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Full text of "Proceedings of the first annual convention of the Nebraska dairymen's association, held at Fremont, December 9 and 10, 1885"

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First Annual Convention 



\Ui^ Dttiipeii'8 iissocinlii 



Frerrient, Qecenfiber 9 a^d 10, 1855. 



Compiled by H. H. WING, Sec'y. 




1886. 

Hehald Book and Job Printikg HotrSB: 

Fremont, Neb. 




CLAUDIUS JONES. 






'^-^^loM 


PROPRIETORS 


Prairie 


m 


and OdWDle 

BREEDERS OF 



^O^^- '^^^ a^€/^^^/e^'y^ ^^//^. 



.><?^ yb^ Sale. 



GEO. 


W. E. DORSET. E. H. BAKNARD. J. 


DIXON AVERY. 




• 


FREMONT BUTTER & EGG CO. 


J 



J. DIXON AVERY, Manager. 



bTHE largest egg buyers \l NEBRASKA. 



They pay Cash for Butter and Eggs. No Freight, Cartiige or Commission charged. Are 
always In the market, desirous of shipments. Satisfaction guaranteed. Also 

fobbers of J^taple bruits, Cranberries, ^tc. 



APPLES A SPECIALTY. 

References:— Any Bank or Banker In Nebraska. 

^ail Orders solirUed. FREMOKT, NEB. 



PROCEEDINGS 



07 THB 



First Annual Convention 



OF THE 



Mm\^ Doiriiiien's jlssoGiiition, 



HELD AT 



Frerrionl Decerriber 9 and lO, 1555, 



Compiled by H. H. WING, Sec'y, 



„ 1880. 

Eebald Book ajtd job Printing Hocsb j 

i KEMOiSX, Neb, y 



5V a.'2.\ 



e>OV^ST VT VJT \QV-^ 



Section 1. This organization shall be known as THE NEBRASKA DAIRYMEN'S ASSO- 
CLATION; its objects shall be the promotion of the dairy interests of the Stat«. 

Sec. II. Any person who s liall pay Into the treasury of this Association one dollar shall be 
a member one year, and be entitled to all the privileges an»l ininiunltles tliereof. and any person 
who shall pay into the treasm-y five dollars shall be a life member thereof, and shall be exempt from 
annual payments. 

Skc. III. The ofilcers of this Association shall consist ot a President. Vice President. Secre- 
tary and Treasurer, and five Directors, who shall be chosen from its members, and as many addi- 
tional Vice Presidents as may be deemed f<dvlsable, chosen annually at the regular annual meeting, 
and shall be the officers for the year next following their election and until their successors shall be 
chosen. 

Sec. IV. The President, Secretary and Directors shall constitute a Board of Managers, who 
shall n)anage the affrdrs and control the business of the Association. A majority of the board at a 
regularly willed meeting shal! constitute ;■. (juorum to transact business. 

Sec. V. A meetlTig of the Association sh.all be heitl annually on the second Tuesday of Decem- 
ber, for the election of ofiicers, and for holding a convention at such place in the State as shall be 
designated by the Board of Managers. 

Sec. VI. Public notice of all regular meetings of the Association shall be given by the Secre- 
tary at least twenty days before the meeting, and a written or printed notioe shall be mailed to every 
member thereof. All meetings of the Board of Managers shall be called by the President or Secre- 
tary, or by any three of the Board of Managers, notice ot which s'jall be given to each of the mem- 
bers thereof at least five days before the meeting. 

Sec. VII. Auj vacancy which may occur in the Board of Managers may be filled by appoint- 
ment, by the Board, for the unexpired term for which such officer was chosen. 

Sec. VIII. The place of business of this Association shall be where the Secretary has his 
residence. 

Sec. IX. These b.v-laws may be changed or amended by a miijorlly vote of all the members of 
tbe Association present at any animal meeting. 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 


SEP 3 0193/ 


DIVISION OF OOCUMLNfS 



CO 



\NiTROOVJe,T\OVA, 



At the time of tlie Fremont convention it was not tlionglit pes- 
sible by the board of managers to publish a report of the proceedinga 
The substantial support received there has rendered publication pos- 
sible. Having no stenographic notes to depend upon, the discussiont 
are naturally incomplete ; but the compiler wishes to acknowledge 
the aid rendered by the Fremont and Omaha daily papers and the 
kindness of the authors of the various papers read mjurx^^hipg him 
eitra coploc vl i-Iioli' iuuiiuiocripts. 



OFFVCELRS, 



PresMent—J. DrxoN Avert, Fremont, Dodge county. 

ViM F resident -Y.. McInttre. Seward, Seward county. 

&ecretarj a.id Ireoiurttr—iL H. Wujg, Lincoln, Lancaster eonnt]k 

BOAB-n OP DIRECTORS: 



S. C. Bassett, Gibbon. Buffalo county. 
W. G. Whitmore. Valley, DauT;las coiiiiry. 
0. M. Dru5e, Lincoln, Lancaster county. 



"W. A. Carpenter, Sutton, Clay cotrnty, 
H. £. Nlcodemus, Fremont, Dod^e county. 



VICE PRESIDENTS AT LARGE: 



R. W. Furnas, BrownvlUe, Nemaha county. 

Allen Root, Omaha. Douglas county. 

J, W. Llverhighouse. Grand Island, Hall county. 

D. P Astoburu, (ilhbon. Buttalo county. 

D. A. Cowell, Beatrice, Gage county. 

Davis Richardson, (.'larks. Merrick county. 

J. 0. Chase, Fairmont, Fiilmure comiti'. 



H. H. Bralnard, Fremont. Dodge county. 
J. J. King, West Point. Ciunlng county. 
J. B. Dlnsmore. Sutton, Clay county. 
Thomas Carroll, Ayr. Adams county. 
Smith Atkins, 8ew;vrd, Seward county. 
Henrv Fry. York. York county. 
J. G. Southwick, Bemiett, Lancaeter county. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



D. P. Ashbum, Gibbon. Buffalo county. 
J. Dixon Avery. Fremont Dodge councy. 
W. A. Carpenter. Sutton, Clay county. 
L. S. Coffln, Fort Dodge. Iowa. 
R, W. Furnas. Bro\vnvllle, Nemaha county. 



Honorary, W. D. Hoard, Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin. 

ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



Otto Magenau, Fremont. Dodge county. 
Lewis Sclirocder. (Jmaha. Douglas county. 
J G. Southwick. Bennett, LancAdter county. 
W. G. Whitmore. Val'ey. Dou^rlas county. 
H. H. Wing, Lincoln, Lancaster county. 



Elijah Allen, Omaha, Douglas county. 

Mrs. D. P. Asbburn, (ilbbon. Buffalo county. 

S. D. Atkins. Seward, Seward county. 

E. H. Barnard, Fremont, Dodge county. 

S. C. Bassett, Gibbon, Buffalo county. 

C. E. Bessey, Llncxiln, Lancaster county. 

H. H. Bralnard. Fremont, Dodge countv. 

J. B. Bralnard, Fremont, Dodge counlj. 

G. W. Bull. Chicago, 111. 

Thomas C<irroll, Ayr. Adams county. 

J. G. Cherry, C;edar Rapids. Iowa. 

C. Chrlstensen, Fremont, Dodge county. 

J. B. Dlnsmore, Suttnn. Clay cwmty. 

M. P. Dowling, North Bend, Fwidge county. 

0. M. Druse, Lincoln, Lancaster county. 

Andrew Elcke. Omaha. Douglas eoiUity. 

E. L. Eno, Fremont. Dodge county. 

F. B. Fargo, Lake Mills, Wis. 
H. E. Ften, Walworth, Wis. 

T. I'rahm, Fremont, Dodge county. 
Henry Fuhrm:in, Fremont, Dodge county. 
L. A. (xrii^ith. Fr^nKint. /Jodare cnmty. 
Horace K Grlswold. i.rei'n.it. Dodge conr.ty. 
Honorary. Hammon i. Bros., Tribif e, iiv-iiJ 
L. iVI. Kew\e, Fremont. Dodge county. 
V. J. Hoerger, Sutton, Clay county. 
N. L. Hughes, Fremont. Dodge county. 
S. H. Kulght, Minneapolis, Minn. 
W, J, Jj?#, Fr^ffiout, LvKi^e county. 



J. W. Liverlnghouse. Grand Island. Hall county. 

W. A. Margritz. Mapleville, Dodge county. 

M. Matthleson. Kennard, Washington county, 

Ed. Mclntvre. Seward. Seward county. 

J. C. Slerritt. Sutton, Clay comity. 

Phil. D. Miller, Panora. lovvjt. 

W. H. Mnnser. Frememt. Dodce county. 

H. B. Nlcodemus. Fremont. I*odge county. 

Chas. Pease, Fremont, Dodge county. 

H. M. Quackenbos. Omaha, Douglas county. 

W. T. Ransdel], Columbus. Platte county. 

J. H. Reed, Columbus. Platte county. 

Wilson Reynolds, Fremont. Dodge county. 

Davis Richardson, Clarks, Merrick coimty. 

W. E. Riddle. Omaha. jDouglas county. 

Allen Root. Omaha. Douglaie county. 

Chas. W. Sheldon. Fremont, Dodge coiraty. 

Honorarv, N. W. Smalls. Hkrald, Fremont 

A. F. Smith. Fairbury. .leHerson county. 

J. G. Southwick. Bennett. Lancaster county. 

D. .J. SorUiflter, Fremont, Dodge county. 

C. W. Stevenson. Fremont. Dodge county. 

D. V. Stevenson. Falls City, Rlcliardson county 
Frank Stevenson. Fremont. Dcdge county. 
Wm. Si^tton, Table Bock, Pawnee county. 
Julius Treitschke, Omaha. Douglas county. 

.T. M. Williams, v.'atf rloo. Douglas county. 
0- A, 'W'uicctt, Ellc City, Douglas county. > 



Head before tlie First x\nniTai Convention of tlie ]^el)ras'':a 
Dairymen's Association, held at Fremont, December 9 and 10, 1885. 

The first session of the convention a- nibled in the opera house 
at 8 p. m. on Thursday, December 9. There was a large audience, 
many counties of the state being represented. The meeting was 
called to order by J. Dixon Avery, of Fremont, and after the audience 
had suno- America and prayer had been offered by Hon. L. S. Coffin, 
of Fort Dodge, Iowa, Chairman Avery introduced Geo. L. Loomis, 
Esq., who welcomed the convention to Fremont as follows ; 

ADDllESS OF WELCOME. 

G. L. LOOMIS, ESQ., FREMONT. ♦ 

2Ir. Presirlej-tf, and (J entlemen of the Association; 

In tlie city of Fremont honest men, engaged in hoTT^st worlr, or 
actuated by honest motives, are always siire of a cordial reception. 
Our doors are ever open, our hearts ever warm, our hands ever ready 
to greet and welcome the stranger who comes among us to work in a 
good cause or in an lumoral^le calling. And recognizing, as our citi- 
zens do, the magnitude of the interests that you gentlemen represent, 
and the importance of the work that you are doing, and knowing full 
well the hio-h character and standingr of the men enn-acred in that 
work, they could not let the occasion of your meeting among us pass 
without extending to you a formal and hearty welcome to our city; 
without assuring you of their interest in your work; and without, as 
far as possible, helping you to enjoy that occasion, and to feel at home 
while you are here. 

The great aim of the industrial world at present is towards per- 
fection. The inventoi'. the artisan, tlie manufacturer and the producer 
are all striving to reueli the highest attainable excellence. Improve- 
ment follows close upon improvement; what was the best but a few 
years ago has already passed out of use, given way to something vastly 
better. The advancement, both in knowledge and in skill, during- the 
past few years has indeed been wonderful, aud the man who does not 
appreciate this fact, §Jid who does not try to keep abreast of the 



6 

advancing spirit of tlic age, Tiad better retire from T)nsiness at once 
and give way to some more energetic person. 

Bnt this advancement has not been brought about solely by 
isolated individual effort, and associated knowledo-e and counsel have 
been strong elements in producing this grand result. Life is too 
short for any one man to learn by personal experience and research 
all that may be learned upon any one branch of human knowledge or 
industry; but by taking advantage of the experience and wisdom of 
otliers he may learn in a few minutes what he could not acquire by 
years of personal effort. The world recognizes this fact— industrial 
humanity is acting upon it. Prompted by a desire to utilize, as far 
as possible, the experience and wisdom of the ablest for the benefit of 
the many, and to promote a more thorough practical knowledge of 
various subjects, societies have been formed and associations organized 
in the different professions and branches of industry. The doctors, 
the dentists, the lawyers, the manufacturers in different lines, laborers 
in various specialties, agriculturists, horticulturists, wool producers, 
wine producers, stock raisers, and men engaged in various other pui'- 
suits all have their organizations, and why should not you gentlemen 
wl^o are identified with the great dairying interests of the country ha\ e 
yours, where you can meet and counsel together, interchange thoughts 
iind ideas, relate experiments and experiences and give to one another 
the benefit of what you have individually learned; so that each one 
at the end of the year may not only have the benefit of his own 
observations and experience, but of the observations and experience 
of many others in the same industry. 

The dairying interests of our country have already reached vast 
proportions, and should not be underestimated by any one. Kepre- 
senting as they do, in the manufacture of butter and cheese alone, an 
annual production approximating one thousand million pounds of the 
former, and thirty m-illion pounds of the latter; with an investment 
of many millions of dollars; with hundreds of thousands of laborers 
employed; and with millions of people who see the fruits of this 
industry every day upon their tables, and who could scarce eat theii- 
daily bread without sweetening it with the products of the dairy, 
interested in the result, surely this is by no means an infant in the 
great family of human industry. 

To assist in educating this vast army of producers by collecting, 
condensing, and disseminating the practical knowledge and experience 
of the al)lest so as to place them within tbe reach of all; to bring 
a'.)out a more general knowledge and appreciation of the dairyiiig 
interests; to raise the standard of excellence in dairy products, and to 
j)rotect them from l)ase imitations; to promote concert of action, 
associated effort and associated knowledge and counsel^ iu short, to 



aclvr.nco tlie inierG3!:s Oi! tli's great Industry, tin<\ in 5o doing promote 
the welfare of the people, is a part of the work you have before you, 
and a noble work it is. And Ave of Fremont feel honored that you 
should come to our city to hold your first annual meeting. And we 
assure vou, one and all, that you are not only welcome here, but that 
we are heartily glad to have you among us. We trust your session 
here will be both a pleasant and profitable one, and that you may all 
have safe return to your homes, carrying with you none but the 
pleasantest recollections of your meeting in Fremont. 



In response Hon. Eobt. W. Furnas, of Brownville, Bald that 
he came only to be a looker-on, but as fates had decreed that lie 
should respond ho would do so, only wishing that it had fallen to 
abler hands. He assured the audience that it was a pleasant duty to 
speak for the delegates and thank the people for their warm and 
hearty reception. He shovv-ed that it vras absolutely necessary for 
the farmers of Nebraska to resort to the very best methods of " con- 
densation'' in order to make a living profit above what was charged 
for freight rates. He said that this soil is capable of raising a 
diversity of crops and the dairying interests cannot fail to be as 
profitable as any others, 

Hon. L. S. Cofiin, of Fort Dodge, Iowa, also responded to the 
address of welcome. He said he was glad to see so much interest 
manifested, in this convention, and hoped that the farmers of the 
neighboring country were here to become interested in the discus- 
sions and proceedings. The mission of this Association is to be a 
school of instruction. It is not to be a dress parade. "What we 
want to nuike is better farms, better farmers, and a richer State. 
The poorest counties in Iowa as to soil are the very richest in wealth 
because tlie ftirmers are in the dairying business. This interest is 
one which benefits everybody, the merchants, the mechanics, and 
everyone else. I visited the Fremont Creamery after arriving here 
and a peculiar feeling came over mo. I felt that the farmer^} living 
contiguous to Fremont did not fully know the value of this institu- 
tion to t})e country. It is a great educator and there is not a farmer's 
wife living within a radius of many miles of Fremont but now knows 
much more about makino; butter than she did before it was built. 
Time will come when there will be better farms in this vicinity, 
more tame grass meadows, a better class of cows than now graze on 
the wild prairie grass in the summer and run in the corn stalks in 
the winter time, 

Miss.'Edith ^Turner, of Fremont, then appeared and sang ""Jlie 



8 

Dairyma'cT' in a' Tieautifii] ^maiiner. Slie' vms liearHlyl'Ticol'ed aild 
she responded with " Sing Sweet Bird." 

