quite similar to Zele at 
first sight, but is rather more closely related to the genus Macrocentrus 
Curtis than to Zele by having the following characters: 

Occiput immargined with or without a trace of carina only at sides; eyes not 
at all emarginate; 3rd segment of labial palpi nonnal, not so much shortened as 
in Zele; pronotum without a triangular area enclosed by two keels; and insertion 
of abdomen clearly above upper level of hind coxae. 

This genus may be readily distinguished from Macrocentrus by the striking vena- 
tion of the wings and by the strongly compressed abdomen. 

Xiphozele compressiventris Cameron 
(Figs. 8, 9) 

Xiphozele compressiventris Cameron, 1906, Entomologist 39: 295. 
Cerotopia corneimacula Enderlein, 1920, Arch. Naturgesch. 84A( 11 ) : 220. 
Xiphozele compressiventris: Muesebeck, 1931, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 76: 13; 

Watanabe, 1937, Jour. Facul. Agr., Hokkaido Imp. Univ. 42: 156. 
Cerotopia corneimacula: Watanabe, 1932, Ins. Mats. 6: 134. 

Muesebeck is the first reviser who has suppressed Cerotopia cor- 
neimacula as a synonym of Xiphozele compressiventris. The following 
combination of characters will distinguish this species: 

Female. — Head transverse; occiput immargined, with or without a trace of 
carina only at sides; eyes large, not emarginate; malar space as long as basal 
breadth of mandible; maxillary palpi very long; 3rd segment of labial palpi 
elongate, as long as 4th segment; ocellocular line three-fourths as long as the 
long diameter of a posterior ocellus; face and clypeus punctate; antennae long and 
slender, with 55-57 segments. Pronotum without a triangular area enclosed by 



326 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Figs. 8-9. Wings of Xiphozele compressiventris Cameron: 8, $ fore wing; 
9, 2 hind wing. 



two keels. Wings as in Figs. 8 and 9: 1st discoidal cell clearly petiolate; nervulus 
thinner than other veins, curved outwardly, with a transverse chitinized spot at 
lower third; radial cell of hind wing divided at apical third by a transverse vein. 
Propodeum transversely striolate; insertion of abdomen clearly above upper level 
of hind co.xae. Legs slender; longer tibial spur of hind leg two-thirds as long as 
the basal segment of hind tarsus; claws with a basal tooth. Abdomen strongly 
compressed; 1st segment subpedolate, longer than the following two segments 
taken together, with spiracles situated at basal third; 2nd segment margined 
laterally, as long as the 3rd; 4th and 5th segments much compressed, equal in 
length; ovipositor short, the sheath being one-fourth as long as the basal segment 
of hind tarsus. 

Red-testaceous; abdomen somewhat tinged with dark brown apically; wings 
hyaline; stigma and veins testaceous. Length 18-21 mm. 

Male. — Unknown. 

It should be noted that having read the original descriptions of both 
Xiphozele and Cerotopia I have found that there are different state- 
ments in regard to the occiput between them, "Occiput margined" 
in Xiphozele, while "Hinterhaupt nur an den Seiten gerandet" in Cero- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 327 

topia. By courtesy of Miiesebeck and Eady, who have examined the 
type of Xiphozele compresswentris in the British Museum (Natural 
History ) , London, I learn that in the type the occiput is, in reality, not 
margined but with only a trace of a carina at sides. It is my real 
pleasure to quote here Eady's information, which reads as follows: 

"I have looked at the material of Xiphozele compressiventris Cam. 
in the collection here. We have the type and two rather poor specimens 
in addition. In none is the occiput margined. In the type and one 
specimen there is a trace of a genal carina extending for a short dis- 
tance about the lower level of the eyes, but completely absent above 
and below this area, not reaching to the hypostomal carina; in the 
third specimen the genal carina is completely absent." 

Specimens examined. — JAPAN: Hokkaido — Sapporo, 1 5, 25-5-67 
(N. Ueda). Honshu— Wakayama, 1 ?, 8-28 (F. Wada); Koyama, 
1 9, 1932 (F. Wada); Tajima, 1 9, 5-8-30 (I. Okada). Kyushu— 
Wakasugiyama, 1 9, 1-7-32 (K. Yasumatsu). TAIWAN: Baibara, 1 
9, 7-25 (S. Matsumura). KOREA: Shakoji, 1 9, 2-7-22 (S. Takano and 
T. Uchida). 

Host. — No host record of this species has been given. A female 
has been bred from a lepidopterous larva feeding on leaves of Quercus 
sp. at Sapporo. The host species seems to belong to Noctuidae. The 
parasite larva left its host on September 7, 1966, and spun a cocoon, 
within which it passed the winter. The adult emerged from the cocoon 
on March 23, 1967. The cocoon is spindle-shaped, thick, dark brown, 
more or less woolly, and 12 mm. in length. 

Acknowledgments 

I wish to express my sincere thanks both to Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington, D.C., and to Mr. R. D. Eady, Commonwealth 
Institute of Entomology, London, who have examined the type of Xiphozele 
compressiventris Cameron and sent me helpful information. 

References 

Brues, C. T. 1926. Studies on Ethiopian Braconidae, with a catalogue of the 

African species. Proc. Amer. Acad. Art Sci. 61: 205—435. 
Cameron, P. 1906. On some Braconidae from the Hymala\a. Entomologist 39: 

204-206. 
Enderlein, G. 1920. Zur Kenntnis aussereuropaischer Braconiden. Arch. Natur- 

gesch. 84A(11): 55-224. 
Lyle, G. T. 1914. Contributions to our knowledge of die British Braconidae. 

No. 2 — Macrocentridae with descriptions of two new species. Entomologist 

47: 257-262, 287-290. 
Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1931. Descriptions of a new genus and eight new 

species of ichneumon-flies with taxonomic notes. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 79: 

1-16. 



328 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



1932. Revision of tlie Nearctic ichneumon-flies belonging to the 



genus Macrocentrus. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 80: 1-55. 

and L. M. Walkley. 1951. in Muesebeck et ah, Hymenoptera of 



America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monogr. 

2: 90-184. 
Nixon, G. E. J. 1938. Notes on the taxonomy and synonymy of Zele, Curtis, 

and Macrocentrus, Curtis (Hym., Braconidae). Bull. Ent. Res. 29: 415-424. 
Stary, P. 1957. On the braconid genus Zele Curtis of Czechoslovakia ( Hym., 

Braconidae ) . (In Czechoslovak with an English summary ) . Acta Soc. Ent. 

Cechosloveniae 54: 66-72. 
Watanabe, C. 1932. Notes on Braconidae of Japan. II. Macrocentrini. Ins. 

Mats. 6: 129-137. 
. 1937. A contribution to the knowledge of the braconid fauna of 

the Empire of Japan (Hymenoptera). Jour. Facul. Agr., Hokkaido Imp. 

Univ. 42: 1-188. 
. 1967. Further revision of the genus Macrocentrus Curtis in Japan 



with descriptions of two new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Ins. Mats. 
30: 1-16. 



DESCRIPTION COMPLEMENTAIRE D'UROSCELIO LUTEIPES 
KIEFFER, 1914 

(Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea : Scelionidae) 

Paul Dessart, Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles 

ABSTRACT — A description of the male and a re-description of the female 
of Uroscelio luteipes Kieffer, 1914, are given based on specimens from New 
Caledonia. The ovipositor of the female is sheathed within a protrusible tube 
the total length of which may exceed 3.5 times the total length of the metasoma. 

Parmi du materiel de Nouvelle-Caledonie aimablement communique 
par M. Paul Cochereau, nous avons eu I'agreable surprise de trouver 
une serie d'exemplaires des deux sexes du curieux genre Uroscelio 
Kieffer, 1914, qui n'etait connu jusqu'ici que par la femelle typique 
d' Uroscelio luteipes Kieffer, 1914, capturee a Lu9on, aux Philippines. 
(La description originale, en fait, ne permet pas de deduire avec 
certitude s'il y avait un ou plusieurs exemplaires; cependant, aucune 
variabilite n'y est signalee et il est tres vraisemblable qu'il n'y en avait 
qu'un seul.) Si Ton en croit C. Baltazar (1966),^ cet holotype serait 
detruit. Les femelles de notre serie different tres legerement de la 



^ "All collections before World War II were destroyed." Baltazar, 1966, p. 10. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 329 

description originale, mais si peu que nous estimons injustifiee la 
creation d'une nouvelle espece. D'autre part, la validite du genre 
Uroscelio est tres douteuse: mais nous laissons la discussion de ce 
probleme a plus qualifie que nous en cette matiere. Nous nous 
bornerons a completer la description de la femelle et a donner celle 
du male; mais surtout, nous voulons attirer I'attention sur une tres 
curieuse particularite propre aux femelles: la longueur exceptionnelle 
de I'oviscapte. 

II est connu depuis longtemps que la proeminence qui se dresse 
sur le premier tergite metasomatique (petiole) de certaines femelles 
de Scelionidae sert de fourreau a un oviscapte de bonnes dimensions; 
C. Bauman ( 1939 ) enumere 22 genres presentant cette particularite 
et repartis dans quatre sous-families. II etudie en detail I'oviscapte 
de Barijconus rufipes Kieffer, 1908. Chez cette espece, le metasoma 
presente six tergites; le premier possede une corne dorsale peu 
proeminente; la longueur totale de I'oviscapte est egale a la distance 
separant I'apex de cette corne a I'apex du metasoma, si bien qu'au 
repos, I'oviscapte n'est pas proeminent; les valves de la tariere sont 
invaginees dans un fourreau, homologue des derniers segments ab- 
dominaux. 

Nous ne connaissons pas d'etude detaillee sur les especes presentant 
une corne de longueur moyenne; par contre, dans le genre Inostemma 
Haliday, 1833, dont la plupart des especes presentent le stade extreme 
de cette disposition morphologique (la corne du petiole s'allongeant 
par dessus le mesosoma jusqu'a surplomber la tete), on sait que 
I'allongement de la corne correspond a un allongement de la tariere 
qui, au repos, s'etend depuis I'apex du metasoma jusqu'a I'extreme 
pointe de la corne. II va de soi que I'allongement de la tariere permet 
d'atteindre une profondeur plus grande lors de la ponte. 

Or, il semble que chez Uroscelio hiteipes Kieffer, cet accroissement de 
la profondeur de ponte soit realise par une disposition anatomique dif- 
ferente, a tel point qu'apparemment, I'allongement de la tariere permis 
par le tout petit eperon du petiole soit negligeable. L'exemplaire ex- 
amine par J.-J. Kieffer a sans doute ete tue par un gaz toxique ou est 
mort d'inanition dans le tube de chasse et nous pensons que sa tariere 
n'etait pas proeminente: J.-J. Kieffer en tout cas n'en parle pas et ne la 
figure point. Le materiel de M. P. Cochereau, au contraire, a ete 
tue dans I'alcool et les femelles ont toutes leur tariere devaginee au 
maximum. Or, la longueur totale de I'oviscapte depasse en general 
3,5 fois la longueur totale du metasoma, corne comprise! (fig. 2). 
En examinant le tout au microscope, apres eclaircissement, on constate 
que les valves de la tariere n'occupent que la portion distale du tube 
devagine de I'oviscapte et, lorsqu'on les mesure, on trouve une longueur 
egale a celle du metasoma. La membrane du tube exsertile est en 



330 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



0\ 





Fig. 1. UroscelioluteipesKieiiei, 1914, $. (x38). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 331 

continuite avec I'etroit segment metasomatique qui forme la "queue" 
du gaster, et Ton peut admettre que ce tube est homologue des derniers 
segments abdominaux hypertrophies. Nous n'avons pas trouve d'ex- 
emplaire dont le tube soit a peine sorti de la "queue," si bien qu'il ne 
nous a pas ete possible de connaitre sous quel etat il se presente 
lorsque la tariere nest pas devaginee; on pourrait supposer qu'il est 
pelotonne dans le gaster: mais nous croirions plus volontiers qu'il se 
telescope sous Taction des muscles longitudinaux qui le parcourent et 
se devagine par Taction de la pression sanguine. Une figure dans 
la note de C. Baumann (1939, taf. 48, Abb. 7) montre une coupe 
transversale de la region moyenne de Toviscapte de Baryconus rufipes 
Kieffer, et le tube se presente sous forme de cinq enveloppes con- 
centriques. 

Chez Uroscelio, comme dit plus haut, Tallongement des valves 
permis par la tres courte bosse du petiole est negligeable a cote de 
Tallongement du au tube membranaire. On ignore tout des moeurs 
de cette espece et par consequent de Tutilite pour elle de posseder 
un tube de ponte aussi long. 

Uroscelio luteipes Kieffer 

(Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 8) 

F e m e 1 1 e : 

Coloration: tete noire, mesosoma brim fonce, metasoma brun clair, sauf le 
petiole et les deiix derniers segments; mandibules brun jaune a la base, brun rouge 
a Tapex; scape brun pale, surtout a la face inferieure, pedicelle un peu plus sombre, 
funicule et massue brun fonce; pattes claires, jaunatres, les hanches anterieures 
et medianes tres pales, les posterieures tres sombres, sauf a Tapex; tarses quelque 
peu assombris; ailes legerement enfumees, brunatres, la nervation brune. 

Tete: en vue dorsale, transverse (L/1 = 360 fi/GOS m) et plus large que le 
mesosoma (605 /x/SlO m); en vue frontale, legerement transverse ( 1/h = 605 /i/ 
535 n); tegument a pubescence courte, apprimee, eparse; face finement ponctuee- 
reticulee, avec deux depressions longitudinales ( scrobes ) separees par le renflement 
median partant d'entre les insertions des antennes qui sont tres rapprochees 
( environ 40 fi); occiput et vertex rides transversalement ( sauf une petite plage 
chagrinee derriere chaque ocelle posterieur ) ; tempes lisses, joues lisses et 
brillantes jusqu'a un sillon s'etendant de la base de Toeil a la mandibule voisine; 
devant ce sillon, le tegument est ride; mandibules tridentees; triangle ocellairo 
tres large (POL: 135 /x; LOL: 93 n; OOL: 15 fji), le diametre ocellaire est un 
peu plus grand que la ligne oculo-ocellaire; yeux glabres, elliptiques ( grand axe/ 
petit axe = 390 fi/310 n). Antennes de 12 articles, avec un funicule de 4 articles 
et ime massue de six ( fig. 5 ) . ( Voir plus loin les mensurations prises sur un autre 
exemplaire. ) 

Mesosoma: pronotum tres court en \ue dorsale, plus ou moins visible suivant 
Tinclinaison de la tete, reborde posterieurement; mesoscutum courtement pubescent, 
chagrine, avec deux sillons parapsidaux atteignant presque ( 10 /i ) le sillon trans- 
verse posterieur; axillae tres petites; scutellum transversal, subrectangulaire. 



332 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 333 

completement lisere par de petites foveoles, disque courtement pubescent, avec 
quelques soies plus longues; metanotum un peu moins large que le scutellum, 
a bord anterieur foveole et a bord posterieur concave; propodeum visible seulement 
sur les cotes en vue dorsale: la portion mediane est excavee et I'eperon du petiole 
s'y loge; I'apex de cat eperon est partiellement reconvert par trois lamelles, deux 
laterales emises par le propodeum, reliees a une transversale anterieure emise par 
I'arriere du metanotum. Flancs: le cote de la propleure, la mesopleure et la 
metapleure sont chacun parcourus par une depression longitudinale oblique, dans 
laquelle, nous semble-t-il, vient se loger le femur lorsque I'animal retracte ses 
pattes; cote de la propleure avec une epomie; mesopleure lisse et brillante, avec 
une ligne de points enfonces dans la portion posterieure de la depression (qui 
est plus large que I'anterieure ) ; la portion anterieure de la depression de la 
metapleure (qui est entierement lisse et brillante) est orientee obliquenient vers 
le haut. 

Ailes: (figs. 1 et 8) nervure sous-costale longue, marginale courte, radiale 
moyenne et renflee apicalement (avec trois sensilla), postmarginale longue, son 
apex peu distinct, marque par la disparition des macrotriches postmarginales; la 
basale n'est pas individualisee comme nervure mais est representee par une forte 
infuscation lineaire, sigmoi'de, plus sombre que les vraies nervures. Longueur de 
I'aile anterieure: 2,20 mm; de la posterieure: 1,73 mm. (Chez un autre exem- 
plaire: aile anterieure: L/1 = 2,255 mm/0,615 mm; aile posterieure: 0,870 mm/ 
0,275 mm; sous-costale: 1126 ^, avec 18 macrotriches jusqu'au niveau de la 
basale, et 4 macrotriches plus courtes au dela; marginale: 104 ix, postmarginale: 
503 fj., ces deux nervures avec 17 macrotriches; radiale: 155 /x; basale: 152 /u; aux 
ailes posterieures, la sous-costale mesure 1166 /x et se termine par 3 hamuli). 

Pattes: formule des eperons tibiaux: 1.1.1.; I'eperon anterieur bifide, dorsalement 
spinuleux, les autres simples, un peu sinues; tibias anterieurs avec une douzaine 
d'epines apicales dans Tangle interne, et une douzaine de courtes et fortes epines 
en une plage triangulaire sur la moitie distale de la face interne; de nombreuses 
epines apicales aux autres tibias, celles des tibias posterieurs de diverses longueurs, 
certaines atteignant les 4/5 de la longueur de I'eperon. 

Metasoma (figs. 1, 2 et 4): il comprend trois parties externes: car, a la suite du 
petiole (segment abdominal II), le gaster proprement dit est fonne d'une partie 
elliptique, fusiforme, de 4 segments (segments abdominaux III-VI) et d'une 
"queue" tres etroite, cylindrique, d'un seul segment (segment abdominal VII). 
Petiole plus de 2 fois aussi long que large (L/1 = 480 /i/215 /i), nettement 
plus etroit que le gaster (215 /x/500 /x), emettant dorsalement un eperon dont 
I'apex se loge dans une depression mediane du propodeinu; cet eperon est cannele 
transversalement a I'avant, mais les cannelures posterieures s'incurvent pro- 
gressivement vers I'arriere, jusqu'a passer graduellement a la cannelure longi- 
tudinale qui orne le reste du tergite; fuseau gastral forme de 4 segments de 
longueurs decroissantes: 535 /u, 390 /x, 225 /x, 190 /x; tergite III fortement cannele 



Figs. 2-9. Uroscelio lutcipcs Kieffer, 1914: 2, Metasoma, vue de profil, 9 
(X 21); 3, Propodeum, vue dorsale, i (x 38); 4, Metasoma, vue de profil, $ 
(X38); 5, Antennae, $ (x74); 6, Portion distale des genitalia, vue dorsale, 
6 ( X 260); 7, Metasoma, vue dorsale, i ( X 38); 8, Fragment de I'aile anterieure, 
$ ( X 94); 9, Antenne, $ ( X 74). 



334 i'iuk;. kni'. soc. wash., voi,. 71, no. 3, .ski'ikmiiku, 1909 

a la hasc .snr Joule .sa lai^cur; Ics cannelures le.s plus externes s'etendent presquc 
juscpTau 1)01(1 postcrieur du terj^ito, les niedianes deviennent tres subtiles au 
dela du pn luici tiers; termite IV: quelqucs carenes lon^itudinalcs laterales, dans 
le prolonyeuieni de celles du tcrgite precedent, flancpiees internenient, a I'avant, 
d<! I'ehauclie de (|uelcpies courtes carenes, le reste du termite prati(piement lisse 
on U striation oh.solele, suivant les exeniplaires; termite V avec de tres vagiies 
traces de carenes laterales, le reste brillant et eparsenient ponctue; termite VI sans 
carenes, hrilhnit et ponctue; "(pieue" ponctuee; petiole avec de cha((uc cote une 
rauj^ee de soles; ler^ites III et IV puhescents lateralenient, V et VI i^resque 
cntirrcMicnl, "((ucuc," culierciiicnt. CfnUdlid: voir iiitroductiou. 

Iic'iii(ii(pi<'s: les principalis (lillrrcnccs d'avcc la description originale 
concciiiciil la coloration dcs anlcnncs dont sculc la niassiic scrait 
noire, les ocdlcs po.stcricurs, {}ui seraient distants dcs ycux dc lour 
(liarnclrc, Ic front -sans losscttc, ;\ ]K*inc dcjirime an niilicn-, ct les 
jiallcs donl (onlcs les handles sont reputces dun jauno sale. 

Male (AlloUpc): 

ll dillere i\t' la i( incllc par les i)oinls siiivants: 

1) Fonne dcs antennes: elles sont lilifornies (ti^. 9 et tableau plus loin). 

2) Forme du jiropodeuni (lijj. 3): la portion posterieure sul)verticale est 
liniitee par une carene periplieriqne, niais inedialenient, celle-ci est discontinue: 
les deux carenes laterales ne se rejoif^neut pas inais s'inciuvent vers I'avant et 
S(^ rapproclicut, cu dixcr^caut Ir^erenicut, i\\\ mc'laiioluui; elles soul llancinees des 
autres carenes lonj^iludinales ([ui ornent la portion dorsale du proiiodeuni. 

3) Forme dn metasoma (fij^. 7): le petiole ne pres("nte «'-videuuuent pas 
d'eperon, ("t est rcKulierement cylindri(|ue; le paster est lusilorme, montrant 
dorsalemeul 7 leryiles ( lerj.;iles alidominaux III-IX); il n'y a pas de "queue." 

I) Orncuicutalion du tiu'lasouia: le petiole n'a que des cannelures lonpi- 
ludinales; le terj^ili' ill est enlierement cannele, ineme medialement; les lerj^ites 
suivauts sont ponctues medialement, les carenes laterales scmt ohsoletes. 

5) Ck'nitalia: annean basal etire en on lube elroil beaueoui) plus lonji ([ue le 
lube cdeaKo-volsellaire (li^. f> et 7). 

Antcmics segment 

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII 

Femelle: Lonj?. en m 372 121 141 117 104 78 70 72 66 59 59 70 

Larg. en fi 59 45 45 45 45 52 72 86 86 86 83 66 

Mal(^: Long, en m 304 93 148 150 159 148 138 131 129 128 121 173 

Larg. en ^ 59 52 52 52 52 52 52 51 51 48 48 43 

Dislrihution ii,voii,r(i])Ui(jnc ct localisatioti dti iiKilrricI: respece est 
decrile des Philippines: "Ln/on, Laguna, Los Banos"; nos exeniplaires 
proviennent de Nouvellc-Caledonie: Sarrarnea, Janvier 1968, rec. P. 
Cocherean. 

Allotype male depose dans les collections de I'lnstitnt royal des 
Sciences natnrc'lles de Belgi(|n(> ( Brnx(>lles). 



I'IUk;. kst. sof.. wash., vol. 71, no. 3, si;i'ri:Miii;n, 1900 .13.5 

Jiir.i.io'.iiAi'iiii, 

Baltuy.ar, i.. K. lOfiO. A calalo^jiic ol l'liilii)j)irif Hyiiicrir)j)trra Kvitli a l)il)- 

lir>«ra{)liy, \H5H-\m'i ). I'acilic fiisfcis Mr,rioKra])li 8: 1-488. 
Itiiiiniariii, (I. 1930. Uhcr (l( ri lc).;fai)i)arat vrjn linr^/coiiiis rulijws Kirll. ( llyrn., 

I'roft.; unci scirir; Bcr/iclHirincii /iiiii AlKlomirialliokcr. Vcrliarifll. VI FI. iritf;rn. 

Kr.riKr. Krif. Berlin 1938,2: 053-000. 
Kieffer, J. -J. 1914. lOrniriK'Tatiori des .Scfjjliidcs f rr<H.t()lnii>i(l(s ; (l<s il<s 

Philippines avcc d(;scTii)ti(ni <\c Ji' nrcs nouvcaux ct d'esp('C(\s nonvellns. I'ljilip 

pinej. Sci. (D)9/3: 28.'5-311. 
. J926. Ilyrricnoplcra, I'lo' loti ii|)')i(l<a, Scclionidae. IJas 'ricncif Ii 

48: 1-885. 
()«!H«rr, H. 1901. V<i^|(j( 111 lid inoipliolo^i^clic I Jiitcrsiicliimt^f ii iilur diu Ovi- 

posilrjr dcr Ilyiiicnoijtcra. Mill. Zool. .Mus. Berlin '$7(1): .'}-l 19. 
SnodKruHH, H. K. 1941. 'I'h«r mal(; jj;enitalia ol Ilynienoptfira. .Smitlisonian 

Mi.sc. CJf.ll. 99( 14 j: 1-80. 



,m;w si'i:rii;s and iucohds oi maiioimiaca 
(ri{i(jii()i)i;(;rii)Ai:; i itoM M(,i;inA\ viaviviai..s 

K. (.. l\Mij:s(>\' ami I'uk.iji \). i'iu(,K^ 

AB.STRAfrf — 'iwo nf;w sjjer ies, Pt<>( (iiAcolu { M(i(i,aruiruni<nd<;s ) nun'M«-l»«Tki 
and Div^yoniix ( Dfisycmi/x ) Hmullwooda*-, arr; dcscrifxrfl and illnslraterl Irorn 
D(^ndr(}hijrax dorsalis cfjllrcterl in Nij^eria. HccDrds are ;<iven for (our afldition.il 
spf;ti(;s takf^n from {\^(^ Watr-r Monj^oosc and Zorilla. 

In 1966 and J967, J. C. Gcist, II. J. H. rhr rt a.KJ Ih i.ry VV. Sct/.cr, 
Divi.sion of .Marnrnals, U. S. National .Vliisf;inn, Smitlisojiian Institution, 
collected rnarnrrials in Nigeria. IJnfcjrtiinatr-ly, they did not collefl 
many Mallophaga hut tlic few tfiat they ol>taiiif d rejjresenf two speci(!S 
new to .science and lour which ar(; rare. 

A Water .Mongofjsf;, AlUax paludinosus (i',. fJuvier, 1829), wa.s 
collected at Oban, Kastern liegion on Mar(h 16, 1966 fnjH-2127); 
this individual had three speci(-s of Mallophaga: t'elicola tninimus 
Werneck, 1948, Felicola j)\jii,i(liali.H Werneck, 1948, and Suricatoecus 
paralaticeps Wern(;fk, 1948. I'alicol/i acutiroslris f^Stohhe, 1913), 
Felicola ralnni Mmerson and Stojanovich, 1966, Felicola macruruH 
Werneck, 1948, and Suricatoecus laticeps (Werneck, 1942) have prc- 



' 2704 North Kensington .Str(;f;t, Arlington, Virginia 22207. 

' Dr-partrnent of luitfjmoloyy, Fisheries, and Wildlife, University of Minnesota, 
St. Paul, Minnesota 551 01. 



336 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

viously been reported from this host; however, they were not taken 
on this occasion. All previous records are from Uganda and the Congo. 
Three specimens of the Zorilla, Poecilictis libijca (Hemprich and 
Ehrenberg, 1832) were collected at Sokoto, Northern Region on May 
10, 1966 (HJH-2399), Panisan on January 29, 1967 (JCG-1567), and 
Panisan on February 2, 1967 ( JCG-1641). Trichodectes zorillae Stobbe, 
1913 was collected off these three animals. Previous records are from 
Tunisia and Egypt. 

