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Full text of "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofin711961indi 



PROCEEDINGS 

of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 



Volume 71 
1961 



Richard A. Laubengayer, Editor 

Wabash College 

Crawfordsville, Indiana 



Spring Meeting 
May 12-13 
Turkey Run 
State Park 

Fall Meeting 

October 19-21, 1961 

Indiana State College 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 
1962 



1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana State Library, 140 N. 
Senate Ave., Indianapolis 4, Indiana. 

2. Instructions for Authors appear at end of this volume, P. 412. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and correspondence 
concerning exchange arrangements should be addressed: 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana Academy of Science. 

c/o Indiana State Library 

Indianapolis 4, Indiana. 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the State Library at $5.00 per volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers can often be secured from the authors. They 
cannot be supplied by the State Library nor by the officers of the Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from v. 62 and the Membership List 
reprinted from v. 67, are available to members upon application to the Secretary. 
Necrologies reprinted from the various volumes can be supplied relatives and friends 
of deceased members by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspondents may 
be addressed care the State Library. The address of the editor of the present vol- 
ume is Biology Department, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 



Papers published in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science are 
ibstracted or indexed in appropriate services listed here: 

Annotated Bibliography of Economic Geology 

Bibliography of Agriculture 

Bibliography of North American Geology 

Biological Abstracts 

Chemical Abstracts 

Chemisches Zentralblatt 

Current Geographical Publications 

Geological Abstracts 

Mathematics Reviews 

Metallurgical Abstracts 

Psychological Abstracts 

Review of Applied Entomology 

The Torrey Bulletin 

Zoological Record 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Officers and Committees for 1961 6 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting 9 

Minutes of the Executive Committee 11 

Minutes of the General Session 20 

New Members of the Year 1961 22 

Junior Academy of Science • 25 

Necrology 36 

Presidential Address 46 

Anthropology 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 52 

H. W. Neumann — The Identification of a Sample of Unmodified 

Faunal Remains from the Angel Site 53 

E. A. Herrala — The Incidence of Dental Caries of Pre-Historic and 

Historic Indian Groups 57 

D. D. Raibourn — The Role of Diffusion in Changing Kinship Systems 61 

F. X. Grollig, S. J. — Accelerated Acculturation of the Mayan Indians 

of Guatemala 67 

L. M. Robbins — An Investigation into the Physical and Cultural 

Basis of Personality in College Women 69 

Bacteriology 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 71 

H. M. Powell, C. G. Culbertson, J. O. MacFarlane and F. 0. Gos- 

sett — Experimental Use in Dogs of Rabies Vaccine Prepared in 

Embryonated Duck Eggs 73 

W. A. Zygmunt — Reversal of the Antibacterial Activity of Simple 

and Complex Sulfonamides by p-Aminobenzoic Acid 78 

Botany 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 82 

Indiana Plant Distribution Records, XVIII. 1959-1961 88 

R. J. Green, Jr. and C. Fordyce, Jr. — Aerial Survey and Control of 

Oak Wilt in Indiana 91 

A. H. Westing — A Plant Growth Promoting Substance Found in an 

Acorn Weevil of the Family Curculionidae 94 

D. E. Zimmer, J. F. Schafer and G. A. Gries — Attempts at Germina- 

tion of Teliospores of Puccinia coronata var. avenae 96 

Chemistry 
Abstracts of papers not published in full 100 

E. J. Bowers and H. D. Weaver, Jr. — The Hydrolysis of Iron in 

Methanol Solutions 101 

R. E. Davis — Steric Effects and the Secondary Isotope Effect 105 

R. E. Davis — The Oscillator Strength of a Dipole Transition in a 

Lorentz-Lorenz Field 109 

Entomology 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 114 

D. W. Hamilton — Periodical Cicadas, Magicicada Spp., as Pests in 

Apple Orchards 116 

D. L. Schuder and R. L. Giese — Euzophera ostricolorella Hulst 

(Lepidoptera, Phycitidae), A Root Collar Borer of Tulip Tree. . . 122 
L. Chandler — Light Trap Collections of the Nocturnal Bee, Spheco- 

dogastra texana (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) 124 

3 



4 Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 
J. V. Osmun — Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance 

in Indiana in 1961 r 130 

G. H. Dishner and R. T. Everly — Greenhouse Studies on the Resist- 
ance of Corn and Barley Varieties of Survival of the Corn Leaf 

Aphid 138 

S. C. Hershey and R. T. Everly — Effect of X-Ray Radiation on the 

Survival of the Corn Leaf Aphid 142 

E. V. Walter — Some Factors Associated with Earworm Resistance 

in Sweet Corn 146 

Geology and Geography 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 148 

T. F. Barton — Southern Indiana's Recreational Triangle 150 

C. L. Bieber — Movement of Limestone Blocks by Floodwaters in 

Southern Putnam County, Indiana 163 

R. V. Kirch — Recent Developments in Underground Gas Storage 

Fields in Indiana 166 

A. H. Meyer and D. H. Paetz — Manufactural Geography of East 
Chicago-Whiting, Indiana (A Study in Geographic Rehabilita- 
tion) 169 

D. W. Amstutz — Apportionment of Representation in the Indiana 

Legislature 187 

P. D. Whippo — Distribution of Population Change in Indiana, 1950- 

1960 192 

R. D. Wright — Bloomington's Industrial Labor-Shed 196 

L. Guernsey — Characteristics of the Terre Haute Central Business 

District 203 

John Fraser Hart — Some Comparisons of Population in the Middle 

West in 1950 210 

I. B. Thompson — Regional Contrasts in the Characteristics of the 

Agricultural Labour Force of the Corn Belt 219 

History of Science 

C. B. Heiser, Jr. — A Brief History of the Herbarium of Indiana Uni- 
versity 226 

J. W. Baxter and F. D. Kern — History of the Arthur Herbarium at 

Purdue University 228 

G. L. Webster — The Kriebel Herbarium at Purdue University 233 

R. P. McIntosh — The Greene-Nieuwland Herbarium at the Univer- 
sity of Notre Dame 235 

W. H. Welch — The DePauw University Herbarium 239 

T. G. Yuncker — A Century of Botany and Botanists at DePauw Uni- 
versity 242 

J. M. McGuire — The Antibiotics — Past, Present, and Future 248 

W. E. Edington — Biographical Sketches of Indiana Scientists, II 258 

S. S. Visher — Geographic Influences, Changes in Bloomington, In- 
diana 265 

F. K. Daily — Some Scientific Expeditions to the Southeastern United 

States Taken by David Starr Jordan 271 

Mathematics 

No abstracts or papers received. 



Table of Contents 5 

Page 
Physics 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 275 

A. W. Manning, T. R. Jeter, and H. Schmuckler — A Method for 

Measuring Neutron Flux by a Paraffin Oil Bath Technique 277 

J, E. Brock, S. Pursley, M. G. Dunn, and A. Clausen — A Constant 

Voltage Supply for a Pressure Transducer 282 

Plant Taxonomy 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 284 

R. A. de Langlade and A. A. Lindsey — A Decade of Oldfield Succes- 
sion in an Indiana Biological Reserve 285 

P. C. Baker and J. B. Cope — New County Records for Fayette and 

Franklin Counties, Indiana 292 

C. R. Hall, — Algae of Putnam County, Indiana 293 

W. A. Daily — Some Algae of the Cabin Creek Raised Bog, Randolph 

County, Indiana 298 

H. Starcs — Notes on Vascular Plants of the Cabin Creek Raised Bog. 302 

C. W. Reimer — Some Aspects of the Diatom Flora of Cabin Creek 

Raised Bog, Randolph County, Indiana 305 

R. 0. Petty and A. A. Lindsey — Hoot Woods, A Remnant of Virgin 

Timber, Owen County, Indiana 320 

Psychology 

W, C. Gunther and R. K, Jones — Effect of Non-Optimally High In- 

cubation Temperatures on T-Maze Learning in the Chick 327 

Soil Science 

Astract of paper not published in full 334 

H. M. Galloway — Establishing Crop Potentials for Indiana Soil 

Types 335 

N. Desrosier — The Edge of Hunger 341 

D. Wiersma — Increasing Crop Potentials Through Water Availa- 

bility 347 

V. W. Ruttan — Technological Change and Resource Utilization in 

American Agriculture 353 

R. K. Stivers, H. F. Hodges, R. F. Dudley and C. F. Dudley — Re- 
sponse of Wheat to Nitrogen on Indiana Soils 361 

Zoology 

Abstract of paper not published in full 367 

W. J. Brett — Long Term Cyclic Changes in the Temperature of Man. 370 
W. J. Eversole — Adrenal Cortical Accessory Tissue and Azo Dye 

Carcinogenesis 374 

J. W. Joyner and N. P. Harmon — Burrows and Oscillative Behavior 

Therein of Lumbricus terrestris 378 

W. C. Gunther and R. K. Jones — Effect of Environmental Stress on 

Chick Weight 385 

E. C. Williams, Jr. — A Study of the Box Turtle, Terrapene Carolina 

Carolina (L), Population in Allee Memorial Woods 399 

A. E. Reynolds — Evidence of the Mastodon in Hendricks County. . . 407 

Appendix 

Instructions for Contributors 412 

Index to Volume 71 414 



Officers and Committees of the Indiana 
Academy of Science for 1961 



Spring Meeting: May 12-13, Turkey Run State Park, Marshall, Indiana. 
Fall Meeting: October 19-21, Indiana State College, Terre Haute, Indiana. 



OFFICERS FOR 1961 

President Lawrence H. Baldinger, University of Notre Dame 

Vice President Harry G. Day, Indiana University 

Secretary William W. Bloom, Valparaiso University 

Treasurer Kermit H. Carlson, Valparaiso University 

Editor Richard A. Laubengayer, Wabash College 

Press Secretary Frank N. Young, Indiana University 

CHAIRMEN ELECTED BY THE DIVISIONS 

Anthropology James H. Keller, Indiana University 

Bacteriology Gordon Mallett, Eli Lilly 

Botany Joseph Hennen, Indiana State College 

Chemistry Arthur Smucker, Goshen College 

Entomology R. E. Siverly, Ball State College 

Geology and Geography. .Duncan McGregor, Indiana Geological Survey 

History of Science T. G. Yuncker, DePauw University 

Mathematics Merrill E. Shanks, Purdue University 

Physics Howard Black, Indiana State College 

Plant Taxonomy Mrs. Helene Starcs, Health and Hospital 

Corporation of Marion County 

Psychology Nicholas Long, Indiana University 

Soil Science Ronald Tukey, Purdue University 

Zoology L. E. DeLanney, Wabash College 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

(Past Presidents, Current Officers, Divisional Chairmen, 

Committee Chairmen) 

L. H. Baldinger J. Hennen C. L. Porter 

Howard Black W. B. Hopp H. M. Powell 

W. W. Bloom W. H. Johnson W. J. Rice 

K. H. Carlson J. H. Keller M. E. Shanks 

0. B. Christy P. Klinge R. E. Siverly 

R. E. Cleland R. A. Laubengayer A. Smucker 

N. M. Coats R. W. Lefler Mrs. H. Starcs 

W. A. Daily N. Long R. Tukey 

J. J. Davis S. McCoy S. S. Visher 

H. G. Day G. Mallett F. N. Wallace 

E. F. Degering M. S. Markle P. Weatherwax 

L. E. DeLanney D. McGregor Winona H. Welch 

W. E. Edington M. G. Mellon F. N. Young 

P. D. Edwards A. H. Meyer T. G. Yuncker 

A. T. Guard H. H. Michaud 

6 



Officers and Committees 7 

BUDGET COMMITTEE 
(Consisting of President, Secretary, Treasurer, Editor, Chairmen of the 
Junior Academy, Library, Program, and Relation of Academy to State.) 
L. H. Baldinger, W. W. Bloom, K. H. Carlson, R. A. Laubengayer, H. H. 
Michaud, Nelle M. Coats, W. B. Hopp, W. A. Daily. 

COMMITTEES ELECTED BY THE ACADEMY 
Trustees of the Academy Foundation (term 4 years): Chairman, Ward J. 

Rice, W. A. Daily. 
Bonding of Trustees (elected yearly) : Chairman, Scott McCoy, F. J. 

Welcher. 
Research Grants (term 5 years): Chairman, T. G. Yuncker, DePauw Uni- 
versity; Keith M. Seymour, Paul Weatherwax, A. A. Lindsey, J. F. 
Hart; L. H. Baldinger and W. W. Bloom, ex officio. 

COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 
Auditing: Chairman, C. Krekeler; J. P. Danehy. 
Biological Survey: Chairman, C. A. Markle, Earlham College; F. K. Daily, 

D. G. Graam, C. J. Goodnight, H. H. Michaud, W. H. Welch, F. N. 

Young, J. Webster. 
Fellows Committee: Chairman, L. S. McClung, Bacteriology; E. J. 

Asher, Psychology; H. Driver, Anthropology; Winona H. Welch, 

Botany; K. Seymour, Chemistry; R. T. Everly, Entomology; F. 

Hurlburt, Geology and Geography; M. S. Markle, History of Science; 

P. D. Edwards, Mathematics; A. C. Mitchell, Physics; A. T. Guard, 

Plant Taxonomy; A. R. Bertrand, Soil Science; N. Pearson, Zoology. 

Index: Chairman, R. A. Laubengayer; Nelle Coats, Mrs. L. Burton. 
Invitations: Chairman, R. E. Siverly, Ball State; Ned Guthrie, Hanover. 
Library: Chairman, Nelle Coats, Eli Lilly, G. A. Black. 

Membership: Chairman, Louis E. DeLanney, Wabash College; John A. 
Buehler, Anderson College; H. M. Dixon, Butler University; M. R. 
Garner, Earlham College; E. Niswander, Manchester College; J. 
Webster, Hanover College; J. F. Hennen, Indiana State College; 
J. J. Nisbet, Ball State College; G. F. Hennion, University of Notre 
Dame; R. G. Larson, Valparaiso University; G. R. Miller, Goshen 
College; F. J. Zeller, Indiana University; Ralph Green, Purdue Uni- 
versity. 

Necrologist: W. E. Edington, DePauw University. 

Program: Chairman, W. B. Hopp, Indiana State College, William Brett, 
Normal Deal, James Guernsey, Joseph Hennen, Eugene Herbst, Wil- 
liam Kessel, Jack Munsee, Woodrow Suttle. 

Publication of Proceedings: Chairman, R. A. Laubengayer, Wabash Col- 
lege; A. A. Lindsey, James Clark. 

Publicity: Chairman, F. N. Young; Nelle Coats, K. N. Campbell, C. 
Dineen. 

Relation of Academy to State: Chairman, W. A. Daily, Eli Lilly Company; 
Eli Lilly, J. A. Clark, R. A. Laubengayer. 



8 Indiana Academy of Science 

Representative on Council of the A.A.A.S.: Willis Johnson, Wabash Col- 
lege. 
Resolutions: Chairman, Wra, Eberly; H. Youse, M. G. Mellon. 
Indiana High School and College Committee on Mathematics: Chairman, 

J. C. Polley, Wabash College; G. N. Wollan, G. Vannatta. 
Youth Activities of Academy (Administrative Committee): Chairman, 
Paul Klinge, Indiana University; W. J. Fullerton, K. Dale, R. Lefler, 
W. Smith, R. S. Shulz, H. N. Hardy (University School, Bloomington, 
Indiana), L. Poorman (Columbus High School), L. A. Willig, H. H. 
Michaud. 

Finance Committee: Chairman, W. J. Fullerton. 

Junior Academy: Chairman, H. H. Michaud; R. Cooper, P. E. Klinge, 
Lola Lemon, R. E. Niswander, R. W. Schulz, J. Cope, D. Webster, 
R. Weber. 
Science Talent Search: Chairman, R. W. Lefler; L. H. Baldinger, P. D. 

Edwards, C. A. Markle, Robert L. Henry, Sears Crowell. 
Visiting Scientists: Chairman, H. H. Michaud; K. H. Carlson, E. Lit- 

weiler, R. L. Cooper, Mrs. Elizabeth Crider. 
Science Fairs: Chairman, L. W. Willig, Karl L. Kaufman, Ralph 
Lefler, A. C. Koester. 



SPRING MEETING 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Turkey Run State Park 

May 12, 1961 

4:30 P. M. 

The meeting- was called to order by the president, Dr. Lawrence H. 
Baldinger. Twenty members were present at the opening of the meeting 
and a number of others were able to join the meeting as it progressed. 

The treasurer, Dr. Kermit H. Carlson, presented a financial report 
through April 30, 1961 : 

Receipts : 

Bank Balance as of January 1, 1901 $18,844.03 

Total Receipts thru April 30, 1961 6,483.85 $25,327.88 

Disbursements : 

Total Disbursements through April, 1961 11,405.21 11,405.21 

Balance on Hand, May 1, 1961 $13,922.67 

Account Balances on Hand, May 1, 1961 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library $ 2,426.68 

Indiana Science Talent Search 4.84 

Science Fair 198.65 

Indiana Academy of Science 3,596.61 

National Science Foundation Grant G-12417. . . . 5,695.87 

National Science Foundation Grant G-17042.... 2,000.00 



$13,922.67 



The Youth Activities Committee was not ready to report at this 
meeting since Dr. Paul Klinge was attending the National Science Fair. 
A full committee meeting is planned for June. 

The program chairman, Dr. William B. Hopp, reported that plans 
for the fall meeting were progressing well. He reported that Indiana State 
College would provide an outstanding speaker for the meeting and asked 
for suggestions for a suitable speaker. He announced that suitable projec- 
tion equipment would be available if divisional chairmen would notify the 
program chairman in advance of the fall meeting. 

Considerable discussion centered about the emeritus memberships. 
The secretary and treasurer were asked to make a study to identify such 
members as should be put on emeritus status and to report at the fall 
meeting. 

The secretary was instructed in a motion to secure the names of 
Department Heads of Science Departments in the various colleges through- 
out the state and make the information available to the various members 
of the academy who need this information. 

Dr. Guard reported on Dr. Den Uyl's illness and urged members to 
send him greetings. 

The meeting adjourned to permit members to join together in small 
groups for an informal dinner served in the regular dining room of the Inn. 

William W. Bloom, Secretary 
Approved 10-19-61 

9 



SPRING MEETING 

DINNER MEETING 

Turkey Run State Park 
May 12, 1961 

The members of the Academy were seated informally in the dining 
hall of the Inn for the dinner and assembled in the meeting room at 8:00 
P. M. for the general business meeting and program. The members were 
welcomed by Dr. Lawrence H. Baldinger, president of the Academy. The 
current officers were introduced to the group. 

The membership chairman, Dr. Louis E. DeLanney, presented 31 
applications for membership in the Senior Academy and one application 
for membership in the Junior Academy. The applications were approved. 

Marvin Bell of Indiana State College then presented an illustrated 
talk on "Nature Photography" in which he showed a number of interest- 
ing nature slides, especially of the same object at different magnifications. 

Dr. William H. Hopp, the general program chairman, announced the 
details concerning the field trips to be held Saturday morning. 

A resolution was adopted expressing the appreciation of the Academy 
to Mrs. Marcia Murphy and her staff for the kind hospitality and gracious 
service extended to the Academy on the occasion of the 77th annual spring 
meeting held at Turkey Run State Park. 

William W. Bloom, Secretary 
Approved 10-19-61 



10 



FALL MEETING 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Indiana State College, Terre Haute, Indiana 
October 19, 1961 

The meeting was called to order by President Lawrence H. Baldinger 
at 7:30 P.M. 

The minutes of the spring meeting of the Executive Committee and 
the minutes of the dinner meeting held at Turkey Run State Park on 
May 12, 1961 were read by the secretary and approved as read. 

Treasurer — iKermit H. Carlson: Financial report of the Indiana Acad- 
emy of Science, January 1, 1961 through December 31, 1961. 

FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

JANUARY 1, 1961 THRU DECEMBER 31, 1961 
Account Balance Jan. 1 Account Balances 

Number Account Name plus Receipts Disbursed Surplus Deficit 

1 Ind. Acad, of Science $0,005.28 $4,588.20 $1,417.02 

2 Jr. Academy of Science. 195.00 53.81 141.19 

3 Academy Funds Designated for 

Research Grants 900.00 300.00 600.00 

4 John Shepard Wright Mem. 

Library 3,426.68 2,432.15 994.53 

5 Science Fair 2,396.52 2,787.20 $390.68 

6 Science Talent Search. 2,067.69 2,316.27 248.58 



Sub-totals in Acct. Balances 3,152.74 639.26 

—639.26 



Totals in State Accounts $14,991.17 $12,477.69 $ 2,513.48 

NSF grant G-12417 14,463.65 11,568.43 

Returned to Nat. Sci. Found.. . . 2,895.22 

NSF Grant G-17042. . . .... 17,150.00 2,249.28 14,900.72 



Total in Federal Accounts 31,613.65 16,712.93 14,900.72 



Totals $46,604.82 $29,190.62 $17,414.20 

Balance Checking Account Dec. 31, 1961 $ 2,801.70 

Balance Savings Account, Dec. 31, 1961 14,612.50 



Total $17,414.20 

Editor — Richard A. Laubengayer: There were 1,200 hard bound and 
600 soft bound copies of the Proceedings, Volume 70, printed, giving a 
total of 1,800 copies. Thirty-six contributors ordered reprints. A ten-year 
index will be prepared and published as a part of the Proceedings for 1961. 
Trustees of the Academy Foundation — Chairman Ward J. Rice re- 
ported as of September 30, 1961: 

Cash income, ending balance $ 742.55 

Principal cash, ending balance 619.84 

Securities held, carrying value 14,563.92 

Research Grants Committee — Dr. T. G. Yuncker, chairman of the 
committee: Two grants were made during the year as follows: Mrs. Fay 

11 



12 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Daily, Butler University, $100.00 as aid in her studies on fossil charophytes. 
Mr. Charles Hall, DePauw University, $100.00 as aid in a taxonomic study 
of the algal flora of Putnam County. The committee has approximately 
$800.00 available at the present time for Academy-supported research and 
it is suggested that anyone interested in securing a small grant apply to 
the committee. It was recommended by the committee that the President 
of the Academy in his annual letter call the attention of the membership 
of the Academy to this fund. 



Biological Survey Committee — Carroll A. Markle, Chairman: 

Report of the Biological Survey Committee of the 
Indiana Academy of Science 

Publications of 1960-1961 Dealing with the Flora and Fauna of Indiana 



Bryophyta 



Vascular Plants 



Insecta 



Welch, Winona H., 1960. A Monograph of the Fontinalaceae. 
357 pages ; 35 figures. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. 
Adams, William P., 1961. A re-evaluation of the generic status 
of As'cyrum and Crookea (Guttiferae) . Rhodora 63: 10-16. 
Biology Staff, 1961. A Guide in the Study of Trees on Ball 
State Teachers College Campus. 90 pages. 
Clewell, Andre F., 1961. Taxonomic Problems in Lespedeza. 
Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science for 1960. 
70 : 207-208. 

Cooper, Robert H., and O. B. Christy, 1960. Christy Woods 
Outdoor Laboratories. 46 pages. 

Heiser, Charles B. Jr., 1961. Morphological and cytological 
variation in Helianthus petiolaris with notes on related spe- 
cies. Evolution 15 : 247-258. 

Lindsey, A. A., 1961. Vegetation of the Drainage-aeration 
Classes of northern Indiana Soils in 1830. Ecology 42 :432-436. 

Lindsey, A. A., R. O. Petty, D. K. Sterling, and W. Van Asdall, 
1961. Vegetation and Environment along the Wabash and 
Tippecanoe Rivers. Ecological Monographs 31 : 105-156. 

Chandler, Leland, 1960. A preliminary study of the bees and 
wasps of the Hovey Lake (Indiana) area. Proceedings of the 
North Central States-E. S. A. 15 : 77. 

Chandler, Leland, 1960. Life history of Hal ictus ligatus Say 
(Hymenoptera, Halictidae). (prog, abs.) Bulletins Entomo- 
logical Society of America 6(3) : 155. 

Chandler, Leland, 1960. The nesting habits of Osmia albi 
ventris Cresson (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). (abstract) 
Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science for 1959, 
69 : 149. 

Chandler, Leland, 1961. Differential Predation in Osmia 
cordata Robt. O. Ugnaria Say Nesting Associations (Hy- 
menoptera, Megachilidae). Proceedings of the Indiana Acad- 
emy of Science for 1960, 70 : 138. 

Chandler, Leland, Nancy Work, and Fred Shewman, I960 
The life history of Pemphredon lethifer letJiifer (Shuckard) 
(Hymenoptera, Sphecidae). (abstract) Proceedings of the 
Indiana Academy of Science for 1959, 69 : 148. 
Dobson, R. C, 1960. Musca autumnalis De Geer, A new Live- 
stock Pest in Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy 
of Science for 1959, 69 : 165-166. 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 13 

7. Everly, Ray T., 19GO. Insecticidal control of thrips on corn. 
Preceedings of the North Central Branch of the Entomo- 
logical Society of America, 15 : 89-91. 

8. Everly, Ray T. i960. Loss in corn yield associated with the 
abundance of the corn leaf aphid, Bhopalosiphum maiclis 
(Fitch), in Indiana. Journal of Economic Entomology 53: 
924-932. 

9. Everly, Ray T. and R. C. Pickett, 1960. The Effect of phorate 
applied to seed on the growth, development and insects 
attacking grain sorghums. Journal of Economic Entomology 
53(1) : 154-160. 

10. Gould, George E., 1960. Problems in the control of mint in- 
sects. Journal of Economic Entomology 53 : 526-531. 

11. Gould, George E., 1960. The effect of Japanese beetle feeding 
on the yield of soybeans. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy 
of Science for 1959, 69: 178-181. 

12. Gould, George E., 1960. Vegetable Insect Resistance in In- 
diana. Proceedings of the North Central Branch of the Ento- 
mological Society of America 15 : 113. 

13. Schuder, D. L., 1960. The Columbian Timber Beetle, Corthylus 
columbhinus Hopk. Proceedings of the North Central Branch 
of the Entomological Society of America 15 : 23-24. 

14. Schuder, Donald L., 1960. The Zimmerman pine moth. Re- 
search Bulletin 698, Purdue University. 

15. Siverly, R. E., 1961. Occurrence of Aedes thibaulti Dyar and 
Knab in Indiana. ;Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of 
Science for 1960. 70: 137. (abstract) 

16. Wilson, M. C. and R. L. Davis, 1960. Culver alfalfa, a new 
Indiana variety developed with insect resistance. Proceedings 
of the North Central Branch of the Entomological Society of 
America 15 : 30-31. 

17. Wilson, M. C, H. F. Hodges, R. L. Galium, and R. E. Kirk, 
1960. The use of phorate to control aphids and the Hessian 
fly on winter wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 53(2) : 
197-200. 

18. Young, Frank N., 1961. Pseudosibling species in Pvltodyks 
(Coleoptera : Haliplidae. Annals of the Entomological So- 
ciety of America 54:214-222 (includes Peltodi/ks dunavani 
u. sp. in part ex Indiana). 

Nemathelminthes : Ferris, J. M., 1960. Effect of storage temperatures on survival 

of plant parasitic nematodes, (abstract) Phytopathology 
50 : 035. 

Work in Progress or Completed in 1960-1961 But Not Yet Published 

Algae: 1. Daily, Fay K. Glacial and post-glacial Charophytes from New- 

York and Indiana. Micropaleontology. 

2. Daily, W. A. Some algae of the Cabin Creek Raised Bog. 

3. Reimer, Charles W. Some aspects of the diatom flora of Cabin 
Creek Raised Bog, Randolph County, Indiana. 

Bryophyta : 1. Welch, Winona H. Bryophytes and Lichens of American Bryo- 

logical Society 1961 Foray at High Bridge, Warren Co., In- 
diana. Bryologist. 

2. Welch, Winona H. History of the DePauw University Herbar- 
ium. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 

3. Welch, Winona H. Hookeriaceae of the United States and 
Canada. 

Vascular Plants : 1. Clewell, Andre. Lespedeza— taxonomy. 
2. Coleman, James. Verbesina — taxonomy. 



14 Indiana Academy of Science 

3. Davidson, Thomas. Ecological study of a natural area — pri- 
marily ecology of the vascular plants. 

4. Hall, Gustav. Bklcns — taxonomy and evolution. 

5. Ileiser, Charles B. Jr. Magnolia and Liriodendron (floral 
ecology). 

6. Markle, Carrolle A. Flora of Wayne County, being continued. 

7. Montgomery, B. Edwood. Characteristics of Nectar and Pollen 
available to Bees in Indiana. 

Arachnida : Schuder, D. L. Ecology and control of mites on woody orna- 

mentals. 

Aves : 1. Cope, James B. Birds of Indiana. 

2. Hodson, Margaret. Ecological Study of a natural area. 

Insecta : 1. Butts, William L. Comparison of neural response in insecti- 

cide-resistant and normal cockroaches. 

2. Butts. William L. Comparison of toxicity of diene insecticides 
to Reticulitermes spp. 

3. Butts, William L. Vapor toxicity of organo-phosphate insecti- 
cides. 

4. Cartwright, W. B. Entomological aspects in the breeding of 
Hessian fly and wheat jointworm resistant wheats and Hes- 
sian fly resistant barleys. (W. B. Cartwright and R. L. Gallun) 

5. Cartwright. W. B. Screening of foreign wheat and barley 
introductions and Indiana breeding material for resistance to 
Hessian fly aud wheat jointworm. (W. B. Cartwright and 
R. L. Gallun) 

6. Cartwright, W. B. Genetics and bionomics of Hessian fly 
races. (R. L. Gallun, W. B. Cartwright, and A. E. Bell) 

7. Cartwright, W. B. The use of chemical plant inhibitors as a 
means of studying the nature of resistance in wheats to Hes- 
sian fly. 

S. Chandler, Belaud. Biosystematic studies of Indiana bees and 
wasps. 

a. Factors relating to the distribution of sexes in nests of 
Osmia albivetitris Cresson. 

b. Records of parasites in the nests of bees and wasps. 

c. Orientation of developing stages in inverted nests of Pem- 
phredon lethifer (Shuckard). 

d. A life table for Pemphredon lethifer (Shuckard). 

e. Omalus auratus (L.) — the relationship of pupation site to 
host conditions. 

f. The species of Psaerythia in Indiana. 

g. Life history studies of the following bee species : Colletes 
inaequalis, Halictus confusus, Melitoma taurea, Melis- 
sodes oimaculata, Prochelostoma ph Had el phi. 

9. Chandler, Leland. The attraction of Sphecodogastra texanum 
Cresson to light. 

10. Chandler, Leland. Interspecific competition in Osmia Ugnaria 
Say — O. cordata Robt. nesting associations. 

11. Dobson, R. C. Biology and control of the cattle grubs. 

12. Dobson, R. C. Biology and control of the Face Fly Musca 
autumnalis. 

13. Dobson, R. C. Control of Insect Pests of Livestock. 

14. Eveiiy, Ray T. Resistance of sorghums and dent corn to the 
corn leaf aphid. 

15. Everly, Ray T. Insecticidal control of the clover root borer, 
meadow spittlebug, lesser clover leaf weevil, and miscella- 
neous clover insects. 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 15 

16. Everly, Ray T. Differential attractiveness of dent corn to the 
European corn borer. 

17. Everly, Ray T. Inheritance of attractiveness of dent corn to 
the European corn borer. 

18. Everly, Ray T. Further studies of the damage, location of 
larvae in respect to the placement of eggs on corn plants for 
the first and second generation of the European corn borer on 
attractive and unattractive single cross dent corn. 

19. Gallun, R. L. Entomological aspects in the breeding of Hes- 
sian fly and wheat jointworm resistant wheats and Hessian 
fly resistant barleys. (W. B. Cartwright and R. L. Gallun) 

20. Gallun, R. L. Screening of foreign wheat and barley introduc- 
tions and Indiana breeding material for resistance to Hessian 
fly and wheat jointworm. (W. B. Cartwright and R. L. Gallun) 

21. Gallun. R. L. Genetics and bionomics of Hessian fly races. 
(R. L. Gallun, W. B. Cartwright, and A. E. Bell) 

22. Gallun, R. L. Monosomic analysis of Hessian fly resistant 
wheat varieties to determine the chromosomes responsible for 
the W38, PI 04587 and Ribeiro types of resistance. (R. L. 
Gallun and F. L. Fatterson) 

23. Gallun, R. L. Barley translocation studies to locate the 
chromosome responsible for the Delta type of resistance to 
Hessian fly. (P. L. Patterson and R. L. Gallun) 

24. Gallun, R. L. Radioisotope studies to determine the length 
and amount of feeding done by Hessian fly larvae on Hessian 
fly resistant and susceptible wheats. (R. L. Gallun and Ruble 
Langston) 

25. Giese, R. L. The impact of insect defoliation on Indiana 
hardwoods. 

26. Giese, R. L. The European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer 
(Geoff.) sequential sampling: population dynamics. 

27. Giese, R. L. The Columbian timber beetle, Corthylus colum- 
bianus (Hopk.) : damage losses, spatial distribution, sym- 
biotic realationships, survey techniques, development of 
market for defected lumber, population dynamics and control. 

28. Giese, R. L. The walkingstick, Diapheromera sp. : taxonomy, 
physiology (diapause) and population dynamics. 

20. Giese, R. L. and J. D. Paschke, The parasite and predator 
complex of Neodiprion sertifer (Geoff.), the European pine 
sawfly, in Indiana. 

30. Giese, R. L. and D. L. Schuder. Host preference and survival 
potential of Neodiprion sertifer (Geoff.), the European pine 
sawfly, on native and introduced trees in the genus Pinus, 
with particular reference to the selection of elite trees. 

31. Gould, George E. Control of the cucumber beetle. 

32. Gould, George E. Control of insects attacking peppermint and 
spearmint. 

33. Gould, George E. The Japanese beetle, its potential danger to 
agricultural crops in Indiana. 

34. Gould, George E. The control of wireworms and other soil 
insects. 

35. Grothaus, Roger. Comparative ecology of the three species of 
Geratina in Indiana. 

36. McCoy, C. Edward. Biology and ecology of nine species of 
Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae), common in Indiana. A 
comparative study. 

37. McMillan, Harlan. Progressive changes in natural and labora- 
tory populations of Culex pipiens Linnaeus. 



16 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Mammalia : 
Nemathelminthes 



Nemathelminthes 
and Insecta : 



38. Montgomery, B. Elwood. Odonta of Indiana. 

39. Montgomery, B. Elwood. Catalogue of New World Odonta. 

40. Montgomery, B. Elwood. Anthophilous Insects of Indiana. 
(Continuation of two papers previously published.) 

41. Montgomery, B. Elwood. Distribution Patterns of New World 
Odonta. Proc. Xlth International Congress of Entomology, 
Vienna. 

42. Munsee, Jack. The strip mine spoil bank ecosystem with espe- 
cial reference to the role of ants. 

43. Paschke, J. D. Virus complexes as pathogens of insects, espe- 
cially loopers associated with mint. 

44. Paschke, J. D. Control of Japanese beetle with microbial 
agents. 

45. Paschke, J. D. Fungus diseases of insects. 

46. Taschke, J. D. Survey and collection of parasites and preda- 
tors associated with hosts found in major agricultural crops. 

47. Paschke, J. D. and J. J. Hamm. A nuclear polyhedrosis virus 
disease of Rachipcusia ou (Guenee). Journal of Insect Path- 
ology. 

48. Schuder, D. L. Biology of the Zimmerman Pine Moth. 

49. Schuder, D. L. Borers of woody ornamentals. 

50. Schuder, D. L. Ecology and control of scale insects attacking 
ornamentals. 

51. Siverly, R. E. Ecology of mosquitoes, Delaware County, In- 
diana. 

52. Ward, Gertrude L. Insects of Indiana. 

53. Wilson, M. C. Development of the spotted alfalfa aphid in 
Indiana. 

54. Wilson, M. C. Insect resistance in alfalfa to the spotted 
alfalfa aphid, meadow spittlebug, and potato leafhopper. 

55. Wilson, M. C. Studies on control of aphid vectors of virus 
diseases. 

56. Wilson, M. C. Low dosage rates of phorate and the influence 
granular particle numbers on hessian fly control. 

57. Wilson, M. C, R. L. Gallun, G. F. Florentine, and R. E. Kirk. 
Toxicity of phorate and other systematic insecticides to 
Phytophaga destructor (Say). Proceedings of the Xlth Inter- 
national Congress of Entomology, Vienna. 

58. Wilson, Nixon. A systematic study of the ectoparasites of 
Indiana mammals. 

59. Wood, Vida G. The Effect of X-Radiation on Longevity of 
Drosoph ila melanogaster. 

Cope, James B. Bats of Indiana. 

1. Ferris, J. M. Indiana nematode survey and collection. 

2. Ferris, J. M. Study of the effect of plant parasitic nematodes 
on the growth of blue spruce. 

3. Ferris, .7. M. Investigations of ecological relationships and 
factors affecting the population dynamics of the nematode 
Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb. 

4. Ferris, J. M. Nematode physiology. 

5. Ferris, J. M. Greenhouse culture of plant parasitic nematodes. 
Ferris, J. M., M. C. Wilson, and D. Wiersma. The effects of 
interactions of nematodes, insects, soil fertility, and mois- 
ture on alfalfa stands and yields. 

Carrolle Markle, Chairman 

Biological Survey Committee 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 17 

Fellows Committee — L. S. McClung: The following members were 
recommended for fellows in the Indiana Academy of Sciences and their 
nominations approved: John H. Billman, Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana 
University; W. W. Brown, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, Indiana 
University; Howard B. Burkett, Dept. of Chemistry, DePauw University; 
Kermit H. Carlson, Dept. of Mathematics, Valparaiso University; Leland 
Chandler, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University; Martin Dworkin, 
Dept. of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Indiana University; M. K. 
Hine, Dean, School of Dentistry, Indiana University; Herschel Hunt, 
Dept. of Chemistry, Purdue University; II. M. James, Dept. of Physics, 
Purdue University; James H. Kellar, Dept. of Anthropology, Indiana 
University; C. S. Morris, Dept. of Physics, Manchester College; John B. 
Patton, Dept. of Geology, Indiana University; S. N. Postlethwait, Dept. 
of Botany, Purdue University; Donald L. Schuder, Dept. of Entomology, 
Purdue University; R. E. Siverly, Dept. of Biology, Ball State College. 

Invitations Committee — R. E. Siverly, chairman: Invitations have been 
received from three institutions for the fall meeting in 1962. A motion 
carried to accept the invitation of Evansville College to hold the fall 
meeting of 1962 on their campus. 

Library Committee — Nelle Coats, chairman, submitted the following 
report for the John Shepard Wright Memorial Library : 

Supplying labor and wrappings, the Indiana State Library has mailed 
copies of volume 70, 1960, published Aug. 2, 1961, to members using labels 
prepared by the secretary of the Academy. Checking the Wright Library 
holdings of serial titles has been completed for inclusion in the Union List 
of Serials, 3rd edition. 

Mrs. Lois Burton has prepared two groups of binding, one for the 
sum of $1,000.00 allotted in the Academy budget, the second for the sum 
of $1,432.15, an amount provided for by the Lilly Endowment, Inc. gift. 
Certain pamphlets have been encased by the Indiana State Library staff, 
other materials have been variously cared for. 

During the fiscal year 21 new titles have been added including further 
publications from Bucharest; Porto Alegre, Brazil; Guatemala City; Mel- 
bourne; Nairobi; Karachi; Mexico City; Seville; Quito and Tromso. 

Attention is called to the fact that copies of the following references 
issued by the Academy are available: Index Proc. volumes 1-50; Index 
Proc. volumes 51-60 in Proc. volume 61; Indiana Scientists 1951, compiled 
by S. S. Visher; Periodical Literature Currently Received by the Wright 
Library, 1959. 

Press Secretary — Frank N. Young: Notices of the 77th Annual Meet- 
ing were sent to all Indianapolis papers, the Associated Press, United 
Press International, and to larger papers throughout the state. Releases 
were also prepared on a number of individual papers. An attempt was 
made this year to obtain publicity in local newspapers of each individual 
on the program. Excellent cooperation was obtained from the news bureaus 
of various institutions. 

Program Committee — William B. Hopp. The chairman reported that 
everything was in readiness for the sectional meetings and for the Junior 
Academy on Saturday and expressed his appreciation to all who helped 



18 Indiana Academy of Science 

make the arrangements for the meetings and for the assistance of the 
previous program chairman. 

Nominations Committee — W. A. Daily, chairman of the committee: 
The following nominations were submitted to the executive committee and 
approved: 

A. Trustee of the Academy Foundation, second member: W. A. Daily. 

B. Bonding Trustees: Scott McCoy, chairman, and Frank Welcher. 

C. Research Grants Committee: Dr. Paul Weatherwax. 

Relation of Academy to State — F. N. Wallace and W. A. Daily, co- 
chairmen of the committee: Mr. Daily reported that the legislature had 
appropriated the sum of $4,000.00 per annum for the fiscal year 1961-62 
and 1962-63 for the Academy to assist in the publication of the pro- 
ceedings. 

Visiting Scientists — Howard H. Michaud, chairman of the committee, 
reported the following for the 1960-61 academic year: 

1. A total of 83 scientists representing 20 Indiana colleges partici- 
pated in the program. 

2. 211 visits were made, a 20% increase over the previous year; 77 in 
biology, 23 in physics, 41 in chemistry, 46 in mathematics, 9 in 
entomology, 4 in geology, 1 in general science, 4 in radiology, 3 in 
astronomy, 3 in bacteriology. 

3. $2,667.38 in 49 individual research grants were made to High 
School students. 

4. The program appears to be successful in improving the quality of 
science teaching and student accomplishments. 

5. A similar grant for $17,150.00 has been approved for 1961-62 and 
an application for 1962-63 has been made. 

Indiana School and College Committee on Mathematics — J. C. Polley: 
The chairman reported that the N. S. F. had granted an extension of the 
termination date on the 1960-61 grant to August 1962 so that the program 
will be continued during the 1961-62 academic year. A new proposal for 
$11,500.00 has been submitted for the year 1962-63. 

The committee sponsored and supported various kinds of meetings for 
mathematics teachers and school administrators to promote interest in 
the improvement of mathematics programs in Indiana schools and colleges. 
Local meetings were helH in 10 locations. Six larger-scale meetings were 
also conducted. 

The committee has assumed responsibility in organizing the partici- 
pation of Indiana High Schools in the Annual National Mathematics Con- 
test. They are assisted in this work by the Indianapolis Actuarial Club. 

Youth Activities of the Academy — Paul Klinge, chairman. The Youth 
Activities Committee is concerned at present with three major activities 
in the state. 

A. Science Fairs — L. A. Willig, Tri-State College, director. At pres- 
ent the state is divided into 11 regions and each regional fair is registered 
in the National Science Fair and eligible to exhibit at the National Fair. 

B. Science Talent Search — Sears Crowell, Indiana University, direc- 
tor. This is a well-established program for High School seniors on a 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 19 

national basis but in which Indiana also judges the entrants from Indiana 
and promotes a Junior Scientist Assembly held in March in which Indiana 
entrants exhibit their projects. 

C. Junior Academy — Howard H. Michaud, Purdue University, state 
sponsor. The 28th annual meeting was held Saturday, October 8, 1960 at 
Manchester College. Two hundred fifty students, club sponsors, and guests 
registered. Fifteen exhibits were displayed, 21 papers were read, and 
conferences with staff members of the host institution were held. Richard 
Ferrell of Central Junior-Senior High School, South Bend, received the 
"best boy" award and Diane Osting of Washington High School, Indian- 
apolis, received the "best girl" award. Paul Everman of Arsenal Technical 
High School, Indianapolis, received the American Society of Bacteriology 
Award for the best paper in bacteriology. There are currently 52 clubs in 
the Junior Academy. The 29th annual meeting will be held October 21, 
1961 here at Indiana State College, Terre Haute, Indiana. 

Dr. Klinge announced that Mr. W. J. Fullerton, General Science 
Manager of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Indianapolis, has consented 
to serve as chairman of the subcommittee on finance. This committee hopes 
to raise $25,000.00 to support the youth activities of the Academy for the 
1961-62 academic year. 

William W. Bloom, Secretary 
Approved 10-20-61 



FALL MEETING 

GENERAL SESSION 

Friday, October 19, 1961 
9:00 A. M. 

The regular annual meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science was 
held in the auditorium of the Student Union Building of Indiana State 
College, Terre Haute, Indiana, on October 20, 1961 at 9:00 A. M. The 
meeting was called to order by President Lawrence H. Baldinger. Dr. 
Raleigh W. Holmstedt, President of Indiana State College, welcomed the 
Academy to the campus. The minutes of the Executive Committee meeting 
of Thursday, October 19, were read by the secretary and approved as 
read. 

The necrologist, Dr. Will E. Edington, presented his report in which 
he gave a brief biographical sketch of the following members who had 
died since the last annual meeting: 

Herman T. Briscoe 

Daniel DenUyl 

Henry B. Froning 

John A. Molter 

Harry J. Reed 

Mary Louise Stork 
As the main speaker at the general sessions, Dr. Fritz W. Went, 
director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, and presi- 
dent elect of the American Institute of Biological Sciences for 1962, spoke 
on "The Relation between the Plant and Its Environment." Dr. Went 
discussed the role of the environment in the development of plants and the 
need to carefully control every aspect of the environment in plant re- 
searches. He pointed out the dual role of the Missouri Botanical Garden 
in bringing plant science to the public, and through the financial support 
secured from the public, in carrying on research. 

Following Dr. Went's stimulating presentation a panel discussion on 
the Visiting Scientist Program was conducted. The panel consisted of 
H. H. Michaud, Purdue University, Director of the program, Paul Klinge, 
W. G. Kessel, P. D. Edwards, and Kenneth Robinson. It was obvious from 
the discussion that considerable work needs to be done to improve science 
education in the high schools of Indiana and that the Visiting Scientist 
Program was achieving its goals in assisting in upgrading science 
teaching. 

The meeting adjourned at 11:15 for the beginning of the section 
meetings. 

William W. Bloom, Secretary 



20 



FALL MEETING 

DINNER MEETING 

October 20, 1961 

The annual dinner meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science was 
held in the East Ballroom of the Student Union Building, Indiana State 
College. Dr. Harry G. Day, Vice-President of the Academy, presided. 
He introduced the guests at the speaker's table and gave special recogni- 
tion to the out-of-state guests, Mr. and Mrs. Arch Addington of Fresno, 
Calif., and Mr. Charles Reimer of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dr. L. E. DeLanney, Chairman of the membership committee, pre- 
sented the applications of 60 individuals for membership in the Academy. 
The applications were approved. 

Dr. William Eberly read the report of the resolutions committee and 
the resolutions were approved. The first resolution expressed the thanks 
of the entire membership of the Academy to Dr. Raleigh W. Holmstedt, 
president of Indiana State College, Dr. William B. Hopp, chairman of the 
program, and all the members of the staff of Indiana State College for 
their kind hospitality and the excellent arrangements for this, the 77th 
annual meeting of the Academy. The second resolution expressed the 
approval of the Academy and our deep appreciation of the Nature Con- 
servancy group for their part in having the Pine Hills Area adjacent to 
the Shades State Park set aside as a natural area. Their further work in 
the area of nature conservancy was strongly encouraged. 

Mr. William A. Daily, as chairman of the Nominating Committee, pre- 
sented the following names of division chairmen elected by the divisions 
at their sessions: Anthropology, Mr. Downey D. Raibourn, Gary Exten- 
sion of Indiana University; Bacteriology, Dr. Gordon Mallet, Eli Lilly and 
Indiana University; Botany, Dr. Paul Weatherwax, Indiana University 
and Franklin College; Chemistry, Dr. Frederic Schmidt, Indiana Univer- 
sity; Entomology, Dr. B. Elwood Montgomery, Purdue University; Geog- 
raphy and Geology, Dr. Lowell Dillon, Ball State College; History of 
Science, Prof. Ned Guthrie, Hanover College; Mathematics, Dr. John 
Yarnelle, Hanover College; Physics, Prof. R. T. Duffard, Evansville Col- 
lege; Plant Taxonomy, Dr. Grady Webster, Purdue University; Psychol- 
ogy, Dr. S. M. Gerger, Indiana University; Soil Science, Dr. Dan Wiersma, 
Purdue University; Zoology, Dr. James B. Cope, Earlham College. 

Mr. Daily then presented the slate of officers to be elected by the 
Academy as follows: President, Dr. Harry G. Day, Indiana University; 
Vice-President, Dr. Howard H. Michaud, Purdue University; Secretary, 
Dr. William W. Bloom, Valparaiso University; Treasurer, Dr. Kermit H. 
Carlson, Valparaiso University; Editor, Dr. Richard A. Laubengayer, 
Wabash College; Press Secretary, Dr. Frank N. Young, Indiana Univer- 
sity; Trustee of the Academy Foundation, Mr. W. A. Daily, Eli Lilly; 
Bonding of Trustees, Mr. Scott McCoy, chairman, Dr. Frank Welcher; 
Research Grants Committee, Dr. Paul Weatherwax, Indiana University 
and Franklin College. A motion carried instructing the secretary to cast 
a unanimous ballot for the slate. 

Following the conclusion of the business session President Baldinger 
presented a thought-provoking and informative address on "The Genesis 
of a Drug" in which he traced the steps in developing and marketing a 
new drug. 

William W. Bloom, Secretary 

21 



NEW MEMBERS 

Adams, Dr. William Preston, Dept. of Botany and Bacteriology, 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana PT 

Anderson, Mr. Charles E., Dept. of Bio. Science, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana BO 

Baker, Mr. Phil C, Botany Department, University of North 

Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina PT 

Barrett, Gary Wayne, R. R. 2, Glezen, Indiana BO 

Baxter, Dr. John W., University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, 3203 

N. Downer Ave., Milwaukee 11, Wisconsin BO 

Benda, Gerd T. A., 618 Park Avenue, South Bend 16, Indiana BO 

Bender, Prof. Harvey A., Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Indiana Z 

Berger, Seymour M., Dept. of Psychology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana PS 

Bick, George H., St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana Z 

Bowers, Elmer J., Goshen High School, Lincolnway East, Goshen, 

Indiana E 

Bready, John Kerr, 22-10 Ross Ade Dr., West Lafayette, Indiana E 

Brittingham, Joe Nolan, R. R. 1, Francisco, Indiana BO-Z 

Burger, Prof. W. Leslie, Department of Biology, Franklin College, 

Franklin, Indiana Z 

Burton, Prof. Milton, Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre 

Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana C 

Campbell, Miss Marilyn F., 2420 Liberty, Terre Haute, Indiana BO-Z 

Carr, Dr. Lloyd G. K., Dept. of Biology, Franklin College, Franklin, 

Indiana BA-BO-Z 

Carr, Miss Rebecca Ann, 2712 College Ave., Terre Haute, Indiana BO 

Chapman, Mrs. Florence E., 612-N 3rd Street, Vincennes, Indiana Z 

Coleman, Dr. Ralph H., 529 S. Spring St., Evansville, Indiana M 

Connell, Gerald Michael, Zoology Dept., Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Indiana Z 
Crider, Miss Kathryn, 1404 W. 58th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana BO-Z 
D'Alelio, Prof. G. F., 2011 E. Cedar Street, South Bend 17, Indiana C 
Decker, R. Dean, 136-11 Nimitz Dr., West Lafayette, Indiana BO 
Dial, Dr. Norman A., Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute, 

Indiana Z 

Dishner, Miss Gayla, 308 Mecca Avenue, Birmingham 9, Alabama E 

Douglas, Dr. Charles F., Fertilizer Distribution Branch, Tenn. Valley 

Authority, Wilson Dam, Alabama SS 

Dudley, Richard F., SW Great Plains Field Station, Bushland, Texas SS 
Dupree, Miss Deanna M., 1249 Catherwood Dr., South Bend 14, Indiana BA 
Edmonds, Nuel F., 730 Leopold, Rensselaer, Indiana G-SS 

Egar, Dr. Joseph M., Mathematics Dept., Ball State College, 

Muncie, Indiana M 

Eiler, Galen C, Box 103, Roann, Indiana BO 

Evans, Samuel D., Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Indiana SS 

22 



New Members 23 

Eversole, Prof. Wilburn J., Dept. Science, Indiana State Teachers 

College, Terre Haute, Indiana Z 

Gifford, Prof. Cameron E., Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana Z 

Green, Thomas Justin, 625 S. Fess Ave., Bloomington, Indiana Z 

Hale, Prof. Robert E., 901 Ray Street, Huntington, Indiana PH 
Hallerberg, Prof. Arthur E., Dept. of Mathematics, Valparaiso 

University, Valparaiso, Indiana M 

Harmon, N. Paul, Box 535, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana Z 
Hayat, M. Arif, Dept. of Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Indiana BO 
Hendrix, Jon Richard, Highland High School, Munster, 

Indiana BA-BO-E-Z 

Henson, Miss Janet, Room 204A, Reeve Hall, Terre Haute, Indiana BO 

Hershey, Stephen C, 612 Ingleside, Flint 7, Michigan E 
Hessler, Miss Ruth H., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana BO 

Hinton, Prof. Henry D., 412 Tonti Ave., South Bend, Indiana C 
Hiratsuka, Yasuyuki, Dept. Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Indiana BO 

Hodges, Harry F., R. R. 10, Lafayette, Indiana BO 

Howald, Prof. James C, Huntington College, Huntington, Indiana C 

Kaney, Anthony Rolland, 515 Jennison St., Crawfordsville, Indiana BA 
Karpinski, Prof. Zygmunt, Box 303, South Bend, Indiana M-C-PH 

Keim, William A., 426 East Wayne St., Ft. Wayne, Indiana C 
Kelley, Alden G., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Indiana BO 

Kordes, Joseph A., R. R. 1, Hazleton, Indiana BO 
Lane, Rev. Thomas James, Chemistry Department, Notre Dame, 

Indiana C 
Langhammer, James K., Zoology Department, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana Z 

Lavy, Terry L., 208-12 Airport Road, West Lafayette, Indiana SS 

Long, Prof. Nicholas, F109 Hoosier Cts., Bloomington, Michigan PS 
McCoy, Scott, Jr., Geology Dept., University of Arizona, Tucson, 

Arizona G 

McGregor, Dr. Duncan J., Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana G 
Mcintosh, Dr. Robert P., University of Notre Dame, South Bend, 

Indiana BO 
Mahoney, Donald L., Dept. of Horticulture, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Indiana BO 

Marina, Sister, 3200 Cold Springs Rd., Indianapolis, Indiana PH 

Mehall, Andrew G., 226 S. McKinley Avenue, Rensselaer, Indiana Z 
Merritt, Prof. Clair, Dept. Forestry & Conservation, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Indiana BO 
Metzger, Miss Mary Jo, Single Student Dorm, Room 307, 1300 West 

Michigan Street, Indianapolis 2, Indiana Z 

Miles, C. Donald, 699 E. Main Street, Greenwood, Indiana BO 
Moe, Dr. Paul G., Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Indiana SS 

Riley, David Lee, 322 S. 6th Street, New Castle, Indiana Z 



24 Indiana Academy of Science 

Reich, Robert J., 3721 N. Lakewood Avenue, Chicago, Illinois PT-BO 

Robbins, John M., Jr., Soil Conservation Service, Federal Bldg., 

Shelbyville, Indiana SS 
Robbins, Miss Louise M., Dept. Anthropology, Indiana Universcity, 

Bloomington, Indiana A 
Rossini, Dr. Frederick D., University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

Indiana C 
Sanders, Dr. Rosaltha H., Indiana Central College, 4001 Otterbein, 

Indianapolis, Indiana Z 

Scheffe, Charles E., 360 South Spencer Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana Z 

Sever, Stephan Grant, R. R. 1, Waldron, Indiana BO 
Slabaugh, Eugene J., Dept. Anthropology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana A 

Smucker, Prof. Arthur A., Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana C 
Tihen, Dr. Joseph A., Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Indiana Z 
Tjwan, Kang Biauw, Agron. Dept., Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana SS 

Trealer, Prof. P. C, Lobund, Notre Dame, Indiana BA 
Trinler, Dr. W. A., Science Dept., Indiana State College, Terre 

Haute, Indiana C 

Utley, Clarence C, R. R. 3, Owensville, Indiana BO 
Waynick, Quincy L., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis 27, 

Indiana M-PS 

White, Miss Rebecca Jane, 1227 S. Sixth Street, Terre Haute, Indiana Z 
Webster, Dr. Grady L., Jr., Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Indiana PT 

Weist, Barney Lester, 323 E. State St., Princeton, Indiana BO 
Wert, Prof. William G., 68 Home Avenue, Terre Haute, Indiana BO-Z 

West, Larry Jack, R. R, 1, Glezen, Indiana BO 

Williams, Robert D., Stone City Bank Building, Bedford, Indiana BO 
Wostmann, Dr. Bernard S., Lobund Lab., Dept. of Bio., U. of Notre 

Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana C 

Zassenhaus, Prof. Hans J., 1154 Helmen Dr., South Bend 15, Indiana M 

Zimmer, David E., 23-3 Ross Ade Dr., Lafayette, Indiana BO 




Officers of the Junior Academy : 1. to rt., Secretary, Margaret Weir, John Adams Hig] 
School, South Bend ; President. Stephen Ridgway, Central Junior-Senior High School, 
South Bend: Vlce-rresident, Mark Schafer, Central Catholic High School, Fort Wayne, 
was absent. 



INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

OFFICERS FOR 1961 

President: Stephen Ridgway, Central Junior-Senior High School, South 

Bend. 
Vice-President: Mark Schafer, Central Catholic High School, Fort 

Wayne. 
Secretary: Margaret Weir, John Adams High School, South Bend. 
Members of the Council: Mrs. Elizabeth Crider, Indianapolis (1957-1961) ; 

Robert Weber, Fort Wayne (1958-1962) ; Sister Suzanne, Vincennes 

(1959-1963) ; V. C. Cripe, South Bend (1960-1964) ; Don R. Winslow, 

Bloomington (1961-1965). 



PROGRAM OF THE TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL MEETING 

October 21, 1961 

Science Building, Indiana State College, Terre Haute, Indiana 

8:30-10:00 A. M. Registration and Placement of Exhibits, Room 203. 

10:00-11:00 A. M. Conferences in Science and Mathematics by faculty 

representatives of Indiana State College. 
11:00-12:00 Noon. Visits to Instructional Facilities and Laboratories of 

Indiana State College. 
12:00 Noon. Luncheon, Cafeteria, Student Union Building. 
1:15 P. M. General Assembly, Auditorium, Student Union Building. 

Greetings, Dr. R. W. Holmstedt, President, Indiana State 
College. 

25 



26 Indiana Academy of Science 

Business Meeting. Election of Officers and Presentation of 
Awards. 
1:45-4:30 P. M. Program of Papers, President Stephen Ridgway, pre- 
siding. 
The following papers were read by members of the Junior Academy : 

1. Growth Curves in Nature — Logarithmic Spirals on Geometric 
Progressions, Margaret Weir, Adams Walton Science Club, John 
Adams High School, South Bend. 

2. Reactions of Animals at High Altitude, Bruce Greenberg, West- 
lane Science Club, Westlane Junior High School, Indianapolis. 

3. Hydrolysis of Starch by Salivary Amylase, Dennis Panarisi, 
George Washington High School Science Club, George Washing- 
ton High School, Indianapolis. 

4. Image of a Scientist, Pam Parker, MSE Academy Club, Univer- 
sity Junior High School, Bloomington. 

5. A Study of the Protolytic Enzymes in the A. Caninum Hookworm, 
John Reuthe, Central Jets, Central High School, South Bend. 

6. Mathematical Approach to Geotropism, Gordon Clark, George 
Washington High School Science Club, George Washington High 
School, Indianapolis. 

7. Developing a Variety of Stajjhylococcus aureus that is Resistant 
to Penicillin, Janet Holscher, Sigma Tau Science Club, St. Rose 
Academy, Vincennes. 

8. Radio Telescopes, Stephen Ridgway, Central Jets, Central High 
School, South Bend. 

9. Identifying Pollen from Peat and Spores from Coal of Indiana, 
Thomas Bose, Westlane Science Club, Westlane Junior High 
School, Indianapolis. 

10. The Effect of Temperature Variations on the Frog's Pulse Rate, 
Frank Steiner, Central Jets, Central High School, South Bend. 

11. Optical Illusions, Patricia Jones, Aquinas Science Club, Washing- 
ton Catholic High School, Washington. 

12. The Effects of Ultra-Violet Light on the Amino Acid Require- 
ments of Colpidium, Paul Everman II, Natural Science Club, 
Arsenal Technical High School, Indianapolis. 

13. Some Behavioral Patterns of Baby Chicks, Elizabeth Johnson, 
MSE Academy Club, University Junior High School, Bloom- 
ington. 

14. A Study of Digital Computers, Dennis Henry, Up-N-Atom, Craw- 
fordsville High School, Crawfordsville. 

15. Uptake of Radioactive Elements in Coleus Plants, Patricia Kira, 
George Washington High School Science Club, George Washing- 
ton High School, Indianapolis. 

16. The Effects of Nutrition of Light on Euglena, Annette McMullen, 
Sigma Tau Science Club, St. Rose Academy, Vincennes. 

17. The Diesel Engine, Mike Bullock, Aquinas Science Club, Wash- 
ington Catholic High School, Washington. 



Junior Academy of Science 27 

18. Effect of Temperature on the Ventricular Beat of the Frog Heart, 
Kathryn Crider, North Central High School, Indianapolis. 

19. The Design, Construction, and Testing of a Liquid Propellant 
Laboratory Rocket, John Gaiser, Junior Academy Science Club, 
The University School, Bloomington. 

20. The Effects of Gibberellin on the Growth of Dodder, Pat Nowas- 
kie, Sigma Tau Science Club, St. Rose Academy, Vincennes. 

21. Resolution of Octyl Alcohol Secondary into its Optically Active 
Components, Frank Starkey, Science Club, George Washington 
High School, Indianapolis. 

22. Cloud Formations, Mary Jo Hooten, Aquinas Science Club, 
Washington Catholic High School, Washington. 

23. Endpoint Titration of T 2 Bacteriophage, Craig Johnson, Science 
Club, George Washington High School, Indianapolis. 

24. The Yeast Cell, Rosemary DeBeeze and Lauranne Lanning, 
Heterogeneous Geniuses, Academy of Immaculate Conception, 
Oldenburg. 

Minutes 

The twenty-ninth annual meeting of the Indiana Junior Academy of 
Science was held Saturday, October 21, 1961 in the Science building and 
the Auditorium of the Student Union Building of Indiana State College, 
Terre Haute, Indiana. 

Sixteen exhibits of science projects by high school students were 
displayed in Room 203, Science Building. Exhibits included the following: 
A Study of Digital Computers; An Electronically Controlled, Self-con- 
tained Robot; Insect Collections; Rocks, Minerals and Fossils; Paths of 
Pendulums; Growth Curves in Nature; Spectroscopy; Identifying Pollen 
from Peat and Spores from Coal in Indiana; Foreign Languages of 
Mathematics; A Mathematical Approach to Geotropism; The Effect of 
Temperature on the Ventricular Beat of the Frog's Heart; A Fork Type 
Equatorial Telescope Mount; Design, Construction and Testing of a 
Liquid Propellant; Uptake of Trace Elements in Coleus Plants; Deter- 
mination of the End-point Titration of T, Bacteriophage; Hydrolization 
of Starch by Salivary Amylase. 

Conferences in science and mathematics were held at 10:00 a.m. by 
members of the faculty of Indiana State College. The science areas rep- 
resented included biology, chemistry, geography and geology, mathe- 
matics, medicine, physics and psychology. Following the science confer- 
ences the Junior Academy Club members were conducted through the 
science laboratories of the college. The cooperation of the science faculty 
of Indiana State College in this program was greatly appreciated by club 
sponsors and members of the Junior Academy. 

The afternoon general session was held in the auditorium of the 
Student Union Building beginning at 1:45 p.m. President Stephen Ridg- 
way, Central Junior-Senior High School, South Bend, opened the meeting 
by introducing the Secretary, Margaret Weir, John Adams High School, 
South Bend. Vice-President Mark Schafer, Central Catholic High School, 
Fort Wayne, was not present. 



28 Indiana Academy of Science 

Following the introductions, President Ridgway called upon Dr. 
R. W. Holmstedt, President of Indiana State College, to welcome the 
Junior Academy on the occasion of its twenty-ninth annual meeting. 
President Holmstedt extended the greetings of the college to those present 
and he particularly emphasized the advantages to young students of 
getting an early start in education to become adequately prepared for 
scientific as well as other careers. 

Mr. Harry McDaniel, Kroger Grocery Company, Indianapolis, was 
called upon next to present the annual Kroger Awards. The first place 
award of $50 and a plaque was presented to Garfield High School, Terre 
Haute. Miss Grace DeVaney, Principal, accepted the award for the 
school. Two runner-up awards of $25 and a plaque were presented to 
both Schulte High School, Terre Haute, and Washington Township School, 
Logansport. Sister Thomas Mary accepted the award for Schulte High 
School and Washington Township School received the award in absentia. 
The Kroger awards are presented annually to the three top-ranking high 
schools for outstanding school science programs judged from self -evaluat- 
ing questionnaires sent to all Indiana high schools. 

The first item of business was the election of officers. A new system 
of balloting by mail was employed for the first time. A list of nominees 
submitted by club sponsors was prepared by the Junior Academy Council 
and sent to all Junior Academy Clubs. A brief outline of personal qualifi- 
cations of each candidate was included with the ballot. The ballots were 
mailed to the Council or could be delivered by a club representative at the 
meeting. The results of the election of officers for 1962 were as follows: 
President, Craig Johnson, Washington High School, Indianapolis; Vice- 
President, Janet Holscher, Saint Rose Academy, Vincennes; and Secre- 
tary, Kathryn Crider, North Central High School, Indianapolis. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Crider, Washington High School, Indianapolis, report- 
ing for the Council, announced that Miss Helen Reed, club sponsor, Junior 
Explorers of Science, Lebanon High School, Lebanon, was named the new 
council member to replace Mrs. Crider, Indianapolis, whose term expired 
this year. 

Award for the 'best boy" in science was received by Stephen Ridgway, 
Central Junior-Senior High School, South Bend. Patricia Kira, George 
Washington High School, Indianapolis, and Margaret Weir, John Adams 
High School, South Bend, tied for the "best girl" in science award. A cer- 
tificate of merit and a year's membership in the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science were presented to each of the above students. 
Dennis Henry, Crawfordsville High School, Crawfordsville, and Frances 
Walker, Washington Catholic High School, Washington, received honor- 
able mention and each was given a certificate of merit. 

Miss Rachel Mason, Pfizer Company, and Dr. D. F. Johnson, Indiana 
State College, served as judges for the best paper on bacteriology or 
microbiology. Since the judges were unable to attend the afternoon ses- 
sion, the papers were collected and mailed to them. An award of $25 is 
presented by the American Society of Bacteriologists to the student pre- 
senting the best paper. 

Professor H. H. Michaud, State Sponsor, Purdue University, ex- 
pressed appreciation on behalf of the Junior Academy of Science for the 



Junior Academy of Science 29 

excellent cooperation of Indiana State College in providing facilities for 
the meeting. Special recognition was given to Dr. William B. Hopp, 
Chairman, Department of Science of the College, for his efforts as local 
program chairman in making the program a success. Professor Michaud 
announced that the thirtieth annual fall meeting of the Junior Academy 
would be held at Evansville College, Evansville, on Saturday, October 
20, 1962. 

The 29th annual meeting of the Junior Academy of Science was 
attended by 230 registered members, sponsors and guests. A total of 
nineteen high schools were represented with club sponsors present from 
seventeen schools. Several visitors were present from Illinois. 

Twenty-one papers as listed on the program were read at the meeting. 
A brief review of each paper follows: 

"Growth Curves in Nature" was presented by Margaret Weir, John 
Adams High School, South Bend. In this project an experiment was made 
to discover if the growth curves of the common land snail, Helix Albo- 
labris, and the large sunflower, Helianthus Annuus, could be represented 
by mathematical equations. The equations used were the following: 
logarithmic equation, loger = aO, the Spiral of Archimedes, r = aO, the 
parabolic spiral, r 2 = a 2 ©, the law of natural growth, dx/x = kd&, and 
the geometric progression, tn = arn -1 . 

Through this experiment it may be concluded that these natural 
growth curves in nature, within the limits of reasonable error, can be 
represented by certain mathematical formulas, and that these mathemati- 
cal formulas can be graphed as spirals on the polar coordinate system. 

"Hydrolysis of Starch by Salivary Amylase," read by Dennis Panarisi, 
George Washington High School, Indianapolis, explained that hydrolysis 
is a process through which compounds are decomposed through removal 
of water. Salivary amylase is a substance of protein nature presented in 
saliva. It was concluded that salivary amylase does hydrolize starch much 
better than hydrochloric acid. 

In the "Image of a Scientist" Pam Parker, University Junior High 
School, Bloomington, was interested in how the average student pictures 
a scientist. She circulated a twenty question poll to 500 students. Some 
of the opinions found were as follows : (a) one-half thought that scientists 
were indifferent; (b) three out of every four students thought scientists 
were Republicans; (c) many thought scientists believed in God, but were 
not religious; and (d) most thought scientists should marry although they 
make poor husbands and fathers. 

"A Study of the Protolytic Enzymes in the A. Caninum Hookworm" 
was presented by John Reuthe, Central High School, South Bend. The 
hypothesis made was that nematodes must excrete enzymes into the intes- 
tines of their hosts. He studied these enzymes after adding phenolphtha- 
lein indicator. He extracted the matter from the intestines, diluted it, and 
titrated it. A two percent casing was described. 

In the report on "Mathematical Approach to Geotropism" Gordon 
Clark, George Washington High School, Indianapolis, explained that 
geotropism is a living thing's reaction to gravity. In 1805 the theory was 
stated that gravity is the strongest tropism to plants. Roots respond to 
gravity by growing downward; leaves and stems respond by growing 



30 Indiana Academy of Science 

upward. The purpose of this experiment was to prove the following : 

(a) if plants are grown under specified conditions, the results can be 

predicted; and (b) this predication can be made from Einstein's Principle. 

Coleus, periwinkle, and rye grass were grown in a container on a 

turntable. The stems bent toward the center, especially at first. These 

g 
results could also be determined with Knight's formula, tan © = — . 

"Developing a Variety of Staphylococcus aureus that is Resistant to 
Penicillin" was the topic presented by Janet Holscher, St. Rose Academy, 
Vincennes. She said that one Staphylococcus aureus cell is about one 
micron in diameter. The cells are non-spore forming, extremely hardy, 
and can be frozen, dehydrated, and stored for future use. Thus, Staphy- 
lococcus aureus seemed to be a good bacteria to work with. The bacteria 
cultures were grown in test tubes with a Triptas Phosphate broth as the 
medium. Various concentrations of penicillin were added a little at a time. 
In those tubes where a diluted form of penicillin was added, the culture 
continued to grow. These resistant strains may represent a genetic muta- 
tion. Thus it may be concluded that these forms of bacteria in the human 
body may also become resistant to antibiotics. 

"Radio Telescopes" were discussed by Stephen Ridgway, Central 
High School, South Bend. For his project he planned to construct a radio 
telescope to receive radio transmissions from the sun and to study solar 
radiations. A converter will lower the number of megacycles from 1,000 
to fourteen. He plans to measure the intensity of output from the sun with 
the radio telescope while photographing eruptions simultaneously on the 
sun's surface with his regular telescope. By examining the intensity of 
radio output as measured on a graph with the sequence of photographs of 
the solar surface, he hopes to learn more about the nature of solar radiation. 

"Identifying Pollen from Peat and Spores from Coal of Indiana" was 
the title of the paper read by Thomas Bose, Westlane Junior High School, 
Indianapolis. Peat samples were taken from the Fox Ferry Bog. The peat 
was oxidized with a concentrated form of nitric acid to break it down. 
However, the coal was not oxidized. Samples of all nine types of coal in 
Indiana were examined. The coal and peat were examined under the 
microscope, and the numbers of spores were counted and recorded. 

In coal, oak pollen grains were most abundant. However, in the fourth 
level coal, pine pollen grains seemed to be the most common. The presence 
of walnut, maple and elm pollen grains indicated that the climate was 
getting warmer. 

"The Effect of Temperature Variations on the Frog's Pulse Rate" 
was the research study reported by Frank Steiner, Central High School, 
South Bend. The hypothesis made was that the rate of the frog's heart 
beat varies directly with the temperature, except at those temperatures 
when the frog naturally hibernates or estevates. The brain and spinal cord 
were destroyed and the chest was cut open. Various compounds were used 
to stimulate the heart. The temperature and heartbeat rate were taken 
every two minutes. A metal drum with a pen attached recorded the results 
on a sheet of graph paper. The original hypothesis was found to be true. 

Patricia Jones, Washington Catholic High School, Washington, re- 
ported on "Optical Illusions." She said that normal illusions are experi- 
enced by people with normal eyes such as things further away looking 



Junior Academy of Science 31 

smaller and darker objects looking smaller than light objects. However, 
some illusions are merely mistakes. Thus, scientists make several tests 
and tabulate the results in order to account for optical illusions. 

"Some Behavioral Patterns of Baby Chicks" was discussed by Eliza- 
beth Johnson, University High School, Bloomington. The hypothesis 
stated was that chicks hatched in a dark incubator would still react nor- 
mally when they heard and saw the mother hen. A wooden duck was placed 
a few feet from the chickens. If the baby chicks advanced toward the 
duck they were given a " + ", and if they did not advance they were given 
a " — ". The chicks were given three minutes to respond. Next the same 
type of experiment was made to see what reaction the chicks had to the 
clucking of a hen. The following data were collected: (a) Wooden duck, 
(1) 90% given "+", (2) 10% advanced slightly; (b) Clucking, (1) 50% 
given a " + " rating, (2) 45% failed to react, (3) 5% given a " — " rating. 
The difference of a few hours of the age of the chicks might have caused 
the variations in the reactions. 

"A Study of Digital Computers" was the topic read by Dennis Henry, 
Crawfordsville High School, Crawfordsville. He found that an analog 
computer is more exact but that it takes longer to give answers, while the 
digital computer gives its answers in seconds. The answer is fed into the 
computer through a telephone dial, a photoelectric relay, and a magnetic 
tape recorder. The maximum number the computer can accommodate is 
99. The panel lights on the front tell what is going on inside the computer. 
The answers are given in binary code. Dennis said that he made an elec- 
tronic decimal computer which cost about $300. The Junior Academy paid 
$85.00 of this expense. Electronic computers are fast, light weight, easy 
to carry, but not as accurate as a mechanical computer. 

"Uptake of Radioactive Elements in Coleus Plants" was discussed by 
Patricia Kira, George Washington High School, Indianapolis. In this 
experiment Patricia wanted to learn more about the trace elements and 
some other elements in plants. She said that about sixty different elements 
have been identified in plants: Zinc 65, Iron 55, Sulfur 35, and phosphorus 
32, were some of the radioactive elements used in this experiment. The 
elements were introduced into the roots of seven Coleus plants. An eighth 
Coleus plant was used as a control and received no trace elements. The 
plants were put on aluminum foil in glass jars and left for 48 hours. Then 
the plants were tested with a geiger counter to see where the trace elements 
had settled. The following discoveries were made : the phosphorus settled 
throughout the entire plant; only a trace of iron is necessary in plants; 
and zinc is related to the formation of chlorophyll in some unknown way. 
From her experiment Patricia concluded that trace elements are necessary 
for the growth and development of plants, and that certain elements are 
found in the roots while other elements are found only in the stems and 
leaves. 

"The Effects of Nutrition of Light on Euglena" was the subject re- 
ported by Annette McMullen, St. Rose Academy, Vincennes. She described 
Euglena as one celled organisms which contain chlorophyll and are half- 
way between a plant and an animal. Four cultures were placed under an 
ultraviolet light for forty days and then under regular light. The cultures 
under ultraviolet light were not as dark and did not increase as fast. 



32 Indiana Academy of Science 

However, these cultures became green again and grew quickly when they 
were returned to normal light. The cultures that were grown in darkness 
died. Also, lights of different colors affected the Euglena cultures in 
various ways. Under red light the cultures reproduced faster, but had 
water formations. Under blue-green light growth was retarded and the 
cultures were gray. Blue light seemed to destroy the chlorophyll. 

