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Full text of "Proceedings of the general meetings for scientific business of the Zoological Society of London"

THIS BCOK 1^'IAY NOT BE HiOTOCOPED 



PROCEEDINGS 



Z-l;. 



OF THE 



SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON 



FOR THE YEAR 



1882. 



■^(i!/^Ar^<^ 



PRINTED FOE THE SOCIETY, 
AJSB SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER SQUARE. 

LONDON: 
MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER, 

PATEBNOSTEH ROW. 



L 1 S T 



OF THE 



COUNCIL AND OFFICERS 



OF THTi; 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

1882. 



COUNCIL. 



Professor W. H. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., President. 



Major-Gen. The Lord Abingee, 
C.B. 

Henry E. Dresser, Esq. 

Charles Drumuond, Esq., Trea- 
surer. 

Sir Joseph Fayeer, K.C.S.I., 
F.E.S. 

John P. Gassiot, Esq. 

F. DuCane Godman, Esq. 

Lt.-CoL. H. H. GODAVIN-AtrSTEN, 

F.R.S. 

Col. J. A. Grant, C.B., F.E.S. 

Dr. a. Gunther, F.R.S. 

Dr. Edward Hamilton, Vice- 
President. 



E. W. H. Holdsworth, Esq. 

Professor Mivart, F.ll.S., Vice- 
President. 

Professor Newton, F.E.S. 

Henet Pollock, Esq. 

OsBERT Saltin, Esq., F.R.S. 

W. Ayshfoed Sandfoed, Esq. 

Philip Lutley Sclater, Esq., 
M.A.,Ph.D., F.R.S.j-Sef/Ytory. 

Rt. Hon. George Sclaier-Booth, 
M.P. 

Joseph Traters Smith, Esq. 

Capt. George E. Shelley. 



PRINCIPAL OFFICERS. 

P. L. Sclater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary. 

W. A. Forbes, Esq., R.A., Prosector. 

Me. A. D. Bartlett, Supcrinteyident of the Gardens. 

Mr. F. H. Waterhouse, Librarian. 

Me. John Barrow, Accountant. 

Me. W. J. Williams, Chief CJerk. 



LIST 



OF TIIE 



CONTRIBUTORS, 

IVith References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



Page 
IJaron, L., L.M.S. Missionary. 

Notes on the Habits of the Aye-aye of Madagascar in its 
Native state 639 

Bartlett, Edward, Curator of the Maidstone Museum. 

On some Mammals and Birds collected by Mr. J. Haux- 
well in Eastern Peru 373 

Bell, F. Jeffrey, M.A., F.Z.S., Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy in King's College, London. 

Descriptions of new or rare Species of Asteroidea in the 
Collection of the British Musum. (Plate VI.) 121 

An Attempt to apply a Method of Formulation to the 
Species of the ComatulidcB ; with the Description of a new 
Species. (Plate XXXV.) 530 

Exhibition of examples of Limnceus truncatulus 634 

Studies in the Holothuroidea. — I. On the Genus Psolus 
and the Forms allied thereto. (Plate XLVIIL) 641 

Note on a Crinoid from the Straits of Magellan ...... . . 650 



IV 

Page 
Blasius, Dr. Wilhklm, C.M.Z.S, 

On a Collection of Birds from the Isle of Ceram made by 
Dr. Platen in November and December 1881 697 

BOULKNOER, G. A., C.M.Z.S. 

Notes on a South- American Frog lately living in the 

Society's Gardens. (Plate XIII.) 2G4 

Observations upon the Heloderma 631 

Description of an apparently new Species of Lizard of the 
Genus Sceloporus. (Plate h\l.) 761 

Buckley, T. E., B.A., F.Z.S. 

On the Variability of Plumage exhibited by the Red 
Grouse {Layopus scoticus) 112 

Butler, Arthur G., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.. Assistant Keeper 
of the Zoological Department, British Museum. 

On some new or little-known Spiders from Madagascar. 
(Plate LVII.) 763 

Cambridge, Rev. O. Pickard, M.A., C.M.Z.S., Hon. Mem. 
New-Zealand Institute. 

On new Genera and Species of Araneidea. (Plates 
XXIX.-XXXI.) 423 

Carpenter, P. Herbert, M.A., Assistant Master at Eton 
College. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some microscopical pre- 
parations of Antedon eschrichti 722 

On the Classification of the ComatulcB 731 

Darwin, Charles, F.R.S., F.Z.S., and Van Dyck, W., M.D. 

On the Modification of a Race of Syrian Dogs, by means 
of Sexual Selection 367 



Page 
Day, Francis, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

On the Identity of Anguilla kieneri, Giinther, with a 
Gadoid Lycodes 536 

On the Identity of Arnoglossus lophotes, Gunther, with 
A. grohmanni. (Plate LIII.) 748 

On Hybrids between Salmon and Trout 751 

Distant, W. L. 

On some undescribed CicadidtB from the Australian and 
Pacific Regions. (Plate VII.) 125 

DoBSON, G. E., M.A., iM.B., F.L.S., &c. 

On the Natural Position of the Family Dipodidce 640 

Dresser, Henry E., F.Z.S. 

E.\hibition of, and remarks upon, the identity of Melitto- 
phagus hoehmi and Merops dresseri . , 634 

Druce, Herbert, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Descriptions of a new Genus and new Species of Hete- 
rocera. (Plates LX. & LXI.) yjj 

Duncan, Professor P. Martin, M.B. (Lond.), F.R.S., Pres. 
Royal Micros. Soc, &c. 
On some Recent Corals from Madeira. (Plate VIII.) . . 213 

Elwes, Henry J., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

On a Collection of Butterflies from Sikkim. (Plate 
XXV.) 398 

Remarks upon his recent expedition to the Aures Moun- 
tains in Algeria 459 

Espeut, W. Bancroft, F.L.S. 

On the Acclimatization of the Indian Mungoos in Jamaica. 712 

Fayrer, Sir Joseph, F.Z S. 

Remarks on the bite of the Heloderma 632 



vi 

Page 

Elower, William Henry, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., President 

of the Society, Conservator of tlie Museum of the Royal 

College of Surgeons, and Hunterian Professor. 

On the Mutual Affinities of the Animals composing the 
Order Edentata 358 

Remarks on the death of Charles Darwin 390 

On the Cranium of a new Species of Hyperoodon from the 
Australian Seas 392 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the Skull of a young 
Chimpanzee 634 

Exhibition of a photograph (presented to the Society l)y 
James Farmer, F.Z.S.) of Seal Point, Farallone Islands .. 722 

On the Whales of the Genus Hyperoodon 722 

Forbes, William Alexander, B.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 
Prosector to the Society. 
Exhibition of the horns of a Prongbuck, and remarks upon 
the shedding of them 1 

Note on the Gall-bladder, and some other Points in the 
Anatomy of the Toucans and Barbets {Capitonidce) 91 

On some Points in the Anatomy of the Indian Darter 
{Plotus melanogaster), and on the Mechanism of the Neck 
in the Darters (Plotus), in connexion with their Habits. . . . 208 

Description of the Pterylosis of Mesites, with Remarks on 
the Position of that Genus 267 

On some Points in the Anatomy of the Great Anteater 
{Myrmecoi^haga jubata). (Plate XV.) 287 

Note on a Peculiarity in the Trachea of the Twelve-wired 
Bird-of-Paradise (Seleucides nigra) 333 

On the Convoluted Trachea of two Species of Manucode 
(Manucodia atra and Phonygama gouldi) ; with Remarks on 
similar Structures in other Birds 347 

Note on an Abnormal Specimen of Pithecia satanas .... 442 



vn 

Page 
On some Points in the Anatomy of the Todies (Todidce), 
and on the Affinities of that Group 442 

Note on some Points in the Anatomy of an Australian 
Duck (Bisiura lohata) 455 

Contributions to the Anatomy of Passerine Birds. — Part V. 
On tlie Structure of the Genus Ortlionyx 544 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some preparations show- 
ing the rudimentary hallux of several birds commonly de- 
scribed as three-toed 548 

Contributions to the Anatomy of Passerine Birds. — Part VI. 
On Xenicus and Acanthisitta as types of a new Family 
(Xenicidce) of Mesomyodian Passeres from New Zealand. . . . 569 

Supplementary Notes on the Anatomy of the Chinese 
Water-Deer {Hydropotes inermis) . 636 

Gadow, Hans, Ph.D., C.M.Z.S. 

On some Points in the Anatomy of Pterocles, with Re- 
marks on its Systematic Position 312 

On the Colour of Feathers as affected by their Structure 
(Plates XXVII., XXVIII.) 409 

GoDMAN, Frederick DuCane, F.L.S., F.Z.S., and Salvin, 
OsBERT, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

On a new Species of Agrias from the Valley of the Ama- 
zons. (Plate XIX.) 338 

On some Rhopalocera from New Ireland 734 

Godwin- Austen, Lieut.-Col. H. H., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

On Specimens of the Male and Female of Phasimus hmnice, 
from Munipur, with a Description of the latter (Plate LI.). . 715 

Gray, David, Commander of the Whaling Steamer 'Eclipse.' 

Notes on the Characters and Habits of the Bottlenose 
Whale {Hyperoodon rostratus) 726 



vm 

Page 

GtJNTHER, Albert, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., Keeper 
of the Zoological Department, British Museum. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a skin of a variety of the 
Leopard (Felis pardus) .312 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the shell of a new Tortoise 
of the genus Geoemyda from Siam 312 

Description of a new Species of Tortoise {Geoemyda 
impressa^ from Siam 343 

Exhibition, on behalf of Sir J. W. P. Campbell Orde, Bart., 
F.Z.S., of a specimen of a Charr {Salmo alpinus) obtained in a 
loch on North Uist, Hebrides 722 

Hanley, Sylvanus, F.Z.S. 

On the Genus Lept mya (A. Adams) 576 

Harting, James Edmund, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a mummified bird from 
an island on the coast of Peru 311 

On the Eggs of some rare Wading Birds from Madagascar 353 

Remarks upon the desirability of adopting a standard of 
nomenclature for the description of colours 391 

Exhibition of a specimen of a South-African Eagle-Owl, 
stated to have been killed in Ireland 688 

Huxley, Thomas H., LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

On the Respiratory Organs of Apteryx 560 

Inchbald, Peter, F.Z.S. See Sclater, Philip Lutley, M.A. 

Jacoby, Martin. 

Descriptions of new Genera and Species of Phytophagous 
Coleoptera 50 



IX 

Page 
Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

On the MoUusca procured during the ' Lightnuig ' and 
' Porcupine ' Expeditions, 1868-/0. Part V. (Plates 
XLIX., L.) C56 . 

Lankester, Prof. E. Ray, M.A., F.R.S., Jodrell Professor of 
Zoology in University College, Loudon. 
On the Valves of the Heart oWrnithorhynchus paradoxus 
compared with those ot Man and the Rabbit, with some 
Observations on the Fossa Ovalis. (Plates XXXVIII.-XLI.) 549 

Layard, Edgar Leopold, C.M.G., F.Z.S., &c., H.B.M. 
Consul at Noumea, New Caledonia. 
Letter from, containing remarks upon the locality of 
Schcenicola platyura "34 

Layard, Edgar L., C.M.G., F.Z.S., &c., H.B.M. Consul, 
and E. Leopold C. Layard, Vice-Consul, at Noumea, 
New Caledonia. 
Description of a new Species of Parrot of the Genus 
Nymphicus. (Plate XXVL) : 408 

Lilford, Thomas Lyttleton, Lord, F.Z.S. &c. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a skin of Emheriza 
rustica, caught at Elstree Reservoir 721 

Marshall, Major G. F. L., R.E., F.Z.S. 

Notes on Asiatic Butterflies, with Descriptions of some new 
Species 758 

Meyer, Adolph Bernhard, M.D., C.M.Z.S. 

Notice of a communication from, concerning the desira- 
bility of adopting a standard of nomenclature for the descrip- 
tion of the colours of natural objects 688 



X 

Page 

MiERS, Edward J., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Assistant in the Zoological 

Department, British Museum. 

On some Crustaceans collected at the Mauritius. (Plate 

XX.) 339 

On Crustaceans from the Mauritius. — Part II. (Plate 

XXXVI.) .'■'38 

MivART, St.-George, Ph.D., F.R.S., FZ.S., M.R.I.. &c. 

On the Classification and Distribution of the iEluroidea. 13.5 

Notes ou the Anatomy of Erethkon dorsatus 271 

Notes on some Points in the Anatomy of the iEluroidea. . 459 

Moore, Frederic, F.Z.S. 

List of the Lepidoj)tera collected hy the Eev. J. 11. Hock- 
ing, chiefly in the Kangra District, N.W. Himalaya, with 
Descriptions of new Genera and Species, — Part I. (Phacs 
XL, XII.) 234 

Neale, W. IL, M.B., Medical Officer of the ' Eira ' Expedi- 
tion. 
Notes on the Natural History of Franz-Josef Land as 
observed in 1881-82 652 

Newton, Alfred, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. , Professor of 
Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in the University 
of Cambridge. 
Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the skin and bones of the 
trunk of a specimen of Notornis mantelli 1)7 

Owen, Prof. PacHARD, C.B., D.C L., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

&c. 

Abstract of the twenty-third of his series of Memoirs on 
the extinct birds of the genus Dinornis 1 

Notice of the twenty-fourth of his series of Memoirs on 
the extinct birds of the genus Dinornis 549 



Page 
On Trichina spirals 571 

On the Sternum of Notornis and on Sternal Characters . . 689 

Parker, W. K., F.E.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

Abstract of a Memoir on the skull of the Crocodilia .... 97 

Parker, W. Newton, Lecturer on Biology at the University 
College of Wales, Aberystwyth. 

On some Points in the Anatomy of the Indian Tapir 
{Tapinis indicus). (Plates LVIII., LIX.) 768 

Ramsay, Edward P., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., Curator of the 
Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Description of a new Species of Bird of the Genus Tephras 357 

Description of a new Species of Flycatcher of the Genus 
Monarcha {Piezorhynchus) from the Solomon Group 711 

Ridley, Stuart O., M.A., F.L.S., &c., Assistant in the Zoo- 
logical Department, British Museum. 

On the Arrangement of the CoralliidcE, with Descriptions 
of new or rare Species. (Plate IX.) 221 

Salvin, Osbert, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., and Godman, Fre- 
derick Du Cane, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

On a new Species of Affrias from the Valley of the 
Amazons. (Plate XIX.) 338 

On some Rhopalocera from New Ireland 754 

Saunders, Howard, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

On some Laridce from the Coasts of Peru and Chili, 
collected by Capt. Albert H. Markham, R.N., with Remarks 
on the Geographical Distribution of the Group in the Pacific. 
(Plate XXXIV.) 520 

ScLATER, Philip Lutley, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to 
the Society. 

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
December 1881 S7 



XII 

Rige 
Exhibition of (on behalf of Mr. Peter Inchbald, F.Z.S.), 
and remarks upon, two curious Ducks shot near Darlington . 134 

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
January 1882. (Plate X.) 233 

Exhibition of living examples of Helix hamastoma 286 

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
February 1882 311 

Remarks on the use of the term " Lipotype " 311 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, an adult male of Cyano- 
myias ccelestis 342 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the skins of two speci- 
mens of the Subcylindrical Hornbill {Bitceros subcj/lindricus) 343 

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
March 1882 358 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a drawing of a Tapir 
living in the Society's Gardens. (Plate XXIII.) 391 

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
April 1882 421 

Note on an Australian Duck living in the Society's Gar- 
dens. (Plate XXXIII.) 452 

Remarks upon the mode of feeding of the young Cormo- 
rants by the parent birds in the Society's Gardens 458 

Exhibition of some Lepidoptera bred in the Insect-house . 459 

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in May 
1882. (Plate XXXVII.) 546 

Exhibition of some Lepidoptera &c. reared at the Insect- 
house in the Society's Gardens 548 

Note on Ruppell's Parrot. (Plate XLII.) 577 

On two apparently new Species of the Genus Sijnallaxis 
(Plate XLIII.) 578 

Reports on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
June, July, August, September, and October 1882. (Plates 
XLVI, and XLVII.) . . 630 



Xlll 

Page 
Report on the insects bred in the Insect-house in the 
Society's Gardens C32 

Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in No- 
vember 1882 719 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some photographs of a 
new Zebra (Equus grevyi) 721 

ScLATER, Philip Lutley, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., and White, 
E. W., F.Z.S. 

Notes on Birds collected in the Argentine Republic .... 591 

Seebohm, Henry, F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a series of intermediate 
forms between Carduelis caniceps and C. major 134 

Sharpe, R. Bowdler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., Senior Assistant, 
Zoological Department, British Museum. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a specimen of a Gold- 
finch from Hungary 312 

A Note on Strix oustaleti, Hartlaub 335 

On an apparently new Species of Erythropygia. (Plate 
XLV.) 588 

On a new Species of Muscicapa from Western Africa. ... 590 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some specimens of Swifts 
from the Congo 688 

Exhibition of a specimen of Machirhamphus alcinus from 
Northern Borneo 688 

Shelley, Captain G. E., F.Z.S. 

List of the Birds sent home by Mr. Joseph Thomson from 
the River Rovuma, East Africa. (Plate XVI.) 302 

A Second List of Birds recently collected by Sir John 
Kirk in Eastern Africa. (Plate XVII.) 304 

On some new Species of Birds from South Africa. (Plate 
XVIII.) 336 



Page 
Slater, Rev. H. H., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of a Sluike, Lanius, sji. inc., killed near Spurn 
Point in Yorkshire 722 

Smith, Edgau A., F.Z.S. 

A Contribution to the Molluscan Fauna of Madagascar 
(Plates XXI., XXII.) 375 

SowERBY, G. B., Jun. 

Descriptions of new Species of Shells in the Collection of 
Mr. J. Cosmo MelviU. (Plate V.) 117 

Staudinger, Dr. O., C.M.Z.S. 

On three new and interesting Species of Rhopalocera. 
(Plate XXIV.) 396 

Stevenson, IIenuy, F.L.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a specimen of the Dusky 
Petrel from Norfolk 421 

Taczanowski, L., C.M.Z.S. 

Liste des Oiseaux recueillis par M. Stolzmann au Perou 
nord-oriental. (Plates L, II.) 2 

Tegetmeter, W. B., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of a skull of Rhinoceros sumatrensis and of some 
horns of a Buffalo and Deer from Borneo 687 

Thomas, Oldfield, F.Z.S., Zoological Department, British 
Museum. 

On the African Mungooses. (Plate III.) 59 

On a Collection of Rodents from North Peru. (Plate IV.) 98 



XV 

Page 
On a small Collection of Rodents from South-Western 
Africa. (Plate XIV.) 26ft 

Oq a small Collection of Mammalia from Central Mexico 371 

Description of a new Species of Rat from China. (Plate 

XLIV.) 587 

Description of two new Species of Pteropus from tl>e 

Caroline Islands. (Plates LIV., LV.). . 755 

Thomson, Arthur. 

Notes on a Species of Stick Insect reared in the Insect- 
House in the Society's Gardens. (Plate LII.) .^. 718 

Trimen, Roland, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., Curator of the South- 
African Museum, Cape Town. 

On an apparently undescribed Sun-bird from Tropical 
South-western Africa. (Plate XXXII.) 451 

Tristram, Rev. Canon H. B., M.A. (Oxon.), F.R.S., C.M.Z.S. 

Description of a new Species of Land-Rail from East 
Africa 93 

Van Dyck, W., M.D. 

On the Modification of a Race of Syrian Street-Dogs by 
means of Sexual Selection. With a Preliminary Notice 
by Charles Darwin, F.R.S., F.Z.S 367 

Watson, Morrison, M.D., F.Z.S., Professor of Anatomy, the 
Owens College, Manchester. 

On the Muscular Anatomy of Proteles as compared with 
that of Hyaena and Viverra 579 

White, E. W., F.Z.S, 

Notes on Birds collected in the Argentine Republic. With 
Notes by P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S 591 



ERRATA. 



Page 178, top line, for villicollis read vitticollis. 

„ 303, line 24 from the bottom, /or p. 208 read p. 298. 
„ 503, „ 26 from the bottom, for macroscelis read macrocelis. 
„ 682, „ 24 from the bottom, for jMSSoni read _r/MssoH«. 
„ 683, „ 8 from the bottom, for tetrcigoaa read tetragona. 



LIST OF WOODCUTS. 

1882. 



Page 

Last lower molars of Herpestes ichneumon and H. alhicauda 76 

Liver, stomacli, duodenum, &c. of Rkamphastor dicolorus 95 

Plantar surface of left pes of Fossa 151 

Pads of Genetta tigrina 152 

Milk-teeth of Viverra civetta 155 

Prescrotal scent-glands of Genetta tigrina 156 

Pads of Prionodon 158 

External form of Poiana 160 

External form of Arctogale 164 

Half basis cranii and half mandible of Arctogale 165 

Pads of Hemigalea 166 

Pads of left pes of Cynogale 172 

Milk-teeth of Cynogale 174 

Half basis cranii and half mandible of Suricata 184 

Claws of Viverridas 1^2 

Soles of the paws of Cryptoprocta 195 

Diagrams to show the mechanism of the " kink " of the neck in the 

Darters 211 

Tongue of Erethizon dorsatus 272 

Stomach of Erethizon dorsatus 273 

Cfecum of Erethizon dorsatus (exterior) 274 

Csecum of Erethizon dorsatus (interior) 275 

Diaphragmatic aspect of the liver of Erethizon dorsatus 276 

Abdominal aspect of the liver of Erethizon dorsatus 277 

Brain of Erethizon dorsatus 278 

Brachial plexus of Erethizon dorsatus 279 

Lumbo-sacral plexus of Erethizon dorsatus 281 

Palate of Myrmecophaga jiihata 288 

Brain of Mijrmecophaga juhata (from above) 292 

Brain o{ Myrmecophaga jubata (from the side and from the inside). . 293 

Diagram of right cerebral hemisphere of Tamandua tetradactyla 295 

Female generative organs of Myrmecophaga juhata 297 

Deeper adductor muscles of the right thigh of Pterocles arenarim . . 316 

Gastrocnemius muscle of right side of Pterocles arenarius 319 

Intestines of Pterocles arenarircs 323 

Cteca of Pterocles aretiarius and Syrrhaptes paradoxus 324 

Duodenum of Pterocles arenarius 325 

Duodenum of Syrrhaptes paradoxus 326 

Diao-ram showing the supposed relationship of the Pteroclidse 331 

Trachea of Seleucides nigra 334 

Head of Cyunotnyias ccekstisiS 342 



XX. 

Geoemyda impressa (upper surface) 344 

Geoemyda impressa (lower surface) 345 

Geoemyda in^yressa (side view) 346 

Trachea of Manucodia atra 348 

Upper surface of cranium of Hyperoodon planifrons 393 

Side view of cranium of Hyperoodon planifrons 394 

Diagi'ammatic section tlirougli part of barb of a blue feather 413 

Diagrammatic section through the barb of a " metallic " feather. ... 418 
The three positions in which metallic colours should be observed . . 420 

Syrinx of Todus 444 

Foot of Todus dominicensis 446 

Foot of Momotus lessoni 446 

Lower part of trachea of Biziura lobata 455 

Mouth of Biziu7-a lohata , 456 

Cormorants and their young 458 

Seventh cervical vertebra of an Arctitis Unturony 461 

Distal end of dorsal surface of right radius and ulna of Heniigcdea , . 471 

Distal end of tibia and fibula of Hemiyalea 471 

Tongue of the Civet and of the Genet 499 

Tongue of Proteles 501 

Salivary glands of Genet 504 

Part of the skull of the Genet 504 

Stomach and pancreas of Genetta tigrina 505 

Stomach of Genet, cut open 505 

Stomach of Prionodon, cut open 506 

Caecum of Genetta, of Prionodon, of Galidia, and of Cynictis 508 

Liver of Genetta tigrina 510 

Liver of Herpestes 513 

Brain of Genetta tigrina 516 

External ear of Genetta tigrina 517 

Lycodes kienei'i 537 

Respiratory organs of Apteryx 565 

Respiratory organs of a Duck 565 

Syrinx of Xenicus longipes 570 

Skull of j'oung Chimpanzee 635 

Upper surface of brain of Chinese Water-Deer 637 

Side view of brain of Chinese Water-Deer 637 

Pinnules of Antedon eschrichti 651 

Sternum of Nortornis mantelli (under surface) 690 

Sternimi of Nortornis mantelli (side view) 691 

Equvs grevyi 721 

Outlines of a seiies of male Bottlenosed Whales 728 

Front views of the skulls of four male Bottlenosed Whales 729 

Head of hybrid Salmon 752 

Stomach of Tapirus indicus 769 

Liver of Tapirus indicus. 770 

Csecum and colon of Tapirus indicus 772 

Upper surface of penis of Tapirus indicus 773 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON 



FOR THE YEAR 



1882. 



(PLATES.) 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
AND SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER SQUARE. 

LONDON: 
MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER, 

PATEBNOSTEE EOW. 



LIST OF PLATES. 

1882. 



Plate Page 
I. Fig. 1. Chlorophonia torrejoni. Fig. 2. Diva branickii) 

II. Figs. 1, 2. Picumnus steindachneri c?.^ \ 2 

Fig. 3. Picumnus jelskii (^ ' 

III. Rhinogale melleri 59 

IV. Hesperomys (Rhipidomys) cinereus 98 

V. New Shells 117 

VI. New or rare Asteroidea 121 

VII. Australian and Pacific Cicadidse 125 

VIII. New Corals from Madeira 213 

IX. Species of Coralliidse 221 

X. Bos frontalis 233 

XI 1 

,' i New Lepidoptera from N.W. Himalaya 234 

XIII. Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis 264 

XIV. Fig. 1 . Mus nigricauda. Fig. 2. Saccostomus lapidarius 265 
XV. Anatomy of Myrmecophaga 287 

XVI. Fig. 1. Merops dresseri I oqq 

Fig. 2. Erythrocercus thomsoni | 

XVII. Mirafra torrida 304 

XVIII. Anthus butleri 336 

XIX. New Species of Agrias 338 

XX. Naxia ( Naxioides) rohillardi 339 

XXI. Land Shells from Madagascar I n^r 

XXII. Land and Freshwater Shells from Madagascar i 

XXIII. Tapirus dowi{l) 391 

XXIV. New Species of Rhopalocera 396 

XXV. Butterflies from Sikkim 398 

XXVI. Fig. 1. Nymphicus cornutus I .rjo 

Fig. 2. Nymphicus uvoeensis 1 

_'-..■ \ Structure of Feathers 40.'^ 

XXIX. 1 

XXX. [ New Araneida 423 

XXXI. \ 

h 



Plate 

XXXII. 
XXXIII. 
XXXIV. 

XXXV. 
XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII 

XXXIX 

XL, 

XLI 

XLII 

XLIII, 

XLIV. 
XLV. 

XLVI. 

XLVII. 

XLVIII. 

XLIX. 

L. 

LI. 

LII. 

LIII. 

LIV. 

LV. 

LVI. 

LVII. 

LVIII. 

LIX. 

LX. 

LXI, 



IV 

Page 

Cinnyris erikssoni 451 

Anas gibberifrons c? 452 

Xema furcatum 520 

Actinometra annulata 530 

Fig. I. Palinurus longimanus, var. mauritianus I r^jg 

Figs. 2, 3. Pseudibacus pfefferi f 

Porcula salvania 547 

Heart- valves of Man and Rabbit 

i Heart-valves of Ornithorhynchus )■ 549 

Heart-valves Didelphys, Myrmecophaga, &c 

Pceocephalus rueppelli 577 

Fig. 1 . Synallaxis fusco-rufa I cyo 

Fig. 2. Synallaxis griseo-murina i 

Mus edwardsi 587 

Fig. 1 . Erythropygia ruficauda ) rgg 

Fig. 2. Erythropygia zambesiana i 

Cyanorhamphus saisseti 630 

Canis microtis 631 

Fig. 1. Psolus (Lophothuria') peronii "I ca-i 

Fig. 2. Psolus (Hypopsolus) ambulator J 

■\ Mollusca of the ' Lightning ' and ' Porcupine ' Expe- •> grg 

J ditions J 

Phasianus humia 715 

Bacillus patellifer 2 718 

Arnoglossus grohmanni 748 

Pteropus phcBOcephalus I -,rc 

Pteropus breviceps 1 

Sceloporus garmani 761 

Spiders from Madagascar 763 

Brain of Tapirus indicus I y^-Q 

Tapirus indicus I 

i New Heterocera 777 



LIST OF THE PUBLICATIONS 



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ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



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LISTS OF THE ANIMALS IN THE SOCIETY'S GARDENS. 

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Price 6d., Sewed, 
A GUIDE TO THE GARDENS 

OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

Thirty-sixth Edition, corrected according to the present Arrange- 
ment of the Gardens, 

By PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., 



rK0CEEDlNU8 



OF THE 



SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 



OP THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 



January 3, 1882. 

Prof. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., President, in tbe Chair. 

Mr. "W. A. Forbes exhibited and made remarks on the horns 
shed by the male Prongbuck (Aniilocapra americana) living in the 
Society's Gardens since December 1879, which had been drojjped, 
one on November 15 and the other on November 24, of 1881. This, 
it was believed, was the first instance on record of one and the same 
individual of this species having shed its horns in consecutive years, 
though that this event took place periodically had been rendered 
nearly certain from previous observations'. 

Professor Owen, C.B., F.R.S., read the twenty-third of his series 
of memoirs upon the extinct birds of the genus Dinornis and its 
allies. 

The subject of this memoir had been discovered, during the con- 
struction of a road in Nelson province. South Island of New Zealand, 
in a cavern of that remote district. Along with the skeleton was found 
the ossified windpipe and some small smooth pebbles lying in the 
position of the gizzard. The skeleton (the most complete frame- 
work of one find the same individual Moathat had reached England) 
had been oifered for sale, and, on the recommendation of the author, 
had been purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum, and was 
being exhibited (articulated) in the Museum of Natural History, 
Cromwell Road. 

The bones showed the maturity, if not the old age, of this 
' See Mr. Forbes's article, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 540. 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. I. 1 




2 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

smallest known representative of its kind. The skull was larger in 
proportion to the body than in Q\i\\ev Dinornis maximus or D. ingens, 
but manifested no modification approaching to the shape of the bill 
in Apteryx ; it retained the generic characters shown in all tlie 
larger kinds of Dinornis. The sternum was strictly Dinornithic. 
The chief osteological distinction was a greater number of cervical' 
vertebrae ; but the author remarked tliat no other skeleton had 
been discovered, or recovered from swamp-deposits, under circum- 
stances precluding the oversight of two or more vertebra) from the 
middle of the long neck, where missing ones might be indicated by 
size or by joints. The metatarsus gave no indication of an articular 
surfiice for a back toe, yet the bones of this minute digit of both feet 
were transmitted ; hence the amalgamation of Paktpteryx with 
Dinornis received additional support. The size of the bird was 
about that of the Dodo. 

On the grounds detailed in the memoir the author referred its 
subject to the genus Dinornis, and to a new species proposed to be 
called D. parvus. 

In the remote, well-wooded, and sparsely populated district of the 
southern division of New Zealand, Prof. Owen was of opinion that a 
recovery of a still-existing specimen might be less unlikely than 
that of the Notornis, also originally recognized by fossil remains. 

This memoir will be printed entire in the Society's ' Transactions.' 



The following papers were read : — 

1. Liste des Oiseaux rectieillis par M. Stoizmaiiu an Perou 
uord-oriental. Par L. Taczanowski, C.M.Z.S. 

[Eeceivecl November 28, 1881.1 

(Plates I. & II.) 

tiCs oiseaux de cette liste ont etc collectionut's pendant les vingt 
mois depuis le 13 septembre de 1879 jusqu'en avril de 1881, dans 
les localitcs suivantes : — 

a. Localites situees sur le versant occidental de la chaine orientale 
des Cordilieres (systeme du Haut Marauon). 

Chaehapoyas. Chef lieu du departement Amazonas, eleve il "600 
pieds au dessus du niveau de I'ocean, sitae dans le systume de Eio 
Utcubamba, un des affluents de la rive droite du Maraiion. Cette 
localite, dcpourvue de forets, appartieut a la region counue par les 
habitants sous le nom de la Sierra. La contree est en grande partie 
couverte de paturages et de broussailles, et ce n'est que dans le fond 
des ravins qu'on rencontre la vegetation un pen plus riche, composce 
principalement d'un arbuste cpineux nomnie "zarza" entremolc 
d'aulnes, en y formant des surfaces plus ou moins vastes de brous- 
sailles basses, presque impcnetrables, parsemecs ca et la de groupes 



P.7..S.I882.?1.I. 




I.CHLOROPHONIA TORREJMNI 
2.DIVA BRANICKII , 



K^nhAJrt imp 



P.Z.S.ia82.?l,Il. 




J. Situt liih 



HanKart imp 



1 PICUMNUS STEINDACHNERl.d. 
3 „ JELSKlI.cJ. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 3 

d'arbres pen eleves, constituant probablement cles restes des anciennes 
forots. Au sud de cette contrce se trouve la forot de Puma-urcu, 
qui, comme on le dit, communique avec les grandes forcts du systeme 
de Huallaga. 

Tamiapampa. Ferme eloignee de 12 kilometres de Cliacliapoyas, 
situee au bord de la foret de Puma-urcu, olevce a 8800 pieds. Les 
excursions y ont etc faites jusqu'a 9300 pieds. Par ses conditions 
naturelles la localite est analogue a celle de Cutervo, situee de I'autre 
cote du Marauon. Plusieurs especes d'oiseaux y sont representees 
par des formes voisines, comme : Chlorosplurius Icucogaster au lieu 
du Ck. superciliaris. Diva braniclii au lieu de la D. vassori, Seio- 
phaga melanocephala au lieu de la iS*. bairdi, Poscilothraiqns igni- 
crissa au lieu de la P. lacrymosa, Biphlogana iris au lieu de la D. 
wars~ewiczi, &c. 

Cococho, Hacienda situee sur la grande route entre Cutervo et 
Chachapoyas, a la distance de trois kilometres du Maraiion, a 5800 
pieds d'altitude. C'est une contree analogue a, celle de Tambillo, 
situee du cote oppose du fleuve ; elle est cgalement boiseuse, mais la 
rarete relative d'une petite palme nommee " sada," tres caracteris- 
tisque pour les forets de Tambillo, frappe I'oeil du voyageur. On y 
rencontre beaucoup d'animaux et d'oiseaux qu'on ne trouve pas de 
I'autre cote du Marauon, coxnme Nyctipitheciistrivirc/atus, Rvpicola 
peruviana, Tinamus Ideei, etc. Plusieurs autres especes y sont rem- 
placees par des formes voisines, comme p. e. \q Basileuterus coronatus 
remplatjant ie B. castaneiceps. 

h. Localitcs situees sur le versant oriental de la chaiae orientale 
des Cordilicres (systeme du fleuve Huallaga). 

Chirimoto. Vallee de Huayabamba, localite situee au sud-est de 
Chachapoyas, a 60 kilometres en ligne droite de cette derniere ville. 
C'est une grande vallee, parfaitement plane, eutouree de montagnes 
et traversee d'une riviere assez considerable, nommee Rio de Pindu- 
cuchu, connue aussi dans les differentes localitcs qu'elle traverse 
sous les noms de Rio de Curiyacu, Rio de Totora, Rio de Millpuc. 
Apres avoir traverse la vallee, la riviere se perd au pied d'une mon- 
tagne dans la localite Millpuc, et apres avoir depassc quelques kilo- 
metres sous cette montagne, elle sort sur la surface, et ensuite, apres 
sa reunion avec les rivieres Omia ct Jevil, elle forme une riviere im- 
portante nommee Huambo. Dans les intervalles de quelques aunees 
la riviere iuonde la valle'e, en laissant ensuite une serie de lacs (Rumu- 
cucha, Mamacuclia, Sausecucha, et autres). Ces bassins d'eau 
resteiit pendant une annee ou plus, et attirent une quantite d'oiseaux 
aquatiques et d'e'chassiers. Toute la partie plate de la vallee est 
couverte de champs cultives ou de bois composes principalement de 
G\x&y?iya^ {Psidium pyrifcruni) . Les pentes des montagnes environ- 
nantes sont couvertes de pfiturages ou de broussailles basses. La 
vallee est entouree de forcts vierges, qui dans certains endroits des- 
ceudent sur la pcnte des montagnes environnantes et penetrent 
dans la vallee mcme, comme cela a lieu a Curiyacu, dans la partie 
occidentale de la vallee. Toute la vallee est cleve'e de 5400 pieds. 
Ray-urmana. Une montagne au dessus de Chirimoto, elevee de 

1* 



4 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

8000 pieds ; une partie de sa pente et son sommet sont converts de 
forets. 

Ruambo. 3700 pieds d' altitude. Plantation inhabitee au fond de 
la foret vierge, a 10 Kilometres de Cliirimoto, au bord de la riviere 
Huarabo, qui, comme on le pretend, se rend pres de Pachiza au fleuve 
de Huallaga. C'estune foret cliaude et Inimide, du caractere des 
forets vierges, analogue sous le rapport des conditions naturelles a 
I'Amable-Maria du Perou central, explore par M. Jelski. 

Yurimaffuas. Ville situee sur la rive gauche de Huallaga, au point 
de sa reunion avec la Paranapura ; eutouree de forets vierges chaudes 
et humides, elevee li peine a, 500 pieds au dessus du niveau de 
I'ocean. 

Comme dans les listes precedentes, cliaquc espece fournie pour la 
premiere fois par M. Stolzmann et non fournie par son predecesseur 
est marquee d'un asterique devant son numero ; 1 CO especes sont 
done nouvelles pour I'exploration de nos voyageurs, et ne se trouvent 
pas dans leurs listes precedentes, et plusieurs d'entre elles sont 
nouvelles pour la faune peruvienne, dont quelques-unes sont nou- 
velles pour la science. 

TURDID^. 

1. TURDUS IGNOBILIS, iScl. 

Turdus leucomelas, V. ; Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, p. 503. 
Six exemplaires recueillis a Cliirimoto et a Huambo, en juillet et 
mars. Iris brun grisatre fonce. 

2. Turdus crotopezus, Licbt. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 503. 
Une femelle de Huambo du 28fevrier 1880. Iris brun fonce, 

3. Turdus nigricepp, Jelski; Tacz, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 503, 
tab. Ixiv. 

Un exemplaire, sans indication de sexe, tue a Chirimoto le 29 
juillet 1880, s' accordant en tout avec I'exemplaire typique, a dimen- 
sions un pen plus fortes, I'aile pliee mesurant 113 mill., le bee un peu 
plus long. Les bordures blanches des plumes de la gorge sont un peu 
moins larges que chcz I'exemplaire cite. Rencontre une seule fois 
par notre voyageur. 

4. Turdus swAiNsoNi, Cab, ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1871, p, 503; 1879, 
p. 221. 

Trois exemplaires de Tarniapampa et de Huambo. 

5. Turdus SERRANUS,Tsch,; Tacz. P, Z. S. 1874, p. 504 ; 1879, 
p. 221. 

Une femelle de Tamiapampa du 17 novembre 1879. 

0. Catharus fuscater, Lafr. ; Tacz, P. Z, S. 1874, p. 507 ; 
1879, p. 222. 

Un mfile dt Cliachapoyas du 22 septembre 1879. Iris blancsale. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 5 

*7, Catharus maculatus, Scl. 

Deux males tnes a Huambo le IG mars et Ic 29 avril 1880. Iris 
brun fonce ; bordure de la paupiere et le bee oranges ; pattes jaunes 
de cire. 

Troglodytid^. 

*1. Thryothorxjs coraya (Gm.). 

Deux males tues a Yurimaguas le 25 fevrier et le 8 mars 1881, 
completement identiques aux oiseaux de Cayenne, et ne preseutaut 
qu'une legere difference dans la couleur de la poitrine et du milieu 
de I'abdomen, qui est beaucoup plus cendree. Iris brun rougeatre. 

*2. Thryothorus albiventris, n. sp. 

Th. corayae similis, capite supra cum collo postico hrunJieo-griseis ; 
dorso rufo ; lateribus capitis nujris, minime allo-striatis ; su- 
perciliis albis temdssimis, vix signatis ; gula, pectore et abdo- 
niine medio albis,- hypochondriis cnssoque griseis ; cauda nigro 
griseoque transfasciata. Rostrum nigrum, mandibula inferiore 
cinerea; pedes grisei; iris hnoinea. 
Forme voisine du Th. coraya, mais bien distincte au premier coup 
d'oeil : la couleur du sommet de la tete avec le cou posterieur et le 
devant meme du dos est d'ua gris legerement brunatre, nettement 
tranchee du roux occupant le dos avec le croupion ; cette derniere 
nuance est bien differente de celle du Th. coraya, elle est moius 
foncee, tirant au jaunatre au lieu de rougeatre ; tectrices caudales 
egalement rayees de noiratre ; les cotes de la tcte sont aussi noirs 
avec des stries blanches sur la region auriculaire, tres fines, beaucoup 
moius nombreuses et peu apparentes ; la bande sourciliere reduite a 
quelques stries blanches tres fines, formant une ligne non continue et 
situee seulement sur la partie postoculaire ; sur les parties iiifdri- 
eures du corps le blauc est fort repandu, occupant la gorge,^le milieu 
de la poitrine et largement le milieu de I'abdomen ; les cotes de la 
poitrine sont legerement colores de cendrc, ceux de I'abdomen et le 
bas ventre gris-bruiiatre ; sous-caudales rayees de gris et de noiratre. 
Tectrices alaires concolores au dos ; remiges brunes bordees exteri- 
eurement de fauve ; sous-alaires et le bord interne des remiges 
blanchatres. Rectrices, comme chez le Th. coraya, rayees de gris et 
de noir. Machoire noire avec les bords gris, mandibule cendree a 
bords blancs ; pattes grises ; iris terre de sienne. 
La femelle semblable en tout au male. 

Longueur totale 6 163, vol 225, aile 07, queue 61, bee 21, tarse 
23 millim. 

Distinct du Th. cantatov, Jelski(P. Z. S. 1874, p. 130) principale- 
ment par la presence des stries sur la region auriculaire, par le sourcil 
plus fin et non continu, par le blanc du milieu de la poitrine et de 
I'abdomen ; les raies claires des rectrices grises et moins nombreuses 
au lieu de rousses ; les sous-caudales rayees ; la nuance rousse du dos 
differente. 

Une.paire tue'e a Chirimoto le 13 juillet et le 13 aout 1880. 



6 M. TACZANOWSKl ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan- 3, 

*3. Cyphorhinus salvini, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 292, 
pi. xviii. fig. 1. 

La coloration de cet oiseau est semblable en tout a celle du C. 
modulator, mais la nuance des parties supc'rieures du corps est d'un 
brun fonce moins roussatre, cette difference est la plus frappante sur 
les bandes claires des remiges ; la couleur rousse de la gorge et de 
la poitrine est beaucoup plus foncee. Le bee est noir come, au dessous 
de la mandibule inferieure blanc d'ivoire, brusquement separe de la 
couleur foncee ; pattes cornees foncees ; iris brun-fonce. 

Longueur totale c? 155, vol 242, aile 73, queue 40, bee 24, tarse 
23, doigt median avec I'ongle 22 niillim. 

Trois males tues l\ Yurimaguas en fevrier 1881. 

4. MiCROCERCULUS MARGINATUS, Scl. ; TaCZ. P. Z. S. 18/7, 

p. 506. 

Deux males tues a Yurimaguas le 16 et le 21 fevrier 1881, qui 
paraissent etre jeunes. lis ont le brun des parties supdrieures du 
corps plus fortement ferrugiueux que ehez I'adulte de I'Amable- 
Maria ; le blanc du dessous squamule par les bordures des plumes 
brunes, plus fines sur la gorge et plus grosses sur le milieu de 1' abdo- 
men ; les flancs plus ferrugineux et egalement varies ; les plumes du 
sommet de la tete plus distinctement squamulees d'une nuance plus 
foncee ; les grandes et les moyennes tectrices alaires marqviees pres de 
leur extremite d'une fine strie rousse. Les squamulcs foncees du 
dessous sont moins pronoucees sur uu des ces exemplaires. Iris 
brun-fonce. 

MNIOTILTIDiE. 

1. DENDRfECA BLACKBURNi^(Gm.); Tacz, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 508; 

1879, p. 223. 

Trois exemplaires de Huambo. 

2. Dendu(eca CiERULEA (Wils.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 508, 
Trois exemplaires recueillis u Huambo le 1 fevrier et le 15 mars 

1880. Iris brun fonce. 

3. Geothlypis ^EQUiNOCTiALis (Gm.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S, 1880, 
p. 191. 

Ua male de Chirimoto. 

4. Myiodectes canadensis (L.). 

Beridrceca canadensis, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 508 ; 1879, p. 223. 
Six exemplaires de Huambo. 

5. Basileuterus coronatus (Tscb.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 509. 

Cinq exemplaires de Cococbo, de Ray-urmana, de Chachapoyas, 
et de Tamiapampa, Iris brun fonce. 

6. Basileuterus TJROPYGiALis, Scl. ; Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, p. 509. 
Un exemplaire de Huambo du 12 mars 1880. Iris brun fonce. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 7 

7. Setophaga verticalis, d'Orb. et Lafr. 

Myioborus verticalis, Tacz. P. Z. S. 187-1, p. 508; 1879, p. 221. 
Un exemplaire de Chirimoto dii 20 avril 1880. Iris brun fouce, 

8. Setophaga melanocephala (Tsch.). 
Myioborus melanocephalus, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 509. 

Huit exemplaires tues a Chachapoyas et l\ Tamiapampa en sep- 
tembre et en novembre 1879. Iris brun fonce. 

Le jenne en premier plumage a le sommet de la tete d'un gris un 
peu plus fonce qu'au dos ; la jaune de la gorge plus pale que cbez 
I'adulte ; le sourcil jaune, ainsi que le tour de I'cEil commencant a se 
manifester par des plumes isolees de cette couleur ; il a aussi quel- 
ques nouvelles plumes noires au sommet de la tete. 

ViREONIDjE. 

1. Vireosylvia olivacea (L.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 224 ; 
1880, p. 192. 

Quatre exemplaires de Huambo, plus petits que ceux de Callacate 
et de Guajango, s'en distiuguent principalement par le bee beaucoup 
plus court et par la raie foncce transoculaire plus prononcee. Les 
oiseaux de Callacate et de Guajango sont de la meme taille que ceux 
de Cayenne et ont le bee egalement long. 

2. Vireosylvia flavoviridis, Cass. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1 874, p. 509. 

Une femelle tuce a Yurimaguas le 23 fevrier 1881. 

Cet esemplaire est un peu different du mule de Monterico, et 
principalement le sommet de sa tete est d'un cendrc plus pur ; le 
blanc est plus largement dispose sur le ventre ; le jaune des flancs et 
des sous-caudales est plus pur ; la baude sourciliere d'un cendre 
blanchatre, plus large et largement prolongee jusqu'aux nariues, 
tandis que chez le male de INIouterico elle est tres tine et peu distincte 
devant I'oeil. L'iris est rouge clair chez I'oiseau de Yurimaguas, et 
brun clair dans celui de Monterico. 

*3. Hylophiltjs olivacexjs, Tsch. Faun. Peru. p. 193. 

Plusieurs exemplaires, recueillis a Huambo en fevrier et en mars 
1880, paraissent appartenir a I'espece decrite par M. Tschudi, du 
moins on ne trouve pas rien d'important dans sa description qui 
pourrait combattre mon opinion. Toute la description pent s'ap- 
pliquer parfaitement, excepte deux details, qui pourraient presenter 
desdoutes, comme la couleur de la. queue "zeisig griin" et celle des 
sous-alaires " weiss." 

Nos oiseaux sont en dessus d'uue couleur olive verdatre, induite 
de gris au cou et sur le devant du dos, tirant sur le vert jaunatre au 
sommet de la tete et au croupion ; tout le dessous du corps est d'un 
jaune legerenient verdatre, fort impregne d'oUvatre sur les flancs, et 
passant au blanchatre sur le bas ventre et au meuton. Ailts grises 
li tectrices de la couleur du dos, les remiges borde'es de vert jaunatre ; 
les sous-alaires et une large bordure interne de toutes les remiges 



8 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jail. 3, 

d'un jaune plus pale que celui de Tabdomen. Queue olive grisatre. 
Bee bruu-rougeatre clair ; pattes carnees ; iris ocreux jaunatre, uu 
peu plus fouce interieurement qu'a I'exteiieur. 

(^ . Longueur totale 138, vol 200, aile 62, queue 52, bee 14-5, 
tarse 19 millim. $ . Longueur totale 136, vol 193, aile 58, queue 
52, bee 15, tarse 19 millim. 

4. Cyclorhis contrerasi, Tacz. P. Z.S. 1879, p. 224, tab. xxi.; 
1880, p. 192. 

Trois exemplaires de Chachapoyas. Le sommet de la tete colore 
au milieu de verdatre sur un espace restreint. 

HlRTJNDINID^. 
*1. HiRUNDO ALBIVENTRIS, Bodd. 

Un exemplaire tue a, Yurimaguas le 14 fevrier 1881. Iris brun 
fonce. 

*2. Atticora fasciata (Grm.). 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas du 14 fevrier 1881. Iris brun 
fence. 

3. Atticora cyanoleuca (V.); Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, p. 510; 

1879, p. 224; 1880, p. 192. 

Un exemplaire tue a Huambo le 5 avril 1880. 

4. Atticora cinerea (Gm.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 510. 
Un exemplaire tue a Tamiapampa le 30 octobre 1879. 

CtEREBID^. 

1. Dtglossa brunneiventris, DesMurs ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 511 ; 1879, p. 225. 

Un jeune male de Tamiapampa du 29 octobre 1879. 

2. DiGLOSSA sittoides (d'Orb. et Lafr.); Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, 
p. 511. 

Un jeime oiseau d'Achamal du 27 aout 1880. 

3. DiGLossA personata, Fras. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 511; 

1880, p. 193. 

Une paire de Tamiapampa du 27 octobre 1879. 

4. DiGLOSsopis c^rulescens, Scl. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 511; 
1879, p. 225. 

Plusieurs exemplaires de Chachapoyas, de Tamiapampa et d'Acha- 
mal, recueillis entre le 13 septembre 1879 et le 23 aout 1880. 

5. Conirostrum atrocyaneum, Lafr.; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874 
p. 511; 1879, p. 225. 

Un mille adulte tue a Tamiapampa le 4 novembre 1879, a sommet 
de la tete aussi bleu que chez ceus du Perou central. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 9 

6. Dacnis cayana (L.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. .510. 
Quatre exemplaires recueillis h. Huambo en feviier 1 880. 

7. Dacnis modesta, Cab. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. .510. 

Deuxfemelles de Huanibo tuees en mars 1880, semblables en tout 
au type de la description. 

8. Dacnis xanthophthalma, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, pp. 131, 510. 

Une femelle tuee a Tamiapampa le 22 novembre 1879, tout a fait 
semblable a I'oiseau typique. 

*9. Chlorophanes atricapilla (V.). 

Deux femelles de Huambo et de Yurimaguas, tuces le 24 mars 
1880 et le 20 fevrier 1881. Iris rouge brunatre cbez I'adulte, et 
d'un brun fonce chez le jeune. 

10. COEREBA CYANEA (L.). 

Ccereba nitida, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 510. 

Deux males de Huambo, tues le 7 mars et le 24 avril 1880. 

Tous les oiseaux peruviens que j'ai vu ont la nuance bleue beau- 
coup plus claire que chez les oiseaux de Cayenne et du Bre'sil, surtout 
sur la tete ; la couleur noire egalement disposee sur la gorge comme 
chez ces derniers ; en outre ils ont le bee moins long. 

Tanagrid^e. 

1. Chloroi'honia torrejoni, n. sp. (Plate I. fig. 1.) 

Chlorophonia viridis, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 225. 

Ch. prasino-viridis ; semitorque nucliali latissimo, circidoque ocu- 
lari cccrv.leis ; ventre medio Jlavo ; pectore tnjpochoyidriisque 
flavo-olivaceis ; remigibus nigricantibus viridi marginatis. 
Rostrum nigrum; jiedes cinereo-plumbei ; iris fusco-brunnea. 

cJ ad. Toute la lete avec la gorge et le devant du cou est d'un 
beau vert de pre luisant, avec un leger ton jaunatre au front ; un 
large croissant d'un bleu ontremer occupe la nuque et le derriore du 
cou, en s'amincissant graduellement sur les cotes de ce dernier; un 
anneau d'un bleu plus pale que celui du croissant nuchal entoure 
finement I'ceil; le dos est convert de plumes d'un vert brunatre 
fonce, terminees d'une bordure verte ; le croupion et les sous-caudales 
sont d'un vert malachite. En dessous le milieu du ventre et les 
sous-caudales sont d'un jaune souffre, la poitrine et les flancs d'un 
olive jaunatre. Tectrices alaircs vertes olivatres ; remiges noiratres 
bordees finement de vert olivatre a I'exterieur et de gris blauchatre 
interieurement ; sous-alaires jaunatres, et grises le long du bord de 
I'aile. Rectrices noira,tres avec une fine bordure externe verdatre. 
Bee noir avec la partie grise au dessous des narines, a mandibule 
grise foncee et noiratre au bout et en dessous ; pattes plombees ; iris 
brun fonce. 

$ . La femelle semblable au male, a couleurs un peu moins pures 
et moins vives ; surtout le collier est moins vif et moins uniforme. 



10 M. TACZANOW'SKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jail. 3, 

cf . Longueur totale 123, vol 198, aile 59, queue 34, bee 11, 
tarse 15 millim. $ . Lougueur totale 123, vol 205, aile 63, queue 
34, bee 11, tarse 15 millim. 

Six excmplaires tues eu juin et en aout a Chirimoto. 

Je dodie ce beau Tanagride a Don Tomas Torrejon, proprietaire de 
Tamiapampa, Alcade municipal dc Chachapoyas, comme preuve de 
ma gratitude pour son bieuveillance et I'amitio sincere euvers notre 
voyageur. 

*2. EuPHONiA CHALCOPASTA, Scl. et Salv. Nomeucl. Av. Neotr. 
p. 157. 

Onze exemplaires des deux sexes tues a Chiromoto et a Huambo 
en mai et en juillet 1880. Iris brun fonce ; bee uoir a mandibule 
cendree, termiue'e de noir ; pattes grises. 

La jeune femelle differe des adultes par le manque de I'eclat rae- 
tallique sur les parties supcrieures du corps, dont le sommet de la 
tete est lave de jaune olive jusqu' a la cervix, qui avec la nuque est 
d'un plombe, tirant au bleuatre dans certaines directions de la lumiLre ; 
le dosest d'un vert olive tirant au jaunatre sur le croupionet les sus- 
caudales ; les cotes de la tete sont d'une nuance plus pale que le dos ; 
gorge grise jaunatre ; milieu de la poitrine et du devant de I'abdo- 
men sont d'uu gris terreux, passant a I'ocreux pale sur le milieu du 
ventre ; les flancs du corps largement d'un vert jaunatre. Les re- 
miges et les rectrices comme dans le male. 

3. EuPHONIA NIGRICOLLIS (V.) ? 

Deux jeunes femelles de Huambo, tuees en avril 1880. 
II est probable que ces deux oiseaux appartiennent a \'E. insignis, 
Scl. et Salv., car ils different legerement des jeunes de I'^". nigricoUis. 

4. EuPHONiA XANTHOGASTRA, Suud. : Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 518. 

Sept exemplaires recueillis a Huambo depuis fevrier jusqu'cn 
avril 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

5. PXPRIDEA MELANONOTA (V.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S, 1879, p. 226. 
Un exemplaire de Huambo. 

*6. Diva branickii, u. sp. (Plate I. fig. 2.) 

D. IcBte ccerulea ; capite cum nucha griseo-virente, stramineo mi- 
cante ; remigibus rectricib%isque nigris. 

(S . Couleur generate de tout le corps est d'uu beau bleu un peu 
diff6rent de celui de la D. vassori, et tirant egalement sous certain 
jour au violet comme chez Tespece citee ; le sommet de la tete avec 
la nuque et les joues est d'une couleur scladon grisatre, fort luisant, 
passant le'gerement au bleuatre sous certain jour et au stramine ver- 
datre dans une autre direction de la lumiere ; les lores sont egalement 
noirs, mais d'uue nuance moins intense que chez la D. vassori ; la bor- 
dure du front et celles du menton a peine indiquees. Tectrices alaires 
comme chez I'autre espece, d'un bleu uniforme sur les petites et les 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 1 1 

moyennes, et noires avec une large baiide terminale sur les grandes ; 
les rcmiges et les rectrices noire?, egaleiiicnt bordees de bleu, inais 
plus saphyre. Bee noir; pattes brunes cornees ; iris bmn fonce. 
Les males, probablement moins adultes, ont les plumes du bas ventre 
tirant plus ou moins an gris verdatre, analogue a celui de la tute. 

5 . Comme dans la D, vassori la femelle a les couleurs moins 
pures a cause de la transparence du foncc de la base des plumes ; 
cependant la couleur de la tete est la meme que cbez le male, mais 
d'une nuance moins pure. 

Les jeunes en premier plumage ressemblent en tout a ceux de la 
D. vassuri ; ils sont d'un gris fonce en dessus, tirant legerement au 
verdatre sur le dos, et un pen plus fortement sur les scajjulaires ; 
le dessous du corps est d'un gris plus pale, a plumes du milieu du 
ventre largemeut bordees de blancliatre ; les petites tectrices alaires 
un peu plus foncees que le dos, les grandes bordees de vert bleuatre ; 
remiges et tectrices noinitres, bordees exterieurement de bleu. 

c? . Longueur totale 1.50, vol 240, aile 76, queue 53, bee 13, 
tarse 14, doigt median avec I'ongle 17 miliim. $ , Longueur totale 
148, vol 235, aile 74, queue 53, bee 13, tarse 14, doigt median avec 
I'ongle 17 miliim. 

Plusieurs exemplaires des deux sexes recueillis a Tamiapampa en 
octobre et en novembre 1880. 

7. Calliste yeni (d'Orb. et Lafr.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 514. 
Un male tuc a Yurimaguas le 2 avril 1881. 

*8. Calliste ccelicolor, Scl. 

Onze exemplaires des deux sexes recueillis a Huambo en Janvier, 
fevrier et mars 1880. Iris brun-fonce. 

9. Calliste xanthogastra, Bp. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 514, 
Un male tue a Huambo le 10 mara 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

10. Calliste pulchra (Tsch.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 514. 

Cinq exemplaires des deux sexes de Huambo, tues en fevrier et 
en mai 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

11. Calliste gyroloides (d'Orb. et Lafr.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 514. 

Unit exemplaires de Huambo, tues entre le 30 Janvier et le 21 
avril 1880. 

12. Calliste argentea (Tscli.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 514 ; 
1879, p. 226. 

Une paire de Cbirimoto, tnee le 5 juillet et en septembre 1880. 

Le male unique de Paltaypampa, au Perou central, tue le 13 mars, 
differe des nnlles du Perou septentrional, tues en septembre, par la 
nuance des parties superieures du corps, des flancs de I'abdomeu et 
des bordures sur les remiges et les rectrices bleues, comme dans la 
figure de la 'Fauna Peruana,' au lieu de vert-bleuatres ; ce qui est 



12 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jail. 3, 

en relation avec le changement du plumage. L'exemplaire cite etait 
en pleine inue, et toutes ses plumes fraiches presentent la couleur 
bleue, tandis que celles du plumage precedent sont de la meme nuance 
que chez tous les oiseaux du nord. 

*13. Calliste argyrophenges, Scl. et Salv. 

Six exemplaires de Huambo, tucs en avril 1880. Iris brun fonce ; 
bee noir; pattes d'un gvis plombd fonce. 

La femelle a le sommet de la tete gris noiratre, squamule de ver- 
datre, plus distinctemeut au front, et moins sur la nuque ; cotes de la 
tete et gorge d'un stramine, passant au vert bleuatre pale dans les 
autres directions de la lumiere ; le dos et le croupion sont d'un jaune 
verdatre, plus clair sur ce dernier ; scapulaires olives ; poitrine bleue 
verdatre pale ; milieu de I'abdomen largement gris, a plumes bordees 
de blanchatre ; flancs de la couleur du dos ; sus-caudales olives, sous- 
caudales grises oliviltres bordees de blanchatre. Ailes et queue 
noiratres, a plumes borde'es de vert olivatre ; les bordures des remiges 
primaires d'un vert bleuatre ; sous-alaires externes grises lavees de 
vert, les internes blanches ; bord interne des remiges blanchatre. 

*14. Calliste nigricincta, Bp. 

Un m&le de Huambo, tue le 9 avril 1 880. Iris brun fonc . 

*I5. Calliste chrysotis, Du Bus. 

Un male de Chirimoto, tue le 1 septenibre 1880. Iris brun 
fence. 

16. Calliste cyaneicollis (d'Orb. et Lafr.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S 
1874, p. .515. 

Quatre exemplaires de Huambo et de Chirimoto. 

Les oeufs, recueillis a Corral et a Chirimoto en fevrier, mars et en 
avril, sont oves, mediocrement allonges, a coque mate, blanche ou 
d'un blanc legerement jaunatre, parseme de taches irregulieres vio- 
latres pen nombreuses, presque egalement disposees partout, ou plus 
sonveiit rares et petites sur la grandc nioitic terminale, grosses et 
formant une large coiironne dense autour du gros bout, qui est par- 
seme de petites, mais plus uovnbreuses qu'au sommet. Dimensions : 
19x13-3, 19-2X 14-1, 20xl3-8niillim. 

17. Calliste melanotis, Scl. Ibis, 1876, p. 408, tab. xii. fig. 1. 

Quatre exemplaires de Chiromoto et d'Achamal, tues en juillet et 
en septembre. Iiis brun fonce. 

18. Iridornis analis (Tsch.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 514. 

Trois exemplaires de Ray-urmana, d'Achamal et de Chirimoto, 
tues en juiu et en juillet 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

M. Stolzmann pretend que ces oiseaux sont fort rapproches par 
lenrs habitudes aux Buarremons, et que leur place dans le systeme 
serait la plus naturelle aupres de ces derniers. 



1882.] IN NORTU-EASTERN PERU. 13 

19. PcECiLOTHRAUPis iGNiCRissA, Cab.; Tacz. P. Z. S. 18/4, 
p. 514. 

Trois femelles et un jeune eu premier plumage, recueillis a Tami- 
apampa en octobre et en novembre 18/9. 

Le jeuue oiseau en premier plumage a toutes Ics couleurs c'gale- 
ment disposees comme chez les adultes, mais les nuances sont moins 
inteuses et moins pures, le noir est bcaucoup moins foncc, le rouge 
du dessous et de la tache auriculaire tiraut a I'orange' sale ; le bleu 
du croupion et du devant de I'aile plus clair, moins luisant et moins 
uniforme ; les sous-caudales noiratres, largemeut terminees de rouge 
orange' ; les rectrices borde'es distinctement de bleuatre. Iris brun 
fonce. 

20. CoMPsocoMA suMPTuosA (Less.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 513. 

^Deux exemplaires de Cliirimoto, tue's en septembre 1880, sont 
d'une taille intermediaire entre les exemplaires de I'Antioquia et 
ceux du Pe'rou central, s'approchant plus par leur taille aux 
premiers, et par la nuance des bordures externes des rcmiges aux 
derniers. 

milHm. millkn. 

Longueur de I'aile dans I'oiseau de Medellin 99, de la queue 74 
>j » Cliirimoto 94, „' 69 

» » Auquimarca 89, „ 60 

21. Tanagra palmarum, Wied. 

Tanagra melanoptera, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 513. 

Un exemplaire tue a Yurimaguas le 25 ievrier 1881 est d'une taille 
e'gale a celle des oiseaux de la Guyane fran9aise et moins forte que 
I'oiseau du Perou central. 

22. Tanagra ccelestis, Spix; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 513; 
1880, p. 195. ^ 

Un male tue' a Yurimaguas le 10 mars 1881, une femelle a Hu- 
ambo le 12 fevrier 1880. 

Les oeufs, recueillis en Janvier, mars et avril, sont ovc's, plus ou 
moms allonges, a surface faiblement polie, blanche sale, tachete'e ou 
marbre'e de nombreuses taches brunes violatres infe'rieures, et brunes 
foucees superficielles; les taches sont irregulieres, de diffurentes 
dimensions, el plus ou moins egalement dispose'es sur toute la surface 
Dimensions: 22-8 x 16-8, 24-2x17, 25x17-2, 26-5 X 16-8 millim. 

23. Tanagra cyanocephala (d'Orb. et Lafr.) : Tacz. P. Z S. 
1874, p. 313; 1879, p. 227. 

Uu male de Chachapoyas. 

24. Tanagra darwini, Bp.; Tacz. P.Z.S. 1874, p. 513; 1880, 
p. 195. 

Un exemplaire de Taraiapampa. 



6 


2 


S 


2 


194 


186 


198 


190 


260 


246 


2/3 


254 


76 


73 


83 


78 



14 m. taczanowski on birds collected [jan. 3, 

*25. Ramphocelus jacapa (L.). 

Uue paire de Yurimaguas tue'e en fc'vrier 1881, et uue paire de 
Huambo tuce en fevrier et en mars 1880. 

Les deux mTdes des deux localitcs se vessemblent en tout, et diffe- 
rent des oiseaux de Cayenne par la nuance rouge moins forte sur les 
parties infcricures du corps, et presque nulle sur le milieu du ventre. 
La fenielle de Yurimaguas ressemble a celle de Cayenne, tandis que 
la femelle dc Iluamljo a la nuance gendralc plus claire, le devant du 
visage et de la gorge rouge, et tout le dessous du corps beaucoup 
plus enduit de rouge que cliez les femelles de Yurimaguas et de 
Cayenne. Sous le rapport de la taille I'oiseau de Huambo est le 
plus grand, celui de Yurimaguas le plus petit, comnie on le voit des 
dimensions ci-jointes : — 

Cajemie. Yurimaguas. Huambo. 

Longueur totale .... — — 

,, du vol . . — — 

de I'aile . . 81 74 

Les ccufs, recueillis a Huambo et a Corral en Janvier et en fc'vrier, 
sont oves ou elliptiques, courts, a surface lisse ; ie fond est vert bleu- 
atreassez pale, parscmc de points et de gouttes noires, plus ou moins 
reguliorement arrondies, rjuelquefois de taches irrcgulieres, en gc- 
ncfral peu nombreuses, plus souvent plus nombreuses au gros bout, 
rares au sommet, rarement distribuces egalement sur toute la sur- 
face. Dimensions: 22-4 X 16-7, 22-4x17, 23x17, 23-8 X 17-2 
millim. 

26. Pyranga AZAU.E (d'Orb. et Lafr.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 18/4, 
p. 514 ; 1879, p. 277; 1880, p. 195. 
Quatre cxemplaires de Chirimoto. 

*27. Pyranga ardens (Tscli.). 

Huit exemplaires des deux sexes, et en differents plumages, de 
Chirimoto, Huambo et d'Achamal, recueillis en mars, juillet et 
septembre. Iris brun foncc. 

28. Phcenicothratjpis rubica (V.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 513. 

Trois exemplaires recueillis a Yurimaguas en Janvier 1881. Iris 
brun fonce. 

29. TRicHOTHRAtPis auADRicoLOR (V.) : Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 513. 

Quatre exemplaires de Huambo. 

30. Tachyphonus rxjfiventris (Spix) ; Tacz. P. Z. S, 1874, 
p. 513. 

Une paire de Yurimaguas du 15 mars et du 26 fevrier 1881. Iris 
brun foncc. 



1882.] IN NORTH-KASTERN PERU. 15 

*31. Tachyphonus melaleucus (Sparm,). 

Sis exemplaires des deux sexes de Chirimoto et de Huanibo. 

Les milles de cet oiseau out la taille beaucouji plus forte que ceux 
de Cayenne. Longueur totale 220, vol 298, aile 96, queue 93 mil- 
lim. Les a3uts, recueillis eu fcvrier et en mars a Corral et a, Chirimoto, 
ressemblent eu tout a la figure de Messrs. Selater et Salvia daus le 
P. Z. S. 1879, tab. xlii. fig. 5. Leur surface est fort polie et luisaute. 
lis prcsentent beaucoup de varietes sous le rapport de la grandeur et 
de la forme des taches. Le fond est d'un rougeiitre sale pfde, rare- 
ment blancliatre : les taclies inferieures violatres pales, les superfi- 
cielles, d'un brun tres fonce ; gcncralemeut ellcs sont rares, plus ou 
moins denses au gros bout ; quelquefois il y a de tres grosses, sou- 
vent des veines cpaisses et des zigzags ; il y a aussi des exemplaires 
dont la maculature est rcduite a une fine moucheture pale. Dimen- 
sions : 22-8 X 10-8, 21-8x17, 23-2x1 7, 24-8x18, 26xl9millim. 

32. Nemosia guira (L.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 744. 

Un male adulte de Huambo, tuo le .5 avril 1880. Iris brun 
fonce. 

33. Chlorospingus LEUCOGASTER (Tacz.). 

Dacnidea leucogastra, Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, p. 131, tab. xix. fig, 2. 

Bacnideu cdLivenU-is, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 510 (errore). 

Six exemplaires des deux sexes de Tamiapampa et de Chachapoyas. 
La femelle ne differe en rien du male. 

Selon I'opinion de ]\L Stolzmann, c"est un oiseau tres voisin du 
Ch. superciliosus, et habitant la chanie orientale du Perou septen- 
trional et le Pc'rou central, taudis que le Ch. superciliosus se trouve 
dans les localitcs analogues de la chaine occidentale du Perou septen- 
trional. En comparant ces deux oiseaux, il est evident qu'ils ne se 
distinguent que par la couleur ; le vert olive du Ch. superciliosus 
est remplace par le gris fonce chez le Ch. leucoyaster, le jaune par 
le blanc ; la ressemblance entre ces deux formes se manifeste memc 
dans la disposition de la bande sourciliere et des taches aux joues. 
Sous le rapport de leurs habitudes les deux oiseaux se resseml)leut en 
tout ; ils habitent en petites bandes les forets, et se tiennent dans les 
couronnes des arbres, ou ils sont moins remuants que les Daciiis. 
La voix des deux espcces est semblable ;i ce point, que M. Stolzmann 
en entendant pour la premiere fois I'oiseau oriental, croynit recon- 
naitre la voix de I'oiseau occidental. Le genre de Dacnidea doit 
done etre annulc'. 

34. BuARREMON AssiMiLis(Boiss.); Tacz. P.Z.S. 18S0, p. 196. 
Un exemplaire de Chachapoyas. 

35. BuARREMON BRUNNEiNUCHUs (Lafr.) ; Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, 
p. 515; 1879, p. 228; 1880, p. 197. 

Un exemplaire de Tamiapampa. 



16 M. TACZANOWSKl ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

36. BuARREMON LATiNUCHUS, Du Bus; Tacz. p. Z. S. 1880, 
p. 197. 

Biiarremon specularis, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 228. 

Six exemplaires de Chacliapoyas et de Tamiapainpa, tues eu sep- 
tembre et en novembre 1879. 

*37. Arremon erythrorhynchtjs, Scl. P. Z. S. 1855, tab. 
Ixxxix. 

Un male et une femelle de Huambo, tues en Janvier 1880. Iris 
brun fonce. 

*38. CiSSOPIS MEDIA, Sol. 

Une femelle de Yurimaguas, tuce le 4 mars 1881. Iris jaune. 

39. PsiTTOspizA ELEGANT, Tsch. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 518. 
Deux exemplaires de Tamiapampa et de Ray-urmana, semblables 

aux oiseaux du Perou central par la disposition de la couleur 
rousse sur le visage, et non a ceux de la Nouvelle Grenade' et de 
I'Autioquia. 

40. Saltator MAGNUS (Gm.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 517. 
Un male de Huambo, tue le 10 mars 1880. Iris brun fonce. 
Les oeufs, recueillis a Huambo en Janvier et eu fevrier, sent d'une 

forme ovee allongee, a sommet plus ou moins aigu, la surface lisse, 
d'une couleur verte bleuatre avec une couronne autour du gros bout, 
composee de veines noircs tres longues et fines, mclangces avec des 
]ilus grosses, entremelees de diffcreutes manieres ; dans d'autres les 
veines sont tres fines et plus ou moins courtes,formant une couronne 
incomplete; sur d'autres la couronne est composee d'un petit nombre 
de points entremeles de quelques traits courts. Dimensions : 
26-6 X 19 millim. (Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1879, tab, xlii. fig. 9.) 

*41. Saltator c^RULEscENS (V.). 

Un male de Yurimaguas, tue le 22 fevrier 1881. Iris brun fonce. 

42. Saltator laticlavius, Scl. et Salv. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 517; 1880, p. 198. 

Un male de Tamiapampa, tue le 19 novembre 1879. 

Cet cxemyilairc, rgalement comme celui de Cutervo, a la couleur 
rousse plus rcpandue sur I'abdomen, et le noir moins prolouge sur le 
haut de la poitrine que chez les oiseaux du Perou central. 

Fringillid^. 

*1. GulRACA CYANEA (L.). 

Une paire de Yurimaguas du 10 mars 1881. Iris brun fonce, 

*2. Oryzoborus torridus (Gm.). 

Unmale de Yurimaguas, tue le 17 fevrier 1881, est plus petit que 
les oiseaux de Cayenne et du Brosil, et n'a point de trace du niiroir 
alaire blanc propre a I'espcce. Longueur totale 130, du vol 185, 
de I'aile 55, de la queue 45, du bee 12 millim. Iris brun fonce. 



1882.] IN NORTU-EASTERN PERU. 1/ 

*3. Spermophila castaneiventris, Cab. 

Une femelle tuee a Turimaguas le 4 mars 1881. Iris brun foucc. 

4. Spermophila LUCTUOSA (Lafr.); Taca. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 519. 

Quatre exeniplaires des deux sexes de Hiiambo et de Yurimaguas, 
tues le 12 mars J 880 et en fovrier 1881. Iris brun fonco. 

Les oeufs, trouvesa Chirimoto au mois de mars, ressembleut ;i ceux 
du Chardonneret par leur forme ct le mode de la coloration ; le fond 
est cgaleineut verdatre pale, les taches sont cepeudant d'une nuance 
diflferente, elles ne sont pas rouges mais d"au brun peu foncu ; en 
general elles sont plus grosses, nielangees avec des petites, plus 
nombreuses prus du gros bout eu y formant une couronne laclie ; 
le petit bout est moins tachetc, ou presque pur. L'eclat a peu prt's 
comme dans ceux du Chardonneret. Dinieusioas : 18x12*5, 
l/Sx 12-5 millim. 

5. Volatinia jacarina (L.); Tacz. P. Z. S, 1874, p. 520; 
1880, p. 199. 

Une femelle de Chirimoto du 17 aovit 1880. 

6. Phrygilus ocularis, ScL; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 520; 
1879, p. 229. 

Une femelle de Chachapoyas du 13 scptembre 1879. 

7. CoTURNicuLus PERU ANUS, Bp. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 521. 
Trois exemplaires de Yurimaguas. 

8. Chrysomitris capitalis. Cab.; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874;, p. 222; 
1879, p. 230. 

Un oeuf trome a Chirimoto, au mois de mars, ressemble par sa 
forme aux oeufs du Chardonneret. 11 est blanc pur, parsemc de pe- 
tites taches et de points rouge-brique, rares sur toute la surface et 
plus nombreuses autour du gros bout. L'eclat est tres faible. Di- 
mensions : 17 X 12-3 miUim. 

ICTERID^. 

Cassicus leucorhamphus, Bp. 

Cassiculus chrysonotus, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 523. 

Trois exemplaires tues a Tamiapampa en novembre 1879. Iria 
bleu tres clair. 

CORVID^. 

J. Cyanocitta joli^a, Bp. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 524. 

Trois exemplaires de Tamiapampa ideutiques a celui du Perou 
central. 

2. Xanthura peruviana (L.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 524 ; 
1879, p. 230. 

Trois exemplaires de Huambo et de Chirimoto. 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. II. 2 



18 m. taczanowski on birds collected [jad, 3, 

Tyrannid^. 

1. Myiotheretes striaticollis, Scl. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 532. 

Un exemplaire tuc a Chachapoyas Ic 13 septembre 1879. Iris 
brun foncc. 

2. OcHTHfECA THORACiCA, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, pp. 133, 533 ; 

1879, p. 232. 

Cinq exemplaires tucs a Tamiapampa en octobre et en novembre 

1879. 

3. OcHTHCECA lessoni, Scl. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 533 ; 1880, 
p. 202. 

Une femelle de Tamiapampa, tuee le 27 octobre 1879. 

4. MECOCERCtTLXJS STICTOPTERUS (Scl.), 

MecocercuJus fcmiopterus, Cab.; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 533. 
Ochthaca stictoptera, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 202. 
tJnepaire tuce a Tamiapampa en novembre 1879. 

5. MusciSAxicoLA FLTJviATiLis, Scl. et Salv. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 
1874, p. 534. 

Un exemplaire tue a Iluambo le 7 avril 1880. 

*6. Platyrhynchus senex, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 156. 

Une femelle ttiee a Ymimaguas le 22 Janvier 1881. Iris brun 
fonce ; pattes carnees claires. Sommet de la tete schistace fence 
nvec la huppe interne blanche. 

7. Todirostrum cinereum (L.); Tacz. P. Z, S. 1874, p. 534; 

1880, p. 202. 

Un exemplaire de Huambo tue le 19 fevrier 1880. Iris blanc. 

8. EuscARTHMUS PYRRHOPS, Cab. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 535. 

Quatre exemplaires des deux sexes de Tamiapampa, tues en no- 
vembre 1879. 

Les deux sexes ne presentent entre eux aucune difference. Iris 
d'un brun rougeatre clair, d'une nuance un pen plus foncce que les 
plumes du tour de I'ceil. 

9. Orchilus i'ileatus, Tsch. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 535. 

Une paire de Huambo du 5 fevrier 1880. Iris brun-noisette 
clair. 

10. COLOPTERUS GALEATUS (Bodd.). 

Quatre exemplaires recueillis aYurimaguas au mois du marsl881. 
Iris blanc sale. 



1S82.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 19 

11. MiONECTES STRiATicoLLis (d'Orb. ct Lafr.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 
1874, p. 535; 18/9, p. 233. 

Ciuq exemplaires de Chiriinoto, de Tamiapainpa et de Huambo, 
tues eu novembre 1879 et en juillet 1880. 

*12. MiONECTES OLEAGINEUS, Cab. 

Deux mtiles de Yurimaguas, tucs eu fcvrier 1881. Iris bnin 
fonce. 

13. Leitopogon superciliaris, Tsch.; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 536. 

Plusieurs exemplaires de Huambo tues en mars et en avril 1 880. 

Deux males de la mcme localite sont beaucoup plus petits, et ne 
presentent aucune difference dans la coloration. L'aile plice 63 
millim. tandis qu'elle est ordinairement de 73. 

14. Leptopogon auritus, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, pp. 134, 536. 
Un exemplaire tue a Ray-urmana le 29 septembre 1880. 

15. Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus, Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, pp.135 
et 535. 

Quatre exemplaires de Huambo, tues en fevrier 1880. Iris bruu 
de cerise. 

*16. Phyllomyias sp. inc. 

Trois exemplaires tues a Chirimoto en aout 1880, voisins du Ph. 
semifusca et du Ph. tumbezana, semblables en coloration a la pre- 
miere, mais plus forte et a bee plus faible ; distiucts de la derniere 
par la couleur jaune du dessous du corps, par la nuance plus foncee 
tirant a I'olive des parties superieures du corps, et l'aile plus courte 
de 2 millimetres. 

17. Ornithion imberbe, Scl. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 234 ; 
1880, p. 202. 
Une femelle de Chirimoto, tuee le 14 juillet 1880. 

*18. Tyrannulus elatus (Lath.). 

Deux males de Yurimaguas, tues eu fevrier 1881. 

*19. Tyranniscus chrysops, Scl. 

Onze exemplaires de Huambo et de Chirimoto, tues en mars, 
avril et juillet 1880. Iris brun, borde de blanchatre. 

20. Elainea albiceps (d'Orb. et Lafr.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 536; 1879, p. 234. 

Un jeune oiseau de Tamiapampa, tue le 27 octobre 1879. 

21. Elainea gigas, Scl.; Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, p. 536. 

Une femelle tuee a Huambo le 6 fevrier 1880 s'accorde en tout 
avec les oiseaux du Pcrou central, mais elle est plus petite, son aile 
pliee est plus courte de 10 millimetres que celle des m.ales de I'Amable- 
Maria. 

2* 



20 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jail. 3, 

*22. Elainea pagana (Liclit.) ? 

Un male tuc ;i Chirimoto le 29 juillct 1880 ressemble en tout aux 
oiseaux de Cayenne, mais il est beaucoup plus grand, I'aile plice est 
plus longue de 10 millim., la queue plus longue de 15 millim. 

*23. Elainea, sp. inc. 

Deux exemplaires tues a Chirimoto le 28 juillet et le Saout 1880, 
se distinguent de toutes les formes peruviennes par le disque fonce 
dans toutes les plumes du sommet de la tote, y forniant des squa- 
mules bien distinctes, et par la oouleur des parties infcrieures^ du 
corps semblable a celle de VE. j)agana, d'un straminc blancbatre 
varie comme dans les Phyllopneuste de stries irregulicres d'un jaune 
plus intense. Les dimensions s'accordent avec celles de VE. jmlla- 
tanga de M. Sclater : longueur totale 150-153, vol 220-226, aile 
70, queue 61, bee 12 millim. Le bee est plus aminci dans sa partie 
terminale que cbez VE. albiceps. 

*24. LeGATUS ALBICOLLIS (V.). 

Un male et una jeune femelle de Huanibo, tues le 13 fevrier et le 
3 mai 1880, et un male de Yurimaguas du 14 mars 1881. Ce der- 
nier ressemble en tout aux oiseaux de Cayenne, tandis que les oiseaux 
deHnambo se distinguent par la bandc sourciliore plus large, entou- 
rant tout le sommet de la tetc, et les taches foncces des parties infc- 
rieures du corps moins developpees. Iris brun foncc. 

*25. Myiozetetes granadensis, Lawr. 

Un exemplaire tue a Yurimaguas le 14 mars 1881. Iris gris 
fonce. 

26. Rhynchocycltjs fulvipectus, Scl. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 537. 

. Un male tue a Huambo le 12 mars 1880. Iris brun trcs fonce. 

27. Rhynchocyclxjs sulphurescens (Spix) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 
1877, p. 326. 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas. 

28. Ehynchocyclus peruvianus, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 137. 
Sept exemplaires de Huambo, tues en mars 1880. 

*29. Rhynchocyclus megacephalus, Scl. 
Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas, tue le 20 avril 1881. Iris blanc 
sale. 

*30. Pitangus sulphurates (L.). 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas, tuo le 22 fexrier 1881. Iris bruu 
foncc. 

31. Myiodynastes solitaries (V.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 537. 
Deux feraelles de Chirimoto, tuees en juillet et en septembre 1880. 
Iris brun fonce. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 21 

.32. Myiodynastes luteiventris, Scl. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. H7I, 
p. ^37. 

Un niilletue a Yurimaguas le 14 mars IdSi. Iris bra.i foiico. 

33. Myiodynastes chrysocephalus (Tsch.) ; Tacz. P. Z, S. 
1874, p. 537. 

Une femelle tuee a, Huambo le 2 avril 188U. Iris bruii foiice. 

34. HlRUNDIN^A SCLATERI, Reillll. 

Hirundinaea beUicosa, Tacz. P. Z. S. 187-1, p. 537. 

Un male tuc a Chirimoto le !) juillet 1880. Iris brim foiice, 

*3b, Myiobius villosus, Scl. 

Uu male et une jeune femelle cle Iliiambo, tues ea mars 1880. 
Iris brmi foiice. 

*36. Myiobius barbatus (Gm.). 

TJii male tue a Yurimaguas le 20 avril 1881. Iris brun fonce. 

37. Myiobius cinnamomeus (d'Orb. et Lafr.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 
1874, p. 537; 1879, p. 235. 

Un exemplaire de Huambo, tue le 9 avril 1880. 

38. Myiobius erythrurus. Cab. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 538. 

Deux exemplaires tues a Yurimaguas en fdvrier et en mars 1 88 1 . 
Iris brun fonce. 

*39. Myiobius n^vius (Bodd.). 

Deux adultes de Chirimoto, tues en aoiit 1880, et un jeune de 
Iluambo du 11 avril 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

40. Myiobius superciliosus, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 538. 

Une paire de Cococho tuee en aout 1879. Ces oiseaux s'accordent 
en tout avec la femelle decrite de Ropaybamba. Le male est d'une 
taille distinctement plus forte, u sommet de la tete orue d'une huppe 
interne d'une belle couleur jaune limonace'e ; le jaune de I'abdomen 
plus intense que chez la femelle ; et la couleur des bordures des 
remiges moins roussatre. Iris brun fonce ; muchoire noire, mandi- 
bule brunatre avec les bords et I'extrcmitc noirs ; pattes d'un come 
cendre. Longueur de I'aile (i7, de la queue gG, du bee 17, du tarse 
18 millim. 

41. Empidochanes fuscatus (Wied) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 538. 

Cinq exemplaires de Huambo, tnes en fevrier et en avril 1880. 
Iris brun fonce. 

42. CoNTOPUS ardesiacus, Cab. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 539 ; 
1879, p. 325. 

Un jeune mfde tue a Cococho le \7 aout 1879. 



22 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTKD [Jan, 3, 

*43. CONTOPUS VIRENS (L.). 

Six exeniplaires tues a Huambo entre le 9 fevrier et le 5 mai 1880. 
Iris brun foncc. 

*44. CONTOPXJS BOREALIS (Sw.). 

Un jeuue male de Huambo, tue le 5 mars 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

*45. Myiarchus tyrannxjlus (Miill.). 

Un exemplaire tue a Yurimaguas le 14 fevrier 1881. Iris brun 
fonce. 

46. Myiarchtjs nigriceps, Sol. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 539 ; 

1878, p. 238; 1880, p. 203. 

Deux exeraplaires de Huambo et de Tamiapampa. 

47. Myiarchus cephalotes, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 670. 
Onze exeniplaires des deux sexes de Chirimoto et de Tamiapampa. 

48. Tyrannus melancholicus, v.; Tacz. P.Z. S. 1874, p. 539. 

Deux exempiaires de Huambo tues en mars 1880. Iris brun fence. 

Les ceufs, recueillis a Corral et a Chirimoto en fevrier et en 
mars, sont oves, assez courts ; a sommet obtus ou faiblement aigu ; 
surface lisse ou mediocrement luisante ; le fond est isabelle ou 
blaiichatre, varie de grosses taches et de points violatres pales et 
d'autres superficielles bruues ou brunes rougeatres foncees, pour la 
plupart irregulieres, rares sur la surface et plus nombreuses autour 
du gros bout. Dimensions: 23-6 X 18-7, 24x18-2, 2.5 x •19-3, 
26x19-7, 26 X 18-2 millim. 

*49. Tyrannxjs AURANTio-ATRO-CRisTAxrs, d'Orb. et Lafr. 
Un jeune male de Huambo, tue le 5 mars 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

PiPRIDiE. 
*1. PiPRITES CHLORION (Cab.). 

Trois exempiaires des deux sexes de Huambo et de Yurimaguas, 
tues en mars 1880 et en mars 1881. Iris briui fonce. 

2. PiPRA CHLOROMEROS, Tsch. ; Tacz. p. Z. S. 1874, p. 539. 

Huit exempiaires recueillis a Huambo dcpuis le Janvier jusqu'au 
mai de 1880. Iris blanc chez les adultes et brun fonce chez les 
jeunes. 

*3. PiPRA CORACINA, Scl. 

Onze exempiaires des deux sexes de Chirimoto, recueillis en sep- 
tembre et en juillet 1880. Iris cerise-bruuatre chez le mfile, et terre 
de Sienne chez la femelle. 

4. PiPRA LEUCOCILLA (L.). 

Six exempiaires des deux sexes de Yurimaguas. Ins rouge de 
cerise. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 23 

*5. PiPRA ISIDORI, Scl. 

Iluit exemplaires de Huambo recueillis en avril et en mai 1880. 
Iris brun rougeatre. 

*6. PiPRA VIRESCENS, Pclz. 

Un mPile de Yurimaguas tud le 28 fevricr 1881. Iris blanc sale. 
Cet exemplaire, aiusi que les autres males que M. Stolzmann a eu en 
main, n'ont aucune trace de jaune an sommet de la tete, dont il est 
mention dans la diagnose de M. Pelzeln. 



•o' 



*7. Chiromach.eris manacus (L.). 
Un male de Yurimaguas. 

*8. Mach.eropterus striolatus, Bp. 

Deux males et une femelle, tues a Yurimaguas en fevrier 1881. 
Iris brun fonce. 

*9. Heteropelma amazonum, Scl. 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas, tue le 3 fevrier 1881. Iris brun, 
iin pen plus elair autour de la pupille. 

CoTINGIDjE. 

1. TiTYRA SEMiFAsciATA (Spix) ; Tacz. P.Z. S. 1874, p. 540. 

Trois exemplaires de Huambo, tues en mars 1880. Iris du male 
adulte brun autour de la pupille et d'une nuance plus claire a Tex- 
terieur ; brun fence du jeune male. 

*2. TiTYRA ALBITORaUES, DuBuS. 

Une femelle tuee a Yurimaguas le 14 mars 1881. Iris brun 
fence. 

*3. Hadrostomus minor (Less.). 

Deux femelles de Yurimaguas, tuees en fevrier 1881. Iris brun 
fonce. 

*4. Pachyrhamphus niger, Spix. 

Une paire de Yurimaguas, tuee le IG mars 1881. Iris brun 
fence. 

o, Pachyrhamphus versicolor, Hartl. ; Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, 
p. 540; 1879, p. 236. 

Un mfde de Tamiapampa, tue le 5 novembre 1879. 

*6. Pachyrhamphus, sp. inc. 

Deux exemplaires de Yurimaguas tues en mars et en avril 1881. 

Forme voisine du P. ulbogriseus, mais bien distincte, moins forte, 
h. ailes plus courtes, bee beaucoup plus long et plus large. Le mslle, 
dont le sexe est constate, parait etre jeune et au moment de com- 
mencer la mue. Le sommet de la tete est concelore au dos, teint 
legerement d'une nuance roussatre, borde des deux cotes d'un large 



24 M. TACZANOWSKT ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

sourcil cendrt', dont la partie anterieure entre Tceil et le bee est 
blanchiitre ; tout le dessous du corps est jaunatre pale ; les bordures 
des plumes alaires sout d'un oereux tres pixie et presque blanches sur 
quelques-unes des plumes ; la queue est sembable a celle du P. 
albogriseus. Iris brun tres fence. La femelle a le roux du sommet 
de la tete d'une nuance differente de celle de la femelle du P. albo- 
griseus, sans aucuue trace de la bande laterale noire ; les bordures des 
plumes alaires sont d'un roux beaucoup plus intense que chez le 
iniile, ainsi que les taches terminales des rectrices. 

S- Longueur totale 150, vol 212, aile 64, bee 20 raillim. 2 . Lon- 
gueur totale 145, vol 210, aile G3, bee 21 millim. 

7. LiPAUGUS SIMPLEX (Licht.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 18/4, p, 540. 

Quatre exemplaires de Huambo et de Ynrimaguas, recueillis en 
fevrier 1881. Iris brun fonce. 

8. RupicoLA PERUVIANA (Lath.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 540. 
Un male adulte de Huambo. 

*9. PiPREOLA RIEFFERI, BoisS. 

Trois exemplaires recueillis a Tamiapampa en octobre et en no- 
vembre 1879. Iris brun foncc. 

*10. PiPREOLA AUREIPECTUS, Lafr. 

Un male tue le 23 aout 1880 a Achamal. Iris jaune. 

11. Ampelio arcuatus (Lafr.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 540. 
Un exemplaire de Chachapoyas. 

12. Heliochera RUFAxiLLA, Tsch. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, 
p. 237. 

Trois exemplaires des deux sexes recueillis a Tamiapampa en 
octobre et en uovembre 1879. Iris rouge. 

*13. COTINGA MAYNAXA (L.). 

Deux males et deux femelles, tues a Yurimaguas en fevrier et en 
mars 1881. Iris oereux. 

*14. Lamprotes albocristatus, Lafr. 

Un male tue a Tamiapampa le novcmbrc 1879. Iris brun 
fence. 

Selon Topinion de M. Stolzmann, eet oiseau n'a rien de commun 
avee les Tanagrides ; ses habitudes indiquent son ^^affinitc aux 
oiseaux de la famille des Cotingides. C'ctait aussi I'opinion de Jules 
Verreaux. 

*15, Jodopleura isabelljE (Parz.). 

Un m'lie tue a Yurimaguas le 7 fevrier 1881. Iris brun tres foncJ. 

16, Cephalopterus ornatus, Geoff.; Tacz. P. Z. S, 1874, 
p. 521. 

Un male et deux femelles de Huambo, 



1882.] in north-eastern peru. 25 

Dendrocolaptidjs. 
*1. Synallaxis albescens, Temm. 
Un mfile tue a Yurimaguas le 22 fevrier 1881. Iris brun, 

*2. Synallaxis cisandina, Stolzm. MS. 

S. supra ex oUvaceo fusca, subtits dllutior ; pileo toto, alis ex- 
tus et Cauda rufis ; superciliis i^ostocularihus griseo-albidis ; 
gida alhida ; tectricibits alarum inferioribus remigibusque intus 
ochraceis. 

(S ad. D'un gris olivatre fonce en dessus, d'une nuance beaucouji 
plus pale en dessous ; a sommet de la tete roux en entier, tirant au 
front en grisiltre dans certaines directions de la lumicre ; un sourcil 
gris blancliatre on cendre assez large derriere I'ceil et a peine distinct 
sur le devant ; gorge blanchatre, legerement nebulee de gris. Ailes 
rousses exterieurement, a remiges intcrieurement brunes bordees de 
roussatre, sous-alairea ocreuses. Queue a 12 rectriccs d'lin roux 
un peu plus fonce que I'aile. Bee corne noiratre a mandibule carnee 
prde ; pattes grises olives ; iris terre de Sienne. 

$ . La fenielle ne differe en rieu. 

c? . Longueur totale 178, vol 230, alle 70, queue 71, bee 18, tarse 
20 millim, $ . Longueur totale 170, vol 218, aile 65, queue 70, bee 
19, tarse 20 millim. 

Forme intermediaire entre la iS. aniisiensis et la S. cuvtata, distincte 
de la premiere par une taille moins forte, la couleur du dos moins 
grise, celle des parties inferieures du corps plus foncee, surtout sur 
la poitrine, le sourcil moins prononce, la couleur rousse de la tete, 
des ailes et de la queue rclacivement plus foncee. 

De la S. cuvtata elle diifere par la couleur rousse occupant le front, 
et d'une nuance un peu plus foncee, aiusi que celle des ailes et de la 
queue ; la couleur du dos est plus roussatre dans la ;S'. curtata. 

Trois exemplaires tues a Chirimoto et a Huambo en aout et en 
fevrier 1880. 

*3. Synallaxis furcata, Stolzm, MS. 

S. supra olivaceo-grisea, sitbtus ochracea ; pileo, alls extus et 

Cauda rufis ; superciliis latis postocularibus ochraceis ; fectri- 

cihus alarum inferioribus remigibusque intus ochraceo- cinna- 

momeis. 

? . D'un gris brunatre en dessus, d'un ocreux en dessous ; a 

sommet de la tete roux, tirant au jaunatre sur le front et passant 

insensiblement suv la nuque en couleur dorsale ; borde des deux 

cotes par une large bande sourciliere postoculaire ocreuse ; une 

raie rousse foncee derriere I'eeil. Les ailes rousses exterieurement, 

a tectrices inferieures et le bord interne des remiges ocreux. Queue 

a 12 rectriccs, rousse, un peu plus rougeatre que I'aile ; les sous-cau- 

dalcs ocreuses sales, les tectrices superieures de la queue rousses. 

Machoire noire cornee ; mandibule blancbe d'ivoire avec I'extremite 

grise foncee ; pattes grises olives, avec les bordures jaunes sur les 

scutelles ; iris gris. 



26 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

Longueur totale 174, vol 224, aile 69, queue 65, bee IS, tarse 19 
millim. 

L'oiseau en premier plumage a la couleur des parties superieures 
du corps plus foncee, le sommet de la tete concolore au dos, le des- 
sous du corps fauve, avec les flancs de I'abdomen largement gris ; 
baiide sourcilicre fauve. Ailes et queue comme dans I'adulte. II a 
deja quelques plumes rousses sur le milieu de la nuque, et plusieurs 
ocreoses sur la gorge et la poitrinc. 

Ces deux exemplaires ont ete tues a Chirimoto (5400'), la feraelle 
le 21 juillet, le jeune le 13 aout 1880, sur les arbres peu eleves, dans 
les conditions sembabies a celles de la S. antisiensis. C'est una forme 
voisine de cette derniere. 

*4. Synallaxis hyposticta, Sol. 

Un male tue a Yurimaguas le 9 mars 1881. Iris ocreux. 

*5. Synallaxis rutilans, Temm. 

Deux exemplaires de Yurimaguas, tues le 18 fevrier et le I mars 
1881. Iris brun fonce. 

6. Synallaxis FRUTicicoLA, Stolz. ; Tacz. P. Z.S. 1879, p. 670, 

1880, p. 200. 

Les oeufs de cette espece, recueillis a Corral en fe'vrier, sont d'un 
blanc logerement verdatre. Dimensions: 20xl5"8; 20*4 x 16; 
20-7x16; 22x16-4 millim. 

*7. Ancistrops lineaticeps, Scl. 

Trois exemplaires de Yurimaguas tues le 1 et 4 fevrier 1 871 . Iris 
brun fonce. 

*8. AUTOMOLUS SCLATERI, Pclz. 

Trois exemplaires de Yurimaguas tues en Janvier 1881. Iris brun 
fonce. 

*9. Philydor erythropterus, Scl. 

Deux exemplaires tues a Yurimaguas en fevrier 1881. Iris brun 
fonce. 

10. Ipoborus stictoptilus. Cab. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 528. 

Un male tue a Yurimaguas le 1 fevrier 1881 a le bee un peu plus 
long et I'abdomen un peu plus fonce que I'exemplaire typique. Iris 
brun I'once. 

11. Anabazenops CABANisi, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 529; 187^ 
p. 231. 

Deux exemplaires de Cococho et d'Achamal tues en septembre 

1880. 

12. Xenops rutilus, Licht. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874- p. 529- 
1879, p. 231. 

Cinq exemplaires de Chirimoto, Cococho et Huambo. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 2" 

13. Xenops LiTTORALis, Scl. ; Tacz. p. Z. S. 1874, p. 259. 
Un exemplaire de Yuvimaguas. 

14. SiTTASOMUS OLivACEUS (Wied) ; Tacz, P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 529; 1877, p. 323. 

Deux exemplaires tues a Yuvimaguas en fevrier 1881. 

15. Margarornis sauAMiGERA (d'Orb. et Lafr.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 
1874, p. 529; 1880, p. 201. 

Un exemplaire de Tamiapampa du 11 novembre 1879. Iris bruu 
fonce. 

*16. Margarornis brunnescens, Scl. 

Deux exemplaires de Huambo, dont le male adulte est pris le 6 
avril, et un jeune le 30 Janvier 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

Get oiseau est tres mal place dans le genre. Son bee est tout a 
fait different de celui de I'espece typique ; la proportion du doigt 
median aux lateraux est autre ; les ailes sont beaucoup plus courtes, 
etc. Selon les observations de M. Stolzmann, il differe encore plus 
par ses habitudes : tandis que le 31. sqitamigera grimpe contiuuelle- 
ment a la manicre des Xenops et des Grimpereaux, le M. brunnescens 
sautille sans cesse sur les branches des petits buissons tout pros de 
terre. 

*17. Glyphorhynchus cuneatus (Licht.). 

Quatre exemplaires de Yurimaguas, tues en fevrier 1881. Iris 
brun fence. 

*18. Dendrocincla fumigata (Licht.). 

Deux exemplaires tues a Huambo en fevrier 1880. Iris gris 
fonce. 

*19. Dendrornis triangularis (Lafr.). 

Un exemplaire de Ray-urmaua (7500') tue le 17 juillet 1880. 
Iris brun fonce. 

*20. Dendrornis rostripallens (Des Murs). 

Deux exemplaires de Yurimaguas, tues en Janvier 1881. Iris 
brun-fouce. 

21. Dendrornis chunchotambo (Tsoh.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874 
p. 529. 

Six exemplaires de Huambo et de Chirimoto. 

*22. Dendrornis elegans, Pelz. 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas, tue le 1 fevrier 1881. Iris brun 
fonce. 



28 M. TACZANOWSKT ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jail. 3, 

23. XiPHOCOLAPTES COMPRESSIROSTRIS, 11. Sp. 

X.promeropirhjnchusi, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 231. 
Un excmplaire, pris pav M. Stolzmaiiii a Ray-urmana le 29 sep- 
tembre 1880, s'accorde en tout avec celui de Tambillo, dont j'ai 
donue la description dans la liste de 18/9, et differe egaleiuent des 
oiseaux de la Nouvelle Grenade, ce qui me decide a lui proposer le 
nom specifique et la diagnose suivaute : — 

X. promeropirhynclio simillimus, sed rostro breviore, compressiore 

etpaliido ; stri'ts fulvis pilei et colli postici strictioribus ; dorso 

tinicolori ; (jula fidva, binis vittis brunneis longifudinalibus ; 

abdomine medio lutissime ochraceo, nigra maculato ; striis pec- 

toralibus lineis nigricantihus marginatis ; subeaudalibus brun- 

neo-ferrugineis, nigro variis ; alis caudaque obscurioribus. 

La machoire est grise cornee, plus foncee a I'extremite, plus 

claire sur les bords ; maudibule grise cornee noiratre a I'extremite, 

passant graduellement en gris plombe vers la base; pattes plombees 

olivatres ; iris brun fonce. 

Get exemplaire presente les dimeusions suivantes : (S . longueur 
totale 342, vol 458, aile 143, queue 135, bee 51, tarse 31, hauteur 
du bee vis a vis les narines 12 millim. 

24. PiCOLAPTES PERXJVJANUS, n. Sp. 

P. lacrymiger, Tacz. P. Z. S. 18/4, p. 529 ; 1879, p. 232 ; 1880, 
p. 201. 

Un male rccueilli a Tamiapampa le 22 iiovembre 18/9. 
Tous les cxemplaires de cctte forme, que j'ai vu en grand nombre 
des differeiites localites du Perou central et septentrional, se ressem- 
blcnt dans tous les details, etse distinguent constamment des oiseaux 
de la Colombie ; ils paraissent done constituer une forme differeute, 
fort rc'pandue au Perou. La difference principale consiste dans la 
forme des taches sur les parties inferieures du corps, qui au lieu 
d'etre lacrymiformes, c'est a dire distinctement clargies et obtuses a 
I'extremite, comme dans I'espece citee, sont graduellement attcnuees 
vers I'extremite et plus ou moins aigues ; la gorge est unicolore et 
fauve, au lieu de blanche, distinctement squanmlce chez les oiseaux 
de ('olombie ; la presence des stries dorsales trcs fines, dont il u'y a pas 
de trace chez le F. lacnindgev ; la nuance du fond de la ])oitrine et 
de I'abdomen est distinctement plus pfde dans ces oiseaux peruviens, 
etc. Je propose done le nom specifique et la diagnose suivaute pour 
celte forme pcruvienne. 

P. supra olivaceo-rufits, pileo obseuriore ; uropygio, alis cuudmpue 
cinnamomeis ; pileo usque ad nucham maculis minimis siibtrian- 
giduribus, pullide fulvis, nigra tei'ininatis notato ; gutture fulvo 
immaculato ; cajntis lateribus superciliisque albidis brunneo 
strialis ; pectoris abdominisque plumis riifa-olivaceis striga 
mediaiia oblonga fuha aut albida, apice plits aut minus acuta, 
nigro marginata notatis. 
(S . Longueur de I'aile 112, queue 100, bee 30, tarse 21 millim. 
$ . Longueur de I'aile 108, queue 99, bee 29, tarse 21 millim. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 2!) 

FOKMICARIID^. 

*I. Thamnophilus tenuipunctatus, Lafr. 

Huit exemplaires de Chirimoto et de Iluambo, des deux sexes et 
(Je diffcrents ages, rccueillis en fcvrier, juillet, aoiit et septembre 
1880. Iris blanc sale et gris dans les jeunes. 

*2. Thamnophilus murinus, Pelz. 

line paire d'exemplaires de Yurimaguas, tues en Janvier et eu 
mars 1881. Iris gris. 

*3. Thamnophilus subandinus, n. sp. 

Til. nir/errimus, tectricibus alarum scapularibusque albo marginatis; 
rectricibus macula alba terminatis; plumis dorsi ad basin albis ; 
subaJaribiis nic/ris, albo variis ; rcmic/um mor(jine interna falva- 
scenti-albido. Rostrum nicjrum ; pedes cinerei ; iris obscure 
f/riseo-bruiinea. 

Le male adulte est noir intense en entier, avec les tectrices aluiics 
et les scapulaires externes variees d'une bordure blanch?; !cs icc- 
trices, excepte les medianes, terminees par une tache blanche, la 
premiere portant en outre une autre tache pareille dans la moitie de 
sa barbe externe; les sous-caudales terminees par une bordarc blanche ; 
les sous-alaires blanches varices de noir ; les remiges priniaircs bordees 
finement de blanc dans leur moitie terminale ; la baibc interne de 
toutes hordee largement de blanc jaunatre ; les plumes du milieu du 
dos largement blanches a la base, celles du croupion longues et 
laches, cendrecs a la base. Bee noir ; pattes grises ; iris brun 
grisatre foncc. 

Le male moins adulte se distingue par I'ondulation cendree de 
I'abdomen ; les sous-alaires roussatres variees de noir, et les bordures 
internes des remiges plus jaunatres. 

La femelle est grise foncee en dessus a sommet de la tete noir 
depuis le vertex jusqu'a la nuque, et quelques grosses taches noires 
au milieu du dos ; le front, les cotes du visage, la gorge et la poitrine 
sont d'un gris beaucoup plus pillc que celui du dos ; abdomen rous- 
satre, plus intense sur les flancs, ainsi que les sous-caudales. Ailes 
noiratres ; toutes les remiges finement bordees a I'exterieure de gris, 
et largement de roussatre sur la barbe interne ; sous-alaires de cette 
derniere couleur. Queue noiratre, avec une fine bordure terminale 
blanche sur la barbe externe des trois latcrales de chaque cote de la 
queue. Bee corne noiratre ; iris brun foncc. 

d . Longueur totalc \7 5-177, vol 240-244, aile 72, queue 60, bee 
19, tarse 22 millim. ^. Longueur totale 1/5, vol 240, aile 70, 
queue 62, bee 18, tarse 22 millim. 

Sembable au Th. lactuosus, Tsch., du Pcrou central, mais plus 
petit, a bordures blanches des tectrices alaires moins larges, surtout 
des petites, qui dans ce dernier couvrent presque en entier la base 
noire des plumes du devaut de I'aile. 

La femelle differe encore plus de celle de I'espece du Pcrou cen- 
tral, et principalement par la presence de la calotte noire intense et 
des taches noires au milieu du dos. 



30 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

Huit exemplaires des. deux sexes de Chachapoyas, de Chirimoto 
et de Tamiapanipa, recueillis en septembie et en novembre 1880. 

*4. PyGOPTILA MACULIPENNIS, Scl. 

Un male de Yurimaguas, du 15 Janvier 1881. Iris brun fonce. 

5. Dysithamnus semicinereus, Scl.; Tacz. P. Z. S. 18/4, 
p. 350. 

Nombreux exemplaires des deux sexes de Cococlio, Huambo et 
Chirimoto. 

*6. Thamnomanes glaucus, Cab. 

Trois exemplaires de Yurimaguas recueillis en fevrier 1881. Iris 
brun foncc. 

*7. Myrmotherula surinamensis (Gm.). 

Deux males de Huambo, tues en mars et en avril 1880. Iris brun 
fonce. 

*8. Myrmotherula pygm.ba (Gm.). 

Deux exemplaires de Yurimaguas, tues en Janvier et fevrier 1881. 
Iris brun fonce. 

*9. Myrmotherula gutturalis, Scl. et Salv. 

Trois exemplaires de Huambo, tues en mars 1881. Iris gris clair. 

*10. Myrmotherula h^matonota, Scl. 

Quatre oiseaux des deux sexes, tues a Yurimaguas en fevrier et en 
mars 1881 . Iris brun clair chez le male, et gris pale chez la femelle. 

11. Myrmotherula atrogularis, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, pp. 137 
et 530. 

Sept exemplaires de Huambo, tues en fevrier et en mars 1880. 
Iris brun rougeatre fonce. 

12. Myrmotherula menetriesi, d'Orb. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 530. 

Six exemplaires tues a Huambo en fevrier et en mars 1880. Iris 
brun fonce. 

*13. Myrmotherula axillaris (V.). 

Deux exemplaires de Yurimaguas, tues en Janvier 1881. Iris 
brun fonce'. 

*14. Myrmotherula cinereiventris, Scl. 
Six exemplaires des deux sexes tues a Yurimaguas en Janvier et eu 
fevrier 1881. Iris brun fonce. 

*15. Herpsilochmus puncticeps, n. sp. 

II. supra cinereo-olivaceus, subtus pallide siilphureus ; pilco nujro 
albo muculato : yula/usco suhsquamidata ; liypochondriis oliva- 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 3 1 

ceo lavatis ; alls nigricantibus, tectrieibus Jlavido Umbatis, re- 

migibus externe colore dorsi marginatis ; rectricihus medlls 

cinereis, externis fere totis albis, reliquis 7U(/ris alba terminatis. 

Bostrum nigrum, mandibula grisea ; pedes cinereo-plumbei ; 

ii'is grisea. 

Male adulte d'un cendrc olivatre en dessus, a sommet de la tete 

noir macule de uombreuses taclies subtriangulaircs blauches, le plus 

denses au milieu et en arriure des yeux, petites au front, et presquc 

nulles sur la region sourcilicre ; tout le dessous est jaune souffre 

pale, plus pale sur la gorge et squamule de noiratre, lave d'olivatre 

sur les flancs et le haut de la poitrine ; joues jaunatres varices de 

noir. Ailes noiratres, a tectrices bordces a I'extrcmitc de jaunatre ; 

les bordures externes des rcmiges fines de la couleur du dos, et celles 

des primaires jaun:itres pales; les sous-alaires jaunes a pen pres coniinc 

I'abdomen ; le bord interne des remiges d'un jaune plus p.ale. Les 

deux reetrices externes blanches presque en entier, les autres noires 

terminces de blanc, de plus en plus moins en avan9ant vers le sub- 

mediaires, les deux medianes cendrces en entier. Machoire noire ; 

mandibule grise ; pattes cendrces plombces ; iris gris. 

La femelle sembable au male, et distincte par le sommet de la tote 
largement roussatre et immaculc, exceptce la region sourcilicre, qui 
est grise avec les taches blanchatres oblongues, analogues a celles du 
male ; la gorge est squamulee de fonce ; les tectrices alaires beau- 
coups moins foncees, avec les bordures jiareilles a celles du male. 

Le jeune mAle se distingue de I'adulte par le sommet de la tote 
roussiUre en grande partie avec des taclies d'un blanc jaunatre, plus 
grosses que celles de I'adulte ; le fond du dos est plus olive ; les 
tectrices alaires comme chez la femelle. 

cJ . Longueur totale 145, vol 182, aile 55, queue 49, bee 17, tarse 
17 millim. 

Trois exemplaires de Iluambo, tues en fevrier et en mars 1880. 

*16. Rhamphoc^nus melanurus, V. 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas, tue le 20 Janvier 1881. Iris 
gris. 

17. Cercomacra tyrannina, Scl. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 530. 

Sept exemplaires des deux sexes de Huambo et de Chirimoto, tues 
eu mars, mai et avril 1880. Iris brun tros fonce. 

*18. Cercomacra cinerascens, Scl. 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas, tue le 25 fevrier 1881. Iris gris. 

*19. Percnostola fortis, Scl, et Salv. 

Une femelle de Yurimaguas, tuee le 15 mars 1881. Iris bruu. 

20. Myrmeciza hemimel^na, Scl. et Salv.; Tacz. P. Z, S. 

1874, p. 530. 

Quatre exemplaires de Huambo, recueillis en avril 1880. Iris 
brun fonce. 



32 M. TACZANOWSkl ON BIRDS COLLECTED [JaU. 3, 

*21. Myrmeciza maynana, n. sp. 

M.fumosa; gula, pectore, ahdomine medio, alis caudaque nif/ris ; 
tectricibus alarum macu/ts cdbis trianc/ularibus variis. Rostrum 
nigrum; pedes plumbei ; iris fusco-bruniiea. 

Male adulte voisiii de la M. utrothora.v, mais parfaitement 
distinct par la couleur gcneralc plus uniforme, celle des parties 
superieures du corps d'uii fuligiiieux a peine lave de briumtre; la 
couleur du dessous bcaucoup plus foncce que dans I'espece citee, et en 
consequence le noir de la portrine parait etre moins distinct du fu- 
ligineux de I'abdomen, tant plus que le noiriitre passe le long du 
milieu de cette partie. Les tectriccs alaires sont noire?, termiuees 
chacune par une tache triangulaire blauclie ; rcmiges noirafres sans 
borduie brune ; sous-alaires noirafres varices de quelques taches 
blanches. Queue noire. Les plumes du milieu du dos blanches ii 
la base. Bee noir ; pattes plombees ; iris brun fonce. 

Longueur totale 1(50, vol 200, aile 58, queue 55, bee 20, tarse 26 
millim. 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas. 

*22. Hypocnemis cantator (Bodd.). 

Quatre exeniplaires de Yurimaguas, tues en Janvier et en mars 
1881. Iris brun fonce. 

23. Hypocnemis myiotherina (Spix) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 531. 

Cinq exemplaires des deux sexes de Yurimaguas, rccueillis en 
Janvier et en fevrier 1881. Iris brun fonce. 

24. Hypocnemis pcecilonota, Pucher. ; Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, 
p. 531. 

Une paire de Huambo recueillie en fevrier et en avril 1881. Iris 
brun-fonce. 

25. Hypocnemis theres/E (Des Murs) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 531. 

Quatre exemplaires de Iluambo et de Yurimaguas, recueillis en 
fevrier 1880 et de 1881 . Iris gris fonce chez le nulle, ct moins fonce 
dans la femelle. 

*26. PiTHYs lunulata, Sol. et Salv. 

Une femelle de Yurimaguas, luce le 18 fevrier 1881. Iris gris 
tics fonce. 

*27. Formicarius analis (d'Orb. et Lafr.). 

Une femelle tuee ;\ Iluambo le 3 fevrier 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

*28. Formicarhis nigrifrons, Gould. 

Une femelle de Yurimaguas, tuee le 20 avril 1881. Iris brun 
fonce. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. ,33 

29. Grallaria albiloris, Tacz. P. Z, S. 1880, p. 201. 

Uue paire recueiilie :\ Chacapoyas en septembre 1879. 

Ces deux exemplaires ont Ic rovix du sommet de la tute plus 
intense et plus pur que cliez les oiseaux de Cutervo et de Callacate, 
et plus pvolongd suv le devant du dos ; le fond du dessous est uu peu 
plus jaunatre ; les stries de la poitrine tirent au roussatre, ce qui me 
parait provenir du plumage plus frais chez ces individus. 

*30. Grallaria przewalskii, u. sp. 

G. rufo-hrunnea ; pileo fusco ; genis, hypocliondriis subcaudali- 
busque rufis ; pectore abdomineque medio latissime cinerascenti- 
bus; ventre medio isabellino. Rostrum nigrum; pedes cceruleo- 
cinerei, pallidi ; irlsfusco-brunnea. 

Le male adulte est d'un bvun roussatre en dessus, a sommet de la 
t^te brun noinitre ; les joues sont d'un roux ferrugineux ; une bande 
sourcilicre postoculaire large, d'uue nuance rousse differente ; la gorge 
fauve pale ; le milieu de la poitrine et de 1' abdomen largemeut 
cendre, milieu du ventre isabelle ; les flancs de la poitrine et de 
I'abdomen d'un roux brunatre plus clair qu'au dos ; sous-caudales 
roussatres. Les ailes ext^rieurement de la couleur du dos ; sous- 
alaires rousses ; barbe interne des remiges brune, lavee en dessous 
de roussatre. Queue concolore au dos. Bee uoir ; pattes cendrees 
bleuatres pales ; iris brun tres fonce. 

La femelie est semblable an male, et distiucte par la nuance plus 
pale au sommet de la tete, grise lavee de roussatre ; la couleur du 
dos plus rousse ; le roux des joues et des cotes du cou plus clair; 
gorge ocreuse ; le cendre du milieu de la poitrine et de I'abdomen 
enduit d'isabelle. Bee comme dans le male, a mandibule plus claire 
en dessous, tirant au gris corne. 

cJ . Longueur totale 220, vol 325, aile 97, queue 65, bee 29, tarse 
51, doigt median avec I'ongle 34 millim. $ . Longueurt otale 
210, vol 315, aile 100, queue 60, bee 29, tarse 48, doigt median 
avec I'ongle 33 millim. 

Deux exemplaires ( d" et $ ) de Ray-urmana a 8000' d'altitude, 
luee le 29 octobre 1880. 

Je dedie cette espece a mon ami le Colonel Przewalski, coura- 
geux explorateur de la Mougolie chinoise etdu Thibet septentrional, 
dont les dccouvertes nous ont procure des donnees precieuses pour la 
connaissance de la faune de ces contrees inhospitalicres. 

*3l. Grallaria minor, Stolzm. MS. 

G. brevicaudae simillima, sed minor, supra fusco-oUvaceo , 
Forme voisine de la G. brevicauda, mais beaucoup plus petite, a 
bee en proportion un peu plus fort. En coloration distincte princi- 
palement par la nuance des parties supericures du corps olive bru- 
natre, au lieu de brune roussatre de I'espece citee ; les tacbes dudes- 
sous sont egalement disposees, mais d'une teinte analogue a celle du 
dos ; les lores blanchatres. Le mtde a la barbe externe des remiges 
teinte legerementde ferrugineux. Sous-alaires oereuses d'une teinte 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. IIL 3 



34 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COIXECTED [Jail. 3, 

moins forte que cliez respcce citce ; Ics bordures internes des rc- 
miges i\ peine roussatres. Bee noir corne, h niandibule blanche 
d'ivoire avec rextromito et les bords gris covnc's fonces; pattes grises; 
iris brun trcs fonce, 

c?. Longueur totale 170-175, vol 282, aile 84, queue 33, bee 
24, tarse 40, doigt median avec Tongle 26 millim. $. Longueur 
totale 165, vol 2/0, aile 80, queue 33, bee 23-5, tarse 39, doigt 
median avec I'ongle 26 millim. 

Deux males et une femelle de Yurimaguas, tues en fevrier 1881. 

32. CoNOPOPHAGA ARDESiACA, d'Orb. et Lafr. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 
1874, p. 531. 

Un male tuc a Huambo le 28 avril 1880. Lis brun fonce. 

33. CoRYTHOPIS ANTHOIDKS (CuV.) 

Six exemplaires de Huambo et de Yurimaguas. 

Pteroptochid,«. 
*ScYTAl,OPUs, sp. inc. 
tJn jeune oiseau en premier plumage de Chirimoto. 

Trochilid^. 
*1. Glaucis hirsuta (Gm.). 
Un jeune oiseau de Yurimaguas. 

2. Phaethornis superciliosus (L.). 
P/i. malaris, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 541. 
Un male de Yurimaguas du 2 fevrier 1881. 

3. Phaethornis guyi (Less.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 541. 

Sept exemplaires de Huambo recucillis depuisle 30 mars jusqu'au 
1 mai. 

*4. Phaethornis hispidus, Gould. 

Une femelle tuce a Yurimaguas le 1 mars 1881. 

*5. Phaethornis nigricinctus (Lavi^r.). 

Un male de Yurimaguas du 21 fevrier 1881. 

*6. Phaethornis bourcieri (Less.). 

Un male tue a Yurimaguas le 25 fevrier 1881. 

7. Aphantochroa hyposticta, Gould; Tacz. P Z. S. 1874, 
p. 545. 

Deux paires de Huambo, recueillies en mars et en mai 1880. 

*8. DORYPHORA JOHANNA (Bourc). 

Quatre exemplaires tues ^ Huambo en avril et en mai 1880. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. ^5 

*9. DORYPHORA EUPHROSYN^, Muls. 

Un male de Huambo du 30 avril 1880. 

*10. DoRYPHORA RECTIROSTRIS, Goulcl. 

Quatre cxemplaires de Huambo et de Ray-urmana (7500') recueillis 
en avril, en mai et en juillet 1880. 

11. Heliodoxa OTERO (Tscb.). 
Leadheatera otero, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 543. 

Deux males et une femelle de Huambo et de Chirimoto, tucs en 
fc'vrier et en juillet 1880. Les males ont la queue moins profonde'- 
ment echancree que celui de Soriano au Pcrou central. L'exem- 
plaire de Huambo a la queue plus fourchue et la plaque cephalique 
d'une nuance plus violette que celui de Chirimoto. 

*12. Ph.eol.^ma ^auATORiALis, Gould ? 

Une femelle de Ray-urmana (7500') du 14 juillet 1880, voisine 
de la Ph. eequaforialis, mais distincte par la presence de la gemme 
gulaire cuivreuse, la couleur de la queue vert olivatre plus metallique, 
a baguettes seulement rousses dans Ics trois rectrices externes. 

13. Thalurania nigrofasciata, Gould. 
Th. tschudii, Tacz. P.Z. S. 1874, p. 542. 

Neuf exemplaii'es des deux sexes, recueillis ii Huambo et a Acha- 
mal depuis le mois de mars jusqu'en septembre 1880. 

14. Panophtes mathewsi (Bourc.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 544 ; 1879, p. 237 ; 1880, p. 204. 

Un male recueilli a Tamiapampa en novembre 1880. 

*15. GouLDiA popelairii (Du Bus). 

Une paire recueillie a Huambo en avril 1880. 

16. AcESTRURA mulsanti (Bourc.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 54 1 ; 

1879, p. 237. 

Deux exemplaires recueillis a Tamiapampa et a Chirimoto en 
novembre 1879 et en aout 1880. 

17. Ch.etocercus bombusj Gould ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 237 ; 

1880, p. 206. 

Cinq exemplaires de Chirimoto et de Tamiapampa, recueillis en 
novembre 1879 et en aout 1880. 

18. Myrtis eanny (Less.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 238 ; 1880, 
p. 206. 

Un jeune m^le tue ^ Chirimoto le 16 aout 1880. 

*19. Loddigesia MiRABiEis (Bourc.) ; Tacz. et Stolzra. P. Z. S. 

1881, p. 827. 

Une suite des oiseaux des deux sexes, recueillis a Chachapoyas et a 
Tamiapampa. 

3* 



36 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jail. 3, 

•20. y-JEGANURA PERUANA, Gould. 