The president of the Association, S. C. Bassett, of Gibbon, was 
then introduced and delivered his annual address. 

ADDEESS OF THE PRESIDEITT. 

S. C. BASSETT, OF GIBBON. 

- -.- , _. — * ' ''"~'^'^'Tr^*-?-'~'»--'!f5^7"'^-*.-*Ti.'-*--.-. 

iMclipf and'gmftemen of tJie Nebraska Dairymen's Associat'ton: 

One year ago during the meeting of the Fine Stock Breeders' 
Association of this State, held in the city of Lincoln, a few persons 
interested in dairying met and organized the ISTebraska Dairymen's 
Association, and this is its first annual meeting. 

The only work done at the meeting of one year ago was the 
adoption of a constitution and the election of olncers. 

The object of the founders of this Association was the promo- 
tion of the dairy interests of the State, and to this end we invite the 
co-operation of everyone interested in developing the resources of the 
State, and most earnestly desire the hearty encouragement and sup- 
port of all manurr.ctnrcrs of or dealers in dairy goods. -^ 

Nebraska oilers unusual advantages to those desiring to engage 
in dairying . 

The climate Is healthy, and all kinds of live stock are free from 
disease. 

Our broad prairies, in their natural state, are covered with a 
luxuriant growth of nutritious grasses, and enterprising farmers, in 
every well settled county of the State, have demonstrated time and 
again that tame grasses, such as clover, timothy, blue grass, red top, 
&c., will not only grow, but prodace bountiful crops of well matured 
hay. 

Croakers are wont to say, " Oh, the Missouri valley does well 
enough, but how about the 100th meridian." 

Permit me to say that very near to said meridian there was bar 
vested this year 2-^- tons per acre of well cured, mixed clover and 
timothy hay, and 1^ tons of clear timothy hay, and this on meadows 
which have been mown for tliree successive years. Blue grass, even 
when sown on the raw prairie, soon crowds out the natural grasses. 
The same section produces well matured crops of corn, oats, flax, 
wheat and other grain, as well as all vegetables suitable to this lati- 
tude. So that the lOOth meridian \\\\en mentioned as "an arid 
waste," "The great American Desert," " The extreme 'limit of land 
suitable for agricultural purposes," exists only in the imagination. 

In no State can millet, timothy or prairie hay, corn fodder, 
corn, oats, rye, and roots, some or all of which are needed at times 



9 

to f'npp''y nTprofitcaTxe food ration for tlie ("!a'ry co\r, be raised at less 
prime cost to the producer tlian in ISTebraska. 

In addition we have an inexhaustible supply of pure "wnter, of a 
uniform temperature the year around of about 50 *-" Fahrenheit, 
warm enough for drinking purposes, and yet just the temperature 
required for raising cream by the deep can system. 

Onr distance from market is greatly to our disadvantage in 
marketing the coarse and bulky products of our fai'ms, but this does 
not hold true as regards dairy products. 

It costs $1.10 per 100 lbs. freight ciiarges to market butter 
within a radius of 200 or 300 miles of Xew York City, while butter 
can be shipped in refrigerator cars from this State to said city for 
ol.3o per hundred pounds. 

Although we can place our dairy goods on eastern markets at a 
less expense for freight, as compared with their value, than any other 
product of our farms, yet we are not compelled to depend entirely 
on eastern markets for sale of these goods. 

At our very door is one of the best of markets for dairy prod- 
ucts. The mining regions of Colorado, Wyoming and adjoining 
territories are large consumers of these producis, and isebraska dairy- 
men should and can if they will supply their wants in this respect. 

It has been urg-ed that as good butter cannot be made here as in 
States farther east, yet when the better grades of ]S^ebraska made 
butter are placed in the open market in competition with that made 
in older and acknovv'ledged dairy States they have not been found 
wanting in any respect. 

Eastern dairymen deacon tlieir calves because they cannot afford 
to raise them. To Nebraska daiiymen they are a source of consid- 
erable proUt; at 6 months, one or two years of rge they Und ready 
sale at a cash price equal to that received in almost any market in. 
the United States, while the expense of raising is not one-fourth that 
of an animal raised in eastern States. 

The pig, next to the cow, the western farmers' best friend, 
thrives no where so well as on a dairy farm, turning into hard casli 
and at good profit the skim milk not required for raising young 
calves. 

Tiiousands of steers come annually from the great cattle ranges 
to be tir.ished for market on Kebraska corn and for each steer is 
needed one or more shotes to follow liiin in the feeding yard. So 
that there is always a good marivot at top prices for pigs weighing 
^100 to 200 poimds, and I will add, by way of parenthesis, that there 
is more real prolit to the feeder, in the lirst 100 pounds weight of a 
pig that is made to grow from the word "go/' than in any additional 
hundred. 



10 

Tlie pnces o:t farms in our State are clieap, altogether too clieap 
considering their real value (and everyone owning land in Nebraska 
should keep it and not fool it away at present prices), and far less 
capital is required to purchase a dairy farm here than in older dairy 
States. 

Cows cost no more; hay and grain about one-fourth as much, 
while our dairy products net as much for the same quality of goods 
as dp those of eastern dairymen. 

Nebraska is destined to take front rank as a dairy State, and the 
question for her farmers to determine is whether they will push the 
business and at once reap the benefits. Look at this industry in its 
broadest sense, view it from any and all directions, and it seems that 
eveiy effort should be put forth to develope the dairy interests of this 
State. A dairy farmer means a prosperous farmer. A dairy com- 
munity a prosperous community. A dairy State a wealthy State. 
There is the least possible dead capital on a dairy farm. The ma- 
chinery is not intricate and expensive, but simple and durable. 
Dairy stock is always saleable at a price closely approaching its real 
value. There is the least possible waste on a well conducted dairy 
farm. No need to burn strawpiles to get them out of the way. 
There is nothing about the business which tends to impoverish the 
person engaged in it or the land occupied, but just the reverse. The 
tendency of exclusive grain raising is to impoverish the soil and like- 
wise the tiller thereof. 

The business men of oj.o of the interior towns of this State, to- 
gether with some of the faimers living in tliat vicinity, met a few 
days since to try and devise means to compel the elevator men to pay 
better prices for grain. It seems hard, and is hard, for those farmers 
who receive the present low prices for tlio only product of their farm, 
viz: grain. Such farmers seem not to realize that in raising grain 
to be shipped to a distant market, they place themselves, financially, 
in the position of those laborers whose labor is merely drudgery, and 
who receive the least wages for their work. 

On the fertile farms of tliis Shile, with almost inexhaustible 
soil, it does not require a very high order of intelligence to simply 
raise crops of grain. It is largely a matter of muscle or brute force, 
and such labor cannot, in the nature of things, be very remunerative. 
Nebraska farmers need to do as did the painter who, when asked 
how he mixed his paints, replied, " with brains." We need to mix 
brains with the coarser products of our farms. We need manufac- 
tures to condense these products, and I know of no manufactory 
which is more profitable, costs less, is within the reach of all, than is 
that queen of all animals, the dairy cow. Under skillful manage- 
ment she takes these coarser products, and couverto them into sweet 



11 

ricli mlTIv, from wnlch Is made that prime necessity in every family 
— good butter. A portion of the skimmed milk with the addition 
of a little grain makes a snfficient ration for the growing calf, which 
in turn assimilates niuch that on I^ebraska farms would go to waste, 
and whicli can any day he sold to help replenish the farmers' pocket- 
hook. The dairyman's pig calls loudly for the remainder of the 
skimmed milk, increases in weight at the rate of a pound or more 
per day, and in a few short months is e;igerly sought for by that 
man, whom common report says has more money than, ordinary 
mortals — the hog drover. The skillful, enterprising, wide-awake 
dairyman, who controls and manipulates this manufacturing estab- 
lishment, stands financially on the level with the skilled mechanic, 
whose services are always in demand, and at wages far above that 
paid for ordinary labor. 

Your attention is invited to the constantly increasing manu- 
Tacture and sale v-f fraudulent butter called '' Buticrine," but sold to 
the consumer as butter, and so skillfully are the ingredients of this 
fraud compounded tluit even butter experts are often unable to tell, 
either by taste or smell, the fraud from the genuine article. Just 
what stuffs arc always used in the manufacture of this "What is it" 
no one knows, (kunmissioner of Ao-riculturc Col man, who delivered 
the opening address at the Butter, Cheese and Egg Association in 
Chicago, said . 

" That soon after his appointment as commissioner he detailed 
a speci:il agent to procure statistics and facts regarding the manufac- 
ture and sale of imitatiou dairy products. But he found it difficult 
to obtain any reliable information. Manufacturers generally refused 
to give any inforim'.tion in regard to their processes or the quantity 
they turned out. It was learned, however, that most of the material 
they used was treated with nitric acid, and employes disclosed the 
fact that their clothes and shoes were ruined in a short time in a but- 
terine factory from the action of the nitric acid in the material which 
they handled. The imitations are now mainly made from swine 
fat, as that is cheaper than beef tallow, which furnished the basis of 
oleomargarine in the early days of manufacture. Not only was the 
bogus stuff made in large quantities by the manufactories established 
for this purpose, but the oleo oils and other adulterations were openly 
advertised for sale to dairymen to be mixed with the cream on the 
farm before churning, tlirea^ening to demoralize and corrupt the 
dairy business itself. He thought a remedy for these practices 
among dairymen might be found in tabooing the parties engaged in 
them, and excluding them from dairy associations. Among the con- 
stituents of buo;us butter he named the followIu'T. viz: Sour milk 
and animal fat, soda ashj salt, nitric acid, borax, stearine, butyric 



12 



acid, bi-car'l30Tiate of soda, irrlycerine, coloring matter, Iratter milk, 
pepsin, salt petre, ground slippery elin bark, salicylic acid, benzoic 
acid, caustic soda, corn starcli, cooked farinaceous flour, sal soda, oil of 
sesame, oil of sunflower seeds, etc." 

The evidence all goes to show tliat this "What is it" is every- 
where sold under the name of butter. Dairy Commissioner Brown, 
of Kew York, said: 

" He did not dispute tluit an article could be made which was 
not intended to deceive, but he had never found such an article in 
bogus butter. No retail dealer of wliom the commissioner had pur- 
chased such goods had ever told that they were imitations. Ihey 
liad always been sold as genaine. It was a cheat and a fraud. He 
had no information that anybody wanted it and the consumption of 
butter was diminished by those who would not eat butter when away 
from liome. If it was not intended to deceive, why was it colored 
like butter, made to look Hke it and labeled 'Alderney Dairy Butter,' 
or some other deceptive names?" 

J. "W. Gould, of Ohio, says: "Imitation butter was almost in- 
variably sold lor the genuine, and the buyer paid the full price of a 
good article. The health oflicer of Cleveland had lately examined 
some samph?s of bogus butter sold in that city and found it to b« 83 
per cent, vaseline. In the following week the sales of butter in that 
city fell olf 20 per cent. It disheartened a dairyman to have to com- 
pete with the oil wells of Pennsylvania or the Standard oil company." 

Commissioner Rice, of Minnesota, said: "All the butterine 
that came into that State was labeled ' crLniraery' or 'dairy.' Why 
were they so branded if there was no intention to deceive? He de- 
tied any man to tiud butterine or oleomargarine in Minnesota. 
It was sometim.es branded with the mai'k of known creameries." 

Statistics show that notwithstanding the laro-e amount of butter 
consumed in the city of Chicago, yet the shipments of butter exceed 
the receipts. It is estimated that at least 10,000,000 pounds of but- 
terine were manufactured in that city (( hicago) in 1884, 13,000,000 
pounds in 1885, and that 20,000,000 pounds will be. manufactured 
in 1886. 

G. W. Stearne, a Cliicago butterine manufacturer, in a speech 
before the National butter, cheese and egg association, explained the 
manufacture of butterine in his establishment. He claimed that 
their product was sweet and wholesome, and that they were perfectly 
willing to sell it under its true name and on its merits. Yet Mr. 
Stearne, in answer to the question " AVhy, if he was willing as he 
said to sell this product uuder its true name and on its own merits" 
that he branded the packages as butter and shipped, it ag butterj lie 



13 

hesitated and finally replied that " they shipped U as Imtter lecause 
the railroads had no hutterine rates. ''^ 

The above evidence and much more that might be given all 
proves that the dealers in fraudulent butter are compelled to resort to 
deception to dispose of their wares, that consumers do not want and 
will not knowingly buy it instead of genuine butter. It cannot be 
successfully maintained that there is any Awthority under our form of 
government to prevent its manufacture, but both the general govern- 
ment and individual state have power to prevent its sale under a 
fraudulent name and as genuine butter. Your attention is respect- 
fully invited to the following resolutions relating to this question 
and adopted by the National butter, cheese and egg association: 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention that every ex- 
ertion be made to induce the legislature of the various States to pass 
stringent laws, with the appointment of proper officers, and sufficient 
appropriations to prevent the manufacture out of any animal fat or 
vegetable oils not produced from unadulterated milk, or cream from 
the same, any article or product in imitation or seml)lance of natural 
butter or cheese from pure unadulterated milk, or cream of the same; 
nor shall there be used, compounded with, or added to, milk, cream 
or butter, any acids or deleterious substances or any animal fats or 
animal or vegetable oil not produced from milk or cream with design 
or intent to render, make or produce any article or substance of 
natural butter or cream, nor keep or offer for sale any such imitation. 

Resolved, That a special committee of three from each State be 
appointed by the chair to be known as a State legislative committee, 
for the exclusive purpose of promoting and forwarding uniform leg- 
islation throughout the several States. 

Resolved, That our association earnestly request that congress 
shall, in its wisdom, enact such measures as it may deem necessary 
to suppress the fraud. 

Mr. Hoard, of Wisconsin, offered as an amendment to the report 
a fifth resolution that congress be asked to impose a tax of 10 cents 
per pound on spurious butter. The amendment was adopted, after 
which the report of the committee was adopted as a whole. 

Action should be taken by this association to secure the enact- 
ment of laws preventing the sale of fraudulent butter in this State. 
A committee on legislation should be appointed to work in connec- 
tion with the special committee appointed by the ^National butter, 
cheese and essf association. That the members of c6no;rers from this 
State be requested to support any reasonable measure tending to the 
suppression of these frauds. That a committee on dairy statistics 
for the State be appointed, a part of whose duty shall be to ascertain 
to what jatteut, if^anj, Imtteriiie or JJie^neutra^^ 



14 

ufactnre of fraudulent T)iitter are nsed in tWs State, together witli the 
names of tlie parties engaged in its manufacture or sale, and that the 
constitution of our association be so amended that no person engaged 
in the manufacture or sale of these frauds can become a member. 

The ground work for success in dairying, not only to the individ- 
ual but to the State at large, begins with the dairyman himself — the 
man who owns and milks the cows. And if this Association would be 
true to the object for which it was founded, to advance the dairy in- 
terests of the State, it must enlist the sympathies and secure the at- 
tendance at its convention of the cow owners and cow milkers of the 
State. How to reach the individual dairyman is the great question. 
If he can be reached he can be benefited. To successfully solve this 
question is worthy of our best efforts. 



" I Fear no Foe" was then sung by Mr. Julius G. Lnmbard, of 
Chicago. lie was uproariously applauded and responded with a 
beautiful- Scotch serenade, "Are Ye Sleeping, Maggie." 

W. J). Hoard, of Ft. Atkinson, Wis., editor of Hoard's Dairy- 
man, then made a short address. He said he had been working in 
this cause for twenty years and detailed the wonderful transition he 
had seen follow in the wake of tli;it mother of the race, the cow. 
He said there was too much prejudice against throwing away the 
plow and adopting the cow. The only thing in the way of the 
farmer's salvation is the farmer himself. Nebraska farmers are not 
ignorant, they arc only mentally lazy. These conventions will be 
productive of good in arousing the public to. a proper und nding 
of this question. 

W. G. Whitmore, of Yalley, D. P. Ashburn, of Gibbon, and 
Allen Root, of Omaha, fi:)llowed with interesting short speeches. 

On motion of ]\Ir. Avery the president was directed to appoint 
five committees, as follows: . On legislature, dairy statistics, resolu- 
tions, nominations and finance. The committee of finance consisting 
of Messrs. J. Dixon Avery, W. G. Whitmore, D. P. Ashburn, W. 
T. Pansdell, AV. A. Carpenter, J. M. Williams, and Lewis Schroeder 
was appointed, and after a song by Mr. Lumbard the meeting ad' 
journed. 