"The Diesel Engine" was the next paper read by Mike Bullock, Wash- 
ington Catholic High School, Washington. He explained that in a diesel 
engine air is admitted or sucked into the starting piston where it is com- 
pressed to 500 pounds per square inch under an increased temperature of 
800 to 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Oil is forced into the chamber which 
pushes the piston down and the power stroke starts. 

In the "Effect of Temperature on the Ventricular Beat of the Frog 
Heart" Kathryn Crider, North Central High School, Indianapolis, said 
that in this experiment the frog was dissected and various fluids were 
introduced into the ventricular muscle to raise or lower the temperature 
of the heart. The temperature was varied from 2 to 62 degrees Fahren- 
heit. At 2 degrees the heart beat was sluggish and at 42 degrees it was 
irregular. The most activity occurred between 12 and 32 degrees. The 
heart beat stopped at low temperatures because of the formation of ice 
crystals. It was concluded that the heart beat rate was directly propor- 
tional to temperature, and the length of each beat was inversely propor- 
tional to the temperature. 

A paper on "The Design, Construction and Testing of a Liquid Pro- 
pellant Laboratory Rocket" was read by John Gaiser, University School, 
Bloomington. He said when liquid oxygen passes through ethanol, it 
condenses. Thus he had to use certain compressors. He changed the design 
of the rocket three times because he could not obtain certain compressors. 

In a research project on "The Effects of Gibberellin on the Growth of 
Dodder" Pat Nowaskie, St. Rose Academy, Vincennes, reported that dodder 
is a parasitic flowering plant which entwines itself about its host. One 
plant produces about 300 black seeds a year. Dodder infests plants such 
as wheat and clover. Some dodder seeds were soaked in a growth stimulus 
while others were not. All these seeds were planted with clover. The 
following observations were made: (a) Dodder seeds soaked in a growth 
stimulus germinated immediately and stopped growth after three weeks, 
but later resumed growth; and (b) Dodder seeds not soaked in the growth 
stimulus took longer to germinate, but eventually grew better. 

The next topic discussed was "Resolution of Octyl Alcohol Secondary 
into Its Optically Active Components" by Frank Starkey, George Wash- 
ington High School, Indianapolis. Using a material which has no effect 
upon a beam of polarized light he separated it into two substances. One 
of the substances rotated a beam of polarized light to the left and was 
referred to as the levorotary. The other substance rotated a beam of 
polarized light to the right and it is known as the dextrorotary. Octyl 
alcohol secondary was the optically inactive substance, dextrorotary and 
levorotary form by fractional crystallization. Diffuse salts were usually 
used to yield dextrorotary octyl alchol and levorotary octyl alcohol. 

"Cloud Formations" were discussed by Mary Jo Hooten, Washington 
Catholic High School, Washington. She said that clouds, which are made 



Junior Academy of Science 



33 



up of water particles smaller than those in fog, never form in the strato- 
sphere because of the lack of water vapor. She described the four types 
of clouds as follows: (a) Cirrus clouds, often transparent, are composed 
of slender crystals of ice and often predict fair weather; (b) Cumulus are 
massive, low hanging clouds that develop locally, but rise to great heights. 
They are most common and also indicate fair weather; (c) Stratus clouds 
are grey, flat, and low hanging; and (d) Nimbus are dark grey clouds 
from which rain or snow is falling. 

The last paper on "Endpoint Titration of T, Bacteriophage" by Craig 
Johnson, George Washington High School, Indianapolis, explained that 
T 2 is a virus which eats bacteria. A phage is an organism that eats bac- 
teria. T2 is protein coated and hexagonally shaped. This bacteriophage 
has a hollow tail and DNA inside. If scientists could discover what DNA 
is, they would know the secret of life. In destroyed bacteria T 2 attaches 
its tail to the cell wall, then the enzymes in the tail destroy the cell wall 
and DNA destroys the cell nucleus. 

In his experiment, Craig tried to concentrate the bacteriophage into 
the smallest amount of liquid possible. He used Escherichia coli for the 
bacteria because T 2 does not attack it. Escherichia coli in liquid form was 
added to different dilutions of the phage, and the mixture was filtered. 
The virus particles remained on the filter. On the sixth day the end point 
of titration was reached; that is, a certain amount of liquid held the 
maximum number of virus particles that it could. 

In the future, Craig said he hopes to inject the phage into a rabbit 
and study the effect of the injection. 

Following the reading of papers, the meeting was adjourned at 4:30 
p.m. 

INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE CLUBS 

1960-1961 



Town School and Club 

Acton Franklin Central, Sigma Mu (1958) 

Bloomington H. S., National Scientific Honor 

Society (1931) 
Bloomington M.S.E. Club, University Jr. H. S. 

(1960) 
Bloomington University H. S. Jr. Academy 

(1938) 
Chesterton H. S. Science (1954) 

Clarksville Our Lady of Providence H. S., 

Phy-Chem (1956) 
Clayton H. S., Jr. Academy (1951) 

Connersville Alquina H. S., Science Club (1960) 
Columbus Junior H. S., Science Club (1959) 

Crawfordsville H. S., Up-N-Atom (1950) 
Edinburg H. S., The Alchemists (1954) 

Elkhart H. S., Jr. Academy (1940) 

Evansville Reitz Memorial H. S., Phi Chi Mu 

(1958) 



Sponsor 
Jerry Colglazier 
Merril L. Crisler 

Chas. Souers 

Don R. Winslow 

Robert McCord 
John Chilks 

Howard C. Leslie 
Walter Gronning 
Albert Sheets, Jr. 
David Wells 
S. C. Harrell 
Robert Mahan 
Sr. Francetta 
Sr. Peter 



34 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Town 


School and Club 


Sponsor 


Fort Wayne 


Central H. S., Biology (1940) 


Iva Spangler 


Fort Wayne 


Central Catholic H. S,, Albertus 


Sr. M. Magdelen, S. P. 




Magnus Science Club (1952) 


Sr. J. Margaret S. P. 


Fort Wayne 


Elmhurst H. S., Phy-Chem (1935) 


Ruth Wimmer 


Fort Wayne 


North Side H. S., Nature (1936) 


Vesta Thompson 


Fort Wayne 


South Side H. S., Jr. Academy of 


Robert Weber 




Science (1956) 


Don Weaver 


Gary 


Lew Wallace H. S., Biology (1935) 


Lola Lemon 


Gary 


Lew Wallace H. S., Klub Kern 
(1941) 


Mrs. Helen McKenzie 


Gary 


Tolleston H. S., Biology (1952) 


John Reidel 


Gary 


Tolleston H. S. Future Scientists 
of America (1949) 


Arthur Kline 


Gary 


Wirt H. S., Biology (1945) 


Mrs. F. Huddleston 


Gas City 


Mississinewa Joint H. S. Science 
(1936) 


Roy McKee 


Griffith 


H. S., Science (1953) 


George M. Bunce 


Hamlet 


H. S., Science (1954) 


Lawrence Cushman 


Hobart 


H. S., Science (1952) 


Lola Stewart 


Indianapolis 


Ladywood School, Guerin Science 


Sr. Pauline Marie 




Club (1957) 


Sr. Louise 


Indianapolis 


St. Agnes Academy, Science (1959) Sr. Amelia 


Indianapolis 


Shortridge H. S., Naturalists' Club Robert A. Weaver 




(1947) 




Indianapolis 


Shortridge H. S., Science (1931) 


Mrs. H. A. Parker 


Indianapolis 


Technical H. S., Nature (1932) 


Chas. E. Russell 


Indianapolis 


Howe H. S., Science (1949) 


Jerry Motley 


Indianapolis 


Washington H. S., Science (1931) 


Mrs. E. H. Crider 


Indianapolis 


Westlane Jr. H. S., Science (1959) 


John Van Sickle 


Jeffersonville 


Clark & Floyd County Seminar 


Harold E. Cook 




(1959) 


1019 Springdale Dr. 
Jeffersonville, Ind. 


LaPorte 


H. S., Bi-Phi-Chem (1958) 


Francis M. Gourley 
Byron Bernard 


Lebanon 


H. S., Jr. Explorers of Science 
(1953) 


Helen Reed 


Loogootee 


St. John H. S., Science (1959) 


Sr. Mary Ellen 


Madison 


Fr. Michael Shawe Memorial High 
School, Shawe Science Club 
(1957) 


T. A. Winkel 


Mishawaka 


H. S., Science (1936) 




New Albany 


H. S., Science (1935) 


Erwin Steinkamp 


New Castle 


H. S., Science (1947) 


Betty Jo Montag 


New Haven 


H. S., Phi-Chi (1954) 


Keith Hunnings 


Oldenburg 


Imm. Conception Academy, 

Heterogeneous Geniuses (1958) 


Sr. M. Constance 


Richmond 


H. S., Science (1950) 


Von Alexander 


Rossville 


H. S., Science (1954) 


Martin Silverthorn 


Sandborn 


H. S., Up and Atom (1954) 


Paul Carter 



Junior Academy of Science 



35 



South Bend Central H. S., JETS (1939) V. C. Cripe 

South Bend John Adams H. S., Adams Walton Ernest Litweiler 

(1953) 
Terre Haute Schulte H. S., Pius X Science Sr. Thomas Mary 

Teens (1961) 
Vincennes St. Rose Academy, Sigma Tau Sister Suzanne 

(1959) 
Washington Washington Catholic H. S., Sr. Marian Francis 

Aquinas Science (1958) 



NECROLOGY 

Will E. Edington, DePauw University 



Herman Thompson Briscoe 

Shoals, Indiana Indianapolis, Indiana 

November 6, 1893 October 8, 1960 

Every college or university in the course of time has staff members 
who acquire outstanding reputations on a national or more limited basis 
as teachers, researchers or administrators, but seldom is such a member 
recognized as superior in all three fields of academic endeavor. Herman T. 
Briscoe was such a man at Indiana University where he rendered 38 years 
of service. He was an excellent teacher, author or joint author of 35 
research papers and three college textbooks, honored by the University 
student body twice through the award of the Leather Medal for the 
greatest contribution to the University and the Brown Derby as the most 
popular Faculty member, and finally, called by President Herman B Wells 
"The wisest educational university administrator in America." 

Herman Thompson Briscoe was born in Shoals, Indiana, on Novem- 
ber 6, 1893, and he received his elementary and high school education there. 
Following his graduation from Shoals High School he entered Indiana 
University and received the A.B. degree in 1917. Before receiving the 
degree he had taught some in Shoals High School and following the degree 
he was Superintendent of the Shoals Public Schools until he entered the 
army in 1918. He served as a private in the 84th Division, U. S. Infantry, 
but he was given an assignment as a research chemist with the Hercules 
Powder Co. 

Following his discharge from the army in 1919 he was a teacher in 
Stark's Military Academy in Montgomery, Alabama, for a brief time and 
then spent the school year 1919-1920 as Austin Teaching Fellow at Har- 
vard University. He served the next two years as an instructor in chem- 
istry at Colby College in Maine. In the Fall of 1922 he returned to Indiana 
University as a graduate student and instructor in chemistry and received 
the M.A. degree in 1923 and the Ph.D. degree in 1924. From then on he 
served Indiana University until his death in the Robert W. Long Hospital 
in Indianapolis on October 8, 1960, following a heart attack on Septem- 
ber 30. 

He was appointed Assistant Professor of Chemistry at Indiana Uni- 
versity in 1924, promoted to Associate Professor two years later and made 
Professor in 1928. He became Chairman of the Department of Chemistry 
in 1938, following the appointment of Dean Herman B Wells as President 
of Indiana University in March, 1938. President Wells appointed Dr. 
Briscoe to the University's Self-Survey Committee and made him his 
special Administrative Assistant in charge of the "newly established stu- 
dent guidance program" that later became the Junior Division. In 1939 
he was appointed Dean of Faculties, a newly established office, and in 
1940 he was also made Vice President of the University. He gave up the 
chairmanship of the Department of Chemistry in 1941 and devoted his 

36 



Necrology 37 

time to administrative work as Dean of Faculties and Vice President 
until his retirement at the age of 65 in June, 1959. 

He had established a home in Sarasota, Florida, several years before 
his retirement where he spent the summer of 1959 before returning to 
Indiana University that Fall as consultant to the President and to retain 
his title of Professor of Chemistry and occasionally to teach a freshman 
chemistry course until he reached the teaching retirement age of 70. 
Before his retirement, through the urgent requests of alumni of the 
College of Arts and Sciences and the Graduate School, he permitted the 
Brown County artist, Marie Goth, to paint his portrait which was pre- 
sented to the University at the 1959 Commencement Exercises. 

On April 12, 1960, Dean Briscoe was the principal speaker at a 
''silver awards" banquet honoring eleven faculty members of the School 
of Business who had served the University 25 or more years. 

Besides his research papers Dean Briscoe was author of the text- 
books: "Qualitative Chemical Analysis," 1931; "The Structure and Prop- 
erties of Matter," 1935; and "General Chemistry for Colleges," 1937. He 
was also chief editor for books on chemistry published by the Houghton- 
Mifflin Publishing Co. In 1942, during World War II, he served as Dean 
of the School of Business for a time, and in Washington he served as 
Chief of the Division of Professional and Technical Training in the War- 
Manpower Commission from 1942 to 1944. 

Dean Briscoe had been a member and Fellow of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science since 1934. He also held member- 
ships in the American Chemical Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, 
Tau Kappa Alpha, Phi Lambda Upsilon, Alpha Chi Sigma, and the social 
fraternity Lambda Chi Alpha. He was a Mason and a member of the 
Methodist Church. He was listed in Who's Who in America and American 
Men of Science. 

He joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1925 and was made a 
Fellow in 1935. Before his appointment as Vice President of the Univer- 
sity he presented six joint papers before the Academy, five of which were 
published in the Proceedings. He served as Chairman of the Chemistry 
Section of the Academy in 1939. 

Following his death, memorial exercises were held at Indiana Univer- 
sity at the same time that the funeral services were held at his home in 
Sarasota, Florida. As a permanent memorial to him, plans have been 
made by the University through the Indiana University Foundation to 
establish an endowed chair in chemistry to be known as the Herman T. 
Briscoe Memorial Professorship. 

With his death Herman T. Briscoe joins that great group of Indiana 
University scientists and immortals: Kirkwood, Jordan, Branner, Bryan, 
Eigenmann, Mottier, Rothrock, Foley, Moenkhaus, Lyons, Myers and 
Williams. 

Daniel DenUyl 

Holland, Michigan West Lafayette, Indiana 

March 25, 1898 September 21, 1961 

The Boy Scouts of America was incorporated on February 8, 1910. 
Since then millions of boys and men, not only in America but all over the 



38 Indiana Academy of Science 

non-Communist world, have recited its oath: "On my honor I will do my 
best: to do my duty to God and my country and to obey the Scout Law; to 
help other people at all times; to keep myself physically strong, mentally 
awake, and morally straight." Fifty years ago, in 1911, Daniel DenUyl, 
then a thirteen year old youth, took this oath and from that time on his 
life was lived according to those ideals. 

Daniel DenUyl was born in Holland, Michigan, on March 25, 1898. 
After completing his public school education he served as a 2nd Lieutenant 
in the Infantry, U. S. Army, in World War I during 1918-1919, and 
following his discharge he entered Michigan State College where he 
majored in forestry and received the B.S. degree in 1922. 

He began his career in forestry with two years of service from 1923 
to 1925 as a Junior Forester in the U. S. Forest Service in Washington, 
D. C, after which he spent a year in graduate study in Cornell University 
and received the M.S. degree in Forestry in 1926. He served the next two 
years as a District Forester in the State of Missouri. In 1928 he accepted 
an instructorship in Forestry at Purdue University where he spent the 
rest of his life and was an Associate Professor of Forestry at the time of 
his death from cancer on September 21, 1961. 

Daniel DenUyl was a true woodsman. He knew and loved his trees 
and his principal recreation through the years was derived from a small 
wooded plot of several acres with a stream running through it, located 
several miles from his home, where he and his family spent their weekends 
and frequently entertained friends with picnic suppers on Sunday after- 
noons. 

He early became associated with Charles C. Deam and despite the 33 
years difference in their ages these two men became intimate friends. 
Dr. Deam was Indiana's first State Forester and was still active in the 
State forestry service when DenUyl came to Purdue. Deam's rugged 
honesty and outspoken aversion to sham and pretense impressed and 
strongly appealed to the younger man and, following Deam's death in 
1953, DenUyl wrote a most sympathetic and understanding memorial, 
published in Volume 63 of the Proceedings of the Academy, which not only 
showed the close friendship of the two men but also reflected the ideals 
that guided Daniel DenUyl in his life's work. 

DenUyl joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1938 and was made 
a Fellow in 1949. He became one of the most active members in the 
Academy, serving on the important Relation of Academy to State Com- 
mittee in 1949 and 1950, Chairman of the Botany Section in 1953 and the 
History of Science Section in 1957, and on the Membership Committee in 
1959. He presented fifteen papers before the Academy, eleven of which 
were published in the Proceedings. 

He was much concerned with conservation and reforestation and he 
did much research on the reforestation of eroded and marginal land and 
the waste land in the strip coal mining areas of the State. His results 
were published in Bulletins issued by the Purdue University Agricultural 
Station and other forestry periodicals. Following twenty years of study 
he published a bulletin in 1958 on the growth and development of wood- 
lands in Indiana, particularly the hardwoods. He also did research on 
Christmas trees and was a past president of the National and Indiana 



Necrology 39 

Christmas Tree Growers Association. He was a member of the Society of 
American Foresters and the Sigma Xi scientific society, and he was listed 
in American Men of Science and Who's Who in Indiana. 

Daniel DenUyl felt a deep responsibility toward working for a better 
world. He was a sincere, dedicated humanist. Long a member of Central 
Presbyterian Church in Lafayette, he transferred his membership and 
became a leader in the organization and subsequent construction of the 
beautiful church edifice for the Covenant Presbyterian Church located in 
West Lafayette in order better to serve the student need. His extracur- 
ricular activities were largely devoted to serving college youth. He was 
early a member of Alpha Phi Omega, the national scouting service fra- 
ternity which has chapters in 300 American colleges and universities. 
His work brought him national recognition as he moved up through the 
ranks of Alpha Phi Omega. From a local chapter counselor he ultimately 
became a Director, First Vice President and finally President of this 
organization and was a member of its National Executive Board at the 
time of his death. In recognition of his distinguished service in Scouting 
he was awarded in 1956 the Silver Antelope, the highest Regional honor 
granted by the Boy Scouts of America. 

In civic work he was active in the Lafayette Lions Club and served a 
term as its president. He was also a member of the Sigma Pi social 
fraternity. 

A few months before his death an issue of the Purdue Log, published 
by the Purdue forestry students, was dedicated to Daniel DenUyl in 
recognition of his contributions to forestry. Following his death it was 
his wish that his friends use the money that might be spent for flowers as 
contributions to the Covenant Presbyterian Church in the purchase of 
memorial pews, which resulted in the gift of two complete pews. 

In the death of Daniel DenUyl Purdue University and the State have 
lost an excellent and conscientious scientist and the Indiana Academy of 
Science has lost a faithful, active member. He will also be long remem- 
bered for his devotion and contributions to youth welfare. 

Henry Bernhardt Froning 

Sebastian, Ohio South Bend, Indiana 

September 7, 1884 October 18, 1960 

Notre Dame University, following the lead of Indiana and Purdue 
Universities, has come a long way during the past thirty years in the 
development of its graduate school program. In the early 1930's Father 
Julius A. Nieuwland had centered the scientific eyes of the nation on him 
because of his work in the development of Duprene, the synthetic rubber 
so important in World War II, and at the time of his death in 1936 he 
had surrounded himself with fifteen graduate students in chemistry. 
Father Nieuwland had been Dean of the School of Science from 1918 to 
1922, and his successor was Father Francis J. Wenninger who during the 
years before his death eighteen years later set about building up the 
graduate standards and offerings. He brought in Edward G. Mahin in 
Metallurgy in 1925, Theodor Just in Botany and Lawrence A. Baldinger 
in Pharmacy in 1929, James A. Reyniers in Bacteriology in 1931, Arthur 



40 Indiana Academy of Science 

E. Haas, renowned Theoretical Physicist, in 1936, Karl Menger and Emil 
Artin in Mathematics in 1937. 

The Head of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering 
during all this period was Henry Bernhardt Froning, a biochemist, who 
had come to Notre Dame in 1920 as Professor of Chemistry to take charge 
of those departments. Following the death of Father Wenninger in Feb- 
ruary, 1940, Professor Froning was appointed Dean of the College of 
Science, and under his guidance the Department of Chemistry, in 1941- 
1942, became the first department at Notre Dame to offer a regular pro- 
gram for the doctorate. However, the Ph.D. had been conferred earlier 
at Notre Dame, for Professors Menger and Artin had directed the work 
of a candidate for that degree in mathematics that was conferred in 1938. 

Dean Froning had scarcely received his new appointment when his 
wife passed away in April, 1940. The shock of her death caused a duode- 
nal ulcer condition, from which he had suffered, to flare up. This condition 
was further aggravated by the tensions of World War II and the strain 
of the reorganization of graduate study at Notre Dame and led to his 
taking a leave of absence during the year 1942-1943. His recovery was 
slow and he resigned in 1943, as Emeritus Dean, bringing to an end his 
active work as a teacher and administrator. His successor was Dr. Law- 
rence W. Baldinger who had served as acting Dean during Dean Froning's 
leave of absence. 

Henry Bernhardt Froning was born on September 7, 1884, in Sebas- 
tian, Ohio, where he attended the elementary school. He then entered the 
preparatory department of St. Joseph's College in Rensselaer, Indiana. 
Since it was necessary for him to earn most of his own way, the years 
following his graduation from the preparatory department were divided 
between teaching and attending college. He taught in the one-room public 
schools in Mercer County, Ohio, did college work in both Lima College 
and St. Joseph's College, served as Principal of Minster, Ohio, High 
School one year, and in 1908 received the A.B. degree from both Lima 
College and St. Joseph's College. 

He entered Catholic University of America in Washington, D. C, in 
1909 as a graduate assistant in chemistry and spent two years there. In 
1911 he became a graduate assistant at Ohio State University and received 
the M.A. degree in 1912. The following year he spent in graduate study 
at Johns Hopkins University, after which he returned to Ohio State in 
1914 as an instructor in bacteriology. He was later promoted to Assistant 
Professor of Bacteriology, and in 1918 he was made Assistant Professor 
of Biochemistry. In 1919 he accepted a position with the Nizer Labora- 
tories, Inc., in Detroit, Michigan, as a research chemist and bacteriologist, 
and a year later he came to Notre Dame. 

After his retirement in 1943 he devoted the next three years to 
recovering his health but he kept up his reading in chemistry. He remar- 
ried in June, 1946, and he and his wife spent the next five years in travel 
and extended visits with the families of his three sons and two daughters. 
He returned to South Bend in 1951 where he resided until his death on 
October 18, 1960, but his failing health did not permit his return on 
academic work. 



Necrology 41 

He was the first recipient, in 1929, of the Notre Dame Faculty Award. 
He had also served as a juror on Notre Dame's Laetare Award Committee 
which since 1883 has awarded the Laetare Medal to outstanding Catholic 
laymen. In 1940 Dean Froning received the honorary LL.D. degree from 
St. Vincent's College in Latrobe, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Froning was a member of the American Chemical Society and 
had served as a Counselor for its St. Joseph Valley Section. He also held 
membership in Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft, American Society for 
the Promotion of Engineering Education, Indiana Chemical Society, New 
York Academy of Science, Phi Lambda Upsilon and Sigma Xi. He was a 
Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists and the Chemical Society 
of London. 

He joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1920 and was made a 
Fellow in 1935. He wrote the Academy Memorial in 1936 for his friend 
and colleague, Father Nieuwland. 

Henry B. Froning, in his active days, was an able teacher, adminis- 
trator and scientist. Since his death the Froning Memorial Trophy has 
been set up at Notre Dame in his honor as an annual award at the Science 
Fair. 

John Anthony Molter 

Plymouth, Indiana Portland, Oregon 

November 5, 1905 October 27, 1960 

Reverend John Anthony Molter, C.S.C., was a highly trained biologist 
who dedicated his life to teaching. He was born on November 5, 1905 in 
Plymouth, Indiana. Completing the elementary work of the local paro- 
chial school at the age of fourteen, he entered Holy Cross Seminary at 
Notre Dame in 1920 and during the next four years he definitely deter- 
mined to enter the priesthood. After a year's novitiate he made his first 
profession in July, 1925. He entered Moreau Seminary, Notre Dame, for 
his college work. He made his final profession in July, 1928, and received 
the B.A. degree from Notre Dame in 1929. 

Anticipating a considerable period of study both in theology and 
science he remained at Notre Dame for another year taking basic biology 
courses. In 1930 he entered Holy Cross College, Catholic University of 
America, Washington, D. C, where he completed his theological study for 
the priesthood and was ordained in 1933. He continued his theological 
studies for another year and then began work on two years of scientific 
study in Catholic University of America where he received the M.S. degree 
in 1936. 

He returned to Notre Dame in 1936 and taught for three years as an 
instructor in biology. In 1939 he entered the University of Pennsylvania 
to work for the doctorate. He studied there four years and spent the 
summers from 1939 to 1943 in the Woods Hole Laboratories. He then 
returned to Notre Dame as Assistant Professor of Biology, where he 
completed his thesis requirements and received the Ph.D. degree in Physi- 
ology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1944. 

In 1945 he was assigned to the University of Portland, Oregon, 
another university like Notre Dame under the auspices of the Congrega- 



42 Indiana Academy of Science 

tion of the Holy Cross. He went to Portland as Professor of Biology and 
a few years later he was made Dean of the College of Science. In 1954 he 
was appointed Dean of the Graduate School. 

Father Molter was an excellent teacher and administrator. He insisted 
on high quality work and graded accordingly. He was also a sincere and 
effective preacher who spoke his convictions without fear or rancor and he 
held the respect and admiration of his students and others. In his last 
years he had a cardiac condition so that his work was lightened. His death 
occurred on October 27, 1960, shortly after he had left his classroom and 
turned his laboratory work over to a colleague. 

Father Molter joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1937, but 
he was unable to be active in the Academy because of his graduate study 
in Pennsylvania and his assignment to the University of Portland. How- 
ever, he was another scientific leader like Fathers Nieuwland and Wen- 
ninger, both prominent in the Academy, who successfully worked in both 
science and religion and who, like them, died in his fifties at the height of 
his career. 

Harry James Reed 

Paris, Illinois West Lafayette, Indiana 

February 9, 1887 November 5, 1960 

It is difficult to realize what tremendous strides have been made in 
American agriculture during the past century. Much of this was made 
possible through the Morrill Act of 1862, leading to the founding of 69 
Land-Grant Colleges such as, among others, Cornell University in 1865, 
University of Illinois in 1867, Iowa State and Purdue in 1869. Also the 
development of the gasoline engine and the abundance and consequent 
cheapness of our petroleum products have led to an economical mechaniza- 
tion of the farm so that the farmer today spends four minutes in raising 
a bushel of corn compared to five man-hours a century ago. But the most 
important factor was the imagination and acuity of research administra- 
tors and workers. During the past forty years Harry James Reed earned 
an international reputation as an agricultural leader and administrator. 

Harry James Reed was born on a farm near Paris, Illinois, on Feb- 
ruary 9, 1887. While he was still a boy his family moved to Indianapolis 
where he graduated from Shortridge High School. He entered Purdue and 
received the B.S. in Agriculture in 1911. The following two years he was 
employed as a farm manager for the Southern Indiana Orchard Company 
in Harrison County. Shortly after the organization of the Agricultural 
Extension Service in Indiana he was appointed in 1913 county agricultural 
agent for Parke County, being the third agent to be appointed in the State. 
Three years later he returned to Purdue as an Associate in Agriculture 
and in 1917 he was appointed Assistant Director of the Purdue Experi- 
ment Station in charge of the University's horticultural farms near the 
campus. He was made Farm Director the next year. When Dean John H. 
Skinner's health began to fail in 1938, Harry Reed was made Acting-Direc- 
tor of the Experiment Station and following Dean Skinner's retirement 
on July 1, 1939, Reed was appointed Dean of the School of Agriculture 
and Director of the Agricultural Extension Service, which positions he 



Necrology 43 

held until his retirement as Emeritus Dean of Agriculture in 1957. Harry 
Reed was the second Dean of Agriculture at Purdue and the total service 
of Skinner and Reed as Deans was fifty years. 

Following Reed's retirement U. S. Secretary of Agriculture Ezra 
Taft Benson appointed him Coordinator of the Rural Development Pro- 
gram devised to unify Federal, State and private agencies in building up 
the lower income rural areas of the United States. This work required 
him to travel frequently between Lafayette and Washington, D. C. He 
continued as Coordinator up until the time of his death in West Lafayette 
on November 5, 1960. 

During his tenure as Dean he received State, national and interna- 
tional recognition. He worked with the State Board of Health on a com- 
prehensive rural health program. In 1956 he was appointed to the State 
Conservation Commission by Governor-elect Handley. He served on the 
Indiana Economic Council and from 1939 to 1957 he was a member of the 
Indiana State Fair Board. He served as Chairman of the National Insti- 
tute of Animal Agriculture from 1950 to 1957 and was a member of the 
International Livestock Exposition Board, the International Dairy Expo- 
sition Board, and the Board of Governors of the Refrigeration Research 
Foundation. From 1947 to 1953 he was a member of the Research and 
Marketing Act Advisory Committee and in 1952-1953 he was a member of 
Agricultural Advisory Committee of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
In 1953 he was leader of the U. S. Mission to Pakistan during the drought 
there that led to America's gift of 700,000 tons of wheat to that nation. 
The following year he headed the American Agricultural Trade Mission 
to Latin America seeking a greater market for our farm products in the 
Central and South American countries. He also served as Vice Chairman 
of the American Institute of Cooperation. 

Dean Reed received a number of honors during the last dozen years 
of his life. In 1948 the Purdue Agricultural Alumni Association awarded 
him its Certificate of Distinction as its founder and president for three 
years and "for outstanding service to agriculture beyond the call of duty." 
North Carolina State College conferred the Doctor of Science degree on 
him in 1950 and Purdue honored him with the Doctor of Agriculture 
degree in 1958. In 1955 he became the second Hoosier to receive the highest 
award given by the American Farm Bureau Federation for distinguished 
service to agriculture. The American Meat Institute, in 1959, gave him 
its highest honor, the Animal Agriculture Award. 

He held memberships in the American Society of Horticultural 
Science, the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and the 
American Genetics Society. He joined the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science in 1924 and was made a Fellow in 1927. He was 
a member of Epsilon Sigma Pi and Alpha Zeta honorary fraternities, Phi 
Gamma Delta social fraternity, the West Lafayette Masonic Lodge and 
the Scottish Rite in Indianapolis. He was also a member of the Central 
Presbyterian Church in Lafayette. 

Dean Reed joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1923 and was 
made a Fellow in 1936. Eli Lilly, President of the Academy in 1938, 
appointed him a member of the very important committee, Relation of 
Academy to State, and he served continuously until his death. While sel- 



44 Indiana Academy of Science 

dom able to attend meetings of the Academy, he was always interested in 
its work. In 1953 it was he who informed the Academy Necrologist of the 
death of the Academy Charter Member, George W. Benton. 

Harry James Reed served his State and country well. Indiana and 
the Purdue School of Agriculture made great progress under his leader- 
ship through his deep interest in fruit production, cattle breeding and 
agriculture in general, and particularly in the economic welfare of the 
Indiana farmer. His name will always stand high among our nation's 
agricultural leaders. 

Mary Louise Stork 

Louisville, Kentucky St. Petersburg, Florida 

December 16, 1900 June 1, 1961 

In May, 1852, just a few months before his death, Daniel Webster 
gave a speech in Faneuil Hall, Boston, "Cradle of American Liberty," 
eulogizing the founders of Massachusetts, in which he said: "If we work 
upon marble, it will perish; if we work upon brass, time will efface it; 
if we rear temples, they will crumble into dust; but if we work upon 
immortal minds, if we imbue them with principles, with the just fear of 
God and love of our fellowmen, we engrave on those tablets something 
which will brighten to eternity." Mary Louise Stork, a teacher of biologi- 
cal sciences for thirty-seven years and a religious worker with an active 
concern for human welfare all her adult life, believed and exemplified this 
ideal. 

She was born on December 16, 1900, in Louisville, Kentucky, and was 
an only child. The family moved to Evansville where Miss Stork grad- 
uated from Central High School in 1918. She immediately entered DePauw 
University and received the A.B. degree in 1922. Later she completed the 
requirements for the Master of Science degree at Indiana University, 
which she received in 1935. 

In September, 1924, she accepted a position as a science teacher in 
Reitz High School, Evansville, and two years later was transferred to 
Central High School. She was a sympathetic, conscientious, effective 
teacher with a pleasing personality that won and held the high esteem of 
her fellow teachers and students. She made friends easily and possessed 
great vitality and was an active, enthusiastic worker not only profes- 
sionally but also in civic, church and social organizations. 

Professionally she was a member of the National Education Asso- 
ciation, Indiana State Teachers Association and the Evansville Teachers 
Association. She joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1935 because 
of her interest in biology, particularly ornithology. As an active member 
of the Indiana Audubon Society, she served on its State Executive Com- 
mittee. 

She took an active interest in the Evansville YWCA, served as a 
Board Member and Chairman of the Personnel Committee, and worked on 
the Membership Committee. 

Miss Stork was an active church worker in the Evansville Methodist 
Temple, serving as Secretary of its Official Board and as a member of its 
Building Committee in charge of the construction of the church edifice. 



Necrology 45 

She was also a charter member of its Wesleyan Service Guild and served 
a term as its President. 

While a student at DePauw she became affiliated with the Alpha Chi 
Omega social sorority and after her graduation she founded the Evansville 
Alumni Club of Alpha Chi Omega. Also she was a charter member of the 
Evansville chapter of the American Association of University Women. 

Miss Stork continued to teach in Central High School for thirty years. 
During this time she also taught for a short period in 1943 in Evansville 
College. She spent a number of her summers traveling in the United 
States and Canada. In 1938 she made a bicycle tour of England, Germany, 
Austria and France. She visited Mexico in 1941. She was a great lover 
of nature and an amateur ornithologist. 

She resigned at Central High School in 1956 to accept an instructor- 
ship in biology in St. Petersburg, Florida, Junior College, where she 
taught courses in zoology, botany, general biology and comparative verte- 
brate anatomy. She exhibited the same vitality and enthusiasm in St. 
Petersburg as had characterized her in Evansville, and continued her 
extracurricular activities. 

She joined the Florida Academy of Science and the Audubon Society 
of St. Petersburg. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Florida 
State Audubon Society she was active in establishing a scholarship at 
St. Petersburg Junior College for the Audubon Society. She became a 
member of the Florida Educational Association and the Pinellas County 
Classroom Teachers Association, and was active in the work of the 
Teachers of Science Division for the Science Fair. She transferred her 
church membership to the Christ Methodist Church and was active in its 
Wesleyan Service Guild. 

Her summers in Florida were spent in visiting its beaches, parks and 
other areas of scientific interest. 

Following her death in St. Petersburg on June 1, 1961, her DePauw 
University classmates, recognizing her worth and success as a teacher 
and excellent citizen, established the Mary Louise Stork Memorial Library 
Fund to be used in the purchase of books for the DePauw University 
Library. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 
The Genesis of a Drug 

Lawrence H. Baldinger, University of Notre Dame 

One of the more pleasant and rewarding aspects of assuming the 
presidency of an organization such as this is the opportunity to review 
the past volumes of the Proceedings, to read the presidential addresses of 
the people who have held this post, and to hope that I may add some- 
thing — besides length — to the long list of significant talks which have 
been delivered on this occasion. My own file of Proceedings of the Academy 
of Science starts with the 1930 volume, the year I joined the organization; 
thanks to my close association with the late Rev. Julius A. Nieuwland, 
C.S.C., President of the Academy in 1934, my collection of Proceedings 
also includes the 1913 and 1914 volumes, also those from 1926, 1927, 1928. 
Needless to say, I prize this collection; and one of my regrets during the 
year of my presidency has been the lack of time to peruse these Proceed- 
ings more carefully, for there is a great deal of Indiana scientific history 
in these volumes. 

Since my duties in the institution which I represent have been for the 
past fifteen years more in student administration and teaching than in 
research, I must rely upon my initial profession, pharmacy, to furnish me 
with a topic for my talk on this occasion — 'The Genesis of a Drug." But 
I do so with considerable trepidation for the reason that many members 
of that profession have been or are active members of the Indiana Academy 
of Science, and maintain a closer association with the day-to-day develop- 
ments in the medicinals industry than I have been able to do in my present 
position. In the present-day production of drugs, however, all areas of 
science and a fair number of the engineering branches are playing impor- 
tant parts to keep us well supplied with the best medicines history has 
known to date. 

Thanks to the excellent cooperation and help of Dr. Will Edington 
in response to my query about the role of pharmacy in the Academy, I 
should like to include a bit of interesting history. Since the Academy has 
never included a pharmacy division, those of us who have become members 
of the organization did so because of our interests in the work of some 
other division. Seven Academy presidents have been associated with the 
Eli Lilly Co.: Stanley Coulter and Robert Hessler in 1896 and 1906, 
respectively, and both were charter members of the Academy; John S. 
Wright served in 1905; Severance Burrage in 1914; Eli Lilly in 1938; 
Horace Powell in 1953; William Daily in 1958. 

Other prominent pharmacists who were associated with the Academy 
at one time or another were Chalmers J. Zufall and Dean Charles B. 
Jordan, both of beloved memory, and Charles O. Lee, now located at Ohio 
Northern University; also, Edward W. Koch, Francis E. Bibbins, Harley 
W. Rhodehamel, Walter A. Jamieson, George H. A. Clowes, Edward H. 
Niles, Adam H. Fiske, Ralph W. Showalter, and Bert R. Mull. At the 
risk of omitting names of many good friends, I will refrain from attempt- 
ing to list all the active Academy members from the Eli Lilly Co., the 
Pitman-Moore Co., the Mead Johnson Co., and other pharmaceutical 

46 



Presidential Address 47 

houses in Indiana, and from the faculties of the College of Pharmacy at 
Purdue and at Butler, but as a fellow pharmacist I welcome them to 
membership in this organization. It may be of interest to many of you 
that until 1939 four institutions for the study of pharmacy were in 
operation in this state. In that year both Valparaiso and Notre Dame 
discontinued the divisions of pharmacy, leaving Purdue University and 
the Indianapolis College of Pharmacy — later to become part of Butler 
University — for the training of pharmacists in the state. 

An interesting bit of pharmaceutical history concerns Charles C. 
Deam (1865-1953), President of the Academy in 1924, who owned and 
operated a drug store in Bluffton for many years, although he had not 
received formal training in pharmacy. As pointed out in the memorial 
by Will Edington and in the summary of his life by Daniel DenUyl, both 
fascinating reading in the 1953 Proceedings, botany claimed more of his 
attention than the drug business. 

It is a well-known fact that the pharmaceutical industry is intensely 
competitive. Research is very important in this industry, and in no 
industry, probably, has it been more productive. The volume of the 
ethical drug business at the manufacturer's level rose from less than 350 
million dollars in 1940 to over $1200 million in 1955; in 1955, 36% of the 
prescriptions written were for drugs that were not even in the test-tube 
stage four years before; in that year some 400 new products were intro- 
duced as compared with less than 100 in 1940. If I may inject a very brief 
personal note, one reason why I try to spend a week or two each summer 
as a pharmacist in the prescription department of a local pharmacy is to 
learn about the many important new items which are being introduced to 
the medical profession each year. One needs only to read Aldous Huxley's 
Brave New World and the sequel to it, Brave New World Revisited to get 
at least a fictional picture of the work being done in the field of tranquil- 
lizing agents and psychic energizers; a contemplation of what is being 
done in the highly classified research in chemical warfare centers on 
"nerve-gas" and "psychogenic agents" provides a more somber note in the 
tension-laden, cold-war existence in which we are living. 

One of the problems confronting the health agencies today is the 
critical attitude of the general public toward the cost of medical care, one 
facet of which involves the allegedly high cost of drugs for the prevention, 
cure, or diagnosis of disease, and the alleviation of symptoms. An impar- 
tial analysis of, and a sober reflection on the benefits of modern medica- 
tion, however, reveal some interesting facts. In terms of per capita costs, 
annual spending for drugs moved from about $10 in 1948 to $19 in 1958, 
according to the Department of Commerce. Much of this increase is not 
due to higher prices; it comes about because people buy more drugs. 
Production of vitamins gained 239% in the decade 1948-1958, and today 
many vitamin preparations are bought voluntarily without prescription. 

Understandably, some drugs when first introduced, do cost a lot, but 
industry can point to many sharp cuts in prices over the years. The Eli 
Lilly Company, for example, cites a 95% reduction in the cost of insulin 
to the diabetic since 1923, all this in the face of raw material costs that 
are double those of 1923, and wage costs that are five times higher than 
in 1923. Many examples from other companies in more recent drug inno- 



48 Indiana Academy of Science 

vations can be cited. Merck's introductory price for cortisone in 1949 
was $200 per gram; by 1952 the price had dropped to $20.00 per gram — 
a 90% reduction — without the pressure of competition. Lederle has 
pointed out that the price of its broad-spectrum antibiotic, Aureomycin, 
dropped 65% within a year of its introduction. 

Actually, today's drugs are a bargain; deaths from diphtheria have 
declined 96% since 1944, pneumonia 24%, tuberculosis 80%, scarlet fever 
and strep throat 90%, and whooping cough 93%. The average length of 
stay in general hospitals today is nine days (in 1935 it was 15 days) ; and 
since 1900, twenty years have been added to the life expectancy of 
Americans. 

The production of a new drug constitutes what might be termed the 
creative stage, one of three in the path of human progress: 1) the adop- 
tive, 2) the adaptive, 3) the creative. In the adoptive stage a crude drug 
may find its way into empirical use in medicine. Because of a bitter taste 
or objectionable odor, or for other reasons, an enterprising chemist or 
pharmacist may isolate the active principle into a concentrated form to 
facilitate the administration of the drug; this constitutes the adaptive 
stage. Finally, the scientist proceeds to analyze the product, to synthesize 
it in the laboratory, and then, as the final step in the creative stage, to 
prepare compounds with the same action, but which may have no close 
chemical relationship with the natural product. The story of cinchona 
bark, then of quinine, and finally of the synthetic antimalarials, illustrates 
this interesting sequence in the production of drugs. 

The genesis of a drug or new product development is a long, tedious, 
complex pathway more frequently beset with failures than with successes, 
some of which may be short-lived. Those who have read the fascinating- 
story of Ehrlich's magic bullet, arsphenamine, know that 605 compounds 
were made and tested against syphilis before the 606th showed promise. 
Research on antimalarials has produced 14,000 drugs, of which only a 
few, possibly a dozen, have been found to be satisfactory; fortunately, the 
pharmacological testing has pointed to many other uses for some of these 
compounds. Of the many hundreds of antispasmodic drugs, only a few 
are widely used; more than 5,000 analgesics have been discovered, but not 
more than a dozen are commonly used. A team of 55 scientists spent two 
and a half years screening 100,000 soil samples at a cost of $4 million; 
only 76 showed organisms with antibiotic activity. 

To many persons unfamiliar with new product development, seren- 
dipity appears to be an important factor in the production of a new drug. 
To those of us who have been in contact with scientific research, however, 
sound fundamental training, the ability to plan a problem, and the good 
common sense to recognize the big break which may come his way, still 
remain as prime factors in the success of a scientist to produce a new 
compound. 

In the development of a new drug, ten important steps may have to 
be taken; from start to finish, this may involve a period of eight or nine 
months to many years, and constitutes an ever-increasing challenge to 
the pharmaceutical industry. I should like to comment briefly on each of 
these ten steps. 



Presidential Address 49 

1) The original impetus may arise in very diverse areas of scientific 
investigations. A graduate student whose work is being subsidized by a 
grant from a pharmaceutical house in a university laboratory may initiate 
the work on a particular compound; within ear-shot of a chemist at a 
scientific meeting a physician may express a wistful hope for a new drug 
to help him in a baffling case; or a researcher on a world tour may observe 
the effects of a crude drug which may well warrant further investigation. 
Only the limitations of human ingenuity and planning can affect this 
initial step toward new products. 

2) If the initial plan warrants further investigation, the research 
committee of the company next considers the feasibility of the research 
on the particular compound or compounds in question. Expense, consumer 
acceptance, and availability of raw materials are only a few of the factors 
which must be considered in this step. It is remarkable, I think, that in 
1959 the drug industry spent $200 million for research and development, 
but came up with fewer than 50 new drugs. In the past decade one com- 
pany has spent $100 million and has marketed some 70 new products. 
Another company in 10 years has spent $111 million, another $36 million. 
These amounts represent between 8 and 9% of total industry sales, far 
above the levels of most other industries. 

3) If the research committee decides favorably on the proposed 
research, the work involved is assigned to the various divisions of the 
organization. The pattern of competition which has developed within the 
past few years between the pharmaceutical companies to maintain their 
positions in the high-powered promotion race makes it imperative that 
the people involved in this step are conscientious, responsible group leaders 
who can gear their divisions to meet deadlines and to interlock their duties 
with those of other groups to produce the intermediates and the final 
product. Those of us who teach the sciences and who counsel the young 
folks who may enter these industries are challenged to foster in them these 
personal attributes of initiative, cooperation, and responsibility — all this 
in addition to giving them a sound scientific background. 

4) During the fourth step, the preparation and purification of the 
intermediates and the final product, many other problems worthy of 
investigation may arise; these can be referred back to the committee on 
research for consideration. 

5) The next step involves the pharmacological testing of the com- 
pound or compounds for animal toxicity so that a rough idea of their 
therapeutic index in various species can be determined. To insure safety, 
extensive testing in animals must be undertaken to establish potency, 
toxicity, and contraindications. At this stage many companies are com- 
pelled to write off tremendous sums already invested, because the com- 
pounds are too toxic to warrant further investigation. It is at this stage 
that the "arm-chair" research of the chemist or pharmacologist may or 
may not prove to be fruitful. 

6) Assuming that the screening and toxicity testing uncovers some 
promising compounds for specific indications, the production schedule 
must move out of the pilot-plant stage into large-scale production. This 
may involve top-level decisions by the company to build plants for the 



50 Indiana Academy of Science 

production of the basic chemicals in order to guarantee an uninterrupted 
supply of intermediates in the synthesis of the finished compounds. Two 
examples worthy of note include the construction of the malonic ester 
plant at the Eli Lilly Company to provide this important intermediate in 
the production of their barbiturate compounds, and more recently the con- 
struction of the citric acid plant at the Miles Laboratories to guarantee 
plenty of this product for their effervescent aspirin compound, and also 
to permit the company to become competitive in the sale of this chemical. 
Large-scale production may introduce problems for which the chemical 
engineer, the electrical engineer, the civil engineer, and the mechanical 
engineer must provide the answers. 

7) After large quantities of material become available, additional 
toxicity and pharmacological studies must be conducted. If the drugs pass 
all of these tests with flying colors, the whole trial process must be repeated 
with the compound in various mixtures, this in order to determine the 
toxicity of the solvents or various adjuvants. The sulfa tragedy in the 
late thirties might have been prevented if toxicological studies had been 
conducted on the various ethylene glycol derivatives used as solvents. It is 
a sad commentary that this tragedy was the prod which impelled Congress 
to take action on the revision of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. 

8) The eighth step involves the clinical testing of the product. If the 
drug has satisfactorily passed all of the previous tests, the whole trial 
process must be repeated in the clinics under carefully controlled and 
observed conditions. In the development of one of the new oral drugs for 
treatment of diabetes, more than one million patient-days went into the 
clinical program alone. For this step the cooperation of health and welfare 
agencies is of utmost importance; clinical testing may take years, although 
the pressure on every company to match the promotional effort of the less 
responsible companies has created a situation which is being scrutinized 
carefully by the Food and Drug Administration. 

9) Before a drug can be offered to the medical profession, the results 
of the experimental tests must gain the acceptance of the Food and Drug 
Administration. Most companies, too, prize the acquisition of the seal of 
the acceptance of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American 
Medical Association for their products. 

Undoubtedly many of you have been following the newer develop- 
ments which have resulted from the recent Labor-Health, Education and 
Welfare Appropriation Act. The FDA has been able to increase the 
number of plant inspections per year, although the officials maintain that 
the proportion of the thousands of shipments annually which are inspected 
is not large enough to give a reliable index of the quantity of substandard 
drugs which the FDA ought to be keeping off the market. Also, the FDA 
has been able to increase the number of samples tested for adulteration 
and misbranding as a further protection of consumers against health 
hazards and economic cheats. In the field of radiological health, the FDA 
has been able to begin the ground work for an expansion of its monitoring 
of radiation levels in a great variety of foodstuffs. 

In order to maintain proper rapport with the Food and Drug Admin- 
istration, the pharmaceutical houses must maintain legal staffs to insure 
proper compliance with food and drug regulations; this, by the way, is 



Presidential Address 51 

another area of endeavor for those people who have a sound scientific 
background and a real interest in the legal profession. 

10) Even prior to the completion of the initial steps, the sales depart- 
ment begins the task of marketing the product. Work begins at once on 
one of the trickiest steps of product evolution : the search for a name or 
often two names — trade and generic. Marketing research steps in to make 
a preliminary survey of the current market, the pricing, the competitive 
products, the package sizes and all the other factors which enter into the 
total marketing picture. Pharmaceutical research will be called in to 
develop suitable dosage forms — whether tablet, capsule, parenteral or 
topical or perhaps, eventually, all four. The advertising and promotional 
program is blueprinted and carefully studied and reviewed. From this 
will come the plans for the monies to be expended for journal advertising, 
for direct mail, for sampling and for introduction notices to wholesalers, 
retailers, and hospitals. 

In spite of all the careful planning on the part of the pharmaceutical 
houses, surveys shows that out of seven new products which reach the 
druggists' shelves, four are not successful, two show some kind of profit, 
and one makes a real contribution. 

Unquestionably, the genesis of a drug — new product development — 
is a continuing challenge to scientific research. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman: James H. Keller, Indiana University 

Downey D. Rairourn, Gary Extension of Indiana University, was 

elected chairman for 1962 



ABSTRACT 



A Scale for the Assessment of the Somatotype. Eugene J. Slabaugh, 
Indiana University. — The present study constitutes a modification of 
William H. Sheldon's system of assessment of human constitutional varia- 
bility. This system differs from previous schemes in that, instead of 
placing the individual into one of a series of established types, he is 
classified according to the varying development of three developmental 
tendencies or components on a scale from 1 to 7. 

Anthropometric and anthroposcopic assessments are carried out on 
the subject directly and include subjects who object to being photographed. 
In order to facilitate a constitutional assessment, a series of eight charts 
have been set up to illustrate the gradations of the bodily areas between 
the extremes of two components, keeping the third component at a con- 
stant rating of 2. Four charts deal with the male and four with the 
female physique. The individual charts are set up in the following manner : 

Endomorphy to ectomorphy with mesomorphy held constant; 

Mesomorphy to endomorphy with ectomorphy held constant; 

Mesomorphy to estomorphy with endomorphy held constant. 

The last chart presents common combinations in the middle ranges 
with none of the components being rated at less than a three or more than 
a four. The detailed presentation of constitutional differences in chart 
form should be of special value in constitutional studies on conservative 
subjects, women, older individuals, or extreme variants — groups in which 
the taking of somatotype photographs often presents difficulties. With the 
use of the graded charts, a rapid assessment can be made at the time 
routine measurements and observations are collected. 



52 



The Identification of a Sample of Unmodified Faunal 
Remains from the Angel Site 

Holm Wolfram Neumann, Indiana University 

The ultimate purpose of this study is to determine the relative num- 
bers and types of fauna utilized by the aboriginal inhabitants of the 
Angel Site. After the proper identification of the faunal remains, the 
food habits of the occupants and the relative economic importance of each 
species can be determined. The climate and flora at the time of occupation 
are indicated by the type of faunal remains present and past ranges of 
various species could be revealed in making a comparison with present day 
fauna and flora. 

The materials used for this study consisted of three packing cases of 
unmodified (unworked) faunal remains from the Angel Site in southern 
Indiana. The bone material excavated from the site had been washed, 
catalogued, and sacked according to Division, Subdivision, Block, and the 
vertical level in which it was found. Remains from more than one Sub- 
division were identified and an areal distribution comparison is therefore 
possible. Material from four one hundred foot squares: Subdivisions 
W10D, W11B, X11C, and X11D was used in the study. 

The identification of the remains from the site was accomplished by 
making a comparison of the unknown material to the known material in 
the Indiana University Ethno-zoology Laboratory collection. In the con- 
firmation of particularly difficult specimens, I was assisted by Mr. Wm. 
Richard Adams, who has collected and prepared the known material in 
the collection. 

The skeletal remains from each Subdivision were first identified by 
biological Class. Remains which were too fragmentary and had no dis- 
tinguishing markings for proper identification were not included in the 
count. Remains which were in an identifiable condition but could not be 
positively identified because of lack of comparative material were classi- 
fied as unidentified. 

The Class Mammalia was further broken down to the order of respec- 
tive species since over 90% of the remains were those of mammals. The 
absolute and relative values of the frequency counts were then put into 
tabular form. Both an areal distribution count and a total count of the 
combined Subdivisions were presented. 

By utilizing certain readily identifiable bones, a frequency count was 
made on the Odocoileus virginianus remains in order to determine the 
approximate number of individuals of this species which were represented 
in the total sample. The frequency study was taken on individual Sub- 
divisions and on the total occurence of each representative bone. By 
applying this method, a minimum number of individuals of the species 
can be determined. 

The frequencies of the unmodified faunal remains per Subdivision 
are presented by Class in Table 1. 1,937 bones (90.5%) of the total 
material identified were of the Class Mammalia. Subdivision W10D 
showed the lowest relative frequency of mammalian material (84.6%), 
while Subdivisions X11C and X11D showed the highest relative frequency 
(100%) in this Class. The extremely high relative frequencies in the two 

53 



54 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE 1 

Absolute and Relative Frequencies of Unmodified Faunal Remains 

(Non-human) Per Subdivision by Class 





W10D 


W11B 


X11C 


X11D 


Total 


Birds 


76 


83 








159 


Fish 


n 


17 


o 





28 


Reptiles 


12 


9 








14 


Mammals 


542 


952 


409 


:: » 


1937 


Unidentified 





2 








2 


Total 


641 


1056 


409 


34 


2140 




W10D 


W11B 


X11C 


X11D 


Total 


Birds 


11.9% 


7.9% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


7.4% 


Fish 


1.7% 


1.6% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1.3% 


Reptiles 


1.8% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


Mammals 


84.6% 


90.3% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


90.5% 


Unidentified 


0.0% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


Total 


100.0% 


100.2% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


100.0% 



latter Subdivisions are most probably due to an inadequate sample of 
representative material. Wm. R. Adams (M.A. Thesis, 1949) found a 
relative frequency of only 51.7% mammalian material in a sample of 729 
specimens from Subdivision X11C (his lowest relative frequency). A 
larger proportion of reptile (turtle) material was present in Subdivision 
W10D (1.8%) than in W11B (0.2%). 

Tables 2 and 3 present the breakdowns of the Class Mammalia into 
absolute and relative frequencies. All four Subdivisions are represented 

TABLE 2 

Absolute Frequency Count of Mammalian Faunal Remains Per 

Subdivision and of Total of Four Subdivisions 



Species 



Subdivision 



Canis familaris — Domestic Dog- 
Cams latrans — Coyote 
Castor canadensis — Carolina Beaver 
Cervus canadensis — American Wapiti 
Didelphis Virginia no — Opossum 
Euarctos americanus — Black Bear 
Felts cougar — Adirondack Cougar 
Lynx rufus — Bay lynx 
Marmota monax — Southern Woodchuc 
Mephitis mephitis — Striped Skunk 
Odocoileus virginianus — Virginia Deer 
O nda tra ziheth ica — Mu sk rat 
Procyron lotor — Raccoon 
Sciurus' carolincnsis — Gray Squirrel 
Sciurus niger- — Fox Squirrel 
Sylvilagus pZoridanus — Cottontail Rabb 



W10D 


W11B 


X11C 


X11D 


Total 


6 


13 








19 


1 


1 





ii 


• > 





16 





ii 


10 


1 


6 








7 


:; 


L6 





II 


19 


2 


2 








4 


1 








II 


1 







II 





3 


■j 


2 





II 


4 


o 


1 





(1 


1 


483 


778 


409 


34 


1704 


O 


2 





() 


o 


10 


62 





o 


72 


5 


29 








:u 


■_' \ : 







I) 


46 


2 


1 


1) 





3 



Total 



512 



or, 2 



409 



34 



193 r 



Anthropology 



55 



TABLE 3 

Relative Frequencies of Mammalian Faunal Remains Per 

Subdivision and of Total of Four Subdivisions 



Species 



Subdivisions 
W10D W11B X11C X11D 



Total 



1. Canis familiaris — Domestic Dog 

2. Canis latrans — Coyote 

3. Castor canadensis — Carolina Beaver 

4. Cervus canadensis — American Wapiti 

5. Didelphis vuginiana — Opossum 

6. Euarctos americanus — Black Bear 

7. Felis cougar — Adirondack Cougar 

8. Lynx rufus — Bay Lynx 

9. Marmota monax — Southern Woodchucl 

10. Mephitis mephitis — Striped Skunk 

11. Odocoileus virginianus — Virginia Deer 

12. Ondatra zibethica — Muskrat 

13. Procyon lotor — Raccoon 

14. Sciurus carolinensis — Gray Squirrel 

15. Sciurus niger — Fox Squirrel 

16. Sylvilagus floridanus — Cottontail Rabb 

Total 



1.1% 


1.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1.0% 


0.2% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


1.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


0.2% 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


0.6% 


1.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1.0% 


0.4% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.2% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.2% 


0.4% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


89.1% 


81.7% 


100.0% 


100.0% 


87.9% 


0.0% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


1.8% 


6.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


3.7% 


0.9% 


3.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


1.8% 


4.2% 


2.5% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


2.4% 


0.4% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.2% 



100.1% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.2% 



by high frequencies of Odocoileus virginianus remains (81.7 — 100%). 
Here again, however, the 100% frequencies in Subdivisions XI 1C and 
X11D are due to inadequacy of sample size. All the Castor canadensis 
remains were found in Subdivision W11B. The comparatively high fre- 
quency of Didelphis virginioMa, Procyon lotor, and Sciurus carolinensis 
in W11B as compared with W10D may also be of some significance as well 
as the higher frequency of Sciurus niger in Subdivision W10D. 

Table 4 shows a frequency count of the Odocoileus virginianus re- 
mains per type per Subdivision. It is from this table that the Type and 
Subdivision minimums have been determined. From the table it is quite 
evident that the Type total minimum is ninety-two individuals since 

TABLE 4 

Frequency Count of Odocoileus virginianus Remains 

Per Type and Subdivision 









Subdiv 


ision 




Type of Remains 


W10D 


W11B 


X11C 


X11D 


Type Minima 


Right Proximal Humerus 


4 


4 


','> 





11 


Right Distal Humerus 


28 


11 


22 


1 


92 


Left Proximal Humerus 


5 


3 








14 


Left Distal Humerus 


'J.'-', 


24 


'JO 


1 


OS 


Right Proximal Femur 


!) 


9 


4 


o 


1"' 


Right Distal Femur 


7 


10 


7 





21 


Left Proximal Femur 


~> 


3 


4 


1 


13 


Left Distal Femur 


11 


~> 


10 


2 


:;i 


Minima per Subdivision 


28 


41 


22 


• > 




Minimum per Total of Subd 


visions 








93 


Minimum Determined by Most Frequent Type 






92 



56 Indiana Academy of Science 

ninety-two right distal humeri were present. The minimum number of 
individuals as calculated by the minimums per Subdivision totals ninety- 
three. This total, however, is made on the assumption that each individual 
is represented in one and only one Subdivision and therefore may be in- 
accurate. 

Although the aboriginal inhabitants of Angel Site were primarily 
dependent upon agriculture for subsistence, a relatively high utilization 
of mammalian fauna in their economy is indicated. In addition to the 
mammalian fauna, the inhabitants made some use of the readily available 
birds, reptiles, and fish. A complete study of the diet should, of course, 
also include a statement to what extent molluscs were utilized. A prefer- 
ence for, or perhaps the greater availability of larger game is indicated 
by the high proportion of Odocoileus virginianus remains. 

Although the difference in frequency of beaver and reptile remains in 
Subdivisions W10B and W11B may seem to be indicative, a specialization 
of hunters (or fishermen) is not significantly indicated by the sample. 
A larger, more representative sample should reveal more evidence to be 
considered. According to the sample studied here, there is no indication 
that areal differences in frequencies have any statistical significance. 

Literature Cited 

Adams, Wm. Richard (1949). Faunal Remains from the Angel Site. M.A. Thesis. 
Indiana University, (unpublished). 



The Incidence of Dental Caries of Pre-Historic 
and Historic Indian Groups 

Elizabeth Ann Herrala, Indiana University 

In the consideration of the etiology of dental caries which occur in 
high incidence in present day populations, research workers have regarded 
diet as a possible contributing factor. In order to test the role of diet in 
caries formation, a number of prehistoric and historic American Indian 
groups under varying dietary conditions have been examined. The data 
on comparative Indian dental pathology have revealed significant corre- 
lations which are rather intriguing. 

Because the time factor has been controlled through the utilization of 
Carbon-14 dates for various populations, and the recovery of camp refuse 
gives one a fairly accurate estimate of the diet of these groups, the present 
study lends itself to a more precise assessment of this question than pre- 
vious studies. 

Although an earlier investigator, R. W. Leigh (1) states that his 
four series represented tribes that existed at different time levels, actually 
three of the series — Arikara, Sioux, and Zufii — were contemporaneous 
historic groups. In his conclusions he accepted Hrdlicka's identification 
of the Archaic Kentucky series as probably representing an Algonquian 
group such as the Miami, attributing the marked dental attrition to grit 
which was included in the corn meal ground in stone mortars. 

It is obvious that Leigh's studies involve more diverse diets than that 
of the groups considered in this paper; yet the same trends that he noted, 
prevail in the Middle Western area as one proceeds from the oldest inhabi- 
tants to historic Indian tribal groups. In other words, the present study 
employs a chronological rather than a geographical approach to the 
question. 

The observations on the series compared in this paper were made by 
G. K. Neumann on crania in the collections of the Department of Anthro- 
pology of the University of Wisconsin (Northern Archaic) ; the U. S. 
National Museum (Southern Archaic) ; Indiana University and the Dick- 
son Mound (Spoon River Focus) ; the Indiana Historical Society (Angel 
Mounds) ; and the Archaeological Survey of Illinois (Sauk). 

The number of crania on which observations were made is 167 with 
the average ages ranging from 39.4 to 59 years for the individual series. 
Only males are represented in this study. 

The incidence of dental caries has varied significantly among differ- 
ing Indian groups. Several factors merit consideration. Two factors that 
can be correlated with caries are : the type of diet and the methods of food 
preparation. 

The groups assessed for caries, their antiquity, and their types of 
economy, are as follows : 

1. Northern Archaic (Old Copper) 5600 B. C. Hunting economy 

2. Southern Archaic (Indian Knoll) 3000 B. C. Hunting and gathering 

3. Middle Mississippi (Spoon River) 1200-1400 Horticulture and hunting 

4. Middle Mississippi (Angel Village Site) 1200-1400 Horticulture and 
hunting (sedentary village dwellers, farmers) 

57 



58 Indiana Academy of Science 

5. Upper Mississippi (Oakwood Mound) 1600-1650 Hunting and horti- 
culture 

6. Upper Mississippi (Sauk) 1790-1810 Hunting and horticulture 
(semi-nomadic hunters and gardeners) 

Animals identified, which were utilized to differing degrees for food 
by all six groups, are as follows: 

Virginia deer lynx fox squirrel 

elk coyote (possibly) gray squirrel 

dog skunk woodchuck 

black bear cotton tail rabbit muskrat 

raccoon opossum 

cougar beaver 

The diet of the different groups underwent a change with varying 
climatic conditions. It may be briefly summarized as follows: 

The Northern Archaic group subsisted mainly on larger game, such 
as elk, moose and bear. The Southern Archaic group depended on mussels 
for a major portion of their diet, supplemented with wild seeds, small 
game, and fish. The diets of the two Middle Mississippi groups were quite 
similar. Corn and game made up the major portion with fish of less 
importance. The fauna of the Spoon River Focus sites closely resembles 
the list of animals given above, except for a lack of: cougar, lynx, and 
coyote; and the addition of badger, red fox, timber wolk, and bison. The 
two Upper Mississippi groups from the Oakwood Mound and the Sauk 
village site, subsisted mainly on mixed game and some corn. 

As one proceeds from archaic to historic times, one can notice a 
gradual change in the types of economy of these groups. The Archaic 
Indians were hunters and gatherers, depending wholly on what they could 
bag or find for their existence. The Indians of the Middle Mississippi 
culture, however, were semisedentary and had a mixed diet, utilizing 
horticultural products and game. Since the Upper Mississippi region was 
rich in game, the semi-nomadic groups of this area depended primarily 
on hunting for food supply. Gardening supplemented their diet. The 
trend toward an increasing frequency of dental caries with a change in 
economy is best expressed in the following summary: 

1. Northern Archaic (Old Copper) average age, 45.7 years. 1 carious 
tooth of 232 teeth present or .4% of teeth carious. 

2. Southern Archaic (Indian Knoll) average age, 39.4 years. 4 carious 
teeth of 912 teeth present or .4% of teeth carious. 

3. Middle Mississippi (Spoon River Focus) average age, 42 years. 68 
carious teeth of 868 teeth present or 7.4% of teeth carious. 

4. Middle Mississippi (Angel Village site) average age, 44.7 years. 53 
carious teeth of 513 teeth present or 10.3% of teeth carious. 

5. Upper Mississippi (Oakwood Mound) average age, 59 years. 15 carious 
teeth of 182 present or 8.2% of teeth carious. 

6. Upper Mississippi (Sauk) average age, 40 years. 11 carious teeth of 
434 teeth present or 2.6% of teeth carious. 

These six series are comparable in that we utilize the crania of adult 
males. Since there is a twenty year difference in the average age at the 
time of death between the Indian Knoll and Oakwood Mound people, one 
would expect the incidence of caries to be somewhat higher because of the 
greater average age of the Oakwood series. In this comparison it is note- 



Anthropology 59 

worthy that the average incidence of caries of the two archaic groups 
that subsisted almost entirely on game and mussels is less than 1%. 

In the Upper Mississippi groups whose diet consisted predominantly 
of game with a small portion of horticultural products, the average inci- 
dence of caries rises to 5.4%. 

Finally, the diet of the Middle Mississippi groups, who as a whole 
were sedentary village dwellers, was principally corn with game animals 
as a supplement. In these series the average incidence of caries stands 
highest, 8.67%. 

Four Indian groups studied by Leigh can be utilized for broader 
comparisons. They comprise a series of Sioux, Arikara, Zufii, and a series 
of California Indians from the Great Valley. 

The Sioux were bison hunters, subsisting almost entirely on bison 
and other game animals. Meat was cured by drying. A minor portion of 
their diet was supplied by wild cherries, plums, strawberries, and the 
prairie turnip. A transportable mixture, pemmican, consisted of dried, 
pounded bison meat mixed with berries. Leigh states that caries were 
almost negligible; of 92 crania there are but 10 with carious lesions and 
concludes that the Sioux are peculiarly free from dental and paradental 
lesions. 

In the Arikara, village Indians, who were semi-sedentary and rather 
appropriately described in Indian sign language as "corn-eaters," one 
finds a mixed diet. The Arikara raised maize, beans, and squashes, bar- 
tering some of the crop for meat. Hunting bison in winter and fishing 
with basket traps supplemented their diet. Corn was prepared in stone 
mortars which inevitably added stone particles to the meal. This had a 
wearing effect on the teeth. The coarseness of the hulls of the kernels is 
also a factor meriting consideration in abrasion of the teeth. Leigh finds 
that the incidence of caries in the Arikara is considerably higher than in 
the teeth of the Sioux proper: 28% of the crania exhibit one or more 
carious lesions. Therefore, caries occurred quite frequently in the teeth 
of the Arikara. 

The third group for comparison is the Zuhi. This group, which dates 
from late pre-Columbian to early post-Columbian times, had a farming- 
economy. Corn was the principal crop, with beans, and squashes adding 
to their primarily vegetarian diet. Deer, rabbit, and turkey formed only 
a small dietary supplement. The Zuhi, too, ground the corn in stone mor- 
tars, thus some pulverized stone was mixed with the meal. Leigh finds 
that caries occur in 75% of the Zuhia crania, that no tooth in the series 
was immune and that many teeth were lost from caries. Incidentally, 
Leigh observes that the mode of life and food of the Zuhi are more closely 
related to our own civilization than that of the other tribes here considered. 

Indians of the Great Valley of California, also studied by Leigh (2) 
are the fourth and last group to be considered. The acorn was the pre- 
dominant staple, constituting a larger part of the diet than any other 
food. Many other seeds, roots, fish, and mammals — ranging from deer 
to gophers — supplemented the acorn diet. Pulverization of the seeds was 
either by pounding in a mortar or rubbing on an oval grinding slab. The 
acorns were leached to remove tannic acid and cooking methods resulted 
in abrasives in the flour. In this group, which had a very high ratio of 



60 Indiana Academy of Science 

plant to animal food, 25% evidenced dental caries. Eighteen caries were 
present in 50 crania or 36% of the population had caries. 

In summary it may be stated that the results of the present study 
based on chronologically documental local populations as well as Leigh's 
earlier studies based on geographically widely spread groups with diversi- 
fied diets, definitely indicate that diet and food preparation constitute 
important factors in the relative incidence of dental caries. 

Literature Cited 

1. Leigh, R. W. 1925. Dental Pathology of Indian Tribes of Varied Environmental 
and Food Conditions. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 8:179-195. 

2. — — — . 1928. Dental Pathology of Aboriginal California. University of 

California Publication in American Archaeology and Ethnology 23: 399-440. 



The Role of Diffusion in Changing Kinship Systems 

Downey D. Raibourn, Indiana University 

George Peter Murdock in his book Social Structure (7) made a crush- 
ing indictment against diffusional studies of social structural change. He 
conclusively demonstrated that unilinear descent is not as anomalous as 
was conceived by the various historical schools. The assumption of a 
single or a limited number of origins for unilinear descent which then 
spread throughout the world was thus unwarranted. He demonstrated 
from his world wide sample of 250 societies that similarities in social 
structure and kinship systems occurred where diffusional theory would 
anticipate differences, and differences occurred where similarities were 
expected. He further demonstrated the limiting effect of diffusion by 
utilizing Spoehr's (9) work among the Indians, of the Southeastern 
United States. Spoehr had shown that under the influence of white con- 
tact, the Southeastern Indians had changed from a unilinear system to a 
bilateral system but they had selected an alternate bilateral system not 
the one possessed by Europeans. 

The role of diffusion as conceived by Murdock (7, p. 196) is of minimal 
importance for he states that "Traits of social structure appear to be 
borrowed, in general only under conditions in which the same traits would 
be independently elaborated even in the absence of culture contacts." 

The object of this paper is to demonstrate that while Murdock is 
essentially correct, diffusional studies can substantially aid Murdock's 
theory of historical reconstruction when both are utilized together in an 
area of limited size. 

The limited area dealt with is central California. This area was 
selected because of the great variability in kinship systems. Before begin- 
ning research it seemed that this area might be one in which Murdock's 
principles of kinship change were not valid. This research started with 
the aim of testing Murdock's theory in this area. 

The consensus of opinion among workers in the central California 
area seemed to be that the area was moving toward the patrilineate. This 
assumption was apparently based primarily on the age area principle 
which holds that traits at the margin of an area are older than those at 
the center. If this assumption was valid, then Murdock's theory was not 
valid as applied to the area. 

After analyzing the 27 tribes or tribelets in the central Californian 
area, it was shown that Murdock's theory was valid. In this area, 
the marginal traits, not the central ones, were the most recent. From 
the sample of 27 tribes, 21 show a developmental trend out of patri- 
organization towards a bi to matri type of social structure. Only three 
tribes showed a developmental trend toward patri-organization. With 
respect to these three, two were based on limited data and one may have 
had a recent residence change. Such a change would then not invalidate 
Murdock's theory. The social structure of the remaining three tribes was 
in equilibrium and shows no developmental trend. As such these three 
tribes with their social structure in equilibrium neither aided nor abetted 
Murdock's theory. Thus most of the tribes showed a trend anticipated by 
Murdock's theory and the three which showed the opposite trend were 
based on questionable data. 

61 



62 Indiana Academy of Science 

Murdock's theory while valid in central California does not imply 
that the age area principle is invalid. The age area principle as pre- 
viously mentioned states that marginal traits are older. This aspect of 
the principle particularly holds; if the central area is one of high culture 
where the rate of invention is greater; if the type of trait involved is 
unlimited ; and if the acceptance of the trait does not involve a radical 
change in social organization. In the central California area, all of these 
conditions are lacking. The central part of that area is neither higher nor 
lower than the margins; the type of change involved in social structure 
or kinship system change is limited; and such changes demand significant 
changes in organization. Kroeber (6) who appreciates the value of the 
age area principle has nevertheless pointed out that when radical changes 
are introduced they frequently can survive and grow only at the margins 
of areas. The beginning of Christianity and practical communism would 
be examples. To state that the age area principle does not apply in central 
California is to state only that it does not apply in this context. It does 
not refute the very valuable function which the age area principle can 
perform in historical reconstruction. 

In other contexts the age area principle was used with central Cali- 
fornia data. This application involved not system but kinship terms. The 
actual terms used are unlimited since a relative could be designated by 
any term. Also the adoption of a term does not involve a radical change 
in organization even though they may reflect such changes. By utilizing 
kinship terms rather than systems the requirements for the application 
of the age area principle were met. The use of the principle in this manner 
made it possible in many instances to determine which dialects of a related 
language were conservative or innovators with respect to terms used for 
specific relatives. It could then be shown that many of the innovations 
involved attempts to change from patri to bi or matri organizations in 
accordance with Murdock's theory. 

A basic component of Murdock's theory was the classification of 
cousin terminology. Using only male terms for female relatives each type 
of cousin terminology may be briefly outlined as follows : 

Eskimo: A bilateral system involving the lineal principle of classi- 
fying kindred. Cross and parallel cousins are classified 
together but they are differentiated from sisters. 
Hawaiian : A bilateral system involving the generational principle of 
classifying kindred. Cross and parallel cousin are classi- 
fied together and they are classed with and called by the 
same term as sisters. 
Iroquois: A unilinear and transitional system involving the bifur- 
cate and symmetrical merging principles of classifying 
kindred. Both cross cousins classed together but they are 
differentiated from parallel cousins and sisters. 
Sudanese: A unilinear and transitional system involving the bifur- 
cate collateral principle of classifying kindred. Cross 
cousins are differentiated from each other and neither is 
classified with any other relative. 
Omaha: A patrilineal system involving the asymmetrical merging 
principle of classifying kindred. Cross cousins are differ- 



Anthropology 



63 



entiated from each other except mother's, brother's, 
daughter (MoBrDa) is classified with mother's sister 
(MoSi) and/or father's sister's daughter (FaSiDa) with 
sister's daughter (SiDa). 
Crow : A matrilineal system involving the asymmetrical merging 

principle of classifying kindred. Cross cousins are differ- 
entiated from each other and from other relatives except 
FaSiDa is classed with FaSi and/or MoBrDa is classed 
with BrDa. 
With the cousin term system defined as above an example of the 
method used in applying the age area principle to the study of kinship 
change will be demonstrated. 

Table 1 represents a distribution of the terms used for FaSiDa, SiHu, 
the relative called by the same term as FaSiHu, the present cousin term 
system and the possible ancestry for the Southern, Southwestern, Central, 
Southeastern, Eastern and Northern Porno respectively. 