Procavicola (Meganarionoides) inuesebecki, n. sp. 

(Figs. 1-3) 

Male. — Head large, typical of subgenus, with numerous short setae on dorsal 
surface, and few on anterior portion of ventral surface. Posterior margin of head 
with only short setae. Basal antennal segment enlarged and elongate, with few 
short and medium setae. Prothorax short and narrow, with 6 short setae. Ptero- 
thorax expanded posteriorly, with row of short setae on posterior margin. Central 
tergal plates on abdominal segments II-VIII short, wide, and entire, with small 
additional plate on segment VII. Central sternal plates on abdominal segments 
Il-Vl short, wide, and entire. One row of short setae on posterior margin of each 
abdominal tergal and sternal plate. Terminal abdominal segment pointed and 
elongate. Shape of abdominal segments and details of chaetotaxy as shown in 
fig. 3. Male genitalia extremely long, as in fig. 2, occupying almost length of 
abdomen; parameres simple and fused distally. Genital sac long, armed with small 
spines. Total length, 1.62 mm. 

Female. — Head, except for filiform antennae, thorax, and chaetotaxy of 
abdomen, except for terminal segments, similar to those of male. Shape of 
abdominal sternal and tergal plates as shown in fig. 1. Total length, 1.68 mm. 

Type host. — Dendrohyrax dorsalis ( Eraser, 1854 ) . 

Type material. — Holotype male, allotype female, and 100 para- 
types collected at Benin City, Midwestern Region, Nigeria on January 
1, 1966 (HJH-1717); 26 paratypes collected at Sapoba, Midwestern 
Region, Nigeria on January 6, 1966 (HJH-1744). Holotype deposited 
in U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Discussion. — The chaetotaxy and shape of the abdominal sternal 
and tergal plates, and the structure of the male genitalia are dis- 
tinctive. The male is closest to those of P. ( M. ) angolensis Bedford, 
1936, P. ( M. ) jordani Bedford, 1936, and P. ( M. ) scutifer Werneck, 
1941, all of which are illustrated and discussed by Werneck (1941). 
It can be distinguished from these species by the long, large genitalia 
which have simple fused parameres and a sac without large spines. 
The female is closest to that of P. ( M. ) angolensis, but differs from it 
by having a row of short setae on the posterior margin of the genital 
plate. This species is named for the noted entomologist C. E. W. 
Muesebeck, in appreciation of his assistance rendered the authors 
during the past twenty years. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 337 




Figs. 1-3. Procavicoh muesehecki, n. sp.: 1, dorsal-ventral view of female; 2, 
male genitalia; 3, dorsal-ventral view of male. 



Dasyonyx (Dasyonyx) sinallwoodae, n. sp. 

(Figs. 4-7) 

Male. — Head short and wide, typical of subgenus, with numerous short and 
medium setae on dorsal surface, and few medium setae on anterior portion of 
ventral surface. Posterior margin of head with only few short setae. Basal 
antennal segment enlarged and elongate, with numerous short and medium setae. 
Prothorax short and narrow, with about 8 short setae. Pterothorax short, with 
row of short setae on posterior margin. Abdominal segments II-III each with 1 
central tergal plate; segments IV-VIII each with 2 central plates. One row of 
short setae on posterior margin of segments II-VIII. Abdominal segments II-M 
each with 1 central sternal plate and row of short setae on posterior margin. 
Shape of abdominal segments and details of chaetota.xy as shown in fig. 4. 
Genitalia as shown in fig. 5; paramercs short, wide, and curved inwardly distally; 



338 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Figs. 4-7. Dasyonyx smallwoodae, n. sp.: 4, dorsal-ventral view of male; 5, 
male genitalia; 6, dorsal-ventral view of female; 7, uterus sac. 

pseudopenis elongate distally; and genital sac armed with short spines. Total 
length, 1.22 mm. 

Female. — Head, except for filifonn antennae, and thorax as for male. Ab- 
dominal segments II-VIII each with only 1 central tergal plate. Chaetotaxy of 
abdomen, except for terminal segments, similar to that of male. Shape of ab- 
dominal sternal and tergal plates as shown in fig. 6. Uterus sac as shown in fig. 7. 
Total length, 1.28 mm. 

Type host. — Dendrohyrax dorsalis (Fraser, 1854). 

Type material. — Holotype male, allotype female, and 8 paratypes 
collected at Benin City, Midwestern Region, Nigeria on January 1, 
1966 (HJH-1717); 6 paratypes collected at Sapoba Midwestern, Region, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 339 

Nigeria on January 6, 1966 (HJH-1744). Holotype deposited in U. S. 
Nat. Mus. 

Discussion. — This species is closest to D. (D.) hopkinsi Werneck, 
1941. For D. (D.) hopkinsi, the male has only one central tergal plate 
on abdominal segment IV; the parameres are narrow and pointed 
outward distally; and the pseudopenis is short. The female genital 
plate and the uterus sac of D. (D.) smalltvoodae are of different shape 
than these structures for D. (D.) hopkinsi. This species is named for 
Mrs. Penelope Smallwood, in recognition of her years of outstanding 
service as slide preparator for Mr. Muesebeck and the authors. 

REFEa^ENCE 

Werneck, F. L. 1941. Os Malofagos dos Procaviideos. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo 
Cruz 36: 44.5-576. 



SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR OF AND HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN 

THREE SPECIES OF APHIDIUS NEES PARASITIC 

ON THE PEA APHID^^ 

( H^'J^IENOPTERA : ApHIDIIDAE ) 

Manfred Mackaxjer, Department of Biological Sciences, 
Simon Fraser University, Burnabtj, British Columbia 

ABSTRACT — A comparison of the behaviour patterns displayed during court- 
ship and copulation by Aphidius ervi Haliday, A. pulcher Baker and A. smithi 
Sharma & Subba Rao revealed species characteristic differences in pre-mating and 
mating time. Males are sexually rather indiscriminate but females, in general, 
will accept only males of the same species. Cross-breeding was observed only 
between males of pulcher and females of ervi. It was not observed in any com- 
bination involving smithi. The history of ervi-piilcher in North America is ex- 
plained as one of multiple introductions. Originally, ptilcher formed part of the 
ervi gene pool. It reached partial reproductive isolation after being accidentally 
introduced from Europe by early settlers. The subsequent introduction of ervi 
for the purpose of biological control resulted in secondary intergradation. A. 
pulcher is considered a semispecies which, for the time being, should be classified 
as a geographic subspecies of ervi. A. sinithi is more distantly related to ervi and 
justifies the rank of a distinct species. 

The complex of parasites that is associated with the pea aphid in 
eastern North America offers an interesting problem in species defini- 
tion. The aphid, Acyrtlwsiplwn pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphid- 
idae), is attacked by eight different species of hymenopterous para- 

^ Part of the work described in this paper was conducted w hile the autlior held a 
position at the Research Institute, Canada Department of Agriculture, Belleville, 
Ontario. 

- Supported by National Research Council of Canada Grant No. A 4665. 



340 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

sites. Three of the eight parasites, Apliidius ervi Haliday, A. pulcher 
Baker (= pisivorus Smith) and A. smitJii Sharma & Subba Rao, belong 
to one genus. They are morphologically similar and apparently 
closely related. They were described in detail by Mackauer & Fin- 
layson(1967). 

Two of the parasites, ervi and sniithi, are recent additions to the 
North American fauna. They were imported from Europe and India, 
respectively, in efforts to increase the impact of natural enemies on 
the aphid ( Hagen & SchHnger, 1960; Cooke, 1963; Mackauer & Bisdee, 
1965a; Angalet & Coles, 1966). The third species, pulcher, appears to 
be native to this continent or, more likely, was accidentally introduced 
by settlers from western Europe at an earlier time. 

The three hymenopterons are widely distributed and are generally 
common throughout eastern Canada and the United States. On 
occasion, all three species are found in the same locality, or their co- 
occurrence may be suspected as a consequence of releases in the same 
general area. In the course of the biological control programme 
large numbers of field-collected material were examined to determine 
phenology and distribution of each species. Difficulties in identifying 
individual parasite specimens arose because of an almost continuous 
range of variation in colour, morphology and size. This suggested the 
possibility that ervi, pulcher and smithi might indeed not be distinct 
species but, instead, races of a polytypic species or sibling species 
capable of hybridization. However, when colonies of the three para- 
sites were maintained in an insectary under a carefully controlled 
temperature and humidity regimen, males and females of each species 
developed distinctive and species specific colour patterns that indi- 
cated underlying genetic differences. 

Further evidence was required to permit the interpretation of these 
differences. In particular, it seemed desirable to determine the status 
of and the relation among the three taxa. This paper is an attempt 
to establish the relationship between Aphidius ervi, A. pulcher and A. 
smithi based on a comparison of their mating behaviour and the results 
of various crossbreeding experiments. 

Materials ani> Methods 
A breeding colony of pulcher was started from mummified parasites 
(i.e. parasite larvae or pupae encased in the indurated skin of the 
dead host aphid) which had been collected in the field in southern 
Ontario. Nucleus colonies of ervi and smithi were obtained for com- 
parison from the Swiss Rhone valley and from release sites in the San 
Joaquin valley, in California, respectively. All colonies were propa- 
gated on larvae and adults of the pea aphid feeding on Windsor 
broad bean. The insectary was maintained at a constant temperature 
of 20.5 ± 0.5° C, a relatively humidity of 55 ± 3%, and received 16 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 341 

hours of artificial daylight. The same conditions prevailed in all 
laboratory experiments. 

Mating Belmviour. — Mummified parasites were removed from the 
stock cultures and transferred individually to 40 mm long and 8 mm 
wide sterile glass vials, which were plugged with absorbent cotton. 
On emergence the specimens were sorted as to sex and the vials were 
cleared of mummies or debris. 

For the testing of mating behaviour the cotton wads were removed 
from two vials, one containing a male and one a female. Unless stated 
otherwise the male was permitted to enter the test vial containing a 
female, which was oriented towards a light source. The test vial was 
then closed again. 

All specimens used in the experiments were mated within 24 hours 
after they had emerged. Care was taken that none of the insects had 
contact prior to the test either with other parasite specimens, or with 
host material, or with host plant material. The duration of the pre- 
mating and of the mating period was measured with a stop watch. 
At the same time the number of attempts, successful or otherwise, by 
the male to mate with a particular female was noted. In case copulation 
did not take place within 10 minutes after the joining of the two sexes, 
incompatability was assumed and the specimens were discarded. 

Cross-breeding under insectary conditioi%s. — One parasite female and 
two males were transferred to a plastic rearing cage (Mackauer & 
Bisdee, 1965b) which contained approximately 30 three- to four-day- 
old pea aphid larvae feeding on a bean plant. The age of all parasites 
used varied between newly emerged and 24 hours. The cages were 
examined one day after setting up and those that contained either a 
dead female or one dead male were replaced by new cages. 

The following parasite generation was left to emerge in the rearing 
cages when the specimens were anaesthetized with CO2 and pre- 
served in 70% ethanol for subsequent examination. On occasion, 
some mummies were removed and transferred individually to vials 
to permit the testing of the offspring for viability and fertility. 

Cross-breeding under outside conditions. — Ten to 15 newly emerged 
male and female specimens of the respective test combination were 
released into a screen-covered insect rearing cage ( Nicholls, 1963, p. 
10). Each cage contained five potted bean plants and was stocked 
with approximately 300 second- and third-instar pea aphid larvae. The 
cages were kept in a field insectary which gave protection against rain 
but, otherwise, left the cages exposed to outside conditions. The 
cages were sealed and were not opened again until all mummies of 
the next generation had formed. 

The mummified offspring of the test combination were transferred to 
plastic containers for emergence. On emergence the specimens were 
preserved in 707^ ethanol and, subsequently, were counted and sexed. 



342 pboc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 71, no. 3, september, 1969 

Mating Behaviour 

The following general account applies to all three AphicUus species. 

In batches set up at the same time the males generally start to 
emerge 12 to 24 hours earlier than the females. Both sexes are ready 
to mate almost immediately after emergence. The males actively search 
for females, their activity being influenced to a degree by temperature 
and by such other factors as light. Some observations indicated that 
mating activity passes through a daily cycle with a maximum of 
activity during the late morning hours. 

Mating seems to follow a stereotyped sequence of behaviour patterns 
involving species specific characteristics. This sequence may con- 
veniently be subdivided into two periods: the first or pre-mating 
period comprises the courtship behaviour of the male and ends with 
acceptance or rejection of the male by the female; and the second or 
mating period which consists of the actual copulation. 

Pre-mating Period. — As soon as a male becomes aware of a female 
( which is at a distance from 2 to 3 cm ) , it pursues the female with the 
antennae held forward at about right angles; the wings are spread out 
horizontally or are held above the thorax flapping more or less rapidly. 
On reaching the female, the male attempts to mount it from the side 
or, more rarely, from the front or from the rear. After having mounted 
the female the male engages in rapid whipping-like movements of the 
antennae which is accompanied by its licking the occipital and meso- 
tergal regions of the female. Whipping involves the male turning its 
head in eight-shaped motions and brushing its antennae which are 
held sideways, against the antennae of the female which are turned 
backwards. The female is almost motionless during this period with 
its wings folded flatly over the abdomen. Whipping and licking are 
continued for a few seconds. Then the male slides backwards licking 
the female's meso- and metatergal regions. By curving its abdomen 
down underneath that of the female the male attempts to engage its 
genital clasps with the corresponding parts of the female genitalia. 

In case that the female refuses to accept the male, the male returns 
to its former position astride the female and repeats licking and 
brushing the antennae. 

Mating Period. — If and when the male is acceptable to the female, 
copulation may take place. During this act the female is completely 
immobile, whereas the male continues to slowly flick its antennae up 
and down. The male's antennae are no longer spread out sideways but 
are held upwards at an acute angle. 

In ervi and pulcher the male continues these movements throughout 
most of the mating period. In smithi the male stops flicking the 
antennae after about 10 to 30 seconds and soon after undergoes one or 
several spasmodic convulsions which accompany the forcing of the 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 343 

Table 1. Length of pre-mating and of mating period in Aphidius ervi, A. pulcher 
and A. smithi under laboratory conditions (in sec) 



No. matings 



Pre-mating Mating 

Species Attempted Successful period* period* 

(a) Mating in "9 vial" 

A. ervi 159 100 146.3 ± 96.5 57.6 ±11.1 

A. pulcher 140 100 127.7 it 91.7 59.7 ± 11.5 

A. smithi 136 100 159.1 ± 112.8 .50.8 ± 10.9 

(b) Mating in "$ vial" 

A. pulcher 68 50 109.0 ± 63.3 57.8 ± 9.2 

* Mean it standard deviation. 

penis more deeply into the female genitalia and the passing of the 
sperm. Passing of the sperm in ervi and pulcher is also accompanied 
by several spasms which, however, are less forceful. 

Thereafter the female rapidly awakes from its torpor and starts to run 
away, thus forcing the male (which now is motionless) to disengage. 
Often the two partners remain locked together for a few seconds, 
each facing into opposite directions, until the genitals become un- 
clasped. 

Duration of Pre-mating and Mating Period. — Analysis of the mating 
behaviour of the three species revealed characteristic differences in 
the length of the pre-mating and mating period, the frequencies of 
antennal movements by the male, and in the behaviour of the male 
before and during ejaculation of the sperm. 

The time required by the male to display its courtship behaviour is 
a minimum of approximately 30 sec and averages 146.3 sec in ervi, 
127.7 sec in pulcher, and 159.1 sec in smithi (Table 1). The difference 
between the means of pre-mating time of pulcher and smithi is sta- 
tistically significant at the 57© level (t = 2.155); the difference between 
mean pre-mating time of pulcher and ervi and between ervi and 
smithi is not acceptable at the 5% level of significance {tervi/smitu = 
0.858; t,,,,vp„„.,„r= 1.396). 

Of the 100 successful mating combinations timed in each group 
about half the matings took place in the interval from 30 sec to 3 min 
after the partners had been joined (Figs. 1 and 2). If the male was 
unable to copulate with a female during the initial 3 min, chances 
were very small that a mating would occur before the end of the 
observation period. The rate of failure to mate ranged from 26.5% 
in smithi, 28.6 % in pulcher to 37.1% in ervi. 

Copulation time, i.e. the interval from insertion of the penis to the 
unclasping of the genitals, normally lasted from 32 to 84 seconds. The 
means of 100 successful matings were: 57.6 sec in ervi, 59.7 sec in 
pulcher, and 50.8 sec in smithi (Table 1). The difference between the 
means of mating time of ervi/smithi and smithi /pulcher is statistically 



344 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I •" 



80- 






o 
o 



o 

LU 
Q_ 




J I I I I L 



10 



MINUTES 



Fig. 1. Cumulative percentage of copula in intraspecies matings of Aphidius 
ervi (1), A. pulcher (2) and A. smithi (3) for 10 min. of observation (moving 
averages, n = 3). All matings conducted in "5 vial." 

significant at the 0.1% level {tervi/smim - 4.398; ipraciier/smuin = 5.620). 
The difference in mean mating time between ervi and pulcher is not 
significant at the 5% level (t = 1.269). 

To determine whether the mating environment, in particular chemi- 
cal stimuli, had any measurable effect on the mating behaviour newly 
emerged males and females of pulcher were placed together but, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 34.5 



80 



1 — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — r 




— a 
-- b 



J L 



J I 1 L 



10 



MINUTES 



Fig. 2. Cumulative percentage of copula in intraspecies matings of Aphidius 
pulcher for 10 min. of observation (moving averages, n = 3): (a) Mating in 
"S vial," (b) Mating in " $ vial." 



instead of using the vial in which the female had emerged, the "male" 
vial was used for the test. Table lb shows that the pre-mating period 
averaged only 109.0 sec and, thus, was shorter than when mating took 
place in the "femald' vial. This difference, however, was not signifi- 
cant at the 5% level (t = 1.298). Similarly neither mating time (which 



346 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

averaged 57.8 sec; t = 0.989) nor the percentage of refusal during 
the first 10 min (ca. 26.5%) were significantly different. 

DiSCIUMINATION BETWEEN MATING PARTNERS 

AND Multiple Matings 

Acceptance or refusal of a male by a female depends largely on 
whether or not the male displays the proper courtship behaviour. 
Though sensory stimuli probably are also involved this could not be 
proven. 

A newly emerged female that is prepared to mate, normally will 
permit a male of its own or of either of the other two species to mount 
it and to engage in brushing of the antennae and in licking. However, 
if the male does not follow the innate courtship ritual that is char- 
acteristic of the species to which the female belongs, the female will 
make vigorous attempts to rid itself of the unwanted partner. This is 
done either by the female brushing the male off with its hind legs 
or by bending the abdomen underneath the thorax to prevent insertion 
of the penis. 

Normally, a male's first attempt to mate will decide on success or 
failure ( Fig. 3 ) . Chances for a copulation to take place on the second 
attempt ranged from 1% in smithi to 4 and 5% in ervi and pulcher, 
respectively. Unsuccessful males will repeat their attempts but, as a 
rule, will desist after being refused once or twice by the female and will 
take no further notice of that particular individual. Only the males of 
pulcher exhibited greater sexual drive and repeated their attempts up 
to 5 times within the 10 min. observation period. 

Discrimination is less developed in males than in females. A male 
shows excitement in the presence of females of all three species by 
spreading its wings and preparing to mount the female. The degree 
of stimulation varies. It is greatest between partners belonging to 
the same species. A male of either ervi or pulcher, on being placed into 
a vial that contains a female of smithi, exhibits moderate excitement 
initially but loses interest very quickly on account of the vigorous 
refusal by the female. 

Success or failure of matings between ervi and pulcher partners 
depends largely on the state of readiness of male and female to 
copulate. Apparently, there are no basic differences in the mating 
behaviour that would identify a male of pulcher as incompatible to a 
female of ervi, or vice versa. There are obvious differences in attractive- 
ness, however, which result in a higher rate of failure in such matings 
( see below ) . The reciprocal combination between a female of pulcher 
and a male of ervi did not result in copulation. The males were highly 
excited and made up to 3 successive attempts at mating. Their pro- 
longed and rather aggressive courtship display, however, was unable 
to overcome the female's refusal. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



347 



100 


- 


ervi 




'zyy'M 


80 


- 




60 








s^ 


40 


- 






20 


- 






■M««i-< 


n 


1 



60 

40 - 



I I Failure 

^M Success 



"T".v.'/',wj 



1 

pulcher 



20 


100 
80 
60 
40 
20 - 

- 



tn 



1 

smithi 



NO. ATTEMPTS 

Fig. 3. Influence of number of attempts to mate on success and failure of 
copulation in Aphidius ervi, A. pulcher and A. smithi under laboratory conditions. 



Multiple matings involving either the same or different males vs^ere 
not observed. A mated female will refuse mating by a second male by 
running away or, if the male should succeed in mounting, by bending 
the abdomen underneath the thorax to prevent insertion of the penis. 

Hybridization Between the Three Species 

Cross-breeding experiments were conducted to determine the degree, 
if any, of reproductive isolation between the three parasite species. A 
total of nine combinations were cross-bred pairing females of all three 
species with males of the same and of either of the other two species. 
Matings were classified as successful or unsuccessful depending on 
whether or not female offspring was produced; the sex ratio or the 
number of female offspring obtained in a particular cage were not 
taken into account. 

Copulation between mutually acceptable partners generally took 
place within minutes or, at the most, within a few hours. This was 
ascertained by transferring the breeding partners (males and female) 



348 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Table 2. Mating attempts and successes within and between Aphidius ervi, A. 
pulcher and A. smithi under laboratory conditions 













Offspring in F 






"P<» 


rents 


No. 








Mating 


Jra 








d 




? 


matings 


nil 


cf d" only 


dd + 99 


success ( % ) 


ervi 


X 


ervi 


50 





4 


46 


92.0 




X 


pulcher 


60 


10 


50 










X 


smithi 


57 


7 


50 








pulcher 


X 


ervi 


52 


2 


35 


15 


28.8 




X 


pulcher 


55 


5 


13 


37 


67.3 




X 


smithi 


54 


4 


50 








smithi 


X 


ervi 


53 


3 


50 










X 


pulcher 


59 


9 


50 










X 


smithi 


53 


3 


1 


49 


92.5 



from the original cage to a second cage containing a new batch of 
host larvae after 48 hours. The percentage of female offspring ob- 
tained in both groups of cages was in agreement in 86 out of 90 cages 
indicating that, normally, transfers would not be required to detect 
fertilization. 

The results of 493 cross-breeding tests conducted under laboratory 
conditions are summarized in Table 2. Incidence of fertilization of a 
female by a male of the same species varied from 67.3% in pulcher to 
92.0 and 92.5% in ervi and smithi, respectively. Or, fi-om 74 to 92 and 
98% in pulcher, ervi and smithi, respectively, if only those cages are 
considered that yielded offspring, either males only or males and 
females. 

Hybridization did not occur, except between males of pulcher 
and females of ervi. However, the percentage of success was reduced 
to approximately one third (28.8%) in this combination as compared 
to intraspecies matings of pulcher and ervi. 

The possibility was considered that some of the isolating mechanisms 
which prevented interbreeding between a male of ervi and a female of 
pulcher and between ervi and pulcher and either sex of smithi, were 
artificially imposed by the test environment and might not exist under 
field conditions. Therefore, all experiments were repeated in larger 
rearing cages which were kept in a field insectary. The results ob- 
tained under these conditions agreed completely with the laboratory 
series. Female ( and male ) offspring were obtained in the three intra- 
specific combinations. Hybrid females were obtained only when 
pulcher males and ervi females were used as parents, but not in the 
reciprocal cross between ervi males and pulcher females nor in inter- 
species crosses involving either sex of smithi. 

Mating between a female of smithi and a male of ervi and pulcher, 
respectively, was observed only twice out of approximately 800 in- 
sectary trials. In both cases the smithi female died within half an 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 349 

Table 3. Fertility of Aphidius ervi X pulcher hybrids under laboratory conditions 





No. 
matings 




Offspring in Fi 




Mating 
success 

(%) 


Parents 

c^ 9 


nil 


only cTcT + 


?9 


ervi X ervi-pulcher 

X ervi/jnilcher-ervi 
pulcher x ervi-pulcher 


40 

4 
12 


1 





27 12 
4 
7 5 




30.0 

100.0 

41.7 



hour after copulation indicating the possibility that either it had been 
injured during the mating act or, more likely, had been too weak to 
resist copulation when placed together with a particularly large and 
aggressive male. 

The hybrid females resulting from an ervi X pulcher cross were 
further tested to ascertain their fertility and the degree of their sexual 
compatability with pure-line individuals. The results of this series 
are summarized in Table 3. Although the data are not sufficient to 
determine the degree, if any, of a competitive disadvantage to which 
hybrids or their offspring might be subjected in nature, they do indicate 
that hybrids are fertile and, in principle, are acceptable as mates to 
both ervi and pulcher males. This applies, with similar restrictions, 
to the offspring of such Fi hybrids which were successfully mated 
against males of pure-bred ervi and "ervi-pulcher." 

Discussion 

The courtship ritual is broadly similar in Aphidius ervi, A. pulcher 
and A. smithi but, under the conditions chosen for the experiments, 
differs with respect to the duration of pre-mating and mating time. 
Duration of copulation was the most constant part of mating acti\ ity 
in all three species and may be used to reliably separate smithi from 
ervi and pulcher. Propensity to mate and courtship activity of males 
vary more widely and, in addition, seem to be under the influence of 
various environmental factors. Although this was not investigated in 
detail, age and previous experience of both mating partners do have a 
major effect on courtship behaviour. 

Males of all three species behave sexually in a rather indiscriminate 
fashion. They respond to females of the same and of either of the other 
two species and, depending on their excitement, will also display to 
other males if kept in close contact. 

The female's receptivity is a major determinant of mating. Its 
influence is mainly on the duration of the pre-mating period and on 
the final success or failure of mating. During copulation the female's 
role appears to be passive. 

While the data presented abo\ e are on two aspects of mating be- 
haviour only, i.e. courtship and time in copula, they reflect on the 



350 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

relationship between the three taxa. A. smithi differs significantly 
from ervi and pulcher in the mean time spent in copula and, in addi- 
tion differs from pulcher, in the length of the pre-mating period ( Table 
1). On the other hand, ervi and pulcher do not show any such dif- 
ferences and, consequently, may be considered as more closely related. 

This conclusion is supported by the results of crossbreeding experi- 
ments. Hybrid offspring were obtained only in pairings between 
pulcher males and ervi females but not in combinations involving 
smithi ( Table 2 ) . Although mating success was reduced to about one 
third of what normally would be expected in intraspecies matings, 
such pulcher X ervi offspring did not suffer any apparent loss in 
fertility or sexual compatability. 

The status of smithi as a separate and morphologically and etho- 
logically distinct species thus is well established. The problem is 
mainly in assigning a definite rank to pulcher. 