Cinq exemplaires recueillis a Cococho et ti Chirimoto eii juillet et 
en septembre 1880. 

21. Lesbia GRACILIS, Gould ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 238 ; 1880, 
p. 206. 

Deux males adultes, tues a Chachapoyas en septembre ct en 
octobre 1879. 

22. Agl.eactis cupREiPENNis (Bourc. et Muls.); Tacz. P. Z. S. 

188U, p. 207. 

Till jeuiie miilc de Tamiapampa, tuc le 9 noveinI)re 1879, presen- 
tant les nu-mes dimensions que les oiseaux de Cutervo, mais le bee 
est uu peu plus court et beaucoup moins epais. 

23. Ramphomicron ruficeps (Gould) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1880, 
p. 207. 

Six exemplaires de Chachapoyas et de Tamiapampa, recueillis en 
octobre ct en novembre 1879. 

*24. Urosticte intermedia, n. sp. 

U. supra aureo-viridis ; gula et collo aniico sqmmosis, viridibus, 
nitentibus ; ornamento pectorali obscure violaceo ; abdomine 
viridi, plumis griseo marginatis; suhcaudalibus rufescentibus, disco 
viridi ; macula alba postocidari minima ; remigibus brunneis ni- 
tore violaceo ; cauda emarginata, rectricibus ad basin ceneo-viri- 
dibiis, ad apicemfusco-cupreis, mediis et submcdiis brevioribus, 
macula alba terminatis. Rostrum nigrum; pedes brunneo- 
nigricantes ; iris nigra. 
Fern, subtus alba viridi muculata ; rectricibus tribus utrimpie la- 
ter alibus albo terminatis. 
]\lale adulte vert dore brillant eu dessus, a plumes du sommet de 
la tcte subsquamuleuses ; gorge et le devant du cou pouverts de 
plumes sqiiamuleuses d'un vert cclatant sous certain jour, suivies 
d'une tache jugulaire d'un violet obscur peu luisant ; poitrine et ab- 
domen verts, a plumes du milieu de ces parties largement bordees 
de blauc grisatre ; sous-caudales roussatres i\ disque vert; region 
anale blanchatre ; tache postoculaire Ijlanche tres petite. Les ailes 
atteignent I'extremite des rectrices medianes, a tectrices supcrieures 
et les inferieures dc la couleur du dos ; les remiges brunes lustrees 
de violaco, tirant snr I'olive sous certain jour. Queue fort entaillee, 
a rectrices de largeur mediocre, les medianes les plus courtes, I'ex- 
terne depassant de trcs peu la subexterne ; vertes ii la base et d'un 
cuivreux rougeatre obscur dans la moitie terminale ; les medianes et 
les submedianes largement terminees de blanc, les premieres avec 
une petite tache brune a I'extremite meme ; page inferieure de la 
queue moins brillante, d'un olive bronze enduitlegerementde rougeatre 
vers I'pxtremite des rectrices. 13ec noir ; pattes brunes noiratres ; 
iris noir. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 37 

Le male probablement moins adulte a les sous-caudales roussatres 
sans disque vert. 

Le jeune male prenant sa livree d'adulte, ii plaque gutturale verte 
presque completement formee, n'a aucune trace de parure violette ; 
les sous-caudales d'un roussatre plus pale que dans les adultes. 

La femelle a le vert des parties supcrieures du corps moins dore 
que cbez le mjlle ; tout le dessous du corps blanc tacbete de vert, les 
tacbes de la gorge et du devant du cou plus petites et plus brillantes 
que celles des cotrs de Tabdomen, rares sur le mibeu de ce dernier ; 
sous-caudales d'un blanc k'gcrement roussatre. Queue moins profon- 
de'ment ocbancroe que celle du male, a rectrices medianes vertes en 
entier, les autres vertes passant au cuivreux a I'extremite moins lon- 
guement que chez le male ; les externes et les subexternes largement 
terminc'es de blanc ; les intermediaires out aussi une tacbe blancbe 
au bout. 

(S . Longueur totale 1 1 8, vol 140, aile 58, queue 40, bee 22 millim. 
5 . Longueur totale 111, vol 134, aile 57, queue 40, bee 23 millim. 

Forme iutermediaire entre les deux especes connues, voisine de la 
U. benjamini, mais plus graude, a tacbe gutturale moins grande, et 
d'une autre nuance, moins mctallique ; les sous-caudales d'une autre 
couleur ; la tacbe postoculaire beaucoup plus petite ; I'espace blan- 
chatre sous la parure gutturale presque nulle ; bee plus fin ; les rec- 
trices medianes beaucoup plus courtes que les voisines. 

Trois males et une femelle de Cbirimoto et de Ray-urmana. 

25. Metallurgy smaragdinicollis (d'Orb. et Lafr.) ; Tacz. 
P.Z. S. 1874, p. 544; 1879, p. 238; 1880, p. 207. 

Une suite d'exemplaires des deux sexes recueillis en novembre 
1879 aux environs de Cbacbapoyas et de Tamiapampa. 

26. Adf.lomyia maculata, Gould. 

A. tnelanogenys, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 238 ; 1880, p. 207. 
Un male tue a Tamiapampa le 27 octobre 1879. 

*27. Clais guimeti (Bourc. et Muls,). 

Cinq exemplaires des deux sexes tues a Huambo dans les mois de 
mars et d'avril 1880. 

'■28. Heliothrix auritus (Gm.). 

Une paire tuc'e a Huambo en fevrier et en avril 1880. 

29. Petasophora anais (Less,); Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 541 
1879, p. 237; 1880, p. 204. 

F.jolata, Tacz. P. Z. S. 187"^, p. 541. 

Deux exemplaires de Cbirimoto recueillis en aout 1880. 

*30. Petasophora delphin.* (Less.). 
Un paire recueilliea Huambo en mai 1880, 



38 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED] [Jan. 3, 

31. DociMASTES ENSiFER (Boiss.) ; Tacz. p. Z. S. 1874, p. 543 j 
1880, p. 204. 

Une femelle tuee a Tamiapampa le IG novembre 1879. 

32. Heliotrypha viola, Gould ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 238 ; 
1880, p. 205. 

Cinq exemplaires tucs a Chachapoyas et a Tamiapampa en octobre 
et en novembre 1879. 

*33. DiPHLOG^NA IRIS (Gould). 

Quatre males et trois femelles recueillis a Chachapoyas et a 
Tamiapampa en octobre et en novembre 1879, compares par M. 
Salvia avec I'exemplaire typique. 

Nos males prcsentent quelques Icgt'res differences avec la descrip- 
tion dans I'ouvrage de INlulsant, et principalement en ce que le de- 
vaut du dos et les tectrices alaires ue sont pas vertes, mais d'un 
bronze antique sombre, lustre de rougeiitre dans certaines directions 
de la lumiere et passant au noir veloute dans les autres ; la tache 
jugulaire, composee de trois ou de quatre plumes, n'est pas bleue, 
mais d'un lilas clair, conservant sa teinte dans toutes les directions. 

La femelle differe dumaleparlesplumes du sommet de latete moins 
longues que chez le mi'de, en constituant la surface distinctemeut 
squamuleuse, ;i couleur verte foncee sur le devant du front, passant 
ensuite en vert dore, puis graduellement en orange et au rouge de 
feu, beaucoup moins fort que chez le male ; la tache occipitale est 
reduite h quelques petites plumes bleues sur la ligne mediaue ; la 
partie cervicale est couverte de plumes squamiformes d'un rouge 
rubine avec un eclat assez fort ; le vert de la gorge moins luisant et 
passant au bleuatre sous certain jour ; point de gorgerette ; les 
plumes du haut de la poitrine frangees de fauve ; la couleur cannelle 
de rp.bdomen moins foncee ; rectrices bordees a I'extremite de bronzd 
fonce ; le reste comme dans le male. 

Une femelle moins adulte a la couleur rousse generalement plus 
pale ; les plumes de la gorge, des cotes du visage et de tout le devant 
du cou isabelles a la base et une bordure terminale, ce qui forme des 
taches vertes plus ou moins isolees sur un fond clair ; les bordures 
terminales des rectrices plus larges ; la couleur cuivreuse rougeatre 
du dos ne changeant pas en noir veloute. 

Un male, probablement iucompletement adulte, a les petites et 
les moyeunes tectrices alaires en grande partie d'un cannelle plus 
intense que sur les autres parties du corps ; cet individu n'a aucune 
trace de la gorgerette lilacee. 

34. BouRCiERiA INSECTIVORA (Tsch.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 543. 

Un male tue a Huambo le 1 mai 1880. 

*35. Heliomaster longirostris (V.) 

Un male de Yurimaguas tue le 17 fevrier 1881. 



1882.] IN NOKTH-EASTERN PERU. 39 

*3C. Eriocnemis affinis, Elliot. 

Deux mules et ime femelle de Chiritnoto et de Ray-urmano (7000- 
7500'), recueillis en juillet et la fin de septembre 1880. 

*37. Eriocnemis dybowskii, n. sp. 

E. supra aureo-viridis, suhtus splendide viridis, ahdomine splen- 
didissimo ; pectore medio albo, vlridi maculato ; subcaudalibus 
splendide viridibus ; pedibus albo impposis ; remic/ibus nigri- 
cantibvs nitore violaceo ; canda profunde emaryinafa, cereo- 
viridi. Rostrum rectum, subcylindricum, dimidia parte corporis 
lonc/ius, nigrum ; pedes nigricantes ; iris nigra. 
Le male est vert avec un eclat dore ciiivreux en dessus, tirant 
legerement au bleuatre dans cevtaines directions de la lumiere ; le 
vert du dessous du corps beaucoup plus brillant, surtout sur 1' ab- 
domen, passant sous certain jour en bleu beaucoup plus fort qu'en 
dessus ; les plumes du milieu de la poitrine blanches :\ la base, for- 
mant un petit espace blanc, plus ou nioins convert de vert ; sous- 
caudales aussi vertes que I'abdomen, a, base des plumes fauve blan- 
chatre ; touffes des pattes tres abondantes, blanches pures. Tec- 
trices alaires vertes dorces ; remiges noiratres lustres de violet. 
Queue profondement entaillce, d'un vert bronze, beaucoup plus bril- 
lant sur la page iuferieure. Bee noir, ;\ bords de la maudibule 
blanche dans les deux tiers basales ; pattes noiratres a bords libres 
des ecailles carnc's ; iris noir. 

La femelle est semblable an niille, a couleur verte des parties supe- 
rieures du corps tirant au dore ; I'espace blanc du milieu de la 
poitrine plus volumineuse et varie de taches plus petites ; les plumes 
de la gorge a base blanche plus ou moins visible ; celles du milieu 
meme de I'abdomen frangces de blanc. 

c? . Longueur totalc 106, vol 137, aile 52, queue 33, bee 22 millim. 
5 . Longueur totale 110, vol 137, aile 52, queue 31, bee 22 millim. 
Deux males et une femelle de Ray-urmaua (7000-8000'). 
Jc dedie cet oiseau-mouche a mon ami ]\L le Docteur Benoit 
Dybowski, eminent et infatigable explorateur dela faune de la Siberie 
orientale. 

38. Cyanomyia cyanicollis, Gould; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1880, 
p. 208. 

Un jeune male de Chirimoto du S juillet 1880. 

39. Leucippits chionogaster (Tseh.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 542. 

Six exemplaires de Chirimoto, recueillis en juillet 1880. Les 
oeufs des deux pontes presentent les dimensions suivantes : — P. 1'36 
X9; 13-8x9 ; 2°. 14-5x9.2; 14-G x 9-3 millim. 

*40. Thaumatias fluviatilis, Gould ? 

Une femelle recueillie a Yurimaguas le 14 fevrier 1881, un peu 
douteuse. 



40 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3 , 

*41. Chrysuronia JOSEPHINE (Bourc. et Muls.). 
Six exemplaires des deux sexes recueillis a Huambo au mois de 
mars et en aviil 1880. 

*42. EXJCEPHALA C/ERTJLEA (V.). 

TJu exeniplaire, probablement femelle, tiiee a Yiirimaguas le 20 
avril 1881. 

43. Chlorostilbon brevicaudatus, Gould ; Tacz. P. Z. S, 
1874, p. 545. 

IMale adulte et un jeune male de Huambo et d'Achamal tues en 
mai et en aoiit 1880. 

Cypselid^e. 

*1. Cypselus montivagus, d'Orb. et Lafr. 

Un exemplaive de Huambo du 18 mars 18S0. Iris brun tres 
fonee. 

2. Ch^tura rutila (Y.) : Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 545. 
Un exemplaire de Chirimoto. 

Caprimulgid^e. 

*1. Antrostomus rufus (6m.). 

Un male, tuc entre Chirimoto et Acliamal le 7 aout 1880. Iris 
noir. 

*2. Antrostomus nigrescens, Cab. 

Un exemplaire de Huambo, tue le 2 avril 1880. Iris noir. 

3. Nyctidromus ALBicoLLis(Gm.);Tacz.P. Z. S. 1877, p. 327; 
1879, p. 240. 

Quatre exemplaires des deux sexes de Chirimoto. 

Steatornithid^. 
1. Steatornis caripensis, Humb. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 208. 
Deux exemplaires, tues a Huambo en fevrier 1880. 

PiCIDyE. 

*]. PicuMNUs steindachneri, n. sp. (Plate II. figs. 1 (5 , 2 $ .) 
P. supra griseus alhido squamulatus ; capite nigro, supra albo 
punctata ; fronte et vertice rubra striatis ; margine frontali 
tecfricibnsque narium albidis ; gula albida ; pectore abdomi- 
neque nigris albo striatis, ventre nigro alboque transfasciato ; 
alis griseo-brtmneis ; remigibus secundariis albido marginatis ; 
Cauda nigra, rectricum wediaruvi pogonio inferno et vitta 
mediana obliqua binarnm tifrinque externaruvi albis. Fern, 
mari similis, pilea toto nigro albo punctata. 
Le male adulte est d'un gris cendre en dessus, a plumes terminees 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 41 

d'une bordure blancliatve et precedee d'une petite tache centrale 
noiratre sur celles de la region iuterscapulaire ; sommet et cotes de la 
tete noirs, a plumes frontales et celles du vertex terminoes de rouge 
miniace fonce, en formant un grand espace rouge melange de noir, 
le reste du sommet et le liaut des cotes de la tete varies de points 
blancs ; les tectrices nasales et la bordure frontale blanch atres ; 
tectrices auriculaires d'un noir brunatre. Gorge blanchatre sale ; 
poitrine et le devant de Tabdomen noirs varies de stries blanches 
occupant le milieu meme de chaque plume, unpen plus larges sur la 
premiere, et plus fines au milieu du dernier ; flancs de 1' abdomen et 
le bas-ventrc rayes a travers de noir et de blanc ; sous-caudales 
blanches entourees d'une bordure noire. Ailes brunes grisatres, a 
tectrices finement bordees de blanchatre ; les remiges secondaires 
bordees exterieurement de blanchatre en formant une large raie 
longitudinale sur chacuue des ailes pliees ; sous-alaires blanches, 
ainsi que le bord interne de toutes les remiges. Queue noire, a 
barbe interne blanche dans toute la longueur des rectrices medianes, 
et une large raie oblique de la meme couleur sur le milieu des deux 
rectrices laterales de chaque cote de la queue. Bee noiratre, cendro 
au dessous des uarines, a mandibule grise terminee de noir : pattes 
grises ; iris brun fonce. 

La femelle est semblable au male et ne differe que par le sommet 
de la tete tout noir ponctue de blanc. 

Une femelle, probablement moins adulte, a seulement la poitrine 
noiratre variee de grosses gouttes blanches, tout 1' abdomen rave 
de blanc et de noir. 

cJ. Longueur totale 112-113, vol 195-202, aile 56, queue 33, 
bee 14, tarse 12, doigt median avec I'ongle 15 mill. $ . Longueur 
totale 111-113, vol 195-200, aile 57-59, queue 33, bee 13-5-14, 
tarse 11 '5-1 2, doigt median avec I'ongle 15 mill. 

Quatre males et deux femelles de Chirimoto recueillis en juillet, 
en avril et en septembre 1880. 

Je dedie cette interessante espece a mon ami M. le docteur Stein- 
dachner, savant directeur du Musee de Vienne. 

Parmi les oiseaux fournis precedemment par M. Jelski du 
Perou central il y a un mille de Piciimnus que j'ai pris pour un 
P. albosquamafus, mais qui est tres voisin du precedent et distinct 
de ce dernier par la couleur differente des parties inferieures du 
corps et celle de la bordure frontale et des tectrices nasales. Comme 
il est inedit, je donne sa description en lui proposant le nom du 
voyageur qui a taat eurichi la conuaissance de la faune peruvienne. 

2. PicuMNUS JELSKii, n. sp. (Plate II. fig. 3.) 

P. supra griseus, tninime albido squamulatus, striis fuscis indi- 
stincte varius; pileo ni(/ro,fronte verticeque cinnabarino sfriatis, 
cervice michaqiie cdbo punctatis ; margine frontali tectrici- 
husque narium ochruceis ; giila sordide albida ; pectore abdo- 
mineque albidis niyro maculatis; alis griseo-hrunneis ; remigibus 
secundariis albido marginatis ; cauda nigra, 2>ogonio interna 



42 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

rectricum medicmarum et vitta mediana obliqua externarmn 
utrinqiie binarum ulhis. 

Le male adulte est d'un giis cendro en dessus, c\ bordures des 
plumes d'un gris plus clair moins prouoncoes que dans le precedent, 
avec des stries noiratres au milieu des plumes peu distiuctes ; sommet 
de la tete noir, a, plumes frontales et celles du vertex terminees lon- 
guement de rouge cJnabre, formaut un espace aussi vaste comme 
dans I'espc'ce precedeute, mais d'une nuance un peu plus foncc ; les 
tectrices nasales et la bordure antcrieure du front ocreuses ; region 
auriculaire gris brunatre. Gorge blancliatre sale ; le reste des parties 
inferieures du corps est blancbatre, lave legcrement de jaunatre et 
varie de taches noires, dont celles de la poitrine sont plus ou moins 
elargies en bandes transversales, celles des flancs de rabdomcn sub- 
cordiformes et plus grosses qu'au milieu de cette partie ; sous- 
caudales blanchatres avec une ou deux taches centrales noires. 
Ailes brunes grisatres, a tectrices bordces fincment de gris xlair ; 
les remiges secondaires bordces exterieurement de blancbatre en 
formant sur I'aile pliee une large bande de cette couleur, semblable 
a cellede I'espece precedente .; sous-alaires blanches ainsique le bord 
interne de toutes les remiges. Queue noire a barbe interne blanche 
dans toute la longueur des rectrices mediaues, et une large raie 
oblique de la mume couleur sur le milieu des deux rectrices latcrales 
de chaque cote de la queue. Bee noiratre, a base de la machoire 
cendree sur les cotes ; la mandibule ceudrue a la base, jaunatre au 
milieu et noiratre au bout ; pattes grises ; iris brun fonce. 

Longueur de I'aile 59, queue 31, bee 14, tarse 12, doigt median 
avec I'ongle 15 mill. 

Paltaypampa dans la vallee de Chancharaayo au Perou central. 

3. PicuMNUs AURiFRONS, Pclz. ; Tacz. p. Z. S. 1874, p. 546. 
Cinq exemplaires recueillis a Huambo en mars et en avril 1880. 

4. Campephiltjs h/ematogaster, Tsch,; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 546. 

Trois exemplaires de Huambo et de Ray-urmana, recueillis en 
mars et en septembre 1880. Iris brun fonco. 

5. Dryocopus lineatus (L.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 546. 
Une paire de Huambo, tuee en fevrier et en avril 1880. Iris 

blanc. 

6. Chloronerpes h^matostigma (Natt.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 546. 

Une paire de Yurimaguas, tuee en fevrier 1881. Iris brun fonce. 

*7. Chloronerpes flavigula (Bodd.). 
Une femelle de Yurimaguas. 

8. CHRYSoPTiLTjsATRicoLLis.Malh.; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 209. 
Un mCde tue u Chachapoyas le 25 septembre 1879. Iris brun 
fence. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 43 

9. Melanerpes cruentatus (Bodd.). 
Melanerpes hinmdinaceus, Tacz. P. Z, S. 18/4, p. 546. 

Deux mules et une femelle tiies a Yuiimaguas en Janvier et en 
mars 1881. Irisjaune. 

10. Hypoxanthus brevirostris, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 540, 
v880, p. 209. 

Un male de Tamiapampa. 

*11. CeLEUS JUMANA (Spix). 

Une paire de Yuiimaguas, tuee en Janvier et en mars 1881. Iris 
brun rougeatre fonce. 

*12. Celeus grammicus (Malh.). 

Un male tue a, Yurimaguas le 20 Janvier 1881. Iris brun rou- 
geatre fonce. 

MoMOTIDjE. 

MoMOTUs BRASinENSis, Lath. 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas, tuc le 15 mars 1881, Iris brun. 

Trogonid^. 

*1, Trogon viridis, L. 

Deux males recueillis a, Huambo le 4 fevrier et le 3 mai 1880. 
Iris brun fonce. Dans le vivant la bordure de la paupiere est d'un 
blanc bleuatre ; bee blanc bleuatre sale, avec une bande transversale 
noire voisine de I'extrcmite dc la machoire ; pattes plombees. 

*2. Trogon atricollis, V. 

Un mfile de Yurimaguas tue le 8 mars 1881. Iris brun tres 
fonce. Dans le vivant bee et le tour de la paupiere olives pales ; 
pattes grises. 

3. Trogon collaris, V. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. J874, p. 547; 1880, 
p. 210. 

Un male de Huambo, tue le 1 avril 1880. Iris brun fonce; bee 
jaune de cire; pattes grises. 

4. Trogon heliothrix, Tsch.; Tacz. P. Z.S. 1874, p. 547. 

Six cxemjDlaires des deux sexes recueillis a Tamiapampa en octobre 
1880. Iris brun fonce. 

Galbulid^. 

*1. Galbula albirostris (Lath.). 

Une paire recueillie h, Yurimaguas le 22 Janvier et le 28 fevrier 
1880. Iris brun fonce. 

*2. Urogalba amazonum, Scl. 

Une femelle de Yurimaguas, tuee le 17 fevrier 1881. Iris brun 
fonce. 



44 M. TACZANO"WSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

*3. Jacamerops grandis (Gm.). 

Une femelle de Yurimaguas, tuee le 3 fevrier 1881. Iris brun 
tres fonce. 

BUCCONID^. 

*1. Bucco picatus, Scl. 

Un exemplaire sans indication de sexe de Yurimaguas, tue le 
8 fevrier 1881. Iris brun tres fonco. 

*2. Bucco macrodactylus, Spix. 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas, tue le 15 Janvier 1881 . Iris rouge 
de cerise. 

3. Malacoptila rufa (Spix). 

Un mrde de Yurimaguas, tuv le 22 Janvier 1881. Iris brun 
rougeatre. 

*4. Malacoptila FusCA(Gm.). 

Un male de Huambo tue le 8 avril 1880. Iris brun fonce. 

*5. NoNNULA BRUNNEA, Scl. Ibis, 1881, p. 600. 

Une femelle de Yurimaguas, tuee le 2 fevrier 1881. Iris brun 
fence. 

6. MoNASA PERUANA, Bp. ; Tacz. p. Z. S. 1874, p. 548, 

Deux femelles tuees a Yurimaguas en Janvier et en fC-vrier 1881. 
Iris gris tres fence. 

*7. Chelidoptera tenebrosa (Pall.). 

Une paire de Yurimaguas tuee en Janvier et en fevrier 1881. 
Iris brun fence. 

CUCULID.E. 

1. Piaya nigricrissa, Scl. p. Z. S. 1874, p. 548, 1879, p. 240. 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas du 13 mars 1881. Iris rouge 
cerise. 

*2. Piaya melanogastra (V.). 

Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas tue le 22 Janvier 1881. Iris brun 
fence, 

Rhamphastid^. 

*1. Rhamphastos inca, Gould. 

Un exemplaire de Huayabamba du 7 juillet 1880. Iris d'un gris 
obscur. 

*2. Pteroglossus humboldti, Wagl. 

Une paire d'eiseaux adultes des deux sexes, recueillis a Yurimaguas 
en mars 1881. Iris rouge cerise. 

Une jeune femelle de la meme localite, tuee le 25 fevrier 1881, 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASTERN PERU. 45 

paraissant appartenir a la lueine espece, a le bee beaucoiip plus 
court que dans les adultes, a bords de la machoire nou den teles, 
noire a I'extremite et noiratre avec une legere nuance orangee au 
dos, orangee sur les cotes ; mandibule bruue noiratre sur les cotes, 
noire au bout et orangee finement en dessous. Une siuguliure 
armure couvre tout le taloii ; c'est un tubercule come couvrant 
toute la surface de cette partie, herisse eu dessus de 4 ou de 5 
grosses epines aiguos, dont les deux inferieures dirigees en avant 
sont creuses sur leur face interne, et les autres rangees sur le bord 
exterue du talon sont plus petites et dirigees en arriere. La colora- 
tion de cet oiseau ne presente aucune difference de celle des femelles 
adultes, si ce n'est que la couleur du plumage des jambes est plus 
pale et melangee en graiide partie d' olive. Iris brun grisatre fence ; 
pattes olives; peau nue au dessus de I'ceil bleue verdiitre, au dessous 
plombee violatre, une tache triangulaire peu distincte se trouve 
derriere I'ceil. Longueur totale 357, vol 416, aile 119, queue 116, 
bee 62 millim. 

*3. Pteroglossus flavirostris, IVas. 

Deux exemplaires de Yurimaguas du 3 fevrier 1881. Iris rouge 
ceiise, fonce. 

4. Selenidera reinwardti (Wagl.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 18/4, 
p. 578. 

Un miil-o I'ecueilli a Yurimaguas le 23 Janvier 1881. Iris en 
dessus et eu dessous de la prunelle jaune, devant et derriere la 
prunelle d'un gris fonce, ce qui donne a cette derniere une forme 
oblongue en apparence, le tout entoure d'une bordui-e verte. 

5. Andigena cucullata (Gould); Tacz. P. S. Z. 1874, p. 548. 

Une paire de Chachapoyas et de Tamiapampa (9000'), tuee le 
13 septembre et le 12 novembre 1879. Iris jaune verdatre dans le 
uuile et vert dans la femelle. 



CaPITONIDjE. 

1. Capito auratus, Dumont; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 349. 
Un male de Yurimaguas. 

*2. Capito steerii, Scl. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 140. 

Deux males et une femelle de Cbirimoto et de Huambo recueillis 
en mai et en juillet 1880. Iris gris fence chez le male. 

La femelle ressemble eu tout a celle du C. glaucogularis, Tsch., et 
ne s'en distingue que par la lunule gulaire rouge remplacee par une 
taclie petite et d'une couleur moins intense. EUe est d'une taille 
un peu moins forte. Iris brun fence ; bee verdatre sale, a dos gris 
come; pattes olives. Longueur totale 170, vol 233, aile 69, queue 
42, bee 23-5 millim. 



46 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIRDS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

PsiTTACID^. 
*1. ArA MACAO (L.). 

Un oiseau vivant de Yurimaguas. 

*2. Ara ararauna (L.). 

Un oiseau vivant de Yurimaguas. 

3. Conurus luciani (Deville); Tacz. P. Z. S. 18/4, p. 549. 
Une paire de Yurimaguas. 

*4. Brotogerys xanthoptera (Spix). 
Un exemplaire vivant de Yurimaguas. 

*5. Brotogerys jugularis, Deville. 
Un exemplaire de Yurimaguas. 

*6. Chrysotis festiva (L.). 
Un oiseau vivant de Yurimaguas. 

7. Chrysotis MERCENARiA(Tsch.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 18/4, p. 55(1. 

Un male de Huambo du 12 mars 1880. Iris rouge tros fence. 
Cet exemplaire est d'une taille plus forte que I'oiseau de Maraynioc 
et prcsente quelques legeres differences daus les details de la colora- 
ration, surtout dans la queue. 

Un ceuf trouvc dans un trou d'arbre est tres court, a coque 
oraugce dans sa transparence. Long, de 36-3 sur 31 millim de 
largeur. 

*8. Chrysotis amazonica, ScI. 
Un exemplaire vivant. 

*9. Caica melanocephala (L.). 

Un male de Yurimaguas tuc le 15 mars 18S1. Iris compose d'un 
anneau double, dont I'interieur est gris tres fonce', entoure de rouge 
cramoisi, cbangeant en orange apres la mort de I'oiseau. 

*10. Psittacula i'Asserina (L.)? 

Un male tuc a Yurimaguas le 13 mars 1881, a le croupion vert 
comme celui de la femelle sans aucune trace de nuance bleue. Iris 
gvis clair. 

Strigid^e. 
Scops brasilianus (Gm.). 
Un jeune oiseau tuc a Yurimaguas le 18 fevrier 1881. 

FALCONIDiE. 

1. AsTURiNA magnirostris (Gm.) ; Tacz. P.. Z. S. 1874, p. 552 ; 
1879, p. 241. 

Un exemplaire tuc a Huambo en fevrier 1880. Irisjaune; clre 
et pattes orangces. 



1882.] IN NORTH-EASrERN PERU. 47 

*2. BUTEO PENNSYLVANICXJS (Wils.)- 

Une femelle tue'e ;i Huambo le 9 mars 1880. Iris bruu marrou 
clair ; cire jaune sale ; pattes d'un jauiie orange. 

*3. AcciPiTER piLEATUs (Tem.). 

Une fenielle adulte cle Huambo tuee le 26 avril 1880. Iris 
oraiigee ; cire noire en clessus : bee noir avec la partie grise au dessous 
des iiarines; pattes jaunes orangc'es. Longueur totale 440, vol 
797 millim. 

*4. MiCRASTUR MIRANDOLLEI, Schl. 

Uu oiseau adulte de Yurimaguas, tue le 2 mars 1881. Iris gris 
foncc. 

5. Harpagus bidentatus (Lath.) ; Taez. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 550. 

tin mAle tuc u Huambo le 22 fevrier 1880. Iris d'un roux 

cannelle rougeatre ; cire jauue verdiitre sale ; pattes jamies orangees. 

*C. Hypotriorchis rufigularis (Daud.). 

Un nulle de Huambo du 18 avril 1880. Iris brun foncc; cire 
jaune ; pattes jaunes orangees. 

Cathartid^e. 

* 1. CEnops pernigra, Sharpe. 

Cathartes aura, d'Orb. Voy. Ame'r. nier. iv. p. 38, tab. i. f. .3. 

Un male tue a Huainbo le 1 2 avril 1880. Iris gris avec des rayons 
blancs tres fins autour de la pupille. Tcte nue, d'un rouge violet 
avec une grande tache occipitale blanche quand les plis de la peau 
sont rassembles. Bee blanc d'ivoire ; pattes blanchatres a doigts 
noiratres. 

Ardeid^e. 
*i. Ardea cocoi, L. 

Une jeune femelle du Corral tuee le 17 aoiit 1880. Iris jaune 
clair. 

*2. Ardea agami, L. 

Un male adulte de Yurimaguas. 

3. Tigrisoma SALMON!, Scl. ct Salv. ; Taez. P. Z. S. 1879 
p. 242; 1880, p. 212. 

Un male tue a Huambo en avril 1880. 

Anatid^. 

Dafila oxyura, Meyen : Taez. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 554. 
Un exemplaire tuc a Rumucucha le 3 octobre 1880. 



48 M. TACZANOWSKI ON BIROS COLLECTED [Jan. 3, 

COLXJMBID^. 

1. CoLUMBA DENisEA, Tcmm. ; Tacz. p. Z. S. 1874, p. 555. 

L'oeuf, recueilli a Chirimoto en fcvrler, pre'sente les dimensions 
suivantes : 39-3 x 29 millim. 

*2. CoLUMBA RUFiNA (Temm.). 

Un exemplaire tue a Chirimoto le 20 juillet 1880. Iris d'un 
rouge framboise exterieurement et d'un gris violatre tres fonce autour 
de la pupille. 

*3. CoLUMBA viNACEA (Temm.). 

Un exemplaire de Huambo tue le 20 fevriev 1880. Iris gris 
violatre, presque de la nuance du sommet de la tete, mais un peu plus 
foncc ; paupicres grises ; tour de Tceil denude came violatre. 

*4. Peristera geoffroyi (Temm.). 

Une femelle de Rumucucha, tuee le 2" aoiit 1880, Ir 
clair. 

5. Geotrygon MONTANA (L.) ; Tacz. p. Z. S. 1874, p. 556 ; 
1879, p. 243. 

Un male de Cococho, tue le 28 aoiit 1879, et un male de Yuri- 
niaguas du 9 mars 1881. Iris ocreux, 

Cracid£. 

1. Penelope scl.vteri, Gr. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1S74, p. 550; 1879, 
p. 243. 

Trois exemplaires de Tamiapampa tue? en uovembre 1879. Iris 
brun rougeatre. 

2. Penelope bolivl\na, Reichb. ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 558. 

Une femelle tuee a Yurimaguas le 7 fevrier 1880, distiucte des 
oiseaux du Pcrou central par le fond des parties iuferieures du corps 
fort roussatro, et les stries fauves an lieu de blanches. Iris brun 
fonce : parties nues de la face grises d'acier ; peau nue de la gorge 
rouge carnee. 

3. Penelope rufiventris, Tsch. 

Deux males de Tamiapampa, tut's en novembve 1879, s'accordent 
en tout avec la description et la figure de la ' Fauna Peruana,' tandis 
que les trois exemplaires fournis precedemment par M. Jelski du 
Pcrou central different par la disposition de la coideur plombce sur 
le devant du con. La peau nue chez les oiseaux vivants de Tamia- 
pampa est d'un bleu outremer ; bee noir ; pattes rouges brunatres a 
doigts bruns avec une nuance rougeatre tres faible ; iris rouge 
brunatre. 

4. Ortalida guttata (Spis). 

Une femelle et un poussin recueillis a Chirimoto le 6 juillet 1880. 



1882. J IN NORTH-EAStKKX I'KRU. 49 

Cette femelle se distingue de celle du Perou central par le manque 
complet des taclies blanches sur le devant de I'abdomen. Bee gris 
bleuatre ; cire et les paupieres plombees ; pattes roses ; iris bran 
foncc. 

Rallidje. 
Rallus nigricans, V. 

Un male adulte tue a Huambo le 12 avril 1880. Iris terre-de- 
Sienne fonce. 

SCOLOPACID.E. 

Tringoides macularius (L.) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1877, p- 330. 
Deux femelles adultes tuees a Huambo a la fin de mars 1880. 



PoDICIPITID^. 
*PoDICEPS DOMINICUS (L.). 

Sept exemplaires adultes recueillis a Rumucucha en juin et en 
juillet 1880. Iris janne. 

Les poussins en duvet, recueillis en juillet, ont le sommet de la 
tete noir avec ime taclie rousse au milieu et une serie de raies 
blanches disposees comine il suit : une strie mediane devant la tache 
rousse, un sourcil au dessus de chaque ceil ; une raie postoculaire, 
raie oblique cervicale prolongee sur toute la longueur du con et un 
chevron nuchal passant aussi sur le con ; joues, gorge et le devant 
du ecu sont blancs varies de lignes noiratres, dont une passe depuis 
le menton sur toute la longueur de la gorge et du cou ; deux autres 
de chaque cote du cou, une sur les cotes de la gorge et I'autre tout 
le long du bas des joues. Dos gris noiratre parseme de polls blancs; 
poitrine et flancs gris fonces melcs de polls blanchatres ; milieu du 
dessous largement blanc. Iris presque noir. 

Les ceufs des deux pontes ressemblent a ceux du P. minor de 
I'Europe, et sont en general un pen j^lus petits. Dimensions : 36 X 
25, 35-5 X 27-8, 36-3 X 27-8, 35 x 25, 37-3 X 257 millim. 

TinAmid^. 

1. CrypTurtjs OBSOLETUs(Temm.) ! Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 5G3. 

Six adultes et un jeune de Chirimoto, recueillis en juillet et en 
septembre 1880. Iris gris clair chez le male, gris chez la femelle. 

2. NOTHOPROCTA CURVIROSTRlS, Scl. 1 

Un jeune oiseau convert presque en entier de plumes, tue a Cha- 
chapoyas le 23 septembre 1879, me parait appartenir a cette espece. 



Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. IV. 



aO MR. M. JACOBY ON NEW GENERA AND [Jan. 3, 



2. Descriptions of uew Genera and Species of Phytophagous 
Coleoptera. By Martin Jacoby. 

[Receiyecl Novciiibei- 31, 1S81.] 

LamprosomAj Kirby. 

1. LaMPROSOMA GRANDE, Sp. UOV. 

Subglobnlar, very convex, black below, above brilliant metallic 
green. Head very finely, thorax distinctly punctured ; elytra rather 
deeply punctate-striate, the interstices finely scratched. 

Length 3i hues. 

Ilab. Amazons. 

Head very broad, finely and closely ))unctured, the front with an 
obsolete depression ; clypeus separated from the face by a short but 
deep impression at the sides only, anterior border deeply concave. 
Labrum fulvous. Jaws and antennse black, the l)asal joint of tbc 
latter metallic green above, fulvous below. Thorax more tlian 
three times as broad as long, the sides greatly deflexed, the posterior 
lobe rounded and large, obliquely and distinctly impressed at each 
side, surface closely and more distinctly punctured tbau the bead. 
Scutellum metallic green. Elytra regularly convex, scarcely nar- 
rowed behind, the lateral lobe not much produced, subangulate ; 
each elytron with ten rows of punctures deeply impressed at the 
base, but muth smaller towards the apex, the interstices finely 
scratched. Prosternum rather longer than broad, its surface with 
a few deep punctures. 

A single specimen is contained in my collection. 

The present species is allied to L. amethystimua, Lac, L. cimea- 
turn, Baly, and L, canaliculatum, Baly, but differs from all of them 
in the more narrow transverse thorax, broader scarcely attenuated 
shape, the finer punctuation of its head and thorax, and the shape 
of its clypeus; the shape of the thorax is almost that of Lych- 
nophaes laticoUis, although to a less extent . On the whole the 
])resent species bears a great resemblance in shape and colour to 
the last-named insect ; but the appendiculate claws show it to be a 
true Lamprosoma. 

LvcHNOPHAiis, Lacordaire. 

2. Lychnopha£s africana. 

Broadly ovate, moderately convex, black. Thorax extremely 
finely punctured and strigose ; elytra finely and irregularly punc- 
tured, a scutellar spot and a lateral band from the base to the apex 
metallic cupreous. 

Length 2 lines. 

Hah. South Africa. 

Head convex at the vertex only, subdepresscd at the middle, 
finely longitudinally strigose ; epistome limited at each side in front 
of the eyes by a short transverse depression. Eyes very slightly 



1882.] SPECIES OF PHYTOPHAGOUS COLEOPTERA. 51 

emarginate at their inner margin. Autennse rather long, extending 
to the base of the tliorax, the seventh to the n])ical joints dentate 
bnt not very transversely shaped. Thorax more than three times 
as broad as long, greatly deflexed at the sides, the posterior margin 
rather regularly rounded at the sides, and the median lobe obsolete 
and not ]n'oduced ; upper surface extremely finely punctured on the 
disk, very finely longitudinally strigose at the sides. Scutellum trian- 
gular, black. Elytra regularly but very moderately convex, the lateral 
lobes slightly produced and rounded ; surface much more strongly 
pinictured than the head, the punctuation close and irregularly 
arranged ; black, an elongate sutural spot surrounding the scutellum, 
and the lateral margins from the base to the apex, aureous or 
cupreous. Prosternum convex anteriorly, subtriangular, much nar- 
rowed behind. Claws simple. 

Two specimens of this interesting species were kindly given to 
me by Mr. Thorey, of Altona. I have included it for the present 
in the genus Lychnopha'cs, of which no species has been known 
inhabiting Africa. The general shape of the insect, scarcely 
emarginate eyes, and slender antennae would no doubt justify the 
erection of a special genus ; but as these differences seem to me to 
be those of degree rather than generic, I have thought it best to 
abstain from the creation of a new genus. The insects were col- 
lected by Drege. 

Neochlamys, gen. nov. 

Ovate, rotiindate, very convex. Head invisible from above. 
Eyes submarginate. Palpi short, robust, terminal joint co)ncal. 
Antennae short ; fourth and fifth joints elongate, of equal length ; the 
rest gradually transverse, subserrate. Thorax transverse, narrow, 
its sides rounded. Scutellum rather large, flat, triangular, Elytra 
distinctly lobed at the sides, very convex, irregularly punctured and 
strigose. Prosternum compressed, narrowed behind. Cavities for 
the reception of the antenna* and legs present. Claws simple. 

Type, Neochlamys strir/icoUis . 

The genus described here is, without doubt, closely allied to 
Sphcerocharis, but well distinguished by the shape of the antennae 
and the simple claws. The eyes in the present genus may almost 
be called entire, the inner margin of the head scarcely advancing 
opposite the insertion of the antennte, and the pygidium scarcely 
protruding beyond the elytra, in one instance being even totally 
covered by them. I am unfortunately not sure about the locaUty 
of this species, but believe it to be from Brazil. 

3. Neochlamys strigicollis, sp. nov. 

Broadly ovate, rotundate, very convex, bronze-coloured, shining. 
Antennae, palpi, and tarsi fulvous ; head and thorax closely longi- 
tudinally strigose; elytra closely and irregularly punctured, the 
apex and sides strigose. 

Length 2| to 3 lines. 

Hab. Brazil? 

4* 



52 MU. M. JACOIJY ON NEW GENEKA AND [Jail. 3, 

Head flat, slightly tlepressecl between the eyes, closely covered 
with fine longitudinal stripe, a triangular space between the eyes 
impunctate and smooth ; anterior margin of the clypeus perfectly 
straight. Labruin transverse, black. Antennse shorter than the 
thorax ; fulvous, the first joint metallic reneous, dentate from the 
seventh joint. Thorax nearly four times as broad as long, the pos- 
terior margin moderately produced at the middle, the median lobe 
not ]n-oduced and straight; sides rounded, the entire surface closely 
covered with elongate punctures and fine longitudinal strise. Scu- 
tellum rather broad, trianguLar, smooth. Elytra slightly broader at 
the base than the thorax, regularly convex, the apex rounded, with 
an obsoletely raised short costa near the lateral margin towards the 
apex ; lateral lobe moderately produced and rounded ; surface 
covered with smaller and larger punctures on the disk, the sides and 
apex finely and closely strigose ; entirely of a metallic bronze colour. 
Underside and legs of the same colour, closely rugose-punctate ; 
the abdominal segments of nearly equal length ; tarsi fulvous. 
Prosteruum rather broader than long, compressed and narrowed 
behind, rugose-punctate. 

Two specimens are contained in my collection. 

I may add to the above description, that the elytra in both the 
specimens before me are covered with small purplish spots of dif- 
ferent shape and position, which I attribute to accident or discolora- 
tion of the ground-colour, although I cannot be sure about it. One 
specimen shows also a short pygidium, while the latter is totally 
covered by the elytra in the other. 

E U M O L P I D .E. 

EuLVCHius, nov. gen. (sect. TypopJionnce). 

Antennae with the last five joints widened, last three joints broadly 
transverse, wider than long. Eyes distant, entire. Prosternuin 
narrowed at the middle, its base truncate ; femora without teeth ; 
intermediate tibiae notched at the apex. Claws bifid, the inner 
division minute. 

Type, Euhjchius mailagascariensis. 

This genus may be at once distinguished from all those belonging 
to the TypophorincB by the broadly transverse and flattened apical 
joints of the antennae. It seems to be allied to the genus Sybriacus, 
Har., but differs in the unarmed femora and bifid claws. 

4. EULYCHILS MADAGASCARIENSIS, Sp. UOV. 

Oblong, rufous ; last three joints of the antennae black ; thorax 
coarsely punctured ; elytra finely puuctate-striate, black, opaque, 
shoulders and the apex rufous. 

Length 2h lines. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

Head rather closely and strongly punctured. Clypeus separated 
from the face by an obsolete transverse groove. Labrum testaceous. 
Antennae extending to the base of the thorax ; first joint subglobular, 



18y2.] SPECIES OF PHYTOPHAGOUS COLEOPTERA. 53 

thickened; second a little shorter than the third ; seventh and eighth 
joints gradually widened ; last three joints flattened, broader than 
long, black. Thorax narrowly transverse, fulvous, shining ; sides 
rounded, anterior margin straight ; disk rather convex, closelv and 
deeply punctured. Scutellum triangular, fulvous. Elytra wider at 
the base than the thorax, moderately convex, the sides deflexed ; 
surface closely and regularly ])unctate-striate, black, opaque, a trian- 
gular spot at the shoulder and a narrow elongate ajjical one fulvous. 
Underside and legs entirely fulvous. 

Three specimens are contained in my coUebtion. 

Balya, nov. gen. 

Elongate, subparallel. Head perpendicular, broad, invisible from 
above. Eyes slightly eraarginate, small. Palj)! filiform. Antennae 
half the length of the body ; second joint short, globose ; third 
and following three joints subequal, slender ; the rest gradually 
thickened. Thorax transverse, its sides rounded and entire, anterior 
angles produced. Scutellum triangular. Elytra sHghtly wider than 
the thorax, convex, semipunctate-striate. Legs of moderate size ; 
the intermediate and posterior tibife of the male with a large tri- 
angular acute tooth. 

$ . Intermediate tibiae toothed only, the posterior ones emar- 
giuate ; prosternum greatly narrowed in the middle, the base trun- 
cate ; anterior thoracic episternum concave. 

Type, Bahja quadrunacuhtta . 

I found this genus upon a handsome-coloured insect, of which 
three specimens are contained in my collection, from Brazil. It 
ought to be placed amongst the first group of tlie Eumolpidse (the 
Iphimein(e, according to Chapuis's arrangement), from all genera of 
which it is easily distinguished by the toothed middle and posterior 
tibiae of the male and its general elongate subcylindrical shape. 

;"). Balya quadrimaculata, sp. nov. 

Below black ; head, tliorax, and the base of the femora fulvous ; 
antennae (the first 4 joints excepted), a spot at the middle of the 
thorax, and the tibiae black ; elytra dark purplish, the suture and 
two spots on eacli elytron flavous. 

Length 3 lines. 

Hah. Brazil (Lagoa Santa). 

Head very finely and closely punctured, broad, the eyes verv 
distant. Antennae black, the first four joints fulvous. Palpi fulvous, 
terminal joint black. Thorax transversely convex, not narrower at 
the apex than at the base, the anterior angles produced into a short 
tooth, fulvous, with a central black rhomboidal spot; surface 
scarcely visibly j)uuctured. Scutellum black, triangular. Elytra 
slightly wider at the base than the thorax, parallel and subcylindri- 
cal ; surface closely covered with large and smaller punctures arranged 
in subregularrows, the apex longitudinally costute ; ofadark purplish- 
blue colo;ir, the suture narrowly, and two irregular- shaped spots near 



•'54 MR. M. JACOBY ON NEW GENERA AND [Jail. 3, 

the lateral margin, one before, the other behind the middle, fulvous. 
Underside, knees, tibiee, and tarsi black, femora fulvous ; four pos- 
terior tibiae armed Avith an acute long triangular tooth at their 
outside. 

In my collection. 

Menius, Chapuis. 

(J. Menius viridi^neus, sp. nov. 

Ovate, convex, dark greenish seueous. Antennae and the legs 
obscure fulvous ; thorax deeply but not closely punctured ; elytra 
very deeply and regularly punctate-striate, the interstices convex 
anteriorly. 

Length 2 lines. 

Hab. Cameroons (the plains.) 

Front of head rather swollen, obsoletely and finely punctured, 
■with a distinct but short longitudinal groove between the eyes, the 
latter with a distinct, posteriorly widened groove at their inner 
margin. Clypeus separated by a triangular impressed line from the 
face. Labrum fulvous. Antennae half the length of the body, fili- 
form, entirely fulvous, or with the apical joints piceous. Thorax 
about twice as broad as long, distinctly narrowed from the base to 
the apes, its sides but little rounded, surface impressed with deep 
but rather remotely placed punctures. Scutellum subtriangular, its 
apex acute. Elytra slightly wider at the base than the thorax, con- 
vex, regvdarly and deeply punctate-striate near the base, much more 
finely towards the apes ; below the shoulder several stri^ are united 
at their ends and their commencement and are only half the length 
of the rest ; interstices impunctate, subcostate near the base, but 
flat posteriorly. Femora with a short acute tooth. 

Collected by Mr. Rutherford. Collection Jacoby. 

This species is allied to M. costatus, Baly, but is larger, differently 
shaped, the thorax much more strongly punctured, and the elytra 
are devoid of the strongly raised costte near the lateral margin. 

Terillus, Chapuis. 

7. Terilltjs porosus, sp. nov. 

Elongate, convex, fulvous, finely pubescent below. Thorax irregu- 
larly and moderately strongly, elytra foveolate punctate, the interior 
of the punctures metallic green. 

Length .3|-4 lines. 

Hab. Australia, Cooktown. 

Head very minutely and closely punctured, and covered with fine 
silvery pubescence. Antennae half as long as the body, third joint 
double the length of the second, light fulvous. Thorax about twice 
as broad as long, its sides straight, disk longitudinally obsoletely 
sulcate from the base to the apex, rest of the surface irregularly 
covered with rather fine punctures, pubescent like the head. Scu- 
tellum smooth. Elytra ibveolate-punctate, the punctures near the 
base arranged in irregular double rows, the rest confusedly distributed, 



J 882.] SPKCIES OF PHYTOPHAGOUS COLEOPTERA. 55 

interstices transversely wrinkled and costate near the apex ; the interior 
of tlie punctures, especially near the lateral and sutural margins, 
metallic green. Underside and legs fulvous, closely covered with 
fine silvery pubescence. 
In my collection. 

Cheiridea, Baly. 

8. Cheiridea subrugosa, sp. nov. 

Oblong, convex, metallic green, pubescent. Legs cupreous. Tho- 
rax deeply punctate, its sides serrate. Elytra pnnctate-striate and 
transversely rugose, subpubescent, metallic green, with a broad 
transverse black band at the middle. 

Length 4 lines. 

Hah. Cameroons. 

Head rugose punctate, thinly covered with long white hairs. 
Labrum and jaws, as well as the palpi, black. Antennee nearly 
half the length of the body, the joints robust and (with the exception 
of the first three joints) elongate, black. Thorax subquadrate, its 
sides slightly rounded and serrate, all the angles acute ; surface deeply 
and rather closely punctured, the interstices laterally transversely 
wiinkled ; metallic green, covered with thin white hairs at the sides. 
Scutellum pentagonal, thickly covered with white pubescence. Elytra 
wider than the thorax, convex at the middle and acutely pointed at 
the apex, irregularly transversely rugose and deej)ly punctured, the 
interstices subcostateat the disk, metallic green, this'colour divided at 
the middle of each elytron by a broad transverse black band which 
does not quite reach the suture, this band is limited anteriorly and 
])osteriorly by thick white pubescence, which is also prominent towards 
the apex in the shape of longitudinal striae, principally near the 
sutural margin. Underside obscure metallic green, closely pubescent. 
Legs cupreous, femora without tooth. Claws appendiculate. 

In my collection. 

This handsome species bears a close resemblance to Pseudocolaspis 
timialithus, Thonis., in regard to shape and colour, and might be easily 
mistaken for that species if the generic characters were not totally 
different. The serrate sides of the thorax, filiform antennae, and the 
appendiculate claw show it, however, to belong to Ealy's genus 
Cheiridia, described in the Journ.Linn. Soc, Zool. vol. xiv. p. 2.J3. 

IIalticid.e. 
DiAMPHiDiA, Gerstiicker. 

y. DiAJIPHIDIA ANGOLENSIS, Sp. nOV. 

. Broadly ovate, convex, testaceous or tlavous. Anteunte simple, 
black ; sides of the breast, knees, tibiae and tarsi, three spots on 
the head, and five on the thorax blf.ck ; elytra very closely punctured, 
black, sutural and lateral margins and a' pear-shaped spot from the 
base to the middle flavous. 

Length 4^-5 lines. 

Jlah. Angola (Africa). 



56 MR, M. JACOBY ON NEW GENERA AND [Jail. 3, 

Head with a few fine punctures, flavous, a rhomboidal spot at the 
middle and one on each side at the base black. Antennre black, 
the second and third joints and the apex of the terminal one fulvous. 
Thorax nearly three times as broad as long, the sides very moderately 
rounded, anterior angles acute ; surface finely and not very closely 
punctured on the disk, much more closely towards the sides ; a broad 
subquadrate irregular-shaped black spot is situated at each side, and 
connected anteriorly with a small round s])ot, another oblong one 
being placed in the middle of the base. Scutellum black. Elytra 
extremely closely subrugulose punctate, black, the margins narrowly 
testaceous, but interrupted at the apex by an elongation of the black 
portion ; an elongate pear-shaped testaceous spot extends from the 
middle of the base in an oblique direction to the middle of the elytra. 
Underside closely pubescent. 

Four specimens of this well marked species are contained in my 
collection. The design of the elytra and thorax will distinguish this 
insect from any of its allies. 

Galerucid^,. 
LuPERODES, Motsch. 

10. Ltjperodes marginatus, sp. nov. 

Oblong, convex, light flavous below. Antennas, their basal joints 
excepted, piceous. Above pale olive-green, extreme lateral margins 
of the elytra and their epipleurae black. 

Length 3 lines. 

Hab. Africa, Lagos. 

Head not longer than broad, with a well marked transverse groove 
between the eyes, finely punctate, the latter black, prominent. An- 
tennae two thirds the length of the body, obscure piceous, the two 
or three basal joints flavous, joints 2 and 3 very short, of nearly 
equal length, the rest filiform and slender. Thorax narrowly trans- 
verse, its sides straight and narrowed from base to apex, the angles 
obtuse and rather rounded ; surface like the head, very minutely punc- 
tured. Scutellum triangular. Elytra convex, parallel, more dis- 
tinctly punctured than the thorax, of a very pale greenish tint, with 
the lateral and apical margins black ; this colour is narrowed gra- 
dually towards the base, where it is very narrow. Underside and legs 
flavous, finely pubescent ; last abdominal segment in some specimens 
black. 

Collection Jacoby. 

The genus Luperodes, resembling in its general appearance the 
gen\xsMonolej)ta, maybe known by the very long first tarsal joint of 
the posterior legs, the tibiae of which are armed with a long spine, iu 
connexion with the open anterior coxal cavities. 

11. Ltjperodes atjstralis, sp. nov. 

Oblong, convex, flavous ; apical joints of the antennae, and the 
breast, black ; elytra minutely punctured, flavous, the base and a 
small spot below the middle rufous. 



1882.] SPECIES OF PHYTOPHAGOUS COLEOPTKHA, 57 

Length 2-2ii^ lines. 

Hab. Australia. 

Head impunctate, with a short transverse groove between the eyes, 
the latter very large, black. Antennae rather closely approached, 
the four basal joints flavous, the rest pieeous, joints 2 and 3 
very short. Thorax transverse, the sides slightly rounded, anterior 
margin straight, posterior much rounded ; surface impunctate, flavous. 
Elytra \'ery closely and finely punctured, with a transverse rufous band 
at the base, tlie posterior margin of which is irregularly sinuate, and 
a small spot of the same colour situated behind the middle and close 
to the sutural margin. Underside and legs flavous. Breast shining 
black. 

Two specimens are contained in my collection,received from the 
Mus. Godeffroy at Hamburg. 

Malacosoma, Chev. 

12. Malacosoma politum, sp. nov. 

Oblong, convex, black. Thorax fulvous, impunctate : elytra 
testaceois, extremely minutely punctured ; legs and antennae black. 

Length 3 lines. 

Hab. South Africa. 

Head black, pubescent, with a more or less distinct central longi- 
tudinal groove at the vertex. Antennae short and robust ; the 
second joint the shortest ; the third and fourth joints of equal length ; 
the rest subcylindrical, slightly thickened. Thorax transversely 
convex, its sides rounded, especially anteriorly, the anterior angles 
slightly tuberculate ; surface convex, entirely impunctate, fulvous. 
Scutellum black. Elytra convex, impunctate like the thorax, or 
visibly punctured only when seen under a strong lens ; testaceous, 
very shining. Underside and legs rather thickly covered with 
yellow pubescence. 

The highly polished upper surface of the present species, which is 
totally impunctate, will distinguish it from M. iusitanicum, with which 
it agrees in coloration. 

Collection Jacoby. 

13. Malacosoma quadrimaculatum, sp. nov. 

Oblong, testaceous ; antennae, tibiie, and tarsi black ; elytra very 
finely punctured, testaceous, a small longitudinal spot at the base 
and a band from base to apex, greatly narrowed anteriorly, black. 

Length 3 lines. 

Hah. Natal. 

Head convex, very minutely punctured, with a distinct transverse 
sinuate groove between the eyes. Antennae half the length of the 
body ; second joint short ; third and fourth joints elongate, of equal 
length ; the basal one fulvous, the rest black. Thorax narrowly trans- 
verse, nearly three times as broad as long; surface distinctly but 
irregularly punctured, fidvous. Scutellum nearly semicircular, flavous, 
smooth. Elytra rather more finely and closely punctured than the 
tborax; of tlic same colour as the latter: each elvtron with an elongate 



58 MR. M, JACOBY ON PHYTOPHAGOUS COLEOPTERA. [Jau. 3, 

black spot near the scutellum and another broad baud of the same 
colour, the anterior part of which is greatly narrowed and concave 
at its inner margin ; this band does not extend quite to the lateral 
margin or the apex. Underside and femora testaceous ; tibise and 
tarsi black. 

My collection and that of the British Museum. 

14. Malacosoma flavomarginatum, sp. noT. 

Elongate, testaceous. Head and thorax fulvous ; elytra closely 
nunctured, blackish blue, the lateral and sutural margins flavous. 

Length 3 lines. 

Hab. South Africa. 

Head convex, closely punctured. Antennae half the length of the 
body, black, first three joints flavous. Thorax of the same shape as in 
M. quadrimaculatum, its surface distinctly but less closely punctured. 
Scutellum flavous. Elytra very closely and rather strongly punc- 
tured, black with a bluish tiut, the sutural and lateral margins, as 
well as the apex, narrowly flavous. Underside and legs of the same 
colour ; tarsi piceous. 

Collection Jacoby. 

GoNioPLEURA, Westwood. 

1.5. GONIOPLEURA BASALIS, Sp. UOV. 

Elongate, convex, rufous. Thorax finely punctured, its sides tri- 
dentate ; elytra finely pubescent, metallic green or blue, the base 
more or less broadly rufous. 

Length 7 lines. 

Hab. Sumatra. 

Head finely and closely punctured. Clypeus slightly transverselv 
depressed, its anterior margin deeply concave and bidentate. Apex 
of jaws black. Antenuce light fulvous, extending to one third the 
length of the body. Tiiorax subquadrate, punctured like the head ; 
each lateral margin produced at the middle into a biangulate flat 
protuberance preceded by a small tooth, from which an oblique 
depression extends across the disk towards the base. Scutellum 
rufous. Elytra convex and parallel, closely and rather more strongly 
punctured than the thorax, and covered, especially towards the apex, 
with whitish pubescence ; metallic green or blue, witli a more or less 
broad rufous transverse band at the base. Underside and legs 
rufous. 

Collection Jacoby and British Museum. 

From G. viridipennis , Clark, to which the present species bears a 
great resemblance, it may be distinguished by the dentate and 
angulate lateral thoracic margin, which in Clark's species consists of 
a single tooth only, while here it is followed by an almost square- 
shaped broad angular protuberance. The rufi)us basal margin of 
the elytra varies in width, but is constant. This species forms the 
fourth of the genus Gonioplev.ra. 



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1882.] MR. O. THOMAS ON THE AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. .59 

3. On the African Mungooses. 
By Oldfield Thomas, E.Z.S., British Museum. 

[Eeceived December 2, 1881.] 

(Plate III.) 

In the Zoology of the Yunnan Expedition', Dr. John Anderson of 
the Calcutta Museum has recently fully worked out the Oriental 
species of that difficult Viverrine group, the Mungooses ; and the 
present paper is an attempt to treat similarly those that are found in 
Africa. The latter, however, are very much less uniform in structure 
than the former, as they heloug to no less than seven genera, six 
being peculiar to xifrica, while the Oriental forms, as Dr. Anderson 
has shown, ought all to be included in the restricted genus Herjiestes. 

The Oriental and African Mungooses together form a very natural 
subfamily, the IIerpestina3-, quite distinct from the other large group 
of the Viverridse, namely the Civets and Paradoxures, or Viverrince. 
Prof. Flower, in his well-known paper on the classification of the 
Carnivora ^ says of the Viverridse (p. 35) that ''they show a great 
tendency to break into two groups, of which Fiverra, Paradoxurus, 
Arctictis, &c. belong to one, and Herpestes and its various modifi- 
cations to the other, BlajzcEna being an aberrant member of the 
last," and (p. 20) gives a description of the characters of the base 
of the skull in this group, compared with those of the Viverrinse. 
Externally the members of this subfamily are distinguished by 
their comparatively lithe and slender form, and by their generally 
blunt, elongated, and but slightly curved claws, as compared with the 
short, sharp, semiretractile, and strongly curved claws of most of the 
Viveninse. 

The following are the only two previous papers of any importance 
on the subject of the African species of this group : — (1) Temminck, 
Esq. Zool. Cote Guiuee, pp. 93-118 (1853) ; and (2) Gray, P.Z.S. 
1864, pp. 547-579. 

The first of these contains muc'.i useful information, especially 
with regard to the variation to which these animals are subject'; 
nevertheless, notwithstanding his clear insight into the badness of 
other people's species, Temminck formed several bad species of his 
own in it. The second, by Dr. Gray, is a complete revision of the 
group, in which, however, such a large number of untenable genera 
are formed, and so many bad species are made and allowed, that the 
confusion into which the group had fallen cannot be said to have 
been removed by it. On the other hand, it must be admitted that 

' Op. cit. p. Ills (1878). 

2 Ou the principle of strict priority this name ought to be Svricatince, SuH- 
cata antedating Herpestes by seven year.s ; but it would be so obviously unsuitable 
to cull the subfamily after one of its most aberrant meuibers. that T think wc are 
iustiiied iu using the later and more classical term. 



.l"s 

3 P.Z.S. 18ti'.), p. 4. 



CO MR. O. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 

his general arrangement of the group seems to be a very natural one, 
and has, in its main outlines, been followed here. 

With regard to the genera treated of, I have only taken those 
found actually on the continent of Africa, and have therefore not 
included the aberrant forms Galidia, Galidictis, and Eupleres^, which 
are only found in Madagascar, and of which the species present but little 
difficulty, so that there is no need for any special revision of them''. 
Ou the other hand, none of the true Mungooses are indigenous to 
Madagascar, though one or two of them have been recorded from 
there; but these would seem either to have been introduced, or the 
correctness of their locality to have been very doubtful. It must be 
remembered that the artificial introduction of animals of this group 
is by no means unlikely, as Mungooses are constantly tamed by the 
natives, and would thus easily be carried by them from one place to 
another ^ 

In preparing this paper I have had the advantage of examining 
the collections, each possessing many typical specimens, contained iu 
the Berlin, Leyden, and Frankfort Museums, in addition to the large 
series in our own national collection. I have thus seen nearly 250 
African Mungooses, including the types of the species described by 
Gray, Peters, Riippell, Temminck, Smith, and others, the names of 
these species being marked with asterisks in the synonymy below. 
All together, of the seventy-five good and bad species described, I have 
examined the types of thirty-one, the greater part of the remainder 
being species named either from rough travellers' descriptions, from 
previously published figures, or else merely in alteration of earlier 
names. 

I must here thank Prof. Peters of Berlin, and Prof. Schlegel and 
Dr. Jentink of Leyden for the facilities they have afforded me of 
seeing the specimens under their charge, and Prof. Milne-Edwards 
for much useful information with respect to the typical specimens 
contained in the Paris Museum. 

Before commencing the detailed review of the species, I think it 
will be useful to make a few remarks concerning the characters which 
should be especially attended to by any one wishing to name an 
African specimen of this group. 

In the first place, I would call attention to the variation to be ob- 
served iu the coloration of certain species : thus in Herpestes gracilis, 
the thi'ce varieties are extraordinarily different in their general colour, 
while the plan of coloration and all other characters are precisely 
identical ; these different colours moreover are not strictly confined 

• These genera all differ from the eoutiiiental Mungooses iu not possessing an 
alisplienoid canal, a character present in all those treated of here. 

^ Dr. Jentink has recently worked out the species of the genus Gcdklia (Notes 
Leyd. Mus. i. p. 131, 187U). 

■' The only true I\Iungoose collected without doubt in Madagascar, tliat J know 
of, is a young individual of C'rossarcliiit> fasciafiis, obtained by Van Dam, and now 
in the Leyden Museum. Prof. Milne-Edwards iufonns me that, in liis opinion, 
" Le Vansire"( Herpcsfcs r/alcra), usunlly said to have originally come from Mada- 
gascar,, was certainly not obtained fhci-e, no other collectovs ImTing met with it 
in that i.sland since. 



1882.] AFRICAN MUN GOOSES. til 

to any localitv, tliougli there is a certain tendency for all, or at least 
most of tlie specimens from one district to be alike in colour ; in fact, 
if this had not been so, I should not have felt justified in regarding 
the various forms even as distinct varieties. Again, H. aibicauda 
varies most peculiarly in the amount of white ])resent on the 
tail, some s))ecimens having that member nearly entirely wliite and 
others wholly black, individuals of each type being moreover found 
in the heart of the district mostly inhabited by those of tlie other. 
Another remarkable point in connection with variation in colour is 
the fact tliat in certahi species there seem to be two forms, one with 
anuulated and the other with unannulated fur. Thus ordinary 
specimens of H. galera^ Gr., have annulated fur, while others from 
various localities, among which are the types of //. j^hito, Tennn., 
have their longer hairs entirely unannulated. In the same way 
//. mutgUjella, lliipp., seems to be the unannulated form of H. graci- 
lis, H.iodopriimnus, Heugl., being intermediate, and H.granti, Gr., 
similarly that of //. hudius. It is of course possible that these two 
forms represent a seasonal change, though the few dated specimens 
that I have seen do not, on the whole, lend mucii support to this 
view, especially when we remember how comparatively little seasonal 
change of temperature must occur in the region with which we now 
have to deal. 

In the second place, attention should ije drawn to the apparent 
frequency with which specimen;- of this group seem to lose the 
minute first toes on both fore and hind feet. Tlius boih "Cgnictis" 
melanura and " Gcderella " ochracea ' owe their generic names to the 
fact of their halluces having been accidentally lost ; and Bdeogale 
nigripes, Puch., has probably been referred to that genus for the 
game reason '. In the work already referred to'', Temminck has 
drawn attention to this same point, and has given several instances 
which had fallen under his own observation. Tiie minute claw of 
the first toe is probably very easily knocked off during the skinning 
and stutting of specimens ; and the digit iiself, without the claw, is so 
small and inconspicuous that it would not be observable without the 
closest scrutiny. On the whole it would seem that though some 
few cases may occur in which the claw has either never been 
developed or has been knocked off daring life, yet as a rule, so far 
as I have seen, the loss has probably occurred after death, there being 
generally distinct traces of the former presence of the claw, thus 
showing tliat it could not have been lost during life, for then the 
skin would presumably have healed over the place. 

Thirdly, it is worthy of note that while the dimensions of the 
teeth are very constant, their number is by no means so : thus, one 
of our specimens of Crossarchus zehra (p. 89) has an additional 
true molar above on each side behind the two normal ones, the extra 
ones not being in any way crowded or rudimentary, but fully 

' I have softened auc! opened the skin ol' the hind foot of tlie type of this 
species, and found, as I expoclcd, a broken metatarsus, about one tenth of 
an inch in length, and of the usual thickness, adiiering to the entocuneiform bone. 

8 See below, p. 77. ^ Op. cii. p. 107. 



62 MR. O. THOMAS ON THE [Jail. 3, 

developed, and looking quite as if that species always possessed them. 
Again, a specimen of //. (/racilis has an additional lower premolar 
standing side by side with the third normal one ; but this differs from 
the last instance in being more obviously an abnormality. The type 
of Rhinogale melleri, as mentioned below (p. 81), has one more 
upper premolar on each side than is found in any other species of the 
group; but as, so far as I know, this typical specimen is unique, I 
cannot say whether the dental formula possessed by it is constant or 
not. On the other hand, a deficiency in the full number of teeth is 
very common, all the species with normally four upper premolars 
often losing the first one, which when present is always much 
smaller than any of the others. 

It has just been mentioned that the dimensions of the teeth are 
very constant ; and so much is this the case that I have found that the 
comparative measurements of the fourth upper premolar and second 
molar afford very good specific characters ; for in those species in 
which the teeth are more or less round and suitable for grinding 
rather 'than cutting, the second molar is of considerable size and the 
fourth premolar is but little larger, while, on the other hand, when 
the teeth are slender, angular, and with cutting-edges, as in H. ichneu- 
mon, the last molar is very small and rudimentary and the last pre- 
molar is large and has a well-developed anterior internal process. 
As an instance of these differences, I may mention the cases of 
H. albicauda and //. ichneumon, in the first of which the last molar 
is from 7 1 to 84 per cent, of the fourth premolar, while in the latter 
these percentages range only from 42 to 45. 

The measurements upon which these percentages are founded are 
those of the greatest diameter of the tooth — in the fourth premolar 
from the posterior point of the tooth to the anterior edge of the 
internal lobe, and in the last molar simply the greatest transverse 
diameter of the tooth. The percentages obtained by these measure- 
ments are called in the synopses of the species the " dental per- 
centages ;" and a table is given at the end of each genus showing the 
exact dimensions, with the resulting percentages, of the teeth of its 
members. 



Synopsis of the Genera. 

A. With a naked groove Irom the imizzle to the upper lip. 
I. Toes 5—5. 

a. Premolars j (if only o in either jaw, a cliasteiua 

always present) I. Herpestes. 

b. Premolars ff (no diastema in front of 1st premo- 

lar). Hind soles naked II. HelogAle. 

II. Toes 4— 4. 

c. Premolars -J. Hind soles hairy III. BDEOCiALL'. 

III. Toes 5— 4. 

d. Premolars j. Hind soles haii'y IV. vsictis. 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. (i3 

B, No groo\e IVom nose to iipptr lip. 
IV. Toes 5—5. 

c. Premolars ff- '. Palate concave. Iliud soksliairv V. Riii.nociale. 

/. Premolars f -. Palate flat. Hind soles bald VI. CitossARCiiis. 

V. Toes 4 -4. 

g. Premolars .j. Hind .soles bald VII. Suricat.v. 

I. Hkrpes-tes. Typp- 

"Mangusfa, Oliv."", Illig., Desm., Fiscli., &c. . . ? 

Ichneumon, Laccp. iNIein. de I'lnst. iii. p. 492 
(1801) (nee Linn. S. N. i. p. 930, 1706) //. ichneumon. 

Herpestes, Illig. Prodr. Syst. Mamui. p. 135 
(1811) H. ichneumon. 

Atilax, F. Cuv. Hist. Nat. ]\Iamm. iii. livr. 
54 (1826) //. (jalei-a. 

M<mgos,Qg\\hy, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 103 (1835). . //. vitticoUis. 

Urva, Hodss. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vi. p. 5GU 
(1837) .. .." fl- vrva. 

Mesobema, Hodgs. Journ. As. Soc. Beiig. x. 
p. 910 (1841) //. urm. 

Osmctectis, Gray, Ann. & Mag. N. H. x. p. 260 
(1 842) .' II. vrva. 

Caloffale, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 560 (1864) . . H. nepalensis. 

Galerella, Gray, t. cit. p. 564 (1864) H. (jracilis. 

Culictis, Gray, t. cit. p. 565 (1864) //. smifhii. 

Tceniocjale, Gray, t. cit. p. 569 (1864) //. vitticoIUs. 

Onijchogcde, Gray, t. cit. p. 570 (1864). . . . . . II. maccarthice. 



Toes 5—5. Teeth, 1. 1 , C. J, P.M. *, M. !!, x 2 = 40. Underside 
of tarsus generally naked. Fur of two kinds, the longer usually annu- 
lated, so as to give the animal a grizzled apjjearance. Tail long, A'arying 
from about half to nearly equal the length of the head and body 
togetlier. First toes on both fore and hind feet very small, probably 
nearly functionless. Claws of medium strength. 

Range. S. Europe, all Africa, Asia Minor, Persia, and nearly the 
whole of the Oriental zoological region. 

To this, the typical genus, belong all the Indian and nearly half 
of the African species. There is a great variation in size and colour 
among its various members ; but the cranial characters are very iairly 

' In the only known specimen, very possibly not constant. 

^ In all the specimons seen; bnt a diastema is generally present, so that 
there is probably a minute first premolar in immature individuals. 

^ This name is frequently quoted by the early authors as having been given 
byOlivier ; but I cannot find that it was ever used by him. In fact, in his 'Voyage 
dans I'Empire Ottoman, I'Egypte et la Perse,' vol. iii. p. 100 (1804), he uses the 
Linnean term Vircrra ichnciamn. Even if, however, the name Mangusfa was 
ever characterized before 1811, I think we 6ho\dd be justified in ignoring it, as 
it is altogether barbarous, and lUiger's name has received universal acceptance, 
Agassiz (Nomencl. Zool. i. p. 19) cites Mangiishi as having been described by 
Baron Cuvier iu his 'Tableau Elementaire,' 17'J7 ; but there is no mention of the 
genus in that work. 



64 MK. o. THOMAS ON THK [Jan. 3, 

uniform. Dr. Anderson, in the work quoted above, has fully de- 
scribed and figured the skulls and dentition of the Indian forms ; and 
the African ones are very similai', if we except U. (Ichneumia) alhi- 
caada, which has, of course, as forming a distinct subgenus, many 
characters peculiar to itself. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

A. Tarsus nearly or quite naked below. Upper 
M" 40-60 per cent, of P.M'. Last lower molar 
small, with onlj- 2 external cusps. (Subgenus 

HEIiPESTES.) 

I. Tip of tail with a dark-coloured pencil. 

a. Tail-tip black. 

a. Size large : head and body 20 in. or more. 

a'. Skullhalfasbroadaslong. Palivarctic 1. H. ic/inci'.nion, p. 64. 

b'. Skull le.ss than half as broad as long. 

Ethiopian 2. H. caffcr, p. G(>. 

/3. Size small : head and body 12-14 in. ... o H. gracilis, p. 68. 

b. Tail-tip red. 

y. Size small : head and body about 12 in. ... 4. H. sanguineus, p. 71. 

II. Tip of tail not darker. 

c. Dark rufous. Size large : head and body 20- 

26 in 5. H.galcra,-^. 72. 

d. Dark grizzled grey. Size medium : head and 

body 14-15 in 6. H. pnlverulentus, ■[>. 74. 

e. Light grizzled grey. Size small ; head and 

body 10-13 in 7. H. imnctatissimus, ■^. 74. 

B. Tarsus hairy beneath. Upper M" more than 70 
per cent, of P.M'. Last lower molar large, with 
y external cusps. (Subgenus Icuneumia). 

I. Tail very bushy. Size large, 22-26 in 8. H. aU)icaiida,\>. 75, 

1. Herpestes ichneumon. 

Viverra ichnevnion, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 63 (1766). 

Ichneumon pharaon, Lac6p. Mem. de I'lnst. iii. p. 402 (1801). 

Ichneumon ceyypti, Tiedem. Zool. i. p. 364 (1808). 

Herpestes j)haraoms, Geoff. Descr. de I'Euypte, H. N. ii. p. 139 
(1812). 

H. numidicus, F. Cuv. Hist. Nat. Mamm. iv. livr. 68 (1834). 
* H. widdringtoni, Gray, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ix. p. 50 (1842). 

H. dorscdis, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 549 (ex Smith, S. x\fr. Quart. 
Journ. ii. p. 113, 1835) (1864). 

Hab. Southern Spain, Asia Minor, Palestine, and Africa north of 
the Sahara. 

Size large, about 20 inches ; form slender ; tail about 4 to 5 inches 
shorter than the head and body. Fur long, especially on the rump 
and basal quarter of the tail, where the longer hairs are often 4 or 
more inches in length. General colour dark grizzled grey-browu, 
the hairs annulated with dark red-brown and creamy yellow, the tips 
of the back hairs darker yellow. Underfur thick and woolly, bright 
rufous in colour. Tip of tail shining black, the hairs elongated so 
as to form a distinct tassel, sometimes reaching 5 inches beyond the 
vertebrse. Feet dark brown. Underside of hind feet generally quite 
naked, the part under the calcaneum sometimes, though rarely, hairy. 



1882.] 



AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 



65 



Skull comparatively short and broad, the breadth nearly always more 
than half the length (49-56 per cent.). Teeth slender and sharp, 
the last molar less than half the length of the 4th premolar (42-48 
per cent.). 



a. 
h. 
c. 
d. 
e. 



Dimensions. 

Head 
and body^. 
Spain (type of H. widdrinytoni) . . 20*0 

Egypt 21-0 

Palestine {Tristram) 21-0 

Andalusia (Lord Lilford) 21-0 

Morocco {Parsudaki) 20-5 



Tail. 


Hind foot^, 


17-0 


3-7 


16-0 


3-8 


150 


3-4 


16-0 


3-4 


15-0 


3-4 



Skulls. 



Length^. 

a. Spain (Zool.Soo.) 4-05 

b. Egypt ; 3-85 

c. N. Africa 37 



For dimensions of teeth, see p. 78. 



Breadth'. 


Palate- 
length.' 


Palate- 
breadth". 


Inc. to 
cross 
line^. 


Basi- 

cranial 

axis^. 


2-25 


2-28 


1-30 


1-34 




2-04 


2-20 


1-24 


1-40 


1-41 


2-0 


1-93 


M7 


1-30 


1-4 



' From tlie tip of the nose to the root of the tail, along the cun-es 
otherwise stated, the measurements are taken from stufifcd specimens. 



Unless 



Without the claws. 

■* From the front of the prscmaxillix; to the most posteriorpoint of either of 
the occipital condyles. 

' Greatest breadth across zygomata. 

■; From the front of the jira^masillie to the end of the bony palate. 
Between the points at which P.M^ and M^ touch each other at tlieir outer 
edges. 

" From the front of the praemasilhv to a point on the palate midway between 
those mentioned nnder G. ^ ./ 

•< From the central point of the posterior edge of the basioccipital to the 
anterior edge of the lower surface of the prasphenoid. 

It will be seen that, of these skull-measurements, Nos. 3, 4, and 5 are the same 
as those adopted by Prof. Huxley in his recent paper on the Canida; (P Z S 
lb80, p. 243). I do not, howerer, think that the measurement of "total length " 
used by Inm is at all satisfactory, as the occipital spine, to the tip of which he 
measures, varies gi-eatly with the age of the individual, and also between different 
species— some forms developing a bony crest comparatively earlv, and others 
even when quite old, having scarcely any at all. Tliese objections do not apply 
to measuring from the posterior point of the condyles, which is a place where 
no extra bony matter is added as the animal gets older. It is true tliat it would 
seem to be somewhat unnatural to measure from a central azygous point to ■% 
lateral symmetrical one ; but practically the resulting dimension is so nearly 
exactly the same as measuring either to the upper part of the supraoccipital 
not including the spine, or to the centre of the same bone just above ihe foramen 
magnuiu, that this objection is overbalanced by the convenience of measuruiK 
to the most posterior non-varying point of the skull, and a point which can 
always be used with such extreme exactitude. 

The measurement given under 7 is a very useful one, as giving the true length 

Proc. Zool. Soc 1882, No. V. 5 



66 MR. o. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 

2. Herpestes caffer. 

Viverra ca/ra, Gmel. Linn. S. N. i. p. 85 (1/89). 

H. griseus, Smuts, Enuni. Mamni. Cap. p. 19 (nee Desni.) (1832). 

H. madagascariensis, Smith, S.Afr. Quart. Jouvn. ii. p. 114 
(1835). 

? Herpestes bennettii, Gray, Loudon'a Mag. N. H. i. p. 578 
(1837). 

Hah. Africa south of the Sahara. 

Somewhat larger than H. ichneumon, ahout 23 inches. Colours as 
in that species, with the following exceptions : — The annnlations on 
the longer hairs are somewhat narrower, and consist of deep shining- 
black and pure white rings, instead of brown or yellow ones, thus 
causing the general colour to be a much clearer grey ; and the under- 
i'ur is dark and dull (not bright) rufous, and sometimes simply dark 
grey-brown. Underside of hind feet always naked. Skull, compared 
with that of //. ichnemnon, longer and narrower, the breadth always 
less than half the length (46 to 48 per cent.). Teeth and other 
characters as in 7f. ichneumon. 



Dimensions. 

Head 
and body. 

a. Kingwilliamstown (2Vc«e/y«?8) .. 22'0 

b. S. Africa 23-0 

c. „ 23-0 

d. „ 23-0 



of the muzzle, a dimension not satisfactorily shown by merely taking the "palate- 
lengtb," because the amount to which the bony palate extends behind the molars 
Taries considerably, both between difierent individuals and different species. 

With regard to the " basicranial axis," I have been compelled, with some hesi- 
tation, to use a different measurement from tliat given by Prof. Huxley, because, 
first, his anterior point, easy enough to take in a bisected skull, cannot be found 
with any exactitude in a whole one ; and, secondly, in many genera of C'arnivora, 
for instance in the group at present under discussion, this spot as defined by him 
for a non-bisected skull ("a point opjjosite the middle of the distance between 
the optic and ethmoidal foramina ") falls considerably inside the posterior nares, 
and does not by any means ''lie a little behind the posterior extremity of the 
vomer," as it does in the Dogs. The axis I propose, however, is easily measured 
in all states of the skull ; and a similar and corresponding axis may be readily 
obtained, not only in all the different genera of C'arnivora, but also througliout 
almost the whole of the Mammalian class. I have, for example, long used 
this same axis in my notes on Eodents' skulls, where it is always very readily 
observable. 

This axis, moreover, equally shows, in a horizontal line, what Prof. Huxley's 
axis shows in an oblique one, namely the combined lengths of the basioccipital, 
basisphenoid, and prassphenoid bones, which, according to that author, "repre- 
sent the foundation around and upon which the other parts .ire built." 

The measurements throughout are in English inches and tenths, except in the 
case of the tables of dimensions of teeth, where, a very small unit being required, 
they are given in millimetres. 



Tail. 


Hind foot. 


18-0 


3-7 


19-0 


3-9 


19-0 


4-0 


19-0 


4-0 



1882,] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 67 

Skulls. 







Palate- 


Palate- Incisors to 


Basicra- 


Length. 


Breadth. 


length. 


breadth, cross Hue. 


uial axis. 


c. 4-3 


2-14 


2-47 


1-35 1-50 


1-55 


. 4-18 


1-98 


2-35 


1-24 1-49 


1-50 



a. Cape .... 

b. No locality 

c. Kingwilliams- 

town 4-15 1-91 2-36 1-28 1-50 — 

For teeth, see p. 78. 

These two closely allied species, H. ichneumon and H. caffer, seem 
to be very common over their respective ranges. There can never be 
any difficulty in distinguishing either of them from all others, as 
their large size and long black tail-tips readily separate them from 
all their congeners. Their nearest ally seems to be H. jerdoni, Gr., 
from India ; but that is considerably smaller, and has an entirely 
distinct range from either of them. 

With regard to their distinctness from each other, I was at first 
disposed to regard them as only races of one species, as Temminck 
had done ; but I have found such constancy in their distinguishing 
characters that, combined with the fact of their ranges being in diffe- 
rent zoological regions, I have been induced to retain them as distinct 
species. There is no doubt, however, that they are verv closely 
allied ; but when we remember how very distinct the faunas of the 
southern Palsearctic and of the Ethiopian regions are, scarcely any 
species being common, it would naturally seem preferable to consider 
as distinct two forms so fairly well marked as are //. ichneumon and 
H. caffer, when the line of demarcation between them so exactly 
corresponds with what is generally recognized as the boundary 
between the two zoological regions. 

I cannot find any characters whatever by which to separate, even 
a.s a variety, the Spanish Ichneumon (£r. widdrinf/toni) from the 
form found on the southern side of the Straits of Gibraltar. 

In the s])ecific diagnosis of H. ichneumon given above, mention is 
made of the fact that occasionally the posterior part of the hind 
soles are haiiy, instead of being bald as is usual. In connection 
with this, it is worthy of remark that a partly hairy sole seems to 
be accompanied by an increased length of the hallux, as though 
certain individuals or families were accustomed, probably on account 
of the nature of the soil, to walk in a more digitigrade manner than 
usual, and the hallux were in these cases elongated sufficiently tq 
reach the ground. In H. (jalera I have also found the same thing, 
there being one of our West-African specimens of that species with 
a hairy sole and elongated hallux, whilst all others of the large series 
that I have examined have naked soles and short halluces. 

The following will show the extent of these differences, whichj 
being quite unaccompanied by other special characters, are most 
certainly not specific : — 

In a hairy-soled H. ichneumon the posterior 0'9 in., and in the 
similar H. c/alera 1 •45 in., is densely clothed with hair, while in all 

5* 



68 MR. o. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 

other specimens of both species there is no hair at all on the soles 
from toes to heel. And as to the length of the hallux, in the hairy- 
soled forms of the two species its claw reaches to within 0'23 and 
0'27 in. from the most anterior point of the large central foot-pad, 
while in other specimens these measurements average 0"o2 and 0"64 
in. respectively. 

With regard to the habits of these large Mungooses, the manner 
in which H. ichneumon destroys the eggs of the crocodile is well 
known ; and there is no doubt tliat it is of considerable use to the 
country in this way. Smuts' says of //. caffer : — -This animal lives 
in many parts of the Cajie colony, mostly in holes in the earth. It 
feeds principally upon mice, the smaller birds, and amphibians, and 
is often kept in a state of domestication on account of the services it 
renders in destroying these animals." 

3. Herpestes gracilis. 

a. Typical variety. 

*H. gyacilis, Riipp. N. Wirb. Abyss, p. 29, pi. viii. fig. 2 (1S3.5). 
*H. mutgigella, Riipp. t. cit. p. 29, pi. ix. fig. 1 (1833). 
Ichneumia nlgricaudatus, Geoff. Mag. Zool. 1839, p. 18 (1839). 
H. galinieri, Gruerin, Ferret & Galinier, Voy. Abyss., Atl. Zool. 
pi. i. fig. 1 (juv.) (1847-48). 

*n.punctulatus. Gray, P. Z. S. 1849, p. 11 (1849). 
H. lefebvrei, Des Murs&Prcv., Lefebvre Yoy. Abyss., Atl. Zool. 
pi. i. (in text H. gracilis) ( I8o0). 

*II. ornatus, Peters, Reise nach Mossambique, Mamm. p. 117, 
pi. xxvi. (1852). 

H. (ichromelaSy Puch. Rev. et Mag. Zool. vii. p. 393 (1855). 
*H. iocloprymnus, Heugl. Nov. Act. Ac. Leop. xxix. p. 23 (1861). 
77. adailensis, Hcugl. Peterni. Gcogr. Mittheil. 1861, p. 17 
(1861). 

H. mulschellschelu, Heugl. Reise N.O. Afr. ii. p. 41 (ex Riipp.) 
(1877). 

H. ruficauda, Heugl. Reise N.O. Afr. ii. p. 43 (1877). 

Hab. East-African snbregion — from Cape Verd round by Abys- 
sinia to Natal. 

b. Variety melanunts. 
*Cynictis melanura, Martin, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 56 (1836). 
Hab. West- African subregion — Sierra Leone to Cameroons. 

c. Variety badius'. 

"^Ichneumon ratlatuuchi et cawi, A. Smith, App. Rep. S. Afr. Exp. 
p. 42(1836). 

1 Enum. Mamm. Cap. p. 20, 1S32. 

^ I have used this name in preference to either of Dr. Smith's preTious names 
for this variety, because not only is it more classical and extremely appropriate, 
but Dr. Smith himself proposed the alteration, and therefore there can be no in- 
justice in ignoring his earlier names. 



ly82.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 69 

*Herpestes badius, Smith, 111. Afr. Zool. pt. ii. pi. iv. (1838). 
*H. yranti, Gray, P. Z. S. 18G4, p. 561 (1864). 
*Oalogale venatica, Gray, t. cit. p. .563 (1864). 

Hob, South-African subregion, and northwards to Zanzibar. 



cl. Variety ochraceiis. 

*H. ochraceus, Gray, P.Z.S. 1848, p. 138, pi. viii. (1848). 
Galerella ochracea, Gray, P. Z.S. 1864, p. 564 (1864). 

Hab. Abyssinia. 

Specific Characters. — Size small, form slender ; tail slightly shorter 
than the head and body. Fur of medium length, not longer either 
at the base or tip of the tail ; colour very variable, sandy, rufous, or 
dark grey-brown. Tip of tail always deep shining black, the black 
part varying from 1 to 4 inches in length. Underside of tarsus 
naked. Skull like that of a miniature H. ichneumon ; the teeth 
similarly slender and sharp. Last molar about half the length of 
the 4th premolar (46 to 59 per cent.). 

Varietal Characters. 

Typical variety. — General colour above and below dark brownish 
grey, with or without black annulations ; the tips of the hairs often 
with a distinct ruddy tinge. In unannulated specimens the black 
tail-tip not so sharply separated from the rest of the tail. 

Var. melanurus. — General colour above and below dark rufous, 
distinctly anuulated with black. Fur short and crisp. 

Var. badius. — Bright rufous, sometimes annulated with black. 
Fur rather long and soft. 

Var. ochraceus. — Light sandy yellow, annulated, in the only known 
specimen, with black. 



Dimensions. 

m ■ , ■ ITeacl 

Typical variety. and body. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. Abyssinia (Hujjpell) 14-5 12-0 2-5 

b. l^iatal (Type oi' jmnc till a tns).. .. 12-5 ll-o 2-3 
Var. melanurus. 

c. Sierra Leone 13*0 1 1'O 2*3 

Var. badius. 

</. S. Africa (type) 12*8 U'O 2-0 

e. Cape 12-0 lO/' 1-9 

Var. ochraceus. 

/. Abyssinia (type), imm 10*0 9-8 1-9 



Inc. to 


Basi- 


cross 


cranial 


line. 


axis. 


0-89 


1-0 



70 MR. O. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 

Var. gracilis. Length. Breadth. length, breadth. 

a. AhjssmisL(Bla)iford) 2-54 1-34 1-32 0-81 

5. Natal (type of ^. 1 1-30 1.3I 0-81 0-90 - 

punctulatus) . . . . j 

Var. melanurus. 

'■^z>";%t'°"' ^^'''''^}^'-' '■^- ^""^^ ^'^^ °'^^ ~ 

Var. hadius. 

rf.MgundaMkali(type|2.45 1.22 1-25 0-82 0-85 - 

01 U. granti) .... J 

e. S. Africa 2-.') 1-2/ 1-29 0-80 0-8.^ 0-96 

Var. ochraceus. 



/. Abyssinia (ffom),l ^.^ ,<,q ^.jq .? 
imtn J ■"' 



0-78 — 



This variable species appears to be the common small Mungoose 
of the whole of Africa. The distribution of its three principal 
varieties is somewhat interesting as so closely corresponding to the 
zoological subregions of x\iri(^a, as defined by Mr. Wallace in his 
'Geographical Distribution of Animals' \ Thus, the true H. gracilis 
is found from Cape Verd and Senegal across to Abyssinia and south- 
wards to Natal, a range nearly exactly agreeing with the " East- 
African " subregion. I have seen no specimens of this species from 
Angola or Damaraland, so that I cannot say what, if any, form is 
found there ; but, according to Mr. Wallace, we should also expect 
to find the true H. (/racilis in that district. Again, the varieties 
melanurus and badius occur, the first all over the " West-," and the 
latter over the "South-African" subregions. It is true that speci- 
mens belonging to the true H. gracilis are sometimes, though rarely, 
found in both the other subregions, and H. badius occurs as far 
north as Zanzibar in the East-African subregion ; but these facts 
only show the necessity for regarding the various forms as varieties, 
and not as species, which they might fairly be considered to be if 
each was strictly confined to its own district. 

It will be seen by the above synonymy that the variability in 
colour of H, gracilis has caused the formation of a considerable 
number of untenable species. The asterisks prefixed to the names 
show that I have seen typical specimens of the greater part of these 
so-called species ; and I do not think there can be much doubt in 
the case of any of them. In my opinion, H. mutgigella, which at 
first sight seems so different from the rest, represents simply the 
uuannulated form of H. gracilis, an intermediate state being repre- 
sented by a typical specimen of II. iodoprymmis, Heugl., in the 
Leyden Museum. Of the other names, I am not cpiite certain 
whether H. adailensis, Heugl., should not rather be placed under 

' Vol. i, p. 258, and map, p. 2o0 (1876). 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 71 

var. ochraceus ; but without seeing a specimen I cannot be certain 
on this point. 

In Temminck's paper mentioned above, very nearly the same con- 
clusions are come to with regard to these small Herpestce with black 
tail-tips. I am, liowever, disposed to demur to his statement that 
all the diiferences betvteen what are here considered varieties are 
merely owing to seasonal change ; for it would be obviously impro- 
bable that all the Abyssinian specimens known should have been 
taken in the winter, and nine tenths of the West- and South-African 
specimens in the summer. No doubt, however, a certain amount of 
change does take place according to season ; but we cannot deter- 
mine the amount of this until there are considerable series of dated 
specimens available for examination. 

4. Herpestes sanguineus. 
*H. sanguineus, Riipp. N. Wirb. Abyss, p. 27, pi. viii. fig. 1 (1835). 
Hab. S. Egypt (Kordofan). 

(Types, Frankfort iMuseum.) Form and size much as in H. gra- 
cilis. Fur short and rather harsh. General colour very pale fawn. 
Hairs annulated with brown and yellowish white, the latter predo- 
minating, and so arranged that there is an appearance of cross 
stripes on the posterior half of the back. Tail with longer hairs, 
which are annulated with black and white, though the black is not 
at all conspicuous. Tail-tip yellowish red, sharply separated from 
the rest. Feet nearly white. 

Dimensions. 

Head 

and body. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. KoxAof an {Biippell) .... 12*2 11-9 2-1 

h. „ „ .... 12-0 12-2 — 

c. „ „ .... 11-9 10-8 1-9 

Skull. 

Palate- Palate- Inc. to 

Length. Breadth. length. breadth. cross line. 

a. .. 2-35 1-15 1-18 073 0-82 

Tiiis species, hitherto only found in Kordofan, is evidently a 
desert form, having the sandy coloration usually found in animals 
inliabiting sandy plains. Dr. RUppell seems to have found it 
numerous, as he brought home five or six specimens. He states 
that it lives in holes in the ground, among bushes, and that, though 
fierce when wild, it is yet easily tamable. Herr von Heuglin also 
found it, though not commonly, in the same region. 

Dr. Riippell states that there are in //. sanguineus only 22 caudal 
vertebrse, while there are 2.5 in //. gracilis and 28 in //. ichneumon. 
Not having any material on which to found similar observations, I 
cannot say whether these numbers are constant or not ; but a consi- 



72 MR. O. THOMAS ON THE [Jail. 3, 

derable series of perfect skeletons would be necessary before one 
could place any reliance upon them as a specific character. 

5. Herpestes galera. 

a. Typical variety. 

Mustela yalera, Erxl. Syst. Reg. Anim. i. p. 453 (1/77). 

Viverra nems, Kerr, Linn. S. N. p. 160 (1792). 

Mustela ofra, Kerr, t. cit. p. 175 (1702). 

IcJineumon galera et major, Geoff. Descr. Egypte, Hist. Nat. ii. 
p. 138 (1812). 

Atilax vansire, F. Cuv. Hist. Nat. Mamm. iii. livr. 54 (1826). 

Herpestes paludinosus, G. Cuv. Regne Anini. ed. 2, i. p. 158 (1829). 
*3Ianffusta urinatru', A. Smith, Zool. Journ. iv. p. 437 (1829). 
* Herpestes pluto, Teram. Esq. Zool. Guin. p. 95 (1853). 
*nerpestes loempo, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 551 (uec Temni.) (1864). 

Athylux vansire et jjaludosus, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 557 (1864). 
Had. West and South Africa. 

b. Variety robustiis. 
*Athylax robustus. Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 558 (1864). 

Hab. East Africa (White Nile). 

Specific Characters. — Size very large, form stout and heavy. Tail 
shorter than the body without the head. General colour either 
grizzled reddish brown and white, or dark blackish brown without 
annulations\ Underfur greyish brown. Feet dark brown. Tail 
coloured like the body, but rather darker, sometimes gradually be- 
coming nearly black towards the end, the black never sharply sepa- 
rated as in H. ichneumon. Belly similar to back. Cheeks gene- 
rally with a peculiar indistinct whitish mark from the angle of the 
mouth to below the ear. Hind soles as a rule quite naked, some- 
times with the posterior third hairy". 

Skull very stout and heavy, the lower jaw particularly so, with a 
distinct and well-marked chin in adults. Teeth rather small in 
proportion. Last molar more than half the last premolar (56-61 
per cent.). 

Varietal Characters. 

Yar. galera. Smaller : skull less than 4*3 inches in length. 
Var. robustus. Larger : skull more than 4'5 inches in length. 

Dimensions. 

Head 
Typical variety. and bodv. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. Cape 24-5 13-0 .3-9 

b. „ 24-0 13-5 3-9 

c. W. Africa 24-0 3*8 

Var. robustus. 

<?. Type : E. Africa 26-5 12-5 4-0 

' See above, p. 61. -^ See above, p. 67. 



1882.] AFRICAN MTJNGOOSES. 

Skulls. 



a. S. Africa . . . 

b. „ ..., 
c. 

(f. W. Africa. . . 
Var. robustus. 
e. White Nile 

(type) • 













Basi- 






Psilate- 


Palate- 


Inc. to 


cranial 


Length. 


Breadth. 


length. 


breadth. 


cross line. 


axis. 


375 


211 


2-15 


1-3/ 


1-32 


]-2t) 


3-85 


2-13 


2-lG 


1-35 


1-37 


1-31 


4-25 


.... 


2-45 


1-42 


1-55 


1-53 


4-25 


2-52 


2-3S 


1-38 


1-50 


1-4 (J 


1 4 -.5.5 


2-45 


2-60 


1-43 


1-G6 


— 



/. No loc. (Berl. 1 . .^ ., -^ ^.e- i.-i 

'' -iT \ M 02 2 00 2'oa l*o4 

Mus.) J 



l-.if. — 



This large species was first mentioned as long ago as 16()1 by 
Flacourt, in liis work on Madagascar '. It is there called " Vond- 
sira," which name forms the basis of Buffou's term "Le Vansire." 
Its reputed occurrence in ^ladagascar caused Dr. Gray and others 
to believe that there were two species, the one in Africa being natu- 
rally supposed to be distinct ; but uow, as no other specimens have 
since occurred in Madagascar, we are justified in concluding that 
Flacourt only saw an introduced specimen, and that it is not indi- 
genous to that island. 

I have preserved Dr. Gray's H. robustus as a distinct variety, 
because the skulls sliow that there is a considerable difference in 
size between this eastern form and that found in the west and south. 
It unfortunately happens that the specimen of H. robitstus in the 
Berlin Museum, the dimensions of the skull of which are given above, 
has no locality recorded for it, so that I do not know any thing 
about the extent of the range of this variety ; the British-Museum 
specimen was obtained from the White Nile. 

On this species the genus " Athylcix" has been formed ; but there 
does not seem to be sufficient reason for its separation from the 
typical Herpesfes. 

It is just worthy of note that large specimens of C'rossarchu.t 
ohscurus are often so extremely similar in colour and proportions to 
small ones of this species, that an examination of the muzzle or skull 
is needed to show to which group they belong. 

The variation in the hairiness or otherwise of the hind soles of 
this species has already been referred to -. As, judging from Smuts's 
account of its habits, Cuvier's name H. jialudinosus, the " Marsh " 
Ichneumon, is correct for tlie ordinary naked-soled individuals, it 
seems probable that those with the hinder portion of the soles hairy 
live on a dry soil, where, one would imagine, they would not have 
to walk in so wholly a plantigrade manner as if they lived where the 
ground was soft and muddy and where a digitigrade animal would 
be liable to sink in at every step. 

Smuts says o^ H. galera =:--" This animal lives in marshy places, 

^ ' Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar,' p. 154 (1661), 
■' Above p. 67. ■' T, cit. p. 22. 



74 MR. o. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 

and on the banks of the smaller rivers of the extreme south of 
Africa; its principal food consists of frogs, crustaceans, &c." 

6. Herpestes pulverxjlentus. 

H. pulverulentus,\i^agi\. Miinch. Gel. Anzeig. ix. p. 426 (1839). 
*//. apiculatus, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 551 (1864). 

Hab. Eastern half of the Cape colony. 

Size rather small, form somewhat stout. Tail about as long as the 
body without the head. Soles of hind feet hairy below calcanea ; the 
rest naked, at least in the centre. Fur rather long, soft, and shining. 
General colour uniform grizzled grey, the longer hairs annulated 
with equal-sized rings of black and white or yellow. Uiiderfur 
brown for its proximal, and grey for its distal half. Tail-hairs long, 
coloured like the body to the extreme tip. Feet slightly darker 
than the bod_v. 

Skull very like that of H. gracilis, though somewhat stouter and 
the teeth heavier. Last molar less than half the length of the last 
premolar (43-44 per cent.). 



Dimensions. 

Head 
and body. Tail. Hind foot. 


a. S. Africa! Co-types of H. api- f 140 

b. „ j culaius, Gr \ 14-0 

c. „ 15-0 

d. , 13-0 


11-5 2-4 
11-3 26 
11-4 2-3 
10-0 2-4 


S/mlls. 

Palate- 
Lengtli. Breadth, length. 

a. KingwiUianistown 

(Trevelyan) .. c. 2-" 1-39 1-38 

b. S. Africa .... c. 2-65 1-33 1-35 


Inc. to Basi- 
Palate- cross cranial 
teeadth. line. axis. 

•89 -95 — 

•88 -95 — 



This Mungoose reminds one somewhat of a small H. caff'er, the 
colour and character of its fur being very similar, though it has not, of 
course, the long black tail-tip of that species. Its range seems to 
be rather limited, as all the specimens with exact localities that I 
have seen are from the eastern half of the Cape colony (x\]goa Bay, 
KingwiUianistown, Caffirland, Natal, &c.). It is naturally very likely 
that it will vet be found further north than Natal ; but it is not pro- 
bable that it will occur iu any number, if at all, in the western 
districts of the colony, or it would surely have been recorded from 
there before this. 

I have not been able to find any mention of the habits of this species. 

7. Herpestes punctatissimus. 
*H. punctatissimus, Temm. Esq. Zool. Guin. p. 108 (1853). 
Hab. West and South Africa (Gaboon, Algoa Bay, Temm.). 
I have only seen a single specimen of this species, one of the types 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 75 

obtained by Dr. Brehm at Algoa Baj-, and now preserved in the 
Leyden Museum. Temminck, in liis original description, mentions 
another specimen, from the Gaboon ; but I am told by Dr. Jentink 
that this is not now in the Leyden ]\Iuseuin. 

The following is a description of the Algoa-Bay specimen : — 
Fur short and harsli, the hairs on the back barely half an inch 
long. General colour all over pale giey, the hairs finely grizzled 
with black and creamy white ; belly like the back, except that the 
Iiairs have longer pale tips and less black. Tail-hairs rather longer 
than those on the body, uniformly annulated with black aud white ; 
no trace of a darker tail-tip. Feet and legs hke the body ; soles 
naked. 

Dimensions (Algoa Bay). 

Head and body . . 13-0' 

Tail ". 10-2 

Hind foot 1-75 

The skull is so imperfect that the only measurements obtainable 
are the following, which Dr. Jentink has kindly taken for me : — 

Palate-breadth 074 

Incisors to cross line 083 

This small species bears a certain resemblance to some of the 
smaller Indian Mungooses, especially //. aia-opimctatus, Hodgs., 
though it has much shorter fur than that species. It appears to be 
very rare, as there seem to have been no sj)ecimens recorded in 
addition to the two mentioned by Temminck, of which, as mentioned 
above, only one is now in the Leyden Museum. 

I may here mention that an examination of the type of H. micro- 
cephalus, Temm.-, a species of which the locality was not known, 
has convinced me that that name must stand as a synonym of H. 
auropunctatus, the specimen being quite similar to the types of 
Hodgson's species preserved in the British Museum. 

8. Herpestes (Ichneumia) albicauda. 

H. albicaudus, G. Cuv. Regne Anim. ed. 2, i. p. 158 (1829). 
*H. leucurus, Ehrenb. Symb. Phys. pi. 12. Decas 2 (1830). 

Ichneumia albescens, T. Geoff. Mag. Zool. 1839, pp. 16 & 35 (de- 
scription, not figure) (1839). 
*//. loemjio, Temm. Esq. Zool. Guin. p. 93 (18.53). 

Ichneumia nigricauda, Puch. Rev. et Mag. Zool. vii. p. 394 (1855). 
iBdeogale nigripes, Puch. t. cit. p. 11 1 (1855). 
*II.2}luto, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 552 (nee Temm.) (1864). 

Ichneumia abu-wudan, Fitz. & Heugl. Sitzungsb. Ak. Wien, liv. 
Abth. 1, p. 561 (1866). 

Hab. East Abyssinia to Natal, and West Africa (Guinea &c.). 
Size large, form rather slender. Tail bushy, rather shorter than 

' Apparently somewhat stretched. 
- Esq. Zool. Guin. p. 113 (18.53). 



76 MR. O. THOMAS ON THE [Jail. 3, 

the body without the head. Underside of tarsus thickly hairy down 
to the root of the hallux. Fur of medium length. General colour 
blackish grey, the longer hairs ringed with black and white, the ter- 
minal third nearly always black. Uuderfur woolly, uniform dirty grey. 
Feet black. Tail -hairs very long, in some cases with white bases and 
long shining black tips, so that the whole tail appears to be black ; 
in others with a long white tip beyond the black, so that then the 
tail appears to be white ; in the latter case the hairs at the extreme 
tip of the tail are generally wholly white. 

Fig. 1. 








a, b. Last lower molars of Herpesfcs ichneumon, 
c, d. „ „ H. albicaiida. 

a, c. Upper view ; h, d, side view. 

Skull rather stout and heavy, the muscular ridges, however, but 
little developed. Brain-case comparatively short, not half the length 
of the whole skull. Teeth more rounded than in the members of 
the typical subgenus. Last molars, above and below, proportionally 
much lar2;er than in Herpestes, the lower one with a well-marked 
extra external cusp between the two usual ones, so that there are five 
cusps in all (see woodcut. Fig 1 , c, d.) . In old specimens, of course, 
this character cannot be made out, as the cusps are worn off these 
teeth at a comparatively early age. Dental percentage 71-84. 

Dimensions. 

Head 
and body. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. Type, Nubia(Berl.Mus.) 26-0 1.5-8 4-9 

b. Natal 24-0 l.vO .vO 

•c. Caffraria(Leyd. Mus.). . 24-5 15-8 4-85 

e. W. Africa (type of H. 

loempo, Leyd, Mus.). . . . 23'0 15'8 4'5 

Skulls. Inc. to Basi- 

Palate- Palate- cross cranial 

Length. Breadth, length. breadth. line. axis. 

«. Accra 4-28 2-16 2-G 1-3 I'.i 

6. W. Africa (Berl. 

Mus.) 4-05 2-0 2-41 1-25 1-41 — 

c. Abyssinia 3'75 1-88 2-05 Ml 1-35 MS 

(/. E. Africa c. 380 2-07 2-23 1-2 1-37 — 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. /' / 

The present rather peculiar species has always, in its white-tailed 
form, been recognized as the type of a distinct genus or subgenus, 
for which Geoffrey proposed the name of Ichneumia. No one, how- 
ever, ever seems to have noticed that the black-tailed H. loempo, 
Tenim., is not even specifically distinct from the typical form, and 
therefore, of course, possesses all its more important structural cha- 
racters. H. albicauda and 11. loempo cannot even be separated as 
varieties ; for the only difference between them, namely the colour 
of the tail, seems to be purely an individual variation. It is true 
that for the most part specimens from AVest Africa, representing //. 
loewpoMyQ black tails, and those from East Africa white tads_; but 
I have seen too many exceptions to this rule to feel justified in re- 
garding the two forms as varietally distinct. Thus there is lu the 
Berlin Museum a specimen from Accra, on the Gold Coast, which has 
a regular white tail, just as in the typical H. albicauda ; and, on the 
other hand, black-tailed specimens from East Africa are by no means 
rare. Moreover, in the British Museum v\-e have two specimens 
from the Bogos countrv, Abyssinia, received together, and the skulls 
of which are quite identical," one of which has a black loempo-hke 
tail, and the other has a tail witli quite as much white on it as in 
average albicauda. We thus see that the presence or absence ot a 
white tip to the tail-hairs is a character upon which no specific 
distinction can be founded ; and, in fact, it would rather seem that 
the white tail is the result of a desert life, specimens trom sandy 
districts having, as a rule, white, and those from forest regions, black 
tails. 

Ichneiimia albescens, I. Geoff., appears to be simply a pale torm ot 
this species, in which the longer hairs are fewer in number, so that the 
grey underfur shows more on the surface, and thus gives a generally 
paler colour than usual. 

I. nigricauda, Puch., seems to be quite identical with this species, 
representing the usual West- African black-tailed form. 

With regard to Bdeojjale nif/ripes, Puch., from the Gaboon, I 
have already mentioned my suspicion that it has accidentally lost the 
first toes oil all four feet; and it seems very possible that it is really 
only a white-tailed specimen of this species, and not a Bdeogale at all. 
The original description woidd exactly fit the Accra white-tailed spe- 
cimen already referred to ; and that is certainly a true Herjoestes, as 
the fifth toes are present on all the feet'. 

Of all the Mungooses, H. albicauda seems to be the most nearly 
allied to the true Bdeogale, strongly resembling the species of that 
genus in general colour, quality of i'ur, length and bushiuess of tail, 
hairiness of tarsus, proportionally large size of the last molar, and 
most of all in the presence of the median middle external cusp to the 
last lower molar, a character in which ^(/eo</a/e differs from all other 

■ Since writing the above I iiave received a letter from Prof. Bavboza dii 
Bocage. in which he informs me that the specimen from Angola, retcrred by him 
(P. Z. S. 1865, p. 402) to Bd.nigripcs, proves on a closer examination to possess 
minute 1st claws to the fore feet, thus strongly confirming my previous opinion 
about that animal. 



78 



MR. O. THOMAS ON THE 



[Jan. 3, 



>Mungooses except the present species and those of the very distinct 
genus Orossarchus. The absolute sizes of the molars in Bdeogale 
are, however, as is shown in the table of dimensions, much less 
than in Ichneumia. 

The following table gives the dimensions of the last upper pre- 
molar and last molar of the species of Herpestes, with the percentage 
of the latter to the former. The letters correspond to those denoting 
the different skulls of which the measurements are given above. 
Where the teeth belonging to a skull not previously referred to are 
measured, an asterisk is inserted instead of a letter. 





P.M^ 


W. 


Percentage. 






mm. 


mm. 




H. ichtieutnou 


«... 
6... 


11-0 
10-8 


50 
4-9 


45 
45 






c... 


10-3 


50 


48 


H. caft'er 


«... 
c... 


120 
120 


5-4 
5-5 


45 
4fi 




H. gracilis, typ. var 


«... 


7-6 


3-7 


48 




b... 


8-0 


4-1 


51 




*... 


80 


3-8 


47 




*... 


8-1 


4-5 


55 


„ ,, var. melanurus 


, c... 


7-5 


3-5 


47 


„ „ var. badius ... 


d... 


7-6 


3-8 


50 




c .. 


7-4 


3-5 


47 


,, ,, var. ochraeeus, 


/... 


7-1 


3-9 


55 


H. sanguineus 


«... 


6-7 


2'S 


42 


H. galera, lyp. var 


«... 


12-0 


7-1 


59 




b... 


11-9 


rv7 


56 




c... 


13'2 


7-fi 


58 




d... 


11-8 


7-2 


61 


„ ,» var. robustus .. 


c... 


12-0 


70 


68 




f- 


13-2 


7-5 


57 


IT. pulveruleutus 


«... 


90 


4-0 


44 




b... 


90 


3-9 


43 


IT. pimctatissimus 


«... 


70 


3-5 


50 


H. (Ichneumia) albicauda, 


«... 


9-9 


7-1 


71 




b... 


94 


6-9 


73 




c... 


90 


7-0 


78 




d... 


90 


7-.^. 


83 




*... 


90 


7-6 


84 




*... 


90 


7-0 


77 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 79 

II. HeLOGALE. rp 

Helogale, Gray, P. Z. S. 186 1, p. 308 H. parvida. 

Range. Mozambique to Natal. 

Toes 5— 5. Teeth, I. |, C. {, P.M. -|. M. | x2 = 36. Outlines 
of skull more rouuded than in Herpestes, even in old specimens. 
Underside of tarsus naked. Tail shorter than the body. Other 
characters as in Herpestes. 

This genus was separated from the true Mungooses by Dr. Gray 
on account of the presence of only three premolars in each jaw, 
instead of four as normally possessed by Herpestes. It is true that 
in that genus, as mentioned above, the first small premolar is fre- 
quently absent ; but in these cases there is always a vacant space 
where the tooth usually stands ; while in Helogale the tooth which 
corresponds to the second premolar stands quite close to the canine, 
leaving no diastema whatever. 

In addition to this character, the general shape of the skull is 
quite diiferent from that of Herpestes, being shorter, broader in 
proportion, the walls of the brain-case thinner, and all the surfaces 
much smoother, with less well-marked muscular ridges. The figures 
of the skull quoted in the synonymy below show the difference in 
general appearence very well. 

The form of the teeth is, as Prof. Peters remarks, very similar to 
that found in " Herpestes fasciatus," which likeness extends to the 
other species of Crossarchus ; but the two genera may of course be 
readily distinguished by the different shape of the skull, and by the 
presence in Helogale of the distinct naked line from the nose to the 
upper lip already referred to. 

The skulls and dentition of the two species of this genus seem to 
be very much alike, though there is a slight difference in the size of the 
last molars. 

1. Helogale parvula. 

'^■Herpestes parvulus, Sundev. (E(\. af Kongl. "\'et. Ak. Fdrhandl. 
1846, p. 121. 

Helogale parvula, Gray, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 308 (woodcuts of skull). 

Hah. ^Rtal (Wahlberg). 

Size small, form slender ; tail rather shorter than the body without 
the head. General colour above and below dark finely grizzled grey- 
brown, the hairs annulated with black or brown and yellowish white. 
Feet and tail like body but rather darker. No trace of rufous on 
any part of the body. 

Last molar proportionally somewhat larger than in H. iindulata. 

Dental percentage 79-80. 

Bimensions. 

Head and body. Tail. Hiud loot. 

c. Natal (one of the types) .... 9*5 5".5 ]-5 

h. „ (Warwick) 8'3 46 — 



80 MR. o. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 

Ukull. Basi- 

Palate- Palate- luc. to cranial 
Length. Breadth, length, breadth, cross line. axis. 

a. Natal 1-82 MS '90 -63 '61 -65 

b. „ .. -86 -61 -60 — 

Of this species, the smallest of all the Mungooses, Dr. Suudevall 
obtained iu the typical series a considerable number of specimens; 
but, curiously enough, no others have come to any of the Museums 
that I have seen, except specimen b measured above, which was ob- 
tained from Natal through a dealer. However, Dr. Suudevall dis- 
tributed specimens so freely, that there are some of his original speci- 
meuij of this species in most of the larger European Museums. 

2. Helogale undulata. 

*Herpestes undidatus, Peters, Reise n. Mossambique, p. 114, Taf. 
XXV. (animal and skull) (1852). 

Hab. East Africa (Mozambique, Peters: Taita, Hildebrandi). 

Size, compared with that of most HerpestcB, small, though slightly 
larger than Helogale imrvida. Form slender. Tail rather shorter 
than the body without the head. General colour grizzled rufous, 
the longer hairs annulated with black and white ; underfur for basal 
portion grey, terminal portion red. Neck, belly, and legs rich 
rufous, with less black grizzling. Tail coloured like back, no black tip. 

Skull as in //. parvidu, but larger, and the last molar smaller in 
proportion ; dental percentage about 70. 

Dimensions. 

Head aud body. Tail. Hind foot. 

ft. Type, Mozambique (Pe^«??'«) 9"4 G"7 l'o6 

b. Taita {Hildebnuidt). . O'Q (i' I 1-48 

SkuU. Palate- Palate- Inc. to 

Length. Breadth, length, breadth, cross line. 
«. Taita 2-0 1-24 -.09 -68 -65 

This sj)ecies may be readily distinguished from H.parvida by its 
larger size and its bright rufous belly and underside of neck, these 
parts in H.parvida being a dull grizzled brown. I only know of the 
two specimens of which the dimensions are given above ; so that I 
am not in a position to state what tlie full range of this form is. 

Dr. Peters states that H. undidata is particularly fond of eggs, 
whicli it breaks by throwing them with its fore legs through its hind 
ones against a wall. 



"D" 



Molars of Helogale. 

H.parvula. -pMK W. Percentage. 

a 5-0 4-0 80 

b 0-2 4-1 79 

H. undulata, 

a .i-6 4-0 71 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 81 

III. Bdeogale. Type. 

Bdeogale, Peters, Reise nach Mossamb., Saug, 
p. 1 19 (1852) B. crassicauda. 

Range. East Africa (Mozambique, Zanzibar) ; 1 West Africa (Ga- 
boon). 

Toes 4 — 4. Teeth and other characters as in Herpestes, with 
especial resemblance to those of the subgenus Ichneumia (see above, 
p. 77). In Dr. Peters's original description, he states that on the fore 
feet there is only a minute rudiment of a first metacarpal, and on the 
hind feet not even this trace of the normal first toe. In a spirit 
specimen of B. puisa in our collection, I cannot even find the rudi- 
mentary first metacarpal, so that this individual is absolutely without 
any remnant of the first digit. 

The following are the three species which have been described as 
belonging to this genus ; but it must be confessed that the two Mo- 
zambique species are very closely allied to each other ; and as to the 
West-African one, I have already stated my belief that it is only a 
synonym of Herpestes albicauda ; but not having had the oppor- 
tunity of examining the type, I put it provisionally in its place here, 
with Dr. Pucheran's short diagnosis appended. 

1. Bdeogale crassicauda. 
* B. crassicauda, Peters, tom. cit. p. 120, Taf. xxvii. (1852). 

Hab. Mozambique (Tette-Boror). 

Characters much as in B. puisa (described below), except that the 
tail is distinctly longer in proportion, and the tail-hairs, which are 
very long, have their basal halves white and their terminal black, 
while in B. puisa they are uniformly blackish brown. The last 
molar also in the present species seems to be proportionally some- 
what longer, judging from Dr. Peters's excellent figures. 





Dimensions. 






a. Mozambique (type) . 


Head and 
body. 

17-0 


Tail. 
10-6 


Hind foot, 
3-15 



Skull. 

Length^. Breadth. Palate-leugtb. 
a. Type (from Peters) 3-15 179 1*96 

2. Bdeogale puisa. 
* B. puisa, Peters, tom. cit. p. 124, Taf. xxviii. (1852). 

Hab. Mozambique (Mossimboa) (Peters) ; Zanzibar (Kirk). 

Size rather large ; form slender ; tail short, not half so long as the 
head and body. Underside of the hind foot thickly hairy to the 
base of the toes. General colour dull brownish, with or without 
annulations. Underfur tawny yellow, long and soft. Limbs 

' From front of jaw to foramen magnum. 
Prog. Zool. Sqc— 1882, No. VI. 6 



82 MR. o. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 

darker, nearly black. Head greyish. Tail bushy, uniformly blackish 

brown. 

Dimensions. 

Head and 

body. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. Type, Mozambique (very old) .. 208 9-1 3-25 

b. Zanzibar (Kirk) 15-0 7-0 3-0 

Skull. Palate- 

Lengtli. Breadth, length. 

o. Type (from Peters) 3-4 2-1 2-1 

This species, of which Dr. Kirk has sent us a rather small speci- 
men from Zanzibar, is found further north than its ally B. crassicauda. 
Our specimen being in spirit, I have been able to examine carefully 
the state of the feet with regard to the absence of the first toes ; and 
I find, as mentioned above, no trace whatever of these digits ; while 
in species which normally possess five toes, and the first one is in 
any case accidentally lost, there are generally some remains left of the 
missing digit, in the shape of a broken metacarpal or metatarsal *• 

The species of this group would seem to be very rare, as I have 
seen no other specimens of either B. crassicauda or puisa besides 
the types of the two species in the Berlin Museum, and Dr. Kirk's 
one already referred to. 

3. ?BdEOGALE NIGRIPKS. 

B. nigripes, Pucheran, Rev. et Mag. Zool. vii. p. 11 1 (1855). 
Hah. W. Africa (Gaboon). 

"Major; corpora albescente; cauda candidissima ; artubus niffria." 
No dimensions of any sort are given. 

Dimensions of Teeth of Bdeogale. 
B. crassicauda. VM^. M?. Perceutage. 

a. Type (from Dr. Peters's figure). ... 7'5 S'.'i 73 
B. puisa. 

* Zanzibar {Kirk) 6-9 4-5 66 

IV. CynictiS. Type. 

Cynictis, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 48 C. penicillata. 

Bange. That of the only species. 

Toes 5— 4'. Teeth, l.|, C. \, P.M. f, M. |-x2=40. Muzzle 
with a distinct naked line from nose to upper lip. Hind soles quite 
hairy. Frontal portion of skull strongly convex, brain-case high. 
A well-marked vacuity in the floor of the auditory meatus, consisting 
of a more or less rounded hole, which, as the animal gets older, 

1 See above, p.61. 

^ Our only skeleton of this genus has not the smallest rudiment, even of the 
metatarsal, of the hallux. 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 83 

gradually fills up, but never produces the row of small holes found 
in Suricata. Other characters as in Herpestes. 

This genus is a very distinct and well marked one, not only on 
accouQt of its different number of digits, but also of the fact that its 
skull is very differently shaped from that of Herpestes, more resem- 
bling that of Suricata than that of any of the genera of this section. 

In Smuts's work on the Mammals of the Cape, published a year 
before Mr. Ogilby described the genus, the absence of the hallux in 
this form was noticed, and Dr. Smuts stated his opinion that a special 
genus ought to be formed for it. He did not, however, give it a 
name, so that that given by Mr. Ogilby stands unaltered. 

The only well authenticated species is 

1. Cynictis penicillata. 

Herpestes penicillatus, Gr. Cuv. R. A. (edit. 2), i. p. 158 (1829). 

Mangusta leoaillaatii, A. Smith, Zool. Journ. iv. p. 43/ (1829). 
*Cynictis steedmanni, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 49 (1833). 

Cynictis typicus. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. ii. p. 116 (1835). 
*C.ogilbii, Sm. t. cit. p. 1 17(1835); 111. Zool. S. Afr. pi. 16(1849). 