TABLE 1 

Porno Term for FaSiDa and SiHu Which Indicate Possible Ancestry 

for Present Types of Cousin 



Porno 






FaSiHu 


Cousin 


Possible 


Dialect 


FaSiDa 


SiHu 
Amaghon 


Lumped with 


Terms 


Ancestry 


S 


Amutsin 


SiHu 


Crow 


Omaha 


sw 


Digin, Comen 


Maghon 


MoBr 


Hawaiian 


Iroquois 


c 


Kegu 


Magoda 


SiHu 


Omaha 


Equilibrium 


SE 


Hadjin 


Imkon 


SiHu 


Omaha 


Equilibrium 


E 


Dah 


God 


SiHu 


Omaha 


Equilibrium 


N 


Tcamandi 


Aghon 


MoBr 


Sudanese 


Iroquois 



From Table 1 it is apparent that the terms used to designate SiHu 
have elements in common and would thus represent an old Porno term for 
this relative. In contrast the terms used to designate one type of cousin, 
FaSiDa, are different terms in each dialect which implies that terms for 
this relative have undergone recent changes. This limited example illus- 
trates that kinship change normally begins among the cousin category. 
Gifford (4) showed that the priority of cousin term change held not only 
for the Porno but throughout the California area. That cousin terms 
normally change before changes affect other relatives is historically docu- 
mented in the works of Eggan (3), Spoehr (9) and Schmidt (8). Driver 
(1, 2) in a study of North American Social Structure which is based on 
correlation has pointed out that kinship systems normally begin to change 
in the cousin category. The priority of cousin term change is also inferred 
though not specifically mentioned in Murdock's (7) study on the deter- 
minants of kinship terminology. Murdock's correlations and his Chi square 
index of probability which involved cousins were in general higher than 
those which involved other relatives. Since there are higher coefficients 
between cousins and the determinants of kinship systems than with other 
relatives, it would indicate that the determinant of kinship terminology, 
normally affects cousin terms before affecting terms for other relatives. 

The priority of cousin term change is thus a principle which can be 
used in historical reconstruction. Table 1 illustrates the use of this prin- 



(54 



Indiana Academy of Science 



ciple. The equating of FaSiHu with SiHu is an Omaha extension which 
in accordance with the cousin term principle indicates former Omaha 
cousin terminology among non-Omaha type tribes. The Southern Porno 
which classifies cousins by the Crow system has this Omaha extension 
thereby indicating former Omaha ancestry. Among the Southwestern 
Porno which equate FaSiHu with MoBr but with no other relative the 
ancestry indicated is Iroquois. However, the Iroquois extension in this 
instance probably represents a transitional type because the Southwestern 
Porno have a number of Omaha extension when terms for other relatives 
are utilized. While only one extension has been used to indicate the 
method employed, conclusions should be based upon the presence of as 
many extensions as possible. 

Murdock used several aspects of social structure from which historical 
reconstruction can be determined. Utilizing only cousin terminology type, 
the distribution of the 27 dialects in central California are presented in 
Table 2. 

TABLE 2 

The Distribution of Linguistic Groups and Types of Terminology 

Represented. The number represents tribes or dialects. 





Bilateral 


Unil 


near 


Patri 


Matri 


Linguistic Group 


Eskimo 


Hawaiian 


Iroquois 


Sudanese 


Omaha 


Crow 


Yokuts 




3 






3 




Mi wok 






1 




4 




Wintu 






2 




3 




Maidu 




1 


3 








Porno 




1 




1 


3 


1 


Wappo 












1 



The distribution from Table 2 points out a number of factors. Eskimo 
cousin terminology is the only type unrepresented in the area. Since all 
Europeans in the area classify cousins by the Eskimo system, any influ- 
ence by Europeans which may have aided the movement out of patri- 
organization was ineffective in establishing an Eskimo system. The dis- 
tribution also shows the variability of kinship system within the area for 
five of the six possible ways of classifying cousins are represented. Since 
14 of the 27 dialects are non-Omaha, the distribution shows that the move- 
ment out of Omaha or patri-unilinear types of organization is well under- 
way. It is necessary to add some of the patri-unilinear tribes to the Omaha 
because it could not be determined from the data whether or not the three 
Maidu dialects with Iroquois terminology and the one Porno dialect with 
Sudanese terminology had formerly possessed the Omaha system. How- 
ever with respect to the one Maidu dialect with Hawaiian terminology 
there were indications of former Iroquois terminology so that the Hawaiian 
terms thus represent a movement out of patri-unilinear organization. 
With these four exceptitons all the remaining non-Omaha dialects showed 
indication of a previous Omaha system. 

The distribution in Table 2 also illustrates the previously mentioned 
conflict involving the age area principle and Murdock's theory. In accord- 
ance with the age area interpretation the present variability in the area 



Anthropology 65 

would be moving towards a state of homogeneity. This would be expected 
in such a limited area as central California. However, the age area inter- 
pretation does not explain the great amount of diversity which is present 
even among closely related dialects. In such a small area, homogeneity 
would be expected at least among related dialects. Expectations from 
Murdock's theory, on the other hand, point to either an Omaha or the 
closely related patri-unilinear type of organization in the immediate past 
for all groups; the present diversity is completely accounted for and the 
direction of change would lead eventually to a new state of relative homo- 
geneity. The present diversity thus represents transitional stages in the 
movement from patri to bi or matri-organization. 

Changing from one kinship system to another usually involves the 
applications of a new term to designate certain relatives. Such new terms 
may be either invented or borrowed. The presence of unique terms for a 
relative involved in the change of kinship system was sought because the 
presence of unique terms aids in determining the direction of change. No 
attempt was made to determine the origin of such terms, i.e. whether 
invented or borrowed, but a few cases of apparent borrowing of terms 
were encountered. 

One apparently borrowed term is found among the Northern Porno 
which have the term "Tcamandai" for FaSiDa and SiDa. Since this term 
is unique and the "dai" in the SiDa generation indicates only the address 
form, it appears to have been borrowed from the central Wintu grand- 
mother term "Tcama." The Northern Porno which are Sudanese with 
respect to reference terms seem never to have developed an Omaha system. 
However the use of this term gives them an Omaha system with respect to 
address terms. It was perhaps borrowed as a result of an Omaha stimulus. 

A second instance of borrowing of terms occurs among the Wappo 
who utilize the term "olo" for FaYrBr and FaSiSo. This is the same term 
utilized by the Lake and Coast Miwok for FaOlBr. Since the Wappo 
utilize the term for a Crow linkage it suggests that the term was borrowed 
in order to make the shift to the Crow system. 

The Wappo seem to have been borrowers to a greater degree than 
other central California tribes. With respect to kinship they differ greatly 
from most Yukian tribes but are closely associated with the Southern 
Porno. Not only do they have Crow cousin terms in common with the 
Southern Porno but also three Omaha extensions which are FaOlBr = 
FaFa, FaOlBrWi = FaMo and FaSiHu = SiHu. The Wappo have one 
Omaha extension which is not found among any of the Porno but which is 
present among the Central, Southwestern and Southeastern Wintu. This 
is the lumping of FaSi with Si. For some unexplained reason the Wappo 
seem to be particularly vulnerable to the borrowing of traits to inaugurate 
changes in their kinship system. 

Other evidence which points out a change of system as a result of 
diffusional stimulus is also present. The tribes in Table 2 which have 
Hawaiian or Iroquoian terminology had neighbors with these types of 
organizations. Thus the neighbors could serve as models which could aid 
their movement out of the Omaha system. The Porno on the other hand 
were marginal and surrounded by tribes most of which had Omaha organi- 
zation. The diversity of the Porno is thus accounted for not because of 



66 Indiana Academy of Science 

diffusion but probably has resulted from a lack of stimulus. Lacking the 
stimulus of diffusion the movement out of Omaha would involve random 
invention which could result in a variety of systems being developed. 

That Murdock's theory and diffusional studies are not antagonistic 
is shown by reference to Gifford's (4) analysis of California kinship termi- 
nologies. Gifford's conclusions were based primarily on distribution, and 
diffusion and was published 27 years before Murdock's theory. Yet the 
similarities of the results between the two are remarkable. Identical 
conclusions are outlined as follows: the Crow cousin terminology of the 
Southern Porno and Wappo are recent innovations (4, p. 164) ; the present 
Northern Wintu terms have been derived from Omaha (4, p. 164) ; the 
Yokuts tribes with Hawaiian cousin terms are derived from Omaha 
(4, p. 204) and that many of the non-Omaha tribes in central California 
had kinship systems which were similar to Shoshone (4, p. 210). 

Gifford reached a number of conclusions which were not comparable 
with Murdock's theory. But only one significant conclusion differed from 
the expectations derived from Murdock's theory. This difference involved 
the Hawaiian cousin terms of the Southwestern Porno. Gifford considered 
the Hawaiian terms of the Southwestern Porno to be old while Murdock's 
theory indicates they are derived from former Omaha organization. 

In summary Murdock's criticism of the general widespread diffusion 
of kinship systems is justified. However, in a small local area, utilizing 
kinship terms which are unlimited, not systems which are limited, the use 
of diffusional and distributional studies can substantiate interpretations 
derived from Murdock's theory. Such studies can also aid in the refine- 
ment or correction of hypothesis included in Murdock's theory as was 
pointed out by Schmidt (8). One can also be more certain of the validity 
of conclusions if such conclusions are reached through two different and 
unrelated types of analysis. 

Literature Cited 

1. Driver, H. E. and W. C. Massey. 1957. Comparative Studies of North American 
Indians. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 47 : Pt. 2. 

2. — — ■ -, Ms. An Integration of Functional Evolutionary and Historical 

Theory by Means of Correlation. 

3. Eggan, F. 1927. Historical Change in the Choctan Kinship System. American 
Anthropologist. 

4. Gifford, E. W. 1922. California Kinship Terminologies. University of California 
Publication in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 

5. Kroeber, A. L. 1917. California Kinship Systems. University of California Publi- 
cations in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 

G. - — - — . 1948. Anthropology. Ilarcourt, Brace & Company, Inc. 

7. Murdoch:, G. P. 1949. Social Structure. The Macmillan Co. 

8. Schmitt, K. and Schmitt, I. Wichita Kinship Past and Present. University Book 
Exchange, Norman, Oklahoma, n.d. 

9. Si'OEHR, A. 1947. Changing Kinship Systems. Anthropology Series. Field Museum 
of Natural History, Chicago. 



Accelerated Acculturation of the Mayan Indians of Guatemala 

F. X. Grollig, S.J., Loyola University, Illinois 1 

Down to recent times the life of the Mayan Indians in the Guate- 
malan Highlands has been characterized by isolation induced by the very 
topography of the land which separates the small villages. Now, however, 
the Pan-American Highway is changing the face of the Highlands, cul- 
turally as well as physically. It is with this cultural change that the 
present paper is concerned (1). It may be conjectured that the villages 
nearest to the new highway will "suffer" most in this process of accul- 
turation. 

The pattern of the villages varies little from the colonial Spanish 
pattern — government offices, church, and market place forming the center 
of the town, village, or city. In most of the Guatemalan Highland villages 
this pattern is observable, with the land holdings of the individual Indians 
lying outside this centralized area. 

In the domain of food, the main item is still corn. The crops are 
planted on the steep grades — some ranging up to a 60° angle of elevation — 
using the ancient hill method which involves the planting of several grains 
of corn in the same hole, and then hoeing up the dirt around the corn 
stalk as it begins to grow. An innovation is the use of metal hoes and 
machetes. 

The ancient household tools, the metate and mano (stone rolling pin 
and mortar) are commonly used by the modern Mayan Indians. Here, 
too, one notes that small food grinders occasionally appear, and with the 
increase of a cash income, the Indians are willing to pay a cent or two to 
have the day's supply of corn ground at the water-powered mill. One 
progressive Ladino (2) installed a small generator to power a small 
electric grinder. The basic corn product used in the daily menu is the 
tortilla, a sort of corn-pan-cake, which is usually fried on a pottery griddle. 
Pottery cups and plates are being replaced by metalware. Finally, a 
watery corn drink, called atoli, is drunk in a non-fermented state. 

The diet of many of the children is being augmented by the use of 
powdered milk and vitamin pills — both supplied by U. N. E. S. C. O. 
These same two new items in the diet of pregnant women are apparently 
helping to cut down the infant mortality rate. 

In the domain of clothing there is the most noticeable change. Wher- 
ever the trend is heavily toward the Europeanization (or Americaniza- 
tion) of the Indians, the type of the clothing the people wear is an accu- 
rate barometer to ascertain how far this trend has gone. Especially in 
the dress of women is the change observable. In place of the beautifully 
woven or embroidered blouses many of the women are wearing simple 
western style clothes which are generally less colorful. For the men the 
switch to western dress involves the discarding of the black slip-over type 
of loose garb for suits or jackets. 

Itinerant merchants travel on the roads that bring the buses, trucks, 
or jeeps to the villages. Thus, whole stocks of cloth and dry goods, as well 



1. The material was gathered in Guatemala from February to December, 1958, 
the time spent by the author in field work among the Mayan Indians. Indiana University 
provided the use of a tape recorder and a grant-in-aid for audio-visual materials. 

67 



68 Indiana Academy of Science 

as items like flashlights, are now being sold regularly in the village mar- 
kets. Cheap costume jewelry now appears at most markets. 

Permanent cement laundry trays and fountains are becoming more 
numerous. This partially eliminates washing clothes in the rivers and 
small streams. But in most cases the water still has to be transported 
from the village fountain to the private homes. Usually the water is 
carried in special water jars by the women. These jars are pottery vessels 
with two handles. A tump-line is stretched across the forehead, thus 
supporting the jar which is carried on the woman's back. 

For the anthropologist who has but a short time to visit a Guatemalan 
village, one would give the advice : go to the market. There not only do 
you see the contrasts in clothing and diet, but also a bit of the thrift of 
the Indians. Thus, for example, discarded oil cans are used for washing 
glasses and cups; old jeep tires are used for shoes. By checking with the 
merchants one can find the distribution of products among the highland 
villages themselves as well as the sources for foreign items. 

While it may be said that western civilization is creeping into the 
lives of the Indians in many subtle ways, there are some patent newcomers 
into the cultural life of the Indians. Dancing the Indians always had, but 
the Spanish dances show acculturation. Feasting undoubtedly was pres- 
ent in pre-Columbian days, but the fiesta, or festival, is a comparatively 
young — not more than 400 years old — innovation. The "Hollywood flare" 
was introduced say in the last decade with the selection of queens for the 
fiesta. These are little girls about 12 years old. Now, some of the villages 
take cognizance of the cultural differences that do exist among the people 
in the village, and give them two queens for the fiesta, one Indian and one 
Ladina. In San Miguel Acatan, in 1958, both queens rode on the float, the 
only float, in the fiesta parade, while the governor and the missionary 
walked together. Though there are ancient ball-courts in the highlands, 
the introduction of basket-ball represents athletic acculturation. 

As the traditional isolation of the Mayan villages is broken down, and 
as the pace of acculturation is accelerated, one wonders if the ancient 
Mayan culture will all but disappear in the highlands of Guatemala. 

Notes 

(1) International interest in the acculturation of the Mayan Indians was recently 
shown when the author was invited to speak on this subject at the 34th International 
Congress of Americanists at Vienna, Austria. That this acculturation problem is not 
of merely local proportions may be judged from the magnitude of the Andean Program 
of the International Labor Organization currently operating in South America. The 
author has been invited to conduct an acculturation study of the Aymara Indians. 
This study would be in conjunction with the four anthropologists now working in the 
Peruvian section of the Andean Program. 

(2) Ladino is a term that originally had some basis in the fusion of the Indian 
and Spanish bloods. Now, it is rather a cultural distinction: if one wears European 
type clothes and shoes, and can speak Spanish, he may be called a Ladino. 



An Investigation into the Physical and Cultural Basis of 
Personality in College Women 

Louise M. Robbins, Indiana University 

The problems introduced in the examination of the nature of the 
relationship between the constitution of the individual and his personality 
are varied and many. Who will be included in the study and how their 
personality and body constitution will compare are the major problems. 

In the examination of the methods to be used in constitutional assess- 
ment, it was decided that W. H. Sheldon's technique of somatotyping 
would be used. He uses a 7 point scale for each morphological component 
and classifies a male according to the amount of endomorphy, mesomorphy, 
and ectomorphy in the body. A 1 in any of the components would mean 
that there was a small amount of that particular component in the body. 
Therefore, an extremely linear person would be considered to be low in 
endomorphy and mesomorphy, and high (near 7) in the ectomorphic com- 
ponent. An extreme case could be classified as a 1-1-7, meaning low endo- 
morphy, low mesomorphy, and high ectomorphy. Thus Sheldon's scale 
could be used visually in which case the individual doing the somatotyping 
should be well trained by an instructor who is accomplished in the field of 
somatotyping. Sheldon makes use of photographs, also, in which he has 
a front, side, and rear view of the individual. Measurements can then be 
taken from the photographs which are comparable to those taken directly 
from the individual. I have eliminated the possibility of the photographs 
for women due to their controversial nature. Instead of the photographs, 
Slabaugh's scale for the somatotyping assessments will be used. In this 
way it will be possible to reconstruct the individual from body measure- 
ments by using the standardizing formula and still would not identify the 
person being measured. Any desire not to be recognized is given the 
greatest consideration. This is quite naturally the greatest obstacle in the 
study. However, if handled properly this method could ease the reluctance 
of being somatotyped because of photographs. The measurements needed 
to reconstruct an outline of the individual are comprised of ten from the 
front view, two from the side, and five from the rear view. In the practice 
we have had to date, it has worked effectively. 

Two tests are being used in the selection of the personality assess- 
ment. One will be Sheldon's Temperament Scale which is again based 
upon three components: viscerotonia, somatotonia, and cerebrotonia. 
Twenty traits are listed for each component, and the individual uses the 
7 point rating scale again. The lower the number, the less is the tempera- 
ment component in the subject. An example is shown by the third tem- 
perament trait which for the viscerotonia is "Slow Reaction"; for the 
somatotonia it is "The Energetic Character"; and for the cerebrotonia it 
is "Overly Fast Reactions." This scale will be aided by the Edwards 
Personal Preference Schedule which is entirely different in its approach 
to personality. It is constructed as a general personality test which is 
needed to give more information of the individual being interviewed than 
can be gained by a single meeting. 

The students used in this study are college undergraduate and grad- 
uate women at Indiana University in the age range of 18 to 25. The 

69 



70 Indiana Academy of Science 

majority of the sample is expected to fall in the 18 to 20 year age range. 
The study will cover Residence Halls, sororities, plus girls who live or 
room in the city of Bloomington. It will include Caucasoid, Negroid, and 
Mongoloid students. 

The diversity of students will naturally mean diversity in cultural 
backgrounds. We hope that the study will indicate the role the background 
plays in the answers given by the student. This would appear to direct 
the mental aptitude of the student in her adaptation to the environment 
of a college. The cultural background is also influenced by the economic 
level of the girl herself or of her parents. An example would be two girls 
with the same morphological components, one of whom lived in a sorority 
and the other who lived in a co-operative house. Since the sample is taken 
from a State University, it is possible to have a wide range of Negro and 
White in-state and out-of-state students. They bring, in turn, several 
levels of society. 

One area of the study could include a comparison of Negro and White 
somatotypes and personalities. Another area might compare the cultural 
and economic background of White students with their somatotype and 
personality, and a similar comparison made with the Negro students. 
There are many students from other countries studying at Indiana Uni- 
versity, but it is doubtful whether a large enough sample of the women 
students could be obtained for comparison. 

It is believed that the results of the study will give a substantial 
amount of information on the somatotype and personality of college Negro 
and White women, since there is little definite information at the present 
time. There will be some traits which will be similar in Negroes and Whites 
and others which will be quite different. It is suspected that there will be 
less difference between northern Negroes and Whites than will be found 
with the southern Negroes. All comparisons made may give one type of 
results in a college environment, and a later study may show the same 
morphological components giving another kind of result in a different 
environment. Results received from this study of college women might 
be compared with the same somatotypes given by Dr. Bullen in her study 
of factory women. 

Dr. Sheldon has conducted many tests and somatotypic measurements 
on men of whom most have been college men at Harvard University. 
Data gathered from a private school would seem to be more limited than 
that gathered at a State University. However, it might still indicate 
whether Dr. Sheldon's somatotype charts and temperament scales for 
men may also be applicable for women or whether a slightly different scale 
will need to be devised. This study is constructed to answer some of these 
questions. 



BACTERIOLOGY 

Chairman: Gordon Mallett, Eli Lilly 

Gordon Mallett, Eli Lilly and Indiana University, was elected 

chairman for 1962 



ABSTRACTS 

Studies on the Increase in vitro of Mitotic Activity and Melangenesis 
in the RPMI HA # 5 (7113) Strain Melano. Judyth Vary and Sister M. 
Clare Francis, St. Francis College. — A 73rd generation un-pigmentecl 
melanoma, derived from a metastatic lesion in a human host and cultured 
in the Syrian hamster, was used in attempts to accelerate the proliferation 
of the melanoma in vitro, employing assays of the basic media #213 
against controls of 213, Puck's, Shu, and ELH media. Several hundred 
variations of twelve amino acid concentrations, in correlation with fetal 
calf serum percentages of 2%, 5%, and 10% were tested. Although results 
are inconclusive at this date, indications suggest that specific concentra- 
tions of phenylalanine, alanine, and tryptophane influence from a slight 
to substantial extent the increase in mitotic activity of the melanoma. In 
some instances melanogenesis was increased to the point that some cells 
seemed to contain melanin in amounts noticeable under low microscopic 
powers. Tests with the dopa reaction revealed an increase in melanogenic 
activity in some cases. 

The factors influencing accentuated mitosis and melonagenesis may 
provide a key in the control of this deadly cancer, since the absence or 
loss of such factors may reciprocally influence the proliferation and meta- 
static activity of this melanoma in an adverse manner. An area of future 
endeavor includes testing the influence of Ehrlich-derived ascites DNA ; 
stock RNA; insulin; etc. 

Cytochemical Changes Induced in Replicating Trachoma Virus by 
Metabolic Analogues. Morris Pollard, Lobund Laboratories, University 
of Notre Dame.- — Replicating trachoma virus induces the same sequence 
of cytochemical changes in tissue cells as other members of the T-L-P 
family of viruses. When infected tissue cultures were periodically stained 
with acridine orange and observed with ultra violet light, the DNA virus 
particle in the cytoplasm was surrounded by an RNA matrix, from which 
mature DNA emerged. 

Addition of antibiotics to the culture medium of infected cells inter- 
rupted the cytochemical sequence. At determined time intervals following 
infection, alterations in virus were induced as follows: aminopterin at 
time interrupted replication at the RNA stage; 5 fluorouracil at time 14 
hours induced formation of massed "abnormal" fraudulent RNA; and 
5-fluoro-2' deoxyuridine at time 14 hours induced abnormal DNA-appear- 
ing material. An eclipse stage in replication of trachoma virus has been 
demonstrated by this intracellular chemical indicator system. 

The Use of Peracetic Acid to Obtain Invertebrate Eggs for Gnoto- 
biotic Studies. James P. Doll, P. C. Trexler, G. R. Bernard and Louise 

71 



72 Indiana Academy of Science 

Lindholm, Lobund Laboratories, University of Notre Dame. — Various 
techniques both chemical and mechanical have been used to procure bac- 
teriologically sterile invertebrates, but not all methods have proved equally 
successful. Some do not render the egg completely germfree and anti- 
biotics must be added which may interfere with certain studies; and in 
some instances the disinfecting agent will tend to dry out the egg which 
results in either death to the embryo or a maimed offspring. 

Peracetic acid shows germicical activity against a broad spectrum of 
gram positive and gram negative organisms as well as fungi. It can be used 
and is effective in very low concentrations : as little as 0.001% in phosphate 
buffer and 0.020 % in nutrient buffer will kill E. coli and Micrococcus 
pyrogencs within 10 minutes. It is also sporicidal: 1.0% of peracetic acid 
in the liquid phase will inactivate spores of B. sterothermophilus on glass 
beads within 30 seconds. Because of these properties and also because the 
residual products (water and oxygen) are non-toxic or can easily be 
washed out, the use of peracetic acid should find popularity among workers 
doing axenic studies. 

In the present work, eggs of Hcterakis gallinae (vector of HistomoJias 
meleagridis), Blatella germanica (cockroach), Drosophila melanogaster, 
and Artemia salina were treated with various concentrations of peracetic 
acid and then tested for both bacterial sterility and for viability. The tests 
for microbial sterility were a modification and extension of the microbial 
control methods used at LOBUND Institute. The test for viability of 
H. gallinae was the ability to transmit blackhead to turkeys and grow in 
chickens ; the ability of the embryo to hatch and maturate was the test of 
viability for the other invertebrates used. Results showed that in all 
instances the eggs could be effectively decontaminated and yet maintain 
viability of their embryos. Two of the germfree strains thus obtained were 
maintained for over a year and a half. 

Dose-Response Relationships of X-Irradiated Germfree and Conven- 
tional Mice. Brother Raphael Wilson, Lobund Laboratories, University 
of Notre Dame. — Dose-response curves for Lobund Swiss mice exposed 
to x-radiation were determined from data on 100 germfree and 166 con- 
ventional mice. The curves appear to be parallel sigmoid curves with that 
for the germfree mice about 50r to the right to that for the conventional 
mice. The data indicate that in the absence of microorganisms, the radio- 
sensitivity of the mouse is reduced. In the mid-lethal range, 20-30% 
greater mortality occurs among conventional mice than among the germ- 
free. Following exposure to fatal dosage of radiation, the germfree mouse 
lives longer than its conventional counterpart. Plotting survival time 
against dosage for conventional mice yields a curve that drops sharply 
range a survival time of 14 days to a plateau of about 4 days in a dose 
range of 500-2000r. The corresponding survival time curve for germfree 
mice begins with a short plateau at about 12 days and drops gradually to 
about 6 days. The use of germfree animals enables the study of radiation 
syndrome in the absence of post-irradiation infection. 



Experimental Use in Dogs of Rabies Vaccine Prepared in 
Embryonated Duck Eggs 

H. M. POWELL (a \ C. G. CULBERTSON (b) , J. 0. MACFARLANE (b) , and 

F. 0. G0SSETT (b) , Indiana University Medical Center (a) 
and Lilly Research Laboratories" 3 ' 

The preparation of rabies vaccine in embryonated duck eggs has 
already been described (1, 2, 3). Its use in man has been documented in 
several papers (4, 5, 6). 

Briefly this vaccine comprises fixed rabies virus of first generation 
duck embryo passage, and this is put up in freeze dried form to be re- 
hydrated with sterile water at the time of use. Assay of potency is 
accomplished by use of N. I. H. mouse immunization and challenge methods. 
The need for purification to remove factors present in brain tissue vaccine 
responsible for neuroparalytic accidents is practically nil in the case of 
duck embryo vaccine which virtually lacks such properties (7). 

In addition to efficient immunization of mice as done in the N. I. H. 
assay tests, the inactivated duck embryo rabies vaccine has been found 
capable of producing virus neutralizing antibody in rabbits, monkeys, 
and human beings. Vaccinated rabbits and guinea pigs were found to 
develop immunity to street virus (8). 

Materials and Methods 

The results reported here concern an experiment with active duck 
embryo rabies vaccine in dogs. Two of us (H. M. P. and C. G. C.) fur- 
nished duck embryo vaccine which had passed through the official N. I. H. 
mouse assay tests twice. J. MacF. and F. 0. G. administered this to dogs 
subcutaneously and provided serum bleedings from these dogs under code 
numbers for serum-virus neutralization tests by H. M. P. and C. G. C. 
Commercial veterinary phenolyzed vaccine furnished by J. MacF. and 
F. 0. G. was used for comparison. Details of the work with dogs by 
J. MacF. and F. 0. G. were not known to Ii. M. P. and C. G. C. at the time. 
Certain groups of sera were designated for test on any one day so that 
pre and post immune sera from the same animals would be tested together. 

Serum-virus neutralization tests were conducted with serum samples 
inactivated at 56°C for 30 minutes. Doubling dilutions of serum, i.e. 1:2, 
1:4, 1:8, 1:16, etc. were prepared in saline. One volume of such serum 
dilutions was added to one volume of properly diluted virus, and the 
mixture incubated 1 hour at 37° C. Final serum dilutions thus became 
1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, etc. Groups of 6 mice were then injected intracere- 
bral^ with 0.03 cc of the various mixtures. The virus in the mixture as 
noted above was diluted so each mouse got 100 LD 50 of fixed virus as proven 
by 40 virus controls used each day. Final readings of mice dead and mice 
surviving were made 14 days later. 

From these data, exact titer of each serum was computed by the 
methods of Reed and Muench (9), and titers are expressed as the recip- 
rocal of the final dilution of serum which protected half the mice, i.e. 1 :4 
and 1:8 are expressed as 4 and 8, etc. 

Results 

When these tests were completed and all titers had emerged, exchange 
of information revealed that 28 dogs were given single doses of 3 cc of 

73 



74 



Indiana Academy of Science 



duck embryo vaccine following a normal bleeding, while 15 dogs were 
given single doses of 5 cc of commercial brain origin veterinary vaccine 
following a similar normal bleeding. Thirty days later single post-immuni- 
zation bleedings were made from all dogs. 

A third vaccine was originally included in these tests. This was a 
commercial vaccine using a 3 cc dose however the results of this were so 
far below expectations they are not being reported. 

TABLE I 



Dogs Recei 


ving Duck Embryo Vaccine 


Dogs Receiving 
Commercial Vaccine 




(single dose of 3 cc) 




(single dose 


of 5 cc) 


Dog 

Number 


Initial 
Titer 


30 Day 

Titer 


Dog Initial 
Number Titer 


30 Day 
Titer 


Dog 
Number 


Initial 30 Day 
Titer Titer 


4704 





5.7 


*4720 19.4 


84.6 


4734 





45.4 


4705 





4.5 


4721 


16 


4735 








4706 





21.7 


4723 


12.6 


4736 





19 


4707 





13.9 


4724 


3.5 


4737 





91.6 


4708 








4725 


4 


*4740 


i 


42 


4709 





7.1 


4726 


18 


4742 





17.4 


4710 





49.4 


4727 


14.2 


4744 





45.4 


4711 








4728 


6.5 


4745 








4712 





48.8 


4729 


6 


4746 





9 


4713 





7.3 


4731 


4 


4747 





42 


4714 





16 


*4732 4 


4 


4748 





28.4 


4715 








4733 


147 


4750 





48 


4716 





14.4 


4738 





4751 





1'.) 


4718 





21 


4749 





4752 
4753 







4 




* Dogs 4720, 4732, and 4740 exhibited an antibody titer in the initial (pre-immuni- 
zations) bleeding. Vaccination increased the titers of 4720 and 4740 but not of 4732. 
Dog 4732 contracted pneumonia during the 30 day period and this may have inhibited 
a normal response. 

Table I shows a list of all dogs used in the experiment, their normal 
rabies virus neutralizing titer, and their post immunization titer 30 days 
following the single injection of vaccine. 

Inspection of Table I shows two dogs in the duck embryo vaccine 
group (numbers 4720 and 4732) and one dog in the brain vaccine group 
(4740) had antibody to begin with, that is in the initial or pre-immuniza- 
tion bleeding. Two of these, 4720 and 4740, increased in titer while one 
dog, 4732, did not. This latter dog developed pneumonia during the 30 days 
period and this infection might have suppressed a normal response to 
vaccine. In order to figure response to vaccine later in this report, we 
shall omit the three dogs showing virus neutralizing antibody in the 
initial bleeding. 

It is further evident from Table I that five dogs of 28 in the duck 
embryo vaccine group, and three dogs of 15 in the brain vaccine group 
showed no antibody response at 30 days after vaccination. Our tests, and 
the lowest thresholds tested, do not preclude the possible presence of 
tracts of antibody if at the strongest serum dilution used, namely 1:4, 



Bacteriology 75 

our results are negative. In other words, more sensitive tests might have 
revealed weaker antibody in the dogs whose response we regard as 
negative. 

TABLE 2 



Vaccine Used 


Number Dogs 
in Group 





Having 
4* 


Nu ml 
Virus-N 

8 


>er of 

eutral 

16 


Dogs 
izing T 
32 


tei 


■s of: 
04 


128 


Duck Embryo 
3cc 


26 


5 


5 


•1 


9 









2 


1 


Commercial 
5cc 


14 


3 


1 


1 


;: 




1 




2 






* Titers expressed as in Table I. Each dog assigned to "nearest dilution" group 
on basis of its final computed titer. 

In Table 2 we have tabulated all dogs used in increasing order of 
final potency with the exception of the three animals mentioned above 
which had antibody to begin with. In the groupings shown in Table 2, 
individual animals were assigned to an antibody titer group to which 
their computed titers were nearest. 

It appears from Table 2 that approximately 80 percent of each group 
of dogs developed antibody 30 days after an injection of either vaccine. 
Twenty-one of twenty-six dogs on duck embryo vaccine, and eleven of 
fourteen dogs on commercial vaccine developed antibody. Roughly the 
success of each vaccine in this respect turned out to be about the same as 
based on the limited number of animals used. However inspection of 
Table 2 indicates the antibody titers in the former group are not as high 
as those in the latter group. Obviously it would take more animals to 
settle this point, however the indications of this difference are in line with 
the use as mentioned above of 3 cc of duck embryo vaccine in comparison 
with 5 cc of brain vaccine. Since both of these vaccines originate from 
fixed virus it might have been more advantageous to have compared these 
two vaccines on an equal-volume-of-dose basis. 

A bar graph chart I has been made on an arithmetical basis of 
virus neutralizing titers of the two groups of dogs. It appears that 
although there is little difference in the relative numbers of dogs success- 
fully immunized by the two vaccines (roughly 4 out of 5 dogs developing 
a demonstrable serum titer at 30 days), the height of antibody titers is 
greater in some of the brain vaccine group than in the duck embryo vac- 
cine group. Since the duck embryo vaccine group of dogs got 3 cc of 
vaccine per dog and the brain vaccine group of dogs got 5 cc of vaccine 
per dog, it would appear reasonable to expect a 5 cc dose of duck embryo 
vaccine to equal a similar dose of brain vaccine as regards antibody 
response in dogs. 

Conclusions 

1. A single dose of 3 cc of duck embryo rabies vaccine given to dogs, with 
no antirabies antibody in their serum to begin with, results in demon- 
strable antibody titers in about 80% of dogs in 30 days. 



?<;; 



Indiana Academy of Science 



64 



* 32 

U3 



ANTIBODY TITERS OF 26 DOGS 

30 DAYS AFTER SINGLE DOSE 

OF 3cc.DUCK EMBRYO RABIES 

VACCINE (Approx. 80 % + ) 



147 



■nn-nfi-n- 







































co 64 _ 
O 




ANTIBODY TITERS OF 14 DOGS 

30 DAYS AFTER SINGLE DOSE 

OF 5cc. COMMERCIAL RABIES 

VACCINE (Approx. 80 %+) 




91 

: 






H 

Q 
S 








- 















OS 
W 






































n n nil 



2. A single dose of 5 cc of commercial rabies vaccine of brain origin under 
the same conditions produces antibody also in about 80% of dogs. 

3. So called long incubation antibody tests might have increased these 
percentages. 

4. The brain vaccine (5 cc) dogs have somewhat higher titers than the 
duck embryo vaccine (3 cc) dogs. This might be expected in view of the 
differing doses of vaccine. 

5. These showings are compatible with the probability that equal doses of 
these two vaccines would be quite comparable immunologically, although 
equal doses were not tested in this study. 

6. Although the duck embryo rabies vaccine used in this experiment com- 
prised live virus, no ill effects were produced in dogs. There was no 
particular merit in this vaccine over a similar inactivated vaccine which 
we reported effective in 34 of 43 dogs two years ago. 

7. The dogs used in this study were for general pharmacological use and 
hence were not challenged with street virus. 



Bacteriology 77 

Literature Cited 

Powell, H. M. and Culbertson, C. G. 1950. Cultivation of Fixed Rabies Virus in 
Embryonated Duck Eggs. Pub. Health Reports 65 : 400-401. 

Powell, H. M. and Culbertson, C. G. 1954. Recent Advances in the Preparation 
of Antirabies Vaccines Containing Inactivated Virus. Bull. World Health Organi- 
zation 10 : 815-822. 

Powell, H. M. and Culbertson, C. G. 1959. Inactivation of Fixed Rabies Virus 
Grown on Embryonated Duck Eggs by Means of Beta Propiolactone. The South- 
western Veterinarian 12 : 281-295. 

Peck, F. B., Jr., Powell, H. M., and Culbertson, C. G. 1955. A New Antirabies 
Vaccine for Human Use. Jour. Lab. and Clin. Med. 45 : 679-683. 
Peck, F. B. Jr., Powell, II. M., and Culbertson, C. G. 1956. Duck Embryo Rabies 
Vaccine. Jour. Ainer. Med. Assoc. 162 : 1373-1376. 

Greenberg, M. and Childress, J. 1960. Vaccination Against Rabies with Duck 
Embryo and Semple Vaccines. Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc. 173 : 333-337. 
MacFarlane, J. O., and Culbertson, C. G. 1954. Attempted Production of Allergic 
Encephalomyelitis with Duck Embryo Suspensions and Vaccines. Canadian Jour. 
Pub. Health 45 : 28-29. 

Powell, II. M., Culbertson, C. G., and Peck, F. B., Jr. 1960. Tests of Duck Em- 
bryo (DE) Rabies Vaccine Against Street Virus in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs. Jour. 
Ind. State Med. Assoc. 53 : 1307-1312. 

Reed, L. F., and Muench, H. 1938. A Simple Method of Estimating Fifty Percent 
Endpoints. Amer. Jour. Hygiene 27 : 493-497. 



Reversal of the Antibacterial Activity of Simple and Complex 
Sulfonamides by p-Aminobenzoic Acid 

Walter A. Zygmunt, Mead Johnson Research Center 

Previous studies by Woods (1) clearly demonstrated that p-amino- 
benzoic acid (PABA) competitively antagonized the antibacterial activity 
of sulfanilamide (Fig. 1). There appears to be little information as to 



H 2 N- 



V // 



COOH 



HoN- 



SOo NH 



p-Aminobenzoic Acid 



Sulfanilamide 



Fig. I. Structure of p-aminobenzoic acid and 
sulfanilamide. 

whether the more complex sulfonamide derivatives currently used in 
chemotherapy act like the simple sulfonamides in inhibiting susceptible 
bacteria by interfering with the utilization of PABA. Studies on the 
reversal of the in vitro antibacterial activity of sulfanilamide, N-(6-meth- 



H.*/ \ 



S0 2 NH 




OCH 



Sulfamethoxypyridazine 



»j/ \ 



S0 2 NH 




OCH 



OCH 3 

Sulf adimethoxine 

Fig. 2. Structures of sulfamethoxypridazine and 
sulfadimethoxine. 



78 



Bacteriology 



79 



oxy-3-pyridazinyl) -sulfanilamide (sulfamethoxypyridazine) and N-(2,6- 
dimethoxy-4-pyrimidinyl) sulfanilamide (sulfadimethoxine) in Lactoba- 
cillus plantarum, a PABA dependent culture, are described in this report 
(Fig. 2). Studies on the PABA reversal of growth inhibition caused by 
sulfadimethoxine in E. coli are also included. 

Materials and Methods 

The medium of Sarett (2) was used with L. plantarum, strain 17-5. 
Since some of the compounds were not readily water soluble, five to ten 
mg. quantities were dissolved in five ml. portions of 0.1 N NaOH, diluted 
promptly to 400 ml. with distilled water, adjusted to pH 8.0 with HC1 and 
diluted to 500 ml. to give 6X10"" M solutions. Solutions of the sulfonamide 
analogues (pH 8.0) and PABA (pH 7.0) were sterilized by Seitz nitration 
and added to previously autoclaved culture tubes containing five ml. por- 
tions of basal medium and graded levels of sterile, distilled water to give 
eight to nine ml. volumes. Final assay volumes were 10 ml. per 20X150 
mm. culture tube. The sulfonamide analogues were tested at a final con- 
centration of 6X10 6 M. In the preparation of the inoculum, precautions 
were taken to minimize the carry-over of PABA by appropriate washing 
of the culture and by using a dilute cell suspension. Growth was measured 
turbidimetrically as optical density using a Coleman Junior spectropho- 
tometer at a wave length of 620 n, following a 24 hr. incubation period 
at 35°C. 

For the studies with E. coli, strain AV, the minimal medium of Davis 
and Mingioli (3) was used. Except for the concentrations of sulfadi- 
methoxine and PABA, the procedures used with E. coli were similar to 
those described for L. plantarum. 

Results and Discussion 

PABA reversed the growth inhibition of both a simple and two com- 
plex sulfonamides in Lactobacillus plantarum,, a PABA requiring culture 

TABLE I 

Reversal of the Antibacterial Activity of Sulfonamides by 
PABA in L. plantarum 



PABA Sulfanilamide Sulfamethoxypyridazine 

Molarity X 10 10 

% Reversal of Growth Inhibition 



Sulfadimethoxine 



0.02 


3 


3 


4 


0.04 


2 


3 


3 


0.08 


3 


4 


4 


0.20 


14 


16 


4 


0.40 


57 


54 


6 


0.75 


91 


92 


40 


1.50 


100 


100 


84 


3.00 


100 


100 


100 



(Table I). The ability of PABA to reverse the antibacterial activities of 
sulfanilamide and sulfamethoxypyridazine was equivalent. In contrast, 
the inhibition of bacterial growth caused by sulfadimethoxine was much 
more resistant to PABA reversal. 



80 



Indiana Academy of Science 



In the PABA reversal studies with L. plantarum, a 150 fold range 
in PABA concentrations was employed starting with a level which gave a 
maximal growth response in control tubes. At this base level, one will 
note that inhibition of growth was about 95% with all three sulfonamides 
at equimolar concentrations. 

It was also of interest to determine whether the antibacterial activity 
of sulfadimethoxine could be reversed in a micro-organism not requiring 
exogenous PABA, such as E. coli. This organism is not as sensitive to the 
antagonistic effect of the sulfonamides as is L. plantarum; hence higher 
concentrations of the inhibitor were employed with this culture. A level 
of sulfadimethoxine, 1.6 X 10" 5 M, which caused an 85% inhibition of E. coli 
growth was completely reversed by the addition of 1.5X10~ 9 M PABA. 
A 19 fold increase in the concentration of sulfadimethoxine produced a 
95% inhibition of growth and a 70% reversal of this inhibition occurred 

TABLE II 
PABA Reversal of Sulfadimethoxine Growth Inhibition in E. coli 



PABA 

Molarity X 10 n 



Sulfadimethoxine 

1.6X10- B M | 30.3X10 : 'M 

% Reversal of Growth Inhibition 



0.0 


14 


6 


0.1 


20 


5 


0.2 


70 


4 


0.4 


74 


4 


0.8 


84 


4 


1.5 


100 


7 


3.0 


100 


7 


6.0 


100 


12 


12.0 


100 


48 


24.0 


100 


70 



when 24X10-°M PABA was added (Table II). These data clearly show 
that the antibacterial activity of sulfadimethoxine also can be readily 
reversed by PABA in a culture not requiring the addition of PABA for 
growth. 

These data confirm the expected conclusion that with both simple and 
complex sulfonamides the inhibition of susceptible bacteria occurred 
through an interference in the utilization of PABA. 

Summary 

The in vitro antibacterial activity of both simple and complex sulfona- 
mide compounds was readily reversed by the addition of PABA in L. 
plantarum, a PABA requiring organism. The growth inhibition observed 
with sulfadimethoxine was more refractory to PABA reversal than was 
the inhibition with sulfanilamide or sulfamethoxypyridazine. The growth 
inhibitory activity of sulfadimethoxine was also reversed by PABA in 
E. coli, a bacterium capable of PABA synthesis. 



Bacteriology 81 

As expected, these studies have shown that the antibacterial activities 
of sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfadimethoxine are due primarily to 
antagonism of PABA utilization. 

Literature Cited 

1. Woods, D. D. 1940. Brit. J. Expt. Path. 21 : 74. 

2. Sarett, H. P. 1951. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 34 : 378. 

3. Davis, B. D.. and E. S. Mingioli. 19.30. J. Bacterid. 60: 17. 



BOTANY 

Chairman: Joseph Hennen, Indiana State College 

Paul Weatherwax, Indiana University and Franklin College, 
was elected chairman for 1962 



ABSTRACTS 



Poison Ivy Rust and Its Allies in North America. Joe F. Hennen, 

Indiana State College and Purdue University. — This is a preliminary 
report of work done toward a proposed taxonomic monograph of the genus 
Pileolaria for the world. Pileolaria brevipes Berk, and Rav., poison ivy 
rust, is an autoecious, long cycled parasite of Toxicodendron radicans (L.) 
Kuntze and T. diversiloba (Torr. and Gray) Greene. It is coextensive 
with its hosts over much of North America and is the most common species 
of Pileolaria in North America. Unlike its polymorphic hosts, it shows 
little morphological variation. Other species and hosts of Pileolaria or 
related form genera in North America are as follows: P. patzcuarensis 
(Holw.) Arth. on Rhus trilobata Nutt., R, schmidelioides Schleckt. in the 
Southwestern United States and Mexico and on R. aromatica Ait. in 
Ontario; Pileolaria effusa, on Rhus glabra L. and Toxicodendron radicans 
(L.) Kuntze in Arizona and Colorado; Uredo mexicana (Arth.) Cumm. 
on Rhus choriophylla Woot. and Standi, in Southwestern United States 
and Mexico; Pileolaria standleyi Cumm. on Pistacia mexicana H. B. K. in 
Guatemala; Uraecium extensum (Arth.) Cumm. on Pistacia mexicana 
H. B. K. in Mexico; Pileolaria cotini-coggy griae Tai and Cheo on Cotinus 
coggygria Scop, in Georgia ; and Pileolaria domingensis Cif . on Comocladia 
sp. in Dominican Republic. 

Botanical Investigation in the Great Slave Lake Area. Robert J. 
Reich, Indiana State College and Chicago Museum of Natural History . — 
The general aspects of the Northern Boreal Forest and the Tundra Transi- 
tion Zone will be the main concern of the talk. Slides taken during June, 
July, and early August 1959 and 1961 will be shown to supplement the 
discussion. Emphasis will be on the major plant communities existing 
between the towns of Hay River, N. W. T. and Yellowknife, N. W. T. 
along the new Yellowknife Highway which half circles Great Slave Lake 
on its western side. 

Gall Specificity in Relation to Synchytrium. John S. Karling, Pur- 
due University. — Synchytrium macros])orum is a short-cycled member of 
the subgenus Pycnochytrium which parasitizes several hosts in central 
Texas. Under greenhouse conditions it has been transferred to more than 
1,100 additional hosts species in over 700 genera of 157 plant families 
ranging from the Pinaceae to the Compositae. On many of these hosts 
the induced galls vary from composite to semi-composite and simple in 
structure. Not only do the galls vary on different hosts but also on differ- 
ent tissues or organs of the same host. Although the predominant type of 
gall is composite, this type is not constant and specific on all hosts which 
S. macrosporum is capable of infecting. Also, except for a few other 

82 



Botany 83 

species of Synchytrium, the size, shape and structure of the galls caused 
by these fungi are not constantly characteristic and distinctive so far as 
they are known. Accordingly, present evidence indicates that the galls 
caused by most species are not specific. The type of galls produced is a 
reaction between host and parasite and not a microscopically discernable 
character of the pathogen. Hence, gall type and structure cannot be used 
effectively as primary taxonomic criteria in distinguishing individual 
species of this genus. 

Aquatic Hyphomycetes from Wyoming and Indiana. John W. Baxter, 
Purdue University. — Surveys of streams in Wyoming and Indiana during 
1959 and 1961 revealed the occurrence of 16 species of aquatic hyphomy- 
cetes, representing 12 genera, growing on submerged, decaying leaves, 
chiefly those of species of Salix, Populus, Betula and Alnus. This appears 
to be the first report of the occurrence of these fungi in Wyoming and 
Indiana. The results of the 1959 survey, conducted in Wyoming, have been 
published. The following species were identified from Indiana streams 
during 1961 : Tetraclaolium marchalia?iu?n de Wild., Anguillospora longis- 
sima (Sacc. & Syd.) Ing., Anguillospora crassa Ing., Alatospora acumi- 
nata Ing., Tricelophorus monosporus Ing., Lunulospora curvula Ing. and 
Heliscus tentaculus Umphlett. A collection obtained in 1961 near Laramie, 
Wyoming appears to represent a new species of the aquatic hyphomycetes. 

Shoot Development in Glycine max. R. D. Decker and S. N. Postle- 
thwait, Butler University and Purdue University. — The vegetative apex 
of Glycine max, var. Hawkeye has a distinct tunica-corpus organization. 
The corpus can be divided into a peripheral zone which gives rise to the 
provascular tissue and the cortex, and a central zone which gives rise to 
the pith. 

Leaf initiation occurs in the inner layer of tunica cells near the base 
of the dome of the apex. As growth progresses the outer portion of the 
corpus becomes involved in the formation of the buttress while the remain- 
ing tunica layers continue anticlinal divisions. Leaflet initiation is 
similar to the initiation of the central primordium except the initiation 
site in the inner tunica layer is rapidly becoming disassociated from the 
apex proper. Leaflet initiation occurs at the base of the central primor- 
dium when the primordium is approximately two hundred microns high. 

Lamina initiation begins when the primordium is approximately one 
millimeter high. The marginal initials give rise to the upper and lower 
epidermis. The submarginal initials are responsible for all the internal 
lamina tissue although some may not be formed directly by the submar- 
ginal initials but by intercalary activity. 

The pulvinus region, present at the base of each leaflet, has a vas- 
cular cylinder while the remaining portion of the petiole has a ring of 
vascular bundles. The petiolules of the two lateral leaflets is composed 
entirely of pulvinus tissue. Pulvinus tissue is also present at the base of 
the petiole where the petiole is attached to the trilacunar node. The shape 
of the petiole as seen in transverse view is temporily altered at the point 
of attachment of the lateral petiolules. 

Differential Embryo Infection of Wheat by Ustilago tritici. Louis 
W. T. Hsu and John F. Schafer, Purdue University. — Wheat has been 



84 Indiana Academy of Science 

reported to express effective resistance to loose smut, caused by Ustilago 
tritici, by several different histological reactions: ovary resistance to 
penetration, embryo resistance, inhibition of penetration of growing points, 
reduction of growing point infection during subsequent growth, differ- 
ential internode elongation, and death of infected seedlings. The same 
variety may react differently to various cultures of U. tritici. Highly 
resistant Hope-Hussar showed from 5.8 to 64.0% embryo penetration by 
8 cultures of U. tritici in one test and from 1.6 to 31.3% from inoculations 
made another season. The same smut culture caused the highest infection 
by a wide margin in both tests. Susceptible Wabash ranged from 44.9 
to 74.0% infection by the same 8 cultures in the second test. Although 
Hope-Hussar is resistant to all cultures tested, its histological mechanism 
of resistance must vary in respect to different smut cultures. Three Knox X 
Hope-Hussar selections, developed to combine loose smut resistance with 
superior agronomic characteristics, showed 12.6, 12.6 and 31.7% embryo 
infection by race 6 compared to 13.0 for Hope-Hussar. 

The Identity and Control of Fungi Associated with Damping-off of 
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa,L.) Cuttings in the Greenhouse. Paul G. Addoh, 
Kansas State University. — Studies were made on damping-off alfalfa cut- 
tings in the greenhouse. Various fungi were found associated with the 
sand beds used for a rooting medium and with the alfalfa cuttings. 
Important isolates were Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp., Ascochyta im- 
perfecta, Fiisidium spp., Fusarium roseum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium 
spp., and Alternaria spp., the most common of which was A. tenuis. Tests 
proved R. solani to be the most pathogenic. Satisfactory control of these 
organisms was obtained from a 300 ml/sq. ft. drench of Captan 75 (300 
ppm), Panogen (3 ppm), Phaltan (commercial preparation 500 ppm), or 
PCNB (commercial preparation 500 ppm) or by surface sterilization of 
the cuttings with 1/1000 bichloride of mercury, followed by immersion in 
1/1000 indole butyric acid for *4 to 1 minute before planting. The latter 
procedure was preferred because of its ease, lack of phytotoxicity, and 
high percent of success (92%-95%). In addition, the following cultural 
practices were found necessary to successfully grow the cuttings: (1) use 
of young and vigorously growing plants, (2) adequate sanitation, (3) 
careful and ample watering once a day, (4) shading of cuttings from 
direct light during the first 10-14 days, and (5) spacing of cuttings V2 inch 
to 1 inch in the rows and 2 inches between the rows to prevent the rapid 
spread of pathogens among cuttings. 

Temperature-Time Requirements for Flowering of Oriental Cherry 
Trees at Washington, D. C. Alton A. Lindsey, Purdue University. — 
Phenological records of 1924-1959 were obtained on the flowering of single 
and double varieties of oriental cherry trees in Washington through cour- 
tesy of the National Park Service. The duration-summation method of 
Lindsey and Newman was applied to the annual flowering dates in con- 
junction with daily maximum and minimum temperature records of the 
U. S. Weather Bureau over this period. By use of tables, coefficient of 
variation computation, and graphical analysis, time and temperature 
requirements for the trees' flowering were determined, and possibilities 
of improved prediction discussed. 



Botany 85 

The temperature threshold for flowering of the single-flowered trees 
was 42°F. Their normal time period of preflowering bud development in 
spring was 25 days, and a temperature-time duration sum of 4,749 degree- 
hours was needed. The double-flowered variety had a 42°F. threshold also, 
but required approximately 40 days and 9,297 degree-hours for coming into 
full flower in a normal season. 

Effects of Manganese Deficiency Related to Age in Soybeans (Glycine 
max). Eugene E. Cooper and Eaymond E. Girton, Argos Community 
School, Argos, Indiana, and Purdue University. — Soybean plants when 
grown in manganese deficient silica sand developed typical manganese 
deficiency symptoms of interveinal chlorosis and necrosis. Physiological 
effects including depression of photosynthesis, respiration, growth, and 
relative chlorophyll contents were studied. The depression of photosyn- 
thesis was frequently but not always proportional to reduced chlorophyll 
contents. This is taken to indicate the importance of manganese in reac- 
tions concerned in photosynthesis in addition to chlorophyll formation. 
Leaf position on the plant and actual aging produced different results 
when related to photosynthetic rates. Chlorophyll contents increased with 
age, except for a slight decrease after leaf maturity. For the most part, 
the effects of aging on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll con- 
tents were the same for soybeans as for other species reported in the 
literature. 

An Analysis of Sexual Compatibility in Eudorina from Indiana. Mel- 
vin E. Goldstein, Indiana University. — In the past three years 20 natural 
collections of Eudorina from the vicinity of Bloomington, Indiana have 
yielded the following clonal stocks: 4 homothallic stocks, 12 heterothallic 
pairs and 4 parthenosporic stocks. Two of the 20 collections yielded only 
males and one collection yielded a single female strain. Sexual strains can 
be characterized by their zygote arrangement: 1) the clumped type in 
which the fertilized eggs remain in the maternal matrix forming tight 
clumps and 2) the scattered type in which the maternal matrix breaks 
down after fertilization and the zygotes are released singly. The study of 
sexual compatibility included 11 heterothallic pairs, 2 males and one 
female strain which were mixed in all possible male-female combinations 
with the presence of zygotes used as an indicator of cross compatibility. 
There were 31 intercrosses between heterothallic strains of Eudorina 
representing 20% of the total possible intercrosses. In general, strains 
with like zygote arrangements intercrossed more freely with one another, 
and the greatest sexual isolation occurred between strains with different 
zygote arrangements. Comparison with a more extensive study including 
22 heterothallic pairs, 3 males and one female strain of Eudorina from 8 
states and Vancouver, British Columbia showed the same relationship 
between sexual compatibility and the zygote arrangement. 

The Ultrastructure of Astrephomene. Norma J. Lang, Indiana Uni- 
versity. — The electron microscope is being used to investigate the fine 
structure of Astrephomene gubernaculifera Pocock in the Astrephomena- 
ceae. In contrast to the Volvocaceae, this colonial green flagellate lacks 



86 Indiana Academy of Science 

inversion of daughter coenobia in asexual reproduction. Each cell is sur- 
rounded by an individual gelatinous sheath and pyrenoids are lacking. 

A current study of the Volvocaceae and the previous elucidation of 
the fine structure of Chlamydomonas by Sager and Palade allow compari- 
sons. Electron micrographs of the cellular organelles are shown and dis- 
cussed. It is concluded that these cells are basically "chlamydomonad" 
both in gross morphology and in ultrastructural characteristics. This 
study of vegetative fine structure will form the basis for further exami- 
nation of the origin of organelles in sexual and asexual reproduction. 

A Preliminary Investigation of the Origin of Branches in Fascicled 
Ear Corn. R. H. Hessler, 0. E. Nelson and S. N. Postlethwait, Purdue 
University. — Dr. Paul Weatherwax obtained corn ears, which exhibited 
an unusual type of branching, from a missionary in Mexico. He has pro- 
vided the authors with seed for an investigation of the origin of these 
branches. The first planting at Purdue was made in the Spring of 1961, 
and a morphological study was begun in July 1961. By dissecting ears at 
different intervals during the growing season, the various stages of devel- 
opment were obtained. In developing from a single meristem to a many 
branched-ear, the apical meristem undergoes a series of dicotomous branch- 
ings. However, the number and extent of branching is not constant even 
in a single plant. The number of fertile grains exceeds that produced on 
normal ears. Tassel formation is normal except for a few dicotomous 
branchings that usually occur at the apex of the tassel. The inheritance 
of this abnormality is being investigated. 

Developmental Anatomy of the Seedlings of Annonaceae. Arif Hayat, 
Indiana University. — The form of cellular differentiation in embryos of 
the various genera observed was generally in accord with the pattern that 
has been described for a wide range of other dicotyledons. Contrary to 
the situation in many other dicotyledonous seedlings, any visible indica- 
tion of an epicotyl in examined annonaceous species is delayed in embry- 
onic development. After germination there is a continuation of the growth 
patterns initiated during late embryogeny. The exarch xylem of the root 
is connected with the endarch xylem of the cotyledons and epicotyl through 
a so-called transition region. However, the change in orientation of vas- 
cular tissue is not accomplished by physical rotation or twisting of xylem 
elements, but instead, the character of the cellular pattern in this region 
is gradually changed due to the influences from the root and shoot meri- 
stems. The level of the region where the transition takes place is roughly 
correlated with the diameter of the hypocotyl axis. In general, the location 
of transitions nearest the "collet" are characteristic of hypocotyls of large 
diameter, transitions farthest from the "collet" with slender hypocotyls, 
and intermediate types are found in hypocotyls of intermediate diameter. 
The rate of growth of the hypocotyl determines in part the vertical extent 
of the transition region. More or less uniform patterns of cellular organi- 
zation characterized all seedlings examined within the family. Colored 
photomicrographs of transections of various levels of the seedling axes 
were utilized in the present study. 

The Photoperiod of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Phillip Sparks 
and S. N. Postlethwait, Purdue University. — Guar (Cyamopsis tetra- 



Botany 87 

gonoloba) was introduced into the United States in 1903. In recent years 
it has been considered seriously as a possible crop plant because of the po- 
tential uses of mannogalactin which it produces in the endosperm. Varieties 
grown in the United States require a long season and do poorly in Indiana. 
This report is the first of a series of investigations to determine the plant 
requirements and to seek ways of adapting it to the climate of the mid- 
west. The interaction of photoperiod and temperature on vegetative growth, 
flower initiation, and fruit abscission has been studied. 



Indiana Plant Distribution Records, XVIII. 1959-1961. 

Genera are listed in the order of their appearance in Deam's Flora of 
Indiana, species within each genus are in alphabetical order, and are fol- 
lowed by the name of the county in which they were collected. Entities 
considered worthy of being newly listed as part of the state's natural or 
adventive flora are given in bold face followed by the literature reference 
and name of the collector. Nomenclature is, with a few exceptions, in 
accord with that used in Gray's Manual of Botany, 8 ed. 1950. In the case 
of the exceptions, the Gray's Manual name is given parenthetically. 

The specimens have been collected by the following collectors: (where 
they have contributed most records of a certain county or taxonomic group, 
this is indicated in parentheses after their name) Phyllis Barrett, Marvin 
R. Bell, Joyce Bruening, J. J. Choper, Andre F. Clewell, Carol Davidson 
(Pike Co.), Paul A. Davis, Carolyn DeWolf, Thomas Dick (Dubois Co.), 
Zoe Ellis, Greeta Eyth, Gustav W. Hall, C. B. Heiser Jr., Connie M. 
Hostetler, Jack E. Humbles, F. Kirsch, F. L. Langford (Daviess Co.), 
Don Mahoney (Marshall Co.), Samuel I. Matsunami, Ruth W. McAlister, 
Louise D. Moss, Jack R. Munsee, R. T. Neher, Gertrude Reynolds (Orange 
Co.), William Sanders, E. Schlebecker, G. R. Stangl, Helene Stares 
(Carex), Warren P. Stoutamire (ferns), S. Trinandwan, John L. White, 
Carol Wilson, and Umpai Yongboonkird. 

Records from Spencer County were contributed from the Henrietta 
Herbarium of St. Meinrad Archabbey, St. Meinrad, Indiana, by the fol- 
lowing collectors: K. Bechert, J. Bonifas, J. Butler, L. Crawford, E. 
DeSabato, Martin Donnelly, William Francis, Fabian Frieders O.S.B., 
David Grimes, S. Guy, Henry Herpel, Jim Hill, Blanche Hutton, Land- 
werlen, Clovis May, Jean McClellan, J. Mcintosh, Maurice E. Meyers, 
P. Mislivec, Harry Moore, R. Norwood, P. Pyatt, Scharf, Damina Schmelz 
O.S.B., B. Stanton, Lucille Temple, Vamos, and Marie Wright. 

Voucher specimens for all the new records are in the herbarium of 
Indiana University. 

Taxonomic Entities 

Dryopteris intermedia (D. spimdosa var. intermedia), Owen. D. the- 
lypteris var. pubescens, Madison. Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Owen. Athy- 
rium thelypteroides, Spencer. Asplenium montanum Willd. (see Amer. 
Fern. Journ. v. 46, no. 2, pp. 94-95. 1956.), Owen. Collected by Dale M. 
Smith. A. trichomanes, Owen. Typha angustifolia, Monroe. T. latifolia, 
Madison, Randolph, Spencer. Sagittaria latifolia, Pike. Anacharis cana- 
densis, Spencer. Vallisneria americana, Brown. Poa wolfii, Randolph. 
Dactylis glomerata, Pike. Deschampsia caespitosa, Madison, Marion. 
Muhlenbergia racemosa, Madison. Brachyelytrum e rectum, Madison. 
Panicum clandestinum, Randolph. Andropogon scoparius var. scoparius, 
Madison. Sorghastrum nutans, Madison. Cy perns flavescens, Monroe, 
Morgan. C. ovidaris, Monroe. 

Carex albursina, Rush. C. amphibola var. rigida, Bartholomew. C. a. 
var. turgida, Hancock. C. blanda, Randolph. C. bromoides, Madison. C. 
buxbaumii, Randolph. C. careyana, Owen. C. cephaloidea, Rush. C. com- 
munis, Hendricks, Rush. C. conjuncta, Randolph. C. convoluta, Rush. 
C. crinita, Clark. C. cristatella, Brown, Randolph. C. crus-corvi, Bar- 

88 



Botany 89 

tholomew, Randolph. C. davisii, Cass, Hendricks, Madison, Randolph, 
Rush. C. digitalis, Parke. C. emoryi, Madison. C. festucacea, Bartholo- 
mew. C. Frankii, Rush, Union. C. gracilescens, Bartholomew. C. granu- 
laris, Randolph, Union. C. gravida var. lunelliana, Union. C. grayii, Ran- 
dolph. C. g. var. hispidula, Owen. C. hirsutella, Bartholomew. C. hitch- 
cockiana, Rush. C. hyalinolepis, Bartholomew, Madison. C. hystricina, 
Madison. 

Carex incomperta, Madison. C. interior, Henry, Randolph. C. jamesii, 
Madison, Rush. C. laevivaginata, Henry, Madison, Rush. C. lacustris, 
Randolph. C. lanuginosa, Madison, Randolph. C. laricina (C. cephalan- 
tha), Madison. C. laxiculmis, Henry, Madison, Parke. C. laxiflora, Madi- 
son, Parke, Union. C. leavenworthii, Hancock, Rush, Union. C. leptalea, 
Henry, Randolph. C. lurida, Henry, Union. C. meadii, Cass, Madison, 
Randolph. C. mesochorea, Rush. C. molesta, Hancock. C. muhlenhergii 
var. enervis, Martin. C. normalis, Hancock. C. oligocarpa, Rush. C. 
prairea, Madison, Randolph. C. rosea, Hancock, Hendricks, Rush. C. 
shortiana, Randolph, Rush. C. sparganioides, Hendricks, Union. C. ste- 
rilis, Madison, Randolph. C. stipata, Henry, Morgan, Randolph. C. stricta 
var. strictior, Madison, Randolph. C. suberectum, Madison. C. swanii, 
Martin. C. tribuloides, Bartholomew. C. vulpinoidea, Union. C. willde- 
nowii, Parke. 

Peltandra virginica, Monroe. Arisaema atrorubens, Lawrence, Mon- 
roe. A. dracontium, Morgan, Randolph. Commelina diffusa, Pike. J uncus 
acuminatus, Bartholomew, Martin. J. biflorus, Jackson. J. diffusissimus, 
Bartholomew. J. dudleyi, Randolph, Union. J. tenuis, Rush. J. t. var. 
anthelatus, Bartholomew. Luzula echinata, Monroe, Spencer. Veratrum 
woodii, Monroe. Hemerocallis fulva, Owen. Allium cernuum, Madison. 
Lilium michiganense, Brown. Erythronium americanum, Greene. Aspara- 
gus officinalis, Pike, Ripley. Polygonatum biflorum, Madison, Owen. P. 
canaliculatum, Monroe. Trillium gleasoni (T. flexibes), Spencer. Smilax 
pulverulent a, Brown. Dioscorea hirticaulis, Monroe. D. villosa, Randolph. 
Sisyrinchium albidum, White. Habenaria lacera, Monroe. Spiranthes 
ovalis, Monroe. Calopogon pulchellus, Madison. Corallorhiza odontorhiza, 
Monroe. Tipularia discolor, Monroe. Aplectrum hyemale, Greene. 

Juglans cinerea, Orange. Carpinus caroliniana var. virginiana, Ran- 
dolph. Ostrya virginiana, Randolph. Corylus americana, Orange. Fagus 
grandifolia, Jackson. Celtis occidentalis var. canina, Randolph. Morus 
alba var. tatarica, Clinton. Laportea canadensis, Owen. Boehmeria cylin- 
drica, Madison. Asarum reffexum, Spencer. Aristolochia serpentaria, 
Owen. Polygonum hydropiperoides, Monroe. P. sagittatum, Spencer. 
Cheyiopodium album, Daviess. Cycloloma atriplicif "olium, Monroe. Ama- 
ranthus hybridus, Spencer. A. spinosus, Orange. Mirabilis nyctaginea, 
Daviess. Phytolacca americana, Pike. Stellaria pubera, Martin. Holos- 
teum umbellatum, Owen. Agrostemma githago, Spencer. Silene stellata, 
Madison. S. virginica, Marshall. Dianthus armeria, Owen. Cabomba 
caroliniana, Jackson. Brasenia schreberi, Brown. Nuphar advena, Monroe. 

Isopyrum biternatum, Spencer. Aquilegia canadensis, Owen. Del- 
phinium tricorne, Brown. Hepatica acutiloba, Morgan. Ranunculus abor- 
tivus, Orange. R. pennsylv aniens, Owen. R. septentrionalis, Marshall. 
R. s. var. caricetorum, Ripley. Magnolia acuminata, Hancock. Sassafras 
albidum, Pike. Sanguinaria canadensis, Owen, Spencer. Dicentra cana- 



90 Indiana Academy of Science 

densis, Decatur, Lawrence, Spencer. D. cuctdlaria, Spencer. Corydalis 
flavula, Monroe. Lepidium campestre, Union. L. virginicum, Pike, Rush. 
Thlaspi perfoliatum, Dearborn. Barbarea vulgaris, Spencer. Iodanthus 
pinnatifidus, Madison. Armoracia aquatica, Greene. Dentaria diphylla, 
Spencer. D. heterophylla, Spencer. D. laciniata, Greene. Draba verna, 
Orange. Polanisia graveolens, Marshall. Drosera rotundifolia, Randolph. 
Saxifraga pennsylvanica, Madison. Parnassia glauca, Madison. Ribes 
americanum, Madison. 

Platanus occidentalis, Floyd, Jennings, Morgan, Randolph, Washing- 
ton. Potentilla fruticosa, Madison. P. recta, Spencer. Cassia hebecarpa, 
Madison. C. nictitans, Elkhart. Gleditsia triacanthos, Decatur, Ripley. 
Gymnocladus dioica, Jennings. Medicago sativa, Pike. Melilotus offici- 
nalis, Spencer. Trifolium pratense, Pike, Spencer. T. procumbens, Pike. 
T. repens, Spencer. Apios americana, Madison. Ox alls europaea, Monroe. 
O. stricta, Spencer. Xanthoxylnm americanum, Madison. Ptelea trifoliata, 
Madison. Polygala sanguinea f. albiflora, Dubois. Acer negundo, Floyd. 
A. rubrum, Spencer. A. saccharinum, Clinton, Decatur, Jennings, Orange. 
A. saccharum, Spencer. Parthenocissus quinque folia, Randolph. Ampe- 
lopsis cordata, Monroe, Abutilon theophrasti, Spencer. Viola kitaibeliana 
var. rafiuesquii, Spencer. 

Lythrum salicaria, Brown. Epilobium leptophyllum, Randolph. Eri- 
genia bulbosa, Greene, Owen. Cryptotaenia canadensis, Morgan. Taenidia 
integerrima, Madison. Pastinaca sativa, Pike. Daucus carota, Pike. 
Cornus alternifolia, Madison. C. stolonifera, Morgan. Vaccinium sta- 
mineum var. neglectum, Spencer. Samolus parviflorus, Randolph. Lysi- 
machia longifolia (L. quadrifiora), Madison, Monroe. Apocynum canna- 
binum, Brown. Asclepias perennis, Monroe. A. tuberosa, Morgan, Orange. 
Ampelamus albidus, Pike. Cuscuta campestris, Monroe. Convolvulus 
sepium, Randolph. Ipomoea hederacea, Spencer. Phlox glaberrima, Mon- 
roe. Phacelia bipinnatifida, Ripley. Mertensia virginica, Spencer. Verbena 
canadensis, Spencer. Marrubium vulgare, Pike. 

Solanum carolinense, Pike. S. nigrum, Daviess. Datura stramonium, 
Daviess, Dubois, Marshall, Orange, Pike. Verbascum thapsus, Pike, Spen- 
cer. Pedicularis canadensis, Madison. Campsis radicans, Orange. Catalpa 
bignonioides, Brown. C. speciosa, Spencer. Conopholis americana, Madi- 
son. Ruellia humilis var. expansa, Daviess. R. strepens, Greene. Plantago 
lanceolata, Pike, Spencer. Galium aparine, Brown. Sambucus canadensis, 
Brown, Randolph. Viburnum lentago, Madison. Lonicera japonica, Pike, 
Spencer. Valeriana pauciflora, Spencer. Specidaria perfoliate, Spencer. 
Lobelia cardinalis, Randolph. L. kalmii, Madison. 

Eupatorium sessili folium, Monroe. Solidago ohioensis, Madison. Eri- 
geron ramosus (E. strigosiis), Spencer. Silphium laciniatum var. robin- 
sonii, Monroe. S. terebinthinaceum, Monroe. Ambrosia elatior (A. arte- 
misiifolia), Spencer. Verbesina helianthoides, Randolph. Helenium nudi- 
florum, Monroe. Anthemis cotula, Dubois, Spencer. Chrysanthemum leu- 
canthemum var. pinnatifidum, Spencer. Cacalia tuberosa, Madison. Sene- 
cio aureus, Morgan. Arctium minus, Monroe, Pike. Cirsium vulgare, Pike. 
Taraxacum laevigatum, Spencer. Lactuca floridana, Monroe. 

Zoe Ellis, Herbarium Curator 
Indiana University 



Aerial Survey and Control of Oak Wilt in Indiana 

Ralph J. Green, Jr. and Claude Fordyce, Jr., Purdue University 

Introduction 

Oak Wilt, caused by the fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) 
Hunt, was first reported in Indiana by Cummins in 1949 (2). Surveys 
conducted by Stearns and Crowder (5) from 1952 to 1956 established the 
distribution of this disease. In the northern third of the state, the disease 
is epidemic and destructive while there are only scattered infection centers 
in the southern third of Indiana. The central portion of the state is rela- 
tively free from this disease. 

Quercus spp. are the most important tree species utilized by the lum- 
bering industry in Indiana and make up an important part of the perennial 
vegetation. Total harvest of native lumber in 1950 was 254 million bd. ft., 
with oaks comprising 38% of the total (1). 

Aerial Survey and Control 

Since 1959, emphasis in Oak Wilt investigations at Purdue Univer- 
sity has been on the development of a suitable method for detection and 
control of this disease in southern Indiana (3). This has included aerial 
survey as a means of detecting the disease and the application of eradica- 
tion practices to contain and finally eradicate Oak Wilt from the timber- 
lands of southern Indiana. 









KMT 







'\M-m^ [ 






—mmr 



W'&^-siX 



"lllfP 











Fig. 1. Aerial view of typical new Oak Wilt infection locus. Note the one dead 
tree exhibiting foliar symptoms. 

91 



92 Indiana Academy of Science 

Aerial survey is used because of the speed and efficiency in covering 
large areas of rough terrain. In 1960, 3 areas totaling approximately 
1,000 sq. mi. were surveyed. During 1961, an area comprising some 6,200 
sq. mi. was surveyed, including most of the important oak stands in south 
central Indiana. Included were most of the Hoosier National Forest, 
Clark County, Pike County, and Ferdinand State Forests and the Crane 
Naval Ammunition Depot. 

A Piper Colt plane, which is a single engine, 2 place, high wing air- 
craft, with a cruising speed of 90 to 100 mph, was used for the aerial sur- 
vey. The survey was flown at from 300 to 700 ft. altitude. The area was 
covered at approximately 2-mile intervals. Eighty flight hours were 
required to cover the designated area. During the survey, 123 possible 
Oak Wilt infection sites were located, 69 of these were later visited by 
ground crews and 29 of these were confirmed as Oak Wilt. The disease 
incidence is widely scattered throughout the survey area, although certain 
concentrations were noted, particularly in Brown County, Clark County 
State Forest and the Crane Naval Ammunition Depot. 

All suspected infection centers, which consisted of at least 1 dying 
tree and 1 dead tree nearby, were accurately marked on 7.5 minute topo- 
graphical maps. Later these maps were used in locating the suspect cen- 
ters on the ground and specimens were taken for laboratory isolation of 
the pathogen. Single dead trees were not marked from the air because 
ground check of several of these revealed that most were due to lightning- 
strikes. 

In 1959, Oak Wilt infection sites were selected for eradication studies 
(3). It has been established that the pathogen may spread from tree to 
tree via natural root grafts and that such grafts may occur at distances 
of 30 to 50 ft. or more from the infected tree (4). It is necessary, there- 
fore, to form a barrier of at least 30 ft. around an infection center to 
prevent the local spread of the pathogen. "Long distance" spread of the 
fungus is assumed to be via certain vectors, such as insects. 

The following treatments were made in the selected Oak Wilt infec- 
tion centers. All living oaks within the infection center and oaks within a 
radius of 35 to 50 ft. were poisoned by the application of either sodium 
arsenite or 2,4, 5T (2,4,5 trichlorphenoxy acetic acid) as a silvicide (3). 
In some instances, the poisoned trees were saw-girdled to hasten drying, 
which is detrimental to ascospore production by the pathogen. After 
poisoning, the trees were either harvested for pulp or firewood, felled and 
piled or left standing. 

The results from these studies for the past 3 years plus data from 
other similar investigations indicate that this method for control of Oak 
Wilt has promise. The low incidence of the disease on southern Indiana, 
at present, and the limited size of the infection centers appears to support 
the feasibility of a control program by the eradication of infection centers. 
Periodic aerial survey and coordinated ground checks and eradication of 
confirmed infection centers is suggested to maintain control. The following 
recommendations are being made to State foresters and others interested 
in the control of Oak Wilt disease. 

1. In the spring or early summer, all oaks should be killed in the 
infection center and within a radius of 35 to 50 feet. The following 
methods may be used. 



Botany 93 

(a) Drill holes into the buttress roots 1V 2 " in diameter to a depth 
of 3" to 4". These holes should be no farther than 9" apart 
around the base of the tree. Fill the holes with 2,4,5T (2,4,5 
trichlorophenoxy acetic acid) in fuel oil or 9.25% sodium 
arsenite in water. 