There is good evidence that points to the accidental introduction 
of pulcher to and its subsequent establishment in eastern North 
America. The colour of pulcher closely resembles that of ervi speci- 
mens from the west coast of central England or Scotland. Lindroth 
( 1957 ) has shown that many plant and animal species were intro- 
duced in ballast by early European settlers coming from these areas 
to the eastern shores of the United States and Canada. This mode of 
introduction is particularly favourable to the transport of aphids and 
aphid parasites (Mackauer, 1962). 

The status of pulcher as evidenced today is described best as that of 
a semispecies (Lorkovic, 1953). The accidental introduction of a 
small founder colony into North America led to a complete geo- 
graphical isolation from the parent population, ervi. Selective pres- 
sures of the new (and different) environment would induce and 
maintain adaptive changes in these isolated North American popu- 
lations. Any mutative changes arising would lead to further di- 
vergence in the course of evolution. When ervi was introduced from 
France and Germany for release in the United States in 1961 (B. 
Putler in Mackauer & Finlayson, 1967), pulcher had achieved partial 
reproductive isolation. On estabHshing secondary contact with the 
parent species the integrity of pulcher broke down resulting in limited 
hybridization and introgression. 

At present, there is no conclusive evidence to predict the eventual 
results of this secondary intergradation. The reduced success experi- 
enced in pulcher X ervi matings under experimental conditions sug- 
gests that pulcher will continue to evolve as a distinct entity. For 
the purpose of classification that hypothesis is expressed best by assign- 
ing to pulcher the rank of a geographic subspecies of ervi. Excluding 
further interference by man through continued introductions pulcher 
likely will develop to meet the criteria of a distinct species. 



proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 71, no. 3, september, 1969 351 

References 

Angalet, G. W. and L. W. Coles. 1966. The establishment of Aphidius snnthi 

in the eastern United States. J. Econ. Ent. 59: 769^770. 
Cooke, W. C. 1963. Ecology of the pea aphid in the Blue Mountain area of 

eastern Washington and Oregon. Tech. Bull. U. S. Dep. Agric. 1287: 1-48. 
Hagen, K. S. and E. I. Schliiiger. 1960. Imported Indian parasite of pea 

aphid estabhshed in California. Calif. Agric. 12: 3, 15. 
Lindroth, C. H. 1957. The faunal connections between Europe and North 

America. Wiley & Sons, New York. 
Lorkovic, Z. 1953. Spezifische, semispezifische und rassische Differenzierung 

bei Erehia Ujndams Esp., I und II. Rad. Acad. Yougosl. 294: 269-309, 315-358. 
Mackauer, M. 1962. Monoctonus crepidis (Haliday) ( Hymenoptera : Aphidi- 

idae) an aphid parasite new to North America. Can. Ent. 94: 1089-1093. 
and H. E. Bisdee. 1965a. Aphidius smithi Sharma and Subba Rao 

(Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) a parasite of the pea aphid new in southern 

Ontario. Proc. Ent. Soc. Ont. 95: 121-124. 
. 1965b. Two simple devices for rearing aphids. J. Econ. Ent. 58: 



365-366. 

and T. Finlayson. 1967. The hymenopterous parasites ( Hymenoptera: 



Aphidiidae et Aphelinidae) of the pea aphid in eastern North America. Can. 
Ent. 99: 1051-1082. 
NichoIIs, C. F. 1963. Some entomological equipment. Inform. Bull. Res. Inst. 
Can. Dep. Agric, Belleville 2: 1-85. 



THE GENERIC PLACEMENT OF TWO NEARCTIC HOLOPYGA 
WITH BIOLOGICAL NOTES 

( Hymenoptera : Chrysididae ) 

Karl V. KROiMBEiN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20560 

ABSTRACT — Two new genera, Muesebeckidiuni and Pseudolopyga, are de- 
scribed to accommodate two Nearctic species, ohsoleium ( Say ) and taijlori ( Boden- 
stein), formerly assigned to Holopyga Dahlbom. In addition, Muesebeckidiuni 
occidentale, n. sp., is described from Arizona, New Mexico, Sonora and Durango. 
Hedychridium carriUoi Bohart and Brumley is placed as a new synonym of 
Pseudolopyga taylori. Biological notes on the two new genera are included. 

Four species of the cuckoo wasp genus Holopyga Dahlbom are listed 
by Bodenstein (1951) in his section of the catalog of Hymenoptera 
north of Mexico. These are hora Aaron, obsoleta (Say), taylori Boden- 
stein and ventralh (Say). Critical study of these four species demon- 
strates that obsoleta and taylori are not correctly assigned to Holopyga 



352 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

and that each must be placed in a separate genus. Neither is referable 
to any of the other New World genera. Comparison of them with the 
generic diagnoses of Palaearctic Hedychrinae in Semenov's key ( 1954 ) 
shows clearly that they are not congeneric with any of the 19 taxa 
from that zoogeographic region. Edney (1940) includes no Ethiopian 
species which can be assigned to either of the genera represented by 
ohsoleta and taijlori. Finally, I have seen no specimens from the 
Oriental or Australian regions which can be so assigned. 

Accordingly, we must assume that these genera are new and are 
most likely restricted to the Nearctic region. They may be distinguished 
at once from Holopyga by the fore femora which are more or less 
rounded in cross section instead of being strongly carinate along the 
ventral margin, and by the posterior angles of the propodeum which 
extend laterad instead of posteriorly. Notes on the biology of these 
two new genera are presented at the end of the taxonomic material. 

I take this opportunity to dedicate one of the new genera to C. F. W. 
Muesebeck in celebration of his 75th birthday. During his many years 
at the U.S. National Museum, formerly as the head of systematic 
entomology investigations for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 
presently as an honored Research Associate of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, I have come to know and to cherish Carl Muesebeck very 
highly. His quietly skillful and dynamic leadership of the Insect 
Identification Division, USDA, brought it to a peak in professional 
and support strength not equaled before or since. Had it not been for 
his effective and tactful direction, an epochal contribution such as the 
catalog of North American Hymenoptera might not be a reality today. 
Finally, his warm personal interest in the professional development and 
well-being of his staff endeared him to all of those privileged to work 
under his leadership. 

Muesebeckidium,^ n. gen. 
(Figs. 1, 2, 8-13) 

Type of the genus: Hedychrum obsoletum Say, 1836 (= Hedtjchrum zimmer- 
manni Dahlbom, 1845, syn. by Norton, 1879). 

Muesebeckidium is readily distinguished from all other genera of 
Chrysididae by a combination of the dentition of the tarsal claws (figs. 
10, 11), the relatively broadened fore (fig. 8) and mid tarsi of the 
female, the ecarinate fore femur, the carinate sides of the pronotal 
disk, the sparsely and delicately punctate vertex, pronotal disk and 
scutum (fig. 1), and the forwardly thrust lower angle of the meso- 
pleuron (fig. 2). 



^ The name is formed with the suffix -idium, little. Similarly formed generic 
names are common in the Hedychrinae, e.g., Hedychridium Abeille, Hexa- 
chridium Bischoff, Cyrteuchridium Semenov, Euchriditim Semenov and Zantd- 
nidium Semenov. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



353 







C.-'HrTKc^.cA'Tv&t.^ 



Plate I 

Figs. 1, 2. Miiesebeckidium obsoletitm (Say), dorsal aspect of whole insect 
(1) and lateral aspect of thorax (2). Figs. 3, 4. Pseitdolopy^a tayhri ( Boden- 
stein ) , dorsal aspect of whole insect ( 3 ) and lateral aspect of thorax ( 4 ) . 



354 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 





Plate II 





11 



Fig. 5. Holopyga ventralis (Say), fore tarsal claws, male. Figs. 6, 7. Pseu- 
dolapyga taijlori (Bodenstein), fore tarsal claws, female (6) and male (7). 
Figs. 8, 9. Mtiesebeckidium ohsoletum (Say), ventral view fore tarsi, female (8) 
and male (9). Figs. 10, 11. M. ohsoletum, fore tarsal claws, female (10) and male 
( 11 ) . ( Illustrations by Elsie H. Froeschner. ) 



Moderately stout Hedychrinae (figs. 1, 2) having tlie aspect of Omalus Panzer, 
4-5 mm long; sexual dimorphism very marked in fore and mid tarsi (figs. 8, 9). 

Proboscis short, retracted at rest; mandible stout, with a tooth on inner margin 
near apex; malar space extremely short, as in Holopyga; apical margin of clypeus 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 355 

straight, not thickened as in Holoptjga; frontal concavity deUcately, closely and 
arcuately carinate, not margined above; ocelli in a low triangle, lateral ocellar 
distance subequal to diameter of lateral ocellus; vertex with a strong groove behind 
posterior ocelli and very sparsely and weakly punctate except at sides. 

Thorax in profile not so strongly rounded as in Holoptjga; pronotal disk and 
scutum very sparsely and delicately punctate; pronotal disk margined anteriorly 
by a weak carina, laterally by a strong carina; scutum about 1.3 times as long as 
pronotal disk; mesopleuron with sides strongly margined, strongly thrust forward 
below so that seen from above its lower angles extend nearly as far forward as 
anterolateral angles of pronotal disk; scutellum, postscutellum and mesopleural 
disk coarsely and closely pitted; upper angles of propodeum large and stout, extend- 
ing laterad. 

Radial vein very short, extending only slightly beyond end of costa; basal vein 
strongly arcuate; discoidal cell vaguely defined by darkening of wing membrane, 
its apex extending as far distad as radial vein; median and submedian cells com- 
pletely devoid of setae. 

Fore femur rounded in cross section, not greatly expanded at base; all tibiae 
with a pair of carinae margining outer surface; hind tibia ecarinate on inner 
surface; fore tarsus of female without comb; fore (fig. 8) and mid tarsi of female 
broadened, beneath slightly concave and clothed with short, dense, stiff setae, the 
terminal segments curled inward; tarsal claw split, inner ray not as long as outer 
and basal portion of claw with two short blunt teeth (figs. 10, 11); fore and mid 
tarsal claws of female as long as distitarsi and appressed closely against them in 
most museum specimens, liind tarsal claws of female and of all tarsi in male 
smaller, not so appressed. 

Dorsum of abdomen with small, scattered piuictures on first two terga, closer 
on third; posterior margins of first two terga narrowly impunctate and thin; second 
tergum without a longitudinal carina; apical margin of third tergum evenly 
rounded, slightly reflexed; male genitalia (figs. 12, 13) with aedeagus and para- 
meres much stouter than in Holopyga (fig. 15) and cuspis volsellaris much 
shorter, digitus volsellaris lacking. 

Muesebeckiditim obsoletum ( Say ) 

(Figs. 1, 2, 8-12) 

Say (1836) described obsoletum from Indiana and gave the sex as 
female. He may have had a male, however, inasmuch as he did not 
mention that the tarsi were flattened and expanded. Dahlbom (1845) 
described the same species as Hedychrum zimmermanni from New 
Jersey. He did not mention the sex, but presumably he had a female 
because he stated that the tarsi were slightly dilated. 

M. obsoletum is apparently widely distributed in North America in 
the Upper and Lower Austral Zones east of the 100th meridian. The 
species is known to occur in Ontario, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska. These specimens are uniform in 
details of the punctation and sculpture. I have also seen an obsoletum 



356 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 






Plate 111 

Male genitalia, ventral aspect. Fig. 12. Muesebeckidium obsoletum (Say). Fig. 
13. M. occidentale, n. sp. Fig. 14. Pseudolopyga tatjlori ( Bodenstein ) . Fig. 15. 
Holopyga ventralis ( Say ) . ( Illustrations by Elsie H. Froeschner. ) 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 357 

male in the Cornell University collection labeled as having been taken 
at Buenavista, near Santa Cruz, Bolivia, by J. Steinbach in 1928; I 
suspect that it is mislabeled. 

Muesebeckidiuiti occidentale, n. sp. 

(Fig. 13) 

This distinctive species, known from a short series from the Lower 
Sonoran Zone of western North America, is readily distinguished from 
its eastern congener ohsoletum by usually having the integument 
lighter blue with some greenish reflections rather than darker blue with 
a purplish cast, by the coarser, deeper, closer punctation of the ab- 
dominal terga, and by the shorter cuspis volsellaris and more slender 
paramere of the male genitalia. 

Male. Length 4-5 mm. Integument lighter bhie than in ohsoletum, thorax 
with some green reflections especially on mesopleuron. Sculpture of head and 
thorax as in ohsoletum. Punctures of abdominal terga relatively coarser, deeper 
and closer than in ohsoletum, most of those on second and third terga separated 
from each other by less than the diameter of a puncture. Genitalia (fig. 13) with 
cuspis volsellaris shorter and stouter than in ohsoletum, and the paramere more 
slender. 

Female. Length 4.5-5.5 mm. Similar to male, the head and abdomen oc- 
casionally with green reflections also. Fore and mid tarsi wider than in male as is 
normal for genus. Punctures of abdominal terga more numerous than in male 
especially on second and third terga where they tend to be subcontiguous; apex 
of third tergum more narrowly rounded than in ohsoletum. 

Holotijpe. $, Queen Creek, Arizona, July 13, 1956, C. WilHams, 
swept from cotton (USNM Type No. 70718). 

Allotype. ?, Toltec, Arizona, July 19, 1956, C. Williams, swept from 
alfalfa (USNM). 

Paratypes. 1 S , same data as type. 1 $ , 14 miles south of Mesilla 
Park, Dona Ana Co., New Mexico, September 23, 1965, G. E. Bohart, 
on Cleomella. 1 9, Ferguson Ranch, Alamos, Sonora, September 19, 
1957, P. H. Timberlake. 1 i, Nombre de Dios, Durango, August 1, 
1951, P. D. Hurd. Paratypes are in the University of Cahfornia at 
Davis, and the California Insect Survey. I am greatly indebted to 
Dr. Richard M. Bohart for allowing me to place the holotype in the 
National Museum collection. 

Pseudolopyga, n. gen. 
(Figs. 3, 4, 6, 7, 14) 

Type of the geniLs: Holopijga taylori Bodenstein 1939 (= Hedychridium 
carrilloi Bohart and Brumley, 1967, new synonymy). 

Pseudolopyga may be distinguished from other genera of hed\ chrine 
Chrysididae by a combination of the ecarinate fore femur, the straight 
basal vein in the forewing, and the lack of a transverse groo\c on the 



358 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

vertex behind the posterior oceUi. The genus is also peculiar in that 
the female tarsal claws (fig. 6) are spilt with a single tooth near the 
middle somewhat as in Hedijchridium, whereas the male tarsal claws 
(fig. 7) have two small pectinate teeth next to the apical tooth, a con- 
dition similar to that of Holopyga. 

Relatively slender, tiny Hedychrinae, 2-3.5 mm long (figs. 3, 4). 

Proboscis short, retracted at rest; mandible stout, with two teeth on inner margin 
near apex as in Holopyga; malar space about as long as width of antennal flagellum; 
apical margin of clypeus thin, subtruncate or with a narrow rounded emargination 
in middle, frontal concavity almost smooth or with close, delicate arcuate carinae, 
not margined above; ocelli in a low triangle, lateral ocellar distance twice the 
diameter of lateral ocellus; vertex not grooved behind posterior ocelli; top of head 
with small, moderately separated punctures. 

Thorax in profile moderately rounded, dorsum with shallow, small, moderately 
close punctures rather unifonu in size; pronotal margins ecarinate; exposed part of 
scutum about as long as pronotal disk, the normally concealed anterior part with 
dense small punctures; mesopleural disk not strongly thrust forward below, not 
margined, the surface with large shallow pits; upper angles of propodeum small 
and stout, extending laterad. 

Radial vein very short, extending slightly beyond end of stigma; basal vein 
almost straight; discoidal cell not defined; median and submedian cells with a few 
scattered setae. 

Fore femur rounded in cross section, not greatly expanded at base; tibiae 
ecarinate on both outer and inner surfaces; fore tarsus of female without comb; 
tarsal claw of male (fig. 7) with two small teeth within, the latter not subbasal 
but nearer the tip, that of female (fig. 6) with a single tooth near middle. 

Dorsum of abdomen with small, relatively close punctures, the posterior margins 
of first two terga thin and narrowly impunctate; second tergum without a longi- 
tudinal carina; apical margin of third tergum slightly reflexed laterally, at apex 
subtruncate or rounded; male genitalia (fig. 14) with cuspis volsellaris somewhat 
shorter and more slender than in Holopyga (fig. 15); digitus volsellaris more 
slender and directed posterolaterad rather than anterolaterad. 

The only described species belonging to Pseudolopyga is taylori 
( = Hedychridium carrilloi Bohart and Brumley^ ) . There are, however, 
several undescribed species in the western United States. 

P. taylori is known from California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, 
Idaho and Missouri. However, the paratype of taylori from San Diego 
Co., California, is not congeneric. 

Biology 

No information has been published on the biology of Muesebeck- 
idium obsoletum ( Say ) . Labels on some specimens before me indicate 
that females frequent flowers, presumably for nectar. Flower visiting 



^ Hedychridium solierellae Bohart and Brumley, 1967, is correctly assigned to 
Hedychridium. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 359 

records include Anethum, Arenaria stricta, Ceanothus americanus, 
Lotus corniculatus, Pastinaca sativa and Rhus copallina. K. W. Cooper 
advises me that in his experience ohsoletum is quite rare. He has 
captured at least 7 females and 2 males, all in woods-margined swamps 
and all on flowers of water hemlock, Cicuta. Dates of capture ( June- 
August) in New York, New Jersey and Virginia establish that there 
are at least two generations a year. 

Flower visiting records for occidentale include alfalfa, cotton and 
CJeomella. 

The unique, relatively broadened fore and mid tarsi of Muese- 
heckidium females are slightly concave beneath and furnished ven- 
trally with dense, stiff hair. These tarsal modifications and the lack of 
a tarsal comb suggest that the probable host may be some sphecid 
wasp, such as various species of Crabroninae or Pemphredoninae which 
nest in twigs and make partitions between the cells and the closing 
plug of the nest from small, rather loosely packed particles of pith. 
These tarsal modifications would be admirably suited for penetration 
of such easily dislodged material, thus giving the chrysidid access to the 
host cells for oviposition therein. 

Pseudolopyga tayJori ( Bodenstein ) has been reared from two sphecid 
wasps belonging to the genus Solierella of the Miscophini, peckhami 
(Ashmead) and affinis hlaisdelli (Bridwell). Rau (1928, pp. 375- 
377), in his account of the biology of peckhatni ( misidentified as 
SiJaon niger Rohwer), records, among others,"* EUampus sp. as a para- 
site. Several specimens of S. peckliami in the U.S. National Museum 
bear Rau numbers 3816 and 3817, and three paratypes of P. taylori bear 
numbers 3812 and 3813. Reference to the Rohwer-Rau correspondence 
file shows that these specimens were reported upon by Rohwer in 
1921, as Silaon niger and EUampus sp. These data show beyond doubt 
that Rau did rear taylori from nests of peckhami at St. Louis, Missouri. 
Bohart and Brumley (1967) reported both of these Solierella as hosts 
of taylori (recorded as carrilloi, a synonym). The other host record 
for taylori was from a nest of affinis hlaisdelli at Portal, Arizona, by 
Krombein (1967, pp. 177-178 and 443). 

It should be noted that one paratype of P. taylori, bearing number 
3813, is pinned with a puparium of a miltogrammine fly, possibly 
Senotainia (det. C. W. Sabrosky). The puparium contains a mummi- 
fied fly, so the chrysidid obviously did not develop in the puparium. 
Senotainia parasitizes ground-nesting wasps, so it is most likely that 



^ The other parasites recorded by Rau were identified bv Rohwer as Cleptes 
sp. and Chrysis sp. I have been unable to trace down the Chrysis; its rehitionship 
to Solierella peckhami, if it is in the proper genus, is very dubious. The CU^ites 
was reported to Rau under his numbers 3812 and 3815. Specimen #3812 was 
returned to Rau; #3815 is actually a badly broken specimen of Hedtjchridium 
coeruleum ( Norton ) . 



360 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

the host wasp placed the puparium in her nest together with the other 
ground debris brought in and interspersed among the prey stored for 
her progeny. 

The two host species of Solierella nest in abandoned borings of other 
insects in twigs, in hollow stems, or in wooden traps containing a 
boring of small diameter (3.2 mm). Both host species prey on im- 
mature lygaeid bugs belonging to the genus Nijsius. 

Normally, a chrysidid visits the host nest during its construction and 
lays one or more eggs per cell. When the chrysidid larva hatches, it 
kills either the host egg or young larva and then develops on the prey 
stored for the host larva; or, it attaches to the host larva and devours 
it only after the latter has completed feeding, spun a cocoon and 
become a resting larva. In a third type of parasitism, some chrysidid 
females breach the host cocoon and deposit an egg on the diapsusing 
host larva. 

However, Carrillo ( 1967 ) reported a most unusual type of chrysidid 
parasitism for taylori ( as Hedyc]iridiu7n sp. "A" ) . He determined that 
the females of taylori oviposit in the first or second instar nymphs of 
Nysius. The taylori larva hatches in ten days, but no further develop- 
ment occurs unless the parasitized nymph is then stung by a SoliereUa 
female and carried to her nest. The act of stinging, probably due to the 
effects of the venom, initiates molting of the chrysidid larva. This 
second instar taylori larva then emerges from the Nysius, seeks out the 
Solierella. egg or larva and kills it. The taylori larva then develops on 
the other Nysius nymphs stored in the cell. Carrillo found five larval 
instars in taylori. He also determined that only one taylori developed 
per Solierella cell, any other taylori larvae being killed by the first 
larva to emerge. 

After completion of feeding the taylori larva spins a small, almost 
spherical cocoon about 3 mm in diameter. Krombein noted that the 
outer surface of the cocoon was composed of short fibers of white 
silk, that the inner surface was honey-colored and varnished, and that 
there was a small pore at the anterior end covered on the inner surface 
with varnished silk; Rau's cocoons, several of which are in the U.S. 
National Museum, are quite similar. 

Krombein's single specimen of taylori overwintered, presumably as 
a diapausing larva; Rau gave no details of the biology of his taylori. 
It seems probable that there are two or more generations annually of 
the Pseudolopyga. 

Some paratypes of both sexes of taylori from Idaho bear labels 
indicating that they were taken on Atriplex rosea, Norta altissima, 
Salsola filipes, S. parviflora, S. pestifera and Sophia sopliia. Bohart 
and Brumley (1967) reported that both sexes of taylori (recorded as 
carrilloi, a synonym) were collected on Portulaca. Presumably, these 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 361 

plants were visited either to obtain Nijsius nymphs or to obtain nectar 
from the flowers, or, possibly, for both purposes. 

Reterences 
Bodenstein, W. G. 1939. A new Holopyga from the western United States. 

Ent. News 50: 19-21. 
. 1951. in Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein and H. K. Townes. 

Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico — Synoptic Catalog. U. S. Dept. Agr., 

Agr. Monogr. 2, p. 720. 
Bohart, R. M. and R. L. Brumley. 1967. Two new species of Hedychridium 

from CaHfomia. Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 232-235, 8 figs. 
Carrillo S., J. L. 1967. Ecological relationships bet\veen Solierella peckhami 

(Ashmead), S. hlaisdelli (Bridwell), and two species of Hedychridium. Dis- 
sertation Abstr., Sci. and Engr. 28B( 1 ) : 220-B. 
Dahlbom, A. G. 1845. Dispositio methodica specierum Hymenopterorum 

secundum familias Insectorum naturales. Part II, Chrysis in sensu Linnaeano, 

p. 2. 
Edney, E. B. 1940. The Heteronychinae of South Africa. Occas. Papers Nat. 

Mus. S. Rhodesia, no. 9, pp. 29-125, 67 text figs. 
Krombein, K. V. 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees: Life histories, nests 

and associates. Smithsonian Press, vi + 570 pp., frontispiece, 2 text figs., 36 

tables, 29 pis. 
Norton, E. 1879. On the Chrysides of North America. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 

7: 237. 
Rau, P. 1928. Field studies in the behavior of the non-social wasps. Trans. 

Acad. Sci. St. Louis 25: 325-489, 11 pis. 
Say, T. 1836. Descriptions of new species of North American Hymenoptera 

and observations on some already described. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1 : 284-285. 
Semenov-Tyan-Shanskii, A. P. 1954. Classification of the tribe Hedychrini 

Mocs. and description of new species. Transl. from Russian (Trudy Zool. Inst. 

Akad. Nauk SSSR 15: 138-145) by Office Tech. Serv., U. S. Dept. Commerce, 

9 pp., 1964. 



DIE NEARKTISCHEN ASPILOTA-ARTEN DER SEKTION B 

( Hymenoptera : BRAcoNroAE ) 

Max Fischer, Nattirhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austrio 

ABSTRACT — The Aspilota Foerster complex is divided into four sections. The 
Nearctic species of section B are revised. A key is given for the identification 
of the following three species: A. compressigaster, n. sp., A. insularis, n. sp., and 
A. miraculosa, n. sp. The new species are described in full. 

Aspilota ist zweifellos cine dcr schwierigsten Braconiden-Gattungen. 
Die Tiere sind sehr klein und weisen zahlreiche, jedoch leider nur 
allzu oft schwer erfaBbare und schwierig auswertbare morphologische 



362 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

und kolorische Unterschiede auf. Eine Zerlegung in Artengruppen 
stieB immer auf Schwierigkeiten, obwohl Stelfox und Graham fiir die 
Fauna der Britischen Inseln einige Gruppen nahe verwandter Formen 
herausarbeiten konnten. M. W. R. de V. Graham hat als erster auf ein 
bis dahin anscheinend iibersehenes Merkmal hingewiesen, das sich zur 
Gruppenbildung heranziehen laBt. Viele Arten haben seitlich vom 
Clypeus ein fein gerandetes Paraclypealfeld, das sich bis an den 
unteren Augenrand ausdehnt, andere nicht. Die Kombination dieses 
Merkmalspaares mit dem Fehlen oder Vorhandensein eines Dorsal- 
griibchens auf dem Mesonotum erlaubt eine Gliederung in vier 
Sektionen wie unten angegeben. Meist ist das Fehlen des Paraclypeal- 
feldes mit dem Vorhandensein eines Riickengriibchens auf dem Meso- 
notum verbunden und umgekehrt, doch gibt es auch einige Ausnahmen, 
wie sie in der Sektion B zusammengestellt sind. Es besteht kein 
Zweifel, daB die vorgeschlagene Gliederung des Aspi/oto-Komplexes 
teilweise kiinstlichen Charakter tragt. So ist z. B. die unten beschrie- 
bene Art A. compressigaster, n. sp. wegen der kennzeichnenden Bildung 
des weibHchen Abdomens zweifellos mit anderen Arten, die nicht in 
der Sektion B stehen, enger verwandt. Vorlaufig ist es aus Griinden, 
die hier nicht diskutiert werden konnen, unmogHch, ein alien Anforde- 
rungen gerecht werdendes System zu schaffen. Die vorgeschlagene 
provisorische Gliederung hat lediglich den Zweck, moglichst alle 
beschriebenen und zu beschreibenden Arten zu erfassen. 