Ichneumia albescens, Geoff. Mag. Zool. 1839, pi. 12 (figure, not 
description) (1839). 
*C. leptura, Smith, 111. Zool. S. Afr. pi. 17 (1849). 

Hab. Cape Colony. 

Size medium ; form slender, head rather small in proportion. Tail 
about the length of the body without the head, very bushy. Colour 
varying from dark yellow (C. steedmanni) to light yellowish grey 
(C. oyilbii) ; longer hairs with their basal halves light yellow, then 
with a black subterminal ring, and their tips white. The variation 
in the general colour is caused by the different lengths of these white 
tips to the hairs. Underfur rich yellow. Chin white ; belly and 
legs rather paler than back. Tail very bushy, the hairs often over 
2 inches in length, and coloured like the longer back-hairs — namely, 
first yellow, then black, and the tips white. Hairs at tip of tail 
white to their roots. Dental percentages 57-66. 

Dimensions. 
Head and 





body. 


Tail. 


Hind foot. 


a. Type of C. ogilbii . , 


. ... 150 


9-0 


3-0 


b. S. Africa 


.... 15-0 


9-0 


3-0 


t.. ,9 ..••...... 


. ... 15-5 


9-3 


3-1 




Shulls. 




Basi- 




Palate- 


Palate- 


Inc. to cranial 


Length. 


Breadth, length. 


breadth. 


cross line. axia. 


a. Type of C oyilbii 2 "65 


1-6 1-42 


•90 


•97 -92 


b. Type of C. lep- 








turus (c) 2-69 


1-61 1-39 


•87 


•95 — 


c. Type of C. steed- 








manui (c) 2' 68 


1-56 1-41 


•90 


•98 — 
6* 



84 MR. O. THOMAS ON THE [Jail. 3, 

This species may be readily distinguished from all its allies by its 
bushy white-tipped tail and its peculiar greyish yellow colour. I 
can find no tangible specific differences between the various forms 
which have been described as distinct species. C. leptura. Smith, 
judging from his figure, appears to be slightly different from the rest ; 
but the typical skull, in the British Museum, shows no characters 
whatever by which to separate that form from the rest ; moreover 
there is in the Leydeu Museum a specimen, in other respects quite 
the same as C penicillata, which has as slender a tail as C leptura. 
I therefore do not think that the latter can stand as a species 
distinct from C. penicillata. 

Dr. Smith, in the letterpress to his figure of C. ogilbyi in his 
' Illustrations,' gives a full account, too long to quote here, of the 
habits of this species. It is said to inhabit dry and sandy plains, 
where it lives in holes in the ground, to which, however, it only 
retires during the night, passing the day in hunting for mice, small 
birds, &c., or simply basking in the sun. 

Teeth q/Cynictis. 

P.M^. M^. Percentages. 

a 8-1 5-1 63 

b ..7.5 5-0 66 

c 89 5-3 59 

* 8-0 4-6 57 

V. RhINOGALE. rp 

Rhinogale, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 375 (woodcuts of 
skull) H- melleri. 

Range. That of the only species. 

Toes 5—5. Teeth, I. f. C. \, P.M. |, M. | x 2=42. No naked 
line from nose to upper lip. General form of skull rounded, without 
marked angles or crests. Palate deeply concave both transversely 
and antero-posteriorly. Teeth rounded, suited for grinding rather 
than cutting. Last molars above and below proportionally very 
large, the lower one as long as the first molar, and very possibly 
with an extra external cusp ; but the teeth are too much worn in 
the only known specimen for this point to be made out. Lower jaw 
rather peculiarly twisted {cf. original figures). 

This genus is a somewhat remarkable one, having the general 
external form of the true grooved-nosed Herpestiues, while it has the 
hairy nose and the generally rounded skull and dentition of the 
present section of the group. It is, moreover, quite peculiar among 
the genera of this group in possessing a distinctly concave palate, a 
character which readily separates it from all other Mungooses. I am 
not prepared to say at present to which of the other genera Bhinogale 
is most nearly allied, as it presents such a mixture of characters that 
without further material a satisfactory decision on this point is ex- 
tremely difficult to arrive at. However, it naturally falls into this 
place by the characters used to arrange the other genera ; so that we 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 85 

may, for the present, leave it here, where it was originally placed by 
Dr. Gray. 

1. Rhinogale melleri. (Plate III.) 
*Rhinogale melleri. Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 375 (1864). 

Hah. " East Africa." 

Size and form much as in Herpestes ichneumon. Tail about as 
long as the body without the head. Hind soles hairy to the roots 
of the toes. General colour uniform pale brown, the longer hairs 
each with only one or two rings of brown and white, the rings 
passing so gradually into each other as to give but little geueiul 
appearance of grizzling. Head paler, the white of the hairs showing 
more conspicuously. Underfur dark grey at its base, pale brown 
at its tip. Belly like back, but rather paler. Feet similar, but 
darker. Tail with long hairs, somewhat as in black-tailed examples 
of ^. alhicauda: for its basal third the hairs are uniformly brown ; for 
the middle third they are white for their basal halves and black for 
their terminal ; and on the terminal third they are all black ; the 
tail therefore gets very gradually darker towards the end. No doubt 
other specimens would show considerable variation in the detailed 
coloration of the tail. 

Skull as described above in the generic diagnosis. 

Teeth rounded, the posterior molars worn flat in the only specimen. 
Dental percentage 73. In the lower jaw the posterior molar is 
remarkably large, being precisely as long as the preceding tooth ; 
while the species which most approaches it in this character, Bdeogale 
puisa, has the last only 85 per cent, of the first molar, and the 
others of this group range downwards from 85 to 45 per cent., the 
proportions of these two teeth following with great regularity those 
of the upper teeth, of which the percentages are given in detail, 

Dime7isions. 

Head and 
body. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. Type, E. Africa 22-0 15-5 3-8 

Skull. Ba3l. 

Palate- Palate- Inc. to cranial 
Lengtb. Breadth. length. breadth, cross lino. axis. 

a. Type .. 3-38 1-85 178 I'OS 1-22 1-14 

The type specimen of this species, though obtained by Dr. Meller 
and described nearly 20 years ago, has, as far as I know, remained 
unique up to the present'time. Happily both the skull and skin are 
quite perfect, so that I have been able to make out all the more 
important characters of the species. 

With regard to the locality at which this specimen was obtained, 
it appears that the only places in East Africa at which Dr. Meller 
collected were (1) on the Zambesi and (2) Zanzibar; so that B. 
melleri must have come from one or the other. As of late years 



86 MR. o. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 

Dr Kirk has done so much to make the zoology of Zanzibar known 
to us, it seems on the whole more probable that this species does 
not occur there, but that the Zambesi is its proper habitat, 
especially as Dr. Meller was there considerably longer than he was 
at Zanzibar, 

However, it is not very likely that it can be much longer betore 
such a large and well-marked animal is again discovered ; and then 
the question of locality will be satisfactorily settled. 

Molars q/" Rhinogale. 

Upper Per- Lower Per- 

P.M^ W. centage M^ Ms. centage. 

E. melleri . . . a. 7'^ 5-^ 73 6-4 6-4 100 

VI. Crossarchus. rpype 

Crossarchus, F. Cuv, Hist. Nat. Mamm. ii. livr. 
47 (1825) ^- ohscurus. 

Ariela, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 565 (1864) .... C.fasciatus. 

Munc/os, Gray, P.Z.S. 1864, p. .575 (1864) 
(nee Ogilby ') • ■ d. gamlianus. 

Eange. Africa south of the Sahara. 

Toes 5—5. Teeth, 1. 1, C. j, P.M. |, M. | x 2=36. No naked 
central hue on nose. Hind soles naked. Skull depressed, as in 
Herpestes. Teeth rounded, without sh.<Hrp cutting-edges. Vacuity 
in floor of auditory meatus oblong, in filling up often forming a row 
of small holes, as in Suricata. Last lower molar with an extra cusp 
in the centre of the outer edge, as in Bdeogale and the subgenus 
Ichneumia ^. 

This genus includes four species, scattered over the continent of 
Africa. It is a matter of considerable interest to find that the three 
species placed by Gray under " Mungos," in a separate subfamily 
from Crossarclms, are not really generically distinct from the single 
species hitherto supposed to be the only member of this genus^ I 
can find no differences of importance whatever between these 
various forms ; in fact C. obscurus resembles, at least in dentition, 
C. zebra and C.gambiamts more than either of these do C.fasciatus. 
It is true that in our only skeleton of C. obscurus there is a certain 
amount of difference in the length of the hallux as compared with 
that of the other species ; but an examination of a considerable 
number of skins does not show any constancy in this character, 

' Ogilby's genus was fouuded solely ou the Cinghalese species H. vitticollis, 
Benn. ; H. gambianus and fasciatus happening to be mentioned in the same 
paper, Gray took it as founded on them, and made another genus, " Tceniogale." 
to contain the Ceylon form. 

^ See p. 76. 

* Since the above was written. Prof Mivart has pointed out to me that the 
researches of Chatin into the structure of the anal glands of the CariiiTora (Ann. 
Sci. Nat. 5th series, xix. p. 89, n,, 1874) fully confirm the opinion here expressed 
as to the generic relationship of the striped Mungoose {C.fasciatus) with C. 
obscurus. 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 87 

which has already been proved to be one of singular variability '. 
No doubt, also, 0. obscurus has a somewhat more elongated nose 
than the other species ; but the value of this character, besides being 
almost impossible to estimate without spirit specimens, is extremely 
doubtful ; and the remarkable agreement in other characters convinces 
me that C. obscurus is certainly congeneric with C zebra, gambianus, 
and fasciahts. 

Most specimens of C. obscurus have a remarkably short alisphenoid 
canal, as compared with that of most Mungooses ; but one of our 
specimens has the canal quite as long as in ordinary C. sebra, the 
species which has the next shortest canal. 

The species of this genus seem to be somewhat restricted in their 
geographical distribution. Thus C. obscurus has hitherto only been 
found from the Cameroons to Sierra Leone, C. gambianus on the 
Gambia, C. zebra in Abyssinia, and 0. fasciatus in the eastern part 
of the Cape colony and as far north as Mozambique^. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Back grizzled, not cross-striped. 

a. Colour dull brown, tips of hairs yellow 1. C. obscurits, ^. SI . 

b. Colour grizzled grey, hairs annulated .', 2. C. gambianus, p. 88. 

II. Back cross-striped. 

c. P.M* more than 8 mm. Stripes narrow. 

Underside rufous 3. C ^«J>•a, p. 89, 

d P-M* less than 7 mm. Stripes broad. 

Underside grizzled grey 4. C. fasciatus, p. 90. 

1 . Crossarchus obscurus. 

Crossarchus obscurus, F. Cuv. Hist. Nat. Mamm. iii. livr. 47 
(1825). 

Crossarchus typicus, A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart, Journ. ii. p. 135 
(1835). 

Hab. West Africa. 

Size medium ; form rather stout ; muzzle produced. Tail about 
half as long as the head and body. General colour dull grizzled 
brown ; the longer hairs dark brown for four fifths of their length, 
and the tips yellow. Underfur brown at base, light grey for terminal 
half. Belly like back. Head more finely grizzled, with a rufous 
tinge. Feet almost wholly black. Tail like back, but the yellow 
tips of the hairs gradually become red towards the tip. 

Skull long and narrow, with a narrow and depressed nasal region. 
Teeth very small, upper P.M* but seldom reaching 7 mm. in its 
greatest diameter. Dental percentage 71-77. 

Dimensio7is. 

Head and 

body. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. Cameroons 15 7'5 2"8 

6. W. Africa 12-5 25 

' See above, p. 67. 

* See footnote 2 on p. 90. 



88 MR. O. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 







/O/Cl 


III. 




Basi- 








Palate- 


Palate- 


Inc. to cranial 




Lengtb. 


Breadth. 


length. 


breadth. 


cross line. axis. 


a. W. Africa 












{Rich) .... 


2-88 


1-54 


1-6 


•85 


•97 — 


I. Zool. Soc. . 


2-8 


1-43 


1-6 


•84 


•96 -84 


e 




1-39 


1-.55 


•85 


•98 — 



This species is a very well known and fairly common one, though 
it seems to be quite restricted to the West-African subregion. Its 
superficial likeness to small dark-coloured specimens of Herpestes 
galera has already been refered to above ^ 

A specimen in the Berlin Museum has the following note attached 
to it : — " Bores in the earth with its nose after insects." 

2. Crossarchus gambianus. 

*Eerpestes gambianus, Ogilby, P. Z, S. 1835, p. 102. 

3Iung OS gambianus, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 575. 

Hab. Gambia. 

Size, form, and general coloration much as in C.fasciatus (q. v.) ; 
but the hairs on the back placed, so to speak, without reference to 
their rings, so that there is no trace of cross bands, but only a 
general grizzled appearance; and thus the posterior part of the body 
onlv differs from the head and shoulders in being more rufous. 
Neck and chest white ; on the sides of the neck a distinct black 
streak separating the upper and lower colours, in this respect 
reminding one of Herpestes vitticoUis, Benn. 

Skull broad and heavy as in G. fasciatus. Teeth small, as in 
C. obscunts and zebra. P.M^ only 6 mm. long. Dental percentage 
80. 

Dimensions. 

Head and 
body. TaU. Hind foot. 

a. Gambia (type) 15'0 .. 2^5 

Skull. Basi- 

Palate- Palate- Inc. to cranial 
Length. Breadth, length, breadth, cross line. axis. 

a. Type. ...c. 2-85 158 1^43 ^84 ^92 — 

This species is very interesting as showing what a comparatively 
unimportant character the presence of cross bands on the back is. 
Its coloration is extremely similar to that of C. fasciatus ; yet 
by a simple disarrangement of the hairs of the back, all the broad 
distinct cross bands vanish, and the back only presents a coarse 
grizzled rufous-grey colour. 

The type was collected by Mr. Rendall on the river Gambia, 
whence, at about the same time, a second specimen (immature) was 
sent to the late Lord Derby. Both these specimens are now in the 

' P. 73. 



1882.] AFRICAN MUNGOOSES. 89 

British Museum ; but no others, so far as I am aware, have since 
been obtained. 

3. Crossarchus zebra. 

*Herpestes zebra, Riipp. N. Wirb. Abyss, p. 30, pi. ix. fig. 2 
(animal), and pi. x. fig. 1 (skull) (1835). 

H. gothneh, Fitz. & Heugl. S.B. Akad. Wien, liv. Abth. 1, p. 560 
(1866). 

H. leucostethicus, Fitz. & Heugl. t. cit. p. 561 (1861). 

Hab. Abyssinia. 

Size rather smaller than in the last species, and form slenderer. 
Tail half as long as the head and body. General colour grizzled 
grey, with cross bands on the posterior part of the back. Longer 
hairs ringed with black and pale yellow or white, without anv 
rufous, the rings very narrow, so that the transverse bands are 
correspondingly narrow, five or more to the inch. Underfur dirty 
yellowish grey. Chin, chest, and belly more or less bright rufous, 
a sharp line along the sides of the neck separating the rufous from 
the grey of the upperside. Central line of the underparts gene- 
rally white, this colour varying in quantity very much, sometimes 
extending all down the centre from chin to anus, sometimes nearly 
or quite absent. Tail-hairs ringed like those of the body, the black 
gradually predominating towards the tip, which is often quite black. 
Feet, in the same way, becoming blacker to the toes. 

Skull as in C. gambianus. Teeth rather small, P.M^ between 
6 and 7 mm. long. Dental percentages 66-79. 

Dimensions. 

Head and body. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. hhys%\m?i {Ruppell) 13'5 7'0 2*3 

b. „ (skin) 13-0 6-6 — 

Skulls. -, . 

Palate- Palate- Inc. to cranial 
Length. Breadth. length, breadth, cross line. axis. 

a. No locality .. 275 1-59 1-46 95 94 -97 

b. „ ..2-7 1-5 1-43 -88 -89 -95 

c. Bogos, Abys- 

sinia' 2-42 1-35 1-26 79 -80 "89 

This species has hitherto been found only in Abyssinia, where 
Riippell and others have obtained it in considerable numbers. It 
may readily be distinguished from the other striped Mungoose, 
C.fasciatus, by the narrowness and whiteness of the cross bands, 
and by the sharply defined rufous of its neck and chest. 

I can see no reason for the separation of either H. gothneh or 
leucostethicus from the typical form, the characters given being quite 
unimportant. 

It has already been mentioned that one of our skulls of this 
' With third upper molars. 



90 MR. o. THOMAS ON THE [Jan. 3, 

species possesses a third pair of upper molars behind the two normal 
ones. The presence of this extra pair of teeth however, is, shown to 
be of no specific or generic importance by the fact that in a second, 
quite identical, specimen collected at the same time and place (Bogos- 
land, Abyssinia), there are only the two usual pairs of upper 
molars. 

4. Crossarchus fasciatus. 

Viverra ichneumon /3, Schr. Saug. iii. p. 430, pi. cxvi. (1778). 

V. mungo\ Gmel. Linn. S. N. i. p. 84 (1789). 

Herpestes mungo, Desm. Mamm. i. p. 211 (1820). 

H. fasciatus, Desm. Diet. Sci. Nat. xxix. p. .58 (1823). 
*Ichneumon tcenionotus, Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Jouru. ii. p. 114 
(1835). 

Ariela tanionota. Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 565 (1864). 

Hab. S.E. Africa (Caffraria to Mozambique'^). 

Size medium ; form stout. Tail rather more than half as long as 
the head and body. General colour grizzled grey, the posterior half 
of the back with cross bands. Longer hairs ringed with black 
and yellow or dark rufous, the posterior half of each light ring 
being always rufous. The rings somewhat broad, so that the 
transverse body-bands are also broad, there being about 3g to the 
inch, counting both light and dark bands. There are altogether about 
12 or 13 bands; but they merge so gradually into the rest of the 
body-colour that they cannot be exactly counted. Underfur grey- 
brown. Neck, chest, and belly uniform grizzled grey, like the upper 
part of the head and shoulders, not rufous as in C. zebra. Feet and 
tail like body, but becoming gradually nearly or quite black towards 
their distal parts. 

Skull comparatively broad and heav)% the teeth larger than in any 
other species, P.M^ more than 8 mm. long, last molar small. 
Dental percentage 57-59. 

Dimensions. 

Head and body. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. Cape 13-0 S'O 2-8 

b. Natal (type of /. to«?o?zo<Ms) . . 12'0 7*0 2*4 

Skulls. Basi- 

Palate- Palate- Inc. to cranial 

Length. Breadth, length, breadth, cross line. axis. 

a. S. Africa {Br. 

Smith) 2-84 1-67 1-51 -98 '99 1-05 

b. S. Africa {Br. 

Smith) 2-79 1-45 1-45 '92 POO -96 

' This name is so utterly barbarous, and that of H. fasciatus so well known, 
that I think we are j ustified in ignoring it and using Desmarest's classical and 
appropriate term. 

■•* Two specimens, said to be " Herpestes fasciatus," are recorded from Angola 
in the ' List of Animals in Zool. Soc. Coll.' 1879, p. 62 ; but as neither of these 
is still living and nothing has been preserved of them, I cannot say whether 
they really belong to this species, to C. zebra, or to some undescribed form. 



1882.] 



AFRICAN MTJNGOOSES. 



91 



This species by its locality, and not C. zebra, no doubt represents 
the early-known " Viverra mungo," which was said to come from the 
" East Indies." No cross-striped Mungooses, however, are known 
from India, and the original specimens must have been obtained 
from the Cape. A\\ the specimens with exact localities that I have 
seen come from the eastern parts of the Colony, and none from the 
western ; so that we may suppose that its true range is very similar 
to that of Herpestes puIverulenUts^. Probably, however, tame 
examples were sometimes brought down to Capetown, where they 
would be seen by the earlier travellers. Dr. Smith says of his 
Ichneumon tanionotus, " Inhabits Natal : rare." 





Molars of 


Crossarchus. 




i 


P.M". 


M^ 


Percentage.! 


1 




mm. 


mm. 




0. obscurus 


a... 


6-2 


4-8 


77 




b... 


70 


50 


71 




c... 


6-5 


5-0 


77 


C. gambianus .. 


«... 


60 


4-8 


60 


C. zebra 


a... 


6-9 
6-5 


4-6 

4-5 


66 
69 




b... 




c... 


6-8 


50 


73 




*... 


6-5 


5-1 


79 


C. fasciatua 


a... 


8-7 


5-2 


69 




b... 


80 


5'2 


57 



VII. SURICATA. 



Type. 



Suricata, Desm. Tabl. Meth. Mamm. in Nouv. 
Diet. d'H. N. (ed. 1) xxiv. (1804) -S. tetradactyla. 

Rhyzcena, lUig. Prodr. Syst. Mamm. p. 134 
(!81 1) " S. tetradactyla. 

Range. That of the only species. 

Toes4— 4^ Teeth, I. -|, C. \, P.M.|, M. | x 2 = 38. Hind soles 
naked. Nose produced. No central naked line from muzzle to 
upper lip. Fore claws very long, twice as long as the hind. Skull 
very broad, the zygomata strongly diverging backwards. Facial 
outline convex. Posterior part of skull very high, not compressed 
as in Herpestes, but more as in Cynictis. Teeth very similar to 

1 Seep. 74. 

- In a skeleton and a specimen in spirit, I find the following rudiments of 
the 1st toes : — of the fore foot, in the spirit specimen, a rudimentary metacarpus, 
2 mm. in length ; in the skeleton, no trace of a hallux, but the above-mentioned 
rudiment might easily have be«n lost. Of the hind foot, in the spirit specimen, 
a hallueal metatarsal 2 mm. long and 2^ broad, and, in the skeleton, a similar 
rudimentary metatarsal and, in addition, a minute Ist phalanx (1 J mm. long 
and 1 broad). 



92 



MR. O. THOMAS ON THE AFRICAN MTJNGOOSES. [Jan. 3, 



those of Crossarchus. First upper premolar absent, with no dia- 
stema in its place ; first lower either present or, if absent, there is 
a distinct diastema. Auditory meatus somewhat prolonged, with 
the imperfection of the floor well marked, consisting of a line of 
minute holes, quite different from the large round hole found in this 
position in Cynictis^. 

1 . SURICATA TETRADACTYLA. 

Viverra suricatta, Erxl. Syst. Regn. An. p. 488 (1777). 

r. tetradactyla, Schreb. Saug. iii. p. 434, tab. cxvii. (1778). 

Mus zenik, Scopoli, Delic. Flor. et Faun. ii. p. 84 (1786). 

Viverra zenik et tetradactyla, Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 8.5 
(1789). 

Suricata capensis, Desm. Tabl. Meth. Mamm. (p. 15) in Nouv. 
Diet. d'Hist. Nat. 1st edit. xxiv. (1804). 

Rhyzcena tetradactyla. 111. Prodr. Syst. Mamm. p. 134 (1811). 

Suricata viverrina, Desm. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. 2nd edit, 
xxxii. p. 297 (1819). 

Rhyzcena typicus, Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. ii. p. 117 (1835). 

Hub. Cape Colony (Algoa Bay, Cape, &c.). 

Size small ; form slender. Tail about half the length of the head 
and body together. Fur long and soft. General colour light 
grizzled grey, with black transverse bands across the posterior part 
of the back. Longer hairs broadly ringed with black and white, 
the white on the whole predominating ; the transverse bands formed 
by the regular arrangement of the hairs, by which the white and black 
rings come opposite to each other on adjacent hairs. Underfur 
dark rufous. Head nearly white, except a distinct oblong black 
mark round the eyes. Ears black. Tail yellowish, with a well- 
marked black tip. Feet like body. Skull as described above. 
Dental percentage 70-79. 







Dimensions. 










Head and body. 


TaU. 


Hind foot. 


a. (Ii 


a spirit) 


14-0 


7-0 


2-4 


b. S. 


Africa . . 


15-0 


7-5 


2-5 


c. 


» 


14-0 
Skulls. 


8-0 


2- a 






Palate- Palate- 


Inc. to 


Basi- 


Length. 


Breadth. 


length, breadth 


. cross line 


cranial axis, 


a.. 2-42 


1-79 


1-37 -90 


•88 


•74 


b.. 2-38 


1-75 


1-36 -84 


•84 


•76 



This animal is a well-known Cape species : it seems to be confined 

' Prof. Flower, in his paper on the Classification of the Carnivora (P. Z. S. 
18(59, p. 20), says of this genus : — " Here, and here alone among the Viver- 
rida;, there is a prolonged auditory meatus ; but it presents the peculiarity 
of being fissured along the whole extent of the middle of its floor." It should, 
however, be noted that Crossarchus has a somewhat produced meatus, and that 
all the genera of this group have constantly a more or less fissured meatus-floor, 
individual skulls often exceeding Suricata in this respect. 



1882.] ON A NEW LAND-RAIL FROM EAST AFRICA. 93 

to that colony ; but I have seen so few specimens with exact loca- 
hties, that I am unable to determine its precise range. It may 
always be readily distinguished from all other Mungooses by its 
elongated nose and claws and its peculiar coloration, especially its 
black ears, no other species having ears differing in colour from the 
rest of the head. 

Smuts says of its habits : — " This animal lives in various parts of 
the Colony, mostly in mountain caves ; it is easily tamed and 
kept in a state of domestication." 

Molars of Suricata. 
S. tetradactyla, a .... 






* 

* 



P.Ml 


M?. 


Percentage 


7-0 


5-0 


71 


6-3 


5-0 


79 


6-5 


4-8 


74 


7-0 


5-2 


74 



4. Description of a New Species of Land-Rail from East 
Africa. By H. B. Tristram, F.R.S., C.M.Z.S. 

[Eeceived December 28, 1881.] 

I have lately received from Mr. R. C. Ramshaw, a medical 
missionary who has been stationed for four years in East Africa, a 
small collection of birds, chiefly of Ploceidae and Cinnyridse, formed 
by him at Ribe, a little to the north of Rabai, and at Jomon, a 
district extending S. lat. 3°-5° and E. long. 39°-40°. 

Among the specimens occurs a Land- Rail which both Mr. Shai'pe 
and Capt. Shelley consider to be undescribed. I therefore venture 
to describe it as 

Crex suahelensis, spec. uov. 

C. capite et regione parotica caslaneis ; collo superiore fusco ; 
dorso inferiore nigricante ; supracaudalibus castaneo niar- 
ginatis ; cauda nigricante, caslaneo marginata; mento et thorace 
albis ; pectore rufescente ,• abdomine albescente ; crisso et subcau- 
dalibus Icete castaneis ; scapularibus brunneis, qua que plum a albo 
marginata ; remiyibus nigrescentibus, pogonio externa remigis 
primi albo ;' subalaribus brunneis; rostro, tarsis et pedibus olivaceis. 
Long, tota 9, alee 3'92, caudce 2'3, rostri a rictu '85, tarsi 1*4, 
digiti mcd. 1'9. 
Hab. Ribe, East Africa. 

The white edgings to the scapulars and some of the feathers of 
the back seem to indicate immaturity. In other respects the bird 
has all the appearance of being adult : and the measurements certainly 
do not correspond to those of any known species. 



94 MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE ANATOMY [Jan. 3, 



5. Note on the Gall-bladder^ and some other Points in the 
Anatomy of the Toucans and Barbets {Capitonidce) . 
By W. A. Forbes^ B.A., Prosector to the Society. 

[Received December 30, 1881.] 

The statement has been made, and copied \ that a gall-bladder is 
absent iu the Toucans. The latest writer on the visceral anatomy of 
birds, Dr. Hans Gadow ^ describing the gall-bladder of the " Coccy- 
gomorpbse," says : — "Hhamphastus compeusirt das Fehlen der Blase 
durch einen sebr langen (9 cm.) luid weiten Ductus Choledochus " 
(/. c. p. 70). 

On dissecting, therefore, some months ago a fresh specimen of 
Pteroglossus wiedi, I was considerably surprised to find a peculiarly 
long and tubular gall-bladder, which lay superficially, covering the 
other abdominal viscera and extending far down in the abdominal 
cavity, its fundus nearly reaching the cloacal region of the intestine. 

My attention having been thus called to the point, I have since, 
whenever opportunity has offered, always looked for this viscus, and 
have now ascertained its presence in specimens oiRhamphastos cari- 
natus, viteiliiius, and dicolorus, Pteroglossus wiedi (3), Selenidera 
maculirostris, and Aulacorhamphus prasinus. The annexed drawing 
(fig., p. 95) will show its general form and relations, as seen iu a fresh 
specimen of Rhamphastos dicolorus. In the specimen figured the 
total length of the gall-bladder was not less than 4"15 inches. The 
cystic duct originated "85 inch from the liver, and was 1'7 inch long. 
In other cases the duct arises much nearer the portal fissure. Its 
presence, therefore, in all Toucans is nearly certain ^. 

It is also present, of exactly the same general form, and with the 
same relations, in all the Capitoninee I have examined as regards this 
point, namely Megalcema virens (a fresh specimen), M.fratMini, and 
Xantholcema rosea. Its presence iu Indicator iu a similar form is 
almost certain, from the intimate relationship of that genus to the 
Barbets and Toucans. Unfortunately I can give no exact information 
on this point, the only specimen I have of an Indicator having been 
eviscerated. 

The only other family of birds in which, so far as I am aware, 
the gall-bladder assumes this peculiar vermiform shape, and lies 

^ Owen. Anat. Vert. ii. p. 177 ; Macalister, Morph. Vert. p. 194 ; Crisp, P. Z. S. 
1862, p. 137. 

2 " Versuch ein. vergleich. Anatomie dea Verdauungssystemes d. Vogel," Jen. 
Zeitsohr. xiii. n. F. vi. 

' It is but due to the late Prof. Garrod to say that he also had noted this 
peculiar gall-bladder, aptly characterized by him as " iutestiniform," in several 
Toucans dissected by him, including B. Cuvieri and carinatus and P. wiedi. 
It is also, I find, correctly described by Meckel ('Traite general,' &c., Paris, 1838, 
t. viii. p. 289), as follows : — "La conformation de la vesicide est eslremement 
curieuse chez le toucan {Barnpkastos). Elle y est d'une longueur si enorme, 
qu'elle occupe la cavite ubdominale toute entiere : elle est tres retrecie, et res- 
semble plutot a un cseoum qu'a une vdsicule." I made my first observatione 
unaware of either of the above facts. 



1882.] 



OF THE TOUCANS AND BARBETS. 



95 



freely in the abdominal cavity, is that of the Picidse. Nitzsch ' 
describes the liver of the Woodpeckers (of which he examined 
Gecinus viridis and canus, Dryocopus major, medius, and minor, and 
Picus martins) as being " immer mit ausgezeichnet Linger darmfor- 
miger Gallblase ;" and I can quite confirm this description as being 




Liver, Btomach, duodenum, &c., of Rhamphastos dicolorus, from in front, showing 
the peculiar intestiniform gall-badder {g. b). 

St, stomach ; d, duodenum ; p, pancreas ; r. h. d, I. h. d., right and left hepatic 

ducts ; c. d, cystic duct. 

applicable to the last-named species. Garrod also correctly noted, in 
his MSS„ the " long intestiniform gall-bladder " of Gecinus. The 
similarity, therefore, in this respect of the Capitonidse ' to the 
Picidae strengthens the many arguments for the intimate relationship 
of these two groups. And I may take this opportunity to point out 
some further peculiarities which these birds have in common with 
each other. These are : — 

(1) The great extent of the deltoid muscle, which extends down 
the entire length, or very nearly so, of the humerus, and is inserted 

' In Naumanu's Orn. Deutsohlands, v. p. 252. 

" I us9 this term, with Garrod (Coll. Papers, p. 464) to include the Tou- 
cans and Indicator, as well as the true Barbets. 



96 ON THE ANATOMY OF THE TOUCANS AND BARBETS. [Jan. 3, 

by a tendinous slip into a small tubercle on the external surface of 
that bone, close to the elbow, and just above the tubercle for the 
tendon of origin of the extensor metacarpi radialis longior muscle. 
This is common to the Picidae, Indicator, and the Toucans and 
Barbets. As long ago noticed by Nitzsch ^ this pecuharly long 
deltoid also occurs in the Passeres ; but its similar condition in the 
Capitonidse has not, I think, before been observed. But, as showing 
that the similarity in this respect of the Passeres to the Picidte and 
their allies is not necessarily a mark of relationship, I may add that 
in some other birds, as, e. g., Carpophaga, Ptilopus, and Gariama, 
the deltoid is nearly the same in size and shape, extending down to 
very near the elbow. 

(2) The presence of a distinct ossicle, of the nature of a sesamoid, 
the so-called " scapula accessoria," which is developed in the 
scapulo-humeral ligament of the shoulder-joint, and plays over the 
posterior angle of the humerus-head. From it arise some of the 
fibres of the deltoid. 

Nitzsch, with his usual accuracy -, had also noticed the existence 
in the Picidae of this bone, which, as is well known, occurs also in 
the Passeres ; but the relationships of the bone in the last are not 
the same as they are in the Picidse, Indicator and other Pici I have 
examined. 

In the Passeres the bone in question becomes connected with the 
tendon of the pectoralis secundus muscle as this courses over the 
head of the humerus towards its insertion, sending round it a special 
thin tendinous loop, in which the tendon of that muscle plays. 
Hence, in the undisturbed position of these parts, the pectoralis 
tendon is seen to be somewhat L-shaped, the angle of the L being 
at the place where it is connected by this fibrous loop to the sesamoid 
bone, and so dragged backwards out of a direct course. 

In the Pici I have been able to find no such connection between 
the scapula accessoria and the pectoralis secundus tendon, which 
remains quite free from it throughout its course. 

The additional points of resemblance detailed in the present com- 
munication render the near relationship of the Picidse to the Capi- 
tonidae even more certain than before. Nitzsch, from pterylographical 
grounds, and Kessler '*, from osteological ones, long ago pointed out 
this connection, which was afterwards remarkably confirmed by 
Garrod's observations on their myology and visceral anatomy. 

The fact that there should be important cranial differences between 
the two groups (and eveu amongst the members of one of these) only 
shows that the cranial structure of a bird may be profoundly changed, 
in accordance with its conditions of existence, whilst ia the rest of 
its organs no change whatever is efifected ; and such a fact must of 
itself tell heavily against the view that the structure of the skull in 
birds is of itself alone a certain, or even sufficient, index to their sys- 
tematic classification. 

^ Zeitschr. f. ges. Naturwiss. 1862, xix. p. 400. 

* Tom. supra cit. p. 399. 

3 Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, xvii. pp. 332-334, 340. 



1882.] I'ROF. PARKER ON THE SKULL OF THIS CROCODILIA. [)/ 

January 17, 1882. 
Prof. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The following report on the additions to the Society's Mena- 
gerie during the month of December 1881 was read by the 
Secretary : — 

The total number of registered additions to the Society's Mena- 
gerie during the month of December 1881 was 82, of which 8 
were by birth, 39 by presentation, 26 by purchase, and 9 were 
received on deposit. The total number of departures during 
the same period, by death and removals, was 82. 

The most noticeable additions during the month were : — 

1. A young male Guemul Deer (i^jtrci/e/* chilensis), from Pata- 
gonia, purchased December 22nd of the Jardin d'Acclimatatioa 
of Paris. 

This animal has lately shed its horns, and is now growing a 
new pair. 

2. A Germain's Peacock-Pheasant {PoUjplectron gennaini), pur- 
chased December 24th. 

Both these accessions are of species new to the Society's series. 



Prof. Newton exhibited, by favour of Messrs. Hallett & Co., the 
skin and bones of the trunk of a specimen oi Notornis mavtelli, re- 
cently received by them from New Zealand, and stated to have been 
obtained in the province of Otago about eighteen months ago. 
Prof. Newton pointed out that the sternum figured in the Society's 
' Transactions' (vol. iv. pi. 4. figs. 5-8) as of this species must 
belong to a totally different form. 



Prof. W. K. Parker, F.R.S., read a memoir on the skull of the 
Crocodilia, of which the following is an abstract : — 

" The Crocodilia have seen the rise and fall of several Reptilian 
dynasties, and even now they are in no danger of extinction. Their 
development is precisely like that of the Sauropsida generally (the 
other Reptiles, and Birds) ; but in some very important respects they 
anticipate cranial modifications that only come to perfection in the 
Mammalia. 

" It is difficult, at first, to see in what their embryo differs from 
that of a bird ; but the long tail is diagnostic ; this, however, would 
not alvrays have served that purpose, as the avian contemporaries 
of the Crocodiles of the Oolite had tails relatively as long as those 
of the Crocodiles. 

" The near approach to that modification of the skull which is 
seen in the Bird is very remarkable in the early stages of the 
Crocodile ; but whilst the one becomes as light as a quill, the other 
becomes as heavy as the armour of a Tortoise ; yet in the adult 
Crocodile the whole hind skull is a labyrinth of air-cavities, which 

pRoc. ZooL. See— 1882, No. VII. / 



98 MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERTJ. [Jan. 17, 

differ but little from those of a bird. Notwithstanding the massive- 
ness of the skull, nearly every suture is persistent; in the light 
skull of the Bird nearly every suture is obliterated. 

" The pier of the mandible explains, and is explained by, that of 
the Lizard on one side, and the Salamandrian below. The jaw itself 
is at au early period quite continuous with the hyoid arch ; and that 
arch is for a time continuous with the auditory columella, as in the 
Hatteria of New Zealand ; and the columella itself is only a modi- 
fied part of that arch. In its early segmented state, however, and 
in its later broken-up condition, it comes very near to what is found 
in the mammal, and greatly helps the morphologist in working out 
a harmony between this arch in the Sauropsida and the Mam- 
malia. 

" In the discussion which took place a dozen years ago between 
Professors Peters and Huxley (for the views of the latter see P. Z. S. 
1869, pp. 391-407), as to the early continuity of the mandibular and 
hyoid arches and their nature, both combatants were right and both 
were wrong. The two arches are continuous for a time ; but that 
condition does not sustain Prof. Peters's reasoning. The deductions 
of Prof. Huxley, in spite of the fact that he worked with imperfect 
materials, will remain true for all time." 

Prof. Parker's memoir will be published entire in the Society's 
Transactions.' 



The following papers were read : — 

1. On a Collectiou of E,odents from North Peru. By 
Oldfield Thomas^ F.Z.S., British Museum. 

[Received December 15, 1881.] 
(Plate IV.) 

The collection now described was obtained by M. Stolzmann, the 
well-known Polish collector, iu Northern Peru, and has been placed 
in my hands for determination by Prof. Taczanowski, of the Warsaw 
Museum, by whom a nearly complete set has been presented to the 
British Museum. 

Every specimen has its exact locality, date, and altitude recorded ; 
and the habits of many of the species have been noted by M. Stolz- 
mann, whose remarks, placed between quotation-marks, are appended 
to their respective species. 

The localities from which the collection was obtained are as 
follows : — 

Tumbez, — Capital of the province of the same name. Situated on 
the river Tumbez, at about 4 miles from its outlet in the Bay of 
Guayaquil (3° S. lat.). 

Tambillo. — A colony on the river Malleta, a tributary of the 
Upper Amazons. This river forms the boundary between the pro- 



■^^^ 



^ 







o 

CO 

o 
Q 

CO 



o 

a: 

Oh 
CO 

[J 



E 
in 



1882.] MK. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PP:RU. 99 

vinces of Jaen and Chota. Tambillo is situated about 5700 feet 
above the level of the sea, upon the eastern slope of the western 
chain of the Cordilleras (6° S. lat.). 

Cutervo. — A town in the province of Chota, department of Caja- 
marca, about twodays south of Tambillo, on the same slope, 9000 
feet. 

Callacate. — A colony, 4800 feet in altitude, about 8 miles north- 
west of Cutervo, on the banks of the river Chota, which runs into 
the Amazon under the name of Chamaya. 

Chirhnoto^. — A colony in the valley of the Hnayabamba, a tributary 
of the Iluallaga, in the province of Chachapoyas. It is about 5400 
feet above the sea, upon the eastern slope of the eastern chain of 
the Cordilleras (6'^ S. lat.). 

HuamboK — A plantation In the forest of the same name, to the east 
of Chachapoyas and Chirimoto, 3/00 feet in altitude, on the banks of 
the river Huambo, a tributary of the Huallaga. 

All these localities, except Tumbez, are on the northward 
Andean extension of the Patagonian subregion, as defined by 
Messrs. Newton and Salvin ■ ; so that we should naturally expect, as 
indeed turns out to be the case, that most of the species would be 
the same as those found by Mr. Louis Fraser, who collected at 
places situated in the Ecuadorean part of this same Andean tract. 
Tumbez is on the southward extension of the Subandean subregion on 
the Pacific side ; but the specimens collected there are too few to 
draw any deductions from. 

The chief interest of the collection centres in the fine series of 
Hesperomys contained in it ; for of this difficult genus and the closely 
aUied one Holochilus M. Stolzmann obtained just over 40 speci- 
mens. The value of this additional material may be perceived when 
it is remembered how very few of the specimens in the various 
museums are preserved in spirit, or have their exact localities or 
habits recorded. 

On account, therefore, of the fact that most of the published de- 
scriptions have been taken either from stuffed specimens or skins, 
I have thought it useful to give the measurements of every adult 
specimen in this collection, even when belonging to compara- 
tively well-known species. It must, moreover, be remembered that 
from such a locality as Northern Peru very i'ew species of this 
group can in any sense be called well known ; in fact, of the 1 1 
species of Hesperomys and Holochilus here described, only two, Hes- 
peromys longicaudatus and olivaceus, at all deserve this term ; and 
even of these, additional measurements are much to be desired, as 
helping to show the range of variation found among the South- 
American Muridae. Of the 1 1 species just referred to, only one belongs 
to Holochilus, the remaining ten being distributed among Calomys, 
RhipidomySf and Habrothrix, three of the eight subgenera of Hes- 

' Additional information concerning these two localities maybe obtained from 
Prof. Taczanowski's own paper on the birds collected by Mons. Stolzmann 
(antca, p. 2). 

- Encycl. Brit. ed. 9, iii. p. 744. 

7* 



100 MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. [Jan. 1/, 

2i€roinys uo\¥ usually admitted. Of these Calomys claims four species, 
one being new ; Bhipidotmjs also four, of wliich two are new ; and 
Habrothrix tlie remaining two, both of which are previously-known 
species. There are thus three new species in the collection ;■ and of 
two of the others I am somewhat doubtful of the determination ; so 
that I think it possible that either or both of them will in the end 
turn out to be really different from the species to which I have pro- 
visionally referred them. 

The chief previous information bearing on tliis subject is comprised 
in Tschndi's classical work on the fauna of Peru', and in ^Ir. Tomes's 
papers on the Mammals collected in Ecuador by iNIr. Fraser". 

Of the 6 Muridee mentioned by Tschudi, only one, Hesperomys 
lencodactylus, was found by M. Stolzmanu ; while of the 13 brought 
from Ecuador by Mr. Fraser he obtained six, or just about half; so 
that from his well-preserved spirit-specimens I have been able to 
supplement the descriptions given by Mr. Tomes, many of which 
were drawn up only from skins. 

It is perhaps well to mention that, when describing these Rats and 
Mice, I found it possible, owing to their excellent state of preservation, 
entirely to dry the hairs, so that the colour and texture of the fur, 
and the general appearance of the animals were just as they 
would have been if the specimen had been examined when recently 
killed. I have been unfortunately unable to supplement from this 
collection the notes recently published by me with regard to the 
comj)arative lengths of the different parts of the alimentary canal\ 
because the intestines had been removed from all the specimens 
before they came into my hands. 

Of the new species obtained by Mous. Stolzmanu, H. spinosus* is 
perhaps the most interesting, as being the first Hesperomys that has 
been found with spiny fur. I have long expected that such a form 
would be discovered. There are so many examples of tropical 
species of the neighbouring genus Mtis which possess spines iu their 
fur, that I have always been surprised at there being no spiny 
members of such a large and variable tropical genus as Hespieromys. 
The present discovery of a spine-clad Vesper-mouse is therefore pro- 
poitionately interesting. 

As in the Old-world Mvs '\ so here in Hespteromys, I find that 
the number oi mammse is both very constant^ and very distinctive of 

J Pp. 177-184 (1844) 

= P. Z. S. 1858, p. 546; 1860, pp. 211 & 260. 

3 P. Z. S. 1880, p. 696. 

" Lifra, p. 105. 

« SeeP.Z.S. 1881, p.531, &c. 

^ The variatiou iu the number iu some of the commou species of Mtis, tjz. in 
iV. decvr/iamis, rattv.s, and alcaandrinus, has caused this character to fall iuto 
disrepute among writers on Eodentiii; but, with the exception of these species, and 
of one or two others which have the unusually large niunber of from 14 to 18 
mammse, I hare never, in any single instance, found a specimen of either Mtis 
or Hespcrciirijs in which the number differed from that normal to the species. 
I do not of course assert that individual variations do not occur, but only that 
tbey must be extremely rare, as I have never met with any in all the large series 
of specimens that I have examined with special reference to this point. 







Nr. of adult 




Total 


females 


niina 


1. mammiB. 


examined. 


2 


6 


1 


2 


4 


8 


2 


6 


6 


2 


6 


1 


2 


8 


2 


2 


8 


1 (type) 


2 


10 


7 



1882.J MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. 101 

the various subgenera and species, though the value of this character 
seems never to have been noticed by any previous writer in connexion 
with the arrangement of the Sigmodont Muridae. 

The following Table gives the number of mammse found in a fe^v 
of the best-known Sigmodontes not included in the present col- 
lection : — 

Pectoral 

pairs of 

mammre. 
Ochetodon mesicauus, Be Sauss. ... 1 
Hesperomys (Ehipidomys) siimi- 

cbrasti, Z>e &«MS. 

H. (Vesperimiis)leucopus, i?rt/. ... 1 
H. (V.) michigauensis,^i««^. ij- Bach. 1 

H. (Oryzomys) coiiesi, Alsf 2 

H. (Oalomys) bimaculatus, Watcrh. 2 
Sigmodon bispidus. Say ^- Ord , . . 3 

We thus see that the number of mammae gives us an additional 
character by which to separate Dr. Coues's subgenus " Vesperimus " 
from Calomys, the first having only 3, while the latter has 4 pairs. 
Sigmodon also, on whose generic distinction Dr. Coues has cast some 
doubt ', is, so far as its mammae are concerned, very distinct from 
any of the other New-world Muridae in having no less than .t pairs, 
the largest number found in this group. 

1. Lepus brasiliensis, L. 

a (juv.). Cutervo, 9000', Feb. or Mar. 1879. 

2. EcHiNOMYs SEMisPiNOSus, Tomcs, p. Z. S. 18G0, p. 265. 
a. (S (imm.), Tumbez, sea-level, June 1876. 

" In the reeds {Canna brava) on the banks of the river." 

[MUS MUSCULUS, L. 

a. Callacate, 4800', April 1879. 

This specimen had a large ffis^nw-larva in the flesh just above 
the root of the tail (See C. 0. Waterhouse, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1881, 
p. xxii).] 

3. HoLOCHiLUS (Nectomys) apicalis, Peters, Abhandl. Akad. 
Berl. 1860, p. 152. 

Hesp. cephalotes, Desm., Tomes, P. Z.S. 1858, p. 548 (nee Desm.). 

a. Chirimoto, 5400', Jan. 1880. 

b. Huambo, 3700', April or May 1880. 

c. d (juv.). Tambillo, 5800', Feb. 1878. 

Dimensions, in inches : — 

Head and 

body. Tail. Hind foot. 

a. 6 ■■ 7-^ 9-0 1-96 

b. 6.. 8-4 lO'l 2-05 

In the paper quoted above, Prof. Peters described a large Guaya- 
1 Mon. N. Am. Rod. p. 32, 1877. 



Forearm 


Ear-conch, 


Muzzls 


and hand. 


length. 


to ear. 


1-96 


•68 


1-58 


2-15 


•65 


1-77 



102 MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. [Jail. 17, 

quil Rat as Nectomys apicalis, g. and sp. n., the genus being founded 
on the presence of short webs to the toes, including H. sqnamipes, 
Bts., from which N. apicalis was separated on account of its only 
having 5 instead of 6 hind-foot pads. I do not, however, think 
that the presence of webs to the feet is a character of generic im- 
portance, and should prefer to regard Nectomys as only a subgenus 
of Holochilus. The specific distinction of H. apicalis is, no doubt, 
quite correct, as all tlie specimens in the present collection agree in 
having only 5 hind-foot pads. None of them have, however, the white 
tip to the tail described by Prof. Peters ; but this is no doubt a point 
in which there may be considerable variation. The incisors of H. 
apicalis were originally said to be snow-white ; but the present speci- 
mens do not agree with this, their incisors being pale yellow ; but 
they are certainly very much lighter-coloured than in H. squamipes, 
where they are a rich orange. Notwithstanding these differences, I 
do not think there can be any doubt that these specimens belong to 
Prof. Peters's species, as they agree perfectly in size, locality, and 
the very important character of the number of the foot-pads. 

There is in the British Museum another specimen of this species, 
collected by Mr. J. K. Salmon at Concordia, Medellin, U. S. of 
Colombia. 

(a) " Appeared to be aquatic, although caught in a cultivated 
field." 

(6) " Killed in an arm of the river just as it was seizing a branch 
of a Guava-tree, which touched the surface of the water. It had in 
its stomach an aromatic mass composed of fruity substance. It swims 
perfectly, only coming out late in the evening, and is probably the 
animal which gnaws the fish taken in the Indians' nets. It is not 
possible to catch it in a rat-trap." 

4. Hesperomys (Calomys) laticeps, Lund, Blik p. Bras. 
Dyrev. iii. p. 279 (1841). 

a-c. Huambo, 3700', April and May 1880. 



Head and 






Forearm 


Ear-conch, 


Muzzle 


body. 


Tail. 


Hind foot. 


and hand. 


length. 


to ear. 


a. S-- 5-0 


6-3 


1-35 


1-44 


•70 


1-14 



To this species I refer three specimens, of which, however, only 
one is adult. The tarsus seems to be somewhat longer than in the 
original specimens ; but otherwise it agrees very fairly with a spe- 
cimen of H. laticeps in the Museum collection from the original 
locality, Bahia. This Bahian specimen, however, is only a skin ; and 
it is therefore quite possible that spirit-specimens would show such 
differences from the Peruvian one, that, combined with the greater 
length of the tarsus and the difference in locality, a new species 
would have to be formed for the latter. 

The following is a description of the adult individual, a male: — 
Fur rather short and close, compared with that of H. albigularis 
or leucodactylus. General colour above dull brown, very finely 



1882.] MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. 103 

grizzled with dark greyish yellow. Belly white, the basal halves of 
the hairs, however, both above and below, dark slate-colour. The 
back- and belly-colours rather sharply separated. Feet greyish white. 
Tail brown above and white below, the latter colour, however, grad- 
ually becoming darker, so that the distal half of the tail is nearly 
uniform. Foot-pads prominent ; soles naked, proximal halves quite 
smooth, distal halves coarsely granulated. Fifth hind toes, without 
claws, only reaching just to the end of the fourth metatarsals. Ears 
with a projection on the anterior border'. Skull with well-marked 
supraorbital ridges. 

" These Rats created great havoc among the stores of maize under 
the roof of the house. After a time they multiplied to such an 
extent that I caught 14 in one night. This species also did con- 
siderable damage in the plantations of cocoa, gnawing holes in the 
skins of the fruit, and eating the contents." 

5. Hesperomys (Calomys) albigularis. Tomes, P. Z. S. 1860, 
p. 264. 

a. Cutervo, 9200', Feb. or Mar. 1879. 

b-f. Tambillo, 5800', Feb. 1878. 

g. Callacate, -4800', Apr. 1879. 

h. Huambo, 3700', Apr. and May 1880. 





Head and 






Forearm 


Ear-concli, 


Mnzzle 




body. 


Tail. 


Hind foot. 


and hand. 


length. 


to ear. 


rt. 


d.. 5-0 


6-2 


1-24 


1-48 


•69 


1-25 


h. 


d.. 5-1 


6-6 


1-3 


1-56 


•70 


1^28 


c. 


$ . . 4-9 


(3-5 


1-24 


1-46 


•72 


1-24 



To this species I refer eight of the specimens, from various loca- 
lities. As Mr. Tomes's account was drawn up from skins, the follow- 
ing description may be useful : — 

Fur long, soft and fine, with a few longer black hairs intermixed. 
General colour above deep rufous, becoming clearer on the sides, 
and passing gradually into pale rufous on the bell}'. Basal two 
thirds of the hairs dark slate-colour all over the body, except that in 
some of the specimens there is a pure white blotch just between the 
fore legs, a peculiarity which suggested Mr. Tomes's name for the 
species. Anterior half of the outer and posterior half of the inner 
sides of the ears thinly covered with black hairs, the remainder nearly 
naked. Feet white, with the exception of the metacarpals and 
metatarsals, on which there are a few brown hairs intermixed. Tail 
very long and slender, above brown and beneath white for its whole 
length, the two colours rather sharply separated. Anterior border 
of ears without any projection. Mammae 8, two pectoral and two 
inguinal pairs. Soles naked, foot-pads large and prominent, fifth 
hind toes, without claws, reaching to the middle of tlie first phalanx 
of the fourth toes. 

It will be seen that the above description docs not quite agree 
with that of Mr. Tomes ; but I do not think that the differences are of 

i See P. Z. 8. 1881, p. 4. 



104 MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PKRU. [Jail. 17, 

sufficient importance to justify me in describing our specimens as 
new without seeing Mr. Tomes's type. 

This species, as represented by tlie specimens before me, is very 
like the European Miis sylvaticus, L., in general appearance, though 
it is considei'ably larger. Its nearest ally seems to be H. longi- 
caudatus, Benn., which, however, differs from it by its much smaller 
size and by its quite uniform brown or black tail. As all the eight 
specimens of H. albigularis in the collection possess the same bicolor 
tail, it vvould seem to show that it is as constant a character among 
the New-world Hesperomyes as I have found it to be among the true 
Old-world Mures. H. vuJpinoides, Schinz\ a species of about the 
same size, has a quite unicolor tail. This latter, moreover, comes 
from the eastern side of S. America, the types having been collected 
in the province of Minas Geraes. 

6. Hesperomys (Calomys) longicaudatus, Benn. 
a-f. Huambo, 3700', April and May 1880. 







Head and 






Forearm 


Ear-conch, 


Muzzle 






body. 


Tail. 


Hind foot. 


and hand. 


length. 


to ear. 


a. 


? 


. . 3-25 


5-0 


•89 


•95 


•45 


•79 


h. 


2 


. . 3-2.5 


5-4 


•90 


•98 


•50 


•84 


c. 


2. 


.. 3-30 


5-4 


•90 


•98 


•55 


•85 


d. 


2. 


, . 2-90 


4-8 


•89 


— 


•52 


•78 



This species seems to be the common Mouse of the whole of 
central S. America, as the Museum series contains specimens from 
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chili, Buenos Ayres, Paraguay, Minas 
Geraes, and Bahia, thus covering an extremely extended range. 

The following is its synonymy, as far I have been able to make it 
out with any certainty : — 

Mus longicaudatus, Benn. P. Z. S. 1832, p. 2. 

Mits {Calomys) fiavescens, Waterh. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 19; Voy. 
Beagle, i. Mamm. p. 46, pi. 13 (1839). 

Mus longicaudus, Lund, Blik p. Bras. Dyrev. iii. p. 279 (1841). 

Hesperomys eliurus, Wagn. Archiv f. Naturg. 1845, i. p. 147; 
Abhandl. Akad. Miinch. v. p. 307 (1850). 

It is, however, just possible that Mus longitarsus, Rengg.^, may 
refer to tliis species, in which case Mr. Bennett's name would have 
to sink into a synonym, as Rengger's work was published in 1830, 
two years before M. longicaudatus was described. 

Prof. Burmeister in his recent work on the Mammals of the 
Argentine Republic ^ places M. longitarsus as a synomym of H. 
longicaudatus, apparently not noticing that, if they are the same, the 
former name must stand as that of the species. However, the type 
of M. longitarsus, though young, is said by Rengger to have a hind 

1 Schinz, Syn. Mamm. ii. p. 193 (1844). H. vulpimis, Limd, nee JJicht, 

2 SSug. Parag. pp. 2.31, 232 (1830). 

3 Page 221, 1879. 



1882.] MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. lO.T 

foot no less than 14 lines in length, while the very largest specimen 
in our considerable series of this species has a hind foot barely 
1 inch long;. I am therefore inclined for ;the present to continue to use 
Bennett's well-known name, beheving that H. longitarsus may be 
found to be only the young form of some larger species. 

7. Hesperomvs (Calomys) spinosus, sp. n. 
a, b. Huambo, 3700', April and May 1880. 



Head and 






Forearm 


Ear-conch, 


Muzzle 


body. 


Tail. 


Hind foot. 


and hand. 


length. 


to ear. 


a. cJ . . 3-01 


3-85 


•87 


•95 


•50 


•78 


6. c? . . 3-0 


3-95 


•87 


•94 


•46 


•75 



Back of Breadth of con- 
Total Greatest Molar incisors to striction between Lower jaw 
length breadth, series. Ist molars. orbits. (bone only). 

Skull of «.. -91 -51 -13 -22 -19 •SO 

Fur of medium length, composed of flattened spines intermixed 
with fine hairs, the spines predominating on the back but becoming 
rather fewer on the sides and disappearing on the belly. General 
colour above dark grizzled rufous and black, the spines slate-coloured, 
with black tips, the hairs also slate-coloured for the greater part of 
their length, but their tips rich orange. Sides becoming paler towards 
the belly, where the tips of the hairs in one specimen are white, 
and in the other pale fulvous, the bases of the hairs, however, being, 
as usual, slate. Head like back, but with fewer spines. Ears thinly 
covered Avith short black hairs. Tail at its base dark brown above and 
white below ; but the two colours soon merge into uniform blackish 
brown ; the scales proportionally very large. Tail-hairs very scanty, 
except at the tip, where they form a slight and inconspicuous pencil. 
Fore feet dark brown, the toes slightly paler. Hind feet and toes 
pale greyish white, not sharply separated from the colour of the 
legs, with a brown patch on the distal part of the metatarsus. Foot- 
pads small but prominent, soles smooth on proximal and granulated 
on distal halves. Fifth hind toes, without claws, reaching barely to 
the middle of the first phalanx of the fourth toes. Ears with a well- 
marked projection on their anterior edge. Both the specimens 
being males, I cannot record the number of mammae ; but the other 
characters being so similar to those of ordinary Calomys, it is unlikely 
that there would be any other number but 8. 

Skull on the whole similar to that of other small Calomyes, but with 
the supraorbital ridges sharper and more strongly developed than 
in any others that I have seen, and the space between the orbits 
broader than usual. 

The discovery of this Mouse, as spiny as an average Heteromys, is, 
as mentioned above, of great interest; for hitherto no spiny Hespero- 

^ Taken before the skull was extracted, 



106 MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. [Jan. 1/, 

mys has been recorded \ notwithstanding the tropical climate of 
central and northern South America and the innumerable forms 
into which the Vesper-mice have been developed. 

Among the Old-World Muridse instances of the development of 
spines are extremely numerous, though their presence would seem 
often to be variable, the spines being apparently shed and renewed ac- 
cording to the season of year". In the case of this Peruvian Vesper- 
mouse, however, it is scarcely likely that there could be any shedding 
of spines according to season, since at Huambo, only 6 degrees south 
of the equator, there can be but very little appreciable change of 
season at all. Moreover, as far as regards the distinctness of this 
species, there appears to be no Calomys as yet described with the 
colours and proportions of H. spinosus, even if we ignore the presence 
of the spines as a specific character. 

8. Hesperomys(Rhipidomys)leucodactylus, Tschudi, Fauna 
Peruana, p. 183, Taf. xiii. fig. 2 (1844). 

H. latimanus. Tomes, P.Z.S. 1860, p. 213. 
a. Huambo, 3700', April or May 1880. 

Head and Forearm Ear-concb, Muzzle 

body. Tail. Hind foot. and hand, length. to ear. 

«. ? .. 4-85 6-5 1-1 1-4 -5 M7 

The single specimen of this species is rather paler-coloured than 
Tschudi' s type, which I have examined in the Berlin Museum ; it is 
otherwise, however, quite identical, all the more important characters 
agreeing exactly. The following is a short description of Mons. 
Stolzmann's specimen : — 

Fur soft and close. General color above pale brownish grey, 
below white. Dark colour of the back continued down to the meta- 
carpals and metatarsals ; toes white. Ears without a projection on 
their anterior edge. Tail quite unicolor, dark brown, with the hairs 
increasing in length to its tip, where they form a distinct pencil. 
Feet remarkably short and broad, sole-pads very large, round and 
smooth. Fifth hind toes reaching to the middle of the second pha- 
lanx of the fourth toes. Whiskers very numerous, black. Mammae 
six, one pectoral and two inguinal pairs. 

" Several individuals of this species were caught on the palmwood 
roof of the house in which I was living. They gnawed to pieces 
all leather articles, such as saddles and bridles, and used the frag- 
ments to build their nests with. One of these, made of paper torn 
from a book, was built in the folds of a mosquito-net." 

^ Limd (Blik p. Bras. Dyrev. iii. p. 277, 1841) described a Mits setosus from 
Minas Geraes as having spines in the fur ; but this is now generally admitted 
to have been founded on a specimen of Mus alexandrinus, Geoff., an introduced 
species which seems to be very common in Brazil. 

a Cf. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 540. 



Head and 




body. 


Tail, 


a. 2" 5-3 


7-7 


6. $.. 4-9 


6-8 



1882.] MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. 107 

9. Hesperomys (Rhipidomys) pyrrhorhinus, Pr. Max. 
Abbildungen, Taf. 27 (1822-26) ; Beitr. ii. p. 422 (1826). 

Mas mystacnlis, Lund, Blik p. Bras. Dyrev. iii. p. 2/9 (1841). 

H. leucodactylus^, Natt., "Wagn. Wiegm. Archiv, xi. 1, p. 147 (nee 
Tschudi) (1845) ; Miinch. Abhandl. v. p. 310 (1850). 

E. macrurus, Gerv. Casteln. Amor, du Sud, Mamni. p. 3, pi. 16. 
fig. 1 (1855). 

«, b. Tambillo, 5800', February 1878. 

Forearm Ear-conch, Muzzle 

Hind foot, and hand. length. to ear. 

1-2 1-55 71 1-3 

1-13 1-4 70 1-19 

The following is a description of the two specimens ia the col- 
lection : — 

Fur long and very soft, not mixed with longer harsher hairs. 
General colour above rich rufous, quite hiding the dark slate- 
coloured bases of the hairs. Head similar but paler. Belly-hairs 
half slate-colour, half pure white. Ears covered with short black 
hairs. Whiskers black. Fore feet with the metacarpals brown and 
the digits white. Hind feet with the metatarsals pale orange- 
coloured and the digits brown. Tail very long, the basal half inch 
covered with the red-tipped body-hairs, the remainder imiformly 
dark brown above and below, the hairs, which are black, forming 
rather less of a pencil than usual. Ears without a projection on the 
anterior edge. Feet rather long for the subgenus, though shorter 
than in ordinary Hesperomyes. Foot-pads large, smooth and rounded. 
Fifth hind toes as in H. leucodactylus . Mammae 6, one pectoral, 
.and two inguinal pairs. Incisors both above and below orange- 
coloured, broader than in other RMpidomyes. 

It will be seen that there are certain discrepancies between the 
above and the original description. The true H. pyrrhorhinus is 
said to have a reddish-yellow back and a pure white belly, as also 
has a specimen from Bahia, probably the type, oiH. macrurus, Gerv., 
in the British Museum. The original specimens of H. pyrrhorhinus, 
moreover, were also obtained in Bahia, on the eastern side of South 
America. However, without knowing more of the forms inhabiting 
the intermediate country, I do not care to describe M. Stolzraann's 
specimens as new. 

" Lives in trees." 

These last two species belong to a very distinct subgenus. Its 
chief characters may be thus expressed : — Form Dormouse-like. 
Tail long, with the hairs generally forming a pencil at the tip. 
Feet short and broad ; the foot-pads large, smooth and rounded, but 
not standing up much above the sole, evidently adapted for climbing. 

•■ Burmeister (Eepubl. Argent, p. 223) refers this name to H. angouya, 
Desm. ; but, judging from Wagner's descriptions, I think there can be no doubt 
that it is the present species. He distinctly refers to the pencil of longer hairs 
at the tip of the tail, wliich is quite absent in H, anyouya. 



108 MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. [Jan. 17, 

Mammae 4 or 6. Skull with more or less well-marked supraorbital 
ridges. 

The most peculiar member of the subgenus is H. sumichrasti, 
De Sauss.', upon which both that author's Nyctomys and Tomes's 
Jlyoxomys - were founded '\ These names must, however, both 
stand as synonyms of Rhipidomys, Tschudi, H. leucodactylus cer- 
tainlv belonging to the same subgenus as H. sumichrasti ^. It is 
true that wliereas the ordinary S. Kmmcd^n Rhipidomyes are dis- 
tinguished from true Hesperomys by having only G mammae, 
H. sumichrasti outdoes them all in this respect by having only 4% 
and in other ways is the most markedly specialized of them all ; but 
nevertheless the diiference is only in degree, and not in kind, so 
that I think we are justified in amalgamating Nyctomys with Ehipi- 
domys as but one subgenus. 

There are, however, in addition to the well-marked species already 
referred to, three at least which, while they possess in different 
degrees some of the essential characters of Rhipidomys, yet are 
more or less intermediate between the true Hesperomys and the most 
typical members of this subgenus. The first of these is H. bicolor, 
TomesS the position of which, however, I cannot properly determine, 
not having seen a specimen. The other two are those next follow- 
ing, both new to science, of which H. tdczanovJsHi would seem to 
be most nearly allied to Rhipidomys, notwithstanding its rounded 
supraorbital margin and untufted tail, and JI. cinereus the least, 
having, in addition to these two last-mentioned characters, feet pro- 
portionally longer, with less Rhipidomyine foot-pads, and a more or 
less bicolor tail. Notwithstanding these differences, however, I 
prefer for the present to call these both Rhipidomys, as they have 
only three pairs of mammse, a number characteristic of the ordinary 
members of that group. 

10. H. (Rhipidomys) cinereus, sp. u. (Plate IV.) 
a. Cutervo, 9200', February or March 1879. 

Head and Forearm Ear-couch, Miizzle 



bodyT. 


rail. 


Hind foot. 


and hand. 


length. 


to ear. 


. . 475 


5-0 


M4 


1-38 


•64 


M8 




Sku 


ll-dimensions. 










Back of 


Breadth of 


con- 




Total Greatest 


Molar 


incisors to 


striction between 


Lower jaw 


length, breadth. 


series. 


1st molar. 


orbits, 




(bone only). 


1-3 -73 


•22 


•37 


•19 




•78 



a. 

• Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1860, p. 107. 
2 P. Z. S. 1861, p. 284. 

^ See Alston, Biol. Cent. -Am., Mamm. p. 143, 1880. 

* Mr. Tomes himself, when first describing Myoxomys, placed in it, besides 
H. sumichi-asfi (its type and most typical species), H, latimanus, Tomes (=/f. leu- 
codactylus), and H. bicolor, Tomes. 

5 See above, p. 101. 

6 P. Z. S. 1860, p. 117. 

" These measurements were taken before the skiill was extracted, 



1882.] MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PKRU. lOO 

Fur extremely loug and soft, only exceeded in this respect by 
H. lonyipilis, Waterh. General colour above grizzled ashy grey, 
the hairs being, as usual, slate-coloured for five sixths of their length, 
and the tips white, with numerous wholly black longer hairs inter- 
mixed. This colour lightens gradually into the greyish white of the 
belly, where the basal two thirds only of the hairs are slate-colour. 
Anterior edge of the outer side of the ears thickly clothed with long 
and soft dark brown hairs, as also is the posterior half of the in- 
ternal surface, though there the hairs are much shorter. Tail un- 
usually thick, tapering to a point, brown above and white beneath, 
the two colours not sharply separated, closely covered with short 
shining hairs from root to tip, nearly hiding the scales ; there is, 
however, no terminal pencil of longer hairs. Upper surfaces of 
feet covered with pure white shining hairs, much longer than usual, 
those at the tips of the toes quite hiding the claws. Foot-pads 
large and prominent. Fifth hind toes reaching to the middle of the 
second phalanx of the fourth toes. Mamma) 6, one pectoral and two 
inguinal pairs. Ears without a projection on their anterior edge. 
Incisors rich orange ; upper margins of orbits without any trace 
of ridges. 

This very peculiar-looking Rat may be readily distinguished from 
all its allies by its very long soft fur, its thick and tapering tail, and 
by the unusual hairiness of both ears, feet, and tail, the result, no 
doubt, of the extreme height at which it was obtained. 

I can find no species with which it could by any means be con- 
fused. H. galapagoensis, Waterh., bears a superficial resemblance 
to it, but differs by several of the more important characters, having 
8 mammae naked extremities, and a well-marked projection on the 
anteiior edge of the ear. 

The next species seems to be really the most nearly related to it, 
though its general appearance is quite different. 

As there is only a single specimen of this species in the collection. 
Prof. Taczanowski has been unable to let the British Museum have 
an example. I have therefore had the species figured (Plate IV.), 
so as to make it more readily recognizable by those unable to exa- 
mine the type in the Warsaw Museum. 

11. Hesperomys (Rhipidomys) taczanowskii, sp. n. 

Oy b. Tambillo, 5800', February 1878. 

(f) c (imm.). Cutervo, 9200', Feb. or March 1879. 

Head and Forearm Ear-coucb, Muzzle 

body. Tail. Hind foot, and Land. length. to ear. 

fl. 2 3-55 5-3 -88 111 -45 -97 

6.d'(imm.) 3-0 4-9 -87 1-04 -50 -87 

Fur of medium length, soft and woolly; general colour above greyish 
yellow, the hairs being tipped with rufous yellow, with very few- 
longer darker hairs. Head greyer and less yellow. Belly, as usual, 
greyish white, the sejiaration of the upper and under colours quite 
gradual. Ears thinly clothed with brown hairs. Tail pale brown 



1 10 MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. [Jan. 17, 

above and beneath, uniformly thinly clad with brown hairs. Feet 
white, with a faint admixture of brown on the metacarpus and 
metatarsus. Foot- pads large and rounded, as in the typical Rhipi- 
domys. Fifth hind toes as in^. c'mereus. Mammse 6, one pectoral 
and two inguinal pairs. Ears without a projection on their anterior 
edge. Incisors and supraorbital margins as in U. cinereus. 

I have much pleasure in naming this peculiar species after Prof. 
Taczanowski, to whose kindness I am indebted for the opportunity 
of working out this interesting collection of mammals. H. tacz- 
anowskii may be readily distinguished from the last species by its 
much smaller size, and from its other near ally, H. bieolor, Tomes, 
by the fact that that species has a much shorter tail (S'o in.), shorter 
hair, and a pure white belly. 

12. Hesperomys (Habrothrix) olivaceus, Waterh. 

Mus {Habrothrix) o/i«ace««,Waterh. P. Z.S. 1837, p. 6. 
Hesperomys renygeri, Waterh. Zool. Voy. Beagle, ii. p. 57, phxv. 
(1839). 

a, b. Tumbez, sea-level, June 1876. 
c. Callacate, 4800', April 1879. 



Head and 






Forearm 


Muzzle 


Ear-conch. 


body. 


Tail. 


Hind foot. 


and Laud. 


to ear. 


length. 


a. 6.... 3-7 


3-14 


•87 


ro5 


•93 


•63 


5. J(imm.) 3-0 


2-75 


•86 


1-0 


•86 


•60 


c. $ . . . . 3-8 


2-65 


•79 


1-0 


•94 


•56 



This species seems to be a very common one all along the western 
parts of S. America ; for, in addition to these Peruvian examples, the 
Museum contains a considerable series of specimens from Bolivia 
and Chili, including the types of the species, collected by Mr. Dar- 
win during the voyage of the ' Beagle.' Mr. Tomes also records it 
from Ecuador. 

It will seen by the dimensions given above that the Callacate spe- 
cimen has somewhat shorter ears, feet, and tail than the others, 
while it has a larger body and head ; and it has also rather thicker 
and softer fur. It seems very probable, however, that these differences 
are only owing to the much greater altitude at which it was obtained, 
since it is a well-known law among mammals that individuals from 
colder climates have a tendency to have larger bodies and shorter 
extremities than those of the same species living in warmer places. 

13. Hesperomys (Habrothrix) caliginosus, Tomes, P. Z. S. 
1860, p. 263. 

a-f. Huambo, 3700', April and May 1880. 





Head and 






Forearm Eai'-couch, 


Muzzle 




body. 


Tail. 


Hind foot. 


and hand, length. 


to ear. 


C.cf. 


. 4^0 


2-9 


•84 


1^07 -52 


•96 


h.S. 


. 3-9 


3^01 


•85 


— -51 


•98 


C.2. 


. 3-5 


3^0 


85 


1-05 -52 


•92 



1882.] MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM PERU. 1 1 I 

I am not quite certain about the identity of these specimens with 
Mr. Tomes's Ecuadorean species, as H. caliyinosus is described as 
being .5 inches long, with nearly naked ears and feet, but by measur- 
ing the largest individual of the present series along the curves, a 
length of nearly 5 inches may be obtained ; and as the colours and 
other dimensions agree very fairly, I prefer to regard them as 
H. caliginosus, rather than to describe them as new. 

The following is a short description of these specimens :— Fur 
very soft, of medium length. General colour above dark grizzled 
orange-black, the colour resulting being as dark as in II. ohscurus, 
Waterh. Belly pale yellowish white, the bases of the hairs grey. 
Ears, feet, and tail covered with short dark brown hairs. Ears with 
a rounded projection on their anterior margin. Fifth hind toes 
reaching to between the base and the middle of the first phalanx of 
the fourth toes. Tail uniformly black all round, vipperside of feet 
granulated with black, and the soles of the hind feet also deep black. 
This blackness of all the extremities forms a ready means of distin- 
guishing the present species from the preceding one, in which the 
tail is brown above and grey beneath, and the soles have scarcely a 
tinge of black. 

The British Museum also possesses a specimen certainly identical 
with these Peruvian ones, which was collected by Mr. T. K. Salmon 
at Concordia, Medellin ; so that, as Ecuador is just between that loca- 
hty and the present one, the probability of M. Stolzmann's speci- 
mens being the true ff. caliginosus is greatly increased. 

" This is the most diurnal species of all, and on that account is 
very subject to the attacks of CEstrus. The base of its tail is 
naked and white ; and the fly deposits its eggs on this spot, as may 
be seen in those specimens which contain the larvae, or from which 
the latter have escaped." 

In addition to the above notes on the Rodents collected by M. 
Stolzmann, it may be useful to give the localities and dates for the 
three species of Opossum obtained by him. These are: — 

14. DlDELPHYS NTJDICAUDATA, Geoff. 

a, b. $ and young, Chirimoto, 5400', July 1880. 

15. DlDELPHYS CINEREA, Tcmm. 

a. ?, Chirimoto, 5400', July 1880. 

16. DlDELPHYS MURiNA, Linn. 

a. $, Tambillo, 5800', Feb. 1878. 

h, c. 2 and <^ > Tumbez, sea-level, June 1876. 



112 MR. T. E. BUCKLEY ON THE [Jao. 17, 



2. On the Variability of Plumage exhibited by the Red 
Grouse {Layopus scoticus). By T. E. Buckley, B.A., 
F.Z.S. 

[Received December 27, 1881.] 

At the commencement of this paper I wish to remark that I do 
not propose to speak of what are commonly termed varieties, such 
as albinos, melanism s, &c., but of such variations in plumage as I 
think may be met with by any one in a season's grouse-shooting, 
only specifying that they should be obtained late enough in the 
season for the birds to have attained the highest perfection of 
plumage, which would be by November. 

Although many authors have remarked on the variations of the 
plumage of the Red Grouse, it seems to have been generally supposed 
by them that these variations had reference to the locality or district 
inhabited by the birds. Thus Yarrell writes (Br. B. ed.3,ii".p. 368):— 
" The Red Grouse of N. Wales are said to be large in size and 
light in colour ; those of the Western Highlands are also light in 
colour, and are said to be earlier breeders than those of the eastern 
parts of Scotland, which are, however, of large size and dark in 
colour."' Mr. Gray writes (B. West of Scotland, p. 234), in reference 
to examples from the Hebrides, that " they may be said to be smaller 
and lighter in colour than those from moors on the mainland, 
especially the mountain-ranges of the north-east of Scotland, which 
invariably yield, in good seasons, the largest and most beautifully 
marked Grouse, In many districts the native Grouse partake of the 
coloration of the ground in their markings : thus the finest and 
darkest birds are those frequenting rich heathy tracts ; while on 
broken ground of a rocky character, such as may be seen in the south 
of Wigtonshire, the Grouse are either more or less mottled, or are 
altogether lighter in colour, and less in weight." The same gentleman 
adds in a note, on the information of Mr. Elwes, "that in the district 
of Gareloch, west of Ross-shire, Grouse vary very much in the breast- 
markings." Mr. Colquhoun, on the same subject writes (' The Moor 
and the Loch,' 3 ed. p. 11 2): — "ThePerthshire Grouse are much smaller 
and darker in colour than those of Argyllshire. The West High- 
lander is a beautiful rich red and very large. ... In the low coru- 
districts, such as Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, and the Border counties, 
the Grouse are a light brown, borrowing a tint from the stubbles on 
which they delight to feed. . . . All these birds are so light in 
the colour as more nearly to resemble Partridges." Mr. Dresser 
(B. of Europe, vii. p. 166), after describing some specimens, makes 
this observation: — " The Grouse differ somewhat in colour according 
to locality. Judging from the series I have before me, I consider that 
those from Scotland are somewhat the larger, and considerably darker 
in colour. Those from the north of England are more rufous ; and 
the Irish bird is considerably the lightest, and has a yellowish red 
tinge in the plumage ; the feathers on the legs are also darker and 



1882.] PliUMAGE OF THE RED GROUSE. 113 

browner than in any of the other specimens. I have no speci- 
mens from Wales, where they are said to be small and very light- 
coloured." 

Thus you will see by the authors I have quoted that all agree in 
the extreme variation in the plumage of the Red Grouse ; but, then, 
all assign certain variations to certain localities and districts ; and I 
wish to point out and illustrate by the series of specimens I exhibit 
that as great amount of variation may be found amongst Grouse ob- 
tained in a single locality as is mentioned by the authorities above 
quoted, and that hereby the observation of Thompson (B. IreL ii. 
p. 47) is partly corroborated. He states: — " It has been remarked to 
me by sportsmen that the Grouse of Ireland and Scotland differ in 
size and colour. This is apparently correct when birds of a certain 
district are compared with those of another ; but it is, in my opinion, 
a partial view of the subject, as in different localities throughout either 
the one country or the other birds will be found equally to vary in 
these respects. The following observations strikingly illustrate this 
opinion : — A friend who shot over the moor of Glenroy, Inverness- 
shire, in 184-^, observed that the Grouse differed much in their 
plumage, and were of three varieties, each kind keeping particularly 
to its own quarters. On the darkest and most heathy ground were 
the darkest birds and the largest, weighing generally 2 lb. and some- 
times 2 lb. 2 oz. On the rocky parts they were of a very much lighter 
brown, while on the stony and heathy ground combined they were 
of an intermediate brown, mottled more or less with white." 

Now my own observations do not fully bear out the remarks of 
Thompson's friend ; for I have not only killed dark birds on light- 
coloured ground, but, when the partially migratory habits of the 
Red Grouse are considered, it is scarcely possible to suppose that 
each individual would always pick out as its resting-place for the 
time being the particular piece of ground that suited its own plumage 
the best ; for the birds are always drawing down from the higher to 
the lower ground as winter advances'. 

If we look at a large series of Grouse cocks (and unfortunately 
my series is not large enough to show this well, as each bird has been 
in most cases picked out as a representative of its own particular 
class of variation), we shall find that their backs show but little 
variation ; and I think No. 3 as described below is a very good 
representative specimen. The hens here vary in a more marked 
degree, the generality being a good deal speckled with lighter tints 
of brown, as may be seen in No. 4 ; but of all the variations the true 
Red Grouse, in the locahty whence the most of these specimens were 
obtained, is the rarest. Nos. 1 and 2 are a very good pair ; they are 
old and barren. 

A great part of the ground where these specimens were obtained 
has the heather much mixed with a certain grass which is called 
" deer's hair." This in the spring is quite yellow ; and I fancy these 

* .It. is obvious that ouce the ground is covered with snow the utility of 
variation is done away with, as then all Grouse look as black as Eooks. 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. VIII. 8 



114 MR. T. E. BUCKLEY ON THE [Jail. 17, 

yellow-speckled hens breed in this mixed grass and heather, while 
the more ordinarily marked ones, such as No. 8, breed in the heather 
alone ; but later on in the season, when the coveys begin to break up, 
the birds no longer entirely inhabit the ground that suits their plumage 
best. And here I may remark on a habit of the Red Grouse that I have 
not seen noticed elsewhere, which is that as the season advances the 
sexes separate, the cocks going singly or in twos, or at the most threes, 
the hens in larger numbers, except a few pairs here and there, which 
I believe to be barren birds. 

Every ornithologist who has tried it must have remarked how 
difficult it is to get specimens of Ptarmigan in any of their three 
distinct plumages, at least in the British Isles ; and I find, though in 
a less degree, the same may be said of the Red Grouse, as in nearly 
all of the specimens exhibited traces of their summer or autumn 
plumage may be found, though most of them were obtained near the 
end of the season. I do not pretend to call the one exhibited a perfect 
series, as almost every Grouse varies more or less from its neighbour ; 
and it would not be easy to get two birds resembling each other in 
every feather, as may be done in most other species. 

Having made these prefatory remarks, I now proceed to describe 
in detail some of the birds in the series now exhibited, nearly all of 
which vpere obtained at or near Balnacoil in the valley of the Brora, 
East Sutherland, and, whether cocks or hens, had completed their 
full winter plumage as far as it can be. 

No. 1. Male, Nov. 7, 1879. — Head and neck reddish brown, the 
back of each being marked by irregular bars of black relieved by 
others of yellowish brown. Back deep reddish brown, closely 
interlined by very small and irregular lines of black, these lines 
being much coarser near the centre of the back. Wing-coverts, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts the same, but the black lines still 
smaller ; primaries slightly edged with white. Breast deeper in colour 
than the back, getting darker still towards the centre, the feathers 
being marked throughout by fine black lines, a few white feathers 
appearing between the legs. 

No. 2. Female, Nov. 7, 1879. — This bird (which with the one last 
described made a barren pair) resembles No. I in most particulars : 
the back has fewer black bars in it, but more dark spots ; and the 
upper tail-coverts are more marked with black bars and spots. 
The breast is decidedly lighter in colour, and has the dark bars 
tnore regular ; a few of the under tail-coverts are tipped with 
white. 

This pair are good examples of the typical form of Red Grouse, 
one of the least common on the moor where they were procured. 

No. 3. Male, Oct. 31, 1879. — Head and back of neck dark brown, 
relieved with lighter spots and black bars. Back reddish brown, 
with small black bars, each feather having a black patch ; greater 
wing-coverts the same, but with fewer black patches ; one or two of 
the lesser whig-coverts have a tip of white ; upper tail-coverts dark 
brown with black bars, a few of these tipped with white. Throat 
deep chestnut-brown ; breast deep reddish brown with decided bars 



1882.] PLUMAGE OF THE RED GROUSE. 115 

of black, a deeper colour In the centre, where also some white feathers 
appear ; under tail-coverts a good deal tipped with white ; primaries 
very laiutly edged with white. 

The back of this bird may be taken as typical of the male Red 
G-rouse. 

No. 4. Female, Oct. 21, 1879. — Head and neck brown, with black 
spots. Back and greater wing-coverts brown with black bars, many 
of the feathers having a black spot ; primaries much marked with 
white on the outside ; secondaries very dark brown, minutely marbled 
with light brown ; upper tail-coverts a rich brown, barred and spotted 
with black ; tail black, with a slight marking of brown on the outer 
edge of the outer feathers. Breast and throat yellowish brown, the 
upper part of the former much barred with black, the lower part 
much darker, many of the feathers having an edging of white below 
the black line ; the sides again lighter and more coarsely marked ; 
under tail-coverts same as sides. 

No. 5. Male, Nov. 22, 18/9. — Head deep reddish brown with 
black bars and markings, the sides of the head being mottled with 
white. Back black, relieved by a few bars of dark and light brown ; 
greater wing-coverts deep dusky brown, marked by shadings of a 
rather lighter brown ; smaller wing-coverts edged with wliite ; pri- 
maries slightly edged with the same ; upper tail- coverts deep brown, 
barred with black, a few feathers having a white edging. Chin 
much marked with white ; throat deep reddish brown ; the top of 
the breast has a circle of nearly black feathers ; the centre nearly 
white with a few black feathers, going away at the sides into deep 
reddish brown much marked with black and white ; under tail-coverts 
same as sides. 

This is a very well marked specimen of a pretty common variation ; 
I have one almost identical from Skye. 

No. G. Female, Oct. 31, 1879.— Back of neck and head dark 
brown with black bars and spots ; sides of neck chestnut-red, some of 
the feathers tipped slightly with white. Back deep brown, with bars of 
black ; some of the feathers have a black spot, and others are edged 
with a lighter brown ; greater wing-coverts the same as the back but 
without the black spots, many of the feathers edged with white ; 
lesser wing-coverts also much edged with white ; upper tail-coverts red- 
dish brown with black bars, a few feathers edged with wliite. Feathers 
of chin edged with white ; upper part of breast rich dark brown, 
barred with black, the edging of white on each feather increasing 
towards the centre of the breast, where the brown nearly disappears, 
the colouring there being black and white ; the sides have the bars of 
white and black on the ground-colour more distinct ; under tail- 
coverts the same as the sides. Outsides of the primaries edged with 
white. The tail marked and tipped with brown. 

This bird when fresh killed had a most beautiful purple gloss over 
its breast. I have killed this same variation in Ross-shire, but I have 
not found it a very common one. 

No. 7. Male, Nov. 22, 1879. — Back of head and neck very deep 
reddish brown, with black bars and spots, also spots of a lighter 

8* 



116 ON THE PLUMAGE OF THE BED GROUSE. [Jan. 17, 

colour. Back very black, the feathers edged and barred with dark 
brown, greater wing-coverts black, with here and there slight brown 
markings ; upper tail-coverts very dark brown with lighter brown 
marks, shading to nearly pure black at the tail. Chin black, throat 
very deep reddish brown ; breast black, some of the feathers slightly 
edged with brown, which turns to white at the centre of the breast, 
the sides showing more decided brown markings ; under tail-coverts 
same as sides, but the markings more distinct still. 

This bird approaches to a melanism ; but as I have often come 
across specimens closely resembling it, I have described it as a type 
of one of the variations. 

No. 8. Female, Dec, 3, 1879. — Back of head and neck light 
brown, marked with black bars and spots. Back, greater and lesser 
wing-coverts, and tail-coverts light brown marked with black bars, 
some of the feathers having black spots ; the tips of many of the 
feathers again have a very light brown spot, giving it a very mottled 
appearance. Outer edges of primaries slightly marked with white. 
The whole of the breast, sides, and under tail-coverts light brown, 
shading to darker brown in the centre, each feather having one or 
more black bars — the feathers in the centre and sides also being edged 
with white, as are also the under tail-coverts. 

This and No. 4 most nearly resemble each other, the latter being 
probably the older bird. 

Now I think it will be admitted that the specimens I exhibit 
should not be, as I maintained before, regarded as " varieties " in 
the vague and ordinary sense of that word. It seems to me that we 
should regard them as instances of individual differences or polymor- 
phisms — ^just as in the case of the Ruff (^Machetes pugnax), which 
exhibits a degree of variability in its seasonal adornment more con- 
spicuous, 1 allow, than that of the Grouse now before us, but far 
less permanent, since the difference in the Grouse would appear to 
remain, if not throughout the year, for at least several months, 
while that in the Ruff is confined to but a few weeks in the spring 
or early summer. Thus, if my contention be just, we have in the 
Red Grouse — the only species of birds according to the opinion of 
most ornithologists which is peculiar to the British Islands, and a 
species which in the judgment of the best authorities is itself the 
modified descendant of a far more widely distributed species, the 
Willow-Grouse {Lycopus albus) — an amount of individual variability 
capable of still further and perhaps indefinite modification as to 
colour, should occasion arise whereby such modification might be 
rendered necessary for the persistence of the stock. 



'V' • ■ 



P-Z.S.I882.Pl..y. 






■5- 










GB Sowsriy ]JLh 



NEW SHELLS. 



1882.J MR. SOWERBY, JUN., ON NEW SPECIES OF SHELLS. 117 

3. Descriptions of new Species of Shells in the Collection 
of Mr. J. Cosmo Melvill. By G. B. Sowerby, Junr. 

[Eeceived December 30, 1881.] 
(Plate V.) 

CoNUs PRYTANis. (Plate V. fig. 1.) 

Shell somewhat pyriform, lightish brown, here and there longi- 
tudinally streaked with darker brown, encircled with a well-defined 
narrow pale band below the middle ; spire short ; whorls 9, smooth, 
the upper ones sloping, the rest squarely turreted, with bold whitish 
tubercles at the angles, banded with dark brown between the tuber- 
cles ; last whorl slightly rounded at the upper angle between the 
tubercles, faintly ribbed towards the base. Aperture of moderate 
width, nearly equal at both ends, light purple within. Lip thin, 
with scarcely any sinus at the upper extremity. Length 35, width 
at the angle 20 millim. 

Hab. Galapagos Islands. 

In looking over Mr. Melvill's fine collection of Cones in October 
last, he called my attention to this shell, which he had obtained in 
1873 at the sale of the late Thos. Norris's collection, and to which he 
had given in manuscript the above name, not having been able to 
identify it with any known species. I have since compared it with 
C. lividus (Brug.), which it resembles in colour, but from which it 
differs materially in form, being much shorter, with convex sides, 
slightly contracted at the base. It differs also from that species 
in the character of the crown, the tubercles being more clearly de- 
fined and elevated than in any specimen of C. lividus with which I 
have met. Its next ally is C. brunneus (Mavve), the whorls of the 
spire of which species are distinctly grooved, whereas in this they are 
smooth. It differs also from that species somewhat in form, and in 
the whitisli band with which it is encircled. The shell it is most 
like in form and coronation is C, i iaratus (Brod.), which is a species 
far removed from it in colour and markings. 

Upon searching the British-Museum collection, Mr. Edgar A. 
Smith drew my attention to three specimens similar in every respect 
to Mr. Melvill's shell, and undoubtedly of fhe same species, marked 
" Galapagos, sandy mud (H. Cuming)." They had been mistaken 
for a variety of C. brunneus. 

CoNus EVELYNS, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 2.) 

Shell elongately pyriform, pale yellow, striped with light brown, 
encircled with an interrupted whitish band ; spire rather short ; whorls 
flattened, with four spiral grooves, coronated with elongated flattened 
tubercles at the angle ; apex prominent ; last whorl very faintly 
striated, rather convex below the angle, and slightly attenuated 
towards the base. Aperture rather narrow, a little widened towards 
the base, interior white. Length 28, width at the angle 14 millim, 



118 MR. G. B. sowERBY, JUN., ON [Jan. 17, 

Although a shell of uo very striking form, and having characters 
in common with several, there is no species to which I can very 
closely compare it. The spire is rather like that of C. punctatus, 
Hwass ; but it is a much more slender shell, and the painting is quite 
of a different character, 

CoNus SEMivELATus, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 3.) 

Shell pyriform, plum-colour, white at the top ; spire short ; whorls 
slightly convex, smooth ; last whorl rounded at the upper angle, 
then convex, and contracted at the base. Aperture moderate, purple 
within. Length IG, width 10 millim. 

Hab, Red Sea. 

A remarkable little species, of a very unusual colour. The whole 
of the spire and just the top of the last whorl is plain white, and 
the rest of the shell of a uniform plum-colour. 

The specimen is in perfect condition ; and its operculum, which 
is preserved, is very small and thin. Mr. Melvill gave the shell 
the above name in manuscript in his collection. I have seen two 
other specimens, varying very little from the type. 

CoNus DiANTHus, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 4.) 

Shell rather abbreviately conical, pale pink, with irregular patches 
of orange ; transversely rather distantly ribbed, longitudinally 
faintly striated, strise undulating across the ribs and forming thereon 
minute scales ; ribs closer, stronger, and smoother towards the base ; 
spire rather short, regularly conical ; whorls 1 0, flatly sloping, un- 
dulated at the angle, last two or three with a concave depression 
just above the angle ; the last whorl has the upper angle obscurely 
coronated, sides nearly straight, or very slightly convex. Aperture 
rather narrow, a little wider towards the base, pink within. Lip 
very little sinuated at the upper extremity. Length 28, width at 
the angle 13 millim. 

An interesting species of peculiar sculpture, the waved striae 
crossing the ribs giving them more of a scaly than of a nodulous 
appearance. 

CoNTTS wiLMERT, sp. Bov. (Plate V. fig. 5.) 

Shell fusiform, pale brown, transversely ribbed, ribs strong, 
rounded, smooth, equal in width to the interstices, which are crossed 
with thread-like strife ; spire very elevated, whorls 1 1, flatly sloping, 
with three deep-cut spiral grooves, keeled at the angle, a spiral cord 
against the suture ; last whorl with the upper angle acutely keeled, 
sides sloping, and attenuated towards the base. Aperture narrow. 
Lip slightly sinuated at the upper extremity. Length 21, width 8 
millim. 

Hab, Port Blair, Andaman Islands {Lieut. -Col. Wilmer). 

Much narrower than C acutangitlus (Ch.),with a very elevated spire. 

MiTRA MELViLLi, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 7.) 

Shell cylindrically fusiform, encircled throughout with deeply 



1882. J NEW SPECIES OF SHELLS. 119 

punctured grooves, light brown, longitudinally promiscuously 
streaked with pale straw-colour and dark brown, pale straw-colour 
in the grooves, interrupting the dark longitudinal streaks; spire 
nearly equal in length to the mouth; whorls 9, sloping, scarcely 
convex ; last whorl rather convex in the middle, and very slightly 
tapering towards the base. Aperture rather narrow, not contracted 
at the base, interior smooth, white ; columella furnished with six 
small plaits, the lower one being scarcely visible. Lip creuulated. 
Length 31, greatest width (about the middle of the shell) 10 millim. 
The light-coloured grooves intersecting the dark flames give a 
marked character to the painting of this shell. 

PsEUDOLivA (Macron) stereoglypta, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 8.) 

Shell angularly ovate, j)onderous, white ; spire rather short, 
turreted ; whorls 5, convex, rounded at the angle, depressed at 
the suture, with a prominent ridge between the suture and the angle ; 
the last whorl has the upper angle somewhat rounded, and a second 
equally rounded angle a little below, sides slightly convex, with three 
rather broad deep grooves near the base ; umbilical ridge thick and 
broad. Aperture oblong-oval, smooth, white within. Lip very 
thick at the upper part. Cohimella furnished with a callosity, 
which is thickened into a tubercle at the upper part and depressed so 
as to cover the uiibilicus at the lower. Length 75, width 51 millim. 
Length of aperture 43, width 21 millim. 

The specimen is unfortunately in bad condition, the outer surface 
being much worn and the lip imperfect ; but it is certainly worthy of 
notice, being the largest species of a very limited genus, and of a 
bold and striking outline, entirely different from the two largest 
species hitherto known, P. keJlettii and P. cethiops. 

I have not attempted to describe the surface of the shell, on 
account of its condition ; but there are faint indications of obsolete 
sulci, with a sort of malleation between. 

Engina xantholetjca, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 9.) 

Shell fusiform, white, painted with yellow from the lower extre- 
mity to nearly halfway up the body-whorl, the colour terminating 
abruptly ; longitudinally rather obliquely and distantly ribbed ; 
spirally closely and deeply grooved ; spire elevated, about equal in 
length to the aperture, rather tumid ; whorls 6, shghtly convex ; 
last whorl rather convex above, then tapering, contracted and pro- 
duced at the base. Aperture oblong. Outer lip furnished exteriorlv 
with a slightly flattened frilled varix, and interiorly with six elon- 
gated tubercles or teeth. Columella smooth. Canal moderate, 
slightly recurved. Length 15, width 6 milHm. 

Ilab. Mauritius. 

CoLUMDELLA (Anachis) ostreicola, sp. Hov. (Plate V. fig. 10.) 

Shell minute, subfusiform, blackish brown, longitudinally ribbed, 
libs slightly nodulous at the upper part ; transversely grooved to- 
wards the base ; spire acute, rather longer than the mouth ; whorls 



120 MR. SOWERBY, JUN., ON NEW SPECIES OF SHELLS. [Jan. 1", 

6, sloping, scarcely convex ; nucleus smooth ; last whorl somewhat 
swollen, contracted towards the base. Aperture oblong, dark brown 
within. Lip with a moderate sinus above, denticulated within. 
Canal very short. Columella with a nodulous callosity above. 
Length 4, width 2 millim. 

Hab. Florida, on Ostrea virginica (Melvill). 

Mr. Melvill found specimens of this shell as noted above in 1872, 
and in 1879 gave the species the above name in manuscript in his 
collection ; but the shell has not I believe been hitherto described. It 
is allied to C. nigricans, but smaller and quite different. 

FissuRELLA MELviLLi, sp. uov. (Plate V. iig. 1 1 .) 

Shell oval, rather elevated, broad behind, slightly contracted in 
front ; radiately closely ribbed, ribs very little raised, alternately 
larger ; concentrically wrinkled ; pale green, interior greyish white. 
Orifice round, subcentral. Margin shghtly irregularly wrinkled. 
Length .50, width 40, height 22 millim. 

Differing from its congeners chiefly in the rotundity of its orifice. 

Pecten SIBYLLA, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 12.) 

Shell thin, suborbicular, acutely elevated at the umbones, equi- 
lateral, equivalve. Colour light orange, concentrically faintly banded 
with darker orange. Upper valve slightly convex, lower somewhat 
flatter ; both valves very finely and closely ribbed, ribs very delicately 
serrated. Right auricle narrow, extending to about a quarter of the 
length of the shell from umbo to margin ; left auricle moderately 
broad. Alt. 58, lat. .56 millim. 

A very beautiful species with delicate sculpture ; the ribs are very 
numerous and close-set, varying slightly and promiscuously in size, 
not regularly alternating as in some species. The delicate close-set 
scales cover the whole of the ribs. 

The specimen passed from the collection of the late Thomas Lombe 
Taylor into that of Mr. Melvill, who gave it the above name in 
manuscript. 

Pecten loxoides, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 13.) 

Shell rather thin, obliquely subovate, inequilateral, white, with 
the upper valve transversely undulately streaked, and spotted with 
pinkish orange. Lower valve rather deep, upper shghtly convex. 
Radiating .ribs 20 in number, prominent, rounded, smooth ; inter- 
stices about equal in width to the ribs, also smooth. Auricles 
small, the right rather larger than the left. Alt. 25, lat. 24 millim. 

Hah. Australia. 

The valves of the specimen are odd ; there are also odd valves of 
the same species in the British Museum. The species is quite unhke 
any hitherto described, and may be easily recognized by the obliquity 
of its outline. 

CoNus textile, vai.VEUETRios. (Plate V. fig. 6.) 

Compared with C. cahonicus (Brug.), more pyriform and atten- 



p. Z,S .1882. PI -ATI, 




C Beijeax^ del et lath 



NEW ASTEROIDEA 



Mirxt-ern. Bros irr^ 



1882.] PROF. F. J. BELL ON NEW SPECIES OF ASTKROIDEA. 121 

uated at the base ; very closely aud beautifully inlaid with minute white 
triangular scale-like markings upon a dark-brown ground, disposed 
in three broad bands ; the colour in the narrow spaces between the 
bands is lighter brown, with the markings tending to zigzag streaks ; 
the markings of the spire are waved streaks crossing the whorls. 
Length 51, width 23 millim. 

Mr. Melvill had named this shell in manuscript Conus euetrios ; 
and I admit that it is quite as worthy to be considered a species as 
O. canonicus (Brug.), C. vicarius (Lamk.), G. verriculum (Reeve), 
C. archiepiscoptis (Brug.), C. tigrinus (Sowerby), C. corbida and 
scriptus (Sowerby), all of which, however, I consider varieties of 
Conus textile (Linnaeus). It is the opinion of some that, having got 
thus far, other species, such as C. abbas (Brug.), C. panniculus 
(Lk.), C. legatus (Lk.), &c., should be included ; but having had 
exceptional opportunities, from time to time, of examining large 
numbers of specimens of all the varieties, I continue to regard these 
last as species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 
Fig.l. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 



4. Descriptions of new or rare Species of Asteroidea in 
tlie Collection of the British Museum. By F. Jeffrey 
Bell, M.A., F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived January 10, 1882.] 

(Plate VI.) 

Although naturalists are agreed that it is most convenient to 
publish descriptions of new species in connexion with a systematic 
review of the groups to which they severally belong, I venture on 
this occasion to depart from the custom, as a knowledge of these new 
species may be agreeable to those who are interested in the order, 
while the revisions can only appear slowly, and at perhaps great 
intervals of time. 

Calvasterias antipodum, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 1.) 

The credit of recognizing the generic affinities of this species must 
be given to M. Perrier; for there is attached to the bottle con- 
taining it a label bearing, in his handvpriting, " Calvasterias, sp." 
It formed part of the collection made during the voyage of the 
' Erebus' and 'Terror.' 

R= 61; r = 19. Arms five, greatest breadth of arm \7'^ 
millim. Adambulacral spines generally in a single row, stout and 



Conus pry tanis, p. 117. 


Fig. 8. 


Pseudoliva (Macron) stereoglypta , 


evelynm, p. 117. 




p. 119. 


semivelatus, p. 118. 


9. 


Engina xantholeiiea, p. 119. 


diaiithiis, p. 1 18. 


10. 


Colimihella {Anachis) ostreicola. 


wilmeri, p. 118. 




p. 119. 


textile, var. euetrios. 


11. 


Fissurella melvilli, p. 120. 


p. 120. 


12. 


Pecten sihyllm, p. 120. 


Mitra melvilli, p. 118. 


l.S. 


loxoides, p. 120. 



122 PROF. F. J. BELL ON NEW [Jan. 1/, 

rounded at their tips. Madreporic plate almost subcentral. The 
integument is thick, and has a peculiar clammhiess ; and the spines 
developed on the surface are rather scale-like rounded processes, 
ornamented with a radial striation ; of these an irregular series 
extends along the median dorsal line of each ray ; towards the 
extremity of the ray the scales become a little thinner and longer, 
or, in other words, more spinous ; the striation may still be detected 
on their tips. While at this end they are somewhat scattered, they 
are more numerous at the base of the arm, where also they are 
larger. Passing into the disk a complete circlet is made by these 
processes, the aggregation at the base of each radial series being 
brought into connexion with its fellows by interradial aggregations. 
In this way a rather broad though somewhat feebly indicated circlet 
of modified spines lies around the centre of the disk ; a few similar 
spines are to be found in the central space. In the middle of one 
of the interradial aggregations there is placed the madreporic plate, 
which thus comes to be surrounded by a circlet of spines. On the 
arms three rows of pore-areas may be made out on either side of 
the median row of spines, which are the only spinous processes 
that are developed on the abactinal surface. The marginal spines, 
short and blunt and pretty regularly arranged, have an appearance 
not unlike that presented by the jaw of a Cydodus. Between 
them and the adambulacral spines there is a bare space, which, in 
this spirit-specimen, is narrow and groove-like. The whole creature 
is of a yellowish-white hue ; and the suckers are little darker than 
the rest of the body. 

A single specimen. The only indication of its habitat is the 
fact that it was collected during the voyage of the ' Erebus ' and 
* Terror.' 

Cribrella minxjta, n. sp. (Plate VI. fig. 2.) 

R = 18 ; r = 6"5 Arms five, 6 millim. wide at their base, 
and somewhat rapidly diminishing in breadth. The abactinal sur- 
face plain, and similar for its whole extent. The adambulacral 
spines fringing the groove are arranged in a single row ; there is 
generally one for each plate ; they are of a fair size, and are 
distinctly separated from one another. Externally to these there is 
a series of transverse rows, containing at least three or four spines, 
and sometimes having them arranged in double order. Beyond 
these, and separated from them by a more or less distinct lon- 
gitudinal groove, is a longitudinal row of closely packed spines. 
Externally to this there are a number of combs of spines set trans- 
versel}', which occupy the edge of the actinal surface of the ray. 
The next series of spines is not so regularly arranged, and leads to 
the irregular disposition of spiniferous ossicles which obtains on the 
abactinal surface. The madreporic plate is small, obscure, and 
marginal. No pedicellarise detected. 

The colour of the single example (which has been in spirit for 
more than twenty-five years) is dead white. 

Ecuador (Haslar collection, J. O. Goodridge, Esq., R.N.). 



1882.] OR RARE SPECIES OF ASTEROIDEA. 123 

MithrDdia VICTORI.B, 11. sp. (Plate VI. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

R = 26-5, r = 3-5 ; R = 30, r = 4-6. Arms five, 4 or 4-2 
millim. wide at their base, and not diminishing in breadth for some 
distance from the disk ; integument of the abactinal surface marked 
out into spaces by the arms of the calcareous skeletal pieces ; a few 
spines, two or three millimetres long, are to be found along the 
middle line of the arm ; a few spines, which are generally a little 
longer, are placed at the upper or abactinal edge of the side of the 
arm. They frequently exhibit a white and brown patchwork-like 
coloration, which is due to the arrangement of the pigment in the 
integument which covers them. The actinal or lower margin of the 
side of the arm has along it from 7 to 10 spines of about the same 
length as those on the upper margin. The rather wide ambulacral 
groove is fringed by a regular series of short blunt spines, which are 
strongest in the region which falls within the disk. Within this 
series there is a row of smaller and more delicate spines, of which 
about five, set in fan-shape, belong to each ambulacral ossicle ; the 
outer and larger spines may be coarsely granulated. The madre- 
poric plate is small, white, and rounded, and is set not far from the 
centre of the disk ; the abactinal surface of the disk presents no 
characters by which it may be distinguished from that of the arms ; 
the papulee on the actinal surface are rare. No pedicellariiB detected. 

This new species is to be distinguished from M. claviffera by 
(1) the rarity of the papular spaces on the abactinal surftice, (2) by 
the proportionally smaller spines, and (3) by the absence of a row 
of spines between the ventro-marginal series and the abactinal rows, 
a row which appears to be constantly present in the better-known 
form. Judging from the single specimen of M. bradleiji in the 
collection of the British Museum, that species has much larger 
papular pores, has two rows of spines on the actinal surface of the 
rays, and none at all on their abactinal surface. 

Victoria Bank (20" 42' S., 37° 27' W.) ; depth 39 fathoms ; 
bottom, dead coral. 

Both the specimens from which the above description has been 
drawn up are injured ; one appears to have lost one of its arms 
during life, as the free end is healed. They formed part of the 
collection made by Dr. Coppinger (H.M.S. 'Alert') in 1879-80; 
but they were not noticed in my report (P. Z. S. 1881), as they 
did not form a part of the fauna of the Straits of Magellan. 

Fromia indica. 

Fromia indica, Perrier, Rev. des Stellcr. p. 177. 

Scy taster indicus, Perrier, Ann. Sc. Nat. (5)xii. p. 255. 

Although M. Perrier's description states that his specimen has six 
rays, I have no hesitation in assigning to the species a five-rayed 
specimen, in which the proportion of R to r is somewhat greater 
than in the example which formed the object of M. Perrier's 
description. I base the determination chiefly on the following con- 
siderations : — The presence of six rays is of itself no evidence in 
favour of a true polyactinid condition as against a possible heter- 



124 PROF. BELL ON NEW SPECIES OF ASTEROIDEA. [Jan. 17, 

actinic peculiarity ; and the decision can only be given with the aid of 
evidence which proves or disproves the idea that the species can and 
does undergo division. Such evidence is here afforded by the spe- 
cimen in the national collection ; for it has the arms of different 
lengths ; this, of course, points to some of the arms being younger 
than the others, or, in other words, as having arisen by gemmation 
after division. 

The heteractinic, rather than the sexradiate, condition should 
therefore be regarded as a part of the diagnosis of the species. 

Fromia tumida, n. sp. (Plate VI. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Arms and disk more swollen than in most of the species of the 
genus. R = 4.5, r= 14; R = 35, r = 11-5, orR= 3'2r (about): 
breadth of arms at base 14'5, 12*5 millim. All the plates on the 
actinal surface, with the exception of those of the marginal series, are 
closely covered with stout spines, from which the spines of the adara- 
bulacral series are distinguished by their smaller size. The whole of 
the abactiual surface is covered by squarish-headed granules, which are 
all of very much the same size, and are all very regularly distributed ; 
they are arranged in elliptical aggregations, two or three rows of 
which extend along the back of the ray, or they are placed between 
these aggregations ; in the former case they are somewhat more 
closely packed. The intermediate spaces, in addition to the 
granules, present a certain number of pores, which, however, are, 
in comparison with other species of this genus, rare. The madre- 
poric plate is rather nearer the margin than the centre of the disk, 
and is very similar to the same body in F. milleporella. There are 
about seventeen marginal plates in both the actinal and abactinal 
series ; and both sets are covered with granules of a fiiir size ; and the 
marginal granules of each set are to be easily distinguished from the 
more central ones which they surround. For some way along the 
surface of the arm the dorso-marginal plates are deeper than long ; 
the infero-marginal plates are much more nearly square. There 
seems to be a large pore at the proximal angle between the two sets 
of marginal plates ; but as the two specimens on which this descrip- 
tion is drawn up have both been dried, it is not possible to speak 
definitely on the point. The same remark will apply to the pore at 
the proximal angle of the actinal edge of the infero-marginal plates. 

The adambulacral spines appear to be arranged in three longi- 
tudinal rows. They are subequal in size, and diminish very slightly 
as they approach the free end of the xny. The space between these 
spines and the marginal plates is completely occupied with short 
stout spines, set in tufts on small plates. No pedicellarise. 

Ceylon. Presented by M. Kelaart. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 
Fig. 1. Scales of Calvasterias antipodum, X 4 : 1. 

2, Abactinal surface of Cribrella minuta, X 2 : 1. 

3, 3«. Actinal and abactmal surfaces of Mithrodia victorice, X 2 : 1. 

4, 4a. Actinal and abactinal surfaces of Fromia tumida, showing the 

arrangement of the plates and spines, X 3 : 2. 
46. Portion of actinal surface, more highly magnified. 



F,Z S 1882 W.VII. 




AUSTRALIAN AND PACIFIC CICADID/E , 



1882.] MR. W. L. DISTANT ON UNDESCRIBED CICADID/E. 125 



5. On some undescribed Cicadidse from the Australian and 
Pacific Regions. By W. L. Distant. 

[Eeceived January 13, 1882.] 
(Plate Aai.) 

The species here described are almost wholly from the Museum 
Godeffroy at Hamburg, the Rhynchotal collection of which I have 
been requested to determine by Mr. Schmeltz, 

. Australia is particularly rich in Cicadidse ; aud from what little is 
known at present it probably possesses the greatest number of that 
family compared with any other region of the globe. Cyclochila, Psal- 
toda, Henicopsaltria, Thopha, Cystosoma, and Chlorocysta are genera 
remarkable in structure, some extremely limited and none numerous in 
species and, so far as our present knowledge extends, completely con- 
fined to Australia ; whilst the genus Melampsalta, though not alto- 
gether confined to that continent, is yet even now known to comprise 
a greater number of Australian species than can be found belouging 
to a genus in any other fauna. Two genera. Cicada and Tibicen, 
have almost a world-wide range, or are at least found in all the 
zoological regions. 

If we compare the distribution of the Australian Cicadidae with 
the geographical features of the botany of the same region, coinci- 
dences at once appear. Many afliuities, as has been so ably pointed 
out by Dr. Hooker, exist between the South-African and Australian 
floras ; and genera are found common to these two regions which are 
found nowhere else. One very striking and parallel case may be 
mentioned in the Cicadidse. The Australian genus Cystosoma is 
strikingly dissimilar to the usual generic type in having a wonder- 
fully inflated and dilated abdomen : in South Africa we find in this 
respect an analogous genus in Pydna. The extraordinary multiplicity 
of Australian species in the genus Melainpsalta reflects the abund- 
ance of species in the genus Acacia as found in the same region. 

In the specific nomenclature I have largely used the names of 
Australian explorers, qualitative terms being an impossibility to 
provide for these insects, and more likely to obscure than to eluci- 
date their differences. 

CosMOPSALTRiA STUARTi, H. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 2, 2a, 2b.) 

Body above pale greenish, sparingly pilose. Head with a spot on 
each lateral margin, and a smaller and rounded spot on each side of 
the ocelli, black; ocelli red margined with black; eyes dull ochraceous. 
Pronotum with two narrow, central, longitudinal fuscous fasciae, some- 
what faint and obliterated about centre, more widely divergent on 
anterior margin, and joined together on the posterior margin ; oblique 
striae behind eyes, and a spot on anterior inner border of lateral mar- 
gin, also fuscous. Mesonotum with two central obconical spots mar- 



I2(i MR. W. L. DISTANT ON UNDESCRIBED CICADID^. [Jan. 17, 

gined with fuscous, a faiut broken sublateral fascia on each side, an 
irregular spot on disk, and a small rounded spot in front of each 
anterior branch of basal cruciform elevation fuscous. Abdomen be- 
coming faintly testaceous towards apex ; body beneath and legs pale 
greenish ; apices of the tibiae, rostrum, tarsi, and apical segment of 
abdomen pale testaceous. Tegmina and wings pale hyaline ; tegmiua 
with the costal membrane pale greenish, the apical portion of the 
venation fuscous. 

The abdomen is elongate, and much attenuated towards apex, the 
dorsal surface of the basal segment is somewhat rounded and produced 
anteriorly, and sinuated centrally on the posterior margin. The head, 
including outer margin of eyes (which are very large and promi- 
nent), is very little narrower than base of pronotum. The opercula 
reach the base of the third abdominal segment, and are broadly 
and deeply sinuate on their outer margin, with the apices rounded. 
Rostrum reaching posterior coxoe. Face with a central impression, 
and very strongly striated transversely. 

Long. 21 millim. ; exp. tegm. 51 millini. 

Hab. Fiji Islands. (Mus. Godeflfroy.) 

This species is closely allied to 0. distans, Walk., which is also 
found in the same locality. From this it differs in being only one 
half the size, and in having the dorsal surface of the basal segment of 
the abdomen sinuated behind, besides which the head is more pro- 
duced in front and wider between the eyes relative to the width of the 
pronotum at the base. The opercula also are longer, as in Walker's 
species they do not reach the apex of the third abdominal segment. 

TiBiCEN BURKEi, u. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 3, 'da, 33.) 

S • Head castaneous, area of the ocelli and two spots at base black, 
base ochraceous, more or less margined with black; pronotum ochra- 
ceous, with a central hourglass-shaped fuscous fascia, the centre of 
which is longitudinally ochraceous ; on each side of disk is a small 
black curved fascia ; oblique striee, inner borders of lateral margins, 
lateral angles, and anterior border of posterior margin also blackish. 
Mesonotum black, with a small central angulated spot on disk, on 
each side of which is a waved and angulated fascia, narrowest and com- 
mencing on anterior margin and joined to anterior branches of basal 
cruciform elevation, followed by a straight sublateral fascia, ochraceous. 
Cruciform basal elevation dull ochraceous. Abdomen black, sparingly 
pilose ; posterior margin of apical segment and anal appendage tes- 
taceous. Underside of head, sternum, and opercula ochraceous and 
pubescent, the last with the disk fuscous and posterior margin nar- 
rowly but clearly ochraceous. Face castaneous with the centre black. 
Anterior legs ochraceous, femora streaked with fuscous, base of tibiae 
and apex of tarsi fuscous, apical half of tibias somewhat castaneous. 
Intermediate and posterior legs with the coxte luteous ; femora pitchy, 
with the apices luteous ; intermediate tibiae castaneous, with the base 
ochraceous, posterior tibiae ochraceous. Abdomen beneath black, 
with the apical segment and anal appendage testaceous. Tegmina 
and wings pale hyaline; tegmina witli the costal membrane and basal 



1882.] MR. ^y. L. DISTANT ON UNDESCRIBED CICADID-E. 127 

portion of venation ochraceous, costal area fuscous, anastomoses in- 
fuseated. 

The rostrum just passes the apices of the posterior eoxte ; face with 
the sides transversely striated, its width about equal to the distance 
from its lateral margin to inner margin of eyes ; opercula not cover- 
ing the apical margin of metasternum, with their posterior margins 
broadly rounded. 

Long. 21 millim. ; exp. tegm. 65 millim. 

Hah. Australia, Peak Downs. (Mus. Godeffroy ; coll. Dist.) 

TiBiCEN wiLLSi, n. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 4, Aa, 4b.) 

$ . Body above black. Head with the apex of face testaceous, the 
ocelli red. Pronotum with three large and confluent ochraceous 
spots on each side, somewhat narrowly separated at centre, and 
almost extending to lateral margins. Mesonotum black, with two 
very obscm-e obconical spots ; basal cruciform elevation dull ochra- 
ceous. Abdomen black, with the apical segmental margins testaceous ; 
anal appendage obscure pitchy-testaceous. Underside of body and 
legs pale testaceous ; head between face and eyes black ; lateral 
margins of sternum spotted with fuscous, and a lateral abdominal 
segmental row of transverse spots of the same colour. Tegmiua and 
wings pale hyaline ; tegmina with the venation fuscous, the costal 
membrane, basal and claval areas ochraceous, trausverse veins at base 
of second and third apical areas, with connecting portion of longi- 
tudinal vein, infuscated ; wings with the basal and^claval areas ochra- 
ceous. 
_ The face is very convex, narrowly and longitudinaly sulcated, the 
sides transversely striated, rostrum reaching the posterior coxee ; 
posterior lateral angles of pronotum somewhat acutely ampliated 
and produced. 

Long. 20 millim. ; exp. tegm. 53 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Peak Downs, Sydney. (Mus. Godeffroy ; coll. 
Dist.) 

I have been enabled to examine nine specimens of this distinctly 
marked species, all of which, however, were females. In general 
appearance these have a superficial resemblance to the genus Melam- 
psalta. 

[Since writing the above I have discovered one male specimen of 
this species in the Godeffroy collection, which was received from 
Sydney. The opercula are pale ochraceous, with somewhat paler 
margin, and about reach the base of the first abdominal segment, 
they are slightly directed inwardly, the inner margins rounded and 
produced, but considerably apart, and the posterior margins wide and 
very slightly rounded.] 

TiBicEN GiLMOREi, u. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 8, 8«, Sb.) 
cJ . Body above dull testaceous. Head castaneous, the vertex some- 
what darker than the front, area of the ocelli blackish. Pronotum 
with a central fuscous longitudinal fascia which has a very wide 
and triangular base, hind margin fuscous, with the posterior edge 



128 MR. \V. L. DISTANT ON UNOESCRIBED CICADID.E. [Jan. 17, 

pale ochraceous. Mesouotiim with two central obconical spots 
bordered with ochraceous, a curved fascia on each side of disk con- 
nected with anterior branches of cruciform elevation ochraceous, and 
a lateral black fascia bordered outwardly (anteriorly) jind inwardly 
(posteriorly) with ochraceous ; basal elevation ochraceous with a 
black spot at centre and one on each branch near apex. Abdomen 
sparingly pilose, with the posterior segmental margins ochraceous. 
Body beneath and legs ochraceous ; face castaneous ; disk of abdomen 
more or less castaneous, posterior segmental margins pale, anal ap- 
pendage with a central longitudinal fuscous streak. Tegmina and 
wings pale hyaline ; tegmina with the veins fuscous, anastomoses 
and connecting longitudinal veins (excepting that before the last 
and lower anastomosis) infuscated, apices of longitudinal veins nar- 
rowly infuscated. 

The body is short, the front of the head produced and prominent, 
the face long and convex, rostnim reaching posterior coxae ; opercula 
small, not covering metasteruum. 

Long. 18 millim.; exp. tegm. 60 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Swan River. (Coll. Dist.) 

This species is allied to T. interriipta. Walk., but larger, body 
shorter and more robust, and head with the front much more pro- 
duced. 

TiBiCEN MUELLERi, n. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 6, 6a, 6b.) 

2 . Body above ochraceous. Head with two small spots at base of 
front, a spot near anterior lateral angle of vertex, and area of the 
ocelli fuscous; eyes tinged with fuscous. Prouotum with two cen- 
tral longitudinal black fasciae sinuated at centre and meeting on 
anterior and posterior margins ; a small oblique fascia commencing 
from behind eyes and terminating on lateral margins also fuscous. 
Mesonotum with two small obconical spots, inwardly margined with 
fuscous, and an elongate fuscous spot on disk in front of basal ele- 
vation. Scutellum \\ith a central fuscous spot, which is continued 
and narrowed on the first three segments of the abdomen ; anal ap- 
pendage with a large fuscous spot on each side. Body beneath and 
legs pale ochraceous, abdominal segments with a transverse series of 
broad fuscous fasciae. Tegmina and wings pale hyaline ; tegmina 
with the costal membrane and basal half of venation ochraceous, 
transverse veins at bases of first and second ulnar areas, anastomoses 
with some of the connecting venation, apical longitudinal veins, 
apical margins of apical areas, and claval margin fuscous ; transverse 
veins at bases of second and third apical areas broadly infuscated. 

The head has the front prominently produced; and its width, in- 
cluding outer margin of eyes, is less than that of the base of the 
pronotum ; the face is large, elongate, and very convex, with a faint 
longitudinal impression, and somewhat obscure transverse striations. 
The rostrum reaches the posterior coxae. 

Long. 11 millim.; exp. tegm. 38 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Peak Downs, (Mus. (xodefiroy.) 



1882.] MR. W. L. DISTANT ON UNDESCRIBED CICADIDiE. 129 

TiBiCEN GREGORYi, 11. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 7, 7a, 7b.) 

cJ . Body above pale ochraceous. Head with the ocelli reddish, 
the eyes tinged with fuscous, mesonotum with two very obscure 
central obconical spots, a central discal longitudinal and two sub- 
lateral fasciae. Abdomen somewhat thickly covered with greyish 
pilosity. Body beneath and legs pale ochraceous, excepting the 
abdomen, which is pale fuscous. Tegmina and wings pale hyaline ; 
tegmina with the venation ochraceous, excepting apical longitudinal 
veins and apical margins of apical areas, which are pale fuscous ; 
transverse veins at bases of second and third apical areas broadly 
infuscated. 

The head is broad, and, including eyes, as wide as pronotum, ot 
which the anterior and posterior width is subequal. The face is 
large, elongate, and very convex, with faint transverse striations. 
The rostrum reaches the posterior coxae. The opercula are small, 
broad, and rounded posteriorly, and about reach the posterior edge 
of metasternum. 

Long. 10 millim.; exp. tegm. 34 milhm. 

Hab. Australia, Peak Downs. (Mus. Godeffroy.) 

This species is allied to the preceding (T. muelleri, Dist.), from 
which it differs in the broader and less anteriorly produced head, 
the shape of the pronotum, and in the different' markings of the 
abdomen, tegmina, &c. 

Melampsalta warburtoni, n. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 9, 9a, 96.) 