(b) Deep girdle or frill the lower trunk and spray with 2,4, 5T 
in oil. 

2. Trees that have died within the past year should be felled to reduce 
the spread of the fungus causing Oak Wilt disease. Care should be 
taken to avoid injury to standing trees and tools should be sterilized 
with denatured alcohol or bichloride of mercury (1/1000) after 
felling infected trees. The stump should be peeled to prevent fungus 
growth and insect colonization. 

3. Spray the bole of cut trees and the stump with 5% DDT in fuel oil 
to eliminate insect vectors. 

4. Following the death of poisoned trees, they may be felled if desir- 
able. Extreme care should be taken to prevent injury to standing 
oaks. Trees should be felled so that there is no breakage of sur- 
rounding trees. 

5. Any sucker sprouts that occur following poisoning and felling 
should be promptly sprayed with 2,4.5T. 

Literature Cited 

Brundage, Roy C. 1955. Forests of Indiana and Their Importance. Purdue Univer- 
sity Agriculture Ext. Bull. 
Cummins, G. B. 1949. Oak Wilt in Indiana. Plant Disease Reptr. 33 : 8. 

3. Green, R. J., Jr., and L. R. Sciireiber. 1961. Studies of the Control of Oak Wilt 
Disease in Southern Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad, of Sci. 70 : 87-90. 

4. Kuntz, J. E., and A. J. Riker. 195G. Oak Wilt, Wisconsin Dept. of Conservation and 
U. S. D. A. Bull. 519 : 1-12. 

Stearns, F., and H. Crotvder. 1957. Oak Wilt in Southern Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
of Sci. 66 : 63. 



A Plant Growth Promoting Substance Found in an Acorn 
Weevil of the Family Gurculionidae 

Arthur H. Westing, Purdue University 

Freshly fallen acorns of white oak, Quercus alba L., were collected 
in October 1959 by John C. Callahan of Purdue University in Orange 
County, (southern) Indiana as a part of an oak regeneration study. 
Approximately half of the acorns were found to be infested with the larva 
of an acorn weevil of the family Curculionidae. Callahan made the inter- 
esting observation that the endosperm of infested acorns was in a fresh 
green condition while the endosperm of acorns free of insects was brown. 
Whether the green condition of the endosperm is the result of premature 
abscission or of delayed maturation requires further investigation. Unfor- 
tunately no acorns have been produced during the past two seasons to 
carry on this work. 

In the present study 170 larvae (having a combined fresh weight of 
8.85 grams) were used in a preliminary test for the possible presence of a 
plant growth hormone in the insects that could account for the phenomenon 
observed. The larvae were stored at — 18°C until ready for use. They were 
then twice extracted with cold methanol and the extracts combined and 
taken to dryness in vacuo at 45°C. The resultant yellow oily substance 
was redissolved in a small amount of methanol and fractionated using 
ascending paper chromatography with 80% v/v isopropanol as the solvent. 

The developed chromatogram was cut into 15 equal horizontal seg- 
ments. These segments were each eluted in an aqueous solution of 0.1% 
polysorbate-80 wetting agent buffered at pH 5.5. Each of the eluates was 
tested for growth promoting (i.e., auxin) activity using an excised oat, 
Avena sativa L. Brighton, coleoptile section straight growth test modeled 



# 



n 

4 1 I 

ri I 



Figure 1. riant growth substance bioassay of the fractionated extract of a curculionid 
acorn weevil. Fractionation was achieved by ascending paper chromatography using 
80% v/v isopropanol. The oat coleoptile sections had an initial length of 4.01 mm ; the 
final length attained by the untreated (control) sections was 5,27 mm. 

94 



Botany 95 

after the one described by Nitsch et ux. (1) and tested by an analysis of 
variance followed by J. W. Tukey's procedure for multiple comparisons 
(3). 

The eluate from segment 7 (i.e., at an Rf of 0.43) was demonstrated 
by the above assay to contain a growth-promoting factor; the other 14 
eluates exhibited no significant activity (see Figure 1). The growth pro- 
moting substance in eluate 7 is unidentified as yet. It is not indoleacetic 
acid (which has an Rf of 0.86 in this system) and may not even be an 
indolic compound since it did not give a positive reaction with either 
Salkowski reagent (acidified FeCL) or Ehrlich reagent (?>dimethylamino- 
benzaldehyde). A positive reaction (chartreuse color) with ^-diazoben- 
zenesulfonic acid could indicate the presence of a phenolic or aldehydic 
compound while a positive reaction (lavender color) with ninhydrin sug- 
gests the presence of amino plus carboxyl groups. Further tests and char- 
acterizations must await future collections. 

An attempt was made to approximate the quantity of growth promot- 
ing substance extracted from each larva. Under the assay conditions 
used, 1.8 x 10~ 10 moles of indoleacetic acid resulted in the same amount of 
promotive activity as did the extracted and fractionated growth promot- 
ing substance of eluate 7. If one assumes similar molecular weights (175) , 
similar biological activities, and 70% efficiency of extraction and recovery, 
each larva contributed roughly 1.5 x 10" 12 moles of growth promoting sub- 
stance. This is indeed a small amount but presumably the larva could be 
continuously producing the substance. 

There have been several instances where it was conjectured that an 
insect was influencing plant development by producing auxins. The finding 
reported here is of interest because in perhaps the only other actual 
attempt to demonstrate this, the presence of such plant growth promoting 
substances in the insect could not be detected. This was the case when 
Plumb (2) tested to no avail a crude extract of the salivary gland of the 
fundatrix stage of the aphid Adelges abietis (L.), which produces a gall 
on Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst., using the split pea test. 

Additional research on the plant growth substance extracted from the 
acorn weevil larvae should be directed towards its characterization and 
its biological activity with reference to maturation and abscission. 

Summary 

The acorns of Quercus alba drop in a green rather than brown condi- 
tion when infested with the larvae of an acorn weevil of the family Cur- 
culionidae. A methanolic extract of these larvae was found to contain a 
plant growth promoting substance, not indoleacetic acid. 

Literature Cited 

1. Nitsch, J. I'.. and C. Nitsch. 1956. Studies on the growth of coleoptile and first 
internode sections. New, sensitive, straight-growth test for auxins. Plant Physiol. 
31:94-111. 

2. Plumb, G. H. 1953. Formation and development of the Norway spruce gall caused 
by Adelges abietis L. Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 566, 77 pp. 

3. Steel, R. G. D., and J. H. Toerie. 1960. Principles and procedures of statistics with 
special reference to the biological sciences. N. Y. : McGraw-Hill, 481 pp. 



Attempts at Germination of Teliospores of Puccinio 
coronata var. avenae 

David E. Zimmer, John F. Schafer, and George A. Gries, 
Purdue University 

The failure of teliospores of the cereal rust fungi to germinate readily 
is a major obstacle in the genetic study of pathogenicity. To determine 
the inheritance and relationships of pathogenicity characteristics it is 
necessary to obtain the sexual stage of pure cultures grown free from 
contamination. To establish the sexual stage an efficient method of induc- 
ing germination of teliospores produced in isolation is needed. We attempt- 
ed to stimulate germination of greenhouse-produced and field-collected 
teliospores of the oat crown rust fungus, Puccinia coronata Cda. var. 
avenae Fras. & Led. A preliminary report has been made (17). 

Previous studies on inducing germination of dormant teliospores have 
been inconclusive or contradictory. Dormancy of teliospores of several of 
the cereal rust fungi was shortened by alternate periods of freezing and 
thawing or of wetting and drying (1,5,6,8,9,10,14). On the contrary, 
Hoerner (3,4), and Vakili (16) did not obtain germination of teliospores 
of P. coronata and P. recondita, respectively, except when naturally over- 
wintered. Theil and Weiss (15) were unable to shorten dormancy of P. 
graminis teliospores by alternate freezing and thawing. Lambert (7) 
obtained but limited germination by thorough wetting followed by freez- 
ing. Theil and Weiss (15) shortened dormancy by treatment with dilute 
citric acid solution, but Lambert (7) was unable to repeat this. Lambert 
(7) also tested dilute solutions of benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, citralde- 
hyde, several alcohols, the 16 essential oils used by Noble (13) in his 
attempts to induce germination of Urocystis tritici, ethylene gas and 
chlorohydrin which Denny (2) found effective in stimulating potato ger- 
mination, straw extracts, and various concentrations of nitrate and other 
salts ranging in pH from 5.0 to 8.2. All of these were of little value in 
shortening the dormancy period. 

Materials and Methods 

Numerous teliospore collections of P. coronata races 202, 203, 294, 
295, and two pathogenically distinct cultures of race 293 designated A 
and B were studied. Each collection was dried at room temperature for 
4 days, placed individually in a small cloth bag, and stored at 34° F. 

Physical Stimulation — One collection each of races 202, 203, 293B, 
and 295 was subjected to alternate periods of wetting and drying each day 
for 20 days followed by alternate periods of freezing ( — 5°F) and thawing 
(room temperature) at 5 day intervals for 40 days. Upon each transfer 
from the cold, a sample of teliospores was removed and tested for ger- 
mination. In a second experiment, telial material of the same races was 
soaked overnight and frozen in ice at —20° F for periods up to 70 days, 
a technique similar to that of Johnson and Newton (6). Samples were 
removed at approximately 10 day intervals and tested for germination. 
In a third experiment, telia of races 202, 203, 294, and 295 were alternately 
soaked in running tap water and dried at approximately 12 hour intervals 
for 30 days. The telia were then alternately frozen and thawed at 5 day 

96 



Botany 97 

intervals for 60 days. Samples were removed periodically and tested for 
germination. In a fourth experiment, telia were individually removed 
from the leaves, placed under a cover slip on a glass slide and gently 
crushed. When sufficient spores were obtained they were placed on a 
2x2 glass slide and incubated in a petri dish and filter paper moist cham- 
ber for 96 hours. The slides with spores were removed at approximately 
12 hour intervals and examined for germination. Field collected telia 
were not available at the same time as these experiments but were also 
treated in a similar manner upon collection. 

Greenhouse-produced telia of all cultures, as well as telia collected in 
the field, were placed in small cloth bags and overwintered outdoors on 
the ground from October 25 to May 26. This material was tested for ger- 
mination at 10 day intervals from March 20 to May 26. Telia produced 
outdoors on oat plants and overwintered thereon, both on standing and 
prostrate culms, were collected and tested for germination at the same 
times. 

Chemical Stimulation — Telial material of race 295 was treated with 
0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 30 seconds, divided into equal parts, and 
submerged in either a 1, 2, or 3% solution of citric or lactic acid for 1 to 
60 minutes, following the approach of Theil and Weiss (15). The telia 
were then stored in small vials, removed at the end of 6, 10, 17, 23, 30, 34, 
and 40 days, and tested for germination. 

Field-collected telia were treated with a 1 % solution of citric acid for 
3 minutes, divided into equal lots, and treated with either a 10 " 3 or 10" 
solution of the following chemicals: L-arginine monohydrochloride, citric 
acid, 2-4 dinitrophenol, ferric citrate, furfural, glutathione, indoleacetic 
acid, maleic hydrazide, L-naphthaline acetic acid, phosphoglyceric acid, 
and thiourea. Treatment was facilitated by evacuating the atmosphere 
surrounding the treating solution to 0.05 mm of mercury for 30 minutes 
following submersion of the telial specimens. They were removed and the 
teliospores observed for germination at 3 subsequent 12-hour intervals. 
After 36 hours the telia were placed in the freezing compartment of a 
standard refrigerator, removed at 5 day intervals, and tested for germi- 
nation. 

Germination Tests — These were conducted by placing telial mate- 
rial in moist chambers constructed from petri dishes and filter paper. 
Subsequently, telia were removed individually, placed on a microscope 
slide, gently crushed to separate the spores, and observed microscopically 
for germination. After the initial observation the slides were returned 
to moist chambers and re-examined 12 and 36 hours later. In some in- 
stances, to detect germination occurring at a low frequency, telial material 
was suspended in moist chambers for 16 to 24 hours directly above leaves 
of Rhamnns cathartica seedlings. Ten days later the seedling leaves were 
examined microscopically for sporidial infection. 

Experimental Results 

Attempts to shorten or break the dormancy of teliospores of P. coro- 
nata var. avenae by alternate wetting and drying, freezing and thawing, 
leaching with water, mechanical separation, overwintering out of doors, 
and combinations of some of these failed. However, teliospores produced 



98 Indiana Academy of Science 

in the field during the autumn of 1958 and naturally overwintered on the 
plants, germinated readily the following spring. 

Treatment of greenhouse and field-collected teliospores with 2 or 
more concentrations of 13 chemicals chosen for special characteristics 
failed to break dormancy. 

Discussion 

In nature, teliospores of P. coronata germinate after overwintering. 
The physiological or morphological modifications which render the spores 
germinable are not known. The climatic conditions during natural over- 
wintering may activate enzymatic systems in the spore, thus breaking 
dormancy. The mechanical action of freezing and thawing may modify the 
cell wall of the spore and thus increase permeability. Wetting of telia- 
bearing plant material may release degradation products which physio- 
logically or morphologically modify the spores, thus rendering them ger- 
minable. 

The inability to induce germination of greenhouse and field-collected 
teliospores, regardless of the stimulation, in comparison with success 
obtained in germination of teliospores naturally produced and overwin- 
tered suggests that natural conditions were not simulated closely enough 
in the experiments to influence key processes involved in germinability. 

Summary 

Attempts to break the dormancy of P. coronata var. avenae teliospores 
by several physical and chemical means and make them germinable failed. 
Teliospores produced on oats outdoors and overwintered thereon prior to 
collection germinated readily, indicating that the treatments did not 
influence key processes to the same degree as do natural conditions which 
break the dormancy period of teliospores. 

Literature Cited 

1. Brown, A. M., and T. Johnson. 1949. Studies on variation in pathogenicity in leaf 
rust of wheat, Puccinia triticina Erikss. Can. J. Res. 27 : 191-202. 

2. Denny, F. E. 1926. Second report on the use of chemicals for hastening the sprout- 
ing of dormant potato tubers. Amer. J. Bot. 13 : 386-396. 

3. IIoernee, G. II. 1921. Germination of aeciospores, urediniospores, and teliospores 
of Puccinia coronata. Bot. Gaz. 72 : 173-174. 

4. Hoerner, G. R. 1922. Data relative to the germination of aeciospores, uredinio- 
spores, and teliospores of Puccinia coronata Cda. Phytopathology 12 : 108. 

5. Johnson, T. 1931. Germination of wheat rust teliospores formed in the green- 
house. Phytopathology 21 : 108. 

6. Johnson, T., and Margaret Newton. 1933. Hybridization between Puccinia 
graminis tritici and Puccinia graminis avenae. Proe. Worlds Grain Exhib. Conf. 
2 : 219-223. 

7. Lambert, E. B. 1929. The relation of weather to the development of stem rust in 
the Mississippi Valley. Phytopathology 19: 1-71. 

8. Mains, E. B. 1916. Some factors concerned in the germination of rust spores. 17th 
Kept. Mich. Acad. Sci. 1915 : 136-140. 

9. Maneval, W. E. 1922. Germination of rust at Columbia, Missouri. Phytopathology 
12 : 471-488. 

10. Maneval, W. E. 1927. Further germination tests with teliospores of rusts. Phyto- 
pathology 17 : 491-498. 

11. Meliius, I. E., and L. VV. Dukrell. 1919. Studies on the crown rust of oats. Iowa 
Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Bull. 49. 



Botany 99 

12. Melhus, I. E., L. W. Durrell, and F. Willey. 1922. Alternate hosts and biologic 
specialization of crown rust in America. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Bull. 72. 

13. Noble, R. J. 1924. Studies on the parasitism of Urocystis tritici Koern., the organ- 
ism causing flag smut of wheat. J. Agr. Res. 27 : 451-489. 

14. Prasada, R. 1948. Studies on the formation and germination of teliospores of 
rusts. Indian Phytopath. 1 : 119-126. 

15. Theil, A. F., and F. Weiss. 1920. The effect of citric acid on germination of 
teliospores of Puccinia graminis tritici Phytopathology 10 : 448-452. 

16. Vakili, N. G. 1958. A study of the mechanisms of variation of pathogenicity in 
wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. Ex. Desm. f. sp. tritici Erikss.). Unpub- 
lished Thesis, Purdue University. 

17. Zimmer, D. E., J. F. Schafer, and G. A. Gries. 1960. Studies on teliospore forma- 
tion and germination in Puccinia coronata. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 69: 107-108. 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: Arthur Smucker, Goshen College 
Frederic Schmidt, Indiana University, was elected chairman for 1962 



ABSTRACTS 



Chemical Terms Derived from Latin. Ned Guthrie, Hanover Col- 
lege. — Last year at the meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science, I 
presented a paper on chemical terms derived from Greek. From the 
demand for duplicate copies, I felt that it is worthwhile to present this 
paper on terms derived from Latin. Each root, prefix or suffix may have 
a number of words as examples. Following is a list of prefixes, roots and 
suffixes: 



Ab. From, away or off. 

Alba. White. 

Altus. High. 

Ambi. Both, both sides, around. 

Greek Ampho, Amphia.) 
Amyl. Starch. 
Aqua. Water. 
Argentum. Silver. 
Cide. Kill. 
Com, Con, Col, Cor. With or 

together. 
Duct. Lead. 

Durus. Hard or lasting. 
Equi. Equal. 
Ex, E. (Also Greek) Out. 
Flu. Flow. 
Fract, Frag. Break. 
Fume. Smoke. 

Fuse. Pour, Liquefy by heat. 
Insula. Island. 
Lac, Lactic. Milk 

(Greek is galact or galacto.) 



Lign, Lignium. Wood. 

Luna. Moon. 

Meter. Measure. 

Per. Through, By. (In chemistry, 
per means excess, more, beyond.) 

Plumb. Lead. 

Rubi, Rubor, Rubra, Rubum. Red. 

Spect, Spec. View, Look or Image. 

Sub. Under. 

Super. Over, Above, Beyond. 

Terr. Earth. 

Thesis. Place or Set. 

Tort. Twist or Wring. 

Toxic. Poison. 

Tract. Draw. 

Tude. State of, Quality of, Condi- 
tion of. 

Vers, Vert. Turn. 

Uni. One. 

Ven, Vent. Come. 

Rodo. Gnaw. 

Capr. Goat. 



The Reaction of Iminium Salts with Dichlorocarbenes. A. G. Cook, 
Valparaiso University. 1 — The reaction between a typical iminium salt, 
1-cyclohexenyl-N-pyrrolidinium perchlorate, and dichlorocarbene was 
studied. The dichlorocarbene was generated in situ by refluxing a mix- 
ture of sodium trichloroacetate in ethylene dichloride. The product isolated 
has been shown to be N-(l-trichloroacetoxy-l-carboxycyclohexyl) -pyrroli- 
dine. The significance of this reaction along with a possible mechanistic 
reaction path is discussed. 



1. Work carried (Hit at Standard Oil Company Research Laboratories. Whiting. 
Indiana, under the direction of E. K. Fields, where the author was a Summer Profes- 
sor, 1901. 



100 



The Hydrolysis of Iron in Methanol Solutions 

Elmer J. Bowers and Henry D. Weaver, Jr., Goshen College 1 

Summary 

The method of Siddall and Vosburgh (8) has been used for deter- 
mining the first hydrolysis constant of iron (III) ion in a 20% water 80% 
methanol solvent in the presence of nitrate salts. Optical densities of a 
series of solutions of known variable acidity were made at temperatures 
ranging from 20 to -60 °C at iron concentrations of .00116 and .000272M 
and ionic strengths of approximately 0.15. The heat of reaction has also 
been calculated. 

Introduction 

Many determinations have been made of the hydrolysis constant for 
the ferric ion in aqueous solutions (1, 3, 5-8). Little if anything has been 
done in nonaqueous solutions, however. In the course of an experiment 
involving reaction kinetics for the formation of the iron thiocyanate 
complex it became necessary to determine the hydrolysis constant in a 
20% water 80% methanol solvent at temperatures down to -60 °C. 

Experimental 

A stock solution of ferric nitrate of 0.0290M. was made in anhydrous 
methanol. Dilutions from this stock were made for the experimental runs. 
The ionic strength of the solution was adjusted to approximately 0.15 
with an aqueous solution of sodium nitrate. The pH was adjusted with 
6N. nitric acid. Distilled water was added so that the final solution was 
20% water. 

Absorbancy was measured with a Bausch and Lomb model 20 spec- 
trophotometer at 355 m/x. pH measurements were made on a Beckman 
Zeromatic pH meter using a glass electrode and a calomel reference cell. 

Bacarella (2) and others have verified that pH determinations made 
with the glass electrode are correct in a water-methanol system. However 
as an added check methanol-water blanks were adjusted on the pH meter 
to the same value as the iron solutions. These blanks were then titrated 
with standard sodium hydroxide to determine the concentration of the 
hydrogen ion. 

The cold temperatures were maintained in a dry ice and methanol 
bath. A tube with an insulating vacuum jacket was used to contain the 
cold iron solutions during the measurement of absorbance. The per cent 
transmittance was read and converted to absorbance. 

Results and Interpretation 

The first hydrolysis of the ferric may be written 
Fe +3 (H,0)« ; ^ Fe(H,0)r,OH +2 + H + 
The hydrolysis constant (K h ) is therefore 

__ [Fe(H 3 Q) 8 QH^] [H+] 
Kh — [Fe(H 2 0) 6 +3 ] U > 



1. This work was done in a Research Participation Program for High School 
Teachers supported by the National Science Foundation. 

101 



102 



Indiana Academy of Science 



If 

[Fe] ° — total iron concentration 

A — the absorbance 

b = cell length 

a = the molar absorbancy index of Fe(H,0) 5 OH + - 

then A = ab[Fe(H 2 0) E OH +L ] (2) 

Substituting the value of [Fe(H 2 0)50H +2 ] from equation (1) into equa- 
tion (2) we have 

-^ = K h [Fe(H 2 0) e +3 ] (3) 

It is assumed that [Fe]° = [Fe(HX)) u +3 ] + [Fe(H 2 0),OH +2 ] 

^P = K, { [Fe] 8 - [Fe(H,0) B OH +3 ] } 

abK h A 



Then 
and 



K h ([Fe] c 
A[H + ] =abK h [Fe]° 

A{[H + ] + k„ } 



this yields 
Rearranging equation (6) we have 
J_ 1 

A ~ 



ab 
abK h [Fe] 



[H + ] 



(4) 
(5) 

(6) 

(7) 



(abK h [Fe]°) l±± J ' ab[Fe]° 

Therefore a plot of 1/A versus [H + ] should give a straight line with slope 
m = l/abK h [Fe]° and intercept y G = l/ab[Fe]°. 

At 355 m/i the absorbancy is due to the first hydrolysis product (7, 8) 
Fe(H 2 0)&OH +2 , therefore absorbancy was measured for a series of iron 
solutions of constant concentration and ionic strength but varying con- 
centrations of hydrogen ion and temperature. The reciprocals of A were 
plotted against the concentration of hydrogen ion. From equation (7) it 
can be seen that K h = y /m. Values of y and m were taken from the plots 
and values of K h calculated. 

Table la shows the dependence of the absorbance upon the hydrogen ion 
concentration. Table lb gives the relation between the hydrolysis constant 
and the temperature. 



Table la 


Table lb 


[H+] M. 


Absorbance 


Temperature C° 


K h 


0.139 


0.0269 


—59.2 


0.00327 ± 0.000820 


0.0996 


0.0410 


—49.7 


0.00352 ± 0.00248 


0.0587 


0.0562 


—41.8 


0.00817 ± 0.00292 


0.0437 


0.0670 


—25.0 


0.00922 ± 0.00508 


0.0127 


0.142 


0.0 


0.0322 ± 0.0122 


0.00950 


0.155 


20.0 


0.0365 ± 0.00350 


0.00184 


0.346 






0.00147 


0.366 







The absorbancy of iron solutions of varying hydrogen ion concen- 
tration is shown in table la for -50 °C. Similar series of runs were made 
at temperatures of -60, -40, -25, 0, and 20 °C. On the assumption of a 
linear relationship the values of K h were calculated. A plot of 1/A versus 



Chemistry 



1 03 



30 




J I I I I ■ I I I 1 I I I I 

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 

H M. 

Fig. 1. The relation between abeorbance -1 and the molar concentration of 
the hydrogen Ion at -50°C. 

[H + ] is shown in figure 1 for -50° C. The values of K„ at various tempera- 
tures are shown in table lb. 

The heat of reaction may be obtained by plotting -logK h versus T~\ 











Temp. 


C° 














20 







-20 




-40 




-60 






1 


1 




1 




1 




1 


2.4 




















CO 










L 


y 








1.6 


- 


^^ 


o 














1.2 


~ ^^ 










AH = 


+3.8? t 


0.57 kcal. 




0.8 


1 1 


1 1 1 


1 . 


1 i 


1 


1 1 


I 


1 , 1 





4.2 



4.4 



3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 
1C00/T 
Fig. 2. Relation between the values of K^ and temperature 



104 Indiana Academy of Science 

where T is the absolute temperature of the reaction. The heat of reaction 
AH can be calculated from the slope of the line as follows: 

AH = +slope X 2.303R 
where R is the ideal gas constant, 1.987 cal. deg. -1 mole" 1 . 

Figure 2 graphically presents this information. The slope of the curve 
predicts the heat of reaction to be +3.87 ± 0.57 kcal. 

No attempts were made to study the effects of dimerization of the 
iron. This may well be a factor in solutions of relatively low dielectric 
constant but there is evidence (1, 6, 7) against the formation of polynu- 
clear species in relatively dilute solutions of iron. 

Literature Cited 

1. Atkinson, G. F., and W. A. E. McBryde. 1961. Graphical Representation of Hy- 
drolysis of the Ferric Ion. Jour, of Chem. Ed. 38 : 127-12S. 

2. Bacarella, A. L., E. Gkunwald, H. P. Marshall, and E. Lee Purlee. 1955. The 
Potentiometric Measurement of Acid Dissociation Constants and pH in the System 
Methanol-Water. Jour. Organic Chem. 20 : 747-762. 

3. Bray, William C, and Allen V. Hershey. 1934. The Hydrolysis of Ferric Ion. 
Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 56 : 1889-1893. 

4. Ito, Teiichi. and Norio Yui. 1953. The Hydrolysis Constants of Ferric Ion in Ni- 
trate Solution. Science Reports, Tohoku University. 37 No 1 : 19-27. cf. Chm. Ab- 
stracts 48 : 6991f. 

5. Lamb, Arthur B. and Alfred G. Jacques. 1938. The Slow Hydrolysis of Ferric 
Chloride in Dilute Solution I. The Change in Conductance, Color and Chloride Ion 
Concentration. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 60 : 967-981. 

6. Milburn, Ronald M. 1957. A Spectrophotometric Study of the Hydrolysis of Iron 
(III) Ion. III. Heats and Entropies of Hydrolysis. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 : 537-540. 

7. Milburn, Ronald M., and W. C. Vosburgh. 1955. A Spectrophotometric Study of 
the Hydrolysis of Iron (III) Ion. II. Polynuclear Species. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 
77 : 1352-1355. 

S. Siddall, Thomas H., Ill and W. C. Vosburgh. 1951. A Spectrophotometric Study 
of the Hydrolysis of Iron (III) Ion. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 73:4270-4272. 



Steric Effects and the Secondary Isotope Effect 

Robert Earl Davis, Purdue University 
Numerous secondary deuterium isotope effects have been reported in 
recent years. Shiner 11 presented a chart relating the origins of such effects. 
Inductive effects, 4 ' 51 "' hyperconjugative effects 1,5 ' 8,11 ' 13 and non-bonded in- 
teractions 1,7 have been suggested and vigorously debated. Each side has 
supported its effect with experimental data and theoretical considerations. 
Another group of workers prefer to argue within the framework of the 
Bigeleisen expression. 2,11 It should be reemphasized that all of the fore- 
going effects and others can be contained within the Bigeleisen formula- 
tion. Such effects can be included into the partition functions. 

Bartell 1 has signaled attention to the mass-sensitive amplitudes of 
vibration or steric effect. We wish to expand upon this suggestion to pro- 
vide an order of magnitude of the effect and to suggest that it will also 
account for both normal and inverse secondary isotope effects. 




Figure 1 

Consider the model (Fig. 1) : 
where position one represents a hydrogen or a deuterium, position three 
represents the reactive site, four the incoming or outgoing reactant, and 
rij is the distance between i and j. Centers 2,3,4 define the xy plane with 
center 3 as the origin. The location of center 1 will be given by (xiyiZi) 
though calculations are made in spherical polar coordinates. The inter- 
action between i and j will be given by : 

total = <p repulsion + <p attraction 
Expressed in Mie's formulation (Fig. 2) : 

The various parameters (D e ,o-,m,n) can be estimated from scattering 
functions 6 or Lennard-Jones and Morse curves. All force constants are 
considered in the harmonic approximation and all off-diagonal elements 
are set nearly equal to zero. 

The overall energy, E H , of the system is then estimated for a given 
set of rij's and angles <p and ©. Then ri 2 is shortened 0.001 A° to 0.010 A° 
to account for the anharmonicity upon substitution of deuterium. The 
energy, E D , is then recalculated. The difference, E H — E D , is then the 

105 



106 



Indiana Academy of Science 






D 



eL s 



n^ 



'hi 



T\Ci 






1 






?Uj->UJ 


«* 


^j 


^j 


vnxj 




/*. 


>_ 



^ > -m^- 



^ 




Figure 2 

estimate of the steric effect. This comparison is quite convenient due 
to the cancellation of so many of the parameters. The most critical set 
of parameters is, of course, for the Tu and r« interaction. The values 
of this difference range from about -200 to 200 cal./mole. dependent 
upon the orientation of the vector 0u to <j>u and the distance, r i4 . This 
is also seen from the graph of the potential function. If r u > (rij) e> the 
slope is positive. If rij < (ru) e , the slope is negative. Thus both small 
normal secondary isotope effects (k H /k D > 1) and small inverse effects 
(kn/k D < 1) can be explained and order of magnitude is of the order of 
a 200 cal. per hydrogen or less. If r f] = (rij) e , k H /k D would be one. An 
isokinetic situation is also present if 0i 2 is orthogonal to 0m. The effect is 
very small if r« is large and also if center 1 is shielded from 4 by center 2. 
The general model will account for the oc -effect by shortening ri 3 , the 
/3-effect by shortening ru and the 7 (<;, etc) -effect by lengthening ru. 

A simpler two center model 1 - also gives the correct order of magnitude. 
Though both of the present models are static, they are comparable to 
BartelPs method of using the mean-square of the amplitude times the 
second derivative of the potential function. He considers only the region 
where this derivative is positive. The present model has ascribed the 



Chemistry 107 

differences AAF + , of a given reaction mainly to non-bonded interactions. 
As the model is static, strain arising from torsion and bending modes 
cancel in the first approximation. Kinetic energy terms, though important, 
have been neglected. The parameters were adjusted to give an activation 
energy of about 20 kcal, an average value for reactions studied near room 
temperature. Isotopic substitution has been assumed to give no difference 
in the Arrhenius frequency factor. 11 

As first suggested by Bartell this type of model works quite well for 
the dissociation of trimethylamine-trimethylboron. 9 This type of reaction 
is known to have large steric requirements. 3 Much of our fundamental 
understanding of steric effects has been due to Brown's thorough investi- 
gations in such systems. 

Mislow 10 has claimed that a steric explanation based on the size of 
deuterium compared to hydrogen is not compatable with data on attempted 
assymetric reduction of ketones. This reaction is of very low steric re- 
quirement as seen comparing the AAF* observed (170 cal./mole) upon 
substitution of a methyl group for a hydrogen atom. 10 Using the data on 
substitution of methyl for hydrogen in amine-boron complexes as a refer- 
ence and then estimating the parameters of methyl-hydrogen interaction 
in Mislow's reduction, a crude estimate of the potential functions for 
ketone reduction can be made. On such a basis, the maximum steric isotope 
effect, k H /k D , is estimated to be only 1.0006 which is to be compared with 
the observed value 1.0000 ± 0.0002. It is concluded that Mislow's system 
is too insensitive to the steric effects and does not constitute a crucial 
experimental case to rule upon the non-existence of such effects. 

In conclusion, it is now noted that all the various origins of the second- 
ary isotope effect predict small effects. The problem still remains as to 
dissection of the isotope effect into three or more separate effects in a 
given system. 

The author wishes to acknowledge a Frederick Gardner Cottrell grant 
from the Research Corporation. H. C. Brown is thanked for stimulating 
discussions. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bartell, L. S. 1960. Secondary Isotope Effects and Mass-sensitive Amplitudes of 
Vibration. Tetrahedron Letters. No. 6 : 13. 

2. Bigeleisen, J., and M. Wolfsberg. 195S. Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol. I. 
I. Prigogine, ed., Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 15-76. 

3. Brown, H. C, and G. K. Barabas. 1953. Dissociation of the Addition Compounds 
of Trimethylboron with Branched-Chain Primary Amines ; the Effects of Chain- 
Branching. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75 : 6. 

4. Halevi, E. A. 1957. Secondary Hydrogen Isotope Effects as a Criterion of Mech- 
anism. Tetrahedron. 1 : 174. 

5. Klein, H. S., and A. Streitwieser, Jr. 1961. On the Inductive Effect of Deu- 
terium. Chem. and Ind. 1961 : 180. 

6. Landau, L. D., and E. M. Lifshitz. 1958. Quantum Mechanics, Pergamon Press, 
London. 

7. Leffek, K. T., R. E. Robertson and S. E. Sugamori. 1961. Temperature Depend- 
ence of the Secondary /3-Deuterium Isotope Effect in the Solvolysis of Isopropyl 
Methanesulfonate. Chem. and Ind., 1961 : 259. 

8. Lewis, E. S. 1959. Isotope Effects and Hyperconjugation. Tetrahedron. 5 : 143. 

9. Love, P., R. W. Tafty, Jr., and T. Wartik. 1959. Secondary Hydrogen Isotope 
Effect in a Gas-Phase Equilibrium. Tetrahedron. 5 : 116. 



108 Indiana Academy of Science 

10. Mislow, K., R. E. O'Brien and H. Schaefer. 1900. On the Magnitude of Possible 
Steric Secondary Kinetic Deuterium Isotope Effects. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82 : 5512. 

11. Shiner, V. J. 1959. Deuterium Isotope Effects and Hyperconjugation. Tetrahedron. 
5 : 243. 

12. Westheimer, F. II. 1956. Steric Effects in Organic Chemistry, M.S. Newman, ed.. 
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 523-555. 

13. Weston, R. E. 1959. The Magnitude of Electronic Isotope Effects. Tetrahedron. 
6:31. 

14. Wolfsberg, M. 1960. Note on Secondary Isotope Effects in Reaction Rates. J 
Chem. Phys 33 : 2. 



The Oscillator Strength of a Dipole Transition in a 
Lorentz-Lorenz Field 

Robert Earl Davis, Purdue University 
Quantum theory has allowed the correlation of numerous aspects of 
chemistry. Of great importance is the interaction of light with matter. 
Upon this rests spectroscopy, diffraction and photoactivation. 

In connection with a study on the effect of solvents upon the ultra- 
violet spectrum of sulfur 2 , a relationship was needed to correlate the 
change in spectrum with the changing internal field of the solvent. It is 
the purpose of the present note to expand upon the derivation given only 
as an appendix in a former paper." The present discussion, which had its 
origin in the interaction of a non-bonded pair of electrons of a basic 
nilrogen atom with a sulfur atom, is preliminary to the discussion of the 
interaction between the nitrogen and sulfur atom within an aminothiol. 
Such a study is of great importance due to the ability of some aminothiols 
to serve as radiation protectors. In a future paper from this laboratory, 
we will discuss the nature of the interaction in the simplest aminothiol, 
aminoethanethiol, and several of its N-alkyl derivatives. 

Consider a molecule with steady state wave functions: 

0o, 0i, 2 • • • (1) 

in the absence of external perturbation with energy levels : 

eo, ei, e„ • • • (2) 

Placing the molecule in a beam of light, the electric field on the molecule 
will be given by 

E = Eo cos w t (3) 

The perturbation Hamiltonion operator will be 

H 1 = — S e m x,„ |E| (4) 

= — mx |Eo| cos w t (5) 

where m is a charged particle of charge e m in an ^-coordinate of x m and mx 
is the x-component operator of the dipole moment summed over all par- 
ticles, m : 

mx = 2 e m x m (6) 

The time-dependant wave function of the molecule now becomes 

* = 2j a, (t) 0, (7) 

where 

— i Ejt/h 
mxjo e 



<*> = 2h 

i (uj — w)t 



i (Wjo 4- to) t 



(8) 



J^= 



where 

«,o= (Bj — Eo)/h (9) 

nixjo = / 0j* (2 e m x m ) 0o d r (10) 

The value of /aj(t)/ 2 is then the probability that the molecule has been 
excited to state <p> at time t. The x-component of the dipole moment in the 
direction of the field will be 

109 



110 Indiana Academy of Science 

— _ S ^* nix g d r ( 1:L ) 

Substitution of (7) into (11) and neglecting cross product terms of a } 
(except of a ) gives: 

nix = / O * nix 0o d t + ao 2 aj * J 0j* nix O d r (12) 

+ a * 2 aj J" O * nix 0j d r 

2 |Eol -^A Inixjo] 2 co jo ( 13) 

nixoo i — ^ cos «t / i r — C5 

n ^_f wjo — w 



2 

2]Eo| >r-\ ' 
<* - n 2i 



2 |Eo| "\^ Inixj ol 3 cujo cos a>jo t 

a» j 2 — u~ 



The first term, mx 00 , is time-independent and represents the ^-component 
of the permanent dipole moment of the molecule. The second term oscillates 
in phase with the light while the third term ((p) represents oscillating 
dipole moments with frequencies independent of the light. Generalization 
to a three coordinate space (x, y, z) involves replacement of the /mx i0 / 2 
term by the average of the squares of the three components, /m j0 / 2 . Thus 
the polarizability, a, becomes 



_2_^A o>jo 
3 h ^^ wjo 2 



Inijol 2 (14) 

£j Wjo" 

The oscillator strength, f } , is now 



_ 8 7T m e p io Imjol 2 (15) 

13 ~~ 3 h e 2 

where 

^ j0 = (Ej — E )/h 

Expression (15) represents a normal electronic dipole transition between 
states j and o of the molecule with wave functions, 0j and O . 

Placing the molecule in a solvent medium of refractive index, n, intro- 
duces several new effects. Chako 1 considered these problems and the fol- 
lowing discussion is from his paper. Dispersion and damping will occur 
and the absorption bonds will be continuous and broader. The plane wave 
will experience the effect of a complex refractive index: n ; = n(l — ik) , 
k, a constant. The theory of dispersion now predicts that 
n /2 — 1 = n 2 (1 — k 2 ) — 1 — 2 n 2 ik 

^_^ N1 V— ?' (16) 

7r m j£aj vjo 2 — v -\- iy) v 
where N is the number of absorbing molecules per cc, 7, measures the 
damping in sec -1 , and band width, and 7 is some other frequency. If a 
Lorentz-Lorenz force is now applied due to the internal field effect and 
polarization of the surrounding molecules, the force on each molecule is 

F + ~P = F[1 + -|-(n 2 — 1)] (17) 

where F is the field and P is the polarization/cc. Equation (16) must now 
be modified by replacement of n 2 — 1 by 3 (n 2 — 1) 

n + 2 
The molar extinction coefficient, e, is now related to the oscillator strength 
(in vacuo), fj, of equation (15) by 



Chemistry 111 



.f fd7 =-^N ( "° ! h2 > 



c m 7j0 2 9 n (18) 

where 

^ _ 6.02 X IP 23 __ N 

N ~ 1000 ~~1000 
As all of the quantities in (18) are constants, we now have a relationship 
between e and n. Solution gives 

e = k (n 3 + 4n + -f) (19) 

with k a constant: 

f j Tr Ne 2 (20) 

k ~98 2303 m e c 
where 6 is the half -band width in cm -1 when e = e max. 

The derivation of equation (18) by Chako 1 has been discussed by 
Kauzmann 1 and Mulliken. 5 While equation (15) is exact and depends 
only upon the proper choice of a basic set of wave functions, equation (18) 
contains several assumptions. The only perturbation by solvent is assumed 
to be due only to the operation of a Lorentz-Lorenz force. Such a force is 
classical and cannot express chemical effects due to hydrogen bonding, 
association or chemical reaction. Mulliken' when faced with these prob- 
lems dropped the internal field correction term: 

(n° 2 + 2) g (21) 

9n G 
which is unity in vacuo as n = 1 and only 0.75 at n„ = 1.5. Chako 1 ob- 
served that the expressions for the oscillator strengths, f ly fj and /,-, were 



fj = 



nofj (22) 

9n (23) 



(n° 2 + 2) 2 

These terms were not strictly constant for the ultraviolet absorption bands 
of numerous organic compounds include aromatics, carboxylic acids, ke- 
tones, azo compounds, and alkyl halides. 

Reexamination of the derivation of equation (18) and the basic fun- 
damentals of the interaction leads to several new conclusions. Therefore 
the limitations of the applicability are more readily apparent. Molecules 
whose extinction coefficients would most closely correlate with equations 
(18) and (19) would have several properties. The oscillator strengths 
should be between 1 and 0.001 effective electrons and thus represent an 
allowed transition. Further the term : 

/ O * m 0o d r = (24) 

for the ground state should be zero. This represents the first term of 
equations (12) and (13). Thus the permanent dipole moment of the mole- 
cule should be zero. The average time derivative of (24) : 

& r — (25) 

■jj£ ■ 0o* m 0o d r = 

would be zero. Thus no polarization of the surrounding solvent would 
occur. 

In the present investigation, octatomic sulfur has been found to obey 
the relationship (19) (Fig. 1). Thus we conclude that the nature of the 



112 



Indiana Academy of Science 





1 


1 




1 


4 




S 8 


300 


Mp y 

y< 6 


e io". 3 


,<9< 






— 


3 


1 


1 




1 



8 



*(-*) 



9 



Fig. 1. Extinction coefficient of Sulfur 3 at 300 m/i versus n 3 4- 4n 4 where n is 

n 
the refractive index. 1. Methanol, 2. Water. 3. Ethanol, 4. 90% Ethanol — 10% Water. 
5. n-Hexane, 6. Chloroform. 

feast.* 

interaction between a sulfur molecule and the solvent is very small in 
magnitude. 

The classical Lorentz-Lorenz force due to the internal field of the 
solvent also correctly predicts the dependance of the spectrum upon 
solvent refractive index for inert solvents. 

In another paper we will discuss the abnormal spectrum of sulfur in 
amine solvents. In such cases strong chemical interactions have been 
shown to occur. 



\ 



/ 
R 





R R 


oo 


\+ \ 


NI 


; + s 8 <f* NH 2 + 




/ / 




R R 



N — Ss 



hv 



R 3 N§ + S 8 ■ — > I R a N - ■ 
The problem of the aminothiols will be discussed. 

oo + - 

H.N — CH.CrLSH <=± H 3 N CH,CH 2 S 

8 r 



hv 



15 



H 2 N — CH.CH.SH 



H.N CH.CH.SH 



(26) 
(27) 

(28) 
(29) 



Chemistry 113 

Acknowledgement 

The author wishes to thank the Department of Nuclear Medicine of 
the Walter Reed Army Medical Center for a grant under which this work 
was completed. 

Literature Cited 

1. Chako, N. O. 1934. Absorption of Light in Organic Molecules. J. Chern. Phys. 2 : <>44 

2. Davis, R. E., and PI. P. Nakshbendi. 1962. Sulfur in Amine Solvents. Paper II. 
Studies on the Willgerodt Reaction. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. in Press. 

3. Friedman, H. L., and M. Kerker. 1953. Ultraviolet Absorption of Aqueous Sulfur 
Solutions. J. Colloid Sci. 8 : 80. 

4. Kauzmanx, W. 1957. "Quantum Chemistry." Academic Press, Inc., New York. pp. 
577-583. 

5. Mulliken, R. S., and C. A. Rieke. 1941. Molecular Electronic Spectra. Dispersion 
and Polarization : The Theoretical Interpretation of and Computation of Oscillator 
Strengths and Intensities. Reports Prog. Phys. 8 : 231-273. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman : R. E. Siverly, Ball State College 
B. Elwood Montgomery, Purdue University, was elected chairman 

for 1962 



ABSTRACTS 



Studies on the Control of the Periodical Cicada in Apple Orchards. 

G. Edward Marshall, Purdue University. — Severe decline in certain apple 
orchards is attributed to the presence of high populations of periodical 
cicada nymphs in the soil. Research is reported on the types of chemicals 
tried for the control of these insects with special comment on the success 
of demeton. 

The Life History of the Mimosa Webworm in Indiana. Michael L. 
McManus, Purdue University. — Since its original discovery in 1940 at 
Washington, D. C, the mimosa webworm, Homadaula albizziae Clarke, 
has spread rapidly throughout the Eastern and Central United States. 
At present, the webworm has officially been reported in 61 of Indiana's 
92 counties. Although at least two generations each year occur in Indiana, 
a partial third generation is possible. The completion of one generation 
was found to require an average of 39.7 days. Studies on five varieties of 
thornless honeylocust during the summers of 1960 and 1961 show that a 
varying degree of susceptibility exists. 

Humoral Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Cockroach 

Blaberus craniifer Burmeister. W. S. Bowers, Purdue University. — The 
effects of ablation of insect endocrine glands on the metabolism of blood 
sugar and fat body glycogen have been studied. Preliminary results indi- 
cate that glycogen disappearance during starvation is decreased by abla- 
tion of the corpus allatum. Measurement of fat body glycogen in starved 
allatectomized and starved unoperated roaches reveals higher levels of 
glycogen persist in the operated animals. 

Attractiveness of Various Cucurbit Varieties to Cucumber Beetles. 

George E. Gould, Purdue University. — The attractiveness of various 
squash varieties, cucumbers, muskmelons and watermelons to the heavy 
spring populations of the striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittata 
(F.)) and the August populations of the spotted cucumber beetle (Dia- 
brotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) showed considerable varia- 
tion. Squash belonging to the species Cucurbita moschata (D.) had fewer 
beetles attacking the seedling plants than did plants belonging to C. pepo 
(D.) and maxima (L.). Butternut squash (moschata) attracted fewer 
beetles and suffered less loss than did the Hubbard (maxima). Two varie- 
ties first tested in 1961, Sweet Meat and Marblehead, were so seriously 
attacked as seedlings that few plants remained for observations later in 
the season. Cucumbers, muskmelons and watermelons were less attrac- 
tive than squash growing adjacent to them, but grown to themselves had 
to be protected with insecticides. In seasons of high beetle populations, 
such as 1961, insecticide treatments were necessary to produce a crop on 

114 



Entomology 115 

cucumbers, muskmelons, watermelons and most of the 10 squash varieties 
under trial. 

Further Studies of the Composition of Some Indiana Nectars. B. El- 
wood Montgomery, Purdue University. — This paper is a continuation of 
the preliminary studies reported in 1958. It includes the results of the 
analysis of the sugar content of samples of nectar obtained from flower- 
visiting bees during the past three seasons. Correlations and relationships 
of the sugar content of nectar with relative humidity, temperature and 
season of flowering are shown. 

Occurrence of Culex territans Walker in Indiana. R. E. Siverly, Ball 
State Teachers College. — Larvae of Culex territans Walker were collected 
in a bog area in Delaware County, Indiana, in June, 1958. Larvae of this 
mosquito were again collected in the same habitat in September, 1961. 
So far as it is known, these are the first collection records for this mosquito 
in Indiana. In the southern states, C. territans often occurs in earth cavi- 
ties, or tree holes at ground level, and is found in breeding association 
with Culiseta melanura. The same breeding association occurs in Indiana. 
C. territans tends to occupy lighted areas of the earth cavity, while 
Culiseta melanura larvae tend to seek out the darker recesses of the micro- 
habitat. Culex territans is believed to be of minor economic importance, 
since it feeds on cold-blooded animals. Perhaps its greatest significance 
is indication — by its presence — of the possible occurrence of Culiseta 
melanura in a given area. Culiseta melanura is now established as an 
endemic vector of eastern encephalitis. Larvae of the two species of mos- 
quitoes are distinguished by the color of the antennae, the length and shape 
of the air siphon, and the character of the scales on the eighth abdominal 
segment. 



Periodical Cicadas, Magicicada Spp., as Pests in 
Apple Orchards 

D. W. Hamilton, Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., 
U.S.D.A., Vincennes, Ind. 1 

Introduction 

Studies pertaining to periodical cicadas, Magicicada spp., date back 
to 1666 when Henry Oldenburg reported on their occurrence and damage. 
They are a native North American species that have attracted the atten- 
tion of entomologists, other scientists, and nonscientists alike because of 
their comparatively large size, long subterranean life, and regular period- 
ical appearances. The most complete account of periodical cicadas known 
to the author is one prepared by C. L. Marlatt in 1907. At that time 
Marlatt referred to Magicicada septendecim (L.) as, "undoubtedly the 
most anomalous and interesting of all the insects peculiar to the American 
continent." 

Three excellent papers on periodical cicadas have been presented 
before this group in the past decade — Deay (1953), Jacobs (1954), and 
Young (1958). The object of this paper is to report on studies and obser- 
vations of this pest and its control in apple orchards and to present evi- 
dence that the feeding of the nymphs on the roots of apple trees reduces 
the ability of the roots to function normally to the detriment of the 
development of the trees. The studies and observations reported herein 
were made in Orange and Duchess Counties, New York, in 1945 (Brood 2) , 
Knox County, Indiana, and Lawrence County, Illinois, in 1950 (Brood 23), 
Brown and Fountain Counties, Indiana, in 1953 (Brood 10), and Brown 
County, Indiana, in 1957 (Brood 14). 

Broods Occurring in Indiana 

Marlatt (1907) brought together all available information on the 
different occurrences of periodical cicadas and classified them as repre- 
senting 30 broods. Marlatt (1907), Deay (1953), and others have pointed 
out the existence of two races, septendecim, which takes 17 years to com- 
plete its life cycle, and tredecim, which takes 13 years. Marlatt placed 
broods 1 through 17 in the septendecim race and broods 18 through 30 in 
the tredecim race. The 17-year race of the cicada is generally confined to 
the States in the northern area of infestation and the 13-year race to the 
southern area. Some workers ascribe the difference in the longevity of 
broods to differences in temperatures. Young (1958) and others showed 
that there were also other plausible explanations for the difference in the 
life cycle of the two races. Both races have been recorded from Indiana. 
Seven of the Indiana broods have been credited to the 17-year and two to 
the 13-year race. At least two of them are probably no longer present in 

1. Acknowledgements are made to J. L. Brann, Jr.. New York Agricultural 
Experiment Station, who cooperated in the experiments during 1045 in New York, 
J. M. Ferris, Purdue University, for sampling and determining the abundance and 
species of nematodes present in the Dixie Orchard soil, J. R. Shay and Zoiin 
Maciejowska, Purdue University, for making the studies reported under the section 
pertaining to root rots and viruses, and D. L. Shankland, Purdue University, foi 
determining the weights and oxygen consumption of the nymphs. 

116 



Entomology 117 

Indiana. A publication in press by Alexander and Moore (1962) shows 
that the former identification of periodical cicada as a single species 
(Magicicada septendecim (L.) ) with the two races, septendecim and 
tredecim, is erroneous and that six different species may be involved. 
Three of these have a 17-year cycle and three have a 13-year cycle. 

Types of Injury to Apples 

In the past reports of injury by periodical cicadas have been confined 
to the direct and indirect effects of the slits made by the adult females 
during the egg-laying process. These effects include splitting of the 
branches, breaking off of bearing wood, stunting and loss of vigor of 
effected trees, and weakening of trunks and scaffold limbs on young trees 
(Marlatt 1907). Peach, pear, and apple trees and grapevines have been 
reported as being damaged more than forest or shade trees. Young trees 
usually suffer more damage than old trees. However, the act of oviposi- 
tion is not confined to any special species of plant or type of wood. In the 
Hudson Valley in 1945 unprotected young apple and pear trees up to 7 
years old were a complete loss. In many instances 22-year-old trees had 
more than 95 percent of their terminals ruined. An injured terminal 
generally broke off 1 to 1% feet from its tip. Cherry trees were less 
affected than apple trees. In one nursery oviposition punctures were 
noticed in the stems of annual lilies, and on one farm the handle of a 
pitchfork bore several oviposition marks extending down from the apple 
limb against which it was standing. The severity of attack is not readily 
appreciated prior to seeing a heavily infested orchard at the peak of adult 
activity. Adult emergence holes in one orchard near Vincennes, Indiana, 
averaged 20,000 under each apple tree in 1950. 

Prior to the emergence of adults near Vincennes in 1950 and Nash- 
ville, Indiana, in 1953, it was observed that mature apple trees in certain 
orchards, especially in the Dixie and Bessire orchards, where heavy infes- 
tations of cicada nymphs were present, were not responding to heavy 
fertilization or other practices that stimulate growth and assure vigor in 
apple trees. They appeared to be in poor physical condition. Although it 
was suggested that the cicada nymphs feeding on the rootlets were respon- 
sible for this condition, positive evidence was not available. The symptoms 
were those characteristic of starving trees and could have been due to any 
one or more of several causes. For example, trees injured by the tile- 
horned prionus, Prionus imbricomis (L.), have been observed to show 
similar symptoms. Nematodes could have been present in sufficient num- 
bers to have had a similar effect. Examination of the roots of the apple 
trees showed the presence of galls, which could be attributed to the woolly 
apple aphid, and the absence of root hairs that help feed the trees. Large 
numbers of cicada nymphs were present. The trees in the Dixie and Bessire 
orchards recovered from their decline in 1950 and 1953, respectively, 
following the emergence of the adult cicadas, but tree decline was apparent 
again by 1957 in the Dixie Orchard and in 1959 in the Bessire Orchard, 
especially in the latter. Adult populations in the Dixie Orchard were 
partially killed off with TEPP sprays prior to their egg laying in 1950, 
so that the subsequent nymph population was not as large as previously. 
However, another block in the Dixie Orchard that was unsprayed was 
showing severe decline. 



118 Indiana Academy of Science 

In order to definitely prove the exact cause of the tree decline, scien- 
tists representing different disciplines worked as a team. These included 
the author, representing entomology, J. M. Ferris, a nematologist, and 
J. R. Shay and Zona Maciejowska, plant pathologists, to whom the author 
is grateful for their valuable assistance in determining whether or not 
root rots or viruses were present. 

Determination of Nematodes Present 

In order to determine whether plant parasitic nematodes could be the 
cause of the tree decline in Dixie Orchard No. 5, Vincennes, Indiana, soil 
samples were collected within the branch-drip area of six Rome apple 
trees. A 500-cc. aliquot of soil from each sample was processed. Nema- 
todes of the genera, Paratylenchns, Pratylenchus, Heliocotylenchus, 
Tylenchorhynchus, and Xiphinema, were found in the samples. The num- 
bers of Xiphinema americanum recovered varied from 15 to 130 per 
sample with an average of 32. Pratylenchus spp. were found in numbers 
ranging from to 20, with an average of 6 per sample. As none of the 
known or suspected plant-parasitic nematodes were obtained in consis- 
tently high numbers from the samples, it was concluded that nematodes 
were probably not the primary cause of the tree decline. 

Investigations for Root Rots and Viruses 

Removal of the block of Rome apple trees in the Dixie Orchard in 
May, 1960, made it possible for a team of plant pathologists to make a 
careful examination of the root system from approximately 100 mature 
trees. 

All of the downed trees were examined for evidence of root rots, for 
xylem and phloem streaking in both the fibrous feeder and large transport 
roots, and for pitting in the bark of the seedling root portions and in the 
scion top that might indicate the presence of a virus. No evidence of root 
or lower stem abnormalities that might indicate the presence of a fungus 
or a virus disease as the cause of the general debility of the trees was 
found. 

It was the pathologists' conclusion that the debility of the trees was 
due to some cause other than a root-attacking pathogen or a known virus. 

Other Injury Present 

Numerous nodules of the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lenigerum 
(Haus), were present on the roots in both orchards, but this injury was 
no more abundant than on the roots of normally growing, similarly aged 
apple trees in other orchards in the area. 

Periodical Cicada Nymphs Present 

Whenever diggings were made in the soil under the trees in these 
orchards during the 3 years covered by this study, large numbers of 
cicada nymphs were found in the area 2 to 18 inches below the surface. 
A study of the burrows in a plowed area in a portion of the Dixie Orchard 
where trees had been removed because of their severe decline showed that 
periodical cicada nymphs were concentrated in patterns that followed the 
root system of the trees. Decline in both orchards was more evident the 
seventh to eighth year after the nymphs had hatched, a period that coin- 
cides with the completion of the fourth and final-growth instar for the 



Entomology 119 

nymphs and a time when their feeding would be the greatest. Nymphs 
from these diggings varied in size. Most of this variation was attributed 
to the presence of both the large and dwarf (cassinii) forms of the cicada 
(Deay 1953) since the history of adult emergence did not indicate an 
overlapping of broods. Weights of the larger nymphs ranged between 
0.461 and 0.748 grams each. Their average oxygen consumption rate was 
607 cubic millimeters of oxygen per gram per hour at 28 degrees C. This 
is a relatively slow rate for respiration when compared with the average 
1370 cubic millimeters of oxygen per gram per hour for insects, worms, 
and spiders that inhabit the forest soil (Krogh 1941). 

Diggings were made under the apple trees to determine the density 
of the nymph population. Digging was done by removing cores of dirt 6 
to 8 inches in diameter with a tiling spade. Three cores were removed from 
under the branches of each tree. In June 1959, 30 nymphs per square foot 
of soil surface were found under the apple trees in the Dixie Orchard, or 
about 21,000 feeding on the roots of each tree. The largest number of 
cicadas taken under a square foot of soil was 64. In November 1960, 104 
nymphs per square foot were found under trees in the Bessire Orchard 
at Nashville, or about 72,800 under the spread of each tree. The largest 
number of cicadas taken under a square foot of soil was 122. Dean (1959) 
reported 70 nymphs per square foot feeding on apple roots in Ulster 
County, New York, where tree decline was present. Banta (1960) inves- 
tigated conditions that were causing severe orchard decline in Ohio and 
found as many as 45 cicada nymphs per square foot. Soil and leaf analyses 
did not show any specific element deficiency. Examination of the roots 
showed all small rootlets smaller than a pin to be brown or dead ; no healthy 
ones were found. Older portions of the roots were white and alive. These 
reports substantiate the findings in Indiana. 

It can be concluded from these studies that the nymphs of the periodi- 
cal cicada feeding on the roots of apple trees cause severe tree decline that 
reduces growth and length of life of the trees, and the yield and size of 
apples produced. Since the nymphs feed underground and the symptoms 
are those of starvation, the damage they do has oftentimes been improperly 
attributed to other causes. 

Control Investigations 
Adults 

The author's first attempt to control this pest was in 1945 in eastern 
New York where large-scale tests of DDT, ferbam, phenothiazine, alumi- 
num sulfate with lime, ryania, and lead arsenate insecticides were applied 
for control of the adults (Hamilton 1953). No practical control was 
obtained. Cutright and Parks (1949) reported control with TEPP. Tests 
made in 1950 by Hamilton (1953) substantiated these findings and also 
indicated that Metacide (mixture of 6.2% parathion, 24.5% methyl para- 
thion, and 2.7% related organic phosphates) was partially effective. 
However, it was found that TEPP had to be applied almost daily to be 
effective, partly because of continued emergence and migration of adults 
into the orchards from neighboring trees and woods. The Bessire Orchards 
are relatively narrow and lie along the ridge of hills surrounded by the 
Yellow Wood Forest. In 1953 laboratory tests of high concentrations of 
endrin, dameton, Strobane (terpene polychlorinates (65% chlorine)), 



120 Indiana Academy of Science 

methyl parathion, Metacide, and pyrethrins were made to control the 
adults. Sprays were applied directly to the insects. Only the pyrethrins 
were considered effective enough for field use. In tests in the Bessire 
Orchard, a 2-percent formulation of pyrethrins at 8 ounces in 100 gallons 
of spray was ineffective. Adults knocked down recovered rapidly. TEPP 
(40 percent) at % pint and (20 percent) at 10 ounces in 100 gallons was 
effective in knocking down the adults, but others moved into the trees 
rapidly. Mr. Bessire failed to obtain satisfactory control in a 50-acre 
block in which he applied about 10 gallons of TEPP spray per tree. The 
most reliable method of protecting young trees from injury continued to 
be a covering made of cheesecloth or netting during the egg-laying period. 

Graham and Krestensen (1957) have reported that Sevin (1-naphthyl 
iV-methylcarbamate) is effective against the adults. A single application 
gave control for as long as 1 week. Sevin has not been used in Indiana 
since no major emergence of adults has occurred since it has been available. 

Nymphs 

No practical measures for control of the nymphs appear in the 
literature. Large-scale soil treatments, with phorate granules and sprays, 
Nemagon (l,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), Phosdrin (1-methoxycarbonyl- 
l-propen-2-yl dimethyl phosphate), American Cyanamid 18133 (0,0- 
diethyl 0-2-pyrazinyl phosphorothioate) , dimethoate, and Dow M-712 
(l,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) were made in May 1959. After the surface 
of the soil had been culticut, materials were applied with a high-pressure 
spray and then watered in, with 500 gallons of water for each 700 square 
feet treated. Nymph counts made June 24 showed that none of the mate- 
rials used gave satisfactory control. 

In 1960 and 1961 soil treatments were applied to trees in the Bessire 
Orchard that covered an average of 700 square feet. In 1960 Sevin was 
applied at the rate of 5 pounds per tree, as follows: (1) A 10-percent 
granular formulation was hoed into the soil and (2) an 85-percent wet- 
table powder was mixed in 100 gallons of water and injected to a depth 
of 12 to 24 inches at the rate of 5 gallons in each of 20 locations. Applica- 
tion was made with an injector described by Cleveland (1960). Some 
injections were also made 6 inches deep and 6 inches apart with a com- 
mercial injector (Fumigum), 2 

In 1961, by means of the injector described by Cleveland, 20 ounces 
47.5-percent phorate emulsifiable concentrate, 20 pounds 50-percent Sevin 
wettable powder, and 25 million DD-136 nematodes 3 in 100 gallons of 
water per tree were applied to the soil beneath the spread of branches, 
each to a single tree on May 18. The nematode-treated tree and an addi- 
tional tree each received a nematode treatment on June 27 that contained 
53 million nematodes in 121 gallons of water. In addition, one tree received 
a surface application of 25 million nematodes in 100 gallons of water on 
May 18. Diggings made on three occasions after application showed that 
phorate injections killed more periodical cicada nymphs than the other 



2. Mention of this proprietary product does not necessarily imply its endorse- 
ment by the U. S. D. A. 

3. The DD-136 nematodes used in these investigations were reared and sup- 
plied by S. R. Dutky, Entomology Research Division, ARS, U. S. D. A. 



Entomology 121 

test treatments; however, none of the treatments were sufficiently effective 
to warrant recommendation. 

Marshall (1962), in a manuscript presented at this meeting, reported 
substantial control of the nymphs with demeton. 

Literature Cited 

Alexander, R. D., and T. E. Moore. 1962. The Evolutionary Relationships of 17- 
year and 13-year Cicadas, and Three New Species (Homoptera : Clcadidae : 
Magicicada). Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Mich., (in press). 

Banta, Eldon S. 1960. Apple Orchard Decline. Proc. Ohio State Hort. Soc, 113th 
Annual Meeting: 88-90. 

Cleveland, Merrill L. 1960. Soil Injection as a Means of Applying Systemic 
Acaricides to Fruit Trees. Jour, of Ecou. Ent. 53(1) : 144-146. 

Cutright, C. R., and T. H. Parks. 1949. Combatting the Periodical Cicada with 
Insecticides. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42(2) : 359. 

Dean, R. W. 1959. Weekly Report of Insects, Diseases and Crop Development. Ext. 
Serv. Dept. of Entomology and Plant Pathology. Cornell University, Ithaca, 
New York, June 8 : 60. 

Deay, Howard O. 1953. The Periodical Cicada, Magicicada septendecim (L.) in 
Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 62 : 203-206. 

Graham, Costello, and Elroy R. Kreste.nson. 1957. A Residual Spray for Con- 
trol of the Periodical Cicada. Jour. Econ. Ent. 50 ((5) : 713-715. 

Hamilton, D. W. 1953. Notes on the Activity and Control of the Periodical Cicada, 
1945 and 1950. Jour. Econ. Ent. 4(5(2) : 385. 

Jacobs, M. E. 1954. Observations on the Two Forms of the Periodical Cicada. 
Magicicada septendecim (L.). Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 63:177-179. 

Krogh, A. 1941. The Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanism. Phila. 
Univ. Press. 

Marlatt, C. L. 1907. The Periodical Cicada. U. S. D. A., Bur. of Ent., Bui. 71:1-181. 

Marshall, G. Edward. 1962. Studies on the Control of the Periodical Cicada in 
Apple Orchards. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1961. 71 : 114. 

Oldenburg, Henry. 1666. Some Observations of Swarms of Strange Insects and 
the Mischiefs Done by Them. Philos. Trans. London 1(8) : 137. 

Young, Frank N. 1958. Some Facts and Theories About the Broods and Periodicity 
of the Periodical Cicadas. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 68 : 164-170. 



Euzophera ostricolorella Hulst (Lepidoptera, Phycitidae), 
A Root Collar Borer of Tulip Tree 

Donald L. Schuder and Ronald L. Giese, Purdue University 

The larval stage of lepidopterous borer, Euzophera ostricolorella 
Hulst, was found tunneling in the inner bark of the tulip tree at Lafayette, 
Indiana in 1960. The insect has previously been reported from New York 
south to Georgia and west to Kentucky. In Indiana, it has now been found 
in LaPorte, Marion, Dubois and Tippecanoe counties. The borer probably 
will eventually be found throughout the range of its host. 

This insect has never been considered to be economically important 
but, in northern Indiana, a wood lot heavily stocked with yellow poplar has 
shown considerable dieback and mortality due to the attack of this insect. 
At least one shade tree in West Lafayette was severely damaged by this 
borer. The insect apparently is cyclic in its abundance and the present 
infestation may be the peak of its population cycle. 

Notes on Life History 

The adults emerge in the spring. In northern Indiana, the mature 
larvae, about one inch in length, and pupae were found early in May of 
1961. In the fall of 1961, larvae and puae were found in Dubois County. 
A cocoon is spun in the tunnel and pupation takes place with the head 
towards a nearby exit hole. When the adults emerge, the pupal case remains 
in the cocoon in the burrow. There apparently is only one generation in 
northern climes, while there are two generations farther south. 

Description of Injury 

Symptoms of attack by the tulip tree borer are difficult to detect. In 
infested trees, the bark just above the soil line appears to be loose and 
checked, with the appearance of having been burned. There is no frass 
extruded from the tunnels. Attacks are usually limited to two inches 
below and six inches above the soil line. Most of the tunnels are restricted 
to the soft phloem tissue. The walls of the tunnel and adjacent wood are 
stained a deep black color. The tunneling by the larvae provides avenues 
of entrance for various pathogens and the latter probably account for the 
demise of infested trees. 

Small trees, 6 inches diameter at breast height, usually have only a 
few borers, while larger trees are attacked in much larger numbers. 

Description of Larva 

The mature larvae are about one inch long and a dull whitish color. 
The head is dark brown with the heavily chitinized areas almost black. 
The spiracles and anal shields are smoke brown. 

Control 

There is little information currently available about the control of 
this insect. Hays (1) in Kentucky, found that an oil solution of 0.5% 
BHC and 2% DDT was superior to the emulsion formulation. 

An experimental control program is in progress at LaPorte, Indiana, 
where an oil solution of dieldrin is being evaluated. Preliminary evidence 
indicates that satisfactory control has been obtained. 

122 



Entomology 123 



Literature Cited 



Hay, C. J. 1058. Mfe history and control of a root collar borer ( Euzophera o> 
colorella Ilulst) in yellow poplar. Jour. Econ. Ent. 51(2) : 251-252. 



Light Trap Collections of the Nocturnal Bee, Sphecodogastra 
texana (Gresson) (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) 

Leland Chandler, Purdue University 

Introduction 

In conducting research on the insect pests of pines grown for Christ- 
mas trees, Dr. Donald L. Schuder, of the Purdue Department of Ento- 



, 




Fig. 1 (upper). Light trap site in LaPorte Co., Indiana. 

mology, has employed a light trap as a survey instrument. During 1959 
and 1960, the site (Fig. 1) of the research under consideration in this 
study was located approximately six miles northeast of LaPorte, Indiana. 

The light trap (Fig. 2) was designed by the late John Taylor (U. S. 
Department of Agriculture and Purdue Department of Agricultural En- 
gineering) and Dr. Howard Deay (Purdue Department of Entomology). 
The trap may be described briefly as being omnidirectional and had, as the 
radiant energy source, three BL-360 fluorescent tubes, set vertically over 
a funnel-topped collecting container. The killing agent employed was 
calcium cyanide which was placed in a small paper sack and changed daily. 

In 1959, the trap was placed in operation on May 15; however, as a 
result of using too little cyanide, the first collections were not made until 
June 1. After this date, collections were made daily through September 9. 
In 1960, the trap was operated from May 15 through October 16. 

The light trap collection for June 7, 1959, contained a female of S. 
texana. When subsequent collections began to yield additional specimens, 
occasionally in moderate numbers, the investigation reported herein began. 

Review of Literature 

This species of bee was described by Cresson (4, page 249) as Sphe- 
codes texana (v. et. Graenicher, 6; Stevens, 13), not in Parasphecodes as 
cited by Michener (10) and by Mitchell (11). In 1887, Cresson (5) moved 
the species to Parasphecodes. Cockerell (2) placed it in Halictus, citing 
it as the only Halictus with a red abdomen. He also cautioned against 

124 



Entomology 



125 





,, 






mmmmmmmmmm 




Fig. 2 (lower). Close-up photograph of the light trap. 



)^mm;& 



confusing this species with the Halictus texanus Cresson (4, pg. 251) 
since the latter was a synonym of H. ligatus Say. Ashmead (1) erected 
the genus Sphecodogastra in 1899 with the genotype, Parasphecodes 
texana. Ducke referred the species to Megalopta (fide Stevens, 13). 
Michener (9) reduced Sphecodogastra to subgeneric status in the genus 
Lasioglossum but it was accorded generic status by Mitchell (11). The 
proper designation can hardly be expected until a thorough study of the 
Halictinae of the world is made. 

Morphologically, S. texana is distinguished from all other Indiana 
bees by the very large ocelli. Stevens (13) measured the lateral diameter 
of the anterior ocellus in several species of halictine bees, including other 
species of Sphecodogastra, and found this structure in S. texana to average 
about 400 microns as compared to a range of 150-220 microns in the other 
species. A review of structural adaptations and crepuscular, noctural and 
matinal activities has been given by Linsley (8) and by Graenicher (6). 

Biologically, S. texana is both a crepuscular and nocturnal species 
although there are also records (Table 1) of both matinal and diurnal 



126 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. Flower Visitation and Activity Records of S. texana (Cr.) 



Flower Species 



Time — Sex 



Locality 



Reference 



Pyrus communis 
Senecio sp. 
Orindelia sp. 
Oenothera rhomMpetala 
Allionia nyctaginea 
Megaptcrium missourien > 
Hartmannia speciosa 
Mentselia decapetala 
Allionia hirsuta 

Oenothera nuttalli 
(as Anogra pallida) 

0. strigosa 

(as Onagra strigosa) 
—do— 

Helianthus petiolaris 



daylight 
—do— 

8-10 :00 P.M. 
before sunset 
e to 8 :40 P.M. 
sunset 
7 :30 P.M. 



( $ ) Mesilla, N. Mex. Cockerell (2) 
( 2 $ )Las Cruces, N. M. —do — • 

Lincoln, Nebr. Crawford (3) 

Prescott, Wise. Graenicher (6) 
Blue Rapids, Kans. Stevens (13) 
— do — - — do — 

■ — do — ■ ■ — do — 

Manhattan, Kans. — do — 
Stevens 
(13, 14) 



(?) 
(?) 

(9) 
(2) 
(2) 



hour after sunset ( $ ) Oakes-La Moure, 
N. D. 



about 8 :40 P.M. ( 5 ) 



do 



—do- 
sunrise 
early forenoon 



— do— 
( $ ) ~do- 
( $ ) Sheldon, N. D. 



-do— 



-do- 



do- 



activity. Mitchell (11) reported that it was more frequently taken at 
light traps than in visits to its host plants. The species is recorded as being 
oligolectic on species of Onagraceae (8, 11) but there are records of 
capture on species of flowers in other families. Many of these latter records 
were for males or denoted only nectar sources. Table 1 summarizes those 
published collection records of S. texana which mention time of activity 
and/or host plant. 

The length of adult flight activity ranges from April (2) to October 
(2, 3) with most records between June and August. Hicks (7) described 
a nest of this species taken at White Rocks, Colorado on August 25, 1926. 
The nest burrow had been excavated vertically in the soil to a depth of 



..I. ..i iJ'U.ij l.ll 



ii hi|. ■ 



li i ll 



1^ 



Fig. 3 (upper). Daily collections of tf. texana (Cr.) during 1059. Number 

of specimens on vertical axis. 
Fig. 4 (lower). Daily collections of &. texana (Cr.) during 1060. Number 

of specimens on vertical axis. 



Entomology 127 

40.5 cm. The tumulus of sand surrounding the nest entrance was 3.5 cm. 
in height. The burrow diameter was recorded as being 5.5 mm. with the 
inner walls very smooth. The one bee was taken in a short lateral at the 
bottom of the burrow. No brood cells were found suggesting that the nest 
was in an early stage. Graenicher (6) interpreted the spring and fall 
collection records of Cockerell (2) to indicate at least two broods per year. 
Linsley (8) has recorded species of Sphecodogastra as being semisocial. 

Results 

The results of the light trap collections for 1959 are given in Fig. 3 
and the results for 1960 are given in Fig. 4. Records of males are not 
plotted. In 1959, five males were collected, one each on August 17, 18, and 
21, and two on August 26. In 1960, only three males were taken, one on 
August 1 and two on September 8. Comparative collection data are tabu- 
lated (Table 2) below. 

Table 2. Comparative collection summary of S. texana females at a 
light trap, LaPorte Co., Indiana. 







1959 






1960 






No. 9 


9 with 
pollen 


% pollen 
collectors 


No. 2 


9 with 
pollen 


% pollen 
collectors 


June 
July 
August 
September 


32 
111 

85 
44 


4 
18 
10 




12.5 

16.2 

11.8 

0.0 


31 
43 

42 
4 


1 

8 
7 



3.2 
18.6 
16.7 

0.0 


Totals 


272 


32 


11.0 


120 


16 


13.3 



Several trips were made to the light trap site to search for the nests 
of the species. None was ever located. Attention was later turned to the 
flowering plants of the area in order to determine the site of the pollen 
source. On two occasions, specimens were secured of every species of 
plant in flower at the time within a radius of several hundred yards of the 
light trap. There was no species of Onagraceae included. Pollen removed 
from the scopae of the bees appeared to be identical to that taken from 
the flowers of Oenothera pycnocarpa Atk. and Bartl. at West Lafayette 
and from the scopae of Anthedonia compta (Cr.), an Oenothera, oligolege, 
collected in the same area. 

Because of the dried conditions of the specimens, no study of ovariole 
development could be made. Measurements of external characters (head 
width, length of forewing, width of abdominal segments), while tending 
to show that individuals averaged larger in June and September, did not 
reveal the marked dimorphism of caste development. Neither mandibular 
wear nor wing wear were found useful for age determinations. 

Discussion 

The weather during the period of flight activity was warm and dry 
during 1959, cool and wet in 1960. These conditions could account for the 
differences in collections and population peaks. Weather records were not 
taken at the light trap site. 

There are several points of similarity reflected in the collections. 
Population peaks, interpreted as brood peaks, were more distinct in 1959 



128 Indiana Academy of Science 

but similar peaks were shown in 1960. The females taken during the first 
two weeks of each year had not collected pollen, a condition also noted for 
those females taken during the last week of August and thereafter. Pollen- 
collecting females were taken only during the periods from June 29- 
August 21, 1959, and June 30-August 17, 1960, with the percentage of 
pollen-collectors nearly equal for both years. 