Die nearktische Aspilota-F auna. war bisher nur recht sporadisch 
Gegenstand von wissenschaftlichen Abhandlungen. Daraus erklart sich 
auch die Notwendigkeit der Veroffentlichung zahlreicher Neubeschrei- 
bungen. Wie schon weiter oben angedeutet haben die hier abgehandel- 
ten Arten wegen ihrer besonderen taxonomischen Stellung spezielles 
Interesse. 

Es ist mir eine mehr als angenehme Pflicht, Herrn Dr. C. F. W. 
Muesebeck, dem dieser Beitrag in Wiirdigung seiner auBerordentlichen 
Verdienste um die Erforschung der Braconiden im Laufe von mehreren 
Jahrzehnten zu seinem 75. Geburtstag zugeeignet ist, fiir die stets 
gewahrte wohlwollende Unterstiitzung meiner Arbeiten meinen in- 
nigsten Dank auszudriicken. 

Ubersicht iiber die Sektionen: 

1. Mesonotum mit Riickengriibchen, dieses oft sehr klein und schwer erkennbar 2 
Mesonotum ganz ohne Riickengriibchen 3 

2. Paraclypealfeld nicht erweitert, Paraclypealgruben reichen nicht an den 

Augenrand Sektion A 

Paraclypealfeld seitlich bis an den Augenrand erweitert Sektion B 

3. Paraclypealfeld nicht erweitert, Paraclypealgruben reichen nicht an den 

Augenrand Sektion C 

Paraclypealfeld seitlich bis an den Augenrand erweitert Sektion D 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 363 

Ubersicht iiber die nearktischen Arten der Sektion B: 

1. Mandibelzahne 1 unci 3 klein und spitz miraculosa, n. sp. { $ ) 

Mandibelzahne 1 und 3 rund bis lappenartig — _ — . 2 

2. Abdomen urn die Halfte liinger als Kopf und Thorax zusammen, Gaster 

messerartig zusammengedriickt compressigaster, n. sp. ( 9 ) 

Abdomen so lang wie Kopf und Thorax zusammen, Gaster nicht messer- 
artig zusammengedriickt insuiaris, n. sp. { $ ) 

Aspilota compressigaster, n. sp. 

(Abb. 1) 

$. — Kopf: l,6mal so breit wie lang, l,5mal so breit wie das Mesonotum, von 
oben gesehen rechteckig, an den Augen ebenso breit wie an den Schlafen, Augen 
so lang wie die Schlafen, Hinterhaupt schwach gebuchtet; Oberseite glatt. Ocellen 
in einem gleichseitigen Dreieck stehend, der Abstand der Ocellen voneinander 
groBer als ein Ocellusdurchmesser, der Abstand des auBeren Ocellus vom inneren 
Augenrand kaum groBer als die Breite des Ocellarfeldes. Kopf l,6mal so breit 
wie das Gesicht. Gesicht l,25mal so breit wie hoch, glatt, schwach gewolbt, 
fcin behaart, nur seithch kahl, Augenriinder schwach gebogen, nach unten eine 
Spur divergierend. Clypeus 2,5mal so breit wie hoch, gewolbt, glatt, gliinzend, 
vom gerundet. Paraclypealfeld bis an die Augen erweitert, zweimal so breit wie 
hoch. Mandibel l,7mal so lang wie breit, nach vorn schwach erweitert, oberer 
Rand an der Basis gebrochen, Zahn 1 und 3 stumpf, lappenartig und ungefahr 
gleich groB, Zahn 2 spitz vmd vortretend, spitze Einschnitte zwischen den Zahnen, 
AuBenflache glatt. Kopf in Seitenansicht so hoch wie lang, Schlafen so breit 
wie die Augenliinge. Fiihler fadenformig, nur wenig langer als der Korper, 
20gliedrig; erstes GeiBelglied schmaler als die folgenden, 4,5mal so lang wie breit; 
zweites dreimal so lang wie breit, die mittleren und apikalen Glieder ungefahr 
gleich lang, 2,5mal so lang wie breit; alle GeiBelglieder deutlich voneinander 
getrennt, die Haare und die apikalen Borsten so lang wie die Breite der Gei- 
Belglieder, in Seitenansicht drei Sensillen sichtbar. 

Thorax: Um ein Drittel langer als hoch, um drei Viertel hoher als der Kopf, 
Oberseite stark gewolbt. Mesonotum wenig breiter als lang, vor den Tegulae 
gleichmiiBig gerundet, glatt; Notauli vorn strichformig ausgebildet, auf der Scheibe 
fehlend, Riickengriibchen sehr klein und punktformig, Seiten iiberall gerandet, die 
Randfurchen gehen vorn in die Notauli iiber, die Randfurchen und die Notauli 
sehr fein gekerbt. Praescutellarfurche glatt, in der Mitte geteilt, ein Seitenfeld 
so lang wie breit. Scutellum, Postaxillae und Metanotum glatt. Propodcum eine 
Spur langer als breit, mit fiinfseitiger Areola, die von der Basis bis zur Spitze 
reicht, Costulae vollstiindig, die Felder uneben, gliinzend, Spirakel unscheinbar. 
Seite des Thorax glatt, vordere Furche der Seite des Prothorax schwach gekerbt, 
Stemaulus gekerbt und beiderseits verkiirzt. Beine schlank, Hinterschenkel 
fiinfmal so lang wie breit, Hintertarsus so lang wie die Hinterschiene. 

Fliigel: r entspringt um die Liinge von rl hinter der Basis des Stigmas, rl 
zweimal so lang wie die Stigmabreite, einen stumpfen Winkel mit r2 bildend, r2 
gut zweimal so lang wie cuqul, r3 fast gerade, 2,5mal so lang wie r2, R reicht 
an die Fliigelspitze, n.rec. stark postfurkal, Cu2 nach auBen wenig vcrjiingt, d 
zweimal so lang wie n.rec, nv um die eigene Liinge postfurkal, B geschlossen, 
n.par. entspringt iiber der Mitte von B. 



364 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3^ SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Abb. 1. Aspilota compressigaster, n. sp., Korper in Seitenansicht. Abb. 2-4. 
A. inmitaris, n. sp.: 2, Basis der Fiihlergeissel; 3, Mandibel; 4, Vorderfliigel. 
Abb. 5-6. A. miraculosa, n. sp.: 5, Mandibel; 6, Vorderfliigel. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 365 

Abdomen: Um die Halfte liinger als Kopf und Thorax zusammen. Erstes 
Tergit dreimal so lang wie hinten breit, nach vorn nur schwach verjiingt, nahe 
der Basis etwas eingeschniirt; Basalausschnitt langer als breit, Spirakel klein, 
liegen vor der Mitte der Seitenrander, Dorsalgruben maBig groB; die Basalkiele 
konvergieren bis zu den Dorsalgruben, divergieren dann, Ziehen in die Nahe 
der Seitenrander und reichen bis an den Hinterrand; das ganze Tergit mehr oder 
weniger glatt, in der Niihe der Stigmen mit wenigen, seitlich abstehenden Borsten. 
Der Rest des Abdomens ohne Skulptur und messerartig zusammengedriickt. 
Bohrer ungefiihr so lang wie das erste Tergit vorstehend. 

Fiirbung: Kastanienbraun, Abdomen etwas heller. Gelb bis rotlichgelb sind: 
Scapus, Pedicellus, Anellus, Mundwerkzeuge, alle Beine, Tegulae, Fliigelnervatur 
und das erste Segment. Fliigel hyalin. 

Korperliinge: 2,2 mm. 

S . — Unbekannt. 

Untersuchtes Material: Cabin John, Md., 17. VII. 1916, R. M. Fonts 
Collector, Forest, 1 9, Holotype, im U.S. National Museum in Wash- 
ington. 

Aspilota insularis, n. sp. 

(Abb. 2-4) 

9. — Kopf: l,7mal so breit wie lang, l,2mal so breit wie das Mesonotum, 
hinter den Augen weit gerundet, an den Schlafen wenig breiter als an den 
Augen, so lang wie die Schlafen; Oberseite glatt. Ocellen in einem gleichseitigen 
Dreieck stehend, der Abstand zwischn den Ocellen so groB wie ein Ocellus- 
durchmesser, der Abstand des iiuBeren Ocellus vom inneren Augenrand so groB 
wie die Breite des Ocellarfeldes. Kopf l,5nial so breit wie das Gesicht. Gesicht 
l,6mal so breit wie hoch, gewolbt, glatt, glanzend, mit zahlreichen langen, hellen, 
nach aufwiirts gerichteten Haaren, nur an den Seiten und entlang einer Mittellinie 
kahl, unmittelbar an den Augen mit einigen langeren Haaren. Paraclypealfeld 
sehr schmal und bis an die Augenriinder erweitert, Paraclypealgruben queroval, 
ihr Durchmesser so lang wie ihr Abstand von den Augen. Clypeus 3,5mal so 
breit wie hoch, Ober- und Unterrand parallel, glatt, durch eine tiefe Furche vom 
Gesicht getrennt. Mandibel um die Halfte langer als hoch, distal bedeutend 
breiter als basal, oberer Rand nahe der Basis gebrochen, Zahn 1 und 3 fast lappen- 
artig ausgebildet und reichen gleich weit nach vorn, Zahn 2 spitz und iiberragt 
die beiden anderen, die Einschnitte zwischen den Zahnen innen gerundet, 
AuBenfliiche glatt. Maxillartaster wenig langer als die Kopfliohe. Kopf in Seitenan- 
sicht so lang wie hoch, Schlafen eine Spur breiter als die Augenliinge. Fiihler an 
dem vorliegenden Exemplar beschiidigt, 15 Glieder sichtbar; erstes GeiBelglied 
fiinfmal so lang wie breit, das dritte 2,5mal, die mittleren Glieder hochstens 
1,5- bis zvveimal so lang wie breit, die einzelnen Glieder gegen die Basis stark 
verjiingt; die Haare mindestens so lang wie die Breite der GeiBelglieder, in 
Seitenansicht ungefiihr acht Sensillen sichtbar. 

Thorax: Um ein Viertel langer als hoch, 2,5mal so hoch wie der Kopf, 
Oberseite gewolbt. Mesonotum wenig breiter als lang, vor den Tegulae gleich- 
maBig gerundet, glatt; Notauli vorn eingedriickt, gerade, treffen senkrecht auf 
den Seitenrand, RiJckengriibchen etwas verlangert, Seiten iiberall gerandet, die 



366 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Randfurchen gehen vorn in die Notauli iiber. Praescutellarfurche glatt, in der 
Mitte geteilt, ein Seitenfeld vom etwas breiter als lang. Scutellum glatt. Postaxillae 
gestreift. Metanotum fein gestreift. Propodeum so breit wie lang, mit Mittelkiel 
und seitlich verkiirzten Costulae, in der Nahe der Kiele runzelig, der Rest des 
Propodeums glatt; Spirakel groB, gerandet und wenig vorstehend, ihr Durchmesser 
etwa ein Drittel so groB wie ihr Abstand vom Vorderrand. Seite des Thorax glatt, 
Sternaulus tief eingedriickt und stark gekerbt, aber beiderseits verkiirzt, die 
iibrigen Furchen einfach. Beine schlank, Hinterschenkel viereinhalbmal so lang 
wie breit, Hintertarsus so lang wie die Hinterschiene. 

Fliigel: r entspringt um die Liinge von rl hinter der Basis des Stigmas, rl 
liinger als die Stigmabreite, einen stumpfen Winkel mit r2 bildend, r2 2,7mal so 
lang wie cuqul, r3 gerade, 2,2mal so lang wie r2, R reicht an die Fliigelspitze, 
n.rec. postfurkal, Cu2 nach auBen nur ganz wenig verjiingt, d zweimal so lang 
wie n.rec, nv um die eigene Lange postfurkal, B distal verbreitert und geschlossen, 
cu-a unter der Mitte gebrochen, n.par. fast ganz erloschen. 

Abdomen: So lang wie Kopf und Thorax zusammen. Erstes Tergit l,7mal so 
lang wie hinten breit, nach vorn schwach und geradlinig verjiingt, im basalen 
Drittel etwas starker, Basalkiele konvergieren nach hinten und reichen bis zur 
Mitte, Spirakel wenig vergroBert, das ganze Tergit sowie auch der Rest des 
Abdomens glatt. Bohrerklappen so lang wie das erste Tergit. 

Farbung: Kopf und Thorax kastanienbraun, FiihlergeiBel schwarzlich. Abdomen 
braun. Gelb sind: Anellus, Mundwerkzeuge, Tegulae und Fliigelnervatur. Beine 
groBtenteils braun. Fliigel gebraunt. 

Korperliinge: 2,5 mm. 

$ . — Unbekannt. 

Untersuchtes Material: Vancouver Island, Collection Ashmead, 1 9, 
Holotype, im U.S. National Museum in Washington, D.C. 

Die Art wurde bereits von Ashmead als neu erkannt und A. insularis 
benannt. 

Aspilota miraculosa, n. sp. 

(Abb. 5, 6) 

$. — Kopf: Zweimal so breit wie lang, l,3mal so breit wie das Mesonotum, 
hinter den Augen nicht verjiingt, an den Augen so breit wie an den Schlafen, 
Augen nur eine Spur langer als die Schlafen, Hinterhaupt gebuchtet; Oberseite 
glatt. Ocellen in einem gleichseitigen Dreieck stehend, der Abstand zwischen 
ihnen wenig groBer als ein Ocellusdurchmesser, der Abstand des auBeren Ocellus 
vom inneren Augenrand so groB wie die Breite des Ocellarf aides. Kopf l,6mal 
so breit wie das Gesicht. Gesicht l,4mal so breit wie hoch, glatt, schwach 
gewolbt, groBtenteils kahl, nur in der Niihe der Mittellinie mit einigen liingeren 
Haaren, Augenrander parallel. Paraclypealfelder oval und bis an die Augen- 
rander reichend, Paraclypealgruben sehr klein. Clypeus dreimal so breit wie 
hoch, gewolbt, vorn gerundet, glatt, durch eine tiefe, gebogene Furche vom 
Gesicht getrennt. Mandibel um die Halfte langer als breit, distal so breit wie 
proximal, Zahn 1 spitz und sehr klein, die Spitze von Zahn 1 liegt am oberen 
Rand von Zalin 2, Zahn 2 ebenfalls spitz und nach vom gerichtet, Zahn 3 
lappenartig, reicht fast so weit nach vorn wie Zahn 2, am AuBenrand mit einigen 
Haaren, ein spitzer Einschnitt zwischen Zahn 2 und 3; AuBenflache glatt. 



PROC. Ei\T. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 367 

Maxillartaster nur wenig langer als die Kopflibhe. Kopf in Seitenansicht eine 
Spur holier als lang, Schlafen wenig schmiiler als die Augenliinge. Fiihler an 
dem vorliegenden Exemplar beschiidigt, 12 Glieder sichtbar; fadenfbrmig und 
wahrscheinlich langer als der Korper; erstes GeiBelglied sechsmal so lang wie 
breit, die mittleren Glieder 3- bis 4mal so lang wie breit und ziemlich eng 
aneinanderschlieBend, alle GeiBelglieder gleich breit, die Haare so lang wie die 
Breite der GeiBlglieder, in Seitenansicht zwei Sensillen sichtbar. 

Thoriix: Um ein Viertel langer als hoch, zweimal so hoch wie der Kopf, 
Oberseite gewblbt. Mesonotiun um ein Viertel breiter als lang, vor den Tegulae 
gleichmaBig gerundet, glatt; Notauli stark gekerbt, reichen auf die Scheibe, 
erloschen aber hier, ihr gedachter Verlauf durch je eine Reihe feiner Haare 
angedeutet, RUckengriibchen schwach und etwas verlangert, Seiten iiberall 
gerandet, die Randfurchen gehen vorn in die Notauli iiber. Praescutellarfurche 
glatt, in der Mitte geteilt, jedes Seitenfeld so breit wie lang, hinten abgerundet. 
Scutellum und Postaxillae fast ganz glatt. Metanotum mit unscheinbarer Skulptur. 
Propodeum mit unregelmaBiger Areola, Basalkiel und unregelmaBigen Costulae, 
nur die vorderen Felder groBtenteils glatt, der Rest des Propodeums un- 
regelmiiBig genetzt; Spirakel unscheinbar. Seite des Thorax glatt. Vordere 
Furche der Seite des Prothorax schwach gekerbt, vordere Mesosternalfurche 
gekerbt, Stemaulus gekerbt und beiderseits abgekiirzt. Beine schlank, Hinter- 
schenkel 4,5mal so lang wie breit, Hintertarsus so lang wie die Hinterschiene. 

Fliigel: r entspringt mehr als um die Liinge von rl hinter der Basis des 
Stigmas, rl langer als die Stigmabreite, einen stumpfen Winkel mit r2 bildend, 
r2 zweimal so lang wie cuqul, r3 gerade, 2,5mal so lang wie r2, R reicht an die 
Fliigelspitze, n.rec. postfurkal, Cu2 nach auBen nur ganz wenig verjiingt, d um 
ein Drittel langer als n.rec, nv schwach postfurkal, B geschlossen, n.par. entspringt 
aus der Mitte von B. 

Abdomen: So lang wie Kopf und Thorax zusammen. Erstes Tergit zv\eimal 
so lang wie hinten breit, nach vorn geradlinig verjiingt, Basalausschnitt fast 
langer als breit, Spirakel ziemlich groB, aber nicht erhbht, Basalkiele bis zu den 
Spirakein konvergierend, dann verlieren sie sich in der feinen Liingsstreifung, das 
ganze Tergit groBtenteils gliinzend. Der Rest des Abdomens glatt. 

Farbung: Braun. Gelb sind: Scapus, Pedicellus, Anellus, Mundwerkzeuge, 
alle Beine, Tegulae, Fliigelnervatur, erstes und zweites Abdominalsegment. 
Fliigel fast hyalin. 

Korperliinge: 2,0 mm. 

$ . — Unbekannt. 

Untersuchtes Material: Maryland, Glen Echo, R. M. Fonts, Jnnc 
5-1921, f 84, 1 5 . 

LiTERATUR 

Ashmead, W. H. 1888. Descriptions of new Braconidae in the collection of 
the U.S. National Museum. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 11: 611-671. 

. 1901. Classification of the Ichneumon Flies, or the superfamily 

Ichneumonoidea (Date of publication: 1900). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 23: 1-220. 

. 1902. Papers from the Harriman Alaska Expedition. 28. Hyme- 



noptera. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. 4: 117-274. 
Brues, C. T. 1907. Notes and descriptions of North American parasitic Hyme- 
noptera. III. Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. 5: 54-62. 



368 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Fischer, M. 1969. Uber nordamerikanische Arten der Gattungen Orthostigma 
Ratzeburg und Aspilota Foerster. Acta ent. Mus. Nat. Pragae, im Druck. 

Foerster, A. 1862. Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Braconen. Verb, 
naturh. Ver. preuB. Rheinl. 19: 225-288. 

Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1951. Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico. 
Synoptic Catalog, Washington. 

Provancher, L. 1883. Faune Canadienne: Les Insectes Hymenopteres. Nat. 
Can. 14: 16-19. 

. 1885-1889. Additions et Corrections au Volume 11 de la Faune 

Entomologique du Canada traitant des Hymenopteres. Quebec, 475 pp. 

Viereck, H. L. 1905. Notes and descriptions of Hymenoptera from the West- 
ern United States in the Collection of the University of Kansas. Trans. Kans. 
Acad. Sci. 19: 264-326. 

. 1906. Notes and descriptions of Hymenoptera from the Western 

United States. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 32: 173-247. 

. 1916. Guide to the Insects of Connecticut. Part III. Conn. State 



Geol. Nat. Hist. Sur. Bull. 22: 1-824. 



ORNITHODOROS (ALECTOROBIUS) MUESEBECKI, N. SP., A 

PARASITE OF THE BLUE-FACED BOOBY (SULA DACTYLATRA 

MELANOPS) ON HASIKIYA ISLAND, ARABIAN SEA^ 

( IxoDOiDEA : Argasidae ) 

Harry Hoogstraal, Medical Zoology Department, United States 
Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Cairo, Egypt, U.A.R. 

ABSTRACT — Ornithodoros (Alectorohius) muesebecki, n. sp., described from 
adults parasitizing the Blue-faced (or Masked) Booby in its nesting grounds on a 
desolate island near the Arabian coast, is closely related to O. (A.) ambltis Cham- 
berlain of guano islands off the coast of Peru. Human beings working on oil rigs 
in the Persian Gulf, near the Arabian type locality, suffer severely from bites of a 
yet unidentified argasid species, possibly O. ( A. ) muesebecki, n. sp., as do laborers 
bitten by O. (A.) amblus. 



Ornithodoros (Alectorohius) muesebecki, n. sp. is described from 
several adult specimens collected in the nesting ground of the Blue- 
faced (or Masked) Booby on a desolate island off the Arabian coast. 



^ From Research Project MF12. 524.009-3010, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, 
Department of the Navy, Washington, D. C. The opinions and assertions con- 
tained herein are the private ones of the author and are not to be construed as 
official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Navy or of the naval 
service at large. The illustrations in this report were prepared under the auspices 
of Agreement 352505 between the NIH ( NIAID ) and NAMRU-3. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 369 

It is closely related to O. (A.) amhlus Chamberlain, which parasitizes 
birds on islands off the coast of Peru and, when it bites human beings, 
leaves persistently troublesome sores. Notably, laborers on insular oil 
rigs in the Persian Gulf, close to the type locality of the new Arabian 
species, are also bitten by argasids associated in nature with nesting 
ospreys, and the human victims suffer from allergic reactions, septic 
sores, and high temperature. An argasid nymph from the Persian Gulf, 
kindly sent to us by Dr. M. G. R. Varma of the London School of 
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine along with these medical notes, may 
represent O. (A.) muesehecki, n. sp., but is too badly damaged for 
positi\'e identification. 

This new species is dedicated to Mr. G. F. W. Muesebeck on his 
75th birthday in token recognition of the selfless and devoted service 
that he has provided to several generations of entomologists throughout 
the world. The Jubilee for the ever helpful Gurator Muesebeck thus 
extends to one of the most remote spots of arthropod-inliabited land 
on the globe. 

Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) muesebecki, n. sp. 

Muesebeck's Arabian Booby Argasid 
(Figs. 1-9) 

Holotype. Female, from soil under stone in nesting area of Blue- 
faced (or Masked) Booby {Sula dacttjlatra melanops Heuglin), 
Hasikiya Island (17°27.3'N, 55°36.3'E) (Kuria Muria Group, 40 km 
off coast of Arabia, South Yemen Republic; Arabian Sea), 10 March 
1964, collected by personnel of Discovery Investigations, National In- 
stitute of Oceanography (England); forwarded by Peter M. David to 
BM(NH) (HH15,842). Deposited in British Museum (Natural His- 
tory ) . 

Allotype. Male, data and depository as for holotype. 

Paratypes. Three females, 2 males, with same data as for holotype 
and allotype. One female and one male are deposited in the Rocky 
Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana (RML51,229); others in 
British Museum ( Natural History). 

FEMALE (figs. 1-6). Body (unengorged) measures 5 to 7 mm long and 3 
to 4 nmi broad; lateral integument elevated, margins straight, parallel; posterior 
margin abruptly rounded; anterior margin angular. Color (preserved) dark gray; 
legs and capitulum paler. 

Dorsal mt('p.ument (figs. 1, 3). Mammillae conspicuous, size mostly subequal, 
few small; outlines subcircular or irregular; rather closely spaced, deeply separated; 
surfaces rounded, smooth, shiny. Discs large, distinct; surfaces slightly depressed, 
ridged peripherally; arranged its 7 pairs bordering elevated margin anteriorly, 2 
anteromedian pairs, 1 median pair (double or 2 joined pairs), 1 posteromedian 
pair, a posteromedian groove row of numerous closely spaced or adjacent discs, and 
2 slightly shorter paramedian rows of similar discs. Lateral margin structurally 



370 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 






Figs. 1-3. Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) muesebecki, n. sp., paratypes (HH15, 
882): 1, 9 dorsal view; 2, $ ventral view; 3, $ dorsal right quadrant. 



Figs. 4-9. Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) muesebecki, n. sp., paratypes (HH15,- 
882): 4, $ capitulum; 5, $ genital area; 6, ? tarsi I-IV, external view; 7, $ 
capitulum; 8, S genital area; 9, $ tarsi I-IV, external view. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 371 







m 





^.VF^^'I 



n 







372 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

undifferentiated; bearing a row of single, short, peripheral setae; lateral suture 
lacking. Ventral integument (fig. 2) with mammillae and discs as illustrated. 
Hood as a small knob ( fig. 4 ) . 

Capitulum ( fig. 4 ) situated in camerostome between genital area and antero- 
ventral margin of body; not visible from dorsal view. Cheeks conspicuous, extend- 
ing from a fleshy integumental fold beside basis capituli as a pair of narrow, 
irregularly folded lobes beside palpi; hood small, as an anteromedian knob with 
irregular mammillae. Basis capituli 1.6 times as broad as long, bearing 6 or 7 pairs 
of setae and a pair of posthypostomal setae arising at level of palpal insertion and 
extending to level of suture dividing palpal segments 2 and 3. Palpi with segment 
1 globose, slightly longer than broad, bearing 3 anteroventral setae; segment 2 
approximately one-half as long and two-thirds as broad as I, bearing 2 antero- 
ventral setae; segment 3 as long as but somewhat narrower than 2, bearing 2 
anteroventral setae; segment 4 slightly longer and narrower than 3, bearing a pair 
of lateral setae and an apical setal tuft. Hypos-tome 2.5 times as long as broad, 
lateral margins parallel, apex bluntly rounded, extending to level of distal margin 
of palpal segment 3; corona small, inconspicuous; dental formula 2/2, denticles 
small, in files of 5 to 7 confined to anterior one-half of length of shaft. 

Venter (figs. 2, 5). Eyes absent. Spiracular plates moderately large, situated 
laterad of coxa IV. Genital area as illustrated (figs. 2, 5). Anus, ventral folds, 
and grooves as illustrated ( fig. 2 ) . Preanal grooves narrow anterior of anus, thence 
wider, diverging with conspicuous discs to posterolateral body margins. Median 
postanal groove with conspicuous discs extending from anus to level of transverse 
postanal groove, which contains an organ (of undetermined function) with a 
fleshly posterior labium bordered on either side by 2 large adjacent discs. Supra- 
coxal folds distinct. Dorsoventral groove absent. 

Legs (figs. 1, 2, 6) comparatively long, narrow, all trochanters partially or 
entirely visible from dorsal view. Tarsi (fig. 6) narrowly elongate; dorsal surfaces 
of II to IV gradually tapering distally, dorsal surface of I somewhat truncate 
apicodorsally and thumblike apicoventrally; dorsal protuberances absent; chaeto- 
taxy and claws as illustrated. 

MALE (figs. 7-9). This sex resembles the female except that it measures 
approximately 4 mm long and differs in slight secondary sexual characteristics. 