Head with the vertex black, the front ochraceous with a black 
central longitudinal line. Pronotum ochraceous, with a central 
longitudinal fascia, lateral and posterior margins dark castaneous. 
Mesonotum dark castaneous, with two pale irregular fasciae on dfsk, 
commencing on anterior margin and terminating at anterior angles 
of basal cruciform elevation ; anterior lateral margins narrowly 
ochraceous. Abdomen ochraceous. Body beneath and legs ochra- 
ceous ; head black, with the face ochraceous, of which the transverse 
stri^_ are castaneous. Tegmina and wings pale hyaline, with the 
venation ochraceous. 

The body is sparingly pilose above; the anterior femora are armed 
with three strong spines ; the rostrum just passes the intermediate 
coxse ; the face is narrowly but deeply sulcated lougitudinally, and 
strongly transversely striate. 

Long. 15 millim. ; exp. tegm. 38 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Peak Downs. (Mus. Godeffroy ; coll, Dist.) 

Melampsalta forresti. (Plate VII. figs. 10, 10a, 106.) 
6 ■ Body above ochraceous. Head with a transverse black fascia 
between the eyes, partly surrounding ocelli. Pronotum with the 
frontal portion of the interior edge of lateral margins narrowly 
black, and the anterior edge of posterior margin broadly of 
the same colour ; two small obscure fuscous spots on anterior 
margin. Mesonotum with the following fuscous markings : — two 
central obconical spots, and two of somewhat like shape near lateral 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. IX. 9 



130 MR. W. L. DISTANT ON UNDESCRIBED CICADID^. [Jail. 17, 

margins, one commencing near outer edge of anterior margin ; the 
other joins anterior angles of basal elevation ; these angles are bor- 
dered outwardly bj' an angulated spot, and inwardly by a small 
rounded spot with a central longitudinal line. Abdomen with a 
series of pale fuscous transverse segmental fasciae. Body beneath and 
legs pale ochraceous, inner margin of eyes black. Tegmiua and wings 
pale hyaline, venation ochraceous, becoming darker towards apex. 

The body above is sparingly pilose, the rostrum just passes the 
intermediate coxae, with its apex black ; the face is deeply longitu- 
dinally sulcated, and strongly transversely striate ; anterior femora 
armed with three strong teeth. 

Long. 15 millim. ; exp. tegm. 41 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Queensland, Gayndah. (Mus. Godeffroy ; coll. 
Dist.) 

The females of this species are somewhat larger than the males, 
but vary in size. 

Melampsalta eyrei, n. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 12, 12a, 126.) 

S . Head black, with the anterior and lateral margins testaceous 
and with a small central basal ochraceous spot ; ocelli reddish, eyes 
dull ochraceous. Pronotum ochraceous, with two very large rect- 
angular black spots placed somewhat obliquely, commencing on 
inner edge of lateral margins, and divided on disk by a central longi- 
tudinal fascia which is widened anteriorly and posteriorly and is 
marked at base by a small black spot. Mesonotum with two cen- 
tral obconical spots placed close together, and two larger ones near 
lateral margins, black. Abdomen with the disk tinged with reddish, 
the posterior segmental margins bright ochraceous, the apical seg- 
ment irregularly marked with black. Body beneath ochraceous ; 
face black, with the anterior margin testaceous, the lateral margins 
ochraceous ; inner margin of eyes to base of rostrum, a few scattered 
and irregular spots on sternum, apex of rostrum, and apical segments 
of abdomen black. Tegmina and wings pale hyaline ; venation 
ochraceous, becoming darker towards apex. 

The body is sparingly pilose, rostrum just passing the intermediate 
coxae, anterior femora armed with three spines ; face broad but com- 
pressed, broadly and longitudinally sulcated and distinctly trans- 
versely striate. 

Long. 16 millim. ; exp. tegm. 44 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Peak Downs. (Mus. Godeffroy ; coll. Dist.) 

Melampsalta mackinlayi, n, sp. (Plate VII. figs. 13, 13a, I3b.) 

Closely allied to M. varians, Germ., but much smaller ; head 
broader, including eyes equal in width to base of pronotum ; rostrum 
just passing intermediate coxae ; opercula small and pale oehraceous ; 
tegmina much shorter, with the costa more rounded. 

Long. 13 millim.; exp. tegm. 38 millim. 

Hab. Austraha, Peak Downs. 

This species has also considerable affinity to M. themiscura, Walk., 
in markings, but differs much in size. 



1882.] MR. W. L. DISTANT ON UNDESCRIBED CICADID.E. 131 

Melampsalta oxleyi, n. sp. 

5 . Body above ochraceous. Head with the frontal margin, 
lateral margins of vertex, inner margins of eyes, and area of the 
ocelli (the last extending to base of head, and connected with inner 
margins of eyes) very dark castaneous. Pronotum with a pale cen- 
tral longitudinal fascia, bordered with black on each side, widest 
anteriorly and narrowed posteriorly ; lateral and posterior margins 
much paler, inner border of first, and outer third of inner border of 
the second, narrowly fuscous. Mesonotum with two short central 
obconical spots and two large sublateral and subtriangular spots 
dark fuscous, and a small rounded fuscous spot at each anterior 
angle of basal cruciform elevation. Abdomen with segmental bases 
very broadly fuscous, and with a large fuscous streak on each side of 
anal appendage. Body beneath pale ochraceous ; face, rostrum, and 
two small spots at base of ovipositor more or less fuscous. Tegmina 
and wings pale hyaline ; tegmina with the venation pale ochraceous, 
transverse veins at bases of second and third apical areas broadly 
and darkly infuscated ; upper margin of first apical area, outer mar- 
gin of first to seventh apical areas, gradually increasing in width, till 
the whole of the sixth and greater part of the fifth and seventh areas 
are occupied, and apical external margin dark fuscous. 

The head is broad, and with outer margins of eyes about equals in 
width the base of pronotum ; the face is moderately convex, with a 
deep longitudinal sulcation and sti'ong transverse striations. Rostrum 
reaching the intermediate coxae ; and body sparingly pilose above and 
more densely so beneath. 

Long. 18 millim. ; exp. tegm. 48 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Peak Downs. (Mus. GodefFroy.) 

The tegminal markings render this species very distinct. I have 
seen but one specimen (here described), which is a female. 

Melampsalta landsboroughi, n. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 14, 
14a, 145.) 

$ . Head black, with a central longitudinal line to front and 
three basal spots ochraceous. Pronotum dull ochraceous, with a 
central pale fascia bordered with black, a short angulated fascia on 
disk and oblique striae also black, lateral and posterior margins 
more or less shaded with black. Mesonotum black, very faintly 
and obscurely marked with ochraceous, the basal cruciform elevation 
pale ochraceous. Abdomen ochraceous with a broad central black 
fascia ; the anal appendage with the lateral sides also broadly black. 
Body beneath, with the head, black, lateral margins of face ochra- 
ceous. Sternum much shaded with black. Legs ochraceous, coxae 
and femora streaked with black and fuscous markings, anal appen- 
dage black, with a large spot on each lateral margin and extreme 
apex luteous. Tegmina and wings pale hyahne ; tegmina with the 
costal membrane greenish-ochraceous, the veins fuscous. 

The rostrum about reaches posterior coxae ; the face is broad, 
deeply and longitudinally sulcated, and transversely strongly striated ; 

9* 



132 MH. W. L. DISTANT ON UNDESCRIBKD CICADID.E. [Jan. 17, 

the head, including eyes, is considerably narrower than base of pro- 
notum ; anterior femora armed with three strong spines. 

Long. 16 millim. ; exp. tegm. 45 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Sydney. (Coll. Dist.) 

This species was identified by Walker (List Horn. i. p. 1/2. 117, 
1850) as the Cicada melunopijgia. Germ., and thus stands in the 
collection of the British INIuseum. Germar's species, however, 
belongs to the genus Tihicen, and as such has been fully described 
by Stfil (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 4, vol. 1, p. 618. 2, 1861.) 

Melampsalta leichardti, u. sp. (Plate VIL figs. 5, ba, 56.) 

$ . Body above ochraceous. Head with the frontal anterior 
margin, a spot on anterior lateral angles of vertex, an oblique fascia 
behind eyes, two small linear spots between ocelli and eyes, a trans- 
verse spot on anterior margin of vertex, and antennae black. Pro- 
notum with two central linear black lines, not extending to posterior 
margin, and widened and angulated near anterior margin, oblique 
strise, and inner border of posterior margin (on centre of which 
is a round spot) black. Mesonotum with two short contiguous cen- 
tral obconical spots, on each side of which is a more elongate and 
broken one, and two small rounded spots in front of basal cruciform 
elevation, black. Abdomen with a series of dorsal transverse black 
fasciae, decreasing in width towards apex. Anal appendage flith a 
black line on each side. Body beneath ochraceous ; base and 
lateral margins of face, apex of rostrum, and ovipositor black. Legs 
ochraceous ; femora streaked with fuscous ; anterior tibiae black, 
annulated with ochraceous near base. Tegmina and wings pale hya- 
line ; tegmina with the costal membrane and area and veins enclosing 
basal ulnar area pale ochraceous, remaining venation fuscous. 

Head, including eyes, equal in width to pronotum : rostrum reach- 
ing intermediate coxae ; face somewhat compressed, centrally and 
longitudinally broadly sulcated for half its length, and transversely 
striate. 
• Long. 10 millim. ; exp. tegm. 25 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Peak Downs. 

This small but distinct species is allied to M. sericevitta, Walk. ; 
and I am indebted to Mr. Pascoe for an opportunity of comparing 
the same. The figure here given is considerably enlarged. 

Cystosoma schmeltzi, n. sp. (Plate VIL figs. 11, llrt, 116.) 

Closely allied to the only other known species of the genus, 
C. saundersii, from which it differs in being only one third the size, 
and principally in the very different venation of the tegmina, the 
reticulations of which are faithfully portrayed in the figure, and 
cannot be adequately described, but are different in pattern and less 
extended in area than in the other species. The abdomen is much 
smaller and less inflated ; the opercula are obscurely sinuated on 
their lateral and posterior margins. 

Long. 25 millim. ; exp. tegm. 62 millim. 

Hab. Australia, Gayndah. (Mus. Godeffroy.) 



1882.} MR. W. L. DISTANT ON UNDESCRIBED CICADID^. 133 

The tegmina of this species are bright green : but this is probably 
a variable character, as C. saimdersii was originally described by 
Westwood as " pallide lutea," which perfectly agrees with the speci- 
mens in my own collection. Mr. Scott, however (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1852, p. 16), states that this is not correct, but that the species is 
" laete viridis." The fact evidently is that these two colours arc 
common to the species, as is so frequently the case with others, and 
especially with Australian members of the family. 

Arcystasia, n. gen. 

Head, including eyes, slightly narrower than pronotum. Antennae 
with the first joints short but stout and prominent. Pronotum with 
the lateral margins slightly dilated and strongly depressed, the pos- 
terior angles strongly jiroduced and rounded. Rostrum reaching 
the intermediate coxse. Tegmina hyaline, much longer than abdo- 
men ; ulnar veins somewhat widely separated and divergent at Ijase ; 
apical half of venation reticulated. Wings with the veins of the 
apical half numerous and slightly reticulated. Abdomen robust ; 
tympana detached. Opercula of male well developed, not quite reach- 
ing basal segment of abdomen. Anterior femora strongly spined. 
Metasternum with a central raised furrow. 

Allied to Cystosoma by the reticulated venation of the tegmina, 
but differing in the hyaline condition of the same and the non- 
dilated abdomen. I have placed it next tiie genus Acrilla, Stal, 
which has the tegmina shorter, rostrum longer, and the lateral 
thoracic margins not dilated. 

Arcystasia godeffroyi, n. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 1, 1</, \b.) 

(S . Body above dull testaceous and olivaceous. Head with the 
vertex dull testaceous, with a central fuscous longitudinal impression 
at base, the front dark obscure olivaceous, area of the ocelli with 
some slightly pitchy markings. Pronotum dull testaceous with 
the lateral margins ochraceous, and a central fuscous longitudinal 
impression, of which the margins and raised base are pale testaceous. 
jNIesonotum olivaceous, witli two central obovate testaceous spots, 
on each side of which is a sublateral, slightly curved black fascia, 
the margins of which are testaceous ; cruciform basal elevation pale 
testaceous, with a small rounded fuscous spot on inner side of apices 
of anterior branches. Scutellum pale olivaceous. Abdomen testa- 
ceous, the basal segment olivaceous. Body beneath pale testaceous ; 
face, excluding margins, pale fuscous ; sternum with olivaceous 
shadings. Legs olivaceous or testaceous ; coxae, trochanters, 
bases and apices of femora, and apices of tibiae spotted wiUi casta- 
neous. Tegmina and wings pale hyaline ; the tegmina tinted witli 
pale ochraceous, with the venation darker ochraceous. Wings with 
the veins ohraceous. 

The face is long and subdepressed, with a broad central sulcatiou 
and faint transverse impressions. The opercula are moderately large, 
but do not reach the base of the first abdominal segment, outer 
margins almost straight, posterior margins^broad and slightly rounded. 



134 MR. p. L. SCLATER ON TWO CURIOUS DUCKS. [Feb. 7, 

inner margins not meeting. Anterior femora armed with three 
strong spines beneath. 

Long. 22 millim. ; exp. tegm. 63 miUim. 

Hab. Ponape (Caroline archipelago). (Mus. Godeffroy ; coll. 
Dist.) 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

Fig. 1, la, \h. Arcystasia godeffroyi, p. 133. 

2, 2a, 26. Cosmopsaltria stuarti, p. 125. 

3, 3«, 36. Tibicen hurJcei, p. 126. 

4, 4«, 4J. ivillsi, p. 127. 

5, 5a, bb. Mclampsalta leichardti, p. 132. 

6, 6a, 66. Tibicen muellen, p. 128. 

7, 7a, lb. gregoryi, p. 129. 

8, 8«, 86. gilmorei, p. 127. 

9, 9a, 96. Melampsalia warburtoni, p. 129. 
10, 10a, 106. forresti, p. 129. 

11, 11a, 116. Cystosoma schmeltzi, p. 132. 

12, 12a, 126. MelampsaUa eyreA, p. 130. 

13, 13«,.136. macJcinlayi, p. 130. 

14, 14a, 146. landsboroughi, p. 131. 



February 7, 1882. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Henry Seebohm exhibited a series of intermediate forms 
between Carduelis caniceps and C. major (the eastern form of our 
common Goldfinch, C. elegans), obtained at Krasnoyarsk in Central 
Siberia. The series showed every intermediate form between one 
species and the other, the white on the outer webs of the innermost 
secondaries increasing in exact proportion as the black on the crown 
and nape diminished. The supposition was that the two forms 
interbreed in this district and produce fertile offspring. 



Mr. Sclater exhibited on behalf of Mr. Peter Inchbald, F.Z.S., 
two curious Ducks which had been shot on some ornamental water 
near Darlington in the county of Durham. One of these appeared 
to be the result of a cross between the Pochard {Fuligula ferina) 
and one of the freshwater Ducks, possibly the Teal or Mallard; the 
other presented nearly the appearance of a female Scoter {CEdemia 
nigra), but was rather darker below. 



The following papers were read :- 



1882,] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE .«LUROIDEA. 135 

1. On the Classification and Distribution of the ^luroidea. 
By St.-George Mivart. 

[Eeceived January 13, 1882.] 

The Proceedings of this Society contain three papers, of pro- 
gressively increasing importance, on the classification of the order 
Carnivora. The first of these is a paper by Mr. Waterhouse \ 
wherein he proposes to divide the order into six coordinate families, 
named by him CanideE, Viverridce, Felida, MustelidcB, Ursidce, and 
Phocid<2. These divisions are based on cranial and dental cha- 
racters. He associates Arctictis with Procyon, Nasua, Cercoleptes, 
Ailurus, and the Bears in his Ursida: ; and adds in a note, " from 
an examination of the external characters of Bassaris astuta it ap- 
pears to me that it belongs to this group." As to the true Bears, 
he remarks that they differ from the other terrestrial Carnivora " in 
having a projecting process on the underside of the ramus, and situ- 
ated a little in advance of the angle of the jaw. The same character 
is also found in many Seals (Phocidce), which, in several other respects, 
appear to approach the Bears." 

He expresses the opinion that "the Cats appear to bear the same 
relation to the Mustelidce as the Dogs to the Viverrida." As to 
the last-named family, he tells us " the Fiverridte have the same 
general form of skull as the CanidcB, but differ in having the poste- 
rior portion more produced ; the bony palate is carried further back ; 
and the small back molar observable in the lower jaw of the Dogs is 
here wanting." The Hycena he is " inclined to regard as an aber- 
rant form of the Viverridte •,^^ adding, "in the general characters of 
the cranium, and especially in the curved form of the lower jaw, it 
differs considerably from the Cats, and approaches the Fiverras. 
If, however, it be placed with the Viverridce, it will form an excep- 
tion as regards its dentition, having only one true molar on either 
side of the upper jaw. The ' carnassiere ' has a large inner lobe, 
and in this respect also resembles the Fiverras, and not the Cats." 

The second paper I have referred to is that by the late Mr. H. 
N. Turner -, wherein he refers to, and much further elaborates the 
views propounded in, Mr. Waterhouse's paper, but objects to a 
division of the order into six groups of similar rank. He divides 
the terrestrial Carnivora into three primary groups, to each of which 
he gives the rank of a family, namely (1) Ursidce, (2) Felidce, and 
(3) Canidce. The first family he divides into the three subfamilies 
Ailurina, Froci/onina, and Mustelina, classing Bassaris in the second 
of these, and saying ^, " from the characters presented by the cra- 
nium, I do net feel the slightest hesitation in referring this animal 

\ P. Z. S. 1839, p. 135. 

" " Observations relating to some of the Foramina at the base of the Skull 
in Mammalia, and on the C'lassificatiou of the Order Carnivora," P. Z. S. 1848, 
p. 63. 

3 Loc. cif. p. 81. 



136 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE jELUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

to the subursine section. It is true that the teeth have some resem- 
blance to those of Viverra ; but this only results from the greater 
or less development of different cusps, being an adaptation to a more 
carnivorous diet." 

He observes, as to Protdes ', that it " has the cranial characters 
common to the Cats and Hyaenas : from the dentition, so singularly 
modified by arrest of development, but little evidence of zoological 
affinity can be adduced ; I should therefore be rather inclined to 
consider it a modified Hyaena, since in the external characters it so 
closely resembles the animals of that genus." As to the Hysenas 
themselves, he declares himself disposed to consider them, judging 
from tlieir cranial characters, as rather more approaching the Cats 
than the Viverra;, but proposes to obviate the difficulties thus arising 
by a division of his family Felidee into three subfamilies, one for the 
Cats, another for the Viverrce, and the third for the Hyaenas and 
Proteles. 

The characters and subdivisions of his family Felidee are expressed 
as follows " : — 

Fam. Felid^. 

Auditory bulla rounded, frequently showing indications of being 
divided into two parts. 

Paroccipital process flatteued, and applied to the back part of the 
auditory bulla. 

Foramen condyloideum more or less concealed. Foramen gle- 
noideum very small or wanting. 

Caecum small or moderate, simple. Cowper's glands present. 
Prostate gland salient. 

Subfam. Viverrina (confined to the Old World). 

A distinct alisphenoid canal (with very few exceptions). 
Auditory bulla distinctly subdivided. 

Canalis caroticus distinct, though sometimes only as a groove. 
True molars on each side |. 

Qalictis. CynogaJe. 

B.yz<xna. Paradoxurus. 

Cynictis. 



Herpestes. Prionodon. 

Genetta. 

Arctictis. Viverra. 

Subfauj. Hyjenina (confined to the Old World). 

No alisphenoid canal. 

Division of auditory bulla scarcely perceptible. 
Canalis caroticus indistinct, or very small. 
True molars on each side ^-^ ; premolars on each side |. 
Proteles. Uycena. 

1 Loc. cit. p. 82. 2 Loc. cit. p. 86. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE .ELXJROIDEA. 137 

Subfam. Felina (of general geographical distribution). 
No alispheuoid canal. 

Division of auditory bulla slightly or scarcely perceptible. 
Canalis caroticus indistinct or not perceptible. 
True molars on each side i ; premolars on each side '-. 
Felis. 

The genus Avctictis is placed in the above list amongst the Viver- 
rina without any observations in the text. It should be noted that 
this subfamily is divided, by horizontal lines, into three sections, the 
two genera Genetta and Viverra standing nearest to the Hyaenas, 
and Herpestes and Ryztena remote from them. 

Certain genera are not enumerated ; and on this subject Mr. Turner 
tells US ', " The lists of genera include only those whose crania I have 
examined ; and therefore I must not be considered as rejecting any 
that I have omitted, nor do I pledge myself to adopt all that are 
inserted." 

The third paper on the classification of the Carnivora is that of 
our president, Professor Flower'. Therein he refers to the paper 
by Mr. Turner, which he supplements by a number of new and ori- 
ginal observations and inferences of great value, intentionally con- 
fining his remarks, however, to existing terrestrial (fissipedal) genera. 
He conclusively estabhshes the true Procyoaine nature of Bassaris 
and the Paradoxurine affinity of Arctic/is ; while as to Cryptoprocta, 
he regards it as the type of a distinct family ^ though he considers it 
" as a perfectly annecteut form, as nearly allied to the Viven-idce on 
the one hand as to the Felidm on the other." Proteles he also con- 
stitutes the type of a distinct family, which he interposes between 
the Suricates and the Hyeenas, as he interposes Cryptoprocta between 
the Civets and Genets on the one hand and the Cats on the other. 
He fully adopts ilr. Turner's threefold division of the fissipedal 
Carnivora, but raises each of Mr. Turner's families to the rank of a 
suborder. Professor Flower's Arctoidea and Cynoidea corre- 
spond respectively to Mr. Turner's Ursidce and Canidce, while Mr. 
Turner's Felidce is divided by Professor Flower into the five families 
Felida, CryptoproctidcB, ViverridcB, Protelidce, and Hi/tetiidce—these 
five families being united into one suborder, for which he first in- 
stituted the term ^luroidea, the affinities of which are suggested 
by his diagram^ (tig. 1). 

The following characters common to the jEluroidea may be 
gathered from this paper : — 

1 . Bulla greatly dilated, rounded, smooth, thin-walled, with one 
exception osseous, and almost always divided by a septum into two 
distinct portions. 

2. Bony meatus short or with its inferior wall imperfectly ossified. 
' Loc. cit. p. 85. 

2 " On the Value of the Characters of the Base of the Cranium in the Classi- 
fication of the Order Carnivora, and on the Systematic Position of Bassaris 
and other disputed forms," P. Z. S. 1869, p. 4 

^Zoo.«Yp.23. * £oc. CiV. p. 37. 



138 



PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 



3. Paroccipital process applied to and, as it were, spread over the 
hinder part of the bulla. 

4. Mastoid process never very salient, often obsolete. 

5. Carotid canal small, sometimes very inconspicuous. 

6. Condyloid fissure concealed. 

7. Glenoid fissure extremely minute or absent. 

8. Caecum short and simple, very rarely absent. 

9. Bone of penis generally small and irregularly shaped. 

10. Cowper's gland present. 

1 1 . A distinctly lobed prostate. 



Fig. 1. 



^ 



y^yy^O I ^ 



BJ££NIDjW 




In the above diagram the Herpestine genera are represented as 
somewhat separated by a constriction from the Civets and Para- 
doxures. In the text the author tells us ^ " all the Herpestine 
members of the Viverridce (Cynopoda, Gray) present certain com- 
mon characters of this region by which they can be readily recog- 
nized. The bulla is very prominent and somewhat pear-shaped, the 
larger, rounded end being turned backwards and somewhat outwards ; 
a well-marked transverse constriction separates the two chambers, 
which are directly anterior and posterior. . . . The Suricate presents 
the same essential characters in a very modified form." 

As to the Hyajnas, Professor Flower appears to hesitate some- 
what as to whether they should form "a fourth primary division of 

^ Loc. oit, p. 20. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 139 

the Caruivora, or be added, as rather aberrant members, to the Mhi- 
roid section. On the whole," he adds, " I am incHned to the latter 
arrangement," especially from the support given to it by the genus 
Proteles. As to the characters of that genus, he observes ' : — " In the 
first place they are thoroughly ^luroid, but they do not exactly the 
agree with either of the famihes of that group as hitherto defined. 
On the whole they approach nearest to the Herpestine section of the 
Vwerrid(B, but deviate from this, and approximate to the Hycenidce, 
in two points. ... If Cuvier had called Proteles a Hyaenoid Ich- 
neumon instead of a Hyaenoid Genette, exception could scarcely have 
been taken to the description." 

The object of the present paper is to carry further the examination 
of the affinities and interrelationships of the genera constituting 
Professor Flower's iEluroidea, and especially to discover wha° 
divisions below the rank of families can be most conveniently and 
naturally established in it. In order to effect this, I have, to the 
best of my ability, studied the animals living in our gardens, prepa- 
rations preserved in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
and the skins, spirit-specimens, and osteological treasures of the 
British Museum, and I have dissected such individuals as good 
fortune has thrown in my way. I have especially wished to note 
the cranial characters of such genera as are not referred to in the 
three papers already noticed, namely the genera Fossa, Prionodon, 
Poiana, Hemigalea, Arctogale, Galidia, Galidictis, Bdeogale, Helo- 
gale, Cynictis, Rhinogale, Crossarchus, and Uupleres. I have 
endeavoured also to ascertain and enumerate such papers and illus- 
trations as may be most useful for reference or may have some 
historical interest. 

It will, I think, be most convenient if I state at once the conclu- 
sions I have arrived at as to classification, and afterwards notice, 
seriatim, the several genera, giving separately the characters and 
references which refer to each. 

In the first place I am profoundly convinced that the great group 
.^LUROiDEA is a natural one, and that the Hyeenas must, without 
any question whatever, be included within it. The only doubt is 
as to their claim to rank as a distinct family, so closely connected 
do they seem to me to be with the Herpestine group of Fiveirida. 
Anyhow I am unable to divide the suborder into so many primary 
groups as those of Professor Flower. 

I have examined with as much care as I could the skeleton of 
Crijptoprocta, and considered the evidence recorded as to its soft 
parts, and have come to the conclusion that it is distinctly Viverrine, 
and not at all unquestionably intermediate, as I at first supposed, 
between Yiverra and Felis. Its dentition is of course almost feline ; 
but the more I study comparative anatomy, the more impressed I 
am with the little value of dental characters as evidences of affinity, 
save as regards allied species or genera. Nandinia, Arctictis, and 
Cynogale may be cited as evidence of divergences in dental charac- 
ters from the more normal Viverrine type, to which other structural 

* Loo. cit. p. 29. 



140 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE .ELUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

divergences do not run parallel. Professor Flower himself has 
remarked h — " Too exclusive attention has been paid to the characters 
of the teeth in defining the family divisions of the order. The 
difficulty in the taxonomic use of these organs arises from the fact 
that the teeth of all the members of such a limited and well-defined 
group as the terrestrial or fissipedal Carnivora are formed on the 
same general type, but with infinite modifications of this type. And 
as these modifications are mainly adaptive, and not essentially indica- 
tive of affinity, they reappear in various degrees and combinations in 
many of the great natural divisions of the order. Their teeth alone 
afford us no satisfactory means of diagnosis between the very distinct 
groups of the Procyonidce and Viverridce. The teeth of Proteles, 
though demonstrating undeniably its right to a place in the order, 
are so rudimentary or generalized that they afford no help whatever 
to determine its special position. Again, tlie teeth of Gulo are so 
similar to those of Hycena, that, if this character alone were used, 
these two otherwise widely differentiated forms would be placed in 
the closest proximity. Enhydris, among the Mustelidas, and Cyno- 
gale, among the Viverridse, might also be cited as examples of 
strangely modified dentition, with comparatively little corresponding 
change in other parts." I thoroughly agree with every word 
here cited ; and, until unexpected evidence as to the anatomy of its 
soft parts comes to ray knowledge, I must rank Cryptoprocta as 
merely the type of a subfamily of the Viverridts. 

As to Proteles, the words just quoted from Professor Flower con- 
cerning it confirm the previously cited remark of ]\Ir. Turner ^, that 
from a " dentition so singularly modified by arrest of development, 
but little evidence of zoological affinity can be adduced." It differs 
from the Hyaenas in having a developed poUex ; but such differences 
occur in the Herpestine section of the ViverridcB, yet no one on that 
account would erect Bdeogale and Suricata into a distinct family, any 
more than Ateles or Colobus amonsst the Anthropoidea. A careful 
consideration of the characters of Proteles have convinced me that it 
should be included within one family along with the Hyaenas ; and 
Professor Flower, in his paper on the anatomy of Proteles, concludes ^ 
by saying that, though still " inclined " to retain it in a distinct 
family, yet his examination of its soft parts shows its affinities 
with the Hyaenas " are closer than the examination of the skull 
alone led" him " to suppose." I would, however, while merging it in 
the Hysena family, yet retain it as the type of a distinct subfamily of 
the Hycanidce. 

If my views are correct, then the suborder iEluroidea will consist 
of three families — (1) the Felidce, (2) the Viverridee, and (3) the 
Hycenidce. 

As to the first of these familie?, it is evidently impossible to group 
any of its existing forms in distinct subfamilies. Indeed, in a recent 
careful study of the Felida, I have been quite unable to find satisfac- 
tory characters whereby to divide that family into more than the 
t^^■o genera Felis and Cyncelurus. 

1 P. Z. S. 1869, p. 5. " = P. Z. SI. 1848, p. 82. = P. Z. S. 1869, p. 406. 



1S82.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 141 

It has been proposed to separate off as a distinct genus the Cats 
with a vertical pupil and an orbit inclosed behind by bone, and to 
divide the round-pupilled Cats into two genera, according to the 
presence or absence of a first upper premolar. 

These characters do not appear to me capable of serving as marks 
of generic distinctness. Some Cats— as F. macrocelis, F. serval, and 
F. chaus—m-Q described as having a pupil neither round nor linear 
when contracted, but oblong; and while in most of the smaller Cats 
in which the point has been ascertained the pupil is linear, in some, 
as F. eyra,\t is round. The length of the postorbital processes 
varies even in the same species, and much more in forms which must 
be connected as close allies ; while the morphologically second upper 
pi-emolar may also be present or absent in the same species, as in 
F. scripta, F. pajeros, and others, while in F. planiceps it is laro-e 
and two-rooted. In the skull of an old Lion ' I have found the 
upper two molars not only absent, but every trace of their alveoli 
also. The ears of the Lynxes are pencilled, but those of F. chaus, 
F. oniata, and F. caudata are more or less pencilled likewise. The 
Lion stands alone with its large mane (though the Ounce has a 
small one), and the Tiger is distinguished from every other Cat by its 
stripes ; but these no one would take to be generic distinctions. 

We might indeed separate off the Lion, Puma, Jaguar, Eyra, F. 
uuruta, F. planiceps, F. badia, and F. rutila as Cats of a uniform 
colour, neither spotted nor striped when adult. The group, how- 
ever, would not be a natural one. Similarly, we might associate 
together the most distinctly spotted Cats, while distinguishing others 
(as F. manmrata, F. macrocelis, F. megalotis, F. pajeros, F. cali- 
gata, F. ntamd, F. neglecta, F. torquata, and F. catus) as rather 
clouded ' than "spotted." Almost every transition, however, 
exists between the spotted and clouded Cats, and some spotted forms 
occasionally have their spots very slightly marked ; so that generic 
distinctions reposing on any such characters would be most futile. 

It is not the object of this paper to define species ; nevertheless 
the question as to the distinctness of certain of them will have to be 
occasionally considered. I may therefore perhaps be excused for 
remarking that I have examined a large quantity of skins of the 
Lynxes known as F. borealis, F. canadensis, F. rufa, and F. macu- 
lata, and found amongst them so very many intermediate conditions 
as to both coloration (ground-colour and markings) and length of 
lur, that I cannot but regard them as forming but a single species. 
Ihis opinion is also confirmed by the close resemblance which exists 
between their skulls. 

As to the Lynx F. isabellina, I was at first inclined to regard it as 
a good species ; but Dr. Scully has very kindly allowed me to examine 
the skins obtained by him in Central Asia', and amongst them is 
one intermediate in coloration between the F. isabellina of the 
^British Museum and certain specimens of the Northern Lynx. The 
Pardine Lynx {F. pardina) I am disposed to regard as a distinct 
species on account of the form of its skull. When the skull is seen 
No. 4504 A in the museum of the Eoyal College of Surgeons. 



142 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

in profile, it differs from the skulls of the varieties F. borealis, F. 
canadensis, F. riifa, and F. inaculata in that the part between the 
orbits is more raised and convex, and the nasal bones extend back- 
wards beyond the nasal processes of the maxillae. 

Considering the length of time during which we have had power 
in India, it is remarkable that our collection of Indian Cats should 
be so imperfect as it is. I am, however, not without the hope of 
being hereafter able to exhibit here a new collection of the skins and 
crania of these animals. The species known as F. henyalensis espe- 
cially requires investigation, as, if its range of variation both in size 
and markings is not very extensive, several distinct species must be 
included under that name. 

Amongst African Cats that described by Lesson ' under the name 
F. senegalensis was probably but a young Serval. There is unfor- 
tunately no specimen of it in the Paris Museum ; and the type was a 
cat living at the hospital of Rochefort-sur-Mer. We have as yet, so 
far as I know, no specimen of i^. colocoUo in this country ; and we much 
need more skins and skulls from America to help us to determine 
the value of the forms distinguished as F. tigrina, F. mitts, and F. 
macroura. 

The second ^Eluroid family, the Viverridts, presents a great con- 
trast to the first in the great variety of the forms it contains. In- 
stead of being unable to divide it into subfamilies, the difticulty is to 
avoid making too many. Two subfamilies, ViverrincB and Heiyes- 
tincB, must, I think, be instituted for the Viverrine and Herpestine 
sections of the group. In the former must stand Viverra, Viverri- 
cula, Fossa, Genetta, Prionodon, Poiana, Paradoxuriis, Jrctogale, 
and Hemigalea. In the latter I would place Herpestes, Helogale, 
Cynictis, Bdeogale, Ithinogale, Crossarchiis, and Suricata. 

As to Nandinia, Arctictis, and Cynogale, arguments are by uo 
means wanting in favour of the erection of each of these three genera 
into a distinct subfamily. I hesitate, however, so far to multiply 
groups of that rank ; and I would retain them all, at least provision- 
ally, amongst the Viverriim. 

The genera of this subfamily seem to group themselves in two sets 
(as was indicated by Mr. Turner -), one set being that of the Civets, 
the other that of the Paradoxures, as follows : — 

A. Viverra, Viverricula, Fossa, Genetta, Prionodon, and Poiana, 

B. Paradoxurus, Arctogale, Arctictis, Hemigalea, Nandinia, and 
Cynogale. 

The subfamily Herpestincp. seems divisible into two sets — one (A) 
including Herpestes, Helogale, and Cynictis ; while the second set (B) 
will comprise Crossarchus and Suricata. I cannot certainly deter- 
mine to which set Bdeogale and Rhinogale should belong till more 
of their anatomy is known. 

It is to the latter set that I regard the Hycenidce as specially 
allied, while Cryptoprocta (in spite of its claws and dentition) seems 

^ Guerin's Mag. cle Zool. 1839, t. x. (Mammiferes). 
* P. Z. 8. 1848, p. 87. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE .ELUROIDEA. 143 

to me to be not improbably a much modified relative of the first 
Herpestine series of genera. 

There remain the curious Madagascar Viverrines known as Gali- 
dictis, Galidia, and Eupleres. I think it better not to include these 
in either of the foregoing subfamilies, in spite of their greater 
affinity to the Herpestince than to the Viverrince ; while Galidia 
olivacea and G. concolor seem to me to merit generic distinction, the 
former being the type of a distinct genus, Hemigalidia. The last, 
with Galidia and Galidictis, I would include in a separate sub- 
family, Oalidictince, with which the singularly aberrant Eupleres 
seems to me to be nearly allied ; yet, on account of its aberrant cha- 
racters, I would keep it separate in a special subfamily, the Euple- 
rince. 

According to this view, the ^luroid forms will be grouped as 
follows : — 

Suborder ^LUROIDEA. 
Fam. I. FELiDiE. 

Genera : Felis, Cyncelurus. 

Fam. 11. VivERRiD^. 

Subfani. 1. Viverrin^. 

Genera : — A. Vlverra, Viverricula, Fossa, Genetta, Priono- 
don, Poiana. 

B. Paradoxurus, Arctogale, Hemigalea, Arctictis, 

Nandinia. 

C. Cynogale. 

Subfam. 2. Galidictin^. 

Genera : Galidictis, Galidia, Hemigalidia. 

Subfam. 3. Euplerin^e. 
Genus : Eupleres. 

Subfam. 4. Cryptoproctin^. 
Genus : Cryptoprocta. 

Subfam. 5. Herpestine. 

Genera: — A. Herpestes, Helogale, Cynictis, (Bdeogale 1 ,) 
{Rkinogale ?) 
B. Oroesarckus, Suricata, 

Fam. III. Hyenib^. 
Subfam. 1. Proteline. 
Genus : Proteles. 

Subfam. 2. HviENiNE. 
Genera: Hyana, Crocuta. 



144 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUUOIDEA. [Pcb. 7 , 

The distinctive characters of the FelidcE are : — 

(1) There is a short pollex with a claw not, or hardly, reaching to 

distal end of metacarpal of index. 

(2) The hallux is only represented by a rudimentary metatarsa 
bone. 

(3) The ungual phalanges are greatly arched, with a wide lamina 
to shelter the base of the claw. 

(4) The claws are greatly arched, sharply pointed, and, except in 

Gyncelurus, completely retractile. 

(5) The auditory bulla is much inflated, smooth, and rounded, 
but hardly shows any external sign of division into two 
chambers. 

(6) The bulla is more prominent towards its inner than towards 

its hinder border. 

(7) There is an almost complete bony septum between the two 
chambers of the bulla, which are one behind the other. 

(8) The bony meatus auditorius is short and neither produced 

anteriorly nor inferiorly ; neither is it imperfectly ossified 
below. 

(9) There is no carotid foramen anywhere visible on the surface 
of the basis crauii. 

(10) There is no alisphenoid canal. 

(11) The palatine foramina are situated in the hinder half of the 
palate. 

(12) -— and p-., are not developed '. 

(13) There is no lower tubercular molar, no jj-^, and no — ^. 

(14) — ^ is always very small and transversely extended. 

(15) The antero-exterual cusp of — is fairly developed, but is 

much smaller than the two others. 

(16) jj^ has hardly any talon. 

(17) The outer incisors but little exceed the middle ones in size. 

(18) Humerus with a supvacondyloid foramen. 

(19) Bone of penis small. 

(20) The ears not very long, erect and pointed. 

(21) Tarsus and metatarsus hair}'. 

(22) One small plantar pad, and one beneath each digit. 

(23) The anus docs not open into a saccular depression. 

(24) Two anal glands only. 

(25) No prescrotal glands. 

(26) Always a more or less small caecum. 

(27) Many very hard, horny, sharp-pointed, conical papillae on 
the dorsum of the tongue. 

(28) Hippocampal gyrus not- completely separated from the antero- 

1 The mandible of a Tiger \Tith p-r,, killed in British Bunuah, is described 

and figured by B. A. Lvdekker in the Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. vol.slvii. (1878), 
p. 2, plate ii. 
^ So far as I have had an oppurtiinilv of examinuig. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE .ELUROIDEA. 145 

internal portion of the superior lateral gyrus, which is behind 
the cranial sulcus, by any continuation forwards of the cal- 
loso-margiual sulcus to join the crucial sulcus. 

(29) Angle of mandible not greatly flattened beneath, and coronoid 

process high and inclined backwards. 

(30) Proportional length of limbs considerable. 

(31) Muzzle short compared with cranial length. 

(32) Dentition extremely sectorial. 

(33) Tail long, moderate, or extremely short. 

(34) Clitoris never traversed by urogenital canal. 

(35) Dorsal vertebrae thirteen. 

(36) Postorbital processes more or less strongly developed, some- 

times enclosing orbits by a bony circle. 

(37) Paroccipital processes not depending, or else only slightly- 
projecting, as a rough tubercle beyond the bulla. 

(38) Mastoid rather prominent. 

(39) No carotid foramen perforates or notches the sphenoid. 

(40) Nose and upper lip medianly grooved. 

(41) Palate very little or but moderately produced beyond last 
molars. 

(42) Pterygoid fossa very small. 

(43) Size of species generally moderate, never very small, some- 
times very large — the largest of the iEluroidea. 

Of the genera of existing Felidce, Cyncelurus is distinguished from 
Felis by its imperfectly retractile claws and the rudimentary con- 
dition of the internal cusp of -^. The characters of the ViverridcB 
and Hyanidce will be given after a brief review of the genera com- 
posing those two families. 

The typical genus Viverra seems to include four species — (1) V. 
civetta (from Fernando Po, Sierra Leone, and Abyssinia), (2) V. 
zibet ha (from India, China, and Penang), F. tangalunga (from 
Malacca, Borneo, Sumatra, Luzon, and the Negros and Philippine 
Islands), and V. megaspila (from Malacca, Saigon, and Lower 
Cochin China). 

The anatomy of this anciently-known genus has been described ^ 
by Perrault in a paper entitled " Description anatomique de deux 
Civettes," in the ' Memoirs ' of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, 
vol. iii. (1611-1699), with two plates reproduced in a work published 
by Pierre Mortier, of Amsterdam, in 1/36, and entitled ' Memoires 
pour servir a I'histoire uaturelle des Animaux et des Plantes.' 
Therein is given a tolerable figure of the external form of the Civet, 
and representations of the scent-pouch and glands of both sexes, 

^ See also Castellus, 'Hyana odorifera, vulgo Civctia,' Messouae, 1638 ; Bar- 
tholin, " Anatome CivettiE s. Hyance odorifera," in Hist. Auat. Cent. iv. 1657, 
pp. 199-213 ; Mery (Jean), " Observations sur les canaux lactiferes de la 
Civette,"' in Mem. Acad. Sc. de Paris, 1666-1699 ; Morand, " 'Nouvelles obser- 
vations sur le sac et le parfum de la Civette " (with a plate), M(5m. Acad. Sc. 
de Paris, 1728 ; and De la Peyronie, " Description d"un animal connu sous le 
nom de Muse ( Viverra)" with four plates, Mem. Acad. Sc. de Paris, 1731, 
pp. 443-464. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. X. 10 



146 PROF, ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

with (for the period) a very full account of the structure of the 
animal. The Civet and Zibet are well figured and described by 
Daubenton in Buftbn's ' Histoire Naturelle,' vol. ix. pp. 299-342, 
pis, 31 to 35. Anatomical notes on these animals are also given by 
John Hunter, pp. 51-55 of vol. ii. of his ' Essays and Observations,' 
collected and published by Professor Owen in 1861. A few notes 
" On the Internal Viscera of Viverra melanurus " have also been pub- 
lished by Hodgson in the ' Calcutta Journal of Natural History,' 
vol. ii. (1842) p. 56. Recently an account of the anatomy of the 
Civet, with one plate, has been published by Dr. J. Chatin in the 
Ann. des Sc. Naturelles, (5th series) vol. xvii. (1873), plate xxiii., 
wherein the heart and great vessels, the stomach and liver, and the 
(secum are represented. Lastly, vve have in vol. xix. (1874) of the 
same work a paper by the same author on the " glandes odorantes 
des Mammileres," wherein the scent and anal glands of the Civet and 
Zibet are described and figured (pis. i. and ii. figs. 1-13), and notes 
are added concerning Viverra iangalunga. The external form of 
the Civet and of the Zibet are given in F. Cuvier's Mamm. vol. ii. 
The skeleton of the Civet is represented on plate iv. of De Blainville's 
' Osteographie' {Viverra), and the skull and dentition of the Civet 
and Zibet on his plates viii. and xii. ; details of the axial and visceral 
skeleton on plate ix. ; and the distal part of the Zibet's humerus on 
pi. X. 

All the four species of Viverra agree in having a more or less 
white throat with transverse, curved, black bands ; all have the tarsus 
and metatarsus bairy beneath, as in the FelidcB ; all have the back 
with more or less elongate hair ; and all are of large size, the head 
and body being from about 76" to 92", and the tail from about 
31" to 43". V. tanyalunga is the smallest species, and has been 
confounded with V. megaspila ; but the distinctions between the 
two species have been pointed out by Dr. Giiuther in the Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1876 (pp. 427, 428), wherein is a good representation of V. 
megaspila in both the adult and young condition. The young in 
this genus seem to be always darker than the adults. The young 
Civet (judging from a skin in the British Museum) is almost black, 
with a black tail (whitish beneath its root), and with a greyish 
mottling on the flanks and outside the thighs, greyish belly, and 
with white marks on the cheeks, upper lip, inside of ears, underside 
of throat, and side of the neck' . I have not seen the skull of V. 
megaspila ; but, assuming that it closely resembles those of the other 
species, it may be said that in Viverra the auditory bulla is divided 
by a distinct groove into a small anterior part and a much larger 
and more inflated posterior portion. There is an internal septum (as 
in Felis). There is a distinct alisphenoid canal. The paroccipital 
process depends below the bulla, to which it is applied. The external 
opening of the auditory meatus is large and rounded ; it is rather its 

' Hodgson, in the ' Calcutta Journal of Nat. HiBt.' vol. ii. (1842) p. 55, says 
that the eyes of the young are open when less than a week old ; also that the 
adults -wander about singly and eat small mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects, 
and some roots. 



1882.] PROF. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE iELUROIDEA. 147 

hinder than its anterior margin which projects most outwards. The 
carotid artery passes through a distinct canal between the bulla and 
basisphenoid, the hinder end of which appears as a conspicuous fora- 
men situated a little in front of the middle of the inner border of 
the auditory bulla. 

The orbit is never enclosed by bone ; uor is the mastoid at all 
prominent. The lower margin of the hinder part of the mandible 
is very concave. The angle of the mandible is long, slender, and 
backwardly projecting ; its coronoid process is not very high or 

backwardly projecting compared with that of Felis. There is a p-2 
and an ^^. There is also a -^— and an — ^. jj-^ is of large size. 
— has a well-developed internal tubercle. The tongue is devoid of 

horny papillae or of any patch of conspicuously enlarged papillae on 
the anterior part of its dorsum. There is a small conical csecum. 
There is a pair of anal glands. There is also a pair of medianly- 
adjoining scent- glands placed between the penis and testes, or in 
the analogous position in the female. Their secretion escapes by a 
number of minute orifices into a large sac, the external aperture of 
which appears as an autero-posteriorly extended slit simulating a 
large vaginal aperture. 

The genus Viverra differs from all the Felidce in that 

(1) The ungual phalanges are less arched, and the bony lamina 

for sheltering the base of the claw is relatively less deep. 

(2) The claws are less arched and less perfectly retractile. 

(3) The auditory bulla, being ossified, shows external signs of its 

complete internal division into two chambers. 

(4) There is a conspicuous carotid foramen on the inner side of 

the bulla, which is most prominent posteriorly. 

(5) The palatine foramina are situated on the anterior half of the 
palate. 

(6) There is a ^-^ and also an ^^. 

(7) ^'^ is largely developed. 

(8) jj-^ has a distinct talon. 

(9) The ears are not very long, erect, pointed, or tufted. 

(10) There are no horny, sharp-pointed, conical papillae on the 

dorsum of the tongue. 

(11) The hippocampal gyrus is completely separated off from the 

lateral gyrus by the continuation of the calloso-marginal 
sulcus forwards to the crucial sulcus. 

(12) The coronoid process of the mandible is less lofty relatively and 

less backwardly produced. 

(13) The proportional length of the limbs to the body is shorter 

than even in Felis eyra. 

(14) The muzzle is longer in proportion to the cranium. 
The genus Viverra also differs from the Felidce in that 

(1.5) There is a distinct hallux with a claw. 
(16) There is an ahsphenoid canal. 

10* 



148 PROF, ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

(17) There is a—. 

(18) There are prescrotal scent-glands. 
The genus agrees with the Felidce in that 

(19) There is a short poUex. 

(20) The ungual phalanges are arched to a certain considerable 

extent. 

(21) The claws are arched, sharp-pointed, and somewhat retractile. 

(22) The bony auditory meatus is not produced anteriorly or in- 

feriorly, neither is it imperfectly ossified below. 

(23) The humerus has a supracondyloid foramen. 

(24) The tarsus and metatarsus are entirely hairy. 

(25) There is one plantar pad and another beneath each digit. 

(26) The anus does not open into a saccular depression. 

(27) There are two anal glands only. 

(28) There is a small ccecum. 

As further characters may be noted that 

(29) Rather the posterior than the anterior margin of the external 

auditory meatus projects the more. 

(30) The orbits are not enclosed by bone. 

(31) There is no conspicuous foramen on the basis cranii by which 

the carotid perforating or notching the sphenoid shall re-enter 
the cranium. 

(32) The hinder chamber of the bulla is not everted so as to be 

external as well as posterior to its anterior chamber. 

(33) The palate is not much produced beyond the hinder molars. 

(34) The mandibular angle is not everted. 
(3.5) The mastoid is not prominent. 

(36) The paroccipital process depends below the bulla, to which it 

is applied. 

(37) The opening of the auditory meatus is rather large and not 

triangular. 

(38) The bulla is narrower in front than behind. 

(39) It is not much laterally compressed. 

(40) The skull is not greatly constricted behind the postorbital 

processes of the frontal. 

(41) The pollex and hallux reach to the end of the adjacent mid- 
hand bones. 

(42) The scent-glands open into a deep prescrotal pouch or sac. 

(43) The median part of the back is marked with black. 

(44) The nose exhibits a median antero-posterior groove on its 

under surface and on the upper lip. 

(45) There is an -^^. 

(46) ^j-^ is not minute. 

(47) The dentition is markedly sectorial. 

(48) Hinder part of palate not inclined strongly upwards. 

(49) Hinder part of alveolar border of mandible not everted. 

(50) Teeth not very small. 

(51) No notch in alveolar border of maxilla to receive apex of p-g* 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE /ELUROIDEA. 149 

(52) There is no plate-like process on the outer side of the radius. 

(53) There is no oval patch of conspicuously-enlarged papillae on 
the dorsum of the anterior part of the tongue. 

(54) Ascending ramus of mandible not flattened beneath. 

(55) Tail long. 

(56) Anterior premolars not greatly elongated. 

The next genus comprises only the Rasse, for which the genus 
Viverricula has been instituted' by Hodgson, who says that it 
differs from species of the genus Viverra, which never climb, by its 
scansorial habit. It is also distinguishable from Viverra by its 
smaller size, smaller snout, and by a very small bald spot on the tibial 
side of the plantar pad, noticed by Gray ^ and figured by Hodgson \ 
The ahsphenoid canal is almost always absent; the bulla is, as 
Professor Flower says *," large, as wide in front as behind, much 
elongated, narrow, and compressed laterally. The anterior chamber 
is rather more developed, and less distinctly marked from the pos- 
terior." The postorbital processes are longer than in Viverra ; and 
the skull is greatly compressed behind them. The paroccipital 
process does not depend below the bulla. The pollex and hallux 
are shorter, not reaching to the distal end of the adjoining meta- 
tarsal and metacarpal. The character of the dentition is inter- 
mediate between that of Viverra and that of Genetta. j^ may have 
only three cusps. The Rasse has a most extensive geographical 
distribution, having been obtained in China, Foochow, Formosa, 
Amoy, Gangootra, Camboja, Singapore, Nepal, Madras, Ceylon, 
Penang, Java, Lombok, Bombay, Socotra, Madagascar, and also 
from the Comoro Island Anjuan". 

The Rasse has been described at length, and many interesting details 
concerning it given, by Horsfield in his ' Zoological Researches in Java' 
(1824), with a figure of its external form, representations of which will 
be found in F. Cuvier's ' Mammiferes,' vol. ii. ; also in Sonnerat's 
•Voyage,' vol. ii. p. 144, pi. 91; andin Pollen's 'Faunede Madagascar,' 
p. 16, pi. 10. Its dentition, both immature and adult, is given on plate 
xii. of De Blainville's ' Osteographie ' {Viverra). Its foot-pads are 
represented by Hodgson, Calcutta Journal of Natural Hist. (1842), 
vol. ii. pi. 1 . fig. iv. As might be expected from its wide distribution, 
the Rasse varies greatly in colour and markings, similarly coloured 
varieties coming from widely separated localities. There is in the 

1 Journal of Asiat. Soc. of Bengal (1841), vol. x. part 2, p. 909. See also 
Gray, P. Z. S. 18()4, p. 513, and Erit. Mus. Oat. of Carnivora (1869), p. 47. 

2 Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 47. 

3 Calcutta Journal of Nat. Hist. (1842), vol ii. pi. 1. fig. iv. 
* P. Z. S. 18tJ9, p. 18. 

^ The animal irora this island has been described and figured by Dr. 
Peters in his ' Mossambique.' Dr. Gray threw out the suggestion that this indi- 
vidual might be of the genus Fossa ; but Dr. Peters has been kind enough to 
inform me that such is not the case, but that it is identical with Pollen's Viverra 
schlcgeli, which appear.s to me to be a variety of the widely diffused Viverricula 
malaccensis. Dr. Peters remarks to me ; — " If not identical with, it is very near 
that species." 



150 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

British Museum a light-yellow skin from Candy, and one from 
Nepal, which is but little darker. Generally the ground-colour is 
greyish, brownish, or yellowish, and there is a tendency to the 
development of black bands on the middle of the back and loins, 
black spots on the flanks, and rings on the tail. The young are very 
dark, but not so mucli so as are the young Civets, and they also 
want the white markings of the latter. The scent-glaud is 
formed as in Viverra. Length of head and body about 61", of 
tail aljout 38". 

The genus ViverricuJa agrees, then, with the genus Viverra in all 
the characters before enumerated, except numbers 16, 24, 36, 38, 
39, 40, and 41. 

The genus Fossa is represented in the national collection by 
four skins, two skulls, and a skeleton. The genus was instituted by 
Dr. Gray ' on the strength of Daubenton's description ; and though 
it seems nearly aUied to the Rasse, its generic distinctness should, 
I think, be maintained, at least till its anatomy is more fully known, 
especially that of its glandular structures. I could not find evidence 
of a scent-pouch in the British-Museum skins. Neither could 
Daubenton in his specimen ; and M. Poivre (who sent Buffon the 
stuffed skin described in his work) wrote on the subject as follows : — 
" La Fossane que j'ai apportee de Madagascar, est un animal qui a les 
moeurs de notre fouine ; les habitans de I'ile m'ont assure que la 
fossane male etant en chaleur, ses parties avoient une forte odeur 
de muse. Lorsque j'ai fait empaille celle qui est au Jardin du Roi, 
je I'examinai attentivement, je n'y de'couvris aucune poche, et je 
ne lui trouvai aucune odeur deparfum." Not improbably there are 
some subcutaneous scent-glands, but no pouch or even deep cuta- 
neous fold in connexion with them. 

The limbs are slender ; and there are the very small bald places 
(to which Mr. Oldfield Thomas was kind enough to call my attention) 
beneath the hind foot. One of these is a little above the plantar 
pad, very near the small hallux (the claw of which may be wanting 
in the adult), and the other beneath the distal part of the tarsus, 
shghtly nearer to the peroneal margin of the limb. Another note- 
worthy character is the absence of any median dark mark on the 
back. The adult may be very little striped or spotted, with only 
some spots on the flanks and some obscure stripes on the shoulders ; 
but the young is very distinctly striped ; yet even in the young 
there is no median dorsal stripe, but the central portion of the back 
is of the general ground-colour, bounded by two rows of small 
irregular spots, external to which are three strongly marked longi- 
tudinal stripes on each side. The black throat-bands (which exist 
in Viverra) are entirely absent. The tail is spotted, the spots 
tending to form, but not actually forming, rings. 

The length of the head and body is about 43"*2, that of the tail 
20"-3. 

The Fossa is only known as an inhabitant of Madagascar. Its 
external form is figured, and the animal is described, in Buffon, vol. 

' P. Z. S. 18G4, p. 518. 



1882.] PROF. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 



151 



xiii. p. 163, pi. 21. It is also described and well-figured by Dr. 
Gray, in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 869, pi. 74, with a woodcut 
of the skull, which is long and narrow, approaching Viverricula in 
this respect. 

The bulla is shaped much as in Viverra ; there is a distinct ali- 
sphenoid canal ; the paroccipital process depends a little below the 
bulla. There is, on the skull, a deep antero-posteriorly directed groove 
along the middle of the dorsum of the forehead and muzzle. The 



Fig. 2. 






Plautar surface of lelt pes of Fossa. 
1. Small pad adjacent to hallux ; 2. Ditto beneath distal part of tarsus. 



postorbital processes are not so elongated as in Viverricula. The teeth 
closely resemble those oi Viverra; but the talonof^j^ is rather smaller; 
jP2 has five cusps, three in front and two behind. Fossa therefore 
agrees with Viverra in all the characters of the latter genus before 
enumerated, except sometimes No. l.i, possibly No. 18, and cer- 
tainly Nos. 24, 38, 39, 40, 42, & 43. 

The genus Genetta consists apparently of five species, distributed 



152 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

as follows :— G. vulgaris (from the south of France, Spain, North 
Africa, and AVestern Asia at Mount Carmel), Q. felina (from 
South Africa, including the Cape), G. senegalensis (from Africa, 
East, West, and North), G. tigrina (from South Africa, Abyssinia, 
and Whydah), and G. pardina (from West Africa and Fernando 

Thus the genus is essentially African, sending one species on to 

Fig. 3. 





Pads of Geneiia tigrina. 
A. Palmar surface of left manus ; B. Plantar surface of left pes. 



Europe and Western Asia ; while Viverra is mainly Asiatic, but 
has one species exclusively African. In Viverricula and Genetta 
vulgaris we have the only species common to Asia and Africa. 

The two groups the Civets and Genets certainly merit to rank 
as distinct genera ; for, in addition to uniformly smaller size and the 
distinction of geographical range of the Istter, they have certain 
distinctive cranial, dental, and external characters. Thus, instead 



1882. J PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 153 

of the tarsus and metatarsus being hairy as in Viverra and Viver- 
ricii/a, or with the small bald spots as in Fossa, there is a long, 
narrow bald strip of skin running up beneath the median part 
of the metatarsus, towards or to the tarsus. This bald strip, 
however, is separated from the plantar pad by an intervening hairy 
portion ; and the toes are hairy beneath at the sides. A hairy patch 
in the manus also separates the proximal part of the palmar pad from 
its distal portion. All the Genets are of a brownish-yellowish or 
greyish tint, with black or brown spots on the flanks, and a black 
line in the middle of the back (thus differing from Fossa). There 
are brown or black stripes behind the ears, extending downwards 
and backwards over the shoulders. The paws are blackish or 
whitish ; the belly is hght-coloured with a few spots ; and there 
is a lightish patch over the eye, and a white spot beneath the eye, 
separated by a black mark from another white spot beside the nose. 
The tail is ringed with black. 

The characters of skull and teeth by which the Genets differ from 
the Civets and the relations of this kind presented by Viverricula 
and Fossa are as follows : — 

The auditory bulla in Genetta is not so triangular in form as in 
Viverra, but more equal in width anteriorly and posteriorly, as we 
have seen to be the case in Viverricula (where it is also more 
laterally compressed) ; but in Genetta the anterior part is more 
swollen and bullute. The alisphenoid canal is constantly present in 
Genetta, but is small in calibre. In both Genetta and Viverricula 
the auditory opening is relatively larger than in Civetta. The par- 
occipital process, which descends down below the bulla, is a depending 
process in Vivei'ra ', and slightly so in Genetta, but does not so extend 
at all in Viverricula. In the last named the skull is extremely com- 
pressed behind the postorbital processes, its breadth there being 
to the total cranial length as but ITo to 100, instead of 14'] as in 
the Civet, 14'4 as in Fossa, and 187 as in Genetta. 

In all the four genera Viverra, Viverricula, Fossa, and Genetta 
the alisphenoid canal is generally (even in Viverricula when it is 
present) long, its hinder opening being often in close proxmity to 
the foramen ovale, the opening of that foramen and the hinder 
aperture of the alisphenoid canal appearing respectively at the hinder 
and anterior ends of a common depression in the cranial surface. 

The teeth of Genetta ' differ from those of Viverra in that —^ 

1 Very slightly so in V. tangalunga. 

^ As Genetta appears to be (at least after Frwnodon) the genus of existing 
VivetTida which comes nearest to the Felida, it may not be useless to denote 
precisely the differences between the permanent and milk dentitions of the 
Genet and the Cat. 

In the Genet the outermost upper incisors are larger in proportion to the 
innermost (length as 3 to 2). Each outermost lower incisor has a bilobed 
crown with nearly equal lobes. The canines are relatively shorter, not longi- 
tudinally furrowed. The upper canine compared with the base {i. c. with the 
intervalbetween the basion and ovalion) taken at 100, is 4()-l in the Cat, 428 in 
the Genet. By " ovalion " I mean the centre of a horizontal line connecting 
the liindmost points of the margins of the oval foramina. 



154 PROF, ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

is (in general, but not in V. tangalungd) relatively larger and more 
obtusely triangular or even nearly quadrangular, and is more nearly 
equal in size vyith the tooth in front of it ; ^— has a relatively larger 



The following teeth, which are absent in the Cat, are present in the Genet : — 

P 1 M- 2 P 1 p. 2 . 

p ' ' ^p^. 5^ are one-rooted. The second upper premolar, ^— , which is 

P 3 

one-rooted in the Cat, is two-rooted, as is also p—;,. — ^ has its crown more 
triangular than the Cat's, the heel (or talon) being smaller. <^-r, is much like 

P 4 -t^- «^ 

that of the Cat. The upper sectorial ^— differs from the Cat's in that its 

anterior outer cusp is smaller, its third outer cusp, or talon, distinctly bilobed, 
and its inner cusp larger and more produced from the general surface of 

the tooth. The homologous lower tooth, r^—, is very like that of the Cat. 

Ml 
The first upper molar — ^— is very much larger than that of the Cat ; its antero- 
posterior extent compared with that of — ^— taken at 100, is in the Genet 37'5, 
in the Cat, at most, only 300 ; its transverse diameter compared with that of 

-^— taken at 100 is in the Genet 140-0, in the Cat only 800. Moreover it 

has three roots instead of only two as in the Cat. Its functional surface is 
trihedral and presents two outer and one inner cusp, with an external cingulum, 
which is very prominent at the outer anterior angle of the tooth. Between 
this and the two outer cusps is a flattened somewhat elevated (the skull having 

the basis cranii upwards) surface. — '— is shaped like — ^ but is very much 

smaller. The lower sectorial tooth, =r=— (the analogue, but not the homologue, 

of the upper sectorial), has a much larger heel than has that of the Cat, and one 
which is divided into an inner and an outer cusp. There is also a distinct 

internal cusp, which is placed opposite to the principal external cusp, ^rj—r, is 

a much smaller tooth than jt—,, and is generally quadrate or quadricaspidate, 

but may be trihedral, with two cusps in front and one behind. 

Of the milk-dentition I have not seen the first upper and lower deciduous 

D 2 
molars. The second upper deciduous molar, ^~, has a rather more developed 

prominence, both in front and behind the main cusp, than has the tooth which 
replaces it. It is therefore very unlike that of the Cat, which is a small simple 

one-fanged tooth. The second lower grinder =r-^ is like p— ; ; but its talon is 

larger and is distinctly divided. This tooth is not developed in the Cat. 

D 3 
The deciduous upper sectorial, — ^— , agrees with that of the Cat in being quite 

P 4 

unlike the tooth which replaces it, and in resembling -^~. It differs from the 

permanent sectorial (as is the case in the Cat) in that the inner cusp is re- 
latively smaller and nearer to the antero-posterior middle of the tooth. A 
slight ridge extends from this inner cusp to the anterior cusp ; and on this 
ridge a very small fourth cusp is develojDed. The homologous lower tooth 

=— - is like ^5— 7, but has a relatively larger talon, thus resembling the Cat's =— • 

The hindmost upper milk-molar — '— is quite like ^^, though not nearly so 

antero-posteriorly extended as is the deciduous upper sectorial ; it is (as in the 

Cat) larger in relation to it than is ^— -^. The inferior deciduous 

sectorial =— - is quite like ^tjf—., except that the antero-exterior cusp is much 

smaller than that immediately behind it. In this difference it agrees with the 

Cat's — ^— , but it has not that excess of talon compared with— ^ which |r— has 



1882.] PROF. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LTJROIDEA. 



155 



internal portion, while in both -p— ^ and ^^-^ the talon is larger, that 
01 jj-| (if not that of p-^ also) bearing three small cusps'. 

^j-r^ is quadricuspidate, and may be quinquecuspidate. The milk- 
teeth of Viverra differ from those of Genetta in that — ^ has a less 

Fig. 4. 




Milk- teeth of Viverra civetta, No. 4265, from Coll. Surg. 

A. Grinding-surface of teeth of right side of upper jaw. B. Side view of teeth 
of upper jaw. C. Ditto of those of lower jaw. D. Grinding-surface of 
lower jaw. 



D. 3 



developed prominence in front of the main cusp ; "^^ is less extended 
antero-posteriorly in proportion to its transverse diameter ; it has its 
posterior lobe smaller and undivided, and has a more strongly 
developed ridge running from the inner to the anterior cusp, with 



in the Cat. The proportion borne by the length of the uppermolar series com- 
pared with the base at 100, is in the Genet 128"5, in the Cat88'4. The length 

from the front of the lower canine to the binder side of jf-,, compared with 

the length from the canine to the hinder surface of the mandibular angle at 
100. is in the Genet 63B, in the Cat 507. 

' Well shown in Viverra zibdha, pi. xii. of De Blainville's ' Osteographie ' of 
the Viverras. 



156 



PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 1 , 



i). 4 



the accessory tubercle on that ridge larger ; -^— is the largest 
deciduous tooth, and nearly as extended antero-posteriorly as is the 
^^ ; finally, 5-^ has a larger talon, which by itself constitutes nearly 

half the tooth. 

The external form of the Genet is figured by Buffon, and three 
kinds ("de Barbaric," " de Senegal," and " pantherine") by 
F. Cuvier in his 'Planches des Mamm.' De Blainville (Osteogra- 
phie,' Viverra) gives the skull (plate viii.), details of the axial 
skeleton (plate ix.), and of the appendicular sketeton (plates x. 

and xi.). 

A very important difference between Genetta and Viverra consists 
in the absence in the former of the pouch or sac for storing the 

Fig. 5. 




External appearauce of cutaneous folds i-elatetl to tlic prescrotal 
sceut-glands of the female of Gcnefta tujrina. 
a.g. Needles inserted into the aperture of the two anal glands. 
■ " - Folds of scent -dand. v. Vagina. 



Anus 



9\f 



secretion of the scent-gland. Instead of this I found, in a female 
Genetta tigrina, only a shallow cutaneous fold or longitudinal median 
depression. This groove or fold extended from the small orifice of 
the vagina towards, but not nearly to, the anus. From this median 
superficial depression two longitudinal grooves extended foruards 
and outwards on either side, whereof the two posterior were the 
larger. Beneath these grooves were two scent-glands, the product 
of which could be forced (by squeezing) through a multitude of 
minute pores into the depressed parts of the folds — the hinder 
rather than the anterior of the two pairs of diverging ones. Similar 
glands and folds were found by ]\f . Chatin in the male of Genetta 



1882.] PROF. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. ISf 

senegalensis, and have been described and figured by him in the 
Ann. des. Sc. Naturelles, 5'' ser. vol. xix. (1874) pi. iii. fig. 14. 
These glands were described and figured by Daubenton in BuiFon's 
Hist. Nat. vol. ix. p. 343, pis. 36-40. Therein the Genet dissected 
(a female) is described as having a distinct orifice at the bottom of 
each lateral depression, leading thence into the interior of the gland ; 
but such is certainly not the case in my G. tigrina, any more than 
in (Miatin's G. senegalensis, in both of which the secretion had 
only a multitude of minute pores through which to exude. 

The genus Genetta agrees with Viverra in all the characters of 
the latter before enumerated, except Nos. 24, 38, and 42 ; and there 
are, besides, the differences in size and markings and in the more 
inflated condition of the anterior part of the bulla. 

The beautiful Viverrine animals known as the Linsangs differ 
from the foregoing forms sufficiently to warrant their separation as 
members of the genus Prionodon, which may be said to have been first 
instituted by Horsfield, since in his 'Zoological Researches' (1824) he 
proposed for it the term Prioiiodontidce to denote a subdivision of the 
genus Felis. He there describes it under the name of Felis gracilis^, 
and gives a representation of its external form, and also separate 
figures of its head, dentition, and paw. Hodgson, in the 2nd part 
of the 2nd volume (1842) of the 'Calcutta Journal of Natural 
History,' p. 57, plate 1, describes a so-called second species of the 
genus Prionodon {P. pardicolor) ; and a third species, P. maculosus, 
has been described by Mr. Blanford in the 2nd part of the 
47th vol. of the Journal of the xlsiatic Society of Bengal (1878), 
p. 1.52, pi. 6 (external form) and pi. 7 (skull), the skin and skull 
of which are deposited in the British Museum, and some points in 
the anatomy of which I have examined. 

In Prionodon the ground-colour of the coat is white or whitish 
grey, ^with brown or black markings. The markings may form 
four broad continuous patches running transversely across the 
hinder part of the body ; or spots may replace each continuous 
patch. The tail is ringed ; and there are dark streaks on the neck 
and shoulders. P. gracilis is from Borneo, Java, and Singapore ; 
P. pardicolor from Nepal ; and P. maculosus from Darjeeling, 
Moulmain, and South Tenasserim. As to size, the length of the 
head and body seems to average about 46", and that of the tail 
40"'5. The fur is soft, close, and erect. The limbs are rather 
short. The pollex and hallux are both well developed. The claws 
are almost, if not quite, as completely retractile as in the Cats. 
The tarsus and metatarsus are entirely hairy. Thus in this respect, 
as also in the character of the claws and the absence of — ^, Prio- 
nodon approaches Felis most closely, as Horsfield was careful to 
point out. The palmar and plantar pads have a greater tendency 
to break up into separate naked spaces than in Genetta ; but, as 
in that genus, a hairy portion intervenes between the proximal and 
distal parts of the palmar pad. The pupil is circular. 

' Prionodon gracilis, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 519. 



158 



PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 



As to any scent- or prescrotal gland, Mr. Hodgson says': — "Anal 
gland very apparently present, but the exact character of it not 
determinable." Horsfield records^ of Viverra, " Folliculos glandu- 
losos inter genitaha et anum ;" but of Prionodon he says, " Folliculos 
supra anum nullos," but with a note of interrogation. The specimen 

Fig. 6. 





Pads of Frionodon. 
A. Pads of left maims. B. Pads of left pes. 

examined by me was a male. Not only was there no opening in it 
between the penis and testes, but no glandular structure in that 
situation beneath the skin could be detected, eitlier by me or by 
Mr. William Pearson, who assisted me in the dissection. There 
were the usual anal glands and a pair of exceedingly large Cowper's 
glands, each of them about equalling in size the whole of the bilobed 
prostate. 

The skull has its general shape and proportions and the form of 
the auditory bulla much as in Genetta. The condyloid foramen is 
exposed. The paroccipital is neither depending nor prominent, and 
the mastoid no more prominent than in the Genets. There is a 
long alisphenoid canal, which opens behind in a depression common 
to it and to the foramen ovale. The postorbital processes are less 
marked than in any hitherto ; and the skull is antero-posteriorly 

^ Calcutta Journal of Nat. Hist. vol. ii. part 2 (1842), p. 51. 
^ ' Zoological Researches.' 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 159 

marked by a groove along the miildle of the nasals, as in Fossa. 
The cerebellar chamber of the cranium is very large, larger relatively 
than in Viverra or Civetta. The cranial ridges are slight, the 
temporal ridges not uniting to form a sagittal ridge. The ascending 
ramus of the mandible has a narrower and more vertically prolonged 
coronoid process than in Genetta, while the angle extends less 
backwardly. The teeth' are formed like those of the Genets, save 
that there is no -^— and that — has rather a larger talon relatively, 
while its inner cusp is situated a little more towards the anterior 
end of the tooth, j^^ has also a smaller talon than has the corre- 
sponding tooth oi Genetta; and |^-r, is much more minute than is the 
JP2 of the Genets, and more laterally compressed, with two (or 
three) cusps placed one in front of the other. The deciduous teeth 
are like those of the Genets, save that -^ seems to have its talon 
hardly smaller than in the adult, and has no extra cusp on the ridge 
joining the inner and anterior cusps, g-g is unlike that of Genetta 
and is quite like jj— ^, except that the postero-external cusp is rather 

larger compared with the anterior one, and that the talon is a trifle 
smaller relatively. 

Prionodon has all the characters enumerated as those of Viverra, 
except Nos, 1. 2, 12, 18, 42, 45, and 46. 

The genus Poiana was founded by Dr. Gray on the Genetta 
poensis described by Mr. Waterhouse ^. 

Its coloration is very like that of Prionodon ; but the spots are 
smaller and show no tendency to run into transverse bands or stripes, 
except on the middle of the back of the head, and except a broad 
mark on each side descending from the back of the head to above 
the shoulder. The tail is ringed with dark rings, alternately broad 
and narrow. The muzzle is very pointed. The length of the head 
and body is about 38 inches, that of the tail 40'5 inches. 

The animal comes from Sierra Leone and Fernando Po, and 
differs from Prionodon not only remarkably as to geographical 
distribution, but also in that it has a narrow bald line running up 
towards the tarsus, as in Genetta. I have been able to find no 
cranial distinctions between Poiana and Prionodon, save that in the 
latter the cerebellar chamber of the cranium is smaller, and that 
the coronoid process of the mandible is intermediate in form between 
that of Genetta and that of Poiana. 

The teeth are also quite like those of Prionodon, except that 
jjj-2 's rather less laterally compressed, its three cusps being not 
placed so nearly in an antero-posterior line. 

Thus this animal might be considered an African Prionodon 
which had acquired a Genet-hke tarsus ; and this determination 

^ The dentition (copied from Horsfield's plate) is given by De Blainville, 
Osteographie, Viverras, pi. 12. 

■' P. Z. S. 1838, p. 59. See also P. Z. S. 1864, p. 520, and .Brit. Mus. Cat. 
p. 54, fig. 8 (skull). 



160 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVAKT ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

could be the less objected to, since I have found in Prionodon 
pardicolor a tendency to a narrow prolongation upwards of the 
plantar pad, which I have not found in Prionodon gracilis. I hold 
them therefore distinct quite provisionally and doubtfully. As this 
species seems never to have been represented, I have thought it 
well to figure it now. 



Fig. 7. 




External form of Poiana. 



The genera yet noticed (Fiverra, Viverricula, Fossa, Genefta, 
Prionodon, and Poiana) form a distinct and very closely allied 
group, the characters of which may be most conveniently given 
when the next set of forms has been passed in review. 

The genus which it seems to me may best be taken next is the 
large and polymorphic genus Paradoxurus. It contains about a 
dozen (mostly more or less imperfectly defined) species, which all 
come from the Asiatic region, from China, Formosa, Nepal and 
Tenasserim, to Madras, the Andaman Islands, Ceylon, Malacca, 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE jELUROIDEA. 161 

Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and the Philippine Islands. They all 
agree in having the poUex and hallux well developed, with the 
metatarsus bald beneath, and also the tarsus, save beneath the heel, 
where the hair extends across in an evenly curved line. The claws are 
at least as sharply curved and retractile as in the Genets (c/. fig. 14 B, 
p. 192). The tail seems to be, at any rate in some species, slightly 
prehensile. 

The best description I know of the genus is in Temminck's 
'Monographic de Mammalogie,' vol. ii. p. 312. 

As illustrations of this genus we have : — some plates in Cuvier's 
' Mammiferes,' vol. ii. ; Ogilby, Zool. Jonrn. iv. tab. 35, suppl. ; 
Horsfield, Zool. Research, in Java ( Viverra niusangd) ; Buffon, 
Suppl. iii. pi. 47(Genette de France) ; Gray, ' Indian Zoology,' tabulae 
7, 8, 10, and 11 ; (P. typus) Otto, Nov. Act. Nat. Cun xvii. 2, 
tabulae 72 & 73 ; Temminck, Monographic de Mammal, ii. pis. 64- 
66 (skulls) ; Marsden's 'Sumatra,' t. 12 (the Musang); Jacquinot & 
Pucheran, Voy. au Pole Sud, Zool. iii. p. 2.5, pi. 6 ; P. Z. S. 1856^ 
pis. 47 & 48, and P. Z. S. 1877, pi. 71. Skull: in Brit. Mus. Cat. 
(1869), pp. &7 (fig. 9), 70 (fig. 10), 71 (fig. U); Cuvier, 'Planche^ 
des Mammiferes,' Le Pargoune and Paradoxure de Nubie; De Blain- 
ville's ' Osteographie ' {Fiverra), pi. 2 (skeleton), pi. 6 (skull), pi. 7 
(skulls), pi. 9 (parts of axial skeleton and hyoid), pi. 10 (fore 
limb), pi. 11 (hind limb), pi. 12 (teeth), adult and young. 

In this old and well-known genus the skull is less elongated than 
in Fiverra. The auditory bulla is, as Prof. Flower has remarked', 
shaped more like that of Fiverra than that of Genetta. It is 
"conical, broad, and truncated behind, pointed in front, and rather 
compressed at the sides, which meet in a ridge." The anterior part 
of the bulla is very small indeed. The opening of the auditory 
meatus is not large ; and its hinder lip is slightly the more pro- 
minent. The postorbital processes are generally (not always) rather 
long and pointed ; and the skull is much pinched in laterallj'^ behind 
them. The condyloid foramen is quite covered in and concealed. 
The paroccipital process is depending ; and the mastoid is much as 
in the Civet. There is an alisphenoid canal. There is a distinct 
but short carotid canal, the hinder end of which opens near the 
anterior end of the inner wall of the hinder (and larger) chamber of 
the bulla. The teeth, as is well known, are less sectorial in 
character than are those of the genera as yet noticed ; but there are 
considerable differences in different species. 

On comparing the teeth of what seems to be an average specimen 
of Paradoxurus with those of Fiverra, I find -^-^ broader in pro- 
portion to its length and less vertically extended, with a well- 
developed cingulum ; ^— with its postero-outer cusp very much 
smaller and its inner cusp more massive. "-^- is more quadrate, and 

' L. c. p. 19. He says also : — " The inner or posterior chamber presents, in 
some species at least, the ]3eculiarity of being permanently distinct and move- 
able, not only from the other axial bones, but also from the tympanic portion 
of the bulla." 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XI. U 



162 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE jELUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

its inner cusp is much larger relatively ; it is really the largest 
tooth, and has three roots. '—^ is shaped like ^—, but is smaller, 
with two outer cusps and one large inner cusp ; it has two roots, 
p— J is broader in proportion to its length and has less talon, but a 

more marked anterior tubercle. ^— ^ is much broader in proportion 
to its length, and its cusps are less pointed and prolonged. Its talon is 
raised to the level of the ('rent part of the tooth, and forms the tooth's 
hinder half with four small cusps arranged in a semicircle, while the 
front half of the tooth bears three larger cusps, one foremost and tlie 
other two side by side, j^ is quinquecuspidate, with two large 

cusps in front (not side by side), and three smaller ones behind 
arranged in a semicircle. 

Comparing tJie deciduous teeth with those of Viverra, I find — ^ 
with less talon, -^— (the deciduous sectorial) with a relatively 
smaller internal cusp and with the fourth cusp a little smaller. 
This tooth is decidedly more sectorial than is the permanent sectorial 
tooth, its posterior cusp being relatively larger. -^— is much like 
that of Viverra, but is rather more quadrate, g-^ and g-j^ have less 
talon than in the Civets, g-j is more sectorial than the permanent 

sectorial tooth, and is very like that of the Civet, except that its 
talon is rather smaller and the tuberosities upon it (especially the 
innermost one of them) less developed. 

As examples of the considerable differences in the forms and sizes 
of the teeth in different species or races, I may perhaps be permitted 
to remark that the British-Museum specimen called P. macrodus 
by Dr. Gray well merits its name fr n the large size of its teeth '. 
There is no skin of this species in the collection ; and its habitat is 

unknown, jj^ are very small in the skulls named P. larvatus, 
P. grayii, and P. lanigera in the national collection ; and they are 
rather small in P. zeylanicus and P. bondar. ^^^ (the sectorial 

teeth) are very sectorial in character in the forms named P. hernia- 
phroditus, P. bondar, and P. lanigera. They are, on the other 
hand, more quadrangular and very unsectorial in form in P. macrodus, 
P. nigrifrovs, P. larvatus, P. grayii, P. j)hiUppensis, P. zeylanicus, 
P. leucomystax, and P. fasciatus. 

In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons there is a skull 
(No. 4304 b) in which ^j^ are entirely absent. It com.es from Nepal. 

In the British Museum there is also a skull (No. 154 6), which 
was purchased from the Zoological Society and said to have come 

from Manilla, in which ^j^ are also entirely wanting^. But the 

Manilla skull has -^— and —— more quadrate and -^— much thicker ; 
also jj-| is wider and vj-^ is larger ; and g-^ is wider and more 

> P.Z.S. 1864,p. 538. ^^ 2 

^ Ou the left side of the skull there are two small boles in the place where — '— 
would be were it present. These holes, however, look more like small i'racl ui-es 
or some pathological condition than like alveoli. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 163 

cuspidate than in the College of Surgeons' skull. Thus, if a fresli 
genus were to be made for these two skulls, the two species would 
differ greatly in the form of their teeth, though agreeing as to the 
number. I hesitate, therefore, to separate them, not being able to 
ascertain if any external distinctions accompany the absence of j^^' 

Though the skull from Manilla is quite adult and more ridged than 
that from the College of Surgeons, yet it is much smaller than the 
latter, its length being only 8"'6 instead of 9"' 6. 

The scent-glands lie beneath the surface of a valve-like antero- 
posteriorly directed cutaneous inflection, more or less naked, and 
situated between the penis and the testes in the male, and analo- 
gously in the female. Temniinck says ', " Le plus grand nombre 
des paradoxures est muni d'un organe semblable." With the kind 
assistance of Mr. Bartlett I have verified the existence of this pouch 
in one of the Paradoxures, named P. typus, living in the Gardens ; 
and I have also noted that the skin around the anus is naked. The 
pupil is linear. 

Thus the genus Paradoxurus has the characters before enumerated 
as those of Viverra, except Nos. 6 (sometimes), 24, 45 (sometimes), 
and 47. As to character 26, it is possible in some species the anus 
may open into a saccular depression ; but I have not observed it or 
any record of its so doing. Chatin is silent as to the genus Para- 
doxurus. I do think it probable that when the species of this genus 
have been well worked out, it will be found to be subdivisible into 
two or more genera. 

As it is, however, I can find no characters to justify the separation 
of any Paradoxures into the genus Paguma of Gray ; but it is 
otherwise as regards Arctogale. 

The genus Arctogale was instituted by Prof. Peters, but not 
published by him. It was adopted from him, and published 
by Dr. Gray ". The type species of the genus is described in 
Temminck's ' Monographies,' vol. ii. p. 333, under the name of 
Paradoxurus trivirgatus ; and he figures (pi. 63) the entire skeleton 
(| size of nature), with the skull and dentition (of the natural size). 
It has been described under the same name by Gray in P. Z. S. 
1832, p. 68, and by G. S. Miiller in Verhand. i. sp. 3, p. 55. Its 
external form does not appear to have been figured hitherto, and 
has therefore been given here. There are nine skins and three 
skulls of this species in the British Museum, one skull (No. 1656 a) 
being labelled Paguma stigmatica, which is really but a synonym. 

Arctogale trivirgata comes from Singapore and Burmah, and 
also from Java and Sumatra according to Temminck (where he says 
it inhabits the mountains of from 3000 to 3500 feet elevation), and 
from Tenasserim according to Blyth. 

A. stigmatica is said by Temminck (' Esquisses Zoologiques,' 
p. 121) to have been found in the south of Borneo. The size 
attained is considerable, the length of the head and body being 
sometimes 58"*4, and that of the tail 43"-2. 

' L. c. p. 313. ^ P. Z. S. 1864, p. 542; and Catalogue of Carnivora, p. 75. 

11* 



164 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

It is by cranial and dental characters that this genus is distin- 
guishable, as was pointed out by Dr. Peters and Dr. Gray. The 
palate is much more prolonged behind the last molars than in any 
Paradoxure. In Paradoxurus grayii (in which it is more prolonged 
than in any other Paradoxure) the first molar's length is only 10, the 
whole cranial length being taken at 100, whilei u A. trivirgata it 
is 12*6 or even 148, and in the specimen named A. stiginatica 
13'0. Moreover the hinder portion inclines more or less strongly 

Fig. 8. 




External form of Arctogale. 



upwards as it proceeds backwards, and there is a deep notch with 
a semicircular or more than semicircular outline on each side of the 
prolonged median portion. The hinder portion of the alveolar 
border of the mandible is also singularly everted. 

The teeth of Arctogale are remarkable for their small size and 
very unsectorial character. — and ~ are very nearly equal in 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUKOIDEA. 



165 



size; and —^ are fairly developed. In other respects the cranial and 
dental characters are those of Paradoxurus. 

Terominck says nothing about the scent- or prescrotal gland, which 
I presume is as in Paradoxurvs. S. Miiller is also silent about it. 

Arctogale, then, differs from Fiverra as to Nos. 24, 33, 47, 48, 
49, and 50. 




Half basis cranii (A) and half mandible (B) oi Arctogale. 
a, Anterior opening of the alisphenoid canal; o, foramen OTale; c, carotid 

canal. 

The genus Hemigalea was instituted by Jourdan (Compt. Rend. 
1837, p. 442, Ann. des Sc. Nat. vol. viii. p. 277) for the Paradoxurvs 
derbianus of Gray (P. Z. S. 1837, p. G7, and Loudon's Mag. Nat. 
Hist. 1. 1837, p. 579). It is the Viverra hardwickii of Gray (Spic 
Zool. n p. 9, 1. 1.), the Viverra boiei of S. Muller (Zoog. Ind. Arcbip. 
p. 121, t. xvni., which contains a representation of the external 
torm, skull, and dentition), and the Hemigale zehre of the 



166 



PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVAUT ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 



' Voyage de la Boiiite,' p. 28, pi. v., which is a good coloured repre- 
sentation of the animal, with outline of skull and teeth, which are 
also figured (under the name Paradoxufus derbyanus) on pis. vii. and 
xii. of De Blainville's ' Osteographie ' (Fiverra). It is an inhabi- 
tant of Malacca and Borneo. It differs strikingly from most other 
Viverridce by its system of coloration, as it has transverse stripes 
instead of longitudinal markings and spots. It is in this respect 
only aj)proached by the Liusangs. Its ground-colour is whitish 



Fig. 10. 





Pads of Hemigalea. 
A, left manus ; B, left pes. 

yellow, with red-brown markings. The tail is ringed at its proximal 
part, but is black distally. There are three stripes on the head, 
two down the neck, and it is irregularly marked on the shoulders. 
The hair on the dorsum of the neck is reversed in direction. The 
claws are sharp and retractile. 

The pads, besides those beneath the five toes, are concentrated, so 
as to iorm a considerable naked space (pointed upwards) on the 
metatarsus, while the tarsus is almost, if not quite, entirely hairy. 
No hairy interval divides the jiroximal and distal portions of the 
palmar pad. The claws are strongly arched (r/. fig. 14 D, p. 192. 



1882.] PROF. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE .ELUROIDEA. 167 

The poUex and hallux are very well developed. 

In its cranial characters Ilemigalea resembles Paradoxurus. Its 
bulla is of the same form, but ankylosed into one piece. The par- 
occipital is depending, the mastoid very slightly marked ; there is 
an alisphenoid canal ; and the condyloid foramen is concealed ; but 
the hinder opening of the carotid canal is rather more anteriorly 
situated with respect to the bulla. Its anterior end notches the 
alisphenoid as always hitherto. The postorbital processes are very 
small, that of the malar almost obsolete. When the skull is looked 
at in profile, the dorsum of the muzzle is very concave, and a deepish 
groove runs antero-posteriorly along the junction of the nasal bones. 
There is a peculiar depression or notch in the upper alveolar border 
to receive the apex of p-g. 

The teeth are the teeth of Paradoxurus ; but the outermost upper 
incisor of each side is more separated from the incisor next it, and 
~^ are very well developed. — has a distinct internal tubercle ; 
and there is even a very small one to — . p-^ is very much ex- 
tended vertically, and is received into the upper alveolar notch just 
mentioned. 

Length of head and body about 38"- 1 ; of tail 40"-6. 

Nothing is said as to any scent-gland in the ' Zoology of the Voyage 
of the Bonite ;' nor do I find any other notice about it. In a female 
specimen most kindly presented to me by Mr. A. D. Bartlett, and 
which I dissected (portions of its anatomy being preserved in the 
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons), I found superficial folds 
something as in Genetia—tv/o oblique shallow folds extending ob- 
liquely upwards and outwards from near the anus to the vicinity of 
the vagina. The secretion could be squeezed into these folds, just 
as in the specimen I examined of Geneiia tigrina. The tongue 
exhibited an oval patch of much enlarged but soft papillae on the 
anterior half of the dorsum of that organ. 

A very peculiar jilate-like enlargement of the radius is to be found 
on its outer border a little above its styloid precess. Into this are 
inserted the supinator longus, the pronator radii teres, and, espe- 
cially, the large pronator quadratus. 

Hemigalea agrees with Viverra as to the characters so oftea 
referred to, except Nos. 2 (perhaps), 24, 42, 43, 51, 52, and 53. 

The Binturong (Arctictis), the systematic position of which was 
for a time so much mistaken, is a good example of the small 
value of dental characters as guides to the essential affinity of an 
animal. 

Were it not for Arctogale (which tends to bridge over the dental 
differences between Arctitis and Paradoxurus), the Binturong would 
be an exception amongst the Viverridce, something as Froteles is 
amongst the Hycenidce. Arctitis may be confidently affirmed to he 
an aberrant Paradoxure. The animal seems to have been first 
described by Sir Stamford Raffles (as Viverra binturong) in the 
Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xiii. p. 253. 



168 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

The geuus Arctictis was instituted by Temminek, who gives it iu 
the 'Tableau Methodique' (1827), p.. xxi, in the beginning of his 
first volume of the ' Monographie,' in the second volume of which, 
p. 305, is a full description, with a figure of the skeleton half the 
size of nature, and one of the skull and dentition of the natural size. 
De Blainville, in his ' Osteographie ' (Subursus), gives a figure of 
the entire skeleton on pi. 4, of the skull and dentition on pi. 7, 
with some details of the axial skeleton on pi. 8, of the appendicular 
skeleton on pis. 9 & 10, with the adult and milk-dentition on pi. 11. 
F. Cuvier has figured the dentition in the ' Dents des Mammiferes,' 
pi. 3 bis. F. Cuvier also figured the animal (Mem. du Mus. vol. ix. 
p. 44, t. 4) under the name Paradoxurus albifrons ; and another 
figure of a semi-adult individual (under the name Binturong) in his 
' Mammiferes,' vol. ii. Valenciennes has also figured it (under the 
name Ictides albifrons) in Ann. des Sc. Nat. vol. iv. p. 57, pi. 1. In 
the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,' vol. xv. 1846, p. 192, 
there is a short but interesting account of the animal. It is referred 
to in S. Miiller's ' Zoog. Ind. Archipel,' p. 32. The anatomy of 
this animal has been described by the late Prof. Garrod in P. Z. S. 
1873, p. 196, with a further note (as to the occasional absence of 
the caecum') in 1878, p. 142. 

The animal comes certainly from Borneo ; and some say, from 
Java, Sumatra, and Malacca also. 

The ears are tufted, the tail long and, to a certain extent, pre- 
hensile ; and the tarsus and metatarsus are both entirely naked. As 
to the cranium, the bulla is formed on the type of that of Paradox- 
urus, except that the two parts are completely ankylosed in the adult. 
There is an alisphenoid canal, but no pterygoid fossa. The external 
opening of the auditory meatus is small and oval. The postorbital 
processes are very short and blunt (the malar hardly indicated) ; 
and the cranium is not laterally constricted behind them. The 
condyloid foramen is concealed. The cranial ridges are not largely 
developed ; but the paroccipital process depends, and the mastoid is 
rather marked. The carotid canal opens posteriorly at the middle 
of the inner side of the auditory bulla, while anteriorly it notches 
the alisphenoid. There is no foramen or fissure in the floor of the 
auditory bulla's anterior chamber ; but there is a very deep pit (to 
receive the cornu of the hyoid) on the side of the bulla just behind 
the external auditory opening. The palate is greatly prolonged behind 
the hindmost molars. The angle of the mandible is very small. The 
zygomatic arches present a rather concave instead of a convex out- 
line medianly when viewed from above or below. The premolars 
and molars are small and separated one from another by small but 
marked intervals. The number of teeth varies slightly, as either 
-^ or -^— may be wanting, and (according to Raffles) there may be 

six teeth in the lower jaw ; i. e. p-j is probably present sometimeSj 

^ That there is much yariation as to this part is shown by the record, in 
vol. XV. p. 193 of the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,' that the cseciim 
is half an inch long. 



1882.] PROF. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE /ELUROIDEA. 169 

though I have never seen it. ^, if present, is very small, one- 
rooted, and much less than half the size of '-^. —^ is much like 
the same tooth in Paradoxurus, but is less transversely extended in 
proportion to its length ; it has three tubercles and three roots. 
-^- is like that of Paradoxurus, save that it is modified by the very 
great reduction of the foremost and hindmost outer cusps, which are 
each connected by a ridge (the cingulum) with the largely-developed 

inner cusp. -^— is a trihedral tooth with rounded angles ; -^— 
is similar but smaller ; and — ^ may be wanting, but if present is long 
and conical, p-^ is wanting, p-g, p-g, and p-j are conical teeth, 

increasing in breadth progressively backwards, j^ is much as in 
Paradoxurus, but is broader in proportion to its length. Tlie talon 
does not form quite half the tooth, jj-5 is more rounded than 
generally in Paradoxurus ; it is not much smaller than p-^. As to 

the milk-dentition, the deciduous upper sectorial ('^-) is much more 
sectorial than is the permanent sectorial tooth. It is very narrow 
from side to side, having either a mere rudiment of an internal cusp 

or none. -^— is quite like — ^, g-^ is rather more sectorial than is 
=— . The infraorbital foramen opens above ^. p-^ does not bite 

at all against — ^ but against ^^ and -^—. 

The pollex and hallux are very well developed. The claws are 
strongly arched and pointed {cf. fig. 14 C, p. 192), and more or less 
retractile. 

There is a prescrotal gland, which exudes its secretion into a naked 
cutaneous invagination placed, like a vulva, in front of the anus. 

Arctictis agrees, so far as I can ascertain, with Viverra, except 
in the characters numbered 9, 17 (sometimes), 24, 28 (sometimes), 
33, 37, 43, 45 (often), 47, and 50. 

The next form is one the nature and affinities of which are to me 
doubtful. It has, liowever, so much the general appearance and 
character of the Paradoxures (with which it was at first associated) 
that 1 feel compelled to place it in proximity to them, in spite of the 
very exceptional ch.aracter of the auditory region of its cranium. 
Indeed the non-ossification of parts of its bulla may be taken as a 
great exaggeration of that separate, movable condition of its hinder 
chamber which we have seen to be the case in Paradoxurus. Its 
claws are like those of the last-mentioned genus, as also the naked 
condition of its tarsus and metatarsus. 

The genus Nandinia was instituted by Gray (P. Z. S. 1864, 
p. 529) for the species previously described bv him as Paradoxurusi 
binotatus (P. Z. S. 1832, p. 68) and P. fiamiltonii (P. Z. S. 1852, 
p. 67, and Illus. Indian Zool.). It is the P. binotatus of Temminck 
(' Monographic,' vol. ii. p. 336), who figures the skull (pi. 65. figs. 7, 
8, & 9) and refers to it in his 'Esquisses Zool.' p. 119. Its external 
form is represented in Gray's ' Illustrations of Indian Zoology.' 

The skull and teeth are figured by De Blainville, ' Osteographie,' 



170 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

Viverra, pis. 6 & 12, under the name Paradoxurus hamiltonii. 
There is a short description of its anatomy, by Prof, Flower, in 
P. Z. S. 1872, p. 683. 

It comes from Fernando Po and Western Africa, and also, it is 
said, from Zanzibar. 

The Viverrine section of the Viverrince are rather more African 
than Asiatic ; but this is the only African form of the Paradoxuriue 
section of that subfamily. It seems to be a Paradoxure separated 
from the others by a more carnivorous dentition, and from all other 
iEluroidea by the non-ossification of the hinder and larger portion 
of the auditory bulla, which remains cartilaginous. 

There is but one known species, the head and body of which 
measure about 43"'2, and the tail 3U""5. It is of a greyish- 
brown colour, black- spotted, and with the tail indistinctly ringed. 
There are three short black stripes on the nape (one from the 
forehead and one from each ear) ; and there is a yellow spot on 
each shoulder. The belly is dirty white. The tarsus and meta- 
tarsus are about as bald as in Paradoxurus. The muzzle is shorter 
than in any other of the Fiverridcp. Not only is the hinder part of 
the bulla cartilaginous, but its anterior part is rather more bullate 
than (at least generally) in Parudoxurvs. The opening of the auditory 
meatus is not large. There is no pterygoid fossa. The postorbital 
processes are long and pointed; and the skull is much contracted 
just behind them. The sagittal and lambdoidal ridges, especially 
the latter, are largely developed. The muzzle is relatively shorter 
than in any other Viverrine yet reviewed. The paroccipilal appears 
to be depending (though this cannot be asserted in the absence of 
the bulla) ; and the mastoid is larger than in any genus as yet here 
noticed. There is an alisphenoid canal close to the foramen ovale ; 
and the condyloid foramen is very much exposed. There is no 
anterior carotid foramen other than the usual foramen lacerum. 
The ascending ramus of the mandible is flattened beneath in a way 
not existing in any genus yet reviewed, and certainly not in Para- 
doxurus; and the angle is pressed up exceptionally towards the 
condyle. The teeth are formed on the type of those of the Genet, 
but are modified in a more sectorial direction. — is very minute, 
and sometimes aborts altogether'. — is smaller than in the Genets. 
— has a posterior cusp as large as in the Genets, and the inner 
cusp even a little smaller, jj-^ has its talon much smaller than in 

Genetta ; and j^ is a rounded rudimentary tooth, smaller than 

that of the Genets. 

No infraorbital foramen opens above -^—; and so bites against — -• 
There is no caecum, as was ascertained by Prof. Flower ^ I can 

find no record as to the existence of prescrotaP or anal glands. 

^ As on both sides of a skull in the Eoyal College of Surgeons' Museum, and 
on one side of another skull there. 

2 P. Z.S.I 872, p. 683. 

^ Through the kindness of Mr. Forbes I have been able to ascertain the 
presence, in a female Nundlnia, of a bald patch, no doubt glandular, in the 
situation of the prescrotal glandular structure of Genetta. 



1882.] PROF. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE .ELUROIDEA. 171 

The tongue is much like that of the Civet, and with no patch of 
greatly enlarged papillae on its anterior half. 

The characters before given of Fiverra apply also to Nandinia 
except nos. 3, 7, 14, 24, 28, 35, 37. 38,40,42. 43, 45 (sometimes). 
46. and 54. 

With Nandinia closes the second set of forms of the subfamily 
Viveri-ina ; and the characters of these two sets may be expressed as 
follows : — 

In the Viverrine section of the Viverrince we find : — 

(1) Auditory bulla entirely ankylosed into one mass. 

(2) Bulla not always, or greatly, narrowing anteriorly. 

(3) Palate never much prolonged beyond hindmost molars. 

(4) Mastoid never very prominent. 

(5) A caecum constantly present. 

(6) Teeth always sectorial, never very small ; anterior premolars 

not very long. 

(7) Margins of palate not nearly parallel. 

(8) A supracondyloid foramen to the humerus. 

(9) A median groove beneath the nose on the upper lip. 

(10) Tarsus and metatarsus often entirely hairy, never entirely 

naked. 

(11) Tail long. 

In the Paradoxurine section we meet with the following cha- 
arcters : — 

(1) Auditory bulla often in two pieces ; hinder chamber in one 

species not ossified. 

(2) Bulla, when ossified, always greatly narrowing anteriorly. 

(3) Palate sometimes much prolonged beyond last molars. 

(4) Mastoid in one form very prominent. 

(5) Caecum sometimes absent. 

(6) Teeth sometimes but little sectorial and occasionally very 

small ; anterior premolars not very long, 

(7) Margins of palate not nearly parallel. 

(8) A supracondyloid foramen "to humerus. 

(9) A median groove beneath the nose, on the upper lip. 

(iO) Tarsus and metatarsus often entirely naked, never entirely 

hairy. 
(11) Tail long. 

The genus Cynogale was founded by Gray* on a skin in the col- 
lection of our Society, supposed to have formed part of the collec- 
tion of Sir Stamford Rafl9es, and therefore to have come from 
Sumatra. It was described and figured in 1837 by De Blainville, 
under the name Fiverra carcharias, who gives some anatomical 
details (Ann, Sc. Nat. 2" ser. vii. p. 280. pi. 8) ; and in 1839 by S. 
Muller (Zoog. Ind. Archip. p. 115, pi. 17, showing the external 
form, skull, and dentition), under the name Potamophilus barbatus ; 
and in 1841 by MM. Eydoux and Souleyet (in 'Voyage de la 

1 P. Z. S. 1836, p. 88. 



172 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

Bonite,' p. 24, pi. 6), who have given an excellent figure of the 
external form, with an outline of the skull and teeth. The entire 
skeleton is represented by De Blainville on pi. 3 of his ' Osteo- 
graphie ' ( Viverra) ; while its skull is admirably figured in profile 
on pi. 7, the atlas, axis, sternum, and hyoid on pi. 9, its appendi- 
cular skeleton on pis. 10 and 1 1, and its dentition, both young and 
adult, on pi. 12. 

The animal comes from Borneo. It was erected by Dr. Gray, 
first into the tribe Cynogalince^ and then into the family Cynogalidee", 
mainly on the ground of the nose having no median groove beneath 
it, a character very useful for zoological purposes, but, as it appears 
to me, trivial as the mark of a family or subfamily. I do find, 
however, a groove beneath the nose, though none on the upper lip. 

Fig. 11. 




Pads of left pes of Cynogale, 



Its webbed feet, short tail, long moustaches ^ together with its 
exceptional upper lip, serve, however, to mark it as a very distinct 
genus, as does also the absence of the supracondyloid groove of the 
humerus. The feet are much less bald than in Arctictis. The 
metatarsus, indeed, is hairless ; but the tarsus is clothed beneath 
with short hairs. The claws are rather elongated {cf. fig. 14 E). 

The pollex and hallux are very well developed. 

' P. Z. S. 1864, p. 521. 2 Cat. of Camivora, p. 78. 

^ When the head of this auimal is viewed from above (as in S. Miiller's 
figure) it presents a singular resemblance to the head of Potamogale. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 173 

The colour of the coat is red-brown, with no markings save a very 
narrow black line along the crown of the elongated head. The ears 
are small, the whiskers very long. The hair is crisp, short, and 
thick. The tail is very short, tapering rapidly. A bunch of 
whisker grows from below each ear as well as on each side of the 
nose. The claws are strong, sharp, and retractile. Length of head 
and body about 68""5, that of tail about 14"'5. 

The cranium is of an intermediate type — somewhat Civet-like and 
Paradoxure-like. The bulla is shaped like that of the Civet, but is 
less prominent. The anterior part of it is especially flattened. The 
opening of the external auditory meatus is small. The postorbital 
processes are very small indeed ; but the skull is extremely narrowed 
and pinched in behind them. The condyloid foramen is quite con- 
cealed. The sagittal ridge is pretty well developed, and the lamb- 
doidal ridge is very large. The paroccipital is depending. The 
mastoid is prominent, though not so markedly so as in Nandinia. 
There is an alisphenoid canal which opens posteriorly opposite 
and close to the foramen ovale. The carotid canal opens pos- 
teriorly near the middle of the inner margin of the larger chamber 
of the bulla ; while anteriorly the carotid artery enters by the fora- 
men lacerum, notching the sphenoid. There is a pterygoid fossa, 
and a very large infraorbital foramen, which opens above the — . 
The palate is exceptional in shape, having nearly parallel lateral 
margins. Dentally, Cynogale is a much modified Paradoxure. The 

differences are mainly as follows : is relatively larger and more 

nearly equal to — ^. —— is almost quite as large as -^, which has 
its inner tubercle still larger in proportion to the rest of the tooth 
than in Paradoxurus. It has three external cusps, the first and 
third being largely and equally developed, and the middle cusp not 
descending very much below them, a form of tooth unlike that of 
any other yet here-described Viverrine animal. -^— is of very great 
vertical extent (relatively greater than any yet described here) ; and 
the same may be said of -^, which is somewhat recurved towards 
its apex. -^— is a longish caniniform tooth, recurved towards its 
apex and placed close behind the canine. The lower premolars are 
correspondingly developed, p-g has two small posterior basal cusps, 
p-^ has a very long talon with two cusps (one before the other), and 
then also an accessory anterior cusp, ^j^ has a talon which is so 

large that it forms half the crown of the tooth, and bears three or 
four tubercles. 

As to the milk-dentition, -^^ is very much like -^, ~ is 
intermediate in character between ^— and ~^, but is more like 
^. Instead of being much like the permanent sectorial (as in 
Genetta and so many other forms), its very small inner tubercle is 
placed inside quite the hindest part of the tooth. — is very 
peculiar : it is hke the permanent sectorial, but with the inner part 
rather more posterior in position, and with a talon (bearing an inner 



174 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

and outer tubercle and a posterior cingulum) added on behind it. 
P^ is like p^, and j^--^, is like p^, with a small basal anterior cusp 
added, g-^ is like p-j, only with rather more talon ; but ^^ is a 
quite extraordinary tooth : it is like ^-^ of Genetta, with the 
addition of an enormous talon bearing five tubercles, three external 
and two internal ; it is like both p-^ and jj-^ of the permanent 
dentition ankylosed together, only the three anterior cusps are not 
in the same antero-posterior line as they are in p^. 

I can find no record as to the existence of any prescrotal gland, or 





Milk-teeth of Cynogale. 

A. Grinding-surface of upper series, with the addition of d^ twice the natural 
size. B. Side view of upper series. 0. Side view of lower series. D. 
Grinding-surface of lower series. E. Fourth lower molar, twice the 
natural size. 

as to the condition of its anal region. De Blainville says that "la 
langue est garnie de papilles cornees," that the large intestine is 
6 inches long, the csecuni 6 lines, and the small intestine 4 inches. 

Cynogale, so far as known, agrees with Viverra in the characters 
before given, except as regards nos. 23, 24, 35, 37, 40, 43, 44, 47, 
bU, and .56. 

The characters of this small third section of the Viverrine sub- 
family may be thus drawn out : — 



1882] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE vELUROIDEA. 175 

(1) Auditory bulla ossified and in one piece. 

(2) Bulla narrowing and much flattened anteriorly, 
(b) Palate not much prolonged behind last molars. 

(4) Mastoid rather prominent. 

(5) (Caecum very small. 

(6) Teeth suited for catching fish ; anterior premolars very long. 

(7) Margins of palate nearly parallel. 

(8) No supracondyloid foramen to humerus. 

(9) No median groove on upper lip. 

(10) Tarsus hairy; metatarsus naked. 

(11) Tail short. 

The following characters are common to the Vioerrina : — 

(1) Claws strongly curved, sharply pointed, and more or less 

deeply retractile. 

(2) Orbits never enclosed bj' bone. 

(3) Hinder chamber of auditory bulla never everted outwards. 

(4) Posterior margin of the external auditory meatus as pro- 

minent as, or more so than, the anterior or inferior margin. 

(5) Floor of external auditory meatus and adjacent part of bulla 

neither fissured nor with a foramen ora deep pit on its surface. 

(6) Angle of mandible never everted. 

(7) Mastoid rarely prominent. 

(8) Paroccipital processes almost always depending. 

(9) Aperture of external auditory meatus not triangular. 

(10) Alisphenoid canal generally elongated. 

(11) Carotid canal notching the sphenoid, and not showing as a 

conspicuous foramen in the basis cranii. 

(12) Prescrotal scent-glands generally present. 

(13) A.nus opening on the surface, aud not into a cutaneous in vagi- 
nation \ 

(14) Only a pair of anal glands. 

(15) A supracondyloid foramen to humerus, save in Cynogale. 

(16) An alisphenoid canal present, save generally in Viverricula, 

where, when absent, its place is not indicated by bony 
processes. 

(17) Both pollex and hallux present. 

(18) Caecum sometimes absent. 

(19) Tarsus and metatarsus hairy or bald. 

The very large and polymorphic genus Herpestes was divided by 
Dr. Gray (P. Z. S. 1864, and Cat. Carnivora, p. 154) into the 
genera Athylax, Calogale, Galerella, Calictis, Ariela, Ichneumia, 
Una, Tteniogale, Onychogale, and Helogale. Not one of these, save 
possibly the last, can be maintained as a distinct genus. Mr. Oldfield 
Thomas, who has been working with great care at these animals, 
told me he had come to this conclusion ; and my examination of the 
skins and skulls in the British Museum has only served to confirm 
the justice of this view. 

' I give this character with hesitation, from what I have (as before said) 
observed in a, living Paradu.vurus. 



176 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

The genus is found in South Europe, all Africa, Asia Minor, 
Persia, and nearly the whole of the Oriental zoological region, and 
Foochow. 

The genus contains about twenty-one species, of which thirteen 
are Asiatic and seven African. 

The Asiatic species (thirteen in number) have been carefully 
worked out by Dr. J. Anderson' ; for the rest (the African seveil 
species) I may refer to Mr. Oldfield Thomas's paper, recently read 
before this Society". 

All the species have five digits to each foot ; but the pollex and hal- 
lux are very small. The claws are longer and less curved than are 
those of the genera as yet described (cf. fig. 14 G, p. 192). The 
body and tail are always long, and the legs short. The amount of 
hair to be found beneath the tarsus varies much. Generally both 
the tarsus and metatarsus are naked beneath ; but in some indi- 
viduals of a species in which these parts are naturally naked, the 
tarsus may be more or less hairy, the hairy part having an ill-defined 
limit. Thus the specimen oi Herpestes paiudosus^ (No. 61. 6. 1. 3) 
lias the tarsus hairy beneath, while in another specimen it is quite 
naked. 

The hair of the body is generally clothed with annulated fur, 
without any special markings on either shoulders, sides, or belly ; 
while a few have neck-markings, and one or two species have uni- 
formly-coloured fur. In all the African forms the hair seems to be 
more or less annulated ; but in three Asiatic species it is not so. 
The ears are short and rounded. There is no scent-gland between 
the penis and testes ; but the anus often opens into the middle of 
a sac-like depression, deepest on its hinder side, into which depres- 
sion more or less numerous anal glands and glandular follicles open. 

The skull is elongated, with postorbital processes which are long 
and pointed, generally enclosing the orbit posteriorly, though some- 
times not nearl)' joining the malar. As Prof. Flower has pointed 
out*, the auditory bulla is somewhat pear-shaped— the larger, 
rounded end being turned backwards and somewhat outwards, a 
well-marked transverse constriction separating the hinder (and here 
outer) chamber from the (also dilated and bullate) anterior (and 
inner) chamber. As Prof. Flower has also remarked, the aperture 
of communication in the osseous partition between the two chambers 
is rather larger thau in the Civets, Genets, and Paradoxures. 

There is always an alisphenoid canal ; but this is very short. The 
exteinal auditory opening is very small and triangular, one angle being 
directed downwards. There is a foramen or a notch in the floor of 
the anterior (and inner) chamberof the bulla a little within the opening 
of the auditory meatus ; and thus we have here an incipient defect 
of ossification in the floor of that passage ; in Herpestes urv<i this 
defect is more marked, being rather a fissure than a foramen. The 

' 'Zoology of Weslern Yunnan,' p. 1()8. = On Jan. 3, 188-2. 

^ Or H. yalera. This is the Vausire of BufFon, Hist. Nat. vol. xiii. p. 157, 
pi. 21. 

4 P. Z. S. 18S9, p. 20 and fig. 9. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 177 

anterior margin of the external auditory opening is slightly more 
produced than is the posterior one. The pterygoid fossa is small or 
absent. The condyloid foramen is concealed. The cranium is much 
pinched in behind the postorbital processes. The cranial ridges are 
small or moderate. The paroccipital processes do not depend. The 
mastoid is considerably developed (as in Cynogale), forming a con- 
siderable external ridge. The carotid canal begins near the anterior 
end of the inner wall of the hinder (and outer) chamber of the 
bulla. It opens anteriorly at the outer or inner end of the anterior 
(and inner) chamber ; and there is a mostly conspicuous foramen ia 
the basis cranii between the alisphenoid close to the basisphenoid, 
through which the internal carotid artery passes up into the cranial 
cavity beside the hinder part of the sella turcica. The palate 
is greatly prolonged behind the last molars. The infraorbital 
foramen opens generally above -^— . 

lu dentition Herpestes generally much resembles Oenetta, espe- 
cially in the excessive transverse extension of -^ and -^. Some- 
times, as in H, persicus (No. 1436 b in the British Museum), ^^ 
is very minute ; and occasionally, as in H. smithii (No. 979 a, the 
skin also in the collection), —^ is wanting (with no trace of an 
alveolus) on one side, and very minute on the other. Generally —^ 
has two small outer and one large internal cusps. Generally also ^^ 
is more transversely extended and more trihedral than in any yet 
here described genus, and its posterior margin is rather more con- 
cave ; otherwise it is shaped as in Genet ta and Viverricula. -^ 
is quite like the homologeus tooth of the Genets. ^— is somewhat 
broader behind than in Genetta, and has a small posterior inner 

cusp ; and it is therefore more like the — of Paradoocurus. — 
is much as in Viverra. -^ is smaller, and may be absent altogether 
(as in No. 4324 of College of Surgeons' Museum and No. 1 48 c of 
British Museum). The teeth of the lower jaw are like those of the 
Genet, except that the inner cusp of j^-j is rather more developed, 
p— J is rather broader posteriorly, and ^-^ is sometimes wanting. 

The teeth of H. paludosus are exceptionally stout, as are also 
those of H. robustus, which are represented in P. Z. S. 1864, p. 558, 
and Cat. of Carniv. p. 157. 

The teeth of Herpestes are represented by De Blainville, * Osteo- 
graphie ' {Viverra), pi. 12, the entire skeleton on pi. 1, and skulls 
and parts of the appendicular skeleton on intermediate plates. For 
the basis cranii see P. Z. S. 1869, p. 21, fig. 9. 

H. galera is the Vansire of Buffon (Hist. Nat. t. xiii. pi. 21). 
H. sanguineus is figured in Riippell's ' Fauna of Abyssinia,' pi. 8, and 
the skull on pi. 10 ; H. mvigigella, pi. 9. fig. 1 ; H. gracilis, pis. 8 
& 10; H. undulatus and //. ornatus (external forms, skulls, and 
foot-pads) on pis. 25 and 26 of Peters's ' Reise nach Mossambique ;' 
H. smithii, P. Z. S. 1851, pi. 31 ; H. albicaudus, Mag. de Zool. 
1839, pi. 11 ; and H. albescens, loc. cit. pi. 12; H. vera, Calcutta 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 18S2, No. XII. 12 



178 PROF. ST.-GKORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

Jonrn. Nat. Hist. ii. pi. 13. fig. 2 ; H. villicollis, Madras Journal, 
1839, pi. 2. M. Chatin, in vol. xiv. (1874) of the .5th series of the 
Ann. des Sc. Nat. pp. 79-88, figs. 34-37, describes and figures the 
anal glands of three species of Herpestes. Horsfield describes the 
anal poucb of another under the name Mungusta javanica. 

The pupil contracts so as to present a horizontally extended 
aperture ; at least it does so in living examples examined by me 
and Mr. Bartlett. In H, auropvMctatus the anus opened most 
distinctly on the surface of the body, and not into a saccular depres- 
sion. This fact, and the difference of the teeth in different species, 
incline me to believe that the genus will hereafter be divided into 
two or more genera vehea the structure of all the forms has been 
thoroughly worked out. 

The genus Herpestes exhibits the characters before enumerated as 
existing in Viverra, except nos. 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26 (often), 29, 
30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, and 53. 

The (to me doubtful) genus Helogule was founded by Gray', and 
contains two species, H. parvula, from Natal and other parts of 
South Africa, and H. undulata from Mozambique. It is a very small, 
herpestiform animal, with a bald or nearly bald tarsus. Both its 
cranial and dental characters are those of Herpestes, save that both 
?^ are wanting, while at the same time ^— is placed close behind 
the canine, so that there is no diastema. The length of the head 
and body is 2.i", of the tail 13". 

The genus Ct/tiictis was instituted by Ogilby in 1833^ who has 
figured the skull and external form in the first volume of our 
'Transactions.' There is one species which comes from South Africa. 
It is of a reddish colour with more or less anntilated hair and a bushy 
tail, with a tarsus which seems to be constantly very hairy ; and the 
metatarsus is also hairy. The animal is herpestiform, but slender, 
and has no hallux ; and the poUex is very short. The orbits are 
completely encircled by bone ; and all the cranial and dental charac- 
ters are like those of Herpestes, save that the infraorbital foramen 
opens above the interval between ^^ and -^, and ^^ is rather 
larger. Its outer internal cusp is more prominent, and sometimes 
bifurcates at its apex, as it also does in Herpestes albicaudus and 
probably in some others. 

The skull (including the basis cranii) of Cynictis is figured by 
De Blainville, Osteog. {Viverra), pi. 5; the appendicular skeleton 
on pis. 10 «& 11, and its dentition on pi. 12. 

The length of the head and body is 45"- 6, of the tail 30"-4. 
I can find no record of the anatomy of its soft parts or the con- 
dition of the anus ; but the condition of the skins seemed to me to 
indicate that the anus opens into a depression as in certain species 
of Herpestes. This suspicion has been confirmed by the exami- 
nation of a Hving specimen at our Gardens. Cynictis agrees with 
Herpestes, save as above indicated. 

> P. Z. S. 1861, p. 308 ; see also P. Z. S. 1864, p. 570, and Oat. of Camivora, 
p. 169. 
2 See P. Z. S. 1833, p. 48, and Trans. Z. S. (1836), vol. i. p. 29, pi. 34. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE vELUROIDEA. 179 

The genus Bdeogale was first proposed by Dr. Peters in November 
1850', ami a full description (with figure of external forin, skull, 
teeth, and feet-pads) given by him in 18(32 in his ' Reise nach 
Mossambique,' Zoology (Mamm.), p. 1 19, pis. 26 & 27. The genus 
comes from Zanzibar and Eastern Africa. Peters describes the 
existence of two kinds of fur (as \n Herpestes), viz. a thick soft wool, 
with longer less numerous hairs projecting from amongst it. The 
snout is rather long and pointed, but has the usual meilian groove. 
The pupils are horizontally elliptical ; the ears are short and rounded. 
There is no external trace of either pollex or hallux ; the third and 
fourth digits are of nearly equal length. The tarsus is quite hairy ; and 
so is part of the metatarsus ; the tail is bushy. 

The skull is said to be quite Hke that of Herpestes, but appears 

broader, the premolars and molars to be Pm. -^, M, ~, and to 
resemble in shape those of CrossarcAwsf described mym, p. 18 1 ). Prof. 
Peters say s : — "Bdeogale presents the fallowing peculiariti^'s : — ( I ) The 
outer side of the upper sectorial is scarcely longer than its anterior 
side, whilst in Herpestes and Crossarchus it is considerably longer ; 
(2) there is on the postero- internal side of the upper sectorial a low 
tubercle placed between the greater inner tubercle and the long middle 
external cusp ; (3) the anterior part of the lower sectorial has a fourth 
small external cusp (instead of being tricuspidate, as in Herpestes, 
Crossarchus, and Suricafa), so that a horizontal section of this division 
is not triangular but irregularly quadrangular. There are 14 
thoracic, 6 lumbar, 3 sacral, and 25 (or 24) caudal vertebrae. The 
clavicle is absent. The sternum consists of 8 sternebrse, to which 
9 pairs of the ribs are attached. There is both an olecranal and a 
snpracondyloid perforation to the humerus. A minute rudiment of 
a first metacarpal is attached to the trapezium ; but there is no rudi- 
ment whatever of the first metatarsal. The tongue, like that of 
Herpestes, bears a patch of large backwardly directed spine-like 
papillae on the anterior half of its dorsum. The stomach is elon- 
gated and bent in the form of a horseshoe. The small intestine is 
135" long and 0"-8 thick ; the large intestine is 24" long and 0"-15 
thick. The anus opens into the middle of a sac or pouch, as in 
Crossarchus'. The aorta gives off a comm.on trunk for the carotids 
and right subclavian, and then the left subclavian separately." 

In the stomach of one specimen Prof. Peters found a large Fipera 
rhinoceros (Schlegel). 

milliin. 
Length of vertebral column from atlas to end of sacrum. , 2900 

Length of caudal vertebrae 260'0 

Length of the skull 78-0 

Breadth of zygomata 42'5 

Length of humerus 600 

' Mittheilung in der Gesellsch. naturforsch. Freunde zu Berlin, Nov. 19, 1850. 
'■^ Dr. Petei's says, "Der Analsack ist ganz so wie bei den Maugusten gebildet;" 
and so I find it. 

12* 



180 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ELUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

millim. 

Length of radius 54"5 

Length of manus 5 1 "0 

Length of third digit 21*0 

Length of femora 68*0 

Length of tibia 720 

Length of pes 82-0 

Length of fourth digit of pes 23"0 

Dr. Peters describes the liver as consisting of three main lobes, the 
middle one of which has the ligamentum teres on its left and the 
gall-bladder on its right — the left lobe being single, with the right 
lobe divided by notches into secondary lobes. Dr. Giiiither had the 
kindness to place at my disposal for examination the viscera of the 
specimen in the British Museum. Unfortunately its liver was in a 
very bad state and much injured ; it appeared to me, however, to 
consist of three main lobes, corresponding respectively (1) to the left 
lateral, (2) to the left central, and (3) to the right central and right 
lateral united, and containing the gall-bladder. The caudate lobe 
seemed to be of much the same size as in Herpestes. 1 could not 
distinguish the Spigelian lobe. 

Dr. Peters does not describe the anal glands ; but, from the form 
of the anal sac, there are probably more than two pairs of them, 
as in Crossarchus. 

Length of head and body 40", of tail 30". 

There are said to be three species — two from the Mozambique, and 
one from the Gaboon. 

Except as above pointed out, the characters of Bdeogale are those 
of Herpestes. 

The genus Rhinoyale was formed by Dr. Gray, in 1864 (P. Z. S. 
p. 5/3), for a rather large Herpestiform animal, brought from 
Eastern Africa by Dr. Meller. The skull is represented by Dr. Gray, 
and also in his ' Catalogue of Carnivora,' p. 173. Tbe external 
form has been just represented by Mr. Oldfield Thomas in our 
'Proceedings.' The creature differs from all those yet here noticed, 
except Cynogale, in that the nose has no central groove below. 
There is both a hallux and a pollex ; tbe hair is annulated ; and the 
tarsus is hairy. 