THURSDxYY, DEC. 10, 10 A. M. 

The meeting was called to order at 10 o'clock, the president in 
the chair. 

On motion of Mr. Wing a committee of three, consisting of J. 
Dixon Avery, Wm. Sutton and II. H. Wing, was appointed to con- 
fer with tliC i3tate Board of AgriculturtJ at its coming meeting and 



15 

urge it to offer more liberal prizes for dairy products exliiLited at tlie 
State Fair. 

On motion the Board of Managers were constituted a commit- 
tee to secure the incorporation of the society under the laws of the 
State. 

On motion W. D. Hoard, of Ft. Atkinson, "Wis., was made an 
honorary life member of the Association. 

Mr. J. W. Liveringliouse, manager of the Grand Island cream- 
ery, then read a paper upon "Test churns, their use and abuse." 
Unfortunately Mr. Liveringhouse's manuscript was lost, and it has 
been impossible for him to reproduce it. He said in general that 
the large proportion of failures in the dairy business, and especially 
in the creamery business, was largely due to the fact that the test 
churn was not used, or else used injudiciously. There is a wide 
variation in the productiveness of milk as to cream, and of cream as 
to butter, ami when this fact is thoroughly understood the test churn 
will be as indispensable as the scales for weighing. He then exhib- 
ited test tubes from his regular creamery tests, which showed that 
the cream from a dozen of iiis patrons varied from 10 to 25 per cent, 
of butter and one of them produced no butter at all, from the fact 
that the patron who furnished it made it from cornstarch flour and 
some sort of oil. 

Mr. Hoard explained the utility of the test churn, and said tlie 
reason of its value wao the wonderful diiference in cows. He de- 
tailed an experiment made with three cows at the Wisconsin Ex- 
periment Station. They were each fed 17 cents worth of fodder per 
day. The grade short horn made 1 lb. and 2 oz. per day of butter; 
the grade Jersey made 1 lb. and 8 oz.; the thoroughbred Jersey 
yielded 1 lb. and 15 oz. The product of the flrst was worth 32 cents 
per day, the second 45 cents and the third 50 cents. It thus be- 
hooves every farmer to know just what his cows are producing and 
which are paying hitn. If a mm hns a f-ood wife he should love her 
the more; if she is not a good one he should love her little, and it 
will be a smaller loss to himself. Just so with his cows. 

D. P. Ashburn, of the Gibbon creamery, and A. T. Smith, of 
the Fairbury creamery, both were emphatic as to the value of the 
test churn, declaring it indispensable. 

Mr. Hoard spoke as to color in butter. He said it was due to 
the quality of the cow and to the kind of feed fed. To produce yel 
low butter green fodder should be fed, as green is the chemical basis 
of yellow. Hay should be cut as green as possible, and good green 
corn fodder is superior to the best tame hay. 

Pres. Bassett added that he had found corn fodder very valuable. 

D. P. As.l4b.11r.1ig, oi jLjib^pn, then read a paper upon Bocjus Butter. 



DOGUS BUTTER. 

D. P. ASUBUEN, GIBBON. 

Tlie jsreat question of the day in the reading and thinking 
dairy world is bogus butter. Every intelligent dairyman is compelled 
to recognize in it a dangerous rival, and those whose minds take a 
broad, comprehensive view of the situation to-day, are appalled at 
the magnitude of the dang-er with which this illegitimate product of 
rancid tallow and of the lard of diseased hogs threatens the dairy 
interests of the country. 

While it is of recent origin, it has made a miraculous growth, 
until it Jias by the combined efforts of capital, enterprise and auda- 
city assumed an important place among the various articles of com- 
merce of the nation. Ten millions of pounds of bogus butter were 
manufactured the present year in the city of Chicago alone; other 
cities and localities produced many millions more. All this vast 
amount found a ready market, forcing the inevitable conclusion that 
it, is already established as an article of commerce, that it is rapidly 
growing in volume, and with each year is becoming more firmly 
established. Each pound of this spurious article crowds out and 
takes the place of a pound of legitimate butter; and on account of 
the cheapness of the materials which form a large share of its com- 
position, it can be made and sold for less than a remunerative price 
of good l)utter and yet bear a good profit. The producers and 
handlers of bogus butter are not only insolent and audacious in 
selling it as luitter, but are defiant in regard to competing prices. 
Such skill is lirought to bear in making it imitate good butter that 
experts are often deceived and thousands of butter consumers, know- 
ing their inalulity to detect the fraud, prefer to do without butter 
entirely than risk the possibility of eating the grease of soine hog- 
that has died of disease or in transit; thus the fact of its existence 
tends to diminish the consumption of butter. It is therefore a three- 
fold danger — it ranks as butter and takes its place through fraud — 
it has the advantage of cheaper production — ^and it lessens the con- 
sumption of butter. Well m;'y dairymen be alarmed at this state 
of atfairs. 

]Srow Mr. President, it becomes us as intelligent thinking men to 
look the matter squarely in the face, take the situation as we find it, 
place the blame where it belongs and by honest manly elfort cope 
with and if possible down this gigantic wrong and retrieve as far as 
possible the proiperily <-'-^^thu Must. It is folly fur im to look to 



17 

legislation to ."Suppress tlie raamifoctiire of tliis article. Tlie courts 
have established its legitimacy when sold without deception. Our 
varioiis state legislatures may and should pass stringent acts against 
the fraud of selling it for butter. But fraud is always hard to 
detect, prove or punish, and the abutjo will doubtless be checked 
only in a small degree by such legislation. And after the enactment 
and best possible enforcement of the most stringent constitutional 
laws, we will still have to meet this giant fraud on the common 
grounds of competition, and on this ground the battle fought and 
victory won, if victory is ever achieved. The battle is not between 
bogus butter and the l)est brands of creamery butter, — really goc*d 
butter will alwr.ys lind a ready market at a remunerative price, — but 
there is great danc;cr, through fraud, of its worsting secondary grade;-; 
of butter in the siril'c for the affections of the world's market. And 
there is e(]ual dimgor that it would in a fair fight win the battle of 
competition agr.inst the poorest grades of butter. The manufacturers 
of poor butter need not cry Fraud! Adulteration! Suet! Lard! 
etc., &c. ; the world already knows that, and prefers the abomination 
of bogus butter to the worse abomination of dirty rancid butter. As 
well one lover, comr,: ting for the affection of a fair maiden, point 
with his soiled haiids, in scorn, at his false tho' fairer rival, and 
]uake mouths at him with a dirty face, and try by derision and a 
show of bad temper to insure his success by denouncing his com- 
petitor as unclean and unworthy. Such a course would doubtless 
disgust the f;iir damsel, causing her to either turn in preference to 
tho other or remain single until a worthy suitor offered. The 
deplorable fact is that a large share of the butter made in the private 
dairy and placed on the market is unlit for use, even in cooking, and 
while much of it may have been endurable when made, it has so 
deteriorated in handling and storage that it is positively dir-gusting 
when it reaches the consumer, and he will turn from it witli loath- 
ino; and eat b'ojrus butter with a knowledge of its true character with 
a sense of relief. And upon those who make bad butter, and those 
who spoil good butter by bad handling, rests the responsibility of the 
present deplorable situation. With a total indifference to the rights 
or wants of others, they have paved the way for the triumphal march 
of bogus butter; and little would be the pity for them if they were 
the only sufferers, but, alas, their folly and frauds drag honest efforts 
into tlie common ruin. It is no less a fraud to sell dirty, stinking 
butter to a consumer, who expects he is buying a fair article, than i; 
is to sell him lard for butter. Both are frauds, and both should be 
punished. He who, through Ir.ziness or criminal ignorance, will 
destroy the natural rich flavor of cream and butter by any of the 
many slatternly methods often practised in the daiiy, is guilty of the 



18 

wanton destruction of one of God's best gifts toman," and lie deserves 
the condemnation of the giver. And when he seeks to sell the 
spoiled product perpetrates a wilful fraud and deserves the punish- 
ment of his fellowmen. I^either does it become him to use epithets 
against bogus butter. If the dirt begi-immed lover instead of railing 
at his adversary had cleansed his own person, educated his own head 
and heart, and cultivated an amiable disposition, and then renewed 
his suit, he would have found the inaiden whom he thought capric- 
ious, was in reality discerning and she would have smiled upon him 
arwi banished his rival. And if the manufacturers of bad butter will 
do their part well and render their article meritorious, they will find 
an appreciative market, and bogus butter will soon be a thing of the 
past. 

JBut alas, how shall this reformation be brought about? How 
shall the cure be affected? The disease is of long duration and deep 
seated and the invalids are totally indifferent to their situation. And 
it is a thanlcless tiresome task to arouse them to a sense of their 
actual condition. And if aroused would they take the necessary 
medicine? The work of bringing about so desired a revolution must 
be purely philantliropic, for the Tabor must be borne by those who 
now make or handle t<;ood butter, and who need no instructions and 
who will have no hope of reward except the consciousness of meritori- 
ous elfort. Is it worth tlie cost? Let us see. For want of later 
statistics, I take those of 18S0. We find there was made in that year 
in private dairies 777,250,287 pounds of butter, and it is fair to say 
that if all this vast amount had been strictly prime, it would have 
sold for an average for ten cents per pound more than it did bring, 
thus $77,725,028.70 Avoukl have been added to the products of the 
dairymen of the country, and untold disgust would have been 
changed to happy satisfaction on the part of the consumer. Think 
for a moment of this vast sum of money. It would in a few years 
pay off the entire national debt or relieve all the sufferings of pov- 
erty in this great land. Sucli a revolution in the butter production 
of the country would not only add millions to our profits but would 
give it character abroad. Are not such great results worth the time, 
means and e:icrgy ncc:::3r-:T to success? And surely he who honestly 
desires that tha world shall \,j better for his existence, can find an 
appropriate field for labor here. But how shall this desired result be 
obtained? What are the means to be employed? Better informed 
and more experienced men will doubtless devise wiser ways than mine, 
but I will venture a few suggestions: 

1st. Pass striu'Tent laws in every state ao-alust fraud and adul- 
teratiou. 



19 

2d. Organize law and order leagues everjrlieTe to' enforce tlie 
laws. 

3d. Provide by law for in specters to be appointed in every citj, 
town and village, whose duty it t^hall be to inspect all butter sold or 
shipped and place his stamp upon the good and contiscate all the poor, 
whether made in the factory or on the farm, v.hcthcr made of lard or 
cream . 

4th. Use all honorable means to induce the establishment of 
cash marlrets for all inspected butter in every city, town and village, 
and thus take the butter trade out of the liands of the retail mer- 
chant or grocer, who dreads to haiullc it, but is compelled now to do 
so by competition, and who is neitlier qualified or willing to give it 
the required time or attention neeessaiy to its proper handling. This, 
with the system of inspection, would drive poor butter from ilie mar- 
ket, and at the same time raise good farm butter from the dcgreda- 
tion of mere barter to the dignity of a cash article of commerce. 
This system would stimulate and encourage the good and increase its 
volume, by compelling the reformation of poor grades. The present 
system of barter (trading butter for goods) discourages the good and 
encourages the bad, because the merchant mixes and sells all grades 
together and gets only the market price of the poorest for the mixture, 
and, therefore, is compelled to pay in trade for all grades only the 
price he can get in cash for the mixture. lie dare not discriminate 
in price for fear of offending the poor butter maker, who may be a 
valuable customer in other respects. This particular feature of the 
present system is very pernicious and must be overcome before a gen- 
eral reformation will take place. So long as poor butter will 
command the same price as good butter in the home market, so long 
will farmers and dairymen remain indiffei'ent to the quality of their 
product. 

With the above named points in practise, and a constant, tireless 
effort to educate the masses by holding frequent live institutes and 
conventions, and by the diffusion of the best dairy papers, we must 
look for pradual but sure success. 



After the reading of the paper a general discussion of the sub- 
ject of adulteration took place. Allen Root and others took excep- 
tion to the plan of confiscation, holding it was unjust to the producer 
who yet did not know enough to make a good article. Mr. Ashburn 
sustained his position by saying that one lesson of confiscation would 
be an educator that would open the eyes of the poor butter maker in 
a way nothing else would. 

The president appointed as a committee on resolutions Hon. L. 



20 

S. Coffin, Louis Schroeder, J. W. Liveringhouse, A. T. Smith, S. D. 
Atkins. 

Adjourned to 2:30 p. m. 



THURSDAY, DEC. 10, 2:30 P. M. 

Tlie meeting was called to order by the pi-esident, who intro- 
duced Prof. C. E. Bessey, of tlie State University, who read a paper 
upon Grasses and Forage Plants. 

GRASSES AND FORAGE PLANTS. 

PKOF. C. E. BESSEY, LINCOLN. 

There are no plants in the world more important, all things con- 
sidered, than the grasses. We may vahie other orders of plants for 
delicious fruits, fair flowers, strong fibres, or durable wood; but the 
great grass family in its grains which furnish us with flour and meal, 
in its stems which supply the world with sugar, and in its leaves and 
smaller stems which furnish forage for cattle and horses, is of far 
more everyday importance than all the others put together. It is 
true that there are some people in the world who are not dependent 
upon the grasses. Thus in regions where the palm trees grow, these 
great plants supply every want. But the civilization of the palm 
countries is an oriental one, and is far simpler than ours. Ours is 
the less ornamental, but far more useful, as well as more complex 
civilization of the grain and sugar eaters, whose herds feed upon the 
succulent grasses. If time and space permitted, I should delight to 
dwell upon this phase of the topic, and there is unquestionably a 
close connection betw^een the food of a people and the degree of 

civilization attained by it. But I must not linger upon this part of 
the subject. Suffice it to say that we are preeminently grass- feeders. 
My topic is, however, to be narrowed to the grasses and other 
plants which are used as food for our domestic animals, and particu- 
larly for our cattle. In this State, filled as it is with its great herds 
of cattle which are grown for their dairy products, or whose sole 
function is the conversion of food into beef, the question of the best 
forage plants is one of paramount importance. Let me during the 



21 

discussion divide the topic into the subdivisions of Pasture Grasses, 
and Hay Grasses, and the Glovers. 



The Pasture Grasses. 

A grass in order to be valuable for pasture must possess the following charac- 
ters, viz: 

1 — It must bo suited to the locality both in respect to soil and climate. 

2 — It must be nutritious. 

3 — It must be palatable. 

4 — It must be of continuous growth so as to endure cropping throughout the 
season. 

5 — It must be able to endure the tramping to which it is necessarily subjected. 

6 — It must be easily propagated. 

No one of these above is sufficient, and all are desirable. But if the grass 
grades up fairly well on most of them it may be reckoned among the valuable pasture 
grasses. 

Now let us apply these tests to several grasses and see what results we obtain: 
BLUE G^ASS- {Poa pratensis.) 

For permanent pasture upon rich soils which are not too dry, there is no known 
grass which excels the blue grass. I rt>fer now to what is properly known by this 
name, and what in many places is know as Kentucky blue grass. Its long nuti-itious 
leaves which maintain their tenderness and juiciness throughout the season, have 
given it a well-merited supremacy over other pasture grasses, and I have but little 
doubt that one of the most important advantages which Kentucky has had as a 
grazing state has been this one of possessing such immense tracts of blue grass. I 
need not take the time to praise blue grass to members of an Association like this 
one. Everybody knows and acknowledges and admits that a perfect blue grass pas- 
ture comes nearer to perfection than most things with which we are acquainted in 
this world. 

But let us take up the character of a good pasture grass as I have given them 
and see exactly how they apply to blue grass. 

1 — As to fitness to this locality, that is, to Nebraska. The question is often still 
asked whether blue grass can be grown in Nebraska. You gentlemen know that it 
can be, and that it is extensively grown, and successfully grown, too. But our 
people are fond of taking testimony, and so a year ago I asked a good many questions 
about our grasses, directing my inquiries to the older inhabitants and those who had 
had widest experience in the matter. 

The answers which I invariably received showed that, at least so far as the 
eastern half of the state is concerned, there is no reasonable question as to the fitness 
of blue grass for pasturage. The testimony was uniformly that as good growths 
could be obtained in Nebraska as in other northern states, and in the opinion of 
some it even rivals that of Kentucky itself . Even in Colorado, according to Professor 
Blount, blue grass thrives upon a variety of soils, and when once thoroughly estab- 
lished, makes a good pasture. Upon this point, then, of adaptabiUty to this soil and 
climate, we are doubtless safe in saying that blue grass meets every requiretnent. 