Inferences drawn from the collection data would indicate the semi- 
social behavior of £. texana, typical of the halictine groups in which this 
species belongs. This possibly indicates, in addition, that the nest reported 
by Hicks (7) really represented one in which a female was preparing for 
hibernation and not a nest in the early stages of construction. 

That S. texana is attracted to light is well-known. However, there 
are evidences, largely unsupported, that the odor of cyanide may be an 
adjunct attractant. Schwarz (12) recorded an observation made by G. H. 
H. Tate in Papau who observed individuals of Trigona planifrons F. Smith 
to enter an open cyanide bottle and to die there although they were not 
otherwise prevented from leaving. The dead individuals covered the 
bottom of the bottle to a depth of one inch. This species of stingless bee 
was also collected at lights but in far fewer numbers. Diurnal bees, espe- 
cially those restricted to cucurbit flowers (e.g., Peponapis p. pruinosa 
(Say), Xenoglossa s. strenua (Cr.)) or frequently found on these flowers 
{e.g., Melissodes b. bimaculata (Lep.), Tetralonia spp.) are taken almost 
daily in light traps. The frequency of these collections, the numbers of 
individuals taken and the set of conditions involved (light off, catch of 
previous night removed, fresh charge of cyanide) lend some support to 
this hypothesis. 

In comparing the collections of S. texana made during the two years, 
certain of the differences involving frequency of collections and numbers 
of individuals, might be attributable to the greater amount of attention 
given to care of the trap in 1959 as compared to 1960. Cyanide charges 
were renewed almost daily in 1959 but in 1960 there were extended periods 
in which this was not done. If, as hypothesized, cyanide is an adjunct 
attractant, then the collections for the two years are not really comparable. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ashmead, W. II. 1809. Classification of the bees, or the superfamily Apoidea. 
Trans. Ainer. Ent. Soc. 26 : 49-100. 

2. Cockerell, T. D. A. 1898. On some panurgine and other bees, ibid, 25 : 185-198. 

3. Crawford, J. C. 1903. Some Nebraska bees. Can. Ent. 35 : 334-336. 

4. Cresson, E. T. 1872. Hymenoptera texana. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soe. 4:153-292. 

5. . 1887. Catalogue of the described Hymenoptera of America north 

of Mexico. Pt. 2. Catalogue of species and bibliography, ibid., Suppl. to 14: 
155-350. 

0. Graenicher, S. 1911. Bees of northwestern Wisconsin. Bui. Publ. Mus. Mil- 
waukee 1, art. 3:221-249. 

7. Hicks, C. II. 193G. Nesting habits of certain western bees. Can. Ent. 58(3) : 
47-52. 

8. Linseey, E. G. 1958. The ecology of solitary bees. Hilgardia 27(19) : 543-599 

9. Michener, C. D. 1944. Comparative external morphology, phylogeny, and a 
classification of the bees. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 82, art. 6 :151-326. 



Entomology 129 

10. . 1951. Family Halictidae in Muesebeck, et al, Hymenoptera of 

America north of Mexico — synoptic catalog. U. S. D. A.. Agric. Monog. No 
2 :1104-1134. 

11. Mitchell, T. B. 1960. Bees of the eastern United States. Vol. 1. North Caro- 
lina Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bui. 141 :l-538. 

12. Schwarz, II. F. 1948. Stingless bees (Meliponidae) of the Western Hemisphere. 
Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 90 : xviii + 546 pgs. 

13. Stevens, O. A. 1920. Notes on species of Halictus visiting evening flowers 
Ent. News 31(2) : 35-44. 

14. . 1951. Native bees. North Dakota Agric. Exp. Sta. Bimonth 

Bui. 14(2) : 59-64. 



Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance 
in Indiana in 1961 

John V. Osmun, Purdue University 1 

Although there are many factors which influence the status of arthro- 
pod species during a given season, weather conditions tend to affect the 
greatest number of different kinds, either in a negative or positive way. 
The influence is both a direct one on the organism and an indirect one in 
that host plant, and often host-insect, development may reflect unusual 
periods in the weather. The growing season for 1961 was unusually cool 
for most of the season. From April to September, there were no periods 
with above normal maximum temperatures, and there were no periods 
with temperatures 10°F. below the normal maximum. The average devia- 
tions from the maximum normal for that part of the season were : north, 
— 2.6°; central, — 5.3°; and south, — 4.0°. Solar radiation was consider- 
ably below normal. In general, host plants were about three weeks re- 
tarded in their early development. In September, there were four weeks 
with an above normal average of 5°. The latter helps account for the late 
surge in numbers of some insect species. 

Rainfall during the growing season approached the normal average, 
but a rather dry period occurred during the six weeks beginning May 16. 
This condition, coupled with low temperatures, came at a time when many 
insects normally are in their early development or are commencing activity. 

Field and Crop Insects 

Armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haw.)) infestations were below 
normal. A few small grain fields were sprayed in the Knox and Daviess 
County areas. 

Fall armyworm (Laphygma fruqiperda (J. E. Smith)) appearance 
was the earliest record to date in Tippecanoe County (August 1), although 
few larval infestations were observed or reported in the northern half of 
the state. An estimate in the south was difficult because of similar corn 
earworm damage in the usual area of trouble. Light trap collections, how- 
ever, indicated that the moths were more abundant than usual. 

A billbug (thought to be Sphenopharus callosa (Olivier) ) continued 
to be abundant in several fields of corn growing on a muck soil in Mont- 
gomery County. The adults killed some seedling corn plants in the early 
summer, but in general the harvest was excellent. Larvae were not found 
in corn plantings. The heavy population of billbugs was associated with 
the abundance of yellow nutgrass, Cyperus esculentus L., the most common 
host plant of this species. 

Blister beetles (several species) increased in abundance on many 
truck and forest crops this season and were of special concern in home 
vegetable gardens. This increase, together with that of grasshoppers, 
suggests the possibility of another population rise during the next few 



1. Information for this summary has been provided by : W. L. Butts, II. O. 
Deay, R. C. Dobson, R. T. Everly, II. L. Giese, G. E. Gould, D. L. Hamilton, G. E. 
Marshall, D. L. Matthew, J. D. Pasehke, D. L. Schuder, M. C. Wilson. 

130 



Entomology 131 

Both the imported cabbage worm (Pieris rapae (L.) ) and the cabbage 
looper (Trichophisia ni (Hbn.)) were abundant on cabbage and related 
crops in late August and September. 

Chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus (Say)) populations remained at 
non-economic levels. 

Corn earworm (Heliothis zea (Boddie) ) populations declined in 1961. 
The southern half of the state had the heaviest infestations with a gradual 
decline northward where practically no losses were evident. It was mid- 
September before the corn earworm infested sweet corn in Tippecanoe 
County where infestations were momentarily high. The average state loss 
of field corn was 0.31% this year compared with 0.59% experienced in 
1960. This situation was corroborated by light trap catches in which moths 
of this species were the lowest of the past five years. 

Corn flea beetle (Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsh.) was more abundant 
than during 1960 and leaf damage to popcorn continued until mid-summer 
in central and east-central areas of the state. 

The corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) ) was by far the 
most injurious corn insect in 1961. Loss for the state averaged 4.0% 
compared with 3.7% in 1960, a heavy year. The outstanding characteristic 
of 1961 was the shift in population to the southern half of the state and 
very low populations in the northern half where the insect had been 
extremely abundant in 1959 and moderately numerous in 1960. 

Southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Bar- 
ber) was rather abundant throughout the state. Damage from beetle 
feeding on cucurbits and some other vegetable crops was high. 

Northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica longicornis (Say)) was gen- 
erally distributed over the state and was more numerous than usual. Losses 
were low but widespread. The feeding of the beetles on corn silks in one 
field in Randolph County reduced pollination and caused a 50% reduction 
in yield. 

Cucumber beetles. The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittata 
(F.)) was more numerous than in the past several years. Damage was 
severe throughout the state and was caused mostly by the beetles feeding 
at the base of stems in early June when the weather was cold. In the latter 
part of the summer, the spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecim- 
punctata howardi Barber) was quite common on cucurbits, although cucur- 
bit wilt was not more abundant than usual. 

Cutworm populations were low due to climatic conditions which did 
not favor them this season. 

European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.)) infestation was 
heaviest in the extreme southern fourth of the state. The northern half of 
the state showed high reductions in populations. The state average dropped 
from 61.9 in 1960 to 33.9 borers per 100 plants in 1961. The state loss in 
1961 was 1.0%. 

The potato flea beetle (Epitrix cucumeris (Hart.)) was a serious 
problem on potatoes throughout the season. In the past, damage from 
adult feeding has been serious in the spring, but such feeding was also 
abundant this year in August and early September. Growers complained 
that the beetle appeared to be more difficult to control with the usual 
chemical means. 



132 Indiana Academy of Science 

An unusual infestation of garden fleahopper (Halticus bra-cteatus 
(Say) ) with populations as high as 36 per sweep were found on alfalfa in 
Harrison County near Mauckport. 

The fruit fly (Drosophila melanog aster Meig.) was not a serious 
problem in tomato fields until last September. Populations became heavy 
in October. 

Grasshoppers (Melanoplus spp.) were more abundant and popula- 
tions continue to increase over previous years. The two-striped grass- 
hopper, M. bivittatus (Say), was not observed in the northern half of the 
state. 

Horn worms on tomatoes (Protoparce sextet (Johan.) and P. quinqiie- 
maculata (Haw.)) were very abundant in some areas during July and 
again during the first half of September. The majority of the larvae, 
about 90 %, were P. sexta. Parasitism was highly irratic. 

Hornworm on tobacco (Protoparce sexta (Johan.) and P. quinque 
maculata (Haw.)) were important on tobacco in southern Indiana during 
the last of June. Several growers in Jefferson County applied insecticides 
for control at that time. 

The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica New.) continued to spread 
and is now known from most of the larger urban areas of the state. A new 
infestation, at Vincennes, was found in 1961. In general the population 
levels were low, although populations in Evansville were high. In the 
Newton County area, primarily rural, the numbers were low except for a 
two square mile area. Here some 200,000 larvae per acre were found in 
soybean land in the fall of 1960 and had a peak beetle population of 25,000 
per acre in August of 1961. Losses to corn and soybeans were negligible. 

Several species of legume caterpillars, the alfalfa caterpillar (Colias 
philodice eurytheme Bdv.), the clover looper (Caenurgina crassiuscula, 
(Haw.)), green cloverworm (Plathypena scabra (F.)), and the garden 
webworm (Loxostege similalis (Guen.)) caused partial defoliation of 
legumes in southern Indiana during September and October. 

Meadow spittlebug (Philaenns spumaria (L.)) was again the most 
serious insect pest on alfalfa and red clover. In addition to the expected 
heavy infestations in eastern Indiana, the build-up in the central part of 
the state was greater than was anticipated. 

The mint looper (Rachiplusia on (Gn.)) caused little damage to the 
mint crops this season. A light trap located at the edge of a peppermint 
field collected several species of loopers, including Antographa precationis 
(Gn.) and the celery looper, Anagrapha , falcifera (Kirby). 

Damage to alfalfa by the pea aphid (Macrosiphum pisi (Harr.) ) was 
noted as far north as Tippecanoe County. 

Potato leaf hopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) was generally abun- 
dant, causing serious damage to alfalfa, but on other crops infestations 
were generally low and few complaints were received. 

Spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis maculata (Buckton)) was taken 
July 24 in Harrison County south of Mauckport on the Ohio River. Ten 
days later (August 3) it was found in Posey, Vanderburgh, and Perry 
counties. These are the earliest dates that it has been collected. Data on 
the development of this insect the past few years suggests that initial 
infestations are coming into Indiana directly from the south rather than 



Entomology 133 

up the river valleys from the southwest. Consideration is being given to 
the possibility that a more hardy disjunct population is developing in 
Kentucky or Tennessee which may eventually select a strain adapted to 
winter survival in southern Indiana. 

Common stalk borer {Papaipema nebris (Guen.)) infestations re- 
mained at the 1960 level. Larval damage was observed in early planted 
corn. Infestations were more common along weedy fence rows. 

Tomato fruitworm (Heliothis zea (Boddie)) infestations in tomatoes 
were again relatively unimportant. 

Fruit Insects 

The codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella (L.)) can be expected to 
need major consideration in 1962. The torrential rains during late bloom 
resulted in a serious scab problem in southern Indiana. The many lesions 
on the fruit provided easy entrance for young larvae with the result that 
some orchards experienced 20% infestation in spite of spray programs. 

Two of the orchard mites, the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi 
(Koch)) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus telarius (L.)) 
were delayed in population development due to the cool, moist spring. Both 
species developed and maintained heavy fall population pressure into late 
October, and during the fruit season required miticide treatment, even on 
peaches, at 5 to 7 day intervals. The four-spotted spider mite (T. cana- 
densis (McGregor) ) was not numerous in 1961. 

Red-banded leaf roller (Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker)) popula- 
tions were low and easily contained by regular spray schedules. 

The rosy apple aphid (Anuraphis roseus Baker) appeared in rela- 
tively large numbers for the second successive year where control meas- 
ures were marginal. 

Stink bugs, including Acrosternum hilar e (Say) and several species 
of Euschistus, were severe in catfacing in peaches. Some infestations were 
as high as 45% in the border rows. 

The peach tree borer (Sanninoidea exitiosa (Say)) was relatively 
unimportant this season although the lesser peach tree borer (Senanthe- 
don pictipes (G. and R.)) caused moderate to severe injury in a large 
number of orchards. 

The grape cane gall maker (Ampelogiypter sesostris (Lee.)) caused 
considerable injury to many plantings of grapes as it did in 1960. 

The lesser appleworm (Grapholitha prunivora (Walsh)) was impor- 
tant for the second consecutive year in some orchards. Normal spray 
schedules seem to exert little control of this insect. 

Turf, Tree, Shrub and Forest Insects 

Sod webworms (Crambus spp. and Nomophila noctuella) were un- 
usually abundant in lawns in north-central area of the state. 

Ash borer (Podosesia syringae fraxini (Lugger)) killed a large ash 
tree in Tippecanoe County. 

Bagworm {Thyridopteryx ephemerae}' ormis (Haworth)) populations, 
although still evident on both deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs, 
were not as abundant as in the past several seasons. 

The Columbian timber beetle (Corthylus columbianus (Hopk.)) was 
discovered in six more counties in Indiana. The addition of Orange, Rush, 



134 Indiana Academy of Science 

Ripley, Washington, Perry and Jackson counties indicates a nearly com- 
plete distribution in the southern one-half of the state. The development 
of this ambrosia beetle and its associated fungi in vigorous hosts results in 
excavations and dark staining in soft maple and is highly important eco- 
nomically. 

Eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum (Fabricius)) lar- 
vae were common on wild cherry in most areas of the state in May. Defo- 
liation in many instances was quite extensive. 

Elm leaf beetle (Galerucella xanthomelaena (Muller) ) again caused 
heavy damage to Chinese elms in many areas of the state. 

European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy)), now rather 
generally distributed in Indiana, caused especially heavy defoliation of 
pine trees in the northern third of the state. 

European pine shoot moth (Rhyacionia bouliana (Schiffermuller) ) 
continues to be serious in pine plantations throughout the northern part 
of the state. Larvae of this species were found in buds of Scotch pine in 
Jefferson and Spencer counties. The insect is now recorded along all four 
borders of the state. 

Fall webworm {Hyphantria cunea (Drury) ) was conspicuous on wal- 
nut, cherry and other deciduous trees in Green, DuBois, Spencer, Owen and 
Pike counties in early August. 

Hackberry lacebug (Corythitcha celtidis (O. and D.)) was unusually 
abundant in many areas of the state. Frequent requests for control meas- 
ures were received in September. 

Honeylocust mite {Eotetranychus multidigitula Garman) caused de- 
foliation of ornamental thornless honeylocust trees in many areas of the 
state. 

An undetermined lepidopterous leafminer attacked foliage of pyra- 
midal English oak in Tippecanoe County. 

A leaf roller (Tortrix pallorana Rub.) appears to be an established, 
serious problem in young Christmas tree plantings. A three-year-old 
Christmas tree planting in Fulton County had an average infestation of 
36 percent in early June. 

Locust leafminer (Chalepus dorsalis (Thunberg)) caused leaves of 
black locust to turn brown in Knox and Greene counties and was reported 
to be abundant in southeastern Indiana. 

Heavy infestations of the maple bladder gall (Vasates quadripedes 
(Shimer)), a pest of young silver maple trees, were reported in Craw- 
fordsville, Ft. Wayne and Lebanon. 

Mimosa webworm (Homadaula albizziae Clarke) was extremely heavy 
on honeylocust trees over the entire southern half of the state. Most honey- 
locusts were completely brown and covered with silk by mid-August. This 
insect was observed in Montgomery County for the first time. 

Nantucket pine moth (Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock)) is normally 
considered to be the most important pine pest in southern Indiana. Increas- 
ing evidence of parasitism indicates that a natural balance may eventually 
exist. 

Oak kermes (Kermes pubescens Bogue) was heavy on several Burr 
oak trees in Lafayette ; the crawlers were observed hatching in mid-July. 



Entomology 135 

Oak skeletonizer (Bucculatrix ainsliella Murtf.) caused extensive 
damage to oak woods throughout the northern third of the state. 

The brown race of oystershell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi (L.)) was 
heavy on redbud trees in the Lafayette area. 

A pine tortoise scale (Tourney ella pint King) was found infesting a 
Mugho pine in Madison County. This is the first report of this insect from 
the state. 

Smaller European elm bark beetle (Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh)) 
continues to be a very important insect because of the continuing spread 
of Dutch elm disease, particularly in the northern quarter of the state. 

Spruce bud scade (Physokermes piceae (Schr.)), a seldom detected 
pest of spruce, was unusually abundant at both Muncie and Valparaiso. 

Sycamore tussock moth (Halisidota hawisii Walsh) defoliated many 
sycamore trees in Knox, Owen and Spencer counties in August. 

The tulip tree callous borer (Euzophera ostricolorella Hulst) presents 
a serious problem in tulip-poplar timber trees in LaPorte County. In May, 
a 100% infestation of this insect was present in three timber stands, 
totaling about 100 acres. Previously known from states east and south of 
Indiana, this represents a new record for the state and poses a serious 
threat to the growing of this valuable tree. Later in the year, the same 
insect was recovered from DuBois County in southern Indiana. Although 
the borer restricts its activities to the root collar region of trees of all 
sizes, it is causing great concern among foresters because excavations 
under the bark enhance the invasion of secondary pathogens and insects 
into the plant tissue. The infestations in the two extreme locations have 
been present for at least several years. 

The walkingstick (Diapheromera femorata (Say)) continued in epi- 
phytotic proportions in Starke County in a second growth stand of black 
oaks. Major to complete defoliation had no apparent effect on the oak 
hosts; however, this species is a potential devastator of other hardwoods 
such as maple. Although numerous tachinid parasites were recovered 
both in 1960 and 1961, the population appeared to be as severe in 1961 
as in the previous year. 

Walnut caterpillar (Datana integerrima G. and R.) defoliated walnut 
trees in Madison County in late July. 

Zimmerman pine moth (Dioryctria zimmermani Grote) was found 
for the first time in Fulton and Marion counties. This is a severe pest of 
pines grown in plantations and applied control in the form of spraying 
and sanitation is indicated. 

Livestock Insects 

Cattle grubs (Hypodermis bovis De Geer and H. lineatum (De Vil- 
liers) ) continued to be serious on western calves shipped into Indiana but 
were only moderately important to native grown livestock. 

Face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) continues to be the most impor- 
tant pest of livestock in Indiana. Populations of this insect built up to 
high levels in late June and remained numerous until fall. Counts were 
similar to those of 1960 — up to 60 per face and 200 per total animal. This 
year the fly spread to the southern third of the state where it was present 
in non-economic numbers; the highest counts were 2 to 3 flies per animal. 
Pink eye incidence remained high in the area of heavy infestation of flies 



136 Indiana Academy of Science 

and apparent correlations between pink eye incidence and face fly occur- 
rence were observed. 

Horn fly (Siphona irritans (L.)) was present in severe numbers on 
untreated cattle throughout the summer in the northern part of the state. 
In the southern half of the state, two peaks in population occurred, one in 
June and the other in the first part of September. 

Horse flies (Tabanus atratus Fab. and T. sucifrons Marquart) were 
much less apparent this year than last year, even in the normally heavily 
infested northeastern part of the state. 

House fly (Musca domestica L.) remained in second position in im- 
portance this year among the livestock pests. Populations throughout the 
state were apparently higher than in 1960. 

Stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) was again a serious pest in 
barns with fouled bedding which was not changed with regular frequency. 

Pests of Man and Households 

Cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche)) infestations were common 
wherever cats or dogs were kept indoors. Complaints have been common 
in late summer and early autumn. 

Face fly (Musca autumnalis DeG.) occurred in small numbers in rural 
homes this year throughout the summer. The heavy fall invasions noted 
in some areas last year in September did not materialize until late October 
in 1961. 

The German cockroach (Blattella germanica (Linnaeus)) has con- 
tinued to be troublesome in homes and food-handling establishments. Of 
special interest was its occurrence in significant numbers outdoors in the 
Fort Wayne area. 

Sap beetles, or picnic beetles as they are frequently called, (Glisch- 
rochilus spp.) were troublesome throughout the state, causing annoyance 
to picnickers and to people at other outdoor activities. Control practices 
now appear necessary and feasible. 

Subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.) have been the most con- 
sistently encountered household pest. Questions received throughout the 
year indicate a definite interest in preventive treatment in new con- 
struction. 

Complaints concerning the two ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (La- 
trielle) and Dermacentor variabilis (Say), have been considerably less 
frequent than in 1960. 

Mosquitoes were, in general, less troublesome throughout the early 
part of the year due primarily to the weather conditions. October infesta- 
tions, however, were unusually annoying. Of particular interest was the 
isolation of St. Louis Encephalitis virus from Psorophora sp. collected by 
J. A. Dold in Holton, Ripley County. This is the first isolation of this virus 
from mosquitoes of this genus. 

Biological Control Agents 

Field collection of loopers (Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby), Rachiplu- 
sia ou (Gn.), Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.) and Autographa precationis (Gn.) ) 
from commercially grown mint (Jasper County) yielded parasitic species 
in varying numbers. Both primary and secondary (hyperparasite) para- 
sites were reared from the hosts. Members of the family Tachinidae, as 



Entomology 137 

well as parasitic hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae and 
Ichneumonidae, were represented in these samples. 

Other hymenopterous parasites, Praon simulans (Prov.) and Aphidius 
pisivorus Smith, as well as a species of Aphelinus Dalm, were reared from 
the pea aphid, Macrosiphum j)isi (Harris). 

Virus diseases, nuclear polyhedroses, were prevalent in the above 
mentioned looper species. The combination of virus diseases and numerous 
parasites maintained the looper populations at sub-economic densities 
which alleviated the need for the application of insecticides. 

Importance Rating 

A rating is given of the ten most important arthropod pests in Indiana 
in 1961. It is very difficult to choose only ten, and lacking quantitative 
data on most of them, the ranking within this group is a matter of judg- 
ment. The following criteria were used: damage or annoyance actually 
caused, the extent to which measures were taken to prevent economic loss, 
and newness of the situation requiring considerable investigation. 

The rating is: 

1. Subterranean termite 

2. Face fly 

3. Corn leaf aphid 

4. Smaller European elm bark beetle 

5. House fly 

6. Grasshoppers 

7. Orchard spider mites 

8. Potato leafhopper 

9. Columbian timber beetle 
10. Fleas 



Greenhouse Studies on the Resistance of Corn and Barley 
Varieties to Survival of the Corn Leaf Aphid. 1 

Gayla H. Dishner and Ray T. Everly, Shades Valley High School, 
Birmingham, Alabama and Purdue University 

The corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), has been recog- 
nized as a serious insect pest of corn, sorghum and barley for many years. 
A recent outbreak in Indiana reported by Everly (1960), stimulated re- 
search on this insect. 

Investigations on the control of this insect with insecticides has indi- 
cated several materials that will reduce infestations. However the difficulty 
in determining incipient outbreaks and the short period of time available 
for control applications after the infestations are exposed, limits the value 
of chemical control measures. In addition there is the probability that 
much of the injury to the corn plant occurs before the appearance of the 
tassels and exposure of the aphid infestation so that the value of insecti- 
cides for preventing loss of corn yield is still problematical. 

A number of investigators have reported on the resistance of certain 
varieties of crops to this aphid. The earliest record of corn resistance was 
reported by Gernert (1917). McColloch (1921) reported the corn variety 
Minnesota 13 as very resistant to aphids. Snelling, et al (1940) reported 
on the resistance of crop varieties to the corn leaf aphid. Huber and 
Stringfield (1942) reported in detail on many inbred lines of corn and 
suggested a high correlation with the resistance of these lines to the Euro- 
pean corn borer. Everly (1960) reported observations on differences in 
infestation among commercial corn hybrids and indications of tolerance 
to damage by the aphid. 

Since the need for chemical controls is difficult to determine and timing- 
is critical, resistance and tolerance of plant varieties to attack by the corn 
leaf aphid offers a continuous and easy way to avoid losses from aphid 
infestations. 

All the earlier investigation and observations of aphid resistance by 
crop plants were made under heavy field infestations over a period of 
years. At the present time only few of the inbred lines of corn are rated 
on aphid resistance. There is a need for development of a method for 
infesting crop plants under controlled condition in early stages of growth, 
and before abnormal environmental conditions have influenced the physi- 
ology and development of the plants. This paper is a report of preliminary 
investigations on aphid infestations on seedling corn and barley plants in 
the greenhouse during the summer of 1961. 

Methods and Materials 

Corn tests. Seed of sixteen inbred lines of dent corn were obtained 
from Dr. A. M. Brunson of the U. S. D. A. and Dr. L. F. Bauman of the 
Purdue Department of Botany and Plant Pathology. These lines were in 
common use and/or were lines on which previous workers had reported 
aphid resistance or susceptibility. The seed of sorghum variety RS 610 
used to build up aphid infestations for transfer to the corn varieties, was 



1. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Paper No. 
1842. 

138 



Entomology 139 

obtained from Dr. R. C. Pickett of the Purdue Department of Agronomy. 

The experimental design consisted of six randomized replicate blocks. 
The inbred lines were planted in rows in greenhouse flats with a row of 
sorghum adjacent to each corn row. Each flat comprised five rows of 
sorghum and four rows of corn, with four flats making up a replicate. 

The sorghum seed was planted first and when the plants had emerged 
the corn seed was planted. This allowed for sufficient time to build up 
aphid infestations on the sorghum before the corn had outgrown the seed- 
ling stage. The sorghum plants were infested and when sufficient build up 
of aphid populations had developed (about 10 days after infestations), 
the sorghum plants were cut off and laid in the rows. As these sorghum 
plants dried, the aphids migrated to adjoining corn plants. To insure 
infestation on all the corn the inbred lines of corn, two plants in each row 
of corn were manually infested with aphids. About a week after the corn 
plants were infested each plant was cut at the ground level and dissected 
and the aphids recorded as small and mature. A complete replicate was 
dissected each day. 

Predators, particularly in flats near the open windows, were a factor 
in reducing the aphid infestations, and may have contributed to the high 
random variability of the corn tests. 

Barley tests. Thirteen varieties of barley were obtained from Pro- 
fessor L. E. Compton of the U. S. D. A. and Purdue Department of Botany 
and Plant Pathology. These barley varieties along with sorghum RS 610 
were planted in greenhouse flats with seven rows per flat, each row con- 
taining two entries. The flats were covered with cheesecloth to protect 
the germinating plants from bird damage. The cheesecloth covering also 
prevented random infestation by free aphids and reduced predator and 
parasite populations to a minimum. After germination the plants were 
thinned to six per half -row and infested with one mature aphid per plant. 
The following day the infestations were checked and plants with aphids 
missing were reinfested. A subsequent observation made two days later 
showed that some of the aphids were parasitized. These were removed and 
destroyed and replaced by other aphids. About two weeks later the barley 
plants were dissected and the small and mature aphids present on each 
plant were recorded. 

Results 

Corn. The data from the inbred lines of corn are shown in Table 1. 
Highly significant differences were shown for the numbers of small aphids 
per plant. Mature aphids and total aphids showed no significant differ- 
ences. However the inbred alignment differs very little when based on 
immature aphids from that based on total aphids. Undoubtedly predators 
were an influence on this variability. In addition, the technque of migra- 
tion from drying sorghum plants to the corn plants permitted any differ- 
ences in attractiveness of the corn varieties to influence aphid migrations. 

A comparison of these results with those reported by previous workers 
incidate a rather high degree of concurrence. Indiana WF9 was reported 
Snelling et al (1940), and Huber and Stringfield (1942) as highly sus- 
ceptible under field conditions. In these test Indiana WF9 was the third 
most susceptible. Illinois A was reported as resistant in Illinois and 
Indiana [Walter and Brunson (1940)] and moderately susceptible in 



140 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1 — Populations of the corn leaf aphid developing on inbred lines of 
dent corn under greenhouse conditions. Lafayette, Indiana 1961. 







Aphid 


s Per Plant 




Inbred Lines 


Immature 


Mature 


Total 






No. 


No. 


No. 


Oh 07 




5.8 


16.1 


21.9 


Os420 




6.9 


12.0 


18.9 


WF 9 




6.1 


11.3 


14.4 


Oh 51 




4.0 


12.7 


16.6 


P 8 




6.0 


9.8 


15.8 


Oh51A 




4.5 


11.1 


15.6 


Oh 43E 




4.: 1 , 


9.2 


13.5 


111. A 




3.8 


9.2 


13.0 


B 8 




3.3 


7.1 


10.2 


Oh 45 




4.0 


6.7 


10.1 


Oh 28 




2,8 


7.1 


9.7 


187 2 




3.0 


6.6 


9.6 


90 




2.9 


5.0 


9.4 


Hy 




2.6 


0.4 


7.7 


L317 




2.7 


4.2 


7.6 


38 11 




1.7 


5.4 


7.1 


LSD 


19:1 


3.7 


NS 


NS 




99:1 


4.9 


NS 


NS 



Ohio [Huber and Stringfield (1942)]. It has been intermediate in these 
tests. Ohio 51 was resistant in these tests and reported as resistant in 
one or more field tests. Data assembled by Painter (1951 — table 9, p. 211) 
indicates that the consistency of field observations was high in some inbred 
lines and quite variable in others, which fact is supported by the data 
obtained in these tests. Iowa L317 was reported as resistant in Ohio and 
Pennsylvania (Huber et al 1948) and in hybrid combination in Illinos 
(Snelling et al 1940). In these tests it was the second most resistant. 
Indiana 38-11 was the most resistant in the greenhouse in these tests, but 
under field conditions tended to show susceptibility except in hybrid com- 
binations in Illinois and Indiana [Snelling et al. (1940) and Walter & 
Brunson (1942). Illinois Hy was moderately resistant in Illinois [Snell- 
ing et al (1940)] as an inbred and moderately susceptible in Ohio [Huber 
and Stringfield (1942)]. In Pennsylvania [Huber et al. (1948)] it was 
relatively resistant. In these tests Illinois Hy was resistant. 

From these comparisons it appears with refinement in techniques that 
further studies of seedling corn in the greenhouse offers a means of eval- 
uating corn for aphid resistance. 

Barley. The data obtained from the barley varieties are given in 
Table 2. An analysis of these data indicated highly significant differences 
among the varieties for all aphid categories. All varieties were less sus- 
ceptible than Sorghum RS 610, although the higher populations on this 
crop might be due to morphological differences more favorable to aphid 
development and survival. Among the barley varieties Kenate CI 9570 
was the most susceptible, having populations almost equal to those on the 



Entomology 141 

Table 2 — Populations of corn leaf aphids developing on varieties of barley 
and sorghum under greenhouse conditions. Lafayette, Indiana, 1961. 





Aphids Per Plant 




Varieties 


Immature 


Mature 


Total 




No. 


No. 


No. 


Sorghum 








RS610 


12.7 


14.5 


27.7 


Barley 








Kenate CI 9570 


11.0 


13.0 


24.1 


Hudson Sel 3 


10.7 


10.5 


21.1 


Dayton 


9.7 


9.2 


18.4 


Hard CI 6007 


5.S 


11.2 


16.8 


Kentucky #1 


8.8 


5.9 


14.7 


Meimi CI 5136 


5.2 


8.8 


14.0 


MoB 696 - 3 


6.8 


6.7 


12.2 


CI 9572 Decatur 


5.2 


6.2 


11.4 


MoB 475 CI 9168 


4.6 


3.5 


7.4 


Kearney CI 7580 


3.5 


4.0 


7.1 


Hooded 16 Sel 3323 


4.0 


4.6 


6.6 


Pictoo CI 5529 


3.1 


2.6 


5.2 


Utah Sel C 10,000 


3.0 


2. i 


4.8 


LSD 19:1 


4.8 


5.05 


7.9 


99:1 


6.4 


6.7 


10.5 



Sorghum. The most resistant variety was Utah Sel C 10,000. Based on 
total aphid count, MoB 475, CI 9168, Kearney CI 7580, Hooded 16 Sel 3323, 
and Pictoo CI 5529 were resistant to the corn leaf aphid. At the present 
time there is no information available as to the performance of these 
varieties under field conditions. 

Literature Cited 

Everly, Kay T. 1960. Loss in corn yield associated with the abundance of the corn leaf 
aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis, in Indiana. Journ. Econ. Ent. 53(5) : 924-932. 

Gernert, W. B. 1917. Aphid immunity of Teosinte-corn hybrids. Science (n. s.) 46: 
390-392. 

IIuber, L. L., B. L. Seem, B. F. Coon and C. C. Wernham. 1948. Pennsylvania corn 
hybrid performance 1943-4G tests. Penn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 494. 

IIuber, L. L., and J. H. Stringfield. 1942. Aphid infestation of strains of corn as an 
index to their susceptibility to corn borer attack. Journ. Agri. Res. 64(5) : 283-291. 

McColloch, J. W. 1921. The corn leaf aphid (Aphis' maidis Fitch) in Kansas. Journ. 
Econ. Ent. 14 : 89-94. 

Painter, Pi. H. 1951. Insect resistance in crop plants. Macmillan Co., N. Y. 520 pp. 
illus. 

Snelling, R. O., Ralph A. Elanchard and John H. Bigger. 1940. Resistance of corn 
strains to the leaf aphid, Aphis maidis Fitch. Journ. Amer. Soc. Agron. 32 : 371- 
381. 

Walter, E. V., and A. M. Brunson. 1940. Differential susceptibility of corn hybrids to 
Aphis maidis. Jour. Econ. Ent. 33 : 623-028. 



Effect of X-Ray Radiation on the Survival of the 
Corn Leaf Aphid 1 

Stephen C. Hershey and Ray T. Everly, Southwestern Community 
High School, Flint, Michigan, and Purdue University 

The genetic composition and manner in which traits are passed from 
generation to generation is a most interesting problem in the corn leaf 
aphid, Rhoj)alosij)hum maidis (Fitch). Although this insect was first 
described in 1856 by Fitch, the first report and description of the alate 
male was made by Wildermuth and Walters in 1932. These forms occurred 
during the winter months in reared cultures. So far as is known the male 
form does not occur in nature and oviparous females have never been 
reported. 

Since this insect reproduces parthenogenetically and viviparously, it 
is to be expected that each daughter aphid would be genetically identical 
with the mother. However, Cartier and Painter (1956) reported the exist- 
ence of two biotypes in populations of this aphid. Additional biotypes were 
isolated by Pathak and Painter (1958a, 1958b, and 1959) . Ford and Everly 
(1960) observed two distinct color variants in cultures of the corn leaf 
aphid on sorghum which were identified as this species by Professor J. J. 
Davis. Since the absence of males precludes the introduction of variations 
due to chromosomal interchanges of genes, morphological variations and 
the development of physiologic races in this aphid must be due to a high 
sensitivity to mutagenic agents. The mechanism of this phenomenon is 
little understood. 

To obtain information on the variability of this insect when subjected 
to a mutagenic agent, X-rays, it was necessary to determine the effects 
of different dosages on aphid mortality. An optimum survival with an 
opportunity for mutations to occur should approximate the dosage at 
which 50 percent of the aphids survived. To determine this LD50 dosage 
rate, colonies of the corn leaf aphid were subjected to a wide range of 
X-ray irradiation. 

Methods and Materials 

The aphids used in these tests were cultured on seedling barley plants 
in the greenhouse during the summer. No cooling facilities were available 
and consequently temperatures were quite high during August. This 
resulted in reduced reproduction and smaller individuals, similar to the 
observations of Wildermuth and Walters (1932). When the aphids had 
increased in numbers on the barley plants, a single heavily-infested plant 
was cut at ground level and immediately inserted in a water-filled "orchid" 
tube to prevent wilting and drying of the plant. The infested plant and 
tube were placed in a deep petri dish and covered. The dosage rate was 
marked on the side of the dish with a wax pencil. Seven of these infested 
plants were similarly prepared and taken within an hour to a nearby 
building where six were subjected to X-ray dosages ranging from 1000 to 
32000 r-units by progressively doubling the dosage rate. 

A General Electric Maxitron 300 X-Ray machine was used. The 
machine was calibrated to deliver 280 roentgen units per minute over a 



1. Turdue University Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Paper No. 1841. 

142 



Entomology 143 

field sufficiently large to treat three petri dishes simultaneously. The times 
of exposure to produce the desired dosage rates are given in Table 1. The 

Table 1. Exposure time needed to irradiate corn leaf aphids at varying 

dosage levels and survival of aphids after irradiation. 

Lafayette, Indiana. Summer 1961. 







Irradiated 










Time of 


Aphids 


Aphid 


Survivals 


Dosase 


Exposure 1 


Transferred 




After 


11 Days 


r-units 


Min. 


No. 


No. 




% 








66 


53 




80.3 


1000 


3.6 


103 


120 




116.5 


2000 


7.2 


75 


32 




42.7 


4000 


14.3 


68 


8 




11.8 


8000 


28.6 


57 










16000 


57.3 


n 


3 




6.8 


32000 


104.6 


48 


1 




2.1 



1. General Electric Maxitron 300 X-Ray machine delivered 280 r-units per minute. 

dosage levels were selected to provide one sufficiently high to cause com- 
plete mortality and one low enough not to injure the aphids. Three samples 
were treated at one time, with each sample being removed when it had 
received the proper dosage. An automatic built-in timer controlled the 
exposure time. The untreated aphids received similar treatment as the 
others except they were not subjected to the X-rays. 

Immediately following the completion of the treatments the colonies 
of aphids were returned to the greenhouse and transferred to flats of 
seedling sorghum plants, one aphid to a plant and only one dosage rate to 
a flat. These seedling sorghum plants were grown under cheesecloth to 
reduce the chance of contamination from other untreated aphids. After 
the plants were infested the cheesecloth was replaced. The cheesecloth also 
reduced the attack of predators and parasites. Daily observations were 
made and on the tenth day the plants were dissected and the numbers of 
aphids present recorded. (Table 1.) 

Results and Conclusions 

The percent of aphids surviving on the sorghum plants and the dosage 
rates were plotted on rectilinear, semi-log and double-log coordinate paper. 
When the data were plotted on the double-log paper the points fell in 
approximately a straight line indicating the relationship between the two 
variables was best expressed by the power log curve. The data were then 
converted to common logarithms and a straight line fitted with the formula 
log Y = 5.88025 — 1.29252 log X. The correlation was high significant, 
r = 0.988 compared with 0.917 required for high significance, with a highly 
significant b-value of — 1.29. When the constants for the straight line are 
converted to the power log curve the relationship of the two variables was 
best expressed by the formula Y = 759,000X" 129252 . (See figure 1.) Based 
on this relationship the LD50 was determined to be 1717.8 r-units. 

This LD50 dosage rate has several inherent modifying factors as it is 
based on a heterogeneous-age population of aphids, ranging from newly- 



144 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Y ■ 759,000 X* 1 - 29292 



2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 

X-RAY DOSAGE IN ROENTGEN UNITS x 1 2 

Figure 1. Effect of different dosages of X-radiation on the mortality of the 
corn leaf aphid in the greenhouse. Lafayette, Indiana. 1961. 

born nymphs to reproductively-depleted adult females, although the large 
size of the irradiated colonies would tend to minimize the effect of age 
differences of the individuals comprising them. However, the LD50 of 
immature aphids might conceivably differ extensively from that of mature 
aphids. In addition the LD50 calculated from the surviving aphids after 
a period of 10 days represents a combined morphological and reproduc- 
tive LD50. 

For further studies on the sensitivity of the corn leaf aphid to muta- 
genic agents, the LD50 of approximately 2000 r-units will give sufficient 
survival and possibility of induced variations to make this a usable irra- 
diation rate. The results of these studies indicate the need of further 
experiments along these lines to determine the effect of age on variability 
of morphological mortality as well as reproductive sterility. 



Literature Cited 

Cartier, Jean Jacques, and Painter Reginald H. 1956. Differential reactions of two 
hiotypes of the corn leaf aphid to resistant and susceptible varieties, hybrids and 
selections of sorghums. Jour. Econ. Ent. 49(4). 498-508. 

Fitch, Asa. 1856. The maize aphid. Second Rpt. Insects of New York State. Albany, 
pp. 318-320. 

Ford, Benjamin T., and Ray T. Everly. 1960. Sorghum resistance to the corn leaf 
aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Pitch). Indiana Acad. Sci. 70: 137. 

Pathak, M. D., and Reginald H. Painter. 1958a. Effect of the feeding of the four 
biotypes of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on susceptible White 
Martin sorghum and Spartan barley plants. Jour. Kans. Ent. Soc. 31(2) : 93-100. 

Pathak, M. D., and Reginald H. Painter. 1958b. Differential amounts of material 
taken up by four biotypes of corn leaf aphids from resistant and susceptible sor- 
ghums. Ann. Ent. Soc. Araer. 51(3) : 250-254. 



Entomology 145 

Pathak, M. D., and Reginald H. Painter. 1959. Geographical distribution of the four 

biotypes of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). Ind. Acad. Sci. 70: 

137. 
Wildermuth, V. L., and E V. Walters. 1932. Biology and control of the corn leaf 

aphid with special reference to the Southwestern States. U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. 

Bui. 306. pp. 13-17. 



Some Factors Associated with Earworm Resistance 
in Sweet Corn 

E. V. Walter, Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A. 

Plant resistance to insect injury has been demonstrated several times 
in the past few years. Most of the records of resistance refer to an insect 
having a limited number of similar host plants. As a contrast, the corn 
earworm has been recorded as feeding on nearly 100 species of food plants 
in the United States alone. These species include grains and forages, 
vegetables and flowers, and even the citrus fruits. The earworm always 
develops best on the fruiting parts of the plant but usually has little diffi- 
culty living on other parts if necessary. Resistance in a favored host-plant 
species to an insect of such omnivorous feeding habits would seem quite 
unlikely. Yet, that corn has been able to develop into a grain of such 
importance may be due to the development of protective factors within the 
plant, as well as to the natural enemies of the earworm. Certainly the 50 
or more eggs often found would entirely destroy the ear if all developing 
larvae were able to feed on it. 

For the most part, factors responsible for the observed resistance are 
not understood. Some of the factors are considered to be mechanical, such 
as a hairy or a hard stem that the insect cannot easily penetrate. 

Husk covering was the most obvious reason for the differences Kyle 
(U.S.D.A. Bull. 708, 1910) observed in the amount of earworm injury on 
different varieties of corn. He considered that long, tight husks reduced 
the damage. Several workers since then have argued the point but have 
confused the issue by failing to differentiate between infestation and 
actual damage. Tight husks and closely placed rows do tend to reduce the 
total injury by compelling the larva to feed at the tip instead of penetrat- 
ing deep into the ear. Thus, we have a mechanical form of resistance. 

Tightness of husks does not have any effect on the percentage of the 
ears that may be infested. This lack of effect is easily understood when 
it is realized that a larva usually follows a single silk strand or a few 
adjacent strands in its feeding during the first, second, and sometimes 
third instar on its way to the kernels. Thus, it is not unusual to find a 
rather large number of small larvae in the silk channel during the early 
stages of development. By the time the larvae have reached the late third- 
or fourth-instar stage, they will have eaten off most of the silks and 
reached the tip of the ear. If the husks are tight the larva will be com- 
pelled to feed as it penetrates the ear. Thus, feeding will be confined to a 
small area at the tip where cannibalism occurs and often only one or two 
larvae survive. Although the ear is infested, less damage is done than if 
more larvae had wandered over the ear. 

Early in our work with the earworm we noted that the larvae grew 
faster and larger on some varieties of corn than on others. In our hand- 
infestation work, we observed one case where larvae from the same batch 
of eggs had reached full size and left the ears of one inbred in 16 days 
whereas on an adjacent row of another inbred they were still feeding 10 
days later. Also, in one case, when larvae from the same mother were 
kept in individual tin boxes under the same conditions in an incubator but 
fed different inbred lines of corn, those of one group reached full growth 

146 



Entomology 147 

but those of another were very much smaller. Larvae fed on one very 
highly susceptible inbred were very much larger than normal and seldom 
completed development to the pupal stage. They remained as larvae or 
pre-pupae until. death. The differences in growth pattern seemed to be due 
to some nutritional factor and should be studied further. This nutritional 
factor may affect the value of corn as food for livestock. 

An inbred sent to us for testing by C. F. Poole of the Regional Vege- 
table Breeding Laboratory at Charleston, S. C, proved to be quite resis- 
tant. The progeny of a mutant selection found in 1941 have been highly 
resistant, and this character appears to be dominant since crosses of this 
selection also are resistant. This same resistance can be reselected from 
the crosses. Thus, it appears that the plants can produce some material 
perhaps distasteful to the larvae, and this character can be transferred 
from one plant to another through breeding. Likewise, we have observed 
a recessive character in one inbred that was highly resistant but the char- 
acter was not expressed in the crosses. 

We have also noted another form of resistance. Two inbreds, Ohio 55 
and Connecticut 53, each of which are susceptible to earworm attack and 
injury, seem to have complementary factors for resistance. The cross of 
these inbreds gives us the resistant hybrid known as Brookhaven. A few 
other such results have been observed. 

Perhaps the most spectacular form of resistance so far observed in 
corn was first found by R. A. Blanchard in 1941 in a line of flour corn 
with which he was working. He observed dead larvae in the silks of about 
14 percent of the ears he had hand-infested with newly hatched larvae. 
This particular line of flour corn was lost but not until after it had been 
crossed with sweet corn. 

Selections from these sweet x flour corn crosses have been found 
which carry the factor, sometimes much stronger than that of the original 
flour corn. What appears to be the same lethal character has been found 
in selections from a corn x teosinte x sweet corn cross, and from another 
line involving a cross between sweet corn and a semiflint variety known 
as Mexican June. The lethal character in these three lines appears to be 
dominant in breeding. The crosses are highly resistant and often a rather 
high percentage of the ears will have dead larvae in the silks. This lethal 
character that results in resistance is rather easily isolated again in 
inbreds. 

We have found still a fourth line coming from a cross between sweet 
corn and Cuban Yellow Flint in which frequently from 50 to 75 percent of 
the inbred ears will have dead larvae in the silks. This character may be 
the same as that in the other three, but it appears to differ in being reces- 
sive in crosses and less easy to recover. 

Thus, we have observed several resistant factors in the favored host 
of one of our most omnivorous insects. These factors each appear to be 
independent of any other plant character and can be used in breeding to 
combine two or more resistance factors in a single cross that is very highly 
resistant to earworm damage. 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY 

Chairman: Duncan McGregor, Indiana Geological Survey 
Lowell Dillon, Ball State College, was elected chairman for 1962 



ABSTRACTS 



The Borden Formation at Highbridge, Indiana. David M. Patrick, 
Purdue University. — The rocks of the Borden formation of southern In- 
diana have been the subject of much investigation and controversy, but 
little work has been done on this formation in northern Indiana. The pur- 
pose of this investigation is to describe the stratigraphic and areal rela- 
tionships of the Pennsylvanian-Borden contact at Highbridge, Indiana. 
Here the Mansfield sandstone (Pennsylvanian) overlies the Borden forma- 
tion (lower Mississippian). At Attica, Indiana, the Borden is represented 
by a marine siltstone of undisputed Mississippian age, while at High- 
bridge, the siltstone is continental and contains coal seams and plant 
fossils. North and south of the main gorge at Highbridge, the siltstone 
becomes lighter in color and contains Mississippian marine fossils similar 
to those at Attica. The problem is whether the dark, continental siltstone 
at the main gorge at Highbridge is continental Borden or a Pennsylvanian 
channel filling on top of the Borden. By comparing and identifying the 
flora of the continental deposit, and the areal relationships, it is believed 
that this flora represents deposition in a typical Pennsylvanian swamp 
environment and that the section there represents a Pennsylvanian chan- 
nel filling. 

The Instrument Tiltometer and the Dynamical Elasticity of the Earth's 
Crust. Gerald J. Shea, Terre Haute. — The Tiltometer, an instrument 
devised for measuring a change in mass by the use of a horizontal pendu- 
lum. Based in theory on the assumption that the solid material composing 
the earth's crust is in reality elastic in nature. Based in fact on the obser- 
vations by the use of an instrument devised to show experimentally the 
existence of the elastic solid described. The use of so minute a curve as 
measured in an elastic solid may at first prove bothersome. To really 
understand the functions involved is not simple but it is a known fact that 
the earth and all it is composed of is in reality an elastic solid. Being thus 
the material of the crust, as well as the deeper layers may be proved to 
obey all the laws governing confined fluids. A slab of rock, which appears 
to exhibit no elasticity, can be shown by the analysis of instruments to 
be as elastic in nature as a block of rubber. From the study of the prin- 
ciples governing the function of the seismograph was derived this instru- 
ment. The recording trace of the seismograph in response to a given tilt 
was observed when changing the record daily. This deviation was known 
to be due to the bending of the material upon which the seismograph 
rested. It was found that a man's weight (165 pounds) at a distance of 
four feet from the column caused a trace displacement of one inch on the 
record. Two men at the same distance caused a displacement of two inches, 
etc. All that was now necessary was to devise a portable form of seismo- 
graph having high sensitivity and stability to measure any given change 

148 



Geology and Geography 149 

in mass at any reasonable distance. Practical applications of the idea have 
been to weigh huge semi-trailers, water tanks, coal piles, and individuals. 

Abstract of How Old Is Man? J. A. Reeves, West Terre Haute. — A 
few thousand years ago Moses wrote that God made Adam and Eve, the 
first man and woman, about 6,000 years ago. As time goes on scientists 
keep increasing this figure. There are very great differences of opinion as 
to the proper figure. This paper attempts to choose a figure that is nearer 
the true figure than any submitted before. The Gargantuan Calendar, the 
steps made by Nature in the formation of coal and the finding of the 
Abominable Coal Man in northern Italy are submitted in determining 
another figure. 



Southern Indiana's Recreational Triangle 

Thomas Frank Barton, Indiana University 

In Southern Indiana's Recreational Triangle are found not only most 
of the state-owned outdoor recreational facilities but also the physical 
potentials which, if developed, would enable this region to become not only 
the leading recreational area of the state but also one of the chief recrea- 
tional areas of the entire Ohio River watershed. It is urgent that these 
potentialities be recognized now and developed within the next ten years 
or some of the latent recreational assets may disappear. 

At this writing, October, 1961, the state- and national-owned recrea- 
tional facilities could be better coordinated. Some of the potentialities of 
this triangle apparently are not recognized or are neglected by local, state 
and national agencies. As far as the writer knows, the region presented 
has never been identified, bounded, named or characterized. 

In this paper the author wishes to call attention to the area and, if 
possible, contribute suggestions for the region's coordinated development. 
Although it is located, in part, in the depressed area of the state where 
there is a surplus of labor and an outward migrating population, here the 
natural resources of forest, water and recreation are underdeveloped. 

General Characteristics 
Boundaries. Southern Indiana's Recreational Triangle is bounded on 
the west by the Wabash River and on the south and southeast by the 
serpentine course of the Ohio River. Its non-river boundary is formed by 
drawing three straight lines: (1) the first connects the junction of the 
Indiana-Illinois state boundary and the Wabash River with Turkey Run 
State Park, (2) the second a short line connects the Turkey Run and 
Shades State Parks and (3) the third connects the Shades State Park 
and the junction of the Indiana-Ohio boundary and the Ohio River. Thirty- 
two of Indiana's 92 counties are completely within this triangle and parts 
of 11 others are included. 

Size. The 32 counties in this triangle have a land area of over 7.7 
million acres. When parts of the other 11 are included, then this region 
covers over one-third of the state's entire land area. 

An arc with a 190-mile radius pivoting in Shades State Park would 
include all the southernmost points in Indiana and this recreational region. 

Relative Location. Five of Indiana's 11 standard metropolitan county 
areas are in or partially in the region, namely Clark, Floyd, Marion, Van- 
derburgh and Vigo. The other six are less than 180 air miles away. 

People living in the extreme northwest corner of Lake County in 
metropolitan Chicago are about 185 miles from the Shades State Park. 
Those living in the northwest corner of Steuben County (which is in the 
northwest corner of Indiana) are less than 200 air miles from Southern 
Indiana's Recreational Triangle. Part of the Louisville metropolitan area 
is within this region and metropolitan Cincinnati is only about ten miles 
east. From the standpoint of accessibility over two-thirds of Indiana's 
citizens can use the area for day outings and all of the state's citizens 
can reach it for weekends or several-day outings. 

150 



Geology and Geography 151 

Topography. All of Indiana's unglaciated hill lands are within this 
Recreational Triangle as well as most of the rugged topography associated 
with the Norman Upland, the Crawford Upland, the Muscatatuck Regional 
Slope and the Dearborn Upland. 

Population. Eighteen of the 32 counties lying entirely within this 
region had fewer people in 1960 than in 1900. 2 Between 1900-1960 only in 
four of these 32 counties did the population increase more rapidly than it 
did in the state average. 3 These four were Bartholomew, Clark, Monroe 
and Vanderburgh. During this same sixty-year period, ten additional 
counties gained in population but the increase was less than the 18 per 
cent state increase. 4 In spite of the fact that, with few exceptions, this 
area is one of declining population, there is a labor surplus in the region. 

Recreational Assets 
Besides its light and declining population density, this triangular 
recreational region contains the state's concentration of (1) forests, (2) 
reservoir sites, (3) natural scenic views, (4) early historical places and 
(5) lowest-priced land. 

Forests. The 32 counties wholly in this area have 2.8 million acres of 
forest land. 5 If the forest acreage within the other 11 counties were added 
to the 2.8 million, there would be in and adjacent to this recreational tri- 
angle over three million acres of forest land or over three-fourths of the 
entire acreage. 

Reservoir Sites. The greatest number of large dam and reservoir sites 
(not farm ponds) are in the hill lands and in the major river valleys of 
this region : namely, the Ohio, Wabash and White Rivers. These sites are 
potentially capable of holding more acre-feet of water than the artificial 
reservoir sites in other parts of the state. 

Scenic Views. Formerly the greatest concentration of unique and 
scenic views in northern Indiana were found in the Dunes area along Lake 
Michigan, but today these views are rapidly being destroyed or despoiled. 
Many areas with recreational potential have been leveled, filled-in and/or 
polluted. Some realists fear that within the next 25 years industry and 
urbanization will sweep around and perhaps over the area in the Dunes 
State Park. 

Since the scenic areas of Kankakee Swamps have been largely de- 
stroyed by drainage and those of the Dunes along Lake Michigan primarily 
occupied and despoiled by cities and industry, the state's remaining scenic 
attractions are concentrated in Southern Indiana's Recreational Triangle. 

Early Historical Places. Since the southern part of Indiana was settled 
first, it is only natural that cultural features which epitomize the state's 
early history are to be found here adjacent to the Ohio River. 6 Those who 
wish to study early "on-the-spot" history in its geographic setting should 
come to southern Indiana's Ohio River country. Here, where archaeolo- 
gists uncover the past and reconstruct the pre-white uses of the land, are 
found interesting remains of pre-white cultures. 

Low-Priced Land. To date it is difficult to convince either city or rural 
people that recreational areas are just as essential in a metropolitan 
society as stores, offices, warehouses and factories. It is also usually diffi- 
cult to get adequate appropriations from a state legislature or local politi- 



152 Indiana Academy of Science 

cal governments for the purchase of relatively high priced recreational 
land in and near the cities. 

At the present time, the lowest-priced land in the state is in this 
recreational area. And, fortunately, some of it can be most profitably used 
for forest and recreational purposes. 

Present Recreational Development 

Although the development of the recreational potentialities in this 
triangle has hardly begun, still here is found the greatest concentration 
of state-owned outdoor recreational accommodations. Within the area are 
ten of the 14 state-owned forests and both sections of the Hoosier National 
Forest. Not only does the region contain 15 of the state's 23 parks, but 
10 of these contain 33,101 acres (July 1, 1960) or over 75 per cent of the 
entire state park acreage (43,980 acres). 7 

All three of Indiana's flood control reservoirs, Cagle's Mill, Mansfield 
and Monroe (under construction), are located here. Also six of the 14 
state game farms owned and/or managed by Indiana's Fish and Game 
Division are found here. In addition, nine of the 14 State Memorials are 
scattered through the area. 

Because most of the state-owned outdoor recreational accommodations 
are in the area, this does not mean that these facilities are either adequate 
or well-developed. In the state forests, these ar totally inadequate and 
often in need of repair. The recreational facilities made available during 
the 1930's when ten of the state's forests were established have been left 
to deteriorate. 8 Only a few lakes, beaches, shelter houses and other facili- 
ties were constructed in the 20 year period of 1940-1960. 

One of the reasons that extensive recreational facilities were not 
developed in the Hoosier National Forest in the past is that the United 
States Forest Service formerly did not have a clear-cut legal right to 
engage in such a program. During the last year of his second administra- 
tion, however, President Eisenhower signed into law a bill: 

". . . that for the first time establishes as a legislative policy 
for the management of the national forests, the principle of mul- 
tiple use."" 

Although 15 of Indiana's State Parks are in southern Indiana's 
Recreational Triangle and although the State Parks Division has been 
effective with its limited funds, still, during the last two decades (1940-60) , 
the state has steadily lost its leading position in park development to more 
energetic and progressive states. Indiana has less than one per cent of 
all the land included in state parks in the United States and yet it has the 
responsibility of providing adequate recreational facilities for nearly four 
per cent of the nation's population. 10 Between 1950-1960, Indiana bought 
only 4,401 acres of land for park expansion. 11 While Indiana's park acre- 
age was increasing at a rate of about 11 per cent, its population was in- 
creasing at a rate of 18 per cent. As a result, the ratio of park acreage 
per million declined in Indiana during the 1950's. 12 

Potential Development 

Based on population needs, Mr. Clawson has estimated that Indiana 
will need 640,000 acres of state park land by the year 2000. 13 As of July 
1, 1960, the state-owned land on which outdoor recreational accommoda- 



Geology and Geography 153 

tions had been anci/or could have been built amounted to a total of 201,297 
acres (Table l). 14 

Table 1. State-Owned Land Totally or in Part Used for 
Outdoor Recreation (July 1, I960) 15 

1. Thirty-five parks and monuments 45,126 

2. Fourteen forests 117,683 

3. Nine fish and game areas 35,237 

4. Fourteen public fishing sites 251 

5. Indiana University (Bradford Woods and Lily Woods) 201,297 



Total 201,297 

The vital question today is, where can and should Indiana get an 
additional 439,000 acres? I believe that it can and should get most of this 
land in Southern Indiana's Recreational Triangle. Of course small acre- 
ages for daily recreational use should be made available by the state, 
counties and cities. But most of the land needed and suitable for the 
intermediate type of recreational area (camping, hiking, riding, hunting, 
fishing, swimming and picnicking) can only be found in this Recreational 
Triangle. Action should be taken now to acquire this good recreational 
land before it too disappears as it has this last half century on Indiana's 
46-mile Lake Michigan shoreline. 

State Parks. Some action has been taken to expand park acreage in 
this Triangle. Mr. Cougill, in the State Parks Division's biennium report 
in 1960, requested $75,000.00 to buy land and create a State Park sur- 
rounding Marengo Cave and another $75,000.00 to develop basic facilities 
in this park. 16 

A proposal to buy land for park purposes and to create a seven-mile- 
long lake in Sugar Creek between Turkey Run and Shades State Parks is 
under study. The reported multiple purpose revervoir would be used pri- 
marily for flood coritrol and recreation. 

On September 9, 1961, Indiana's 23rd State Park, The Raccoon Lake 
State Park, was dedicated by Governor Matthew E. Welsh. This is a six 
hundred acre park located on a wooded peninsula in the 2,100-acre lake 
called the Mansfield Flood Control Reservoir. 17 

Indiana's Division of Parks has plans to expand accommodations on 
the land it owns. The 1960 Division of Parks report showed a request of 
$931,000 for "Capital Project Requests and Rehabilitation." "The 1961 
session of the Indiana legislature did not approve any specific money for 
any specific construction work. Instead, they approved $400,000 for im- 
provements in the entire state park and state memorial system for the 
1961-63 Biennium." 18 

Regardless of how efficiently and wisely this money is spent Indiana 
cannot expect its Division of Parks to provide "one of the finest state park 
systems in the nation" 19 with such meager funds. During the period from 
July 1, 1950, to June 30, 1960, the total amount of money appropriated by 
the Indiana legislatures for the Division of State Parks was only $3,624,192 
or an average of only $362,419 per year. 20 Furthermore during the same 
ten-year period the State Parks Service had an earned income of 
$9,790,376. 21 Actual expenditure during this ten-year period amounted to 



154 Indiana Academy of Science 

$15,320,896 22 or a yearly average of $1,532,089. In sharp contrast with 
this, in one year, 1961, the State of Kentucky made available 10 to 15 
million dollars for the development of state parks. 23 

In recent years a few county committees have been active in promoting 
park and recreational development. The Crawford County Rural Develop- 
ment initiated state action to have the Marengo Cave area made into a 
state park. The Clark County Planning Commission has appointed a six- 
member committee to make a study of future parks and playground areas. 
This committee has been instructed to (1) work with a committee making 
a study of future school sites and (2) give first consideration to the more 
densely populated areas. 21 

State Forests. In spite of the inadequacies of Indiana's outdoor recrea- 
tional facilities for its present population, during the 1940's and 1950's the 
meager existing recreational accommodations in the state forests were left 
to deteriorate while appropriations for the development of new ones were 
almost nil. 

In Bedford, Indiana, on December 17, 1960, it was estimated that 
"needed public improvements in Indiana state forests during the biennium 
of July 1, 1961-June 30, 1963, would cost $860,500." 25 But the 1961 session 
of the Indiana legislature appropriated only $400,000 of new money for 
the 1961-1963 biennium. 20 What portion of this will be spent for recreation 
during the next two years is not known at the present time. 

Monroe Reservoir. Many people believe that the Monroe Reservoir 
(now under construction) will provide many new recreational accommo- 
dations and stimulate the development of others. The Indiana Flood Con- 
trol and Water Resources Commission announced in September, 1961, that 
the district Army Corps of Engineers has established ten proposed public 
access sites at the Monroe Reservoir and that more than 1,700 acres of 
land will be used for the sites. 27 

Although the Monroe Reservoir may not be as great a stimulant to the 
tourist industry as some promoters hope, it will increase recreational 
opportunities. 28 

Ohio River "Chain-of-Lakes." The 42nd Annual Report of Indiana's 
Department of Conservation (1960) does not reveal any plans or proposals 
or even an active awareness of the recreational potentialities created by 
the construction of the Ohio River valley Chain-of-Lakes along the com- 
plete length of southern Indiana. In Indiana, these potentialities at present 
seem to be minimized if not neglected. The chain of five lakes will border 
on Indiana and occupy most of the 354 mile section of the Ohio River along 
the state's southern border. 

These five lakes will lie end to end all the way up the Ohio River 
valley from Uniontown on the downstream side to above the Indiana-Ohio 
state boundary where it junctions with the Ohio River. The Markland 
dam in Switzerland County a few miles upstream from Vevay, under con- 
struction and scheduled for completion in 1962, will create a pool of water 
in the Ohio River approximately 95.3 miles long. 20 The McAlpine dam 
under construction at Louisville will create a pool 75.3 miles long reaching 
upstream to the Markland dam. 30 The dam to be built at Cannelton, In- 
diana, which is in the "initiate construction stage" of development will 
create a pool 113.7 miles long stretching upstream to the McAlpine dam. ni 



Geology and Geography 155 

The dam to be constructed near Uniontown, Indiana is in the advanced 
planning stage and when completed will back water upstream to New- 
burg. 32 And a fifth dam to be constructed near Newburg will create a pool 
up to the Cannelton dam. 

When these five dams are constructed, a chain of lakes holding enor- 
mous amounts of water could be a major contribution toward the restora- 
tion of wildlife — fish, birds and animals. And the lake surfaces can be 
enjoyed by various water sports. 

There are indications that some of the Indiana State agencies engaged 
in providing recreational facilities have serious doubts and misgivings 
about the ultimate success of Ohio River pollution control, and, therefore, 
of the recreational potentialities, especially swimming, in this chain of 
lakes. The Division of State Parks "does not have plans to secure 'state 
beaches' on the Ohio River," 33 Mr. Cougill points out that: 

"Public access sites on lakes, small streams and rivers are 
acquired and developed by officials in the Dingle-Johnson Section 
of the Division of Fish and Game." 34 

According to William B. Barnes, Federal Aid Coordinator, Division 
of Fish and Game: 

"The Division of Fish and Game does not operate state 
beaches. This has been the function of both the Division of State 
Parks and the Division of Forestry. I know of no state beaches 
contemplated for the Ohio River. It would appear to me that 
swimming in that body of water might not adhere to State Board 
of Health regulations." 

"At present time, our Division of Fish and Game is negotiat- 
ing with the U. S. Corps of Engineers regarding the placement of 
access areas on the lake formed by the Markland Dam but no defi- 
nite information is available at present." 35 

Apparently, fishing and boating in the Ohio River Chain-of-Lakes is 
considered feasible by Indiana's Division of Fish and Game but not swim- 
ming and water skiing. 

Mr. Wilcox, Director of the Division of Forestry, writes in reply to 
a personal letter which raised the question, "Does your division have 
plans to develop state-owned beaches along the Ohio River?": 

"I just talked with George Fassnacht of the Board of Health. 
He has no precedent as a guide. We both think bacterial count, 
muddy water, these would make swimming out of the question." 

"Also there is a real practical objection. Beaches should have 
a stable water level line. That Ohio River goes up and down like 
an escalator, 10'-20' is not a bit uncommon. Leaves, logs, mud and 
trash all over our Harrison boat launching site and access road. 
It's a mess after high water." 30 

In contrast with the negative opinions just presented, the annual 
reports of the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission continue 
to stress the control of pollution to a degree where wading, swimming and 
water skiing will be possible the entire length of the river. The 8th Annual 
Report published in 1956 devoted pages 18 and 19 to "Water-Use Data" 
and showed a half-page picture of people enjoying swimming in the Ohio 
River. The caption reads as follows : 

"Cruising down the river on a Saturday afternoon — with 
time out for some sunning and swimming — it is now inviting the 
attention of some 14,000 boatowners in the Cincinnati area alone. 



156 Indiana Academy of Science 

A few miles above this scene the first of Cincinnati's sewage- 
treatment works went into operation two years ago." 37 

The Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission's Chronicle of 
the Twelfth Year carries an 8.5 inch wide picture showing recreation on 
the banks of the Ohio River with the caption : 

"Clean rivers are enhancing recreational opportunities in the 
Ohio Valley. Pictured here is part of the estimated 65,000 people 
at hydroplane race regatta at Madison, Indiana, on October 3, 
1960. During the four-month period starting June 1, the U. S. 
Coast Guard issued notices covering 34 regattas or ski shows, 26 
of which were conducted on the main stem of the Ohio River and 
eight on tributaries. " :iS 

In answer to an inquiry concerning swimming and other recreational 
activities in the Ohio River, Mr. Cleary, who is Executive Director and 
Chief Engineer for the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, 
writes : 

"About swimming potentials : for the past four years I have 
operated a cruiser on the Ohio River, spending many happy hours 
with my family in the area between Cincinnati and Louisville. We 
swim in the river wherever fancy indicates — off the boat or from 
beaches on either the Indiana or Kentucky shores. It's wonderful ! 
And I note the Clearys are not alone in benefitting from progress 
being made in the crusade for clean streams. ""'•' 

Some people are unaware of the progress made in pollution control 
during the last 13 years by the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Com- 
mission. "By June 30, 1959, purification plants to serve 95 per cent of the 
3.6 million people living in municipalities adjacent to the river were either 
in operation or nearing completion." 10 It is reported that the river is 
becoming clean enough that bass are caught again in some stretches of the 
river, and that other species prized by anglers are increasing. 41 

Moreover, with recreation as one of the river's multiple uses, the 
Corps of Army Engineers are practicing long-ranged planning in the con- 
struction of high permanent dams on the Ohio River. They will install 
unique small-boat mooring cables in the auxiliary locks. Pleasure craft 
then can tie to a 150-foot-long stainless steel cable which rides up and 
down in the locks on floating mooring belts. This is a major safety and 
time-saving device. 42 

In addition, these engineers are planning embayment launching and 
boat servicing areas near the mouths of certain tributary streams which 
will flow into the Markland Reservoir. Anglers with boats may launch 
their craft in the same access areas. Such landing and servicing areas 
will be turned over to local or county governments for operation in com- 
pliance with regulations which have proven beneficial for several decades. 40 

The creation of this Ohio River Chain-of-Lakes raises anew the old 
problem of water ownership. About 175 years ago Kentucky was granted 
ownership of all the Ohio River channel to the low water point on the 
north bank. After the lakes are created parts of Indiana's territory will 
be permanently flooded. Substantial areas of the new lakes will be in 
Indiana. Indiana land has been bought in Switzerland, Ohio and Dearborn 
counties for the Markland Reservoir. 41 Consequently, the old need to buy 
Kentucky fishing, hunting and boating licenses may no longer be necessary. 



Geology and Geography 157 

This problem should be settled around a conference table with the 
states of Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia represented. 
Representatives of these five states voted 4-1 in 1959 that the Federal 
government should decide what each of these five states' boating rights 
are under existing navigation and licensing laws. 4 "' Representatives from 
Kentucky, the state claiming ownership to the Ohio River, were opposed 
to this. 

Downstream Boat Trips. A rather new innovation in southern Indi- 
ana's recreational program is the development of access areas along the 
major rivers to facilitate launching boats in which the owners can fish as 
the boat drifts downstream with the current. As pollution in the White, 
Wabash and Ohio Rivers and their tributaries is brought under control 
and fish return to these waters, sportsmen will come to these state owned 
streams. But as yet access areas where citizens have the right to launch 
or remove their boats as well as to park their cars and trailers are few 
and far between. Old privately-owned access points have been or are being 
rapidly closed to the public. 

The Fish and Game Division of Indiana's Department of Conserva- 
tion, during the fiscal year of 1959-1960, established eight public fishing 
sites. Although this number represents a trend in the right direction, it 
hardly "amounts to a drop in the bucket" when the state needs are con- 
sidered/ 6 During this decade many, many more public access areas need 
to be provided for on both rivers and lakes. As yet, the public does not 
have adequate access to some state-owned lakes and only a few access 
points on even the largest rivers. 

National Monument. Indiana's first national monument may be estab- 
lished in Southern Indiana's Recreational Triangle. In May, 1961, the 
Department of Interior approved a proposal by Senator Vance Hartke 
and Representative Winfield K. Denton (both of Indiana) to establish a 
national monument at Abraham Lincoln's boyhood home near Lincoln 
City, Indiana. 47 

On September 15, 1961, the Senate amended, passed and returned to 
the House a bill under which a Lincoln boyhood national memorial would 
be established. The bill authorized an appropriation of one million dollars 
and limited to $75,000 the amount the Secretary of the Department of 
Interior could spend from the appropriation for land. 48 If the area becomes 
a national monument, the Department of Interior will build and maintain 
first-class recreational accommodations for the expected tourists. 

State Parkways. Many people would like to have some agency build 
more state parkways, especially in the Southern Indiana Recreational 
Triangle. The Brown County Parkway, extending from south of Bean 
Blossom to Nashville on Indiana highway 135, is the only parkway in 
Indiana. 49 A parkway along Sugar Creek connecting Turkey Run and 
Shades State Parks is in the proposal stage. The Division of State Parks 
"favors development of State Parkways" 50 but as yet have given higher 
priority to the acquisition of land for park purposes. 51 

National Parkway. United States Senator Vance Hartke has intro- 
duced a bill to create a Lincoln Parkway along the "trail" followed by the 
great president from his Kentucky birthplace to his Indiana home (where 
he grew from a youth into manhood) to his adult home in Illinois. Senator 



158 Indiana Academy of Science 

Hartke reports that many senators and representatives have agreed to 
help him pass the bill because: 

". . . This kind of historical highway has been delayed too 
long and action in the centennial year of the Civil War is most 
appropriate." 52 

Regional trails. Perhaps the lack of cooperation and coordination be- 
tween state and national agencies in recreational development accounts 
for the lack of long "circular" regional hiking, bicycling and horseback 
trails. Before these trails can be put into operation there will need to be 
adequate hostels and horse barns at convenient places along well-marked 
routes. Also, where these trails of necessity cross primary highways, the 
cooperation of the Indiana Highway Department would need to help mark 
the crossings to protect the travelers. Many of the hostels and barns 
could be located on land already owned by the state and federal govern- 
ments. But additional land should be purchased where accommodations 
are needed. 

To set up these trails, an inter-agency committee, working with recre- 
ational specialists, should first locate suitable routes and draw up long- 
ranged plans for both short and long routes. It should be possible for 
people in any section of this Recreational Triangle to get on a hiking, 
bicycling or horseback trail and make a circle or loop trip from 50 to 100 
or 200 or 300 miles long. 

Two short hiking trails established in Morgan-Monroe and Yellow- 
wood State Forests proved very popular during the summer of I960. 53 
Five hiking trails and many miles of bridle trails have proven very 
popular at Clifty Falls State Park. 51 What is needed now are the longer 
loop or circular trails which will connect the various state parks, state 
monuments, state forests and other natural and historical points of 
interest. 

The writer believes the time for developing facilities for circular hik- 
ing, bicycling and horseback trails is long overdue. We should make a 
modest start by establishing a few shorter routes as "pilot projects" as 
soon as feasible. 

Suggestions for Accelerated Expansion 

Although in the next 25 years Southern Indiana's Recreational Tri- 
angle may become the largest outdoor recreational center in Indiana, and 
perhaps one of the largest in the Ohio River watershed, this is a part of 
Indiana and regional development should be correlated with all activities 
in the state. In February, 1961, I made some of the following suggestions 
to accelerate expansion of outdoor recreational facilities in Indiana and 
they appear as valid now as they were then. In fact these suggestions if 
followed would bring a greater growth to Southern Indiana's Recreational 
Triangle than to any other section of the state: 

1. Between 1963-1973, the Indiana legislature should provide a land- 
purchase fund of 2.5 million dollars to be used by the Division of 
Parks in creating new state parks and parkways and enlarging the 
ones now in operation. This money should be appropriated at the 
rate of half a million dollars per biennium. The money should be 
spent as opportunities become available and need not be spent be- 
fore 1980. 



Geology and Geography 159 

2. During this same ten-year period (1963-1973), the Indiana legis- 
lature should provide a half million dollar land-purchase fund to 
be used by the Division of Forestry to enlarge present state forests 
and/or develop news ones. This money should be appropriated at 
the rate of 100,000 dollars per biennium with the understanding 
that none of it can be spent on the purchase of stripped coal mine 
land or land pitted with quarries. There should be an understanding 
that the money could remain in the fund until 1980 rather than 
attempting to spend all of it every biennium. 

3. The Indiana legislature should at each session pass a resolution 
urging (1)- that the United States Congress make available 
$100,000 to $150,000 a year for the purchase of land within the 
boundaries of the Hoosier National Forest and (2) urging that the 
recreational sites within the Hoosier National Forest be developed 
as rapidly as public needs justify. 

4. A scientific survey should be made of the state forests by recrea- 
tional specialists who will prepare a written inventory and ap- 
praisal of sites that can be developed for recreational purposes. 

5. The Division of Parks should make a survey to determine what 
additional acreage should be added to existing parks, and to locate 
and appraise potential recreational areas which could be purchased 
and made into state parks. 