The skull in the British Museum (No. 1437 a, from skin, 64. 8. 
23. ]) has an herpestiform bulla; but the anterior chamber is very 
much less than the posterior one. The external auditory meatus is 
small and triangular, with one angle downwards. The postorbital 
processes of the frontal nearly join the much smaller ones of the 
nialars. The condyloid foramen is exposed. The lambdoidal ridge 
is rather large, and the sagittal ridge moderate. The paroccipital 
process does not depend. The mastoid is much as in Herpe.stes ; 
the pterygoid processes are very long, and the pterygoid fossae very 
small. There is a distinct, but very short, alisphenoid canal. The 
carotid canal is as in Herpestes. The anterior part of the bulla has 
a distinct round [)erforation in its floor, just below and within the 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGK MIVART ON THE JELUROIDEA. 181 

margin of the meatus auditorius externus. The muzzle is short ; but 
the palate is much prolonged behind the last molars. 

Its dentition, compared with that oi Herpestes, presents the fol- 
lowing characters : — is more quadrate and more nearly equal 

in size to ~. -^- is very quadrate. ' is very slightly sectorial, 
with a large internal tubercle, and resembles the same tooth in the 
least sectorial Paradoxures. ?i-? is very large, and has a well- 
developed internal tubercle, with a small cusp behind the large 
external one, and another small one in front of it, larger, however, 
than the hindmost outer cusp. -^—' has a rudimentary internal cusp, 
and both a minute anterior and a minute posterior external cusp. 
-^ is very small. Besides these four upper premolars and the 
molars, there is also a small tooth, with a minute basal cusp, 
placed close behind each upper canine ; yet the skull is that of a 
rather aged individual. 1 regard this extra tooth as something 
abnormal. 

j^, is much larger and more quadrate than in Herpestes. jj-| is 

also more quadrate than in Herpestes, and has apparently been 
quadricuspidate, but is much worn, ^p-j, -p-jj, p-g, and p-^ are much 
as in Herpestes. Unfortunately I have no means of ascertaining the 
condition of the anal region. From an examination of the dry skin, 
the anus appears to me to open into a depression, as in some Her- 
pestce. Except as above indicated, the characters of Rhinogale are 
those of Herpestes. 

Length of the head and body about 53"- 1, of the tail 38"- 1. 

The genus Crossarchus^ was founded by F. Cuvier in 1825 for 
the Mangue, of which he has given a figure (Mammiferes, iii.). It 
is referred to in Temminck's ' Esquisses,' p. 117. Its anatomy was 
described by Mr. W. Martin (P. Z. S. 1834, p. 113). The genus is 
widely spread over Africa : — one species, C obscurus, from Abyssinia 
to Gambia and the Cameroons, and another, C. fasciatus, from 
Southern Africa ; a third, C. gamhianus, from Gambia ; and a 
fourth, C. zebra, from Abyssinia. All have the hair annulated, the 
ears small and rounded, the tarsus bald ; and they are devoid of a 
median groove beneath the muzzle. The snout is elongated, hairy 
beneath, and more or less turned upwards towards the tip. They 
also have a pollex and hallux ; but these are shorter in C. fasciatus 
than in C. obscurus. The claws are much elongated. 

In C. fasciatus there are transverse bands or lines, more or less 
marked, across the back ; these are absent in C. obscurus. The 
pupil is round. The length of the head and body is 36"-8, of the 
tail 17"'l, in C. obscurus; and 45"*8 and 22""9 in C. fasciatus. 

The skull of the typical form, C. obscurus, has a bulla on the 
type of Herpestes, but with its character exaggerated. There is 
an alisphenoid canal, but very short, and often imperfectly ossified ; 
but bony processes tending to enclose it may always be detected. 

' This genus includes the genus Mungos, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 575, ajid Cat. 
of Carnivora, p. 1 74. 



182 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

If perfect, it is very short. The opening of the external auditory 
meatus is small and triangular, and, as it were, somewhat cut away 
below ; and there is a deep groove and a defect of ossification on the 
floor of the anterior chamber of the auditory bulla. The frontal 
postorbital processes are well developed ; and the skull is much 
pinched in behind them. There are small pointed malar processes; 
but these do not nearly join the former. The condyloid foramen is 
concealed. The cranial ridges are moderate. The paroccipital 
process does not depend. The mastoid is much as in Herpestes, as 
also is the carotid canal ; and there is a conspicuous carotid foramen 
in the basis cranii : and the artery enters the skull beside the posterior 
boundary of the sella turcica. The palate is greatly prolonged behind 
the last molars. In Cyascia^ws the cranial characters are similar, 
except that the short alisphenoid canal is better marked, the palate 
is rather less prolonged, and the postorbital processes more nearly 
join, and there may be but a very minute foramen instead of a slit 
beneath the auditory meatus. 

The dentition of G. obscurus is represented by De Blainville 
(Osteog., Fiverra, pi. 12). lis -^*' is quite two thirds the size of 
— , but is triangular, not quadrate. — ^ is less trihedral than in 
Herpestes, and has two equally developed external cusps, external 
and parallel to which is a raised straight cingulum. There is a large 
internal cusp ; and the hinder border of the tooth is concave. -^- 
has a rather diminished posterior tubercle (compared with Her- 
pestes) ; so that the large inner cusp is placed rather more towards 
the middle of the tooth, the length of which is rather less in 
proportion to its breadth. The inner cusp also descends as much 
as do the outer ones ; and the outer middle cusp scarcely descends 
below the anterior outer cusp. -^- and -^— are as in Herpestes. 
'^— is wanting. -^^-.^ is large, with five cusps. lu g-j the anterior 
cusp has become more decidedly internal, so that we have an 
external cusp opposite the internal one. There is a moderate 
talon, py has one very large cusp, iu front of which may be a 

well-developed or a minute accessory cusp, while behind it there is a 
well-developed cusp, which has a more or less marked talon or 
minute accessory cusp at its base. ^J ^^^ Yl ^^^ ^^ ^" Herpestes. 
p^ is absent. In C. fasciatus, —^ is rather smaller in proportion to 
^- 1 and p^ and ^.^ are larger. In a specimen in the British 
Museum, labelled Mungos gambianus (No. 55. 12. 24. 22 b), ^— 
and ■ are very narrow aniero-posteriorl}'. In another skull, labelled 
M. zebra (No. 75. 2. 24. 18), there is a minute — ^ on each side, 
which measures 0"'I antero-posteriorly and 0"*25 transversely. 

The dimensions of the skins seen by me are as follows : — of 
C. obscurus, head and body about '^7" , of tail 17"; ot C. fasciatus, 
head and body about 45"'5, of tail about 23". 



1882.] PRUF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE J^XUROIUEA. 183 

The anus opens into the middle of a very large and deep fossa, 
into which several pairs of anal glands also open. The structure of 
these parts is described by M. Chatin as they exist in both species. 
The condition found in C obscurus is described by him (in a paper 
entitled " Recherches pour servir a I'histoire anatomique des 
glandes odorantes chez quelques Mammiferes ") in a periodical 
named ' Comp. Rendu Assoc, frangaise,' vol. i. (18/2), p. 557. The 
})arts of C. fasciatus are described and figured by him (under the 
name Herpestes fasciatus) in the Ann. des Sc. Nat. vol. xix. (5th 
series), 1874, p. 89, figs. 29-33, and 38. 

No less than five pairs of glands are arranged about the anus, and 
pour their secretion into the capacious and naked anal pouch. 

C. fasciatus is described and figured in Buffon, vol. xiii. p. 150, 
pi. 19. 

Except as above indicated, the characters of Crossarchus are (so 
far as I know) those of Herpestes. 

The Suricate was formed into the genus Suricata by Desmarest 
(N. Diet, d'llist. Nat. xxiv. p. 16, 1804), and was called Byzana 
by Illiger (Prodromus, p. 134). It is figured and described by 
Bulfon and Daubenton (H. Nat. vol. xiii. p. 72, pi. 8). Its anatomy 
has also been described by Hunter (' Essays and Observations,' 
vol. ii. p. 55) and by Prof. Owen (P. Z. S. 1830, pp. 39, 51). 

The animal is from South Africa, and is called " Meer Kat" at 
the Cape. The hair is annulated, and so marked as to form trans- 
verse bands across the loins. The ears are very short. The tarsus 
is hairy. There is no pollex or hallux, there being mere rudiments 
of the first metacarpal and the first metatarsal beneath the skin. 
The nose is pointed, rather elongated and movable, and has no 
median groove on its underside. Length of head and body 3S"-8, 
of tail 21". The skull is relatively very broad, especially behind, 
facial portion short. The basis cranii shows the Herpestiform cha- 
racter of the bulla carried to a yet more exaggerated degree than in 
Crossarchus ; but it is flattened beneath, and the hinder chamber does 
not generally depend below the anterior chamber. The opening of 
the external auditory meatus is small and triangular ; and its anterior 
margin projects most. 

Prof. Flower has pointed out (P. Z. S. 1869, p. 20) that the much 
elongated meatus is fissured along the whole extent of its floor. The 
anterior chamber of the bulla is very prominent ; and the opening 
between the two chambers is rather larger than heretofore. There 
is a distinct but short alisphenoid canal. There are long postorbital 
processes which enclose the orbits ; but the cranium is very little 
pinched in behind them. The cranial ridges are moderate. The 
condyloid foramen may or may not be concealed. The paroccipital 
process is flattened, and does not depend. The mastoid is very 
marked, more so relatively than even in Nandinia. The carotid 
canal commences towards the hinder end of the auditory bulla. 
There is a conspicuous carotid foramen in the basis cranii on either 
side ; and it is almost, if not quite, surrounded by the sphenoid. 



184 PROF, ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE JELUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

The palate is but moderately prolonged behind the last molars. The 
angle of the mandible is somewhat everted, i. e. bent in the opposite 
way to that in which it is bent in Marsupials. 

The skull of the Suricate is figured by De Blainville (Osteog., 
Viverra) on plate 5, its appendicular skeleton on plates 10 and 1 1, 
and its dentition (including the milk-teeth) on plate 12. The teeth 
are also figured in F. Cuvier's ' Dents des Mammiferes,' plate 35. 
I find ^ and ^^ to be very much extended transversely, but to be 
very shghtly trihedral in horizontal section. -^— is also much ex- 
tended transversely. ^^ is shaped very much as in Crossarchus, 



Fig. 13. 




Half basis cranii (A) and half mandible (B) of Suricata. 
c, carotid foramen ; /, fissure in floor of auditory meatus. 



while —^ differs in having its hinder margin hardly, or not at all, 

concave. -^- has its inner tubercle still larger than in Crossarchus ; 
and it descends quite as much as does the middle one of the three 
outer cusi)S, which very little exceeds in size the other two outer 
ones. -^— and -^— are larger and stronger than in Crossarchus ; and 
-^— is again absent. |j-^ is much as in Crossarchus, but smaller, 
jj-^ is higher and antero-posteriorly shorter ; its talon bears two 
cusps side by side, or three cusps in a semicircle ; its anterior part 
bears two large cusps side by side. The postero-internal cusp of the 
front part of this tooth of Crossarchus has here become rudimentary. 



1882.] PROF. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 185 

p-j^ has become much raised anteriorly ; its talon is large, while the 
anterior cusp of the same tooth in Grossarchus here aborts, p-j and 
p-^ are very long and strong, p-y is absent. 

The anus opens into the middle of a very deep fossa, deeper than 
that of Bdeogale, and like that of Crossarchus. There is also a 
curious scrotum-like prominence between the vagina and the anus. 
I have not met with any description of the anal glands other than 
that of Daubenton, who says^: — "II se trouvoit de chaque cote 
de I'anus une poche qui avoit quatre lignes et demi de longueur, et 
trois lignes et demie de largeur, et trois lignes d'epaisseur; le tuyau 
excretoire de chacune de ces poches aboutissoit au dedans de 
I'anus." I strongly suspect, from the form of the anal pouch, that 
there are here, as in Crossarchus, several pairs of anal glands. The 
claws of the manus of Suricata are enormously elongated (c/". fig. 14, h, 
p. 192). Those of the pes are much less so, but still are long. 

Except as above indicated, the characters of this genus agree with 
those of Herpestes ; and with it closes the list of the genera of the 
subfamily HerpestincB. 

That subfamily is divisible in various ways, according to the number 
of digits, the number of teeth, the presence or absence of a subnasal 
groove, and the number of anal glands, as follows : — 

Section A. Anal glands a single pair .... Herpestes, Helogale, 

Cynictis ?, Rhino- 
yalel 
„ B. Anal glands in several pairs . . Crossarchus, Suricata, 

Bdeogale 1 

Or, Section A. Toes 5 — 5 Herpestes, Helogale, 

JRhinogale, Cros- 
sarchus. 

„ B. Toes 5 — 4 Cynictis. 

„ C. Toes 4 — 4 Bdeogale, Suricata. 

Or, Section A. A subnasal groove Herpestes, Helogale, 

Cynictis, Bdeogale. 
„ B. No subnasal groove Rhinogale, Crossar- 
chus, Suricata. 

Or, Section A. Pm. | Herpestes (generally), 

Cynictis, Bdeogale. 
„ B. Pm. g, ^, no diastema .... Helogale, Crossarchus, 

Suricata. 
„ C. Pm. ^ ^ Ehinogale. 

The characters of the subfamily Herpestince will be as follows : — 

(1) Claws not strongly curved and not retractile, but pointed and 

very long. 

(2) Orbits sometimes enclosed by bone. 

1 Buffon's Hist. Nat. vol. xiii. p. 80. 

2 Probably an abnormalit . 



186 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

(3) Hinder chamber of auditory bulla always everted. 

(4) Anterior margin of opening of external auditory meatus more 

projecting than the posterior margin. 

(5) Floor of external meatus or adjacent part of bulla with a fora- 

men and fissure in a deep pit. 

(6) Angle of mandible sometimes everted. 

(7) Mastoid always prominent. 

(8) Paroccipital processes depending below bulla. 

(9) Aperture of auditory meatus small and triangular. 

(10) Alisphenoid canal always very short. 

(11) Carotid artery perforating or notching the sphenoid, there 
being a conspicuous carotid foramen in the basis cranii. 

(12) Never any prescrotal glands^ 

(13) Anus very generally not opening on the surface of the body, 

but in a sac or cutaneous invagination. 

(14) Anal glands sometimes in several pairs. 

(15) A supracondyloid foramen to humerus. 

(l(i) An alisphenoid canal, in rare instances not completely enclosed 
by bone, but then its place indicated by bony processes. 

(17) Pollex alone, or both poUex and hallux sometimes absent. 

(18) Caecum always present, but small or moderately long. 
(ID) Tarsus and metatarsus hairy or bald. 

A very different animal from any hitherto here reviewed is that 
to which the generic name Galidkiis was given in 1837 by Isid. 
Geoff. St.-Hilaire^ and again by him in the Magasin de ZooL 183U- 
1841, where the external form and skull, including the basis cranii, 
are well represented, and a full description given in a long note 
beginning on page 32. It is also the Mustela striata of (3-eoffroy 
St.-Hilaire (Cat. des Mamm. p. 98), and the Putorius striatus of 
Cuvier (Regue &c. 2nd edit. p. 144). The external form has been 
figured in our P. Z. S., 1848, pi. 1, with a short description and notes 
as to habits on page 21. The skull is also given by De Blainville 
(Osteog., Viverras) on pi. 5, and the dentition on pi. 12, under the 
name Mangusta {Galictis) striata. There are two species, both from 
Madagascar — one the original G. striata of Isid. G. St.-Hiliare, and 
the other G. vittata, described and figured by Gray (P. Z. S. 1848, 
p. 21, pi. 1) the skin and the (immature) skull of which are in the 
national collection, where are also four skins and two skulls of the 
former species. The length of the head and body of the latter is about 
35" "5, of the tail 33". In each species the body bears longitudinal dark 
stripes on a lighter ground. The claws are long, but considerably 
curved {cf. fig. 14, i, p. 192). The claw of the pollex reaches to 
the end of the proximal phalanx of the index, and that of the fifth 
digit to the end of the proximal phalanx of the fourth digit, which 
is slightly longer than the index, the median being the longest. The 
claw of the hallux reaches nearly to the end of the proximal phalanx 
of the index, and that of the fifth digit of the pes nearly to the 

' The nature of the proiijiuence in Surieaia has to be seen. 
^ Comptes Eendus, 2ud. semestre de 1837, p. 578. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE jELUROIDEA. 187 

end of the second f)lialanx of the fourth digit, which is longer than 
the index and nearly equals the medius in length. The snout is 
very pointed in G. vittuta, but does not appear to be so much so 
in G. striata. In both, the tail has long hairs and the muzzle is 
niedianly grooved beneath ; the tarsus is more or less completely 
bald. The claws are slightly more curved than in the HerpestincB. 
As to the skull, the auditory bulla is formed on the Herpestine 
type, and has a partition between its chambers, with a considerable 
aperture for intercommunication. There is a well-developed ptery- 
goid fossa. The external opening of the auditory meatus is small 
and slightly oval, its anterior margin being produced outwards, but 
hardly more than is its posterior margin. The postorbital processes 
are only moderately developed, and do"not even uearly meet ; the skull 
is not much pinched in behind them. The paroccijjital does not 
depend ; and the mastoid is much as in Herpestes, as also is the 
carotid canal. There is no alisphenoid canal ; and the foramen ovale 
is very near that for the entrance within the cranium of the internal 
carotid, which is pretty conspicuous. There is no fissure or foramen 
in the floor of the auditory meatus ; but there is a marked depression 
where such a foramen is found in Herpestes. The palate is but little 
prolonged behind the molars ; but this region is concave, each side 
of it sloping into a median depression, the cranium being turned 
with its base upwards. The palatine foramina are in the anterior 
part of the palate, which is remarkably broad. The symphysis of 
the mandible is extremely long, viz. l"-?, the length of the skull being 
6"'2. The zygomata are arched strongly outwards. 

In the dentition the most noteworthy point is the large size of the 
canines, and especially the length, strong curvature, and stoutness of 
the lower ones, each having a marked prominence at the posterior 
part of the base of its crown. The upper outer incisors also prepon- 
derate greatly over the inner ones. The molars and premolars are 
formed on the Herpestine type ; but |^ are absent, and — is close 
to the canine and small, though with two roots. Zii is very sectorial; 
and the talon of g-^ is small. The inner condyle of the humerus is 
imperforate. 

I can find no record of the condition of the anus, or of the number 
of anal glands, neither any note as to prescrotal glands. I, however, 
anticipate that the latter are wanting, that tiiere is but a single pair 
of anal glands, and that the anus opens on the surface of the body, 
and not into a pouch. 

Galidklis agrees, so far as I know, with Viverra in the charac- 
ters before enumerated, save as regards nos. 7, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23 
24, 29, 31, 32, 35, 3G, 37, 38, 42, 43, and .53. 

Another genus instituted by Isidore Geoffroy St.-Hilaire for three 
Viverrine animals from Madagascar, is the genus Galidia (Compt. 
Rendus, 1857, p. 580, and Mag. de Zool. 1839, pis. 14-17). The 
type of the genus must be taken to be that first described, namely 
G. elegans. The skull and dentition of this species are given by 
De Blainville (Viverras), plate 6. 



188 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

G. elegans is represented in the British Museum by skins and 
skulls ; and there is a skeleton in the Royal College of Surgeons. 

The fur is of one colour, save that the tail is ringed with black, 
the hair notannulated. The length of the head and body is about 
45"'2, and that of the tail is 30""5. The muzzle seems rather obtuse. 
The claws are long, but considerably ^curved. The tarsus aud meta- 
tarsus are covered beneath with sparse short hairs, or are^more or less 
inclined to be bald, but are not so as in Galidictis. 

The skull is very like that of Galidictis ; but the muzzle and palate 
are narrower relatively, aud the mandibular symphysis is much 
shorter. There is, again, no alisphenoid canal. The condyloid 
foramen is exposed. The palate is flat, and not concave posteriorly 
as in Galidictis. The zygomata are not quite so much arched out- 
wards. The auditory opening is a more elongated oval. In other 
respects the skull is as in Galidictis. 

As to the dentition, it is quite like that of Galidictis, save that 
the canines are smaller, especially the lower ones, the external inci- 
sors less preponderating. — ^ is smaller relatively. — ^ may be 
quite small and placed within the hinder part of -^— '. 

The preparation No. 2147 B in the museum of the Roj'al College 
of Surgeons shows that there is a single pair of rather large anal 
glands ; aud the anus does not seem to open into any cutaneous de- 
pression. 

The two other species described by Isid. G. St.-Hilaire differ con- 
siderably from G. elegans, as that author himself pointed out, and as 
has been more decidedly indicated by Dr. F. A. Jentink ". I have not 
had any opportunity of examining G. concolor ; but, on account of 
its declared resemblance to G. olivacea ^ (which is represented by 
skins, skulls, aud a skeleton in the British Museum), it must be 
separated generically from G. elegans if G. olivacea is to be so sepa- 
rated. Now two courses seem to me feasible : one is to institute a 
new genus for the species olivacea and concolor ; and the other is to 
unite Galidia and Galidictis in a single genus. But the differ- 
ences between the last-named genus and G. elegans seem to me to be 
as great as those which separate Cynalurus from Felis ; and as 
G. olivacea (and, as I infer, concolor) seems to me to differ as much 
from G. elegans as does this last from Galidictis, the more reason- 
able course seems to me to be to separate them, which I now accord- 
ingly propose to do under the generic name Hemigalidia. 

In external characters Hemigalidia differs from Galidia in the 
non-annulation of the tail, in the more pointed muzzle, aud especially 
in the less arched (more Herpestine and less Viverrine) form of its 
claws {cf, fig. 14, J and k, p. 192). 

In the skull the bulla is rather more decidedly Herpestiforra than 
in Galidia. The carotid foramen (for the entrance of the carotid 
artery) is more conspicuous ; the hind part of the palate is not so 

' As in the specimens in the Roy. Coll. of Surg, museum. 

^ See ' Kotes from the Lejden Museum,' vol. i. p. 131. 

^ On some notes as to the liabits of these forms, see Pollen's ' Faune de 
Madagascar' (1868), p. 23. 



1882."] PROP. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDKA. 189 

uniformly horizontal ; the anterior lip of the external auditory 
opening is more prominent ; and the zygomata are much less arched 
outwards, jj^ are both relatively much larger. ^^ is also large 
relatively, while a -^ is developed ; — has a larger internal 
tubercle ; jj-^ is also relatively larger. Dr. Jentink tells us that the 
teeth of concolor are quite like those o{ olivacea. 

It appears that it is a species of this genus which is the Vansire of 
BuflFon (Hist. Nat. xiii. p. 167, pi. 21), as had it been Galidia the 
black-ringed tail would surely have been indicated. 

These three genera seem to me to form a section apart, somewhat 
intermediate between the Viverrine and the Herpestine sections, 
though (as before said) I regard them as more nearly allied to the 
latter than to the former. 

To the characters to be derived from digits, claws, skulls, teeth, 
colour, and habitat may be added that of the absence of an internal 
condyloid canal to the humerus. I propose then (as I before said) 
to separate this section as a subfamily under the name Galidictince. 

The characters of the Galidictince will be as follows : — 
• (1) Claws not strongly curved and retractile, but yet sometimes 
more Viverrine than Herpestine. 

(2) Orbits never enclosed by bone. 

(3) Hinder chamber of auditory bulla rather crested. 

(4) Anterior and posterior margins of auditory opening about 
equally prominent, in the anterior one slightly more so. 

(5) Floor of anterior part of bulla not perforated or fissured, 

but deeply pitted. 

(6) Angle of mandible not everted. 

(7) Mastoid prominent. 

(8) Paroccipital processes not depending. 

(9) Aperture of auditory meatus small and oval. 

(10) No ahsphenoid canal. 

(11) Carotid artery passing through a conspicuous foramen in the 

basis cranii. 

(12) No prescrotal glands. 

(13) Anus opening on the surface of the body, and not into a 

cutaneous invagination (?) 

(14) One pair of anal glands. 

(15) No supracondyloid foramen to humerus. 

(16) No bony processes indicate the place of an alisphenoid canal. 

(17) PoUex and hallux both present. 

(18) Caecum present, moderately long. 

(19) Tarsus and metatarsus hairy or bald. 

A more anomalous form of the Viverrine family is that which 
has been taken to constitute the genus Eupleres bv its describer 
DoyereS who figured the animal and its (immature) skull. The 
immature skull has been also fully figured by De Blainville^, with 
the skeleton of the hind leg and foot and the milk-dentition. The 

1 Ann. Sc. Nat. 1835, iv. p. 281, pi. 18. 
' Osteog., Viverras, pis. 8, 11, and 12. 



190 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

external form and part of the skull of an adult have been figured by 
Dr. Gray from a specimen now in the national collection'; and 
the whole adult skeleton, skull (though not the basis cranii), and 
dentition have been described and figured by Paul Gervais^. 

It has been abundantly' shown that this animal is not, as was at first 
supposed, an Insectivore, but really a Viverrine Carnivore. 

Externally Eirpleres is remarkable for its small head, very long, 
slender, and pointed snout ; but its dentition is the most anomalous 
part of its organization so far as yet known. 

The body is clothed with woolly annulated fur of a uniform 
general olive tint above, minutely punctulated with yellow. It appears, 
from Doyere, that the young has black bands across the shoulders, 
which are wanting in the adult. The ears are large ; the pollex and 
hallux are well developed ; the tail is rather short, but bushy ; the 
feet are very slender ; the tarsus and metatarsus are covered with 
short hair beneath. The length of the head and body is about 52", 
that of the tail \7"'7 ■ The nose and upper lip have a median groove 
beneath. The claws are elongated and Herpestiform {cf. fig. 14, l, 
p. 192). 

There are two skins, several skulls, and one good skeleton in the 
British Museum ; and there is a good skeleton in that of the College 
of Surgeons. 

The skull is remarkable for its extraordinary length and slender- 
ness. The shape of the auditory bulla is intermediate between that 
of the Herpestine and that of the Viverrine sections of the Viverridce : 
its most prominent portion is at its postero-external part ; and so far 
it inclines towards Herpestes. There is no pterygoid fossa. The 
opening of the external auditory meatus is generally rather small 
and more or less oval ; it is the hinder portion of its margin which 
projects slightl}' the more. There is no fissure or foramen in the 
floor of the auditory meatus ; nor is there a depression in the adjacent 
part of the bulla as in Galidia and Hemigalidia. The anterior part 
of the bulla, however, is well marked off by a groove from the pos- 
terior part. There is no alisphenoid canal, nor any postorbital 
processes. Cranial ridges are very faintly marked, save the lan)b- 
doidal ridge. The paroccipital is long, but does not depend. The 
mastoid is not more prominent tiian in Genetta. The condyloid 
foramen is exposed. The carotid canal is as in Herpestes ; and the 
artery enters the cranial cavity through a foramen or deep notch in 
the sphenoid. The zygomata are very slender ; and there is a very 
small glenoid cavity and postglenoid process. The palate is very 
little prolonged behind the last molars. There is a very conspicuous 
and exceptional prominence in the middle occipital region to shelter 
the middle part of the cerebellum. 

The dentition is especially remarkable for the small size of the 
canines, the canine-like character of the anterior premolars, the resem- 
blance of the true molars to the premolars, and the wide diastemata 
between the three most anterior premolars both above and below. 

1 P. Z. S. 1870, p. 824. pi. 51. 

= Journal de Zoologie, vol. iii. (1874), p. 237. 



1882.] PROF. ST. -GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 191 

The outermost upper incisor is caniniform, and nearly as large as 
is the adjacent canine. ~ is a little separate from and a little larger 
than the canine, which it closely resembles. -^ is also caniniform, 
with a talon : it is separated by a long diastema from -^-; and 
another about as long separates it from ^^. ^^ is a narrow, antero- 
posteriorly elongated tooth, with a conical backwardly-directed 
middle cusp, and with a small anterior cusp and a larger posterior 
one, at the base of the middle cusp. — , — , ^ and ^^ all join 
without diastemata. — has one large median cusp, with one small 
anterior and one rather large posterior cusp, and with a small internal 
cusp placed opposite the junction of the anterior and middle cusps. 
^^ has two equal-sized outer cusps, and an inner cusp (larger than 
that of — ) opposite their junction. The anterior outer cusp 
answers to the anterior outer one of — ^. -^ shows also a minute 
rudiment of a cusp answering to the postero-outer one of -^ . -1- 
is very similar to ^^; but its inner cusp is smaller, and placed oppo- 
site to the more anterior of the two outer cusps. 

The outermost lower incisor has the postero-outer angle of its crown 
slightly produced. The canine is like it, save that this angle is more 
produced. The teeth p-^, p^-^, p^, and p^ are all separated by 
diastemata (of which that between p-^ and p-j is the longest), while 
p— , j^— , and ,y-T adjoin the one to the other, p-y is caniniform. 
p-^ is also caniniform, with the addition of a minute anterior cusp 
and a slight talon, p-^ has a talon which develops two small 
cusps, while the anterior cusp is more developed than in p-^. p-^ 
is like p-|, with all its cusps more developed save the principal 
cusp. jj-T has three external cusps (whereof the posterior cusp is 
the smallest), with an internal cusp placed opposite to the hinder 
part of the middle outer cusp, jj-^ is similar to -g-j, save that the 
postero-external cusp is relatively larger and subdivided, and that 
the internal cusp is connected with it and with the antero-external 
cusp by ridges. Here jj-^ not only equals, but (at least sometimes) 
even exceeds ^j— ^ in size. 

In the milk-dentition (judging from De Blainville's figure) — 
and — may resemble — ^ and -^ ; but 1573 and 571 are unlike any 
of the permanent teeth, since they seem each to consist of two nearly 
equally developed external cusps, and they are much more sec- 
torial in character than are the teeth which succeed them, whether 
from below or from behind. In a word, the milk-dentition is 
more carnivorous and less insectivorous than are the permanent 
teeth. 

Both the internal condyle and olecranal fossa of the humerus are 
perforated. There are no signs of scent-glands. 

I can find no record of the anatomy of its soft parts. 

It appears to me that, of all other Viverridce, Eupleres comes nearest 



192 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LTJROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

to the genas UemigaUdia ; but the presence of the intercondyloid 
canal of the humerus and the very exceptional dentition— exceptional 
not only amongst the ViverridcB, but amongst all Carnivora — in- 
clines me to consider it the type of a subfamily, the Euplerines. 

Fig. 14. 




^ Claws of Vivcrrida, draisTi to the same scale. 

A. Genetia senegaJensis. B. Paradoxurus. C. Arcticth. D. HemJgalea. 
E. Cifnogale. F. Crypfoprocta. G-. Herpesfes. H. Suricafa. I. Galidictis 
striata. J. Galidia clegans. K. UemigaUdia olivacea. L. Eiipleres. 



The characters of that subfamily will be : — 

(1) Claws herpestiform. 

(2) No postorbital processes. 

(3) Hinder chamber of bulla not distinctly everted. 

(4) Hinder margin of auditory opening the more projecting. 

(5) Floor of anterior part of auditory bulla not fissured, or per- 

forated, or deeply pitted. 

(6) Angle of mandible not everted. 

(7) Mastoid not prominent. 

(8) Parocciptal processes not depending. 

(9) Aperture of auditory meatus small and more or less oval. 

(10) No alisphenoid canal. 

(11) Carotid artery passing through a conspicuous foramen in 
the basis cranii. 

(12) No prescrotal glands (?) 

(13) Anus opening on surface of body (?) 

(14) One pair of anal glands (?) 

(15) A supracondyloid foramen to humerus. 

(16) No bony processes indicate the place of an alisphenoid canal. 

( 1 7) Pollex and hallux both present. 

(18) Cfecum(?) 

(19) Tarsus and metatarsus clothed with short hair. 

(20) Nose and upper lip medianly grooved. 



882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 193 

(21) Snout very slender. 

(22) Zygomata very slender. 

(23) Median cerebellar prominence in skull very marked. 

(24) Canines very small. 

(25) Wide diastemata between p^, p^, jp|. 

/nc\ M. 1 & 2 VI P. 3 & 4 • 1 

(26) Mrr&^ ^ery like p^j^^ m shape. 

By characters 21-26 the Euplerince differ from all the other 
Vivet'ridcB. 

In reviewing the Viverridce so far, we have found what seem to 
be curious modifications of one and another section of the family. 
Thus, in Cynogale we seem to have a Paradoxure specially adapted 
for an aquatic and fish-catching life — a sort of Viverrine Otter with 
a singular superficial resemblance to Potamogale. In Arctictis, on the 
other hand, we have a Pai'adoxure specially arboreal, and with teeth 
so little carnivorous that, but for Arctogale, we might hesitate to 
assign it a close connexion with Paradoxurus. Both are Asiatic 
forms ; and Asia is the special home of the Viverrine subfamily of 
Viverrid . The special home of the Herpestine subfamily is Africa. 

Of the Viverrine animals of Madagascar yet noticed, we have 
the Fossa and Rasse as examples of the Viverrince ; and we have the 
singular little intermediate group of Galidictince and the very excep- 
tional Euplerince. While the most carnivorous Viverrine yet here 
considered (Nandinia) is African, the most insectivorous is from 
Madagascar, where we might expect to find the most anomalous 
Mammalian forms. But if I am right in a suspicion I have already 
expressed, Madagascar is yet more remarkable as presenting the 
most exceptional development of the Herpestine root of the Viver- 
ridcB ; for it seems to me by no means impossible that Crxjptoprocta 
may be a very diverging root-form more or less allied to Crossar- 
chus and Herpestes. 

My examination of the skeleton of Cryptoprocta has left no doubt 
upon my mind that, so far as it is concerned, it is an altogether 
Viverrine, and not at all a Feline, animal. I cannot, therefore, see 
my way at present to regarding it as the type of a distinct family, 
although when its soft parts have been described it may turn^ out 
to merit that distinction. Whatever its ancestral affinities may 
have been, it has clearly attained the rank of a subfamily ; and 
at first I was inclined to regard it (as had been suggested by 
P. Gervais') as a form allied to, and a sort of exaggeration of, the 
African genus JSFandinia ; but the only portion of its visceral anatomy 
yet known to me seems to point to another affinity, namely to that I 
have just indicated. It will, I suspect, be found to have Cowper's 
glands, a Viverrine prostate gland, and a Viverrine brain, but no 
scent-gland — no pouch or glandular grooves just behind the genital 
aperture. The situation of its anal opening in the midst of a fossa, 
as described by Mr. Bennett", is unlike the Viverrince and Galidic- 

^ Hist. Nat. des Mammif. vol. ii. p. 41. 
2 Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. i. p. 137. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XIII. 13 



194 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE .ELUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

tincB ; but is a character which is commonly present in the Herpes- 
tince. The remarkable os penis of Cryptoprocta is certainly a very 
distinctive character ; but the generative apparatus of Hyaena crocuta 
is far more so, and no one would on that account raise that animal 
to the rank of even a subfamily. Moreover it is interesting to note 
that while the os penis is so small and so often absent in the Viver- 
rincB, "il n'en est pas de meme dans les Mangoustes; il y est 
meme assez developpe"^ — an assertion confirmed by the figures on 
De Blainville's plate 9 : it is equally developed in Herpestes palu- 
dinosus. The claws are strongly arched {cf. fig. 14 F, p. 192). 

As regards the teeth of Cryptoprocta, they are, as every one knows, 
extremely feline ; but the longer I live, the more convinced am I 
that dental characters are valueless as indices of affinity, save as 
existing in closely allied forms — the different species of one genus. 
Amongst the Viverridce we have seen how little the dental peculia- 
rities oi Arctogale, Arctictis, and Cywo(/a/e tell against the weight of 
other characters ; the exceptional teeth of Gulo, amongst the Muste- 
lidce, teach the same lesson ; and, as I shall shortly endeavour to 
point out, what I believe to be the affinities of Proteles to Hycena 
and of Hycena to Herpestes very strongly reinforce it. 

Cryptoprocta, when first described (Trans. Zool. Soc. i. p. 137, 
plate 21), was ranked by Mr. Bennett, its describer, amongst the 
Viverridce. De Blainville, in recognizing this affinity as especially 
justified by the milk-dentition, regarded it as especially allied to 
Crossarchus. He has figured the young skull and the milk- 
dentition". 

The osteology of Cryptoprocta has been carefully described and 
figured by Alphonse Milne-Edwards and Alfred Grandidier in the 
Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1867, p. 314, pis. 7-10. The animal has also 
been described, and various details as to its habits given, by Messrs. 
Pollen and Van Dam in their ' Fauue de Madagascar' (1868), p. 13. 

Skeletons and two skins exist in the British Museum ; and there 
is a skeleton in that of the Royal College of Surgeons. The length 
of the head and body of the largest specimen in the British Museum 
is about 81"-3, that of the tail 73"-7. The body is of one colour. 
The claws are sharp, very curved, and semicontractile; the tarsus and 
metatarsus is naked. 

The skull has an auditory bulla, which is neither distinctly Her- 
pestine nor Viverrine ; it is more prominent than in Paradoxurus. 
The alisphenoid canal is constant^. The pterygoid fossa is very 
small. The external opening of the auditory meatus is rounded and 
of moderate size. The postorbital processes of the frontal are rather 
small, and very distant from the exceedingly small malar processes. 
The skull is but little pinched in behind the orbits. The condyloid 
foramen is more or less concealed. The cranial ridges are rather 
strongly developed. The paroccipital process is long, but not de- 
pending. The mastoid is well marked, and more developed than in 

^ De Blainville, ' Osteograpliie,' Viverra, p. 39. 

2 Ost^og. Viverras, pis. 6 & 12. 

^ Pi-eseut ill all the specimens I have examined. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 



195 



the Civets. The carotid canal is as in Herpestes ; and the artery 
enters the cranium by a well-marked foramen in the basis crauii. 
There is no foramen, fissure, or fossa on the floor of the auditory 
meatus. The palate is considerably prolonged behind the last molars. 
The angle of the mandible is rather short. 

Fig. 15. 




a 




Soles of the paws of Cryptoproeta (after Alphonse Milne-Edwards). 
a. Manus ; b. Pes. 



P. 4 



more resembles 



BI. 1 



P. 1 



. In the lower jaw jj— j 
5-— is like the Cat's ; but 

Jr. 4 ' 



The teeth of Cryptoprocta are most feline, 
the corresponding tooth of Felis than of Viverra ; but ^^^ is elon- 
gated transversely as in Hyana striata, and more so relatively than 
in the Cats. — is cat-like, save that the talon is perhaps rather 
larger. — is also very feline. — is much larger than in the Cat, 
and two-rooted. There may be a small 
is like the last, save that it has a talon 
its talon is a little larger. ^-^ is larger relatively than in the Cat. 
^^— has two roots. 

In the milk-dentition, ^^ is very much larger relatively than is 
^^. — (as in the Cat) has its posterior cusp less developed than 
in the permanent upper sectorial, and its internal cusp more poste- 
rior. The lower deciduous sectorial ^-^ has a smaller anterior cusp, 
and a more exterior talon than has the permanent sectorial. This 
is as in the Cat ; though the difference as to the development of the 
talon between the deciduous and the permanent sectorial is less in 
Cryptoprocta. 



196 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE iELUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

The stomach' is much bent on itself, but has a considerable 
cardiac pouch. The small intestines are 4 feet 3 inches long ; the 
large intestine is 5^ inches, and the caecum 1^ inch. The latter 
narrows gradually to its extremity. 

There is a very large supracondyloid foramen, and a very large bone 
to the penis. 

The characters of the subfamily CryptoproctincB will then be as 
follows : — 

(1) Claws very curved, sharp, and semiretractile. 

(2) Postorbital processes long, but not enclosing orbits. 

(3) Hinder chamber of bulla not distinctly everted. 

(4) Hinder margin of auditory opening rather the more projecting. 

(5) Floor of anterior part of bulla not fissured or pitted. 

(6) Angle of mandible not everted. 

(7) Mastoid rather prominent. 

(8) Paroccipital processes not depending. 

(9) Aperture of auditory meatus rounded, of moderate size. 

(10) An alisphenoid canal. 

(11) Carotid artery not perforating the basis cranii conspicuously. 

(12) No prescrotal glands? 

(13) Anus opening into a sac. 

(14) One pair of anal glands 1 

(15) A very large supracondyloid foramen to humerus. 

(16) Pollex and hallux both present. 

(17) Caecum moderate. 

(18) Tarsus and metatarsus bald. 

(19) Nose and upper lip medianly grooved. 

(20) Dentition very feline, save that there is a double-rooted y— . 

(21) Tail long. 

(22) Os penis very large. 

With Cryptoprocta ends the list of genera which I am disposed to 
class in the family Viverridce, following, as I do, Mr. Turner and 
Professor Flower in ranking the Hyaenas as a group of proximately 
coordinate value with the Feline and Viverrine families. 

Nevertheless I believe that the HycenidcB are closely allied to the 
HerpestiMB — so much so that, had the Madagascar Viverrines no 
existence, I should feel a certain temptation to exclude the Ichneu- 
mons and their allies from the Viverridce, and make of them a family 
HerpestidcB, under which the Hyaenas could then be grouped. As 
it is, however, the plan I have adopted seems to me to be perhaps 
best calculated to express the affinities of the existing ^luroidea. 

The characters of the entire family Viverridce, thus understood, 
may be expressed as follows : — 

(1) There may or may not be a pollex ; but in the large majority of 

species there is one. 

(2) There may or may not be a hallux ; but in the large majority of 

species there is one. 

(3) The ungual phalanges may or may not be strongly arched ; but 

' Beunett, I. c. p. 139. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 197 

there is not so wide a lamina of bone to shelter the base of 
the claw as in the Felidce. 

(4) The claws may be considerably arched, or they may be long 

and very slightly so. They are hardly ever (not except 
perhaps m Prionodon and Poiana) completely retractile, and 
often are not at all so. 

(5) The auditory bulla (except in Nandinia) is ossified, much in- 
rR\ -Tu^^^' ^"^ ^'^°^^ externally that it consists of two chambers. 
(0) Ihe bulla is not more prominent towards its inner than towards 

its hinder border. 

(7) There is an almost complete bony septum between the two 

chambers of the bulla, which may or may not be one behind 
the other. 

(8) The bony meatus auditorius is almost always short, and may 

have its anterior, posterior, or inferior margin most project- 
mg ; and it may be imperfectly ossified below. 

(9) There is a carotid foramen, or two carotid foramina, visible on 

each side of the basis cranii. 

(10) There is (except often in Viverricula) an alisphenoid canal. 

(11) The palatine foramina are situated in the anterior half of the 

palate. 

(12) ^- is generally and ^-^ constantly developed. 

(13) There is always an j^-^, and generally an ^^. 

(14) -^ is always present, generally large. 

(15) The autero-external cusp of — is generally very small. 
(^^) mTi ^^s almost always a considerable talon. 

(17) The outer incisors may greatly exceed the middle ones in 

size. 

(18) The humerus sometimes wants the supracondyloid foramen. 

(19) The bone of the penis is small, save in Cryptoprocta. 

(20) The ears are not very long, erect, and pointed. 

(21) The tarsus and metatarsus are very often bald. 

(22) One plantar pad (small or large), and one beneath each 

digit. 

(23) Anus opening on the surface or in the middle of a saccular 

cutaneous invagination. 

(24) Anal glands from one to five pairs ; generally one pair. 

(25) Very often prescrotal scent-glands. 

(26) Caecum generally present and small or moderate, but occa- 

sionally absent. 

(27) No very hard, horny, sharp-pointed, conical papillge on the 

dorsum of the tongue. 

(28) Hippocampal gyrus completely separated from that anterior 

internal portion of the superior lateral gyrus which is behind 
the crucial sulcus, by the continuation forwards of the calloso- 
marginal sulcus to join the crucial sulcus. 

(29) The coronoid process of the mandible is almost, if not quite, 

always less lofty relatively, and less backwardly produced 
than in the Felidat. 



198 PROF. ST.-GEOR6E MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

(30) The proportional length of the limbs to the body is shorter 

than even in jP. eyra. 

(31) The muzzle is large in proportion to the cranium. 

(32) The dentition may or may not be markedly sectorial. 

(33) The tail is almost always long, but may be short {Cynogale)-, 

but it is never so rudimentary as in the Lynxes. 

(34) Clitoris never traversed by urogenital canal. 

(35) Dorsal vertebrae never more than fourteen. 

(36) Postorbital processes generally developed, rarely enclosing 

orbit posteriorly. 

(37) Paroccipital processes depending or not. 

(38) Mastoid prominent or not. 

(39) There may be a conspicuous carotid foramen (deeply notching 

the sphenoid) in the basis cranii, for the entrance of the carotid 
into the cranial cavity. 

(40) Nose and upper lip generally medianly grooved, but not 

always so. 

(41) Palate not much, moderately, or much prolonged behind 

molars. 

(42) Pterygoid fossa present or absent. 

(43) Size of species generally moderate or small, sometimes very 

small — the smallest of the ^luroidea. 

The Hyaenas form three well-marked species, whereof one {cro- 
cuta) is so much more distinct from its geographical ally {H. brunnea) 
than is the latter from the third form, H. striata, that I think 
it should rank as a distinct genus. H. striata is found in India, 
Persia, Asia Minor, and North Africa. The other two Hyaenas are 
South-African only. 

The anatomy of the genus (besides the notices in Cuvier and 
Meckel) has been given in part by Hunter ('Essays and Observations,' 
vol. ii. p. 57), by Cuvier and Daubenton (Hist. Nat. ix. p. 268, 
pis. 25-30), by Dr. Murie (Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii. p. 503, pi. 63), 
and by Dr. Watson (P. Z. S. 1877, p. 369, pis. 40 & 41 ; P. Z. S. 
1878, p. 416, pis. 24 & 25 ; and P. Z. S. 1879, p. 79, pis. 5 & 6). 

In Hycena the muzzle is medianly grooved beneath. The hair is 
harsh and long, and forms a sort of mane along the middle of the back. 
There are but five digits either in front or behind. The legs are 
rather long, behind as well as in front. The tarsus and metatarsus 
are both hairy. Each foot has a single palmar or plantar naked 
pad, and one such pad to each toe. The claws are blunt and non- 
retractile, rather long, but not as we find them in the Herpestinee. 
The body is either greyish or brownish, with blackish bands extend- 
ing vertically on each side of the body and horizontally on the Hmbs, 
or is more or less uniformly brownish. The ears are erect and very 
long and pointed, such as exist in none of the Felida or Fiverridce. 
There is an anal pouch, with two {H. striata) or three * {H. brunnea) 
pairs of anal glands on each side of the rectum ; and in one, if not 

• Dr. Murie, I. c. p. 506. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LTJROIDEA. 199 

in both species, there is a transverse band of isolated follicles at the 
bottom of the anal pouch. 

The penis is long and pendulous, and entirely devoid of any bone. 

There are fifteen dorsal vertebrae. 

The cranium of Hyana differs from every Viverrine cranium by its 
enormous sagittal and lambdoidal ridges, and strong and greatly 
arched zygomata. The general type of its construction is Viverrine, 
though there is no alisphenoid canal or septum between the anterior 
and posterior portions of the auditory bulla. As to the first point, 
we have seen that the canal is generally wanting in Viverricula, and 
constantly so in the Galidictince and Eupleres, As to the auditory 
bulla, it is interesting to note that the aperture between the chambers 
is enlarged in the Herpestina (which by their circumanal pouch 
resemble the Hycenidce) ; and though there is no septum, yet I have 
detected in both species of Hycena, inside the auditory bulla, two 
osseous ridges or laminae, which if further developed would divide off 
a small anterior chamber from the much larger and externally more 
prominent posterior portion. The anterior portion of the margin of 
the external opening of the auditory meatus (which has no fissure or 
foramen in its floor) is much more produced than any other part — an 
exaggeration of a character we have already seen in the Herpestin(e. 
There is no pterygoid fossa. The postorbital processes are short and 
blunt, and widely separated from the malar processes. The skull 
is not pinched in behind them. The condyloid foramen is concealed. 
The paroccipital is long and depending. The mastoid is rather 
prominent. The carotid canal is much more Viverrine than Feline ; 
its posterior opening is always larger, and generally situated much 
more anteriorly than in the Felidce, and more approaching its situa- 
tion in the Viverrina. There is no carotid foramen in the sphe- 
noid ; but it enters the cranium (beside the hinder end of the sella 
turcica) through the foramen lacerum, and covered in by the auditory 
bulla. The palate is much prolonged behind the last molars. The 
lower border of the mandible is much curved ; the angle is flattened 
along its inferior border, and is pressed up nearer to the condyle 
than in Felis or in any other .^luroid I have seeu — Nandinia (which 
also has rather strongly developed cranial ridges) being most like it 
in this respect, except, of course, Crocuta and Proteles. 

The teeth of Hyana ' are so well known that I hesitate to re- 
describe them ; but I feel any utility this paper may possess would 
be greatly impaired if their resemblances and differences to other 
iEluroids, and especially to the Cats, were not shortly noted in it. 

The outer upper incisors are canine-like, and much more preponde- 
rant over the inner ones than in the Cats. The canines, on the other 
hand (both above and below), are relatively shorter, more flattened 
internally, and without longitudinal grooves either outside or inside. 
^^ is relatively larger than in Felis (though I have observed it to be 

^ Figured by De Blainville (Hy^nes, pi. vi.) and Ouyier (Dents des Mamm. 
pi. 25). For osteology, see Cuvier's 'Ossemens Fossiles,' 4tLi edition (1835), 
vol. vii. p. 311, and Atlas, vol. ii. pi. 190. 



200 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LTJROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

wanting in a specimen of H. brunnea). p. * is like the Cats', save 
that the anterior and posterior external cusps are nearly equal and 
more nearly approach in size the median external cusp, that the 
internal cusp is much larger and stouter, while the base of the 
antero-external angle of the tooth is not prominent. The antero- 
external fang is much more slender relatively, while the postero- 
external one and that of the internal tubercle are stouter. -^ 
differs from that of the Cats in its greater relative vertical and less 
antero-posterior development, and that its small talon seems never 
to be bilobed. Its basal ridge is much more developed within, and 
still more at the hinder part of the tooth. It has two very long roots, 
the anterior one of which is slightly the stouter. — differs from 
that of Felis (except that of F. planiceps) in having two roots ; it 
is like -^-, only smaller and less powerful. It is vastly more power- 
ful than is -^ of Felis. -^— is close to (or almost close to) the 
canine ; it is conical, with a basal ridge all round (much marked 
within and behind), and has a cutting-edge extending from the poste- 
rior outer to the antero-inner parts of the tooth, p-^ is absent, 
p-^ is much larger than -^-, but smaller than -^ ; it is conical, but 
laterally compressed, with an antero-posterior cutting-edge, and a 
basal ridge all round it, but especially behind, where it develops a 
second, small tubercle. It is like the Cats' p-g, but it is a little 
more vertically developed relatively, and is more quadrate when 
viewed from above. It has two subequal fangs, p-g is more canini- 
form ; it differs from the Cats' in its large basal ridge, and has two 
large roots, the anterior of which is rather the larger, p-j has two 
fangs, the posterior of which is rather the larger ; it is like the 
last tooth, save that its talon is larger and bears two tubercles side 
by side. It differs from the Cats' in its smaller talon and merely 

rudimentary anterior cusp, jj^ is like that of the Cats ; but the 
cusps are relatively shorter, and there is a talon which bears two 
small cusps ; there is also a cusp within the more posterior of the 
two large cusps. 

Comparing the milk-dentition of Hycena with that of the Cats, I 
find that -^ has two roots ; it is very like the Cats' -^, and there- 
fore very unlike — of Felis. -^ (the milk sectorial) is very like 

the Cats' deciduous sectorial ; but its inner tubercle is larger rela- 
tively ; it is similarly situated. The deciduous outer incisors do not 
exceed the inner ones nearly so much as in the permanent dentition. 
5^ is just like the Cats' g-g. g-g is Hke the Cats' g-^, only larger 
relatively. -^ is very different from that of the Cats, because it has 
a very large talon with three small cusps as well, on and inside (and 
side by side with) the hinder principal cusp, half the size of the 
latter ; it is a slight exaggeration of the permanent lower sectorial. 
There is no supracondyloid foramen to the humerus. There is 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 201 

only a rudimentary metacarpal or metatarsal bone for either poUex 
or hallux. ^ 

The genus Crocuta, instituted by Gray' for the Spotted Hyaena 
ot South Africa, differs from the two species of true Hysenas as to 
coloration, and in that its ears are not so elongated and are rounded 
instead of pointed. The hind legs are shorter than the fore limbs ; 
there is no dorsal mane; and there is but a single pair of anal glands^ 
one on each side of the rectum, and a transverse band of follicles, 
i he clitoris is enormous, and perforated by the urogenital canal =, as 
has been excellently described in our 'Proceedings' by Dr. Watson ^ 

The cranium of Crocuta is hke that oi Hycena, but that theincipient 
division between the two parts of the auditory bulla is more rudi- 
mentary.^ As to the dentition ^ ^ has a quite minute rounded 
crown. -^ has antero-external cusp much smaller than the two 
other external cusps ; ^-^ is very long, as is also ^^ ; ^^ has not 
two subequal tubercles side by side on its talon, "there' being the 
merest rudiment of the inner tubercle. ^^ has no cusp inside the 
more posterior of its two large cusps ; and its talon is quite minute. 

Ihe penis is large and pendulous, and boneless. 

The dorsal vertebrae are fifteen in number. 

The characters presented by the group of kyaenas— the subfamily 
ayamnae — are as follows : — ^ 

(1) There is no pollex. 

(2) There is no hallux. 

(3) The ungual phalanges are not strongly arched. 

(4) The claws are but slightly arched, blunt, and not retractile, 
(.o; ihe auditory bulla is inflated, and shows no external evidence 

of division. 

(6) The bulla is most prominent posteriorly, where it is not 

everted. 

(7) Only a rudiment of a bony septum. 

(8) The bony meatus auditorius is short ; but its anterior lip is 

produced. ^ 

(9) There is a carotid foramen not situated quite so far forward 
as in the Viverridce. 

(10) There is no alisphenoid canal. 

(11) The palatine foramina are situated on the anterior half of the 

palate. 

(12) -^— and p— ^ are developed. 

(13) There is no ^%r ^'• 

1 P. Z. S. 1868, p. 625. 

2 It may be interesting to note that, in the ' Journal of Anatomy and Physio 
logy,' vol XIV. (1879), p. 95, there is recorded (in a paper on the hoiuoloffv of 
the sexual organs) the case of a woman formed in the same way as is the feniale 
Crocuta. 

s P. Z. S. 1878, p. 416. 

^Figured by De Blainville; Cuvier.Ossem. Foss. ii. pi. 190 ; Gervais Mamm 
p. 97. 



202 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE iELUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 



(14 
0^ 

(16 

(17 

(18 
(19 
(20 
(21 
(22 
(23 
(24 
(25 
(26 
(27 

(28 
(29 



p. 4 



^ is small and minute, occasionally absent. 

The anterior and posterior external cusps of '^^ are about 

equal, and nearly approach in size the median external one. 
5^ has a large or small talon. 
The outer incisors greatly exceed the middle ones. 
The humerus wants the supracondyloid foramen. 
The penis is boneless. 

The ears are long, erect, and (with one exception) pointed. 
The tarsus and metatarsus are entirely hairy. 
There is one small plantar pad and one beneath each digit. 
The anus opens into a sac. 
The anal glands vary from one to three pairs. 
There are no prescrotal scent-glands. 
There is a moderate caecum. 
The tongue is furnished with large conical papillae on its 

dorsum ; but these are not hard as in the Felidce. 
The calloso-marginal sulcus joins the crucial sulcus. 
Angle of mandible flattened along its inferior border, and 

pressed up nearer to the condyle, relatively, than in the 

Felidce. 

Proportional length of limbs longer than in Viverridce. 
Length of muzzle to cranium intermediate between Viverridce 

and Felidce. 
Dentition extremely sectorial, while it is nevertheless formed 

for crushing. 

Tail rather shorter, but not as in Lynxes. 
The clitoris may be traversed by the urogenital canal. 
Dorsal vertebrae not less than fifteen. 
Postorbital processes short and blunt. 
Paroccipital processes depending. 
Mastoid rather prominent. 
No carotid foramen in sphenoid. 
Nose and upper lip medianly grooved. 
Palate not much prolonged behind last molar. 
No pterygoid fossa. 
Enormous cranial ridges. 



(30 
(31 

(32 

(33 
(34 
(35 

{37 
(38 
(39 
(40 
(41 
(42 
(43 

The genus Proteles, long known ' as regards its skin and skeleton, 
had its anatomy first fully described by Professor Flower ", who 
pointed out previously ^ the characters of the basis crauii, and its 
affinity, thus indicated, to the Herpestince and the tlyoenincB. Save 
for its greater slenderness, the animal has the general form of an 
Hyaena, with similarly long, erect, and pointed ears, and with a well- 
developed dorsal mane. There are five fore digits (though the pollex 
is short), but only four digits to the hind foot. There is a single 

'^ First described in Sparrmau's ' Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, 1772- 
1776.' See P. Z. S. 1869, p. 475. 

2 P. Z. S. 1869, p. 474, pi. 36, with various anatomical woodcuts. 
' P. Z. S. 1869, p. 28. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE .^LTTROIDEA. 205^ 

palmar or plantar pad, and one pad for each toe ; and the tarsus and 
metatarsus are hairy. The nose is medianly grooved beneath. The 
fur is woolly, of a yellowish or reddish brown, with a few vertical 
black bands on the sides of the body, and others, more or less hori- 
zontal, on the limbs. The claws are blunt, non- retractile, and rather 
long. There is an anal pouch with one pair of anal glands, and a 
supraanal band of follicles, as in Crocuta. The penis is boneless ; 
and there are fifteen dorsal vertebrae. 

As to the skull, its auditory bulla is (as Prof. Flower has pointed 
out) large, pyriform, and everted posteriorly as in Herpestes, divided 
by a septum into two chambers, one in front of the other. The 
margin of the external opening of the auditory meatus (which has 
no fissure or foramen in its floor) is most prominent anteriorly. There 
is no alisphenoid canal ; the carotid canal is as in Hycena ; the par- 
occipital process is flattened, and does not depend ; the mastoid is 
rather strongly prominent ; the postorbital processes of the frontal 
are pointed and well developed ; the skull is not pinched in behind 
them ; the malar processes are moderately developed ; the cranial 
ridges are weak ; but the zygoma is rather strongly arched outwards ; 
the condyloid foramen is concealed ; the palate is very wide, and is 
considerably prolonged ; and the pterygoid bones come very near the 
bullse ; the mesopterygoid fossa is very wide. The angle of the 
mandible is singularly flattened behind ; and its apex is produced 
directly backwards. The hinder part of the horizontal ramus is bent 
up as in Hycena.. 

The teeth, as is universally known, are quite abnormal and rudi- 
mentary. There are only three small, conical, blunt upper molars, 
whereof only -^ is two-rooted. There are only two lower molars, 
whereof only the hinder one is two-rooted. 

Proteles agrees with the Hysenas in the characters just enumerated 
except Nos. 1,5,6,7, 13, 15, 16, 17, 31,32, 34, 36, 37, 41, and 43. 

These characters, then, serve to differentiate the ProteliiicB from 
the Hi/cenines. 

The characters common to the whole family HycEnidcB will then 
stand as follows : — 

(1) There may or may not be a pollex ; but in the majority of 

species there is not one. 

(2) There is never a hallux. 

(3) The ungual phalanges are never strongly arched ; nor is there 
a wide lamina to shelter the base of the claw. 

(4) The claws are never more than slightly arched ; they are blunt 

and non-retractile. 

(5) The auditory bulla is inflated, but generally gives no external 

indication of division. 

(6) The bulla entirely ankylosed into one mass, and is not more 
prominent towards its inner than towards its hinder border. 

(7) There is generally only a rudiment of a septum within the 
bulla. 

(8) The bony meatus auditorius is shorter, and has the anterior 



204 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LtJROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

part of its margin prolonged, but is never imperfectly ossified 
below. 
(9) A carotid foramen is visible on the inner side of the bulla, but 
is placed more posteriorly than in the Viverridce. 

(10) There is no alisphenoid canal. 

(11) The palatine foramina are situated in the anterior half of the 

palate. 

(12) — and p-g are developed. 

(13) There is never either ^— or ^^. 

(14) ^^ is absent or small. 

(15) ^^ may abort ; but if present, it has its anterior and posterior 
external cusps about equal and nearly approaching the median 
external cusp in size. 

(16) j^-j has a large or small talon, or is absent. 

(17) The outer incisors generally exceed greatly the inner ones, 
and are caniniform. 

(18) The humerus wants the supracondyloid processes. 

(19) The penis is boneless. 

(20) The ears are long, erect, and generally pointed. 

(21) The tarsus and metatarsus are entirely hairy. 

(22) There is one small plantar pad with four small pads for the 
digits of the pes. 

(23) The anus opens into a sac. 

(24) The anal glands vary from one to three pairs. 

(25) There are no prescrotal scent-glands. 

(26) There is a moderate caecum. 

(27) The tongue is furnished with much-enlarged conical papillae on 

its dorsum ; but they are not placed as in the Felidce. 

(28) The calloso-marginal sulcus joins the crucial sulcus. 

(29) The angle of the mandible is much flattened beneath. 

(30) Proportional length of the limbs larger than in the ViverridcB. 

(31) Length of muzzle to cranium generally intermediate between 

the conditions presented by the Felidce and the Viverridce. 

(32) Dentition extremely sectorial, and yet formed for crushing, or 
else altogether rudimentary. 

(33) Tail rather short, but not as in the Lynxes. 

(34) The clitoris may be traversed by the urogenital canal. 

(35) Dorsal vertebrae never less than fifteen. 

(36) Postorbital processes short and blunt or moderate ; but orbits 
never enclosed by bone. 

(37) Paroccipital processes generally depending, but not always. 

(38) Mastoid rather prominent. 

(39) No carotid foramen in sphenoid. 

(40) Nose and upper lip medianly grooved. 

(41) Palate may or may not be much prolonged beyond the 

molars. 

(42) No pterygoid fossa. 

(43) Size of species always large. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. 



205 



The following tabular arrangement may be convenient for refe- 
rence : — 



jEluroidea: 
with 



10 — -; uoalisplienoid 

canal ; bulla not ex- 
ternally constricted, 
but internally di- 
vided ; metatarsus 
entirely hairy ; and 
13 dorsal vertebrie. 



,'Olaws completely 1 
retractile ; inner I 
cusp of upper sec- | 
torial moderate. J 



Felis. 



-FELID.^. ■ 



Claws incompletely '\ 
retractile ; inner | 
cusp of upper )■ 
sectorial rudi- | 
mentary. ) 



rus. 



^ P~2 ' S6^6''*lb' 811 alisphenoid canal ; bulla 

externally constricted, and internally divided ; r ViVJiRELD^. 
metatarsus hairy or naked ; and 13 or 14 dor- | 

sal vertebrae. 

a =-g ; no alisphenoid canal ; bulla divided and 1 



P. 2 



V Try ipiCTTT) 35" 

constricted, or not so ; metatarsus hairy ; 15 I ■^■^-^■^^■'-^-^• 
dorsal vertebrae. 



Viverrid^s : 
with 



/ almost always an alisphenoid canal and supracon- ^ 
dyloid foramen ; claws strongly curved and 
more or less retractile ; bulla not posteriorly 
everted ; large canines ; generally j^rescrotal 
glands, and anus not opening into a sac. J 

No alisphenoid canal or supracondyloid foramen ; " 
claws moderately curved, not retractile ; bulla 
posteriorly everted ; large canines ; no pre- 
ecrotal glands ; anus not opening into a sac. 



y VlVERRIX'^. 



Galibictin^. 



no alisphenoid canal; a supracondyloid foramen ; 
claws elongated, not retractile ; bulla hardly 
everted posteriorly ; very small canines ; no 
prescrotal glands ; anus ? 



• EUPLEKIN^. 



an alisphenoid canal ; a large supracondyloid '\ 
foramen ; claws ver5' curved and retractile ; i 
buUa not distinctly everted ; large canines ; no ^ Oryptopeoctin.e. 
prescrotal glands ; anus opening into a 
sac. ^ 

an alisphenoid canal ; a supracondyloid foramen ; " 
claws elongated, not retractile ; buUa dis- tt 
tinctly everted ; large canines ; no prescrotal '' -f-ERPESTiNiE. 
gland^s ; anus opening into a sac. 



VlVERRIN^. 

A. Upper lip medianly grooved, tail long. 
I. Tarsus and metatarsus entirely hairy ; 



ears 



never tufted. 



11.2 



M. 2 



present Viverra. 



—^ absent Prionodon. 



206 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE ^LUROIDEA. [Feb. 7, 

II. Not so ; ears rarely tufted. 

a. A bald line on tarsus. ^^ present Geneita. 

— ^ absent Poiana. 

(i. Two bald spots on tarsus Fossa. 

y. Tarsus half bald ; auditory bulla only 

partly ossified Nandinia. 

h. Tarsus half bald ; auditory bulla entirely 
ossified 

1. Back marked with transverse bands .. Hemigalea. 

2. Not marked with transverse bands. 

a. Teeth small ; hinder part of alveolar 

border of mandible everted Arctogale. 

b. Teeth not small ; hinder part of 

alveolar border not everted Paradoxurus. 

e. Tarsus absolutely naked ; ears tufted . . Arctictis. 
B. Upper lip not medianly grooved ; tail short . . Cynogale. 

HeRPESTINjE. 

A. Toes 5— 5. 

I. A groove beneath nose. 

a. Pm. J Herpestes. 

/3. Pm. 3 Helogale. 

II. No groove beneath nose. 

a. Tarsus hairy Bhinogale. 

/8. Tarsus bald Crossarchus. 

B. Toes 5 — 4 Cynictis. 

C. Toes 4— 4. 

a. A groove beneath nose Bdeogale. 

(3. No groove beneath nose Suricata. 

Galidictin^. 

A. Inferior canine very large Galidictis. 

B. Inferior canine not very large. 

I. ?^ absent ; — ^ very small Galidia. 

II. — present ; —^ of moderate size Hemigalidia. 

Distribution of the iEluroidea. 

The suborder extends (apart from the arctic and antarctic regions) 
over the whole world except Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, 
Polynesia, and the Antilles — extending even into the Moluccas, 
Philippines, Celebes, and Madagascar. 

The family Felida is almost as cosmopolitan as is the entire 
suborder, but it is not found in the Moluccas, Philippines, Celebes, 
or Madagascar. It alone of the J^lluroidea extends into the New 
World ; but, as was long ago remarked by Buffon, the Cats of the 
Old and New Worlds are markedly distinct. Only one species, 
the northern Lynx, is common to both worlds. 



1882.] PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE jELUROIDEA. 207 

The Asiatic and African Cats are distinct, except the Lion, Leo- 
pard, Caracal, and Chetah. Twenty-six species seem to be peculiar 
to Asia, and only six to Africa. Ten species are peculiar to America. 

The ladian archipelago is very rich in species ; and the island of 
Bali seems their extreme limit. The Tiger is found there. Two 
species of Lynx and the Wild Cat are European. 

The Hycenidce are almost entirely African, and three of its five 
species South- African. H. striata alone extends into Western Asia 
and Northern Africa. 

The family Viverridce is exclusively confined to the Old World, and 
has but two representatives — a Geaet and an Ichneumon (Genetta 
vulgaris and Herpestes ichneumon) — in Europe. 

Apart from the Ichneumons aud Paradoxures, twelve species are 
Asiatic and twenty African. The Ichneumons are divided, as before- 
said, into thirteen Asiatic and seven African. The Paradoxures are 
all Asiatic, but are not well defined as to species ; if we accept provi- 
sionally the number (twelve) of Dr. Gray \ that will give a total of 
thirty-seven Asiatic forms of Viverridce^ and thirty-two African 
forms. Besides these, eight species are found in Madagascar. 

No species is common to Asia and the continent of Africa, except 
Genetta vidgaris and Herpestes ichneumon. 

No species appears to be common to Madagascar and the conti- 
nent of Africa, a species of Crossarchus found there having been 
probably introduced by man. 

No species is common to Madagascar and Asia except Viverricula, 
that wandering Jew amongst the Viverridce, the extensive range of 
which has been already indicated -. 

The other Madagascar species are Fossa, Eupleres, and the four 
species of Galidictin(B and Cryptoprocta, 

Thus Madagascar, containing as it does examples of all five sub- 
famihes of Viverridce, has by far the most peculiar Viverrine fauna 
of the whole world. 

Next to it comes Borueo, with its Prionodon, Arctictis, Cynogale, 
Hemigalea, Parodoxuri, and Herpestes ; and the Indian Archipelago 
generally is rich in Viverrine life as well as being inhabited by the 
Cats F. macrocelis, F. marmoratus, F. planiceps, and F. badia. 

The Viverrine section of the subfamily Viverrince are pretty equally 
divided between Asia and Africa ; with the exception of the West- 
African Nandinia, the paradoxurine section of the Viverrince are en- 
tirely Asiatic. 

As a rule the Viverrince as to species are predominantly Asiatic, 
while the Herpestince are predominantly African, and especially 
South-African, As regards geuera, the Viverrince have six genera 
peculiar to Africa, aud one to Madagascar, while three {Viverra, 
Viverricula, and Genetta) are common to both the continents. 

As regards geuera, the subfamily Herpestince has no less than six 
peculiar to Africa, and not one Asiatic genus which is not also found 
in Africa, the only genus common to the two continents being Her- 
pestes. 

^ Cat. of Camivora in Brit. Mus., p. 63. * See ante, p. 149. 



208 MR- w. A. FORBES ON THE [Feb. 7, 

It is interesting to note that the genera of ViverridcB with nu- 
merous anal glands and a large circumanal pouch are A.frican, and 
especially South- African, like Hycena brunnea. 

The extreme geographical limits of the Fiverrida seem to be 
France, Spain, Shanghai, Formosa, the Philippines, Celebes, Lom- 
bock, Madagascar, the Cape, and the north-western part of Africa — 

Cape Verd. 

The most northern range in the continent of Asia appears to be 
that of Hyana striata in Asia Minor^ 

No species of the ViverridcB is so widely diffused as is Viverricula. 

Geograpically, then, as well as in some respects structurally, the 
Viverridce (apart from the Madagascar forms; seem to divide them- 
selves into two great sections — one Asiatic and Viverrine, the other 
African and Herpestine. 

ThciEluroidea being considered as one whole, and Dr. Gray's twelve 
species o^ Paradox urus and my enumeration of Cats being pro- 
visionally accepted, we have a total of 5 species of ^Eluroids in Europe, 
7 species in Madagascar, 1 1 species in America (all Cats), 46 species 
in Africa, and 68 in Asia, 7 of these being common to both 
Africa and Asia. 

Before long I hope to lay before the Society my notes on some 
parts of the anatomy, and especially on the osteology of the iElu- 
roidea. 



2. On some Points in the Anatomy of the Indian Darter 

{Plotus melanog aster), and on the Mechanism of the 

Neck in the Darters [Plotus], in connexion with their 

Habits. By W. A. Forbes, B.A., Prosector to the 

Society. 

[Eeceived January 9, 1882.] 

It is to the late Prof. Garrod that we are indebted for our know- 
ledge of the great differences in the anatomy of the digestive organs 
of the American ^ (P^^MS anhinga), and African^ (P. levaillanti) 
Darters. The existence of such differences in birds apparently so 
nearly allied made it very desirable to obtain a knowledge of these 
parts in the other species of the genus Plotus. 

On April 8th last, the Society obtained, by exchange from the 
Zoological Gardens of Calcutta, the first specimen of the Indian 
Darter (Plotus melanogaster) that it has acquired. The specimen, a 

' P. de Tchihatcheff in his 'Asie Mineure' (185(5), 2" partie, p.'602, reports good 
evidence of its existence in Asia Minor. He says : — " Je ne I'ai jamais observ^e a 
r^tat virant, mais dans plusieurs localites de la Phrygie, de la Mysie et du Pont, 
les habitants m'en ont positivement constate I'existeuce : d'ailleurs a Selevk6 
(littoral de la Cilicie petr6e) ; une depouille de la Hymna striata me fut montr^e 
par un chasseur Arm6nien qui m'assura d' avoir tu6 I'animal dans les montagnes 
voisines." 

2 P.Z.S. 1876, pp. 335-345 ; Scient. Papers, pp. 334-346, pis. xviii.-xx. 

3 L. c. 1878, pp. 679-681 ; t. c. pp. 346-349. 



1882.] ANATOMY OF THE INDIAN DARTER. 209 

male, lived in excellent health till December 21st last, when it died 
suddenly, its death apparently having been caused by some sudden 
shock produced by too rapid feeding, as a dozen small fishes, just 
swallowed, were found in its stomach. No disease whatever could 
be found. It is this specimen that forms the subject of the present 
communication. 

As regards its stomach, Plotus melanog aster closely approaches P. 
levaillanti, the proventriculus being in the form of two quite separate 
patches, and the pyloric lobe being provided with a similar hair- 
covered conical and retractile " plug." In P. anhing a, it will be 
remembered, the proventricular glands are collected together into a 
special diverticulum of the stomach, whilst the pyloric lobe, though 
hairy internally, has no such plug. In P. melanogaster the two 
gland-patches have the form of watch-pockets, which nearly, though 
not quite, unite with each other superiorly. They measure 1 • 1 inch 
transversely and "8 inch from above downwards, being thus a little 
larger than the similarly shaped and situated ones of P. levaillanti '. 
There is no trace of the elevated " U-shaped ridge " situated on the 
anterior wall of the stomach between the two patches, described and 
figured by Prof. Garrod in the last-named species. The gland- 
patches are covered, as is the rest of the interior of the stomach, by 
the usual yellow wrinkled "epithelium." This ceases abruptly 
above at the level of the upper margins of the glandular areas, where 
it meets the smooth and pink mucous membrane of the oesophagus. 
Along this line of junction, the epithelial coat is thicker and jagged, 
an appearance probably due to several thicknesses of this coat having 
been " moulted " (as we know happens in the American species) and 
not come clean away'^. 

The second, or pyloric, stomach is quite as distinct in Plotus mela- 
nogaster as it is in the two other species of the genus dissected. 
Like these, too, its pyloric half is covered internally with the pecu- 
liar hairy mat already described in these birds : the cardiac part, on 
the other hand, is covered by a yellow " epithelium " continuous 
with that of the rest of the stomach. The hairy covering forms 
a complete ring, thickest and best developed inferiorly — on the sur- 
face corresponding to the "greater curvature" of the Mammalian 
stomach — and quite surrounding the equally hairy pyloric plug. 
This " plug " is not a free process : it is rather a well-defined ridge, 
nearly cylindrical in section, attached superiorly to the wall of the 
stomach, but ending freely below. It, particularly towards its ter- 
mination, is thickly covered with hairs of a similar character to those 
in the rest of the hairy region. When fully retracted, it completely 
fills up the centre of the hairy ring already described, the communi- 
cation of the cavities of the stomach and duodenum being reduced 
to a narrow aperture situated below the plug, and only capable of 
allowing the passage of a bristle. 

1 In the proTentricular glands being limited to distinct areas, -which do not 
unite to form a zone, Plotus levaillanti and P. melanogaster resemble the genus 
Phalacrocorax. 

2 Cf. Bartlett, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 247. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XIV. 14 



210 MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE [Feb. /, 

It is not unusual iu birds to find a small irregular nipple-like 
projection guarding the entrance to the pylorus ; aud it is, I am in- 
clined to believe, a greatly developed condition of this structure that 
forms the hairy " plug " of the Old- World Darters. 

In the rest of its anatomy Plotus melanog aster resembles in nearly 
CTcry respect P. anhinga aud P. levaillanti. As in the latter, there 
are two caeca, "2 inch long, whilst in most specimens of P. anhinga 
one only has been observed'. As in P. anhinga, the large intestine 
is peculiarly long, measuring 5*5 inches ; the small intestine has a 
length of 30 inches. The bursa fahricii, I may add, in the present 
specimen (a (5 ) had the ordinary relations of that organ to the 
cloaca, opening into that chamber by a small pore. There is only 
one carotid artery, the left, as in the two other species of Plotus, the 
genus Peleeanus, and Sula leucogastra and S.piscator, though not in 
S, bassana, or the other Steganopodes. The patella is only grooved, 
and not perforated, by the ambiens muscle. 

The structure of the neck in P. melanogaster is almost identical 
with that of P. anhinga, as described and figured by Garrod. 
" Donitz's bridge," situated, as in the other species, on the 9th 
cervical vertebra, is well-ossified in the present specimen, as it 
is also iu P. levaillanti and P. novcB-hollandice, though not in 
P. anhinga. 

In addition to this, the similarly-situated fibrous bands — formed by 
a specialized part of the general cervical aponeurosis — on the 11th 
cervical vertebra, which are correctly figured and described (in the 
explanation to the plate) by Garrod ^ in P. anhinga, are also ossi- 
fied, each in its median portion being converted, over a small area 
about the size of a hemp-seed, into bone. Through the canal thus 
formed on each side, the longus colli posterior, as well as the 
general mass of posterior neck-muscles, passes. On examination 
of P. levaillanti, I find these bands also ossified in that species ; 
in P. anhinga, as already correctly stated by Garrod, they remain 
fibrous. There is no such ossification of the cervical portion of the 
longus colli posterior tendon in this species, as was observed by 
Garrod in P. anhinga ; and in this respect again the African and 
Indian species agree, and differ from their American relative. 

Prof. Garrod, iu the first of his papers already referred to, has 
fully aud accurately described the peculiar osteological and myolo- 
gical characters of the neck of the Darter. But, probably from never 
haviug observed these birds when feeding, he has not pointed out 
the connexion between this peculiar neck, with its naturally persis- 
tent " kink," of the Darters and their mode of life. 

The Darters feed entirely, so far as I have been able to observe, 
under water. Swimming with its wings half expanded, though loco- 
motion is effected entirely by the feet, the bird pursues his prey 
(small fishes) with a peculiar " darting " or jerky action of the head 

' In a specimen of Plotus anhinga that has passed through my hands since 
this paper was read there was, in addition to a single cseciim of the ordinary 
size, a much more rudimentary one developed on the other side of the intestine. 

^ L. c. pi. xviii. fig. 2 a. 



1K82. 1 



ANATOMY OF THE INDIAN DARTER. 



211 



and neck, which may be compared to that of a man poising a spear 
or harpoon before throwing it. Arrived within striking-distance, 
the Darter suddenly transfixes, in fact bayonets, the fish on the tip 
of its beak with marvellous dexterity, and then immediately comes 
to the surface, where the fish is shaken off the beak by jerking of 
the head and neck (repeated till successful), thrown upwards, and 
swallowed, usually head first. 

A study of the neck in the recently dead bird leaves little doubt 



Fig. 1. 



a 



B' 




a 








Diagram to show the mechanism of the " kink" of the neck in the Darters. 

a, head and anterior moiety of neck (1st to 7th cervical vertebra) ; it, posterior 
moiety of neck (from the 9th cerTieal vertebra to thorax) ; 8, 8th cer- 
vical vertebra; D, "Donitz's bridge," on the 9th cervical; /, the two 
flexor muscles (vide text) ; e, the extensor muscle (the longus colli ante- 
rior). In fig. 1 the flexor muscles are supposed to be acting, bending 
back the anterior part of the neck on the 8th cervical ; in fig. 2 the 
extensor muscle has opened out the anterior genu formed by the 8th cer- 
vical, thereby protruding the apex of the beak (marked' B in fig. 1) 
to B'. 



as to the mechanism by which this peculiar impaling of the prey is 
effected. The 8th cervical vertebra is articulated, as has already 
been described, with the 7th in such a way that the two cannot 
naturally be got to lie in the same line, but form an angle, open 
forwards, of about 145°, when the two bones are stretched as far as is 
possible in that direction. Behind, its articulation with the 9th 
cervical is such as to permit it to be bent back at an angle a little 
greater than 90° with that vertebra, beyond which extent, however, 

14* 



212 ON THE ANATOMY OF THE INDIAN DARTER. [Feb 7> 

no further flexion is possible. The 8th vertebra is thus so articulated 
with the 7tli anteriorly and the 9tli posteriorly as to allow it, when 
the neck is flexed, to be nearly at right angles to the rest of the 
neck, the two portions of which, though parallel, are then at different 
horizons, something like the two bars of a parallel ruler (vide diagram, 
p. 211, fig. 1). When the neck is bent in this Z-shaped form, any 
opening out of the anterior angular bend by the action of the' 
anterior neck-muscles causes the anterior moiety of the neck to 
suddenly shoot out, thus causing a corresponding protrusion of the 
head and beak (diagram, fig. 2). By the flexion of the 6th on the 
7th, and of the 9th on the 10th, cervical vertebrae, the curve of the 
neck is increased — the articulations of the 8th vertebra still forming 
the double hinge round which motion takes place — and the impaling 
action correspondingly augmented. This protrusion, though only 
for a short distance, is so violent as to effectually "strike " the fish 
which the bird is pursuing. 

The bending-back of the neck is effected, partly by the action of 
the longus colli posterior, partly by a special pair of closely approxi- 
mated muscles, situated anteriorly along the middle line of the neck, 
which arise close together from the hsemapophysial spine of the 
11th cervical vertebra, near its anterior articular end, and are in- 
serted into the sides of the anterior half of the 6th cervical. 

The opening-out, on the other hand, of the genu formed by 
the 7th and 8th cervicals — by which, as already described, the 
impaling action is produced — is caused by the contraction of the tho- 
racically very powerful longiis colli anterior. The main tendon of 
this is inserted on the long, backwardly-directed hsemapophysis of 
the 8th cervical, playing round the doubly-grooved surface of the 
inferior arch formed by the hsemapophyses of the 9th cervical, to 
which vertebra, as well as to the 10th, it gives off much smaller ten- 
dinous slips. 

It is obvious that considerable advantage is gained by the action 
in question, the rapid protrusion of the narrow neck and head over 
a small space by this mechanism necessitating a less amount of 
exertion than would a similar movement of the whole bird over the 
same space, and being equally efficacious in striking the prey. The 
whole mechanism, it may be observed, exists in a less developed form 
in the neck of the Herons, Cormorants,&c.; and it requires but a slight 
modification of the arrangement of these parts in those birds — none 
of which, so far as I know, impale their prey like the Darters — to 
bring about the perfect adaptation of these structures to a newly 
acquired mode of feeding. 



<0i^^. 




p. Z S..1882.Pl.Vni 



u 




A S Foord dd.et iith . 



NEW CORALS FROM MADEIRA . 



IVtntem Bros imp . 



1882.] PROF. DUNCAN ON CORALS FROM MADEIRA. 213 



3. On some Recent Corals from Madeira. By Prof. P. 
Martin Duncan, M.B. (Lond.), F.R.S., Pres. Royal 
Micros. Soc, &c. (Communicated by the Secretary.) 

[Eeceived January 19, 1882.] 

(Plate VIII.) 

In the autumn of 1881, Mr. J. Y. Johnson, of Madeira, sent me 
a small collection of Corals which he had obtained, from a few 
fathoms depth, in the sea off Funchal and other places near the 
island. Some of the specimens were adherent by their bases to a 
small species of oyster, and others to the bases of Gorgonidse. As 
the collection has species in it representing the Mediterranean, Flori- 
dan, and North-Atlantic deep-sea coral-faunas, I thought that its 
description would be of some importance. The new species are 
three in number; and two of them are very interesting. One, Cerato- 
trochus johnsoni, belongs to a genus which has a recent species on 
the American side of the Atlantic and fossil forms in the Mediter- 
ranean Pliocene and Miocene and in the Australian Miocene strata. 
Another, Caryophyllia endothecata, reveals a decided interseptal 
structure like the endotheca of the family Astrseidse. 

Description of the Bj^eeies, and Remarks, 
MADREPORARIA. 
Section APOBOSA. 
Family Turbinoliid^. 
Subfamily Caryophyllince. 
Genus Caryophyllia, Milne-Edwards & Haime. 
This genus and its divisions were noticed at some length in the 
description of the Madreporaria dredged up during the expedition 
of H.M.S. 'Porcupine,' published in the 'Transactions' of the 
Society, vol. viii. pt. v. 1873. It is not necessary, therefore, to 
recapitulate, and especially as there has been no increase of know- 
ledge on the subject of any importance since that date. 

There are some fine specimens from Madeira of a species of Caryo- 
phyllia which was not obtained during the ' Porcupine ' expedition, 
but which is a very well-known Mediterranean form. The specimens 
came up in deep water off Madeira, attached to a valve of Ostrea 
cochlea, which, in its turn, rested upon a hexactinelUd sponge. 
One specimen was mature ; a second was smaller ; and there were two 
very small individuals. The larger specimen has the parts above the 
base perfect ; but C/iowa-borings have destroyed the broad base of 
attachment. 



214 PROF. p. MARTIN DUNCAN ON [Feb. 7, 

CaryophyllicB with more than four perfect cycles of septa. 

Caryophyllia cyathus, Lamarck, Svst. des Anim. sans vertfeb,, 
1801. 

The corallum is tall, slightly bent, subturbinate, slightly com- 
pressed, and has a base much narrower than the calicular opening. 
The costas are only distinct for a short distance from the calice; and 
then they become flat and only occasionally visible, being separated 
by indistinct lines and ornamented by numerous small granules 
which are placed across the costse. The whole surface is, as it were, 
shining and varnished-looking ; near the base the costse are not 
visible, but the granulations and varnished appearance prevail. 

The calice is longer than broad, elliptical in outline, very deep 
centrally and shallow at the margins. Some of the septa are 
slightly exsert, but they do not project much higher than the others; 
and this is the case with the primaries and other large septa which 
have no pali before them. The septa are close, stout, and unequal, 
and there is but little space between them ; they are rounded at 
their upper edge and towards the columella ; they are straighter and 
some are rather large internally. There are many septa of the fifth 
cycle. 

The columella is deeply sunken, fasciculate, elliptical in outline, 
rounded above, and composed of eleven processes well separated. 
The pali are higher than the columella, stout, and as large as the 
ends of the septa to which they belong, and from which they are 
well separated above. There are eighteen of them ; and they are 
separated by a space from the columella. 

The height of the coral is 1^ inch, and the length of the calice 
I inch, its breadth being -j^ inch. 

This description corresponds specifically with that of MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime in their Hist. Nat. des Corall. vol. ii. 
p. 13. The columella, however, has fewer processes ; but it is found 
that there is much variation in that structure in specimens from 
the Mediterranean, some of which have the same number as the 
Madeiran form. 

A smaller specimen has a widely open calice, the columella deeply 
seated, and the septa barely exsert. The columella is made up of 
about five twisted processes. The pali are thin, separate, and eighteen 
in number ; they have granules with little cup-shaped cavities in 
them, and are much higher than the columella, from which they are 
well separated above. They are wavy at the edges. The septa, 
thin and not over close, are wavy here and there at their inner edge, 
and are granular at the sides. 

The calice is more circular than that of the larger form ; and the 
body is shorter. Height | inch. 

This form can be comprehended by studying sections of larger 
and mature forms made near their bases. There the granular 
and more or less distant septa hardly seem possibly to belong to a 
coral which could develop such a close-set septal arrangement as 
is seen above. 



1882.]. CORALS FROM MADEIRA. 215 

Both these specimens came from oflf the same shell. 

A smaller individual of this species presents the peculiar ornamen- 
tation of the costse near the calice and the shining epitheca. It is 
cylindrical in shape, and is just beginning to curve at the top ; and 
it is fixed, by a base with two small offshoots, within the hollow of 
the valve of a shell. The calice is widely open, but has sharp 
margins and very slender and somewhat exsert and tolerably bent 
primary and secondary septa. 

The primaries and secondaries are nearly equal; the tertiaries are 
much smaller; and the fourth and fifth orders of the fourth cycle of 
septa are very small. The larger septa are wavy within, very slender, 
and well separated. 

The columella occupies considerable space, and is composed of 
about eight twisted band-like lamellae, which are separate. 

The pali are very small, and closely resemble the trabeculse of the 
collumella ; but their union low down with the septa can sometimes 
be seen. They are before the second and third orders of septa. 
The corallum is excessively slender and transparent. 

Height of the coral -^^ inch. 

At the base of the specimen just described, and within the same 
valve of a shell, is a very minute coral, which appears to be a still 
smaller form of Caryophyllia cyathus. It has a circular calice, six 
primary and six smaller or secondary septa ; and there are twelve 
very small rudiments of the tertiary cycle. The larger septa are 
slightly enlarged at their inner ends; and there are no pah, the 
columellary trabeculae being very small and apparently in one little 
bundle. 

It is evident from the study of these specimens that the peculiar 
shining costal covering which has been termed a pellicular epitheca, 
but which does not appear to be a true outer thecal covering, is 
always present. The thickness of tlie septa and their crowded 
state seen in the adults is a matter of growth ; and it is clear that 
the first stage of the coral shows three cycles of septa, the tertiary 
being rudimentary, and that in a more advanced stage there are four 
perfect cycles. The full number of septa is obtained during adult 
age ; and the whole of the calcareous tissues increase then in thick- 
ness. 

In examining some pieces of worn coral, probably originally form- 
ing part of a large Bendrophyllia, I found a small Caryophyllia cya- 
thus. It has the peculiar epitheca, and is just in advance of the 
smallest specimen just noticed, so far as its growth is concerned. 

There are four cycles of septa in some of the systems, and in the 
others only three. The columella is a twisted piece of tissue ; and 
the pali are small but distinct and are before the secondaries. 

Hence the coral with three cycles of septa in its early stage has 
no pali ; they appear before the secondaries a little later, and subse- 
quently before the tertiary ; and this takes place when the fourth 
and fifth orders of septa are complete in a system. Then pali are 
developed before a higher order and eighteen result. The pali are 
deep in the calice, but project upwards ; and they send processes 



216 PROF. p. MARTIN DUNCAN ON [Feb. 7, 

inwards to join the twisted trabeculse of the columella. The septa 
are marked low down by oblique rows of granules; but there is not a 
trace of any endotheca. 

Caryophyllia clavus, Scacchi, var. tincta. 

The common British shallow-water coral is represented by a form 
at Madeira which cannot be separated from it specifically. Indeed 
it seems to be a simple variety, haring a small columella, fewer 
septa, smaller pali ; and the tint of the columella is pearly white, 
whilst that of the septa and costse is reddish brown. The British 
variety smithi of Stokes is white, and is found below tide-mark in 
Devonshire. 

The corallum is short, with a broad incrusting base, an ephitheca 
reaching far towards the margin ; there are well-developed granular 
costse above the epitheca, some projecting, and four complete cycles 
of septa with some orders of the fifth. The calice is deep, slightly 
elliptical in outline; and the columella is small, elongate and narrow, 
and is formed of a few tall twisted ribbon-shaped processes. The 
primary septa are exsert ; and the secondaries are less so. The pali 
are small, and are before the third cycle of septa. 

The granulation of the sides of the septa is in arched rows, one 
above the other ; and the lateral projection of the granules from the 
free inner ends of the septa is decided. 

Length of the calice ^ inch. 

Subdivision CaryophyllijE endothecat^e. 

Amongst this collection of corals from Madeira is one which, 
whilst it presents all the characters of the genus Caryophyllia, pos- 
sesses a distinct endotheca between its septa, occludhig more or less 
the interseptal loculi here and there. 

It is a most important form, especially when it is considered in 
relation to Asterosmilia, a genus of Trochocyathacese or Caryo- 
phyllise with a double row of pali, and possessing endothecal dis- 
sepiments ; for the possession of an endotheca has been considered 
to be of sufficient classificatory value to place genera with and 
without it in different families. 

I propose including the new form amongst the species of Caryo- 
phyllia, giving it a subgeneric position. 

Caryophyllia endothecata, sp. nov. (Plate VIII. figs. 1-4.) 

The coral is small, with a broad flat base, from which rises a more 
or less cylindrical body slightly constricted above the base, and 
narrowed and reentering at the calicular margin somewhat. 

The caUce is circular in outline, rather shallow near the margins, 
but much deeper at the columella, which consists of four or five dis- 
tinct nodules. The septa are unequal, well apart, slightly exsert 
according to the order, and dip down, not reaching the columella. 
They are thin, slightly wavy in some instances ; and the size of the 
primaries and secondaries disthiguishes them. There are four 
cycles of septa in five systems and in one half of the sixth ; but in 



1882.] CORALS FROM MADEIRA. 217 

the other half the higher orders are not developed. The pali follow 
the ordinary rule, and are before the tertiary septa in all systems 
where the higher orders are fully developed ; and consequently there 
are eleven long, narrow, wavy, very distinct, and well-developed 
pali. 

There is a decided endotheca just within the margin, whose edge 
is somewhat inverted ; and it covers some of the pali and occludes 
several interseptal loculi. In other parts dissepiments may be seen 
stretching between the septa. The costse are numerous at the base, 
and are in hues of granules or in faint ridges. Near the calice the 
costse of the larger septa are the most projecting; and all are marked 
with granules, which, in some instances, assume a serpentine arrange- 
ment. There are faint traces of a pellicular epitheca. 

Height of coral -^^ inch, length of calice -^-^ inch. 

From Madeira. 

Subfamily Trochocyathacece. 

Genus Paracyathus, Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1848. 

Paracyathtjs striattjs, Philippi, sp. 

Several specimens of this widely-distributed form, with unlobed 
pali and well-developed costse, are from Madeira. The species is 
common in the Mediterranean and in the Caribbean Sea. 

Subfamily Turbinolince. 

There are four specimens of a simple coral in the collection from 
Madeira, which were dredged at a depth of 30 fathoms in Funchal 
Bay ; and they represent three stages of the growth of the species. 

Genus Ceratotrochus, Milne-Edwards & Jules Haime, 1848. 
Ceratotrochtjs johnsoni, sp. nov. (Plate VIII. figs. 5-8.) 
The coral is horn-shaped, bent, and has several growth-rings on 
it ; it was attached by a narrow circular base, which has broken 
from its support. The cahce is wider than the rest of the body, is 
almost circular in outline, and its marginal wall is thin. The axial 
space is wide and deep ; the septa are thin, wide apart, and rather 
bent ; they are unequal, very slightly exsert, and do not reach far into 
the calice except in the instance of the larger ones. There are 
several quite rudimentary septa in some parts of the calice ; but 
they correspond to costse which are much larger in every respect. 
Omitting these, the septa are twenty-seven in number, and counting 
them, are forty-four in all. The arrangement in cycles is irregular ; 
and there appear to be five primaries only. The margin between 
the septa has a festooned edge ; and the interseptal spaces are 
wide. It is at the lowest point of the concavity of the festoon that 
the minute septa arise. The tertiary septa are smaller than the 
secondaries, and they project well from the wall and reach down 
into the depths of the calice. The septa are rounded above ; their 
edge is rather straight within ; and they are sometimes bent ; and 



218 PROF. p. MARTIN DUNCAN ON [Feb. 7, 

their sides are oruamented with very decided elevations and depres- 
sions, forming series of close arches, the convexity being upwards 
and slightly inwards. The small size of the origin of the septa from 
the broad costfe is sometimes evident. 

The columella is small and very deeply situate, and is formed by 
four or five lax trabeculse, which imite with some of the septal ends. 

The costae differ considerably near the base and close to the 
calice. Near the base they are not numerous ; and in some parts 
they are slightly developed, subequal or alternately large and small, 
distinct, and either subcristiform or marked with a row of long, 
narrow, flat, separate elevations or granules, whilst in others they 
are alternately large and small, and the intercostal tissue is granu- 
lar. In the middle of the outside of the coral the costae are larger, 
subequal, and subcristiform, thin and wavy, and alternately broader, 
flatter, and granular. Close to the calice they become more nume- 
rous, cristiform, wavy and oblique, and subequal, the intercostal 
areas being minutely granular. 

The fractured base shows a thick wall, a columellary tissue, and 
twelve irregular and short septa. 

The length of the coral is |- inch, and the length of the calice is 
^ inch. 

A second and smaller specimen with the same external shape and 
prevailing decided growth-rings, is younger than that just described. 
The septa have all the characteristics of those of the first specimen; 
but the rudimentary ones are absent ; their costae exist however. 

There are not three complete cycles; and the interseptal loculi are 
very broad. 

The columella is deeply seated, and is formed by tissue, coming 
irregularly from the ends of some septa. The rough ridges of the 
sides of the septa are very evident. 

The costae are very distinct, but, as in the other specimen, small ; 
and their characteristic is their narrow wavy crest near the calice, 
and their broader and granular nature near the base. 

The fractured base shows nine septa, some primaries and the 
others secondaries ; but it is not possible to define them. 

Height of the coral | inch, length of the calice rather less than 
^ inch. 

The other two specimens are young, and their curved form has 
only just commenced; they have three perfect cycles of septa, 
and a small columella deeply seated. The costae of one are broadly 
granular and subequal near the base ; and near the calice they become 
shorter, with a tendency to a wavy cristiform shape here and there. 
In the other the costse are decidedly wavy and crested near the calice 
and lower down near a growth-ring, and then to the very base. In 
one instance the base has become incrusted by a Bryozoau. 

Height of coral -^-^ inch. 

As regards the negative characters, it may be said that there are 
no pali, and that the endotheca is deficient ; moreover the epitheca is 
only faintly indicated in a young form. The columella is smaller 
than in the species typical of tlie genus. The positive characters 



1882.] CORALS FROM MADEIRA. 219 

are the costal ornamentation and distribution, the large interseptal 
loculi, the small columella, and the very marked curved ridges on 
the sides of the septal laminae. 

Family Oculinid^. 
Subfamily Stylopliorince. 
Genus Madracis. 
Madracis asperula, Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, 1850. 

This well-known Madeiran coral is in the collection ; and the 
speciman shows calices with eight, nine, and ten septa. 

The range of the species is considerable ; for it was found by 
Pourtales on the other side of the Atlantic. 

Subfamily Oculinacece. 
Genus Amphihelia, Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, 1849. 
Amphihelia oculata, Linn. sp. 
A small fragment of this coral was found with one of a variety of 

Amphihelia ramea, Sars. 

Family Astr^id^e. 

Subfamily Cladocoracece. 

Genus Cladocora, Ehrenberg, 1834. 

Cladocora debilis, Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, 1849. 

Specimens of this common Madeiran coral were sent by Mr. 

Johnson, and do not present any new points of interest. 

Section PERFORATA. 

Family Madreporid^. 

Subfamily EupsammincB. 

Genus Balanophyllia, Searles Wood. 

Balanophyllia brevis, sp. nov. (Plate VIII. figs. 9-12.) 

The corallum is short, compressed in the direction of its length 
somewhat, with an eUiptical deep calice, a broad, flat, attached base, 
and a small, very deeply-seated, elongate trabecular columella, flat 
on its surface, and united to the septa by six small processes. The 
epitheca is dense, reaches close up to the calicular margin, and 
ends there in a definite linear ridge. The septa are in six systems ; and 
in four of them there are five cycles, whilst in the others there are 
three cycles and one half of the fourth, the septa of the higher order 
being developed between the primary and tertiary septa only. The 
laminae are stout, very granular, and subspinulose, and more ragged, 
even on the edges, curved above, where they occupy much space 
on the edge of the calice, and dipping down suddenly on all sides of 
the large, elongate, and deep axial space. The septa are very 



220 PROF. DUNCAN ON CORALS FROM MADEIRA. [Feb. 7, 

unequal in length and size. This produces a festooning of the margin 
of the cahce, the primaries being the highest and the septa next to 
them only slightly lower. The secondaries are high, but lower 
than the primaries ; and they have a higher order of septa next to 
them just below their elevation. The lowest point of the cahcular 
edge is over the tertiary septa, which are the smallest. The six 
primary septa are well developed and are free \ and do not reach 
the columella, but pass lower by its side to the base. The secon- 
daries of four systems are next in size to the primaries and are free 
at their inner ends and straight ; but in two systems, where the 
fourth cycle is incomplete, they unite with a process of the septa 
placed next to the primaries by a process which reaches, after junc- 
tion, a radiating projection of the columella. 

The tertiary septa are the smallest and are free, being included in 
the loops formed by the higher septa in their junction with each 
other and the columella. 

The septa of the fourth and fifth orders, in four of the systems, 
unite in front of the tertiary septa ; and thence a process passes in 
front of the secondary to reach one from the columella. These 
processes are continuations of the septal edges, and also of columel- 
lary structure, and are stout and well separated. 

The costse are visible at the margin before they are covered with 
the epitheca. They are very sharply granular and unequal. 

The tint of the coral is brownish red, the columella being white. 

Height of the coral i inch, length of calice not quite i\ inch, 
breadth of calice \ inch, length of base ^ inch. 

Locality. Madeira. 

The smaller specimen has the epitheca more distant from the 
calicular edge, a more defined columella ornamented with a few 
spiny granules on its surface, the same number of septa in the four 
systems, and a large deep axial space. 

This small Balanophyllian has its specific characters well marked, 
and has not hitherto been noticed. It is probably a young form ; 
and certainly, although it has the characters of the genus, the walls 
are imperforate. Probably it is the growth of the coral that de- 
cides this. 

List of the Corals dredged from Madeira. 



Caryophyllia cyathus, Lamarck. 

clavus, Scacchi. 

endothecata, sp. nov. 



Madracis asperula, Edw. & Haime. 
Amphihelia oculata, Linn. sp. 
raniea, var., Sars. 



Paracyathus striatus, Philippi, sp. ' Cladocora debilis., Edw. & Haime. 
Ceratotrochus joknsoni, sp. nov. | Balanopliyllia brevis, sp. nov. 

The presence of Caryphyllia cyathus and Caryphyllia clavus in 
the sea of Madeira was almost to be expected, and that of Para- 
cyathus striatus also, they all being Mediterranean forms and Atlantic 
also. The Madracis is found also on the American side of the 

' In one instance there is a faint union with the columella. 



P.Z.S 1882 Pl.IX 




Bcrjeau lith 



Hanhai-L.imp 



BPECIES OF CORALLflDyE 



1882.] MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLIID^. 221 

Atlantic. The AmphihelicB are found in the North Atlantic and 
Florida seas, besides off Madeira ; but Cladocora debilis appears to 
be a local species. The Balanophyllia is new, and has no definite 
alliances. Ceratotrochus johnsoni is a remarkable form of a genus 
of very great distribution ; and Caryophyllia endothecata is so im- 
portant a coral that I shall venture to write a separate memoir 
about its bearings on classification. 

EXPLANATION OP PLATE VHI. 

Fig. 1. Caryophyllia endothecata, p. 216, natural size. 

2. , the calice, magnified, 

3. , interseptal lociili, magnified. 

4. , eostEe, magnified. 

5. Ceratotrochus johnsoni, p. 217, natural size. 

6. , a second specimen, natural size. 

7. , the calice, magnified. 

8. , the costffi, magnified. 

9. Balanophyllia brevis, p. 219, natural size. 

10. , magnified. 

ll. , calice, magnified. 

12. , diagram of the septal arrangement. 



On the Arrangement of the Coralliidce, with Descriptions 
of new or rare Species. By Stuart O. Ridley, M.A.^ 
F.L.S., &c., Assistant in the Zoological Department, 
British Museum. (Communicated by Dr. Gtunther, 
V.P.Z.S.) 

[Eeceived January 23, 1882.] 
(Plate IX.) 

The small group of species which has been thought worthy of 
separation from the rest of its Alcyonarian allies as a distinct family 
under the name Corallidce (more correctly Coralliida), is chiefly 
remarkable in its structural characters for possessing a continuous 
stony axis, covered by only a thin cortical layer of a softer spicuH- 
ferous material, into which the polypes are retractile. Its best claim 
to general notice lies in the fact that the Precious Coral of commerce 
{Corallium ruhrum, Costa, rectius nohile, Pallas) is one of the only 
three species hitherto known to exist in the seas of the present time 
which have been included in it. The other two species are scarcely 
known, even to students of the group. Thus but one specimen of the 
species described by Dana (U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. vii. p. 64 1, pi. Ix. 
fig. 1) under the name of Corallium secundum seems to have ever 
been described ; and but one specimen of the third species, described 
by the late Dr. Gray (P. Z. S. 1860, p. 393, Rad. pl. xviii.) under 
the name of Corallium (subsequently altered to Hemicorallium) 
johnsoni, was obtained in the first instance, and I know of no other 
authentic specimen. The original specimen of this species, how- 
ever, IS fortunately preserved in the national collection; that of 



222 MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALHID^. [Feb. 7, 

C secundum is no doubt in America, in company with the other 
specimens obtained at the same time by the United-States Exploring 
Expedition. The Red Coral (C7. nobile) occurs in the Mediterranean, 
and among the islands (e. g. Cape-Yerd Islands, see Wyville 
Thomson, Voy. ' Challenger,' Atlantic, i. p. 76) lying off the N.W. 
coast of Africa ; it occurs nowhere^ else, so far as I have been able 
to discover, G. secundum is recorded with doubt as from the Sand- 
wich Islands ; it was probably obtained in the Pacific Ocean at any 
rate ; O.johnsoni was obtained from Madeira. In the present paper 
is described a fourth species, and one which is probably not new, 
belonging to this remarkable and beautiful family : the one was 
obtained from the island of Mauritius, and is now in the collection 
at the British Museum ; the other is stated to come from Japan, and 
will shortly be incorporated with the same collection. 

Arrangement of the Family. — The only attempt which has been 
made at classifying the species is that of Dr. Gray in a Note read 
before this Society, and published in its 'Proceedings' for 1867 
(p. 125), and somewhat amplified in 'Catalogue of Lithophytes or 
Stony Corals' (1870), p. 22, Dr. Gray divided the family and the 
original single genus CoralUum into 3 genera, based mainly ou the 
distribution of the "polypes" (meaning polype-cells, verrucse of 
Verrill) on the branches, viz. : — 

(1) CoralUum, with the verrucas slightly elevated from the cortex 
and scattered on all sides of the branches (inch C. nobile). 

(2) Pleurocorallium, branching in a single plane ; the verrucas 
shghtly raised, confined to one surface, and mostly placed on small 
branches chiefly found near the edges of the main branches (incl. 
C. secundum, Dana). 

(3) Hemicorallium. The verrucee prominent, all occurring on one 
side of the branches (incl. C.johnsoni, G-ray). 

With regard to this arrangment, it seems well to point out that 
the characters on which it is founded appeal entirely to the naked 
eye. In the allied members of the same group, the Alcyonaria, 
Prof. KoUiker (see ' Icones Histiologicse') and Verrill (see various 
papers in the Proc. Essex Institute, Trans. Connecticut Academy, 
American Journal of Science, &c.) have shown good reasons for 
the belief that the majority of those characters, such as colour, 
manner of branching, presence or absence of anastomosis between 
branches, to which alone those writers can appeal who do not 
make use of a microscope in their researches, must be regarded 
as usually of no more than secondary importance in the estimation 
of the mutual affinities of the different subdivisions and species of this 
group. From personal study I can testify to the truth of this principle 
in the case of the MelitkceidcB, which are probably the nearest allies 
of this family. In them anastomosis of branches may be simply a 
varietal circumstance ; coloration of the internal parts is open to the 
same remark, and external coloration is far more frequently so ; the 
manner of branching is much the same in all ; so that, for classifi- 

' It is found fossil in the Upper Pliocene and Quaternary deposits of South 
Italy, cf. Seguenza, Atti Ac. Line. (3) Mem. sc. fis. mat. nat. iii. pp. 331, 373. 



1882.] MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLTID^. 223 

cation, recourse has to be had mainly to the characters of the spicula 
and of the verrucae. 

The want of good series of individuals of any known species of 
CoralliidcB except C. nobile is an obstacle to the full discussion of 
the natural relations of the different forms ; a few facts only can be 
noted at present as bearing on the subject. Beginning with the 
comparatively common Corallium nobile, Pallas (rubrum, Costa) 
we find a cylindrical axis, usually branching seldom, but dicho- 
tomously and most commonly in an arborescent manner, which, 
though tending towards growth in one plane, yet almost invariably is 
actually in various planes ; the cortex quite conceals any inequalities 
of the surface ; and the verrucae^ (or calicles) project dome-like from 
all sides of the branches. Variations are frequent, especially in mode 
of growth ; but these are by far the commonest characters of the 
species. The colour of the axis varies not uncommonly from crimson 
to pale red, rarely to yellow, and more rarely to white ; the spicules 
are of one type, viz. a hexahedral oblong form, the angles being 
formed by broad truncate but microtuberculate tubercles, which 
preserve the chief features of their characteristic form throughout 
all varieties of the external form of the coral. (Cf, Lacaze-Duthiers, 
Hist. Nat. Corail, p. 70 — " toutefois en recherchant bien, on finit par 
decouvrir uue forme qui, resumant toutes les autres, pent etre regardee 
comme la type.") 

Corallium {Hemicorallium, Gr &j) joAnsoni, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 393, 
Radiata, pi. xviii., differs in several particulars from the former 
species, besides the branching essentially in one plane, the strictly 
anterior position of the verrucae, and their considerable protrusion 
from the surface, which are the chief points insisted on by Dr. Gray. 
Thus the cream-coloured cortex is about '5 mm. thick, about twice 
the thickness which it has in C. nobile ; on the terminal branches 
the calicles rise abruptly from the surface, are truncate above, and 
measure 1-5 to 2 mm. in average diameter. The spicules have not 
hitherto been described; and their characters, in the one case, are so 
remarkable, and have such an important bearing on the afl&nities of 
both the genus and family to which the species belongs, that I now 
proceed to describe them. 

Spicules of two kinds : — (i.) cylindrical, octoradiate, having a short 
stout shaft terminated at each end by a tubercle ; two pairs of tubercles 
also project from each end of the shaft, in the same plane as the 
terminal ones, but at right angles to its long axis ; on the anterior 
side (reckoning the two pairs of tubercles just mentioned as lateral) 
a tubercle projects at right angles to the long axis of the shaft, and 
also to the plane in which the lateral tubercles lie ; on the posterior 
side a similar tubercle is similarly placed, but at the opposite end of 
the spicule ; the ends of the short, broad, truncate tubercle are micro- 
tuberculate with few, sharp, smaller tubercles ; size '08 by '053 mm.: 
this form is exactly similar to that of C. nobile, but is slightly 
smaller. Spicule no. ii. bilobate, having the form of a pair of 

^ I thiuk it best to adopt Verrill's term for those parts of the cortex which 
are specialized for the reception of the polypes. 



224 MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLIID^E. [Feb. 7, 

opera-glasses, or of two short globose bottles united by their sides ; 
consists of two globose masses, often somewhat flattened at distal 
end, 'separated by a more or less deep constriction, their surface 
microtuberculate ; to the proximal extremity of each is attached a 
short handle-like process, of variable shape, bearing several long 
tubercles, and about one third the length of the larger lobes ; average 
maximum size '053 mm. long by -053 mm. across the two lobes; 
thickness of lobes, antero-posteriorly, about "044 mm. 

The thickness of the cortex appears to be correlated with the 
smoothness of the hard axis in the stem (higher up this is distinctly 
striated) ; for in the other species of Hemicoralliutn, H. secundum, the 
thinner cortex appears to be associated with a striated stem. The 
explanation (physiological) appears to be that the coenosarcal canals, 
which would have grooved the surface of the axis, find sufficient 
protection in the cortex when this is thick. 

Turning to C. {Pleurocorallium, Gray) secundum, Dana (U.S. 
Expl. Exp., Zoophytes, vol. vii. p. 641, Atlas, Zooph. pi. Ix. fig. 1), 
we find again the mode of branching to be substantially that in one 
plane ; here too the polypes are said to be confined to the front or 
sides of the branches, but to be borne mostly on small branchlets or 
pinnae scattered over the edges and front of the main branches — an 
arrangement differing from that of both the preceding forms, but 
agreeing with that to be described below in the new species C. stylas- 
teroides, with which this species further agrees in the growth in one 
plane. Unfortunately the spicular characters are unknown ; but, 
from resemblances which have been found to exist between this and 
a form described below as a variety of it and agreeing in all generi- 
cally important characters with HemicoralHum johnsoni, I have little 
doubt of its similar generic identity with that species : therefore one 
of the genera Pleurocorallium and HemicoralHum must give way, 
and the former must stand, having precedence in description. 

HemicoralHum therefore = Pleurocorallium ; and HemicoralHum 
johnsoni = Pleurocorallium johnsoni. 

Looking at the relations of C. nobile to the species described 
below as new under the name of G. stylasteroides, we find a thin 
cortex in both, a low polype-verruca, and a spicule differing only in 
size ; and it is only in those characters which, as I have stated, I 
beUeve to be less essential in the classification of this Order, viz. 
mode of branching, colour, and form of axis {i. e. cylindrical or 
oblong in section), that we find great differences ; and the first two 
of these have been already seen to vary widely in C. rubrum, and in 
their variation to approximate that species to C stylasteroides. 

No other recent species has been described. 

The only other species with which I am acquainted are the fossil 
forms C. pallidum, Michelin (Iconogr. Zoophytol. p. 16, pi. xv. fig. 9), 
from the Miocene of Italy and Tertiaries of Scinde, and C. beckii, 
M.-Edw. and Haime (Distr. meth. polyp, palseoz. p. 188), from 
the White Chalk of Faxoe. The former is distinguished from our 
species by having the method of branching of C. nobile, viz. cylin- 
drical branches given off at considerable intervals ; and it appears to 



1882.] MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLIID^. 225 

belong to Corallium s. sir., and is perhaps identical with C. nohile 
(see below, p. 232). In C. beckii the branches anastomose and are 
terminally dilated, both of which are characters quite wanting (as 
constant characters) in C. nobile as in all other known species ; its 
systematic position in the family is quite uncertain. ^, 

I will now proceed to describe, first, the new species, and next the 
form which I have said is probably distinct, and then give a table 
showing the arrangement which these additions to our knowledge 
seem to render necessary. I will conclude with some remarks on 
the family and its allies, and some further notes on the fossil 
forms. 

Corallium stylasteroides, sp. nov. (Plate IX. figs. 1-4). 

Normally branching in one plane. Stem stout, irregular in 
transverse section. Branching luxuriant, apparently normally dicho- 
tomous, but subject to considerable variation. Branches tortuous, 
decidedly compressed laterally in the case of all but the peripheral 
members, arising from the antero-lateral rather than the postero- 
lateral aspects of the stem or branches from which they may be 
derived, diminishing gradually in thickness towards the peripheral 
part. A few small branchlets are scattered on sides of the larger 
branches irregularly, and are, together with the terminal branchlets, 
generally subclavate in form, consisting of a slightly contracted basal 
portion and an enlarged, pointed, and polyhedric terminal portion. 
Posterior aspect of main branches very convex, of lesser branches less 
so. Axis of corallum hard, compact, but perforated by a few canals 
(normal, or due to parasites?) of about 1 mm. diameter, which 
issue distally at various points on the lateral aspects of the branches, 
the openings being often covered by a curved lamina of hard 
material ; colour pure white throughout. 

Longitudinal strise of surface fine, about four to 1 mm. ; grooves for 
polypes generally with a narrow raised lip on each side; length of 
grooves 1-5 to 2 mm. long (in direction of branches) by about '75 mm. 
broad, and about '5 mm. deep in the centre, which consists of a smooth- 
walled hemispherical pit. Surface of hard axis covered by a very thin 
spicular cortex, which does not conceal the subjacent strife ; it is 
beset with minute projecting points (visible only with the aid of a 
lens) arranged along the striae of the hard axis ; colour of cortex 
extremely pale orange. Verrucse placed in the grooves above men- 
tioned, not projecting beyond their margins, or in slight depressions 
distributed over all parts of the corallum, but most abundantly 
on the lateral aspects of the main branches, and on the small ter- 
minal and lateral projecting branchlets ; their peripheral part con- 
sists of a pale pink collar, slightly darker than the general crust ; the 
eight valves are very pale yellow in colour, actual diameter about 
•75 mm. 

Spicules of cortex of one kind only, viz. small, cyhndrical, with 
one terminal tubercle at each end, and a whorl of 3 tubercles sur- 
rounding each end, and leaving a slight median space usually bare 
of tubercles ; the tubercles are broad and truncate, the ends bearing 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XV. 15 



226 MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLIIDyG. [Feb. 7, 

several smaller angular tubercles which point outwards ; size '053 to 
•058 mm. long by -OSo mm. broad (including the tubercles); shaft, 
excluding tubercles, about "02 mm. broad. 

Hah. Mauritius, 75 fathoms. 

This species is based on a single dry specimen very finely preserved, 
obtained recently by the British Museum from a collector in Mauri- 
tius, Mr. V. De Robillard, together with some remarkably fine 
specimens of species of Gorgoniidce. Its chief larger measurements 
are : — Main diameter of common stem ' 1 1 mm. ; largest branch — 
antero-posterior diameter at base 10 mm., lateral diameter 7 mm. ; 
at 50 mm. from origin the same diameters are 7 mm. and 5 mm. 
respectively. Maximum transverse breadth of the whole corallum 
135 mm., maximum height 105 mm. 

The species differs from all to which names have been hitherto 
assigned in the elaborateness and peculiarities of its method of 
branching, with the exception of a specimen which was assigned by 
Dr. Gray (P. Z. S. 1867, p. 126) to his Hemicorallium johnsoni, 
and which then belonged to the Liverpool Free Museum. This 
specimen, differing as it does from the typical example of that 
species in the collection of the British Museum in its slender and 
strongly arborescent habit, appears to me to be entirely distinct from 
Dr. Gray's species, a fact which is apparently meant to be indicated 
by his subsequent statement (Cat. Lithophytes, p. 24) that the 
so-called animal of his figure is a fleshy Alcyonoid parasitic on a 
stony coral. 

The present species agrees in the mode of branching in one plane 
with C. secundum, Dana (U.S. Expl. Exped., Zoophytes (vii.), p. 641, 
|)1. Ix. fig. 1), and also in the fact that many of the polypes are 
borne on small lateral branchlets ; but differs from it (judging by 
the description) in having polypes on the posterior as well as the 
anterior surface, as also in the very pale pinkish colour of the cortex 
(that of G. secundum being scarlet), and the pure white of the hard axis 
(that of G. secundum being white and red). The small points which 
project from the cortex in the lines of Dana's strise are, perhaps, 
represented by the small dots represented in Dana's enlarged figure 
of a polype with adjacent cortex ; but these may just as well he pits 
as dots, according to the figure. Nothing is known of the spicules 
of C. secundum ; but, as we have seen above, that species must be 
referred to the genus Pleurocorallium. Those of C. stylasteroides 
differ from those of the white variety of C. nobile only in their 
size, which is about one third less than that of the latter ; but the 
excavations for the verrucse (Plate IX. fig. 3), and the thinness of 
the cortex, are amply sufficient to prevent its being confounded with 
that form. The apparent anastomosis between some of the branches 
is due to fracture and subsequent adherence of the broken pieces 
to the remainder of the corallum, the reunited pieces having 
apparently contrived to live. 

With regard to the axial tubes of 1 mm. diameter, alluded to in 
my diagnosis in uncertainty as to their import, they may possibly 
^ Broken off from the actual base. 



1882.] MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALHIDiE. 227 

be due to the same causes as those which produce certaia per- 
forations, open at both ends, in the base of some of the small 
branches, and which are seen in parts forming passages covered in 
by a thin lamina of hard matter. The latter resemble so much the 
passages which are seen among the branches of many Strjlasteridae, 
and which are said (see Moseley, Report on Corals of the ' Chal- 
lenger ' Expedition, p. 78) in this case to be produced by the growth 
of the coral over an intruding Aphroditacean Worm which has 
adhered to the branches, that I must attribute with probability a 
similar origin to those of the Corallium. 

It is a different matter with the deeper tubes belonging to the 
main stem and branches. In the present base of the main stem, 
they are seen by its fracture to be excentric in position, somewhat 
variable in size: one of them contains a fine yellowish deposit 
containing minute siliceous particles and siliceous spicules, viz. spined 
acuates and acerates, about -14 mm. long and -009 to -0177 thick, 
and acerates about -28 by "024 mm., with fragments of spinulates, 
triradiates, and some minute anchorate spicules. Lacaze-Duthiers 
(Hist. Nat. du Corail, Paris, 1864, p. 333) mentions small Annelids 
allied to the Serpulse as sometimes attaching themselves to the 
surface of the Red Coral, and being covered up by the centrifugal 
growth of the corallum ; but these tubes present no such distmct 
lining of carbonate of lime as this hypothesis demands. If not 
merely remains of the ccenosarcal canal-system, they are probably 
produced by the burrowing of boring Sponges (e. g. Gliona, Samus, 
Alectona), such as are common in Stylaster and Astraeid Madre- 
pores, or Worms (e. g. Sipunculus), such as occur in Heteropsammia. 
Lacaze-Duthiers attributes such cavities generally to " la erosion des 
eponges ou des vers," and mentions that such perforated specimens 
of coral are technically described as " pique" by dealers. Some of 
the spicules mentioned above as occurring in one of the tubes 
appear to have been simply introduced witli some bottom-material 
which has been accidentally washed into the tube, as their forms 
do not belong to any of the boring Sponges ; but the spined forms 
mentioned may very well belong to a boring species allied to Cliona 
purpurea, Hancock, or Alectona millari, Carter, two species of boring 
Sponges. 

Kolliker (Icon. Histiol. p. 146, pi. xvi. fig, 8) mentions and 
figures a smaller central cavity as occurring in some of his transverse 
sections of the Red Coral, but is unable to explain its occurrence. 
The question of the origin of the present passages receives, however, 
no help from Kolliker's observations, as his figure shows a dis- 
coloured ring surrounding the passages ; they probably represent the 
horny axial tract found in the stems of most coralligenous Alcyona- 
rians. In this case, if they prove to be constant in their occurrence, 
they would seriously interfere with the value of the coral for jewellery- 
purposes, should it be attempted in the future to put it. like the pale 
varieties of the Red Coral, to such a use. But the absence of a 
subtle tint of any kind, such as that which the varieties of the Red 
Coral generally possess, renders such an attempt improbable. The 

15* 



228 MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLIID^. [Feb. 7, 

considerable depth at which this specimen was obtained, not being 
greater than that from which Corallium is brought to the surface 
in the Mediterranean, need not of itself prevent such an undertaking. 

Pleurocorallium secundum, Dana, var. elatior. (Plate IX. 
figs. 6-11). 