2 — ^As to the nutritiousness of blue grass we have the testimony from two sources, 
both of which are conclusive. 

(rt)— The testimony of many years of experience on the part of stock growers all 
over the country is uniformly that it is one of our most nutritious of grasses for pas- 
turage. The sleek herds of Kentucky have long borne testimony to the truth of this 
assertion. 

(6) — The chemical test which, under proper restrictions, is after all the most 
exact of any, shows blue grass to take high rank among all the pasture grasses on 
the score of its nutritiousness. 

3 — The third characteristic of a good grass is palatability. The answer to this 



22 

is given by the cattle themselves. There is but one answer and that is favorable to 
blue grass. "Who ever saw a hungry animal refuse good blue grass? 

4 — As to the continuous gi'owth of blue grass, everyone who has ever examined 
it with care must have been struck by the admirable mechanism of its growth. Take 
up a blue gra&s plant from the pasture and note the long narrow leaves, attached at 
an angle to a shorter part which wraps around the stem. Now at the point where 
these two unite — this angle of which I speak — the continuous growth goes on. ]f 
you cut off the tip end of a blue grass leaf for, say, six or eight inches, in a few days' 
time you will find that it has been replaced by the growth at the leaf angle, and this 
wiLl go on all summer. I do not know how many inches of growth a single leaf 
can make, but 1 know it to be at least between three and four feet, and it is probably 
much more. Now it is this continuous growth which is one of the strong points in 
favor of blue grass, and I know of no other grass which possesses it to an equal ex- 
tent. 

5 — But a pasture grass must endure not only continuous cropping, but also the 
very considerable tramping and crushing to which it is constantly subjected. Here 
blue grass fully meets the requirements. It endures this test better than any of the 
other grasses commonly used for pasturage. 

6 — The last requirement is ease of propagation, which includes also the ready 
production of seed, for upon the latter largely depends the cost of the seed money for 
laying down a pasture. In this, again, as in the foregoing, blue grass makes a good 
showing. It seeds readily, and the expense of collecting and threshing is not so 
great as to make the purchase of good seed inordinately expensive. 

Looking over the foregoing pages we see that it is perfectly safe for one to rec- 
ommend the use of blue grass for pasture in Nebraska. Care must, however, be 
taken to secure a good stand, and especial care must, be taken to secure first-class 
seed. I have known of disaster coming from a neglect of the last precaution. Much 
of the seed in the markets is old and musty, or it has been gathered so late as to be 
composed of only the lighter and less active seed. 1 am assured that in many cases 
the "seed" turns out to be largely chaff, the plump seeds themselves being fallen 
before the harvesting of the crop . 

Here^ again, some of the seed instead of being blue grass is something else. I 
once knew of a field being sown, as it was supposed, with blue grass seed, but when 
it came up it proved to be red top — not so bad a mistake as it might have been — but 
stiU vexatious. In other cases instead of blue grass the seed turned out to be largely 
composed of wire grass seed, a vile grass which resembles blue grass when in head, 
but at no other time, and in no other way . If a man sows seed for a blue grass 
pasture and gets a wire grass meadow, he may be pardoned for feeling very indig- 
nant indeed. 

Dr. Gordon, an emment authority on blue grass in the south, made a careful 
study of the best methods of laying down a pasture, and fi»ally settled upon the fol- 
lowing practice, as the best for this region : 

He sowed either in the autumn or spring months, as suited his convenience. 
He usually sowed with rye, wheat or barley. After sowmg the rye, wheat or barley, 
land was harrowed and, if possible, rolled, and after this the grass seed was sown, 
and the ground brushed lightly. Immediately afterwards all the cattle, horses and 
sheep were turned in that could be secured. If there were not enough he borrowed 
his neighbors' stock, and let them run on it until the ground was well packed all 
over the surface, and then, and not till then, were they removed. The treading of 
the stock packed the seeds and prevented the grass from drying up in the summer 
drouth, or freezing out in the winter frosts. He kept the stock off from the young 
grass until it was well rooted (generally for the better part of a year) but did not 
allow the seed stalks to shoot up and go to seed. Possibly we may profit by a modi- 
fied application of this Kentucky method of securing a good blue grass pasture. 

TIMOTHY {Phi turn pratense.) 

This grass I shall notice but briefly here, and shall do so in order to point out its 
defects as a pasture grass. 

1— That it is adapted to the soil and climate of Nebraska I shall show further 
on when I take up the hay grasses. It will grow, and does grow well in Nebraska. 



23 

2 — It is fairly nutritious, not ranking so high, however, as blue grass. 
3 — It IS palatable, and especially when young is greedUy eaten. 
4 — It does not show, however, the power of continuous growth to such a degree 
as does blue grass, and so it can be easily cropped out. 

5 — It does not endure tramping over at all, and may be easily tramped out. 
6 — It seeds abundantly, and upon this count nothing can be said against it. 

II. 

Hay Grasses. 

A grass to be valuable for hay must possess the following characters, viz: 
1 — It must be suited to the locality both as to soil and climate. 
2 — It must be nutritious. 
3 — It must be palatable. 
4 — It must yield a good crop per acre. 
5 — It must be easily cut, cured and handled. 
6 — It must be easily propagated. 

Let us now take up several grasses and examine their claim to a recognition to 
a place among the hay grasses of Nebraska. 

TiJiOTUY (Phleumpratense.^ 

The question as to whether timothy will grow in Nebraska has been practically 
answered by many a farmer and stockman in the eastern half of the state, and there 
is good evidence that the western limit of its production may be in time carried far 
up towards the western border. The answers which my inquiries drew out a year 
ago wei-e very conclusive as to the fact that timothy is at home in eastern Nebraska, 
and we need have no hesitation in recommending it for this section. 

I have spoken of the nutritiousness and palatableness of timothy, in both of 
which particulars it is satisfactory. 

4 — Does timothy stand the special test of productiveness? In other words, does 
it in Nebraska yield enough per acre to render it profitable for a hay crop? 

One of my correspondents speaks of a field at Kearney which averaged nearly 
three feet in height, certainly tall enough to please any hay-maker. I have myself 
seen fields in this state which would rival those of the eastern states in the length of 
stem and thickness of stand upon the ground. We n>ied not fear as to the produc- 
tiveness of this grass for hay making purposes. 

5 — Timothy is one of the easiest ot the grasses to cut and cure. The mowing 
machine runs through it making a clean cut, and doing it with an ease which is sat- 
isfactory both to the team and driver. When cut it dries readily and is easily cured 
into a first-class hay. It handles easily, and does not pack so closely in the stack or 
mow as to be much subject to moulding. It is one of the easiest of grasses to turn 
into clean, sweet hay, free from mustiness. Almost anyone can make good hay out 
of timothy. Timothy thus stands the test well, having all the characteristics of a 
good hay grass well developed. 

Now these two grasses, blue grass for pasture and timothy for hay, may be 
taken as giving us the basis of our grass-feed for cattle and horses. In fact, we could 
get on with these alone very well. I will, however, take a little time to call especial 
attention to 

ORCHARD GRASS ( Dactylis glomeraia) 

As a valuable grass for early hay. It grows well in many parts of eastern Nebraska 
where it has been tried, and makes a fair hay. It is more nutritious than timothy, 
and is as easily cut and cured. Its yield is good, the amount per acre being about 
the same as that of timothy. 

Care must be taken to secure good seed. Some varieties of orchard grasg are of 
much less value than others. Only the seed of the larger and more productive varie- 
ties should be sown. 

III. 

The Clovers. 

The clovers are distinguished from the grasses by several well-marked character- 



u 

istics. They are all broad-leaved plants, with the leaflets usually in threes; their 
stems are never properly hollow, and they have no thickened joints. They all pro- 
duce showy flowers which are gathered into more or less compact heads. 
There are two commonly grown species, red clover and white clover. 

RED CLOVER {TripoHum pratense.) 

This plant is a native of Europe. It was first cultivated in England two hun- 
dred and fifty years ago, and is said to have produced a revolution in the agriculture 
of that country. It is now I'egarded as one of the most valuable of the forage plants 
of modern agriculture. 

As commonly grown red clover is a biennial plant, that is, it lives for but two 
years. It is well known that it may be made to live for a longer period, but in 
ordinary farming it will be better to treat it as a biennial. It has as a consequence 
to be renewed from time to time, making necessary that very desirable practice — the 
rotation of crops. 

As a hay-producing plant red clover ranks high, possessing a nutritious value 
which exceeds that of the best hay from ordinary grasses about as two to one. That 
is, taking the tables of chemical analyses computed by Dr. Way, we find cha^ a ton 
of clover hay contains about twice as much nutritious matter as a ton of ordinary 
gi-ass hay; or we may say that as far as chemical analyses may be depended upon in 
deciding the matter, a ton of clover hay ought to go as far in feeding as two tons of 
hay from the common grasses. 

Now, no farmer can afford to ignore such a valuable forage plant as this is. It 
is too good a food to be left out from the list of plants to be grown upon the farm. 

As to the soils best suited to it, it may be stated in a general way that those 
soils which contain a good deal of lime grow the best red clover. Trials upon the 
soil of Nebraska show it to be admirably adapted to red clover, excellent crops hav- 
ing been produced almost wherever trial has been made. 1 feel safe in recommend- 
ing its general introduction into all the eastern portions of the state, and have no 
doubt that it can be grown away up the plains in favorable locaUties almost if not 
quite to our western border. 

WHITE CLOVER [TrifoHum repens). 

This well-known pasture plant is a native of both Europe and America. It was 
first brought into cultivation about the year 1700 in England, and' since that date it 
has held a place in English agriculture. In many parts of this country it has been 
greatly neglected, and in many regions it is more purposely sown. It is, however, 
one of those blessings which will continue to come to us persistently, although we do 
not appreciate it as we should. 

Its small size and creeping habit unfit it for a hay crop, but these very charac- 
teristics make it an excellent pasture. It is nutritious and palatable, and is freely 
eaten by cattle and sheep. It is veiy tenacious of life, and can endure a great deal 
of hard usage and close cropping. It will, grow almost any place, and upon almost 
any kind of soil, attaining, of course, a greater size and furnishing more food upon 
the richer and moister soils than upon the poorer and drier ones. 

The chemical analyses of Dr. Way, before quoted, show white clover to be less 
nutritious as a pasture than red clover, but the difference is not great, there being 
only a difference of one in ten in favor of red clover. We may make this plainer by 
saying that nine pounds of red clover contain as much of nutritrious matter as ten 
pounds of white clover. This difference is so little that when we consider the per- 
sistence and productiveness of white clover we readily see why it has been looked 
upon by so many with favor, and why it has been carried wherever modern agricul- 
ture has been introduced. 

There is another value possessed by white clover which I cannot forbear adver- 
ting to, that is. its usefulness in supplying the bees with a fine quality and a great 
quantity of honey White clover honey is justly famed the world over. If white 
clover had no other value this one would be sufficient to warrant its wide and gener- 
al growth, but when we add to this, its great value as furnishing a durable and 
tenacious pasture, we are forced to acknowledge it as one of the most valuable of 
farm plants. 



As to the merits of white clover for pasture, allow me to quote from some of the 
best of our authorities : 

Flint, in his standard work "Grasses and Forage Plants," remarks (page 188) 
as follows: " Its chief value is as a pasture grass, and it is as valuable for that pur- 
pose as the red clover is for hay or for soiling, though there are some who place a 
low estimate upon it." 

Professor Blount, of the Colorado Agricultural College, in a recent report, says, 
" It is the best of the clovers for permanf'ut pasturage in most localities and soils." 

Dr. Darlington, in a well-known bool< of his — "American Weeds and Useful 
Plants" — speaks of it as "Affording an excellent pasture in the cooler portions of the 
country." 

Dr. Killebrew, the commissioner of Agriculture for Tennessee, in a work pub- 
lished by him in 1880, and entitled "Grasses, Meadows and Pastures," says (page 
83), "It is beyond question, next to blue grass, one of our most valuable grazing 
plants." 

I consider that I am, therefore, justified in urging that a good deal of attention 
should be given to this valuable plant in this great grazing State. 

OTHEK CLOVERS. 

I have now taken up two clovers, one a hay plant, the other a pasture plant, 
and have not the time now to discuss the others, many of which are of high value. 
Thus we might enumerate: Alsike Clover ( TVi/b/iwrn hybridiu'ii)- Perennial Clover 
{Trifoliuin medium); Buffalo CAover {T. rejlexum); Hop Clover (T. jororMmfeens) ; Al- 
falfa or Lucerne [Medicago sativa); Bokara Clover [MelUutusalbn), besides others less 
well known. I can only say this in passing that there is little doubt that when we 
practice a higher and more intelligent agriculture we shall make use of very many 
more forage plants than we now do, and that the clovers will then figure more largely 
than ever among farm products. 

In closing this hasty sketch of this great subject, permit me to urge upon you 
the careful study of the forage plants of the world, and to make constant and intelli- 
gent eff'orts to enlarge the list, and improve the quality of those grown in Nebraska. 

The pasture and hay plants named in this paper make a meagre list, although 
they rank high in quality. Let us extend the cultivation of these, for they are veiy 
good; but let us at the same time see to it that we add others to the list, so that 
there shall not be an acre in all the length and breadth of the State, from the fertile 
valleys of the east, to the sandy hills and plains of the west that shall not bring forth 
imtritious food for the millions of cattle and sheep which roam ov«r and fatten upon 
them. 



W. G. Wliitmore said that the lecturer's theory eoiicerniug 
timothy as a pasture plant did not correspond with liis experience 
with it. He said he had pastured tliis year sixteen liead of yearlings 
and two-year okls upon ten acres of tin)otliy, and tliat it had served 
him better tlian bhie grass. A variety of grasses should be sown 
because cows prefer a change of feed. 

Allen Root said his experience with timothy was similar to that 
of Mr. Whitmore's. He had found that timothy was the best forage 
plant for Nebraska. 

L. S. Coffin said the farmers of Iowa were just finding out what 
was already kuown by the farmers of Nebraska. 

J. H. lieed, of Columbus, said he had sown fifty acres of blue 
grass, and a neighbor 'had sown one hundred and fifty aci'es, and in 
neither case had they been able to discover a single blade of the 
grass. 



• 26 

Mr. Coffin said this was most likely the fault of the seed, and 
extreme care should be taken in its selection. 

Mr. Hoard gave an instance of a farmer in Wisconsin who had 
a four acre held of white clover M^iich he used for night pasture. 
He ploughed it up and raised four successive crops upon it. After 
this he sowed red clover, but the white clover sprang up and entirely 
choked it out. The seed will lie dormant in the ground for years. 

Hon. H. B. Nicodemus, of Fremont, then read a paper on 
" Seeding Down to Grass and Clover, and Stock Management." 



SEEDING DOWN TO GRASS AND CLOYEE, AND STOCK 

MANAGEMENT. 

HON. H. B. NICODEMUS, FREMONT. 

The subject of seeding down to grass and clover, and stock management is one 
that we may talk, and write about for days, weeks and months, and yet there will 
be room for new ideas and new theories to put into practice and experiment with. 

The subject of seeding down to grass and clover is one that demands our most 
serious attention in this, a prairie country. Take the wild or native grass either on 
the low or uplands and you will find that after a tew years of pasturing, especially if 
the seasons be wet, the grass will begin to die out in places, and will be succeeded 
by red weeds, or weeds of all kinds, in fact anything will grow but grass, and yet 
people contmue to pasture that kind of land, put just as many head of cattle to the 
one hundred and sixty acres of pasture as they did when the pasture was new, and 
then at the end of the pasturing season wonder why their cattle do not thi'ive as 
they did several years previous. 

Now, gentlemen, the answer is vei-y evident, and you can see for yourselves that 
if you want an animal to thrive you must give them good, nutritious food and not 
turn them mto a pasture where the grass is killed out and nothing growing but bitter 
weeds, for 1 tell you that kind of provender will not make good, tender beef, or sweet, 
rich milk. Now the next question is, how are we going to avoid or remedy this dis- 
appearing and passing away of our native grasses? That question brings in the 
very subject of our paper, viz: by seedmg down to tame grass and clover. I will 
tell you how I have experimented with it, and the result has been all I could have 
desired; have also seen it practiced by others with like results. 