6. Prepare a 15-year program for the development of an Outdoor 
Museum in the present Morgan-Monroe State Forest under the 
administration of the Division of Parks and State Forests. And 
this Outdoor Museum should not be limited to a zoo or standard 
city museum built in a forest. 

7. Locate hiking, bicycling, horseback trails in Southern Indiana's 
Recreational Triangle and develop adequate hostels and horse barns 
at convenient places along these trails. 

8. The Indiana legislature should pass a resolution each session in 
support of the creation of a national monument in honor of Abra- 
ham Lincoln in Spencer County until such a monument becomes a 
reality. 

9. Indiana citizens should work for a Youth Conservation Corps or 
Home Peace Corps both in Indianapolis and in Washington, D. C. 

10. Wilderness specialists should locate and the state should establish 
several wilderness areas. Indiana may now have some suitable 
ones in its parks (especially Brown County State Park) and forests 
for this purpose. These wilderness areas must be legally established 
and so protected from commercialization that they will always be 
preserved for nature's development only. 

11. A committee consisting of the Directors of the Divisions of (1) 
State Parks, (2) Forestry and (3) Fish and Game in Indiana's 
Department of Conservation should make a preliminary investi- 
gation of potential recreational opportunities which will be created 
by an Ohio River Chain-of-Lakes (four or five permanent lakes) 
and bring in a written appraisal which will either recommend for 
or against the employment of a recreational team to survey and 



160 Indiana Academy of Science 

make recommendations concerning the potential recreational op- 
portunities of this chain-of-lakes. 

12. Indiana citizens and governmental agencies should participate in 
and support interstate organizations so necessary to implement 
conservation projects which cover more than one state. The Wa- 
bash River Compact and the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation 
Compact 55 are examples of this type of cooperation. 

13. Citizens interested in recreational development should realize: (1) 
that the recreational use of "flood control-low flow regulation" 
reservoirs must be a secondary and minor use and (2) the limited 
facilities available at this type of reservoir can never supply suffi- 
cient accommodations on which to build a great tourist industry. 

Action During 1960's Vital 

Indiana might well follow the rapid expansion programs of outdoor 
recreational development found in the adjacent states of Kentucky and 
Michigan. Each year recreational development costs more and it is esti- 
mated that the cost "doubles about every 10 years." 5 ' 3 Can Indiana afford 
to delay? 

At least two and perhaps four of the five Ohio River Chain-of -Lakes 
along southern Indiana will be completed during this decade. To attempt 
to develop state-owned facilities along these lakes after completion may be 
impossible and, if not impossible, more costly and impractical. 

Will Southern Indiana's citizens during the 1960's use their technology 
and know-how to develop and wisely use the now latent and underdeveloped 
resources of forest, water and recreation, or will they continue to apa- 
thetically acquiesce to a declining economy, an outward migrating popula- 
tion, and the establishment of a permanently depressed area where work 
is not available for some youth or adults during the summer or throughout 
the year? 

If the problem is recognized and all the resources of Indiana utilized, 
the 1960's might go down in history as one of the greatest of water, forest 
and recreational development in the history of Indiana. Or this generation 
may do little or nothing during the next decade in the way of conservation 
and be judged an abject failure by our descendants. 

We should consider prayerfully for a few minutes the following 
words of a wise poet : 

The moving finger writes and having writ 
Moves on: nor all the Piety nor Wit 
Shall lure it back to cancel half a line 
Nor all thy tears wash out a word of it. 

When this decade of the 1960's ends and the moving finger writes an 
evaluation of our development of Southern Indiana's Recreational Tri- 
angle, will it write success or failure? 

Literature Cited 

1. A proposal has been made to buy the land along- Racoon River and actually join 
these two parks. 

2. McDekmott, J. K., "Indiana's Population Moves Around," Economic and Market- 
ing Information, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, March 30, 1961, p. 3. 

3. Ibid. 



Geology and Geography 161 

4. Ibid. 

5. Indiana Forest Industries Committee and the American Forest Products Indus 
tries, Inc., Indiana Forest Facts, Washington, D. C, 1960, pp. 3-4. 

6. Barton, Thomas Frank, "Some Geographic Recreational Aspects of Unglaciated 
Indiana," Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science for 191$, Volume 59, pp. 
216-220. 

7. Indiana Department of Conservation, l t 2nd Annual Report, Indianapolis, p. 1-21 . 

8. Barton, Thomas Frank, "Indiana's State Forests and Recreation," Indiana 
Academy of Social Science Proceedings, 1961 "New Series Vol. 6" (scheduled for 
publication). 

9. Fersh, George L., Resource-Use Review, Joint Council on Economic Education. 
Number 3 (Winter, 1961), New York, p. 14. 

io. Barton. Thomas Frank. "Long-Range Park and Other Public Outdoor Recrea- 
tional Planning in Our Population Explosion," 15tJc Annual Pi ocvedings of the 
Great Lakes Park Institute, Bloomington, Indiana University's Recreation Depart- 
ment, 1961, p. 202. 

11. Ibid. 

12. Ibid. 

13. Clawson, Marion, "The Role of State Parks in Meeting Recreational Demands 
of the Future," Planning and Civic Comment, Supplement Part II to the Decem- 
ber, 1960 issue, p. 6. 

14. Op. cit., Barton, "Long Range Park and Other Public Outdoor Recreational Plan- 
ning in Our Population Explosion," p. 197. 

15. Ibid. 

16. Op. cit., Indiana Department of Conservation, p. 1-29. 

17. "Raccoon Lake State Park," The Courier-Journal, Louisville. Kentucky, Septem- 
ber 10, 1961, Section 2, p. 1. 

18. Personal letter from K. R. Cougill, Director, Division of State Parks, Department 
of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana, July 24, 1961. 

19. Siikpard, Joseph K., "The Woods Are Waiting for Our Children." The Indian- 
apolis Star (Sunday Magazine Section), January 8, 1961, pp. 10-11. 

20. Personal letter from K. R. Cougill, Director, Division of State Parks. Department 
of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana, February 16, 1961. 

21. Ibid. 

22. Ibid. 

23. "Park Project Will Cost 10 to 15 Million," The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, December 8, 1960, Section 1, p. 1. 

24. "Six in Clark to Survey Park Sites," The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky 
(Indiana Edition) May 14, 1961, p. 24C. 

25. Op. cit., Barton, "Indiana's State Forests and Recreation." 

26. Ibid. 

27. "Reservoir Access Sites Announced," Daily Herald-Telephone, September 26, 1961, 
Section 1, p. 1. 

28. Barton, Thomas frank, "The Monroe Reservoir : A Multiple Use Project," Pro- 
ceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science for 1960, Volume 70, pp. 170-181. 

29. Personal letter from Colonel Robert W. Lockridge, Executive Officer, Corps of 
Engineers, W. S. Engineering Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, February 17, 1961. 

30. Ibid. 

31. Ibid. 

32. Ibid. 

33. Personal letter from K. R. Cougill, Director, Division of State Parks, Department 
of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana, January 30, 1961. 

34. Ibid. 

35. Personal letter from William B. Barnes, February 6, 1961. 

36. Reply to inquiry sent to Ralph F. Wilcox, State Forester, dated May 31, 1961. 



162 Indiana Academy of Science 

37. Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, 8th Annual Report, 1056, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, pp. 18-10. 

38. Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, Chronicle of the Twelfth Year — 
1960, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1960, p. 24. 

39. Personal letter from Edward J. Cleary dated May 24, 1961. 

40. Barton, Thomas Frank, "The Sewer or Waste Disposal Use of the Ohio River,'" 
The Journal of Geography, 1900, Vol. LIX, p. 334. 

41. "Ohio River Cleanup Called Rapid," The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky, 
February 10, 1961, Section 1, p. 0. 

42. Monroe, Burt, "Ohio River Soon Will Be Mecca for Sportsman," The Courier- 
Journal, Louisville, Kentucky, March 6, 1900 (Indiana Edition), Section 2, p. 0. 

43. Personal letter from Colonel Robert W. Lockridge dated 9 June 1961. 

44. "U. S. Files to Condemn Dam Tracts," The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky 
(Indiana Edition), May 10, 1901, Section 2, p. 1. 

45. Vance, Kyle, "State of Ohio Fishing for Answer to Fishing-License Tangle on 
Ohio," The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky (Indiana Edition), October 11. 
1959, Section 1, p. 10. 

46. Op. cit., Indiana Department of Conservation, p. D-6. 

47. Bingham, Worth, "Lincoln National Park Proposal Approved by Interior De- 
partment," The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky, May 3, 1961, Indiana News 
Section, p. 1. 

48. "Senate Amends Lincoln Bill to Permit Land Purchase," The Courier-Journal, 
Louisville, Kentucky, September 17, 1961, Indiana News Section, p. 21 B. 

49. Personal letter from K. R. Cougill dated January 30, 1961. 

50. Ibid. 

51. IMd. 

52. In Washington with Senator Vance Hartke (a newsletter) dated July 28, 1961. 

53. Wilcox, Ralph F., "More State Forest Recreation," (unpublished manuscript). 

54. "Cliffy Falls State Park Offers 668 Acres of Scenic Wonder Overlooking Ohio 
River," The Courier Journal, Louisville, Kentucky, June 4, 1961, Indiana News 
Section, p. 24 B* 

55. Op. cit., Barton, "The Sewer or Waste Disposal Use of the Ohio River," The 
Journal of Geography, pp. 326-336. 

56. "Penny Tap Suggested for Outdoor Program, The Courier-Journal, Louisville, 
Kentucky, May 16, 1961, Indiana Edition, Section 1, p. 8. 



Movement of Limestone Blocks by Floodwaters in Southern 
Putnam County, Indiana 

C. L. Bieber, DePauw University 

An unusual change in the attitude of limestone blocks on a creek floor, 
following a local flood, is here reported. The area is 5 miles north of 
Cloverdale, Indiana in the NE^ SW% sec. 12, T. 13 N., R. 4 W. in south 
central Putnam County. Here Upper Limestone Creek, a branch of Deer 
Creek, flows over a rolling bedrock surface of middle St. Louis limestone. 
The limestone beds are from 2 to 12 inches thick, some of which are sepa- 
rated by thin shaly partings. Bedding plane cherts are scattered sparingly 
over exposed surfaces of the sparsely fossiliferous limestone. The stream 
bed, which is near the margin of the Wisconsin drift, is eroded through 
drift to the limestone. 

In the local area considered, the stream channel averages 35 ft. wide, 
and bottoms on limestone. During floods the water spills over the banks 
upon small flood plain aprons. Upper Limestone Creek descends by a 
series of small pools and cataracts over a warpy limestone surface with an 
average gradient of 40 ft. /mile. The stream drops over rock ledges from 
1 to 3 ft. high at a few points along the course, and these ledges are usually 
broken along joint lines. In general the stream follows the limestone sur- 
face down the regional dip (30-40 ft. /mile, southwest). Total relief of the 
surrounding land averages 100 ft. At least 8 small sink holes are within 
500 yds. of the stream on either side of the valley. A few springs are 
along the valley sides. 

This area was being studied during April, 1961 (2). On May 6-7, 
1961, 6 inches of rain fell over this section in a 24 hour period. Flood 
waters rose at least 5 feet at the road bridge. A return visit to the area a 
few days after the flood revealed these facts. Where the creek formerly 
flowed over the top of the limestone it now enters a rectangular opening, 
disappears under the upper limestone beds for 50 ft. horizontally and 
reappears where the rock has been fractured and torn out. Whereas the 
limestone in the creek bed was formerly gently warped, now a prominent 
buckle lies across the creek bed (Fig. 1). The buckle is 35 ft. long, 15 ft. 
wide, and has been raised 1.2 ft. along the axis. New fractures have opened 
along one side and along the crest of this upwarp. On the other side of the 
buckle fracture lines are pinched together so tightly that chips have been 
broken from the rock along the break. Also, several new fractures con- 
trolled somewhat by joints which strike S. 70° W. and S. 40° E., have 
opened. The most prominent fracturing is parallel to the joints along the 
north side of the stream bed. Here several blocks have been ripped out and 
moved down stream. The entire limestone floor of the stream bottom (60 ft. 
X 30 ft. X 1 ft.) has been slightly shifted and freshly cracked. 

From the field evidence, it is difficult to explain how floodwaters alone 
could account for the displacement and fracturing. It is postulated that 
floodwaters backing up behind the bridge and road grade increased velocity 
of the water immediately west of the bridge. Force by impact was exerted 
upon the frontal edges of limestone blocks exposed over a gentle warp in 
the creek bottom (3). Frictional drag of the torrent over the limestone 
would have the power to transport, dependent upon depth of water and 

163 



164 



Indiana Academy of Science 




CREEK CHANNEL 
»«-%-NEW FRACTURES 

EN WATER ENTRANCE 
EX WATER EXIT 



10 



Fig. 1. Plan view of a portion of the rock channel of Little Limestone Creek. 

slope of stream (critical tractive force). Also differing velocities between 
top and bottom of the turbulent current would create variation of pressure 
with resulting hydraulic lift. Any one or combination of the above could 
account for transport of blocks of limestone. Some blocks 2 ft. X 3 ft. X 
1 ft. were transported several feet to as much as 50 ft. 

More difficult to explain, however, is the fracturing of the limestone 
floor and the formation of the prominent buckle. Force to accomplish this 
could not come from the torrent alone (1). 

The block of limestone (60 ft. X 30 ft. X 1 ft.) which has been dis- 
turbed has a dry weight of approximately 140 tons. This block is jointed 
but shows fresh fractures over most of the surface. If buoyed up by 
surrounding water the weight would be reduced to 80 or 90 tons. To this, 
however, must be added the pressure of the floodwater over the block. This 
stream of water was about 5 ft. deep. Thus it is necessary that a hydraulic 
force from beneath the limestone act in order to accomplish the buckle, 
and to lift the rock in other places differentially to cause the fractur- 
ing (4). 

It is postulated that the necessary hydraulic forces may have come 
from floodwaters filling pipes or solution channels fed from sinkholes on 
uplands nearby. These channels may have connected with an area beneath 
the upper limestone beds of the stream bottom. As the head increased with 
continuing rain, and the areas affected with this hydraulic force spread, 
the limestone was broken, and at one place buckled. Thus even before the 
floodwater gathered appreciably, much of the disturbance to the limestone 
of the creek bed had occurred. 

In conclusion, these observations suggest that at least some of the 
break-up in limestone creek channels is accomplished by heavy downpours 



Geology and Geography 165 

filling solution channels, building up sufficient head to force the rock up 
from below. The broken rock then falls prey to the rising flood waters. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bieber, Charles R. 1961. Personal communication, Engineering School, University 
of Alabama. 

2. Peirce, Thomas. 1961. Senior Research, DePauw University. 

3. Rubey, W. W. 1988. The force required to move particles on a stream bed. U. S. 
G. S. Prof. Paper 189 : 121-141. 

4. Smith, Orrin H. 1961. Personal communication, Physics Department, DePauw 
University. 



Recent Developments in Underground Gas Storage 
Fields in Indiana 

Robert V. Kirch, Indianapolis Extension, Indiana University- 
Reflecting the great demand for natural gas as a heating fuel, the 
number of underground gas storage fields in Indiana has doubled within 
the last three years. Since underground reservoirs provide the most effec- 
tive and economical method to obtain additional amounts of gas to satisfy 
this demand, Indiana's gas utilities have continued their efforts to locate 
suitable geological formations capable of holding substantial volumes of 
natural gas. The gas is injected into the reservoir during the warmer 
months and is withdrawn from storage throughout the winter months 
when there is a shortage in the supply of gas. The extent of exploration 
efforts to discover underground storage sites is indicated on the map of 
Indiana. (Fig. 1). Some drilling activity for this purpose has occurred 
in the counties which have been shaded — one or more test holes have been 
drilled in each of these thirty-six counties during the past three years. 
The map also shows the location of all storage reservoirs, both experi- 
mental and operational, in the state of Indiana. Presently, there are 
twenty-two such projects. 

Northern Indiana Public Service Company which supplies gas to the 
northern third of the state and Citizens Gas and Coke Utility with its 
Indianapolis-Marion County service territory are responsible for most of 
the recent attempts to utilize subterranean rock formations as storage 
reservoirs. Together they have seven storage fields. Northern Indiana 
Public Service Company has three projects in various stages of explora- 
tion and development in the vicinity of the towns of Royal Center in Cass 
County, Thayer in Newton County, and Linkville in Marshall County. 
The most advanced project is the Royal Center reservoir. All of these 
projects involve the use of non-gas bearing geological structures, that is, 
formations which have not previously held natural gas. Storage facilities 
of this kind are known as "aquifers" in that they originally contained 
only water. Such fields represent a somewhat new development in under- 
ground storage — the feasibility of storing gas in these formations has 
now been amply demonstrated. In the past, the majority of reservoirs 
were constructed from structures which had at one time held natural gas. 
These abandoned and depleted gas fields offered a much greater likelihood 
or assurance that the formations could be reconditioned to again hold 
natural gas. 

In both gas bearing and non-gas bearing structures, however, the 
basic geological requirements are the same. The gas is stored under pres- 
sure in porous and permeable rock strata, usually sandstone or limestone, 
which rises and falls to form a domical shape or "hump." The storage 
formation must be bracketed by impervious strata to prevent the gas 
from escaping. The necessary gastight seal is completed by the back 
pressure which develops when the gas injected into the storage formation 
displaces and pushes the water, normally present in both types of struc- 
tures, to the sides of the dome. The cross section diagram of an under- 
ground storage reservoir (Fig. 2) illustrates the essential requirements. 
By drilling through the first reservoir a few gas utilities in this 
country have discovered a second storage field. Currently, the Indiana 

166 



Geology and Geography 



167 




tM£/R6ftOUND GAS STORAGE — *$& 



168 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Figure 2 




Cross Section Diagram of an Underground Storage Reservoir. 

Gas and Water Company is experimenting with the possibility of "double 
storage" at their Unionville field in Monroe County. It is hoped that 
geological formations about one hundred feet below the original reservoir 
will have the general characteristics for storing gas. 

The four storage facilities of the Citizens Gas and Coke Utility be- 
came operational in 1961. These large reservoirs, constructed from gas 
bearing structures, are located in Greene County near the towns of Linton, 
Worthington, Lonetree, and Howesville. Including the connecting pipe 
line between Greene County and Marion County, the total cost of these 
underground reservoirs is twelve million dollars. The estimated storage 
capacity of these fields is fourteen billion cubic feet. 

Recognizing that the development and use of all the storage fields, 
proposed and operational, in this state still will not meet the market 
demand for natural gas, it is safe to say that additional underground 
storage reservoirs will be constructed in the near future by gas utilities 
operating in Indiana. Explorations are currently underway for more 
suitable storage sites for this premium heating fuel. 



Manufactural Geography of East Chicago-Whiting, Indiana 
(A Study in Geographic Rehabilitation) 

Alfred H. Meyer and Diane Heidtmann Paetz, Valparaiso University 

This study is one of a continuing series of industrial community 
geographic surveys of the Calumet region of northwest Indiana and north- 
east Illinois, of which already four have been published — those of Michigan 
City, LaPorte, Gary, and Chicago Heights. The objective is to review and 
evaluate the salient historical geographic forces which enter into the 
development of the manufactural pattern, such as elements of settlement, 
locative factors, transportation facilities, sources of raw materials, mar- 
kets, and zoning-planning of industrial land. Appraisal of actual and 
potential manufactural resources is based on questionnaire and interview 
data and field mapping. 

The contiguous cities of East Chicago (pop. 57,669) and Whiting 
(pop. 8,137) form a compact industrial unit fronting on Lake Michigan 
and focused on Indiana Harbor and its ship canal (1). Whiting is pri- 
marily a petroleum refining center; East Chicago dominates in primary 
and fabricated metals. Some three-score establishments are oriented 
areally to three sectors of the transportation pattern. Rapid industrial 
expansion and crowding of industrial sites without the benefit of a con- 
current adequate zoning and planning program have resulted in wide- 
spread residential blight. The problem of providing improved living and 
recreational facilities in an area whose residential occupance constitutes 
only 11 percent of the total area of the two cities, and still provide for 
extra land needed for growing industries presents a challenging redevelop- 
ment project. 

Historic-Geographic Perspective 

This industrial community, variously characterized as "The Work- 
shop of America, Where Rail and Water Meet," and "The Steel Capital 
of the World," was a relatively late comer on the Midwest manufactural 
scene. One of the reasons for the belated settlement and development of 
the area is revealed on the first maps and field notes of the Federal land 
survey of about the year 1830, represented in composite form in Figure 1. 
Here we note, among other data, "the east-west parallel sand ridges 50 
links to 5 chains wide separated by narrow marshes," flanking the "Grand 
Callumic River," and another series of interlinear sand ridges and marshes 
extending northwestward to the Indiana-Illinois state line. 

The West Calumet region itself, of which this area is a part, was 
physiographically frustrating: "The prairie was too wet to cultivate. 
The east-west orientation of the deep Calumet marshes made approach 
to Lake Michigan from the south extremely difficult. But an even greater 
barrier to travel headed for the lake was the east-west marshes flanking 
the Kankakee River immediately south of the Calumet area" (2). Nor- 
mally, any enterprising community exploits available or potential navi- 
gable waterways; but the shallow, sluggish, and meandering Grand Calu- 
met needed straightening and dredging to be of any service to East Chicago 
and neighboring communities. In view of the forbidding dune-marsh 
topography, U. S. Army engineers, as late as 1872, could not commercially 
justify a dredging project. However, potential navigability of waterways, 

169 




Figure 1. The East Chicago-Whiting area in Fundamental Perspective— the environ- 
mental features under Indian and pioneer white man's occupance. (From a larger Calu- 
met regional map in Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. XLVI, 
1950, pp. 314-315.) 



Geology and Geography 171 

especially when the navigational pattern takes on new commercial signifi- 
cance, as in this instance, have a way of commanding periodic reassess- 
ment of values, as is shown in Figure 4. 

Once the full import of geographic site and situation at the head of 
Lake Michigan and their orientation on the Chicago transportation and 
marketing center was realized, "waste" land took on a new geographic 
concept — wide open spaces, and at the price much below that of corporate 
communities. This might be said to have been the beginning of Midwest 
industrial decentralization. 

The immediate antecedent events that led to the initial industrializa- 
tion of the area are well described by Moore : 

The expansion of the steel industry in the Chicago area was 
largely responsible for the origin and development of East Chicago 
and Gary. This expansion was from the heart of Chicago eastward 
along the shore of Lake Michigan. Cheap transportation on the Great 
Lakes was one of the most important factors in the development of 
the iron and steel industry in the Calumet Region of Illinois and 
Indiana. The industrialists of the late nineteenth century recognized 
the value of the excellent facilities afforded by the numerous railroads 
in the region. They also saw the possibilities of harbors along the 
Lake for the reception of iron ore, coal, and limestone as well as for 
the shipment of finished products to market. Moreover, adequate sites 
were available for industrial purposes at reasonable prices. 

Originally, the iron and steel industry in the Chicago area was 
concentrated along the Chicago River near the heart of the city. 
Foundries were built there as early as 1839. By the second half of the 
century the sites near the river were too valuable for industrial pur- 
poses. Industrialists then turned their attention to the sparsely 
settled region known as South Chicago. In 1870 the Federal govern- 
ment started the development of the South Chicago Harbor at the 
mouth of the Calumet River. Ten years later, the Illinois Steel Com- 
pany began construction of its South Chicago Works alongside this 
harbor. In the beginning, the steel officials thought they had a site 
large enough for all time, but the erection of this great steel mill set 
off a boom in South Chicago which lasted for several years. Other 
industries located there, and part of the area was subdivided for 
residential purposes, with space set aside for parks and schools. As a 
result, land for industrial purposes became scarce and expensive. 
Therefore, industrialists and speculators began to seek sites across 
the state line in Indiana (3) . 

The site of East Chicago was laid out in 1887 by the Standard Steel 
and Iron Company; the William Graver Tank Works was the first to 
establish itself in the community (1888). 

The Whiting community, wedged in between East Chicago, the north 
arm of Hammond and Lake Michigan, had its industrial inception about 
the same time (1889), when the Standard Oil Company erected its first 
unit of the now celebrated world's largest oil refinery (the 1880 census 
recorded a village population of only 115). Much of the same geographic 
advantages applied to the founding of oil refineries here as for steel in 
neighboring East Chicago — close to the newly developed markets of the 



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Geology and Geography 173 

Midwest; sharing the benefits of the land and water transportation facili- 
ties converging on Chicago, but without its high taxes; an abundance of 
water; and a large regional labor force. 

How the modern industrialists themselves assess the locative factors 
is revealed by our questionnaire, in approximately the following order of 
importance: proximity to Lake Michigan (Indiana Harbor and the navi- 
gable section of the canal) ; railway and highway transportation facilities; 
markets; availability of land, and, in some instances, buildings. Other 
miscellaneous responses include: relatively central location in Calumet 
area; discovery of oil in Lima, Ohio, 1885, and in Mid-continent area, 
1888; nearness to refinery and/or steel plants (symbiotic) ; potential 
marketing in Midwestern states, centering on Chicago; closeness of an 
unlimited supply of fresh water (Lake Michigan) ; and because of rejec- 
tion elsewhere (Chicago did not want certain industries of suspected 
nuisance or hazard types) . 

Regional resources of raw materials, both nearby and from afar, are 
of particular geographic significance. As earlier indicated, the featuring 
manufactures of the area are identified with steel fabrications and oil 
refining. Raw materials of the former are primarily iron ore from the 
Mesabi range of Minnesota, coking coal from Kentucky, and limestone 
flux from Michigan. The source of raw petroleum for the latter (originally 
the Lima, Ohio area) is now centered on the Mid-continent field — Texas, 
Oklahoma, Kansas, Louisiana, and the Gulf Coastal area generally, with 
a limited supply also from Indiana and Illinois. More recently, Wyoming 
and New Mexico have been added to the list of petroleum producers for 
the Whiting refineries. 

It is the manufactures of semi-processed materials of these two major 
industries which in turn supply so-called raw materials for the many 
satellite manufactures in the community. The neighboring Buffington 
area to the east is a large producer of sand, gravel, and cement. Other 
significant raw materials include special types of clays from South Dakota 
and Wyoming; gypsum from Louisiana; lead and zinc products from 
western United States ; and asbestos from Canada. 

Figure 2 is designed to show the general progress of area spread of 
the industrial pattern. It is noteworthy that within the short span of 
four decades the major pattern had been set. 

The Manufactural Pattern Is One of Compactness 

A survey of the distribution pattern of manufacturing establishments 
suggests a threefold division of the East Chicago-Whiting community 
(See Figure 3). The northern area (A), the earliest and largest manu- 
facturing district to be developed, is noted for heavy industries requiring 
expansive tracts of land and combined water and rail facilities, such as 



Figure 4. The Cal-Sag Navigation Project. Within five years after completion, the 
channel is expected to handle an annual commercial traffic of 12 million tons ; ulti- 
mately 18 million or more. On this TJ. S. Army Engineers map is outlined the East 
Chicage-Whiting area to show the geographic position it hears to Part II of the project. 
Note the numerous bridges that have to be reckoned with in case this part of the project 
materializes. Of primary concern here is how the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal will 
function in supplying auxiliary traffic for the main channel. 



1800' 



1878-1894 

1901 - 1919 

1920- 1929 

1930- 1939 

1940-1960 

SUBSEQUENT 
ADDITIONS 



N 




Figure 2 Periodic Industrial Occupance. Note the predominance of original 
sequent occupance in the lake section (A) and river section (C), and the 
smaller sites in the central residential section (B). 



site and 
generally 



Geology and Geography 175 

primary metals, petroleum and coal products, stone and clay, chemicals 
and allied products. The Standard Oil Refinery, most complete in the 
world, dominates the Whiting area and extensive tracts in neighboring 
Hammond on the west and East Chicago on the east. And Inland Steel 
Company and Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company have sprawled out 
on lakeside natural and man-made land, and the ship canal, on the east 
and west side, respectively. 

Already at an early date it was recognized that a mushrooming in- 
dustrial district, such as this, needed adequate housing for its workers. 
So in 1914 a steel firm, the Mark Manufacturing Company, platted and 
promoted the residential community denoted as Mark on the map. Com- 
pletely surrounded by industrial land, "Marktown" represents the first 
attempt on the part of industry in the area directly to sponsor a housing 
project. 

Section C — The section along Grand Calumet River is likewise iden- 
tified by large individual tracts, featured by E. I. Dupont De NeMours 
and Company and Cities Service Oil Company, manufacturers of chemical 
and petroleum products, respectively. Like section A, it belongs to the 
early period of development — latter decades of the 19th century and early 
decades of the 20th. This area was also earlier conceived as a separate 
entity, being identified with the prospect of eventual conversion of this 
meandering, shallow, and sluggish stream into a navigable waterway 
connection with the Sag to the west (Figure 4). But the dream of this 
navigable connection is far from realization; likewise the Calumet River 
end of the ship canal remains undeveloped for cargo traffic. However, 
the new Indiana East-West Toll Road adds transportation facility to the 
area. 

Section B, extending northeastward-southwestward through the heart 
of East Chicago, looks more like an average industrial community. Indus- 
trial sites occupy a sizeable percentage of the area, but they are much 
smaller, more dispersed, and diversified in character than in either of the 
other two sections. This is the "residential town," with its multiple com- 
mercial and civic as well as industrial functions. Three residential areas 
are recognized. The eastern one, the largest cohesive unit and with a 
prominent axial commercial core, is proximate to the chief industrial area. 
A second sizable residential rectangular area occupies the southwest with 
a commercial axis centered on the intersection of US 12-20 with Indiana 
312. A smaller south-central district bounds the Calumet industrial area. 

Section B incorporates every classification type of manufactures 
shown in the legend of our map. Fabrication plants (some dozen units) 
and allied manufactures of machinery and transportation dominate the 
area, benefited by the proximate position of the sources of primary steel 
and other raw products, and the closely knit north-south, east-west road- 
rail matrix of central East Chicago and its extra-regional transportation 
outlets. 

It is this compact maze of miscellaneous industries with their complex 
traffic pattern, mixed with or adjoining residential neighborhoods, which 
challenges the urban planner for new or renewal residential sites, as well 
as maintaining adequate space for manufactural expansion. 



176 



Indiana Academy of Science 




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Figure 3 Manufactural Geographic Design by Industrial Classification. Predominant 
features exhibited are the expansive heavy industries in section A and C. the mixed 
heavy and light, and generally smaller industries, 



in section B. The lower case lettered 



Geology and Geography 




areas (a,b,c,d), and for the most part the blank areas (predominantly in section B) 
denote residence sites. The significance of the a, b, c, d, so-called "action" sites, is ex- 
plained in the text. 



178 Indiana Academy of Science 

Space Inadequacy and Areal Disunity 

Such an extensive and intensive industrialization land utilization 
pattern as indicated in Figure 3 is self-revealing of the space problems 
that now beset the two communities. But if the map does not give a com- 
plete picture of the situation, questionnaire and other data are conclusive. 
Except for industries operating at capacity, respondents to our question- 
naire repetitively reported inadequacy of amount or quality of land avail- 
able for expansion. Or, if there is such a facility, it is limited to the 
immediate future. Although some of the industries now possess unoccu- 
pied land, extended expansion means an undesirable encroachment upon 
areas in immediate residential contact or with areas of other needed 
urban functions. Various comments indicate the types of restrictions 
recognized, such as "not enough area to merge two plants which is de- 
sired"; "bounded by canal, railroad, highway, another factory"; "closed 
in by towns — surrounded by other communities." As summarily observed: 
"This area is highly industrialized and populated. Additional land for 
expansion is very expensive and full use of land owned is not possible due 
to proximity to residential areas and resulting zoning restrictions placed 
on us by their encroachment." 

The one major expansion facility, of course, is lake-fill land as in the 
case of the lakesited steel industry. One of the major objectives in urban 
renewal (to be described later) is to allocate land for industrial purposes 
either so originally intended, or rezone land in such a way as to relocate 
residents of the community so as to provide additional industrial land 
where such sites are more suited to industry than to other civic purposes. 
Sub-nuclear urbanization and lack of an inter-community planning 
program resulted in other space problems. Already in the latter nine- 
teenth century as the Chicago industrial complex came to be developed, 
industries were moving out of Chicago because of exorbitant corporation 
taxes. This and other considerations, such as vacant and cheap land of 
expansive proportions, led Standard Oil Company to locate in the unin- 
corporated Whiting area. Then, when neighboring Hammond on the west 
pressed for annexation of the Whiting area, Standard supported a move 
for an independent Whiting where taxes were expected to be much lower 
than in heavily-indebted Hammond. 

A geographic cleavage of another sort in this industrial community 
arose from the construction of the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, paralleled 
in part by the switching yards of the Indiana Harbor Belt Line Railroad. 
The extension of this canal from the Harbor southward to the Grand 
Calumet River resulted in the concept of "Twin City": the section of East 
Chicago east of the canal lakeward came to be known as Indiana Harbor 
and the section west of the canal as East Chicago. This geographic con- 
cept has more than theoretical significance. The highway crossings of the 
Canal are limited to the interregional traffic congested thoroughfares (a 
mile to nearly two miles apart) — Indiana 912 in the north, US 12 and 
Indiana 312 in the center, and the Indiana East- West Toll Road on the 
southern boundary. This accentuates the regional separateness of the 
two areas. Note also on the map (Figure 3), that each community has 
developed a commercial core, with its own residential districts separated 
in part by broad industrial tracts on either side of the Canal. "The rail- 



Geology and Geography 179 

roads that pass through the eastern part of the city add to the confusion 
by listing their stations as Indiana Harbor. Until recent years, the tele- 
phone company identified its exchanges as East Chicago and Indiana 
Harbor respectively. Consequently, unity of thought and action among 
the citizens of the Twin City has been difficult to attain, and on many 
occasions sectional strife has characterized the various phases of its 
affairs" (4). 

The "Most Pressing Industrial Problem" 

Transportation facilities abound within East Chicago, yet are said 
to be critically inadequate. Within the city is a criss-crossing network of 
busy streets, railroads, highways, and the Indiana Harbor canal, navi- 
gable in its lakeward sector. Three major railroad lines traverse the city 
and provide freight and passenger service for the industries and its resi- 
dents. And the Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad serves as a connecting link 
to all other railroads for the proper handling of freight cars within the 
city and the region. 

Three major U. S. highways (Routes 12, 20, and 41) and two state 
highways, plus the East- West tollway, are extremely beneficial to the local 
industries. A newly projected highway, the Tri-State, is being developed 
from the east. 

The Indiana Harbor Ship Canal is not only of particular importance 
to the local heavy industries but also ranks high in the Calumet region. 
According to statistics on tonnage shipped and received, the Harbor ranks 
23rd in the nation. Within the conurban area of the region it ranks second 
to the Illinois Calumet Harbor only 12 miles to the northeast. 

Because the area involves extraordinary diversity of manufactured 
goods, transportation facilities used are also extremely diverse. Practi- 
cally every conceivable form of water, land, and air transport is used in 
one case or another — heavy and light trucking service, railroad boxcars 
and tankcars, boats and barges, pipelines and planes. Factors which 
influence or determine the type of transportation used are related to 
varying factors: differential costs; distances of source of raw materials 
and markets; size, weight, and bulkiness of product; convenience of 
handling and packaging; urgency; special physical characteristics of 
products requiring a particular type of handling. A major change in 
transportation within the last ten years is increased trucking on a large 
scale. Though questionnaire percentage figures are lacking comparing 
truck transportation with that of other forms, a greater number of manu- 
facturers reported a change to trucking service than any other single 
change. Heavy and bulky products are naturally favored by rail and barge 
shipments. Thus, one of the industries reported its practice: "A 20,000- 
pound unit of purchase will go by truck; a 60,000-pound unit will go by 
rail." On the other hand, where time or urgency is a factor, sizable items 
may be shipped by plane. 

Despite these widespread and varied facilities, the area of transpor- 
tation is reportedly East Chicago's "most pressing problem." "While our 
highways in all directions are inadequate to handle the ever increasing 
number of employees coming into our community to work, the problem is 
most acute in the pitifully small number of North-South highways. 
Through a splendid cooperative effort between the Public Officials and the 



180 Indiana Academy of Science 

Chambers of Commerce in this area, we at last have under construction 
the improvement of Cline Avenue as a limited access highway. It is 
scheduled for completion between Route 6 and Industrial Highway by 
next September. We also have developed extensive plans which are pres- 
ently being considered by the State Highway Department. These involve 
the improvement and re-routing of State Road 912; the creation of an 
Alternate 912, which would involve restoration of the long time useless 
Canal Street bridge; the improvement of Kennedy Avenue and its con- 
nection with the proposed Alternate 912" (5). 

Geographic Dispersion of the Labor Force a Distinguishing 
Industrial Feature 

As is noted elsewhere, a large percentage of the labor force must be 
gotten outside the immediate area, though many industries encourage 
settlement within the immediate area, particularly employees of the high- 
est skilled type, since absenteeism, hazards, or other adverse factors due 
to distant travelling can result in serious handicaps of industrial activity. 
Very few industries report that all, or nearly all, of their employees are 
from within the area. Such characterizations include ''Calumet area," 
"entire area," "Lake and Cook County and Porter County." Various 
outside cities are mentioned, primarily Hammond on the west and Gary 
on the east. Several of the larger firms gave us a revealing percentage 
breakdown of the various outside communities represented on their labor 
force. Thus, for example, the following percentages: East Chicago, 46; 
Gary, 16; Hammond, 15; Chicago, 8; Calumet City, 2; Whiting, 2. Another 
respondent reported: Hammond, 34.4; East Chicago, 10.2; Whiting, 8.6; 
Highland, Q.Q; Gary, 5.3; Munster, 3.5; Griffith, 3.3; other miscellaneous 
employees who live in Indiana, 8.7. From communities on the Illinois side, 
the following percentages: Chicago, 6.2; Calumet City, 5.4; Lansing, 5.4; 
Dolton, 0.8; miscellaneous, 1.6. Thus the total percentage of employees of 
Indiana is approximately 81, and of Illinois 19. Still another firm lists 
the following community figures: East Chicago, 50; Chicago, 35; Gary, 10; 
Hammond, Griffith, 5. 

Such high percentages of non-resident laborers point to another major 
problem of the area, namely, inadequate housing for industrial workers. 
The wide open spaces of northwestern Indiana once made it possible for 
workers, if they so wished, to live at some distance away from the noisome 
gases, odors, and dust-polluted atmosphere of the refining stills and blast 
furnaces. However, as a result of phenomenal industrial expansion, land 
became progressively scarce as more and more residences came to be built 
privately both by industrial management as well as by workers. It was 
only a question, therefore, of a few decades when civic authorities as well 
as industries began to recognize that such proximity could result only in 
substandard housing and eventual "slums," similar to those that have 
developed elsewhere in heavily industrialized communities. The first major 
step to be taken by civic agencies to correct or at least check this progres- 
sive blightening influence was that of the East Chicago Chamber of 
Commerce, which in 1926 published a general survey of its social and 
economic problems (6). The purpose of this report was to present the 
results of a survey of the "physical, social and economic aspects" of the 
city, with the view of assaying the major housing and other related 



Geology and Geography 181 

problems in the community and reviewing various possible measures of 
improving the general living conditions of the community. Other aspects 
of the report deal with local marketing, transportation, recreation facili- 
ties, educational facilities, noxious elements, the ethnographic composi- 
tion of the population, as well as suggestions for zoning and planning for 
the future. One of the unique features of this report is the distribution 
of a questionnaire to the citizens to determine attitudes that militated 
against living in the community. So one of the questions asked was, "If 
you do not live in East Chicago please state briefly why you do not." The 
answers of the 274 respondents were tabulated. While the individual 
answers are highly illuminative, they cannot be individually listed here. 
However, the report goes on to summarize the criticisms of the commu- 
nity, particularly as they reflect living conditions, which in tabulated 
form is here produced in part as follows: 

Planning for the Future of East Chicago — Criticisms by 
Industrial Employees: 

The foregoing 274 answers to Question #11 furnish 420 objections, 
which may be conveniently classified as follows : 

SUMMARY OF CRITICISMS 

Objections Totals 

No. % No. % 

1. Housing 

Shortage of Residences 42 10.00 

Shortage of Stores and Markets 6 1.43 

Shortage of Amusements 9 2.14 

High Rents and Taxes 44 10.48 101 24.05 

2. Transportation 48 11.43 48 11.43 

3. Racial 

Foreigners in General 25 5.95 

Mexicans 30 7.14 

Negroes 45 10.72 100 23.81 

4. Public Utilities 

Poor Water 23 5.48 

Poor Gas 4 0.95 27 6.43 

5. Undesirable Conditions 

Uncleanliness 22 5.24 

Cement Dust 17 4.05 

Smoke 3 0.71 42 10.00 

The remaining categories in the order of importance were: "Living 
Conditions Generally (8.81); Lawlessness (5.95); Poor Schools (2.38); 
Environment (1.90) ; Miscellaneous (1.90) ; No Restricted Districts 
(1.67) ; and Owns Property Elsewhere (1.67)." 

Another questionnaire circulated by the Chamber of Commerce was 
directed at determining "suggestions for improvements." Again detailed 
responses were received and a broad classification indicated. Items con- 
cerned with building of more housing units of diverse types and the 



182 Indiana Academy of Science 

lowering of rents were emphasized to the extent of 24.30 percent. A similar 
aggregate percentage was concerned with restrictions based in order of 
segregation of races, zoning ordinance, elimination of foreigners, and 
building restrictions. The third major improvement category concerned 
improvements in sanitation, public utilities, elimination of cement dust and 
smoke, as well as the planting of trees, a total of 21.77 percent. The remain- 
ing classification items stressed the elimination of lawlessness (6.48 per- 
cent), the provision for more parks and playgrounds (3.24 percent), and 
other miscellaneous items for a total of 3.47 percent. 

In the summarization, then, it is noted that "two-fifths assigned as 
the reason for not living in East Chicago is the inability to secure suitable 
living quarters at reasonable rents or some other objection having to do 
with the housing situation." 

Between the years 1950 and 1954 constructive action on the part of 
industries and the social-political forces in the city and surrounding 
communities stimulated the need for planning, to solve the housing and 
other land-use problems. For this purpose the Purdue-Calumet Develop- 
ment Foundation was organized. 1 

According to statistics compiled by the foundation, industrial land 
comprises 70.1 percent of the total land use in East Chicago and 58.3 
percent in Whiting. These high percentages present many problems in 
relation to residential land use which occupies approximately 11 percent 
of the total land area in both communities, with East Chicago supporting 
a population of 57,669 and Whiting 8,137. As Bunsa made clear, the 
industrialists have become concerned about the residential blighting con- 
ditions and, incidentally, help financially to sponsor the urban redevelop- 
ment project in East Chicago. 

In Figure 3 are shown the main housing developments, known as 
"action" areas: 

"Area a is officially known as the Indiana Harbor Urban Renewal 
Area. This area has a clearance section and a conservation section. 
Execution of the project after completion of planning and federal and 
local approvals, commenced in August, 1960. 

Area b represents the new Prairie Park subdivision to be devel- 
oped by Purdue-Calumet Development Foundation for 600 middle- 
income homes. At this time the Foundation owns only that portion 
west of Alder Street, the first section of which (80 units) is now 
under development. 



x According to Mr. Thomas S. Bunsa, the General Director, the organization got its 
start in this manner : 

"The idea of the foundation grew out of the social, economic and administrative 
needs of the Calumet region after World War II. Economic growth in the area brought 
high prosperity and a need for more and more housing to accommodate adequately a 
growing work force. But years of neglect, through depression and war, had produced 
widespread areas of blight intensified by overcrowding after the war, which continued 
to spread despite high prosperity. In these circumstances, people began to question 
whether or not better housing and living standards should not be attainable in high 
prosperity, and industrialists began to be concerned about the need for more and better 
housing and an improved environment, which they considered necessary to hold and 
attract the required personnel to man their expansion programs" (7). 



Geology and Geography 183 

Area c is the West Calumet Urban Renewal Area. Planning of 
this project is almost complete. Commencement of execution is antici- 
pated sometime during late 1962. As in Area a, both clearance and 
conservation is proposed. 

Area d is known as "New Addition." Some renewal activities are 
necessary here, but at this time there are no proposals for this 
area" (8). 

Cal-Sag Project Poses a New Geographic Dimension to 
West Calumet Industries 

Figure 4 shows three harbors on the southwest shore of Lake Michigan 
identified with the so-called Calumet-Sag Navigation Project — the Chicago 
Harbor, the Calumet Harbor, and the Indiana Harbor at East Chicago. 

The project "was authorized by Congress with approval of the Rivers 
and Harbors Act of 1946. Its completion will join two great inland water 
routes, one of which leads to the Mississippi and the Gulf ports; the other 
through the Great Lakes and to the Atlantic ocean via the St. Lawrence 
Seaway. . . . Constructed primarily as a sanitation and drainage canal, 
it had two major purposes: to provide drainage for the south side of 
Chicago and to prevent pollution of Lake Michigan by reversing the flow 
of the Calumet River. . . . However, the original purpose for which the 
Channel was built has been far overshadowed by its importance to the 
surging need for adequate commercial navigation in this area. Bypassing 
the congested Chicago business district, it leads through comparatively 
open country to the great concentration of industry south and east of 
Chicago — a region in which are located numerous steel mills, oil refineries, 
cold storage plants, grain elevators, chemical industries, and plants allied 
with the heavy industries." ... (9). 

As it will also be noted on the map, the East Chicago-Whiting region 
is part of Part 2 of this project, involving as it does the Indiana Harbor, 
the Indiana Ship Canal, and the Grand Calumet River to the south. 
Improvements here call for deepening the Grand Calumet River from its 
present four feet to nine feet, and from its present width of approximately 
one hundred feet to 225 feet from the junction of the Grand Calumet River 
with the Little Calumet River to the present head of deep-draft navigation 
at 141st Street. A further provision calls for a lock and controlling works 
in the Grand Calumet River immediately west of its junction with the 
Indiana Harbor Canal. 

As will also be noted on the map, the development of this navigation 
project involves expensive relocation or reconstruction of numerous 
bridges — both highway and railway— now without adequate vertical and 
horizontal clearances. 

Though the Federal government is committed to the project in the 
main, local interests have the responsibility of cooperating in the project 
by providing necessary rights of way and areas for soil disposal as well as 
relocation or alteration of utilities affected by the channel improvement 
project. 

Part 1 of the project, started in 1955, is scheduled for completion in 
1964. Development of Part 2 is contingent upon the readiness of the local 
area to assume its share of contractual obligations, as indicated above. 



184 Indiana Academy of Science 

To what extent the East Chicago area will benefit directly from the 
development of Part 2 together with Part 1 of the project is difficult to say. 
Much would depend upon the comparative developments of the three 
harbors indicated and the degree to which the eastern part of the Grand 
Calumet region would expand industrially and commercially. 

Conclusion: Community Rehabilitation in Interstate 
Calumet Perspective 

The East Chicago Chamber of Commerce report for 1926 concluded 
with a strong recommendation on certain principles to be observed in 
planning and zoning of residential, business, and industrial areas to fit 
the progressive needs of the community, particularly in terms of social 
and economic betterment. It went even so far as to suggest a change of 
name, partly because some eight other communities in the region already 
carried the appellation of Chicago, and partly because of the confusion in 
the minds of some that East Chicago and Indiana Harbor actually repre- 
sented two different cities. Because East Chicago was recognized as being 
closely integrated especially in terms of transportation with the other 
cities of the West Calumet region, the report suggested consolidating East 
Chicago with the other three neighboring communities — Whiting on the 
northwest, Hammond on the west, and Gary on the east, with which East 
Chicago has "coterminal boundaries in large part." 

After some thirty-five years, this time as part of the program of the 
Purdue-Calumet Development Foundation, the problem of co-ordination 
of inter-area transportation is again being considered. It is proposed that 
the several west Calumet communities be developed after the pattern of 
the PCDF for East Chicago, and that such four-area foundations be 
"federated into a parent Northwest Indiana Development Foundation" 
(10). 

Mr. Applegate, executive vice president of the East Chicago Chamber 
of Commerce, also reports that local industries, through the Chamber of 
Commerce and local public officials, working with the neighboring Calu- 
met area communities, propose the creation of a new deep water harbor — 
the so-called Outer Harbor Project or Tri-City Harbor. This project 
envisions "connecting the existing South Chicago Harbor and Indiana 
Harbor with a breakwater," involving also the creation of new land for 
port and industries. Again working with "neighbors in Indiana and 
Illinois," the Chamber is active in "seeking congressional appropriations 
to continue the Calumet-Sag Canal project eastward," as outlined pre- 
viously. 

Observations and proposals, such as the above, point to problems of 
areal development inherent in growing industrial communities where arti- 
ficial corporate limits and arbitrary municipal controls operate in conflict 
rather than in co-ordination of area interests for the component regional 
communities. Urban renewal, with all that this implies in the redevelop- 
ment of the East Chicago-Whiting community, is not, then, merely a 
matter of internal city concern. It represents rather a geographic rehabili- 
tation project calling for consideration of all the major natural and human 
environmental factors germane to the manufactural, commercial, and 
residential functions of the area — such as drainage, sewerage, and sani- 
tation; the transportation and traffic patterns; the industrial expansion 



Geology and Geography 185 

potential, and labor force availability. Important as are their interrela- 
tionships within the community itself, the problems arising from such 
compact and complex situation as here presented must be assayed in a 
wider regional context than the precincts of a city boundary, or county, 
or even any one state. Industrial-residential blight may be primarily an 
internal community affair. Yet even this is normally related to a traffic 
pattern of inter-regional scope. And this inter-regional impact, in the 
case of the Calumet-Chicago area, is, of course, inter-state, involving the 
Illinois side as well as the Indiana component. Sound community planning 
for the rehabilitation and progressive development of the East Chicago- 
Whiting area thus involves a comprehensive geographic survey of the 
inter-state implications of: the projected improvements of Calumet River 
drainage; the eastward extension of navigability of the Cal-Sag, including 
the connected Indiana Harbor Ship Canal; the promotion of St. Lawrence 
Seaway commerce by the various ports in the southwestern Lake Michigan 
area, including Indiana Harbor (and any new harbors that might be 
projected, such as the site of the Burns Waterway) ; and the changing 
pattern of transport and traffic of the Calumet region. 

But such inter-state survey, to be effective, must be implemented by 
proper legislation — an inter-state compact of some type. Such legislation 
would not only identify more clearly community problems and their 
regional scope of attack, but also would help eliminate some of the regional 
prejudices which are blind to the geographic realities that must be ap- 
praised objectively if all the industrial communities of the Calumet are 
to share in an expanding world market for their goods and by such indus- 
trial expansion improve as well the standard of living of their employees, 
whether local or regional residents. 

The Calumet compact might be patterned after similar compacts 
operative elsewhere. For example, the Bi-State Compact of the Wabash 
River Valley is an agreement between the legislatures of Indiana and 
Illinois (January 25, 1960), approved by the Congress of the United 
States, to develop comprehensively the resources of the Wabash valley. 
To this end, the compact is directed at relating the "agricultural, indus- 
trial, commercial, recreational, transportation, development and other 
problems to the opportunities in the Valley" (11). Jurisdiction resides in 
the Wabash Valley Interstate Commission which has the responsibility of 
"coordinating the efforts of the local, state, and federal agencies to obtain 
efficient and effective development of resources for all purposes." 

The virtue of a comprehensive planning pattern such as this is that 
it identifies the integral inter-state relations of the economic potential 
within the framework of the total geographic perspective. 

Though the Calumet-Lake Michigan region is uniquely focused on 
urban-industrial-commercial resource developments, and, therefore, calls 
for its own distinctive regional analysis, the general principle of seeking 
a co-ordinated and unified regional evaluation of its problems and poten- 
tialities applies in the East Chicago-Whiting community as it does in other 
conurbanized areas. 

Acknowledgments 

The authors gratefully acknowledge the many sources that have 
materially contributed to this areal study : the industrial and other inter- 



186 Indiana Academy of Science 

viewees as well as all documentary sources. Particularly helpful have been 
the contributions by conference and correspondence significant in develop- 
ing insights and concepts of areal projections of policy in modeling a new 
geography for the East Chicago-Whiting area. In this connection, we 
wish to credit specifically Mr. George H. Applegate, Executive Vice Presi- 
dent of the East Chicago Chamber of Commerce, and Mr. Thomas S. 
Bunsa and Mr. Walter Furness, General Director and Chief Planner, 
respectively, of the Purdue-Calumet Development Foundation. 

Developed as a research project in the class of "Geographic Problems" 
in the Department of Geography and Geology at Valparaiso University, 
this study involved a considerable amount of "spadework" — the collection, 
tabulation, and cartographic representation of data in which students 
participated, including the class of "Urban Geography" under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Elmer Hess of the departmental staff — all of whose services 
are deeply appreciated. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bureau of the Census, U. S. Department of Commerce. 1960 Census of Population, 
Indiana, November 30, 1960. 

2. Meyer, Alfred II. September, 1956. Circulation and Settlement Pattern of the 
Calumet Region, Second Stage of Occupance, 1830-1850. Annals of the Associa- 
tion of American Geographers 46, p. 313. 

3. Moore, Powell A., 19.39, The Calumet Region. Indiana Historical Bureau 39, pp. 
219-220. 

4. Ibid. pp. 216-217. 

5. AprLEGATE, George EL, Executive Vice President. East Chicago Chamber of Com- 
merce, communication, November 4, 1961. 

6. Walker. James, 1926, Planning for the Future of East Chicago, Indiana. (Pre- 
pared for the East Chicago Chamber of Commerce.) 

7. Bunsa, Thomas S.. January. 1900, Calumet Industrial Area. Brochure extract 
from the Journal of Housing 42. 

8. Eurness, Walter, Chief Planner, Purdue-Calumet Development Foundation, East 
Chicago, Indiana. Communication, November 15, 1961. 

9. Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army Engineer District, Chicago. Illinois. Calumet-Sag 
Navigation Project (Brochure). 

10. Purdue-Calumet Development Foundation, Annual Report for 1900. 

11. Wabash Valley Interstate Commission, Terre Haute, Indiana. A Bi-State Approach 
to Resource Development (Brochure). 



Apportionment of Representation in the Indiana 
Legislature 

David W. Amsttjtz, Indiana University 

Since the 1960 state elections a focus of interest has developed con- 
cerning the possibility of reapportioning elective districts in Indiana. 
This is not a recent issue in as much as the General Assembly has stead- 
fastly refused to reapportion itself since 1933. Recently one of the Judges 
of the State Court of Appeals ruled the whole Assembly unconstitutional 
for not reapportioning itself. 

The Indiana General Assembly is composed of two houses, the upper 
house or Senate and the lower House of Representatives. At the last 
reapportionment the state was divided into 43 Senate districts which 
elect 50 Senators, and 75 House districts which elect 100 representatives. 
The boundaries of these voting districts strictly adhere to county boun- 
daries, so that the county is the basic political unit of legislative district- 
ing. Counties may not be divided into more than one district, but a district 
may be formed by several counties which must be contiguous. 

Any reapportionment would involve changing the boundaries of the 
present elective districts rather than adding representatives, since the 
number of representatives is specifically fixed in the State Constitution. 
According to the State Constitution, reapportionment of the elective dis- 
tricts is to be based on an enumeration of male inhabitants over 21 years 
of age, to be taken every six years. The last enumeration of this type 
made by the state was in 1931, but the 1933 and all subsequent legislatures 
have refused to use this law as a basis for reapportionment, because it 
became outdated when women also received the vote. 

With this in mind, we shall take a look at the present apportionment 
of legislative voting districts in the state of Indiana. 

The total population of the state has been divided by the number of 
representatives in each house of the state legislature, in order to compute 
a population mean per representative. The actual population of each 
elective district is divided by this mean, in order to find its percentage of 
the mean. The classification of all elective districts into four categories is 
purely arbitrary but necessary to facilitate graphic presentation. 

The use of the population mean per representative is presumed to be 
the most ideal method of comparing equality of representation in this 
study, because it is consistent with the old democratic theory of one man, 
one vote. The population figures used are from the 1960 Census of Popu- 
lation. 

The mean population figure for each of the 100 lower house repre- 
sentatives is 64,625. The range of population per representative of those 
districts in the 70 to 129 % of mean classification varies from 32,443 
(Marshall County district 70% of mean), to 59,225 (Monroe County dis- 
trict 127% of mean). One may hesitate to consider a distribution this 
wide as being acceptable, but considering all of the inheritant problems of 
apportioning a fixed number of representatives within unflexible districts, 
it would not be unreasonable to accept this range if it were to include all 
of the elective districts of the state. However, as shown on the district 
Map 1, only approximately two thirds of all lower house elective districts 

187 



188 



Indiana Academy of Science 



VOTING DISTRICTS 
INDIANA HOUSE 



PERCENTAGE 
OF MEAN 



D" 



NDER 70 



■ 70 129% 
HI 130-199% 

■ OVER 200 % 




Map 1 

in the state do fall in this classification. The remainder are either highly 
over represented or badly under represented. For example, Lake County 
has an average of 95,581 people per representative (183% of mean), 
while Parke County has a population of only 14,804 enjoying the luxury 
of a representative. The Parke County district at 38% of mean is the 
most over represented elective district in the lower house. 



Geology and Geography 189 

The districts which are under 70% of mean contain 15% of the total 
population of the state, which elects 23% of the representatives in the 
lower house. This may be compared with the districts which are in the 
130 to 199% classification. They contain 19% of the total population but 
elect only 12% of the representatives. A vote cast in one of the latter 
districts has only approximately half the representation of a vote cast in 
one of the former districts. In the 70 to 129% of mean classification, 61% 
of the total population elects 64% of the representatives, and the districts 
which are over 200% of mean contain 5% of the total population but elect 
less than 1% of the representatives in the lower house. 

Those districts which are over 200% of the mean have a unique 
characteristic of districting in common. They have been integrated with 
large adjacent urban districts in a very curious manner. An example of 
this is Johnson County adjacent to Marion County, which contains Indian- 
apolis. The 697,567 inhabitants of Marion County have 11 lower house 
representatives which are elected at large in Marion County, in addition 
to another representative in common with Johnson County, population 
43,707, who is elected at large in both counties. The question that arises is 
how to evaluate Johnson County. Can Johnson County be considered to 
have one full representative? Not really, when Marion County has 16 
times more voice in determining this representative. Thus we find that 
Johnson County has 1/17 of one representative and Marion County has 
11 16/17 representatives. This arrangement gives Johnson County a 
remarkable index figure of 1058% of the mean. There are thirteen of 
these integrated district combinations in the House and six in the Senate. 
In addition to Johnson County, Blackford County 194% of mean, Whitley 
County 542% of mean, Carroll County 124% of mean, Hancock County 
324% of mean, Rush County 148% of mean, Tipton County 183% of mean, 
Pike County 116% of mean, Porter County 1270% of mean, Starke County 
242% of mean, Posey and Warrick Counties 446% of mean, Warren 
County 209% of mean, and Union County 173% of mean, share in this 
dubious distinction of minor league representation. 

In the Senate, the population mean per Senator is 93,250. As is evi- 
dent by the Map 2, only half of the Senate districts fall within the 70 to 
129% classification. The population distribution within this category 
ranges from 66,582 (population of Dearborn, Jennings, Ripley district 
71% of mean) to an average of 117,435 per representative of Marion 
County district, 126% of mean. 

The Clay and Parke County district (population total 39,011) is the 
most over represented district in the Senate at 42% of mean. At the other 
end of the index is the Lake County district, average population per repre- 
sentative 171,088, which is 184% of mean. 

The districts under 70% of mean contain 20% of the total population, 
which elects 32% of the Senate. The districts in the 70 to 129% of mean 
classification contain 59% of the total population, which elects 58% of 
the Senate. The districts which are in the 130 to 200% of mean classifica- 
tion contain 16% of the total population and elect 10% of the Senate, 
while the districts over 200% of mean contain 5% of the population, which 
elects less than 1% of the Senate. 



190 



Indiana Academy of Science 



VOTING DISTRICTS 
INDIANA SENATE 



PERCENTAGE 
OF MEAN 

I"""] UNDER 70% 

\~~] 70—129% 

V] 130^199% 

■ OVER 200% 




Map 2 

Those districts over 200% of mean are those which share a repre- 
sentative with a large adjacent urban district. Unlike the lower house, 
all of these integrated districts are in this classification. 

The apportionment of representation in the Indiana Legislature is 
unequitably balanced for a considerable fraction of the state's inhabitants, 



Geology and Geography 191 

and does not present equal representation to the citizens of this state 
irrespective of geographic location within its boundaries. 

Literature Cited 

Census of Population, 1960. 

General Election Report of Indiana compiled by Charles O. Hendricks, Secretary of 

State, Indiana, 1960. 
Yearbook of Indiana, 1950. 



Distribution of Population Change in Indiana, 1950-1960 

Paul D. Whippo, Indiana University 

In the past, most population studies have employed the county unit 

for mapping and describing population change. While one may list a 

number of advantages for selecting the county unit in preference to a 

smaller areal unit, the fact that the county is the larger unit is a disad- 



POPULATION CHANGE BY COUNTY 



De c li tie 

m 

gift 

Increase 

■ 

< 18,5% 




liiiil 




Paul D, Whippo 
INDIANA UNJV, 



Geology and Geography 193 

vantage in so much as many significant population changes in the smaller 
areas are obscured. This paper is an attempt to illustrate some of these 
obscurities and thereby to more accurately describe the change in popula- 
tion which has taken place in Indiana during the 1950-1960 decade through 
the comparison of a county unit map depicting the distribution of popula- 
tion change for this period with a civil township unit map. 

The rate of change in population per unit area on each map has been 
computed from data in the 1950 (1) and 1960 (2) United States Censuses 
of Population. To facilitate the handling of the numerous rates at which 
population change has occurred, the rates of change have been grouped 
into three categories: (1) areas of population decline, (2) minimum gain 
areas which increased in population at a lesser rate than did the state 
(18.5 per cent), and (3) maximum gain areas which increased in popula- 
tion at a greater rate than did the state. 

From the county unit map (map #1) , it would appear that population 
decline is concentrated in fifteen southwestern counties and limited to 
three additional counties in the eastern part of the state. However, the 
township unit map (map #2) reveals a different pattern. Based on the 
average thirty-six square mile township, thirty-three per cent of the total 
area of the state is computed to have lost population as compared to only 
nineteen per cent of the total area when the county unit is used. Also, 
from the township unit map it is disclosed that only forty-one per cent of 
the area which lost population is located in the eighteen declining counties. 

These discrepancies in the size and dispersion of areas of decline are 
the product of averaging the maximum increase in population of a few 
townships among all of the townships within the county. Warrick and 
Rush Counties illustrate this most vividly; seven of the ten townships in 
Warrick County and eight of the twelve townships in Rush County lost 
population during the ten year period, but still both counties were able to 
record an increase in population on the county unit map. 

The averaging process is also observable when the urban areas on the 
two maps are compared. While both maps relate the areas of maximum 
increase in population with established cities, the maximum gain asso- 
ciated with six cities (Evansville, Terre Haute, South Bend, Bloomington, 
Logansport and Richland) on the township unit map are obscured by the 
larger county unit. 

Thus, an evaluation of the comparison of the two maps at this point 
would indicate (1) a larger and more dispersed area of population decline 
than is depicted on the county unit map, and (2) a closer correlation of 
areas of maximum population gain with urban places. However, a third 
point to be made is that the township unit permits a more precise descrip- 
tion of the pattern of population change associated with urban areas. 

This pattern may be described as analogous to a 'doughnut," with the 
"doughnut" representing the area of maximum growth, and encompassing 
an urbanized township which experienced a relatively small increase or 
an actual decline in population. 

The "doughnut" pattern is illustrated on the nine county-Indianapolis 
area map (map #3) which was constructed by consigning the rates of 
population change for each township to the geographic center of the town- 
ship and interpolating there from the isopleths of population change. The 



194 



Indiana Academy of Science 



POPULATION CHANGE BY TOWNSHIP 




1950-1960 



Paul D. Whippo 
NDIANA UNIV. 



Map 



"doughnut" depicts the greatest increase in population to be, not in the 
urbanized area or suburban fringe, but in the second tier of townships 
from the city, with the steepest gradient of population change on the city 
side of the "doughnut." This method of mapping population change illus- 
trates the importance of the city as a place of employment, and the small 
towns and rural areas as a place of residence. 



Geology and Geography 



195 



Three cities experienced the aforementioned decline in population of 
the "core" township: Indianapolis, Terre Haute, and Evansville, and the 
actual loss in population for the three townships, 32,944 persons, repre- 
sents fifty-one per cent of the total loss for all of the declining townships. 
This would seem to indicate that urban to rural movement is equally as 
important as rural to urban movement in the population redistribution. 

Although the Indianapolis area is the only example of the "doughnut" 
pattern to be described in this paper, it should suffice to say that the pattern 
prevails in eighteen of the remaining nineteen urban places in Indiana 
with over 20,000 persons. 



POPULATION CHANGE IN THE 
INDIANAPOLIS AREA 1950-1960 



Increase 



> 100 % 





> < 


b0 % 


u 

> 20 % 


D 

< 20 % 


Paul D. Whippo 


IN 


DIA 


NA UNIV. 




Map 3 



Literature Cited 

1. TJ. S. Bureau of the Census. 1950. TJ. 8. Census of Population: 1, U. S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 1951. 

2. TJ. S. Bureau of the Census, TJ. 8. Census of Population: 1960 Advance Report, PC 
(Al)-16, November 30, I960. 



Bloomington's Industrial Labor-Shed 

Richard D. Wright, Indiana University 

Introduction 

This is a study of an industrial labor-shed. Just as the term water- 
shed is defined as the area from which a stream receives its water, so also 
the term labor-shed can be used to indicate the region from which a par- 
ticular industry or city acquires its source of labor. The objective of this 
paper is thus to analyze the size, shape, and composition of one industrial 
labor-shed in particular; that of Bloomington, Indiana. Labor-shed 
analysis is important not just because it directs attention to the distances 
traveled by some people to work, but also because it is one of several major 
indicators of the amount of influence exerted by the city on its surrounding 
region. In any sort of regional or city planning, labor-shed studies become 
invaluable as a necessary preliminary for sound zoning practices, the 
establishment of outlying service centers, and the handling of a host of 
traffic problems. It is hoped that other studies, similar to this, will be 
made of the industrial labor-sheds of other Indiana cities. Then through 
comparison, perhaps some broad principles regarding labor-shed size, 
shape, and composition may be evolved. 

Methodology 

In order to achieve the objective set forth in the introduction, it is 
both unnecessary and impractical to take into account the nearly 100 
industries on the Bloomington Chamber of Commerce industrial list. 
Rather, only the three largest industries — Radio Corporation of America, 
Sarkes Tarzian, and Westinghouse — are considered on the basis that these 
three, excluding the 26 stone firms that are scattered throughout the 
county, account for approximately 56 per cent of Bloomington's industrial 
labor force. In addition to these three industries, Indiana University is 
included in this study and considered as an industry because it is the 
biggest employment establishment in the city. The major role played by 
the university in the economy of Bloomington is at once obvious if one 
considers that the some 5,000 persons working at the university are bring- 
ing money into the city. However, in this treatment only the 3,033 salaried 
employees will be considered, for practically all the other employees are 
students working part-time. The addition of Indiana University's salaried 
employees brings the total to 8,463 workers or about 90 per cent of Bloom- 
ington's total industrial labor force, excluding again the stone firms. 
Mapping the distribution of 90 per cent of the labor force is considered 
sufficient to allow an accurate identification of Bloomington's industrial 
labor-shed. 

One of the objectives is to determine with some accuracy the limits 
of the labor-shed. Consequently, it is essential to find where the workers 
live. Three alternative methods of obtaining information regarding the 
workers' residences are available: (1) license plates can be checked at 
industrial parking lots and addresses obtained from license plate direc- 
tories, (2) one may conduct interviews at the industrial location, or (3) 
residences can be located by securing a list of employees and their home 
addresses from each industry. The third method of obtaining home ad- 

196 



Geology and Geography 



197 



dresses is utilized here because this procedure, unlike the first two, is not 
only less time consuming, but is also open to considerably less error. 

The employees of Bloomington's major industries are broken down 
into three groups on the basis of their home location with respect to Bloom- 
ington. Bloomington city employees are those which live inside Blooming- 
ton's city limits, Bloomington rural employees are those which live in 
Bloomington's rural areas, and non-Bloomington employees are those 
which live outside of the rural areas of Bloomington. 

Proportionate circles are used in this paper to represent the non- 
Bloomington class of workers. Figures one through three illustrate the 
proportionate circle method of showing distributions. A black circle near 
the center in each of the first three figures symbolizes the number of 
Bloomington city and Bloomington rural persons working in the major 
industries. A pie graph located in the lower left-hand corner of each of 
these figures shows the percentage of Bloomington city, Bloomington 
rural, and non-Bloomington employees. 

Electronic Industries 

The electronics industries have an average labor force totaling 5,430 
employees, or about 65 per cent of the total number of workers employed 



ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES 

DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYEES 



Indianapolis 



Terre Haute 



Vincennes 




Columbus 



Seymoui 



Classification Of Employees 
34" /v\ B' oom > n £t° n Citv 



Non-Bloomington 
5.430 - Total Number Of Employees 



Non-Blomington Employees 



110 25 100 300 HOI i 
Number Of Employees 



Figure 1 



198 Indiana Academy of Science 

in Bloomington's major industries (Figure 1). An unusually high per- 
centage of the labor force resides outside of the political city. Twenty-one 
per cent of the workers live in the city's rural areas while an additional 
45 per cent live outside of the Bloomington area. Thus a total of 66 per 
cent of the labor force lives outside of the city limits. 

The largest concentration of non-Bloomington workers is found in 
the Bedford area 30 miles to the south (Figure 1). Large numbers of 
workers also come from the Bloomfield, Ellettsville, and Spencer areas. 
The large number of employees commuting from the northwest, west, 
southwest, and south probably is a result of the lack of employment oppor- 
tunities in these mining and agricultural areas. The paucity of economic 
activity is further indicated by the fact that many of these counties have 
been losing population for 60 years. On the other hand, only a few people 
engaged at the electronics industries live east and northeast of Blooming- 
ton. Columbus probably siphons off much of the labor force east of 
Bloomington ; while to the northeast, much of the labor is drawn to indus- 
trial Indianapolis. Then too, poor roads leading into Bloomington from 
the east, though much better in recent months, have also lessened the 
number of persons willing to commute from this area because of the 
greater time distance. In addition, immediately to the northeast and east, 
there are relatively few population concentrations from which to draw 
labor. 

The longest straight-line distance journeyed by workers commuting 
to the electronics industries is nearly 70 miles; traveled by employees 
living at Vincennes, Huntingburg, and Birdseye. However, as Figure 1 
illustrates, there are very few commuters residing outside of a 40-mile 
radius of Bloomington. 

Indiana University 

A total of 3,033 salaried employees work on the Bloomington campus. 
This number accounts for about 35 per cent of the labor force of Bloom- 
ington's major economic establishments (Figure 2). 

The distribution of Indiana University's labor force, as shown in 
Figure 2, differs from that of the electronics industries in that: (1) a 
much higher per cent of its employees live within the city limits of Bloom- 
ington, (2) the non-Bloomington class of employees have a less wider 
distribution range, and (3) the directional distribution of the non-Bloom- 
ington class of workers is dissimilar. 

Seventeen per cent of the workers live in the rural districts of Bloom- 
ington, while only six per cent live outside of the Bloomington area. Thus 
only 23 per cent of the employees at Indiana University reside outside of 
the city limits as compared to the figure of 66 per cent exhibited by the 
electronics industries. University personnel thus prefer to live within a 
few minutes driving distance of work. 

The farthest straight-line distance traversed by a university em- 
ployee is about 65 miles from Vincennes. In addition, workers also com- 
mute from Brazil and Terre Haute. For the most part, however, most 
university personnel live within a 30-mile radius of Bloomington. 

Unlike the electronics industries, Indiana University has a large 
number of commuting employees who live to the east of Bloomington, 
principally in the Unionville and Nashville areas. In addition to these two 



Geology and Geography 



199 



Indianapolis 




Columbus 



Seymour 



Classification Of Employees 

Bloomington City 
Non- Bloomington 
Bloomington Rural 
3.033 - Total Number Of Employees 



Non-Bloomington Employees 



01 5 10 30 
Number Of Employees 



Figure 2 

areas, relatively large concentrations of commuters are also found in the 
Ellettsville, Bloomfield, and Bedford areas. 

The Total Industrial Labor-Shed 

Figure three is a composite map of the first two. It represents, for 
all practical purposes, Bloomington's industrial labor-shed. The composi- 
tion of the labor-shed, as revealed in the pie graph shows that less than 
one-half of the 8,463 workers live within the political city, while 20 and 31 
per cent, respectively, are classified as Bloomington rural and non-Bloom- 
ington. 

The largest concentrations of workers are found northwest, west, and 
south of Bloomington within a 40-mile radius. The Bedford area predomi- 
nates as the single largest contributor of labor to Bloomington's industries. 
Again it is obvious that few workers commute to Bloomington from the 
east. 

Bloomington's industrial labor-shed is asymmetrically oriented with 
respect to the city. The northern and eastern borders extend to a distance 
of 45 to 40 miles respectively; while the southern and western reaches of 
the boundary extend to a distance of 60 to 70 miles. A large number of 



200 



Indiana Academy of Science 



THE TOTAL INDUSTRIAL LABOR-SHED 

DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYEES J^ • 

Indianapolis 



Greencastle 



Terre Haute 




Columbus 



Seymour 



Classification Of Employees \ Scale Of Miles 

<„... y\ Non-Bloomington 
{J20".)*- Bloomington Rural 
Bloomington City 
H.463 - Total Number Of Employees 



Richard D. Wright. 1961 

Huntingburg- Birdseye 



Non-BloomingtonEmployees 



1102550100 300 600 
Number Of Employees 



Figure '•' 

population centers, better transportation routes with shorter time dis- 
tances, and a declining local economic activity combine to make those 
regions to the northwest, west, and south of Bloomington good areas from 
which to draw a labor supply. Conversely, the regions to the east and 
northeast of Bloomington supply only a small percentage of the labor 
force, principally because they are areas characterized by a relatively 
small number of population centers and poorer transportation routes 
leading into Bloomington. Columbus and Indianapolis apparently succeed 
in drawing off most of the labor force east and northeast of Bloomington 
except, of course, for the university employees. 

The Labor-Shed, Studied on a County Basis 

Perhaps a better idea of the influence of Bloomington on the economies 
of Monroe County and the surrounding counties may be gotten by com- 
paring the county industrial labor force with the number of persons in 
the county that are employed in Bloomington's major industries. In this 
way it is possible to assess the influence of Bloomington, industrial-wise, 
on Monroe County and the surrounding counties. Looking at Blooming- 
ton's labor-shed from this viewpoint, several interesting conclusions may be 



Geology and Geography 



.201 



drawn. Figure 4 shows that Monroe County, with a figure of 63 per cent, 
has the highest percentage of its industrial labor force working in the 
major industries of Bloomington. Greene County, though contributing 
fewer workers than Lawrence County; nevertheless, has a higher per- 
centage of its labor force engaged by Bloomington industry. Owen, Law- 
rence, and Brown counties all have a large proportion of their industrial 
labor force working in Bloomington. 



BLOOMINGTON'S^ 

INDUSTRIAL 

LABOR-SHED 



XI 






■>%!% 



I 



"ihoteasew 






X. 






?m Cent of County 
Industrial Labor Force 
Ekipleyedf in Blooming- 
f jon*B Major Industries 




&®s £h&*i 0.1% 
ttM% to $$A% 

mm mm 



Figure 4 



Bloomington's industrial labor-shed, as shown in Figure 4, is strongly 
oriented to the west and southwest. The per cent of the county labor force 
working in Bloomington remains relatively high — three to seven per cent — 
50 miles west and southwest of Bloomington in Knox and Sullivan coun- 
ties. However, the percentage of county labor force employed in Bloom- 
ington drops quickly to 0.4 per cent or less in Putnam, Marion, Johnson, 
Bartholomew, Jackson, and Orange counties. The westward and south- 
westward orientation of Bloomington's labor-shed is also indicated by the 
fact that Knox and Sullivan counties, located 50 miles from Bloomington, 
contribute 68 and 51 workers, respectively, to the major industries; while 
Brown County, immediately east of Monroe County, contributes only 72 
workers. Thus one can see that the influence of Bloomington's major 



202 Indiana Academy of Science 

industries extends much farther west and southwest than in any other 
direction. Figure 4 also clearly indicates the influence of the labor-sheds 
of Terre Haute and Greencastle to the northwest, Columbus to the east, 
Seymour to the southeast, and Indianapolis to the north. These cities have 
reduced the size of Bloomington's labor-shed in these directions by drawing 
off much of the labor. 