Capitulum (fig. 7). Cheeks as in female except that lobes are somewhat more 
crenulate. Basis capituli 2 times as broad as long, bearing 5 pairs of setae; 
posthypostomal setae approximately as in female. Palpi approximately as in 
female. Hyposiome essentially as in female except that it may contain a few 
more denticles. Genital area as illustrated (fig. 8). Tarsi slightly shorter than 
those of female ( fig. 9 ) . 

Other characters are essentially as in female. 

NYMPH AND LARVA. These stages are unknown. 

Relate,u Spec:ies 

Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) muesehecki, n. sp., is closely related to 
O. (A.) amhlus Chamberlain, 1920 (redescribed by Cooley and Kohls, 
1944). Comparison of the type material of amhlus (in the Rocky 
Mountain Laboratory) and muesehecki (CM. Kohls, personal com- 
munication) shows that in the new species tarsus I is much more 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 373 

abruptly tapered; the mammillae are relatively smaller, sparser, less 
elevated, and more shiny; and the "knife edge flange" of palpal seg- 
ment 1 (overlapping the hypostome base in amhlus) is much reduced 
(so much so that I do not clearly recognize it as such and have not 
included it in the description of the new species). O. (A.) amhlus is 
abundant on guano islands off the coast of Peru and produces "per- 
sistently troublesome" sores on the skin when it bites guano laborers; 
it has also been imported into the United States on guano ( Cooley and 
Kohls, loc. cit. ) . 

Distribution and Hosts 

Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) muesehecki, n. sp., is known only from 
the type locality, Hasikiya Island ( 17°27.3'N, 55°36.3'E) in the Arabian 
Sea. The ticks were recorded (Peter M. David, personal communica- 
tion) as being exceedingly numerous in soft soil under stones where the 
Blue-faced (or Masked) Booby {Sula dactylatra melanops Heuglin) 
nests. These boobies and ticks comprised practically the only animal 
life seen on the island, where only a single species of plant was ob- 
served. Nests, spaced over the island at intervals of 1 or 2 yards, con- 
sisted of a small-stone carpet about 12 inches in diameter. In March, 
1964, during the hot season, some nests held one egg, a few held 2, 
but most were without eggs. The wet, cooler, southwest monsoon 
period here is from May to August. 

The host, Sula dactylatra melanops Heuglin, breeds on Socotra and 
Abd-el-kuri, Mait Island and Aibat on the Somali coast, and "perhaps" 
on islands off the Mekran coast ( Meinertzhagen, 1954 ) . Elsewhere, it 
breeds on Assumption, Seychelles, and Mascerene Islands in the west 
Indian Ocean. This bird has not been recorded in the Red Sea north 
of Port Sudan or in the Persian Gulf. In the Gulf of Aden, breeding 
occurs during July and August, or even slightly later, but in the south- 
ern part of the range between September and November. For nesting 
details see North (1946). 

The term "booby" has been applied to these tropical gannets owing 
to their inability to resist the constant persecution they suffer in tropical 
waters from frigate birds ( Fregata ) , who swoop down on them as soon 
as they have caught a fish. These boobies {melanops) often fish in 
very shallow water, sometimes barely 4 feet deep. They also accompany 
fishing craft, soaring so close over fishermens' heads that many are 
pulled down by the legs. Allied races occur in tropical waters of the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans and around Australia. 

Acknowledgments 

Mr. Keith H. Hyatt of the British Museum (Natural History) 
kindly sent this interesting material for study and description. Dr. 
Peter M. David of the National Institute of Oceanography provided the 



374 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

collecting data and observations. Dr. Glen M. Kohls kindly compared 
the material reported here with type specimens of O. (A.) amhlus. 
Dr. M. G. R. Varma furnished a specimen from near the type locality; 
this may or may not represent the new species but points up to the 
frequent medical importance of argasids inhabiting breeding grounds 
of marine birds. 

References 

Cooley, R. A. and G. M. Kohls. 1944. The Argasidae of North America, Cen- 
tral America, and Cuba. Amer. Midi. Nat. Monogr. 1, 152 pp. 

Meinertzhagen, R. 1954. Birds of Arabia. Ohver and Boyd, London, 624 pp. 

North, M. E. W. 1946. Mait Island, a bird rock in the Gulf of Aden. Ibis 
1946: 478-501. 



MUESEBECKELLA, A NEW GENUS OF FLEA FROM NEW GUINEA, 
WITH NOTES ON CONVERGENT EVOLUTION^ 

( SiPHONAPTERA : PyGIOPSYLLIDAE ) 

Robert Traltb,- Department of Microbiology, University 
of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 

ABSTRACT — Muesebeckella, n. gen., is described and illustrated on the basis 
of M. mannae, n. sp. and M. nadi, n. sp., both from Pseudocheirus sp. in the 
mountains or foothills of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. Muesebeckella 
is near Striopsijlla Holland, 1969, and Emestinia Smit, 1953, and the flattened 
head and spiniform or stout frontal bristles of all three genera of fleas are believed 
to be adaptive modifications for remaining on the host. Notes are included on 
convergent evolution and on structural developments on certain groups of 
Siphonaptera. 

Scientists familiar with the multitude of significant contributions 
made by C. F. W. Muesebeck to the study of Hymenoptera may be 
surprised to see an article on Siphonaptera in a Jubilee Volume dedi- 
cated in his honor. It would seem that an entomologist who had ac- 
complished so much in such a difficult field and who also nevertheless 
somehow managed to serve as an authority on the principles of tax- 
onomy and on the standardization of common names of insects, could 



^ This study was supported by Grant No. AI-04242 of the National Institutes of 
Health, Bethesda, Maryland, with the Department of Microbiology, University 
of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, and by Grant No. AI- 
07575 of the National Institutes of Health with the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

- Colonel, U.S. Army (Ret). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 375 

surely not find the time to master the systematlcs of fleas and lice. 
The fact is, however, that Mr. Muesebeck is expert enough on both 
of these groups of ectoparasites to have repeatedly provided definitive 
identifications of obscure species, despite the dearth of taxonomic keys, 
proper descriptions and illustrations for which at least the Siphon- 
apteran literature is notorious. Even if this were not the case, it 
would be fitting to include a paper on fleas in this volume because 
of all that Mr. Muesebeck has done to stimulate students of ecto- 
parasites and to ensure that the U. S. Department of Agriculture and 
the Smithsonian Institution would always be able to identify speci- 
mens and answer queries submitted from all parts of the world. 
When one considers the serious problems posed over the years by the 
shortage of funds to support such activities, the true value of Mr. 
Muesebeck's "extracurricular" activities becomes apparent. 

The present article deals with the description of a new genus and 
two new species of marsupial fleas collected by the author and col- 
leagues in New Guinea during studies of potential vectors and reser- 
voirs of infection carried out by a joint team from the Department 
of Microbiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine (Balti- 
more) and the Bernice P. Bishop Museum (Honolulu). Notes on 
convergent evolution, illustrated by the new genus, follow the descrip- 
tive section. 

Subfamily Pygiopsyllinae 
Muesebeckella, n. gen. 

Near Ernestinia Smit, 1953, and Striopsylla Holland, 1969, in that the 
head is foreshortened and flattened and bears conspicuous longi- 
tudinal, parallel striae on the surface. Instantly separable from 
Ernestinia by the following: 1) Absence of the hooklike projection 
near the anterodorsal angle of the head. 2) Only the marginal bristles 
of the frons (figs. 1, 2) are subspiniform (shortened, thickened and 
darkly pigmented), while the remainder of those on preantennal 
region are unspecialized. In Ernestinia virtually all of these bristles 
are modified along the lines of spiniforms. 3) Male antepygidial 
bristles (fig. 8, A.B.) slightly displaced from dorsal margin and with 
the tergum produced into a lobe above their bases, instead of being 
dorsal and wholly marginal in position. 4) Movable finger (fig. 11) 
almost rectangular save for short stiva ("plow-handle") at apex, in- 
stead of with both margins diverging markedly subapically. 5) Male 
ninth sternum (fig. 12) lacking the tuft of long apical bristles of 
Ernestinia but possessing a "spanner-like" subapical structure \\'hich 
is absent in the other genus. 

Readily distinguishable from Striopsylla as follows: 1) Head much 
more angulate, the anterior and dorsal margins almost straight and 
hence meeting at an angle of nearly 90° at level of origin of antenna. 



376 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



Muesebeckella mannae n.gen. n.sp 




Figs. 1-6. Muesebeckella mannae, n. gen., n. sp.: 1, $ head and pronotum; 
2, $ head and pronotum; 3, $ protibia; 4, $ metatibia; 5, $ metatarsus 5; 6, 
$ metacoxa. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 377 

instead of frons curving dorsad well below vertex so that only lower 
% is sub-perpendicular. 2) First two rows of bristles of postantennal 
region virtually horizontal in position instead of oblique. 3) Head 
with an anteromarginal clear or unsclerotized area at upper third or 
half, and the margin itself is thin and presumably leathery and pliable 
in this region. These modifications absent in StriopsijUu. 4) All but 
lower two of frontomarginal bristles of head definitely or strongly 
subspinifonn instead of being only slightly so. 5) With a dorsal lobe 
above antepygidial bristles in both sexes (figs. 8, 23). These absent 
in Striopsylla. 6 ) Movable finger quite straight instead of being arched 
near base. 7) Female ventral anal lobe (fig. 19, V.A.L. ) fairly close 
to body by virtue of short basal (anterior) stem; not clearly angulate 
and with basal stem at least half length of flap. 

Generic Description: Caput integrecipit (figs. 1, S ; 2, 9). Frons relatively 
straight and vertical to top of head; dorsal margin of head also quite straight. 
Preantennal region much higher than long. First row of bristles of both parts 
of head submarginal and following outline of head; uppermost of those of pre- 
antennal region subspiniform; remaining bristles relatively unmodified. Eye 
somewhat reduced, placed far to rear, over base of forecoxa. Antennal segment 

2 with bristles short in both sexes. Antennal groove not extending on to pro- 
pleuron. Postantennal region with 3 complete rows of bristles. Labial palp (L.P. ) 
.5-segmented, excluding palpiger, and not reaching beyond % length of procoxa. 

Prosternosome lacking a distinct sinus for receiving first vinculum (VC.l). 
Pronotum much narrower than length of spines of its comb, with one row of 
bristles. Procoxa fairly broad but not particularly squarish dorsally. Mesonotum 
(fig. 7, MSN.) with only a few pseudosetae. Pleural arch well sclerotized. 
Meso- and metacoxae with a few thin, scattered mesal bristles on ventral half. 
Profemur lacking thin, scattered mesal bristles; with a few such dorsal ones. 
Dorsolateral bristles in notches on posterior (outer) margin of tibiae largely 
paired (figs. 3, 4). Metatarsal segment 5 with 6 pairs of lateral plantar bristles, 
of which third pair is somewhat displaced towards mid-line (fig. 5). Some 
abdominal terga witli a few apical spinelets. Unmodified terga very broad, 
extending ventrad to about middle of sternum; with 2 rows of bristles in S , 

3 in $ . Representative fossae of abdominal spiracles sagittate or lanceolate. 
Both sexes with 2 antepygidial bristles per side, with a dorsal lobe on seventh 
tergum (U.L.7), above plate of antepygidial bristles. Sensilium longer than 
arch is high; with 4 rows of sensory pits. 

Male. Tergum 8 ( fig. 8, 8 T. ) very small, scarcely extending below spiracular 
fossa. Sternum 8 (8 S.) correspondingly very large, extending dorsad to base of 
anal lobes; with a conspicuous ventrocaudal sinus and a resulting narrow ventro- 
marginal lobe. Manubrium (fig. 9, MB.) very broad (to near apex), more than 
1.5 times as long as broad. Immovable process (P. and fig. 11) of clasper dorsally 
truncate, not produced into a lobe at dorsocaudal angle. Tergal aiwdeme of 
segment 9 (T.AP.9) subrectangular. Movable finger ( F. ) of clasper upright, 
digitoid in shape, only slightly expanded apically, hence lacking a true stiva 
("plow-handle"). Fulcral sclerite (F.S.) higher than long (main axis vertical). 
Tergal apodeme of ninth segment (T.AP.9) somewhat longer than broad. 



378 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Muesebeckella mannae n.gen. n.sp. 

Figs. 7-8. Muesebeckella mannae, n. gen., n. sp.: 7, meso-, metathorax and 1st 
abdominal tergum; 8, $ abdominal segments 6-8. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 379 

Proximal arm of ninth sternum (P.A.9) subrectangular. Distal arm of ninth 
sternum (D.A.9) with distal % of subuniform breadth; with short apical and 
subapical marginal spiniform and with a biconvex submedian spanner-like 
sclerite. Aedeagal apodeme (fig. 10, AE.A. ) relatively narrow. Middle lamina 
with its sinus or bay (B.M.L. and fig. 17) extending well anterior to fulcral 
area. Girdle of aedeagal pouch broad and with ventral margin well sclerotized. 
Hood ( HD. ) enclosing most of sides of endchamber; lateral lobes accordingly 
reduced, inapparent. Sclerotized inner tube (S.l.T. ) horizontal, long, unmodified 
except for conspicuous ventral armature (V.AR.). Phylax (PHY.) present. With- 
out a caudad-directed process on basal sclerite of crochet, i.e., lacking a true 
crochet. Ford's sclerite (F.SC. and fig. 17, ALPH., U.A., L.A.) very large, 
occupying most of apical portion of endchamber. Penis rods (P.R. ) short, 
uncoiled. Y-sclerite (Y.S.) and lateral shafts of capsule (L.S.C.) relatively well 
sclerotized. 

Female. Spermatheca (fig. 23, SP. and figs. 27, 28) with bulga (B.) much 
longer than broad and slightly longer than hilla (H. ), with a dorsomarginal, short 
hump. Ventral anal lobe (fig. 19, V.A.L. ) not conspicuously angulate. Anal 
stylet (A.S.) long and narrow. Caudal margin of eighth tergum biconcave. 

The type of the new genus is Muesebeckella mannae, n. sp., de- 
scribed below. 

Comment. The genus is named for C. F. W. Muesebeck not only 
because of all he has done to advance the study of the systematics of 
insects in general and of arthropod parasites in particular, including 
Siphonaptera, Anoplura and Mallophaga, but also in recognition of 
his own significant knowledge of the taxonomy of these ectoparasites. 

Additional comments on the genus follow the descriptions of the 
two new species below. 

Muesebeckella mannae, n. sp. 

Type Material. Holotype S (slide #B-81015-1, with aedeagus in 
lateral position mounted on same slide but under separate cover-glass ) 
ex a small species of ring-tailed possum, Fseudocheirus sp.; New 
Guinea: Papua, Southern Highlands, Mt. Giluwe, Kagaba, 40 km. 
NNE of Mendi; elev. 2800 m.; Coll. R. Traub; 17.IX.1968. Allotype 
9 (B-83160) ex same species of host; loc. cit.; Coll. M. Nadchatram & 
A. B. Mirza; 21.XII.1967. Paratypes: 45,29 with same data as holo- 
type (B-81015-4 with dissected aedeagus mounted dorsally; B-81015-2, 
ventrally); 1$ ex same host but Western Highlands, Hagen Sub- 
district, near Mur Mur Pass, 16 km. NNE of Tambul; Coll. R. Traub & 
E. B. Mann; 7.X.1968. Holotype (U.S.N.M. #70747) and allotype in 
U.S. National Museum, Wa.shington, D.C.; paratypes in Canadian 
National Collection and that of author. 

Diagnosis. The shape of the components of Ford's sclerite, the lack of striae 
on the aedeagal hood, the shape of the distal arm of the ninth sternum and the 
chaetotaxy of the movable process of the clasper are all diagnostic, as are the 
shape of the anal stylet of the female and that of the spermatheca. These are 



380 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Muesebeckella mannae n.gen. n.sp. 



Figs. 9-10. Muesebeckella mannae, n. gen., n. sp.: 9, claspers and 9th sternum; 
10, aedeagus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 381 

described in detail below and critically compared with those of the second new- 
species in the description which follows. 

Head. (figs. 1, $ ; 2,, 5 ). Head squarish; frontal and dorsal margins meeting 
at almost right angle and virtually at level of vertex; upper half of frontal margin 
nearly perpendicular and lower half only very slightly curving ventrocaudad; dorsal 
margin virtually straight and horizontal. Preantennal region about twice as high 
as long. Upper half of frontal margin only lightly sclerotized, apparently leathery 
and pliable; with a distinct clear area beyond it, extending to near bases of first 
row of bristles. Parallel cuticular striae or rugae on upper half of preantennal 
region and virtually all of postantennal region. First row of 8 bristles; fron to- 
marginal, and following angle of head; bases of upper 3 in a horizontal line, 
paralleling top of head; lower 5 in subvertical row. Upper 3 of vertical group 
and first 2 of horizontal group definitely spiniform — i.e., dark, shortened, basally 
thickened and curved. With 17-20 additional bristles in 3-4 irregular rows 
(the higher numbers in 9). Four of these long, viz.: 1) median, at level of 
lowest spiniform, 2) bordering middle of antennal groove, 3) in front of eye, 
and 4) ventromarginal above maxillary lobe. Eye fairly small; subvertical axis 
oblique and well exceeding horizontal. Genal process narrow but unspecialized. 
Maxillary lobe not reaching apex of third segment of labial palp but extending 
beyond third segment of maxillary palp (M.P. ), the first 3 segments of which 
are subequal and shorter than apical one. Labial palp 5-segmented with apical 

2 longer than preceding 2; not shorter than % of procoxa. Antennal segment 2 
with apical bristles scarcely reaching third joint of club. Postantennal region with 

3 rows of fairly stout bristles and an additional extra long one near antennal fossa, 
between last 2 rows. 

Thorax. Pronotum narrow, its length slightly more than half that of spines in 
comb; with 1 row of bristles. Pronotal spines about 24 in number; extending far 
down on pronotum, the lower 2 inserted at or near level of vinculum and 
obscuring its base; all but ventral 2-3 spines slightly concave dorsally, and the 
ventral ones quite straight; axis of all but dorsal and subdorsal spines inclined 
somewhat ventrocaudad (despite slight arch of spines), the ventral ones the most 
oblique and these inclined at angle of about 45° from horizontal; apices of all 
fairly rounded; of unifonn width to near apex; median spines slightly more than 
5 times as long as broad at middle. Mesonotvmni (fig. 7, MSN.) with 3 rows of 
bristles; the first abbreviated; with 2 subdorsal pseudosetae ( PS.S. ) per side. 
Mesepisternum (MPS.) usually with an oblique row of 5 bristles and 1 dorso- 
marginal one below midline; at times with an additional submedian one near 
latter (as in figure). Mesepimere (MPM.) with bristles arranged 2-2-1; last by 
spiracular fossa. Metanotum (MTN. ) with 3 rows of bristles but first very 
incomplete; lacking apical spinelets. Lateral metanotal area (L.M. ) longer 
than high (measuring true margins); dorsal margin quite straight and horizontal; 
with 1 bristle, near ridge above well sclerotized pleural arch (PL.A. ), which is 
higher than long. Metepisternum (MTS.) with 1 long subdorsal bristle. Sciuam- 
ulum ( SQ. ) about twice length of adjacent sclerotized margin. Metepimere 
(MTM.) with about 13-16 bristles in S and 15-18 in 9 in 3—4 irregular rows. 
Spiracular fossa of MTM. sagittate but fairly broad. 

Legs. Metacoxa (fig. 6) with a median, vertical group of short, thin mcsal 
bristles in 2 or 3 irregular rows on lower half, extending to anterior margin near 
apex. With 3-6 small, thin lateral non-marginal bristles scattered over profemur. 



382 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




i / 



TO i-^1 ^ Muesefcecfce/Za mannae, n. gen., n. sp.: 11, processes of clasper; 

12, distal arm of $ 9th sternum; 13, distal arm of $ 9th sternum, mesal aspect. 

J^'ol P- ■ TaS.'^\^^'^' "?• 'P" ^'*' processes of clasper; 15, distal arm 
ot 5 9th sternum; 16, distal arm of $ 9th sternum, mesal aspect 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 383 

Meso- and metafemora with 2-3 dorsal submarginal, and 3 subapical, lateral 
bristles; remainder marginal, including 2 or 3 large ventral ones near apex. Protibia 
(fig. 3) with 3 pairs of dorsomarginal bristles (DM.1-DM.3); the "apical grovip" 
(A.G. ) displaced somewhat pro.ximad; 2 in number. Metatibia (fig. 4) with 
2 bristles in apical group and 5 groups of dorsomarginals in notches (DM.1- 
DM.5) of which DM.4 is single. None of brisdes of tarsi extending to or near 
apex of following segments; only a few even reaching middle of next segment. 

Measurements ( in micra ) of tibiae and tarsal segments ( petiolate base excluded ) 
for holotype : 





Tibia 






Tarsal Segments 






Leg 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


Pro- 


188 


50 


50 


42 


40 


88 


Meso- 


302 


100 


78 


61 


42 


105 


Meta- 


422 


307 


210 


122 


75 


105 



Tarsal segment V with first pair of lateral plantar bristles slightly displaced 
towards midline; third pair somewhat more so (fig. 5, metatarsus i ); subapical 
median spiniform plantar bristles usually as follows: $ 3-3(4) -2, $ 2-2-2. 

Abdomen. Tergum 1 (fig. 7, 1 T. ) shorter than preceding notum; witli 2 rows 
of bristles preceded by 1-2 subdorsals. Basal sternum in i with 2 or 3 small, 
thin ventromarginal bristles but no true median ones (these represented only 
by scattered microhairs or their bases); in 5 with about 10 small, scattered 
median, lateral bristles, often in vertical groups of 2; plus 1 subventral and a 
well developed ventromarginal one. Terga 2-5 with 1 subdorsal apical spinelet 
per side. Unmodified terga in $ with first row not reaching spiracular fossa; 
caudalmost row with 3 bristles ventral to fossa and these lacking intercaUmes, 
and usually with 1 small intercalary type immediately above and below fossa. 
In 9 , these terga with second row reaching near spiracular fossa; row shorter; last 
row usually with 2 small intercalaries between first 2 of group of 3 below fossa 
and a tiny one between lowest pair. Typical sterna in $ with 2 short rows of 
bristles; these preceded by a group of about 2 subventrals; $ with an additional 
short row. Upper antepygidial bristle in $ about half length of lower (fig. 8, 
A.B.); in $ (fig. 23, A.B.), slightly longer. Lobe above antepygidial bases 
(U.L.7) in $ twice as long as broad; in 9, about as long as broad at base. 

Modified Abdominal Segments — Male. Tergum 8 (fig. 8, 8 T. ) about half as 
long as high (broad); extending ventrad only to level of base of ventral anal 
lobe (V.A.L. ); devoid of bristles. Spiracular fossa 8 usually obscured by con- 
tiguous or underlapping sensilium; horizontal (oblique) section rather flaring, 
narrowing towards trachea, about twice as long as broad at middle; vertical 
portion nearly twice length of horizontal and half as broad. Sternum 8 (8 S.) 
very large, overlapping base of V.A.L. extending cephalad to cover about half of 
manubrium or to level of antepygidial bristles (A.B.); somewhat longer than 
high at maximum (middle) axes; anterior and posterior margins converging so 
that true dorsal margin about M\ length of subventral portion; cephalic margin 
curving gradually; caudal margin shallowly microcrenulate, markedly convex 
for upper half, then fairly straight and vertical and then becoming sub-horizontal, 
running due cephalad so that it is excised subventrally, and at times deeply so, 
the sinus often narrow, straight and, ventrally, slightly more than twice as long 



384 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Figs. 17 & 19. Muesebeckella mannae, n. gen., n. sp.: 17, apex of aedeagus, 
lateral; 19, 9 dorsal and ventral anal lobes. Figs. 18 & 20. M. nodi, n. gen., 
n. sp.: 18, apex of aedeagus, lateral; 20, dorsal and ventral anal lobes. 



as broad. Lobe below sinus arising from ventral margin; narrow and straight, 
about 5-6 times as long as broad, and extending well anterior to sinus; bearing 
1 or 2 stout apical bristles; remainder of ventral margin mildly sinuate. 8 S. clothed 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 385 

with 3 rows of bristles, the rows curved and extending from subdorsal region to 
ventral, and caudalmost row with alternate (and large) bristles deeply displaced 
cephalad; in addition with 2 subventral short rows of small bristles anterior to 
these; with 4 or 5 ventromarginal bristles. Immovable process of clasper ( figs. 
9, 11, P.) dorsally straight and sub-horizontal; with a subapical dorsal bristle and 
a longer apical one arising from a short projection; caudal margin slightly sinuate 
and subvertical. Conical process ( C.P. ) of P. apically broad and concave; nearly 
twice as long (high) as broad. Movable finger ( F. ) with portion distad of P. 
nearly 4 times as long (high) as broad at middle; nearly vertical and almost 
straight, the sigmoid effect minimal; scarcely narrowing from base to near apex; 
stiva at caudodistal region only slightly developed, i.e., apex is only 1.3 times 
l^readth of middle of F. Distal fringe (D.FR. ) usually consisting of 3 relatively 
thin bristles on apical fifth, uppermost of which is subapical. F. with thin bristles 
clothing caudal margin from near base to apex; some of these long; with about 
3 rows of mesal thin, longish bristles bordering caudal margin, commencing at 
about basal fourth, the rows becoming single near apex, with a group of scattered 
submedian lateral bristles on apical half and similar but mesal bristles on anterior 
third. Anterior group (AN.GP. ) of mesal marginals widely .spaced and thin, 
submarginal. Sensilla-group (S.G.) consisting of 4-6 short, thickened bristles at 
anterodistal curve. With a pair of unequal, short, vermifonn sclerotizations, sug- 
gestive of glandular or sensory structures near base of F. just above bulge resting 
on fulcral sclerite (F.S.), which, in turn, is about twice as long (high) as 
broad at middle and wliich is proximally broader than subapically due to slope 
of ventral half of caudal margin. Manubrium (MB.) massive; about 1.6 times as 
long ( high ) ( measured from ventral margin of tergal apodeme of ninth segment 
( T.AP.9 ) ) as broad at middle; only gradually narrowing to neiir apex, which 
is subacute and upturned; anterior margin shallowly convex to near apex; middle 
half of caudal margin quite straight. T.AP.9 about twice as long as broad; ventral 
margin slightly convex; dorsal margin with a subproximal, truncate, short bulge. 
Sternum 9 with proximal arm (P.A.9) angled somewhat ventrad of middle, and 
subequal to distal arm (D.A.9 and figs. 12, 13). Upper portion of P.A.9 sub- 
rectangular, about twice as long as broad; apex straight. D.A.9 relatively sub- 
rectangular but with dorsal margin bisinuate at apex (the lobe between the arcs 
acute) and distal margin sloping and terminating in a falcate projection at ventral 
angle; about 5.6 times as long as broad at level of trough of first sinus; with 2 
spiniforms at base of apical projection and 2 or 3 spiniforms near distal margin; 
ventrally with 2 subapical spiniforms and 3—4 marginal ones at third quarter, 
of which most distad is nearly as large as those at apex; with conspicuous spanner- 
like, bilobed, mesal sclerotization (fig. 13, mesal aspect) extending obliquely 
from first dorsal sinus to near ventral margin; first such bulge with sinuate dorsal 
(anterior) margin bearing 2 small bristles and apical lobe longer, more acute; 
with a few scattered lateral bristles and about 3 small apicomarginal ones. D.A.9 
with internal basal sclerotized notch (B.S.N.) fairly truncate apically and about 
Vr, of arm in length; the sinus about 4 times as long (measured ventrally) as broad 
at level of end of marked dorsal tanning. 