In the first phice I think tame grass will grow on bottom lands, after they have 
been pastured out, much better without the aid of cultivation than with it. Sow your 
grass seeds on the ground just as early in the spring as possible, run a smoothing 
harrow over the ground after you sow the seed Do not wait to sow your seed till 
the frost is all out. but sow it when the frost is out say four or five inches. Then in 
the spring when the grass begins to grow and wlule small and tender, do not kill it 
out by turning a lot of stock on it, but give it a chance for its life, and keep otf till 
eight or ten inches high, then when stock eat it down, if there are places where the 
seed did not catch, sow again during the summer, and if one misses, probably the 
other will not. Seed just before a rain, especially it you have any information when 
it is coming, or just after, so that the little, diminutive grass seed gets a hold in the 
ground and does not blow away with our Nebraska zephyrs, as you cannot harrow it 
in after the first sowing very well. 1 have tried this plan myself on several hundred 
acres of bottom land and always sow a mixture of seed consisting of red top, timothy, 
white clover and blue grass If the land is low and wet would sow nearly or quite 
all red top as that seems to take hold and thrive better than any other in wet land, 
and if the ground is high bottom or medium, would mix a little white clover, tim- 
othy and blue grass. The white clover is very prolific, takes hold and spreads very 
rapidly and makes very good pasture for any and aU kinds of stock. Red clover does very 



27 

well in Nebraska; I have seen some persons who have derived excellent results with 
this most highly and valuable plant. It can be grown very profitably on high and 
low land, only not in the wet land, as it is most sure to freeze out during the winter. 
By sowing the seed early in the spring, on ground that has been sown in rj^e the fall 
previous is almost a sure way of tjettiug a good stand, although a great many sow it 
with barley or most any kind of small grain sown in the spring, and it does very 
well. The small grain protects the young clover from the searchmg rays of the sun 
and it gets a good start before harvest comes, after which it grows very rapidly till 
winter, when the stubble of the small grain protects it, and the next year you have 
an abundant crop, either for pasture or for hay and seed._ Never sow clover on 
ground that has not been cultivated. You will see this is entirely dilFerent from my 
advice and experience with the grasses, and I think I am correct. 

Stock management is a subject which should demand more of the time and at- 
tention of the Nebraska farmer and stockman than it does. As a general thing we 
keep more cattle than we can attend to properly, to give us the profit for the outlay 
of money we have invested, therefore, instead of realizing a large per cent, from our 
investment, our gi-eediness makes it in many cases rather small. I cannot help but 
think that if we had one third the money we have in stock invested in good sheds 
and comfortable winter quarters to protect the stock from fierce, cutting storms, we 
would make more money than by letting them rough it. I am proud to say, how- 
ever, that most of the farmers, especially the dairymen, are taking better care of 
their stock than in years gone by. The dairyman finds very little profit in allowing his 
cows to stand day and night behind the protection of a barb wire fence, with their 
liacks bowed up, eating at times a little hay from a rack filled with snow and hay, 
and night and morning a few ears of hard corn. Then for thi; nnlkniMn, as we havt- 
no mdkmaids in Nebraska, to sit down on his three legged stool or molasses keg, 
whichever comes handy, and endeavor to induce those cows to ffive down milk. 
'I'hey wim't do it, and 1 don't blame them; but let the fellow pull away, and go back 
to the house cursing his luck that his cows are not as good as his neighbor's. 

On the other hand the dairyman finds there is a good profit in keeping good 
cows, having a good warm stable to put them in at night, giving them all the good 
hay they can eat, and a variety of grain twice a day. I do not think all ground food 
is better than at times, ground and then unground, as cattle are like persons, be- 
coming tired of one kind of food, and like a change. We don't like to have all beef 
tor a month, neither do we want bacon all the time. I think we should treat our 
cattle and stock of all kinds the same as we would like to be treated ourselves. The 
stockman and especially the dairyman finds that by a humane treatment of his stock 
they will not only bi'ing him in a good profit on his investment, but be a source of 
great pleasure to him. 

After the reading of Mr. Nicodemus' paper, there was a general 
discussion on the subject of " The Dairy Cow." 

Mr. Coffin said the dairy cow was the queen of the farm and 
shouhl always be treated gently ; she should never be made to go off 
a walk. A boy on a pony with a l^ig whip and a dog can never 
exist on a farm with a dairy cow. 

Mr. Hoard said the broad basis of a dairy cow is her maternity. 
She, gives the milk pri-marily for her offspring. The best dairy cattle 
of the world are those witli fineness of outline and extreme femininity. 
The dairy cow is one which has been bred w^ith especial reference to 
the heifer proclivities, wliile on the other hand the beef producing 
animals are bred with reference to the male proclivities. A cow's 
milking functions are maternal, and it necessarily implies care and 
knowledge by the owner. To make a cow do her level best the far- 



28 

itner should write " comfort" in big letters above the door of the 
barn where he may see it every day as he goes in and out. To be 
successful, 1st, get a g(wd cow; 2d, give her good feed; 3d, give her 
good shelter; 4th, a plenty of good pure water. Above all, it is 
essential that the cow should have tender treatment, and it is below 
the dignity of any man to abuse her. 

After the discussion, the president appointed the following com- 
mittee on nominations: W. G. Whitmore, O. M. Druse, Otto 
Magenau, W. A. Carpenter, D. F. Ashburn. 

On motion of Mr. Whitmore, the editors of the local papers who 
have so faithfully chronicled the proceedings of the convention 
were made honorary members of the Association. 
Adjourned to 7:30 p. m. 



THURSDAY, DEC. 10, 7:30 P. M. 

The meeting was opened by a quart^'tte, "The Fremont Blues," 
by Messrs. Fowler, Avery, Richardson, Rogers, and Harris, of Co. 
E, N, N. G.; Earl Brink at the piano. 

The committee on nominations recommended the election of the 
following officers for the ensuing year : 

President — J. Dixon Avery, Fremont. 

Vice-President — E. Mclntyre, Seward. 

Secretary and Treasurer — H. H. Wing, Lincoln. 

Board of Directoi's — S. C. Bassett, Gib])on ; W. G. Wliitmore, 
Valley; W. A. Carpenter, Sutton; H. B. Nicodemus, Fremont; O. 
M. Druse, Lincoln. 

Vice-Presidents at Large — R. W. Furnas, Brownville; Allen 
Root, Omaha; J. W. Liveringhouse, Grand Island; D. P. Ashburn, 
Gibbon; D. A. Cowell, Beatrice; J. O. Chase, Fairmont; Davis 
Richardson, Chirks; H. II. Brainard, Fremont; J. J, King, West 
Point; J. B. Dinsmore, button; Thos. Carroll, Ayr; Smith D.Atkins, 
Seward; J. G. Southwick, Bennett. 

The report of the committee was ncccpted and adopted. 

A paper on ''The Creamery — its reUition and advantages to the 
Nebraska Farmer,'' l)y W. A. Carpenter, Sutton, was owing to the 
indisposition of Mr. Carpenter read by the secretary. 



THE CREAMERY AND ITS RELATION AND ADVAN- 
TAGES TO THE NEBRASKA FARMER. 

W. A- CAKPENTER, SUTTON. 

In order to touch the keynote to the creamery's future and ultimate success, I 
believe their system should be so conducted as to induce the tarmers to co-operate 



29 

with the management in producing the very best results, which is certainly to the 
interests of both patrons and manufacturers. 

It is my honest conviction, after years of careful consideration, practice and ex- 
perimental tests, that the original method of buying cream by the " inch" (degree 
of 113 cubic inches) is the proper system to adopt. 

I do not claim that at all seasons the results will be necessarily and exactly the 
same, for we all know that the influences of the summer sun and abundance of the 
most/iutritious of all green food, "Nebraska grasses," on the cows, and also that 
cream rises more solid or compact in warm weather, which of itself necessitates a 
smaller loss in skimming by way of stirring and condensing m with milk, but T do 
claim that any given period, where patrons take satisfactory care of milk with the 
aid of wind pumps (with which most of our farmers here are supplied) that the "but- 
ter test" will be practically the same, provided a proper method of skimming be ob- 
served and performed by a competent person who knows whether the milk has been 
disturbed or tampered with since its original setting or not. J'hese summer influ- 
ences referred to can be very easily and satisfactorily adjusted by manufacturers mak- 
ing proper allowance on pi'ice paid for cream. 

A great many creamery men will say at once, "The inch method is not practica- 
ble; that it always shrinks; that farmers cheat us so we have to abandon it in order 
to protect our own interests." 

To all such let ine say, that idea is erroneous; it is simply uncalled for abuse 
heaped on the farmers which they elo not merit. 

In my experience, nine in every ten of these shortage instances are caused di- 
rectly by the incompetency ot the skimmers sent out by the creamery. 

With our patronage of over 200, even singlt> instances of putting up jobs on 
cream is very rare, and when one does occur v^e simply notify such patrun, and then 
do discontinue taking his cream, and of course that has a great influence on others 
that might be tempted with the same step. 

While 1 believe our patrons to be a model class, yet don't see any reason why 
other creameries may not have more or less equally as fine people among their 
patrons. 

The most important point for consideration is "Jiow to produce the very finest 
grade of butter." This system reomniends itself at once as the only true course to 
pursue, for in this case the skimmer should be supposed to examine each and every 
can before skimming, and any such as is not in satisfactory condition to be either 
returned or put in a separate vesMcI, delivering all first class cream by itself to the 
butter maker, giving him the absolute control thereafter. 

While the "gallon" or the "test" system necessitates taking cream after it 
has been skimmed by patrons, and when old and new has become mixed together, 
it is a matter ot impossibility for even an expert to determine its exact condition or 
value. 

Our western farmers, as a rule, are suspicious of all mercMants thit come 
among them to deal; they think they are squeezed and oppressed by them, and 1 
know that I speak their feelings when I suy they will never willingly submit to 
the creamery's agent driving up and saying, " we will take your cream to our 
creamery, take sample of that and samples of 199 other patrons, test each one sep- 
arate, and if we make no mistakes and our process is accurate, will inform you of 
yours and the other 199 of each ot their values at the end ot the month, or some 
future time, as the case may be." 

My theory is to use a method that will establish mutual and Iriendly relations 
between patrons and manufacturers. 

Every creamery is supposed to procure the most skdled butter-maker possible, 
and in order for him to produce the best possible grade of butter, nivt let him decide 
this: that the cream when received is in its best possible condition, and the battle 
is three-fourths won; for then with judgment and dispatch he can force the 
cream to that vital point that insures first-class butter every time. Therefore, 
would advise putting butter-makers on the routes in company with the skimmers 
certain number of days each week, and on such routes as most require his services. 
Let his duty be to instruct patrons in the proper manner of setting and carina for 
the milk, and instructing skimmers in their duties and manner of skimming, and 



30 

further, to consult patrons on all differences and topics that come under the general 
requirements ot the business. 

Don't be afraid to let patrons know that you send your i)est man among them 
to look after mutual interests, instead of only sending uneducated or careless skim- 
mers collecting cream, and threatening patrons that they must make up all losses 
caused by such skimmer's carelessness or inability. 

Then I think the sentiment will be somewhat changed between farmers and 
manufacturers. 

In this w;iy 1 consider that the quality and results would be far better by the 
butter-maker looking after mutual outside interests, he reporting to and advisiHg 
assistant how to operate in his absence. 

Produce a clipping from N. Y. Dairyman of December, 1884: 

Mr. Cromwell, ot the Buena Vista Creamery, has called upon us to make a 
correction in our statement concerning his factory in last week's issue. That is, 
while he has been able to get a very lair average from testing his patrons' cream 
but once a week, yet he has found such a tendency to vary in its quality from day to 
day that it is now his practice to test the cream of eaeh patron every day so as to do 
as nearly as possible absolute justice all around. He has found that with a commu- 
nity so new to the dairy business as that of Iowa there is almost a total lack of sys- 
tem among them. One member of the family will attend to the milk and do the 
skimming to-day, while the whole matter will be intrusted to another to-morrow, 
and sometimes the youngest child in the family will have to look alter the milk. 
With such treatment there is, of course, a great variation in the percentage of 
cream yield, and to overcome this trouble he has felt compelied|to make his tests 
daily, with ot course some exceptions with those patrons who are most systematic 
in handling their milk and cream. As they become more expert dairymen he has 
more confidence in his frequent tests, but the matter has to be more closely looked 
aft^•r in oidcr to do fair and equal justice to all parties. But one thing Mr. Crom- 
well wishes to state emphatically, and that is, that making these churning tests is 
not nearly so much trouble as he at first thought it would be. simply because he.has 
all the necessary apparatu.-., a, faithful man to'work it, and the whole thing fully 
systematized. He advises every man who attempts the cream gathering system to 
adopt it. 

You will please see in above that Mr. C.'s system admits of one member of the 
family attending to the milk and doing the skimming to-day, while the whole mat- 
ter will he intrusted to another to-morrow, and sometimes the youngest child in the 
family will have to look after the whole thing. 

Now. that kind ot a process may suit Mr. C. there in Iowa; but I think that we 
here in Nebraska (if we know our business) don't want to adopt that system, and I 
for one don't want my butter dish affected by the results of that kind of a process. 

Our farmers themselves have a great duty to perform, that is to patronize the 
creamery, or any other legitimate business whose purpose is to concentrate tVe 
products of one soil into the least bulky form possible to pay freight on to market, 
for while we have to pay fully 100 percent of its original value for freight to market 
our grain, and liy concentrating our energies and grain into dairy pursuits and 
products, we can then get the result, "butter,'" to market at a cost of only 8 to 10 
per cent, of its value. 

Our patrons that arc thp most benefited are farmers with large families and 
small farms — tliey are enabled to use their surplus lalior in dairy pursuits — this pro- 
vides for monthly expanses of family; the children are raised to labor, thrift, econ- 
omy and independence. From necessity such farmers are continually improving 
their stock and necessarily brine'ina' their land to the highest state of cultivation. 

It does net se^m possible that this State could be beaten or even equalled in 
natural resources for dairy pursuits; its fine climate and water, prolific soil and 
nutritious grasses, all tend to make it unpar-illeled. Peter Henderson, the popular 
New York florist, was lately crpdifed with replyinar to a friend who askrd him how 
to procure the very best soil "Go to Nebraska and get you a car load of soil— you 
can't make a mistake if you get it anywhere in that State." 

While there have so many enterprising parties built and equipped in the most 



31 

modern and improved manner creamery plants in nearly all of the most eligible 
sections of our State at large outlays, who are willing to operate them on reasonably 
fair margins, it only remains now tor the farmers to get their eyes open to the true 
facts of the case, and then Nebraska will certainly become the leading dairy State 
of the Union. 

In an interview by an exchange reporter, the Hon. W. H. Seymour, ex-presi- 
dent of the N. Y. Mercantile exchange, in describing the States comprising the 
grand dairy belt of this country, made special reference to Nebraska and said it was 
last corning to the front, and wound up by saying, "Butter has been and always 
will be a staple article, that this line of business could never be overdone." 

Will read a jlipping from N. Y. Dairyman ot Dec. 18, 1884: 

"WOKTH CONSIDERING. 

In the columns of the Storm Lake Journal (Iowa) we find some very suggestive 
figures from the pen of its rlairy correspondent, Mr. Cromwell. They relate to the 
prices in the local market ot the various farm products. For instance, this year, 
1884, wheat is from 30 to 40 cents a bushel, corn 17 cents, oats 16 cents; hogs. $3.75 
per 100 pounds, while butter sells fur 20 cents a pound. In 1883 wheat was 46 to 
60 cents a bushel, corn 30 cents, oats 20 cents, and hogs again $3.75 per 100 pounds, 
while butter then sold from 16 to 20 cents a pound at the local stores. The moral 
that the writer draws from this is a good one and is to the following effect, that 
while all other products of the farm go up and down, wanting every feature of 
stability, the product of the dairy yields the same steady price one year with an- 
other. Brother Smith accounts for it in this way: Everybody, big, little, and medi- 
um sized, intelligent or ignorant, rich or poor, can in one season go into hogs, 
wheat, corn, oats, or almost any other product of the farm, and thus vastly and 
ruinously overstock the market, which is a thing they not only can do, but they are 
constantly doing it. Now. how is it with the dairy? It fakes two years to make a 
new cow, and three years to work all the proiluce on to the market, besides other 
appointments of a permanent character, such as houses and utensils, must be fur- 
nished, so that it is next to impossible to get up a glut in the market, even of the 
lower grades of butter or cheese from overproduction, while the be?t quality is never 
overdone. It takes too many years tor a man to become a first-class dairyni.m to 
create anything like a glut in that branch of the business. 