Branching normally in one plane. Stem strong, oval in trans- 
verse section, the longest diameter being the lateral one. Mode of 
branching normally dichoton.ous combined with pinnation. Distance 
between points of origin of main branches considerable, but sides of 
branches occupied in these intervals by small branches or pinnae, 
irregular in size and point of occurrence, occasionally found on the 
anterior surface ; branches of main system decreasing gradually in 
thickness to the extremity of the corallum, somewhat tortuous, 
decidedly compressed from front to back in most places, the lateral 
diameter being to the antero-posterior about 11:9; pinnse short, 
coming rapidly to a point, circular (or almost so) in transverse 
section, generally curved or tortuous, and not exceeding 20 mm. ia 
length. Axis of corallum hard, not easily indented with a knife, 
solid ; in main stem, and for a considerable distance up the main 
branches, of a deep crimson-red colour with a tinge of scarlet, 
resembling the colour of dried salmon's flesh ; in the upper branches 
and the pinnse the central portion of the axis becomes paler, being 
at first pink and finally white, this axial pale tract widening as it 
approaches the extremity of the branches or pinnse, the axes of 
whose apices are white throughout. Surface of hard axis very 
finely striated in the longitudinal direction, with about five striae to 
1 mm., more deeply striated on smaller branches and pinnae ; surface 
otherwise even, with the exception of a tendency to roughness at the 
ends of the pinnse, and very slight (almost imperceptible) shallow 
depressions beneath the calicles. Cortex about "3 mm. in thickness, 
completely concealing all inequalities of the axis, except at ends of 
pinnae ; friable, of a pale vermilion colour ; posterior and lateral 
surfaces even, and devoid of verrucas, with the exception of a few 
scattered ones on and near the stem and at the ends of some pinnae ; 
anterior surface beset with verrucae at intervals of 1 to 3 mm., and 
with minute punctiform elevations, visible only by the aid of a lens, 
uniformly distributed over the intermediate spaces to the number of 
about 25 in a square millimetre. Verrucae broad, truncate above, 
rising abruptly from surface ; of same colour as the general cortex ; 
in retraction they may be completely closed ; wrinkles between the 
8 valves generally obsolete or very slight in the retracted state ; dia- 
meter of verrucae 1 to 1'25 mm., projection from cortex about -5 mm. 

Spicules of cortex of two kinds, viz. : — (i.) Cylindrical, sexradiate, 
colourless, with short thick axis ; at each extremity two tubercles 
project from the side of the shaft (which does not project beyond 
them), at right angles to it ; on each of the anterior and posterior 
aspects of the spicule (reckoning those which bear the above-mentioned 
four tubercles as the lateral ones) one tubercle is set at right angles 
to the long axis of the shaft, near its extremity, but at opposite ends 



1882.] MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLIID.E. 229 

of it ; the spicule is thus sexradiate. (Varieties of the typical form 
occur, ill which both the tubercles of the antero-posterior faces may- 
be on one side ; in this case one of them may be double, or one of 
them may be subterminal and appear to project beyond the end of 
the shaft ; or one of them may be wanting, or one may occur in 
addition at one or both ends ; in the latter case the result is an 
octo radiate like that of Corallium nobile.) Tubercles short, broad, 
expanding from their base into fungiform disks, themselves tuber- 
culate with numerous short, rather blunt, small tubercles. Size 
(average maximum) 0'7 by 0*53 mm. (ii.) Second form of spicule 
shaped like an opera-glass, viz. like two short globular bottles 
attached by their sides ; it consists of two subspherical lobes sepa- 
rated by a constriction, generally with tubercular excrescences borne 
on secondary lobes on their surface, and minute tubercles on their 
surface and edges ; the upper margin of each lobe is produced into 
a short, strongly tuberculate, handle-like process of variable shape. 
Generally coloured pale red. Average maximum size: — length 
(across lobes) 0'6 mm., breadth (from apex of handle to lower extre- 
mity of lobes) 0*53 mm., maximum thickness of lobe from front to 
back 0'3.5 mm. (It is practically identical with the similar spicule 
oi P. johnsoni.^ 

Hub. Said to come from Japan. 

This most interesting form is represented by two portions, perhaps, 
but not certainly, belonging to the same colony. The long diameter 
of the present common stem of the larger specimen is 11 mm., the 
lesser diameter (antero-posterior) 9 mm. ; these thicknesses are 
maintained approximately for most of the first internode, which is 
25 mm. long ; probable maxunum lateral spread of branches 60 to 
70 mm. ; height above present base probably, when complete, about 
200 mm. 

Mr. Moseley has very liberally presented the specimens to the 
national collection ; and I am much indebted to him for this oppor- 
tunity of describing them. They were stated by the dealer from 
whom he obtained them to have been received from Japan, whence it 
was said that hundredweights came into the market, which, however, 
found but little sale. The locality is perhaps correct ; but I have been 
unable, after diligent search, to find any record, either in scientific 
writings and travels, or in works of general information, of the occur- 
rence of any native Japanese coral which was at all likely to belong to 
the CoralliidcB. To Messrs. Franks and Read, of the Ethnological 
Department in the British Museum, I am much indebted for informa- 
tion bearing on the subject. Mr. Franks has in his private collection 
a number of Japanese carved figures, called in Japan " netsuki," in 
most of which small dark men of a peculiar physiognomy, not 
Japanese, are represented as carrying coral, or (though this point 
is not so certain) as bringing it up from the sea. The coral thus 
depicted is either of actual specimens of Corallium or consists 
of carvings apparently representing it. Japanese writings call these 
men " black men." It is certain that they are not intended for 
Japanese ; and as the men associated, whether in the ornaments 



230 MR. S, O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLIID^. [Feb. 7, 

or writings, with Precious Coral appear to be always of this foreign 
type, it seems certain that it is generally known in that country as 
a foreign product. The pieces of coral which actually form part 
of the ornaments, and which the men clasp or carry, is certainly 
not the form under notice, but appears to be Gorallium nobile 
in all cases ; it was of rather a pale colour in all the specimens 
which I have seen. All these specimens are antecedent in date of 
manufacture to the period at which the Japanese ports were opened 
to European commerce. Prof. Moseley has drawings of quite a similar 
character. Precious coral is widely used in the East for ornaments, 
especially in China, where jMr. Franks informs me that an Empress's 
necklace has been made of alternate pieces of jade and coral. In 
this case it is probably all derived from the Mediterranean, as the 
value placed upon it in the instance just mentioned is more than the 
Chinese would have set upon a native production, or probably even 
on one from Japan. Prof. Moseley says that the Japanese use 
Corallium as an ornament and in "netsukis" abundantly, that he 
imagined it came from the Mediterranean, but that several residents 
have told him that it occurs native in Japan. None was found there 
by the ' Challenger.' A friend of Prof. Moseley told him that he had 
seen plenty of Red Coral which had been obtained at Japan, but 
subsequently was doubtful that it might not have been a Bistichopora. 

After considering all the evidence, I have still doubts as to whether 
the present specimens really are from Japan. It seems certain that 
much Corallium nobile has been imported into that country, probably 
by way of China. This is shown by Mr. Franks' s ornaments to 
constitute at any rate the main origin of this substance for manufac- 
turing-purposes in Japan. As the present species, from its hardness, 
compact structure, and deep colour, is hardly less fitted for those 
purposes than C. nobile if self, it would almost certainly have been 
thus employed if it were generally known in the country. 

In regard to the relations of the form, it may be seen at once 
to agree very closely with Plenrocorallium joknsoni (PI. IX. fig. 5) in 
all essential characters, as the two forms of spicules, which are almost 
exactly identical in the two species — the cyUndrical radiate of var. 
elatior having, however, but 6 radii as a rule ; the axis, also, is 
striated and party-coloured in the stem, instead of white and smooth ; 
and the cortex, besides being thinner, is scarlet instead of cream- 
coloured. However, it is undoubtedly a Pleurocorallium. Its rela- 
tions to the original form of the species of which I have made it a 
variety are less certain. Unfortunately, as mentioned above, we are 
not acquainted with the characters of the spicules of Pleurocorallium 
secundum. From its resemblance to the present species in the party- 
coloured axis, pinnated branches, scarlet cortex with truncate Pleu- 
rocorallian verrucse, it appears at any rate to be nearly related to it ; 
but as the verrucse are said to be placed mainly on the pinnae and not, 
as here, on the face of the branches, I think it may possibly be 
distinct. In that case I should propose the name elatius for the 
present form, on account of its more erect and ramose habit ; mean- 
while it may stand as var. elatior. The pinnate arrangement of the 



1882.] MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLIID^. 231 

lateral small branches on the sides of the large ones, the antero- 
posterior flattening, the rigidly anterior position of the verruciE of the 
general surface, their abrupt projection and truncate extremity, 
separate it from all other species ; while the minute characters, such 
as the double spicular complement, with its very remarkable form 
no. ii. — absent as it is from two of the recent Coralliidce'vci which the 
spicules are known, and approximating the genus (as it appears to me 
to do) to the Melithaidce, from its resemblance to the "Blattkeule " 
so widely distributed in that family — unmistakably show its true 
position to be by the side of PI. johnsoni. The chief diiferences 
between the species are the red colour of the greater part of the hard 
axis and of the cortex, the absence of the terminal tubercles to the 
cylindrical spicule no. i., and the smaller size of the verrucse, in the 
present form. 



Key to the Genera, Species, and Varieties. 

I have here endeavoured to present what appears to be the natural 
relations of the different forms, while giving characters which may 
readily distinguish them. 

I. Spicules of one kind, viz. octoradiate cylindrical. Ver- 
rucffi distributed over whole surface of corallum, promi- 
nent, monticular Corallium s. str. 

1 . Corallum branching in more than a single plane, 
i. Axis cylindrical ; spicules about '09 mm. long. Known habitats. 

... i J [ C. nobile, \ Mediterranean ; 

Axia cnmson. cortex red \ ^^j^ '^^^^ | ^^^^ ^^^^ j;^^ 

Mediterranean. 

''Fossil: Tertiaries 
of Italy and 
Scinde ; not 
earlier than 
Miocene. 



/3. Axis and cortex yellowish- J C. nobile, | 
white to white \ pale var. J 

.. ci • ^ n ■ 1 { C. pallidum 

n. Spicides?; axis pale [-iJcrubmn 



2. Oorallvun branching in but one plane, calicles sunk in 
pits in axis. 

ks.s oval in transverse section, white ; 
spicules about '06 mm. long ; 
cortex very pale orange, very thin C. stylasteroides. Mauritius. 

II. Spicules of two kinds, radiate cylindrical and opera-glass- 
shaped ; calicles rising abruptly, truncate, those of stem 
and main branches confined to anterior surface. Corallum 
with lateral pinnse to main branches. Axis oval in 
transverse section Pleurocorallium, Graj*, emend. 

1. Axis partly red, partly white ; cortex scarlet. 

i. Calicles chiefly on lateral pinnae ... PI. secundum]..." Sandwich Is. ? " 

ii. Calicles chieflv on main branches : 

cylindrical spicules normaUy &- . pj secunchm, 1 . o 
'^^'^t* t var.e/a^iar.r*P""^ 

2. Axis white, cortex cream-coloured ; 
cylindrical spicules normally 8- 

radiate PI. johnsoni Madeira. 

III. (i,icerf<B scdi^). Oorallmn with branches , Corallinm 1 Fossil ; White 
anastomosing. npicPs nodose | ^^^.^.. I Chalk of Faxoe. 



232 MR. S. O. RIDLEY ON THE CORALLIID^. [Feb. 7, 

Relation of the CoralUida to other Families. 

The opera-glass-shaped spicule of //e/wieora///'Mm resembles strongly 
some forms of the " Blattkeule " (KolUker), or foliar clavate spicule, 
which is found in so many species of the family MelithceidcB, and but 
unfrequently elsewhere (see Muricea, Eunicea), that I am led to 
believe that we hare in it a hint as to the sequence of forms connecting 
that family with the Coralliidm ; and it seems to me that Pleuroco- 
rallium on the one hand, and Mopsella on the other, mark the 
points at which the chain of continuity between Ihe families has been 
broken. It is true, all the Melithceidce do not possess this form, or 
at any rate not in its typical shape ; but those which I believe to be 
the central forms of that family, viz. the genus Mopsella (Verrill, 
= Melitella and Mopsella, Gra.y), do show it well developed; and it 
may probably be traced, though under strange modifications, in the 
genus Meliiodes. On the other hand, the peculiar cylindrical form 
of the Coralliidce uppeRTS to me to represent a highly sjiecialized form 
of the fusiform or cylindrical spicule which is an almost universal 
constituent of the cortex of the Gorgoniidce, and which occurs in a 
usually unspecialized form in the MelithaidcB also. 

With respect to the Isididae, their strongly calcified calcareous 
joints forcibl}' recall the hard tissue of the CoraltiidcE, with which they 
are homologous ; and all the spicules found in their cortex appear 
(see KoUiker, Icon. Histiol. p. 140, pi. xix. figs. 1-3) to be referable 
to a sexradiate form very closely resembling, except in its larger size, 
that of the red Pleurocorallium ; the separation of the hard pieces 
of the axis by horny joints, however, perhaps puts the family at a 
greater distance from the Goralliidce than the Melithaidce, in which 
these joints are already calcified. These horny joints, coupled with 
the absence of any spicule resembling the Mehtiiseid " Blattkeule," 
removes the family from the neighbourhood of the MelithceidcB ; and 
it probably represents a primitive offshoot from the same stem as 
that from which the genus Corallium s. str. has arisen. 

Fossil Species. — In addition to the forms described as C. pnllidum 
and C. becJiii, mentioned above under Corallium stylasteroides, and 
to C. nobile, also noticed above as recently recorded in the fossil 
state from the Italian tertiaries, it may be observed that Prof. P. M. 
Duncan notices, Geol. Journ. xxxi. p. 675, some fragmentary speci- 
mens from the Oligocene of Oawaru, New Zealand, and refers them 
to Corallium, without assigning specific names : some of these are 
said to possess frequently-branching furrows and ridges on their 
surface, much developed and very irregular in distribution ; they 
appear to somewhat resemble parts of C. stylasteroides ; but no con- 
clusions as to specific affinity can safely be based upon them. 

As Corallium nobile has a white variety, and as Prof. Duncan 
states that he has found specimens of C. pallidum with a slight pink 
colour, and points out how slight are the differences between the 
species, I do not see how that species can be maintained as distinct 
from C. nobile, the colour, looser texture of corallum, and more 
minute strise being the only distinctive characters given by Michelin. 
Seguenza (I. c.) speaks of fossil specimens of C. nobile without the 



X 



OD 

CO 

- — t 

CO 
Nl 




X 



I — I 
< 

Q 

o 
R 



E 



1882.] THE SECRETARY ON ADDITIONS TO THE MENAGERIE. 233 

red colour, without saying how it is distinguishable when in this con- 
dition from C. pallidum. 

For further information on Corallium in the fossil state, I would 
refer to G. Seguenza, Mem. Accad. Torino, (2) xxi. p. 400, and to a 
paper by A. Scilla, there cited ; also to P. M. Duncan, ' Palseonto- 
graphica Indica,' xiv. p. 167, and to the works cited in the Hist. 
Nat. des Coralliaires of M.-Edwards and Haime, vol. i. p. 205. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 

Fig. 1. Corallium sf^lasferoides {p. 22.5), left side of colony, from front, nat. size. 

2. The same, portion of main branch, from behind, magnified 6 diam. 

3. The same, portion of one of the lesser branches with the cortex removed 

by potash, showing surface-striation and polype-cavities of hard axis, 
magnified 4 diam. 

4. The same, octoradiate spicule, magnified 400 diam. 

5. Pleurocor allium Joknsoni (p. 22.3), octoradiate spicule, magnified 400 diam. 

6. Pleurocoralliiim secundum, var. elatior (p. 228), larger fragment, from 

front, nat. size. 

7. The same, terminal portion of smaller fragment, in outline, nat. size. 

8. The same, broken surface of base of smaller fragment, to show colours of 

axis, nat. size. (The excentricity is due to the fact that the fracture 
includes the commencement of a branch.) 

9. The same, surface of anterior aspect of main axis of larger fragment, 

part of the cortex being abraded, showing striation of hard axis, 
characters of cort«x and verructe ; magnified 2^ diam. 

10. The same, sexradiate spicule, magnified 400 diam. 

11. The same, opera-glass spicules, (a) from side, (h) from above, magnified 

400 diam. 



February 21, 1882. 
Prof. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions to the 
Society's Menagerie during the month of January 1882 : — 

The total number of registered additions to the Society's Mena- 
gerie during the month of January was 51, of which 28 were by 
presentation, 12 by purchase, 2 by birth, and 9 were received on 
deposit. The total number of departures during the same period, by 
death and removals, was 81. 

The most noticeable additions during the mouth of January 
were as follows : — 

1. A young male Gayal, born in the Gardens January 6, being the 
produce of the fine pair received in exchange in October 1880 from 
the Zoological Gardens, Calcutta '. So far as I am aware, this is the 
first instance of this animal having bred in Europe. 

The drawing by Mr. Smit (Plate X.) represents the young gayal 
(as it appeared on February 14th) and its mother. The male Gayal 
has been figured, P. Z. S. J 866, p. 1, pi. i. 

2. A young female Markhore {Capra megaceros) from Afgha- 
nistan, presented by Lieut.-Col. Oliver B. C. St. John, F.Z.S., 
January 17. 

' SeeP.Z. S. 1880, p. 538. 



234 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

Col. St. John writes to me as follows respecting this animal : — 
" The Markhore was caught in the hills at the upper end of the 
Bolan Pass. The popular story there is that the Pass itself divides the 
two species of Capra — 0. megaceros never being found to the west, nor 
G. cegagrus to the east of the Pass. The insignificant dimensions of 
the Pass make the truth of this story impossible ; and shikaris have 
assured me that both species are fouad on the Chilteu Mountains, 
N.W. of the head oi the Pass. But the Bolan is about the line 
where the two meet ; and I am inclined to doubt whether C. megaceros 
is ever found in the Helmund yalley proper." 

Amongst the deaths in February I regret to have to record that 
of the Great Ant-eater {Myrmecophaga jubata), presented by Dr. 
John A. PaUn, C.M.Z.S., October 4, 1867. It is, however, I sup- 
pose, unprecedented that an animal of this delicate nature should 
live so long as 14 years in captivity. 



The following papers were read : — 

1. List of the Lepidoptera collected by the Rev. J. H. 
Hocking, chiefly in the Kangra District, N.W. Hima- 
laya ; with Descriptions of new Genera and Species. — 
Part I. By F. Moore, F.Z.S. 

[Received January 25, 1882.] 
(Plates XI., XII.) 

The collection of Lepidoptera, of which the following is a list, 
was formed by Mr. Hocking whilst resident for several years at the 
hill-station of Dharmsala, and has been placed in my hands by Lord 
Walsingham for examination. Many of the species are accompanied 
by well-preserved specimens of the dried larval skin and pupa, 
several of which were previously unknown, and are therefore an 
exceedingly valuable contribution to our knowledge of their earlier 
stages. 

RHOPALOCERA. 

NYMPHALIDiE. 

euplcein^. 
Salatura gentjtia. 

Papilio genutia, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 206. f. C, D (1779). 
Papilio plexippus (part.), Fabr. Spec. Ins. p. 55. 

Limnas chrysippxjs. 

Papilio chrysippus, Linn. S. N. i. 2. p. 7Q7 (1767). 
Jullundur, in the plains, January 21 st. Larva on madar {Calo- 
tropis gigantea) . 



P Z.S 1882.P1.ZI 










^a 




6a 





F C Moore del.et lilh 



Minten-L Rros 



imp . 



NEW LEPIDOPTERA FROM N W .HlMAhAIf/^. 



p. Z. 3,1882, PI XII. 




^ ' "^ 





5b 







F C Moore del et lith 

NEW J.EPIDOPTKHA FROM W.W. HIMALAYA 



Mmtem. Bros imp 



1882.] FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 235 

TiRUMALA LIMNIAC^. 

Papilio limniacce, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 59. f. D, E (l^/S). 

TiRUMALA SEPTENTRIONIS. 

Banais septentrionis, Butler, Ent. Monthly Mag. 1874, p. 163. 

Caduga tytia. 

Euplcea tytia, Gray, Lep. Ins. of Nepal, p. 9, pi. 9. f. 2 (1833- 
46). 

Danais sita, KoUar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 424, pi. 6 (1844). 

Kangra valley. 

" Double-brooded, March and July. Flies up to about 50 feet, 
and sails along motionless, and then sweeps down, but not very 
rapid." 

Crastia vermictjlata. 

Euploea vermiculata, Butler, P. Z.S. 1866, p. 2/6. 

Satyrin^. 
Lethe rohria. 
Papilio rohria, Fabricius, Mant. Ins. ii. p. 45. 

Lethe dyrta. 

Debis dyrta, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. iii. p. 497 (1867). 

Lethe hyrania. 

^ . Satyrus hyrania, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 449, pi. 17. 
f. 1, 2(1844). 

2 . Satyrus isania, Kollar, id. p. 448, pi. 16. f. 3, 4. 

Lethe sidonis. 

Debis sidonis, Hewitson, Exot. Butterflies, iii. p. 77, Deb. pi. 39. 
f. 16 (1863). 

Lethe nicetas. 

Debis nicetas, Hewitson, Exot. Butterflies, iii. p. 78, Deb. pi. 39. 
f. 17, 18 (1863). 

Tansima verma. 

Satyrus verma, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 447, pi. 16. f. 1, 
2 (1844). 

Melanitis ismene. 

Papilio ismene, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 26. f. A, B (1775) 

Melanitis bela. 

Melanitis bela, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 223 (1857). 

Orinoma damaris. 

Orinoma damaris. Gray, Lep. Ins. Nepal, p. 14, pi. 7. f. 2, 2 a 
(1846) ; Doubleday & Hewits. D. Lep. pi. 63. f. 3. 
"Taken at Jatingri. Very local and rare." 



236 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

Rhaphicera moorei. 

Rhaphicera moorei, Butler, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1867, p. 164, pi. 4, 
f. 4, 4 a, ? . 

Amecera schakra. 

Satyrus schakra, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 446, pi. 15. 
f. 3, 4(1844). 

Hipparchia parisatis. 

Sutyrus parisatis, Kollar, Denkschrift Akad. Wien, math.-nat. 
CI. i. p. 52(18.50). 

" Kangra valley ; during the rains, June to September. Alwaya 
settles underneath overhanging rocks." 

Aulocera swaha. 

Satyrus swaha, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 444, pi. 14. f. 1, 
2(1844). 

Aulocera saraswati. 

Satyrus saraswati, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 445, pi. 14. 
f. 3, 4(1844). 

Aulocera padma. 

Satyrus padma, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 445, pi. 15. 
f. 1, 2 (1844). 

Aulocera avatara. 

Satyrus avatara, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 229 (1 857). 
" Fly in June. Settle on the ground or rocks ; 9000 feet ; A. 
padma higher up than the others, 9000-10,000 feet." 

Callerebta scanda. 

Erebia scanda, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 452, pi. 17. f. 3, 
4 (1844). 

Callerebia nirmala. 

Erebia nirmala, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 501. 

Callerebia intermedia, n. sp. 

Intermediate between C. nirmala and C. casliapa. Upperside 
similar to C. nirmala, with one ocellus only on each wing. Under- 
side with two lower ocelli, a third ocellus between the upper median 
and radial veins, and two small apical spots above. 

Expanse, S 2^, 2 2^^ inches. 

Hub, Kangra district. In coll. British Museum. 

Callerebia cashapa, n. sp. 

Allied to C. nirmala, Male and female comparatively larger in 
size. Upperside similar, but the hind wing having three well-formed 
ocelli, the one between the radial and upper median vein sometimes 



1882.] FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 237 

absent. Underside — fore wing less brightly chestnut coloured : hind 
wing with a complete series of ocelli, one between each vein ; some 
specimens with three anterior and two posterior ocelli, the upper 
one and sometimes the lowest being minute. 

Expanse 2 to '2-^j^ inches. 

Hab. Dharmsala {Hocking') ; Masuri {Lang) ; Simla. In coll. 
British Museum & F. Moore. 

Callerebia annada. 

Erebia annada, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 226 (1857). 

Callerebia hybrida. 

Callerebia hybrida, Butler, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 147. 
Callerebia nada, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 306. 

Callerebia shallada. 

Erebia shallada, Lang, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 1880, p. 247. 

Epinephile pulchella. 

Epinephile pulchella, Felder, Raise Novara, Lep. iii. p. 490, pi. 69. 
f. 16 (1867). 
Lahoul. 
A distinct species from E. neoza, Lang. 

Calysisme blasius. 

Papilio blasius, Fabricius, Eut. Syst. Suppl. p. 426 (1798). 

Calysisme perseus. 

Papilio per seus, Fabricius, Syst. Eut. p. 488 (1775). 

Papilio otrea. Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 314. f. A, B (1780), 5 . 

Satyrus zopyrus, KoUar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv, p. 450 (1844). 

Calysisme subfasciata, n. sp, (Plate XIL fig. 8.) 

Nearest allied to C. visala. Upperside of both sexes with greyer 
marginal border, and the ocellus on fore wing only half the size. 
Underside of both sexes much greyer, more densely covered with 
black-speckled strigse, the two transverse lines comparatively nearer 
each other, and the outer line bordered by a broad chestnut-brown 
suffused fascia. 

Expanse, cJ 1|, $ 2 inches. 

Hab. Dharmsala. In coll. Rev. Hocking. 

Ypthima niicea. 

Ypthima nikcea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 567. 

Ypthima baldus, 

Papilio baldus, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. App. p. 809 (1775) ; Donov. 
Ins. India, pi. 36. f. 2. 

Ypthima avanta. 

Ypthima avanta, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 567. 



238 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

Ypthima indecora, n. sp. (Plate XII. fig. 7.) 

Nearest to Y. inica, Hewits. Upperside brown : fore wing with 
a darker subbasal oblique shade ; a prominent, bipupilled, subapical 
ocellus : hind wing with two smaller subanal ocelli. Underside covered 
with very slender grey strigae ; two very faint brown fasciae crossing 
middle of both wings, those on the hind wing waved : hind wing with 
two subapical and three subanal, extremely minute, and indistinct 
silver- pupilled ocelli. 

Expanse, J If, ? 1§ inch. 

Hab. Kangra district. In coll. Rev. Hocking & F. Moore. 

Ypthima nareda. 

Satyrus nareda, KoUar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 451 (1844). 
Ypthima nareda, Hewits. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1865, p. 285, 
pi. 17. f. 6 (nee f. 7). 

Nymphalin^. 
DlLIPA morgiana. 

Apatura morgiana, Westw. Doubleday's Gen. D. Lep. p. 305 
(1850). 

Dilipa morgiana, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 201, 
pi. 6 a. f. 5. 

"August. 6000 feet." 

Limenitis trivena. 

Limenitis trivena, Moore, Ent. Monthly Mag. 1864, p. 133. 

Charaxes fabius. 

Papilio fabius, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. ii. p. 12 (1781), cJ . 
Papilio solon, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 69 (1793), $ . 
" Dharmsala ; July. Taken at sugar." 

EuLEPIS ATHAMAS. 

Papilio athamas, Drury, 111. Exot. Ins. i. pi. 2. f. 4 (1773). 
Kangra ; Kulu ; 3000 feet. 

EuLEPIS HAMASTA, n. Sp. 

Smaller than E. athamas. Fore wing differs in the medial band 
being broader in the male, the subapical spot also broader and more 
regularly quadrate, its upper angle being nearer the apical spot, of 
which latter there are two in the female, one above the other : hind 
wing with a more prominent subniarginal series of white spots, the 
three lower spots being conspicuously larger and lunular in shape, 
with contiguous greyish outer lunules. 

Expanse 2g to 2| inches. 

Hab. Dharmsala, G200 feet ; March, June. In coll. British 
Museum. 

" The wildest butterfly that I know. Takes very long flights at 
a time and returns to the same point. Very shy." " 



1882.] FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 239 

EUTHALIA GARUDA. 

Adolias garuda, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 186 (1857); 
Trans. Ent. Soc. 18.59, p. 64, pi. 3. f. 2. 
" Larva feeds on mango. October." 

EUTHALIA PATALA. 

Adolias pat ala, KoUar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 435 (1844). 
'• Flys about oaks. June to September." 

Stibochiona nicea. 

Adolias nicea, Gray, Lep. Ins. Nepal, p. 13, pi. 12. f. 1 (1846). 
" Flies like Papilio pammon, following the line of a hedge and 
passing in and out between the bushes." 

Symph^dra nais. 

Papilio nais, Torster, Novae Spec. Ins. Cent. i. p. 73 (1771). 

Papilio thyelia, Fabr, Eat. Syst. iii. 1, p. 142 (1793); Donov. 
Ins. India, pi. 31. f. 3. 

" Kangra district generally ; banks of the Beas, about 2000 feet 
elevation." 

Kallima hugeli. 

Papkia hugelii, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 432, pi. 9 (1844). 

Kallima hugelii, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1879, p. 12. 

"Single-brooded in July. Flies about till the cold weather in 
November, and then hibernates, and comes out again in April. 
Taken at sugar in x\pril." 

Precis iphita. 

Papilio iphita. Cram. Pap. Exot. in. pi. 209. f. C, D (1779). 

" Always pitches on the ground." 

JXJNONIA LEMONIAS. 

Papilio lemonias, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 770 (1767). 

JUNONIA ORITHYA. 

Papilio orithya, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 770 (1767). 

JuNONIA tENONE. 

Papilio eenone, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 770 (1767). 

JuNONIA ASTERIE. 

Papilio asterie, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 769 (1767). 

JuNONIA ALMANA. 

Papilio almana, Linn. Syst Nat. i. 2, p. 769 (1767); Donov. 
Ins. China, pi. 38. f. 2. 



240 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

PSEUDERGOLIS WEDAH. 

Ariadne wedah, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 437 (1844). 
Precis veda, Kirby, Catal. Lep. p. 191 (1871). 
Precis hara, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 143, pi. 3 a. 
f. 1 (1857). 

ErGOLIS ARIADNE. 

Papilio ariadne, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 778 (1767). 

Cyrestis thyodamas. 

Cyrestis thyodamas, Boisd. Cuvier's Rfeg. A.nim., Ins. ii. pi. 138. 
f. 4 (1836). 

Jmathusia ganescha, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 430, pi. 7. 
f. 3, 4 (1844). 

" June to September ; hibernates afterwards. Sits with open 
wings upon hanging leaves of oak and rhododendron." 

Vanessa charonia. 

Papilio charonia, Drury, lUust. Exot. Ins. i. pi. 15. f. 1, 2 (1773). 

Vanessa xanthomelas. 

Papilio xanthomelas, Denis et Schiff. Wien. Verz. p. 175 (1776). 
" Larva on willow, March 30. Fed up April 6th ; in pupa 
state from 16th to 24th; imago emerged May 9th." 

Vanessa kaschmirensis. 

Vanessa kaschmirensis, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 442, pi. 11. 
f. 3, 4 (1844). 

" Larva on nettle, April." 

Pyrameis cardui. 

Papilio cardui, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 774 (1767). 

•' Larva on nettle ; May and August, 6200 feet." 

Pyrameis indica. 

Papilio indica, Herbst, Naturs. Schmett. vii. pi. 180. f. 1, 2 
(1794). 

Sephisa' dichroa. 

Limenitis dichroa, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 429, pi. 8. f. 1, 
2 (1844). 

Castalia dichroa, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 199. 

Hestina zella. 

Hestina zella, Butler, Trans, Ent. Sec. 1869, p. 9, fig. 
Kangra district generally. 

Neptis astola. 

Neptis astola, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 560. 

^ Proposed in place of Castalia, previously used. 



1882.] from the n.w. himalaya. 241 

Neptis mahendra. 

Neptis mahendra, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 560, pi. 32. f. 3. 

Neptis ananta. 

Neptis ananta, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mas. E.I. C. i. p. 166, pi. 4a. 
f. 3(1857); P.Z.S. 1858, p. 5. 
" Kulu ; very rare." 

Neptis nandina. 

Neptis nandina, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 168, pi. 4a. 
f. 7 (1857). 

Neptis amba. 

Neptis amba, Moore, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 7, pi. 49. f 4. 

"Kulu." 

Neptis amboides, n. sp. 

Allied to but smaller than N. amba. Fore wing with the discoidal 
streak broader ; the discal spots also broader and more compactly 
disposed ; hind wing with a broader subbasal baud, and a more 
uniformly curved and narrower submarginal band. 

Expanse, S 2§, 9 2| inches. 

Eab. Ruttun Pir, Cashmere (Reid) ; Kangra district {Hocking). 
In coll. F. Moore and British Museum. 

Athyma opalina. (Plate XI. fig. 3, larva.) 

Limenitis opalina, KoUar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 427 (1844). 

Athyma opalina, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 171, pi. 5a. 
f. 2. 

"Larva on kusmul, August 15th. Deep green, with red spines; 
moulted in a day or two ; the dorsal line yellow, lateral pale green. 
Pupa of the brightest silver tinsel. Perfect insect emerged Sept. 9th." 

Athyma leucothoe. 

Papilio leucothoe, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 780 (1767); Sulzer, 
Gesch. Ins. pi. 18. f. 2, 3. 

Athyma asura. 

Athyma asura, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 350, pi. 5a. 
f. 1 (1857). 

" Kulu ; very rare." 

Apatura misipptjs. 

Papilio misippus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 767 (1767). 
Diadema misippus, Butl. Catal. Fabr. Lep. B. M. p. 97 ; Trans. 
Ent. Soc. 1869, p. 278. 

Apatura bolina. 

Papilio bolina, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 781 (1767) ; Clerck, Icones, 
pi. 21. f. 2. 

Diadema bolina, Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1869, p. 278. 

" Hot valleys. In flower-gardens, from May to September." 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XVI. 16 



242 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb, 21, 

Apatura jacintha. 

Papiliojacintha, Drury, Illust. Exot. Ins. ii. pi. 21. f. 1, 2 (1773). 
" Hills, June to September. Settling upon oak (Quercus incana). 
Never found in company with preceding." 

ACIDALIA NIPHE. 

Papilio niphe, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 785 (1/67); Drury, 
Illust. Exot, Ins. i. pi. 6. f. 1. 
" Found in the valleys." 

Argynnis childreni. 

Argynnis childreni, Gray, Zool. Misc. p, 33(1831); Lap. Ins. 
Nepal, p. 11, pi. 11. 

Argynnis sakontala, KoUar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 439, pi. 12 
(1844). 

" On thistles, 6000 feet." 

Argynnis jainadeva. 

Argynnis jainadeva, Moore, Ent. Monthly Mag, 1864, p. 131; 
P. Z. S. 1865, p. 495, pi. 30. f. 1. 

Argynnis iss^a. 

Argynnis isseea, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 156 (1857). 

"Hills, flying over the grassy slopes." 

Argynnis baralacha, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

Male. Upperside fulvous; lower basal area of both wings mi- 
nutely black-speckled : fore wing with a black recurved streak 
within the cell, a lunular streak at its end ; a discal transverse zig- 
zag series of broader streaks, two outer rows of small spots, which 
are indistinct at the apex, and a marginal, indistinct, dentated 
lunular speckled line : hind wing with two less distinct and more 
slender cell-streaks, discal row of spots, two outer rows of spots 
(of which the inner row is indistinct), and a marginal speckled line. 

Underside — fore wing paler fulvous, with the cell, discal, and inner 
row of black spots as above showing very indistinctly ; the costal 
border, two streaks from the apex, and short X-shaped marginal 
marks being yellow : hind wing yellow, with a very irregular trans- 
verse subbasal, discal, and a marginal fulvous-red band ; the sub- 
basal band bordered outwardly by linear pearly streaks, the discal 
band by indistinct pearly lunules, and the marginal band traversed 
by pearly X-shaped marks ; the discal and marginal bands more or 
less confluent ; a small pearly spot also within the cell. 

Expanse If inch. 

Hab. Ladak. In coll. British Museum, 

MeLITjEA cashmirensis. 

Melitcea cashmirensis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 267, pi. 43. f. 4. 



1882.] FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 243 

Melit^a BALBITA. 

Melitcea balbita, Moore, P. Z, S. 1874, p. 268, pi. 43. f. 5. 

" Rhotung Pass." 

Symbrenthia hyppoclus. (Plate XI. figs. 4, 4 a, larva.) 
Papilio hyppoclus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 220. f. C, D (1782). 
" Larva on nettle, August, 6200 feet." 

Atella phalanta. 

Papilio phalanta, Drury, Illust. Exot. Ins. i. pi. 21. f. 1, 2 (1773). 

" Found in the valleys." 

ACR^IN^. 

Pareba vesta. 

Papilio vesta, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii. p. 14 (1787). 

AcrcBa anomala, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 425, pi. 3. f. 3, 4 
(1844). 

"Larva feeds on the willow-leaved nettle {Boehmeria talicifolia). 
Imago, July to September. Eggs deposited in September, and 
hatch in about twenty days. Length of young larva 3 to 4 lines, 
entirely black. When about three weeks old they moult and then 
hibernate, reappearing in the following April. They moult again 
early in May, when they assume the red head. The larvae generally 
feed on the upper branches of the plant, are gregarious, and drop 
to the ground when disturbed. Third moult early in June, about 
the middle of which month they suspend themselves by the tail near 
the bottom of the stems of the bushes, and there change to the pupa 
state. The imago appears in about fifteen days, in the first or 
second week in July. A few come out in August and September, 
but not in sufficient numbers to constitute a succession of broods. 
The imago is seldom found far from the food-plant, which grows 
near runuing water. 

" It is a very local insect, but, where occurring, abundant. It is 
to be found in wet ravines at from 3000 to 4000 feet elevation in 
Kulu. It is not a rapid flier, and is easily captured. When at rest 
it may be taken by the fingers. It is very constant in its appear- 
ance, frequenting the same localities year after year. The imago 
does not hibernate." — Note by A. Graham Young. 

ERYCINID^, 

LiBYTHjEINiE. 
LiBYTHEA MYRRHA. 

Libythea myrrha, Godt. Enc. Meth. ix. p. 171. 
" Kangra valley. May to December. A tree-perching insect. 
Settles with vertical wings." 

NEMEOBlINiE. 
DODONA DURGA. 

Melitcea durga, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 441, pi. 13. 
f. 3, 4 (1844). 

16* 



244 MR. F. MOORK ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

DODONA EUGENES. 

Dodona eugenes, Bates, Joum. Linn. Soc, Zool. ix. p. 371 (1867). 

Arisara suffusa, n. sp. 

Allied to A. angulata, Moore (P. Z. S. 18/8, p. 833). Smaller, 
the male being of a deeper tint, with the fasciae straighter and suf- 
fused with grey. Female of a much duller colour and suffused 
■with grey, the medial transverse dark fascia less angular on both 
wings, and the outer fasciae much less distinct, broader, and more 
suffused. 

Expanse, S If, 2 If inch. 

Eab. Chumba, 10,000 feet. In coll. British Museum. 

LYCiENID^. 

PiTHECOPS ZALMORA. 

Pithecops salmora, Butler, Catal. Fabrician Lep. Brit. Mus. 
p. 161 (1870). 

CURETIS DENTATA. 

Curetis dentdta, Moore, P. Z. S. 18/9, p. 138. 

Cyaniris ccelestina. 

Lyccena ccelestina, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, ir. p. 423 (1844). 
Lyccena kollari, Westwood, Doubleday's Gen. D. Lep. p. 491 
(1852). 

Polyommatus lasmira, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 503, pi. 31. f. 1. 

Cyaniris huegelii. 

Lyccena argiolus, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 423 (nee Linn.). 

Differs from C. ccelestina in its larger size. Male. Upperside 
similar in colour, but of a darker blue tint ; fore wing with a more 
slender blackish marginal band ; hind wing with a clearly defined 
marginal line. Female more dusky throughout than in G. ccelestina ; 
fore wing with broader blackish marginal borders and discocellular 
lunule ; hind wing with the blackish costal border and marginal spots 
broader, the latter with well-defined inner pale dentate marks, the 
inner area beyond and the veins also dusky-black. Underside with 
similar but more distinct markings than in C. ccelestina, the discal 
series on the hind wing more linear in shape, the marginal spots-and 
submarginal lunular band much more prominent. 

Expanse, c? 2 If^^- to 1^ inch. 

Hab. N.W. Himalaya (Kaschmir ; Simla ; Masuri ; Dharmsala). 
In coll. F. Moore and British Museum. 

This species has hitherto been considered to be Kollar' s L. cceles- 
tina ; but both his description and measurements undoubtedly agree 
with C, kasmira. 

Cyaniris vardhana. 

Polyommatus vardhana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 572, pi. 66. f. 5. 



1882.] from the n.w. himalaya. 245 

Cyaniris puspa. 

Polyommatus puspa, Horsf. Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. (1828), 
p. (J7. 
" Kulu." 

Chilades varunana. 

Polyommatus varunana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 772, pi. 41. f. 6. 

Chilades putli. 

LyccBiia putli, KoUar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 422 (1844). 

ZlZERA MAHA. 

LyccEua malm, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 422 (1844). 
Lyccena chandala, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 504, pi, 31. f. 5. 

ZlZERA INDICA. 

Lyccena indica, Murray, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1874, p. 525, pi, 10. 
f. 2, 3, 

ZlZERA PYGM^A, 

Lycana pygmaa, Snellin, Tijd, voor Eat, xix. p, 153, pi. 7. f. 3 
(1876). ^ > V 

Identical with Sumatran and Ceylonese specimens. 

AZANUS UBALDUS. 

Papilio ubaldus. Cram, Pap. Exot, iv. pi. 390. f, L, M(1782). 
LyctBna zena, Moore, P, Z. S, 1865, p, 505, pi. 31. f. 9, 

Tarucus nara. 

Lycxna nara, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 421 (1844). 

Tarucus alteratus, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Also allied to T. nara ; smaller ; colour paler and of a more 
decided blue tint; fore wing with a slender discocellular dusky 
lunule ; hind wing with a small dusky spot above the tail, and a 
slender marginal white line. Cilia brownish white. Underside 
dull pale greyish ochreous; both wings with similarly disposed 
markings, which are more slender, paler, and much less distinct, 
those on the hind wing being reddish ochreous, the marginal metaUic 
spots more or less golden. 

Expanse || inch. 

Hab. N.W. Himalaya {Reid) ; Dharmsala {Hocking). In coll. 
F. Moore and British Museum. 

Tarucus venosus, n, sp, (Plate XII. figs, 6, 6 a.) 
Allied to T. theophrastus and T. nara. Wings larger and 
broader ; fore wing less triangular, the exterior margin more con- 
vex ; colour duller blue and of a slight violaceous tinge; bothwinos 
with a broad marginal dusky border, similar to that in male of 
Zizera chandala ; veins dark-lined : fore wing with a broad dusky 
spot, and hiud wing with a slender lunule at end of the cell, and a 



246 MR. p. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

slender white marginal line above the tail. Female entirely violet- 
brown, with the exception of a very few blue scales sparsely dis- 
posed on the basal area; an indistinct darker cell-spot on fore wing, 
and a spot above the tail. Cilia whitish. Underside similar to 
the above species, all the markings, however, being broader in both 
sexes. 

Expanse, S 2 . lyV ii^ch. 

Hab. Dharmsala. In coll. British Museum. 

Tabucus plinius. 

Hesperia plinius, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. p. 284 (1/93); Donov. 
Ins. India, pi. 41. f. 1. 

Castalius rosimon. 

Papilio rosimon, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 523 (1775). 

EVERES DIPORA. 

Lycana dipora, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 506, pi. 31. f. 8. 

Nacaduba ardates. 

Lxjccena ardates, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 574, pi. 67. f. 1. 

« Kulu." 

Catochrysops strabo. 

Hesperia strabo, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. p. 287 (1793). 

Lycccna kandarpa, Horsf. Catal. Lep. Mas. E.I. C. (1829), p. 82. 

Lyccena asoka, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 419, cJ. 

Lyceena didda, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 420, § . 

Catochrysops cnejus. 

Hesperia cnejus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. 430 (1/98). 

Lyccdna pandia, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 418. 

POLYOMMATUS B.^TICUS. 

Papilio beeticus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 789 (1767). 

Lampides ^lianxjs. 

Hesperia celianus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. p. 280 (1 793). 

Lyc^na nazira. 

Polyommatus nazira, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 504, pi. 31. f. 4. 

Lyc^na ariana. 

Polyommatus ariana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 504, pi. 31. f. 2. 

Lyc^na sutleja, n. sp. 

Near to L. boisduvalii and L. ariana. Upperside darker glossy 
blue, the marginal band narrower ; no dusky streaks ascending the 
veins ; the marginal spots on hind wing less prominent. Underside 
lilacine ochreous-grey, darkest on hind wing ; markings similar to 
L. boisduvalii, except that the spot within the cell is further from 
the discocelliUar lunule, this spot being situated inward of the end 



1882.] FROM THE N.W, HIMALAYA. 247 

of lower median vein ; the discal row of spots are more linearly dis- 
posed, the marginal spots having their red inner borders more 
slenderly black-lined ; hind wing with a black centre to the disco- 
cellular lunule : upper discal spots nearer together, thus giving a 
wider space between the upper one and basal spot ; the red borders 
to marginal spots are somewhat broader and more slenderly black- 
streaked. 

Expanse ly*^ inch. 

Hab. Kangra district. In coll. British Musenm. 

LyCjENA metallica. 

LyecBna metallica, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. ii. p. 283, pi. 35. 
f. 7, 8 (1865), d. 

Lyc^na omphisa. 

Polyommatus omphisa, Moore, P. Z. S, 1874, p. 573, pi. &&. f. 2. 
Taken in Ladak. 

Chrysophanus phlceas. 

Papilio phlceas, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 793 (1767). 

Chrysophanus kasyapa. 

Chrysophanus kasyapa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 506, pi. 31. f. 10. 

Chrysophanus pavana. 

Thecla pavana, KoUar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 416, pi. 5. f. 5, 
6(1844). 

Thecla panava, Westw, Gen. D. Lep. p. 487 (1852). 

Thecla syla. 

Thecla syla, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv, p. 414, pi. 4. f. 7, 8 
(1844). 

Dipsas sila, Hewits. 111. D. Lep. pi. 26. f. 3. 

Thecla ataxas. 

Dipsas ataxas, Doubleday & Hewits. Gen. D. Lep. pi. 74. f. 7 
(1852) ; Hewits. 111. D. Lep. pi. 26. f. 6. 

Thecla odata. 

Dipsas odata, Hewits. 111. D. Lep. p. 66, pi. 30. f. 13, 14 (1865) ; 
Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 507. 

Thecla birupa. 

Dipsas birupa, Moore, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1877, xx. p. 51. 

Horaga onyx. 

Thecla onyx, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 30, c? (1857). 

Male. Violet-brown ; fore wing with the lower basal and discal 
area cyaneous blue ; discal white spot large, of the same size as in 
female H. viola ; hind wing paler, the medial area cyaneous blue. 
Underside pale olivaceous browuish-ochreous, the discal band on fore 



248 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

wing attenuated anteriorly and extending to costal border ; tbe band 
on hind wing very broad and irregular ; anal and subanal spots small. 

Female. Paler ; discal spot very large and oval ; band on under- 
side as in male. 

Expanse, c? $ 1^% inch. 

Hab. N.W. Himalaya (Deyra Doon ; Dharmsala). 

Taken by Mr. Hocking on quince tree, at 6000 feet elevation. 

The type specimen described above is now in the British-Museum 
collection. Its locality label is " Himalaya," not Burmah, as stated 
in my original description. 

HORAGA VIOLA, n. Sp. 

Male. Violet-brown ; fore wing with a small white discal spot. 

Female. Violet-brown, palest ou the hind wing ; lower basal and 
discal area of both wings dull cyaneous blue, discal white spot larger. 
Underside darkish violaceous brownish- ochreous, the white discal 
spot continued to posterior margin ; the band on hind wing narrowly 
white in both sexes. 

Expanse, S yV ? I inch. 

Hab. Dharmsala. In coll. British Museum. 

Ilerda tamu. 

Polyommatus tamu, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 41 7, pi. 5. f. 7, 8, cJ • 

Ilerda tamu, Hewitson, Illust. D. Lep. p. 57. 

Allied to /. androcles. Male. Upperside blackish brown ; with 
the medial, basal, and discal area of fore wing and medial area of hind 
wing sparsely covered with dull metallic greenish-blue scales, these 
scales scarcely appearing below the submedian vein on the fore wing 
and being less thickly disposed on the hind wing ; anal red lunules 
narrow and distinct. 

Female paler brown ; fore wing with an oblique discal slightly- 
curved short red band ; hind wing with a marginal narrow sinuous 
red band. 

Underside dullsaffron-yellow ; markings similar to those of I. an- 
drocles. 

Expanse 1^^^ inch. 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas, Masuri (Lariff) ; Dharmsala {Hoching). 
In coll. F. Moore and British Museum. 

Ilerda coruscans, n. sp. 

Smaller than I. androcles. ISlale of a denser blackish -brown 
colour : fore wing with the lower basal and discal area, and medial 
area of hind wing entirely covered with glittering metallic blue scales, 
which in some lights are of a smalt-blue tint ; two slender, short, red 
anal lunules. 

Female paler brown : fore wing with a narrow red oblique band, 
and hind wing with a marginal sinuous red band. 

Expanse \-^q inch. 

Hah. N.W. Himalaya : Bisahur, between Sarhan and Tranda 
{Hellard) ; Dharmsala (^Hocking). In coll. F. Moore and British 
Museum. 



1882.] FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 249 

Ilerda ODA. 

Ilerda oda, Hewits. 111. D. Lep. p. 58, pi. 24. f. 9, 10. 

Ilerda sena. 

Polyommatus sena, KoUar, Hiigel's Kaschm. iv. p. 415, pi. 5. f. 3, 
4 (1844), 

Iraota timoleon. 

Papilio timoleon, StoU, Suppl. Cram, Pap, Exot. v, pi. 32, f. 4 
(1790). 

Hypolyc^na milionia. 

Myrina mylionia, Hewits. Ill, D. Lep, Suppl, p, 5, pi. 3. f. 79, 

80(1869). 
" 9000 feet." 

HyPOLYC^NA NASA K a. 

Thecla nasaka, Horsf. Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C, (1829), p. 91. 
Identical with Javau type. 

Hypolycena chandrana, n. sp, (Plate XI. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

Allied to H. nasaka. Male. Upperside violet-brown : fore wing 
with the lower basal and discal area dull violet-blue, and the medial 
area of hind wing purplish violet-blue ; marginal line and anal lobe 
black. Cilia whitish. 

Underside oUve-grey : fore wing with a broad discocellular 
slender black-lined white-bordered streak, a similar broken discal 
band, and a similar marginal narrower lunular band ; hind wing 
with a similar discocellular streak, a discal band, which is broken 
beyond the cell and bent upwards above anal angle, and a marginal 
dentated band ending in a large red spot and anal lobe and an inter- 
vening streak, the spot and anal lobe black-centred, the streak with 
metallic-green borders ; a white-bordered black spot on costa near 
the base, another at end of the cell, and a less distinct spot above 
aual angle. 

Expanse Ig inch. 

Hab. Lahul. In coll, British Museum. 

Nadisepa, n. g. 

Allied to Beudorix. Fore wing more acuminate at the apex ; 
male furnished with a tuft of hair on middle of posterior margin : 
hind wing more attenuated hindward ; exterior margin slightly 
sinuous ; a broad conical depressed glandular spot between the costal 
and subcostal veins. Venation similar. Palpi smaller, shorter, 
second joint of more equal width ; antennal club shorter. 

Nadisepa jarbas, 

Papilio j arias, Fabr, Mant, Ins. ii. p, 68 (1787). 

Thecla jarbas, Horsf. Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. (1829), p, 93. 



250 MR. r. MOORE ON LEPiDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

Baspa, n. g. 

Differs from typical Deudorix (D. epijarbas). Male with a less 
triangular form of fore wiug ; the hind wing more oblique on costal 
and exterior margins, the apex very convex. Venation similar. 
Female : fore wing more triangular : hind wing narrower and less 
convex. Second joint of palpi much shorter ; anteunal club much 
shorter and abruptly formed. Sexes ahke in colour. 

Baspa melampus. 

Papilio melampus, Cram. Pap. Exot. Iv. pi. 362. f. G, H (1782). 
Thecla sorya, Kollar, Hilgel's Kasch. iv. p. 414, pi. 5. f. 1, 2 
(1844). 

Dexjdorix epijarbas. 

Dipsas epijarbas, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. 1. p. 32 (1857). 
Deudorix epijarbas, Hewlts. 111. D. Lep. pi. 7. f. 16-18. 

ViRACHOLA PERSE. 

Deudorix perse, Hewlts. 111. D. Lep. p. 18, pi. 8. f. 24-26 (1863). 

ViRACHOLA ISOCRATES. 

Hesperia isocrates, Fabr. Ent, Syst. ill. p. 266 (1/93), d' . 
Thecla isocrates, Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. 1836, p. 4, pi. 1. 

BiDASPA, n. g. =r- I't^k^ 

Nearest to ViracJiola. Fore wing comparatively more triangular ; 
third subcostal emitted at a slight angle before end of the cell : hind 
wing less produced hindward ; costal margin longer, apex less con- 
vex ; cell triangular ; first subcostal emitted at one fifth before end 
of the cell ; the broad conical depressed glandular spot terminates 
before reaching the first subcostal branch, and does not extend 
below Into the cell ; tail slender. Palpi less compactly squamose ; 
antennal club shorter. 

Type B. nissa. 

BiDASPA NISSA. 

Thecla nissa, Kollar, Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv. p. 412, pi. 4. f. 3, 4 
(1844). 

Deudorix nissa, Hewlts. 111. D. Lep. p. 23, pi. 10. f. 42, 43 (nee 
f. 44). 

Hysudra, n. g. 

Allied to Bidaspa. Fore wing less triangular in form, the exterior 
margin slightly convex; no tuft on posterior margin of male: hind 
wing less produced hindward ; no costal depressed granular spot ; 
tail shorter. 

Hysudra selira. 

Deudorix selira, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 272. 

Deudorix nissa, Hewlts. 111. D. Lep. pi. 10. f. 44 (nee Kollar). 



1882.] FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 251 

Rapala GRISEA. 

Beudorix grisea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 140. 

ApHNjEUS etolus. 

Papilio etolus, Cram. Pap. Exot. Hi. pi. 208. f. E, F (1782). 

AphNjEus trifurcata, n. sp. 

Male. Upperside violet-brown ; basal area of a more greyish- 
blue tint than in A. ictis, the orange spot trifurcate and triangular. 

Female paler ; basal area greyish vinous-brown ; orange spot on 
fore wing small, not larger than that of the male. Underside of a 
deeper chrome-yellow, the silver-streaked bands similarly disposed, 
but all nearly dusky black throughout their breadth ; the marginal 
slender spots move prominent. 

Expanse, c? Ittt, $ lyo i^ch. 

Hab. N.W. Himalaya, Dharmsala {Baden Powell and Hocking). 
In coll. F. Moore and British Museum. 

Aphn^us UNiFORMisj n. sp. 

Fore wing comparatively narrower and more acutely pointed at 
the apex than in A. trifurcata ; hind wing shorter, but longer hind- 
wards, and the exterior margin even and less convex anteriorly. 
Upperside dull bluish brown : fore wing unmarked : hind wing with 
an indistinct dull ochreous anal spot speckled with grey and black. 
Underside dull pale brownish ochreous, the transverse bands nearly 
obsolete, being indicated by very slender indistinct silvery-speckled 
lines ; anal lobe black-spotted. 

Expanse \^^ inch. 

Hab. Mount Meru, Wurdhan. In coll. British Museum. 

Aphn^us elima. 

Aphnceus elima, Moore, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1877, p. 51. 

Pratapa icetas. 

lolaus icetas, Hewits. 111. D. Lep. p. AA, pi. 18. f. 6, 7 (1865), 2 . 

Loxura atymnus. 

Papilio atymnus. Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 331. f. D, E (1782). 

Surendra quercetorum. 

Amblypodia quercetorum, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. 
p. 42, pi. la. f. 7(185 7). 

Panchala, n. g. 

"Wings small, short, broad : fore wing much arched ; exterior 
margin erect, slightly convex hindwards ; cell extending beyond 
half the wing ; costal vein extending to near half the margin ; first 
subcostal emitted at two fifths and second at one fifth before end 
of the cell, third bifid at one third before the apex, fifth from 
slight angle at end of the cell ; discocellular shghtly bent near upper 



252 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

end, radial from the angle ; middle median near end of the cell, 
lower at one fourth before the end, curved downwards ; submedian 
straight : hind wing very convex externally ; costa much recurved 
from the base, apex angular ; costal vein recurved, extending to the 
apex ; first subcostal emitted at one third before end of the cell ; 
discocellular slightly bent in the middle, radial from the angle ; two 
upper medians from end of the cell, lower at one fourth before the 
end ; submedian straight, internal recurved. Body short, thorax 
moderate ; palpi porrect, compactly squamose, second joint project- 
ing half its length beyond the head, third joint one third its length, 
slender ; legs compactly squamose ; antenuae short, thickening to 
the apex. 

Type P. ganesa. 

Panchala ganesa. 

Aviblypodia ganesa, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 44, 

pi. 1 a. f. 8 (1857). 

Panchala dodonea. 

Amblypodia dodonea, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 43, 
pi. 1 a. f. 8 (1857). 

Panchala rama. 

Thecla rama, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 412, pi. 4. f. 1, 2 
(1844). 

PAPILIONIDiE. 

Pierin^. 
Terias hecabe. 
Papilio hecabe, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 763 (1767). 

Terias excavata, n. sp. 

Near T. hecabe. Fore wing with the marginal band of a similar 
form but not quite so wide, the lower portion extending less from 
the angle : hind wing with a marginal slender dentated line. 
Female. Fore wing with a slightly wider marginal band ; hind wing 
with a very slender marginal dentated line. Underside with pale 
markings ; the apical streak pale in the male, prominent in the 
female. 

Expanse If inch. 

Hob. Kangra district (Dharmsala^. In coll. British Museum and 
F. Moore. 

Terias purreea, n. sp. 

Allied to T. cesiope. Smaller in size ; the marginal band on fore 
wing one third less in width at upper and lower ends, the upper 
and lower angles of the excavated portion less acute : hind wing 
with a slight marginal dentated line. Underside with similar but 
narrower and smaller markings. 

Expanse If to If inch. 

Hub. Kangra distirct. In coll. British Mnseum. 



1882.] FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 253 

Terias irregularis, n. sp. (Plate XII. fig. 3.) 

Near to T. fimhriata. "Wings comparatively shorter ; of the 
same tint of colour: fore wing with the marginal band broadly 
oblique at the apex, excavated in the middle, and sinuous at pos- 
terior end : hind wing with a marginal slender dentated line. 
Female paler, the marginal band on fore wing with sharper angles ; 
minute marginal dentated spots on hind wing. Underside with 
very prominent chestnut-brown markings. 

Expanse 1^^- inch. 

Hob. Kangra district. In coll. British Museum. 

Terias fimbriata. 

Terias fimbriata, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1867, p. 323. 

Terias apicalis, n. sp. (Plate XII. fig. 2.) 

Also allied to T. fimhriata. Wings narrower and paler : fore 
wing with the marginal baud confined to a narrow apical costal 
streak, the lower portion from the subcostal vein composed of very 
small speckled spots : hind wing with a marginal row of minute 
spots. Female with the band broader at the apex, the lower part as 
in male. Underside with distinct chestnut-brown markings. 

Expanse \^ inch. 

Hab. Kangra district. In coll. British Museum. 

Terias drona. 

Terias drona, Horsf. Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. (1829), p. 137, 
pi. f. 13. 

Terias rubella. 

Terias rubella, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1867, p. 323. 

Catopsilia crocale. 

Papilio crocale. Cram. Pap. Exot. i. pi. 55. f. C, D (1755), §. 
Papilio alcmeone. Cram. loc. cit. ii. pi. 141. f. E, c?. 
•' Kulu. June to August. Both the narrow- and broad-bordered 
females taken at same time." 

Catopsilia gnoma. 

Papilio gnoma, Fabr. Syst. Ent. App. p. 828 (1775), S ■ 
Papilio pkilippina. Cram. P. Ex. iv. pi. 361. f. C, D (1/81), $ . 
" Kangra valley generally. June to August. Affects flowers, 
Zinnia particularly." 

Catopsilia pyranthe. 

Papilio pyranthe, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 763 (1767). 

Gonepteryx nepalensis. 

Gonepteryx nepalensis, Doubleday, Gen. D. L. p. 71 (1847). 
Gonepteryx rhamni, Gray, Lep. Ins. Nepal, pi. 5. f. 1 (1866). 



254 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

IxiAS KAUSALA. 

Ixias kausala, Moore, Arm- & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1877, p. 49. 

IxiAS PYGM.^A, n. sp. (Plate XII. fig. 1.) 

Nearest to I. kuusala. Smaller, aud of a slightly paler yellow : 
fore wing with a broader black apical baud, the red belt being much 
narrower and more irregularly bordered, leaving a much broader 
black inner space: hind wing unmarked. Underside similarly marked 
to I. kausala. 

Expanse 1| inch. 

Hab. Kangra district. In coll. British Museum. 

IXIAS WATTI ' . 

Ixias watti, Butler, P. Z. S. 18S0, p. 151, pi. 15. f. 1, c?. 
The locality of "Bengal" given for this species is evidently an 
error. 

Ixias marianne. 

Papilio marianne, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 217. f. C-E (1782). 

Callosune farrina. 

Teracolus farrinus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 159, pi. 7- f. 2. 

Callosune pura. 

Teracolus purus, Butler, P. Z, S. 1876, p. 160, pi. 7. f. 14, 15. 

COLIAS LADAKENSIS. 

Colias ladakensis, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. ii. p. 197, pi. 27. 
f. 8, 9 (1865). 

Colias shipkee, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 492, pi. 31. f. 13. 
" Baralacha Pass." 

Colias fieldi. 

Colias fieldii, Menetr. Catal. Mus. Petr. Lep. i. p. 79, pi. 1 . f. 5 
(1855). 

C. edusa. Gray, Lep. Ins. Nepal, pi. 5. f. 2. 

Colias sareptensis? 

1 Colias sareptensis, Staudinger, Catal. p. 4 (1871). 

Colias (J sareptensis). "Occurs all the year round; found at 
Dharmsala in grassy fields from April to November, and lower down 
the valley early in March. The yellow and white forms found at 
the same time and place, and taken in copuld.^'' 

Colias pallida? 

? Colias pallida, Staudinger, Catal. p. 4 (1871). 

' Ixias dJiarimalcB, Butler, described as having been collected at Dharmsala 
by Dr. Watt, is not represented in Mr. Hocking's collection. 



I882.J FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 255 

Co LIAS ERATE ?. 

IPapilio erate, Esper, Ausl. Schmett. i, 2. pi. 119. f. 3. 

Male. Clear yellow : fore wing with the marginal band of a similar 
form to that in C. eclusa and C. Jieldi, unspotted, of a cuprescent- 
brown colour, and of the same width except at the apex, where it is 
broader owing to the more pointed form of wing ; the band also has 
the curvature of its inner border as in those species, and its upper 
end with distinct streaks extending for a short distance along the 
anterior veins : hind wing with the band and discal spots similar to 
those in European C. erate. Underside paler than in C. erate ; 
discal spots less distinct, the discoidal spot on fore wing entirely 
black, that on hind wing large with whitish centre and lobate red 
border. 

Expanse 2 inches. 

This has the apex of the fore wing more prolonged than in Euro- 
pean C. erate, the angle more acute, and the exterior margin more 
oblique. 

COLIAS LATIVITTA, U. Sp. 

Male. Yellow : fore wing with a broad unspotted blackish band, 
the inner border of which is angulated inward at the upper median 
vein ; the band very sparsely yellow-speckled on the anterior veins ; 
discocellular spot large, black : hind wing with a broad blackish 
crenulated band and a large orange-yellow discocellular spot. 
Underside olivaceous yellow : fore wing with a black discocellular 
spot and a distinct discal row of spots : hind wing with a moderate- 
sized dull pearly-white red-bordered discocellular spot. 

Female. Yellow, or white ; the band on fore wing broader than in 
male, and with not very prominent upper and lower yellow spots ; 
the discocellular spot distinct : hind wing darker, with broad mar- 
ginal band traversed inwardly by large ill-delined yellow spots; 
discocellular spot brighter red. 

Expanse 1| to 2f inches. 

Hab. Nepal (type) ; Kunawar ; Kangra {Hockiriff). Cashmere 
(He/lard). In coll. F. Moore and British Museum. 

The colour in this species is of a deeper yellow, and the bands on 
both wings are conspicuously broader than in the preceding (O. 
pallida) or S. -Russian specimens of C. erate. 

HUPHINA PHRYNE. 

Papilio phryne, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 473 (1/75). 
Papilio evagete. Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 221. f. F, G. 

Belenois mesentina. 

Papilio mesentina. Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 270. f. A B 

(1782). 

Synchloe daplidice. 

Papilio daplidice, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 760 (1767). 



256 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

Synchloe callidice. 

Papilio callidice, Esper, Schmett. i. 2, pi. 115. f. 2, 3 (1800). 

Pieris halora, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 489, pi. 31. f. 15. 

Synchloe BUTLERi, D. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 6, G a.) 
Synchlo'e butleri, Hocking, MS. 

Near to S. callidice. Upperside — basal area of both wings deeply 
black-speckled : fore wing with a narrow black discocellular spot, 
shorter subapical streak, and more distinctly-formed marginal spots : 
hind wing with an interrupted black discocellular streak, and aa 
exceedingly indistinct blackish-speckled anterior discal fascia. 
Underside — fore wing with the costal border and apex pale reddish 
ochreous ; discocellular spot and apical streaks black : hind wing 
pale reddish ochreous, with black streaks bordering all the veins, 
the streaks interrupted across the disk. 

Expanse 1§ inch. 

Hub. Lahoul. Iji coll. British Museum. 

Delias eucharis. 

Papilio eucharis, Drury, 111. Exot. Ins. ii. pi. 10. f. 5, 6 (1773); 
Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 201. f. B, C, pi. 202. f. C. 

Delias sanaca. 

Pieris sanac a, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I.C. i. p. 79 (1857); 
P.Z.S. 1857, p. 103, pi. 44. f. 4. 

Mancipium nepalense. 

Pieris nepalensis, Gray, Lep. Nepal, pi. 6. f. 3(1846). 

" Larvae May 5 reared from eggs found on the Nasturtium. 
Imagines came out May 25. Two or three broods in the year. 
Common." 

Mancipium canidia. 

Pieris canidia, Sparrm. Amcen. Acad. vii. p. 504 (1768). 

Papilio gliciria, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii, pi. 171. f. E, F (1779). 

Aporia soracta. (Plate XI. fig. 5, larva.) 

Aporia soracta, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C i. p. 83 (1857). 

" Larvae found on kusmul April 6, went to pupa May 8 ; all 
victims of Ichneumons. Others also found in the same mouth the 
following year." 

Aporia nabellica. 

Pieris nabellica, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. i. p. 509 (1836). 

Metaporia phryxe. 

Pieris phrycce, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. i. p. 446 (1836) ; Jacquem. 
Voy. Inde, iv. Ins. p. 16, pi. 2. f. 1 (1844), $ . 

Metaporia caphusa. 

Metaporia. caphusa, Moore, P. Z. S. 18/2, p. 564. 



1882.] from the n.w. himalaya. 257 

Papilionin^, 

Parnassius hardwicki. 

Parnassius hardwichi, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 32 (1831) ; Lep. Ins. 
Nepal, p. 7, pi. 4. f. 1, la; Catal. Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. p. 7&, pi. 12. 
f. 8. 

P.jacquemontii, KoUar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 407, pi. 2. f. 3, 4 
(nee Boisd.). 

" March. Flies over the snow ; 8000 feet. Sixteen specimens taken 
in one day, all males but one." 

Parnassius jAcauEMONTi. 

Parnassius jacquemonti, Boisd. Spec. Gea. Lep. i. p. 400 (1836) ; 
Blanchard, Jacq. Voy. Inde, iv. Ins. p. 16, pi, 1. f. 3, 4 ; Gray, Catal. 
Lep. Ins. B. M. pi. 12. f. 1, 2. 

" Head of the KuUu valley, and slopes of the Rhotang Pass ; 
10,000 up to 13,000 feet." 

Parnassius charltonius. 

Parnassius charltonius. Gray, Catal. Lep. Ins. B. M. p. 77, 
pi. 12. f. 7, 6 (1852); Moore, Yarkand Mission, Lep. p. 5, pi. 1. 
f.3, $. 

" Baralacha Pass, 18,000 feet, June. Very rare." 

Parnassius charino. 

Parnassius charino. Gray, Catal. Lep. Ins. B. M. p. 76, pi. 12. 
f. 12(1852). 

" Top of the Rhotang Pass, 13,000 feet. Very rare." 

Dalchina sarpedon. 

Papilio sarpedon, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 747 ; Esper, Ausl. 
Schmett. pi. 8. f. 2. 

"Flies round and round the tops of trees." 

Dalchina cloanthus. 

Papilio cloanthus, Westw. Arcana Ent. i. pi. 11. f. 2(1841); 
Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 405, pi. 2. f. 1, 2. 

Zetides axion. 

Papilio axion, Felder, Verh. zool. -hot. Gesch. 1864, pp. 305, 
350. 

P. eurypilus, Hiibn. Samml. ex. Schmett. ii. pi. 107 (nee Linn.). 

Near to Z. telephus. Underside — fore wing with the discoidal 
spots larger, the two at the end confluent ; medial transverse band 
wider posteriorly and less divided by the veins ; the marginal row of 
spots narrower and more luuular in form, the upper being wider 
apart ; hind wing with a broader medial band, the subbasal costal 
red-banded streak narrower ; two short black spots divided by a red 
lunula within the end of the cell, the other red-lunulated spots 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XVII. 17 



258 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21 

similar ; marginal row of spots somewhat larger, less conical, and all 
entire. 

Expanse 3 inches. 

Hab. Kangra district. In coll. Rev. J. H. Hocking. 

Sarbaria, n. g. 

Fore wiug comparatively longer and of less breadth than in typical 
Achillides {A. jxiris), the exterior margin being more oblique ; the 
male ' with a tomentose (glandular) streak on the submedian and 
three lower median veins, and another between the submedian and 
lower median : hind wing of less breadth, and more deeply scalloped. 

Type S. polyctor. 

Sarbaria polyctor. 

Papilio polyctor, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. i. p. 205 (1836) ; Jacq. 
Voy. Inde, iv. Ins. pi. 1. f. 1, 2; KoUar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 403, 
pi. 1. 

"Taken in June." 

Sarbaria peeroza, n. sp. 

Allied to jwlyctor, Boisd. (Jacq. Voy. pi. 1. f. 1). Differs in 
being comparatively smaller, with shorter hind wing and smaller tail, 
the irrorations of a more golden-green colour, and the woolly streaks 
of the male somewhat shorter. On the hind wing the broad an- 
terior portion of the band is shorter, and of a turquoise-blue (not 
purple-blue as in polyctor) ; the slender hind part of the band is 
also less distinct in male, and obsolete in female. 

Expanse, S S^, $ 3| inches. 

Hab. Dharmsala (March). In coll. British Museum. 

Papilio asiatica. 

Papilio machaon, Gray, Lep. Ins. Nepal, p. 6, pi. 3. f. 1 (nee 
Linn.). 

Pap. machaon, var. asiatica, Menetr. Catal. Mas. Petr., Lep. i. 
p. 70 (1855). 

" Larva on parsnip, July 9th. Perfect insect emerged August 6th. 
6200 feet. Also found on the samp, a kind of fennel, on March 
20th." 

Orpheides erithonius. 

Papilio erithonius, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 232. f. A, B (1/82). 

" Larva on orange-tree, Dharmsala, May 23 ; pupa, June 3. 

Byasa, n. g. 
Fore wiug lengthened, somewhat narrow, triangular ; costa much 
arched, apex not pointed ; exterior margin very long and extremely 
oblique, slightly convex anteriorly ; posterior margin short : hind 
wing very long hindward, narrow ; costa and abdominal margin very 
short ; exterior margin deeply scalloped, and with a very broad short 
^ In Achillides the males have no tomentose streaks. 



1882]. FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 259 

spatular tail ; cell long, narrow, pointed at the end. Antennae short, 
gradually thickening to the end. 

Larva with several short tubercles on each segment. Pupa broad 
laterally ; head broad and slightly cleft in front ; thorax convex 
above and beneath, angular at the side ; vring-cases dilated laterally ; 
dorsal segments with foliaceous lateral appendages. 

Type B. philoxemis. 

Byasa philoxenus. (Plate XII. figs. 5, 5 a, larva.) 

Papilio philoxenus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 32 (1831); Lep. Ins. 
Nepal, p. 5, pi. 2; Westw. Cab. Orient. Eat. pi. 40. f. 2. 

Larva 2j inches long, pale purple-brown ; head and legs shining 
black ; head small, corneous, sparsely covered with short hair ; second 
segment with two short tubercles on each side, and a transverse 
flattened corneous tentacular sheath above the head ; third, fourth, 
fifth, and sixth segments each with eight short tubercles (four on 
each side), the dorsal series longest ; seventh, eighth, ninth, and 
tenth segments each with six tubercles, and eleventh, twelfth, and 
thirteenth segments each with four shorter tubercles ; each tubercle 
red at the apex, and purple black-streaked at the base ; intervening 
space between the tubercles with a transverse and a dorsal series of 
paler purple-black spots ; these markings all with pale borders ; 
seventh and eighth segment each with a lateral, short, broad oblique 
white band. 

Pupa reddish-ochreous, broad laterally ; head broad and slightly 
cleft in front ; thorax convex above and beneath, angular at the 
side ; wing-cases dilated laterally ; dorsal segments with foliaceous 
lateral appendages. 

The above descriptions of the larva and pupa are taken from 
specimens found by Mr. Hocking " feeding on a creeping pitcher- 
plant {Nepenthes''.) on September 20th, at an elevation of 6200 feet. 
The larvae changed to pupae on Sept. 27, the pupa making a 
squeaking noise when touched." 

Byasa ravana. 

Papilio ravana, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 96 (1857). 
Papilio x>hiloxenus, var., Westw. Cab. Orient. Ent. pi. 40. f. 4. 

Menelaides aristolochi^. 

Papilio aristolochicE, Fabr. Ent. Syst. p. 443 (1775). 
Papilio diphilus, Esper, Ausl. Schmett. pi. 40. f. 1, $ . 
Laertias pammon. 

Papilio pammon, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 746(1767), 6 • 

Papilio polytes, Linn, ibid., $ . 

" Larva on lemon-tree, June 19th. The perfect insects (male 

d female of pammon form) fly from March to December, at an 
elevation of 6000 feet The polytes form, $ , is more restricted to 
the hot valleys, not appearing before June, and very rarely found 
above 4000 feet." 

17* 



260 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

Sainia, n. g. 

Fore wing comparatively narrower than in lliades (memnon group) ; 
costa more arched ; apex very convex ; exterior margin very oblique 
and slightly sinuous ; posterior angle somewhat pointed. Hind wing 
narrow, elongated hindward ; costa very short ; exterior margin 
moderately scalloped ; the female of typical species without a tail ; 
cell longer than in lliades. 

Sainia protenor. 

Papilio protenor, Cram. Pap. Exot. i. pi. 49. f. A, B (1779). 

Cadugoides, n. g. 

Fore wing elongated, triangular ; costa arched towards the end, 
apex convex ; exterior margin oblique, even, and concave in the 
middle, posterior angle rounded ; cell very long, extending two 
thirds the wing : upper discocellular outwardly oblique, lower in- 
wardly oblique and concave : hind wing fan-shaped ; the costal 
margin very long, extending beyond posterior angle of fore wing, 
apex abruptly convex ; exterior margin short, very oblique and 
slightly scalloped ; abdominal margin somewhat long. Antennae 
short, slender, club moderately and gradually thickened to tip. 

Type C. agestor. 

A mimic, in both general form and pattern, of Caduga tytia, of 
the JEuploeince. 

Cadugoides agestor. 

Papilio agestor. Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 32 (1831) ; Lep. Ins. Nepal, 
p. 6, pi. 4. f. 2. 

Cadugoides gopala, n. sp. 

Papilio agestor, Westwood, Arcana Ent. p. 59, pi. 16. f. 2 
(nee &ray). 

Female. Intermediate between C. agestor and C govindra : fore 
wing with similar markings to those of the same sex, except that the 
three submarginal spots are more conical in shape and concave on their 
outer edge than in either of the above species, the marginal row of 
small spots being like those in C. agestor : hind wing less produced 
apically, the exterior margin more convex and more prominently 
scalloped than in female C. agestor, the red colour of a considerably 
paler tint than in either species, being somewhat yellowish towards 
the base and along the outer veins, the veins basally and the dis- 
coidal streaks are black-lined ; the intermediate streaks of similar 
form to those in C. agestor, but of an ochreous-grey tint ; the discal 
series with slight blackish outer ends, and an outer marginal series of 
large blackish conical spots. Body as in C. agestor. 

Expanse 4 inches. 

Hab. Kangra district. In coll. British Museum. 



1882.] FROM THE N.W, HIMALAYA. 261 

Cadugoides GOVINDRA. 

Papilio govindra, Moore, Ent. Monthly Mag. i. p. 101 (1864) ; 
P. Z.S. 1865, p. 486. 

Papilio agestor, Kollar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. pi. 3. f. 1, 2 (nee 
Gray). 

Chilasa dissimilis. 

Papilio dissimilis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 782 (1767) ; Clerck, 
Icones, pi. 16. f. 2. 
" Flight very strong." 

Chilasa panope. 

Papilio panope, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 782 (1767) ; Cram. Pap. 
Exot. iv. pi. 295. f. E, ¥.' 

HESPERIID^. 

Badamia exclamationis. 

Papilio exclamationis, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 530 (1775). 
Pajnlio ladon, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 284. f. C, $ . 

ISMENE CEDIPODEA. 

Ismene cedipodea. Swains. Zool. lUustr. i. pi. 16 (1820-21). 

Choaspes benjamini. 

Thymele benjamini, Guer. Deless. Voy. Inde, ii. pi. 22. f. 2, 2 a 
(1843). 

Parnara mangala. 

Hesperia mangala, Moore, P. Z. S. I860, p. 792. 

SUASTUS gremius. 

Hesperia gremius, Fabr. (Butler, Catal. Fabr. Lep. B. M. p. 271, 
pi. .3. f. 7. 2). 

Hesperia divodasa, Moore, Catal. Lep, Mus. E.L C. i. p. 255. 

SuASTUS ELTOLA. 

Hesperia eltola, Hewits. Exot. Butt. iv. Hesp. pi. 4. f. 40 (1869). 

Chapra mathias. 

Hesperia mathias, Fabr. (Butler, Catal. Fabr. Lep. B. M. p. 275, 
pi. 3. f. 8, 6). 

Chapra prominens, n. sp. 

Male and female. Upperside dark oHve-brown, basal area brighter 
olive. Male — fore wing with eiii;ht rather large quadrate yellowish 
semidiaphanous spots, three being disposed before the apex, three 
discal,and two very obliquely at end of the cell ; a prominent narrow 
oblique yellow brand or streak below the cell, which in the female is 
replaced by two spots, the upper one of which is very small : hind 



262 MR. F. MOORE ON LEPIDOPTERA [Feb. 21, 

wing with four yellow semidiaphanous contiguous spots. Underside 
paler ; spots on fore wing as above, the brand showing as a diffused 
yellow patch from its outer edge ; the series of spots on hind wing 
more prominently white, with a fifth spot at the upper end, and one 
also at the upper end of the cell. 

Expanse If inch. 

Hah. N.W. Himalaya: Tonse valley, 6000 feet; Gurwhal 
{Lang) ; Kussowlee ; Kangra. In coll. F. Moore, Major Lang, and 
and British Museum. 

An alhed species to this, from Shanghai, N. China, has recently 
been described by Mous. Mabille as Gegenes sinensis (Bull. Soc. 
Zool. de France, 1877, p. 232), from which the above differs in its 
somewhat broader wings and larger size of the markings on the 
fore wing. 

Padraona dara. 

Eesperia dara, KoUar, Hiigel's Kasch. iv. p. 455 (1844). 
Pamphila meesa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 509, pi. 30. f. 9. 

Ampittia maro. 

Hesperia maro, Fabr. (Butler, Catal. Fabr. Lep. B. M. p. 279, 
pi. 2. f. 12, c?). 

Taractrocera sagara. 

Pamphila sagara, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 792. 

Thanaos stigmata. 

Thanaos stigmata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 694. 

ISOTEINON MASURIENSIS. 

Isoteinon masuriensis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 693, pi. 45.' f. 3. 

Hyaeotis adrastus. 

Hesperia adrastus. Cram. Pap. Esot. iv. pi 319, f. F, G (1780). 

Plesioneura praba, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 790. 

Hesp. phanicis, Hewits. Ex. Butt. Hesp. pi. 4. f. 36, 37 (1869). 

Tagiades menaka. 

Pterygospidea menaka, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 778. 

Sarangesa pxjrendra. 

Pyrgus purendra, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E.I. C. i. p. 250, 

Upperside greyer than in S. dasahara, with paler mottled 
markings : fore wing with a semidiaphanous white continuous streak 
across the cell near its end, a continuous small spot above it, three 
small conjoined spots before the apex, and three on the disk, the 
middle discal spot large and quadrate. Cilia alternated with grey. 
Underside paler ; fore wing marked as above, and with an additional 
small white lower spot on the disk, and a basal streak below the cell: 
hind wing with a small whitish spot in middle of the cell, and a less 
distinct discal curved series. 

Expanse I5 inch. 



1882.] FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYA. 263 

Rah. Bombay , Umballa ; Kussowlie ; Kangra. In coll. Britisli 
Museum aud F. xMoore. 

Sarangesa dasahara. 

Nisoniades dasahara, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 787. 

Udaspes folus. 

Papiliofolus, Cram. Pap. Exot. i. pi. 74. f. 7 (1779). 

Plesioneura alysos. 

Plesioneura alysos, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 789. 

Plesioneura leucocera. 

Hesperia leucocera, KoUar, Hugel's Kasch. iv. p. 454 nl IS 
f. 3, 4 (1844). . F • • 

Plesioneura pulomaya. 

Plesioneura pulomaya, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 787. 

Antigonus angulata. 

Pterygospidea angulata, Feld. Verb. z.-b. Gesch. 1862, p. 488 • 
Novara Reise, Lap. iii. pi. 73. f. 10, 11. 

Achlyodes sura, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 786. 

Coladenia fatih. 

Hesperia fatih, KoUar, Hugel's Kasch. iv. p. 454 pi 18 f 5 
6, $. r , ^ • • . , 

Hesperia galba. 

Hesperia galba, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. p. 352 (1793). 

Pyrgus superna, Moore, P. Z."S. 1865, p, 792. 

GOMALIA ALBOFASCIATA. 

Gomalia albofasciata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 144- Lap of 
Ceylon, i. p. J 83, pi. 71. f. 7. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate XI. 
Fig. 1, 1 a. Argynnis baralacha, n. sp., p. 242. 

2, 2 a. Hypolycmna ohandrana, n. sp., p. 249. 

3, Larva and pupa of Athyma opalina, p. 241 . 

4, 4 a. Larva and pupa of Symbrcnfkia hyppodus, n sp., p. 243 

5, Aporia somcfa, larva and pupa, p. 256. ' ^'' >■' 

6, 6 a. Synchloe butleri, n. sp., p. 256. 

Plate XH. 
Fig. 1. Ixias pygmisa, n. sp., p. 254. 

2. Terias apicalis, n. sp. p. 253. 

3. Terias irregularis, n. sp., p. 253. ^ 

4. 4 a. Tarueus alteratus, u. sp., p. 245. 

5. 5 a. Larva and pupa oi Byasa philoxenus, p. 259. 

6. 6 a. Tarueus venosus, n. sp. p. 245. 

7. Ypihima indecora, n. sp., p. 238. 

8. Calysisme subfasciata, n. sp., p. 237. 



264 ON PHYLLOMEDUSA HYPOCHONDRIALIS. [Feb. 21, 

2. Notes on a South-American Frog lately living in the 
Society's Gardens. By G, A. Boulenger^ C.M.Z.S. 

[Eeceived January 30, 1882.] 
(Plate XIII.). 

The small Frog {Phyllomedusa hypocTiondrialis) which is the 
subject of this communication hved but a few days in the Society's 
Gardens. It had been obtained at Pernambuco by Dr. Stvadling ; 
and was, I believe, the first specimen of this species that has reaches 
Europe alive. 

In spite of its small size (34 millim. from snout to vent), it is 
nearly adult, the species to which it belongs never growing to a size 
superior to that of the common Tree-frog of Europe ; whilst Phyllome- 
dusa bicolor, of which P. hypochondrialis has frequently been re- 
garded as tlie young, reaches the largest size which any member of 
the family Hylidse attains, viz. 130 millim. from snout to vent. 

It is not necessary to enter into details concerning the structural 
characters of this animal, as these will be found in my ' Catalogue 
of the Batrachia Ecaudata in the British Museum ' (p. 434), where 
thirteen species of Phylloinedusa ai-e distinguished ; but I think it 
well to state that the inner toe only is opposable to the others, as has 
been figured by Burmeister in another species of the same genus, 
and not the two inner toes, as believed by many authors. 

The point of interest in the specimen, which I had the pleasure of 
observing alive, is the coloration. This is very different from that of 
spirit-specimens, and quite worthy of notice, as it does not appear 
to have been recorded before. 

When the animal sits half asleep on a leaf or against the glass of 
its case, the limbs folded against the body, as most Tree-frogs are 
in the habit of doing during the daytime, it is entirely of a light, 
rather faded green, without any markings. But when it stretches 
out its limbs, the aspect is very different, all the concealed surfaces, 
viz. the upper surface of the humerus, the two inner fingers, the 
flanks, the lateral and upper surfaces of the femur with the exception 
of a narrow green streak (the only part of the femur seen when the 
limbs are folded), the inner side of the tarsus and the three inner 
toes, being of a bright orange-colour, elegantly marked with trans- 
verse purplish-black bars. 

The upper lip has a very narrow white margin. A fine blackish 
line extends from the angle of the mouth to the middle of the side, 
separated by a white streak from the green of the back. Another 
blackish line round the lower lip ; another, white-margined, along 
the outer edge of the forearm and fourth finger, and tarsus and fifth 
toe. 

The lower surfaces are pure white, with the exception of the tibiae, 
which are orange. 

The iris is silvery white, as has been figured by Burmeister in 
Phylloinedusa burmeisteri. 



P,Z. S. 1882. PI XIII. 




Ediwn Wilson dd. eiliih. 



Mintem Bros. imp. 



PHYLLOMEDUSA HYPOCHONDRIALIS. 



,^|S>!4«%, 



.P 



=?^i!^«J^#■ 



P.Z.S.1882,PL.AlV. 



a I 




J.Smil.lili-i 



Han^iarl. itup. 



1 MUS NIGRICAUDA, 
2.SACC0STOMTJS LAPIDARfUS 



1882.] MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM S.W. AFRICA. 265 

The lower eyelid is transparent in this specimen, whilst in others 
it is very frequently rendered opaque by white veins. 

The specimen must evidently be referred to Cope's Phyllomedusa 
azurea, in spite of the almost total absence of white areolations on 
the lower eyelid ; but I do not believe that species to be distinct from 
P. hypochondrialis. The characters which, according to Mr. Cope, 
distinguish P. hypochondrialis from P. azurea are the presence of 
vomerine teeth, the absence of a white lateral streak, and the trans- 
parence of the lower eyelid. Mr. Cope does not say if his knowledge 
of the former species rests upon the type specimen in the Paris 
Museum. This 1 had opportunity of examining four years ago. I 
do not recollect whether I paid attention to the vomerine teeth ; but 
I came to the conclusion that P. hypochondrialis and P. azurea are 
not specifically distinct. The transparence or opaqueness of the 
lower eyelid I do not consider a specific character in this or any other 
species of the genus Phyllomedusa ; the presence or absence of a white 
streak from the mouth does not seem to me of much importance. 
As to the vomerine teeth in the typical specimen, doubts may be enter- 
tained of their presence ; all the specimens in the British Museum 
lack these teeth. 



3. On a small Collection of Rodents from South-Western 
Africa. By Oldfield Thomas, F.Z.S,, British Museum. 

[Eeceived February 7, 1882.] 

(Plate XIV.) 

The present collection was obtained by the late Mr. C. J. Andersson 
in Damaraland and the neighbouring countries, and has recently 
been acquired by the British Museum. The skins are unfor- 
tunately in a rather delapidated condition, but the dates and localities 
have in most cases been preserved. Altogether the Museum has 
received twenty-four of Mr. Andersson's specimens, belonging to ten 
species, of which the following list, owing to our ignorance of the 
Rodent fauna of this region, may be of some service. 

1. SciuRus coNGicus, Kulil, Beitr. z. Zool. p. 66 (1820). 
Three specimens. Cune'ne river, N. Damaraland, July 25, 1867. 

2. Gerbillus TENUIS, Smith, 111. Zool. S. Afr., Mamm. pi. xxxvi^ 
fig. 2 (1849). 

Three specimens. Otjimbinque, February 7, 1865. 

3. Pachytjromys auricularis (Smith), S. Afr, Quart. Journ. ii. 
p. 160(1834). 

Five specimens. Otjimbinque, February 6 and 7and March 6, 1865. 
This species is, as Mons. Huet has shownS undoubtedly congeneric 
with the peculiar Pachyuromys duprasi, Lataste". 

' Le Nat. vol. i. p. 339 (1881). » Le Nat. i. p. 314 (1880). 



266 MR. O. THOMAS ON RODENTS FROM S.W. AFRICA. [Feb. 21, 

4. Saccostomus lapidarius. (Plate XIV. fig. 2.) 

Saccostomus lapidarius, Peters, Reise n. Mossamb., Saug. p. 167 
(1852). 

Three specimens. Exact localities and dates not preserved. 
This rare species has hitherto been recorded only from Mozambique, 
where Prof. Peters collected his types. 

5. Mus (IsoMYs) puMiLio, Sparrm. K. Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1784, 
p. 236. 

Two specimens, a, $ , Table Mountain, November 30 ; and b, S > 
"between Aamhouf and Hountop," Great Namaqualand, June 8, 
1862. 

6. Mus (Leggada) minutoides, Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. 
ii. p. 157 (1834). 

One specimen. Damaraland. 

7. Mus siLACEUS, Wagn. Arch. f. Naturg. 1842, i. p. 11. 

Four specimens, a &, b, Otjimbinque, August 19 and 27, 1866 ; 
e & rf, no exact localities. 

8. Mus nigricauda, sp. n. 

One specimen, c?, Hountop R., Great Namaqualand, June 1, 
1862. 

For description see below. 

9. Mus coucHA, Sm. App. Rep. Exp. p. 43 (1836). 
One specimen. Elephant's Vley, October 30, 1859. 

10. Mus, sp. 

One specimen. No exact locality. 

There is thus one new species, No. 8, in the collection : and No. 10 
might also turn out to be new ; but it is represented by such a very 
indifferent specimen that I cannot determine this point with certainty. 

The following is a description of No. 8, a very well-marked species, 
quite distinct from any other African Rat. 

Mus NIGRICAUDA, sp. n. (Plate XIV. fig. 1.) 

Fur rather long and coarse, composed of but one kind of hair, 
there being no under- fur. ('entre of back m.ixed yellow and black, 
the greater part of the hairs having yellow distal halves, while others 
are wholly black. Sides of the head and body mixed white and 
black, the separation from the upper yellowish colour fairly well 
marked. Belly-hairs pure white to their bases. Ears rather large, 
thinly covered with short greyish hairs. Feet white above, the 
hairs longer at the ends of the toes, so as to conceal the claws. Tail 
slightly shorter than the head and body, nearly naked at its base, 
but thickly covered for its distal half both above and below with 
rather long shining black hairs, which form more or less of a pencil 
at the tip. Hind feet proportionally short, the six pads large and 



1882.] MR. FORBES ON THE PTERYLOSIS OF MESITKS. 267 

rounded, occupying nearly the whole of the fore part of the sole. 
First hind toe reaching just to the base of the second ; fifth to the 
end of the metacarpal of the fourth. 

Molars much as in the subgenus Isomys, broad and rounded, with 
numerous small but well-marked cusps. 

Approximate dimensions, in inches : — 









Forearm 






Incisors to 


Hearl and 




Hind 


and 


Ear- 




1st upper Molar 


body. 


TaiL 


foot. 


hand. 


conch. 


Skull. 


molars. series. 


6-2 


5-8 


1-01 


1-18 


0-65 


— 


•38 -21 



Judging from the analogy of other species, I should imagine that 
Mus nigricauda is an arboreal animal; for in nearly all climbing 
Rodents we find the rather short feet, large rounded foot-pads, and 
more or less bushy tail characteristic of the present species. The 
Dormice, Squirrels, and, most closely analogous of all, the Climbing 
Vesper-mice of Tropical America {Bhipidomys), may be cited as 
examples of forms which possess the above mentioned accompaniments 
of an arboreal habit of life. 



4. Description of the Pterylosis of Mesites, with Remarks 
on the Position of that Genus. By W. A. Forbes, 
B.A., Prosector to the Society. 

[Eeceived February 7, 1882.] 

When making some observations on the pterylographical and 
other peculiarities of Eupetes macrocercus ', I expressed regret at 
not having been able to obtain any specimen of Mesites, which in 
external appearance somewhat approaches Eupetes macrocercus, to 
study its pterylosis also. 

Since then, having obtained through Herr G. Schneider, of Basel, 
a skin of Mesites variegatus, I have been able, from an examination 
of it, to complete our knowledge of this most peculiar form as 
regards the distribution of its feathers. All that was previously 
known of this part of the structure of Mesites was the existence 
in that bird of five pairs of powder-down patches ", M. A. Milne- 
Edwards in his paper on it ^ having confined his observations to its 
osseous and internal structure ■*. Those interested in the various 
opinions which have been held by naturalists as to the exact syste- 
matic position of Mesites, I will refer to M. Milne-Edwards' s paper 
just quoted, only adding Mr. E. Bartlett's suggestion "that the 

' P. Z. S. 1881, p. 838. 

^ Vide E. Bartlett, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 292. 

3 Ann. Sci. Nat. (6) Zool. vii. 1878, art. 6. 

* An imperfect skull, extracted from the present skin, shows that the palate 
is schizognathous, the recurved maxillo-palatines being free in the middle line, 
and the vomer small and pointed — points not evident in Milne-Edwards's figure, 
his specimen, I believe, being somewhat imperfect. 



268 MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE [Feb. 21, 

genus Mesites should be arranged in the Natural System next to 
Eurypyga and its near ally Rhinochetus ." 

The nostrils of Mesites are long, linear concave-upward slits, 
extending for more than half the length of the beak, and covered 
above by a well-marked membranous valvular operculum, being in 
this respect very unlike the ordinary form of nostril in the Rails. 

The tarsi have about 10 or 11 distinct transverse scutellae ante- 
riorly, best developed internally, and there nearly meeting, along 
the lateral surface, a similar but somewhat more numerous series of 
smaller scutellse, which are developed along the posterior aspect of 
the leg, but become obsolete about ^ inch above the metatarso- 
phalangeal joint. Externally the two series of scutellse are separated 
by a distinct space covered by smooth, non-scutellated skin. This 
tarsal scutellation extends upwards above the *' knee " for about 
I inch, for which extent therefore the tibia is bare of feathers. 

The digits are all free from their bases ; the hallux is considerably 
the smallest of them ^ 

The number of remiges cannot be counted with certainty ; but 
there are certainly 10 primaries ; the wing is much rounded. 

There are 1 6 rectrices, a very non-passerine character - ; and both 
the upper and under tail-coverts are very long, with the last feathers 
rectriciform and extending along the tail for quite three fourths of 
its length both above and below. 

There is apparently no claw on the pollex; and the contour- 
feathers have no aftershaft — in both these respects differing from the 
BallidcB. The tail in my specimen has unfortunately been so cut 
that I have been unable to ascertain for certain whether the oil-gland 
is present or not. I can find no tuft, however ; and as we know that 
the gland, tljough present, is nude both in Ehinochetus and 
Eurypyga, such is probably its condition in Mesites too ^. 

The continuous head-feathering extends about halfway down the 
neck, and then gives off the dorsal and ventral tracts of each side, 
which are separated by well-marked spaces, of which the dorsal one 
is considerably the biggest. The feathering of the lower part of the 
neck is thus quadriserial, separated by as many apteria. In the 
lower part of the neck the two dorsal tracts, which are narrow but 
strongly feathered, are widely separated, and somewhat divergent, 
including between them the anterior pair of dorsal powder-down 
patches, but converge again in the interscapular region. Here they 
suddenly become much feebler, and are then continued on as the 
much more weakly-feathered posterior part of the dorsal tract, this 

^ By soaking out the plantar tendons, I have been enabled to ascertain that 
there is a good vinculum between the flexores lo7ifftis hallueis and profundus diffi- 
torum, the tendons of which are ossified near the bottom of the leg. In all 
ordinary Passeres, it will be remembered, this vinculum is quite absent. 

* According to Nitzsch, however, this is the number met with in the male of 
Menura superba. 

3 In answer to an inquiry on this subject, M. A. Milne-Edwards has been kind 
enough to inform me that his spirit-specimen of Mesites is also unfortunately 
damaged at the root of the tail, but that on an examination of a skin he finds 
{^[iparently an oil-gland present with no tuft. 



1882.] PTERYLOSIS OF MESITES. 269 

being of a furcate form, with the united part about 1 inch long, and 
inclosing a fairly broad median space. The limbs of this posterior 
fork are strongly dilated in the middle part of their extent, being there 
6 to 7 feathers broad, and united externally by scattered feathers with 
the very broad and long lumbar tracts, which are arranged in about 
six rows of not closely -placed feathers, the posterior row of these 
being considerably the stronger. 

The humeral tracts are not very broad or strong, and are quite 
distinct, anteriorly, from the inferior tract. 

This last, which (as already described) commences on each side 
about halfway down the neck, springing at once independently 
from the continuous feathering of the anterior cervical region, 
ceases altogether at the commencement of the pectoral region 
(extending as far as the most anterior of the ventral powder-down 
patches to be presently described). It recommences, however, a little 
lower down as a very narrow tract, composed at first of only single 
feathers, but subsequently becoming stronger and broader (though 
even here only two feathers broad), in which condition it runs on, as 
the main inferior tract, to terminate near the vent. 

Strange to say, what must be considered the equivalent of the 
outer pectoral branch of ordinary birds is here quite free throughout 
from the main stem, with which it is not even united anteriorly, 
where it is separated by the already-mentioned powder-down patch, 
whilst posteriorly it runs parallel to, but quite free from, the main 
stem. 

The powder-down patches of Mesites resemble those of the 
Ardeidce, of Leptosoma, and Podargus in their compactness, as well 
as in the definiteness of their areas, as opposed to the more scattered 
and diffused forms they present in Rhinochetus, Eurypyga, Cryp- 
turus, and other birds. But in their exact distribution they differ 
materially from any of these. 

As already described by Mr. E. Bartlett, there are five pairs ' of 
powder- patches in Mesites. Of these two pairs are dorsal, two 
ventral, and one lateral in position. All have the form of well- 
defined more or less oval areas, covered by a dense mat of closely 
aggregated long powder-down plumes. 

The most anterior pair is placed close to the median line, the 
patches being only slightly separated from each other, at the com- 
mencement (apparently) of the interscapular region and inclosed 
between the two dorsal tracts, a little before these pass into their 
weaker posterior fork. 

The second dorsal patch is situated on the rump, close to and just 
outside the terminal part of the dorsal tract, between that and the 
posterior termination of the lumbar tracts of each side. 

• In the Ardeidce the number varies from one pair (Baleeniceps) to four pairs 
{Cancroma). Three is the most ordinary number. The presence of a single 
caecum in Balcsniceps (as fortunately demonstrated by a preparation mounted 
in. the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons), together with these powder- 
down patches, renders its Ardeine nature nearly certain, as already suggested 
by Mr. A. D. Bartlett (P. Z. S. 1861, p. 131). 



270 MR. FORBES ON THE PTERYLOSIS OF MESITES. [Feb. 21, 

The third ^a.tch is inferior in position, lying just at the commence- 
ment of the pectoral region, between the two halves of the inferior 
tract internally and the anterior extremity of their separated pec- 
toral branch externally. 

The fourth patch is longer and narrower than its fellows, lying on 
the ventral region just outside the middle part of the inferior tract. 

The Jifth (lateral) patch lies more or less transversely, in the 
neighbourhood of the axilla, between the posterior ends of the outer 
pectoral and humeral tracts. 

No Ardeine bird has any such lateral pair of patches ; and only 
Cancroma has the anterior dorsal pair. These moreover lie outside, 
and not inside, the dorsal tracts in that bird. On the other hand, 
the concentrated patches of Mesites may easily be derived from the 
more diffused arrangement found in Rhinochetus ^ and Eurypyga. 

A full account of the pterylosis of Rhinochetus is still a 
desideratum, Dr. Murie having unfortunately omitted any account 
of the systematically more-important contour-feather tracts in his 
account of the " dermal structures " of the Kagu (/. c). 

I have at present insufficient material to describe these thoroughly, 
though an examination of two imperfectly-feathered specimens in 
spirit demonstrates considerable agreement between the Kagu and 
Mesites. Of Eurypyga we likewise have but imperfect information, 
due to Nitzsch", and not to my mind very satisfactory, judging 
from the material before me. 

In Rhinochetus, as in Mesites, the neck-feathering is quadriserial, 
though the median dorsal space is much narrower below and the 
lateral neck-spaces very broad ; the two dorsal tracts terminate close 
together about the level of the anterior end of the scapulae, and are 
quite separate from the posterior portion, which is only forked to a 
slight extent anteriorly, and widely dilated mesially. These differences 
seem to be due mainly to the greater development of the dorsal 
powder-down tracts of Rhinochetus, these covering most of the 
dorsal aspect of the trunk, except a narrow median space along the 
backbone and a reversed heart-shaped area on the pelvis, to which 
spaces therefore the contour-feathers are nearly confined. 

Below, as in Mesites, the inferior tract of each side is nearly or 
quite broken up into two by the interruption of a patch of powder- 
down feathers ; and the pectoral branch is likewise quite separated 
from the main tract, as in no other bird known to me except Mesites, 
powder-downs also intervening between the two. The humeral tract 
is quite free from the inferior one. On the other hand, in the 
number of its rectrices (lb), and the absence of an aftershaft to 
the feathers, Mesites differs from Eurypyga and Rhinochetus, both 
of which have 12 rectrices^ and an aftershaft. The number of 
primaries in all is 1 0. 

Mesites, Rhinochetus, and Eurypyga agree together, but differ 
from the Rallidce, in having well-developed and strong rectrices, in 

1 Cf. Murie, Trans. Z. S. vii. pi. 56. figs. 1-3. 

^ ' Pterylography,' Eay Soe. ed. p. 129, pi. viii. fig. 15. 

s Bhinochetus has uot 10, as erroneously stated by Murie, loc. cit. p. 468. 



1882.] ON THE ANATOMY OF ERETHIZON DORSATUS. 271 

the possession of powder-down patches, in the oil-gland being nude 
(IMesites), and in the interruption of the dorsal tract in the neighbour- 
hood of the scapulae. Pterylographically, therefore, there is no special 
reason to unite these forms with the Rails. Judging from M. Milne- 
Edwards's account and figures of the osteology of Mesites, numerous 
differences between these two forms also exist in the osseous parts 
of their structure. lu particular, the fact of Mesites being schi- 
zorhiual is a strong point in view of its relationship being, along with 
Rh'mochetus and its allies, to the PluviaUne group, where I have 
already ^ placed it. In spite of M. Milne-Edwards' s remarks ", I 
see no reason for doubting the value of the schizorhinal character of 
the nasal bones as a mark of the genetic affinities of birds, especially 
when, as in the present case, other facts point in the same direction. 
I should be inclined therefore to consider (I) that Mesites, 
JEurypijga, and Rhinochetus have all sprung from some common 
ancestor, which must have been a generalized Pluvialine form pro- 
vided with powder-down tracts ; (2) that of the forms which this 
common stock gave rise to, all have become extinct save the three 
in question, which, having become isolated in three widely separated 
localities, have each acquired certain special characters not found in 
the others ; (3) that, judging at least from the pterylosis, the 
Malagash Mesites is perhaps more nearly related to the New-Cale- 
donian Rhinochetus than to the Neotropical Eurypyga. 

5. Notes on the Anatomy of Erethizon dorsatus. 
By St. -George Mivart. 

[Eeceived February 16, 1882.] 

Having had an opportunity, through the kindness of Dr. Giinther, 
of examining a spirit-specimen of Erethizon dorsatus, the following 
points have appeared to me possibly of some interest. 

The tongue is long and narrow, its extreme length being 4"*7 and 
its greatest breadth (at its hindmost end) being 1"*4 ; close to the tip 
it is only -5 (cent.)^ Its hinder margin has a deep median notch. The 
intermolar eminence is considerable. There is no median groove on 
the dorsal surface ; and there are but two oval and rather large cir- 
cumvallate papiilfe at the hinder margin of the tongue. The long 
axes of these two papillae diverge forwards and outwards. The sur- 
face of the dorsum of the tongue is, for its anterior half, covered 

• Ibis, 1881, p. 4, and P. Z. S. 1881, p. 644. 

^ The greater or lesser size of the beak will not account for the schizorhinal 
or holorhmal character of the uares, as suggested by M. MUne-Edwards. Else 
why should the big-billed Plaialea, Ibises, Bidimculm, LaridcB, Alcidce, be all 
schizorhinal, whilst the slender-billed Bails, Colymbidce, and such Tubmares as 
Puffinus and Procellaria, to say nothing of such forme as the MeropidcB, Dendro- 
colaptidcB, and Nectariniid<B, are all equally holorhinal ? Nor can I "admit with 
M. Milne-Edwards that the Pteroclidai are related to the GallincB, or the Ibididce 
to Tantalus, there being plenty of collateral evidence to prove the reverse. Hence 
any argument based on such assiuned affinities also fails. 

In this paper aU the measurements are in centimetres, except where other- 
wise expressed. 



272 



PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE 



[Feb. 21, 



evenly with small, fine, soft conical papillae directed backwards. 
Amongst them a few round fungiform papillae are scattered ; but 
these become much more conspicuous on the intermolar eminence. 
There is no sublingua. 

The salivary glands are very largely developed. 

The parotid is exceedingly large and of very loose texture, its 
very numerous lobules being very much scattered and in part loosely 
coherent. It is arranged in two superimposed layers in folds of 
gland-substance, and extends over the whole side of the neck, 
where it forms a large mass dipping iuto a triangular cavity above 
the cleido-mastoid muscle, between it and the levator claviculce, 
and even a little beyond the clavicle. Its anterior margin is 
strongly concave forwards, extending almost as far anteriorly 

Fig. 1. 




Tongue of Erethyston dorsatus. 
cv, circum vallate papillse. 



beneath the mandibular angle as it does in front of the opening of 
the external auditory meatus. Its duct runs forwards across the 
masseter muscle, just below and parallel with the lower border of 
the zygoma, to open beside the anterior molar tooth. 

The submaxillanj is large and of very similar texture to, but only 
between 5 and | the size of the parotid. It is pyriform in shape, 
lying beside the inner border of the masseter, and separated from its 
fellow of the opposite side by the sternohyoid muscles. Its duct 
runs forwards along the inferior margin of the masseter muscle to 
end as usual. The length of the submaxillary is about 2"'4, its 
breadth about 1""5. The gland is almost divisible into two parts. 



1882.] 



ANATOMY OF ERETHIZON DORSATUS. 



273 



the hinder and larger part being crescentic and placed just behind, 
beneath, and within the angle of the mandible. The duct runs for- 
wards from the more anterior part of the gland. 

There is a considerable zygomatic gland placed beside the upper 
molars, its duct opening in the vicinity of the last upper molar. 

The (esophagus is rather narrow above (l''*0 in diameter), and 
extends for 2"'3 beyond the diaphragm. 



Fig. 2. 




The stomach of Ereihizon dormius partially cut open, showing 
the two internal folds. 

(B, oesophagus ; h.d, bile-duct ; f.d, pancreatic duct; jp.v, pyloric valve; 

sp, spleen. 



The stomach is an elongated pyriform viscus, bent very sharply 
on itself towards its pyloric end. Its walls are very thin ; and there 
are no longitudinal internal folds nor any marked transverse folds, 
except two. One of these is situated about an inch from the 
pyloric valve, on the convex side of the pyloric flexure {i. e. on 
the stomach's greater curvature) ; the other, less marked, ou the 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XVIII. 1 8 



274 



PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE 



[Feb. 21, 



concave side of and close to the flexure of the pylorus, on the 
cardiac portion of the stomach. The cardia is largely developed, 
extending 4"-5 beyond the entrance of the cEsophagus. The 
stomach of this species is much longer relatively than that of 
Hystrix javanicus, and it differs from the stomach of that species in 
having no sacculus between the cardia and pylorus. 

Length of the stomach, measured along its middle, in its naturally 



Fig. 3. 




Exterior of tlie ccecum of EretUzon dorsatm. 
l.i, large intestine ; s.i, small intestine. 



curved condition, 20"-6 ; vertical diameter of stomach at entrance 
of cesophagus 7""6 ; its diameter at pyloric flexure /"-G, from pyloric 
valve to entrance of bile-duct 3"-3, from entrance of bile-duct to 
that of pancreatic duct 2"'5. 

The general arrangement of the intestine appeared to correspond 
closely with that found in the Guinea-pig, — folds of large intestine 
being arranged immediately behind the stomach and right segment 



1882.] 



ANATOMY OF ERETHIZON DORSATUS. 



275 



of the liver ; a conspicuous fold of small intestine lay towards 
the right side of the hinder part of the abdominal cavity, while 
the voluminous caecum occupied its middle and part of its hindmost 
portions. 

The small intestine measured 13 feet 3 inches. The large intestine 
measured 10 feet 9 inches — the whole intestine thus measuring 24 
feet. 

The diameter of the duodenum at its commencement is 3"'3 ; but 
at 2""5 (1 inch) from the pyloric valve it contracts to 2". 



Fig. 4. 



■ 'r>m, 




The caecum of Erethizon dorsatus. 

Interior of the caecum, showing : — ia, the ileo-csecal valve ; c, the valvular con- 
striction at the commencement of the large intestine ; and gl, the line of 
glands extending between these two apertures. The colic pouch is the 
roimded prominence just beneath the letter c. The glands enlarged are 
figured separately. 



The diameter of the ileum about 2"-.5 (1 inch) from the ileo-caecal 
valve is l"-5. That of the colon at its first curve (just beyond the 
pouch of which its proximal end consists) is 3"*3 ; but I7""8 (7 
inches) nearer the anus it is only 1"'8. 

Tbe lower portion of the large intestine, however, is smaller in 
calibre than in the so-called small intestine. 

Tiie vilU of the small intestine are short, but delicate and close- 
set. There are a few solitary glands in the large intestine. 

In the small intestine there are seventeen Peyer's patches — nine 
large and oval, and eight exceedingly small. 

In the first five feet of the large intestine there is a series of 
glands, from 1"'2 to 3"-8 apart, situated along the free margin of 



276 



PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE 



[Feb. 21, 



the gut. Each consists of a little aggregation of from three to five 

crypts. 

The colon is smooth and not sacculated, save slightly at its com- 
mencement, where one of the bands of the cseeum is continued 
upon it. 

The cEecum is very large, and appears even yet larger than it is, 
because the proximal end o£ the colon, I. i, is dilated into a colic 
pouch which is 5"-3 (2y\, inches) in diameter. There is no sacculus 
rotundus as in the Hare and Rabbit. The total length of the 



Fig. .5. 




Diaphragmatic aspect of the liver of Erethison dorsafus. 

f.lg, falciform ligaments ; Ig, ligament ; LC and LL, left central and left lateral 
lobes ; EC and EL, right central and right lateral lobes ; S, spigelian 
lobe ; v.c, vena cava. 



caecum, measured (as curved) along its middle is 28 inches. Its 
breadth at the opening into it of the small intestine is 8".l {Zjo 
inches). 

There are three longitudinal bands, one extending along the con- 
cavity of the viscus, where the mesentery is attached, and one on 
each side. Only one of the three bands is continued upon the 
colon, namely the band (that on fig. 4) which extends along that side 



1882.] 



ANATOMY OF ERETHIZON DORSATUS. 



277 



of the caecum which is opposite the entrance of the ileum. This band 
is much more marked on tlie colon of Hijstrix cristata than on that 
of Uret/iizon. There is the normal ileo-csecal valve, and besides 
this a very remarkable valvular constriction, or circular reduplica- 
tion (c), at the entrance into the large intestine from the caecum. 
It is something like the pyloric valve, only less defined, especially 
on one side|. An essentially similar structure exists in the Guinea- 
pig, of which I have not met with any description. There is 
no spiral valve in the caecum, but only a series of constrictions 




Abdominal aspect of the liver of EretUzon dorsatus. 

Letters as before ; and C, caudate lobe ; h.a, hepatic artery ; h.d, hepatic 
duct, ; f.v, portal vein. 

corresponding to the saccuh formed by the longitudinal bands 
There are no Peyer's patches ; but there is a chain of glands (sixteen 
single or in pairs) which extends across from the ileo-csecal valve to 
the cseco-colic aperture. 

The liver consists of the normal four large lobes, with a small 
Spigelian and caudate lobe. There was, however, no gall-bladder 
in the specimen examined. The right segment is much larger than 

' \ preparation showing this structure, made from the specimen here 
described, has been preserved in the Museum of the Eoyal College of Surgeons. 



278 



PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THK 



[Feb. 21, 



the left segment. The left lateral lobe is larger than the left central. 
The right lateral lobe extends more transversely than dorso-ventrally ; 
roughly estimated, it about equals the left lateral lobe in size. The 
right central lobe is quite undivided, showing only a superficial furrov? 
on the middle of its abdominal surface. The Spigelian and caudate 
lobes are both triangular in outline ; and neither exhibits any segmen- 
tation. 

Thus the liver of Erethison differs much from that of Hystrix 
javanica. In the latter I find^ that, though it agrees in having 

Fig. 7. 






Brain of Erethizon dorsatus. 
A, upper surface ; B, ventral surface ; C, side view; d, olfactory lobe ; op, optic 
nerves ; p.h, pituitary body ; 4, 5-7, 8, 9-12, pathetic, trigeminal, facial, 
auditory, glossopharyngeal, and hypoglossal nerves. 



the right segment much larger than the left, yet the left central 
lobe is larger than the left lateral one ; that the right lateral lobe 
extends mainly dorso-ventrally ; that the right central lobe has a 
very deep cystic notch, in which a gall-bladder is found ; that the 
right lateral lobe is larger than the left lateral lobe ; that the left 

^ From a specimen (no. 808 c) in the Museum of the Koyal College of Sur- 
geons. 



1882.] 



ANATOMY OF ERETHIZON DORSATUS. 



279 



central is larger than the left lateral ; and that the Spigelian lobe is 
larger both relatively and absolutely, and is also distinctly notched ; 
and that the caudate lobe is larger and more slender. How far 
these may be individual peculiarities I am of course unable to say. 

The siileen was very different in form from that of Hystrix 
javanica. In the latter it is much elongated, while in Erethizon it 
is oval in shape and somewhat flattened. Its length is 3"'3, its 
breadth 2". 

The lungs consist of three lobes on the right side and two on the 
left, whereof the upper left lobe is divided by two deep notches. 



Fig. 8. 




The brachial plexus of Erethizon dorsattis, 

I-VII, cervical vertebra ; 1, 2, 3, 4, the first four ribs; cir, circumflex nervo ; 
Ex. cut, external cutaneous ; In.c, internal cutaneous ; M, median, M.sp. 
musculo-spiral ; Ul, ulnar. 



The heart is very rounded at its apex. 

The aorta gives off a large innominate artery, from which the 
right subclavian and the two common carotids arise. The left sub- 
clavian is given off separately. 



280 PROF, ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE [Feb. 21, 

The female sexual organs have been described by Hunter ; see his 
' Essays and Observations,' vol. ii. p. 223. 

The brain presents a much less decidedly quadrate form than that 
of the Porcupine (most probably i7y«^re,«- cris^a^a)]figured by Leuret '; 
and it is even more smooth, there being but a single short and slight 
depression (or rudimentary sulcus) at the hinder end of the most 
anterior third of the dorsum of each cerebral hemisphere. The 
pituitary body is very large, and the corpora trapezoidea well deve- 
loped. - 

The bracJdal plexus^ is formed by the sixth, seventh, and eighth 
cervical nerves together with the first dorsal. 

The main part of the eighth cervical, having received a branch 
from the seventh cervical and another from the first dorsal, is 
continued as the median nerve, a smaller branch from the same 
junction constituting the uhua- nerve. The mtisculo-spiral nerve is 
formed by the smaller branch of the eighth cervical uniting with a 
portion of the seventh cervical. The circumflex nerve arises by two 
roots — one a branch of the sixth, and the other of the seventh, cervical 
nerves. The external cutaneous nerve is formed mainly by a branch 
of the sixth cervical ; but it receives a small filament from the root 
of the circumflex nerve just after the latter has been formed, as above 
stated. The internal cutaneous springs from a branch of the first 
dorsal, which receives a branch from the seventh cervical root of the 
median nerve. 

The lumbosacral plexus is composed of the last four lumbar and 
the first two sacral nerves. It is very simple, with little interlace- 
ment. The anterior crural nerve is formed by the first two of the 
six, from the junction of which the obturator nerve is also given off. 
The great sciatic nerve is formed by the last two lumbar nerves only ; 
while the small sciatic nerve springs from the junction of the two 
sacral nerves. 

LlMB-MuSCLES OF ErETHIZON. 

Muscles of the Fore Limb. 

Panniculus carnosus. — The dorsal portion of this muscle is inserted 
into the pectoral limbs partly over the spine of the scapula by 
attachment to the fascia investing the supraspinatus, and partly 
into the outer surface of the humerus (between the deltoid and the 
outer part of the triceps) down to the apex of its deltoid crest. The 
abdominal portion of the same muscle is inserted into the humerus 
outside the greater tuberosity and inside the upper part of the 
deltoid crest. 

The pectoralis is so united with the ventral part of the panniculus 
that they seem like two parts of one muscle. The true pectoralis, 
however, arises from the sternum, and is inserted into the distal 

' See plate iii. of Leuret and Gratiolet's ' Anat. Comp. du Systeme Nerveux.' 
The brachial and himbo- sacral plexuses were dissected out for me by Mr. 
W. Pearson ; and the drawings aj-e from his dissections. 



1882.] 



ANATOMY OF ERETHIZON DORSATUS. 



281 



half of the deltoid crest of the humerus, being much connected with 
the adjacent part of the deltoid, and a portion running on to fuse 
with the brachialis anticus. 

The sternocleido-tnastoid, arising as usual, is inserted into tlie 
antero-posteriorly extending ridge just behind the opening of the 
external auditory meatus. 

The levator claviculce arises, by a strong tendon, from the hypa- 
pophysial tubercle on the middle of the ventral surface of the atlas. 

Fig. 9. 




The lumbo-sacral plexus of Erethieon dorsatus. 

Ant. cr, anterior crural nerve ; G. Sc, great sciatic nerve ; L, last lumbar 
vertebra; /. Sc, small sciatic nerve; Ob, obturator nerve; P, pelvis; 
S*, first sacral vertebra. 

Expanding in a fan-shaped manner, it is inserted into fascia in- 
vesting the acromion and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, 
its fibres mingling with those of the dorsal part of the panniculus 
carnosus. 

The latissimns dorsi sends on a dorso-epitrochlear to the ole- 
cranon. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XIX. 19 



282 PROF. ST.-GEORGE MIVAUT ON THE [Feb. 21, 

The suhscapularis is a strong muscle arising from the cartilage of 
the first rib, and inserted into the outer part of the clavicle. 

The deltoid has a distinct clavicular portion, as well as that from 
the metacromion and fascia investing the infraspinatus. 

The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, and 
suhscapularis are as in the Agouti'. 

The biceps has the usual two heads and radial hisertion. 

The coracobrachialis consists of two parts — one descending to the 
middle of the humerus, the other down to the internal condyle. 

The hraehialis anticus takes origin from the back of the summit 
of the shaft of the humerus, from the whole of its outer side, and 
from its lower front part. It is inserted into the radial side of the 
ulna by a strong tendon. 

The triceps has the usual three heads and the normal insertion. 

The supinator longus is very distinct, arising by delicate fascia 
from the external condyloid ridge between the summit of the origin 
of the extensor carpi radialis longior and the brachialis anticus. It 
is inserted into the outer side of the styloid process of the radius. 

The supinator brevis arises from the annular ligament and shaft 
of the radius as usual, and extends about halfway down the radius. 

The pronator radii teres is a very strong muscle, and very ten- 
dinous beneath. It arises as usual from the internal condyle, and 
is inserted into the radius from its middle to its distal end. 

The flexor carpi radialis extends from the internal condyle to the 
proximal phalanx of the index. 

The^e,ror carpi w/nara springs from the internal condyle and the 
olecranon, and is inserted into a large sesamoid on the outer side of 
the base of the carpus. 

The pahnaris longus is very adherent to the muscle last described. 
It arises from the internal condyle, and is inserted into a cartila- 
ginous palmar disk. 

The flexor sublimis digitoruin is an exceedingly small muscle. It 
arises from the internal condyle. Near the wrist its tendon expands 
into a fascia which covers the palm. 

The flexor profundus digitorum and longus pollicis consist of four 
fleshy bellies : the first of these (the deepest and largest) springs 
from the ulna and interosseous membrane and the proximal part of 
the radius ; one part takes origin from the distal half of the flexor 
surface of the radius ; the third and smallest part comes from the 
internal condyle ; while the fourth part arises from the proximal 
part of the flexor surface of the ulna. These bellies end in a 
common tendon, which divides and goes to the five digits. 

There are three lumbrical muscles, as in the Agouti^, 

The pronator quadratus extends over the lower (distal) half of the 
radius and ulna. 

The extensor carpi radialis longior has a rather extensive origin 
from above the external condyle, quite distinct from that of the 
extensor carpi radialis brevior. It goes to the index, as usual. 

' See P. Z. S. 1866, p. 399. '' L. c. p. 403. 



1882.] ANATOMY OF ERETHIZON DORSATUS. 283 

The extensor carpi radialis brevior is a larger muscle, and has a 
stronger tendon, than that last noticed, which overlaps it at its 
origin. It goes to the third metacarpal. 

The extensor communis cHgitorum goes as usual from the external 
condyle to the four outer digits. 

The extensor carpi ulnaris takes origin from the external condyle 
and adjacent parts of the ulna, and goes to the base of the fifth 
metacarpal. 

The extensor ossis metacarpi polUcis is large and strong ; it takes 
origin from the adjacent sides of the radius and ulna, but mainly 
from the ulna and the strong interosseous ligament. Its insertion is 
as usual. 

The extensor minimi digiti, arising from the external condyle, 
sends tendons to the fourth and fifth digits. 

The extensor indicis is very delicate ; it takes origin from the 
middle of the exterior surface of the ulna, and sends its tendon to 
the index. 



Muscles of the Hind Limb. 

The gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus I found to be quite 
similar to those of the Agouti '. 

The gluteus medius is also as in the Agouti, save that the part of 
it which is inserted into the hinder side of the great trochanter is 
more distinct. I did not observe any distinct scansorius. 

The biceps consists of two parts, which are very similar to those 
of the Agouti : the first part arises from the sides of the first four 
caudal vertebrae, and is inserted by a strong tendon into the outer 
side of the patella ; the second part arises (being mainly tendinous 
at its origin) from the tuberosity of the ischium, external and 
superficial to the origin of the semimembranosus. It is inserted 
by fascia into the patella, the tuberosity of the ischium, the head of 
the fibula, and the external malleolus, and into the fascia which 
invests the outside of the leg. 