Aedeagus-Lateral Aspect, (figs. 10, 17). Apodeme (AE.A.) with middle 
lamina (fig. 17, M.LAM.) more tanned than lateral laminae (L.LAM.); former 
about 4 times as long (from base of aedeagal fulcrum, AE.F. ) as broad at edge 
of bay of middle lamina (B.M.L.) and gradually narrowing; apex somewhat 



386 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




dorsal aspect ventral aspect 

Muesebeckella monnoe n gen n sp. 



Figs. 21-22. Muesebeckella mannae, n. gen., n. sp.: 21, dorsal aspect of apical 
region of aedeagus; 22, ventral aspect of apical region of aedeagus. 



upturned but rounded. Lateral laminae with ventral margin quite straight to 
near apex, where broadly rounded. B.M.L. extending cephalad more than half 
length of entire aedeagus. Median dorsal lobe (M.D.L.) fairly straight to level 
of phylax ( PHY. ) and then sloping dorsad gradually ( about 30° ) . Girdle of 
aedeagal pouch (G. ) conspicuous, well tanned and broad; its sclerotized ventral 
margin slightly longer than crescent sclerite (C.S.). Most of apical region of 
aedeagus enclosed by folds of well developed hood ( HD. ) which extends caudad 
to level of phylax as the deltoid flap ( DEL.FL. ) ( which is much more obtuse 
than in some other taxa). Lateral lobes (L.L.) undeveloped. Ford's sclerite 
massive, dominating endchamber, its alpha portion (ALPH. ) of F.SC. with length 
exceeding maximum vertical diameter of middle lamina. ALPH. about twice as 
long as broad resembling a rounded "A" without the crossbar; ventrocaudal margin 
broad, fluted and sinuate and broadest at base. Securifer (SEC.) of F.SC. sub- 
equal to ALPH. in length, spanner-like or chelate in appearance; with upper arm 
( U.A. ) falcate and lower member ( L.A. ) somewhat apically broadened and 
truncate. Pivotal ridge (PIV.R. ) rod-like. Sclerotized inner tube (S.LT. ) more 
than 7 times as long (measured ventrally) as broad at anterior fourth; ventrally 
with apical margin extended and somewhat upcurved; medially somewhat con- 
stricted, the posterior bulge occurring immediately before dorsal margin curves 
and narrows toward acuminate and ventral apex; at apical third with a large 
ventral armature (V.AR.), which is lobate and somewhat curved, its girth sub- 
equal to that of S.LT. and its length (unextended) nearly twice its diameter. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 387 

Crescent sclerite (C.S.) shallowly convex, its length equal to breadth of S.I.T. 
Satellite sclerite (SAT.S.) short and weakly tanned. With a long, tendon-like 
structure of unknown homology and function entering dorsal portion of base of 
S.I.T. from behind C.S.; these extending well cephalad into apodeme. Fulcral 
lateral lobe ( FUL.L.L. ) relatively narrow and short, ovate. Central sclerite 
(CEN.S.) approximating fulcral medial lobe and accentuating its semi-sagittate 
appearance. Y-sclerite ( Y.S. ) prominent as an irregular dark sclerite below and 
behind capsule, arising from dorsal virga ( D. V. ) . Lateral shafts of capsule 
(L.S.C.) well tanned. Phylax (PHY.) a fairly elongate sclerite flanking S.I.T. 
where posteriorly narrowing; shaped like an inverted and reversed sigmoid. 
Basal sclerite of crochet ( B.CR. ) weakly tanned, with dorsal half of caudal margin 
convex; extending from base of F.SC. ventrocephalad to base of PHY.; about 
thrice as high as long at middle; lacking any crochet-like caudal process. Vesicle 
( V. ) weakly developed. Penis rods ( P.R. ) short and thick, scarcely reaching 
anterior third of apodeme. Aedeagal apodemal rod ( AP.R. ) continuing cephalad 
from ventral margin of girdle (G. ). Ventral virga (V.V.) well developed, short. 

Aedeagus-Dorsal and Ventral Aspects, (figs. 21, 22). Ford's sclerite bi- 
laterally symmetrical but with components (ALPH., L.A., U.A. ) fused along 
midline, hence not true pairs, and left and right members unable to move in- 
dependently. Securifer with lobes falcate, directed mesad. Deltoid flap (DEL.FL.) 
with highly acuminate, apical ( anterior ) extensions. ( These inapparent in 
Literal aspect. ) Crochet lacking a caudad-directed arm and hence true crochets 
absent. Phylax (PHY.) curving around S.I.T. and almost meeting dorsally; more 
widely separated below S.I.T. Ventral armature (V.AR.) of S.I.T. with a ventral 
lobe. Pivotal ridge extending from base of Ford's sclerite far down to near apex of 
apodeme. Pouch walls beaded at level of fulcrum and basal third of S.I.T. Girdle 
( G. ) continuing distad as pouch wall, which fuses with side of basal sclerite of 
crochet (B.CR.). Lacking even a vestige of a caudal process or "paramere" on 
B.CR. Y-sclerite ( Y.S. ) huge, flooring capsule of fulcral area; bifid, one fork 
enclosing much of distal part of capsule. Lateral shafts of capsule (L.S.C.) very 
large, their tendons ( T.L.S. ) somewhat sclerotized. 

Female, (fig. 23). Sternum 7 (7 S.) about 1.6 times as high as long at maxi- 
mum diameters, anterior margin nearly vertical; caudal margin bisinuate, the 
median lobe long, broad and rounded; the ventral lobe evenly narrowed; upper 
sinus shallow; lower sinus with dorsal margin virtually straight and at 45° angle, 
ventral margin horizontal. Sternum 7 with 3 main, uneven rows of bristles, of 
which caudalmost follows contour of sternal margin and hence highly irregular, 
and consisting of longest bristles; rows with approximately 7-9(8)-9(6)-8 
bristles respectively, last row with 2 of these placed medially in ventral sinus 
and one anterior ventromarginal; with 3 subventrals preceding last-named and 
one ventromarginal between first 2 rows. Tergum 8 (8 T. ) with caudal margin 
markedly biconcave below middle (fig. 24); upper sinus evenly and broadly 
ovate; lower one subventral, short, almost semicircular; lobe between the two 
small, its length about half its heiglit at base; ventral lobe evenly rounded. 
Chaetotaxy of 8 T. approximately as follows: with 2 irregular rows of 6 and 5 
short, tliin bristles preceding .spiracular fossa (8 SPC); of these 2 below but 
near fossa; with a subventral row of 4 long lateral bristles; a group of 2 such 
bristles near caudal lobe; 8 additional submedian bristles on lower third of 
tergum, of which one or 2 are near caudal margin; with a group of 2 longish 



388 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



"^T^mm 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 389 

mesal bristles above caudal lobe and 1 below it. Dorsal anal lobe (D.A.L. and 
fig. 19) with 3 long dorsomarginal bristles; about 5 smaller, thinner subdorsals, 
2 submedian, and 1 at ventrocaudal angle below anal stylet (A.S.), which is 
slightly arched ventrad and about 5 times as long as broad at middle and bears 
2 very small subapical setae, viz., 1 above and 1 below very long apical bristle; 
stylet broadest subproximally. Ventral anal lobe ( V.A.L. ) with very short 
ventral (basal) margin; essentially a fairly oblique, narrow structure fringed with 
about 8 long, thin, relatively well spaced bristles. 

Spermatheca ( SP. and figs. 26, 27 ) with bulga ( B. ) somewhat barrel-shaped 
except for marked dorsal bulge at anterior third; bulga otherwise of nearly uniform 
breadth most of its length; hilla (H.) about % length of bulga, upcurved, sub- 
apically dilated caudally ( dorsally ) , proxinially about % as broad as anterior 
part of bulga; with a sclerotized apical papilla. Bursa copulatrix (B.C. and fig. 
26) only lightly sclerotized; pcrula (P.B.C.) subpyriform; duct (D.B.C. ) feebly 
tanned. Duplicatura vaginalis (D.VG.) and glandula vaginahs (G.VG.) straight 
and relatively long. With a longer glandular structure of unknown homology 
caudad of latter, and preceding a large structure, paired, and ill-defined in 
mounted material, but terminating ventrally at the thickened dorsal apical wall 
of the genital opening. 

Comment. The species is named for Miss Elizabeth B. Mann, Para- 
sitologist at the Medical College, Port Moresby, who was an invaluable 
member of our 1968 expedition in New Guinea and cheerfully par- 
ticipated in all phases of the field-program despite the difficulties in- 
herent in such operations in remote areas. 

Muesebeckella nadi, n. sp. 

Type Material. Holotype male and allotype female (B-81480-3) ex 
a small species of Pseudocheirus sp., a ring-tailed possum; Northeast 
New Guinea, West Sepik District, Oksapmin, Strickland River, near 
northern border of Western District of Papua; elev. 1850 m.; Coll. R. 
Traub; 24.X.1968. Paratypes: IS and 29, ibid.; Ic^ and 19 ibid., 
but 19.x. 1968 (B-81430). (The first possum had been collected to- 
gether with its mossy nest in a small tree, and 5£ and 29 of the para- 
types were subsequently reared from the nest-material.) Holot\^pe 
and allotype deposited in U.S. National Museum, Washington 
(U.S.N.M. #70748); paratypes in Canadian National Collection, the 
Rothschild Collection of Fleas at the British Museum (Natural His- 
tory ) ( Tring ) , and that of the author. 

Diagnosis. Close to M. mannae n. sp., but separable as follows: 1) Distal arm 
of ninth sternum (figs. 15, 16) with apical region narrower and excised dorsally 
instead of slightly broadening subapically and being subtruncate at tip (figs. 12, 

<- 

Figs. 23, 24, 26, 27. Muesebeckcllu mannae, n. gen., n. sp.: 23, 9 modified ab- 
dominal segments; 24, 9 sinuses of 8th tergum; 26, internal 9 genitalia; 27, 
spermatheca. Figs. 2.5 & 28. M. nadi, n. gen., n. sp.: 25, 9 sinuses of 8th 
tergum; 28, spermatheca. 



390 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

13, M. mannae). 2) Most apical of mesal lobes on D.A.9 bifurcate instead of 
acuminate. 3) Securifer with upper arm (fig. 18, U.A. ) broader and subtruncate, 
instead of falcate (fig. 17, U.A. ), and lower arm (L.A. ) proportionately shorter; 
broader and less angulate apically. 4) Hood of aedeagus (HD.) bearing scattered 
short cuticidar ridges or striations; these absent in M. mannae. 5) Movable finger 
( fig. 14, F. ) clothed with more numerous small mesal setae near caudal margin, 
viz., 4 non-marginal rows in central portion, not 2 or 3 (fig. 11, F.). 6) Narrow 
ventrocaudal lobe of male eighth sternum elongate — 7 or 8 times as long as broad 
(fig. 8), not 5-6. 7) Anal stylet straight and sides virtually parallel throughout 
(fig. 20, A.S.) instead of being somewhat arched and broadest near base (fig. 
19, A.S.). 8) Sinuses and small lobe on lower half of caudal margin of female 
eighth tergum (fig. 25) not as large nor as symmetrical as in M. mannae (fig. 
24). 9) Spermatheca (fig. 28) with hilla (H.) subglobular at apex, not ovate 
(fig. 27, H.). 

In other respects, M. nadi n. sp. is essentially like M. mannae and hence is not 
described in detail. 

Comment. The species is named for my colleague and good friend, 
M. Nadchatram, Acarologist of the Institute for Medical Research, 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, currently seconded to the Bemice P. 
Bishop Museum at Honolulu. Nad, as he is known to all of us, not only 
is an outstanding worker on ectoparasites in his own right, but by 
virtue of his collections in Malaysia, Nepal, North Borneo, Laos and 
New Guinea, he has greatly enhanced our knowledge of parasitic in- 
sects and acarines. Through his field-work in New Guinea in par- 
ticular, both as a member of our team and as leader of the one earlier 
in the year, he has tremendously contributed to our understanding of 
the Siphonapteran fauna. 

Comment on the Genus Muesebeckella and Notes 

ON CONVTERGENT EVOLUTION 

The genus Muesebeckella well illustrates certain features about 
Siphonaptera which apparently have not been noted before or else are 
not generally appreciated, viz., 1 ) Modification of the head for main- 
tenance of a semi-sedentary position. 2) Modification of the pronotal 
comb in a way believed to be characteristic of fleas of mammals which 
are both nocturnal and arboreal; and what may be termed 3) the 
Principle of Totality of Mass and 4) the Principle of Structural Com- 
pensation. These are discussed below, along with 5), a note on sibling 
species. 

1) Modifications of the Head. Attention has been called to the 
flattened frontal margin of the head of certain pygiopsyllid fleas 
(Traub, 1968), i.e., Idiochaetis Jordan, 1937, Ernestinia Smit, 1953, 
Striopsylla rugattis (Jordan, 1937) and helmeted fleas like some 
Stephanocircus Skuse, 1893 (Stephanocircidae), etc., and it was prog- 
nosticated that these fleas press the head against the skin of the host 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 391 

and hook the adjacent (and flattened or coarse) hairs by means of 
their spines or spiniform bristles. Muescbeckella has a head of this 
type, and it was noted while collecting those specimens which had 
remained on the host, that the fleas were indeed affixed to the hairs 
in this way. However, insufficient numbers of Muesebeckella have 
been found to date to determine if this behavior is really characteristic. 
It is therefore noteworthy that during this field-trip in New Guinea 
we collected hundreds of Idioclwetis from giant-rats and large num- 
bers of StriopsyUa vandeiiseni Holland, 1969, from bandicoots and 
carefully observed the behavior of the fleas on the active or partially 
anesthetized host. Fleas of both genera were frequently noted to 
have the flattened head abutted against the skin of the host, and 
oftentimes some or all of the legs were dangling. The attachment 
via the spiniforms in Idiochaetis was so effective that the only way 
the fleas could readily be extricated from the host by means of forceps 
was to first pull the flea forward to release its hold, or else to pull the 
insect along the hairs to their extremities. Forcibly removing the fleas 
backwards often led to damaging or breaking the specimens. Unlike 
the case of ordinary fleas, which run about amongst the hairs of the 
host, anesthetizing or spraying the host while it was in a cloth bag 
did not result in large numbers of Idiochaetis or StriopsyUa fleas 
dropping from the mammal. It was necessary to brush the fur vigor- 
ously (against the "grain") to collect the specimens, or else search for 
them individually. 

It seems probable that the leathery or relatively untanned upper por- 
tion of the frontal margin of Muesebeckella is likewise an adaptation 
to enable the flea to secure ( maintain ) its position on the host. Thus, 
a pliable surface would be more apt to follow the contour of the skin 
when the flea finnly pressed its head against the body of the host. 
I also believe that the rugose cuticle of the head of Muesebeckella, 
Ernestinia and StriopsyUa is similarly adaptive. 

The flattened condition of the head is further discussed in 3) below. 

2) The Pronotal Comb. It is well known that bird-fleas possessing 
a pronotal comb have more spines in the comb than do their relatives 
infesting rodents, i.e., 24-30 spines versus 18-22, and that the spines 
in the ctenidium of the former are also significantly narrower than 
those of the latter ( Traub, 1950; Hopkins, 1957; Smit, 1958; Holland, 
1964; Traub & Barrera, 1966). By these criteria, it would be expected 
that MuesebeckeUa was in reality a bird-flea, but this is manifestly 
not the case — all known specimens are from a small species of 
Pseudocheirus despite the fact that hundreds of birds and thousands 
of mammals were examined by the Bishop Museum teams in New 
Guinea. (The validity of the observation regarding the host of Muese- 
beckeUa is indicated further by the facts that the birds yielded another 



392 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

new genus of flea and two new species of Hoogstraalia Traub, 1950, 
while the common, large Pseudocheirus was always free of fleas 
or else carried a few Fulex irritans.) There are at least three other 
characteristic features of the combs of bird-fleas which presumably 
have not been reported before, namely: a) the axis of the lower part 
of the comb slopes anteroventrad, whereas in the related manmial-fleas 
an imaginary line connecting the bases of the spines would be vertical. 
b) The comb itself does not extend ventrad so as to overlap the coxa. 
The multiplicity of spines occurs on a comb which is no broader 
(taller) than that of the mammal-fleas, and this is accomplished by 
the reduction in the breadth of the individual spines, c) The spines 
themselves are straight and horizontal, paralleling the longitudinal 
axis of the flea, and apparently also are of more uniform breadth 
throughout than in the rodent-fleas, which taper more, at least sub- 
apically. These features are found in the nine genera of combed-fleas 
(representing three different families) which are known to me as 
parasitizing birds (the figures include one undescribed new genus 
from New Guinea and the first bird-infesting Pygiopsylla, a new 
species ) . 

The comb of Mueseheckella (figs. 1, $ \ 2, ? ), by contrast, extends 
down over the vinculum linking the pronotum with the mesothorax, 
and its axis is arched, with the lower two-thirds curving ventrocaudad. 
Moreover, the lower spines are oblique in inclination, and most of them 
are slightly upcurved (dorsal margin slightly concave and ventral 
margin correspondingly convex). This is the type of comb that for 
some reason is characteristic of fleas of tree-living mammals that are 
nocturnal ( Traub, 1966 ) . The phenomenon will be discussed at length 
in another article. Suffice it for the present to indicate that, in my 
opinion, Pleochaetis ponsi Barrera, 1955, and Pleochaetis smiti John- 
son, 1954, are in this category. 

3) The Principle of Totality of Mass. There are several structures 
that vary in size or mass in different genera and species of Siphonaptera, 
and it is interesting that despite the variations in the components, the 
resulting size or mass of the structure is a "constant,^' within the over- 
all limits of the configuration of the taxon involved. Examples of this 
phenomenon were cited by Traub & Evans (1967), i.e., fleas with a 
narrow pronotum have very long spines in the pronotal comb, while, 
in contrast, those possessing short spines have a long pronotum. The 
known species of Mueseheckella are in the former category, and an 
example of the latter is Ceratophijllus hagaromo Jameson & Sakaguti, 
1959, while the genus Brevictenidia Liu & Li, 1965, gets its name 
from the vestigial spines in the pronotal comb, but, significantly, the 
pronotum itself is exceptionally long. 

Another manifestation of this principle is exhibited by the fore- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 393 

shortened head of Mueseheckella. Here, as in Sigmactenus Traub, 
1950, Ernestinia, Idiochaetis, Stephanocircus, Striopsylla and other 
fleas with a narrow frons, the volumetric capacity of the head is un- 
changed from that in related fleas with typical or "normal" heads 
because in the flat-headed fleas there is a corresponding increase in 
height. Further, in fleas with an evolutionary tendency toward pro- 
longation of a vertical genal comb, the head becomes progressively 
narrow and tall as the number of spines increases, i.e., PeromijscopsyUa 
I. Fox, 1939 ( 2 spines on a fairly broad head; ex cricetids ) , Leptopsylla 
Jordan & Rothschild, 1911 (3-6 spines on a fairly narrow head; ex 
cricetids and murids), Pectinoctenus Wagner, 1930 (7-14 spines on a 
narrow or very narrow head; ex murids); Sigmactenus (9-12 spines 
on a very narrow head; ex Rattus (Rattus).''' Interestingly enough, 
as the comb increases in height, the rudimentary eye of the flea 
assumes a more and more dorsal position, still staying associated with 
the first one or two spines, so that in Sigmactenus it is near the top 
of the head. (The migration of the eye with the comb provides proof 
that these vertical combs indeed are genal structures.) 

The dimensions of the tibia also vary, but again in accordance with 
this principle. For example, the hind-tibia is unusually long and 
narrow in Sigmactenus but very short and broad in MalacopsyUa 
Weyenbergh, 1881, and Phthiropsylla Wagner, 1939. 

The variations from the ordinary or common type of structure always 
seem to result in a constant — no fleas are known to possess a head 
or tibiae which are both long and tall. The effect is as if there were a 
limit to the protein or tissue available for the end-product, regardless 
of what it might be. Since these variations in head, leg, etc., occur 
again and again in unrelated fleas and often skip the allied taxa, they 
constitute examples of convergence. 

4) The Principle of Structural Compensation is a corollary of the 
foregoing in that it concerns concomitant variations in size, but in 
this case two (or more) separate structures are involved (instead of 
the dimensions of the same sclerite or organ), although the members 
of the pair or group presumably work together or have a common func- 
tion. For example, in many fleas both the immovable and movable 
processes ( P. and F. ) of the clasper are essentially the same size, 
i.e., Jellisonia klotsi Traub, 1944. However, oftentimes F. is extremely 
large, as in Mueseheckella (fig. 11, F. ) and at such times P. is cor- 
respondingly reduced. The converse is the case in Chaetopsylla Kohaut, 
1903, where P. is massive. A similar phenomenon is to be noted in 
the sundry hooking or prying devices on the aedeagus. In certain 



•* One reason for believing that the course of development in this group was 
from fewer spines to a greater number, is the geologic age of the various hosts; 
zoogeographic considerations constitute another. These are discussed by Traub 
et al. ( in press ) . 



394 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

groups of fleas, i.e., ceratophyllids and many leptopsyllids, the crochets, 
which are ventral, are huge (and often articulated), but Ford's 
sclerite, which is dorsal, is then reduced and hardly modified. In 
some leptopsyllids and many other fleas, including most pygiopsyllids, 
the reverse is true — Ford's sclerite is well developed and the crochets 
are small. In MuesebeckeUa, Ford's sclerite ( fig. 10, F.SC. ) dominates 
the endchamber, and there is no true crochet, nor any other ventral 
"paramere." There are pygiopsyllids, i.e., Parastivalius novaeguineae 
(Rothschild, 1904), in which Ford's sclerite is not so well developed, 
and in which the crochet lacks a caudad-directed hook-like process, 
but here the ventral "paramere" is a bifid lobate structure ( appearing 
distally paired and falcate as seen in the usual lateral position, but 
is actually scoop-like). This in reality is the highly modified ventral 
armature of the sclerotized inner tube, which is distal in position in 
this species and not at all like that seen in MuesebeckeUa (fig. 17, 
V.AR. ). The end-result is the same — an elaborate and obviously 
effective device for copulation, even though different components are 
used. 

The comparative size of the hood flaps and the lateral lobes of the 
aedeagus is also in accord with this principle. Thus, when the hood 
bears well developed flaps (figs. 17, 18, DEL.FL.), the lateral lobes 
are reduced, as in the Stivalius robinsoni group, or else inapparent, as 
in MuesebeckeUa. In the case of P. novaeguineae, the lateral lobes are 
much larger than the flaps of the hood, while in PapuapsyUa Holland, 
1969, the lateral lobes are extremely well developed at the apparent 
expense of the flaps of the hood. 

The relative size of the abdominal terga and sterna well illustrate 
this principle, particularly in the case of the male eighth segment. 
Thus, while most of the genitalia is always effectively covered by the 
eighth segment, the means whereby this is effected varies considerably, 
generally depending upon the family or subfamily of the taxa involved. 
In pygiopsyllids, the eighth tergum (fig. 8, 8 T.) is greatly reduced, 
while the sternum (8 S.) is correspondingly enlarged, taking over 
most of the function of its puny "mate." (Interestingly enough, the 
opposite condition applies to the rest of the regular abdominal segments 
in this group, where the tergum extends down over most of the sterna, 
i.e., 7 T. and 7 S.) In ceratophyllids and ischnopsyllids, the situation 
is reversed, and it is 8 T. which is huge, while 8 S. is very small, or 
even vestigial. In leptopsyllids, 8 S. and 8 T. are frequently subequal 
in size, although in some instances (i.e., OplithalmopsyUa Wagner & 
loff, 1926) 8 S. becomes elongate and highly modified, and in those 
cases 8 T. is accordingly somewhat larger than usual. 

The term compensation is used because of the hyperdevelopment of 
one structure to take over the function of one that has retrogressed 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 395 

in the course of evolution. In a sense, these points are also examples 
of Dollo's Law in that once a structure has been lost, another must 
be modified to replace it, since the original cannot be "resurrected" 
(Traub, 1968). 

5) Muesebeckella mannae, n. sp. and M. nadi, n. sp. represent a 
phenomenon that is notably relatively common amongst New Guinean 
Siphonaptera — that of the occurrence of sibling- or sister-species. 
Characteristically, the two species resemble one another closely, but 
upon critical study it soon becomes apparent that there are significant 
differences in morphological details, usually along the same lines as 
those noted for Muesebeckella, but at times also including variations 
in the pattern of pronotal spines, etc. ( Traub, 196S ) . 

Acknowledg:ments 

The field team of the University of Maryland and the Bishop Museum in 
New Guinea was operating collaboratively with the Division of Botany, Lae, 
during the course of the September-December 1968 expedition, and conse- 
quently obtained considerable logistical and administrative assistance. Had it 
not been for the whole-hearted support rendered by John Womersley, Chief of 
that Division, and Dr. J. L. Gressitt of the Bishop Museum, tliese specimens 
might never have been collected. The following accompanied the writer as 
members of the team concerned with ectoparasites during some or all of the 
time: Dr. Nixon Wilson, M. Nadchatram and Abid Beg Mirza, all of the Bishop 
Museum, and Miss Elizabeth B. Mann (Port Moresby). Indigenous employees 
of the Bishop Museum Field Station ( Wau ) who served as trappers and hunters 
were Belupe, Latney and Joseph. M. Nadchatram, assisted by Abid Beg Mirza, 
led an earlier team of the Bishop Museum in the Highlands of New Guinea and 
also collected one of the specimens of the new genus, along with other excellent 
Siphonaptera, trombiculids, etc. 

I am indebted to the Hon. Miriam Rothschild, D.Sc, for permission to utilize 
the terminology of the Glossary of Rothschild & Traub ( in press ) in describing 
the aedeagus. 

The illustrations were prepared by T. M. Evans of our staff at Baltimore, 
and Miss Helle Starcke of that Department rendered editorial assistance. 

To these colleagues and friends I express my thanks. 