The man who goes intelligently into dairying must go in to stay, if he hopes to 
make a success of it. Fe must make a life study of it, and then he has one of the 
most stable and permanently remunerative occupations that farming furnishes. 
While it may not be wise to look tor any brilliant results like a fortune in a few 
years, which after all is only the dream of gamblers, and is as rarely realized as 
other and less foolish dreams; but if the man is honest and square acd consents to 
live by the sweat of his brow, and live modestly as becomes his station in life, mau- 
ing a happy home, and thus gathering about him ail the comforts that an honest 
ambition can desire, then we sny m;ike ot y->ursf'lf h good dairyman. 

It has been demonstrated over and again that among our general farmers (es- 
pecially in the older States) that to raise grain to sell, expecting to make of it a 
lucrative business, has proved itself a complete failure. 

At the time of the first introduction of creameries into Iowa, their farmers had 
reached that point of realizing- that as grain growers simply they were becoming 
bankrupt, land poor, prematurely aged, and impaired in health and trying to hold 
their own by annual increase in acreage, which only resulted in reaping a smaller 
average of crops per acre. 

Since the adoption of the creameries, those farmers began at once to reap the 
rewards, and now generally whrre we, ten years ago saw a farmer wearing his weary 
life away trying to earn a liviner by raising grain on 160 to 240 acres, may now be 
seen on the same and similar tracts o<' land as many as two to three thrifty dairy 
farmers possessing 80 to 100 acres each, who have so far recovered from their former 
mistakes as to be surrounded by all the necessary and modern conveniences, to- 
gether with a nice little account to their credit at the bank in their nearest town, all 
resulting from the benefit of condensing grain crops into a less bulky matter to pay 



32 

freiffht on to market, or, in other words, occupying and farming' a limited number 
of acres for all there was in the land, instead of spreading themselves over an un- 
limited number of acres for all there was in their bodies. 

The chief western industries seem now to be verging in two channels — one is 
the vast grazing interests wliicli are capitalizing vast sums of money and influences 
which is absorbing the rights which our would-be farmers should possess, and are 
fast creating such a monopoly as to soon suggest a possibility of the foreign land- 
lord system so disastrous abroad; while the other is, farmers content themselves on 
moderate sized farms, well looked after and managt'd, to be producing biggest re- 
sults, with industrious ettorts in dairy pursuits. We have one enemy here — bogus 
iard and tallow butter. 

While these manu'acturers of the bogus article are few in number, yet they rep- 
resent large capital, and they consolidate their capital and wits to the very farthest 
extent, in forcing this illegitimate article on the market to be palmed otf as "honest 
batter." 

Shall we as honest farmers, engaged in an honorable, healthy and life-giving 
dairy pursuit, be usurped by these glaring frauds. 

Let every good citizen ol our State make his voice heard before our representa- 
tives in congress. Our individual farmers are largely in the majority, and when 
they realize the necessity of exerting themselves in causing proper legislative meas- 
ures to be established and enforced, then we will have good reason to look ior suc- 
cess in its final suppression. 

In the meantime let our manufacturers observe all measures that have a tend- 
ency to raise the quality and merits of their butter above any chance of competition 
with the spurious article. 

Will introduce some testimonials that were suggested, furnished and signed by 
several of our patrons, and published in our town paper, showing yvhat could be 
and was being realized by farmers in our locality, then new to the business: 

This is to certify that I have sold cream to the Sutton Creamery for the year 

ending January 1, 1885, from 9 cows, receiving for the same m cash, ^158.12 

Have 10 calves on hand January 1, valued at 150.00 

[Signed.] ^ S308.12 

This is to certify that I have sold cream to the Sutton Creamery for the year 

ending January 1, 1885, from 6 cows, received for same ^140.88 

January 1, 1885, 5 calyes on hand worth 75.00 

[Signed.] ^215.83 

This is to certify that I have sold cream to the Sutton Creamery for the past 

year from 11 cows, receiving for same ^294.47 

Have on hand to date, January 1, 1885, 11 calves worth 165.00 

[Signed.] S459.47 

This IS to certify that I have furnished the Sutton Creamery with cream for the 

past year from 3 cows and received for same $124 96 

Have on hand January 1, 1885, 3 calves valued at 42.00 

[Signed.] S166.96 

Will give a few more figures in way of showing the merits of the creamery sys- 
tem and then be done: 

Our creamery af Sutton manufactured duringlthe eleven months ending Dec. 1, 
131,200 pounds of butter. (Have procured from the most reliable source New York 
prices of dairy butter as sold there for each and all of the 11 months.) 

Had this 131.200 lbs. of butter been made by our patrons and marketed in New 
York at the average price of the three highest grades of dairy butter, they would 
have received !B12,229.81. 2-32 



33 

The creamery company paid them directly for the cream $17,620.16, or S5,390.00 
more than they would have received by the otht^r process. 

When the farmer thinks he has to pay for the teams that are sent around to 
collect the cream, let him study these figfures until he sees his mistake. 

In conclusion let me ask, has not the creamery lieen an ndvactage to the Ne- 
braska farmer, and is it not for his interest to continue to patronize it. 



After a duet, "The Alpine Maid," beautifully rendered by Miss 
Edith Turner and Mrs. J. H. Wheeler, and a cornet solo by Dave 
Stewart, a paper was read Hon. L. S. Coffin, of Ft. Dodge, Iowa: 

ADDRESS. 

HON. L. S. COFFIN, FT. DODGE, IOWA. 

I am glad to be able to meet with your association in its first annual meeting. I 
was at its birth, and 1 stand as a sort ot God-father to it, if you know how much 
that means. Webster, I think, says this God-father makes himself a surety that 
this child will torsake the devil and all his works. 

If 1 am to be God-father to this association in that sense it may give me the 
right to take a tatherly oversicfht ot it, and give it on proper occasions some whole- 
some advice. Solomon says. " train up a child in the way he should go, so when 
he is old te need not depart therefrom." If this be true, too, then in order to save 
myself trouble in my sponsorship over this yearling, just celebrating its first anni- 
versary, perhaps I had better begin toniyht and give such words ot counsel and 
advice as the time and the circumstince might indicate. 

Mr. [^resident: 1 may mean far more by the words " the time and the circum- 
stance'" than the common or casual hearer miy:ht think, and the fulness of their 
meaning may develop farther along in the paper. 

Tins child is born in "perilous tinips." It is to meet with terribl« temptations 
right at the threshold of its existence. When its elder sisters, born in Iowa, Illinois, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota, first saw the light, very different skies hung over their 
Hi'vi nt into lite than wtiat looks down upon this latest borri of the dairy maids of 
the gre.it west. To them everybody held out open arms, and farmers' families all 
over the land— those who intelligently understood the meaning of such advents — 
shouted aloud for joy. 

The consumers of dairy products also saner like the morning stars of old; they 
sent up the wild chorus over the new born world. Not so now — your birth comes in 
iiiidi T lowering skies instead of clapping of hands and wild, thrilling songs of joy — 
dark lorebodings, lurking suspicions. The day comes in without the bright morn- 
iny star of hope — the black pall of discouragement spreads out over every farm and 
daily household. 

When your elder sisters were born there was sure and good profit in the cow. 
She was the animal with the golden hoof. Every man that kept ten cows on his 
farm knew that these ten would buy him from the proceeds of their milk alone ten 
more by another year. He knew he could double his working capital 
each year. The poor, indebted and mortgage ridden grain raiser saw 
the way out of the clutches of the money loaning fiend. He could get a few cows and 
in a short time their milk would float his debt. This is all, or to a very great extent, 
entirely changed now. 

The man with cows and dairy fixtures has had his income cut right in two by 
the middle. Men are wanting to sell and but few wishing to buy dairy cows. In 
all the years of farm industry up to the present time men have been wont to look 
upon the dairy as something sure. Sometimes and undfr some circumstances the 
income may have been slow, still it was one of th^ sure things. In the last decade 
nothing has paid the western farmer better; since skill, intelligence and money 
have all lent thera aid in developing the dairy interests to a wonderful degree. Pri' 



34 

vate dairies and association cireamery and cheese factories have sprung up as by 
magic all over the west, when a short tune ago it was thought nothing but gram 
raising could exist. 

Now creameries are closing up, private dairies are curtiilint.' their work, and 
general depression and discouragement sit brooding in homes where a short time 
ago all was hope and cheerful expectation. Bad times this tor the dairymaid of 
what is to be one of the grandest states in the nation to be ushered into iite. 

Those who have attended these meetings understand tull well what I mean 
when I thus refer to the perils to which the young life ot the fair daughter of your 
state is to be exposed. I may be allowed for the sake of those pn-sent who have 
not been able to attend the other meetings, to state briefly the situation. 

I would do this for another reason. Should the finances ot your association al- 
low of printing the proceedings and papers of these meetings I want to place lutbre 
that large audience who may read these reports the real facts in order to a waken 
all to a proper sense of the need of urgent and united action upon this inipurtant 
point. 

Strange. and even paradoxical as it may seem — while the world generally is 
growing better — while our civilization is constantly rising higher and higher, and 
there are more good men and women on the earth to-day than at an> time in the 
history of our race, there are at the same time the most gigantic swindlers; and 
the most unblushing swindlers, carrying their dark and selfish schemes to an extent 
never before known or dreamed of. 

This is an age of money-making. There is a craze to amass vast sums — to ac- 
complish this some men stop at nothing. No scheme is too vile — no plan that may 
involve in. its extension the utter ruin of others is objected to on that account, pro- 
vided it brings the dollars. 

Acquisitiveness is all right in its place. It is indeed the imperative duty of 
everyone to acquire a sufficient amount to make himself and family independent of 
want — yes, to be in affluent circumstances even. 

It is right and proper for some to acquire largely more than the comfort of him- 
self, and those dependent upon him, demand; this, that he may use it for th» good of 
his race, in founding and building up institutions for the uplifting of manhood. 

But this insane rush to amass millions for the name of it, or for the sordid 
pleasure of having it, is so small and mean that I have hard work to have any re- 
spect at all for such miserly souls. You know how the New England Yankee is 
naturally educated to save every cent, and to hold on to every quarter till the 
imaged eagle would scream for the squeezing grip. 

This kind of an early education 1 had. " To be sure and get thi- best end of a 
trade" was the gospel with the average Yankee; economy of the most rigid stamp 
was a necessity. This was all right if it went no further. But, alas! for poor hu- 
man nature, when it was so hard to earn a dollar honestly among the rocks ot New 
Hampshire, it was a sore temptation to give a '" leetle" better character to the 
cow or the horse we were selling, it by so doing we could get n dollar or two more 
for the animal than it was actually worth. Yes. it was somethintr to be proud ot, 
and I was so taught by the example of some of those around me that to be sharp 
and get the best in a bargain was a sign of smartness and an omen of good for the 
future. 

Such an one they would say is "bound to get ah ad; he will be rich; ' and to 
be rich was the magnum benum of all good. When I came west and commenced 
life as a man for myself, there was ,=omething about these broad, free prairies that 
somehow made me ashamed of my little, narrow, penurious Yankee ways and 
longed for a wider manhood. 

It look me years to conquer myself — years before I could look on the other man's 
side who waa either buying of or selling to me. Nov/ 1 woul I not exchange the 
satisfaction I have in being able to say to a man, " that animal yon don't want be- 
cause of this or that defect," It I can better a man or his finance- by a trade with 
him, then I trade. 

It has now become so that it is hard for me to conceive how a man can coolly 
asd deliberately go to work to deceive another m order to take from him some 



35 

money he could not otherwise do. I can't understand of what stuff such men are 
made. 

Such men I fear. If a man will deceive me so as to take from me money with- 
out returnintr an equivalent, would he not, if he could do it and steer clear of the 
law, waylay and rob me? Now, applying these thoughts and principles let us go 
on with the thought this seeming diversion led trom. 

We will return to it by a round-about way 

With what hiifh hopes; with what visions of good have the farmers, the dairy- 
men and creamery men started out uj tins promising stale. \ great many may 
have made the mistake here as in Iowa, that ot sticking too long to grain raising. 
Hut consider for a moment the great number in the aggregate scattered throughout 
this entire state who own cows nnd depend more or less on the cream and butter 
they expect to sell to get many of the thousand and one things with which home is 
made up. How many here, learning how well dairymen have done in Iowa, have 
with £/reat effort and sacrifice provided themselves with a few cows to go into dairy- 
ing. How many have planned to se3d down their land so as to have tame meadows 
and |).istures for their cows. How many energetic, enterprising men have put their 
money into creameries and have induced the farmers around them to buy cows, 
witli I he e.vpectation of selling cream. 

I wish it possible I could get at the entire number in your state who are this 
very night prepared, or are preparing, to so shape their affairs that their future in- 
come IS to be more or less affected by the price of butter. I wish it were possible 
that I could arrange them in marching order and lead the long procession by this 
audience so you could count them Oh, what an army would file past you, Mr. 
President. How we should become interested in the various families and individuals 
as they passed by. This family was sure that their ten cows would, in a year or 
two. pay off the mortgage on the homestead; that one was expecting to make 
enough this year so that Sarah, the oldest girl, could be sent to the high school 
next year. See that widow with those five children; the oldest boy is a cripple for 
life, but what a head and eye. The mother i.s saying to herself, it I can get enough 
for the cream from my eight cows what I shall sell to the creamery to put my son 
under the tuition of such a teacher, and if so ' am sure he will make his mark in 
the world even if he is lame. We could sit for hours as the long train of hopeful 
families passed by. It would indeed be a long train, thousands on thousands, so 
many that the morning light would find us still here, waiting for the rear of the 
column to pass. 

Who can measure the high hopes, the manv expectations? How full our own 
hearts would be, who have been in any way instrumental in shaping those hopes 
and reasonable expectations. 

1 sav reasonable — who ever heard of a failure when calculations were based on 
the cow? Good butter has always, since the world began, brought cash, and who 
expects to make other than good butter now the creameries have come and taught 
us ail so much. Then if we are so situated we cannot make good butter at home, 
the creameries will buy our cream and give us as much for the cream that will 
itiiike a pound of butter as we usually get for the butter after we have put our time 
and work in to make it. Of course there is good money in dairying here where 
land is so cheap and feed so plenty. 

If dairyiner pays away back in New York and the New England states where 
land is worth $75 an acre, hay $20 a ton and corn erets to a dollar a bushel, why it 
is as clear as sunlight we can make it pay and pay big here, for it costs but a trifle 
more if any for us to send our butter to New York or Boston than from farms in 
those states. So the happy and expectant families reason, and with full faith they 
go on with perfectmg their plans for creameries and for private dairies. 

I said I wish I could tell the number of the individuals in your state whose 
future is to be affected more or less by the price of the butter they expect to sell. 

I wish I could arrive at something of an estimate of the amount of butter all 
these hopeful people would make in a year. 

It would be millions on millions of pounds, wouldn't it? 

In Iowa we estimate w<3 have sold in some years as high as $50,000,000 worth 



36 

of dairy products. I see no reason why Nebraska cannot in the near future expect 
to equal us in dairy matters. 

As it is even now the amount you can produce this coming year is enormous, 
and the amount of money you expect, or have reason to expect, to receive is so large 
that it is difficult for the mind to completely grasp it. Certainly none of us can 
reach out and take into adequate comprehension all the good the money it should 
bring would carry to the numberless families and individuals. 

Now, I am most reluctantly compelled to turn another side of this picture to 
the audience. I have struggled and labored to bring to your minds some idea of 
the vast number of pounds of your dairy and creamery butter possible to t)(> made 
for sale in your state this coming year. Please keep that undefined, indefinite vast 
amount in your minds. 

Vast as that amount is, there is one man in Chicago who can make and send 
out from his factory and put upon the market more pounds of vrhat is sold as choice 
creamery or first class dairy butter than all the butter makers and creameries in 
this great state of yours, and that man will not have a cow to his nanse for the pur- 
pose. 

This is not all. That man can undersell you till he reduces your price below 
the cost of production even here where land is cheap, and feed so low as to com- 
mand almost no price at all. 

The mere statement of this fact is so appalling in its far-reaching consequence 
that it is with the utmost difficulty I can command my emotions so as to intelligent- 
ly make it. It is terrible truth for me to stand up here and utter, so astounding is 
this fact that its realization nearly paralyzes the entire dairy people ot this nation, 
and well it may. 