Though not indicated in any of the maps, the orientation, size, and 
shape of Bloomington's labor-shed is also affected by the components of 
its composition; that is, the people who work in the major industries. 
Among the many human factors which exert an influence on the labor- 
shed, probably the most important is the sex composition of the workers. 
The wide distribution of commuting workers to the northwest, west, and 
south of Bloomington is at least partially explained by the fact that over 
one-half of the industrial labor force is composed of women. There does 
not seem to be as strong a desire to move close to the place of work where 
the wife is employed as there is to move near to the husband's place of 
employment. Many of the men, if unemployed, go back to part-time farm- 
ing, while their wives work at such places as Radio Corporation of Amer- 
ica, Sarkes-Tarzian, and Indiana University. 

Conclusions and Suggestions for Additional Research 

Slightly more than half of the workers in Bloomington's major indus- 
tries live outside of the city limits. Thus, there is probably a considerable 
amount of money made in Bloomington, but spent in other communities. 
However this assumption is open to some doubt, and should be field checked 
by interview if its validity is to be established. 

Though only the general characteristics of Bloomington's industrial 
labor-shed are presented here; there are a number of other rewarding 
studies which can be pursued simply by using the same type of industrial 
employee address lists that were used to achieve the results of this paper. 
For example, it would be well worthwhile to study and compare the labor- 
sheds of other Indiana cities. This is one way of measuring the sphere of 
influence of cities. Another worthwhile study, using employee address 
lists, can be made by correlating the journey-to-work pattern with selected 
social and economic conditions. These and many other similar projects 
using employee address lists are recommended for further study. 



Characteristics of the Terre Haute Central Business District 

Lee Guernsey, Indiana State College 

The Central Business District of Terre Haute is a rectangular-shaped 
area bounded by 2nd Street on the west, 9% Street on the east, Mulberry 
Street on the north, and Walnut Street on the south. The area is 102.0 
acres in size, and is bisected by Wabash Avenue (U. S. 40). 

The Central Business District, hereafter termed the CBD for the 
sake of brevity, is the heart of Terre Haute. It is the place where indi- 
vidually, and collectively, business establishments do a greater volume of 
business than elsewhere in the city. However, the economic dominance of 
the CBD is being challenged today by two relatively new outlying shopping 
centers which provide for more spacious and more leisure shopping at 
slightly higher prices and somewhat less selectivity. As a consequence, 
downtown businessmen in Terre Haute are being forced to analyze the 
CBD more critically today than ever before. Most all CBD businessmen 
live in fear that competition of suburban shopping will become even 
keener. 

The Terre Haute CBD is currently plagued with some difficult and 
challenging problems. Among them are obsolete and unattractive down- 
town buildings, nonconforming land uses, low assessed valuations, vacant 
buildings, and retail sales which are far below their potential. In addition, 
downtown traffic congestion is frequently observable, parking is often 
expensive or hard to find, and truck terminals are so limited that loading 
often occurs on public streets. Unprofitable or undesirable land uses are 
all too common within the Terre Haute CBD. 

Land Use 
Of the 102 acres w T hich comprise the Terre Haute CBD, 39.1 acres are 
in streets and alleys. This is the largest single land use shown in Figure 1 
which depicts the street level use of all buildings and most all lots. Rank- 
ing second to streets and alleys in acreage consumed in the CBD is retail 
and service land use with 30.4 acres, and third is public parking with 10.5 
acres. Institutional facilities and wholesale business and warehouse uses 
occupy 6.5 acres and 4.6 acres respectively. Within the street level of the 
CBD area only 2.7 acres are used by residences, 2.5 acres of the land are 
vacant, office space occupies 1.4 acres, transportation, utilities and com- 
munications occupy 1.2 acres and 1.1 acres are consumed by industries. 

Retail and Service. Within the Terre Haute CBD, 30.4 per cent of the 
land is used for retail and service sales (Figure 1). The main retail area 
fronts on Wabash Avenue although numerous small specialty stores and 
service shops are located on streets a block or two away from Wabash 
Avenue. The largest department stores are located between 5th and 7th 
Streets on Wabash Avenue with the major exception of a large furniture 
store recently opened beyond the eastern edge of the CBD at 9Mj Street 
and Wabash Avenue. 

Offices. A large proportion of the total office space is presently con- 
tained within the rectangular area of the existing CBD despite the fact 
that only 1.4 acres of ground level area are occupied by offices. The offices 
of professional men are concentrated mainly near the center of the CBD 

203 



204 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TERRE HAUTE 



C.B.D. 



EXISTING LAND USE 




LE0END 



«grtA»u an© selves 
©rrtcs 

W*iOUBZm&L& AND 






@ 



Fijnire 1 



although some are moving to outlying areas. Lawyers, however, have 
tended to remain near the center of the CBD. Many physicians and sur- 
geons are also located near the center of the CBD. Most professional and 
business offices are located in buildings with retail outlets occupying the 
ground floor. Within the CBD, 10.4 per cent of all the total building space 
is occupied by offices. They provide office facilities for about 15,000 workers 
despite the small area at the ground level which is occupied by offices. 

Wholesaling and Warehouses. Most Terre Haute wholesaling and 
warehouse facilities are located beyond the western edge of the CBD. 
Wholesale farm produce, lumber, salvage and grain make up the main 
categories of wholesale companies. Currently, only 4.6 acres within the 
CBD are used for wholesaling and warehouses. Most of this acreage is 
located at the northeastern edge of the CBD (Figure 1). At the present 
time, a considerable amount of wholesale loading is done on public streets 
which causes problems of definite traffic congestion. Trends would indicate 
that at least twice the present acreage will be required for the future 
wholesale and warehouse use. Currently, Terre Haute uses only 723.0 
square feet per employee, in contrast to 1,000 square feet per employee as 
an acceptable planning standard for wholesale land use. 

Industrial. A wide variety of industries occupy only 1.1 acres within 
the CBD. Most are composed of diversified but intensive light industries 



Geology and Geography 205 

such as printing and publishing. Seven CBD industries are located in a 
scattered random pattern as shown by Figure 1. 

Transportation, Utilities and Communications. Only 1.2 acres of land 
within the CBD are occupied by transportation, utilities, and communi- 
cation facilities. The two largest spaces shown in Figure 1 are used by 
the bus station and by the telephone company. Most others are small 
scattered buildings. Contiguous to, but outside of, the CBD on the north, 
east, and west are 18.7 acres used for transportation, utilities, and com- 
munications. This is 15 times as much area as that so used within the 
CBD. Accounting for these acreages are mainly railway facilities con- 
centrated to the north and east and trucking facilities and utilities which 
front along the Wabash River to the west of the CBD. 

Institutional. About 40 per cent of all the institutional acreage of 
Terre Haute is located within the CBD. Institutional uses occupy 6.5 acres 
of CBD land (Figure 1). Churches, schools, fraternal organizations and 
government buildings make up most of the institutional land use. 

Residential. Only 2.7 acres are classified as residential within the 
CBD. Most residential areas within the CBD have seriously deteriorated 
and most existing housing units adjacent to the CBD are also in poor 
condition. Many former CBD residential buildings have been adapted for 
small retail stores and office use, or cleared to provide land for parking 
lots and automobile service stations. But, a few old houses still exist 
around the CBD fringe, most of which are on the northwest and southeast 
(Figure 1). 

Parking. Public parking occupies 10.5 acres within the CBD. It is 
generally placed within one or two blocks of the large department stores 
which front on Wabash Avenue (Figure 1). A survey of parking spaces 
conducted during the summer of 1960 revealed a total of 3,054 parking 
spaces. Of these, 1,370 stalls are available in commercial parking lots 
and 315 parking spaces are set aside for either private or institutional 
uses. The remainder of 1,369 spaces are "on street" curb parking. 

Vacant. Within the CBD there are 2,5 acres vacant. Three such areas 
are found even at the choice locations between 6th Street and 7th Street 
along Wabash Avenue. The largest amounts of vacancies are in the three 
blocks between Ohio Street and Wabash Avenue and between 3rd and 6th 
Streets, and in the two blocks fronting on Wabash Avenue between 8th 
and 9th Streets (Figure 1). 

Assessments 

Since the very nature of the real estate market is a constantly chang- 
ing one, it is never possible to obtain a precise picture of the pattern of 
values. Assessed values which are available from figures prepared by the 
tax assessor's office, give approximate relationships to true market values. 
These data were gathered for both land and improvements and are here 
presented as the total assessed valuation for the CBD area. These data 
were gathered on a lot-by-lot and building-by-building basis for the entire 
CBD and plotted by the generalized patterns shown in Figure 2. 

A serious consequence brought about by the decline of assessable 
property values within the CBD is the financial loss to the City. Property 



206 



Indiana Academy of Science 



values have been reduced, not only as a result of the removal or demolition 
of buildings, but also through the loss of retail trade, unprofitable land 
use, and empty buildings. With the decline of CBD property values, the 
City's revenue from this source decreases proportionately. 

In 1959, the total CBD valuation was $14.6 million or an average of 
about $3.50 per square foot. Land valuations totaled $5.8 million and the 
total valuation for improvements was $8.8 million. Despite the fact that 
the CBD only includes 102 acres of the approximate 16,000 acres in the 
entire city, this small area furnished one-seventh of the City's total prop- 
erty valuation in 1959. 

TERRE HAUTE C.B.D. 

TOTAL ASSESSED VALUATION 




in nn nn f 



LEGEND 
SSSSS $0.00-3.50 PER SQ. FT. 

m&& $3.50-7.00 " 

^ $7.00 + 



® 



Figure 2 

Figure 2 indicates that the blocks from 5th Street to 8th Street front- 
ing on Wabash Avenue contain all the $7.00+ per square foot assessed 
valuation with the single exception of the eastern one-half of the block 
between 6th and 7th Streets along the south side of Ohio Street. The area 
between 6th Street and 8th Street on the north side of Ohio has an 
assessed value on land and improvements in the $3.50 to $7.00 per square 
foot category. Other blacks having from $3.50 to $7.00 per square foot 
assessments are between 4th and 6th Streets and front on Wabash, Ohio 
or Cherry Streets, and a small area between 9th and 9V2 Streets. Assess- 
ments of less than $3.50 per square foot characterize all of the area west 
of 4th Street and all except one small area east of 8th Street. 



Geology and Geography 



207 



The fact that about 28 blocks (Figure 2) within the CBD have a total 
assessed valuation of less than $3.50 per square foot represents a real 
loss of income to the City. It should be readily evident that it is of vital 
importance to the City to maintain or enhance real estate values. Even 
the smallest of such losses or reductions of taxes represents a trend toward 
downtown deterioration. 

About three blocks are tax exempt. Churches, the County Court House, 
the Boy's Club, and several fraternal organization buildings comprise a 
few of the institutions that are located within the CBD which are exempt 
from real estate tax. Total tax-exempt properties in Terre Haute amounted 
to $9,041,500 for the entire City in 1959. 

Buildings Ratings 

The conditions and appearance of buildings in the Terre Haute CBD 
were also analyzed during the summer of 1960. In the survey of these 
buildings, scores were assigned to each building on the basis of age, con- 
struction, condition and appearance. In this technique of scoring, a num- 
ber was assigned to each factor. The factors were then totaled and plotted 
on a Cumulative Building Rating Map (Figure 3). In effect, the survey 
evaluated the overall physical condition of the structure. For example, a 
modern concrete well-maintained structure obtained a high score,, whereas 



TERRE HAUTE 



C.B.D. 



CUMULATIVE BULDMG RATNG 







pl??5SI ik^^H"%?p^ FiF^n KuiJft l^r~ — i 






n nn nn nn n 



i i 



LEGEND 

GOOD J>K 

AVERAGE^ 

POOR hffff 



® 



Figure 3 



208 



Indiana Academy of Science 



an older frame building in need of considerable improvement obtained a 
low score. 

The cumulative building scores have been grouped into categories of 
good, average, and poor. The 243 buildings were found to be fairly equally 
divided into 3 categories. In fact, 73 were judged to be poor, 80 average, 
and 90 classed as good buildings. Correspondingly, the total amount of 
floor space shown in Figure 3 is 23 per cent poor, 25 per cent average, and 
52 per cent good. Figure 3 depicts the cumulative scores and shows that 
most buildings having a good rating are located between 5th and 8th 
Streets. In contrast, most poor buildings exist to the west of 5th Street. 

The following conclusions may be drawn from an analysis of the 
Cumulative Building Rating: (1) The tallest and most important build- 
ings near the center of the CBD have the best ratings and the lowest 
cumulative scores were most often totaled for the buildings located on the 
periphery; (2) The good buildings have few vacancies, but almost two- 
thirds of the total space in the poor buildings is either vacant or is used 
as storage; (3) Approximately 48 per cent of retail and service uses are 
located in good buildings; (4) Seventy-three per cent of the office space is 
located in good buildings; (5) The majority of institutional uses (56 per 
cent) are located in buildings which are rated as average; and (6) The 
majority of industrial uses are located in either average or poor buildings. 



TERRE HAUTE 

LOT COVERAGE 



C.B.D. 




-mm in mm 




% IP ap mm 
it all in 

Isf^JtaCMcbH 

iTn nn nn 

LEGEND 

MM 0-33% 
34-66% 
67-100% 



'! :l i:r ■ urn r 




® 



'igure 4 



Geology and Geography 209 

Lot Coverage 

The proportion of blocks covered by buildings, termed the lot cover- 
age, of the CBD was also measured and plotted by entire blocks. Figure 4 
indicates that the most concentrated structural density of buildings is 
located along Wabash Avenue from 3rd to 9th Streets. The extreme north- 
eastern edge is the only other area to have more than a 67 per cent lot 
coverage. Nine blocks which are mostly located to the south or west have 
between 34 per cent and 66 per cent of the lot covered by buildings. The 
proportions of lot coverage of less than one-third covered with buildings 
are mostly located either to the southeast or northwest. In fact, some of 
these blocks w T ould not be considered a part of the Terre Haute CBD if 
the Murphy and Vance CBD index method had been employed as the basis 
for delimiting the CBD. 

Conclusions 

The best utilization of land occurs in the blocks between 6th and 8th 
Streets along Wabash Avenue, and on the south side of Ohio Street between 
6V2 and 7th Street. The lowest utilization of space is obtained between 
2nd and 3rd Streets and between Mulberry and Cherry Streets. Other 
poorly utilized areas are located west of 4th Street, south of Ohio Street 
and east of 7th Street. A well-planned CBD rehabilitation program is 
needed to raise the assessed valuation, increase the structural density, 
improve the building rating and alter existing land uses. Many CBD 
buildings are structurally sound but functionally obsolete and unattractive. 
A well-planned remodeling and new building program together with an 
improved circulation system should help in revitalizing the Terre Haute 
CBD. 



Some Comparisons of Population Distribution in the 
Middle West in 1950 

John Fraser Hart, Indiana University 
Although variations in population density are among the most fun- 
damental aspects of human geography, geographers have been surprisingly 
slow in coming to grips with the problem of describing these variations 
objectively and quantitatively. We have prepared accurate maps of the 
distribution of population in many parts of the world, but in seeking to 
describe and explain these maps we have often taken recourse to such 
subjective generalities as "densely populated" or "sparsely populated" 
for the description of broad areas, and within these areas we have tended 
to ignore considerable local variations in density. 

This paper is a report of progress to date, and of questions for future 
investigation, in an attempt at description and partial explanation of the 
distribution of population in a block of nine States in the Middle West. 
This area was chosen primarily for its convenience, however, and the basic 
goal of the project is the formulation of generic principles relating to pop- 







Total persons per sq 


uare mile, 








E*w 19 50 




v-^lfficii 




O A R 






j j , \j !K»SJsJSJ 

70.0-B 


ftjisp&ii 


ypii«f^r^dSV r™3pp 


IpA 




Wr 


frpf 


^'^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


§m 1 


| 


Sijgj 

hip 




fyiHjlsE::^! 


P 






1 









Fig. 1 

210 



Geology and Geography 211 

ulation distribution in the entire United States, and perhaps in other areas 
as well. Nevertheless, those phases of the project which were based upon the 
data of the 1950 Census of Population (1) were halted in view of the 
imminent availability of 1960 data, and this paper must be considered 
simply as a progress report. 

The map of total population density has such a complicated — almost 
kaleidoscopic — pattern of high, intermediate, and low densities that it 
virtually defies simple description (Fig. 1). But is it not possible that 
the complex variations of this pattern, like the pattern of the kaleido- 
scope, are simply the product of variations in a number of simpler patterns 
superimposed one upon another? And if so, is it not possible that we 
might better be able to describe the complex pattern if we resolve it into 
its simpler components? If, for example, we understand the factors which 
influence the spatial variations of any one component of the population, 
we thereby approach a better understanding of spatial variations in total 
population density. 

A fundamental problem in preparing and describing a map of total 
population density is the extremely wide range of actual densities, from 
virtually uninhabited areas to densely populated urban districts. Twenty- 
nine of the 856 counties in this area had fewer than ten persons per square 
mile in 1950, yet ten counties had more than 1,000; Cook County, Illinois, 
had 4,726 persons per square mile, but Cook County, Minnesota, had 
only 2.1 ! 

This tremendous range is partially the product, I suggest, of the 
superimposition of two quite different patterns of population distribution. 
One pattern is essentially clustered, point-oriented, and highly concen- 
trated in space, with large empty areas between points — or small areas — 
of extremely dense population. The other pattern of distribution is more 
uniform, with far less areal variation. For want of better terms I refer 
to the first pattern as "urban" and to the second as "rural," but I must 
emphasize that I use these terms with specific reference to different pat- 
terns of population distribution, and not in the official Census sense. 

But we must rely on Census data in order to resolve these patterns; 
that is, to determine the actual numbers and the precise location of those 
people who are distributed in a point-oriented pattern, and those who are 
distributed in a pattern of regional uniformity. How can we best use 
Census data for this purpose? 

For most of the point-oriented population the solution is compara- 
tively simple, for the Census publishes data on the number of persons in 
all places of 1,000 or more persons, and for all incorporated places, no 
matter how small they may be. Certainly these places should be mapped 
separately, with point symbols. The explanation of their distribution, I 
suggest, might well be one of the products of research in central place 
theory. Admittedly some of these "points" are of considerable size— the 
Chicago Urbanized Area in 1950 covered almost 650 square miles — but I 
suggest that they nonetheless be considered points in the formulation of a 
theory of population distribution. 

In 1950 just over twelve percent of the total point-oriented population 
of this nine State area was classified in the rural nonfarm category by 
the Bureau of the Census. These are the people who lived in large villages, 



212 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE 1 
Population by Place of Residence, 1950, in Nine Middle Western States 





Total 


Urban 


i 


Lural Nonfarm 






Places of Incorporated 
1.000 to Places of 
2,500 Less Than 
Persons 1,000 Person? 


Unagglom- 

s erated 


Farm 
Rural 


Minnesota 


2,982,483 


1,624,914 


197,003 


205,271 


215,496 


739,799 


Iowa 


2,621,073 


1,250,938 


190,887 


272,453 


124,145 


782,650 


Missouri 


3,954,653 


2,432,715 


169,579 


187,007 


301,856 


863,496 


Wisconsin 


3,434,575 


1,987,888 


184,476 


151,239 


385,738 


725,234 


Illinois 


8,712,176 


6,759,271 


319,066 


304,314 


566,329 


763,196 


Michigan 


6,371,766 


4,503,084 


248,713 


112,649 


812,578 


694,742 


Indiana 


3,934,224 


2,357,196 


177,111 


142,601 


590,162 


667,154 


Ohio 


7,946,627 


5,578,274 


292,311 


229,290 


993,664 


853,088 


Kentucky 


2,944,806 


1,084,070 


155,316 


75,659 


655,591 


974,170 


TOTAL 


42,902,383 


27,578,350 


1,934,462 


1,680,483 


4,645,559 


7,063,529 



Source: U. S. Census of Population : 1050. Vol. II, Characteristics of the Population. 

of 1,000 to 2,500 persons, and in incorporated small villages of less than 
1,000 persons (Table I). I suggest that these smaller clusters of popula- 
tion, although officially classified as rural, are just as much a part of the 
point-oriented population as is the population which is officially classified 
as urban, and should be so treated. 

I apply the term "unagglomerated" to the remainder of the rural 
nonfarm people, who cannot be assigned to specific locations within their 
respective counties on the basis of published Census data (Fig. 2). We 
have ample reason to suspect, however, that they also form part of a 
point-oriented distribution. For example, more than one third of these 
people — comprising more than a fifth of the total rural nonfarm popula- 
tion — live in counties which are included in Standard Metropolitan Areas 
(Table II). 

Whitney's study of 20 years of change at the national level (2) , Solly's 
study in Minnesota (3), and my own work in Georgia (4) and in Indiana 
(5) have all shown that a considerable proportion of the unagglomerated 
rural nonfarm population is concentratetd in the vicinity of urban places, 
but unfortunately we have little information as to the distribution of the 
remainder. In Indiana, however, where stringent laws control incorpora- 
tion of small places, preliminary investigation indicates that a sizable 
percentage — perhaps as much as half — of the unagglomerated rural non- 
farm people live in unincorporated small villages for which Census data 
are not available. Conversely, in Iowa and Missouri, where incorporation 
of small villages is relatively easy, most of the rural nonfarm people live 
in villages for which data are published, and the distribution of the un- 
agglomerated rural nonfarm population is closely related to the distribu- 
tion of urban centers (Fig. 2). Furthermore, the traditional reluctance 
of coal mining communities to incorporate is apparently related to the 
dense unagglomerated rural nonfarm population of mining areas in south- 



Geology and Geography 



213 



Unagglomerated Rural Nonfarm 
persons per square 
mile, 1950 3.5- 

10.5- 
17.5 




Fig. 2 

eastern Kentucky, southern Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and south- 
eastern Ohio (Table II). 

In summary, then, the rural nonfarm population, like the Census 
urban population has a point-oriented or "urban" pattern of distribu- 
tion. A considerable percentage of the rural nonfarm people are clus- 
tered in villages, and most of the rest live on the fringes of urban cen- 
ters of varying sizes. The distribution of these people around urban cen- 
ters reminds one of a number of conical tents of varying height and 
diameter, with the diameter of each tent proportional to the height of its 
central pole; in the same fashion, the density and extent of the rural non- 
farm population around a city would appear crudely proportional to the 
size of the city's population. 

Therefore, I suggest that if research in central place theory can pro- 
vide us with a theoretical explanation of the size and distribution of urban 
centers, this theory should go far toward describing and perhaps explain- 
ing the distribution of one major component of population — the point- 
oriented population — which includes both the urban and rural nonfarm 
groups as denned by the Bureau of the Census. 



214 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE II 

Unagglomerated Rural Nonfarm Population in Counties of Standard 

Metropolitan Areas and in Mining Counties in Nine Middle 

Western States, 1950 





Tot 


al 


Standard 
Metropolitan Areas 


Mining 


Counties 


* 




Popula- 
tion 


No. of Popula- No. of 
Counties tion Counties 


% 


Popula- 
tion 


No. of 
bounties 


% 


Minnesota 


215,496 


87 


89,058 


5 


41.4 


6,821 


1 


3.2 


Iowa 


124,145 


99 


30,783 


6 


24.8 








Missouri 


301,856 


115 


98,771 


6 


32.7 


10,107 


1 


3.4 


Wisconsin 


385,738 


71 


94,335 


6 


24.4 


2,700 


1 


0.7 


Michigan 


812,578 


83 


348,261 


10 


42.5 


41,612 


5 


5.1 


Illinois 


566,329 


102 


265,047 


13 


46.8 


81,971 


20 


14.4 


Indiana 


590,162 


92 


171,963 


9 


29.0 


58,634 


10 


9.9 


Ohio 


993,664 


88 


494,154 


18 


49.6 


79,184 


11 


8.0 


Kentucky 


655,591 


120 

856 


89,800 


5 

78 


13.7 
36.1 


269,009 


26 

75 


41.0 


TOTAL 


4,645,559 


1,680,172 


538,002 


11.6 



* Mining counties are defined as those which had at least one male-einployed-in- 
mining per square mile, and at least five percent of the employed-male-lahor-force 
employed in mining, in 1950. 

In contrast to the point-oriented population, the distribution of the 
rural farm population exhibits a striking degree of regional uniformity 
(Fig. 3). Although there are some local variations, this regional uni- 



- 






R 


jral 


Farm 
sq 


persons per 
jare mile, 










~Y~~ U \ ^ 




1 c 


=qO \r\ 










1950 /? 






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P..- vr 1 


■^li 


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CD 




Si 












>R 


^isfc" 
















3.5- 
10.5- 








vip^ 








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Fig. 3 



Geology and Geography 



215 



formity tempts one to think of the farm population as being distributed 
in a series of levels, or plateaus. The lowest plateau is in northern Minne- 
sota and Michigan, with a fairly steep rise to the next, centered in Iowa 
and Illinois with extensions into adjacent States. In western Indiana this 
second plateau rises to a third and higher plateau centered along the 
Indiana-Ohio line, and the third plateau rises to a fourth — still higher — 
in southern Kentucky. 

One might hypothesize that variations in the density of the farm 
population are the product of variations in farm size and variations in 





Farms 
4 


per square mile 
8 




Average 

size of 

farm 

family 




• • 

• 


• 

9 9 




• • • 


• 
• 
• 


© 

« 

• 


3 


e • • 


• 
• • 


9 9 
9 


• 
• 
• 


• 
» 

• 


• • • 


• • • 




12 




24 






• • • 

• • • 


9 9 
© • 
© 9 




• • • 

• • • 


• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 


6 


• • • 


e 9 

9 9 

9 9 


• • • 

• © © 


• • 


• • 


• • • 


• • • 




24 




48 





Fie. 4 



the size of farm families (Fig. 4). It might even be argued that the 
number of farm persons per square mile could be determined by multiply- 
ing the number of persons per farm family by the number of farms per 
square mile, and that variations in either factor will influence the density 
of farm population. A farm population density of 24 persons per square 
mile will result, for example, either if there are 8 farms per square mile 
and 3 persons in the average family, or if there are only 4 farms per 
square mile but 6 persons in the average farm family. In short, we should 
be able to express variations in farm population density in terms of 
variations in farm size and in size of farm family. 

Actually, variations in farm population density in the Middle West 
appear to be so closely related to variations in farm size that the two sets 
of data were subjected to regression analysis. The coefficient of correla- 



216 



Indiana Academy of Science 



tion for the 856 counties proved to be an impressive +0.94, with a standard 
error of estimate of 2.4, and a regression line with the formula : 

y =zr 4.4X— 1.1 

This means that one can estimate the farm population density of any 
county by multiplying the number of farms per square mile by 4.4, and 
then subtracting 1.1. 

Residuals from regression were computed and mapped by comparing 
the actual farm population density, D, as taken from the 1950 Census of 
Population, and the computed density, Do, as computed by multiplying the 
number of farms per square mile, F, by 4.4, and then subtracting 1.1 (6). 



D-D c , when D c = 4.4F-1.1 




Fig. 5 

A plus figure indicates that the actual density is higher than the computed 
density, while a minus figure indicates that the actual density is lower 
(Fig. 5). This formula computed the farm population density of 412 
counties— almost half— to an accuracy of one person per square mile, and 
it computed the density of more than 80 percent of the counties to within 
2.5 persons per square mile— a range of plus or minus one standard error 
of estimate. In other words, when we can explain variations in farm size, 



Geology and Geography 



217 



we can explain a very considerable proportion of variations in farm popu- 
lation density in this area in 1950 (7). 

The great majority of the variations that cannot be explained by 
the use of this formula can be explained by variations in farm family size. 
Unfortunately, we have no direct measure of farm family size by counties 
in 1950, and there are serious objections to any indirect measure that 
might be used. All in all, however, the median number of farm persons per 
occupied farm dwelling unit seems to be the least objectionable (Fig. 6). 



[j 4.1 or more 
H 1.1 or more 
■H BOTH 



Persons per occupied farm dwelling unit 
D-D c , when D C :4.4F-1.1 



3.5 Or fewer j::i:;;j 

■1.1 or lower |~ | 



Vo 1 






pir 




j\ \ o^Jr 


r 




i§ Jp'-^gqjf} 




a 7 a 


ki* 




% 


sGFi o ^jBjW 




Pig. G 

Fifty-four percent of the counties whose actual farm population density 
was 1.1 or more persons more than the computed density also had 4.1 or 
more persons per occupied farm dwelling unit, whereas 59 percent of the 
counties whose actual farm population density was 1.1 or more persons 
less than the computed density also had 3.5 or fewer persons per occupied 
farm dwelling unit. 

More significant, perhaps, is the fact that three quarters of the 160 
counties which fell outside plus or minus one standard error of estimate — 
as computed by the regression formula — can be explained in terms of farm 
family size, leaving only 40 of the 856 counties whose farm population 
density cannot be explained in terms of variations in farm size or in the 
size of the farm family. 

In summary, variations in population density in these nine Middle 
Western States apparently result from the superimposition of two differ- 
ent distributions. One is point-oriented, while the other has considerable 
regional uniformity. The latter is essentially the distribution of the farm 
population ; its areal variations are primarily the product of variations in 
farm size and in the size of farm families. Superimposed upon the regional 
uniformity of the farm population distribution is the distribution of the 
rural nonf arm and urban population, which has been likened to the distri- 
bution of scattered conical tents; the density and extent of this popula- 



218 Indiana Academy of Science 

tion around each city are crudely proportional to the size of the city's 
population, just as the diameter of each tent is proportional to the height 
of its central pole. More precise description and explanation of the dis- 
tribution of the point-oriented population may be based on better formu- 
lation of principles relating to the size and distribution of places in the 
urban hierarchy. 

This scheme of population distribution would appear to have validity 
for nine Middle Western States as of 1950. But how valid is it in time? 
And in other parts of the nation? And of the world? If it does prove 
fairly constant in time, how constant has been the size of farms? And the 
size of farm families? And if it proves fairly constant in space, is farm 
family size or farm size the most important factor influencing spatial 
variations in farm population density? What factors influence the size 
and location of cities? 

These quite obviously are questions requiring further research, but if 
they can be answered, they will help us to describe, understand, and 
explain the distribution of population in a more precise and objective 
fashion. And the distribution of population is one of the most fundamental 
facts of human geography. 

Literature Cited 

1. U. S. Bureau of the Census. 1952. U. S. Census of Population : 1050. Vol. II, Char- 
acteristics of the Population : Part 13, Illinois ; Tart 14, Indiana ; Part 15, Iowa ; 
Part 17, Kentucky ; Part 22, Michigan ; Part 23, Minnesota ; Part 25, Missouri ; 
Part 35, Ohio ; Tart 49, Wisconsin. 

2. Whitney, Vincent Heath. 1960. "Changes in the Rural-Nonfarin Population, 
1930-1950." American Sociological Review 25 : 363-368. 

3. Solly, Marion W. 1958. "The Rural Nonfarm Population of Minnesota." Proceed- 
ings of the Minnesota Academy of Science 26 : 338-347. 

4. Hart, John FRaser. 1955. "The Distribution of the Rural Nonfarm Population in 
Georgia." Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 13 : 118-123. 

5. Hart, John Fraser. 1956. "The Rural Nonfarm Population of Indiana." Indiana 
Academy of Science 65 : 174-179. 

6. Thomas, Edwin N. 1960. Maps of Residuals from Regression : Their Characteris- 
tics and Uses in Geographic Research. No. 2, Department of Geography, State Uni- 
versity of Iowa, Iowa City. 

7. Robinson, Arthur II., Lindberg, James B., and Brinkman, Leonard W. 1961. "A 
Correlation and Regression Analysis Applied to Rural Farm Population Densities 
in the Great Plains." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 51 : 211- 
221. 



Regional Contrasts in the Characteristics of the Agricultural 
Labour Force of the Corn Belt 

I. B. Thompson, Leeds University, England 
It is perhaps too readily assumed, abroad to a greater degree than 
in the United States, that the Corn Belt of the Middle West represents 
a homogeneous unit from the point of view of the characteristics of its 
agriculture. A more detailed study reveals that despite an undeniable 
distinctiveness in the basic rural economy, the Corn Belt is more realis- 
tically considered as constituting an agglomeration of socio-economic en- 
vironments, contrasted with respect to each other and to adjoining areas 
outside the Corn Belt. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the degree 
of regional variation in one selected criterion, the agricultural labour 
force. The agricultural labour force was deliberately selected as being the 
human element with the closest direct link with the farming economy and 
therefore the population group most sensitive in response to variations in 
the type of farming. In order to clarify description of spatial contrasts in 
the agricultural labour force, Figs. 1 and 2 provide a reference framework 
which has been consistently adhered to in the text. Fig. 1 indicates the 




Fig. 1 

setting of the Corn Belt and suggested regional components based on the 
major geographical contrasts. Fig. 2 illustrates the sub-division of the 
Corn Belt into "Type of Farming" areas proposed by the United States 
Department of Agriculture. 1 (Figs. 1 and 2) 

The Detailed Variation in the Dominance of Agricultural Employment 

The agricultural labour force of the Corn Belt is overwhelmingly 
rural farm in residence. In Nebraska, the most purely agricultural of 
the Corn Belt states, the proportion of the agricultural labour force which 

219 



220 



Indiana Academy of Science 



GENERALISED TYPES OF FARMING IN THE 
CORN BELT IN I9SO. 




Fig. 1! 

was rural non-farm in residence in 1950 was only 11%. Fig. 3 indicates 
the detailed relative distribution of the labour force employed in agricul- 
ture on a county basis for the year 1950 (Fig. 3). This map indicates that 
the major contrasts in relative distribution occurred east and west of the 
Mississippi River. East of the Mississippi the proportion of the labour 
force employed in agriculture did not exceed 34% in any county and in at 



DISTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL 
LABOUR FORCE I9SO 



COUNTY BASIS 




Pis 



Geology and Geography 221 

least half of the counties did not exceed 20%. West of the Mississippi 
River the agricultural proportion was universally over 35% and in wide- 
spread areas exceeded 51% of the total labour force. It is necessary that 
account be taken of overall variation in population density. Although the 
proportion engaged in agriculture was much higher in the Central and 
Western Corn Belt, since the total population density was much lower than 
in the Eastern Corn Belt, this involved fewer actual workers. Essentially 
Fig. 3 therefore indicates the intensity of agricultural employment, that 
is, the degree to which agriculture dominated the economy in terms of 
employment opportunities. In this latter context it is possible to define 
two major areas of the Corn Belt of predominantly agricultural employ- 
ment with over 51% of the total labour force employed in agriculture in 
1950. 

1. The Upper Missouri Valley 

The Upper Missouri Valley had the largest concentration of counties 
in which the agricultural labour force exceeded 51% of the total. More- 
over this concentration coincided closely with the distribution of the Live- 
stock and Cash Grain type of farming. This coincidence was therefore one 
with an area of low population density, few towns, extensive form of 
agriculture and consequently little variety in economic activity or infra- 
structure. 

2. The Iowa-Missouri Border 

This concentration coincided even more directly with the distribution 
of the Livestock and Pasture type of farming, in which grazing was of 
greater significance than cropping and concentrated feeding. Again this 
was a coincidence with an area of low population density, an absence of 
even moderate-sized towns and a lack of complexity in the economic base. 

It is impossible to suggest detailed relationships between type of 
farming and the characteristics of the agricultural labour force without 
reference to the contrasts in the absolute distribution. This is attempted 
in Fig. 4 which illustrates the density of persons engaged in agriculture 
per square mile of cropland. This ratio has been selected as being more 
realistic in the analysis of the agricultural labour force rather than the 
density per square mile since it eliminates land uses unrelated to agricul- 
tural functions. ("Cropland" included cropland harvested, cropland used 
only for pasture, and cropland not harvested and not pastured. The cate- 
gory therefore included all the potentially productive cropland. It included 
land in the Soil Bank or withdrawn from cultivation for conservation pur- 
poses, but did not include woodland or wasteland. For further details of 
definition, vide U. S. Census of Agriculture 1954, Vol. 1. Introduction XV, 
Washington, D. C. 1956.) 

Fig. 4 indicates a remarkable uniformity in that throughout the Corn 
Belt the range of this density was from 5 to 12 persons per square mile of 
cropland and over the majority was in the range 5 to 7.9 persons. Lower 
densities than 5 occurred chiefly in the Livestock and Cash Grain area of 
the western fringe in the area of largest farm size and most extensive 
system. Higher densities than 8 occurred especially in three distinct types 
of farming areas. 



222 



Indiana Academy of Science 



OFF-FARM EMPLOYMENT BY FARM OPERATORS 1950 





pib ctwT or r*»u opi»atom whoh prr-rAWM incomi 

txcetos FARM INCOMI 



Fig. 4 



1. Livestock, Dairy, Soybeans and Cash Grain 

In this area of Northern Indiana and North Western Ohio the proxim- 
ity to large urban concentrations has encouraged whole milk production 
in combination with pig rearing in an area of the smallest farm size in 
the Corn Belt. 

2. Hogs and Soft Winter Wheat 

Similarly in this area, immediately to the south of the Livestock, 
Dairy, Soybeans and Cash Grain region, the decrease in farm size as com- 
pared with the Central and Western Corn Belt contributed towards a 
higher agricultural density. Moreover, it will be indicated that the small 
farm size, together with the proximity of urban centres in the industrial 
zone of the East Central Lowland offering alternative employment, greatly 
increased the incidence of part-time farming by farm operators. 



Geology and Geography 



223 



3. Hogs and Dairy 

In this area of North West Illinois and Northern Iowa the emphasis 
on dairy production with its higher per acre labour input than mechanised 
cropping increased the agricultural density of the labour force above that 
of the Corn Belt average. 

Elsewhere in the Corn Belt higher densities than 8 persons per square 
mile of cropland were relatively restricted. However an additional vital 
consideration may be indicated which tends to blur a simple distinction 
between agricultural and non-agricultural functions and offers further- 
evidence of regional contrasts in the Corn Belt labour force. This is the 
distribution of part-time farming of farm operators. 

Regional Variations in Off-Farm Employment by Farm Operators 

Fig. 5 indicates the distribution of part-time farming by farm opera- 
tors who devoted part of their time and derived part of their income off 
the farm. In Fig. 5 the significance of part-time farming has been meas- 



DENS1TY OF POPULATION ENGAGED IN 



AGRICULTURE I9SO 

COUNTY BASIS 




Fig. 5 

ured by two indices. Firstly the proportion of the total farm operators 
working more than 100 days off the farm was plotted and secondly the 
proportion of farmers whose farm income was exceeded by their earnings 
off the farm was indicated. On this basis it is apparent that part-time 
farming varied in significance spatially both in the nature of alternative 
employment and in the motives involved. (Fig. 5.) 

Off-farm work was insignificant, less than 15% of the total farm 
operators, in two major areas. In the heart of the Corn Belt the low 
incidence may be related to the predominance of family farm commercial 
enterprises in which the farm tends to be an individual social and economic 
unit on a family basis. In these circumstances the opportunity for employ- 
ment outside the demands of the farm is consequently restricted. Secondly, 



224 Indiana Academy of Science 

in the case of the Western Corn Belt the low incidence coincided with a 
system of large farms and a concentration on corn and livestock requiring 
labour at all seasons. Moreover in this overwhelmingly rural area the 
opportunities of alternative forms of employment are absent and the high 
loss of rural farm population by migration, which is prevalent throughout 
the western fringe of the Corn Belt, suggests that surplus rural labour 
had to leave the area altogether to find employment. 

Fig. 5 indicates that in two areas of the Corn Belt part-time farming 
is of considerable importance. In the Lower Missouri Valley the deteriora- 
tion in the quality of soils and the smaller size of farm results in a sub- 
stantial reduction in the cash returns. In this area off -farm work accounted 
for more than half the income of over 21% of the farm operators. The 
nature of off -farm work was varied, involving part-time industrial employ- 
ment, especially in Kansas City and St. Louis, custom work on other farms 
in the area, and even seasonal employment in agriculture outside the Corn 
Belt. In this case of the Lower Missouri Valley the increased significance 
of part-time farming may be seen as a desire to supplement a low farm 
income. 

Finally, the urbanised section of the Corn Belt involving the eastern 
portion of the East Central Lowland together with the Lower Great Lakes 
region had the most important incidence of part-time farming. In this 
area of small farms and increased mechanisation, labour input per farm 
unit has been reduced. The importance of off-farm work was moreover 
related to the proximity of urban centres offering industrial and tertiary 
employment opportunities and especially commuting was involved. It may 
further be argued that the high incidence of part-time farming also 
reflected a contrasted social environment from that prevalent elsewhere in 
the Corn Belt. In this section high school attendance was the highest in 
the Corn Belt and rural life was more open to urban influence, with a 
consequent weakening of the family farm as an economic and cultural 
unit and an attraction towards urban employment. 

Summary 

(1) The relative significance of the agricultural labour force was 
shown to vary considerably spatially, and the degree to which agriculture 
predominated the employment composition varied substantially, in part 
according to the type of farming, but more particularly with the distribu- 
tion of urban centres. 

(2) The lesser significance of agricultural employment in the Eastern 
Corn Belt was relative only. In fact the density of agricultural workers 
indicated that numerically the labour force was concentrated overwhelm- 
ingly east of the Mississippi. 

(3) The density of agricultural workers per square mile of cropland 
revealed a remarkable uniformity with from 5-7.9 per square mile through- 
out the great majority of the Corn Belt counties. However, significant 
variations above and below this mean coincided spatially with contrasts in 
farming economy and a functional relationship may be proposed. It is 
suggested that the overall distribution of agricultural population is re- 
sponsible for the high degree of uniformity in total population distribu- 
tion and density in the Corn Belt and that the major contrasts arise 
through the much more irregular distribution of population employed in 



Geology and Geography 225 

secondary and tertiary industry, superimposed on this agricultural, rural 
basis. 

(4) The significance of part-time farming suggested further con- 
trasts within the Corn Belt in relation to distribution, character of alter- 
native employment and motives. 

(5) This paper has been presented to illustrate, by reference to a 
single criterion, the agricultural labour force, that the term "Corn Belt" 
is essentially a generalisation of extremely contrasted socio-economic com- 
ponents, and suggests that clear relationships exist between contrasts in 
rural economy and contrasts in population geography that are worthy of 
more detailed research. 

Literature Cited 

1. Elliott, P. F. 1950. Generalized types of farming in the United States. Agric. Inf. 
Bull. No. 3, U. S. Dept. of Agric, Washington. D. C. 



HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Chairman: T. G. Yuncker, DePauw University 
Ned Guthrie, Hanover College, was elected chairman for 1962 



A Brief History of the Herbarium of Indiana University 

Charles B. Heiser, Jr., Indiana University 

In 1892 the Botanical Gazette announced : "The Herbarium of Indiana 
University was established upon the election last April of Professor John 
M. Coulter, as President. In addition to private material already in the 
possession of Professor Coulter, a liberal appropriation for the purchase 
of plants was made. All the well-known collectors of phanerograms and 
pteridophytes were asked to furnish as complete sets of their collections 
as possible, and these purchases now amount to over 15,000 species of 
North American plants." 

After only two years at Indiana University, Coulter left to assume 
the presidency of Lake Forest College and in June of 1893 he wrote to 
J. N. Rose, "I am just getting over the strain of my inauguration cere- 
monies and am almost too tired to move. All of the herbarium at Bloom- 
ington comes to me here, cases and all." In November he wrote, "My 
herbarium has just begun to get into working shape again, and I find much 
more time for my botanical work than I expected." (2:pp. 106, 126-127.) 

Thus the herbarium at Indiana, founded only two years earlier, 
started again from scratch in 1895. For the next forty years the collection 
gradually grew, but there was no systematic effort to build a herbarium. 
Funds were limited, and moreover no one member of the staff had taxon- 
omy as his central interest. Various persons, mostly students and staff 
members, however, contributed so that by 1931 nearly 10,000 sheets had 
accumulated. The principal contributors were Flora Anderson, Edna 
Banta, Frances Beede, Stanley Cain, Wilbur Duncan, Madeline A. Gullion, 
D. M. Mottier, John Potzger, Gladys Price, J. M. VanHook, Paul Weather- 
wax, Winona Welch, and William J. Woodburn (3). In addition to these 
the collection of A. H. Young, who had been a student with Coulter at 
Hanover, was brought to the University by Edna Banta. 

In 1931 a contract was drawn up with C. C. Deam by D. M. Mottier, 
then chairman of the department. Beam's specimens, all mounted, were 
to be bought at ten cents a sheet and in addition his herbarium cases and 
library were to be purchased. Since many universities had sought the 
Deam collection, which was probably the finest collection of a state flora in 
existence, the university considered itself fortunate in acquiring his 
herbarium. Deam felt that his specimens belonged in the state and this 
played no small part in his decision to sell his herbarium to Indiana Uni- 
versity. 

Deam's collection served as the basis for his many books on the flora 
of Indiana, culminating in the Flora of Indiana (1). His botanical 
study in the state had begun in 1893 as a hobby, and from 1914-1938 he 
traveled over 125,000 miles by car in the state, collecting approximately 
60,000 plants from his visits to all 1,016 townships. In addition to his 

226 



History of Science 227 

activity in Indiana he also made a number of collections in Florida, Mexico, 
and Guatemala. His collections from the last two areas went to the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

At the time the contract was signed Deam was busily engaged upon 
his Flora of Indiana and needed his specimens for study, so no specimens 
came to Indiana until 1938 when 12,000 sheets arrived. Adequate facilities 
and room were not available for the collection at this time. However, 
under the chairmanship of Ralph Cleland beginning in 1938, the impor- 
tance of the herbarium was recognized and more adequate support was 
provided. In 1940 a large room in Science Hall was made available and 
served to house the herbarium until 1955. During the early 1940's Weath- 
erwax was responsible for bringing about the reorganization of the her- 
barium with student help. From 1944 to 1947 Dr. Martha Springer served 
as instructor and was instrumental in initiating an active exchange pro- 
gram with a number of institutions. The writer came to Indiana University 
in 1947 and has been in charge of the herbarium since that time. In 1959 
Miss Zoe Ellis became the first full-time employee specifically designated 
to curate the herbarium. 

In 1953 after the death of Deam the last of his herbarium came to the 
university. Although most of his collection had been brought to the uni- 
versity before that time he had retained a number of specimens at Bluffton 
with the hope that he would be able to revise some of the more difficult 
groups. In 1955 with the completion of Jordan Hall, the herbarium was 
moved to its present quarters, where in addition to a three floor herbarium 
with space adequate to hold over 200,000 specimens, a large herbarium 
mounting and fumigating room is provided. Although the majority of the 
specimens are housed in new steel cases, the wooden cases purchased from 
Deam are used on the second floor. Deam's desk and microscope are also 
housed in the herbarium, along with his reprints and collecting books. 
His library is now incorporated into the Biology Library also in Jordan 
Hall. 

At present the herbarium contains 104,987 accessioned sheets of 
vascular plants. Of this number, more than 73,000 came from Deam, most 
of them collected by him. In addition there are special research collections 
of Helianthus, Capsicum, Oenothera, and grasses. These with the un- 
mounted material now on hand give a total holding of over 130,000 speci- 
mens of vascular plants. The herbarium is provided with offices for grad- 
uate students, and it seems most appropriate that students actively en- 
gaged in taxonomic research should have their headquarters in the Deam 
Herbarium. 

Literature Cited 

1. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis. 

2. Rodgers, Andrew Denny, III. 1944. John Merle Coulter, Princeton University 
Press. 

3. Weatherwax, Paul. 1941. (Unpub.) Notes on the history of the herbarium at 
Indiana University in Accession Book of herbarium of Indiana University. 

(For brief biographical sketches of C. C. Deam see Proc. Ind. Acad. 03:29-32. 232- 
229. 1954.) 



History of the Arthur Herbarium at Purdue University 

J. W. Baxter and F. D. Kern, University of Wisconsin and 
Pennsylvania State University 

The Arthur Herbarium at Purdue University is devoted exclusively 
to rust fungi and, with its 75,000 specimens, is the largest rust collection 
in the world. The history of the Arthur Herbarium is to a great extent 
associated with the life story of the man for whom it is named, Dr. J. C. 
Arthur. The original nucleus of the herbarium was a collection of rusts, 
chiefly from Iowa and Minnesota, accumulated by Arthur when he was a 
student at Iowa State College. 

Joseph Charles Arthur was born at Lowville, New York, in 1850, and 
died at Brook, Indiana, in 1942. He was a collector in his boyhood, and 
had an intense interest in flowering plants and fungi, an interest that 
gradually narrowed down to the rusts. His very early years are best 
described by Dr. Arthur himself: "In my fifth year, my parents went on 
an excursion to Rochester, embarking at Sackett's Harbor for a steamer 
ride on Lake Ontario. Being the only child at that time, I was taken along. 
It was a stormy passage, and my earliest recollection of this or any other 
event of that period, was my being held over the rail of the vessel in much 
distress. If that indicated I was to be a traveller, it failed to show my 
after reaction to a sea voyage, for it was the only time I contributed to 
the waves." 

"It could not have been long after this that my parents decided to try 
their fortunes in the West, and memory pictures my plight while left with 
an uncle's family in Sterling, Illinois, while they went northward to recon- 
noiter for a possible place of residence. During this interval I was to 
attend the nearby country school. I do not recall any antipathy to learning, 
but a decided dislike to the social situation. It was my first experience in 
upholding my individual position among strangers of my own age. The 
experiment did not work well. Either my new acquaintances were too 
aggressive, or I was too timid. I can not now recall the cause of my dis- 
comfort, but the picture of a small disconsolate boy reclining on a sunny 
bank under a row of locust trees, with his books beside him, is a vivid 
memory. It also includes the approach of the responsible uncle, who did 
not impersonate the irate parent, but on the contrary mildly took the 
shrinking child by the hand, gathered up his books, and turned toward 
home. There was no more school for him that summer." 

When Iowa State College opened in 1869, Arthur was one of the first 
students, receiving his botanical training under C. E. Bessey. In 1877 he 
received the master's degree from Iowa State College, and in 1886 was 
granted the D. Sc. from Cornell. In 1887 he accepted a position at Purdue 
University, in what was called Vegetable Physiology and Pathology. In 
addition to his work in plant physiology and plant pathology, he continued 
his rust studies, and by means of collecting, exchanges, and material con- 
tributed by others, built up a collection which at the time of his death 
amounted to some 60,000 specimens. 

During the early years of Arthur's rust work at Purdue, the her- 
barium was housed in a few wooden cases in a semi-private room separated 
from the laboratory by an interior hall. If this seems to imply a secret 

228 



History op Science 229 

beginning, the right impression has been given. In other words, the Arthur 
Herbarium had an unofficial origin. The Director of the Experiment Sta- 
tion personally had no objection to the concept of a herbarium, but officially 
he thought he ought to be opposed to the use of public funds for such a 
venture. Therefore, the money for packets, mounting paper, genus covers, 
and cases was provided personally by Dr. Arthur during the early years 
of development of the herbarium. 

After the passage of the Adams Act in 1906 (Federal Funds for the 
support of research in State Experiment Stations), the official attitude 
toward the Arthur Herbarium gradually changed, and finally evolved to 
the point where official recognition and support were given to the rust 
project. This carried with it cost of materials for developing the her- 
barium, salaries for workers, and funds for collecting. Field trips were 
soon made, not only in Indiana but to neighboring states, to the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado, and to the southeastern and southwestern states. 

During this period of expansion there were several assistants who 
contributed much time to studying, classifying, and incorporating speci- 
mens into the rapidly growing collection. Miss Evelyn Allison (Purdue 
'04) deserves great credit for the work involved in receiving and prepar- 
ing specimens. Others during this early period were R. E. Stone (1906- 
07), A. G. Johnson (1908-11), and C. R. Orton (1910-12). 

After the Adams Act the next impetus to growth of the herbarium 
was the undertaking by Dr. Arthur to contribute the volume on the 
Uredinales to the North American Flora, which was being projected by 
the New York Botanical Garden. Vol. 7 on the Uredinales finally appeared 
in 15 parts over a period of 34 years (1906-1940). In order to gather as 
much information as possible about the identity and range of the species 
of this order, a considerable correspondence was carried on with mycolo- 
gists in the United States, and also in other countries, and specimens were 
solicited. 

The list of correspondents would be a long one. A few of those who 
were especially helpful must be included here: E. Bartholomew (Kansas), 
J. M. Bates (Neb.), E. Bethel (Colo.), J. F. Brenkle (N. D.), J. J. Davis 
(Wis.), J. Dearness (Ontario), G. P. Clinton (Conn.), W. P. Fraser (Nova 
Scotia), A. O. Garret (Utah), E. W. D. Holway (Minn.), W. A. Kellerman 
(Ohio) , W. H. Long (U. S. D. A., N. Mex.) , E. W. Olive (S. D.) , C. L. Shear 
(U. S. D. A., D. C), J. L. Sheldon (W. Va.), F. L. Stevens (N. C), and 
H. H. Whetzel (N. Y.). It is interesting to note the vocations represented 
here — a farmer, a minister, a banker, an experiment station worker, two 
physicians, two high school teachers, two U. S. D. A. workers, and seven 
college professors. 

Two collectors who contributed a great deal of valuable material to 
the Arthur Herbarium and who aided greatly in extending our knowledge 
of the rust fungi were Elam Bartholomew and E. W. D. Holway. Edward 
Willet Dorland Holway was a banker who lived in Decorah, Iowa and 
whose hobbies were mountain climbing and collecting. Holway was for- 
tunate in that he could frequently pursue both hobbies at one and the same 
time. Although he was rather frail in childhood, Holway in later life 
climbed so many mountains in the Canadian Rockies that a mountain was 
finally named after him, and a mountaineering friend was once heard to 
say, "Holway is made of India rubber and steel springs." His collecting 



230 Indiana Academy of Science 

expeditions to Central and South America yielded a wealth of material. 
In the words of L. H. Pammel of Iowa State College, "It is probably correct 
to say that Holway discovered more new plant rusts than any other 
botanist." 

Elam Bartholomew was a Kansas farmer who had been a school 
teacher and had a good general knowledge of botany. For several years 
he collected only flowering plants, until one day in 1885 when he was 
visited by W. A. Kellerman, then professor of botany at Kansas State. 
As they were walking around the farm, Kellerman plucked a leaf of 
pigweed, showed Bartholomew the pustules of Albugo on the lower sur- 
face and said, "Bartholomew, why don't you study something that is really 
interesting?" From that day on, Bartholomew concentrated on fungi. 
On his trips, which took him into every state in the Union, as well as 
Canada and Mexico, he personally collected more than 290,000 specimens 
and discovered about 470 new species of fungi. 

In addition to material contributed to the Arthur Herbarium by col- 
lectors in the United States, many type specimens were obtained through 
correspondents in foreign countries. Also the aid received from some of the 
large herbaria both in this country and abroad was considerable. This was 
accomplished through duplicate specimens and by division of specimens 
where abundant material made that possible. It was found that flowering- 
plant specimens often bear rusts, and examinations of such material 
became a source of mycological specimens. The cooperating herbaria de- 
serving especial mention include those at the New York Botanical Garden, 
Harvard University, Smithsonian Institution, N. Y. State Museum, and 
Academy of Natural Sciences (Philadelphia). The relations with these 
institutions were furthered by more or less extended visits by Arthur and 
Kern, during the years from 1904 to 1910, and were very fruitful. 

This account would be incomplete indeed if reference were not made 
to the illustrations in the Arthur Herbarium. Mycological specimens in 
packets are not observable and even when opened for examination yield 
only gross characters which may not be very distinctive. Only through 
microscopic study of spores and sometimes sections can the necessary 
characters be determined. When these studies were being pursued camera 
lucida drawings were frequently made. These drawings, mounted below 
a packet, served to reveal the identity of a specimen and often precluded 
the repetition of detailed and time-consuming studies. Of course not every 
specimen could be so illustrated, but the inclusion of many illustrations, 
together with measurements and a recording of other data, promoted the 
studies and enhanced the working value of the herbarium. It should be 
noted that every illustration was dated and initialed, thus making it 
possible for later investigators to have a guide to its reliability. It should 
also be noted that photomicrography later came in as an illustrative 
supplement. 

In 1899, J. C. Arthur began an extensive series of culture experiments 
that were continued until 1917, in the course of which the life histories of 
a great many host-alternating rusts were worked out by means of care- 
fully controlled inoculations of host plants in the greenhouse. Arthur was 
aided in these studies by the field observations and outdoor culture work 
of Ellsworth Bethel, of Denver, Colorado. Bethel did a considerable amount 
of collecting, but it was a rather specialized type of collecting. In a letter 



History of Science 231 

to Arthur in 1918, Bethel, in describing a hurried trip to California, says, 
"There was no time for exploration, and I was so rushed, could only grab 
what I saw in passing. Speaking of grabbing, I will say sub rosa that 
outside of yourself and your men, I find no real collectors, only 'grabbers,' 
I call them. Most collectors never stop to look for the various stages or 
connections. I am likened to an 'old granny' in spending hours with my 
magnifier on a little grass plot. Well, I am not ashamed of the name, as I 
can get several times as many things as most collectors." 

Bethel was interested not so much in accumulating a large number 
of specimens as he was in finding material that could be used in establish- 
ing life cycle connections, which he did by means of outdoor inoculations. 
His outstanding contribution was in working out the aecial host range of 
the remarkable grass rust Puccinia aristidae, which is now known to form 
its aecia on about 100 species in 24 families of host plants. 

Members of the Purdue staff who made important contributions to 
the growth of the herbarium during the period of 1912 to 1920 were 
G. R. Bisby, F. D. Fromme, H. S. Jackson, C. A. Ludwig, and H. C. 
Travelbee. Dr. Jackson stayed on through the twenties, and through his 
efforts many South American specimens were added to the herbarium. 

In 1920, a few years after Arthur's retirement at Purdue, a crisis 
arose that is best described in Arthur's own words : "One day I was called 
into the Director's office and questioned about the work in the herbarium. 
I was informed, much to my surprise and chagrin, that the herbarium was 
considered the property of the station. I objected, and pointed out that 
the larger part was collected by myself and my collaborators, much of it 
before I became a member of the Station, that I had paid for all of the 
mounting paper, genus covers, packets and labels; further that my labor 
on it had been largely outside of Station hours, and certainly since my 
retirement, two years before, had cost the Station nothing. The Director 
maintained that any and all material brought into the Station became 
property of the Station. This statement seemed to me unjust, and a poor 
return for the years of labor I had put into building up the collection. 
I asserted my ownership, and to prove it, removed the whole mounted 
collection to my home in the city, where I felt that I might carry on the 
work I had had so much at heart for nearly fifty years." 

There is no record as to how long Dr. Arthur kept the collection at 
home. Eventually a committee was appointed to negotiate with him, and 
after a few summit meetings a mutually satisfactory agreement was 
drawn up, the collection was returned to the cases, and, in Arthur's words, 
"From this time to the present the status of the herbarium, and the char- 
acter of the work in connection with it, have not been called into question." 

This had been a discouraging period for Arthur, but he had had the 
support and encouragement of friends and collaborators throughout the 
country. In a letter to Arthur from Ellsworth Bethel, we find the follow- 
ing: "Keep up your spirits and enthusiasm and all will come out well yet. 
I find that my troubles usually turn to something good — a change for 
something better than I had planned or anticipated. Now if all your 
trouble should result in your giving to the world some publication on the 
biology of rusts and a working manual for beginners, what a great thing 
it would be for the advancement of knowledge. This would be of far greater 
value than the determination of species for correspondents or the publi- 



232 Indiana Academy of Science 

cation of rust species. You have described enough species — perhaps too 
many, and if you could help the younger men to do this work, since they 
must ere long take your place, it would be of inestimable service to science. 
Now please consider seriously the matter of giving us something which 
will give us younger men, and especially beginners, a start and a guide in 
the study of the most interesting and important group of plant diseases." 

At this time Arthur was working on the second number of the rust 
portion of the North American Flora, the first of which had been published 
in 1907, but the publications that Bethel considered to be so much needed 
were eventually to appear. In 1929 Arthur published "The Plant Rusts," 
in collaboration with Kern, Orton, Fromme, Jackson, Mains and Bisby, 
and in 1934 he brought out his "Manual of the Rusts in United States and 
Canada," with illustrations by George B. Cummins. In his manual, Arthur 
abandoned the life cycle classification that he had introduced in the North 
American Flora, a scheme of classification that had not been generally 
accepted. The manual of rusts proved to be the "good working manual" 
that Ellsworth Bethel had envisioned. 

In addition to Arthur's publications, major contributions from the 
Arthur Herbarium include F. D. Kern's study of the genus Gymnospo- 
rangium, taxonomic studies of various groups by Bisby, Orton, and E. B. 
Mains, and H. S. Jackson's paper on life cycles and evolutionary tendencies 
in the Uredinales. Outstanding contributions by the present curator, 
George B. Cummins, include a study of the phylogenetic significance of 
the pores in rust urediospores, a monograph of the genus Prospodium, 
a recently published manual of rust genera, and studies of major groups 
of grass rusts, some cooperatively with H. C. Greene and J. F. Hennen. 

Current research projects at the Arthur Herbarium include a manual 
of the grass rusts of the world, G. B. Cummins; a study of the morphology 
and taxonomic significance of rust spermagonia, Yasuyuki Hiratsuka; 
studies of the rusts of Mexico and Central America, G. B. Cummins, J. W. 
Baxter and J. F. Hennen; a monograph of the genus Ravenelia, J. W. 
Baxter; and a taxonomic study of the genus Pileolaria, J. F. Hennen. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bartholomew, E. W. 1935. Elam Bartholomew. Mycologia 27 : 91-95. 

2. Dearness, J. 1946. E. W. D. Holway. 1853-1923. A banker's avocations. Mycologia 
38 : 231-239. 

3. Mains, E. B. 1962. Joseph Charles Arthur (1850-1942). Mycologia 34: 601-605. 



The Kriebel Herbarium at Purdue University 

Grady L. Webster, Purdue University 

The Ralph M. Kriebel Herbarium of Purdue University was formally 
dedicated on August 29, 1961, at the annual banquet of the American 
Society of Plant Taxonomists (during the A. I. B. S. meetings at Purdue). 
A bronze plaque with the title of the herbarium, donated by the Kriebel 
family, was accepted on behalf of Purdue by Vice-President Chenea and 
shortly thereafter was installed on the east wall of the herbarium room 
in the Lilly Hall of Life Sciences. However, despite the newness of the 
herbarium as an integrated whole, it includes many older collections. It is 
the purpose of this article to trace the history of the present herbarium 
as well as can be determined. 

The Purdue University Herbarium was officially founded concomi- 
tantly with the University in 1874 under the direction of the Rev. John 
Hussey, Professor of Botany and Horticulture, who had been a chaplain 
in the Union forces during the Civil War. Hussey appears to have made 
a number of botanizing trips, with emphasis on collecting ferns, to various 
areas (particularly Edmonson Co., Kentucky). At the time of the Fourth 
Annual Report of the university of 1878, the herbarium was described as 
containing 1,500 specimens ("species") of the flora of the United States. 
The next year, in 1879, it was augmented by a shipment of 1,200 specimens 
from George W. Clinton of Albany, New York. In this same year Hussey 
was disabled by an attack of paralysis and his place was taken by Charles 
R. Barnes, who brought his private collection of 1,500 specimens to Purdue. 
Barnes' collections were eventually added to the herbarium, which grew 
to 5,000 specimens by 1892 and to 7,000 by 1902. 

Stanley Coulter, who became a professor at Purdue in 1887, soon took 
over botanical activities and was active in the work of the Indiana Bio- 
logical Survey which began in 1893. However, although a prolific writer 
on the flora of Indiana, he appears to have collected few specimens; most 
of those collected during his tenure were by students or correspondents 
such as Alida Cunningham, H. B. Dorner, and W. B. Van Gorder. After 
the erection of Coulter Hall, the herbarium was stored in the basement 
for some years, and suffered considerably through neglect. However, 
Coulter's recommendation (made when he was nearing retirement) that 
the herbarium be renovated was eventually followed up and in 1930 C. L. 
and J. N. Porter (3) were able to report that the specimens were filed in 
the proper order in the cases and thus were once more available for study. 

The Porters list in considerable detail the more important collections 
in the herbarium at this time. Some of the most interesting were those 
made by Dr. Clapp in the "Knobs" region of southern Indiana in 1838 and 
1839. C. C. Deam had donated a large series of Indiana specimens over a 
number of years. Other interesting collections not mentioned previously 
include those of McOwen from South Africa, Steinitz and Wenzel from 
Hungary, and A. H. Curtiss from Virginia. This herbarium in Stanley 
Coulter Hall unfortunately became inactive because of the lack of pro- 
fessional taxonomist. Later, Dr. A. T. Guard, who taught the elementary 
course in taxonomy, began adding specimens to the herbarium. 

In 1953 the west wing of the Lilly Hall of Life Sciences was com- 
pleted, and the rust fungi of the Arthur Herbarium were moved to their 

233 



234 Indiana Academy of Science 

present location. The vascular plant collections of Arthur were placed 
in a separate room together with the Coulter collection and the private 
herbarium of Ralph M. Kriebel. The Kriebel collection, which had been 
purchased for a nominal sum by the University after his death in 1946, 
was by far the largest component of the amalgamated phanerogamic her- 
barium; it consisted of more than 10,000 mounted sheets of his own collec- 
tions plus additional sets and many unmounted duplicates. It is the largest 
collection of Indiana plants made by one person next to that of C. C. Deam, 
who had originally encouraged Kriebel to begin collecting in 1933. Kriebel 
made probably the most thorough sampling of the flora of an Indiana 
county in his botanizing in Lawrence County, but he later collected exten- 
sively throughout the state as well. At first he was especially interested 
in ferns, and he reported several rare Asplenium hybrids (1, 2). He was 
also interested in oaks and made very extensive collections, including a 
number of hybrids, many of which have still not been critically studied. 
It seemed appropriate, therefore, to associate his name with the combined 
vascular plant herbarium, to which he had contributed so much. 

Beginning in 1958, the writer began a program of reorganizing the 
herbarium which lasted for about three years. The Arthur, Coulter, and 
Kriebel collections have been intercalated and arranged in the Engler- 
Prantl sequence, the specimens placed in new genus covers color-coded for 
geographical origin, and a set of the Gray Card Index has been installed. 
The total number of mounted specimens of vascular plants is now approxi- 
mately 35,000, of which over one-half are from Indiana. The collection is 
especially rich in grasses, partly due to the interest of Dr. George Cummins 
in collecting hosts for grass rusts. At the present time the emphasis in 
adding to the collections is on plants from the Midwest, Gulf Coastal Plain, 
and American tropics. Recent additions to the herbarium since 1958 
include Alton Lindsey's collections from a number of interesting areas 
(Canadian Arctic, New Zealand, Mount Rainier, etc.), the T. E. Eaton 
collection of native and exotic ferns (donated by Dr. Lindsey), Alaskan 
plants collected by B. E. Montgomery, many plants of the western U. S. 
donated by George Cummins, Ekman collections from Hispaniola, and 
West Indian and Himalayan plants collected by the writer. A fairly large 
collection of bryophytes (the hepatics annotated by C. E. Bonner and 
H. A. Miller) is presently stored in another room but will eventually be 
made available for study. 

Literature Cited 

1. Kriebel, R. M. 1933. Asplenium ebenoides R. R. Scott in Lawrence County, Indiana. 
Amer. Fern. Jour. 23 : 52-59. 

2. 1935. Pteridophytes of Lawrence County. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

44 : 47-52. 

3. Porter, C. L., and J. N. Porter. 1931. The Stanley Coulter herbarium at Purdue 
University. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 40 : 115-117. 



The Greene-Nieuwland Herbarium at the University of 
Notre Dame 

Robert P. McIntosh, University of Notre Dame 

The arrival of Edward Lee Greene at the University of Notre Dame 
in February, 1915 with "bag and baggage" to use his description, was the 
last stop in the peregrinations of one of the outstanding figures in the 
history of American botany. Bag and baggage consisted of "a most select 
library of botanical science of some thirty-five hundred bound books and 
rare printed documents, together with several hundred unbound; (2) An 
unique collection of some hundred thousand unmounted herbarium speci- 
mens, the most valuable ever offered for sale in America, this as being a 
kind of voluminous reference work which future generations of botanical 
authors will need to consult for verification of my own published genera 
and species; (3) A large accumulation of autograph letters from botanists 
of all degrees of eminence, from both sides of the Atlantic during more 
than forty years of my own activity in the science." (1) 

These forty years of avid collecting and prodigious publication began 
in the mid-west, in Wisconsin, where the young Greene initiated his botani- 
cal career stimulated by his mother's interest in plants and under the 
tutelage of Thure Kumlien, a pioneer Wisconsin naturalist. As a nineteen- 
year-old soldier in the Civil War he wrote Kumlien in consecutive sen- 
tences of the horrors of war and his interest in botanical collecting; "They 
lay side by side and probably were both killed by the same merciless bomb 
shell. I have seen a great many new things in the vegetable world since 
I left home but it has not been much more than an aggravation to me to 
see when I could not have a chance to collect anything." 

Nevertheless, he managed to pursue his botanical interests and later 
wrote, "I have a book which I keep in my knapsack in which I can press 
small plants quite well. I sent a few home about a week ago and wrote 
mother to divide them with you." (2) Various hazards attended his mili- 
tary botanizing as indicated in his comments on a fox glove he had marched 
by "It was pretty, but I did not dare leave the ranks to notice it closely"; 
and on a rapid retreat, "I had well nigh lost all my botanical and other 
little collections on my last march. We were ordered away from Claysville 
soon after my last letter to you and were obliged to burn up a good many 
valuable things to prevent them from falling into rebellious hands after 
our departure. I managed to crowd most of my plants into my knapsack 
by carrying some of my clothing in another manner and have preserved 
now the most of them." (2) 

During his military service Greene wrote, "I have almost made up 
my mind that I would make my home somewhere in that trans-Mississip- 
pian region though possibly farther to the southward than Kansas." (2) 
It was in the post bellum west that Greene's botanical reputation was 
established and his botanical collection grew. During his early years in 
Colorado, where he arrived in 1870, he became an established botanical 
collector known to Asa Gray, George Engelmann, John Torrey and other 
leading American botanists of the day. He also completed his theological 
studies, was ordained in the Episcopal Church, and persuaded his bishop 
to assign him rural parishes so he could pursue his botanical and religious 

235 



236 Indiana Academy of Science 

roles "in order that the care of souls might be lightened by the pursuit of 
botanical studies." (3) He ranged over the then little known areas of 
Wyoming, northern Colorado down to New Mexico adding to his knowledge 
of western plants, discovering several species and, "had a fine time, also 
have worked my way into the pulpit so as to have no trouble about the 
wherewithal to pay my expenses. ... I have a large congregation and a 
good salary but with all that so much pastoral work, that my scientific 
studies are interfered with not a little." (2) 

Pastoral work notwithstanding, by 1885 Greene had established him- 
self as the leading botanist of the west, so that when he gave up the 
ministry he founded the department of botany at the University of Cali- 
fornia. Here he continued his collecting and entered the most productive 
period of his publishing career becoming a world renowned figure in 
botanical circles. By 1892 he was named a member of the International 
Committee on Botanical Nomenclature; of which he wrote later, "As far 
as the rules of nomenclature of the last botanical congress I have never 
read them ; although I am a member of the International Commission. If 
you knew how these congresses are composed and how the business of 
them is done you would have no great deference to pay their rules." (1) 
Perhaps his earliest association with Notre Dame was in 1894 when the 
University awarded him the LL.D. In 1895 he was chosen president of the 
Botanical Congress held at Madison, Wisconsin. 

That same year he left California taking with him his herbarium and 
library at his own expense, and became professor of botany at the Catholic 
University of America in Washington, D. C. He remained here until 1904 
working on his systematic and historical studies. In 1904 he became an 
honorary associate in botany at the Smithsonian Institution, his herbarium 
and library being transferred to the U. S. National Herbarium. The agree- 
ment with the National Museum was that Greene's collections were not to 
be removed for ten years and within that time the Museum could purchase 
the plant collection and library for thirty thousand dollars, or in the 
event of his death the collections would become the property of the Museum. 
During this period Greene devoted himself in large part to his studies in 
the history of botany the first volume published in 1909 as "Landmarks in 
Botanical History," the second volume unfortunately being unpublished 
to this day. 

It was during this period that the events took place which led even- 
tually to Greene and his "bag and baggage" arriving at Notre Dame. 
Greene's tenure at the Catholic University was not an entirely happy 
period but one of his students there was Father Julius Nieuwland, C.S.C., 
who upon his return to Notre Dame in 1904 became professor of botany. 
Father Nieuwland did his thesis in chemistry and subsequently became 
famous as a chemist. However, in his early career he devoted his attention 
to botany and his correspondence with Greene, beginning in 1905, dealt 
with botanical subjects. In October of 1907 he wrote "I am doing my level 
best to build up a botanical library and have lost all interest in chem- 
istry." (1) Greene had infected his student with his own interest in old 
and rare botanical books and Father Nieuwland became another botanical 
bibliophile writing of books, "since I have thrown chemistry practically 
overboard I am intensely interested in these things." (1) Nieuwland 



History of Science 237 

acquired a considerable library of botanical works from the proceeds of 
the sale of slides of botanical materials which he made and sold. 

During this period Father Nieuwland frequently urged Greene to visit 
Notre Dame pointing out "the cost of living is nothing divided by two at 
Notre Dame," and commenting, "I badly feel the need of some encourage- 
ment in this work." (1) As early as 1907 Greene wrote, "I should be very 
happy were it so ordered that I should join you at Notre Dame for weeks, 
for months, or for years." (1) However, he desired to stay in Washington 
because the libraries there favored his historical work. 

Nevertheless during these years Greene was instrumental in stimu- 
lating Father Nieuwland to pursue his botanical studies and urged him to 
develop the herbarium at the University. In 1908 Greene wrote to Nieuw- 
land "You will need a great herbarium in a place such as Notre Dame is 
destined to become" (1) and in the same year he even provided directions 
for the labels for the herbarium. 

The initial herbarium of the University had been destroyed in a fire 
in 1879. (4) In Father Nieuwland's early years at Notre Dame he men- 
tions the difficulty of working without a herbarium. His own extensive 
botanical studies and collecting began to remedy this lack and by 1945 the 
Nieuwland Herbarium contained some fifty thousand specimens. Much of 
this is Indiana and midwestern material, but many specimens from other 
regions were obtained by exchange. 

In response to Father Nieuwland's repeated urgings Greene, in 1909, 
visited the University and went on collecting trips with Nieuwland and 
his students. This was the first of almost annual visits he made to South 
Bend before he moved there permanently. That he was pleased with his 
reception and prospects at Notre Dame is evidenced in a letter to Nieuw- 
land written in December, 1909. In it he said that he had asked the Smith- 
sonian to release him from his contract so he could move his books and 
herbarium, and that two places on the Atlantic coast, one on the Pacific 
were waiting "to claim me, my equipment and all." None of these inter- 
ested him and he wrote "If I were assured the University (Notre Dame) 
would accept the above as a gift, publish all I write without cost to me 
and give me shelter and food — all this to the end of my days — I am not 
sure I would not prefer that to any other place." (1) Father Nieuwland 
wrote back "I certainly did lie awake a good part of last night after read- 
ing your letter. You can hardly imagine how glad I would be if you would 
decide to come to Notre Dame." (1) Thus, some six years before his 
arrival at Notre Dame, Greene was considering the move to South Bend. 