List of ABBRE^TATIONs Used in Illustraiions 

A.B., antepygidial bristles. A.G., apical group of dorsolateral marginal tibial 
bristles. A.S., anal stylet. AE.A., aedeagal apodeme. AE.F., fulcrum of aedeagus. 
ALPH., alpha-portion of securifer of Ford's sclerite. AN.GP., anterior group of 
marginal bristles on F. AP.R., third aedeagal rod (accessory aedeagal rod). B., 
bulga (head) of spermatheca. B.C., bursa copulatrix. B.CR., basal sclerite of 
crochet. B.M.L., bay of middle lamina. B.S.N., basal sclerotized notch of 6 ninth 
sternum. C.P., conical process on anterior portion of P. C.S., crescent sclerite. 
CEN.S., central sclerite. D.A.L., dorsal anal lobe. D.A.9, di.stal ann of ninth 
sternum. D.B.C., duct of bursa copulatrix. D.FR., distal fringe of bristles on F. 
D.V., dorsal virga of aedeagus. D.\'G., duplicatura vaginalis. D.SP., duct of 
speniiatheca. DEL.FL., deltoid flap of hood of aedeagus. DM.1-DM.5, groups 
of dorsolateral tibial bristles arising from marginal notches. F., mo\able process or 
finger of clasper. F.S., fulcrum sclerite at base of attaclunent of F. F.SC, Ford's 



396 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

sclerite. FUL.L.L., lateroventral lobes of fulcnim of aedeagus. FUL.M.L., 
median lobe of fulcrum. G., girdle of aedeagal pouch. G.VG., glandula vaginalis. 
H., hilla (tail) of spermatlieca. HD., hood of aedeagus. L.A., lower arm of 
securifer of Ford's sclerite. L.L., lateral lobes of aedeagus. L.LAM., lateral lamina 
of aedeagal apodeme. L.M., lateral metanotal area. L.P., labial palpus. L.S.C., 
lateral shafts of capsule of aedeagus. M.D.L., median dorsal lobe of aedeagus. 
M.LAM., median lamina of aedeagal apodeme. M.P., maxillary palpi. MB., 
manubrium. MPM., mesepimere. MPS., mesepistemum. MTM., metepimere. 
MTN., metanotum. MTS., metasternum. P., immovable process of clasper. P.A.9, 
proximal arm of ninth sternum. P. B.C., perula of bursa copulatrix. P.R., penis 
rods. PHY., phylax of aedeagus. PIV.R., pivotal rod of aedeagus, terminating at 
Ford's sclerite. PL.A., pleural arch. PS.S., pseudoseta(e). S.G., group of 
sensillae at anterodistal angle of F. S.I.T., sclerotized inner tube of aedeagus. 
S.S., subanal sclerite. SAT.S., satellite sclerite of capsule of aedeagus. SEC., 
securifer of Ford's sclerite. SP., spermatheca. SQ., squamulum. T.AP.9, tergal 
apodeme of ninth segment. T.L.S., tendons of lateral shafts of capsule. U.A., 
upper arm of securifer of Ford's sclerite. U.L.7, upper lobe of 7 T., above plate 
of antepygidial bristles. V., vesicle. V.A.L., ventral anal lobe. V.AR., ventral 
armature of sclerotized inner tube. V.V., ventral virga of aedeagus. VC.l, first 
vinculum or link-plate. Y.S., Y-sclerite of capsule. 1 T., first tergum. 7 S., seventh 
sternum. 8 S., eight sternum. 8 SPC, spiracular fossa of eigth segment. 8 T., 
eighth tergum. 9 S., ninth sternum. 

References 

Holland, G. P. 1964. Evolution, classification and host relationships of Si- 

phonaptera. Ann. Rev. Ent. 9:123-146, refs. 
Hopkins, G. H. E. 1957. Host-association of Siphonaptera. First Symposiimi 

on Host Specificity among Parasites of Vertebrates, Institut de Zoologie, Uni- 

versite de Neuchatel, pp. 64-87, refs. 
Rothschild, M. and R. Traub. (In press). Glossary. Chapter in: G. H. E. 

Hopkins & M. Rothschild, An Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection 

of Fleas ( Siphonaptera ) in the British Museum ( Natural History ) . Vol. V. 

Leptopsyllidae. (London, British Museum (Natural History) ). 
Sniit, F. G. A. M. 1958. The African species of Stivalius, a genus of Si- 
phonaptera. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 7(2):41-73, illus. 
Traub, R. 1950. Notes on Indo-Malayan fleas, with descriptions of new species 

( Siphonaptera) . Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 52( 3 ) : 109-143, illus., refs. 
. 1966. Some examples of convergent evolution in Siphonaptera. 

(Abstract of paper presented at meeting of Society, Dec. 1966: Proc. R. Ent. 

Soc. Lond. ( C ) 31(7): 37-38. ) Reported in Ibid. 31(8): 46-47 ( 1966-1967 ) 

with errata in Ibid. 31 ( 11 ) :79 ( 1966-1967 ) . 

1968. Smitella thambetosa n. gen. and n. sp., a remarkable "hel- 



meted" flea from New Guinea (Siphonaptera, Pygiopsyllidae ) with notes on 
convergent evolution. J. Med. Ent. 5(3) :375-404, illus., refs. 

and A. Barrera. 1966. New species of Ctenophthalmus from Mexico, 



with notes on the ctenidia of shrew-fleas ( Siphonaptera ) as examples of con- 
vergent evolution. J. Med. Ent. 2(3) : 127-145, illus., refs. 

— and T. M. Evans. 1967. Descriptions of new species of hystrichop- 



syllid fleas, with notes on arched pronotal combs, convergent evolution and 
zoogeography (Siphonaptera). Pacific Ins. 9(4) :603-677, illus., refs. 

C. L. Wisseman, Jr. and M. Nadchatram. ( In prep. ) Notes on 



medical ecology and zoogeography, with special reference to scrub typhus and 
to chiggers and fleas in West Pakistan. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 397 

A SCELIONID WASP SURVIVING UNCHANGED SINCE TERTIARY 

( Hymenoptera : Proctotrupoidea ) 

LuBOMiR Masner, Institute of Entomology, 
Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Praha^ 



ABSTRACT — Palaeogryon muesebecki, n. gen. and n. sp. ( Scelionidae : 
Scelioninae), is described from both late Oligocene Mexican amber and recent 
specimens from Mexico. This is the first evidence in Proctotrupoidea of a species 
having survived unchanged during the past 30 milhon years. The fact is more 
surprising since this rehct species constitutes a highly advanced ( apomorphous ) 
form of Scelionidae. 



While studying the unsorted proctotrupoid wasps in the United 
States National Museum in Washington ( 1964 ) I found two specimens 
from Mexico marked by C. F. W. Muesebeck to constitute a new 
genus and species of Scelionidae. Two years later when studying 
Proctotrupoidea from Mexican amber I discovered the same species 
and genus mentioned above. Closer examination of both the recent 
and fossil wasps revealed a prefect conspecificity. The identity can be 
made with certainty due to perfect preservation of the two females 
embedded in amber. I was able to detect even such minor details as the 
number of bristles on veins and the finest sculpture of the body ( length 
of body 0.6 mm.). There is absolutely no difference between the 
recent and fossil specimens. This is a surprising fact as the new 
species is by no means an archaic type. The structure of the antennae 
in particular makes this genus a highly apomorphous form within the 
Scelionidae ( Scelioninae ) . 

The Proctotrupoidea from the Mexican amber look generally younger 
than those of Baltic amber. It seems the climatic changes since the 
Tertiary of Central America were considerably less pronounced than 
those of Tertiary Baltic, allowing some species to survive until the 
modern era. The scelionid wasp described below is the first Tertiary 
rehc known. In other groups of insects (e.g. termites, Snyder, 1960) 
the Tertiary relics are known from Mexican amber or at least species 
that can be claimed to be the direct ancestors of recent species ( Sturte- 
vant, 1963; Wille, 1959). All these forms are now distributed either in 
Mexico or in the adjacent areas (e.g., Caribbean). 



^Present addre.ss: Pestology Centre, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon 
Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. 



398 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Family Scelionidae 

Subfamily Scelioninae 

Palaeogryon, n. gen. 

Female. Head semiglobose, transverse; frons with deep impression from antennal 
insertion almost to median ocellus; eyes intensively hairy; lateral ocelli far from 
eyes, only a little closer to inner orbit than to median ocellus; mandibles bidentate; 
antenna 9-segmented, with abrupt 3-segmented club. 

Thorax short and stout, rather convex dorsally; prothorax barely visible from 
above; mesoscutum transverse, with no specialized area anteriorly, parapsidal 
furrows wanting; scutellum semicircular, unarmed posteriorly; metanotum slightly 
produced medially but unarmed; fore and particularly hind wings with long 
fringes; submarginal vein reaching almost the middle of the wing's length, bearing 
several big bristles, marginal vein short, stigmal vein knobbed apically, postmarginal 
vein very long, almost 3 times as long as stigmalis, bearing along its length some 
6-7 big bristles, basalis faintly indicated; propodeum short, unarmed, over- 
lapped medially by the slight projection of metanotum; tarsi rather short, 5-seg- 
mented. 

Metasoma short, stout, subsessile, distinctly carinated at sides, composed of 
7 tergites; tergite 1 narrow, broadly transverse, tergites 2 and 3 the largest, the 
3rd only a little longer than 2nd; tergite 7 with two pairs of large bristles up- 
curved apically; ovipositor slightly exerted. 

Type species: Palaeogryon miisebecki, n. sp. 

In general habitus Palaeogryon is similar to Gryon Haliday ( s. str. ) . 
It differs from the latter by having the second tergite shorter than 
third tergite. Moreover, it differs from all known genera of Scelioninae 
by 9-segmented antennae with 3-segmented club. This character, viz. 
the trend in reduction of antennal segments and the reduction of 
segments of the club, brings Palaeogryon close to Emhidobia Ash- 
mead (= Efflatounina Priesner), Echthrodesis Masner, Mirohaeus 
Dodd and Mirohaeoides Dodd. Emhidobia, in particular, seems to be 
the closest of all, but the antenna is 11-segmented with a 4-segmented 
club (cf. Masner, 1964). 

Palaeogryon muesebecki,- n. sp. 

Female (Holotype, U.S.N.M., Washington; well preserved); with 
orchids & bromeliads from Mexico at Nogales, Ariz., 23-6-55, Lot 55- 
2450; ? genus Scelionidae det. Muesebeck. 

Length 0.6 mm. Dark chestnut brown, metasoma and legs (including coxae) 
bright yellow, antennae and mandibles dirty yellow; wings almost clear. 

Head transverse (22:15), only slightly wider than thorax (22:19), covered 
with scattered silvery hairs, sculptured but shining; frontal impression bare, 
smooth and highly shining, bordered with sharp edge at sides, with median longi- 
tudinal carina that runs from antennal insertion to top of impression; frons and 



- Named in honour of C. F. W. Muesebeck who first recognized this wasp to 
constitute a new genus and species. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, XO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 399 




Figs. 1-3. Palaeogryon mtiesebecki, n. gen. and n. sp., holotype ( recent 9 ) : 
1, dorsal view; 2, fore wing; 3, head, anterior view. 



vertex with very fine sculpture consisting of delicate scaly-reticulation; occiput 
bordered with fine yet distinct carina; cheeks finely striated; lateral corners of 
clypeus acute, median part considerably convex; scape as long as the 5 follow- 
ing antennal segments combined, longer than wide (10:2.5), pedicel elongated 
(4:2), segments 3-6 transverse, gradually broadened, club (segments 7-9) 
abrupt, massive. 

Mesoscutum and scutellum of much the same sculpture as head, covered with 
scattered silvery hairs; pleurae generally bare, smooth and polished; sub- 
marginal vein in fore wing with 7 big bristles; 7 similar bristles border the 
length of post-marginal vein. 

Metasoma only shghtly longer than wide (22:19); first tergite strongly trans- 
verse (13:3) with indication of weak longitudinal striation at sides rather tlian 
at middle; second tergite transverse (18:5), with very delicate longitudinal stria- 
tion on basal % (clearly visible from lateral aspect); third tergite transverse 
(19:6), almost smooth and highly polished; following tergites very narrow, 
sparsely hairy; ovipositor slightly exerted apically. 

Material examined (paratypes): 1 9 (U.S.N.M.); On lettuce; Brownsville 
No. 15898; Mexico 4-7-1937; Gen. ? Baeinae, det. Muesebeck (Head broken off 
during handling of specimen). 2 9 9 (Univ. Cahf., Berkeley); Mexican amber 
of Chiapas (Simojovel) B-842,5-173 & B-8414-41. 

Male: Unknown. 



400 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

Biology: Unknown. From the apparent close relationship of Embidobki Ash- 
mead to Palaeognjon, I assume the latter to be a parasite of Embiid eggs. 

Acknowledgments 

Thanks are due to Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck ( U. S. Natl. Mus., Washington ) 
for the loan of recent material from Mexico, and to Dr. P. D. Hurd (Depart- 
ment of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley) for making the amber 
material from Chiapas available for study. 

References 

Duby, G. 1957. On the amber trail in Chiapas. Pacific Discovery 10(2) :8-14. 
Hurd, P. D. and R. F. Smith. 1957. The meaning of Mexico's amber. Pacific 

Discovery 10(2):6-7. 
and R. L. Usinger. 1958. Cretaceous and Tertiary Insects in Arctic 

and Mexican amber. Proc. 10th Internat. Congr. Ent. 1:851. 
Masner, L. 1964. A comparison of some Nearctic and Palearctic genera of 

Proctotrupoidea ( Hymenoptera ) with revisional notes. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechosl. 

61:123-155. 
Snyder, T. E. 1960. Fossil termites from Tertiary amber of Chiapas, Mexico 

( Isoptera ) . Joum. Paleont. 34 ( 3 ): 493-494. 
Sturlevant, A. H. 1963. A fossil Periscelid ( Diptera ) from the amber of 

Chiapas, Mexico. J. Paleont. 37( 1 ): 121-122. 
Wille, A. 1959. A new fossil stingless bee ( Meliponini ) from the amber of 

Chiapas, Mexico. J. Paleont. 33(5) :849-852. 



NEW CHARACTERS FOR GENERIC SEPARATION 
IN THE SYNOPEAS-LEPTACIS COMPLEX^ 

( Hymknoptera : Platygasteridae ) 

Dale Jackson, Department of Biology, 
University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44304 

ABSTRACT — Modifications of the pronotal margin and the anterior gastral 
segments are employed in the generic separation of Leptacis Foerster and 
Synopeas Foerster, and the status of other genera which at various times have 
been regarded as their synonyms is discussed. 



Foerster (1856) described several genera of Platygasteridae which 
were characterized by extensions of the posterior surface of the scutel- 
lum. Of these genera Leptacis, Isorhomhus and Piestopleiira pos- 
sessed long scutellar spines, while in Synopeas, Sactogaster and 



^ This work was supported, in part, by NSF Grant GB-6319. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 401 

Ectadius the projection was short and the scutellum somewhat laterally 
compressed. Leptacis and IsorlioJiibus- were separated mainly by the 
shape of the head and the position of the ocelli, whereas the latter 
three genera were differentiated from each other by modifications of 
the female gaster, as was another short-spined genus, Dolichotrypes 
Crawford and Bradley 1911. 

The major workers in this group have differed widely in their treat- 
ment of these genera; Fonts (1924), working mainly with Nearctic 
material and relying partially on Ashmead's generic determinations, 
regarded Synopeas, Ectadius, Dolichotrypes and Anopedias Foerster 
as synonyms of Leptacis, but retained Sactogaster as a valid genus. He 
suggested that Piestopleiira may also prove to be a synonym of 
Leptacis. In contrast, Kieff er ( 1926 ) recognized all of the above genera 
as valid. 

The problem has been largely resolved by Masner (1960) who has 
treated Synopeas as a valid genus, distinguishable from Leptacis by 
the following characters: 

Synopeas Leptacis 

Abdomen sessile or sub-sessile; petiole Abdomen petiolate; petiole elongate 

transverse, it and the base of tergite 2 with only sparse hairs laterally, 
covered with dense, silvery hairs. 

Forewings with extremely short fringes. Forewings with long fringes. 

Nevertheless, as Masner indicates, although these two sets of char- 
acters are representative respectively of the majority of species of 
Synopeas and Leptacis, there still remain numerous exceptions which 
cannot be assigned with certainty on this basis. However, the addi- 
tional characters described below confirm Masner's opinion of the 
validity of these two genera and should permit the correct generic 
placement of the more difficult species. 

In the Platygasteridae the gaster is typically composed of six 
separate, visible segments in the female and seven in the male. In 
a few genera the number of segments is reduced (at least, in the fe- 
male); e.g. four or five in Metanopedias Brues, five in Gastrotrypes 
Brues, three in Isostasiiis Foerster, reduction in those cases being 
caused by loss or fusion of the small terminal segments. In both sexes 
of Synopeas the first gastral segment (petiole) is fused with the second 
segment ( fig. 1 ) . The condition is usually obscured by the dense white 
hair at the anterior of the gaster and is seen most clearly by trans- 
mitted Hght with the specimen immersed in liquid. This fusion occurs 
in Synopeas, Ectadius and Sactogaster sensu Foerster and in Doliclio- 



- Isorhomhus is now regarded as a synonym of Platygaster Latreille as I. 
hyalipennis Ashmead, the first included species, has been transferred to Platy- 
gaster {vide Fouts, 1924, p. 51; Muesebeck and Walkley, 1956, p. 362; Masner 
and Muesebeck, 1968, p. 90). 



402 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 




Fig. 1. Synopeas Foerster, fused 1st and 2nd gastral segments, dorsal aspect. 
Fig. 2. Leptacis Foerster, separate 1st and 2nd gastral segments, dorsal aspect. 
Figs. 3-7, modifications of pronotal margins: 3, Synopeas; 4, Leptacis; 5, 
Amblyaspis Foerster; 6, Piestopleura Foerster; 7, Iphitrachelus Walker. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 403 

trypes. In all other genera of the family, including Leptacis (fig. 2), 
the first and second segments are separated by a distinct suture, and 
appear to be capable of limited articulation. 

The anterior margin of the pronotum of platygasterids is thickened 
and is expanded towards its ventral extremity ( figs. 3-7 ) . In Sijnopeas 
there is always a deep, oval depression immediately behind the thick- 
ened margin and dorsal to the expanded area (fig. 3). In most cases 
the depression actually perforates the sclerite; less frequently a thin, 
transparent membrane persists, without affecting it's general form. In 
the entire specimen the structure is best seen looking from the tegula 
towards the fore coxa. 

In addition to Sijnopeas sensu Foerster, this structure also occurs in 
Dolichotrypes and in species that Foerster would have assigned to 
Ectadius and Sactogaster. No such depression is present in Leptacis, 
where the area behind the anterior margin of the pronotum is quite 
smooth (fig. 4). However, to avoid any possible confusion between 
Synopeas and other genera it should be pointed out that in Amhlyaspis 
Foerster, Piestopleura and Iphitrachelus Walker forms of postmarginal 
depressions occur, all of which differ from each other and from the 
type found in Synopeas. 

In Amhlyaspis the depression is a blind pocket formed by the over- 
growth of the expanded area of the pronotal margin and occurs in 
the extreme ventral corner of the sclerite (fig. 5); the cavity is there- 
fore parallel to the main surface of the sclerite, whereas in Synopeas 
the depression occurs dorsal to the expanded area, and is more or less 
vertical to the surface of the sclerite, which it penetrates. Amhlyaspis 
is readily separated from other genera by the fine adpressed hair on 
the scutellum, the shallow suture between mesonotum and scutellum, 
and the close proximity of the two terminal antenna segments in the 
female. 

In at least some species of Piestopleura there is a shallow simple 
depression in the ventral corner of the pronotum, posterior to the 
expanded area (fig. 6). Contrary to Fouts suggestion (op. cit. ) 
Piestopleura is a valid genus characterized by the extreme lateral com- 
pression of the thorax, the antero-posteriorly compressed head and 
the flat ventral surface of the gaster. Piestopleura possess a free, 
elongate, bare petiole, and in general structure is more closely related 
to Leptacis than to Synopeas. 

The pronotal depression in Iphitrachelus (fig. 7) is deep and 
cylindrical; it is situated in the extreme ventral corner of the sclerite 
and continues as a groove towards the tegula. In most features 
Iphitrachelus differs markedly from all other Platygasteridae and it 
seems probable that these modifications of the pronotum have de- 



404 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

veloped independently in each of the four genera described, and are 
not indicative of close relationship. 

Anopedias, also cited by Fonts ( op. cit. ) as a synonym of Leptacis, 
is a valid genus, not closely related to Leptacis or Synopeas {vide 
Masner, 1960, p. 3). Anopedias may be recognized by the flat dorsal 
surface of the thorax; when seen from the side the mesonotum, scutel- 
lum, propodeal lamellae and the dorsal surface of the gaster form an 
almost straight line. Fonts opinion was probably based on species 
placed by Ashmead in Anopedias, but which have since been trans- 
ferred to Synopeas ( vide Masner and Muesebeck, 1968, pp. 100-101 ) . 

Several of the opinions concerning generic status expressed in 
this paper had their origin in conversations with Dr. Lubomir Masner 
and the author gratefully acknowledges his contributions. 

References 

Foerster, A. 1856. Hymenopterologische Studien, 2. 152 pp. Aachen. 

Fouts, R. M. 1924. Revision of tlie North American Wasps of the Subfamily 

Platygasteridae. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 63( 15a): 1-145. 
Kieffer, J. J. 1926. Scehonidae. Das Tierreich 48:1-885. 
Masner, L. 1960. A revision of the African species of the genus Leptacis 

Foerst. ( Hymenoptera-Platygasteridae ) . Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 62( 1-2): 1-34. 
and C. F. W. Muesebeck. 1968. The Types of Proctotrupoidea 

( Hymenoptera ) in the United States National Museum. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

270:1-143. 
Muesebeck, C. F. W. and L. M. Walkley. 1956. Type species of the genera 

and subgenera of parasitic wasps comprising the superfamily Proctotrupoidea 

(order Hymenoptera). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 270:1-143. 



A SUMMARY OF SPECIES OF MICROCTONUS NORTH OF MEXICO 
WITH FIVE NEW SPECIES 

(Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) 

C. C. Loan, Research Institute, Canada Deimrtment 
of Agriculture, Belleville, Ontario 

ABSTRACT — Five new species of Microctonus Wesmael are described of which 
four are associated with the host species of adult Coleoptera : psylliodis ( Fsijlliodes 
punctulata Melsh.); cucumeridis (Epitrix cucumeris (Harris) ); longitarsi {Longi- 
tarsus melanurus Melsh.); alticae {Altica himarginata Say); and barri. The 24 
known species of Microctonus occurring in America, north of Mexico, are keyed. 

The Nearctic species of Microctonus Wesmael north of Mexico were 
reviewed by Muesebeck ( 1936 ) . They comprised eight species, and 
from 1936 to 1969 ten others were described (Mason, 1960, 1968; 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 405 

Muesebeck, 1961; Loan, 1967a; Drea, 1968; and Loan, Klein and 
Coppel, 1969). This paper does not contain a complete review of 
the species included in this genus. Rather, it is a summary, in the 
form of a key, of certain characters that are useful in their separation. 
The key was formulated from a study of specimens of the known 
Nearctic species and is based on the female; males usually require to 
be associated for their identification. Because of their close resem- 
blance most species of Microctonus are not readily distinguished and, 
as noted by Muesebeck (1936), their recognition requires "close 
attention ... to minute details." 

Of the five new species described below, two are based on material 
from the collections of the U.S. National Museum, Washington, and 
three on specimens reared and host associated at the Research Institute, 
Belleville. Records of distribution for some species included in the 
key are taken from Muesebeck, Krombein and Townes ( 1951 ) ; Krom- 
bein (1958); and Krombein and Burks (1967). 

The host relations of euphorine braconids, including Microctonus, 
were discussed by Muesebeck ( 1936, 1963 ) . Adult Coleoptera are 
parasitized (Table 1) though examples of larval parasitism are re- 
corded by Kiinckel d'Herculais and Langlois ( 1891 ) , Loan ( 1963, 
1967b) and Drea (1968). M. colesi Drea, a parasite of Hyperica 
postica (Gyllenhall) is the only known species of Microctonus that 
lays eggs exclusively in larvae. Hosts are known for 21 of the 24 
species noted in this paper. Microctonus species are associated with 
Chrysomelidae ( 13 ) , Curculionidae ( 5 ) , Tenebrionidae ( 2 ) and Carab- 
idae ( 1 ) . Thirteen species appear to be strictly monophagous and 
most of the others are restricted to species of a single genus or of 
several closely related genera associated with a narrow range of 
host-breeding plants. 

The types of new species described here are deposited in the 
Canadian National Collection (CNC) or the United States National 
Museum ( USNM ) , as noted. 

Key to Nearctic Species of Microctonus 

1. Propodeum rugulose, more or less areolated 2 

Propodeum rugulose-reticulate, exareolated - — 10 

2. Lobes of mesonotum generally bare, polished - 3 

Scutum of mesonotum sparsely hairy, weakly wrinkled or shallowly 

punctured - 5 

3. Lateral lobes of mesonotum sparsely, finely hairy anteriorly; oxipositor 

sheath 1.4 times as long as tergite 1, thick; tergite 1 2.5 times as long 
as wide at apex; occipital carina complete medially; dark testacwus; 

$ antennal segments 21 - cucunieridis, n. sp. 

Lateral lobes entirely glabrous; ovipositor sheath only slightly longer than 
tergite 1; occipital carina incomplete medially; yellow .-. 4 

4. Nervellus distinctly longer than basal abscissa of basella; tergite 1 3.0 



406 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

times as long as wide at apex; temple not as wide as eye; anterior 
margin of lateral ocellus in line with posterior margin of eye; $ 
antennal segments 20-21; United States: New Jersey to Virginia, 

west to Illinois and Tennessee epitricis (Viereck) 

Nervellus and basal abscissa of basella subequal; tergite 1 not 3.0 times 
as long as apical width; temple about as wide as eye; anterior margin 
of lateral ocellus behind posterior margin of eye; $ antennal segments 

17-18; United States: Colorado, Arizona, Idaho, Washington 

pusillae Muesebeck 

5. Body usually less than 2.4 mm. long; if 2.4 mm., then nervellus short, 

distinctly not as long as basal abscissa of basella 6 

Body 2.4-2.9 mm. long 7 

6. First abscissa of radius about 0.5 times width of stigma; nervellus 

subequal to basal abscissa of basella; ovipositor sheath slightly longer 
than tergite 1, not 1.4 times as long; scutum weakly wrinkled; temple 
as wide as eye; tergite 1 2.5 times as long as wide at apex; yellow to 
yellowish brown; 5 antennal segments 18-20; United States, southern 

Canada: most areas vittatae Muesebeck 

Nervellus distinctly short, not as long as basal abscissa of basella; first 
abscissa of radius less than 0.5 times width of stigma; ovipositor 
sheath 1.4 times as long as tergite 1; scutum sparsely hairy, indistinctly 
punctulate, usually paler than lateral lobes; temple 0.8 times as wide 
as eye; tergite 1 2.2-2.6 times as long as wide at apex; light testaceous; 
9 antennal segments 21-22; Canada: Ontario disonychae Loan 

7. Basal abscissa of basella unusually long, longer than nervellus and apical 

abscissa; eye large, nearly 2.0 times as wide as temple; light testaceous; 
9 antennal segments 24; United States: Maryland, Tennessee, Michi- 
gan, Iowa, Idaho carabivorus Muesebeck 

Basal abscissa of basella not longer than nervellus; eye not 2.0 times as 
wide as temple 8 

8. Occipital carina incomplete medially; radial cell more than 0.5 times as 

long as stigma; ovipositor sheath 1.1-1.4 times as long as tergite 1; 
tergite 1 2.0-2.5 times as long as wide at apex; amber stramineous; 

9 antennal segments 23-25; Canada: Ontario muesebecki Loan 

Occipital carina complete medially; radial cell not longer than 0.5 times 
stigma; ovipositor sheath about as long, or slightly less than tergite 1; 
tergite 1 2.0 times more or less as long as wide at apex 9 

9. Ovipositor and sheath relatively straight, approximately parallel to body; 

sheath slender, 1.5 times as long as posterior tibia; temple about as 

wide as eye; light reddish testaceous; 9 antennal segments 22 

psylliodis, n. sp. 