Do you ask what is the stuff made of? I can't tell. Some say tallow and leaf 
lard together with a small per cent, of butter are the main ingredients. But it mat- 
ters not what it is made of. 

No one asks what a counterfeit bill is made of, or what kind of ink is used to 
print it. It is enough that it is counterfeit. That condemns it. This bogus butter 
is a counterfeit. That is enough. It is never sold to the consumer under its real 
name. Consumers are inteiested in this thing as well as the makers of the real 
article. Mark the point I am now about to make: Mr. Armour, one of the hirgest 
manufacturers of this stuff, a very rich man, claims that he makes his out of clean, 
pure tallow and leaf lard, some chemicals and with a certain per cent, of butter. 
He claims that his product is wholesome and no one can tell it from erenuine cow 
butter. Admit it for the moment, it is a fact that tallow and lard can be deodorized 
80 that neither can be detected by the smell. 

It is also a fact, now mark, that tallow and lard from diseased cattle and cholera 
hogs can also be deodorized so that it cannot be told from that of healthy or recently 
killed animals. 

Now, if Mr. Armour, professing to be honorable and making only from pure 
tallow and lard, but allows it to be sold not for what it reiilly is, but as pure butter. 
will not some other man, in order to make money, buy up cheap, impure and 
cholera hog lard, put it through the same procpss and make an imitation ot Mr. 
Armour's butterine and sell it for his, and let it go on the market as butter also? 
Here is where the thing leads, and there is no safety if we once consent to the fraud 
in any way or shape. Thera is no escaping the conclusion, hence 1 say the con- 
sumer is vitally interested as well as we producers. 

It would be useless for me to state in numbers the millions of pounds of the 
f'-aud stuff that are made each year now. It is enough to say as I have that one 
man has in Chicago an establishment of a capacity to make more pounds than all 
the private dairies and creameries in Nebraska put together, and there are at least 
fourteen factories in Chicago alone. How many there are at other ca'.tle and hog 
plaughfering points the Lord only knows; I don't. 

I have said I could not conceive of what material a man ooul ' be made who 
oould deliberately go to work for the sake of the dollars and cents and rob thousands 
on thousands of hard working, honest people as Mr. Armour and those engaged in 
a lijje work are robbing them. 

li there was left any maohgod ia tbeRi, ( wQiilcl Uke to have them ^Qme mi sit 



^1 

down Dy your side, Mr. President, while I would again order a counter-march of the 
vast army we have had pass in review before us this evening, yes, I would like for 
that man Armour to sit here and look these people in the face as they come march- 
ing back with a full realizing sense of all his work meant to them. I would have 
him understand how these people had come mostly empty handed into this new 
country, how they had endured all the privations of pioneer life, and liyed in cabins 
and dugouts, had contended with drought and grasshoppers and cyclones, had 
struggled manfully with debts, had lived on cornbread and potatoes and salt until 
they had began to see daylight ahead; had, as I have said, collected a few cows 
around them, and were just building hopes of schooling their children, mortgages 
lifted, the old claim cabin exchanged for a comfortable farm house, were m fact just 
beginning to feel that they were men and women. Over again I say I would like 
for them to look into this man's soul, if he has one, as he reads in the faces of all 
these people as they pass slowly by how hope had fled, how the bright visions of an 
hour ago had fled. Could he look that crippled boy in the face ? Could he meet 
the fiery indignation of that mother's eye when he knew he had taken from her the 
last prop, the only hope for that darling first born, crippled boy? 

If he had the least particle of the soul of a true man he would need no other 
hell than to be obliged to sit there and look on the people his greed had ruined. 

Well, here we are confronted with these monstrous facts. The next thing 
comes the pertinent question " what are we going to do about it?" 

Shall we tamely bow down and take upon our necks the yoke? Shall we sit 
still and let one man's interest out- weigh the interest of ten thousand men, women 
and children who personally are a thousand times his superior morally? No, I 
trust, yea, no. A thousand times no! 

The American born man and woman will submit to no such robbery and im- 
position. A counterfeiter is a counterfeiter the world over. We, the people, rule 
here in America. If we have no law now on our statute books that can reach these 
scoundrels we can mighty quick put some there. 

If the men we have already elected to make for us suitable laws to protect the 
interests of the people do not do it, we can put others in their places so quick it will 
make them think that a cyclone is about. Let every man, woman and child who 
can write, sit down at once and write to their member of congress, and give him to 
understand that this thing must stop or his head comes off at once. 

These butter fraud chaps may have the money, but we, the people, have the 
votes. 

Money goes a good way with a congressman, 1 know, but votes go further. 

It IS the " dear people" they will be most anxious to please, therefore, I repeat 
it, sit down and write at once; this week, next week and the next, and so on every 
week. Let them understand up at Washington you mean business and they will 
do it. 

All we ask is a law that shall compel them to sell the " fraud" as a " fraud." 

Put a revenue officer after them; let there be a weigher in every slush factory, 
and let him put a revenue stamp on every package, large or small, that will stay 
there until the last ounce is sold to the consumer, or Uncle Sam will ask why. 
State laws they will manage some way to evade, but when Uncle Samuel gets after 
them they are terribly afraid, tor his big cowhides come down with the weight of a 
ton on the toes of those who presume on his ignorance or verdancy. 

Yes, we must all, everybody, arouse and let these fellows who are robbing us 
and imposing their vile compounds ©n the people know that this great country is 
not quite ready to go to the dogs, just that a score of swindlers might get the earth. 

Why, I had on my tongue to say the other day while in Chicago, that the 
womans' broom brigade ot Iowa would march down to the city and sweep every last 
brick of the cussed factories into the lake and the men that run them with them, 
and thf^y will do it. too, be^'ore they will submit to such robbery. 

I don't Know when to stop, Mr. President, when I get upon this subject. I 
don't see how any man can hold his peace. "Cry aloud and spare not" is the great 
command sent forth by the pressing wants and wrongs of an outraged people. 

We who are more interested in the production of dairy goods are not the only 



38 

ones intel-ested. What man or woman is to be found who is sunken so low hut 
who has some desire to know what it is they eat, especially when it is so important 
an article of diet as butter? 

I have already said that the most objectionable and offensive fats can be put 
througfh a process of deodorizing so that they cannot be distinguished from clean, 
healthy lard and tallow, ot which these compounds imitating butter can be made, 
but because it looks like butter do you want to eat it? 

Already many patents have been issued from the patent effice for the making of 
this stuff: Here are some ot them : 

WHAT IS IT? 

The patents for counterfeit butter which were named in Commissioner Colman's 
paper read before the National Butter, Cheese and Egg convention, involve the use, 
among other things, of the following named ingredients: sour milk, all kinds ot 
animal tats, lactic acid, peanut oil, almond oil, olive oil, soda ash, salt, stearine, 
orris root, leaf lard, treated with a solution of nitric acid and borax; milk, sugar, 
bi-carbonate of soda, butyric acid, beet suet, glycerine, coloring matter, buttfrmilk, 
tallow, pepsin, saltpeter, boracic acid, benzoic acid, ground slippery elm bark, sali- 
cylic acid, caustic soda, corn starch, cooked farinaceous flour, annatto, benne oil, 
prepared cows udder, sal soda, oil of sesame, oil of sunflower seed, vaseline; etc. 
Who cannot relish bogus butter alter this? 

No, we producers are not alone in the work of dealing with "fraud." All will 
help. All we aak is that it shall go upon the market under its own name. As it is 
now it has stolen the livery of heaven to serve the devil in. It has stolen our tubs, 
all our choice packages, and it has stolen, too, all the dear, sweet pet names we 
have invented with which to call our dear, pure, rich and aromatic products of our 
best dairies and creameries. 

Here are some of them : 

Spring Rock Creamery; Maple Grove Dairy; Cloverdale Dairy; Jersey Isle 
Herd Butter; Cream Foam Dairy; Iowa's Best Creamery, etc. 

When asked why they steal these names they reply, " Oh, we don't believe 
that creamery and dairymen have got a monopoly of the English language." 

We have heard much about the cheek of the government mule, but Mr. Presi- 
dent, ladies and gentlemen: hereafter it will only be an insult to long-abused ani- 
mals and to the father of mules to mention a bogus butter man's name the same 
day with that of a jackass or his offspring, the mule. 

Cheek! Cheek! I have seen pretty hard things in my life, living as I have 
part ot it in the granite State, but I take my hat right off at once and vote a medal 
to a butterine man for hardness of cheek. I would give it to him for hardness of 
heart, but I find on careful post mortem examination he has none. 

Leaving this part of my subject, I come to the tatherly advice part of my work. 
The God-father becomes a surety that his foster-child will forsake and eschew all 
the ways of the devil. You may do this. I mean this State Dairyman's Association 
and it may not be hard for you to do this. When Webster defined a God-father the 
bogus butter devil was not known. Evolution had not arone far enough then to 
make his birth possible. He is on earth now. He goes up and down the land not 
seeking whom he may devour, but goes doing it. The men, women and children 
who are his natural prey are so many and so thick he does not need to hunt. They 
are on every hand and he is devouring them. 

The question is, will you kill this devil or help him? As a God-father I offer 
myself as surety that you will forever forsake his ways. 

Now I am going to ask you as a state association just entering upon what can 
be a path of great usefulness this pertinent question: Will you keep wholly and 
perfectly aloof from the way of the meanest of all devils, this butter fraud man. T 
mean a good dral by this question. 

Some years ago when the butter and cheese association was held in Cedar 
Rapid."! of our state, 1 wa*; asked to prepare a paper and i-ead there. I did so. That 
paper was a plea as strong as I could make it, that Iowa creamery men would for- 
ever stand aloof from mixing anything with their butter. I wanted that the word 



^ 



"IoWa**oli any dairy product from our state should be an open voucher fot its 
purity. 

I had dropped on to perhaps the first one and up to that time, the only one of 
our many creameries in the state which had just begun to use neutral oil. I don't 
know as any do it now, I don't want to believe that we have a creamery in the 
state that does it. 

The olio oil makers in Chicago say that many of the creameries of the country 
buy their neutral to mix with and cheapen their out-put. 

This may be a false accusation from a set of counterfeiters and frauds to turn 
the storm of scorn and condemnation they see coming upon their own swindling 
pates, it would be no more than natural to expect from such a set of swindlers, 
but supposing that every creamery man and every dairy man in our state had, from 
that date, to set his face against this fraud so that there was a moral certainty that 
all Iowa products were the true article? It would have been millions to-day in our 
hands. 

Let this association take high grounds on this matter, expel and put the mark 
of (Jain on every man that may join your association who, I was about to say, was 
even suspected of using a pound of neutral oil, but certainly everyone who uses it. 
Let it be the laudable and boanden duty as well as ambition to have all of the dairy 
products from your great, grand state true to name. Have it so that the word 
" Nebraska" shall be a warrant to the genuineness of your goods, so much so that 
it will tempt others in other states to steal your good name. 

Do this and then shall I indeed be proud to stand sponsor for this fair, young 
and latest born dairy maid of this great west. 

A grand career is open to you for great usefulness. Lest some may be discour- 
aged by what I have said in this address and be deterred from entering into the 
dairy industry, let me say be not so alarmed. So great is the crime against an in- 
dustry in which so many are interested, an industry of the farm which can employ 
all the members of a farmer's family better than any other; an industry that has, 
since we were people, been one of the most reliable if not the most remunerative; 
an industry that has invested in the cows alone more money than in all the nation 
put together, and one, too, that will be protected. So great is the wrong sought to 
be perpetrated that its very magnitude and heinousness will work its own cure. 

The people are being aroused and we shall see a wave of frenzy sweep over the 
land like one of our tornadoes, carrying destruction to all engaged in this work, the 
equal of which the devil himself had never dreamed of. Take, then, not one step 
backward. Sell not a cow. Let him that hath none sell a reaper or a horse and 
buy one. This land will and must be a land of milk and butter, if not flowing with 
milk and honey. 

God makes no mistakes. Such a state as this, such a soil for grasses, such 
streams and springs of water were not made without a design. The time is coming 
rnd that not far away when the population upon the square mile of this land will be 
a marvel. In the economy of a densely populated rural district the cow must and 
will figure as one of the chief economic forces. 

Let, then, no one be for a moment disheartened. As sure as grass grows and 
water runs dairying is to be one of the most pleasant, sure, profitable and important 
industries of your state. It is the industry of the masses of farmers. It is one of 
the certain roads to independence. It leads to intelligence and refinement. No 
swindler like Armour or any of his clan can thwart the ways ot good in the heart of 
God to his children. Do well your part, lift high the standard of excellence and 
purity of all your dairy products and you are sure to win. 

This agitation about this fraud is going to disgust people more and more with 
the miserable imitations and create a larger demand for the genuine article. 

It is in fact to be one of the best really in the end that could happen to the 
dairy interest. The true bill becomes all the more precious because of the many 
counterfeits. 



Miss Edith Turner and Mr. J. G. Lumbard then appeared and 
rendered " The Fisherman," which fairly captivated the audience. 



40 

After short speeches by Mr. Ploard, Mr. Luinbard, and others, 
the committee on resolutions through its chairman, Mr. Coffin, offered 
the following: 

Whereas, The great creamery and dairy interest is in imminent 
danger of utter destruction, "and one of the most important and 
attractive industries of the rural districts, through which more 
people are 'interested than any other, would be frustrated and untold 
numVjers would be disastrously affected by the unchecked and uncon- 
trolled manufacture and sale of a counterfeit butter; therefore 

Resolved, That we, as a State Dairy Association, do most 
earnestly and emphatically enter our decided protest against the great 
swindle, and we call upon Congress to take immediate steps to protect 
the people in an honest industry against a consummate and cowardly 
swindle, both because of the intrinsic merit of the industry as well 
as that of public health. 

Resolved, That we, as an association of creamery and dairymen 
of the State of Nebraska, do hereby pledge ourselves that we will, as 
an association, as well as in our individual capacity, in no way or man- 
ner countenance or encourage the manufacture, sale or use of any of 
the compounds, imitations or counterfeits of biitter, neither will we 
in any way or manner buy or use any of the neutral oils or oleo to 
mix with or otherwise adulterate pure milk or creani butter. 

Resolved, Should any of the members of this association, or any 
who niay become members hereafter, be found guilty of using any 
N foreign oils or any substance whatever to cheapen tlie products of his 
ci'eamery or dairy by adulteration, he shall be expelled from the asso- 
ciation and his name published to the public as one who practices such 
adulteration. 

Resolved, That this association recommend to every creamery 
man in the state to secure the names of all his patrons and all dairy- 
men and all who are interested in the production and consumption of 
of pure dairy products to sign petiti(jns to Congress, asking for 
immediate legislation which shall place the manufacture and sale of 
all compounds, imitations and counterfeits of butter under laws simi- 
lar to those regulating the manufacture and sale of whiskey and 
tobacco, with a revenue tax of not less than ten cents a pound upon 
all such articles, and that when any of it is found offered for sale 
without the U. S. revenue stamp it and the vender shall be held 
responsible to the federal laws, as are those who are found dealing in 
unstamped tobacco. 

Resolved, That the secretary of this association is hereby 
instructed to prepare and send out to the creamery and dairy men of 



41 

the state proper blanks for petitions to Congress, as contemplated in 
the preceding resolutions. 

Resolved, That as a first, and in fact the important step in the 
improvement of the dairy interest of Nebraska, the owner of the 
cow should become more intelligent as to her nature, her breeding, 
hei- care* and feeding, we pledge ourselves to do all we can to induce 
the keepei's of cows and farmers to take and read good agricultural 
and dairy papers. 

ReHolved, That the most hearty thanks of this association are 
hereby tendered to the citizens of Fremont for the cordial hospitality 
shown to the members of this association, and 

Resolved, Furtlier, that great credit is diie to the local committee 
for its untiring efforts to make this, our first annual, the grand suc- 
cess it has had. Also 

Resolved, That we are under special obligation to the band and 
musical talent of Fremont for the aid and pleasure they have afforded 
to our meetings. 

Resolved, That we gratefully acknowledge the courtesy of the 
railroads extended to the members of this association in giving us 
reduced rates. 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

The following, offei-ed by Hon. H. B. Nicodemus, were also 

unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That the thanks of this association are due and are 
hereby tendered to Col. W. D. Hojird, of Wisconsin, and Hon. L. S. 
Coffin, of Iowa, for their presence, their valuable aid, many words of 
advice and highly appreciative manner in which they have entertained 
us from their vast store of knowledge on daily as well as other 
matters. 