The most slender accessory muscle of the biceps, or tenuissimus, 
takes origin from the strong fascia which binds down the dorsal 
caudal muscles at the root of the tail, on a line with the great 
trochanter, and at the anterior end of, and covered in by, the origin 
of the first part of the biceps. It is inserted into the heel and inner 
side of the sole of the foot ; in its course it lies close to the hinder 
border of the second part of the biceps ; at its insertion it unites 
with the plantar fascia, having a certain adhesion to the inner side 
of the tuberosity of the os calcis, and more to the plantar surface of 
the extra tarsal ossicle. 

The semimembranosus also consists of two parts : one part, thick 
and fleshy, arises from the tuberosity of the ischium and the ramus 
below it. It goes to the upper half of the tibia (covered in by the 

^ See P. Z. S. 1866, p. 405. What, was therein taken to be the tensor vaginm 
femoris I now beheve to be the sartor ius. 



284 PROF, ST.-GEORGE MIVART ON THE [Feb. 21, 

insertion of the gracilis), and dips in beneath the internal lateral liga- 
ment of the lesser joint. Tbe second part arises frain the caudal 
vertebrae, beneath and closely connected with the hinder half of the 
origin of the first part of the biceps ; it is inserted behind and 
above the inner condyle of the femur by a small, but strong, round 
tendon. 

The semitendinosus has only a single origin (but a very extensive 
one) from the fascia investing the ilium, sacrum, and anterior caudal 
vertebrae ; it is inserted into the groove on the outer side of the 
strong (deltoid-ridge-hke) prominence on the front of the tibia, and 
by fascia into the tibia below and al)ove that prominence. The 
upper part of its insertion is enveloped by that of the gracilis. 

The sartorius arises from the anterior inferior spine of the ilium, 
and ends distally in the fascia investing the patella'. 

The gracilis consists of two distinct parts. The upper of these 
arises from the ilio-pectineal ridge and pubic symphysis ; it is 
inserted into the inner side of the patella and head of the tibia, its 
aponeurosis of insertion being continuous with that of the second or 
lower part of the gracilis. This second part (which is very large) 
arises from the pubic symphysis and the adjacent ramus of the 
ischium ; it is inserted into the front of the tibia from the patella to 
below the summit of the insertion of the semitendinosus. 

The adductor is made up of four more or less distinct muscles : — 

(1) Arises, beneath the gracilis, from the brim of the pelvis 
(ventrad of the origin of the pectineus) and from the front end of 
the pubic symphysis ; it is inserted into the middle third of the back 
of the femur between the insertion of the pectineus and that of the 
second part of the adductor, its insertion descending below the 
insertion of the former, but not so low as that of the latter. 

(2) The second part of the adductor {adductor magiius) arises 
from the symphysis pubis and the adjacent ramus of the ischium, 
covered in by the gracilis ; it is inserted into the lower half of the 
middle of the posterior surface of the femur. There is no Hunter's 
canal, the great femoral artery passing along the inner side of the 
lower end of the muscle. 

(3) This part {adductor primus) arises from the brim of the 
pelvis, dorsad of the origin of the first part of the adductor ; it is 
inserted into the back of the femur, on the inner side of the first part 
of the adductor and closely connected with it, flthough not extendi' g 
so far downwards, though it is conterminous above with that first 
portion. 

(4) The fourth part of the adductor arises from the pubic sym- 
physis beneath the adjacent parts of the origins of the first and 
second portions of the adductor. It passes down beside the hinder 
margin of the pectineus, and is inserted into the outside of the great 
trochanter. The great sciatic nerve passes down outside its in- 
sertion. 

^ This is the nuisple wbicli was described as the fensor vayina fcmwis in the 
Agouti (P. Z. S. ISIiG, p. 405); whiie what is there (p. 409) described as tbe sar- 
torius, is really, 1 believe, the upper portion of the gracilis. 



1882.] ANATOMY OF ERETHIZON DORSATUS. 2S5 

The pectineus extends from the brim of the pelvis dorsad of the 
origin of the third part of the adductor; it is inserted into the 
femur just below the lesser trochanter. 

The vastus externus is very large, its origin extending right up 
to the summit of the great trochanter. 

The vastus interims also extends very high up, namely up to the 
neck of the femur, dipping in within the insertion of the psoas. 

The crureus extends up to the neck of the femur, and is very im- 
perfectly separated from the vastus interims. 

The rectus femoris has the usual origin and insertion. 
The tibialis anticus is very large, but does not take origin from 
the femur ; it arises from the head of the fibula and the upper third 
of the tibia. Below its ends are two tendons, one of which is 
inserted into side of the proximal end of the metatarsal of the 
hallux, while the other goes to the plantar surface of the ectocunei- 
forme. 

The extensor longus dicjitorum arises by a tendon from the femur 
external to its rotular surface. It is a slender muscle, and sends 
tendons to the four outer digits. 

The extensor longus hallucis is very slender and small, arising only 
from the distal third of the fibula. 

The extensor brevis diyiiorum arises as usual, and sends tendons 
to the four outer digits. 

The peroneus longus is the most external of the peronei muscles, 
and arises from the head of the fibula. Passina; behind the 
external malleolus, it proceeds to the metatarsal of "the hallux as 
usual. 

The 'peroneus brevis arises from the antero-external aspect of the 
fibula. It is muscular down to the level of the malleolus, and ends 
in a very strong tendon (the largest of the peronei tendons), which 
is inserted into the proximal end of the fifth metatarsal. 

The peroneus quinti dicjiti is very slender, both as to its muscular 
belly and its tendon. It arises from the outside of the fibula, 
beneath the peroneus longus and behind the peroneus brevis, and in 
contact with the flexor longus hallucis. It becomes tendinous above 
the external malleolus ; and its slender tendon is inserted into the 
proximal part of the proximal phalanx of the fifth digit. 

The gastrocnem'ms has but the two normal heads, and is inserted 
into the calcaneal tuberosity. 

The soleus is very large and fleshy ; it arises from the outer side 
of the upper two thirds of the fibula, and joins the tendo Achillis. 

The plantaris takes origin from the pit on the outer side of the 
external condyle of the femur, beneath the external lateral ligament. 
It ends as in the Agouti'. 

The popliteus is as in the Agouti, 

The flexor longus digitorum is a large muscle arising from the 
tibia beneath the pophteus ; its tendon passes in a groove behind the 
internal malleolus, superficially to that of the tibialis posticus. It 

1 P. Z. S. 1800, p. 414. 



286 THE SECRETARY ON ADDITIONS TO THE MENAGERIE. [Mar. 7, 

unites with the tendon of the fiexor longus hallucis — which is of 
great size, and takes origin from three fourths of the fibula ; its 
very large tendon passes in a groove by itself (external to that of the 
flexor longus digitorum), and goes (after being joined by the tendon 
of the flexor longus digitorum) to the four outer toes. 

The tibialis posticus is of about the same size as the flexor longus 
digitorum. It arises from the head of the fibula and the fascia 
between it and the popliteus and between it and the flexor longus 
hallucis, with which it is closely connected. Its fleshy belly is 
visible in the middle of the back of the leg, the gastrocnemius having 
been removed. Its tendon passes in a groove behind the internal 
malleolus, beneath that of the flexor longus digitorum, and, passing 
to the edge of the foot, is inserted into the naviculare. 

The flexor accessorius et brevis digitorum seems to be repre- 
sented by a small muscle which takes origin from the tibial side of 
the OS calcis, and ends in two tendons, one of which is inserted into 
the second phalanx of the hallux, and the other into that of the 
index ; while muscular fibres of what seems to be the same muscle 
are inserted into the deep flexor tendon common to the flexor longus 
digitorum and flexor longus hallucis. 



March 7, 1882. 

Prof. Flower. LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary exhibited some living examples of Helix hamastoma 
from Point de Galle, Ceylon, which had been forwarded to the Society 
by Mr. J. Wood-Mason, F.Z.S., of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
Mr. Wood-Mason, writing on the subject, had remarked that " this 
Snail lives on the C ocoa-nut Palms ; and it is interesting to find that 
the same Alga that is found on the trunks of the palms has estab- 
lished itself on the outside of the shell, on which it Jorms a protective 
coating. Helix svperba has also a similarly green protective coat- 
ing, rendering it less visible to passing birds." 



The following papers were read : — 



Contents (continued). 

February 7, 1882. 

Page 
'. Mr. H. Seebohm. Exhibition of, and renaarks upon, a series of intermediate forms between 

Cardicdis caniceps and C. major 1S4 

Mr. Sdater. Exhibition of (on behalf of Mr. Peter Inchbald, F.Z.S.), and remarks upon, 

two curious Ducks shot near Darlington 134 

1. On the Classification and Distribution of the iEluroidea. By Sl-Geokge Mivaet 135 

"2. On some Points in the Anatomy of the Indian Darter {Ploius melanogaster), and on the 
Mechanism of the Neck in the Darters (Plofus), in connexion with their Habits. By 
W. A. Forbes, B.A., Prosector to the Society 208 

• 3. On some Eecent Corals from Madeira. Bv Prof. P. Mietin Duncan, M.B. (Lond.), 

F.R.S., Pres. Eoyal Micros. Soc. &c. (Plate VIII.) 213 

4. On the Arrangement of the Caralliidm, with Descriptions of new or rare Species. By 
Stuart O. Ridlet, M.A., F.L.S., &c., Assistant in the Zoological Department, 
British Museum. (Communicated by Dr. GtJNTHEE.) (Plate IX.) 221 



February 21, 1882. 

The Secretary. Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in January 1882. 

(Plate X.) 233 

1. List of the Lepidoptera collected by the Rev. J. H. Hocking, chiefly in tlie Kangra 

District, N.W. Himalaya, with Descriptions of new Genera and Species. — Part I. 
By F. MooEE, F.Z.S. (Plates XI., XII.) 234 

2. Notes on a South-American Prog lately living in the Society's Gardens. By G. A. 

BouLENGEE, C.M.Z.S. (Plate Xin.) 264 

3. On a small Collection of Rodents from South- Western Africa. By Oldfield Thomas, 

F.Z.S., British Museum. (Plate XIV.) 265 

4. Description of the Pterylosis of Mesites, with Remarks on the Position of that Genus. 

By W. A. Forbes, B. A., Prosector to the Society 267 

5. Notes on the Anatomy of Erethizon dorsatus. By St.-Geoege Mjvaet 271 



March 1, 1882. 
The Secretary. Exhibition of liTing examples of Helix luBmastoma 286 



LIST OF PLATES. 

1882. 
PART I. 



Plate Page 

f J Pig. 1. Chlorophonia torrejoni "^ 

■ [ Fig. 2. Diva braiiickii I „ 

-r-r I Fig3. 1, 2. PicumDus steindachneri <?, $ ( 

■ 1 Fig. 3. Picumnus jelskii (J J 

III. Ehinogale melleri 59 

IV. He.speromys (Rhipidomys) cinereua 98 

V. New Shells 117 

VI. New or rare Asteroidea 121 

Vll. Australian and Pacific Cicadidse 125 

VIII. New Corals from Madeira 213 

IX. Species of Coralliidaj . . 221 

X. Bos frontalis 233 

XI "1 
Xn I ^^^ Lepidoptera from N.W. Himalaya 234 

XIII. Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis 204 

YTV / ^g- 1- Mus nigricauda "I „ . 

1 Fig. 2. Saccoetomus lapidarius / '^"^ 



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LIST OF CONTENTS. 
PAKT II.— 1882. 



March 7, 1882. Page 

1 . On some Points in the Anatomy of the Great Anteater (^Myrmecophaga jubata). By W. 

A. Forbes, B. A., Prosector to the Society. (Plate XV.) 287 

2,Li8t of the Birds sent home by Mr. Joseph Thomson from the River Eovuma, East 

Africa. By Captain G. E. Shelley. (Plate XVI.) 302 

3. A second List of Birds recently collected by Sir John Kirk in Eastern Africa. By 

Captain G. E. Shelley. (Plate XVII.) 304 

March 21, 1882. 

The Secretary. Report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie in February 1882 .... 311 

Mr. J. E. Harting. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a mummified bird from an island 

on the coast of Peru 311 

Mr. Sclater. Remarks on the use of the term " Lipotype " 311 

Dr. Giinther, P.R.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon a skin of a variety of the Leopard 

{Felis pardtis) 312 

Dr. Giinther, F.R.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the shell of a new Tortoise of the ^ 

genus Geoemyda from Siam 312 

Mr. R. Bowdler Sharpe. Exhibition of, and remark upon, a specimen of a Goldfinch from 

Hungary 312 

1 On some Points in the Anatomy ot Pterocles, with Remarks on ite Systematic Position. 

By Hans Gadow, Ph.D., C.M.Z.S 312 

2. Note on a Peculiarity in the Trachea of the Twelve-wired Bird-of-Paradise {Seleucides 

nigra). By W. A. Forbes, B.A., Prosector to the Society 333 

3. A Note on Sirix oustaleti, Hartlaub. By R. Bowdler Sharpe, F.L.S., P.Z.S., Ac, 

Department of Zoolog}', British Museum 335 

4. On some new Species of Birds from South Africa. By Captain G. E. Shelley. (Plate 

XVIIl.) 336 

5. On a new Species of Agrias from the Valley of the Amazons. By F. D. Qodman and 

O. Salvik. (Plate XIX.) 338 

ft. On some Crustaceans collected at the Mauritius. By Edward J. Miers, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

(Plate XX.) 339 

Contents continued on page 3 of wrapper. 



P.Z.S,I882.P1.XV. 



s in d'- 



S.lv.rttt ' 'T? 





J Stni tilth . 



ANATOMY OF MYRME COPKAGA. 



Hsuihart.unp 



1882.] MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. 287 

1. On some Points in the Anatomy of the Great Anteater 
{Myrmecophaga jubata). By W. A. Forbes, B.A., 
Prosector to the Society. 

[Eeceivecl February 28, 18S2.] 
(Plate XV.) 

The literature relating to the anatomical structure of the Edentata, 
though very considerable, is unfortunately much scattered, and with 
many blanks as regards special points. The genus Myrmecophac/a 
may be considered — thanks chiefly to the labours of Owen' and Pou- 
chet''. who have elaborately described many parts of its organization — • 
to be the best known, as regards anatomical structure, of all the 
existing Aiiteaters. Two adult female specimens of this animal 
having lately ^ passed through mj'^ hands in my prosectorial capacity, 
I have had the opportunity of confirming a large part of the already 
published accounts of its anatomy, as well as of correcting, or adding, 
certain details, which I now lay before the Society. 

1. Alimentary Canal and Appendages. — The palate (fig. 1, p. 288) 
is not absolutely smooth, but presents anteriorly a series of irregular 
transverse ridges notched along their margin, best developed and nearly 
meeting mesially anteriorly, posteriorly becoming much more oblique 
backwards and less regular, the ridges not being opposite each other but 
more or less alternating. In all there are about seven of these ridge.i. 
The floor of the mouth to about 2 inches beyond the most posterior 
opening of the submaxillary glands, the gums over the tip of the 
lower jaw, and the lateral callous pads which are present as in Ta~ 
mandua, are all covered with minute, retroverted, closely-set papillae. 

1 " On the Anatomy of the Great Anteater," Part T., Trans. Zool. S oc. ir. 
pp. 117-140, pis. xsxvii.-xl. ; Part II., I.e. pp. 179-181, pis. li.-liii. 

^ M^moires sur le Grand Fourmilier: Paris, 1874. 

In addition to these, there are brief references to Myrmecophaga jnhafa in 
Rapp's 'Edentaten' (2e Aufl., Tiibiugen, 1852), and Prof. Flower's Hunterian 
Lectures (Med. Times and Gazette, Nov. 30, 1872, p. 591). The submaxillary 
glands have been described by Gervais (C. E. Ixix. pp. 1110, 1111 [18(39]); 
and the brain by the same author (" Mtmoire sur les foi-mes cerebrales pro.pres 
aux Edeutes vivants et fossiles," Nouv. Arch. Mus. v. pp. 1-56, pis. i.-v.), and 
by G. Pouchet ( " Memoire .sur I'encephale des Edentes," Eobin's Journal 
de I'Aiiatomie, 1868, pp. 658-675, and 1869, pp. 1-18, &c.). 

* The first of these, from Buenos Ayres (spec, d of the List of Vertebrates), 
wa.s presented to the Society by the Hon. L. fS. Sackville West (now H. B. M's. 
Minister at Washington) on Sept. 7, 1877. It died Nov. 29, 1881, from severe 
inflammation of the connective tissues lying in and aroimd the submaxillary 
glands. 

The second (specimen a) was presented so long ago as October 4, 1867, by Dr. 
J. A. Palin, C.M.Z.S., and, after living for more than 14 years in the Society's Gar- 
dens, died on the 5th of February of the present jear. The only disease detected 
in it, on po6t morfem examination, was a considerable enlargement of the thymus 
gland, and acute inflammation of the laryngeal nnicous membrane. This second 
specimen, though an aged animal, was by no means so large as the first, having 
a total length of 6 ft. 1 ^ in. (from tlie tip of the nose to the end of the tail, which 
was 2 ft. 4 in. long), as against 7 ft. 5^ in. in the other. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XX. 20 



288 



MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. [Mar. 7, 



The tip of the tongue is quite glabrous and globular ; but the greater 
part of the rest of its extent, anterior to the pair of circumvallate 
papillae, is dorsally and laterally covered with similar, but smaller, 
retroverted papillae, best developed towards the tip of the organ, 
and gradually getting smaller and smaller towards its base, till they 
are scarcely visible to the unaided eye except in certain lights. 
There is a median glabrous line, or shallow groove running along the 




Palate of Mynnecophxga jiibata ; from a preparation in the Museum of the 
Koyal College of Surgeons, prepared from specimen a. 



tongue till near its apex ; but this is ventral in position. According to 
Owen there is a similar dorsal one ; but if so, it is not very evident {I. c. 
p. 129). The dorsal surface, however, is slightly fluted towards the 
apex. In front of the circumvallate papillae a slightly raised median 
longitudinal ridge extends for some 5 inches. 

My observations on the salivary glands agree well in most points 



1882.] MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. 289 

with those of my predecessors, except as regards the number and 
openings of the ducts to the submaxillary glands, regarding which 
very different statements have been made at various times. Of these, 
Gervais's description, as given in some remarks accompanying the 
exhibition before the French Academy of Sciences of some models 
of these glands (C. R. s. c), agrees best with my observations. He 
says : — " Deux paires des canaux dont il s'agit viennent aboutir sepa- 
r€ment dans la bouche en se rendant a deux poches situees aupres 
de la symphyse mentonniere ; la troisieme paire verse un peu ea 
arriere, egalement dans une petite dilatation terminale." 

A similar arrangement is described by J. Chatin in the genus 
Tamandua^, except that he says that there are two openings on each 
side at the symphysis. Pouchet, on the other hand, maintains (' Me- 
moires ' &c. pp. v and 88) that there are only two ducts on each side, 
one of these being formed by the confluence of two of the three pri- 
mary ducts coming from the corresponding three lobes of which 
each gland is composed. He only describes a single pair of openings 
close to the symphysis. Owen, finally, describes the three ducts of 
each side as eventually uniting, and opening, also by a single aperture, 
close to the symphysis. 

An examination, however, of his specimen (now preserved in the 
Hunterian Museum, where, by the kind permission of Prof. Flower, I 
was allowed to examine it), demonstrates the existence of a second pair 
of apertures in the floor of the mouth situated some 2 inches behind 
the first pair, which lie immediately behind the symphysis, in this 
respect quite agreeing with Gervais's description, and with my own 
observations on the second of my (fresh) specimens (vide Plate XV. 
fig. 3 c). This second pair of apertures, which lie close to each other on 
each side of the median line and are very minute, are the openings of 
the deeper ducts, which, one on each side, arise from the more anterior 
(^cervical) portion of the gland'. As these lie quite behind the other 
pair of apertures, any injection passed into the latter can of course 
only fill the two pairs of ducts (a, b) which debouch into them. This 
may easily explain, therefore, Pouchet's only having found two ducts 
on each side, though it is possible that individual specimens may 
vary in this respect. I must at least notice that in the first speci- 
men that passed through my hands (the submaxillary ducts of which 
were injected from the anterior pair of apertures alone), I found on 
the left side a single duct only, and on the right two, which united 
together at about the level of the articulation of the lower jaw. This 
specimen, however, had, it is to be remembered, extensive inflamma- 
tion in these parts, which may possibly have effected an alteration in 
the relations and number of the ducts. It is pretty clear, however, 
that three pairs all together is the ordinary number of these ducts, 

^ Ann. Sci. Nat. 5, (Zool.) xiii. art. no. 9. 

' Such was, at least, the condition in the only specimen of Myrmecophaga in 
■which these ducts had been satisfactorily injected examined by me. In Taman- 
dtia, according to Chatin's figure {op. cit. pi. 14), it is the ducts from the 
posterior {sternal) part of the gland that open here. This point requires re- 
examination, as also the number of apertures anteriorly. 

20* 



290 MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. [Mar. 7, 

that having been found in Gervais's specimen (perhaps in two), in 
Owen's, and in one of mine for certain. 

I found the opening of the two other ducts exactly as described 
by Pouchet {I. c. p. 89) and Gervais, one of these being dilated ter- 
minally, the dilatation receiving the other duct and opening by a 
single aperture into the mouth {vide Plate XV. fig. 3). 

At the point where the three submaxillary ducts of each side, 
coming from the three lobes of the gland, converge, and become united 
intimately by their walls to each other, they become surrounded by 
a bulb-like mass of muscular issue, the exact relations of which I 
sball describe below. But I could not perceive that this structure, 
which externally looks like a bulbous reservoir surrounded by a 
muscular coat, corresponded to any dilatation of the ducts which pass 
through it ; on the contrary, these seem to preserve a nearly uniform 
diameter throughout this part of their course, a condition correspond- 
ing to that described by Chatin in Tamandua. 

The terminal reservoirs, I may add, of the two pairs of submaxillary 
ducts He just above the long thin median tendon of the geuio-hyoid, 
the contraction of which muscle may possibly, by compressing the 
floors of these reservoirs, aid in the ejaculation of the fluid contained 
in them. 

The stomach of Myrmecophaga generally resembles Prof. Owen's 
figures and descri[)tion ; but the thick pyloric pads are softer and 
more vascular, and the whole less gizzard-like, than I had been led 
to anticipate from his account. The gyriform folds of the mucous 
membrane of the cardiac part of the stomach, which quite reseinble 
those of the stomach in many other animals, are, in particular, not 
happily represented in his fig. 1, pi. lii. 

The liver of both specimens agrees very well with Prof. Flower's 
description of this viscus. Both caudate and Sjiigelian lobes are 
practically absent. 

As accurately described by Pouchet (' Memoires,' pp. 1 9 1 , 1 92), the 
pancreatic duct ends in a vesicle, in the walls of which the hepatic 
duct runs for a little way and then opens into it, the vesicle then 
opening by a separate aperture into the duodenum. 

In the first (larger) specimen examined by me the intestines 
measured as follows : — small intestine 24 ft. 10 in., large intestine 2 ft. 
2>k inches. The csecum can hardly be said to exist as a separate 
part. The median longitudinal ridge of mucous membrane was 
continuous for the posterior 15 feet 3 inches of the small intestine, 
and reappeared above this at intervals in a less regular and less 
developed way. 

I could see no longitudinal folds of mucous membrane, such as 
are described by Owen, in the rectum, which, however, had dis- 
tinctly transverse ones, irregularly disposed in a gyriform way, well 
marked. 

Tl»e right lung is trilobed, with an azygos lobe superadded ; the 
left lung is bilobed, the lowest lobe in each lung being biggest. 

The kidneys are quite smooth externally : tiiere are no distinct 
Malpighian pyramids, the tubules opening internally ou a single 



1882.] MR. W, A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. 291 

slightly-elevated ridge, which iu one specimen is divided into three 
or four slightly-marked papillae. 

2. Brain. — The late Prof. Gervais has given, in his memoir on 
the brain of Edentata, figures of the superior, inferior, and lateral 
aspects of the brain ol' Mynnecophagajubata, as well as of the cranial 
casts of that and the other species of Anteater^ Pouchet, in his 
' Memoires,' also gives figures of the cranial casts of Mi/rmecophaya, 
and, in the article in the ' Journal de I'Anatomie' above cited, re- 
presentations of the brain itself of Tamandua and Cycloturus, that 
organ having been previously figured in the latter species by Tiede- 
mann ^. 

As I find Gervais's figures of the brain in some respects unsatis- 
factory, I have taken this opportunity of giving representations of 
the brains extracted from my two specimens, including one showing 
the disposition of the deeper parts (figs. 2, 3, 4, pp. 292, 293), 

The olfactory lobes are very large, projecting forwards for '7 
inch in front of the cerebral hemispheres : in the lateral view of the 
brain they occupy, at least anteriorly, almost the lower half of the 
parts there exposed. They are continuous basally with the well- 
developed " hippocampal lobe," in front of which appears a large 
oval swelling of grey matter, on the middle root of the olfactory 
lobe, of an antero-posterior extent of more than half an inch. Towards 
their base, the olfactory tracts are curiously marked by slight trans- 
verse impressions (fig. 3) giving them a striated appearance, which 
may also be observed in the corresponding regions in the brains of 
Tamandua and Orycteropus. The cerebral hemispheres are but 
little arched superiorly^ ; but the vermis cerebelli is very prominent, 
rising above the general level of the hemispheres (fig. 2). Viewed 
from above, the hemispheres appear somewhat truncated posteriorly, 
though they here completely conceal the corpora quadriyemina, 
abutting on the cerebellum (fig. 2). Attaining their greatest breadth 
anterior to this, a little in front of the level of the posterior end of 
the median fissure (r95 iuch long), they taper somewhat rapidly 
anteriorly. 

The cerebellum is well convoluted, with its lateral extent (1*5 
iuch) greater than its antero-posterior (1'15). The vermis is 
much narrower than the lateral lobes ; it is prominent, and in one 
specimen (the larger) considerably twisted on itself. The fiocculi 
are distinct. 

The nates are much larger than the testes : the latter are very- 
narrow from before backwards as compared with their combined 
transverse extent ('075 : "6 inch), and are not distinctly separated 
from each other. The nates are larger, more prominent, and 
distinctly paired, being separated by a well-marked constriction ; 
they are somewhat triangular in shape, with their longer axis trans- 
verse. 

' Nouv. Arcb. v. pi. i. figs. 3, 3a, ob, pi. ii. figs. 1-3. 
^ Icones cerebri Siuiianim, pi. v. fig. 8. 

3 Gervais's figure, /. c. fig. i> a, makes their outline much too convex antero- 
posteriorly. 



292 



MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. [Mar. 7, 



The pineal gland has a distinct hard mineral deposit ; its peduncles 
are easily made out. 

There is no very distinct corpus mamillare, it being only represented 
by a white swelling on theinfundibulura. The hypophysis cerebri is 
very large. The anterior commissure is distinct, but not particularly 



Y'lOr. 2. 




Brain oi Myrmecophaga jubata (specimen a) from above. 

large, its antero-posterior extent being '15 inch. The soft com- 
missure is very large (-25 inch long) ; the posterior distinct. The 
third nerves are small, the optic not large. 

There is a good septum lucidum ('25 inch deep anteriorly), with a 
contained fifth ventricle. The fornix is very well developed, with 
but few precommissural fibres. The corpus callosum is very well 
developed, more than an inch long, and nearly horizontal in position, 
with but a slight genu anteriorly. Posteriorly it forms, with the 
fornix, a prominent pad (bourrelet). 

The cerebral sulci are not exactly alike in my two specimens, the 
brain of the bigger of the two animals, though of the same dimen- 



1882.] 



MR, W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. 



293 



Bions as its fellow, being more richly convoluted by the development 
in it of minor fissures and impressions not present in the other. It 
is that of which the lateral and internal views are here figured (figs. 3, 



Fi^. 3. 




^.A'.J, 



Brain, from the side, of specimen d. 
Fig. 4. 




The same, from the inside. All these figures are of the natural size. 

a. Limbic fissure, inferior arc of (Broca) ; b, fissure of Eolando (Broca) ; 
c, primary parietal sulcus ; d, e, additional sulci of circumsylnan gyrus ; 
s, fissure of Sylvius; l.s.s, island of Eeil {lobule sous-si/lvien, Broca); 
cm, cm', cm", calloso-marginal sulcus (superior arc of limbic fissure, 
Broca) ; h, hippoeampal sulcus ; a. c, anterior commissure ; opt, optic 
nerve ; r.l (fig. 4), " Pli de passage r6tro-limbique " (Broca) ; + (fig. 2), 
bridging convolution between frontal and parietal lobes. 

4): the description of the main sulci is taken from the simpler 
specimen (represented in fig. 2), but applies in all essential respects to 
both. 

The olfactory lobe is separated from the cerebral hemispheres 



294 MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. [Mar. 7, 

above by a shallow fissure (a), which, at the level of the anterior 
extreniityoftheproiniuent"hippocanipallobe," turns downwards, and 
runs along the external and interior face of that lobe till it terminates 
on its inner face (fig. 4, a), not, however, reaching the hippocampal 
sulcus (h). At the point where its downward course commences 
there is a small triangular area (l. s.s.) exposed on the lateral surface 
of the brain, from which a short curved shallow sulcus (s) runs a 
short way upwards, forming with the descending part of a a forwardly- 
convex curve. In the larger specimen figured (fig. 3) this short 
upwardly-running sulcus («) is separated, as will be seen, by a narrow 
bridging fold from the triangular depression and its posterior continu- 
ation (a). From the antero-inferior angle of this triangular space, 
but separated by a very narrow, more or less deep, bridging convolu- 
tion from a, another sinuous fissure (6) runs forwards and upwards 
to terminate near the anterior angle of the hemisphere ^ Above, 
on the supero-lateral aspect of the brain, and nearly parallel with 
the median longitudinal fissure, is a distinct longitudinal sulcus (c), 
convex upwards, which runs in an autero-posterior direction for a 
space of r2 inch. 

Finally, parallel with the posterior edge of the hemisphere, dividing 
the external surface of this "temporal lobe," is a vertically-directed 
sulcus (d) about '/S inch in extent. 

On the internal aspect of the brain (fig. 4) runs a well-marked 
" calloso-marginal " sulcus (cm), broken up into three or more 
parts, the most posterior being nearly vertical in position, and sepa- 
rated by but a little space from the posterior extremity of fi.ssure a. 
In its usual position is a well-marked hippocampal sulcus (A), with 
abroad "fascia dentata'^ between it and the corpus fimhriatum, 
\\\e fascia dentuta being continued, as described by Prof. Turner in 
Basypus ^ as a thin layer of longitudinally-disposed fibres over the 
corpiis callosvm to near its ffenu. The hippocampal sulcus does not 
extend as high as the corpus callosum. The lateral ventricle is fair- 
sized : I can see not a trace ot any posterior cornu. The hippocamjnis 
major is strongly convex. The " hippocampal lobe " has, on its 
interior aspect, a few irregular dentations developed near its autero- 
internal angle. 

In the smaller and simpler hv?im o^ Tamandua (represented dia- 
grammatically in fig. 5, p. 295), the only sulci present are those 
corresponding to a, b, c in the larger species, with some slight repre- 
sentatives of d. 

Adopting the late Prof. Broca's ideas ^ as to the nature and com- 
position of the " scissure limliqve," the inferior arc of this is clearly 
represented by the fissure a, which is separated by a narrow " pli de 
passage retro-limbique" (fig. 4, r.l) from its superior arc, represented 

' In the smaller specimen (fig. 2), this fissure is, on the right-hand side only, 
broken up into two bv a narrow bridging convolution (-f-). 

2 Journ. Anat. Phj's. i. p. 314 (18G7). 

^ " Anatomic comparee des circonTolutions cerfibrales. Le grand lobe lim- 
bique et la scissure limbique dans la strie des Maminileres," Revue d'Anthro- 
pologie, vii. pp. 385-498. 



1882.] 



MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. 



295 



by what we commonly call the "calloso-marginal sulcus" (c.w, &c ). 
The slight sulcus at s, developed above the triangular depression, 
will accordingly be tlie Sylvian fissure, b is then, following Broca's 
identifications, the fissure of" Itolaudo, the gyrus lying anterior to 
and below it being the reduced equivalent of the frontal lobe. As 
has already been pointed out, this gyrus is connected posteriorly by 
a small, sometimes deep, bridging fold with the triangular space (/• 
s.s.) below the Sylvian fissure. This triangular space is I3roca's 
" lobule sous-sylvien," its ecpiivaleut in the Primates being the lobe 
of the island of Reil (I. c. p. 430). 

The longitudinal sulcus c corresponds probabl}' to Broca's " sillon 
parietal primaire ; " the gyrus above and internal to it will thus be 
the " circonvolution sagittule," that below it the " civ convolution 
sylvien," which in the more-convoluted of the brains figured (fig. 3) 
becomes divided up by smaller sulci (rf, e, &c.) into a number of 
imperfect gyri. 

Fig. 5. 




Diagram of right cei-ebral hemisphere of Tamandua tetradactyla, from above. 



From my study of the brains of the remaining genera of Edentata, 
I have httle doubt that the sulci a, b, and c, here described, can be 
traced, with various modifications, in nearly all the members of this 
group. Oryctei-opus in its cerebral characters seems to approach 
Myrmecophaya more nearly than any other form, the sulci and gyri 
of the brains of the two forms, as well as their general conformation, 
being very similar ; Munis seems to possess the three typical sulci 
well developed ; and these are also present in the larger Dasypodidae, 
though apparently much reduced in the smaller forms of that group. 
The Sloths conform to the same general type. But, in the absence 
of a larger series of brains of this group than is at present available 
for comparison, satisfactory generalization on this subject is impossible, 
most of the published figures of Edentate brains being very unsatis- 
factory in detail, whilst nothing of importance is known as regards 
the development of the sulci in any member of this group. 



296 MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. [Mar. 7, 

3. Female Generative Organs (fig. 6, p. 297). — These have been 
briefly described by Pouchet', as well as by Kapp ; but their accounts 
will, in some respects, bear supplementing. 

A cloaca, in the true sense of the word, is not present in the 
Great Auteater. The labia majora, which bound the vertical urino- 
genital fissure, are very prominent and hirsute. Above them, but 
separated by a distinct perineal space, slightly hair-clad, is the trans- 
verse anal aperture, the mucous membrane lining which is pink, 
quite different from that of the lower passage and its boundaries, 
which is grey. Slightly inclosing these two apertures above is a 
widely-open V-shaped tegumentary fold, with its apex situated 
superiorly towards the root of the tail. 

There are no labia minora visible ; and no clitoris is present as a 
free organ, though the corpora cavernosa can be felt as tough bodies 
lying in the walls of the vulva. 

The length of the urino-genital canal is 2-7 inches : about 1 inch 
from its external orifice may be seen, on each side of the middle line, 
two or three small pore-like depressions ; a bristle passed through 
the largest of these enters a short duct, connected with one of a pair 
of globular compact glands about the size of a small cherry, which 
lie in the walls of the urino-genital canal above, between it and the 
rectum. They are, no doubt, " vulvo-vagiual " glands, or glands of 
Bertolini, corresponding to the male Cowper's. The urino-genital 
canal is lined by smooth, vascular, mucous membrane. 

Communication between this and the next section of these organs 
is effected by means of two small apertures, each admitting readily 
enough the passage into the vagina, through the here constricted 
walls of the common tube, of a probe. From between these apertures 
is prolonged downwards, for a slight distance along the dorsal wall 
of the urino-genital canal, a slight ridge of mucous membrane, on 
each side of which are visible numerous small pore-like apertures, 
arranged in series in lines running outwards from the middle line. 

On laying open the vagina along its anterior wall, it is seen to pass 
above with no marked constriction or " as uteri " into the pyriform 
simple uterus, the only distinction between the two parts being 
afforded by the thicker and more muscular walls of the uterus, and 
by the difference in the character of the mucous membrane, this being 
quite smooth and spongy in the uterus, whilst that of the vagina is 
thrown into a close-set series of thick, more or less longitudinal, 
somewhat foliaceous plaits. For about the lower inch of the vagina 
there extends a complete median septum, attached to both dorsal 
and ventral walls of the tube, extending a little further along the 
dorsal wall, and terminating superiorly by a free semilunar margin, 
concave upwards. Hence the terminal part of the vagina consists 
of two quite separate tubes, fused together above, but each opening 
into the urino-genital sinus by a single aperture of its own below. 

The vagina proper measures about 4 inches in length. The pyri- 
form uterus is not more than 2 inches long : it presents not the 
slightest sign of being double. Its walls are very thick and muscular ; 

1 M6m. p. 194. 



1882.] MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. 297 

Fig. 6. 




Female generative organs of Myrmecophaga juhata, from before, reduced, and 
somewhat diagrammatic. The walls of the tube have been laid open 
anteriorly to show the vaginal septum {v.s), beneath which an arrow 
is passed, appearing above in the vagina {v), and below emerging by 
the vaginal aperture of that side {y. a) into the urino-genital canal {u.g). 
The opening of the vagina into this on the other side is laid open. 
l.g, openings of Bertolini's glands; ves, bladder, turned to one side; u, uterus; 
/,/, Fallopian tubes (cut short, with the rest of the uterine appendages 
on the left side) ; o, ovary ; h, hydatid of Morgagni ; b. I, broad ligament 
of the uterus, cut short. 



298 MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. [Mar. 7, 

but there is no constriction or valve at all at its junction with the 
vagina. It receives the Fallopian tubes, not at its supero-external 
angles as in Homo &c., but at a point about one third clown its total 
length. These are not particularly long, nor much convoluted, and 
lie along the anterior edge of the broad ligament. The ovaries are 
com j)letely covered by a peritoneal coat superiorly, but by their ventral 
faces open into a spacious peritoneal pouch, open anteriorly, in the 
floor of which is the very considerable aperture of the morsus diaboli, 
surrounded by the expanded extremity of the Fallopian tube. This 
is not much fimbriated, and is externally prolonged to meet the 
external border of the ovary of the same side. On this surface of 
the ovary may be seen a few scars, probably due to the eruption of 
Graafian follicles, as well as a couple of small clavate processes which 
depend freely from it into the cavity of the pouch. Towards the 
outer part of the broad ligament, and lying anteriorly to the ovary 
and round ligament, is a large " hydatid of Morgagui " nearly the 
size of a pea. 

The opening of the vagina into the urino-genital sinus by two 
distinct apertures seems to be characteristic (according to the state- 
ments of Owen * and Rapp ^) both of the Anteaters and the Sloths, 
though Pouchet considered it in his specimen as " sans doute une 
anomalie" (J., c. p. 195). The latter author describes as the 
" uterus " what I have here considered to represent both uterus and 
vagina, whilst what he calls " vagina " is only so in a functional 
sense, being morphologically the urino-genital canal. Rapp also 
describes these animals as having a single uterus with two ora 
{" einfache Gehdrmutter mit doppeltem {rechten und linken) Mut- 
iermund," I. c. [). 104). Nevertheless I see no reason for doubting 
the view adopted by Prof. Owen, that the genital tube above the 
urethral opening represents in reality both uterus and vagina. 

The presence of a vaginal septum, a remnant of the coalescence of 
the primitively paired Miillerian ducts, in Mijrmecojihaga is a pecu- 
liarity shared, judging from Owen's account, by the genus Choloepus^ 
only amongst other iamilies of Edentates. 

In the Indian Elephant there is, at least sometimes, a similar 
but more perfect septum dividing into lateral halves not only the 
vagina, but the uterus (here provided with a distinct as uteri) also*. 
In other cases this disappears completely, except externally, forming 
then the so-called " hymen " of Miall and Greenwood. 

In the genus Logostomus, on the other hand, as first described by 
Prof. Owen", the accuracy of whose statement I have lately had an 

' Anat. Yert. iii. p. 690. ^ i ^ ^ ^02. 

3 " In the Unau {JSradijpv.s didacfyhii') the riidiment of a uterine septum 
appears as a longitudinal ridge from the inner surface of the anterior wall in 
the unimpregnated state: in this species also the same condilion having been 
already noted in Bradypus triduclyhis], the utero-vaginal canal communicates 
in the virgin animal by two distinct orifices with tlie short urogenital tract." 
Anat. Vert. iii. p. 690. 

* M. Watson, " On the Anatomy of the Female Organs of the Proboscidea," 
Trans. Z. S. xi. p. 116 &c. pi. xxii. fig. 1. 

» P. Z. S. 1839, p. 177; Anat. Vert. iii. p. 686. 



1882.] MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GRE4T ANTEATER. 209 

opportunity of verifying, this median septum is developed along 
the proximal (uterine) part of the vagina, instead of the distal 
(external) as in Myrmecophaga^. 

As Pouchet, though describing the two apertures, does not men- 
tion any median septum, it is possible that this vaginal septum may 
disappear, as there seems to be good reason for supposing that it 
does in Elephas indicus, in the gravid state. The penis in Myrmeco- 
jihaga is so small that during coitus it is, I expect, entirely con- 
tained in the urino-genital tube, and does not enter the vagina, as 
is also the case in Elephas ; the disappearance of the vaginal sep- 
tum can therefore hardly be due, in this species at least, to the non- 
virgin condition of any particular female. 

4. As regards other points, I may mention that the external and 
internal iliac arteries come oif separately, as in many other mammals % 
there being no common iliac arteries. 

As in Manis tridentata as described by Rapp^, the chevron bones 
in the tail contain a curious caudal rete mirabile, composed of both 
venous and arterinl elements, which completely surrounds, as in a 
sheath, a central artery of large size, which is the direct continuation 
onwards of the abdominal aorta, and gives off here no branches at all 
to the rete. The arterial elements of this rete are derived from 
several small trunks on each side, which arise from the caudal artery 
beyond the origin of the internal iliacs, and then break up into a 
number of more or less parallel, rarely anastomosing, branches, 
mixed up with which are similar venous trunks. A similar rete 
occurs in Tamandua, and also, as I am informed by Prof. Flower, in 
the Spider Monkeys of the genus Ateles. 

The paired eyelids are very small, and hardly exist as special 
organs ; there are no eyelashes. The third eyelid, on the other hand, 
is very large and well-developed. It contains a large cartilage of 
concavo-convex shape ; on the internal surface of this eyehd, just 
below the inferior border of the contained cartilage, opens the 
minute aperture of the Harderian gland, which is very large, almost 
completely surrounding the orbit, and concealing the much more 
minute lachrymal glnnd. As described and figured by Pouchet, it 
consists of three chief lobes. 

As already suggested by Chatin, I have little doubt that it is the 
Harderian gland that has been described by Cuvier (Anat. Comp. 
2me ed. iv. part 1, pp. 430, 431) and Owen (/. c. pi. xl. fig. 3 6) 
in Cycloturus as a salivary gland opening into the mouth. 

Clavicles are frequently supposed to be absent in the Great Ant- 

' A similar condition of things to that here described in the genus Myrmcco- 
phaga occurs sometimes, it may be observed, as a malfonnation, known as 
" vagina duplex et uterus simplex," in the human female, the vagina being more 
or less completelj' divided into two chambers bj' a median septum, and open- 
ing externally by fu:o quite separate orifices. Cf. a paper by Dr. T. Matthews 
Duncan, Jouru. Auat. Pliys. i. pp. 2ti9-274, and Dr. Morrison Watson's paper, 
"The Homology of the Sexual Organs illustrated by Comparative Anatomy and 
Pathology," I.e. xiv. pp. ()0-t)2. 

- Cf P. Z. 8. 1681, p. 188, 

" L. c. p. 92. 



300 MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. [Mar. 7, 

eater, though present as rudiments in Tamandua, and well developed 
in Cycloturus^. 

In the larger specimen of the two examined by me I find, how- 
ever, a distinct one present on each side, lying in the muscles, about 
an inch long, nearly straight, of flattened form, with one end cylin- 
drical. Similar ones were also present, closely attached to the 
sternum, but of smaller size, in the second specimen. Rapp (/. c. 
p. 40) found a rudimentary cartilaginous one in IMyrmecophaga, 
though he (erroneously) denies one to Tamandua. There is also 
an accessory ossicle developed at the head of the fibula, as in some 
of the fossil forms. 

In the anterior cornu of the hyoid bone, I find in both specimens 
three distinct ossifications". The proximal of these is a small nodule 
of bone, '3 inch long, articulating below with the basihyal ; it is 
called the " apohyal" by Pouchet, but, according to the nomencla- 
ture now ordinarily employed, must really be the cerato-hyaP. The 
other two long curved ossifications of the anterior cornu must there- 
fore be the epi- and stylo-hyals respectively. 

Both Rapp {I. c. p. 61) and Pouchet (' Memoires,' p. 95, pi. xii. 
figs. 1-3) describe the posterior cornu as articulating externally with 
the anterior one. But in neither of my specimens can I find any 
evidence of such a joint, as the two cornua, when in their undis- 
turbed condition, are separated by a considerable space, in part 
occupied by a muscle (the intercormialis, Owen, /. c. p. 127); and 
in the cleaned bones I also find it impossible, without violence, to 
bring the two arches into such contact together. In Tamandua, 
though there is a distinct ligament between the two arches, they 
are nevertheless similarly separated ; and neither Duvernoy'', who 
dissected this species, nor Owen, in his account of Myrmecophaga, 
allude to any such interarticulation existing ; Owen's figure (pi. xxxix. 
fig. 2) indeed clearly shows the two cornua separated by the inter- 
cornualis muscle, as also observed by me {cf. Plate XV. fig. 1, int). 

At the place where the three main ducts of the submaxillary 
glands of each side converge to become intimately connected to- 
gether by their walls, though they still remain quite separate tubes, 
they are covered by a mass of muscle which forms a bulb-like 
sweUing for an extent of 1| inch on the inferior aspect of the con- 
joined ducts (Plate XV. fig. 1). It is this mass of muscles that has 
been described by Owen {I.e. p. I2(j) as the " constrictor salivaris," 
a name adopted by Pouchet subsequently. 

The external aspect of the ducts is also, for the posterior half inch 
of this space, covered by a thick muscular coating, so that in this 
portion the three ducts are encircled by a broad ring of muscular 
fibres. These fibres arise from the anterior edge of the anterior 
hyoid cornu, on each side of the junction of the stylo- and epihyal 

1 'Osteology of the Mammalia,' by W. H. Flower, p. 235: London, 1876. 
- The accounts given by different authors of the compositon of the hyoid 
bones in the Anteaters differ considerably hiter se. Cf. Pouchet, 'Memoires,' 
pp. 93-95. 

^ In Tamandna I am unable to find any corresponding ossification, though 
both the epi- and stylo-hyals are well developed. 

* Mim. Soc. Hist. Nat. Strasbourg, 1830; and Cuvier's Anat. Comp. 2me ed. 
iv. part 1, p. 476. 



1882.] MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE GREAT ANTEATER. 301 

bones ; running then forwards and outwards, they pass beneath and 
to the outside of (in a sternal view) the conjoined ducts, and then 
ascend to fan out and form the muscular bulb. The more anterior 
of these fibres are inserted into the internal and upper part of the 
combined ducts, and cease there. The most posterior, on the 
contrary, completely encircle the ducts, running inwards over the 
ducts, and then, recurving on themselves, ascend on the deep aspect 
of the ducts, to be inserted on the stylohyal bone for the greater 
part of its length, not, however, extending to either of its extremities. 
Along the anterior (free) border of the ascending part, at the point 
where it is in contact with the ducts and the deep part of their 
muscular ring, is developed a strong tendinous edge {s.h. m. t), the 
" commissural tendon " of Owen. 

The muscular fibres inserted on this and attached to the stylo- 
hyal (ceratohyal of Owen's nomenclature) are described by that 
author as the " cerato-hyoideus," whilst Pouchet more correctly 
applies to it the name of " stylo-hyoideus," the rest of the muscular 
arrangement here described forming, as already stated, the ''con- 
strictor salivaris" of both authors. 

It appears to me that the whole muscle may be more correctly 
considered as the stylo-hyoideus, which has developed this remark- 
able course round the submaxillary ducts in order to aid the 
ejaculation of the saliva therein contained by the constriction, on 
contraction of the muscle, of their walls between the circularly-dis- 
posed fibres surrounding them and the tendon developed on its 
anterior margin. 

In the genus Tamandua^ (Plate XV. fig. 2) there is no special 
muscular envelope developed round the ducts in this position. The 
most posterior fibres of the mylo-hyoideus (m.h') arise from the 
posterior end of the stylo-hyal bone, running inwards and forwards, 
and blending internally with the genio-hyoid. To this point also run 
backwards and inwards the fibres of a narrow flattened muscle (s.h. m), 
which crosses the hyoid origin of the mylo-hyoid superficially, and, 
as it arises from the stylo-hyal bone, must be considered to represent 
a stylo-hyoideus. At the point where it meets the genio-hyoid and 
mylo-hyoid, all three muscles become closely connected together, the 
gtylo-hyoid developing here an anterior tendinous edge (s.h. /«. t). 
Between this tendon and the conjoined mylo-hyoid and genio-hyoid 
run the three ducts of the submaxillary gland, so that contraction 
of these muscles here also serves a purpose similar to that produced 
by the more speciahzed arrangement found in the larger species. 

[P.S. July 13, 1882. — I have found the disposition of the salivary 
ducts and the arrangement of the stylo-hyoideus muscles exactly the 
same as those here described in a third specimen of Myrmecophaga 
just dead.— W. A. F.] 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 

Fig. 1. Dissection of the left suprabyoidean region oi Myimeco'phaga jtihaia, 
to ehow the course and relations of the siylo-hyoideus muscle. 

^ Cf. Duveruoy, Mem. Strasb. 1630, "Memoire sur la langue" &c., p. 3. 



302 



CAPT. G. E. SHELLEY ON BIRDS 



[Mar. 7, 



s.h, stylo-liyal ; e.p, epiliyal ; c.h, cerato-hyal ; b.h, basihyal ; t.h, 
thyro-byal ; s.h. in' , origin of the sfylo-h/oideiis ; s.h. m, its insertion ; 
s.h.m.t, its tendinous edge (this, being deep of the muscle and ducts, 
is diagrammatically represented by a dotted line) ; m.h, in.h' , mylo- 
hyoideus, cut and reflected ; s.g, stemo-glossus (cut short) ; g.h', genio- 
hyoideus, at its origin, cut short and reflected ; h.g, hyo-glossi ; ep, 
epiphari/ngcus (Owen) ; hy, hyopharyngeus (Owen) ; int, inter- 
cornualis ; 1, 2, 3, the three ducts of the submaxillary gland, con- 
verging to be Surrounded by the stylo-hyokleiis. 

2. The same parts in Tamandua tcfradaciyla, enlarged. The letters as 

before, except s.h.m, stylo-hyoideus muscle, with its anterior ten- 
dinous edge {s.h.m.t), blending here with the mylo- {m.h.) and genio- 
hyoid {g.h) muscles, and surrounding the three submaxillary ducts 
{s.m.d), which are cut short and reflected ; m.h', hyoid origin of the 
raylo-hyoid. 

3. Diagram to show the openings into the mouth of the three ducts of the 

submaxillary gland in Myrhiecophaga. a, h, the two ducts from the 
more posterior parts of the gland, opening together ; c, the third 
duet, from the cervical part, opening posteriorly to the other two ducts. 

2. List of the Birds sent home by Mr. Joseph Thomson from 
the Eiver llovuma. East Africa. By Captain G. E. 
Shelley. 

[Eeceived February 25, 1882.] 

(Plate XVI.) 

. Mr. Thomson is well known as one of the most successful East- 
African explorers. On him devolved the task of carrying through 
the expedition in which Mr. Keith Johnston lost his life ; and no 
praise can be too strong for the manner in which he fulfilled his mission. 
Like all successful African travellers, he has again returned to the 
Dark country, this time to explore the river Rovuma and to report 
on the value of the coal-fields said to exist in that valley ; and an in- 
teresting account of his journey has been given by himself (Proc. 
R. Geogr. Soc. 1882, p. 6.5). 

The Rovuma runs from the south-west into the sea at 10° 30' S. 
lat.; and Mr. Thomson explored this valley to nearly 3/° E. long. 
During this journey the present collection of birds was made, whereby 
two interesting new species are added to the African Avifauna. 



1. Astur tachiro {Baud.). 

2. Falco minor, B]^- 

3. F. dickersoni, Sclaf. 

4. Coracias caudata, Linn. 

5. Halcyon orientahs, Peters. 

6. Merops dresseri, sp. n. 

7. Melittophagus builockoides 
{Syni/h). 

8. M. pusiUus {Man.). 

9. Upupa africaua, Bcchst. 

10. Irrisor erythrorhynchus {Lath.). 

11. Ehinopomastes cyanomelas 

( rieilL). 

12. Ciunyris microrhynchus, Shelley. 
1-3. 0. gutfuralis {Linn.). 

14. Mutacilla vidua, Sundev. 

15. Turdus li bony anus, iS/iiifh. 



16. Cossypha heuglini. Hard. 

17. Crateropus plebejus {Biip2^.). 

18. Oriolus notatus, Peters. 

19. Pachypi'ora molitor {Hahn ^ 

Kiist. ). 

20. Bias musicus {Vieill.). 

21. Platystira pellatn, Sundev. 

22. Muscicapa crerulescens, Hartl. 

23. Erythrocercus thomsoni, sp. n. 

24. Trochocercus cyanomela s ( Vieill.). 

25. Siuithornis capensis, Smith. 

26. Parus niger, Vieill. 

27. Mebinoruis ater, Sundev. 

28. Buchaiiga assiniilis {Bcrhst.). 

29. Telephonus erythropterus {Shaw), 

30. Laniarius cubla {Shaw). 

31. L. boiilboul {Shaw). 



■Ji 



P.Z.S.1882.P1..XV1 




J S-mit. liili 



HanViari. inn)- 



I MEROPG DRESSERI, . 
2.ERYTHR0CERCUS- THOMSONI 



1882 



FROM THE RIVER ROVUMA. 



303 



39. Urreginthus phoenicotia {Swains.). 

40. Hypargus niveigut.tatus {Peters). 

41. Gallirex ehlorochlamys, Shzlley. 

42. Pogonorliynchus melanopterus 
{Veters). 

43. Deiiclropicus fulviscapus (7W.). 



32. L. qiiadricolor, Cms. 

33. L. sulpliLireipectus {Less.). 

34. L. poliocephalus {Licht.). 

35. Nicator gularis, Harfl. ^- Finsch. 

36. Prionops talaconia, Smith. 

37. Sigmodus tricolor ( Gray). 

38. Lamprocolius chalybeu8, Ilempr. ^ 

Ehr. 

Erythrocercus thomsoni, sp. n. (Plate XVI. fig. 2.) 
Upper parts olive-yellow ; rump and upper tail-coverts rufous 
washed with yellow ; tail rufous, the feathers slightly washed with 
yellow on their edges and crossed by a broad black subterminal 
band ; in one specimen the outer feather alone is without any black 
baud, and the next feather is only banded on the outer web, with a 
black spot on the inner one ; in the second specimen the four outer 
feathers on each side are without any black at all ; rictal bristles 
black, forehead rather narrowly margined with brownish buff; lores 
and in front of the eye white (but the state of the skins prevents 
me from seeing the limits of this colour on the sides of the head) ; 
wings dark brown, all the feathers broadly edged with olive-shaded 
yellow excepting towards the ends of the primaries ; entire under 
surface bright yellow ; under wing-coverts yellow, basal portion of the 
inner webs of the quills rather narrowly edged with rufous buff. 
Bill— upper mandible brown, lower one flesh-colour. Legs and 
claws pale brown. Total length 4-5 and 4-1 inches ; culmen 0-25 ; 
wing 1-9 and 1*8; tail 2-1 ; tarsus O'^b. 

On referring to Mr. Sharpe's Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 208, pi. 9, 
we at once recognize Erythrocercus livingstonii as the nearest ally 
of this new species; and I shall propose the following addition to his 
key of this genus : — 

a. Tail uniform, without a bar : to include G. macalli and C. living- 
stonii. 

b. Tail with a broad black subterminal bar : C. thomsoni. 

The present species further ditfers from C livingstonii in the crown 
and sides of the head being the same colour as the back, the forehead 
alone being margined with brownish buff, and the chin scarcely shows 
a trace of white. 

Merops dresseri, sp. n. (Plate XVI. fig. 1.) 

Crown and nape fawn colour, the tips of the feathers slightly 
washed with greenish yellow ; remainder of the upper parts green ; 
the basal portion of the inner margins of the quills pale fawn colour ; 
the primaries have the remainder of their inner margins and their 
ends dusky black ; the secondaries are rather broadly tipped with 
black, with the exception of the inner feather, which, like the longer 
scapulars and upper tail-coverts, is washed with blue towards its 
end ; two centre tail-feathers green, gradually shading into black on 
their long narrow ends, which are slightly widened at the tips ; 
remainder of the tail square, the feathers with broad black end, 
narrowly tipped with white on the outer ones, and rather more broadly 
so with blue as they approach the centre pair ; on the sides of the 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XXI. 21 



304 CAPT. G. E. SHELLEY ON BIRDS [Mar. 7, 

head a broad black band runs through the eye, margined beneath by 
a rather narrower pale blue one ; chin and throat fawn colour, with 
the ends of the feathers slightly more strongly washed with greenish 
yellow than the crown ; remainder of the under surface green, with 
the feathers of the abdomen and under tail-coverts washed with blue 
towards their edges ; under surface of the quills brown, the basal 
portion of their inner margins and the under wing-coverts pale fawn 
colour ; under surface of the tail ashy brown, with a black terminal 
bar. Bill and legs black. Total length 98 inches, culmeu 1, wing 
3"1, tail 5"5, tarsus 0'4. 

I have named this bird after my friend Mr. Dresser, who is about 
to publish a monograph of the Meropidcs, in acknowledgment 
of the valuable services rendered to ornithology by his large work on 
the Birds of Europe. 



3. A second List of Birds recently collected by Sir John 
Kirk in Eastern Africa. By Captain G. E. Shelley. 
[Eeceived February 25, 1882.] 
(Plate XYII.) 

The collection of which the present paper treats was made by 
Sir John Kirk chiefly in the neighbourhood of Mamboio, on the 
eastern slopes of the mountain-range which separates Ugogo from 
the Zanzibar Province, but also contains some specimens from 
Ugogo country and two from Brava in South Somali-land, 1"^ N. lat. 

This paper is intended as a supplement to my former one (P. Z. S. 
1881, pp. 561-602). 

1. CiRCAETUS CINEREUS. 

Circaetus cinereiis, Vieill. ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. .t62. 
Brava, in South Somali-land. 

2. Falco cuvieri. 

Falco cuvien. Smith ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 562. 

Ugogo. 

The head quarters of this Hawk is probably the unexplored regions 
of Central Africa, 

This specimen, I presume, from its size is a female. In colouring 
it is almost identical with my specimen from Lamo, but is, if any 
thing, a shade duller. 

Lamo, c?? Total length 10*4 inches, wing 8.7, tail 4-9, tarsus 1-.30. 
Ugogo. $? „ 12-2 „ „ 9-3, „ 5-25, „ 1-35. 

3. ASTURINULA iMONOGRAMMICA. 

Asturinula monogrammica (Temm.) ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, 
p. 562. 
Ugogo. 






Csl 
CO 
CD 







p 

I — I 

o 

< 

9^ 



1882.] FROM EASTERN AFRICA. 305 

4. ACCIPITER MINULLUS. 

Nisus minullus, Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Oitafr. p. 85 ; Fischer 
& Reichenow, J. f. O. 1878, pp. 251, 272. 

Accipiter minullus (Daud.) ; Sliarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. i. p. 140. 

Mamboio. 

I have also a specimen from Rabbai near Mombas, collected by 
the Rev. T. Wakefield. It ranges from Abyssinia southward 
throughout East and South Africa. 

5. Melierax poliopterus. 

Melierax poliopterus. Cab. in v. d. Decken, Reisen, iii. p. 40 ; 
Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 90 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. 
p. 88. 

Brava in South Somali-land. 

This species is, as far as we yet know, exclusively East- African. 
The type came from the Umba river in the interior, and is I believe 
the only other specimen known. South of the Zambesi it is repre- 
sented by the closely allied M. canorus. 

6. Melierax niger. 

Nisus niger, Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 89. 

Melierax niger (Vieill.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. p. 91. 

Micronisus niger. Cab. J. f. O. 1878, p. 242, 

Mamboio. 

This species ranges over the whole of South and East Africa, 
extending northward into Abyssinia and Kordofan, and thence crosses 
the continent to Senegal and Casamanse. 

7. Glaucidium capense. 

Glaucidium capense (Smith); Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 563. 

Mamhoio. 

This is the most northern limit yet recorded for this species. 

8. Syrnium woodfordi. 

Syrnium woodfordi (Smith); Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 561. 
Ugogo. 

9. CaPRIMULGUS EUROPjEUS. 

Caprimulgus europceus, Linn. ; Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. 
p. 117. 

Mamboio. 

The Common European Goatsucker ranges throughout the whole 
of Africa, but is everywhere migratory. 

10. Cosmetornisvexillarius (Gould); Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, 
p. 564. 

Mamboio. 

With regard to its range as given by me /. c, instead of Zambesi 
read Limpopo as its southern known Hmit in Eastern Africa. 

21* 



306 CAPT. G. E, SHELLEY ON BIROS [Mar. 7, 

11. PSALIDOPROCNE HOLOMEL.ENA. 

Psalidoprocne holomelcena (Suadev.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1870, 
pp. 288, 320. 

Mamboio. 

New to East Africa. The range of this species is very uucertrin, 
as it is found on the Gold Coast and in South Africa from Cape 
Colony to Natal, but has not previously been recorded from any 
portion of South Tropical Africa. 

12. Hapaloderma vittatum, sp. n. 

Very similar in size and general coloiiring to H. narina, but 
diflFers as follows : bill smaller and much narrower, scarcely more 
than half the breadth ; head darker and of a more olive-green ; neck 
entirely surrounded by a bluish-bronze collar ; wing-coverts with 
narrow distinct white bars not freckled with white as in H, narina ; 
dark portion of the tail violet-blue, very partially edged with green ; 
white portion of the tail very distinctly barred with bluish black. 
Culmen 0'6, wing .5, tail 7, tarsus 0"65. 

Hab. Mamboio. 

The only specimen is in extremely bad condition, so much so that 
I cannot say how far the blue may extend on the throat ; but it ap- 
pears to be only a narrow ring round the neck. The bars on the 
wing-coverts and the colouring of the tail, especially the barring of 
the white portion, are sufficient characters to distinguish it at a 
glance from H. narina and H. constantia. 

13. Rhinopomastes cabanisi. 

Irrisor cabanisi, De Fil. ; Heugl. Orn. N.O.-Afr. p. 219. 

Mamboio. 

New to East Africa. This species is closely alied to It. minor, 
but may be readily distinguished by the white patch on the primaries, 
which is not present in Jj. minor. It ranges from the Upper White- 
Nile district to Mamboio. 

14. Saxicola pleschanka (Lepech.). 

Saxicola morio, Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. p. 372. 
Mamboio. 

New to East Africa. It ranges in Africa ; from Egypt to Mam- 
boio, and possibly occurs in Algeria. 

15. Motacilla longicauda, Riipp. 

Ugogo. 

New to East Africa. This species ranges from Abyssinia, where 
it was first collected by Dr. Riippell, to Durban in Natal. 

16. Graucalus pectoralis. 

Graucalus pectoralis, Jard.; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 29. 

Mamboio. 

New to East Africa. It inhabits the whole of Africa between 15° 
N. lat. and 22° S. lat. 



18S2.] FROM EASTERN AFRICA. 307 

17. SiGMODUS TRICOLOR. 

Sigmoclus tricolor (Gray); Sbelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 581. 

Mamboio. 

Five specimens, three with white on the wing, and two without. 

18. SiGMODUS SCOPIFRONS. 

Sigmodus scopifrons, Peters, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 582. 
ISramboio. 

19. EURYCEPHALUS RUEPPELLI, Bp. 

Eurycephalus anguitimens, Cab. J. f. O. 1878, p. 225 (?) : Fischer 
& Reichenow J. f. O. 1879, p.347(?) ; Shelley P. Z. S. 1881, p. 582. 

Mamboio, Ugogo. 

I suspect that Drs. Cabanis, Fischer, and Reichenow fell into the 
same error as 1 did I. c, and overlooked the white rump which 
separates this species from the South-African E. anguitimens. At 
any rate my reference I. c. should be cancelled. This species ranges 
from Shoa, about 9° N. lat., where it was collected by Dr. Riippell, 
to Mamboio and Ugogo, about 7° S. lat. 

20. DiLOPHUS CARUNCULATUS (Gm.). 

Mamboio. 

New to East Africa. This species ranges from Abyssinia through- 
out East and South Africa. 

21. Amydrus morio (Linn.). 

Amydrus rueppelli, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 583. 

Mamboio. 

I have come to the conclusion that A. rueppelli, Verr., is not 
specifically distinct from A. morio : in colouring I can detect no dif- 
ference ; but one of M. Verreaux's specimens in my own collection 
is slightly larger than sixteen specimens from East and South Africa, 
the Natal ones being generally the smallest and the East-African ones 
intermediate ; but this slight variation in size does not in my opinion 
constitute a specific character. In Natal specimens three ot those 
compared belong to what I consider a variety, diifering from the 
others in having the greater portion of the primary-coverts rufous, 
and in the rufous of the quills extending onto the outer secondaries. 

This species ranges from Abyssinia, throughout East Africa to 
Natal, and thence to the Cape of Good Hope. 

22. Textor dinemelli. 

Textor dinemelli, Horsf. ; Finsch & Hartl. Viig. Ostafr. p. 386 ; 
Cab. J. f. O. 1878, p. 233 ; Fischer & Reichenow, torn. cit. pp. 299, 
351. 

Mamboio. 

This species ranges f om Shoa, in about 10° N. lat., to Mamboio, 
in about 7° S. lat. 



308 CAPT. G. E. SHELLEY ON BIRDS [Mar. 7, 

23. Penthetria ardens. 

Penthetria ardens (Bodd.) ; Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 423. 

Mamboio and Ugogo. 

New to East Africa. From the above-mentioned localities it ranges 
southward into Natal and Caffraria, and westward to the Loaugo 
coast. 

24. Amblyospiza unicolor. 

Aviblyospizaunicolor, Fischer &E,eichenow; Shelley, P.Z. S. 1881, 
p. 589. 
Mamboio. 
This is the most southern limit we can yet accord to this species. 

25. Fringillaria orientalis, sp. n. 

Very similar to F. major. Cab., but smaller, with the bill and legs 
slightly longer and stouter ; the eyebrow and white central band on 
the crown broader and more distinctly marked. Total length 5*7 
inches, culmen 0'55, wing 3-2, tail 3"1, tarsus 0"8. 

Mamboio. 

In my opinion this is only one of three races of a single species : 
but I have here described it as a new species, as many ornithologists 
may prefer to consider it such. By the term race I intend to 
indicate that the form is so nearly allied to one or more others that, 
in my opinion, further research is sure to discover intermediate forms 
which may be placed as well with one as with the other. 

The three races are : — 

1. F. cabanisi, Reichenow, J. f. O. W^, p. 233, pi. 2. figs. 2, 3. 
Ilab. Cameroons. 

This race is only known to me by the description and plate I. c. 

2. F. orientalis. Hab. Mamboio. 

3. F. major, Cab. J. f. O. 1880, p. 349. pi. 2. fig. 2. Hah. 
Angola. 

As regards F. cabanisi, Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 371, I have a 
specimen in my own collection of this form from Caconda. It differs 
from the plate given by Dr. Cabanis (/. c.) in the central stripe on 
the crown being white, not grey, and in the feathers of the mantle 
being more striped and less scale-like, their dark centres generally 
extending quite to the tips of the feathers. 

26. Mirafra torrida, sp. n. (Plate XVII.) 

Upper parts rufous-brown, with dark central stripes to the fea- 
thers of the crown, nape, and greater portion of the back; rump and 
upper tail-coverts with obsolete shaft-stripes ; some of the feathers 
of the mantle very partially edged with buff. Wings rufous, the 
coverts and secondaries edged with buff; median and greater coverts 
partially barred with black ; secondaries somewhat similarly barred, 
and with a waved black line encircling each feather near the edge ; 
primaries browner, without black markings, and broadly edged exter- 
nally and internally with rufous. Tail, two centre feathers rufous; outer 
tail-feat hers, with the exception of an inner edging, and the outer 



1882.] FROM EASTERN AFRICA. 309 

webs of the next pair fawn colour ; remainder of the tail dark brown. 
Underparts rufous buff, as well as an eyebrow, cheeks, and ear- 
coverts : sides of the head mottled with rufous ; sides of the neck 
similar in colouring to the back ; middle of the throat slightly 
mottled with rufous ; lower throat and crop strongly mottled with 
rufous-brown, and with partial black central stripes to a few of the 
feathers ; under surface of the quills brown, with broad rufous edges 
to the inner webs ; under wing-coverts rufous-buff ; lower half of 
the bill flesh-colour, remainder shading into dark brown towards the 
culmen ; legs flesh-colour. Total length ^'7 inches, culmen 0"5, 
wing 3*1, tail 2'4, tarsus 0"95. 

Hab. Ugogo. 

This seems to be a very distinct species of Lark ; and I cannot 
find any description that suits it. Looking at Mr. Sharpe's Key 
to the Species of 3Iira/ra found in Africa (P. Z. S. 1874, p. 638), 
it appears to be different at once by its entirely rufous colour and 
the two rufous central tail-feathers. Of the species mentioned by 
Mr. Sharpe, it would appear to have its nearest ally in J/, cheniana ; 
but its entirely rufous colour above and the fawn-coloured outer tail- 
feathers distinguish it. 

27. TURACUS MUSOPHAGUS. 

Corythaix musophaga, Dubois ; Finsch & Hartl. Viig. Ostafr. 
p. 475. 

Mamboio. 

This species is here recorded for the first time from East Africa 
north of the Zambesi. It ranges throughout South Africa, and 
extends northward on the east coast to Mamboio. 

28. TuRACUS LIVINGSTONII. 

Turacus livingstonii. Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 44. 
Corythaix livirigstonei, .Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 476, 
pi. 8 ; Fischer & Eeichenow, J. f. O. 18S0, pp. 141, 189. 

Ugogo. 

This species ranges from the Mombas district, where it has been 
procured by Dr. Fischer, to Delagoa Bay, and crosses the continent 
to Benguela. 

29. CUCULUS CANORUS. 

Cuculus canorus, Linn. ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 580. 

Mamboio. 

The single specimen sent home by Sir John Kirk is fully adult 
but remaikedly small; total length 1 ["7 inches, culmen 0'8, wing 8, 
tail 7, tarsus 0'8. It agrees well in colouring with British and 
Abyssinian specimens with which I have compared it, as also with 
Mr. Sharpe's description I. c, e.\ccpting that it shows no signs of a 
greenish gloss on the back. C. canorus ranges throughout Africa, but 
is everywhere migratory. 



310 ON BIRDS FROM EASTERN AFRICA. [Mar. 7, 

30. CUCULUS SOLITARIUS. 

Cuculus solilarius, Steph. ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 582. 
Cueulus hev.glini, Hartl. Abhandl. nat. Ver. Brem. vii. p. 113. 

Mamboio. 

The four specimens sent me by Sir John Kirk I have compared 
with South-African examples and with one from Lado collected by 
Dr. Emin Bey and referred to C. heuglini by Dr. Hartlaub I. c.,and 
can find no difference between them. This species ranges through- 
out Africa south of about 8° N. lat. 

31. TURTUR LTJGENS. 

Tiirtur lugens (Riipp.) ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 596. 

Mamboio. 

This is its southern limit as yet known. 

32. Francolinus infuscatus. 

Francolinus infuscatus, Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 578. 

Pternistes infuscatus. Cab. J. f. O. 1878, p. 214. 

Mamboio. 

This species is confined to East Africa, and was hitherto only 
known by the type specimen, which was collected by the Barou von 
der Decken near Lake Jipe, which lies about 100 miles north-west 
of Mombas, and by a specimen procured by Herr Hildebrandt also 
in the Teita country. 

33. HOPLOPTERUS SPINOSUS. 

Hoplopterus spinosus (Linn.) ; Fischer & Reichenow, J. f. O. 
1879, pp. 296, 301, 337. 

Mamboio. 

This Plover ranges in Africa from Mamboio to the mouth of the 
Nile, aud crosses the continent to Senegal. 

34. Anas erythrorhyncha. 

Anas erythrorhyncha, Gm. ; Finsch & Hartl. Vog. Ostafr. p. 808. 
Mamboio. 

This species ranges throughout South Africa, extending north- 
ward on the east coast to Zanzibar, and is also found in Madagascar. 



1882.] MR. SCI.ATER ON THIi) WORD " LIPOTYPE." 311 

March 21, 1882. 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D. F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions to the 
Society's Menagerie during the month of February 1882: — 

The total number of registered additions to the Society's Mena- 
gerie during the month of February was 59, of which 22 were by 
presentation, 26 by purchase, 3 by birth, 2 were received in exchange, 
and 6 on deposit. The total number of departures during the same 
period, by death and removals, was 89. 

The most noticeable additions during the month of February 
were as follows : — 

1. Four Warty-faced Honey-eaters {Xanthomyza phrygia), and 

2. Two Musk-Ducks {Bisiura lobata), purchased February 8th. 
Both these Australian species are new to the Society's Collection ; 

and, so far as I know, examples of them have not been previously 
brought alive to Europe. 

3. A young Tapir, born in the Gardens February 12th, and 
thriving well, is the produce of our male Tnpirus roidini (received 
May 25th, 1878) and the large female Tapirus americanus from 
Paraguay, received January IGth, 1873. It is the first of the genus 
bred in the Society's Gardens. 

4. A female INIule Deer (Cervus macrotis) from the Western 
United States, presented by Dr. J. D. Caton, C.M.Z.S., and received 
February 15th. ^ 

Thanks to Dr. Caton's kind exertions we have now a fine pair 
(besides an odd male) of this beautiful Deer, and shall, I trust, 
succeed in breeding them. The female just received is in excellent 
health and very tame. 



Mr. J. E. Harting exhibited a mummified bird forwarded by Mr. 
George Holland of Swansea, and received by him from an island 
on the coast of Peru, whence it was brought home by the master of 
the ship 'Nero.' It was evidently a young Ganuet, and most probably 
referable to Sula fiber, a species common on the South-Pacific and 
South-Atlantic coasts. 

The island in question appeared to be a great breeding-haunt of 
sea-fowl ; and the deposit of guano there was very considerable. The 
bird was found in a sitting posture completely buried in the guano 
at a great depth. It had accordingly been so well preserved as to 
be easily recognizable, although it must have been buried for some 
considerable time. Three eggs exhibited, in much the same con- 
dition, were obtained at the same time and place. One was probably 
the egg of a Gull, the others those of a Tern. 



Mr. Sclater stated that in the course of some lectures lately given 
at the Royal Institution on the geographical distribution of animals, 
he had found it convenient to coin a term for the designation of a 



312 DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. 21, 

type of animal life the absence of which was characteristic of a 
particular district or region. This term he proposed should be 
"Lipotype"\ 

Thus the order Insectivora and the families Bovidae and Viverridae 
were " lipotypes" of the Neotropical Region ; the Bears (Ursidae) 
and the Deer (Cervidse) of the ^Ethiopian Begion ; and the Wood- 
peckers (Picidse) and Vultures (Vulturidae) of the Australian Begion. 

The term was of course more specially required and more 
appropriate in cases where the " lipotype " was a form that might 
prima facie have been expected to occur in the Begion or district 
in question but was remarkable by its absence. 



Dr. Griinther, F.B.S., exhibited a flat skin of a very remarkable 
pale sandy-coloured variety of the Leopard {Felis pardus), from the 
Matabele district, South Africa, and pointed out its superficial 
resemblance in colour to the Woolly Cheetah {Felis lanea, Sclater) . 



Dr. Giinther also exhibited and made remarks upon the shell of 
a new Tortoise of the genus Geoemyda from Siam, which he proposed 
to describe as new at a subsequent meeting. 



Mr. B. Bowdler Sharpe exhibited a specimen of a Goldfinch from 
Hungary, which had been sent to him by Dr. J. von Madarasz of 
the Museum of Buda-Pest, and which had been described by that 
gentleman as Carduelis elegans albigularis. Mr. Sharpe pointed 
out that a variety of the Goldfinch with a white throat was by no 
means unplentiful in England, and that a figure agreeing with the 
specimen now exhibited would be found in the late Mr. Dawson 
Bowley's 'Ornithological Miscellany' (vol. i. p. 91, fig. 3 in the 
plate). 

The following papers were read : — 

1 . On some Points in the Anatomy of Pterocles, with 
Remarks on its Systematic Position. By Hans Gadow, 
Ph.D., C.M.Z.S. 

[Eeceived February 18, 1882.] 

Amongst the unfinished manuscripts of the late Prof. A. Brandt, 
in St. Petersburg, there were some notes by him preparatory to a 
discussion on the anatomical characters of the Pterocletes. His son, 
now Professor in Charkow, was good enough to put these notes into 
my hands, while others were distributed amongst those naturalists 
who specially interested themselves in the other different groups to 
which that distinguished naturalist had devoted some of his atten- 
tion. The Society will see, therefore, that it was with peculiar 

XfiTTW, dcjicifi, el tv-ko^, forma. 



1882.] 



DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. 



313 



pleasure that a specimen of Pteroeles arenarius in the flesh was 
received by me during the short time that I was intrusted with the 
duties of its prosector during his absence from England'. 

Integument. 

The arrangement and form of the feather-tracts in Pteroeles and 
Syrrhaptes is almost the same as that in the Pigeons ; but too much 
weight has been laid upon the peculiar bifurcated shape of the 
shoulder part of the spinal tract. Nitzsch himself, in his description 
of the Gallinacei, mentions that a very similar arrangement of the 
shoulder-tract we meet with in Numida and Penelope and partly in 
Tetrao and Crypturus. He points out that in this respect Numida 
in particular approaches the Columbine type. 

Again, the Charadriidse and many Laridse present nearly the same 
type of feather-tracts, although they differ in the lower and ventral 
part of the spinal tract. 

The contour-feathers of Pteroeles possess a very small after-shaft, 
whilst this organ, although likewise small, is present in the Limi- 
colre and Gallinacei, but altogether absent in the Pigeons. 

The number of the rectrices and of the primaries is of no systematic 
importance in these birds, as will be seen from the following 
table :— 





Total number 
of quills. 


Primaries. 


Which of the 

primaries 

the longest. 


Number of 

rectrices. 


Pteroeles 

Pieeons 


27-28 

up to 25 

24-26 

22-29 


10 

10 

10 

10, 11 


first 

second 

first 

4th, 5th, 6th 


16 

12, 14, 16 

12 

10-20 


Plovers 


Fowls 





^ Principal books and essays referred to in the text : — 

W. K. Parker. "On the Osteology of Gallinaceous birds and Tinamous," 

Trans. Zool. See. v. pp. 149-241. 
A. H. Gareod. " On certaui Muscles of the Thigh of Birds &c.", P Z. S. 

1873, pp. 626-677, and 1874, pp. 111-123. 
. " On the Disposition of the deep Plantar Tendons in different Birds " 

P. Z. S. 1875, pp. 339-348. 
. '■ On the Carotid Arteries of Birds," P. Z. S. 1873, pp. 457-472 (for 

Pteroeles see p. 468). 
. " Nasal Bones of Birds," P. Z. S. 1873, pp. 33-38 (Pteroeles, see 

pp. 36, 37). 
NiTzscii. ' System der Pterylographie,' 1840. 
E. Blanchakd. " Oaracteres osteologiques des GalUnaces on Grallides," in Ann. 

Sciences Natur. ser. 4, tome vii. (18.57), pp. 91-106, plates 10-12. 
M. OusTALET. " Monographie des Oiseaux de la famille des Megapodiides," 

Op. cit. ser. 4, tome x &xi. (1881). 
H. Gadow. " Beitrage zur vergleich. Anat., Verdauungssystem d. Vogel," 

Jenaische Zeitsohrift, 1879. 
BoGD.VNOw. In 'Melanges biologiques,' 1880, pp. 49-55. 
D. G. Elliot. " A Study of the Pteroclida; or Family of the Sandgrouee " 
P. Z. S. 1878, p. 233-264. 



314 DR. GADOW ON"THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. '21, 

The ffeneral coloration of the Sand-Grouse is thoroughly protective, 
and is very distinctly marked throughout the genus by the dark 
crescent on the breast and the dark colour of the under surface of 
the wings. Though pronounced and apparently peculiar to the 
Sand-Grouse, a similar pattern is found in some of the Pigeons, as 
well as in the Plovers and in Grouse. 

The nestling plumage of ih& Sand-Grouse consists of a thick downy 
cover with fine terminal hairs to each down-feather, much like that 
of the Plovers and Fowls, whilst the Pigeons, when hatched, are 
almost nude and are entirely devoid of downy feathers. 

The oil-gland is present and quite naked in Sand-Grouse and 
Pigeons (in some Pigeons wanting), whilst in the Gallinacei and 
Limicolee this organ is tufted. 

In both form and structure the " tarsus " and the claws of the 
Sand-Grouse closely resemble those of the Gallinacei, but are re- 
markable for the tendency to suppression of the first or hind toe, 
which in Syrrhaptes is entirely aborted. This never occurs amongst 
the Pigeons and Fowls, but is a common feature in the Pluvialine 
tribe. 

The bill and the nostrils of Pterocles are like the same parts in the 
Turnicidse, which, like Pterocles and the Columbae, are schizorhinal, 
whilst the Rasores proper are what Garrod termed holorhinal. 

Osteology. 

As the osteology of Pterocles andSi/rrhajites has been fully described 
by Professors Parker and Garrod, it will be superfluous for me to do 
more than indicate some of the salient points. Prof. Parker says : — 
"There is no vomer in the Syrrhaptes to tie the two palatines together; 
and this is a sudden assumption of a columbaceous character." 
However, this is not of great importance, because most of the Tetra- 
onidse have also no vomer, or at least this bone is very much 
suppressed. 

The skull certainly bears many striking affinities to the Columbae. 
The Syrrhaptes keeps close to the Fowls in respect of its vertebral 
characters. 

Number of 
cervical vertebrae. Dorsal. Sacral. Caudal. 

Syrrhaptes 16 4 15 6 

Pterocles arenarius. . 15 5 15 7 

Columba livia 14 4 14 7 

Gallus'' 16 4 15 6 

" There is much that is Pigeon-like in the pelvis of the Grouse 
and the Syrrhajites." 

All the wing-bones, and in particular the humerus, strikingly 
resemble those of the Pigeons (see Garrod, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 255, 
fig. 1). 

Muscular System. 

I myself have examined specially only the muscles of the 
pelvic region and those of the hinder extremity. As regards the 

* Parker, L c. 



1882.] DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. 315 

muscles of the shoulder-girdle I am indebted to Prof. Fuerbringer for 
the information that Ptei-ocles approaches nearer to the Pigeons than 
to the Fowls. 

Mm. iliaci externi {mm. glutei). — This group in Pterocles con- 
sists of only two muscles, an anterior and a posterior. Of these the 
latter is the larger ; it arises from the broad latero-dorsal plane of 
the praeacetabular part of the ilium, and is inserted close to the external 
trochanter of the femur. The iliac muscles have their nerve-sup])ly 
from the crural plexus. 

M. iliacus internus. — This small muscle is comparatively long, as 
it arises from nearly the middle of the ventral aspect of the praeace- 
tabular ilium. It is inserted as usual, between the internal trochanter 
and the neck of the femur. 

M. sartorius. — Flat and very broad, from the greater part of the 
lateral and dorsal margin of the praeacetabular ilium. The muscle is 
partly blended with the m. iUo-tibialis at the distal third of the 
thigh ; the rest passes over the patella as a flat but nevertheless 
rather fleshy strip, and then extends into part of the head of the 
m. extensor digitorum communis. The muscle is supplied by nerves 
from one of the first branches of the crural plexus. 

M. ilio-tibialis (m. quadratus femoris). — This muscle is rather 
feebly developed; it arises with an aponeurotic sheet, which super- 
ficially covers the mm. iliaci externi, and which also takes origin 
from the regio posttrochanterica of the ilium. The muscle is com- 
pletely blended with the m. femoro-tibialis, with the m. gluteus 
posterior, and with the m. sartorius. It is inserted together with 
the tendon of the mesial and external part of the ra. femoro-tibialis 
into the head and rest of the tibia. Nerve-supply from the crural 
plexus. 

The m. gluteus posterior + '«• tensor fascice lafce (m. tensor 
fasciae latae) arises rather fleshy from the lateral plane of the postace- 
tabular part of the ilium, and is inserted indirectly into the head of 
the tibia by being attached to the distaljpart of the m. ilio-tibialis. 
Nerve from the ischiadic plexus. 

The m. gluteus anterior (m. gluteus quartus) is very small ; its 
muscular part consists of only a few fibres. Its aponeurosis arises 
from the space left between the origin of the m. iliac, ext. post, and 
the antitrochanter. Its short but broad and flat tendon runs over the 
external trochanter, passes the tendons of the external iliac muscles, 
and is inserted just distad from their insertion into the outer aspect 
of the femur. The nerve to this muscle is given off from the pi. 
ischiadicus ; it passes round behind the antitrochanter out of the 
ischiadic foramen. 

The ?«. ambiens arises with a short and distinct tendon from the 
pubic spine ; its roundish and somewhat ribbon-shaped belly tapers 
out into a long slender tendon, which, after partly piercing that of 
the m. femoro-tibialis, passes over the knee into its outer side and 
then supports one of the heads of the m. flexor perforatus digiti iii. 
Between the proximal part of the ambiens muscle and the inner 
trochanter of the femur, that long nervous branch which is sent off 



316 



DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. 21, 



from the posterior part of the crural plexus passes out, and theu 
runs along the inner side of the thigh, superficially to the inner side 
of the proximal end of the leg (Ruge's branch, as termed by me in 
my paper on the Ratitse). The ambiens muscle, on account of its 
nervous supply, belongs to the crural plexus, as the nerve of this 
muscle is one branch of the large nervous stem which passes laterally 
from the m. ambiens into the inner head of the m. femoro-tibialis 
(m. rectus internus feraoris). 

The m. femoro-tibialis (mm. vasti or m. cruraeus) consists of three 
heads. The inner one (m. rectus internus femoris) is the biggest 
and most distinct ; it arises from the whole inner and hinder aspect 

Fig. 1. 




Deeper adductor muscles of the right thigh of Pf erodes arenarius 

of the femur, and is inserted, independently of the others, into the 
anterior crest of the tibia. The middle head is also very fleshy, 
arises from nearly the whole of the anterior aspect of the femur, 
takes up the distal part of the m. ilio-tibialis, and is inserted into 
the patella and into the head of the tibia. The third or outer head 
is quite separate from the others, and is inserted into the outer edge 
of the caput tibiae by the help of the ligamentum tibio-patellare. 
All these three heads are supplied by nerves from the crural 
plexus. 

The m. ilio-Jibularis (m. biceps) takes its origin from the lateral 



1882.] DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLKS. 317 

margin of the postacetabular ilium and from the lateral plaue of the 
distal half of this bone. Its tendon passes through the tendinous 
loop near the poplitea, and is inserted into the neck of the fibula. 
Its nerves come from the ischiadic plexus. 

M. caudce ilio-jlexorms (m. seraitendinosus). See fig. 1. This 
ribbon-shaped muscle arises from the lateral processes of some of the 
first caudal vertebrae and from the outer plane of the spina ilio-cau- 
dalis. The so-called accessory part of this muscle is well developed ; 
it descends from the outer and lower surface of about the distal 
third of the femur ; aud its fibres join those of the long or main part 
nearly at right angles. The line of junction is indicated by an 
oblique tendinous raphe. The two combined parts are inserted, 
first into the neck of the tibia by a strong tendon ; secondly, a 
small tendon, looking like the continuation of the raphe, descends 
superficially to the back of the leg and joins the caput femorale 
internum m. gastrocnemii. Nerve-supply, together with the next 
muscle, from the ischiadic plexus. 

The m. ischio-fleocorius (m. semimembranosus) is feebly developed, 
and loses its independence by becoming blended with the m. caudae 
ilio-flexorius, which completely covers it externally. It arises from 
a small part of the middle line of the lateral margin of the ischium. 

The m. caudce ilio-femoralis consists of two chief parts. The 
most lateral one, or long head (long head of femoro-caudalis), is a 
very narrow, slender, muscular ribbon, which arises from the proc. 
lat. of the last caudal vertebrae, and is inserted by a narrow thin 
tendon into the latero-posterior plane of the end of the proximal 
third of the femur. Towards its insertion the fleshy part of this 
long head is to a great extent blended with the more proximal or 
greater part : the latter (accessory femoro-caudal) arises from part 
of the membrane of the foramen oblongum, and from the outer 
])lane of the hindmost or distal part of the ischium, whilst only a 
few fibres arise from the adjacent part of the ilium. The nerve 
which supplies these two muscles comes from the ischiadic plexus, 
and passes externally over the m. ischio-femoralis. I must mention 
here a peculiar little muscular slip which I have not often observed 
in birds. It arises (see fig. 1 ) as a small fleshy flat slip from the 
outer aspect of that region where the pubis and ischium approach 
each other ; it is then partly covered by the long head ; its thin 
tendon unites with that of the long head. It was present also on 
the other side, and was supplied by the same nerve-branch together 
with the two large heads. The presence of this little muscular slip 
is an instance of the great variation to which this group of the m. 
caudae ilio-femoralis is subject. 

The m. ischio-femoralis (m. obturator externus) arises with 
fleshy fibres from the dorsal, distal, and ventral margins ofthe foramen 
oblongum ; its strong tendon is inserted into the outer plane of the 
femur, just distad from the insertion of the m. obturator. It receives 
its nerve from the ischadic plexus. 

The m. obturator arises from that part of the inner plane of the 
ischium which bounds the foramen obturatum and also from the 



318 DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. 21, 

adjoining part of the pubis. It is inserted by means of a very strong 
tendon into the externo-posterior plane of the outer trochanter. 

Another muscle, which we may call an accessory muscle to the 
m. obturator, is very small, and arises from the most proximal and 
lateral part of the ossa pubis et ischii near the acetabulum ; its fleshy 
but short belly is separated from that of the m. ischio-femoralis by 
the tendon of the main obturator muscle. It is inserted just between 
the tendons of these two muscles. As this small muscle is not 
supplied by the pi. ischiadicus, but together with the m. ol)turator, 
we cannot consider it to be a representative of the gemelli muscles, 
nor of part of the m. obturator internus of mammals. But the m. 
obturator of birds, together with its accessory muscles, might corre- 
spond to the m. obturator externus of Mammalian anatomy. 

The m. pubi-ischio-femoralis (m. adductor) consists of two layers, 
a lateral and more proximal and a median or distal one. The lateral 
part is ribbon-shaped, and arises from the latero- ventral margin of 
the middle third of the spines, opposite the pubis. It is covered 
laterally by the m. caud. ilio-femoralis, and is inserted into the hinder 
aspect of the distal half of the femur, lying mesiad from the femoral 
portion of the m. caudse ilio-flexorius (femoral portion ==" accessory 
part"). The inner layer arises from the lateral margin of the distal 
tv/o thirds of the ischium, but not from the os pubis or the ischio- 
pubic membrane. This flat muscle forms scarcely any tendon, and 
is inserted as a broad, but flat and vertical sheet into the distal half 
of the femur, including the internal condyle, and into the hinder 
surface of the head of the tibia. 

The m. popliteus is developed as usual. 

The m. tibialis anticus consists of two heads. The external or 
femoral is represented simply by a long tendon arising from the 
anterior inner margin of the internal condyle ; its short belly soon 
fuses completely with the tibial or chief head, which latter takes its 
fleshy origin from the crest and head of the tibia. The strong tendon 
of this muscle passes under the transverse ligament of the leg, and 
is inserted into the anterior or dorsal sulcus of the tarso-metatarsal 
bone, not far from the joint. The whole muscle is covered superficially 
by the m. gastrocnemius (inner head) and by the m. peroueus 
superficialis. Nerve-supply, as in all the following muscles, from 
the ischiadic nerve. 

M. peroneus superficialis. — The most superficial muscle on the 
anterior and outer side of the leg. It arises from the crest of the 
head and from the anterior plane of the neck of the tibia, and some- 
times from the head of the fibula. Its broad tendon passes round 
the outer side of the leg to the hinder aspect of the intertarsal joint, 
and then divides into two tendons : one is very broad, and forms the 
deep sheet of the susceptaculum ; the other one is much narrower, 
passes laterally over the external malleolus of the tibia, and then joins 
the tendon of the m. flexor perforatus dig. iii. 

A m. peroneus profundus was not present in my specimen of 
Pterocles. However, this muscle is subject to much variation. I 
found it well developed in Euplocanms prcelata, but wanting in Gallus 



1882.] DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. 319 

bankiva and in Penelope supercilinsa, whilst in our common Domestic 
lowl It IS generally present. In the Pigeons it is often absent. 
It present, this muscle arises with a long but narrow and fleshy 
belly from the anterior plane of the angle between the lower end of 
the fibula and the middle third of the tibia ; its strong tendon then 
passes laterally over the joint and is inserted into the proximal 
margin of the plantar tarso-metatarsal bone, near the external 
malleolus. When contracted, the muscle bends the tarso-metatarsus 
slightly dorsad and inwards. 

M. gastrocnemius.— 'Hhh large muscle consists in Pterocles of two 
parts, each of which arises with two distinct heads (fig. 2) :— 

Fig. 2. 




Lateral posterior view of the gastrocnemius muscle of right side of 
Pterocles arenarius. 



I. Median part. 

a. Cap. tibiale : from inner and anterior aspect of the head and 
neck of the tibia, blending with the tendons of the m. femoro- 
tibialis. 

b. Cap. femorale: from hinder aspect of the intercondyloid 
region, and at the same time from the ligam. femoro-tibiale 
internum. 

II. Lateral part. 

a. With a slender but distinct tendon from the intercondyloid 
region and from the outer margin of the femur ; its belly 
Proc. ZooL. Soc— 1882, No. XXII. 22 



320 DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. 21, 

passes between the two principal branches of the ischiadic 
nerve, and is supported by the descending tendon of the m. 
S5emitendinosus = m. caudae ilio-flexorius. 
/j. This head is the larger of the two, and is the most super- 
ficial one at the hinder and external aspect of the leg, as it 
arises from the external condyle of the femur. The " tendo 
communis" of these four heads is inserted into the hinder 
margin of the tarso-rnetatarsal bone, but principally into the 
tibial and median margin. 

The m. extensor diyitorum communis appears after the removal of 
the superficial peroneal and of the tibialis muscle, being completely 
covered by the latter. It arises from the anterior plane of the head 
and neck of the tibia ; its tendon passes through the transverse liga- 
ment and the bony bridge just above the intertarsal joint ; it then 
runs down on the anterior surface of the metatarsal bone, and sends 
a tendon to the dorsal part of the bases of the phalanges of the 
three front toes. The mode of splitting up of the common tendon 
into the special tendons and of their insertion varies much. 

M. j)erforatus digiti ii. — This muscle appears after the removal 
of the most superficial of the flexor muscles on the outer side of the 
leg. It comes with fleshy fibres from the ligam. fem. tibiale 
externum and from the hinder part of the neck of the tibia. Its 
long and slender tendon, after crossing the legs, passes right through 
the susceptaculum in the middle of the hinder aspect of the inter- 
tarsal joint, where it lies deeper than all the other tendons. It is 
inserted into the ventral side of the phalanges ii. et iii. digiti ii. 

M. perforatus digiti iii. consists of two very fleshy heads. The 
outer one is completely fused with that of the m. perforatus dig. ii. ; 
it arises partly from the external condyle of the femur and from the 
tendinous loop ; one part of this head forms the continuation of the 
tendon of the ambiens muscle. Tlie inner head arises with a distinct 
tendon from the hinder aspect of the middle part of the intercondy- 
loid region. 

The combined tendon of the whole muscle, when passing over the 
intertarsal joint, is quite flat, and lies between the susceptaculum and 
the broad tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Thus in this region 
it is the most superficial of all the flexor tendons. At the middle 
of the metatarsal bone the tendon gives off a slip to that of the m. 
perforans et perforatus dig. iii. 

M.Jlex. perforatus dig. iv. — Its thick belly arises from the hinder 
aspect of the external condyle of the femur and from the intercon- 
dyloid region. Its tendon, simply covered by the tendo Achillis, 
passes as the most superficial one over the joint and is inserted into 
the basis phal. ii. dig. iv. 

The m. flex, perforans et perforatus dig. iii. arises with a long 
slender head together with the m. perforatus dig. iii. and with the 
m. perforatus dig. ii. ; its tendon sends a slip to that of the m. per- 
foratus, which it also perforates, and is inserted into the has. phal. 
II. et III. dig. III. ; on the other hand, this tendon is pierced by that 
of the m. flexor profundus. 



1882.] DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. 321 

M.Jle.v. perforans et perforatus dig. xi. — The strong and fleshy 
belly of this muscle arises with a short tendon from the hinder plane 
of the intercondyloid region ; it passes through a special canal in the 
susceptaculum, and is one of the deepest muscles. It is inserted into 
the cap. pbal. i. dig. ii. 

The ?w. Jiex. profundus s. communis digitorum consists of two 
principal heads. The outer one arises with fleshy fibres from the 
fibula and is partly fused with the m. tibialis; its strong tendon 
passes the intertarsal joint superficially to the susceptaculum, and is 
only covered by the tendo Achillis ; it passes the pulley on its outer 
or lateral, not on its ventral or posterior margin. The inner or chief 
head takes its origin from the hinder plane of the greater part of 
the tibia ; its tendon runs as the deepest of all through the pulley, 
and then unites with that of the outer head; the tendon then 
divides into three, each of which is inserted into the basis of the 
last or distal phalanx of the ii., iii., or iv. digit. 

Although Pterodes possesses a rudimentary hallux, which consists 
of two very small bones not articulated with the metatarsus, there 
was no trace of a m. flexor hallucis longus to be found. But there 
was a m. flexor hallucis brevis, which arose from the hinder aspect ot 
rather more than the upper two thirds of the tarso-metatarsal bone, 
and was inserted into the cap. phal. i. dig. i. 

An abductor brevis. dig. iv. and an abductor brevis dig. ii. veere 
likewise present — the former puUing the fourth toe inwards, i. e. 
towards, the latter drawing the second the away from the middle 
one. Both consequently move these two toes tibiad, and are mor- 
phologically abductors. 

For the m. flexor brevis dig. iii. see note, §4. 
^^ote. — Mr. Forbes has kindly drawn my attention to Mr. A. Has- 
well's paper " Notes on the Ana'tomy of Birds. III. The myological 
characters of the Columbidse," in Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 
1880, p. 306 ; and has expressed grave doubts about the correctness 
of some of the statements made in it. Mr. Haswell, at the end of 
his paper, mentions five points "which seem to be especially charac- 
teristic of the family." But I find that of the five points, one is 
totally incorrect, and three others, viz. nos. 3, 4, 5, are not charac- 
teristic of the Columbidee. These points are : — 

1. The absence of a posterior belly of the m. latissimus dorsi. 
Mr. Forbes and I, on examining the following birds, which were at 
hand — Carpophaga, Chalcophaps, and Columba — found this muscle 
consisting of two bellies, the posterior one being just as well developed 
in these Pigeons as in Astur, arising from the anterior margin of the 
ilium and from the last dorsal vertebrae, and inserted by means of a 
tendon below that of the anterior belly into the humerus. Through- 
out their whole length the two bellies were connected by a fascia. 

3. The absence of the m. glut, externus and the presence of 
the adductores brevis et longus, the semitendinosus and semimem- 
branosus. Now the in. gluteus externus (=glut. anterior) is gene- 
rally very small, but plainly visible in many birds, such as Pigeons, 
Passerine birds, &c., and not absent as stated by Mr. Haswell. 

22* 



322 DU. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEr.OCLES. [Miir. 21, 

The four other muscles are well developed in most birds, as 
Prof. Garrod has stated over and over again, and as the dissection 
of any fowl will show. 

4. " The special relation of the tendon of the ambiens (when pre- 
sent) to the fibular head of the flexor perforatus secundus tertii 
digiti." The distal end of the ambiens muscle, when typically deve- 
loped, always forms the continuation of one ot the heads of the m. 
flexor perforatus dig. ii. et iii. 

5. " The presence of lumbricales in the foot." The muscle vyhich 
Mr. Haswell takes to be the representative of the lumbricales muscles 
of mammals has not " hitherto escaped the notice of anatomists," and 
it is not " peculiar to the Pigeons," since it is also present in many 
other birds, e. g. the Katitse, and has been described by Meckel, 
although he gave no name to it, in his ' System der vergleich. Anat.' 
iii. p. 388, and in his 'Archiv fiir Anat. u. Physiol.' pp. 2/8 & 279. 

With regard to the muscles of the leg, I am unable to point out 
any typical differences between Sand-Grouse, Fowls, and Pigeons. 
The absence of the m. flexor hallucis longns in Pterocles is of no 
importance, as this muscle is generally absent in birds which have 
no hallux or only a small one, and, moreover, as the absence of this 
toe itself affords no family character. Of course there are many 
points, e. g. the mode of origin and the arrangement of the tendons 
of the muscles, and even the absence of the m. plantaris and of the 
m. peroneus profundus, which are noteworthy in Pterocles; but all 
these things are variable, and give us no characters which hold good 
throughout the Gallinaceous or the Columbine group. 

It is the same with the m. ambiens : this muscle is present and 
well developed in Pterocles and most probably in all the Rasores ; 
in the Pigeons its presence is variable. 

Of all the other muscles connected with the leg, there is none that 
shows any practical difference between Sand-Grouse, Pigeons, and 
Fowls, and even (if we include them in our comparison) the Plovers. 

On the whole, however, the myology of Pterocles indicates that it 
is more nearly allied to the Pigeons than to any other group of birds. 

Viscera. 

"The trachea is cartilaginous; and it has at its bifurcation what 
the Grouse is bereft of, viz. a pair of laryngeal muscles, as in the 
Pigeons, Talegalla, and Plover " {Parker). 

The crop {ingluvies) of Pterocles is a simple dilatation of the an- 
terior and lateral walls of the oesophagus, without any constriction in 
the middle line, although it is broader than long. Its walls are very 
thin on its anterior parts, and show longitudinal folds and glands ; 
the dorsal part, the prolongation of the dorsal half of the oesophagus, 
is thicker and slightly muscular, the external sheath consisting of 
transverse, the inner one of longitudinal smooth muscular fibres. 

In the Pigeons the crop is different. It consists of two lateral 
and symmetrical dilatations of the lateral walls, whilst the middle 
part is simply the continuation of the ccso[)hai;us, slightly widened 



1882.] 



DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. 



323 



out at the upper and lower end of the crop. The glands are nearly 
equally distributed over the inner lining of its walls, and are arranged 
in very irregular longitudinal folds. 

The j)roventriculus of Pterocles is a long oval, and comparatively 
small ; its walls are thick and full of glands, which are " ovoidal and 
simple as in the Pigeon and Plover, not botryoidal as in the Grouse 
and Fowls." 

The ventriculus or gizzard is of a subquadrangular shape, much 
flattened and very muscular, showing on the right and on the left 
side a speculum tendinosum ; the posterior wall is deeply bent in 

Fig. 3. 



n 




Eight latei-al view of iutestines of Ptcrocks arcnarius. 
re, right caecum ; I, II, III, IV, intestinal loops. 

towards the middle line. Its inner liuing consists of a hardened and 
much thickened excreted mass, without however forming any dis- 
tinct triturating planes. 

The duodenum, ileum, and rectum form four distinct " closed " 
loops, which are arranged as follows -.—The first, or duodenal loop 
is very short and straight, as it only extends over the posterior mar- 
gin of the gizzard ; its diameter is slightly larger than that of the 
ileum ; the length of the duodenal loop in Pterocles is about 4*5 



324 



DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. 21, 



centim. The second loop is nearly double the length of the first, 
and has its apex doubled up into an irregular knot, as is characteristic 
of the Gallinacei proper. The third loop is of about the same length 
but straighter. The fourth loop is almost three times as long as 
the duodenal one ; it is stowed away in the most ventral and lowest 
part of the abdominal cavity, between the gizzard and the vent ; 
throughout its whole length it is accompanied by the two caeca, 
which are closely attached to this loop, as they are supplied by the 
same branch of the mesenteric artery. The rectal part of the intes- 
tinal tract is slightly wider than the ileum and the duodenum. 

The cwca (see fig. 4) are extremely well developed in Pterocles, 
being IG centim. long, and are inserted at a distance of 15 centim. 
from the anus. They are very wide and have very thin walls ; their 

Fig. 4. 




a, Cisca of Pterocles drcnarius ; b, Ca;ca of Syrrhaptes paradoxus (after Brandt). 



inner lining forms about 6 longitudinal slightly elevated folds. 
(Prof. Parker says that the caeca of the Sand-Grouse have 12 longi- 
tudinal folds, not 7 as have the Ptarmigans.) 

The cseca of Syrrhaptes, according to Brandt, are very wide and 
long too, but differ from these organs of Pterocles in the shape of 
their terminal parts, as shown in tig. 4. 

The liver of Pterocles I found to consist of two principal lobes — 
the right lobe being about three times larger than the left one, 
which exhibits on its inner side a small Spigelian lobe. The sharp 



1882.] DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. 325 

lower edges of both lobes have several slight emarginations ; and there 
is a strong commissure between the lobes. 

The gall-bladder in my specimen of Pterocles is large, forming 
a very distinct cylindrical lateral pouch ; its cystic duct opened into 
the ascending end of the duodenal loop, whilst the hepatic duct was 
inserted opposite to the cystic duct, just below the pylorus. 

This arrangement of the ducts, however, seems to be subject to 
much variation ; for Prof. Brandt found that the cystic duct in 
Syrrhaptes either opened into the terminal part of the duodenal 




Duodenum of Pterocles arenarius, with the bile- and pancreatic ducts. 

loop, together with the hepatic duct, or in other cases near the 
pylorus, when the hepatic duct was inserted into the duodenum 
opposite the jiylorus. (See figs. 5, 6, 7.) 

The pancreas in Pterocles and in Syrrhaptes opened by two ducts, 
one into that bile-duct which was inserted near the pylorus, the 
second just in front of the other bile-duct. 

The arrangement therefore was as follows : — 

Pterocles arenarius: d. hepatic 4- 1st d. pancreat. inserted near 

the pylorus. 
2ndd. pancreat. ■\- d. cystic (see fig. 5) in- 
serted opposite the pylorus. 
I. Syrrhaptes paradoxus : 1st d. pancreat. -f d. cyst, inserted near 

the pylorus (fig. 6). 
2nd d. pancreat. -f d. hepat. inserted 
opposite the pylorus. 



326 DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. 21, 

Fig. 6. 




Duodenum of Syrrkapfes paradoxus, with bile- and pancreatic ducts 
(after Brandt). 



Fig. 7. 




Duodenum of Si/rrJiapies paradoxus, with bile- and pancreatic ducta 
(after Brandt). 



1882.] 



DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. 



327 



II. Syrrhaptes paradoxus : 1st d. pancreat. inserted near the pylorus 

(fig. 7). 
2nd d. pancreat., -|-d. hepat. -fd. cystic, 
inserted opposite the pylorus. 



Total length 
of gut. 



Eelative 
lenath. ' 



Length of 
Cfecum. 



Distance of 
cseca from anus, 



Pterocles arenariua 

(after Brandt) 

Syrrhaptea (after Brandt) 

Perdicula cambayensis . . . 

Perdix einerea 

Phasianus pictus 

swinboei 

Euplocamus pnelata 

Oras alberti 

Oolumba livia 

Oaloenaa nicobariea 

Peristera geoffroii 

Erythrcenas pulcherrima 



centim. 
83 
80 
87 

38-42 
75 
106 
106 
122-152 
222 

96-125 
125 
34 
41 



7-8 



6-7 

8 

7-5 

7 

7-7-5 

9 

12-13 

10-11 

4 

5-5 



centim. 

IG 

15-5 & 18-5 



5 
17 

10-15 

13 
22&23 
10&14 



0-5-0-i 


0-3 




centim. 
lo 
12 
13 

3-4 
6 

8-12 

7 
8-12 

15 

4-5 
4 



The liver of the Rasores, as well as that of the Columbse, is quite 
different. The left lobe is divided again into tvro by a deep fissure, 
so that the whole organ might be called trilobed. The right lobe is 
generally the larger ; a Spigelian lobe is present in most of these 
birds. The outline of the lower margin varies much in the different 
Fowls and Pigeons. 

The existence of a gall-bladder in the Pterocletes might be looked 
upon as a strong indication of difference between them and the 
Pigeons, as in the Gallinaceous birds this organ as a rule is well 
developed. However, it must not be forgotten that in several typi- 
cal Rasores, as in Euplocamus, Numida, and Penelope, there is 
sometimes scarcely any ponch-like dilatation of the bile-ducts. In 
the Rasores the caeca are, without any exception, very well developed, 
and have mostly an extremely large and wide lumen. The length 
of both the cseca compared with the length of the intestinal tract (from 
pylorus to anus) is in the proportion of 1 : 7 {Crax), or even 1 : 2*2 
(^Perdix). In the Pigeons, on the other hand, the cseca are always 
in a rudimentary condition, their sum total being in the proportion of 
1 : 75 in our domestic Pigeon, and 1 : oo in Qoura, Calcenas, Chalco- 
phaps &c., as they are either completely wanting in most of the 
Columbse, or are only represented by very small, often barely visible, 
vermiform-like appendages. 

It has sometimes been stated that Pigeons have to rank with such 
birds as do possess caeca, because such organs, although very small, 

' See my paper in the 'Jenaieche Zeitsohrift fiir Naturwissenschaft,' 1879, 
p. 869. 



328 DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. 21, 

exist in our common Pigeon, and thus they are in contrast with those 
birds in which caeca are altogether wanting, like Woodpeckers, Parrots, 
and others. Garrod likewise included the Passerine birds amongst the 
Menotyphla (to use a Hseckelian term for animals possessing caeca). 
Now I think this is not correct ; and we must consider this matter 
a little further. Garrod himself came to the conclusion that the an- 
cestral bird-stock did possess caeca ; as this is undoubtedly true, it 
follows that all those birds which are now found without caeca 
must have lost them, either phylogenetically or even during their 
ontogenetic development. In fact we see, in embryos of such birds 
as have when adult only very small quite rudimentary caeca, 
that these organs are, in the embryo, just as well developed as in 
birds with long caeca ; but these caeca, in a Pigeon for instance, do 
not grow any further. They are in early life stopped in their deve- 
lopment, and thus remain in a rudimentary state. Again, in all those 
birds which are completely devoid of caeca the tendency to suppress 
these organs is simply carried out to the extreme. We cannot, 
therefore, group the birds into birds with caeca and birds without 
caeca ; and this is especially wrong, as there exist many birds which, 
although apparently allied to each other, differ greatly in the pre- 
sence or absence of caeca. 

If we want to take the caeca into consideration at all, we must 
take another point of view : that is, are the caeca of any use to the 
birds in question or are they not ? Now, apparently, in all birds 
which have well-developed caeca they are useful, although we must 
confess that we do not know in what way. Again, in birds with 
very small caeca, where these organs are simply vermiform-like pro- 
cesses, and which never contain any chyle in their extremely small 
lumen, they cannot have any physiological function, else they would 
not have been suppressed. 

No doubt in some cases, in which they are not quite aborted, as 
for instance in the Crows and in our common Pigeon, the glands in 
their walls may still produce some secretion, which then may be 
made the best of. But this is one of the cases in which rudimen- 
tary organs are not completely stopped in their functions although 
they are useless, simply because the animal hitherto has not been 
able to get rid of them entirely : thus, for instance, the appendix 
vermiformis of man, or another example still more striking, our 
thymus gland, which, although a gland, is now without a duct, and 
thus rather a paradox. 

But to return to our question. It is clear that birds with rudi- 
mentary caeca have to be grouped together with lipotyphlous birds, 
i. e. birds which have lost these organs. 

The great development of the caeca therefore constitutes a consider- 
able difference between the Pteroclidae and the Columbidae, as the 
former and the Gallinacei are decidedly menotyphlous and the 
Columbse lipotyphlous. 

In the Gallinacei the whole digestive tract always forms four very 
distinct loops : the duodenal one is the first ; the next two loops are 
formed by the ileum ; in birds which, like Perdix, have a compara- 



1882.] DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. 329 

tively short gut, these two loops are very short, and are stowed away 
on the right side of the abdominal cavity ; when the ileum is re- 
latively long, the number of the loops is not increased nor do the 
two loops grow in a straight direction, but the apex of each turns 
backwards so as to give the loops a horseshoe shape. The fourth 
loop is formed by the last third of the ileum, and is accompanied by 
the cseca ; tiie whole loop is never a " closed " one, its terminal 
branch is nearly straight, the other one much shorter and, if the 
gut be long, irregularly curled. 

We meet with a totally different arrangement in the Columbae. 
There are invariably only three loops formed by the intestinal tract. 
The first, the duodenum, is very wide, and sacculated at the apex. 
The second is very long, and, in all those species where the total 
length of the intestine is not (as for instance in the fruit-eating 
Carpo])haga latrans) extremely short, is entirely coiled up into a left- 
handed spiral. As a rule there are in this spiral 3 direct and 2 re- 
trograde turns ; the number of these, however, wholly depends on the 
relative length of the ileum : thus in the common Pigeon, with the 
relative length of the gut about 12, the apex of the ileum-loop 
has turned round Sg times ; whilst in others, like Chalcophaps, the 
number is less ; and, lastly, in Pigeons with very short guts, as in 
Carpophaga, a spiral is not developed at all (because, as far as we 
know at present, the intestinal spiral in certain birds is only one 
of the means of stowing away the longitudinally growing gut). But 
it must not be forgotten that in Columba as well as in Carpophaga, 
whether the ileum be long or short, we never have more or less than 
three folds. The last, or third loop is a very long one too, en- 
tirely closed or double throughout its whole length. 

Mode of Life and Propagation. 

The Sand-Grouse differ greatly from the Pigeons in their mode of 
drinking. It is well known that the latter, during the act of drink- 
ing, dip their bill into the water as far as the cleft of the mouth, and 
then suck the water in without raising their head till they have 
finished drinking. Pterocles and Syrrhaptes, on the other hand, 
drink as Fowls and other birds do, by taking up water mouthful by 
mouthful and letting it run down the throat. This peculiarity is 
probably the result of a special mechanism of the muscles of the 
throat and glottis, but is as yet unexplained. 

Their flight consists of rapid uniform movements of the wings, 
and generally resembles that of the Pigeons more than that of the 
Plovers ; but they do not glide or soar as the Pigeons do. 

From their voice we cannot gather much information as to their 
affinities ; but certainly they do not coo. 

During the greater part of the year they are gregarious. They 
are monogamous like Pigeons and Plovers, differing in this respect 
greatly from the Rasores, which are typically polygamous. Their 
nest is extremely simple and situated on the ground. The number 
of eggs laid by Pterocles is three ; wliile according to Radde Syr- 



330 DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMV OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. 21, 

rhaptes lays four, which in general appearance and so-called structure 
resemble those of certain Partridges. 

The Plovers lay the same number. The Pigeons, on the other 
hand, invariably lay only two ; and this is so characteristic of the 
whole group that Bonaparte named them Bipositores. Again, all 
the true Gallinaceous birds produce a great and indefinite number 
of eggs. Therefore in this respect the Sand-Grouse are more nearly 
allied to the Plovers than either to Grouse or Pigeons. 

According to an observation made in the Zoological Gardens of 
London in August 1865, the period of hatching seems to be a little 
more than three weeks : two eggs were laid at the beginning of August; 
and the young birds came out on the 29th of the same month. 

But one of the most valuable points, as regards the systematic 
position of the Pterocletes, is the fact that the young when hatched 
are thickly covered with hairy down, and that as soon as their plu- 
mage lias dried they are able to leave the nest and seek their food. 
This removes them far from the Pigeons, which are the most de- 
cided psedotrophic or gymnogenous of all the birds we know. 

Now to sum up. "We have seen that there are many points in 
which the Pterochdse have striking resemblances to the Colnmbidse ; 
but there are also many points in which they approach the Rasores ; 
and it is difficult, if not impossible, to made out which chaiacters 
are the more important. 

Prof. Parker was the first to point out clearly that there is a rela- 
tionship between Sand-Grouse and Plovers ; and Prof. Garrod, in his 
classification of birds, groups the Columbse, including Pteroclidse, 
and the Limicolse, including Charadriidse, together under his order 
Charadriiformes. But the Columbidae undoubtedly are related to the 
Rasores through such forms as the Cracidse {Peristeropodes, Huxley) 
and the Tetraonidse ; and, in addition, they are linked together 
by Pterocles and Syrrhaptes. These circumstances show that there 
exists a close relationship between Rasores, Columbae, Pterocletes, 
and Limicolse. Phylogenetic tables as a rule are faulty from being 
highly hypothetical, and from the imagination being frequently 
drawn upon in their compilation. However, they can be useful, even 
if they only show where our knowledge is yet insufficient, or why 
systems hitherto made do not agree with more recent ideas. There- 
fore I venture to draw the outlines of a branch of the avian stock, not 
led by preconceived ideas, but solely guided by the consideration of 
facts we kuow, or at least we have a certain right to believe we know. 

1. Rasores, Columbse, and Limicolae are nearer related to one 
another than to the rest of the birds. 

2. If the Columbee approach nearer to the Charadrii than to the 
Rasores, we can express this idea by a stock which gives off two 
main branches : — one for the Rasores ; and another one which again 
soon divides into two — one Columbine, and one for the Plovers (see 
fig. 8). 

3. As the Pigeons have closer affinities to the Fowls than the 
latter have to the Plovers, the Pigeons must be represented by the 
middle branch, that to the extreme left remaining for the Plovers. 



1882.] DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. 331 

4. The most specialized of the Rasores (that is to say, the typical 
Alectoromorphfe) we have to put at the eud of the right branch. 
The Tetraonidse and the Cracidfe are those which, of all the Rasores, 
show the greatest resemblance to other families ; they must there- 
foi'e form the earliest or lowest twigs of the Rasorial branch ; con- 
sequently we have to put their special roots nearest to the biggest 
and at the same time more indifferent stock. 

But now as to Pterocles. 

1. No doubt the Sand-Grouse are more nearly allied to the Rasores 
than the Pigeons are. Consequently we must seek for their root 
between the Rasorial and the Columbine branch. 

2. Again, the Sand-Grouse are more nearly allied to the Pigeons 
than to the Plovers ; thus their branch must be put nearer to the 
Columbine branch than to that of the Plovers. 



Fig. 8. 




Diagram showing the supposed relationship of the Pteroelidse. 

This conclusion and the former can be reconciled only if we put 
the Sand-Grouse branch at x ; and as this places them pretty nearly 
in the centre of our hypothetical table, it proves that our final 
conclusion cannot be far from right. 

The fact is that birds just a little less specialized than Pterocles 
— in other words the direct ancestors of Pterocles — would contain 
all that is necessary to develop them into either Fowls, Pigeons, or 
Plovers. 

Considering these circumstances, we see once more that, as Mac- 
gillivray and Professors Sundevall and Garrod have maintained, the 
Pigeons are not so closely related to the Fowls as is generally sup- 
posed. 

It would be extremely difficult to arrange the birds represented in 
our table into families and groups as is required iu a practical system. 
If we want to divide them into only three groups — Plovers, Pit^eons 
and Fowls — of course Pterocles lias to go with the Pigeons ; but this 
would not express its close relationship to the Tetraonidse. A^ain 
we cannot include the Pigeons and Fowls under one large group' 
and the Plovers under a second, because the Pigeons must be placed' 
along with the latter. And Pigeons and Plovers cannot form one 



332 DR. GADOW ON THE ANATOMY OF PTEROCLES. [Mar. 21, 

large group and the Fowls the other, because then this Plover- 
Pigeon group would include a form, viz. Pterocles, which we know 
to be more closely allied to the Rasores than to Charadrius. It 
must also be remembered that Snipes and Gulls are closely related 
to the Plovers ; and of course Pterocles cannot be placed in such a 
position as would indicate that it is more closely related to the 
Gulls than to the Grouse. Thus it will be best to make a group or 
family Pterocletes, as Mr. Sclater has done, coordinate with those of 
Pigeons, Plovers, Gull, Fowls, and the like. 

On the other hand, if we are to answer the straightforward question 
Is Pterocles more nearly allied through its ancestors to the Pigeons 
or to the Fowls? we are compelled to say that they are nearest to the 
Pigeons. Of course they have many features in common with the 
Fowls ; but in no case we can include them under the latter, for the 
following reasons : — 

Pterocles shows some, although only a ievj, anatomical points 
which we only find amongst the Columbidse, whilst all the other 
numerous points in which it resembles the Fowls are such as must 
have been common to the old ancestral Stork, as we find them again 
in some of the Limicolae. But some of its Columbine features it is 
impossible to trace so far back, as they indicate a very high degree 
of specialization. Pterocles must have branched off from those 
birds which we may term " incipient Pigeons," and then, for reasons 
we can only suggest (perhaps similar conditions of life, and the like), 
have preserved and developed many of those old characters which 
the Fowls have also inherited from the same source, and have them 
developed in a similar way, as living under the same conditions. 

The main part of the ancestral or incipient Pigeons at the same 
time started in another direction, losing, as they proceeded, many 
of the old characters ', and acquiring numerous new ones, till they 
became that highly specialized group which is now called Columbse. 

* Among the most important characters common to the ancestral stock 
whicli the Pigeons have lost, or are in process of losing, are the fullowing : — 

1. The Pigeons have nearly completely lost the ciecal appendages of the 
rectmn. 

2. There seems to be a tendency to lose the ambiens muscle, as in many of 
the Pigeoue it is completely absent, and in others this muscle is unstable in its 
presence. 

3. They have lost the aftershaft to the feathers. 

4. They have almost completely lost their nestling plumage, and the old 
character of being autophagous birds, as' their young are now hatched nearly 
nude, blind, utterly helpless, and depending entirely on their parents, and have 
to spend a considerable part of their childhood in a very imperfect state. 



1882.] MR. FORBES ON THE TRACHEA OF SELEUCIDES. 333 

2. Note on a Peculiarity in the Trachea of the Twelve- wired 
Bird-of- Paradise [Seleucides nigra). By W. A. Forbes, 
B.A., Prosector to the Society. 

[Received March 7, 1882.] 

The death (from congestion of the lungs, with resulting haemor- 
rhage, and thickening of the walls of the intrathoracic air-cells) on 
Feb. 22nd last of the male Seleucides nigra, purchased by the 
Society on March 19, 1881 \ has given me the opportunity of ob- 
serving a peculiarity in the construction of its trachea of a nature 
unlike any thing of the kind yet known to me. The windpipe, for 
the greater part of its course, has the normal avian structure, the 
tracheal rings, which are ossified and, as usual, notched both before 
and behind, being of the ordinary form, and separated by but 
narrow intervals from each other. For a space, however, of about 
I inch above the largely developed short pair of intrinsic muscles, 
the interval comprising 8 tracheal rings, it becomes peculiarly 
modified, the tube itself becoming slightly dUated and flattened antero- 
posteriorly, whilst the tracheal rings become broader, and ossified along 
the middle of their depth, the borders only remaining cartilaginous. 
This ossified part of each ring is slightly concave, so that when 
seen laterally the cartilaginous margins project slightly from it, the 
whole ring being thus like a fluted table-napkin ring, when seen in 
section. The intervals between these peculiar rings are very much 
deeper than those above, and occupied by delicate membrane only, so 
that all this part of the trachea is highly elastic. 