Ovipositor and sheath apically decurved; sheath unusually thick, less than 
11.0 times as long as apical depth, not as long as posterior tibia; amber 

stramineous; 9 antennal segments 23-25; Canada: Ontario 

crepidoderae Loan 

10. Antenna unusually short, 1.1-1.3 times as long as head, thorax and pro- 
podeum combined; eye wider than face and nearly, or more than, 
2.0 times as wide as temple 11 

Antenna not unusually short, 1.5 times or more as long as head, thorax 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 407 

and propodeum combined; if eye wider than face, then antenna as 
long as or longer than body less ovipositor and sheath .— __ 12 

11. Eye more than 2.0 times as wide as temple; ovipositor sheath about as 

long as tergite 1; occiput margined behind; stigma 3.4 times as long as 
wide; first abscissa of radius narrow, somewhat oblique, 0.5 times 
width of stigma; yellow, dorsal face of propodeum darker; 9 an- 

tennal segments 18; United States: Louisiana, Florida 

pachylobii Muesebeck 

Eye not more than 2.0 times as wide as temple; ovipositor sheath 1.3- 
1.4 times as long as tergite 1; occiput immargined behind; stigma 
broad, 2.8 times as long as wide; first abscissa of radius not as narrow, 
vertical to stigma, less than 0.3 times width of stigma; yellow, dorsal 
face of propodeum, thorax, testaceous; 9 antennal segments 18-19; 
United States: Wisconsin glyptosceli Loan, Klein and Coppel 

12. Eye large, transverse diameter wider than face and more than 2.0 times 

as wide as temple; radial cell 0.3 times as long as stigma; dark testa- 
ceous; 9 antennal segments 27; United States: California, Arizona 

invictus Muesebeck 

Structural features not as described 13 

13. Scutum and lateral lobes of mesonotum hairy; radial cell unusually long, 

almost as long as stigma; tergite 1 more than 3.0 times as long as wide 
at apex; ovipositor sheath almost 2.0 times as long as tergite 1; yellow; 
9 antennal segments 28-34; United States: District of Columbia, 

Maryland, Virginia, Massachusetts, Georgia. Canada: Quebec 

mellinus ( Provancher ) 

Structural features not as described 14 

14. Tergite 1 1.5-2.2 times as long as wide at apex 15 

Tergite 1 2.5-3.0 times or more as long as wide at apex 21 

15. First sector of cubitus usually indicated at each end; ovipositor sheath 

1.7 times as long as tergite 1; tergite 1 unusually short, 1.5-1.8 times 
as long as apical width; radial cell 0.7-0.8 times as long as stigma; 
mesepistemum rugulo-punctate; brown or fuscous; 9 antennal seg- 
ments 20-21; Canada: Ontario — blapstini Loan 

Structural features not as described 16 

16. Ovipositor sheath subequal to length of tergite 1; tergite 1 not 2.0 times 

as long as wide at apex, coarsely striate; radial cell 0.7 times as long as 
stigma; habitus black, coarse; 9 antennal segments 25; United States: 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, 

Connecticut colesi Drea 

Structural features not as described — 17 

17. Temple as wide as transverse diameter of eye 18 

Temple not as wide, distinctly less than width of eye -- 19 

18. Posterior margin of tergite 2 defined; radial cell more than 0.5 times as 

long as stigma; antenna dark brown; tergite 1 aciculate from apex to 
base; dark testaceous; 9 antennal segments 21-22; United States: 

District of Columbia, Virginia — gastrophysae (Ashmead) 

Posterior margin of tergite 2 not defined; radial cell not more than 0.5 
times stigma length; antenna black; tergite 1, post- petiole relatively 
smooth, weakly aciculate, petiole smooth; black; yellow face, gaster 



408 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

testaceous or stramineous; $ antennal segments 21 —. longitarsi, n. sp. 

19. Radial cell more than 0.5 times as long as stigma; second abscissa of 

radius weakly curved; testaceous to black; 5 antennal segments 21; 

United States: Michigan. Canada: Quebec nigritus (Provancher) 

Radial cell not more than 0.5 times as long as stigma; second abscissa 
of radius moderately to strongly curved 20 

20. Head 1.8-1.9 times as wide as long; anterior margin of lateral ocellus 

in line with or anterior to posterior margin of eye; lateral margins of 
tergite 1 lightly carinate; postpetiole aciculate; ovipositor sheath 1.5-1.6 
times as long as tergite 1; testaceous to black; tergite 1 light testa- 
ceous; 9 antennal segments 21-23; United States: Kansas, Nebraska, 

Colorado, New Mexico, Idaho, Washington eleodis (Viereck) 

Head not 1.8 times as wide as long; anterior margin of lateral ocellus 
behind posterior margin of eye; lateral margins of tergite 1 darkly 
carinate; postpetiole striate laterally and rugulose medially; ovipositor 
sheath 1.2-1.3 times as long as tergite 1; color variable: mesonotum, 
mesepistemum reddish brov/n to almost black, or stramineous; head 
dark or stramineous; tergite 1 reddish black or black; 9 antennal 
segments 22-24; United States: New Jersey (introduced from 
Europe ) aethiops ( Nees ) 

21. Thorax reddish testaceous or stramineous, if dorsum black, then mes- 

epistemum stramineous or reddish yellow; scutum of mesonotum 
sparsely hairy, shallowly punctate; prescutal sutures relatively wide, 

area of convergence large; tergite 1 aciculate or rugulo-striate 22 

Thorax black, polished, with mesepistemum dark castaneous; scutum 
partly or almost completely finely setose, relatively smooth; prescutal 
sutures sharply impressed, area of convergence not large; tergite 1 
weakly aciculate 23 

22. Mesepistemum relatively smooth; nervellus longer than basal abscissa 

of basella, 2.0 times as long as marginal cilia of hind wing; tergite 1 
2.5-3.0 times as long as apical width, postpetiole aciculate; radial 
cell not quite 0.5 times as long as stigma; ovipositor sheath 1.5 times 
as long as tergite 1; reddish testaceous, dorsum of thorax, propodeum 

black; 9 antennal segments 22-24; Canada: Ontario sitonae Mason 

Mesepistemum with pronounced carinate depression below; nervellus not 
as long as basal abscissa of basella, subequal to marginal ciHa of hind 
wing; postpetiole rugulo-striate; radial cell 0.7 times as long as stigma; 
ovipositor sheath 1.2 times as long as tergite 1; antennal segments, 
number unknown; head yellow; mesonotum reddish yellow or reddish 
brown; mesepistemum stramineous barri, n. sp. 

23. Ovipositor sheath 1.2 times as long as tergite 1; nervellus longer than 

marginal cilia of hind wing, subequal to basal abscissa of basella; 
radial cell slightly more than 0.5 times as long as stigma; antennal 

segments, number unknown; length 3.0 mm. alticae, n. sp. 

Ovipositor sheath not as long as tergite 1; nervellus not as long as 
marginal cilia of hind wing nor basal abscissa of basella; radial cell 
about 0.5 times as long as stigma; 9 antennal segments 23-27; 

length 2.2 mm.; Canada: Ontario, Quebec, New Brvmswick 

loani Mason 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



409 



Table 1. Known coleopteran hosts of Nearctic Microctonus. 



Species of 
Microctonus 



Host 



Literature Reference 



cucumeridis Epitrix cucumeris 

epitricis E. parvula (F. ), E. cucumeris 



pusillae Phyllotreta pusilla Horn 



vittatae P. bipustulata ( F. ) , P. cruci- 

ferae (Goeze), P. striolata {¥.), 
P. vittata (F. ), P. zimmermani 
(Crotch) 

disonychae Disonycha triangularis Say 



carabivorus 


Galerita sp. 


muesebecki 


Paria thoracica Melsh. 


psylliodis 


Psylliodes punctulata 


nigritus 


Hypomolyx piceus (DeGeer) 



eleodis 



sitonae 



Eleodes suturalis (Say), E. 
opaca (Say), E. obsoleta (Say), 
E. extricata (Say), E. tricostata 
( Say), E. vandykei Blaisd., Em- 
baphion muricatum Say, E. 
planum Horn 

Sitona scissifrons Say 



barri 


unknown 


alticae 


Altica bimargirwia 


loani 


Altica corni Woods, A. ambiens 
alni Harris, Calligrapha phila- 
delphica (L. ) 


crepidoderae 


Crepidodera spp. 


pachijlobii 


Pachylobius picivorus ( Germar ) 


glyptosceli 


Glyptoscelis pubescens ( F. ) 


invictus 


Trigonoscuta sp. 


mellinus 


unknown 


hlapstini 


Bhpstinus metallicus (F. ) 


colesi 


Hypera postica 



Viereck, 1912; Muesebeck, 1936 
( taxonomy ) ; Dominick and 
Wene, 1941; Wene and Dom- 
inick, 1943 (biology). 

Muesebeck, 1936 ( taxonomy ) ; 
Chittenden and Marsh, 1920 
( biology ) . 

Muesebeck, 1936 (taxonomy); 
Smith, 1952, 1953; Smith and 
Peterson, 1950; Loan, 1967b 
( biology ) . 

Loan, 1967a (taxonomy); 1967b 
(biology). 

Muesebeck, 1936 ( taxonomy ) . 

Loan, 1967a (taxonomy); 1967b 
(biology). 



Provancher, 1888; Muesebeck, 
1936; Krombein, 1958 (taxon- 
omy ) . 

Viereck, 1913; Muesebeck, 1936 
(taxonomy); Wade and St. 
George, 1923; McCoUoch, 1918 
( biology ) . 



Mason, 1960 (taxonomy); Loan, 
1960, 1961 (biology). 



Mason, 1968 (taxonomy); Loan, 
1963 (biology). 

Loan, 1967a (taxonomy); 1967b 
( biology ) . 

Muesebeck, 1961 (taxonomy). 

Loan, Klein and Coppel, 1969 
( taxonomy, biolog\' ) . 

Muesebeck, 1961 ( ta.\ononiy ) . 

Provancher, 1888; Muesebeck, 
1936 (taxonomy). 

Loan, 1967a (taxonomy); 1967b 
( biology ) . 

Drea, 1968 (taxonomy); Brun- 
son and Coles, 1968 (biology). 



410 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 



Table 1 continued. 



Species of 
Microctonus 



Host 



Literature Reference 



gastrophysae Gastrophysa cyanea Melsh., Ashmead, 1888; 
Gastrophysa sp. 1936 (taxonomy). 



Muesebeck, 



longitarsi 


Longitarsus mellanurus 




aethiops 


H. postica 


Nees ab Esenbeck, 1834 (tax- 
onomy); Brunson and Coles, 
1968; Loan and Holdaway, 1961 
(biology). 



Microctonus psylliodis, n. sp. 

Holotype.— Female (CNC 10736), reared 18-VII-1967, C. C. Loan, 
from adult Psylliodes punctulata Melsh., breeding on cultivated rhu- 
barb at Moira, Ontario, Canada, latitude 44° 21' N., longitude 77° 24'W. 

Length, 2.4 mm. Dark reddish brown; face, scape, cheeks, frons next to eye, 
legs, petiole pale red; stemmaticum, vertex, mesonotum, scutellum, apical 0.7 
gaster behind tergite 1 reddish black; pedicel, segments 1 and 2 of flagellmn 
paler than scape, remainder of flagellum dusky. 

Head transverse, 1.6 times as wide as long, 1.3 times as wide as thorax; antenna 
22 segments, 0.7 times as long as body not including ovipositor and sheaths; 
scape, pedicel, flagellar segments 2 and 3, 0.9, 0.5, 0.8, 0.8 as long as flagellar 
segment 1; scape and pedicel distinctly hairy; face as long as wide, hairy; cheek 
about as wide as transverse diameter of eye; malar space 0.7 times as long as 
basal width of mandible; occipital carina distinctly complete medially; OOL 
( ocular-ocellar line) 2.0 times as long as POL (postocellar line); anterior margin 
of lateral ocellus slightly behind posterior margin of eye. 

Scutum sparsely hairy; prescutal sutures narrowly impressed, area of con- 
vergence rugulose, separated by a median carina; antescutellar groove more 
than 2.0 times as long as broad, shallow; mesepistemum glabrous, polished, 
smooth except small rugulo-reticulate patch below; propodeum 1.3 times as wide 
as long, posterior face weakly excavated, rugulose; fore wing about as long as 
body not including ovipositor and sheaths; stigma 2.6 times as long as broad; 
radial cell 0.5 times as long as stigma measured along inside wing margin, its width 
measured from apex of stigma to middle of second abscissa of radius slightly less 
than length; first abscissa of radius emitted at basal 0.7 of hind margin of stigma, 
less than 0.3 times width of stigma; veins not dark, parastigma not as dark as 
stigma; basella broken at about its middle, nervellus slightly longer than basal 
or apical abscissa of basella; marginal cilia of hind wing almost as long as nervellus. 

Tergite 1 2.1 times as long as wide at apex, lateral margins carinate from base 
to spiracles, 0.3 times as wide as posterior margin at narrowest part; postpetiole 
finely striate; ovipositor sheath 1.1 times as long as posterior femur, 1.5 times as 
long as posterior tibia, 1.1 times as long as tergite 1. 

Allotype. — Male, data as cited for holotype but reared 26-V1I-1967 

(CNC). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 411 

Similar to female except as follows: eye 0.9 times as wide as temple; basella 
of hind wing broken much below middle; striae of tergite 1 more distinct, 
spiracles prominent. 

Paratype ( 9 ) . — 1 specimen, data as cited for holotype ( CNC ) . 

Remarks. — Somewhat similar to M. crepidoderae, as indicated in 
the key, M. psijUiodis is distinct by the following combination of char- 
acters: short antenna, short tergite 1 of gaster, and short ovipositor 
sheath; occipital carina complete medially; cheek about as wide as 
eye; rather broad stigma; and very short first abscissa of the radius. 

Microctonus longitarsi, n. sp. 

Holotype.— Female (CNC 10738), reared 23-VI-1967, C. C. Loan, 
from adult Longitarsus melanurtis Melsh., breeding on Echium vulgare 
L. at Moira, Ontario, Canada, latitude 44° 21' N., longitude 77° 24' W. 

Length 2.0 mm. Black; face yellow, lower genae, back of head, legs, gaster 
yellowish brown; frons, vertex, reddish black; ovipositor sheath brownish black. 

Head transverse, 1.3 times as wide as thorax, vertex smooth, sparsely hairy; 
antenna 20 segments, 0.9 times as long as body not including ovipositor and 
sheath; scape, pedicel, flagellar segments 2 and 3, 0.8, 0.4, 0.9, 0.9 times as long 
as flagellar segment 1; face not quite as wide as long; temple, cheeks as wide 
as transverse diameter of eye; OOL subequal to POL; malar space subequal to 
basal width of mandible; occipital carina weak medially; anterior margin of 
lateral ocellus distinctly behind posterior margin of eye. 

Scutum sparsely hairy; lateral lobes entirely glabrous, polished, very finely 
wrinkled; foveae of prescutal sutures broad, distinct, area of convergence divided 
by a median longitudinal carina; propodeum 1.3 times as wide as long, moderately 
declivous, rugulose, posterior face somewhat depressed, rugulo-punctate; stigma 
3.0 times as long as broad; inside length of radial cell on wing margin 0.4 times 
as long as stigma; width of radial cell from apex of stigma to middle of second 
abscissa of radius slightly greater than length; first absci.s.sa of radius emitted 
at basal 0.6 of hind margin of stigma, somewhat oblique, less than 0.4 times as 
long as width of stigma; basella broken at middle; nervellus perpendicular, longer 
than basal abscissa of basella and marginal cilia of hind wing. 

Tergite 1 about 2.0 times as long as wide at apex, lateral margins carinate 
from apex almost to base, postpetiole smooth, finely granular, scarcely aciculate; 
ovipositor sheath 1.3 times as long as tergite 1, almost 0.8 times as long as 
posterior tibia, 1.1 times as long as posterior femur. 

Allotype. — Male, data as cited for female specimen but reared 26- 
VI-1967. 

Similar to female except as follows: face distinctly longer than wide, reddish 
brown; antenna 25 segments, much longer than body; scape 0.5 times as long as 
flagellar segment 1; basal 0.5 of gaster behind tergite 1 yellowish red. 

Paratypes. — Some specimens were reared from Longitorstts mel- 
amtrus feeding and breeding on Echium vulgare and Cynoglossum 
officinale L., at the type locality; others were taken by sweeping at 



412 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

various locations within several miles of the type locality. 1 ? reared 
16-VI-1967 (USNM); 2 9 9 reared 18-VI-1967; 2 S $ reared 12-VI-1967 
(CNC); 13 i S swept 23-VI-1967; 7 $S swept 26-VI-1967 (3 S $ 
USNM; 17 $ S CNC). 

Variation. — Females: gaster Hght yellowish brown; face distinctly 
longer than wide; ovipositor sheath 1.3-1.5 times as long as tergite 1. 
Males: antennal segments 23-26; habitus black, with clypeus and 
mandibles yellowish, tergite 1 yellowish brown, not black. 

Remarks. — This small species is distinct from M. gastrophysae Mues., 
by characters noted in the key. It is unique by the following com- 
bination of characters: cheek as wide as eye; tergite 1 short, carinate 
laterally; habitus black with yellow face ( 9 ) . 

Microctonus cucumeridis, n. sp. 

Holotype.— Female (CNC 10737) reared 23-VII-1964, C. C. Loan, 
from adult Epitrix cucumeris ( Harris ) feeding on foliage of potatoes 
at Fuller, Ontario, Canada, latitude 44°24' N., longitude 77° 25' W. 

Length 1.7 mm. Reddish; scape, pedicel, basal flagellar segments 1—4 pale 
yellowish red with remainder of flageUum dusky; tip of ovipositor sheath black; 
remainder of ovipositor sheath, face, legs, tergite 1, basal 0.5 gaster behind 
tergite 1 yellowish red; vertex, genae, dorsum and side of thorax, propodeum, 
apical 0.5 gaster behind tergite 1 shining reddish brown. 

Head almost 1.7 times as long as wide, 1.5 times as wide as thorax; vertex 
smooth, sparsely hairy; antenna almost 0.8 times as long as body, 21 segments 
including small, barely discernible apical segment; flagellum width increases from 
flagellar segment 4, apical 2 segments 0.5 times as wide as preceding segment; 
scape, pedicel, flagellar segments 2 and 3, 0.9, 0.5, 0.9, 0.9 times as long as 
flagellar segment 1; face as wide as long with short, sparse pubescence above 
clypeus; malar space 0.6 times as long as basal width of mandible; cheek almost 
as wide as eye; OOL almost 2.0 times as long as POL; anterior face of lateral 
ocellus about in line with posterior margin of eye; occiput margined on sides and 
medially behind. 

Lobes of mesonotimi polished, smooth; scutum entirely glabrous, lateral lobes 
with sparse, long hairs anteriorly and beside prescutal sutures; prescutal sutures 
finely, narrowly impressed with area of convergence rugulose, not large and 
without a median carina; propodeum 1.3 times as wide as long, posterior face 
abruptly declivous, relatively flat; mesepisternum mostly polished, glabrous, 
rounded, smooth except flat, diagonal punctulate depression below; stigma almost 
3.0 times as long as wide; radial cell 0.5 times as long as stigma, 0.7 times as 
wide as long; first abscissa of radius very short, 0.2 times as long as width of 
stigma, emitted at basal 0.6 of hind margin of stigma; basella broken at about its 
middle; nervellus subequal to either abscissa of basella, inclinate, apex somewhat 
hook-like; marginal cilia of hind wing distinctly longer than nervellus. 

Tergite 1 2.3 times as long as wide at apex, lateral margins lightly carinate 
except at base, postpetiole indistinctly aciculate; ovipositor sheath rather thick, 
1.4 times as long as tergite 1, 0.8 times as long as posterior tibia, almost 1.3 
times as long as posterior femur. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 413 

Remarks. — M. cucumeridis is placed with species closely related to 
M. vittatae in the key to species. It is recognized by a glabrous, smooth 
scutum and partly hairy lobes of the mesonotum, complete occipital 
carina, and long marginal cilia of the hind wing. The male is unknown. 
M. cucumeridis was erroneously reported as M. epitricis by Loan 
(1967b). 

Microctonus barri, n. sp. 

Holotype.— Female (USNM 70683) 13-VI-1949, W. F. Barr, Deary, 
Idaho, U.S.A. 

Length 2.7 mm. Reddish yellow; antennal flagellum dusky; propodeum dark 
reddish brown, sides lighter; postpetiole castaneous; ovipositor sheaths light dusky. 

Head 1.6 times as wide as long, 1.5 times as wide as thorax; antenna broken; 
scape, pedicel, flagellar segments 2 and 3, 0.6, 0.5, 0.9, 0.7 times as long as 
flagellar segment 1; face nearly 1.3 times as wide as long, pubescence short, 
sparse; cheeks 0.8 times as wide as transverse diameter of eye; malar space sub- 
equal to basal width of mandible; POL 0.7 times as long as OOL; temple, upper 
cheek smooth, finely, sparsely hairy; occiput immargined medially by distance of 
width of an ocellus; anterior face of lateral ocellus in line with posterior margin 
of eye. 

Scutum wrinkled or slightly roughened, sparsely hairy; lateral lobes of meso- 
notum glabrous, smooth; prescutal sutures wide, foveae somewhat carinate, area 
of convergence large, depressed, divided by a prominent carina; antescutellar 
groove separated by three carinae; propodeum hairy, marked by distinct carinae, 
about 1.5 times as wide as long, posterior face vertical, narrowly, moderately 
excavated; mesepisternum weakly punctate though superficially smooth, pro- 
nounced carinate diagonal foveolate depression below, sparsely hairy but thicker 
below carinate depression; stigma 3.0 times as wide as long; parastigma rather 
wide; radial cell 0.6 times as long as stigma, 0.7 times as wide as long; first 
abscissa of radius oblique, emitted at basal 0.6 of hind margin of stigma, almost 
0.5 times width of stigina; basella broken slightly above middle, lower abscissa 
subequal to nervellus, marginal cilia of hind wing short. 

Tergite 1 2.5 times as long as wide at apex, petiole at narrowest 0.2 as wide 
as apical margin of postpetiole, lateral margins carinate from apex almost to 
base, basal 0.5 relatively smooth; postpetiole rugulo-aciculate; ovipositor sheath 
1.2 times as long as tergite 1, 0.7 times as long as posterior femur, subequal to 
posterior tibia, distinctly hairy, setae not appressed and almost 2.0 times as long 
as medial depth of sheath. 

Paratypes.— 2 9 9 ( USNM ) ; 2 9 9 ( CNC ) , data as cited for holotype. 

Variation. — Length 2.6-2.7 mm., mesonotum amber or reddish 
brown, POL as long as OOL, radial cell 0.5-0.7 times as long as stigma, 
first abscissa of radius 0.4-0.5 times stigma width, tergite 1 2.3-2.5 
times as long as wide at apex, ovipositor sheath 1.2-1.3 times as long 
as tergite 1. 

Remarks. — M. barri is most similar to M. sitonae as indicated in the 
key to species. Though there is color variation, as noted, M. barri is 



414 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 71, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER, 1969 

recognized by its coarse prescutal sutures, carinate, foveolate de- 
pression of the mesepisternum, a rather short ovipositor sheath, and 
radial cell usually exceeding 0.5 times stigma length. The male is 
unknown. 

Microctonus alticae, n. sp. 

Holotype.— Female (USNM 70684) reared 30-XI-1916, J. M. Miller, 
Hopk. US 13278bx, from adult Altica bimarginata Say feeding on Alnus 
rubra Bongard ( = oregonsis ) . 

Length 3.0 mm. Castaneous and yellow: head, scape, pedicel, legs, gaster 
behind tergite 1, yellowish; dorsum and sides of thorax, propodeum, castaneous; 
tergite 1 reddish yellow; flagellum, ovipositor sheath, dusky. 

Head 1.3 times as wide as long, not quite 1.2 times as wide as thorax; antenna 
broken; scape, pedicel, flagellar segments 2 and 3, 0.8, 0.5, 1.0, 0.9 times as 
long as flagellar segment 1; occipital carina fine, indistinct medially; face almost as 
wide as long, finely pubescent, shining; temple 0.8 times, lower cheek 0.5 times as 
wide as eye; malar space not quite as long as basal width of mandible; anterior 
face of lateral ocellus in line with posterior margin of eye; OOL subequal to POL; 
genae, frons, vertex polished, smooth, generally glabrous. 

Lateral lobes of mesonotum polished, smooth, entirely glabrous, scutum 
sparsely hairy; prescutal sutures finely impressed, area of convergence rugulose, 
separated by a median carina; mesepisternum polished, glabrous, smooth except 
narrow, rugulose somewhat vertical depression below; propodeum almost 2.0 
times as wide as long, rugulose, posterior face abruptly declivous, shallowly 
excavated; stigma 3.6 times as long as wide; radial cell 0.6 times as long as stigma, 
0.6 times as broad as long; first abscissa of stigma 0.5 times wddth of stigma, 
emitted at basal 0.6 of hind margin of stigma; basella broken slightly above its 
middle; nervellus 0.7 times as long as basal abscissa of basella, longer than 
marginal cilia of hind wing. 

Tergite 1 2.5 times as long as wide at apex; petiole from base to spiracles 
smooth, postpetiole aciculate; ovipositor sheath 1.2 times as long as tergite 1 and 
posterior femur, almost 0.7 times as long as posterior tibia. 

Remarks. — Superficially, M. alticae is similar to a large specimen of 
M. loani. Both attack flea beetles of the genus Altica Geoffroy. They 
are, however, distinct by characters indicated in the key to species. The 
type is the only known specimen. 

Acknowledgments 

I am grateful to all who helped me with this work especially my wife, Louise 
Loan; Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck, U.S.N.M. and Dr. Paul M. Marsh, U.S.D.A., 
Washington, who provided material and permitted me to study the U.S.N.M. 
collection; and the following systematists of the Entomology Research Institute, 
Canada Agriculture, Ottawa: Mr. Stewart Walley who criticized the manuscript 
and Mr. W. J. Brown who determined the Coleoptera. 



proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 71, no. 3, september, 1969 415 

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