Resolved, That the thanks of this association are hereby tendered 
to Prof. Julius G. Lumbard, of Chicago, for the soul-inspiring music 
with which he has entei-tained us during this, our first annual con- 
vention. 

The president then appointed the following committees: 

On Legislation — W. G. Whitmore, H. B. Nicodemus, Allen Root, 

D. P. Ashburn, O. M. Druse. 

On Dairy Statistics— li. W. Furnas, H. H. Wing, J. H. Reed, 

W. A. Carpenter, Davis Richardson. 
. Adjourned sine die. 



APPEKDlXnll. 

The following rules adopted by the Michigan Dairymen^s As^d' 
ciation have been thought wortliy of a place in this report: 

RULES FOR THE CARE OF COWS, MILK, AND MILK UTENSILS. 

The dairymen ot Mioiiigan in convention assembled at Kalamazoo, Feb. 16, 17 
and 18, 1886, after dne deliberation, yive as the experience of long years devoted to 
the business of caring for cows, taking care of milk and milk utensils, that it is ab- 
solutely necessary that the following rules should be practiced by milk producers in 
order to furnish to cheese and butter factories milk in good condition for the manu- 
facture of butter and cheese and wholesome milk to consumers: 

1. Cows of whatever breed should have an abundance of good, wholesome food 
and good, pure water — not too cold m winter— and salt, to which they should have 
access at all times. \ 

2. Cows must not be overheated or unduly excited by fast driving or worrying. 

3. The udder and teats should be thoroughly cleaned before milking (by wash- 
ing, if need be) and the teats should not be wet by the milker during the process of 
milkihe. 

4 Kindness and gentleness should be used at all times and under all circum- 
stances. At no time should the cow be excited by loud or boisterous talking or 
laughing. 

5. Cows should be milked by the same milker and the milking should be done 
as quickly as possible. 

6. During cold weather cows should be comfortably housed and their stalls 
should be well cleaned and littered. 

7. Milk kept over night should be cooled to at least 70 degrees. 

8. If the milk is for butter, or cream for the creamery or market, cool the creamer 
to about 40 to 45 degrees before commencine to milk. Put the milk into the 
creamer as soon as drawn. It should remain from 12 to 24 hours for a complete 
separation. 

9. For the cheese factory aerate the milk well by thoroughly stirring and cool- 
ing to 75 degrees before starting to the factory. 

10. Milk should never be allowed to stand where it is subjected to foul odors of 
any kind. 

11. Nothing but bright and absolutely clean tin pails and cans should be used 
in handling milk. 

12. Whey must never be allowed to stand in cans after being returned to the 
farm, and the cans should be thoroughly cleaned as soon as emptied. 

13. To properly clean milk utensils, they should be first thoroughly washed 
with warm water and then scalded with water that is boiling hot. They should be 
scoured with salt at least twice a week. 

Wood (^ Sherwin 

—WHOLESALE— 

Creamsry Butter and Cheese, 

—ALSO MANUFACTURERS OF— 

(CHHSnOXK"AND"BUtfEB"fUBSi 

ELGIN, - - ILLINOIS 



THE DAVIES WAREHOUSE & SUPPLY CO.) 



IMPORTERS. 

NO. 200 LA SALLE ST. CHICAGO. 

We Import from Liverpool the celebrated 

Which Is fast gaining favor for Its Whiteness, Flavor and Purlt y 
Price, 2 24R) Sacks, (White Linen) $2.40. 

We Pay 26c per Sack for every reasonably clean and whole Sack returned to us . 



$40 

one ? Write to 

CORNISH, CURTIS & CREENE, 

FORT ATKINSON, WIS. 



Will buy at whaleaale on© 

of our li>-foot Vaiie or Vane- 
less Wiuduiills, where we 
have no Ageut. A good re- 
cord of six years, and the 
First Premiom at the 
World's Fair at New Or- 
leans, in the Dairy Depart- 
ment. Don't yon want 



Thomas B.Wales,jr.& Son, 



IOWA CITY, - 



IOWA, 



BREEDERS OF CHOICE 




HOLSTEINl FRIESIAN ! CATTLEIm 



Merchants Despatch 

* Transportation Company's 

DAIRY : FREIGHT ; LINE, 



Our New and Improved Refrigerator Cars 

Awarded First Premium and Medal at the World's Exposition, New Orleans; are in 
regular service for the Quick Transportation of 

And all other Perishable Property, 
From all points in the West, Northwest and Southwest, 

£0 NEW YORK, BOSTON, ALBANY, PHILADELPHIA, 

And other Eastern Points. 



Freight should he marked and consigned via Merchants Despatch Dairy 
Line, and Shipping tickets should so read to msure despatch and to prevent ship- 
ments from being diverted. 

Postal Cards for giving notice of shipments and Stencils for marking pack- 
ages will be furnished upon application to (4en 1 Western Agent 

M. D. T. Co.'s Refrigerator Cars will lie supplied for Car Loads on appli- 
cation to Agents of Railroads at point of shipment. 

* Goods for Foreign Ports forwarded on Through Bills of Lading. 

G. F. Dexter, Geo. W. Bull, 

Western Traveling Agent, CHICAGO. Traveling Agent, CHICAGO. 

W. W. Hook, M. W. Seibert, 

TiBvellng Agent, CHICAGO. Traveling Agent, TOLEDO. 

GEORGE H. SMITH, 

(jener^l We^gtiern Agent, U2 Dearborn Street, CHICAGO. 




EASIEST 

AND QUICKEST 

The children say It Is JUST FUN to churn. One 
churn at wholesale price where there Is no agent. 

CORNISH, CURTIS & GREENE, Fl. AtlflllSOn, f IS. 



%^^^i 




IMPURE LIN EM SACKS: IPmI 




Li<ck 'kW'.^->,- ,.,,-j ^^;.w vWrrtfjafa* ''a, 



ei«r ^^ t 



(S^f 



-^Industrial College Farm.,^ 



SHORT^HORN, HEREFORD 



Galloway, Holstein-Friesiau Ayrshire and Jersey Cattle. 



«IPlllSlH^EMIilKE?SiHiliS 



young j^tock for j^ale. 



Superintendent, 



Correspondence Solicited. 



LINCOLN, NEBRASKA. 



9lans of Creameries and Cheese factories. 
BUERELL & WHITMAN, 

Manufacturers ot all the Latest and Most Itnp)roved Machinery and Apparatus for 

the manufacture of both Butter and Cheese and all kinds of Dairy 

Supplies and Fiirnishin^'s. 

SEND FOR ELEGANTLY ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

Centrifugal Cream Separating or Milk Machines. 

Warranted the best either for Small Dairies or Largk Creameries. The only 
system of eytracting- the cream from milk that can be advantagreousiy employed 
where the cream-yatherint; plan is practiced. By means of these machines the 
FARMERS are enabled to take out every particle of the cream from the milk 
when it is fresh, or immediately after it is drawn from the cows, thus furnishinsr the 
best quality ot cream, and leaviny the skim milk pure and sweet, and in the best 
possible condition for feednifj to Pigrs, Calves and other stock. Note what is said ot 
these machines in the manulacture of Commercial Creaiu for making Ice Cream, 
Charlotte Russe, etc., etc.: 

Isaac Rofp, of Cohoes. N. Y., to whom we have furnished Cream for tlie past 
two seasons, says: " The best cream I have ever used." 

(J. W. Partridge, of Buffalo, N. Y., an't for some time president of the Com- 
mon Council of that city, says: " Have had trade that I could never get for cream 
raised under the old svstem." 

Also many other TESTIMONIALS from the most prominent manufacturers 
OP BUTTER throughout the country. All ot our Apparatus, such as 
Centrifugal Machines. Gang Presses, Vats, Boilers and Engines, &c.. and also Seam- 
less Handage, Cheese-box Hoops and Kims, Ratter Boxes. Annatto Seed, 
Annattoiue, Kenuets, 

As well as everything that enters into the manufacture ot Cheese and Butter, are 
either manufactured or imported by us. We can guarantee them of the very best 
quality, and, as we are first hands for all of these, we can make lower prices thaii 
any others. 

In making finest Butter and Cheese, use only the Danish rennet extract. 
BUTTER COLOR and CHEESE COLOR furnished by us. Our goods can be obtained 
from our authorized agents in all Dairy Districts. 

Fraser Patent Gang Cheese Press and Hoops, 

Exclusive Manufacturers and Sole Owners of Patents Pertaining Thereto. 

As some parties have advised that we were not f^e manufacturers or importers 
of all the machinery and goods which we furnish to the Dairy interests, we desire to 
state that we manufacture or import all our specialties exclusively. All patents in- 
volved are taken care of by us, so that we sell to all parties, guaranteeing them in 
the right to use our goods free tr-^m all claims from any other parties whomsoever 

We welcome visitors to our 

STOCK FARMS, MODEL CREAMERIES. SILOS, &(., AT LITTLE FALLS, N. Y., 

Where we shall with pleasure show the latest and most approved methods, to- 
gether with the best possible Machinery and Apparatus in every department. Cor 
respondence solicited. 

Address BURRELL, & WHITMAN, Little Falls. N. Y.. U.S. A. 
Our Factories are located as follows: 
LITTLE FALLS N. Y.— Vats, Tinware and Gen- WYANDOTTE. MICH.— All Box Material. Barrel 

eral Supplies; also Stock Farm, Silos, &c. Hoops, Tbln Veneers Head Linings, &c. 

ROME. N. Y.-Patent Gang Presses and Hoops, POUGHKKEPSIE, N. Y.-Bollers & Engines, 

Vats. &c , and Depot for Dairy Supplies. Cheese and Butter Tryeis &c. 

PHILADELPHIA— Crt-am Sef>arat ng Machines SUNDERLAND, VT.— Butter Packages. 
NEWPORT. MIDDLEVILLE, TRENTON &LITTLE FALL^. N. Y .—Creameries formanufacture Of 

OIjEJSrSIDE BUTTER. 



J. F. SWAB& BRO, 

Dealers in and Manufacturers of 

Creamery and Dairy Supplies. 

Engines and Boilers. 

SjDecialties of oiar o-wn MlanvLf^ot-are : 

Creamery Box Churns, Creain Steam and lee Vats, Wood Jacket Trans- 
portation Cans, Iron Clad Milk Cans, J. F. Swab's Pat. 
Transportation Can, Railroad Shipping Cans, J. F. 
Swab's Pat. Ventilated Milk Cans, Common 
Milk Setters, Stewart's Gold Medal 
Butter Color. 



Agents fof Ihe km\ Cfeam Sepafalor and Asliton's Daiif Sail. 

WRITE FOR DISCOUNTS BEFORE BUYING. 
No. 8 and 9, North First, - - Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 



u. s. 

Patent 
Issued 



Dec 




The "Acme" Calf Feeder 

Takes all the disagreeable features out of Calf raising. 
Measures the milk in equal portions to each calf and feeds 
fro7n one to ten Calves in three minutes. 

MAWACTURED AKD FOR SALE BY 

GEO, LANING, - - La Salle, lU, 



THE 



COO LEY or Submerged System. 



" C 



£ 

2 o 

c 

(8 

C 

a 
Q. O' 




■n 
O 

» 

> 

X z 

m m 

m z 

■<s 

s 

H 



Saves in Transportation of Cream its Entire Corr 
Every Thirty Days or Less. 

IT PRODUCES ENOUGH MORE MONEY FROM THE MILK TO PAY 

FOR ITSELF EYERY THIRTY DAYS, OVER AND ABOVE 

ANY OTHER APPARATUS ON THE MARKET. 

THE COOLEY PATENT 

Has been fully sustained by the United States 
Court. By decision of the United States Court 
it is the only creamer or milk-can which can 
be used water-sealed or submerged without 
infringement. 

It has received more Gold and Silver 

Medals than all other Creamers 

put together, and the butter 

made from it has been honored 

BY MORE Premiums. 




Cooley Can as used for 
gathering cream. 




Cooley Can as used in th' 
whole-mill; factory. 



For prices of cans for collecting cream, or Cooley Creamers for privale dairies, 
apply to 

JOHN BOYD, Manufacturer- 

199 LAKE STREET, - - CHICAGO, ILL. 



READ FOLLOWING TESTIMONIALS. 



FANCY CREAMERY BUTTER. 

MH.J0HNB0V.: I am satisfied that ifi^lTrsUmpo'ssib'^e^to ' ''''. 
creamery successfully in a prairie countrv wifhnnf fh /> 'mpos^sible to operate a 
better results in both quantity and quaTity'ofce^^^ and V^fTn^^^^f'T' ^' ^""-^^ 
of the cream that the Cooley Systen?de vers it In f?<l H. 1 u l^'"" transportation 

any other. During the heaiZeaJon 1 ha^" not had " ef t^^^^^nd^^'f^'?" ^'''"] 
cream per week in the tin Haulino-cans nnH ^ '"*" ".^'^ ^^^*^"ty Pou"J« of churned 
butter for extra Western During HfT^ ' ^^''u^ *"^ ^^'''°" ^ '^'^^'^ ^o'd ^v 

the open can. I an, making ibou. 5ne ,l,o°usa„d Unds p". da/ ' " "" '"""^ 

D. W. Little. 

THE SILTOE SPRIXG CREAMERr CO. 

at least five hundred Coofey cans nevt ye\r Hn'^^S of^^n^^^ . ^V^'f' '° ^"^ °"' 

consider tiie Cooley can tli best imde fo^ rn in \v Patented cans.) We 

..ake the best buttir from t^e^c'er^^attr^TE t^e' Coc^er^aL^.'^^ ^"'"^ ^^^ ^^" 

GURLER BrO.S. & Co. 

ORANGEVILLE CREAMERY. 

SCHOCH & BOLENDER. 

PRAIRIE CITY CREAMERY CO. 

creamerv business „, furnishing cle^.l'Sl IT.^Z}''' ""'ToM'.rgTili" "' 

IKDIASOLA CREAMERT CO. 

JOHK Bovb: 1 can give yoi no be«e^7r'cXAhe°"t•^i^s''o7S^ c'o'ot'vsv, 

C i^. Trueblood. 



For economy of daily expense and uniformity of work, both as to quantity and nnality of 
product we cordially invite the closest scrutiny into the practical working of tt Cooly syltem 

199 Lake St., Chicago, Manufacturer and Owner of tlie Cooley a'nd Lorkwood Patents- 




CLAUDIUS JONES & SON, . 

iPrepr's Prairie liawri arid Gakdale Steck Farrns,#- 

Breeders of Short-Horn and Holstein Cattle. 
SEWARD, NEBRASKA. 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

I mil 11111 mil mil iiiii iiill nil! Iliii ijiii !!!!! I!!!! !!!! !!!> 




RiGE's PGWER mmm \ unkmyj ' ^ 




This worker operates on the only coiTect principle of working butter, and com- 
bines in a power machine the best features of the most perfect hand-workers. The 
workincf roller is suspended from a lever, operated by a pitman and crank attached to 
a diiving shaft. It is not driven hj gearing, but made very loose in its bearings, so 
as to be entirely free to follow the butter, which is worked by simple pressure. 

Being driven by simple contact with the butter, there is nothing whatever 
that can cause the roller to slide upon, rub or grind it in any way so as to injure its 
grain. As the roller is raised on the upward stroke of the lever, fresh butter is car- 
ried beneath it by the revolving table, to be pressed on its return stroke. 

In the Power Workers heretofore used, the rollers have all been driven by 
gearing, and experience has demonstrated that, even with the utmost care in hand- 
ling, the grain of the butter is injured by their use. The action of the geared roller 
is to draw the butter under it, which cannot be done without grinding it and conse- 
quent injury. 

The tables of these workers are made both with and without staves, and the 
rollers plain or fluted as desired. An extra roller may also be attached if wanted. 
They are guaranteed superior to any other Power Worker in use, and if not found as 
represented can be returned and money refunded. 

PRICES GIVEN UPON APPLICATION TO 

ID. I^. R,oe cSc, Co., 

Manufacturers of Every Description of Cheese and Butter- Making 

Apparatus, Creamery Builders, and Whosesale and Retail 

Dealers m General Dairy Supplies. 

253 & 255 East Kinzie Street, - - CHICAGO, ILLS.