The sterno-tracheales are inserted just below the lowest of these 
peculiar rings, which is the last but three of those composing the 
trachea- — the next two, which are very narrow, and the last, which 
is broad and bears the pessulus, being concealed from view by the 
largely developed syringeal muscles, of which there are four pairs, 
all, except the small anterior long muscle, being inserted on the ends 
of the very strong third bronchial semirings. The lateral tracheal 
muscles are weak, extending, however, nearly to the thoracic end of 
the tube. 

Nothing like the modification of the trachea here described obtains 
in any other allied form of Paradise-bird that I have been able to 
examine (including Paradiseee papuana and rubra, Ptilorhis alberti, 
Phonygama gouldi, Manucodia atra, Ptilorhynchus violaceus and 
smithi) ; nor do I know any structure in other birds quite comparable 
with that now described, which is probably correlated with the very 
loud harsh note of these birds^. 

In all other respects Seleucides is, as might have been expected, 
a typical oscine Passerine. 

' SeeP.Z.S. 1881, p. 450. 

' Mr. Wallace, speaking of tliis species, says (Malay Archipelago, ii. p. 254, 
London, 1869): — "It has a loud shrill cry, to be heard a long way, consisting 
of c4h, cdh, repeated five or six times in a descending scale ; and at tlie last 
note it generally flies away." 



334 MR. FORBKS ON THE TRACHEA OF SBLEXJCIDES. [Mar. 21, 

I may take this opportunity of remarking that the various pub- 
lished figures of Seleucides nigra do not give a very accurate idea of 
the bird, as they fail to represent the peculiar way in which the leg- 
feathering ceases altogether some way above the '• knee," leaving 




Lower portion of trachea of Seleucides nigra ,5, from before. Twice the 

natural size. 

4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Fourth, fifth, &c. (from bottom) tracheal rings, 
peculiarly modified. III. Third bronchial semiring, s.t, sterno-trachealis 
muscle, cut short. 



the large and muscular legs bare for about an inch or so above that 
joint. 

The eyes are brilliant red; the legs, including the bare skin above 
the " knees," pale red, the claws greyish. Tiie mucous membrane 
of the mouth and superior surface of the tongue is bright emerald- 



1882.] MR. II. B. SlIARPK ON STRIX OUSTALK II. 335 

green, a narrow line of this appearing at tlie angle of the mouth 
when the jaws are closed. When the beak is open, the beautiful 
green of the moutli and tongue is very conspicuous, and, contrasting 
with the bright red eye and dark velvety plumage of the head, adds 
greatly to the general appearance of the bird. 

It would he interesting to know whether the females of Seleucides 
also have their mouth thus coloured, or whether it is a peculiarity 
of the male, developed as a sexual ornament'. 



3. A Note on Strix oustaleti, Hartlaub. By R. Bowdler 
SharpEj F.L.S., F.Z.S., k,c., Department of Zoology, 
British Museum. 

[Eeceived March 9, 1882.] 

In the ' Proceedings' of this Society for 18/9, Dr. Hartlaub de- 
scribed a Barn-Owl from the island of Vitu-Levu, which he called 
Strix oustaleti. I have recently had a pair of Owls submitted to me 
by Professor J. F. Blake of the University College, Nottingham — ■ 
to the Museum of which they had been presented bv Mr. Fillingham 
Parr, who procured them in the Fiji Islands. 

I recognized, as I thought, Strix oustaleti ; and on comparing the 
birds with Dr. Hartlaub's description I found there could be no 
doubt on the subject ; but I could see at the same time that the bird 
was no true Barn-Owl, but a Grass- Owl, in fact our old friend Strix 
Candida, probably occurring in Fiji on one of its migrations, which 
have proved so disastrous to the simplicity of its nomenclature. 

As long as this O.vl remained in India its synonymy consisted 
simply of two names — the original one of Candida of Tickell, and 
longimembris of Jerdon ; but on a Philippine specimen being dis- 
covered, it was named S. amauronota by Dr. Cabauis ; and in the 
same year (1866) Mr. Swinhoe found it in Formosa and called it S. 
pithecops. Shortly after, it turned up in Queensland, only to be 
named Strix walleri by Mr. Diggles ; and now its last appearance, in 
the Fiji islands, has gained it the additional cognomen of 8. oustaleti. 

Dr. Hartlaub caimot, I think, have got in the Bremen Museum 
a specimen of a Grrass-Owl, or he could not have failed to see 
that S. oustaleti belonged to the Strix Candida section ; for of course, 
if compared with Strix delicatula and S. personata &c., the Fiji 
Grass-Owl comes out distinct enough. I do not think, from the 
absence of reference on Dr. Hartlaub's part to my ' Catalogue,' that 
he has done me the honour of consulting my work, published four 
years before his paper. On looking at the ' Key to the Species ' of 
the genus Strix as given by me (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 290), I had 
not any difficulty in recognizing Strix oustaleti under the name of 
Strix Candida. 

1 P.S. (Api'il 7). — A young male Eifle-bird (P;* (Yo/'/^s /jararZism) now living 
iu the Society's Grardens has, it is interesting to observe, its mouth and tongue 
similarly brightly coloured, though of a lemon-yellnw colour instead of green. 

Proc. Zool. Soc.~1882, No. XXI fl. 23 



336 CAPT. SHELLEY ON BIRDS FROM SOUTH AFRICA. [Mar. 21. 



4. On some new Species of Birrls from South Africa. 
By Captain G. E. Shelley. 

[Received March 10, 1882.] 
(Plate XVIII.) 

On peace being proclaimed with the Boers, Major E. A. Butler, 
Major H. W. Feilden, and Captain Savile Reid were quartered for 
about nine months at Newcastle, Natal. Here they not only made 
some very valuable collections of birds, but took a large amount of 
notes referring to over 230 species, which they intend shortly to 
publish. Meanwhile they have permitted me to describe here the 
new species brought home. 

These I propose to name Antlms butleri (a very interesting 
yellow-breasted Pipit) and Sphencpacus natalensis, the Natal repre- 
sentative of iS. africamis, to which I will add the characters of S. 
inlermedius, an intermediate form from Kaffraria. 

Anthxjs butleri, sp. nov. (Plate XVIII.) 

Compared with Macronyx croceus, the upper parts and the 
wings both above and beneath are similarly coloured ; but the crown 
is faintly tinted with yellow, and the under wing-coverts are of a 
slightly paler sulphur-yellow ; a white patch just in front of the eye ; 
sides of the head and neck brown, with a few dark-centred feathers 
towards the throat ; chin, throat, and upper half of the breast yel- 
low ; remainder of the underparts tawny buff with a slight yellow 
shade down the centre of the abdomen ; the feathers of the crop and 
sides of the chest are mostly with black central streaks, and are very 
slightly tinted with brown ; flanks inclining to rufous-brown ; sides 
of the belly rather indistinctly striped with rufous-brown ; under 
tail-coverts with dark brown centres ; under surface of the tail 
brown, with white on the outer two pairs of feathers ; the outer 
pair white, margined on their inner webs with a brown patch of the 
same form as the feather itself. Iris dark brown ; upper mandible 
horny brown, lower one lavender-colour ; legs pale brown. Total 
length 7*2 inches, culmen 0'5, wing 3-25, tail 3, tarsus 1, middle toe 
without claw 0*7 . November 9, Newcastle. 

Four other specimens (one collected 6th June, and two males and 
a female, July) are apparently in the winter plumage, and differ from 
the one above-described in having no shade of yellow on the head, 
in the under surface of the body being tawny buff, only very slightly 
tinted with yellow on the middle of the breast and fading into white 
on the centre of the throat and chin. The yellow on the wings is 
about the same in them all ; and this, together with the peculiar 
Macro7)i/x-\ike dark mottling on the back, are characters by which 
the species may be readily recognized. In the specimen collected in 



£ 




3 



a: 
u 

-J 

D 

a: 

<; 



E 



1882.] CAPT. SHELLEY ON BIRDS FROM SOUTH AFRICA. 337 

May the colouring is of a slightly more tawny hue than in the 
others. 

Sphenceacus natalensis, sp. nov. 

Very similar to S. africanus, but differs iu the almost uniform 
rufous-buff colouring of the under surface of the body, and in the 
absence of black shaft-stripes to the upper and under tail-coverts ; 
the sides of the upper chest and crop, in some specimens, are 
slightly mottled with the dark tips and central stripes to the feathers, 
but show no distinct black marks ; the flanks are generally entirely 
uniform, but in one specimen I find a few obscure dark central stripes 
to some of these feathers ; the upper and under tail-coverts are 
always uniform. 

The characters here given for this species are further borne out by 
the specimens in the British Museum. Although I separate the 
Natal form under the title of S. natalensis, I myself would regard 
it as merely a well marked local race of S. africanits. 

The only specimen I have examined from Kaffraria is in some 
respects intermediate, but appears to me to be closer to S. africanus, 
in that the black markings on the sides of the body are very distinct, 
though fewer in number and smaller than in the Cape-Colony form. 
But the upper and under tail coverts are without dark central stripes ; 
so perhaps it would be more consistent to separate this form as a 
third race under the title of S. intermedins. 

The distinguishing characters for these three races or species 
may be clearly summed up in the following key : — 

a. With very distiuct black central marks to some of the 

feathers on the sides of the body. 
a'. Upper and under tail-coverts with dark central stripes ... S. africanus. 
h'. Upper and under tail-coverts uniform, with no dark central 

stripes to the feathers S. inter mcdius. 

h. With no distinct black marks on the sides of the body. 
Upper aud under tail-coverts uniform, with no dark central 
stripes to the feathers 8. natalcmia. 

I have carefully examined the following specimens of these three 
birds, and find no character in the measurements. 

S. africanus : — a, <S , Cape (J^erreaux) ; b, c, d. Cape (Butler) ; 
e, 2 , Paal, Cape Colony {Shelley) ; f, George (Atmore). 

S. intermedius: — g, Kaffraria (iJa^ro^^). 

iS. natalensis : — h, c? > Pinetown {T. L. Jyres); i,j, I; I, Transvaal 
{W.Lucas); wi, Swaziland {T. E. Buckley) : Shelley Mus. a, J, 

b, S , (-; 6 , d, (S , Newcastle: Butler Mus. a, d ^ I', 2 > c> d , 
Ingngane river ; d, $, Drakensberg : Reid Mus. 



23* 



338 ON A NEW AGRIAS FROM THE AMAZONS. [Mar. 21 , 

5. On a new Species of Agrias from the Valley of the 
Amazons. By F. D. Godman ami O. Salvin. 

[Received March 11, 1882.] 

(Plate XIX.) 

Some time ago Mr. A Maxwell Stuart, whilst travelling on the Upper 
Amazons, captured a magnificent specimen of an Agrias, a genus 
much prized by all lepidopterists both for its rarity and beauty. 
On his return to England he kindly made us a present of it ; and as 
it proves to belong to a hitherto undescribed species, we have much 
pleasure in naming it after him. 

Agrias stuarti, sp. uov. (Plate XIX. figs. I, 2.) 

Both wings deep purplish-blue, bordered outwardly with a narrow 
metallic green band, beyond which it is greyish ; primaries with costa 
and apex black, this colour extends along the outer margin towards 
the posterior angle, where it fades into grey ; secondaries with costal 
region and inner margin broadly black : beneath, primaries black, 
apical third metallic green, reddish orange towards the base ; secon- 
daries, basal half orange, outer half metallic green with three rows of 
black spots parallel to the outer margin, the middle one having 
central white spots. 

Exp. 3" 7 inches. 

Hab. Yquitos, Amazons {A. Maxwell Stuart). 

Mus. nostr. 

This insect is a close ally of ^. beatifica, Hew., from which, however, 
it differs in the greater extension of the purplish-blue colour of the 
upper surface. Beneath there is but little difference, but the black 
spots of the secondaries are rather larger. 

Mr. Stuart captured a single male example of this fine insect 
whilst it was pursuing a specimen of Callithea buckleyi, which 
resembles it both in colour and markings, and with which it appeared 
to be fighting. No doubt, like other members of the genus, it flies 
about the tops of the highest trees, settling on the foliage out of 
reach, and rarely coming near the ground'. A. beatifica has also a 
Callithea which is found together with it, and likewise resembles it 
in coloration ; this is C. degandii, the sexes of which, though con- 
siderably different from each other, are alike in the two species. 

Mr. Hewitson has given a very good figure of the male of A. 
beatifica in his ' Exotic Butterflies ;' but the female (of which we have 
a single specimen procured by Mr. Hauxwell at Pebas on the Upper 
Amazons) differs so much that a short description and figure of it 
here may be desirable. 

Agrias beatifica ? . (Plate XIX. figs. 3, 4.) 

Both wings black, with a broad metalhc green band commencing 

' On the habits of the otlicr Amazonian s^jceies oi Agrias, see Bates, Jouru. 
Ent. ii. p. 337. 



P.Z.S.1882P1X1X 




WPurkiss iiLh 



Hanhii-h imp 



NEW SPECIES OF AGRIAS 



lb. 




Edwm Wilson, del. etllth. 



la. 



.-K..„ 



'"■ ^ 



NAXIA. ( NAXIC 



p. Z.S. 1882.P1.XX. 







'^ tj^ 



\3) ROBILLARDl 



Mintem 3ros . iinp - 



1882.] ON CRUSTACEANS FROM MAURITIUS. 339 

at the end of the cell of the primaries, and passing in a how to the 
anal angle of the secondaries, beyond this towards the outer margin 
fading into grey, apices of primaries narrowly tipped with black : 
the underside resembles that of the male ; but the colours are paler, 
and the base of the wings is of a tawny yellow instead of a reddish 
orange. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX. 

Fig. 1. L^pperside of Aijrias sfuarfi ^. 
2. Underside oi Aqrias siuarti (^. 
'A. Upperside of Agriiis heatifica 2 . 
4. VwAer^iAe oi Agrias heatifica j. 



6. On some Crustaceans coUectetl at the Mauritius. 
By Edward J. Mieks, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

[Received March 15, 1882.] 
(Plate XX.) 

The Crustaceans which I have now the pleasure of bringing before 
the notice of the Society were obtained at the Mauritius by M. Robil- 
lard, and recently forwarded hy him to the British Museum. They 
are: — (1) a fine Spider-crab, described below as Naxia robillardi, 
which was dredged at a depth of 30 fathoms [that such a large and 
interesting a species should have remained so long unnoticed is very 
remarkable; and I can only account for it on the supposition that this 
crab lives habitually at considerable depths, and hence has escaped 
the notice of collectors of the littoral forms, most of which are 
well known]. (2) an example of Neptunus sieboldi, A. M.-Edwards, 
a swimming crab hitherto a desideratum to the national collection ; 
and (3) several specimens of a Hermit Crab which I think is Coeno- 
hita ferlata, M.-Edwards : although having the inferior surface 
of the joints of the first three legs very hairy, these specimens in 
all other particulars coincide with M. -Edwards's brief description in 
the 'Histoire naturelle des Crustaces' (ii. p. 242, 1837), and with 
the excellent figure in the large illustrated edition of Cuvier's ' Regne 
Animal' (pi. xhv. fig. 1). 

In order to complete the account of the Crustaceans received from 
the Mauritius through M. V. de Robillard, I have added a brief 
notice of a fossorial Crustacean of which two examples, hoth unfor- 
tunately imperfect, were sent two years ago to the British Museum 
by the same collector, and which I propose to designate CaUianassa 
maurifiana. 

Naxia (Naxioides) robillardi, sp. n. (Plate XX. fig. 1.) 
The carapace is subpyriform, rather convex, and covered with 
long stout conical spines ; of these spines about 13, situated on the 
gastric region, are arranged in three somewhat irregular trans- 
verse series, behind and in front of which are some smaller spines : 



340 MR. E. J. MiERS ON [Mar. 21, 

2 are placed on the cardiac region, of which the posterior is very 
large, 3 (very large) on the intestinal region, 2 on each hepatic 
region, and about 7 on each branchial region, besides the marginal 
spines, of which there are 5 ; 3 are placed on each pterygostomian 
region, the anterior of which is situated at the antero-lateral angle of 
the buccal cavity ; there is also a distinct but not very large prse- 
ocular spine. The orbits are rather small, with a lateral aspect, and 
with two fissures above and a large hiatus below. The spines of the 
rostrum are subcylindrical and very long (in the male as long as the 
carapace), straight, and very slightly divergent distally ; they bear 
an accessory spine on their upper surface at some distance from the 
distal end, which is acute. The basal antennal joint is longer than 
broad, and bears a strong spine, directed obliquely downward, at its 
antero-external angle ; the nest joint is slender and very much elon- 
gated, the third also slender ; these joints and the flagelhim are 
scarcely visible in a dorsal view. The epistoma is large, but broader 
than long ; the ischium joint of the outer maxillipedes is longer than 
broad; the nierus joint truncated at its distal end, and with only a 
very small notch at its antero-internal angle above the place of articu- 
lation with the next joint. The chelipedes in both sexes are slender ; 
in the male, however, somewhat more robust than in the female : the 
merus joint is cylindrical, elongated, with a strong spine above at its 
distal end. Carpus short, armed on its upper and outer surface with 
two or three small spines or tubercles ; palm smooth, subcylindrical 
(in the male about 3j| times as long as broad) ; fingers slender, more 
than half as long as the palm, somewhat incurved, having between 
them when closed (in the male) a small hiatus at base; both fingers 
in their distal halves nre denticulated and meet along their inner 
edges ; the mobile finger has in the male a tubercle on its inner margin 
near the base. The ambulatory legs are slender and much elon- 
gated, the first pair very much longer than the following ; there is a 
spine at the distal end of the upper surface of the merus joints in all 
the ambulatory legs. The dactyli, although shorter than the pre- 
ceding joints, are yet elongated and shghtly curved, and terminate 
in a small corneous claw. The segments of the postabdomen are all 
of them distinct in both sexes ; in the male all, except the last, have 
a small median spine, on each side of which, on the second and 
third segments, is a lateral spine ; in the female the first four are 
armed with a small median spine or tubercle. The animal is covered 
with a short dense yellowish-brown pubescence, which, however, is 
absent from the palms and fingers of the chelipedes, and partially so 
from the penultimate and terminal joints of the ambulatory legs, the 
ground-colour of the integument being, in these places, in the two 
dried specimens 1 have examined, purplish-red. Length of the 
carapace to the base of rostral spines in an adult male about 2| 
inches (6S mm.), which is also the length of the spines themselves; 
of a chelipede about 4| inches (113 mm.), of the first ambulatory 
legs nearly 9^ inches (242 mm.). 

Two specimens, a male and a female, were collected. In the 
female the carapace is somewhat more pyriform and convex, the 



1882.] CRUSTACEANS FROM MAURITIUS, 341 

rostral spines shorter, the chelipedes rather slenderer, and the first 
pair of ambulatory legs somewhat less elongated. 

Tlie nearest ally to this species with which I am acquainted is 
Naxia (Naxioides) petersii {Poclopisa petersii, Hilgendorf, Monatsb. 
Ak. Berhu, p. 785, pi. i. fig. 5, )878), from Mozambique, which is 
very probably identical with Naxioides hirta, Alph. M.-Edwards 
(Ann. Soc. Entom. France, ser. 4, v. p. 143, pi. iv. fig. 1, 1865), 
from Zanzibar. N. robillardi is at once distinguished by its 
greater size, by having the carapace covered with strong conical spines 
in the place of small irregular tubercles, and by the double hiatus 
in the upper orbital margin. In the last-mentioned character it 
resembles certain species of Pisa (e.g. Pisa {Arctopsis) latiata) ; but 
it is distinguished from that genus by the greater length and slender- 
ness of the chelipedes and first ambulatory legs, by the narrower 
basal antennal joint, and the accessor}^ spines of the rostrum ; yet it 
may be regarded as establishing a transition to Pisa. 

In my revision of the Maioidea ' I adverted to the insufficiency 
of the characters assigned to Naxioides, A. M.-Edw. (Podopisa, 
Hilgendorf) for distinguishing this genus from Naxia. As the species 
now described has a distinct prseocular spine, even this character can 
no longer be cited as peculiar to the last-named genus. 

Callianassa mauritiana, sp. n. 

Both the specimens sent by M. Robillard are imperfect ; and the 
large chelipede, from which the principal distinctive characters are 
derived, does not appear to belong to either example, but to a 
distinct and larger individual. In the analytical table appended to 
M. A. Milne-Edwards's monographic revision of the genus Callia- 
nassa", our new species will be arranged with Callianassa subterranea 
and C. longimana, inasmuch as there exists a small median rostral 
tooth, the terminal segment of the postabdomen and the eyes are 
well developed, and there is a tooth or lobe, which is itself den- 
ticulated, at the proximal end of the inferior margin of the merus 
joint of the larger chelipede, vihose penultimate joint or palm about 
equals the wrist in width. It is distinguished from both the above- 
mentioned species, however, by the broad spinulose inferior basal 
lobe of the arm or merus, and by having the distal end of the palm 
between the bases of the fingers deeply excavated as in G. califor- 
niensis and C. uncinata ; the inferior margin of the merus is armed 
with small granulations ; the carpus (in the large chelipede) is some- 
what shorter than the palm, with its upper margin acute ; the palm, 
which is not once and a half as long as broad, narrows very 
slightly toward the distal end, its upper margin is rounded, except 
at its pro^imal end ; the lower margin, both of wrist and palm, is 
minutely serrated ; the upper or mobile finger is longer than the 
lower, and is sharply uncinated at its distal end, it has a strong 
blunt tooth on its inner margin near the base. I may add that the 

' Jouru. Linn. Sue. Zuol. siv. p. 658 (1879). 

' NouTelles Archives dii Museum, vi. p. 101 (1870). 



342 MR. V. L. SCLATER ON CYANOMYIAS CCEI.ESTIS. [Apr. 4, 

terminal postabdominal segment is shorter than in C. subterrnnea, 
not as long as its greatest width. Length about 3 inches 10 lines 
("98 mm.) ; of the larger chelipede, from the base of the raerus joint 
to end of the dactylus, about 2 inches 10 lines (72 mm.). 

From the American 0. californiensis and C. uncinata, this species 
is distinguished by the much longer palm of the larger chelipede, 
and the much broader, less prominent, denticulated basal lobe of the 
arm or merus, 

EXPLANATION OP PLATE XX. 

Fig. ] . Ka.ria (Naxioidcfi) rohiUardi (p. 339), adult male, reduced to about 

half natural size. 
\n. Lateral view of the carapace of the same in oiitliue, showing the 

eleyatiou of the dorsal spines, reduced about half natural size. 
\h. Aiiteinial, orbital, and buccal regions of the same, viewed from 

below, natural size. 
Ic. Postabdomen of the same, natural size. 



April 4, 1882. 

Professor Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Sclater exhibited what appeared to be an adult male example 
of Cyanomyias ca'lestis (Sharpe, Cat. Birds, iv. p. 278), which 
belonged to the Museum of Zurich, and had been sent to him for 
determination by Dr. Moesch, of that city. Mr. Sclater remarked on 
the more brilliant colours and finely developed crest of the male of 
this species, which rendered it readily distinguishable from the 
female example (figured by Lord Tweeddale, P. Z.S. 1878, pi. vii. 




Head of Cyanomyias calestis J. 

fig. 1), the only specimen hitherto known of this superb Fly- 
catcher. The present example was received from Manilla, but was 
probably originally from Dinagat, as the type specimen, now in the 
collection of Mr. Wardlaw Ramsay, had been procured in that 
island. Besides the highly developed crest and more l)rilliant 



1882.] DR. A. GUNTHER ON A NRW TORTOISE. 343 

colours, the male seemed to liave the lazuline blue of the throat 
carried entirely over the breast, instead of being confined to the 
throat. 



Mr. Sclater laid before the Meeting the skins of the two specimens 
of the Subcylindrical Hornbill (Buceros subcylindricns), which had 
been formerly living in the Society's Glardens', and stated that a re- 
examination of these specimens had confirmed his opinion as to the 
validity of the species. In the second specimen, which had died on 
the 9th June 1881, although the tail was imperfect, it was manifest 
that the two central tail-feathers were black almost to their tips as 
in the first specimen ; and the well-defined ashy margins of the 
feathers on both sides of the head were alike in both examples. It 
was likewise of great interest to find that an example of this Hornbill 
had been recently received by the Imperial Museum of Vienna- in 
a collection made by Dr. Emin Bey between Lado and the Albert 
Nyanza in Central Africa, so that we were now acquainted with the 
true locality of this rare species. 

Mr. Sclater proposed to arrange for the deposit of these typical 
specimens in the British Museum. 



The following papers were read 



1. Description of a new Species of Tortoise {Geoemyda 
inipressa) from Siam. By Dr. A. Gunther, V.P.Z.S. 

[Eeceivecl March 20, 1882.] 

The British Museum has received from Siam the shell of a fresh 
water Turtle without any other part of the animal, which seems to be 
undescribed. It is 11 inches long; and sufficiently resembles the 
shells of Geoetnyda spinosa and G. grandis to warrant the supposition 
that this species belongs to the same genus. It may be named 
Geoemxjda impressa, from the peculiar shape of the. principal upper 
})lates, which are not merely flat, but distinctly concave. 

The shell is much depressed and broadly flattened above. Its 
anterior margin is deeply excised in front of the nuchal plate, and 
serrated ; also the lateral marginals project slightly at their posterior 
corners, and the hind margin is deeply and regularly serrated. The 
plates are nearly smooth ; but concentric striation is distinct, espe- 
cially on the costals. Of a vertebral keel the faintest possible trace 
is visible on the fourth or fifth vertebral. The sternum is excised 
in front, and deeply notched behind ; its width between the front 

' See P.Z. S. 1870, p. G68, pi. xxxix. ; 1871, p. 489, and 1879, p. 550. 
- Cf. Von Pelzeln, " Ueber eine Sendung von Vcigelii aus Central-Afrika," 
Verh. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, 1881, p. 153. 



344 



DR. A. GiiNTHEK ON A NEW TORTOISE. [Apr. 4, 



Fig. 1. 




Geoemyda impressa (upper surface). 



1882.] 



DK. A. Gl'NTHICR ON A NEW TORTOISE. 



3i5 



Fig. 2. 




Geoemydd impressa (lower surface). 



S^fi 



DK. A. GUNTHER ON A NEW TORTOISE. 



[Apr. 4, 



incisions is equal to that between the hinder, and a little more than 
one half of its length. 

Areolae distinct. Nuchal plate broad, much broader behind than 
in front, with truncated anterior mari>;in. First vertebral mucli 
broader than long, concave, with parallel lateral margins ; second, 
third, and fourth very much broader than long ; posterior margin 
of the fourth only half as long as anterior ; fifth vertebral hut 
slightly broader than long, and rather convex behind. Caudal 
divided. Costals dee])ly impressed in their areolar portion, more so 
than the veitebrals. Gulars subrhomboid, but rather irregular. 



Fig. 3. 




Geocmyda imprcxsa (side view). 



joined at an obtuse angle in front and behind. Postgulars enlarged 
at the expense of the pectorals, which are very narrow, the length of 
their median suture being only one fourth of the suture between the 
postgulars. Abdominals very large, as long as the preceding three 
pairs of plates together. Prseanals broader than long. Anals 
similar in shape to the gulars, but larger, and joined at an acute 
angle posteriorly. 

The prominent colour is yellow in the areolar portion, but each of 
the vertebral, costal, and sternal plates is ornamented towards the 
margin with broad hlack radiating bands, and the antericr half or 
third of each of the marginals is black. 



1882.] ON THE TRACHEA OF MANUCODIA ATRA ETC. 347 

2. On the Convoluted Trachea of two Species of Manucode 
[Maiiucudia atra -dud Phoni/ffama gouldi) ; with Remarks 
ou similar Structures in other Birds. By W. A. Forbes, 
B.A.J Prosector to the Society. 

[Received March 21, 1882.] 

The subcutaneous convolutiou on the pectoral muscles of the 
trachea in the Mauucodes of the genera (or subgenera) Manucodia 
and Phomjyama, originally described and figured by Lesson in 
Phonygama keraudreni so long ago as 1826 ', has lately excited con- 
siderable attention, Prof. Pavesi" having shown that a similar struc- 
ture, though less developed, exists in Manucodia chidybeata, and Dr. 
Meyer ^ having demonstrated the same for its representative form 
M.jobiensis. From their figures and observations it is clear :— 

1. That the trachea of Phonygama " keraudreni " ■* may be convo- 
luted in both sexes, that of the males being most complicated, 
consisting, when best developed, of a complete spiral of several 
coils, whilst in younger males, and females, it is reduced to a simple 
loop with a bend to the right. 

Intermediate forms of all kinds are to be found, as shown by 
Pavesi's interesting series of figures. 

2. That iu Manucodia chalybeata and M. jobiensis the adult 
males possess a trachea provided with a simple loop, extending 
ahout two thirds down the surface of the pectoral muscles. This is 
apparently absent in the females and young males. 

The specimen, a male, of Manucodia atra, purchased by the 
Society on March 19, 1881 ^ having diedonM^rch 11th inst., I have 
now been enabled to examine the condition of the trachea in this 
species also. As will be seen from the drawing I exhibit (figure, 
p. 348), representing it in situ, it too is convoluted, but to a much 
smaller extent, only forming a short loop lying on the interclavicular 
air-cell, between the rami of the furcula, much as in many specimens 
of the genus Crax. This quite confirms D'Albertis's description given 
by Count Salvador! ". Iu the female the trachea will probably be 
found to be quite simple. 

Of Phonygama gouldi, the Australian representative of P. kerau- 
dreni, I have been enabled to examine three detached tracheae, as 
well as three entire birds collected at Cape York by H.M.S. 

' Voyage de la ' Coquille,' Atlas, pi. xiii. fig. 2. 

^ Ann. Mus. Geneva, vi. pp. 313-324, pi. x., and ix. pp. 66-77. 

' Abbilduugen Vogel-Skeleteu, pi. vii. a, p 5. 

■* All but one of Pavesi's specimens (fig. 6 of his second paper) are, it is to be 
observed, really P. gouldi, having been obtained at Cape York by D'Albertis. 

^ On its arrival it was supposed to belong to the species M. viridis (seu 
chalybeata), and was noticed as such (P. Z. S. 1881, p. 450). 

' " Non pare che questa specie possegga vere circonvoluzioni externe della 
trachea, ma, secondo le osservazioni del D'Albertis, i maschi adidti avrebbero 
soltanto 2m' ansa inegata ad S nella fossetta delta forchetta." — Ornitologia della 
Papitaaia c dcllc Mo/iackc, ii. p. 509. 



348 



MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE TRACHEA OF [Apr. 4, 



' Challenger,' and kindiy intrusted to me by the late Sir Wyville 
Thomson. The first three are those already mentioned by Mr. 
Tegetmeier in his appendix to the 'Natural History of the Cranes'". 
All are convoluted, though that of the female specimen is least so, 
and those of the two males vary sliglitly in the amount of convo- 
lution. They very closely resemble that of P. keraudreni figured 
on p. 68, fig. 2, in the second of Prof. Pavesi's papers already 
quoted, but have eight instead of nine folds, counting along a trans- 
verse line drawn through the centre of the coil. Of the three ' Chal- 
lenger ' birds, one, a female ^ has n trachea with a single curved 
loop, like Pavesi's fig. 8, whilst in the two others the trachea is 




Trachea of Manncodia atra. 

quite straight, with no trace of a curve. One of these is a male, 
probably young, whilst the other is an adult female, as shown by 
the oviduct containing an egg nearly ready to be laid. 

It is clear therefore that in this species, too, the female may 
sometimes have no tracheal loop at all. 

As regards the habits of P.gouldi, I reproduce here some extracts 
from the notes accompanying the receipt of the first three tracheae 
sent — I believe, by Dr. George Bennett of Sydney — the substance of 
which Mr. Tegetmeier has already published (from the original MS. 
in my possession) in his work on Cranes : — 

' Lomloii, 1881, pp. 87, 88. 

^ One of the speciiueus referred to in Mr. Murniy's notes, cf. 'Voyage of 
H.M.S. Challongei-,' Report on the Birds, p. 87. " 



1882.] MANUCODIA ATRA AND OTHER BIRDS. 349 

" Having recently purchased a pair of those elegant birds, the 
Manucodia gouldi, which had been shot at Caj)e York by Mr. J. A. 
Thorpe (now taxidermist to the Sydney Museum), he directed my 
attention to the peculiar formation of the trachea in them, some of 
which he has preserved in a dried state and presented to me ; of 
these I have sent you three, one from a female and two from males. 
That of the female is much smaller in size than those of the males ; 
and even in the males the convolutions assume diiferent forms. This 
formation of the vocal organs enables the male bird to utter a very 
loud and deep guttural sound, indeed more powerful and sonorous 
than any one would suppose so small a bird could be capable of 
producing. Mr, Thorpe states to me that it was a long time 
before he could believe that so powerful a sound emanated from 
this bird. No information could be obtained respecting the note of 
the female, as only that of the male was heard. These birds vpcre 
found about the same locality as the two fine species of Rifle-birds 
obtained also at Cape York — Ptilorhis (dberti and P. victorice. 

" Mr. Thorpe gave me some information respecting the habits of 
these birds as follows : — 'During a residence of seventeen months at 
Cape York in 1867 and 1868 I shot several of the Manucodia 
gouldi, and took particular notice of their habits. They frequent 
the dense palm-forests, and are usually seen high up in the trees ; 
they utter a very deep and loud, guttural note, rather prolonged, and 
unlike that of any other bird with which I am familiar. Their 
movements are particularly active and graceful ; on approaching 
them they evince more curiosity than timidity, looking down at the 
slightest noise, and apparently more anxious to obtain a full view of 
the intruder than for their own safety. They are almost invariably 
hi pairs ; and both birds can generally be secured.' " 

I may remark that, in all the specimens of the couvoluted 
trachea in Manucodia and Phonygama I have seen, the descending 
limb of the loop in the natural position of the bird is to the left, the 
ascending to the right. The same peculiarity is observable in all 
the figures yet jmblished, excepting the original one of Lesson, and 
in one of those of Pavesi {I. c. ix. p. 64, fig. 4). The reversal, in 
the first figuie, is obviously due to the trachea being represented 
from the dorsal, instead of the ventral aspect, it being represented 
as quite separated from the body : Pavesi's figure, representing the 
parts in situ, does not admit of this explanation, if correctly drawn. 
As regards the two forms Phonygama and Manucodia, which 
Mr. Sharpe adopts as genera in the ' Catalogue of Birds,' vol. iii. 
pp. 180, 182, it is interesting to observe that the validity of the 
separation is confirmed by what we now know of the tracheal con- 
formation of the two groups in question. 

Phonygama (as represented by P. keraudreni and gouldi) has the 
trachea (at least usually) convoluted in both sexes, that of the adult 
male being spirally convoluted several times, whilst that of the female 
forms a single curve with a loop to the right. Manucodia (in M. 
chalybeata, jobiensis, and atra), on the other hand, has the trachea 
convoluted in the male only, the convolution being in the form of a 



350 MR. W. A. FORBES ON THE TRACHEA OF [Apr. 4, 

simple loop, extending, in the first two species, onto the pectoral 
muscles, but confined in M. atra to the interclavicular area. 

As regards the occurrence of convoluted tracheae in the class 
Aves generally, it may be useful to give as complete a list as is in my 
power of all the hitherto recorded instances. Pavesi has already 
(7. c. vi. pp. .317, 318) given such a list, compiled from various 
authors ; but the opportunities for observation of my predecessor 
and myself have enabled me to give, as will be seen below, a much 
fuller and more complete one. I have endeavoured to state exactly 
in what species this convolution has been observed, or has been 
found to be absent, as well as to state precisely the sexes of the 
individuals presenting the peculiarities. Unless otherwise stated, 
the observation has been made by Prof. Garrod or myself. 



A. The convolutions of the trachea are superficial, lying beneath the 
skin, extending often more or less onto the pectoral, or even 
abdominal, muscles. 

OSCINES. 

Phonygama Jceraudreni. S [Lesson, Pavesi, Meyer]. [Probably 
2 also.] 

gouldi. S • present, much less developed (sometimes absent) 

in $. 

Manucodia chalybeata. S [Pavesi, Meyer]. "] 

jobiensis. S . [Condition in 2 not known.] > 

• atra. S . [Condition in $ not known.] J 

At present it has been found in the males only of these three 
species, and, as already indicated, is, from Beccari's observations on 
M. chalybeata, probably absent altogether in the females. 

Fam. Anatid^. 

In the males of Anseranas melanoleuca the trachea forms a very 
extensive double loop, extending to quite the end of the pectoral 
muscles. The female has simply a slight bend in the neck. 

Fam. Scolopacid^e. 

The females only of Rhynchcea australis [according to Gould] 
have a convoluted trachea, forming several folds on the pectoral 
muscles, and extending onto the abdomen. In the males it is 
simple^ 

In R. capensis, as Mr. Wood-Mason has lately shown (P. Z. S. 
1878, pp. 745-751, pi. xlvii.), the mature females only have a 
sliglitly extrathoracic loop, the trachea of the younger females and 
of the males being quite simple. 

' Two spefimeus showiug different degrees of developiueut of this structure 
may be seen mounted in the Himterian Museum (Preps, llafi, D & E). 



1882.J MANUCODIA ATRA AND OTHER BIRDS. 351 

Fam. Cracid.'E. 
In the males of the genera Crax, Pauxis, Mitua, and Ortalis the 
trachea forms a loop of variable extent, often extending, particularly 
in the last three genera, to the end of the carina sterni, and then 
turning up a little way on the left side before it returns. In other 
cases it extends only about as far as the anterior end of the carina. 
In the females this loop is altogether absent, or at most the trachea 
presents a slight curve in the neck. 

Species examined. 
Crax glohicera. (J, 2 . 

alector. d , 2 • 

sclateri. c? > $ • 

dauheyitoni, c? > $ • 

alberti. c? , 5 . 

caruncidata. d , 2 • 

[The females only of C, globulosa and C incommoda have yet been 
examined. The trachea is simple.] 

Pauxis galeata. d ,2 • 
Mitua tuberosa. d" , $ . 

tomentosa. d", $ . 

Ortalis albiventris. c? , 2 • 

garrula. S • [The $ according to Humboldt ' has the trachea 

simple.] 
mottnot. S • [The female has a simple trachea according to 

Latham, who describes this species" under the name of Phasianus 

parralca.'\ 

In Penelope jacucaca the trachea is convoluted in both sexes ; and 
the same is the case in the male of P. pileata, the condition of the 
female being unknown. 

[In Penelope cristata and P. purpurascens the male has no loop ; 
and the same is the case in Pipile cumanensis and P.jacutinga. Only 
females of Pipile ciijubi and Nothocrax urumutum have yet been 
examined : these had simple tracheae ; and the same is the case in 
both sexes of Aburria carunculata.] 

B. The trachea has a considerable superficial loop in the cervical 

region, anterior to the thoracic muscles. 

Fam. Phasianid^. 
Tetrao urogallus. The male only, apparently. 

C. The trachea has a loop entering into, and inclosed by, a bony 

cavity formed by the clavicular symphysis. 

Fam. NuMiDiDiE. 
The Guinea-fowls of the genus Gutter a, as seen in both sexes 

' Humboldt and Bonpland, ' Eecueil d'observations de Zoologie,' &c. p. 5. 
Paris, 1811. 

2 Linn. Trans, iv. p. 100 &c. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XXIV. 24 



362 ON THE XnACHEA OF MANUCODIA ATRA ETC. [Apr. 4, 

of Guttera cristata and G. pucherani. The same conformation 
occurs in G. eduardi ; but the sex of my specimen is not, unfortu- 
nately, recorded. 

[In Nuinida proper (^N. meleagris, ptilorhijncha, and mitrafa 
have been examined), as well as in Acryllium vullurinum, the trachea 
is quite simple in both sexes.] 

D. The trachea has several intrathoracic convolutions. 
Fam. CicoNiiDiE. 
Tantalus ibis, in the male {cf. Garrod, Coll. Papers, p. 286). 
[The condition of the female is unknown.] 

[In both sexes of T. locidator, as well as in the females of 
T. leucocephalus (the other sex not yet having been dissected) the 
trachea is unconvoluted.] 

Fam. Ibidid^. 

Platalea leucorrodia. S • ( 2 , Nitzsch). 

[In Jjaja rosea the trachea is known to be simple in both sexes, 
though the bronchi are peculiarly long. Cf. Garrod, I.e. p. 288.] 

E. The trachea is convoluted, the convolution impinging on, or 
entering, the carina sterni. 

Fam. Cygnid^. 

In the Swans of the Cygnus ferus group, the trachea, as has long 
been known, has a number of intrasternal convolutions, which may 
extend to near the end of the bone. 

This is well known to occur in both sexes of Cygnus ferus : it 
is likewise the case in both males and females of C. buccinator, 
C. americamis (according to Macgillivray, Sharpless, &c.), and 
C. bewicJii (Yarrell). 

[In Cygnus olor, C. immutahilis (Macgillivray), C. nigricoUis, and 
C. coscoroba the trachea is quite simple in both sexes.] 

According to Yarrell, in Cygnus atratus there is a slight down- 
wardly-directed loop of the trachea in the interclavicular region. 

Fam. Gruid^. 

The genus Grus, as a rule in both sexes, possesses a convoluted 
trachea, which usually enters the carina sterni, which it may 
excavate to its posterior extremity. The amount of convolution 
varies much in different specimens of the same species. 

Species examined. 

Grus cinerea. d' , $ . (Yarrell, &c.) 

antigone. S (Tegetnieier). $. 

americana. $ {cf. Roberts, Am. Nat. 1880). 

• carunculata. c? , $ . 

leucogeranos. c? , $ • 

As regards these two species, it appears from Prof. Garrod's MS. 



1882.] ON RARK birds' EGGS FROM MADAGASCAR. 353 

notes that the male of G. leucogeranos has a convoluted trachea, 
only sliglitly folded in the carina sterni, extending in it for less than 
half its extent' ; whilst in the female " there was formed a genu of 
small size, that does not enter the carina sterni." The female of 
G. carunculata examined had a trachea as well convoluted as the 
most developed forms of G. americana, whilst in the male the con- 
dition was as in the female of O. leucogeranos. 
Grus austral asiana. c? ['i? $ ]■ 
canadensis, c? • 

In Tetrapteryx paradlsea, according to Yarrell and Tegetmeier, 
as well as in Anthropoides virrjo according to Parsons and Yarrell, 
the trachea is convoluted, but does not enter the carina sterni, being 
contained in a special groove developed along the anterior margin 
of that bone. 

[In both species of Balearica the trachea is known to be quite 
simple; and the same is probably true in Aramus scolopaceus.] 



3. On the Eggs of some rare Wading Birds from Madagascar. 
By J. E. Harting, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived March 21, 1882.] 

Amongst a large collection of eggs recently brought from Madn- 
gascar by the Rev. W. Deans Cowan, many of which are of con- 
siderable interest as being hitherto undescribed, are the eggs of three 
species of Limicolce which I should like to bring before the notice 
of this Society, since they belong to members of a group to which 
I have for some years been paying special attention. 

Mr. Deans Cowan collected in the neighbourhood of Fianarantsoa 
in the Betsileo country, situated in the south central portion of 
Madagascar ; and the extent of his collection shows how rich a 
field for ornithologists is the district in which he has for some years 
resided. 

The three species of Wading-birds of which I now exhibit the 
eggs, as well as the skins, are a Pratincole {Glareola ocularis, 
Verreaux), a Sand-Plover {jEgialitis geoffroyi, Wagler), and a Snipe 
{Gallinago macrodactyla, Bonaparte). The Pratincole and Snipe, 
which so far as I am aware have not been met with out of Madagascar, 
are both very rare in collections ; the Sand-Plover, being generally 
distributed throughout Southern Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and 
Eastern Africa, is very much better known. 

1. Glareola ocularis, Verreaux, was first brought to the 
notice of naturalists by the late Jules Verreaux so long ago as 1833, 
when at a meeting of the South-African Institution at Cape Town in 
that year he exhibited and described a specimen, which, with other 
skins, he had then lately received from iNIadagascar. 

1 The observations of Mi-. A. O. Hume {cf. Tegetnieiei-'s ' Cranes,' p. 39, &c.) 
do not, therefore, always hold good for this species. 

24* 



354 MR. J. E. HARTING ON RARE [Apr. 4, 

Equal in size to the well-known Collared Pratincole (G.pratincola), 
which, dispersed throughout Southern and Eastern Europe, Africa, 
and a great portion of Southern Asia, occasionally visits the British 
Islands, it is distinguished from that species by having no " collar," 
the head and nape black, a white spot under the eye and passing be- 
hind it, the quills much blacker than in G. pratincola, the tail squarer 
and blacker, the outer feathers scarcely longer than the rest, and with 
a white spot on their distal half. The species is well figured in the 
excellent work of Messrs. Pollen and Van Dam (Recherches sur la 
Faune de Madagascar,' 1868), who, however, give no account of its 
bree iing-habits, nor describe its eggs. 

It was not until thirty years after this bird had been described 
that any information concerning its habits was published. In 
1863 Messrs. Roch and Edward Newton, in an account of their 
visit to Madagascar printed in ' The Ibis ' for that year, recorded 
their having met with it near Tamatave. They remarked : — 
" At our first halting-place on the road from Tamatave to the 
capital, on the 1st of October, we saw and shot several Pratincoles. 
The river Hivondrona runs out into the sea about a mile and a 
half below a village bearing the same name, and has on its left 
bank a treeless sandy plain. Here we found these birds, together 
with Sanderlings and two species of Plover. Unfortunately, those 
that we skinned were destroyed, and we have no specimens by 
which to identify them ; but we have little doubt that the Pratincoles 
were of the same species as an example afterwards obtained by Dr. 
Roch ;" who says : — " At Nossi-be a small village to the north of 
Tamatave, I found many Pratincoles in the native burial-ground, 
which appeared to be their breeding-place, though I was unable to 
discover either eggs or young. Their manners strongly reminded 
me of those of the Lapwing, screaming high in the air, and then 
darting along the ground as if to draw my attention away from their 
broods. I thus easily obtained several specimens." 

The following year Mr. Edward Newton observed these birds in 
the same locality in September ('Ibis' 1863, p. 455). 

Dr. Roch has described the flight of this Pratincole as reminding 
him of that of the Lapwing ; but the late Mr. Swinhoe was doubtless 
more accurate when, describing the habits of Glareola orientalis as 
observed by him in Formosa, he likened its appearance on the wing 
to the Golden piover ; for, like that bird, the Pratincoles have long, 
pointed, narrow flight-feathers, unlike the full rounded wing of the 
Lapwing. 

Their food consists chiefly of sand-beetles and flying auts, of which 
they are especially fond. 

Like other species of the Limicolce, the Pratincoles lay their eggs 
in a depression of the ground, with very little nest, and the young 
run as soon as they are hatched. 

The egg of Glareola ocularis is much paler than that of G. pratin- 
cola, and assimilates both in shape and colour to the eggs of 
Cursorius, showing an afTmity to that genus of birds, which is also 
indicated in the anatomical structure. 



1882.] birds' eggs from Madagascar. 355 

It may be described as of a pale stone-colour, or, to be more 
accurate, of the colour described and figured by Werner in his ' No- 
menclature of Colours ' as cream-yellow, spotted or speckled chiefly 
at the larger end with yellowish-brown and paler brocoli-brown 
(Werner). It measures 1*4 inch by l-I at its greatest diameter. 
Only one nest was found, containing two eggs. The native name for 
this bird according to Mr. Deans Cowan is Hitsikitsidrano. 

2. jEgialitis geoffroyi, Wagler. 

In 'The Ibis' for 1870 I gave as complete a life-history of this 
species as the materials then available enabled me to prepare, with 
a figure of the bird in its nuptial plumage. Reference to this 
account will show that the species is widely distributed and 
has frequently come under the observation of naturalists at the 
periods of its migration, or in its winter-quarters ; but I was obliged 
to confess my inability to describe the egg (torn. cit. p. 383). 
Jerdon, writing of its habits in India, thought it " retired northwards 
to breed ;" and Dr. Leith Adams beheved he had found it breeding 
on the banks of the Chimouraree Lake in Ladakh (P. Z. S. 1859, 
p. 188), but the description of the bird given by him in his ' Wan- 
derings of a Naturalist in India ' (p. 283) shows that it was the 
closely allied, but smaller, J^gialitis mongolica that he met with. 
JE. geoffroyi, according to Swinhoe, is abundant on the sandy shores 
of Formosa ; and from the fact of the young being found in the island, 
he conjectured that it breeds there. There can be little doubt that 
it does so ; for several eggs which he took there, and supposed to be 
those of the Eastern Golden Plover, Charadrius falvus, are evidently 
too small for that species, and can only belong to JE. geoffroyi. These 
eggs are now in the collection of Mr. H. Seebohm, and resemble those 
now exhibited from Madagascar. 

As its smaller congener yE. mongolicits does not occur in Mada- 
gascar, there is no ground for supposing that the eggs now exhibited 
can belong to that species ; while the eggs of such other Sand-Plovers 
as are known to occur in the island are so much smaller in size, and 
so different in markings, that they cannot for a moment be con- 
founded. JE. geoffroyi is common enough in Madagascar, frequent- 
ing saudy shores and going up the rivers for some distance inland to 
breed. 

The egg is of a cream-yellow, blotched chiefly at the larger end 
with pitch-black. It measures 1*4 inch by 1 inch. 

The native name for this bird, and applied to all the Sand-Plovers 
which are found there, is Vikiviki. 

3. GtAllinago macrodactyla, Bonaparte. 

G. bernieri, Pucheran. 

This Snipe, a very rare one in collections, is characterized by the 
unusually long toes, and by the extraordinary length of bill which 
distinguishes it from all its congeners. 

Hardly any thing has been published concerning it beyond the 



356 ON RARE birds' EGGS FROM MADAGASCAR. [Apr. 4, 

mere identification of the species under the name bestowed upon it 
by Pucheran (Rev. Zool. 18-15, p. 2/9). Thus, it appears in a col- 
lection of Madagascar birds brought home by Mr. W. Gerrard, and 
described by Professor Newton in the ' Proceedings ' of this Society, 
1865, p. 832; it is noted as amongst the birds observed in Mada- 
gascar by M. Grandidier between the years 1865-67 (Rev. et Mag. 
de Zool. 1868, p. 4) ; and it appears again in a collection made in 
Madagascar bv Mr. Grossley in 1869, and described by Mr. Sharpe, 
P. Z.S. 1870,' p. 399. 

Dr. Hartlaub has of course included it in both his works on 
Madagascar (Orn. Beitrag Faun. Madagasc. 1861, p. 7S, and 'Die 
Vogel Madagascars,' 1877, p. 333) ; but Uttle information is given 
concerning it beyond what had already been made known by Messrs. 
Roch and Edward Newton in their remarks on Madagascar liirds, 
published in 'The Ibis' in 1863, where the fullest notice which haa 
appeared of this bird is given. 

These gentlemen state that they found it tolerably common along 
the coast, where it had evidently just been breeding, as Dr. Roch 
found a young one about four days old, on the 3rd October, between 
Trauomaro and Mamorack ; unfortunately it was not preserved. In 
colouring it was said to approach the 3'oung of Gallinago scolopacina 
more than either G. major or G. (/cdUnula. 

In the valleys near Ambohitroni, about ninety-four miles from 
the coast, Messrs. Roch and Newton found it more numerous, and 
in about half an hour killed nine couple. Their flight was slow 
and steady, and they did not twist in the least. These were 
evidently not breeding. The largest measured was 19'25 inches in 
extent of wing, and 17'5 inches from the tij) of the bill to the end 
of the tail. 

According to Messrs. Roch and Newton sixteen appeared to be 
the normal number of tail-feathers in this Snipe, or two more than 
originally ascribed to the species by Bonaparte. Unfortunately, of 
the three specimens of this bird now before me, not one of them has 
the tail })erfect, so that at present I am unable to check the obser- 
vations of my predecessors upon this point. 

With regard to the breeding of this sjjecies. Dr. Hartlaub has 
briefly described the egg (Vogel Madagascars, p. 335), and Dr. Roch, 
as already stated, found a young one which he was unable to preserve. 
I have now before me both egg and young, brought home by Mr. 
Deans Cowan from Fianarantsoa, Betsileo, where the bird is called 
Kelakel-a. The native name Sava-rava referred to this species by 
Prof. Newton, in the Catalogue already referred to (P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 832), is, according to j\Ir. Deans Cowan, properly applicable to the 
Painted Snipe (lihi/ncficea capensis). 

The egg, which measures 1-7 inch by 1"2 at its greatest diameter, 
is of a honey-yellow colour (Werner), spotted chiefly at the larger end 
with umber-brown. 

The young bird when a few dnys old is scarcely to be distinguished 
from the young of our Common Snipe (G. scolopacina) at the same 
age, save for its gieater length of bill, legs, and toes. As regards 



1882,] MR. E. p. RAMSAY ON A NEW TEPHRAS. 357 

coloration, a description of the one would apply almost equally well 
to the other. 

The measurements of a young hird of G. macrodactyla less than 
a week old, and consequently unable to fly, are : — Bill 1-5, wing 2-5, 
bare portion of tibia '5, tarsus 1*7 inch. 

Before concluding my remarks on this species it seems desirable 
to say a few words on the synonymy, since the bird has hitherto 
been usually known as Gallinago bernieri of Pucheran, who named 
it after the first collector who brought specimens of the bird to 
Europe. Pucheran's description was published in the 'Revue de 
Zoologie,' 1845 ; but some years prior to this, namely between 1832 
and 1841, Bonaparte's ' Iconografia della Fauna ItaHca ' appeared 
in parts (unpaged). In one of these parts, in the course of a notice 
of Gallinago brehmi (a variety of the common European Snipe), of 
which the part in question contains a coloured figure, a review of 
the various species of Gallingo known to the author is given, in the 
course of which two new species are described: — one from Madagascar, 
named by Bonaparte macrodactyla ; the other from the Cape, named 
by him nigripennis, and subsequently by Riippell (1845) cequatorialis. 
His description of macrodactyla, which applies to the present species, 
was founded upon a specimen in the Paris Museum, which had 
been brought by Dr. Bernier from Madagascar, and was in all 
probability the same type from which Pucheran subsequently de- 
scribed and named his Gallinago bernieri. It is evident, therefore, 
that Bonaparte's name for this species, Gallinago macrodactyla, has 
precedence. 

I have seen no specimen of this bird from any part of Africa ; and, 
so far as at present known, it appears to be confined entirely to 
Madagascar. 



4. Description of a new Species of Bird of the Genus Tephras. 
By E. P. Ramsay, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. 

[Eeceived March 14, 1882.] 

The species which I propose to describe is based on a specimen 
from a collection made along the south coast of New Guinea and at 
the Aru Islands by the late S. White, Esq., of South Australia. I 
propose to call it 

Tephras WHiTEi, sp. nov. 

All the upper surface dull brown washed with olive-yellow, tinged 
with brown on the head ; brighter on the rump and upper tail- 
coverts, and on the outer margins of the webs of the wing- and tail- 
feathers ; the wings and tail brown above and below ; axillaries and 
under wing-coverts whitish, inner margin of the webs of the quills 
towards the base whitish ; shafts of the wing and tail-feathers below 
white, above brown ; all the under surface of the body, chin, margins 
of shoulders below, and the under tail-coverts citron-yellow, deeper 



358 PROF. W, H. FLOWER ON THE EDENTATA. [Apr. 18, 

in tint on the chest, breast, and under tail-coverts ; bill brown, 
whitish on the lower margin and on the under mandible ; no ring 
round the eye ; ear-coverts and sides of the face like the head. 

Length of skin 37 inches, wing 2-5, tail 1-9, tarsus O'Z; bill 
from forehead 0-5, from anterior margin of nasal groove 0-3, from 
gape 0-6. 

The flank-plumes are rather elongated and somewhat decomposed. 

Ilab. Aru Islands ? 



April 18, 1882. 
Prof. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The following report on the additions to the Society's Menagerie 
during the month of March 1882 was read by the Secretary :— ° 

The total nnmber of registered additions to the Society's Mena- 
gerie during the month of March 1882 was .54, of which 20 were 
by presentation, 16 by purchase, 3 by birth, and 9 were received on 
deposit. The total number of departures during the same period, 
by death and removals, was 81. 

The most noticeable addition during the month was : — 

A Radiated Fruit-Cuckoo {Carpococcyx radiatus) from Sumatra, 
purchased March 31st. 

The gait and actions of this remarkable Ground-Cuckoo remind 
one more of a Gallinaceous bird or a Gallinule than of any of its 
arboreal relatives of the same family. The form is quite new to the 
Society's Collection, 



The following papers were read : — 

1. On the Mutual Affinities of the Animals composing the 
Order Edentata, By William Henry Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S., Pres. Zool. Soc., &c. 

[Eeceived April 4, 1882.] 

The name assigned to this order by Cuvier is often objected to 
as inappropriate, as, though some of its members are edentulous, 
others have very numerous teeth ; and the Linnean name Bruta is 
occasionally revived by modern authors. But that term is quite as 
objectionable, especially as the group to which Linneus applied it 
is by no means equivalent to the order as now understood, but con- 
tained all the animals then known which are comprised in the 
modern orders Proboscidea, Sirenia, and Edentata, together with 
the Walrus, one of the Carnivora. If retained at all, it should 
rather belong to the Proboscidea, as Elepha-s stands first in the list 
of genera of Bruta in the ' Systema Naturae,' and was probably in 
the mind of Linnaeus when he assigned the name to the group. 



1882.] PROF. W. H. FLOWER ON THE EDENTATA. 359 

Cuvier's order included the Ornithorhynchus and Echidna, animals 
of which the structure was then imperfectly known, but which are 
now by almost universal consent removed to an altogether different 
section of the class. Otherwise its limits are those now adopted. 
The name Edentata, moreover, is now so generally used, and its 
meaning so well understood as a conventional term, that it would be 
very undesirable to substitute any other for it. In fact similar reasons 
might be given for ceasing to use nearly all the current ordinal desig- 
nations of mammals. It might be equally well objected that all 
the Carnivora are not flesh-eaters, many of the Marsupialia have 
not pouches, and so forth. 

The few common characters by which the Edentata are associated 
are too well known to need repetition. The principal one is the 
absence of any trace of the typical heterodont and diphyodont den- 
tition, found in a more or less modified form in all other placental 
mammals \ The one genus Tatusia presents a startling exception, 
in the presence of a set of milk-teeth, with (according to Burmeister) 
distinct roots implanted in separate alveoli, and (according to C. Tomes) 
distinct enamel-organs, if not enamel. This is one of the most im- 
portant facts bearing upon the evolution of the Edentates yet dis- 
covered, though its full signification is not yet evident. 

It is highly probable that most, if not all, of the existing Eden- 
tates are the very much differentiated representatives of a large 
group, the greater number of which are now extinct, and which 
have become so without ever attaining a high grade of organization. 
The great diversity of structure, the high degree of specialization 
to which many have attained, the paucity of species and even of 
individuals, their limited area of distribution, and their small size 
compared with known extinct forms, all show that they belong to 
an ancient and waning race, the members of wljich still hold their 
own either by the remoteness and seclusion of their dwelling-places, 
their remarkable adaptation of structure to special conditions of life, 
or by aid of the peculiar defensive armature with which they are 
invested. Their former history can, however, only be surmised, 
rather than read, at present ; for though we have ample evidence of 
the abundance and superior magnitude of certain forms in the most 
recent and post-Tertiary geological age, and in one part of the world, 
beyond that time {i. e. in the true Tertiary period), and in other parts 
of the world than America, their fossil remains hitherto discovered 
are only fragmentary, giving a most imperfect idea of their actual 
condition, as well as affording no indications that serve to connect 
them with certainty to any other branch of the class. 

The existing Edentates readily group themselves into five distinct 
families, of the limits of wliich there is no reasonable doubt. These 
are : — 1. The Bradypodid.e, containing two genera, Bradypns and 
Choloepus, 2. TheMYRMECOPHAGiD^E, containingthreedistinctmodi- 
fications, worthy of generic rank — Myrmecophaga, Tamandua, and 

' The Cetacea are possible exceptions ; but embryological and palsejntological 
researches appear to show that their dentition may be derived from the ordinary 
mammalian type. 



360 PROF. W. H. FLOWER ON THE EDENTATA. [Apt. IS, 

Cycloiurus. 3. The Dasypodid^, which may he divided into two 
sections, one containing the genus Tatusio, which, in the presence of 
milk-teeth, the structure of the fore feet, as well as in many characters 
of the visceral anatomy, stands apart from all the other Armadillos' ; 
and another, including the genera Dasypus, Xenurus, Priodoti, Toly- 
peutes, and OfUamydophoi-us, which are clearly all modifications of 
a common type, although the last-named shows such a striking 
difference in the character of its dermal armature that it might make a 
section apart, if its internal structure were not so closely similar to that 
of Dasypus. 4. The Manid^, containing about seven species, the 
slight modifications of which are scarcely worthy of being considered 
generic. 5. The ORYCTEROPODiDiE, with one genus containing 
two closely allied local forms and species. The three first-named 
families are inliahitants of the New, the last two of the Old World. 
The families of which all the members are extinct are the Mega- 
THERiiD^and Glyptodontid.e, both American and post-Tertiary, 
the one related to the Bradyporlidce, and the other to the Basypo- 
dida. The Tertiary forms are less known ; but those of the New 
World may be provisionally grouped under Marsh's name of MoRO- 
PODJD.*:, and tliose of the Old World as Macrotheriid^. 

As to the mutual relationship of these families, it has been 
customary with all recent zoologists to group them into two divisions, 
often called suborders : — the Phyllophaga, Phytophaga, or Tar- 
digrada, containing the Bradypodidce. alone ; and the Entomo- 
PHAGA or Vermilingua, including all the others, unless, as in 
some systems, Orycteropus is placed apart as forming a distinct 
section. 

Whether these distinct suborders are adopted, or the families 
merely arranged in their supposed relationship, the Old-World Ant- 
eaters, or Manidcs, are invariably closely associated with the New- 
World Anteaters or the Myi-mecophagidcs, and the latter are widely 
separated from the Sloths. 

This being (I think I am not wrong in saying) the view universally 
accepted at the present time, it is my purpose to investigate it a 
little more closely than has hitherto been done, and to see whether 
it is really based upon important structural relations, or only upon 
what may be called superficial or adaptive modifications. 

The bonds which unite the ManidcB to the MyrmecophagidcE are 
mainly to be found in the structure of the mouth, especially the 
extensile character of the tongue, the great development of the sub- 
maxillary glands, and absence of teeth. These characters are 
exactly analogous to those found in the Echidna among Monotremes, 
the Woodpeckers among Birds, and the Chameleon among Reptiles. 
The explanation proljably lies in the fact that in countries where 
termites and similar insects flourish, various distinct forms of verte- 
brates have become modified in special relation to this abundance 
of nutritious food, which could only be made available by a peculiar 
structure of the alimentary organs. 

' See Garrod, " Notes on the Anatomy of Tolypeutes tricinctus, with remarks 
on other Armadillos," Proc. Zool. Soe. 1878, p. 222. 



1882.] I'ROF. W. H. FLOWER ON THE EDENTATA. 361 

III tracing true affinities we must not look to these obviously 
adaptive characters, but to others of really deeper significance. 

To commence with the skeleton, one of the most striking characters 
by which the Myi-mecophafjidce differ from ordinary mammals is 
the presence on the posterior do;sal and the lumbar vertebrae of 
accessory articulating surfaces, in addition to the true zygapophyses 
common to all mammals, and causing a remarkable interlocking of 
the arches of these vertebrae. Such articulations are found equally 
well-developed in the Megatheriidce and in the Dasypodidce, and 
in a comparatively rudimentary state in the Bradtjpodidce, especially 
in Bradi/pus ^ 

The whole vertebral column of the Sloths, especially the dorsal 
and lumbar region, is poorly developed, evidently in relation to the 
subordinate function of the muscles attached to it. In the ordinary 
position the animal hangs below the branches of the trees in which 
it dwells, the trunk being merely slung between the two pairs of 
extremities ; progression is effected chiefly by the body being 
dragged along by the fore limbs ; the hind legs, which usually take so 
active a part insupportingand propelling the trunk, aresmall and weak, 
andthefunctionsof walking, running, andjumpingare alike in abeyance. 
Hence all the processes of the vertebral column — the spinous, trans- 
verse, and accessory — are but feebly developed. The existence then, 
even in a rudimentary form, of these additional articulations is ex- 
tremely significant. It may almost be said that they prove that 
the Sloths are descended from animals in which they existed in a 
fully developed form. On the other hand, like as in some respects 
the vertebral column of Manis is to that of Mynnecophaga, not a 
trace of either of these articulations or of the processes on which they 
are situated are to be found in the former. There is a strong inter- 
locking of the lumbar vertebrse ; but it is formed by the greatly curved 
form of the true zygapophyses, and not by the addition of any 
superadded parts. In Orycteropus also they are entirely absent. 
On this ground alone we might be justified in assuming that the 
Old-World Edentates are not closely related to the American forms. 

Nothing can be more different than the characters of the sternum 
q{ My nnecophaya and of Manis. In the former the numerous meso- 
sternal segments are small, later.nlly compressed, and articulated with 
each other and with the strongly ossified sternal ribs by synovial 
joints. In Manis the sternum is broad and flat, and the sternal 
ribs only partly ossified, and connected with it in the normal manner. 
In these characters, the Bradypodidoe, Megatheriidce, and Dasy- 
podidce agree with the Auteaters, and Oiycteropus is more nearly 
related to Munis. 

The gigantic post-Tertiary Edentates of the New "World, Mpga- 
therium and its allies, throw much light upon the close affinity of 
the Sloths and true Auteaters. By common consent they have been 
placed among the former when the order is divided into two divisions, 
and are spoken of as " Ground-Sloths ;" yet in many important 
characters, perhaps in all those not relating to the functions of 
' See ' Osteology of Mammalia,' 2nd edit., 1876, p. 55. 



362 PROF. W. H. FLOWER ON THE EDENTATA. [Apr. 18, 

prehension and mastication of food, they are quite as near, if not 
nearer, to the Anteaters. They may truly be regarded as intercalary 
types, bridging over the gulf which now exists between them. The 
teeth are certainly those of the Sloths, even to the actual number in 
most genera ; but the diminution of that number in Cmlodon leads to- 
wards their total suppression in Myrmecophaga. In the lengthening 
of the anterior part of the skull in Mec/af.herium, but more strongly 
marked in Sceliclotherium, the commencement of the Myrmecophaga 
type is clearly seen ; and that they had tongues longer and more 
protractile than those of existing Sloths (perhaps even preliensile, as 
Professor Owen suggests) is very probable. The vertebral column, 
ribs, sternum, and tail were far more Myrmecophagine than Brady- 
podine. In the scapula they possess a character which is shared 
by both Sloths and Anteaters but by no other mammal. The 
coracoid bone and the coracoid border of the scapula join over the 
coraco-scapular notch, converting it into a foramen. The recent 
discovery of clavicles in a rudimentary state in all three species of 
Myrmecophaga ' adds another common character to the group, though 
perhaps not one of first-class importance. It must, however, be 
noted that in no species of Manis has any trace of a clavicle been 
found. The flattening of the femur, and development of a linear 
ridge along its external border, is common and peculiar to the Sloths, 
Anteaters, and Megatheres. The special characters of the manus iu 
these three families are all derivations from a common type ; but iu 
this portion of their organization the Megatherioids show their rela- 
tionship with the Anteaters much more than with the Sloths. In the 
mode of setting the foot to the ground, and in the absence of claws 
upon one or more of the outer digits, the likeness is most surprising. 
The manus of the Pangolins, on the other hand, although presenting 
some superficial resemblances, is formed on a different type, in most 
respects more conformable to that which is normal among mammals ; 
but it has the peculiarity (which it shares with all known Carnivora) 
of connate scaphoid and lunar bones, and in the deep median clefts 
of the ungual phalanges it resembles Perameles among the Mar- 
supials. 

Passing from this brief review of the osteological characters, we 
find in the arrangements of the arterial system of the limbs a close 
resemblance between the Sloths and Anteaters ; and though the tail 
is so reduced in the former, its caudal artery is surrounded by a 
well-developed plexus, such as we could hardly account for, except 
upon the supposition that it were a remnant of a condition in which 
the tail resembles that of the Anteaters or Megatheres. In Manis, 
no retia mirahilia appear to be developed in connection with the 
arteries of the limbs — although one has been found, in at least one 
species, in the tail ; but it is also present in animals as far removed 
as the Spider Monkeys. 

A part of the organization to which it is natural to attach much 
importance in tracing affinities is that concerned in the reproductive 
function. The organs of both male and female Sloths and Ant- 
' See W. A. Forbes, P.Z.S.1882, p. 287. 



1882.] PROF. W. H. FLOWER ON THE EDENTATA. 3C>3 

eaters are closely similar in structure, while those of Manis are formed 
upon a totally different type. In the former families the testes are 
placed exactly in the same situation, close to each other, lying on the 
rectum, between it and the bladder ; the penis is quite rudimentary, 
consisting of a pair of small corpora cavernosa, not directly attached 
by their crura to the rami of the ischium, and having a glans scarcely 
larger than that of the clitoris of most mammals, and, as in birds and 
reptiles, without any true corpus spongiosum. Tlie number and 
development of the accessory glands vary apparently in different 
species of both families. 

In the females of both Anteaters and Sloths the uterus is simple 
and globular, and the vagina, at least in the virgin state, is divided 
into two channels by a strong median partition. Lastly, the placen- 
tation, as far as it is known, if not identical, is similar in principle. 
The placenta of Choloepus has been fully described by Turner ; it is 
deciduate, and composed of a number of lobes aggregated into a 
dome-like mass. There is nothing in the descriptions, certainly less 
complete, of the placenta of Tamandua and Cycloturus to show any 
differences except in detail of form. 

In Manis, on the other hand, the testes are totally different in 
position, lying in the inguinal canal. The penis is external and 
well developed. The uterus is truly bicornuate, the vagina not 
divided, and the placenta diffused and non-deciduate. All the 
organs and foetal membranes are formed very much on the plan of 
those of the typical Uugulata, without a trace of the special peculi- 
arities of the American Edentates. 

As regards the tegumentary system Myrmecophaga closely re- 
sembles Bradypus in the character of its hairy covering ; while 
Manis, in its very remarkable horny scales, shows a type entirely 
different from both and from every other mammal. 

INIany other minor considerations might be adduced ; but I think 
I have brought forward enough to establish the fact beyond reason- 
able question, that Manis, if allied at all to Myrmecophaga, 
must have separated from the original common stock before this 
had given off the Bradypodidce — or, in other words, that the Sloths 
and Anteaters, with the Megatherioids intervening, are far more 
nearly allied to each other than either is to the Pangolins. 

It now remains to examine the position of the other families. 

Dasypodidce. In many respects this family is remarkably specia- 
lized, more particularly in the characters of the integumentary 
structures, in which it differs from all known mammals. 

In dental characters it presents nothing fundamentally different 
from those of the Sloths. In lingual, salivary, and digestive organs, 
on the other hand, it is more nearly allied to the Anteaters, though 
presenting a less extreme form of modification, showing in fact one of 
the stages by which such modification may have been brought about. 
It is therefore so far a connecting link between these families. 

In the extremely important character of the presence of inter- 
locking accessory zygapophyses to the lumbar vertebrse, and in the 
structure of the sternum and sternal ribs, it follows the type of Myr- 



364 PROF. W. H. FLOWER ON THE EDENTATA. [Apr. 18, 

mecophaga and Megatherium ; but in the peculiar form and ankylosis 
of some of the cervical vertebrae, common to all existing members of 
the family, it stands apart from all other Edentates. In the presence 
of a clavicle it resembles the other American forms ; but it differs in the 
shape of the scapula, and in the existence of a third trochanter to the 
femur. The structure of the extremities, especially the manus, presents 
many modifications, some of which are quite comparable to, though not 
identical with, those of the Myrmecophagidce. 

The reproductive organs differ in the presence of a largely de- 
veloped copulating organ in the male, and of a simple vagina of cor- 
responding length in the female ; these, as long ago suggested by 
Professor Owen, appear to be correlated with the difficulties which 
would otherwise be interposed to sexual congress by the arrange- 
ments of the dermal armour, and which of course do not occur in 
the Sloths and Anteaters. The testes are still abdominal, though 
not in the same position ; and the penis, notwithstanding its size, 
wants (as pointed out by Morrison Watson ') both the glans and 
bulb, generally formed in mammals by the corpus spongiosum. The 
uterus is as simple, or nearly so, as that of the Sloths »nd Anteaters ; 
and there is no reason to supjiose, from what is at present known, that 
the placentation differs in principle from that of those families ; for if 
deciduate, whether the whole mass assumes an oval, discoidal, or 
bell-shaped form is only a matter of detail. 

The Armadillos, then, have undoubtedly near affinities to the 
other American Edentates, and are probably members of the same 
group, though not so nearly related to either of the other families 
as they are to each other, and are moreover remarkably specialized 
in a particular direction. The Glyptodonts form an allied group, 
agreeing in most essential features, but also presenting some very 
singular special modifications. 

Lastly, Orycteropus is a form in most respects perfectly apart 
from all the others. The structure of its teeth alone would almost 
entitle it to be placed in an order by itself, were it not for the 
practical inconvenience of doing so. Its vertebral column is formed 
on the normal type of mammals. Its limbs also present com- 
paratively few specializations ; but it resembles the Armadillos in pos- 
sessing a third trochanter to the femur. Its digestive organs are 
also comparable to those of the Armadillos, as its mode of feeding 
is similar. But its reproductive organs, both male and female, and 
placentation are formed upon a principle unknown in other Eden- 
tates, or, in combination, in other mammals. The testes, in a specimen 
I once examined, were inguinal, though they appear to descend, at all 
events temporarily, into a scrotum ; but the penis is almost as small 
as in the Great Anteater. The uterus is more bicornuate than in 
Manis, the two lateral chambers opening separately into the vagina, 
as in some Rodents. The placenta, as described by Prof. Turner, 
is broadly zonular ; but whether deciduate or not is at present un- 
determined, probably the latter. As Balfour remarks, this type of 
placenta is capable of being easily derived from that of Munis, 

» P. Z. S. 1878, p. 677. 



1882.] PROF. W. H. FLOWER ON THE EDENTATA. 365 

by the disappearance of the foetal villi at the two poles of the ovum ; 
while the small size of the umbilical vesicle indicates that it is not, 
like the zonary placenta of the Carnivora, directly derived from 
a type with both allantoic and umbilical vascularization of the 
chorion. 

Although palaeontology has revealed the existence of a vast 
number of the Edentates by which the New World was tenanted in 
the Pleistocene age, and has given us a more perfect idea of their 
characters than is known of most other extinct forms, unfortu- 
nately the history of the group throughout the period of the true 
Tertiaries is at present almost a blank. The presence of a large 
species probably allied to Manis in the Siwalik fauna is indicated by 
a single phalanx, described and figured by Lydekker under the name 
of M. sindiensis. No animals, attributed with any certainty to the 
Edentata, are known of Eocene age. The few scattered and imperfect 
remains of supposed Edentates, Macrotherium and Anci/lotkeriiun, 
of the European later Miocene formations, and the similarly imperfect 
and as yet not fully described bones of Moropus and Morotherium of 
corresponding ages in North America, indicate that animiils existed 
at that time of large size, presenting characters in some respects 
allied to the recent members of the order, but in others so different 
that they cannot be placed in any of the existing families. Macro- 
therium, for instance, appears to have limb-characters which ally it 
to the Ungulates. As far as can be surmised at present, the 
affinities of these early forms were rather with the existing members 
which survive in their own part of the world, than with those of a 
different hemisphere. Macrotherium certainly appears to present 
more resemblance to Manis than to the American Edentates. The first 
fragments of it which were found were attributed by Cuvier to a 
•' Pangolin gi(/antesque." But some evidence has since been found 
in favour of its having possessed teeth. So far this is quite what 
might be expected ; but it certainly throws very little light either 
upon the mutual relations of the existing forms, the steps by which the 
present state of things has been brought about, or, what would be still 
more interesting, their affinities with mammals of other groups. The 
tabular form (see p. 3G6) into which the result of these inquiries have 
been thrown will show what I conceive to be the relationship of the 
existing forms ; but it also shows the great deficiency of our knowledge 
of the group in past ages. 

The general conclusions to which a study of this group have led me 
may be summed up as follows : — All the American Edentates at 
present known, however diversified in form and habits, belong to a 
common stock. The Bradypodidce, Megaiheriidce, and Myrmeco- 
phagidcE are closely allied, the modifications seen in the existing 
families relating to food and manner of life. The ancestral forms 
may have been omnivorous, like the present Armadillos, and 
gradually separated into the purely vegetable and purely animal 
feeders : from the former are developed the modern Sloths, from the 
latter the Anteaters. The Armadillos are another modification of 
the same type, retaining some more generalized characters, as those 



366 



PROF. W. H. FLOWER ON THE EDENTATA. [Apr. 18, 



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1882.] DR. VAN DYCK ON SYRtAN STREET-DOGS. 367 

of the alimentary organs, but in other respects, as their defensive 
armature, remarkably specialized. 

The two Old- World forms ManidcB and OrycteropidcB are so 
essentially distinct from all the American families, that it may even 
be considered doubtful whether they are derived from the same 
primary branch of mammals, or whether they may not be offsets 
from some other branch, the remaining members of which have been 
lost to knowledge. 

Alphonse Milne-Edwards, in discussing the inferences to he derived 
from the study of the foetal membranes of the Edentates^ has maintained 
that one of two views must be accepted : — either that it shows that 
no value can be attached to the placentation in seeking natural affinities; 
or that the Edentates as we know them now are not a homogeneous 
order, but should be separatedinto several distinct natural groups. It 
is the latter view to which he gives the preference. It need scarcely 
be remarked that the observations made in the present communi- 
cation lead to a similar conclusion. 



2. Ou the Modification of a Race of Syrian Street-Dogs by 
means of Sexual Selection. By Dr. Van Dyck. With 
a Preliminary Notice by Charles Daewix, F.R.S., 
F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived April 4, 1882.] 

Most of the naturalists who admit that natural selection has been 
effective in the formation of species, likewise admit that the weapons 
of male animals are the result of sexual selection — that is, of the best- 
armed males obtaining most females and transmitting their masculine 
superiority to their male offspring. But many naturalists doubt, or 
deny, that female animals ever exert any choice, so as to select certain 
males in preference to others. It would, however, be more correct 
to speak of the females as being excited or attracted in an especial 
degree by the appearance, voice, &c. of certain males, rather than of 
deliberately selecting them. I may perhaps be here permitted to 
say that, after having carefully weighed to the best of my ability the 
various arguments which have been advanced against the principle of 
sexual selection, I remain firmly convinced of its truth. It is, how- 
ever, probable that I may have extended it too far, as, for instance, 
in the case of the strangely formed horns and mandibles of male 
Lamellicorn beetles, which have recently been discussed with much 
knowledge by W. von Reichenau', and about which I have always felt 
some doubts. On the other hand, the explanation of the development 
of the horns offered by this entomologist does not seem to me at all 
satisfactory. 

1 Annale3 des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, 6me serie, tome viii. p. 6 (1879). 
^ " Uebei- den Ursprnng dcr secundiircn luilnnlielien Geschlechtscharakleren 
&c.,'' Kosnjos, Jahrgang v. 1881, p. 172. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— -1882, No. XXV. 25 



368 DR. VAN DYCK ON SYRIAN STREET-DOGS. [Apr. 18, 

In order to ascertain whether female animals ever or often exhibit 
a decided preference for certain males, I formerly inquired from 
some of the greatest breeders in England, who had no thoretical 
views to support and who had ample experience ; and I have given 
their answers, as well as some published statements, in my ' Descent 
of Man". The facts there given clearly show that with dogs and 
other animals the females sometimes prefer in the most decided 
manner particular males — but that it is very rare that a male will 
not accept any female, though such cases do occur. The following 
statement, taken from the 'Voyage of the Vega,'- indirectly supports 
in a striking manner the above conclusion. Nordenskiold says : — 
" We had two Scotch collies with us on the ' Vega.' They at first 
frightened the natives very much with their bark. To the dogs of 
the Chukches they goon took the same superior standing as the 
European claims for himself in relation to the savage. The dog was 
distinctly preferred by the female Chukch canine population, and 
that too without the fights to which such favour on the part of the 
fair commonly gives rise. A numerous canine progeny of mixed 
Scotch-Chukch breed has arisen at Pitlekay. The young dogs had 
a complete resemblance to their father ; and the natives were quite 
charmed with them." 

What the attractions may be which give an advantage to certain 
males in wooing in the above several cases, whether general appear- 
ance, such as colour and form, or vigour and strength, or gestures, 
voice, or odour, can rarely be even conjectured ; but whatever they 
may be, they would be preserved and augmented in the course of 
many generations, if the females of the same species or race, inhabit- 
ing the same district, retained during successive generations approxi- 
mately the same general disposition and taste ; and this does not 
seem improbable. Nor is it indispensable that all the females should 
have exactly the same tastes : one female might be more attracted 
by some one characteristic in the male, and another female by a 
different one ; and both, if not incompatible, would be gradually 
acquired by the males. Little as we can judge what are the charac- 
teristics which attract the female, yet, in some of the cases recorded 
by me, it seemed clearly to be colour ; in other cases previous 
familiarity with a particular male ; in others exactly the reverse, or 
novelty. With respect to the first appearance of the peculiarities 
which are afterwards augmented through sexual selection, this of 
course depends on the strong tendency in all parts of all organisms 
to present slight individual differences, and in some organisms to 
vary in a plain manner. Evidence has also been given in my book on 
Variation under Domestication showing that male animals are more 
liable to vary than females ; and this would be highly favourable to 
sexual selection. Manifestly every slight individual difference and 
each more conspicuous variation depends on definite though unknown 

^ The Descent of Man, second edit. (1874), part ii. Chap. xvii. pp. 522-.525. 
See also Chap, xiv., on choice in pairing shown by female birds, and on their 
appreciation of beauty., 

' ' The Voyage of the Vega,' Eng. translat. (1881), toI. ii. p. 97. 



1882.] DR. VAN DYCK ON SYRIAN STRKET-DOGS. 369 

causes ; and these modifications of structure &c. differ in different 
species under apparently the same conditions. Statements of this 
nature have sometimes been misinterpreted, as if it were supposed 
that variations were indefinite or fluctuating, and that the same 
variations occurred in all species. 

In reference to sexual selection, I will here only add that the 
complete manner in which the introduced dogs and other domestic 
animals in South America and other countries have been mongrelized, 
so that all traces of their original race have been lost, often appeared 
to me a surprising fact. This holds good according to Rengger' 
with the dogs even in so isolated a country as Paraguay. I formerly 
attributed this mongrelization merely to the breeds uot having 
been kept separate and to the greater vigour of cross-bred off- 
spring ; but if the females often prefer strangers to their old 
companions, as seems to be the case, according to Nordenskiold, in 
Siberia, and in Syria as shown in the following essay, then we can 
readily understand how rapid and complete would be the progress of 
mongrelization. I will now give without further comment the essay 
which Dr. W. Van Dyck, Lecturer on Zoology to the Protestant 
College at Beyrout, who has had excellent opportunities for obser- 
vations during a residence of twenty years, has been so kind as to 
send me. 



On the Modification of a Race of Syrian Slreet-Doffs hy means 
of Sexual Selection. By W. Van Dyck, AI.D. 

Beyrout is one of the principal ports on the Syrian coast, and has 
a population of from eighty to one hundred thousand. Like most 
Oriental cities, its system of street-cleansing is far from perfect, and 
much of the scavenging is left to the street-dogs, many hundreds of 
which roam at large through the town and suburbs, picking up a sub- 
sistence as they best can. Twenty years ago, and previously, these 
dogs were quite a homogeneous race, the following being a rough 
description of a typical specimen : — height at shoulder, 20-22 in. ; 
length from muzzle to root of tail 32-34 in. ; length of tail, 12-15 in. ; 
colour sandy grey, with some variety of shades (rarely so light as to 
pass for dirty white), in most cases distinctly darker above than 
beneath, and not unfrequently grizzled or brindled ; head of medium 
size, with rather pointed snout and small pointed semipendulous ears ; 
tail bushy, usually carried up over the back, sometimes much curled ; 
general aspect decidedly jackal-like, or semi-wolfish ; disposition 
cowardly, seldom savage. The only departures worthy of mention 
from the above type, at the time of which I write, were occasional 
black dogs, mostly with shorter hair than that of the sandy ones, 
rarely piebald black-and-white specimens. At the present date, the 
case is very different. The sandy-grey colour still prevails, it is true ; 
but there is hardly an imaginable colour or combination of colours 

' • Naturgeschichte der Siiiigethiere vou Paraguay,' 1830, p. 154. 

25* 



3/0 DR. VAN DYCK ON SYRIAN STREET-DOGS. [Apt. 18, 

which may not be found ; and in form, size, and proportions of trunk 
and hmbs, shape of head, form and size of ears, length and closeness 
of hair, length, bushiness, and carriage of tail there is nearly as 
much diversity. 

Twenty years ago but few persons in this city owned dogs of any 
foreign breed whatsoever ; but pointers, poodles, terriers, a few 
greyhounds and setters, and occasionally Newfoundlands, retrievers, 
and" mastiffs have since been imported, and to some extent bred here. 
By far the majority of foreign dogs to be found in Beyrout at any 
time are smaller and decidedly weaker than the original natives ; 
very few indeed can range the streets unaccompanied by their 
masters, without running a considerable risk of more or less serious 
injury from the street-dogs. Despite their marked muscular inferi- 
ority, however, the foreign dogs have succeeded in mongrelizing the 
whole race of street-dogs so thoroughly tliat it is now no easy 
matter to find one of these which does not bear unmistakable 
evidence of a foreign strain. 

To account for this, I can confidently cite the following facts from 
my own personal observation and experience : — 1st. Native bitches 
very often manifest a decided preference for certain foreign dogs ; 
and I have repeatedly seen such a bitch reject, one after another, a 
train of kindred suitors, to accept without hesitation a thorough-bred 
pointer. My brother once owned a French pointer named Jack, 
quite small, but beautifully proportioned, and of a uniform golden 
fawn colour. This dog was so great a favourite with the opposite 
sex of the native breed, that he led an exceedingly "gay" life. 
Pointer bitches, on the contrary, not unfrequently refused him for 
the sake of a street-dog. '2rid, Pointers and other well-bred bitches 
are frequently so decided and persistent in their preference for street- 
dogs (usually for some particular individual, unseen it may be, but 
communicated with by the voice), that they will go barren whole 
seasons rather than accept mates chosen for them by their masters. 
In such cases, a moment's carelessness or inattention is sufficient 
to ensure a litter of mongrel pups, which, if not destroyed in puppy- 
hood, are very apt eventually to find their way into the street, 
there to multiply the chance of infection for the whole race. 3rd. 
Mongrel strains are most strongly pronounced in the suburbs, where 
street-dogs are ratlier less numerous than in the heart of the city, 
and where sly and runaway matches are favoured by hedgerows, 
shrubbery, &c. &c. In the city itself, on the contrary, where the 
chances are ten to one that claims will be settled by the law of 
battle, the foreign taint is not so evident ; indeed a casual observer 
might easily overlook it in many instances ; and if any pure-blooded 
representatives of the old stock are still in existence, it must be in the 
most thickly stocked quarter, where butcher's shops are many and 
very near together and street-dogs proportionately numerous. 



1882.] ON MAMMALIA FROM CENTRAL MEXICO. 371 

3. On a small Collection of Mammalia from Central Mexico. 
By Oldfield Thomas, F.Z.S., British Museum. 

[Eeceived April 3, 1882.] 

Mr. A. Forrer, one of Messrs. Salvin and Godman's collectors, 
has recently sent to London a small collection of Mammalia from the 
State of Duraugo, Central Mexico ; and I have been asked to publish 
a list of the species contained in it, in order that any additional in- 
formation to be gained from a collection made in such an interesting 
locality might be incorporated in the forthcoming Introduction to the 
Mammalian volume of the ' Biologia Centrali- Americana.' The 
specimens were all collected either at Ciudad, a village on the Sierra 
Madre, 8100 feet above the sea, or at Ventanas, another village in 
the same district, but only 2000 feet in altitude. 

It is noteworthy that, of the twelve species in the collection the 
ranges of which extend beyond Mexico into either North or Central 
America, just half are Nearctic and half Neotropical, and that, in 
the case of no less than seven of them, their discovery at Durango 
adds considerably to their hitherto known ranges. Of these seven, 
four are Neotropical and were obtained, with the exception of the 
Raccoon, at the comparatively lowland village of Ventanas, while the 
other three, of Nearctic origin, were all found at Ciudad, high up in 
the mountains. 

1. Vesperugo serotinus, var. fuscus, Beauv. 
Two specimens. Ciudad. 

2. Natalus stramineus, Gray. 
Six specimens. Ventanas. 

Not hitherto recorded north of Mirador, Vera Cruz. 

From this series it would appear that the bright orange or straw- 
colour from which the species derives its name, is confiaed to the 
adult males, the females being simply pale grey. 

3. Artibeus cinereus, Gerv. 
Two specimens. Ventanas. 

This is the most northern locality recorded. There are other 
specimens from Mexico in the British Museum and elsewhere ; but 
these seem mostly to have been collected in Southern Mexico, and 
have in no case any exact locality noted. 

4. VuLPEs virginianus, Schr. 

Two specimens. Ciudad, July 21 and Sept. 30, 1881. 

5. PrOCYON CANCRIVORUS, CuV. 

One specimen. Ciudad, Sept. 16, 1881. 

For remarks on the northern distribution of this species, see Biol. 
Cent.-Am., Mamm. Supp. p. 208. 

6. Mephitis macrura, Licht. 

Two s})ecimens. Ciudad, Sept. II and Oct. 1, 1881. 



3/2 ON MAMMALIA FROM CKNTRAL MEXICO. [Apr. 18, 

7. SCIURUS ABERTI, Woodll. 

Two specimens. Ciudad, Aug. 7 and Oct. 14, 1881. 

This is the first occurrence recorded of the present species in the 
region included in the ' Biologia Central!- Americana.' It has been 
hitherto only known from Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. 
These specimens, however, exactly agree with the figure given by 
Dr. Baird of his S. cnstanonof.us ', which Mr. Allen has determined 
to be a synonym of S. aberti ". 

8. SciURXJS GRiSEOFLAVus, Gray. 

Two specimens. Ciudad, Sept. 19 and Nov. 14, 1881. 

9. Tamias asiaticus, var. quadrivxttatus, Rich. 

Two specimens. Ciudad, July 6, 1881. 

This is the first time that specimens of the genus Tamias have 
been obtained in Mexico. It is true that Mr. Allen ^ has stated his 
opinion that another species, T. harrisi. And. and Bach., probably 
extends into Western Mexico ; but the evidence was not sufficient 
for Mr. Alston to include the genus in the ' Biologia.' It is interest- 
ing to observe that it is the bright-coloured variety quadrivittatus, 
and not the pale washed-out var. dorsalis of New Mexico, Nevada, 
and Arizona, that is now found by Mr. Forrer in Durango. This 
fact is of course confirmatory of Mr. Allen's opinion that T. dorsalis 
is not specifically separable from T. asiaticus, since we find the usual 
northern form reappearing as soon as the desert region inhabited by 
T. dorsalis is past and the country is again fertile and well wooded. 

10. Spermophilus grammtirus, Say. 
One specimen. Ciudad, August 20, 1881. 

11. Hesperomys leucopus, var. sonoriensis, LeC. 
Two specimens. Ciudad. 

12. OCHETODON MEXICANtTS, De SuUSS. 

Two specimens. Ciudad. 

13. Arvicola mexicanus, De Sauss. 
Two specimens. Ciudad. 

14. Thomomys talpoides, Rich, 

Two specimens. Ciudad, July 24, 1 88 1 . The most southern loca- 
lity yet recorded. 

15. Tatusia novemcincta, Linn. 

One specimen. Ventanas, Sept. 14, 1881. 

16. DiDELPHYS MURiNA, Linn. 

Two specimens. Ventanas. The most northern locality recorded. 

1 Mamm. N. Am. p. 266, pi. Ixv. ' Mon. N.-Am. Eod. p. 735, 1877. 

" Tom. cit. p. 812. 



18H2.J ON MAMMALS AND BIKOS FROM EASTERN PERU. 373 

4, Ou some Mammals and Birds collected by Mr. J. Haux- 
well in Eastern Peru. By Edward Bartlett, Curator 
of the Maidstone Museum. 

[EeceiTed March 29, 1882.] 

Some time ago I received a collection of mammals and birds from 
Mr. J. Hauxwell, collected by him in the neighbourhood of Nauta, 
Elvira, and Loretoyacu, ou the banks of the Peruvian Amazons. I 
regret to say that, my time having been otherwise occupied, I have 
been prevented from bringing an account of this collection before the 
Society sooner. Hovyever, 1 think that my notes will be acceptable 
to those interested in distribution (to which I have already contri- 
buted largely), as increasing our knowledge of the avifauna of that 
vast region. 

The collection contained 136 species, 121 of which had been 
previously obtained during my four years' residence in Peru. But 
there are 15 species among them not mentioned in my list (which 
appeared in the 'Proceedings' of the Society for 1873, p. 252) ; and 
two of the 15 appear to be new to science, although closely allied to 
forms already known from the same localities. One belongs to the 
genus Thamnophilus, and the other to the genus Crypturus. 

It is not my intention to give the names of the 121 species, 
because they are enumerated in the catalogue above alluded to, but 
only to refer to those which do not appear in that list. 

By the list above referred to I find that the number of species 
collected by Mr. Bates, Hauxwell, and myself, was 473. I now add 
15 species, raising the total to 488. 

I here take the opportunity of thanking Mr. Osbert Salvin for 
his kindness in determining some of the more obscure species, and 
for pronouncing the two birds new or undetermined. 

Mammals. 

The three mammals new to the list were as follows : — Ateles 
variegata, Wagner { = Ateles bartletti. Gray); Phyllostoma has- 
latum (Pall.) ; and Galera barbara, Betz., — all from Elvira. 

Birds. 

1. Henicorhina leucosticta. Cab. 
Elvira, E. Peru. " Iris brown." 

2. FURNARIUS LEUCOPUS, Sw. 

Elvira. 

3. Synallaxis HYPOSTiCTA, Pelz. 
Elvira. " Iris white, legs greenish." 

4. Nasica LONGiROSTRis (Licht.). 
Elvira. " <S ■ Iris brown." 



374 ON MAMMALS AND BIRDS FROM EASTERN PERU. [Apr. 18, 

5. Thamnophilvs loretoyacuensis, sp. nov. 

Sitnilis Th. atricapillo, sed dorso cinereo nigro mixto, nee brunneo. 

Hub. Loretoyacu. "\x\sh\ovin" {Hauxwell). 

This bird is so closely allied to Thamnophilus atricapillus, that I 
am somewhat reluctant to give it a specific appellation, although 
Mr. Salvin writes to me and says *' I think the Thamnophilus 
sufficiently distinct to be worthy of a name," and Dr. Cabanis also 
writes : — "Concerning your Thamnophilus loretoyacuensis, I believe 
it to be a good species. This bird is much larger than T. atrica- 
pillus, and has the back and vent cinereous." The bird called 
T. atricapillus (P. Z. S. 18/3, p. 273, no. 10), which I obtained on 
the Upper TJcayali river, is the same as the present species. 

G. Grallaria macularia, Temm. 

Loretoyacu. 

A male of this rare species. " Iris yellow." 

7. Tityra semifasciata, Spix. 
Elvira. " Iris red." 

8. Galbula chalcothorax, Sclat. Mon. Galbulidse, pi. x. 
p.- 37, Jan. 1880. 

Elvira. 

9. Piaya cayana, L. 
Elvira. " Iris red." 

10. CaPITO NIGER (Miill.). 

Loretoyacu. " Iris red." 

1 1 . Ara macavuanna, Wagl. 

Elvira. " Iris grey ; naked skin round the eye yellow." 

12. Hypotriorchis rtjfigularis (Daud.). 
Nauta. "Iris brown." 

A single skin of this bird was in the collection ; and I am now 
convinced that many of the small Falcons observed by me during my 
residence in Nauta were referable to this species, although I could 
not obtain a single specimen : they were so wild and difficult to 
approach. 

13. Glaucidium phal^noides (Vieill.). 
Loretoyacu. " $ . Iris bright yellow." 

14. Tringoides hyfoleucos, L. 
Elvira. "Iris brown." 

15. Crypturus balstoni, sp. nov. 

Species similis C. asperso, sed ventre cinereo et lateribus dorso 

co7icoloribus distinguenda. 
Hah. Elvira. " cJ • Iris light brown " {Hauxwell). 



P.Z.S.1882.P1.XKI. 




Edwm Wilsoxi.del.etlrLh . 



LAND -SHELLS TFLOM MADAGASCAR 



Mintem. Bros .imp 



p. Z.S.1882.P] XXIL. 




Edwm Wlson. dd et lith Mint em Bro s imp . 

LAND &L THESHWIATEB.- SHELLS FROM MADAGASCAR . 



1882.] ON THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR. 3/5 

Although this species is so closely couuecied with C. aspersus 
and C. vermiculatus, I think it deserves to be separated from them 
at present. Dr. Cabanis, when answering my questions respecting 
this species, says: — "Your Crypturus is not very different from 
C. adspersKs, Licbt. (which I consider identical with C. vermiculatus, 
Temm., Wagl.). The chief diiferences are that the vent is not 
whitish, but cinereous, and the flanks brownish like the back, not 
light ferruginous. I would consider your bird as the Peruvian 
form of the Brazilian C. aspersus." 

I have named this bird after Mr. R. J. Balston. 

I may here mention that Crypturus bartietti, Scl. et Salv. (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1873, p. 311), was obtained at Santa Cruz on the Hual- 
laga river, E. Peru, not at Santa Cruz de la Sierra, as there stated in 
error. 



5. A Contribution to the Molluscan Fauna of Madagascar. 
By Edgar A. Smith. 

[Eeceived April 12, 1882.] 

(Plates XXI. & XXII.) 

Much still remains to be done before our knowledge of the terres- 
trial and fluviatile Mollusca of Madagascar will attain any thing like 
completeness. With the exception of Achatina fulica, Helix mag- 
nifica, and one or two others, I am not aware that the animals of 
any of the numerous species of shells already described from this 
island have been examined. Of non-operculate land-shells about 
eighty are now known, of operculate species about seventy-five, and 
about fifty forms have been recorded from the lakes and rivers ; this 
computation includes the new species about to be described, and a 
few hereafter mentioned for the first time as inhabitants of Mada- 
gascar, which were originally described without localities. One 
minute species, Helix barrahporensis, has not previously been met 
with except in India, where it may have been introduced, as is the 
case with the large Achatina fulica, a most abundant shell in some 
parts of Madagascar and also at the Mauritius. A small South- 
African bivalve shell, Limosina ferruginea, is now cited for the first 
time as an inhabitant of the island ; and Sphcerium madagascariense 
of Tristram is scarcely separable from another African species, S. 
capense of Krauss. Four species belonging to genera not previously 
known from Madagascar are now described ; these are Fitrina mada- 
gascarieiisis, Cleopatra trabonjiensis, Corbicula madagascariensis, 
and Pisidimn joknsoni. 

Part of the collection which is here reported upon was liberally 
presented to the British Museum by Mr. W. Johnson, who has re- 
cently returned to England, and to whom much praise is due for so 
carefully noting the precise localities where he collected the various 
species ; and on this account his name will be found associated with 



376 MR. E. A. SMITH ON THE [Apr. 1«, 

several of his own iuteresting discoveries. The remaining portion 
was obtained from the Rev. W. Deans Cowan, and was collected by 
him in a more southern part of the island than that visited by Mr. 
Johnson. It also contains several very interesting forms, notably 
the species of Vitrina previously referred to, and the Bulimus 
nigrilineatus of Reeve, l)elouging to a section {Rhachis) of that im- 
mense group of laud-snails which was hitherto unknown in Mada- 
gascar. 

A. GASTROPODA. 
Cyclostoma macare^, var. 

Hab. Betsileo ( Coj/7an) . 

The typical form of this species, described by Petit, was originally 
collected in the south part of Madagascar, near Saint Augustin. The 
more northern variety from Betsileo is rather more coarsely sculp- 
tured, and has a distinct peripherical black zone, and sometimes a 
broader but less distinct one on the upper part of the last whorl. 

Cyclostoma betsileoense, sp. nov. (Plate XXI. fig. 2.) 

Shell umbilicated, turbinate-globose, thinnish, finely spirally Urate, 
encircled with two more prominent white keels, one at the middle of 
the body-whorl, and the other above, decussated by close lines of 
growth ; cinereous (except the reddish spire), copiously striped longi- 
tudinally with a brownish colour, with a few spiral purple-black 
lines and zones, one just beneath the central white carina, broader 
than the rest, and a rosy stripe outside the labrum. Whorls 5|, 
separated by a narrowly channelled suture, which is beautifully 
clathrated by the lines of growth. Two nuclear whorls smooth, con- 
vex, forming an obtuse apex ; the rest convex, but appearing a little 
angular at or a little above the middle, where the upper carina is 
situated. The visible spiral threads are six in number on the ante- 
penultimate whorl, about twelve on the penultimate (including the 
two white keels), and nearly double the latter number upon the upper 
half of the body- whorl, the lower part having as many as thirty-two 
to thirty-five, those around the umbilicus being a trifie coarser than 
the rest, the interstices being everywhere decussated by the lines of 
growth. The spiral lineation is constant in three out of five examples, 
is chiefly confined to the last whorl, and is most conspicuous within 
the aperture when the shell is held up to the light. There are two 
lines above the upper white keel, two between it and the lower one, 
and about six beneath the latter, the uppermost being much broader 
than the rest. Aperture subcircular, chestnut within, very dark 
towards the outer lip, showing the external lines and bands, a little 
higher than wide. Peristome acute, white on the columellar margin, 
only narrowly reflexed, flatly and more widely expanded on the right 
or outer margin, pink, except at the upper part towards the suture. 

Greatest diameter 25 millim., height 2.5. 

Hab. Betsileo {Cowan). 

In some respects C. pulchellum of Sowerby approaches this species. 



1882. J MOLLTJSCAN FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR. 377 

The peristome is very similar ; and the sculpture is somewhat of the 
same character. Still there are differences of form, of colour, in the 
sutures, and in the size of the aperture, which readily distinguish 
these forms, which no doubt inhabit different districts of the island. 

Var. a. 

Shell with a less elevated spire, shorter and broader whorls, more 
widely umbilicated, with a larger and more oblique mouth, and the 
outer lip not stained with rose. 

Greatest diam. 30 millim., height 24. 

Hab. Betsileo (Cowan). 

Var. b (Plate XXI. fig. 3). 

Shell a trifle more ventricose than var. a, with the umbilicus 
similar to that of the type, but the aperture larger and the peristome 
white, with the body-whorl smoother, with fewer and subobsolete 
spiral lirae, except within and around the umbilicus. 

Greatest diam. 30 millim., height 264. 

Hab. Betsileo (Cowan). 

Cyclostoma congener, sp. nov. (Plate XXI. fig. 1.) 

Shell openly umbilicated, subdepressedly turbinate, rather smooth, 
obsoletely spirally sulcate, striated with lines of growth which are 
puckered and distinct at the sutures ; bright yellow, longitudinally 
streaked with a darker tint, dark cinereous behind the white expanded 
lip, encircled at the periphery by a vivid purple-brown band and 
with two or three hair-like lines of a paler colour, both above 
and below the middle. Spire elevated, conical, ending in a bluish 
obtuse tip. Whorls 5|, very convex; the last large, strongly lirate 
around and within the umbilicus, where it is stained with purple- 
brown. Aperture large, obhque, ovate-subcircular, light brown 
within except near the lip, where it becomes of a very dark chestnut- 
brown or nearly black, this colour extending along the inside of the 
columellar edge. External band and lines visible within. Peristome 
roundly expanded and reflexed, white, broad on the dextral margin, 
narrower on the columellar side. 

Greatest diam. 34 millim., height 30. 

Hab. Tanala province (Coioan). 

This form approaches most closely to C. consanguineum of Sowerby 
(=. C. obsoletum of Reeve, not of Lamarck), but may be distin- 
guished by its greater size, its yellow colour, dark apex, and rather 
more elevated spire. Both species have the same disposition of the 
spiral bands and lines — namely a single central broad zone, two 
narrower ones between it and the suture, which are visible on the 
spire, and two others beneath it and around the lower surface of the 
whorl. In some specimens of C. consanguineum some of the sulci 
around the umbilicus are also of a dark colour. On holding up a 
specimen of C. congener to the light, three lines above and three 
below the broad band are generally observable. C. obsoletum of 
Lamarck, according to Delessert's figure (Recueil, pi. 29. f. 1 1«) 



378 MR. E. A. SMITH ON THE [•''^P'"- 1^> 

has five or six lines on the penultimate whorl, and is a more elevated 
shell than C. consanguineum (= obsoIeUtm, Rve.), in both these 
respects agreeing very vvell with C. madac/ascariense of Grray, wliich I 
consider almost identical with, or at most only a slight variety of, C. 
unicarinatum of Lamarck (non C. unicarinatum of Sowerby, Pfeiffer, 
and Reeve, = C . fulvifrons, Sowerby). 

Cyclostoma johnsoni, sp. nov. (Plate XXI. figs. 4, 5.) 

Shell small but thickish ; white, with a single purple-brown zone a 
little below the middle of the body-whorl ; openly umbilicated, finely 
lirate upon the spire, smoother upon the last volution, especially on 
the lower surface, striated by lines of growth. Whorls 5, convex, 
separated by a deep suture, first two smooth, the third with about 
five fine spiral lirse, the penultimate witli about eight rather finer 
ones, increasing in number but much more feebly developed upon 
the upper half of the last whorl, and quite obsolete beneath the 
periphery, and scarcely traceable within the umbiUcus. Aperture a 
trifle oblique, subcircular, a little longer than wide, white, with the 
single band. Peristome continuous, expanded all round, rather 
more so on the columellar side than on the opposite margin. 

Greatest diameter 14 millim., height 134; aperture 8 long, 6| 
wide. 

Hub. South of Trabonjy, north-west central part of Madagascar 
(^Johnson). 

This very interesting species is not likely to be confounded with 
any previouslv described ; and I have much pleasure in associating 
with it the name of its discoverer. It is a comparatively smooth 
shell, characterized by the simplicity of its coloration and the uon- 
lirate lower surface of the body-whorl. 

Cyclostoma lineatum, Pfeiffer. 

Cyclostoma lineatum, Pfeiffer, Conch. Cab. pi. 45. f. 3, 4 ; Smith, 
P. Z. S. 1881, p. 278 (as van of C. insulare, Pfr.). 

Hah. Valley of Marohogo near Mojouga, north-west Madagascar 
(^Johnsoii). 

The specimen from the above locality is exactly similar in all 
respects to the type of this species, which at one time I considered 
a variety of C insulare. As the localities prove to be different, I 
now think it better to keep the two forms separate. Some small 
varieties of C. insulare from the country between Lake Nyassa and 
the east coast of Africa, referred to by me in the ' Proceedings,' 
approach very closely the present species. None of them, however, 
are absolutely identical, the umbilicus being a little more contracted, 
the spire a trifle lower, and the liration around and within the 
umbilicus decidedly coarser. In C. lineatutn this is unusually fine. 
Pfeiffer described the shell as smooth ; but this is not correct. To 
the unaided eye such appears to be the case ; but on making use 
of a lens, the fine brown lines are seen to be elevated {lira), and the 
lines of growth are by no means inconspicuous. The spiral lines 
number about twelve on the penultimate whorl, alternately fine and 



1882.] MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR. 379 

still finer. C. sarcodes, Pfr., is still higher in the spire, with higher 
volutions, and more strongly iirate, especially on the lower surface of 
the last whorl. 

VlTRINA MADAGASCARIENSIS, Sp. DOV. (Plate XXI. figS. 6, 7.) 

Shell ventricose, depressed, very thin, diaphanous; pale greenish 
yellow, with a brown Hue at the suture, and with the upper part of 
the outer lip of the same colour, brilliantly glossy. Spire small, a 
little elevated and obtuse at the apex. Whorls 3|, convex, deep, and 
margiued above at the suture ; the first Ig microscopically decussated 
in a beautiful manner by minute spiral striae and very fine lines of 
growth, the last two lacking the spiral striae. Body-whorl large, with 
distinct, here and there subplicate, lines of growth, on the lower 
surface exhibiting indications of interrupted concentric striae. Aper- 
ture subhorizontal, large. Columella arcuate, thin, wrinkled, as is 
also the base of the peristome. 

Greatest diam. I5| niilUm., smaller 12, height 9. 

Hab. Betsileo {Cowan). 

This I believe is the only species of Vitrina at present known 
from Madagascar ; and it bears some resemblance to certain forms of 
the genus from South Africa. 

Helix (Nanina ?) balstoni, Angas. 

H. balstoni, Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1877, p. 528, pi. 54, f. 5. 

Hah. Interior of Madagascar {Angus) ; forest 36 miles east of 
Antananarivo {Johnson). 

The specimen presented to the British Museum by Mr. Johnson 
is narrowly perforated, in which respect alone it differs from the 
description of tliis species given by Angas. Two other shells in 
the Museum are also narrowly perforate ; and even the above-quoted 
figure looks as if the example delineated were likewise umbilicate ; 
so that it is possible the species was described as " imperforate " 
accidentally. 

Helix (Nanina ?) cleamesi, sp. nov. (Plate XXI. figs. 8, 9.) 
Shell very thin, semitrausparent, vinous horn-colour, narrowly 
perforate, suborbiculately conical, keeled at the periphery, marked 
with curved Hues of growth crossed and rendered minutely granular 
on the spire by fine concentric striae, more finely concentrically 
striated on the under surface, more glossy and not granuliited. 
Spire with slightly convex outlines, shortly conical, ending in an 
obtuse tip, Whorls 6, a little convex, regularly increasing, a little 
depressed near the lower submarginal suture, or, in other words, just 
above their periphery. Last volution keeled above the middle, the 
carina being less marked near the outer lip. Base convex. Aper- 
ture somewhat oblique, lunate. Outer hp obhquely arcuate above 
the feeble carination, straightish or even a little siuuated below it in 
a very slanting or receding direction. Columella narrowly expanded 
and reflexed over the perforation, forming below, with the basal edge, 
a regular wide curve. 



380 MR. E. A. SMITH ON THE [Apr. 18, 

Greatest width 26 millim., height 17. 

Hab. Ankafaiia, Betsileo province {Cowan). 

There is only one other Madagascar Helix which is likely to be 
confounded with this species, namely H, balstoni of Angas. The 
latter has the whole surface minutely sculptured with raised criss- 
cross strice in addition to the lines of growth. It is also more 
acutely carinate, has a less convex spire, and the body-whorl is con- 
siderably smaller and less inflated below the periphery. In H. 
cleamesi the sculpture consists of concentric strice crossing the 
lines of increase and rendering them beautifully granular on the 
upper surface. 

Helix (Kaliella) barrakporensis, Pfeiffer. 

Helix {Kaliella) barrakporensis, Pfeiffer, Conch. Cab. pi. 147, 
f. 20-22; Reeve, Con. Ic. f. 816; Hanley, Conch. ludica, pi. 87. 
f. 7. 

Hab. About 30 miles east of Antananarivo [Johnson). 

On comparing the three specimens of this species from the above 
locality with a series from Simla in India, presented to the British 
Museum by Capt. T. Button, and also with the types described by 
Pfeiffer, I am unable to find any distinction, and consequently con- 
clude that this species (like Achatina fulica) has been introduced 
into India. 

Helix (Hemcophanta) bicingulata, sp. nov. (Plate XXI. 
figs. 13, 14.) 

Helix cornu-c/iganteum, Angas (non Chemnitz), Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1877, p. 527. 

H. guestieriana, Angas (non Crosse), op. cit. 1878, p. 312. 

Shell large, ovate, ventricose, imperforate or narrowly rimate ; 
light olive-brown above, daiker brown towards the lip, with the 
lower surface beneath the periphery still deeper in tint, encircled 
by two dark-brown slightly raised narrow bands, one at the peri- 
phery, the other and more distinct one above it. Spire depressed, 
convex, only a little raised above the body-whorl. A^olutions 4, 
very rapidly increasing, convex, separated by a deepish suture ; two 
npper ones striated by simple arcuate lines of growth ; the third 
coarsely granular, the lines of growth being but feebly expressed ; 
the last very large, much descending in front, granular at its com- 
mencement, the granules gradually disappearing and replaced by 
close, oblique, short indentations, also exhibiting five or six nearly 
obsolete concentric ridges above the upper brown zone, and two or 
three between it and the lower one, the lines of increase being more 
distinct upon this than the preceding whorl. Lower surface swollen 
around the umbilical region, marked with arcuate lines of growth, 
and oblique, close, short indentations like the upper surface, rounded 
at the periphery. Aj)erture obliquely elongate, bluish lilac within. 
Lip wliitish, expanded, reflexed. Columella thickened, arched 
forward a trifle just beneath the umbilicus, very granular, expanded 
and reflexed over the perforation, sometimes not quite closing it. 



1882.] MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR. 381 

united to the outer lip by a very thin granulated callosity, coating 
the whorl within the aperture. 

Greatest diameter 76 millim., smallest 58, height (resting on its 
base) 35. 

Hub. Ekongo, South-east Madagascar ( Waters). 

This is the species erroneously considered by Mr. Angas to be the 
H. guestieriana of Crosse, which much more closely resembles H. 
ibaraoensis of the former author. H. guestieriana is a more globose 
shell, with a higher penultimate whorl, a shorter aperture, a smooth 
columella, and a smooth callosity upon the body-whorl, which is 
encircled by several slightly raised ridges of more equal size than in 
H. bicingulata. The granular and slightly arched-forward columella 
in the latter species, the obliquely indented surface of the body- 
whorl, and the two very conspicuous brown slightly raised girdles 
around it, the lower one bordered by an indistinct pale one above, 
distinguish this from the allied forms, H. cornu-giganteum, H. bet- 
sileoensis, H. ibaraoensis, and H. guestieriana. The first two are 
openly umbilicated, the third generally imperforate (in about fifty 
specimens I have seen a few with a narrow perforation) ; and the 
last is said to be "narrowly subrimate." H. betsileoensis has the 
columella granular as in the present species ; in the other three it is 
smooth. In H. ibaraoensis the callus uniting the columella and the 
outer lip and spreading over the whorl within the aperture is con- 
spicuously granulated, and the epidermis is nearly black towards the 
lip. 

All the five species here remarked upon are, no doubt, offshoots 
from one original progenitor ; still I have found no difficulty in recog- 
nizing any specimen which has yet been examined. Probably no two 
exist in precisely the same locality. The following is the distribution 
as at present known : — 

H. cornn-gigantemn. 

Hab. Island of Agalega, N.E. of Madagascar {teste Sir David 
Barclay !). 

H. guestieriana. 

Hab. Madagascar (no precise locality known). 

H. betsileoensis. 

Hab. S.E. Betsileo {Angas) ; Tanala country {Deans Cowan), 

H. ibaraoensis, 

Hab. S.E. Betsileo {Angas) ; Tanala country {Deans Cowan). 

H. bicingulata. 

Hab. Ekongo, south-east of the island {Waters). 

Helix (Macrocyclis?) covani, Smith. (Plate XXI. figs. 
10-12.) 

Helix {Macrocyclisl) covani. Smith, Journ. of Conch, vol. ii. 
p. 338. 

Hab. Ankafana, Betsileo province {Cowan). 

This species was originally described from a single specimen which 



382 MR. E. A. SMITH ON THE [Apr. 18, 

did not illustrate the full size attained by adult shells. The largest 
and apparently full-grown example recently brought to England by 
Mr. Cowan has a greatest diameter of 45 millim., is 34 across at 
the smallest diameter, and 20 high, resting upon its base. The 
peristome is not thickened or expanded on the upper margin, but is 
simple and arcuate. 

Helix (Ampelita) shavi, Smith. (Plate XXII. figs. 1-3.) 

Helix {Ampelita) shavi. Smith, Journ. of Conch. 1879, vol. ii. 
p. 339. 

Hah. Tanala province {Cowan). 

In this instance also, as with H. covani, the dimensions given in 
the above work are not those attained at times by this species. The 
largest before me is 35 millim. across the greatest width, and 28 at 
the smallest. All retain the character of the last whorl descending in 
front, and have the labrum more or less (sometimes entirely) violet- 
brown. 

Helix (Ampelita) percyana, Smith. 

Helix {Ampelita) percyana, Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1880, p. 48.5, 
pi. 48. f. 12, 12a. 

Hub. Ankafana, Betsileo {Cowan). 

Of this species, originally described from a unique specimen in 
Dr. Percy's collection, I have now seen four more, very similar to 
the type, and differing from one another only in the disposition and 
quantity of the remarkable opaque creamy-yellow zigzag markings. 
Sometimes the expanded outer lip is of a livid purple colour. 

BuLiMUS (Rhachis) nigrilineatus, Reeve. (Plate XXII. 
fig. 4.) 

Hab. Betsileo {Cowan) ; ? {Reeve). 

The type of this species, described by Reeve (Conch. Icon. pi. 
77. fig. 567), is of immature growth. The name is not a charac- 
teristic one ; for the lines are not black, but of a bronzy brown 
colour. Their disposition and number appear tolerably constant. 
There are two around the middle of the last whorl, of which the 
upper is a trifle the broader ; a third is situated above these, inter- 
mediate between them and the suture ; a fourth encircles the base ; 
and at times two or three finer ones are met with in the same part ; 
and in the immediate region of the columella the shell is horny 
and pellucid, contrasting conspicuously with the rest of the opaque 
yellow surface. The whorls are seven in number, rather convex, 
sculptured with hues of growth and microscopical spiral striae. The 
apex is brownish horn-colour and not very acute. The columella 
is perpendicular and rather straight, narrowly reflexed above, thus 
forming a slight rimatiou. 

Stenogyra (Clavator) jOHNSONi, sp. nov. (Plate XXII. fig. 5.) 

Shell moderately thick, imperforate, elongate, subcylindrical, 
slightly shining ; rich brown, with darker streaks here and there, 



1882.] MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR. 383 

paler towards the apex, where the epidermis is mostly worn off, 
leaving a white surface ; last whorl indistinctly transversely zoned 
and lineated with dark brown. Volutions 7, rather convex, regu- 
larly increasing, longitudinally striated by the lines of growth, which 
are more or less puckered beneath the suture, and at times some- 
what wrinkled through being crossed by a few obsolete transverse 
strife. The extreme upper edge of the whorls is yellow at the 
suture. Body-whorl scarcely descending in front. Aperture in- 
versely auriform, blue within, occupying three eighths of the entire 
length of the shell. Outer hp thickened within, dirty whitish. 
Inner lip of the same colour, thickened also, narrowly expanded 
in the umbilical region, joined to the labrum above by a thin callus. 

Length 53 miUim., width 21 ; aperture 20 long, lU broad. 

Hab. Near the river Anonive, about fifty miles south of the 
capital, Antananarivo (TF. Johnson). 

This species might be regarded by some as a dwarf form of ^S". 
eximia, Shuttleworth ; but, besides size, there are other distinctions. 
Mr. Johnson says he never could find the larger species at the above 
locality, nor did he ever meet with the smaller one in company with 
it elsewhere. As the last whorl in the present species scarcely 
descends at all, the suture is less oblique than in S. eximia ; the 
surface is less puckered by transverse strise, the breadth of the shell 
is greater in proportion to its length, the last whorl is less cylin- 
drical, the columella is not so broadly reflexed or flattened in front, 
and the aperture is narrower at the base. 

Melanatria JOHNSON I, sp. uov. (Plate XXII. figs. 6, 7.) 

Shell large, elongate-pyramidal, turreted, thick, covered with an 
olive epidermis, closely lineated or strigate with longitudinal lines of 
a darker tint. Whorls — ?, the remaining nine excavated at the 
upper part, very slightly convex beneath, strongly spirally ribbed 
and grooved. The ribs are six in number on the upper whorls and 
rounded ; the two above are much more slender than the four 
beneath ; the uppermost borders the suture ; the next lies in the 
concavity at the top of the whorls ; and the rest surround the slight 
convexity, and are three times as broad as the sulci separating them. 
All the whorls, with the exception of the last four, are coronated 
at the slight angle below the excavation with very short, hollow, 
oblique spinules; and some of the spiral grooves exhibit rows of fine 
granules. The last whorl descends somewhat, giving the shell a 
slightly distorted appearance ; it is girded with about twelve trans- 
verse costse, a few at the base being smaller than five principal ones 
around the middle. The aperture is bluish within, faintly stained 
with olive-brown near the margins. Peristome widely and deeply 
sinuated on the outer lip in the concavity of the whorl, arcuate and 
prominent in the middle, then shallowly sinuated again {vide fig. 7). 
Colnmellar margin thickened, free, arcuate, reflexed, ending in a 
distinct basal sinus. 

Length 78 millim., diam. 24 ; aperture 24 across diagonally, and 
16 in a transverse direction. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1882, No. XXVI. 26 



384 MR. E. A. SMITH ON THE [Apr. 1 H, 

Hah. River Kamony, in the north-west of the island {W. John- 
soil) . 

This very striking shell is not uncommon in the above locahty ; 
and it is surprising that so large a species has not been brought to 
Europe before. It cannot be confounded with any of the other 
forms of Melanatria, being so remarkable on account of the very 
strong spiral ridges. Like many freshwater shells, this is also 
generally coated with a black earthy deposit. 

Cleopatra trabonjiensis, sp.nov. (Plate XXII. figs. 10, 11.) 

Shell narrowly urabihcated, turbinatCj thinnish, yellowish olive, 
with several transverse black lines and zones. Apex worn away. 
Remaining volutions 3|, convex, bicarinate. Keels black ; the 
upper one situated rather above the middle of the whorls, giving 
them a tabulated appearance, the lower one close to the suture ; 
these keels are more or less obsolete on the body-whorl, especially 
near the lip. In addition the lower part of this volution is finely 
concentrically Urate, the ridges being rugose in consequence of being 
crossed by the lines of increment, which are rather conspicuous, and 
at times puckered at the carinse. The entire surface is also micro- 
scopically striated in a spiral direction. Aperture roundly ovate, 
showing "the external coloration. Lip thin. Columellar margin a 
little expanded and reflexed, whitish, joined above to the extremity 
of the outer lip by a very thin callosity. Operculum very concave 
exteriorly, brown ; nucleus paucispiral, situated about halfway be- 
tween the centre and the columellar edge. 

Length 12 millim., diam. 7 ; aperture 6 long, 4| wide. 

Hab. A small lake at Trabonjy, in the north-west central part of 
the island (Johnson). 

The carination of the volutions