During this period Greene was obviously concerned by his situation 
at the National Museum and was anxious to move. He wrote Nieuwland 
of a discussion with a friend in the United States Senate, "My senator . . . 
advised me to procure release from the contract of deposit here and, when 
I am ready, betake myself to that Indiana place." (1) 

However he was bound by contract to leave his herbarium and library 
on deposit at the National Museum for ten years and at any time the 
Museum secured the money it could, according to the contract, purchase 
the collections. In January, 1910 a bill was introduced in Congress to 
appropriate thirty thousand dollars to buy Greene's herbarium and library. 
Both Greene and Nieuwland were much concerned about this and Father 
Nieuwland wrote to Greene asserting he would, if Greene wished, try to 



238 Indiana Academy of Science 

prevent passage of the bill. Continued efforts to procure the appropriation 
prompted Greene to take action as well, "I had to leave all yesterday and 
go lobbying to prevent that." (1) 

In November of 1912 he wrote to Father Cavanaugh, then president 
of Notre Dame, the statement of an offer of his herbarium, library and 
correspondence in return for a modest annuity and living quarters for the 
duration of his life. He remarks in this letter that the proposed annuity 
was "less than half what I am sure of being able to take from one 
or another of four different great seats of botanical study and re- 
search. ..." (1) 

In spite of the inducements offered him by several other universities 
and museums Greene persisted in his resolve to go to Notre Dame. In 
November, 1913 he wrote Father Cavanaugh, "Shall you be ready next 
May to receive and set in order for use — my use also — the massive botani- 
cal collections?" (1) It was not, however, until February of 1915 that 
Father Cavanaugh reported that the freight car with books and herbarium 
had arrived and cases were being constructed, according to Green's speci- 
fications, to receive the collection. 

Greene was never to pursue his botanical studies at Notre Dame for 
within the year of his arrival he was dead. His plan to do a flora of 
Wisconsin was unfulfilled and his history of botany and projected "Ameri- 
can Botany in My Time" were never completed, an irrevocable loss to the 
history of the science. 

Nevertheless his mark was firmly placed on the botanical work of the 
University ably carried on by Father Nieuwland and later Theodore Just. 
Greene was responsible for the stimulation and encouragement which 
enabled Father Nieuwland to establish a considerable herbarium of his 
own. The addition of his own invaluable collections, which are kept sepa- 
rate as the Greene Herbarium, to the Nieuwland Herbarium made the 
botanical collection at Notre Dame one of the largest and most significant 
in the country; in Greene's words "a kind of voluminous reference work 
which future generations of botanical authors will need to consult. ..." (1) 

Literature Cited 

1. Correspondence of Edward Lee Greene in the Archives of the University of Notre 
Dame. 

2. Main, A. K. 1929. Life and letters of Edward Lee Greene. Trans. Wis. Acad, of 
Sciences, Arts and Letters 24 : 147-185. 

3. Ewan, J., 1950. Rocky Mountain Naturalist, The University of Denver Press. 

4. Just, T. 1945. A brief history of the Department of Biology, University of Notre 
Dame. Troc. Ind. Acad, of Science 55 : 147-153. 



The DePauw University Herbarium 

Winona H. Welch, DePauw University 

The date of the establishment of the DePauw Herbarium is not defi- 
nitely known, but the estimated origin is approximately 70 years ago. 
Probably the founder was Dr. Lucien M. Underwood who was the pro- 
fessor of Botany on the DePauw staff from 1891-1895. There is a small 
number of earlier local collections with dates in the late 1870's and early 
1880's. These may have been in the department when Dr. Underwood came 
to DePauw or he may have secured them in an exchange of specimens. 
Although the bulk of Underwood's plant collections are in the New York 
Botanical Garden, a number of his specimens have remained in the 
DePauw Herbarium. 

When Prof. Truman G. Yuncker became a member of the DePauw 
staff, in September, 1919, he found a small, much neglected herbarium. 
The specimens were filed in pasteboard herbarium boxes with drop-ends. 
These, in turn, were stored in wooden cabinets which were neither insect- 
nor dust-proof. Unfortunately, it was necessary to discard a number of 
the specimens because of damage due to these factors. An estimated 900- 
1,000 sheets were redeemed. 

The first large addition to the herbarium was the gift of the Earl 
Grimes collection, 1,000 or more specimens, from Putnam, Montgomery, 
and Tippecanoe counties. He was a most promising young local botanist 
who died in 1921, during surgery. Mrs. Grimes gave his collection to 
DePauw in 1922. The author, a senior in the university that fall, mounted 
these specimens, checked the determinations of all ferns in the herbarium, 
and assisted Prof. Yuncker in the reorganization of the DePauw Her- 
barium. In June, 1923, the Botany Department regarded its collection of 
plants in three small steel cases as satisfactorily protected against insects, 
fire, and dust, and properly arranged. 

The vascular flora of Jasper County, Indiana, was the basis of the 
writer's thesis for the A.M. degree, under Prof. William Trelease at the 
University of Illinois. Dr. Charles C. Deam, then collecting plants in the 
preparation of his Flora of Indiana, left the flora of Jasper County for the 
author but checked each determination. The 710 species of vascular plants 
which were represented in this Master's thesis were presented to the 
DePauw Herbarium. 

Upon the death of Miss Madge McKee of Goodland, Indiana, in 1950, 
her large collection of Newton County plants was presented by her brother 
to DePauw. Other sizable personal collections or duplicates have been 
given to the university by Charles C. Deam, Charles M. Ek, Ralph M. 
Kriebel, Ray C. Friesner, John E. Potzger, and, more recently, by Scott 
McCoy. In the late 1920's, Dr. Joseph P. Naylor, Professor of Physics at 
DePauw, presented his moderately large collection of mosses to the her- 
barium. 

Since 1931, members of the Botany staff have made large collections 
in Hawaii, Alaska, Central America, Cuba, Jamaica, and various islands 
of the Pacific, as well as throughout Canada and the mainland of the 
United States. Duplicates of these collections have been exchanged with 
other herbaria throughout the world in order to increase the representa- 
tion of families, genera, and species in the DePauw Herbarium. 

239 



240 Indiana Academy of Science 

As a result of special research interests of staff members and major 
students in the department, special groups of plants occur in the herbarium 
in large numbers. Dr. William D. Gray became a keen student of Myxomy- 
cetes while at DePauw and has presented the department a very large 
collection of slime molds. The collections of fungi by Dr. Emery G. Sim- 
mons for his Master's thesis at DePauw, A Monographic Study in the 
Stromatic Sphaeriales of Indiana, were presented to the herbarium. Mr. 
John 0. Cottingham, a DePauw student from the class of 1896, has given 
through the years his specimens of fungi collected in Marion County, 
Indiana. Charles R. Hall has contributed a collection of algae, approxi- 
mately 200 species and varieties, resulting from his research for his 
Master's thesis on the Algae of Putnam County, Indiana. The approximate 
2,000 Indiana hepatic collections of the writer were included by Dr. Ken- 
neth A. Wagner, along with his personal collections, in his Master's thesis 
on the Liverworts of Indiana, and were deposited in the DePauw Her- 
barium. Because of a promise made to Dr. Bruce Fink, a few months 
before his death, the author has continued collecting lichens in the state. 
These have been determined or checked by recognized lichenologists and 
filed in the herbarium. In the Mosses of Indiana, the collections from the 
92 counties were determined and placed in the herbarium. The writer's 
herbarium of lichens, mosses, and liverworts consists of more than 32,500 
collections. This number includes a very large accumulation of species in 
Fontinalaceae, Wardiaceae, Hydropogonaceae, and Hookeriaceae, due to 
the monographic studies in these families. Among the exsiccati of crypto- 
gams which occur in the DePauw Herbarium are de Thiimen, Mycotheca 
universalis, Fink, Lichens of Northeastern Minnesota, Tuckerman, Reli- 
quiae Tuckermanianae, and Grout, North American Musci Perfecti, and 
North American Musci Pleurocarpi. 

Dr. Yuncker having started his monographic treatise of the genus 
Cuscuta for his doctorate thesis has acquired approximately 8,000 num- 
bers in this genus as represented throughout the world. More recently he 
has become interested in the Piperaceae and presently this family is repre- 
sented by several thousand collections, chiefly of the West Indies and the 
Americas. In both Cuscuta and the Piperaceae, a considerable number of 
types and isotypes are included. It is believed that the accumulation of 
species represented in these special groups is among the largest in any 
herbarium in the world. 

Because of the divergent areas : tropical, temperate, and arctic, from 
which collections have been made, and through widespread exchanges, 
practically every family of flowering plants is represented. 

The filing of the specimens follows the usual herbarium practice. 
Those from Indiana are segregated in regular manila folders, while those 
from out of the state are in pink folders. This method materially reduces 
handling and consequent damage when examining the plants. Both species 
and genera are alphabetically arranged while the families follow the 
arrangement of Dalle Torre & Harms. A very large amount of the mount- 
ing of specimens through recent years, the repair of herbarium sheets, 
and the filing in the herbarium cases has been done by Mrs. Yuncker. 

In 1955, the Lilly Endowment Foundation made a grant of $15,000 for 
use in improving and enlarging the herbarium and for the purchase of 



History of Science 241 

such works as the Index Kewensis, Engler & Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien, 
the Pflanzenreich, and various floras and other important reference works. 
The herbarium, presently known as the Truman G. Yuncker Her- 
barium of DePauw University, at the beginning of the university's 125th 
year, has a total of approximately 125,000 specimens and is completely 
housed in steel, insect- and dust-proof cases, in the Department of Botany 
& Bacteriology, in Harrison Hall. 



A Century of Botany and Botanists at DePauw University 1 

Truman G. Yuncker, DePauw University 

DePauw was founded in 1837 as Indiana Asbury University. From 
the very beginning of the University, science was recognized as an impor- 
tant part of the curriculum, with Geology and Mineralogy, Mathematics, 
Chemistry, and Natural Philosophy or Physics appearing among the first 
courses of study offered. The first Professor of Mathematics and Natural 
Science was the Rev. Mathew Simpson who was also the University's 
first President. He continued to teach all of the science offered until 1841 
when he was succeeded by the Rev. W. C. Larrabee who, in turn, was one 
year later replaced by C. G. Downey who continued to teach mathematics 
until 1852 when he left to become Professor of Chemistry in the new 
School of Medicine which was being established by Asbury at that time. 
Professor Larrabee was much interested in nature and introduced a num- 
ber of unusual species of trees on the campus from his native state of 
Maine, the Orient, etc. These have mostly since disappeared. 

In 1849, Dr. Joseph Tingley became Professor of Natural Science and 
held this position for thirty years, until 1879, when, in a general reorgani- 
zation, he along with several others were dismissed. He had been made 
Vice-President of the University in 1860 but also continued as Professor 
of Natural Science. 

During Tingley's tenure the University experienced intermittent 
periods of expansion and retraction. In 1849 a Medical School was auspi- 
ciously started in Indianapolis which, however, continued for only three 
years. In 1853 a Law School was inaugurated. At first, Natural Science, 
including Animal Physiology and Natural History, which was chiefly 
Zoology, represented the offerings of the biological sciences. 

It was not until the college year of 1859-1860 that Botany was first 
given as a distinct course. Professor Tingley offered it during the third 
term of the sophomore year and Gray's textbook was used. He continued 
offering botany for one or two terms each year, with either Gray or Wood 
as a text. At the time, these were the principal botanical texts, although 
in 1877 Sach's text was also used. During this time, the course consisted 
of three half -hour lectures each week; certainly not extensive. Tingley 
was primarily interested in mathematics and in physics but, because of 
his courses in botany, is to be considered as the first teacher of that subject 
at Asbury. At the same time he offered other science courses which be- 
tween 1875 and 1878 included a one-term course in zoology each year. 

Dr. John M. Mansfield succeeded Tingley in 1879, and in the year 
1879-1880 offered 1V 2 terms of botany and a half-term course in Sanitary 
Science, presumably reflecting the influence of the work being done by 
Pasteur, Koch and others in the Old World at about this time. Previous to 
coming to Asbury, Mansfield had traveled in Europe where he visited 
laboratories, and had also developed laboratories at Iowa Wesleyan Uni- 
versity. 

Considering the religious heritage of the University, it would not be 
surprising that the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species in 1859 



1. Thanks are due Dr. Geo. B. Manhart, Emeritus Professor of History at 
DePauw, for furnishing some of the data used in this paper. 

242 



History of Science 243 

would provoke a certain amount of discussion as it certainly was the great 
controversial issue of that period. As early as 1850, Larrabee gave lec- 
tures on the "scientific evidences of natural and revealed religions." He 
vigorously opposed "new-fangled systems and notions" when inconsistent 
with "correctly interpreted teachings of the Bible." He claimed that the 
evidence was clear that the earth was created in 6 natural days 6,000 
years ago. We also read in the Asbury Review of January 1874 that Prof. 
Tingley "demolished the theory of the Evolutionists, Darwin and the 
rest." It is noted that Gray's text was not listed for some of the years, 
perhaps because of his very positive stand in support of Darwin. 

In 1881, Bessey's Botany for High Schools and Colleges, published the 
previous year, supplanted the Gray and Wood texts previously used. At 
this time the department was known as Physics and Biology, but the 
following year it was divided, with Dr. Mansfield continuing as the Pro- 
fessor of Biology. At this time he was offering one term of botany and 
three terms of zoology. In the catalogue for 1881 we read: "First and 
Second Honors were conferred on students who carried out appropriate 
work beyond class requirements." This represented an interesting experi- 
ment with "Honors" which continued for a number of years for good 
students willing to do extra work. Among the books listed as available 
for such additional work were: Sach's Botany, von Zippel's Pflanzen- 
familien, Magnin's Bacteria, Wood's Fresh Water Algae, Harvey's Marine 
Algae, and Eaton's Ferns of North America, all important works of that 
time. We also note the following: "The freshmen study Botany the third 
term, with Bessey's Textbook, and with microscopes and reagents make 
experiments and observations on the morphology and physiology of plants. 
A well-written notebook, drawings, to scale in water colors, or the mor- 
phology; microscopic mountings; pressed flowers; analysis of flowers, 
with Wood's Check-Tablet, are some of the methods of study. The class 
makes large collections in the spring, and especially during vacations, to 
increase their knowledge and have an abundance of material in the her- 
barium for investigation the rest of the course." In this connection, it is 
interesting to recall that laboratory methods of teaching had been intro- 
duced into America between 1860 and 1870, and it is reported that the 
botanical department of Harvard University as late as 1865 did not own 
a compound microscope. It is evident, therefore, that Asbury was abreast 
of the times in its science teaching. The walls of the Museum at that time 
were filled with pressed plants, drawings in water colors, etc. of a large 
number of orders of plants arranged according to the Besseyan system. 
Fossil plants were also included. The Professor of Biology or of Natural 
Science from the beginning had been also the Curator of the Museum. 

In 1884 the name of the institution was changed to DePauw Univer- 
sity in honor of a prominent benefactor. That year also saw the establish- 
ment of a School of Horticulture which offered a number of courses relat- 
ing to plants including, in addition to Botany as such, Vegetable Physi- 
ology, Forestry, Landscape Gardening, and Vegetable Gardening. Although 
started with enthusiasm, the School continued for only two years, regis- 
tering 13 students the first and 29 the second. From 1883 to 1886 there 
was no Professor of Biology and no courses were offered aside from those 
in the School of Horticulture which apparently was taking over for the 



244 Indiana Academy of Science 

time being the botany courses normally offered in the College of Liberal 
Arts. 

In 1886, 0. P. Jenkins, A.M., M.S., became Professor of Bio 7 ogy and 
in that year had three student assistants. He occupied this position until 
1891. He offered one term of biology, one of elementary zoology and one 
of elementary botany, using Gray, and Arthur, Barnes & Coulter's Hand- 
book for Plant Dissection as texts. Advanced work in botany was also 
offered, with diatoms, algae, fungi, and ferns listed as some of the special 
topics being studied. He had good equipment for his work including 34 
compound microscopes. Laboratory work in science had been required 
from almost the beginning of the University and, beginning with Professor 
Tingley, had continued to occupy an increasingly prominent role in the 
curriculum. At this time DePauw required all students in the regular 
course of study to have two courses in Physics, Chemistry, or Biology. 

Professor Jenkins left DePauw for Stanford University at the time 
of the founding of that University in 1891. His specialty was ichthyology 
and he helped Jordan and Evermann in their work. He took two of his 
DePauw students, F. M. McFarland and George Price, with him and both 
later became noted members of the Stanford faculty. Another DePauw 
student who had assisted Jenkins was Daniel T. McDougal who received 
the B.S. degree at DePauw in 1890, A.M. in 1893, and the honorary LL.D. 
in 1900. He later became director of the Carnegie Institution's Laboratory 
for Plant Physiology and was one of the so-called starred scientists in 
America and internationally known for his work. 

In 1891 the department of biology was divided to form separate de- 
partments of Botany and Zoology. Dr. Lucien M. Underwood was ap- 
pointed Professor of Botany and department head. He remained at 
DePauw for four years during which time he offered a strong course of 
study composed of one year of general botany, one on the Cryptogams, 
and one of Plant Physiology and Biological Problems. In 1895 he was 
released from his position on the plea of President John of the financial 
necessity of reducing faculty, and the two departments were recombined. 

Underwood came to DePauw from a professorship of Biology at 
Syracuse University at a considerable reduction in salary because he felt 
he would have greater opportunities for his work in a separate department 
such as DePauw was offering him. Upon leaving DePauw, he became 
Professor of Biology in Alabama Polytechnic Institute and, in 1896, Pro- 
fessor of Botany at Columbia University as well as a member and Chair- 
man of the Board of Scientific Directors of the New York Botanical 
Garden, which positions he retained until his death in 1907. He made 
extensive collections during his lifetime which are now, for the most part, 
in the herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. 

He was especially interested in the lower groups of plants and was 
the author of several noteworthy books together with about 200 scientific 
papers, including a number published while at DePauw. He prepared the 
text on the Hepaticae for the 6th edition of Gray's Manual in 1890. 

He was a member of the original committee on botanical nomenclature 
at the A. A. A. S. meeting at Rochester in 1892, and was elected the Ameri- 
can delegate to the Genoa Botanical Congress of the same year, and also 
to the International Botanical Congress at Vienna in 1905 where he pre- 



History of Science 245 

sented the American viewpoints relative to the Type Concept and other 
debated points. He was one of the Vice-Presidents at the Congresses and 
took part in the decision to make 1753 the beginning date for botanical 
nomenclature. He served as Vice-President of the Botanical Section of 
the A. A. A. S. in 1894 and, together with Dr. Britton of the New York 
Botanical Garden, helped launch the publication of the monumental ency- 
clopedic North American Flora and was one of its earlier editors. He was 
appointed a member of the committee which helped found the Botanical 
Society of America and in 1899-1900 was its President, and was also 
Chairman of the section on Biology of the A. A. A. S. in 1904-1905. 

Considering his competence and his international reputation as a 
botanist, it would seem to have been a major error on the part of DePauw 
when it let him go and thus lost one of the most distinguished nationally 
as well as internationally known American scientists as a member of its 
faculty. 

In 1894, Mel T. Cook was elected to become instructor in charge of the 
department. He remained at DePauw until 1904, being advanced to a 
professorship in 1897. He had entered the Preparatory School at DePauw 
in 1885 taking courses in botany under Professor Jenkins whom he held 
in the greatest esteem. His work was interrupted for two years after 
which he returned and had courses under Professor Underwood. For his 
senior year he transferred to Stanford where he obtained the A.B. degree 
in 1895. In 1904 he resigned from DePauw to go to Cuba as Chief of the 
Department of Plant Pathology at Santiago de las Vegas. Professor Cook 
was a most energetic and inspiring teacher. Among his students at De- 
Pauw who were later to distinguish themselves in the field of botany were 
F. W. Foxworthy, Guy M. Wilson and H. H. York. He initiated the 
DePauw Biological Association for the Advancement of the Study of 
Biology. Funds were collected which were used for student scholarships 
in the department and to provide outside lecturers among whom were 
W. A. Locy, C. H. Eigenmann, H. C. Cowles, O. W. Caldwell, Geo. T. 
Moore, and Amos Butler. It was during his tenure that Alfred Dickey, 
one of his former classmates at DePauw, set up an endowment fund for a 
departmental library in honor of his father, a former governor of North 
Dakota. This bequest amounted to $2,500 of which $500 was for the 
immediate purchase of books and the balance to remain as an endowment, 
the income of which was to be used for the purchase of books each year. 
The department is still enjoying the fruits of this bequest. 

In 1904 Cook was succeeded by Dr. Howard J. Banker who remained 
at DePauw for 10 years during which time the department enjoyed a 
steady growth. Banker was a very personable man, well-liked by students 
and associates. He was an authority on the Hydnaceae and also in the 
field of Eugenics. Upon leaving DePauw he carried on eugenics research 
at the Eugenics Research Office of the Carnegie Institution. 

The following five years saw a procession of Acting Professors of 
Biology. Dr. D. W. Davis served one year to be followed by Dr. H. R. 
Glasscock who in turn was followed by Walter N. Hess in 1917. Hess had 
his A.M. from Oberlin College and was completing his doctorate at Cornell 
University at the time of his appointment. These three men were primarily 
zoologists and botany was not particularly stressed. During 1918-1919 



246 Indiana Academy of Science 

Hess was on leave for war duty and Dr. B. E. Quick served as Acting 
Professor. He offered a variety of botany courses including, for the first 
time, a semester course in bacteriology. 

A. M. Johnson was an instructor during the summer sessions of 1917 
and 1919. Hess returned from the army in 1919 and resumed leadership 
of the department. 

The writer, who had the B.S. degree from Michigan State University, 
A.M. from the University of Nebraska and the Ph.D. from the University 
of Illinois, was appointed Assistant Professor of Biology in 1919 by Presi- 
dent Gross with the understanding that Botany was to be developed co- 
ordinate with Zoology. He was promoted to Associate Professor of Biology 
in 1920 and to Professor of Botany the following year. New courses of 
botany were introduced to provide students with a general background in 
the subject and to prepare them for graduate study. His chief interest has 
been in the field of taxonomy especially with the genus Cuscuta and the 
family Piperaceae. 

The department quickly expanded with the addition of two instruc- 
tors and in 1923 Dr. George Gage was added as Assistant Professor of 
Botany. In 1924, the Department of Botany was established separate from 
that of Zoology but the following year President Murlin recombined them. 
They remained as the Department of Biology for the following four years 
but were again divided in 1928 and have so continued. 

Dr. Gage resigned in 1927 and was succeeded by Dr. Grace Barkley 
who died suddenly in the spring of 1930. Dr. Winona H. Welch, a specialist 
in the Bryophyta, was appointed Assistant Professor succeeding Dr. 
Barkley. She received her A.B. degree from DePauw, the A.M. from 
Illinois University, and the Ph.D. from Indiana University from which 
institution she came to DePauw. She was promoted to Associate Professor 
in 1934 and to Professor of Botany in 1939. She is the author of Mosses 
of Indiana and a notable monograph on the moss family Fontinalaceae, as 
well as many scientific papers. Among many other recognitions, she is a 
past President of the American Bryological Society, and also of the Indiana 
Academy of Science. She assumed the headship of the department in 
1956, upon the retirement of the writer, and reached retirement herself 
in 1961. 

George Burkett, A.B., A.M., was appointed Instructor in 1930 and 
remained in the department for six years. In 1940 Howard Youse, who 
had the A.B. from DePauw and the M.S. from Oregon State College, was 
appointed Instructor and has continued on the staff, with the exception of 
war service and work on the doctorate. He was promoted to Assistant 
Professor in 1946, Associate Professor in 1952, Professor of Botany in 
1955, and now succeeds Dr. Welch as department head. He obtained the 
Ph.D. from Purdue in 1951. His chief interest is in the field of Plant 
Physiology. When the writer, who for a number of years had been devoting 
a major part of his time to the teaching of the courses of bacteriology, 
retired, Dr. Anne M. McCarthy of Michigan State University was ap- 
pointed to take over this part of the work. She remained for one semester 
only, whereupon Robert Fletcher, who had received his A.B. and A.M. 
degrees in bacteriology at DePauw and was currently employed in the 
Admissions Office of the University, was asked to take over this work and 



History op Science 247 

has continued in this position. At present, he is carrying on work toward 
the Ph.D. at Purdue University and the writer, who currently holds the 
position of Curator of the Herbarium, is filling his place. Dr. W. P. 
Adams, B.S. and M.S. from the University of Georgia and Ph.D. from 
Harvard, comes from the State University of Florida as Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Botany. His field of research is taxonomy and he takes over 
courses vacated by the retirement of Dr. Welch. 

Bacteriology has continued to be taught in the department since 1918 
when it was first introduced. In 1946 the University for the first time 
allowed students to offer Bacteriology courses to satisfy the science re- 
quirement for graduation. In 1947 the offerings in the subject underwent 
considerable revision in order to permit students the opportunity of 
obtaining a major in it, and, at the same time, the department name was 
changed to that of Botany and Bacteriology. With the introduction of a 
Medical Technology program and a School of Nursing, increasing empha- 
sis has been placed on this part of the departmental offerings. 

Through the years, the department has been variously housed in 
different buildings on the campus. For many years it occupied quarters 
in what was then known as Middle College, a brick building originally 
designed as a dormitory. Upon the condemnation of that structure, the 
department was removed to a temporary dormitory built in 1921 where it 
remained until 1940 when the present John Harrison Hall of Science, 
which provides enlarged quarters, was completed. An adjoining green- 
house was the gift of the Eli Lilly family. 

In 1939, Professor Trelease of the University of Illinois and a former- 
professor of both Yuncker and Welch, presented his personal botanical 
library of hundreds of items to the department in honor of Dr. Agnes 
Chase, the noted agrostologist and a personal friend. 

The Lilly Endowment Foundation in 1956 made a grant of $15,000 
for the purpose of improving and enlarging the herbarium and for the 
purchase of books in the field of taxonomy. This has greatly enhanced the 
efficiency of the work, and the herbarium, which has greatly increased in 
size in more recent years, is now completely housed in modern steel cases. 

During the difficult war years, with Dr. Youse in service, and other 
disruptions, a number of instructors saw brief service in the department, 
including Joseph McMenamin, Kenneth Wagner, Emory Simmons, Charles 
Reimer, and, more recently Mrs. Marjorie Bumbalek and Mrs. Mabel 
Esten. While on leave during the year 1932-1933, the writer's courses were 
continued by Ethel Yuncker, his wife, as Acting Professor of Botany, and 
again, while on leave in 1939-1940, Dr. Welch acted as head of the depart- 
ment and his courses were taught by Dr. R. F. Dawson, a former DePauw 
graduate and now Professor at Columbia University. 

Thus, with temporary lapses, botany has continued to be taught at 
DePauw with increasing emphasis for the past century. 



The Antibiotics — Past, Present, and Future 

J. M. McGuire, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 

The concept of antibiosis — the realization that microorganisms can 
synthesize chemical substances which selectively inhibit or kill other 
microorganisms, did not occur suddenly to Alexander Fleming, nor to any 
other single scientist. Like most other discoveries, this concept grew out 
of the cumulative experiences and observations of man dating back, no 
one knows how far, into the past. 

It is difficult to say how far back in history we might find evidence of 
man's belief in the curative power of microorganisms, were we to make 
an exhaustive search. We know that apothecaries in the England of 1640 
prized the mold that grew on dead men's skulls as an ingredient for an 
ointment. (1) Stories of the use of deliberately nurtured moldy bread 
and moldy corn are found in the folk lore of the Maya Indian centuries 
ago, and in this century in rural areas of the Ukraine, eastern Europe, 
and even in England. The story is told of an untrained technician in a 
1911 laboratory of Oxford University gathering up and taking home 
remnants of the mold cultures used in classroom demonstrations. Asked 
why he did so, he said his family had used molds to treat "gatherings" for 
generations. 

Whether these medicinal uses of molds were based on observations of 
forgotten origin or on superstition is unknown. But we cannot question 
so readily the observation by Tyndall, most noted as a physicist, who in 
1876 noted that growth of a Penicillium mold discouraged growth of bac- 
teria in test tubes of mutton infusion. Nor can we discount the careful 
description by Pasteur in 1877 of the suppression of anthrax bacilli by 
other common bacteria in the same medium, and the protection of small 
animals from anthrax infection by simultaneous introduction of other 
bacteria into the animal. Whether these represent actual cases of anti- 
biotic production, we cannot be certain. We can be certain, however, that 
these scientists did not clearly derive the modern concept of antibiosis 
from their observations. Babes (1885) came much closer when he studied 
the antagonisms of specific bacteria for one another by methods much like 
the cross-streak technique used by Waksman more than fifty years later. 
Garre (1887) went further, showing in plate tests that the suppression of 
one bacterium by another was brought about by the secretion of a diffus- 
ible substance from the inhibitory organism. By 1890, several other inves- 
tigators had demonstrated, by methods little different from ours today, 
the production of antagonistic substances. The critical flash of insight did 
not occur, however, and attempts to exploit the property of microbial 
antagonisms took the direction of therapy by clinical administration of 
antagonistic organisms themselves. These efforts were not significantly 
successful, and progress toward the use of antibacterial substances from 
microorganisms came to a virtual halt. 

Vuillemin introduced the term antibiosis in 1889 as the phenomenon 
of one organism's actively destroying another to preserve its own life. 
This meaning, bearing little resemblance to present usage, was modified 
in 1928 by Papacostas and Gate to very nearly the meaning we ascribe to 
antibiosis today. It is an interesting coincidence that this definition was 

248 



History of Science 249 

published the very year that Fleming's classic paper describing the dis- 
covery of penicillin was in preparation. 

Penicillin 

The discovery of penicillin, announced by Alexander Fleming in 
1929 (3), is generally recognized as the beginning of a new era in medical 
history — an era in which chemotherapy grew from infancy to dominance 
in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in man. But while 
Fleming certainly called attention to the blue-green mold that synthesized 
penicillin, it remained for a group of Oxford University investigators ten 
years later to revive interest in the almost forgotten antibiotic. Fleming 
and the leader of the Oxford group, Dr. Howard Florey, were later 
awarded jointly the Nobel prize for their complementary roles in bringing 
to the world its first important and still in many ways its most remarkable 
antibiotic. 

In August, 1940, the Oxford University group headed by Florey 
described in Lancet (4) their laborious partial purification of penicillin 
from Fleming's mold and demonstrated the effectiveness of this substance, 
still less than one per cent pure, in protecting laboratory animals infected 
with virulent streptococci, pneumococci, and Clostridium septique. Even 
in this very impure state, penicillin inhibited these organisms in the test 
tube at dilutions up to one part in 500,000. 

Excited by this publication, I set about trying to find cultures of this 
mold. The Oxford paper had cited a publication of a Pennsylvania State 
College graduate student who had published his thesis on studies of 
Fleming's mold in 1935, in which he corroborated Fleming's work (5). 
This was Roger Reid, who was in 1940 on the staff of Johns Hopkins 
University, and who is now director of the Biological Sciences Division 
of the Office of Naval Research. I obtained a subculture of Fleming's 
Penicillium from Reid, and another from Dr. Charles Thorn, Principal 
Mycologist in the U. S. Department of Agriculture at Beltsville, Mary- 
land. Through the winter of 1940 and most of 1941 I experimented with 
Penicillium notatum with no spectacular success. It was not difficult to 
obtain activity in filtrates of the mold, but in the absence of controlled 
temperature, yields were low and unpredictable — usually less than one 
meg per ml. 

Meanwhile, the Oxford University group was working feverishly on 
penicillin. In August, 1941, they described in a second publication (6) 
their laborious accumulation, in spite of the difficulty of carrying on 
research in severe wartime conditions, of enough penicillin, perhaps five 
per cent pure, to treat a number of patients with severe infections. Their 
results were most encouraging in spite of the low dosages, by present 
standards, made necessary by the scanty supply of penicillin. In some 
cases, penicillin was recovered from the urine of patients, purified, and 
reused in order to make continued therapy possible. 

By this time it became obvious to the Oxford research team that 
penicillin had real potential usefulness as a therapeutic agent, but that 
the scale of developmental work needed for adequate evaluation was 
impracticable in a Britain preoccupied with fighting off bombing attacks 
and rebuilding its defenses. In the summer of 1941, Florey and Heatley, 
the latter of whom was responsible for the microbiology and who had 



250 Indiana Academy of Science 

devised the cylinder-agar plate diffusion assay now used widely in various 
forms, came to this country in an attempt to stimulate interest in large 
scale development work on penicillin. 

Florey and Heatley were to see much of America before achieving 
their desired results (2). They first approached the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion, which had supported much of their work by grants, and were referred 
to the National Academy of Science. From here they were directed to 
see Dr. Charles Thorn, eminent mycologist in the Bureau of Plant Indus- 
try. Dr. Thorn took them to the top officials of the Department of Agri- 
culture, who suggested that they might get help at the Northern Regional 
Research Laboratory in Peoria, Illinois. Here they found genuine interest, 
and here notable advances in penicillin research in this country were to 
be made — by N. G. Heatley, Florey's colleague who remained at Peoria 
for several months, and by Peoria staff members, notably K. B. Raper, 
A. J. Moyer, R. G. Benedict, F. H. Stodola, and others, directed by Dr. 
Robert D. Coghill, director of the Fermentation Division. Florey visited 
various industrial laboratories, among them Eli Lilly and Company, in 
an attempt to arouse further interest in penicillin. 

Florey's reception by American industry was friendly, but lukewarm 
with respect to serious consideration of penicillin as a potential commer- 
cial product — and not without reason. The sulfonamide drugs had sprung 
to prominence from 1935 to 1941, and as the first reasonably effective 
chemotherapeutic agents for bacterial infections they were themselves 
considered miracle drugs at the time of Florey's visit. This fact along 
with the obvious technical problems presented by penicillin, with its 
strange origin and its production by the mold in yields of less than one 
microgram per ml, gave little cause for enthusiasm in the ranks of indus- 
trial management. To research people, of course, penicillin had consider- 
able appeal, for there were indications that it could conceivably surpass 
the sulfonamides in effectiveness. The problems of inducing the mold to 
synthesize practical yields of penicillin, and of recovering from it a 
potent new drug, formidable as they appeared, presented interesting 
research challenges. 

The result was the initiation of moderate research efforts in several 
industrial plants, including our own, aided by frequent progress reports 
from the Northern Research Laboratory at Peoria. It would be difficult 
to overrate the importance of the Peoria group's work to the unparalleled 
industrial development of penicillin that followed. It was their discovery 
of more effective nutrient materials to stimulate higher yields of peni- 
cillin (7), their early recognition of the potential advantages of deep tank 
fermentation (8), and their discovery of new Penicillium cultures capable 
of producing penicillin in deep culture (9) that brought penicillin pro- 
duction into the realm of economic practicability. 

By late 1941, involvement of the United States in World War II 
caused the creation of a cooperative research program on penicillin be- 
tween a number of industrial firms, universities and the Peoria Labora- 
tories, fostered by the Committee on Medical Research of the Office of 
Scientific Research and Development. This cooperative effort, unprece- 
dented both from the standpoint of size and of close cooperation of rival 
industrial research groups, was a rewarding and pleasant experience for 



History of Science 251 

the research personnel involved. This combined effort resulted in raising- 
penicillin yields a hundred-fold, perfecting large scale purification proc- 
esses, achievement of sterile fermentations on an unprecedented scale, 
building of plants, and the attainment of massive production of penicillin 
in the span of less than two years. 

Early developmental studies of penicillin were carried on chiefly by 
the surface culture method. Spores of Penicillium notatum were intro- 
duced aseptically and shaken up with the nutrient solution in flasks or 
bottles which were then incubated, undisturbed, for 6-10 days at 24° C. 
The spores germinated and formed a floating carpet of mycelium which 
absorbed nutrients from the shallow broth beneath it and excreted peni- 
cillin into it. When the nutrients were exhausted, the mold formed a mass 
of blue spores and synthesis of penicillin ceased. The solution under the 
mold was then filtered and assayed for antibacterial activity. Purification 
studies were then carried on. 

Late in 1941 we cleaned out a small building that once housed rabbits 
on our Agricultural Research farm at Greenfield, and equipped it for 
maintenance of constant temperature. Our first large scale attempt to 
produce penicillin consisted of 300 large flat bottles, each containing one 
liter of nutrient broth. They were inoculated a few days before Pearl 
Harbor, were harvested on December 10, 1941, and the pooled filtrates 
contained 8 u/ml of penicillin. I remember spending long hours riding a bus 
to Greenfield during this period, carrying five-liter bottles of Penicillium 
spore suspensions for use in inoculating the weekly batch of bottles. There 
were skeptical stares from the bus passengers, for the spores were a 
muddy green in color, and this undoubtedly reminded them that the Green- 
field laboratory was known to work with dangerous pathogens. 

Early results were not aided by the fact that our incubator building- 
was a convenient sheltered route between animal buildings for farm 
employees on stormy or cold days, often while we were inoculating bottles. 
Materials clinging to their boots and clothing were obviously rich sources 
of microorganisms, which had an uncanny aptitude for getting into our 
bottles. 

Early synthetic media used by the English workers gave yields of 
less than 1 unit per ml, and bear in mind that a milligram of pure penicillin 
contains 1,667 units. Replacement of pure dextrose with crude corn sugar 
improved yields to 4-5 units per ml. Then the Peoria group recommended 
corn steep liquor as an adjuvant, and this raised our yields quickly to 
40 u/ml. Replacement of glucose with lactose again boosted yields to 100 
units per ml or more. This crude broth inhibited the staphylococcal test 
strain at dilutions as high as 1 :5000. 

Our first attempts at purification consisted of ammonium sulfate pre- 
cipitations commonly used for toxins and proteins. The harvested filtrates 
were chilled overnight, (NH^SOi was added, and the precipitate was 
collected on filter paper by filtration. Excess moisture was pressed out 
between layers of blotting paper, and thus we obtained dry cakes of 
material that inhibited staphylococci at dilutions as high as 1:300,000. 
Though it contained far more (NH^.SOt than penicillin, this material 
when taken orally produced fairly high urine concentrations of penicillin, 
along with diarrhea and stomach cramps, and was at least as bitter as we 



252 Indiana Academy of Science 

used to think drugs should be. These precipitates were not suitable for 
systemic therapeutic use, but they provided a stable storage form, when 
refrigerated, for later work. 

While interest in penicillin declined late in 1942, encouraging clinical 
success with our crude material in the treatment of carbuncles in diabetics 
at the Lilly Clinic in the spring of 1943 stimulated renewed interest. By 
this time improvements in media, higher yielding variants of the orginal 
mold, and improved fermentation conditions had also raised yields to 
100-140 units per ml, more than 100-fold greater than those from which 
the Oxford group obtained their first meager clinical material. In the 
summer of 1943, the War Production Board made known its desire for all 
possible penicillin for use by our armed forces. A number of industrial 
firms made haste to get surface culture plants in operation. Late that 
year we were in full production in a three story warehouse converted into 
a penicillin factory. One floor was devoted to propagation and control 
laboratories, another to incubation, and the other to purification to the 
final product. 

At peak production in 1944, 25,000-30,000 two-quart bottles were filled, 
sterilized, inoculated, and harvested every day, and as many as 200,000 
bottles of Penicillium were in various stages of incubation at one time. 
This resulted in the daily recovery of some 6,000 liters of Penicillium 
filtrate, which at a yield of 100 u/ml would contain 600 million units of 
penicillin. The early purification procedure recovered, at best, 150 million 
units, or about 100 grams in terms of pure penicillin. The early finished 
product, only 10 per cent pure, was a yellow-brown powder. At worst, 
contamination of a few bottles with penicillinase-forming bacteria was 
sufficient to destroy nearly all the penicillin in the collection tank before 
it could be filtered. 

In Peoria, Dr. K. B. Raper had screened Penicillium notatum and 
related species in the Department of Agriculture collection, and was 
searching for wild cultures in nature that might produce penicillin in 
submerged culture. By mid-1943, strains yielding 50-100 units per ml in 
shaken flasks and small fermentors were found and distributed to indus- 
trial laboratories. The potential advantages of submerged culture for 
large scale production were evident. Hence, soon after penicillin produc- 
tion in bottles began, plans were laid at Eli Lilly and Company for a 
building to house 6 eight-thousand-gallon fermentors. No precedent for 
such aerobic sterile fermentations existed, and Lilly had no previous 
experience in industrial fermentations. Nevertheless, depending upon 
their engineering training and what they had learned from surface culture 
production, J. A. Leighty, a research biochemist, now Executive Director 
of Scientific Research, G. B. Walden, Director of Biochemical Research, 
later vice president in charge of biochemical production, and S. L. McCor- 
mick, chemical engineer, designed and built a plant which began produc- 
tion early in 1945. It operated successfully from the beginning. One fer- 
mentor produced four times the volume of penicillin produced by the 
bottle plant in a week, with nearly comparable yields. The six fermentors 
soon raised production to 24 times the previous output. 

The shift to submerged culture by most of the firms in 1944 and 1945, 
along with rapid improvements in mold strains and increasing technical 
"know-how" in a new industry resulted in fantastic increases in penicillin 



History of Science 253 

production. In 1942, only 3 ounces of penicillin were made available for 
clinical trial in this country (2) ; in 1943, 29 pounds were produced; in 
1944, 3,200 pounds; and in 1945, 11,000 pounds. By 1951, these figures 
were dwarfed by the 636,000 pound output of commercial penicillin, long 
since produced in crystalline form (22). 

To biologists, perhaps the most interesting aspect of the boom in 
penicillin was the rapid improvement in mold strains. The first strain used 
in this way, known as NRRL 832, was found in the Peoria culture collec- 
tion. Its yield of penicillin was about 50 units per ml. The search for new 
strains outside the laboratory soon turned up two more of promise, one 
from cheese, another from a cantaloupe. While the former at first looked 
better, a variant strain was soon recovered from the "cantaloupe" mold, 
which gave higher yields and at the same time proved to be highly un- 
stable — a "mutator" (10). It was this strain, Penicillium chrysogenum 
NRRL 1951. B25, undesirable as it may have appeared, that became the 
ancestor of a line of increasingly high yielding strains which have in turn 
been used almost exclusively by penicillin producers in this country and 
abroad. Spores of 1951. B25 were sent from Peoria to Demerec, geneticist 
at the Carnegie Institute, who irradiated them and sent them to Minnesota 
University. Here some higher yielding mutants were selected by labora- 
tory tests. These were sent to Wisconsin University, whose biochemistry 
department was equipped to test cultures in small fermentors. Among 
the strains provided by Minnesota University, one outstanding mutant 
capable of producing 500 units per ml of penicillin was found (12). The 
graduate student who carried out that study was Dr. J. J. Stefaniak, the 
present director of our Lilly Tippecanoe Antibiotics and Chemical Manu- 
facturing plant at Lafayette (11). This strain, labeled X-1612, was used 
as a parent strain in an intensive development program at the University 
of Wisconsin. The result was a long series of Penicillium mutants, each 
with greater penicillin-producing capacity (12, 13). These have made 
possible tremendous gains in penicillin yields, with consequent reduction 
of penicillin prices from the original $20 per 100,000 units of crude drug 
to a little more than ten cents per 100,000 units of crystalline penicillin 
in 1961. 

Other Antibiotics 

By emphasizing the history of penicillin so greatly, I do not mean 
to imply that this was the only antibiotic investigation going on in the 
early forties. Dubos had reported in 1939, soon after the Oxford group 
began work on penicillin, the discovery of gramicidin, an antibiotic pro- 
duced by Bacillus brevis (14). While it has never attained large scale 
use, this antibiotic is commercially available, supplied in topical prepa- 
rations and medicated gauze. Selman A. Waksman, microbiologist at 
Rutgers University, had long been interested in antagonisms shown by 
the actinomycetes — a group of soil microorganisms neglected alike by 
bacteriologists and mycologists. Discovery of gramicidin and the revival 
of penicillin undoubtedly stimulated the pace of Waksman and his grad- 
uate students. They announced in 1940 the discovery of actinomycin (15), 
unfortunately a toxic substance but certain forms of which have received 
attention recently for their antitumor activities. In 1944, Waksman and 
Schatz announced the discovery of streptomycin (16), which was highly 



254 Indiana Academy of Science 

active against the tubercule bacillus. Industrial firms active in the peni- 
cillin field quickly extended their studies to streptomycin. The story of 
streptomycin is like that of penicillin all over again. By 1946, 3,800 
pounds of streptomycin were produced for the treatment of tuberculosis. 
In 1954 nearly 500,000 pounds were produced in this country alone. The 
royalties have built a magnificent Institute of Microbiology and continue 
to help maintain it. Dr. Waksman was recently awarded the Nobel Prize, 
largely for his direction of the studies resulting in this antibiotic. 

The discovery of penicillin and streptomycin stimulated an increas- 
ing volume of effort directed toward the discovery of additional new and 
useful antibiotics. As a result chloramphenicol was marketed in 1947, and 
this was followed in a single decade by chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, 
erythromycin, neomycin, vancomycin, nystatin, novobiocin, amphotericin, 
viomycin, and a score of others. Hundreds of antibiotics have been dis- 
covered and described in the literature that have not reached the market. 
Many American-discovered antibiotics are manufactured in other countries 
along with a few discovered there. With the exception of penicillin, how- 
ever, the major antibiotics were discovered and developed in the United 
States. 

Significant in the search for new chemotherapeutic agents is the 
increasing attention being given to the improvement of established anti- 
biotics by structure modification. For brevity we shall use penicillin as 
an example. 

Penicillin was at first thought to be a single substance. Only when 
variables were introduced into the nutrition of the mold did it become 
apparent that Fleming's mold made more than one kind of penicillin. 
With the Oxford synthetic medium it formed chiefly pentenyl penicillin, 
or Penicillin F; when the Peoria group enriched synthetic nutrient with 
corn steep liquor, benzyl penicillin or penicillin G was predominant (1). 
With finer analytical techniques, several other forms were found to be 
produced in varying amounts. Of all these, penicillin G became the com- 
mercial form because of greater ease of production and its generally 
greater effectiveness. It was found quite early that penicillin G yields 
could be markedly stimulated by the addition of phenylacetic acid to the 
nutrient solution (17). 

Success in inducing greater penicillin G production by a precursor 
led to research by a team headed by Dr. O. K. Behrens, of Eli Lilly and 
Company, to determine whether Penicillhim could be induced, by feeding 
it suitable synthetic compounds, to synthesize new forms of penicillin. 
The project was most successful, and more than thirty new penicillins 
were obtained and characterized by this method (18). One of these, com- 
monly known as Penicillin V, was later found to be efficiently abosrbed 
by the oral route because of its stability to acid. It has subsequently 
attained high repute as an orally administered penicillin. 

More recently, British investigators demonstrated that penicillin- 
producing molds may also form the body (or nucleus) of the penicillin 
molecule, but lacking the accessory group that confers antimicrobial 
activity and the characteristics of a particular type of penicillin (19). 
By nutrient modifications, this inactive "nucleus," more commonly called 
6-aminopenicillanic acid, can be made the predominant product. It was 



History op Science 255 

an obvious step from this discovery to the isolation of the penicillin 
nucleus and the chemical attachment of different groups to it to form 
new species of penicillin. Several have now been synthesized which have 
promise of significant usefulness. One has the property of stability 
against destruction by penicillinase, and consequently is effective against 
destruction by penicillinase, and consequently is effective against staphy- 
lococcal strains resistant to natural penicillins (20). Another has a 
broader antimicrobial spectrum, though without the advantage of stability 
to penicillinase (21). Because these "semi-synthetic" penicillins are quite 
new, and since in gaining a new desirable property they may lose others 
or pick up new undesirable properties, it is too early to assess their true 
value. Other instances of useful antibiotic modifications can be cited. 
Tetracycline, discovered as a modification of chlortetracycline (aureo- 
mycin) is made by two methods: by inducing the aureomycin-producing 
organism to form tetracycline, and by chemically modifying aureomycin. 
Erythromycin was twice modified, first to the propionyl ester, and then to 
the lauryl sulfate salt of propionyl erythromycin, a compound markedly 
superior to the parent antibiotic. 

A Look Into the Future of Antibiotics 

Considering the intensity of the search for new antibiotics over the 
last fifteen years, the flow of new discoveries remains surprisingly steady. 
One factor that has helped to maintain this pace is the interest created by 
new applications for which antibiotics are sought. Where once only 
therapeutic agents for human medicine were sought, now diseases of 
farm animals, poultry and plants, and the potential use of antibiotics in 
improving animal nutrition are considered. 

Actidione has long been used for certain fungal diseases of grasses 
and fruits, and streptomycin is used to treat a bacterial disease of 
orchards. A Japanese antibiotic, blasticidin, looks promising in combat- 
ting a serious fungal disease of rice. Penicillin and other antibiotics of 
human medicine have long been used for bacterial infections of farm 
animals and pets. Hygromycin is used extensively in feed to eliminate 
and control round worm infestation of swine. Tylosin, one of the more 
recent antibiotics, promises to be a powerful weapon against poultry 
respiratory diseases caused by pleuropneumonia-like organisms. A num- 
ber of antibiotics have for several years been widely used in feeds to 
promote more rapid, economical weight gain in farm animals. It appears 
certain that these early successes will sustain continued interest in the 
application of new antibiotics to the needs of agriculture. 

But are there no new fields to conquer in diseases of man that might 
be susceptible to the antibiotic approach? Indeed there are. I have left 
them until last because the need is so great; the chances of early success, 
so unpredictable. I refer to the virus infections and cancer. 

In spite of constant tests against viruses in connection with anti- 
biotic screening programs, no effective therapeutic agent for the true 
virus infections has yet been found. Knowledge of the intimate inter- 
actions between virus and host cell is rapidly accumulating, however. 
In time we may be able to make a rational approach to attacking the virus 
after it has set up shop in its human host. One hint of possible success is 
represented by a substance produced by certain molds, which when admin- 



256 Indiana Academy of Science 

istered to small animals before exposure to certain viruses, prevents 
infection by the virus for several days (23, 24, 25, 26, 27). This is prophy- 
laxis rather than cure, but it may be a start toward a new approach to the 
suppression of viruses not yet under control — of which there are many. 

As for the chances of finding microbial products for the treatment of 
cancer, it is too early to do more than speculate. A vast screening program 
involving laboratories of private foundations, government-supported lab- 
oratories, and our Lilly-supported laboratory, is devoted to the discovery 
and development of anti-cancer agents. 

The problem is overwhelmingly complex. Cancer is not one disease, 
but a large family of diseases with widely different characteristics. In 
cancer, the problem is to attack cells for which no significant physiological 
differences from normal cells that might cause selective susceptibility to 
a drug are yet known. 

No general cure for cancer has been found. A number of substances 
have found limited therapeutic use and often retard the progress of 
some types of cancer for a time. This limited success gives hope that better 
agents may be found. 

Microbial culture filtrates are found which in small animals and in 
tissue culture show antitumor activity. Most of these remain to be purified 
and evaluated. We can only hope that some of them will be more effective 
than those we have seen thus far. 

Literature Cited 

1. Plorey, H. W., Chain, M. A., Heatley, N. G., Jennings, M. A., Sanders, A. G., 
Abraham, E. P. and Florey, M. E, 1949. Antibiotics 1 : 1-73. 

2. Ibid, 2 : G31-671. 

3. Fleming, A. 1929. Brit. J. Exptl. Path. 10 : 226. 

4. Chain, E., Florey, H. W., Gardner, A. D., Heatley, N. G., Jennings, M. A., Orr- 
Ewing, J. and Sanders, A. G. 1940. Lancet II : 226. 

5. Reid, Roger. 1933. J. Bact 25 : 31. 

6. Abraham, E. P., Chain, E., Fletcher, C. M., Gardner, A. D., Heatley, N. G., 
Jennings, M. A., and Florey, H. W. 1941. Lancet II : 177. 

7. Moyer, A. J. and Coghill, R. D. 1946. J. Bact. 51 : 57. 

8. Ibid, 51 : 79. 

9. Raper, K. B. and Alexander, D. F. 1945. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc. 61 : 74. 

10. Raper, K. B., Alexander, D. F. and Coghill, R, D. 1944. J. Bact. 48 : 639. 

11. Johnson, M. J., Stefaniak, J. J., Gailey, F. B. and Olson, B. H. 1946. Science 
103 : 504. 

12. Raper, K. B. 1952. Mycologia 44 : 1-59. 

13. Backus, M. P. and Stauffer, J. F. 1955. Mycologia 47 : 429-463. 

14. Dubos, R. J. 1939. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 40 : 311. 

15. Waksman, S. A. and Woodruff, II. B. 1940. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 45 : 609. 

16. Schatz, A., Bugle, E. and TFaksman, S. A. 1944. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 55 : 
66. 

17. Moyer, A. J. and Coghill, R. D. 1946. J. Bact. 53 : 329. 

18. The Chemistry of Penicillin. Princeton Univ. Press. 1949. Chapter IX, pp. 657-679 
(by O. K. Behrens, Eli Lilly and Company). 

19. Batchelor, F. R., Doyle, F. P., Naylor, J. IL C, and Rolinson, G. N. 1959. 
Nature (London) 183:257. 

20. Rolinson, G. N., and Batchelor, F. R. et al. 1960. Lancet II : 564. 

21. Rolinson, G. N., and Stevens, Shirley. 1961. Brit. Med. J. 5246 (July 22) : 192. 



History of Science 257 

22. Welch, Henry, in The Impact of the Antibiotics on Medicine and Society, Ed. by 
N. Y. Acad. Med., International Universities Press, Inc. 1958, pp. 70-80. 

23. Shope, R. E. 1953. J. ExptJ. Med. 97 : 601-626, 627-638, and 639-650. 

24. Powell, H. M., Culbertson, C. G., McGuire, J. M., Hoehn, M. M., and Baker, L. 
A. 1952. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy 2 : 432. 

25. Hull, R. N. and Lavelle, J. M. 1954. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 58 (Art. 7) : 1188. 

26. Cochran, K. W„ Brown, G. C. and Francis, T., Jr. 1954. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol, 
and Med. 85 : 104. 

27. Johnson, I. S. and Baker, L. A. 1958. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy 85 : 104. 



Biographical Sketches of Indiana Scientists, II 

Will E. Edington, DePauw University 

RYLAND THOMAS BROWN. Ryland T. Brown was one of the most 
influential and colorful scientists in Indiana during the middle decades 
of the nineteenth century. He was born on October 5, 1807, in Lewis 
County, Kentucky, and died in Indianapolis on May 3, 1890. 

The Brown family moved to Clermont County, Ohio, near New Rich- 
mond, in 1809. About this same time a colony from Maine settled in this 
community and brought with them a teacher, Mark P. Stenchfield, who 
conducted a school both winter and summer. Ryland was a frail child, 
unable to stand the rigors of that pioneering period, and his under- 
standing parents encouraged him to attend school to get a good education. 
Stenchfield was a competent teacher and a zealous Baptist who, with 
Brown's pious parents, exerted a life lasting influence on the child. The 
family moved to Richland, Rush County, Indiana, in 1821 and the next 
year at the age of fifteen Ryland joined the Clifty Baptist Church. 

In Indiana Brown began living a backwoods life of labor and priva- 
tion and served several years as a guide to land hunters. This outdoor 
life strengthened him and he became an expert woodsman and a keen 
observer and lover of nature. He was an ardent reader and he frequented 
the county library that had been established in Rushville. 

In 1826 he read a book containing the Campbell- Walker debate on the 
pertinence of certain Calvinistic beliefs in Christian doctrine. Alexander 
Campbell, founder of the Disciples of Christ sect, objected to the accept- 
ance of man-made creeds. Brown was won over and at the age of nineteen 
led the movement to reform the Clifty Church group and free it "from the 
bondage of human authority." However, the sudden and violent death of 
his father, in 1825, from an attack of congestive fever, aroused his interest 
in diseases and their remedies. He began a three-year study of medicine 
in which for anatomy in part he used a partial skeleton of an Indian 
unearthed on his father's farm. He attended the sessions of the Ohio 
Medical College, in Cincinnati, from 1827 to 1829 and graduated in the 
spring of 1829. (1, 4) 

Following his graduation he returned to Rushville and began the 
practice of medicine. On his return he found the Rushville Community 
in "the throes of religious excitement over 'Campbellism'," and Brown, as 
leader of the reform movement, "was arraigned on the very general charge 
of being a 'Campbellite' and as such was excluded from the church," that 
is, the "Orthodox Calvinistic Baptists." However, some forty members 
of the Little Flat Rock Church, a majority, took control and, in 1830, 
organized the "Church of Christ at Little Flat Rock." Brown was denied 
an opportunity to defend his stand but he did write a letter in March, 
1830, that was published in the "Christian Baptist" in which he stated: 
"I became convinced that the popular doctrine of a partial atonement, 
and unconditional election and reprobation, were alike antichristian and 
unscriptural." (1) 

Later, in 1848, representatives of the Disciples of Christ met in the 
Flat Rock Church to discuss the founding of a college that was chartered 

258 



History of Science 259 

by the State Legislature in 1850 and opened in 1855 in Indianapolis as 
Northwestern Christian University, now Butler University. 

In October, 1829, Brown married Miss Mary Reeder who was a cousin 
to Milton Wright, the father of the Wright Brothers, pioneer airmen. In 
1832 the Browns moved to Connersville. 

Despite his excommunication by the Baptists, Brown both preached 
and practiced medicine with considerable success. He first held church 
meetings in the county courthouse and, following a protracted meeting, 
he and John O'Kane, another ardent follower of Campbell, organized a 
Church of Christ in Connersville in 1833. In the practice of medicine he 
formed a partnership with Dr. Philip Mason, who had come to Conners- 
ville about 1824, and this partnership lasted several years. He became a 
member of the Fifth Medical District Society which at that time had con- 
siderable influence on "enlightening its members and preventing irregular 
medical practice." (5) 

After a few years his health became bad from overwork and he gave 
up the active practice of medicine and devoted his time to preaching. He 
was also interested in education and he attended a convention in Indian- 
apolis on January 2, 1839, for those interested in better common schools. 

He preached extensively from 1832 to 1842 throughout the White- 
water valley and helped to organize a number of churches. At a State 
meeting of the church held in June, 1842, in Connersville, he and three 
others were appointed "to labor in word and doctrine 'for the churches in 
Indiana'." He spent the next year traveling over the State but lung hem- 
orrhages developed and he had to resign. To restore his health he spent 
the next year in outdoor manual labor running a sawmill, but he continued 
to preach on Sundays. The work in the open air restored his health. (1) 

By 1844 treaties had been concluded with all the Indian tribes in 
Indiana, most of the Indians had been moved to reservations outside the 
State, and two thirds of Federal public lands in the State had been ceded 
to the State. There was a general movement of peoples to the north and 
Brown, his wife and six children moved to the "Wabash country" in the 
spring of 1844 and settled near Wabash which had been laid out in 1834. 
He formed a medical partnership with Dr. James Ford of Wabash. There 
was much swampy land along the river and Brown's wife and children 
became ill from chills, malaria or ague. Brown became disgusted and 
through the advice and efforts of his friend, fellow Mason and strong 
anti-slavery advocate, Dr. Elizur H. Deming, of Lafayette, he moved to 
Crawfordsville where he bought a home on the outskirts with one and a 
half acres of ground so that he could garden and keep a cow. He again 
began the practice of medicine and resumed his preaching. (3) 

This was the low point in his career. At a meeting of the State Agri- 
cultural Board in 1878 he related "how he had lost everything about 1840 
by going too deeply into debt and he spent the next ten years paying his 
debts as well as the debts of those for whom he had gone security." 

At Crawfordsville he immediately made use of the Wabash College 
library and scientific equipment and got acquainted with the College 
faculty. He became deeply interested in the sciences, particularly geology, 



260 Indiana Academy of Science 

through his association with Professor Edmund O. Hovey, who was a 
minister and professor of chemistry and natural science in Wabash Col- 
lege. Brown was especially interested in the State's coal and limestone 
resources. Wabash College conferred the honorary A.M. degree on him in 
1850. (2) 

The Wabash Academy of Science was founded in 1844 and Brown 
became active in its work. According to its published "Proceedings" for 
1854, Brown was then its secretary, treasurer and naturalist. According 
to its Constitution the duties of the Naturalist, who must be a resident of 
Crawfordville, were to "open and carry on correspondence with scientific 
men in different parts, and collect facts and specimens in the various 
departments of science, etc." The "Proceedings" closes with the "Report 
of the Naturalist of the Wabash Academy of Science." Brown's Report 
is eight pages long and is devoted to "Observations on the Topography of 
Indiana." (9) 

On June 6, 1849, a State Medical Convention was held in Indian- 
apolis to organize the Indiana State Medical Society. Brown did not 
attend this organization meeting but he was a member of the Society 
from its beginning. The Society held its first Meeting in Indianapolis on 
May 15, 1850. 

Through his Lafayette friend, Dr. Deming, who was trying to secure 
the removal of the LaPorte Medical School to Lafayette, Brown, in 1850, 
was employed to teach chemistry in a spring course of eight weeks held 
in Lafayette. (5) 

David Dale Owen made a geological report in two parts, in 1837 and 
1838, entitled "Geological Reconnaissance of the State of Indiana," but 
nothing came of it until 1849 when Governor Joseph A. Wright reported 
to the Legislature the necessity of continuing the work of Owen. The 1850 
Legislature took no action except to provide for the organization of a 
State Board of Agriculture. This Board was organized in 1851 and ap- 
pointed Brown its "Geological Agent." In 1852 the Governor appealed to 
the Legislature again, and on January 22, 1852, Brown delivered a lecture 
to the legislators in the Hall of the House of Representatives on "The 
Geology of Indiana as an Element of Wealth to the State" in which he 
pointed out the need for a survey of the geology and mineralogy of the 
State in which "the topography of each county should be carefully exam- 
ined and accurately marked on the map." He also made a 34-page report 
to Governor Wright, of the State Board of Agriculture, published in the 
Third Transactions (1853) of the State Agricultural Society, entitled 
"Geological Survey of the State of Indiana," in which for the first time 
in geological literature attention is called to the Falls of Eel River as a 
source of power and the gorges of Turkey Run for their wildness and 
scenic beauty, and he also discussed Wyandotte Cave. He stressed the 
importance of limestone for building purposes, sidewalks, etc., and he 
devoted twelve pages to discussing Indiana's coal resources. In 1852 he 
also published essays on "Swamp Lands" and "On the Best Method of 
Improving the Soil." 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the State Board of Agri- 
culture on January 7, 1854, "On motion of Gov. Wright, Dr. R. T. Brown 
was employed to prosecute a partial geological examination of the State, 



History of Science 261 

at a salary of $500 per year." An interesting sidelight on this close 
cooperation between Governor Wright and Brown is that the Governor 
was a Democrat and Brown a Whig. (2) 

In the Indiana Agricultural Reports for 1854-5 Brown has three 
essays: "On Grasses," "On the Dairy," and "The Soil of Indiana," and 
for 1856, a report on "The Manufacturing Capabilities of the Indiana 
Coal Field," and an essay on "Analysis of Corn." In carrying out his 
work he traveled over the State studying its geological and natural features 
and locating the Glacial Moraine across the State. During the years 
1856-7 Brown represented the 9th District, composed of Putnam, Hen- 
dricks, Montgomery and Boone counties, on the Board of Agriculture. 

Despite his other work Brown never lost sight of the evils of slavery 
and drunkenness and he lectured against both over the State. A poem 
against slavery that he wrote in 1851 may be found on page 1046 of 
Dunn's "Indiana and Indianians." Throughout this period he wrote many 
articles that appeared in the Indiana School Journal, Ohio Farmer, Chris- 
tian Record, Christian Luminary and other periodicals and the news- 
papers. 

In 1842 a secret society, known as the Sons of Temperance, was organ- 
ized in New York and the first lodge in Indiana was chartered at Brook- 
ville on November 15, 1845. With the organization of the tenth lodge in 
the State at Indianapolis on April 24, 1846, a Grand Lodge was organized 
in May, 1846, and "the order was fully launched in the temperance work 
in which it was the chief agency in Indiana for the next decade." Within 
five years there were 400 lodges in the State and "the Grand Division of 
the Sons of Temperance met in 1853, declared for prohibition, elected 
Ryland T. Brown Grand Worthy Patriarch, and requested him to canvass 
the State for prohibition on the Maine law basis." A State temperance 
convention was held in Indianapolis in January, 1854, a State Central 
Committee was set up, $12,000 was raised, and following a thoroughly 
organized State campaign, a State Prohibition Law was passed by the 
Legislature in 1855 and signed by Governor Wright. (8) 

In 1858 Brown was elected to the Chair of Natural Science in North- 
western Christian University, now Butler University, and he moved his 
family to Indianapolis in August, 1858. For the first time in his life he 
was a teacher by profession and for the first time, living in the capital 
city, he was at the center of the political and educational life of the State. 

Shortly before Brown left Crawfordsville the Wabash Academy of 
Science at a preliminary meeting called for the purpose resolved to 
organize a State-wide association of scientists. At a later meeting held 
in Indianapolis the Indiana Association for the Advancement of Science 
was founded with Dr. John S. Bobbs as President and Ryland T. Brown 
as Secretary. The Association was divided into six sections and definite 
plans were made for the first meeting with a program on December 30, 
1858. The coming of the Civil War terminated the activities of the Asso- 
ciation. (10) 

Brown early showed genuine concern for improved educational facili- 
ties in the State and attended a convention held in Indianapolis on January 
2, 1839, for those interested in better common schools. (8) He frequently 
lectured before school groups and was active in the Indiana State Teachers 



262 Indiana Academy of Science 

Association which was founded in December, 1854. In 1864 Brown was 
elected President of the Association. 

As a college teacher Brown was primarily interested in chemistry 
and geology. Harvey W. Wiley, who was Professor of Latin and Greek 
at Northwestern Christian College from 1868 to 1870, got to know Dr. 
Brown well and at the 1916 meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science 
Dr. Wiley expressed his estimate of Brown as a teacher as follows: "He 
was particularly a geologist and taught geology by modern methods. He 
was also quite accomplished in the theory of chemistry, though not a 
practical analyst." "I joined on more than one occasion his geological 
excursions with great pleasure and benefit. He was an interesting speaker 
and knew his subject well but only from the didactic and theoretical point 
of view." (7) In line with his interest in science and education, Brown 
early became a member of the Indiana Historical Society which was 
founded on December 11, 1830. (8) 

Along with his college duties Brown continued his work with the 
State Board of Agriculture. In 1867 he published "An Essay on the 
Natural Resources of Indiana." At the request of Lt. Governor Conrad 
Baker, Acting Governor, he compiled a pamphlet in 1868 entitled "Indiana 
and Her Resources" in which he discussed the position, soil, climate, 
waterpower, building material such as stone and clay, coal, iron and 
manufacturing facilities of the State. Ten thousand copies were printed 
and distributed throughout Pennsylvania and the Eastern States. In 
March, 1870, he published a comprehensive series of seven articles in the 
Indianapolis Daily Journal on "The Indiana Coal Field," based on his 
long study of the State's coal resources. (2) 

At the earnest solicitation of Brown and the leading members of the 
State Board of Agriculture, the Legislature on March 7, 1869, passed an 
Act authorizing a Department of Geology and Natural Science in con- 
nection with the State Board of Agriculture. Governor Baker appointed 
Edward T. Cox to the office of State Geologist on March 22, 1869. (2) 

Also in 1869 the Indiana Medical College was organized in Indian- 
apolis and Brown, although still on the Faculty at Northwestern Chris- 
tian College, was selected to teach chemistry. (3, 8) 

Following the close of the Civil War, scientists in Indiana again 
began discussing the organization of a scientific society. Edward T. Cox, 
State Geologist, led the movement which culminated in the founding of 
the Indianapolis Academy of Sciences on December 30, 1870, with Cox as 
President and Brown signing the Constitution as a charter member. This 
organization lasted only a few years. (11) 

After thirteen years of service at Northwestern Christian University 
Brown resigned in 1871 to accept appointment as Chemist-in-Chief of the 
Department of Agriculture in Washington, D. C. However, he disliked 
the confinement of office work and resigned in 1873 and returned to Indian- 
apolis. According to Smart (4), he was appointed Professor of Physiology 
in Indiana Medical College which, in 1871, had affiliated with Indiana 
University as its Medical Department. This affiliation continued until 
1876. Indiana Medical College continued in operation and over the years 
affiliated or merged with several different medical organizations, and was 
affiliated at different times with Butler and Purdue Universities, until 



History of Science 263 

finally in 1908 it united with the Indiana University Medical School. 
Brown was still on its staff in 1876 and he had also resumed his medical 
practice and preaching following' his return to Indianapolis in 1873. 
During the period he was in Washington he wrote and published in 1872 
Brown's Physiology which was a textbook used in Indiana schools. 

Brown was appointed head of the ''Forestry Display" in the Cen- 
tennial Exposition held in 1876 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. John L. 
Campbell of Wabash College was Secretary of the U. S. Centennial Com- 
mission from 1875 to 1878. 

Although Brown was influential in securing the legislative action 
that created the office of State Geologist, rather strangely he did little or 
no State geology work during the ten year tenure of Edward T. Cox. 
However, under Cox's successor, John Collett, State Geologist from 1879 
to 1885, and Maurice Thompson, State Geologist from 1885 to 1888, he 
made a number of county geological surveys and his reports are pub- 
lished in the Reports of the State Geologist. His first report, "Trees and 
Shrubs of Fountain County," was done in 1881 and he lists 74 trees and 
shrubs. He reported on Marion County in 1882, Morgan County in 1883, 
and in 1884 besides his report: "Geological and Topographical Surveys of 
Hamilton and Madison Counties," he also had an essay on "Fish Culture 
in Indiana." Under Maurice Thompson he worked in Hancock County 
and his report was published in 1886. This apparently completed his 
geological work. 

In 1885 when Amos Butler was canvassing scientists in the State as 
to founding a State-wide scientific society he received the following reply 
from Ryland T. Brown, written on September 26, 1885, on the "Indiana 
Farmer" stationery: 

"Your circular was received this morning, and I hasten to reply. 

"In 1849 we organized the Wabash Academy of Science at Wabash 
College (Crawfordsville), and it continued in successful operation till 
1856 when it was consolidated with a State organization, the title of which 
I do not remember. This organization, together with the State Historical 
Society, died in 1861, of war excitement. Subsequently we organized the 
Indiana Archeological Society, for the investigation of prehistoric remains 
and the collection of relics. This suspended in 1873, and at present there 
is a clear field for a "State Academy of Science" and I favor a call of 
Scientists for the purpose of effecting such an organization about Tues- 
day, December 29th, 1885. Respectfully and truly yours, R. T. Brown." 

This letter is in the Archives Division of the Indiana State Library 
and the above copy was sent to me by Miss Nelle Coats. 

Both "The American Naturalist" and "The Indiana Pharmacist" for 
1886 report on the first meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science, 
December 29, 1885, and state that R. T. Brown gave a report on Indiana 
Geology and "The Indiana Pharmacist" also quotes from his report. 
Brown was 78 years old at this time and was probably the oldest in years 
of the Academy's Charter Members, being at least two years older than 
Richard Owen and T. A. Wiley. 

Brown was active almost to the day of his death, being "employed in 
an editorial capacity on an agricultural paper" and writing "on scientific 
subjects apropos to farming, more especially grains and fruits for which 
he had always a deep interest and a profound knowledge." (3) 



264 Indiana Academy of Science 

Physically Brown was of medium stature and slight physique, weigh- 
ing about 145 pounds, a homely man with keen blue eyes and red hair and 
beard which became totally white by the time he was forty. He possessed 
a "nervous-sanguine" temperament, and was quick of movement and an 
intensive and indefatigable worker. Frank and brusque, but not ill- 
tempered or unkindly, he possessed an indomitable will and a clear, logical 
and practical mind. He was the kind of man one remembered. (1, 3) 
Edward Barrett, State Geologist from 1911 to 1918, rated Brown as "one 
of the ablest all-round scientists that Indiana ever had" and ranks him 
with David Dale Owen and Edward T. Cox "in establishing the founda- 
tions of geological science in Indiana." (8) Dr. William B. Fletcher, 
Superintendent of the Indiana Hospital for the Insane from 1883 to 1888, 
stated that Dr. Brown believed in the germ theory of disease long before 
it was proved. (3) For a man who worked under the constant threat of 
tuberculosis Ryland T. Brown undoubtedly had a remarkable record of 
accomplishment as a churchman, educator and scientist. 

In the last week of April, 1890, Dr. Brown became ill with "the grip" 
and died at his home in Indianapolis on May 3, at the age of 82 years. 

Literature Cited 

1. Madison Evans : Biographical Sketches of Pioneer Preachers of Indiana, 1862, 
pp. 300-314. Lithograph of Brown at about age of fifty, opposite p. 300. 

2. W. W. Clayton : Illustrated Historical Atlas, State of Indiana, 1876, p. 214. 

.'!. Caroline Brown : Dr. Ryland Thomas Brown. Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. 
23, 1927, pp. 92-106. 

4. James H. Smart, Editor : The Schools of Indiana, 1876, pp. 89, 90. 

5. W. H. Kemper : A Medical History of Indiana, 1911, pp. 33, 41. r,4, 116, 117. 

6. W. S. Blatchley : A Century of Geology in Indiana, Proceedings of the Indiana 
Academy of Science for 1916, pp. 89-177. 

7. II. W. Wiley : The Early History of Chemistry in Indiana. Proceedings of the 
Indiana Academy of Science for 1916, pp. 178-185. 

8. J. P. Dunn: Indiana and Indianians, 1919, Vol. II, pp. 884-886. 1044-46. Photo- 
graph of Brown, Vol. II, p. 1045. 

9. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Session of the Wabash Academy of Science, 
July 19, 1854. In the Indiana State Library. 

10. Indiana School Journal, Vol. Ill, Nov., 1858, pp. 339-341. 

11. Transactions of the Indianapolis Academy of Sciences, 1872. See Proc. Ind. Acad, 
of Science for 1934, Vol. 44, pp. 26-27. 

12. History of Montgomery County. A. W. Bowen & Co.. Vol. II, pp. 905-910. 

13. Goodrich and Tuttle : History of the State of Indiana, 1876. Contains etching of 
Brown, p. 239. 



Geographic Influences, Changes in Bloomington, Indiana 

Stephen S. Visher, Indiana University 

The widespread disagreement as to the importance of environmental 
factors reflects inadequate recognition that as man's technology evolves 
and as other areas develop, radical changes often occur in the significance 
of local environmental factors. One consequence of the fact that the 
human factor is in the long run far more significant in cultural develop- 
ment than are geographic factors in nearly all well-populated parts of the 
world is that historians have almost ignored them. Even voluminous 
accounts of the history of Indiana have very little on the geographic 
environment. Histories of arid regions, or of rugged or cold regions or 
even of coastal regions cannot so fully ignore geographic influences, and 
of course accounts of battles and wars pay attention to the terrain, and 
sometimes to the weather. A major objective of this paper is to call 
attention to the fact that at different times specified environmental factors 
have been highly significant even in inland, peaceful Indiana, and surely 
should not be ignored in studies of local history. The need for repeated 
evaluation of their significance can be illustrated by a study of Bloom- 
ington. Contributing to Bloomington's suitability for this purpose are its 
university, its moderate size, and its considerable variety of environmental 
factors. 

Here are discussed the changing significance of Bloomington's loca- 
tion in the state, of its rolling topography, of its site on a drainage divide 
in a depression between more rugged land, of its being underlain by an 
exceptional limestone, and of its situation in a wooded, unglaciated area. 
Considered also are its accessibility, quality of the soil, feasibility of dams 
to create reservoirs, and its attractiveness as a residence city. 

Bloomington was established where it is largely because of the selec- 
tion of the site for the "Seminary township." The Federal Government 
provided in the enabling act that created Indiana for a donation of a 
township of public land in support of an institution of higher learning. 1 
The seminary established in that township in 1824 has grown into Indiana 
University. The committee appointed to select the township made its 
recommendation in time for President Monroe to designate it on July 
10, 1816. 2 The county created two years later including and surrounding- 
it was named after President Monroe. The township later was named 
after Commodore Perry. 3 

The selected township was near the northern margin of the part of 
Indiana which had been surveyed in 1812 into townships and sections. 4 
Nearly all of central and northern Indiana remained Indian territory 
until 1818, when "The New Purchase" was made of much of that region/' 
The selected township was nearly midway between the northern parts of 
the lower Wabash Valley, at the southwest, and of the Whitewater Valley 
at the southeast. In July, 1816, most of the people of Indiana lived in or 
near those valleys, south from near Terre Haute and Richmond respec- 
tively, or else near the Ohio River at the south, partly because those 
rivers were then the chief highways of travel. 7 The selected township is 
about 20 miles west of the middle longitude of Indiana. South-central 
Indiana is mostly rather rugged partly because it was not glaciated. 8 

265 



266 Indiana Academy of Science 

However, in the midst of this generally hilly region is a broad shallow 
depression or valley, the so-called Limestone Belt, which extends from 
near Louisville, Ky., north-northwestward to beyond Bloomington. 9 More- 
over, this Limestone Belt is generally well-drained and has many large 
springs, fed by underground streams, the most famous of which is Lost 
River, which emerges near French Lick. 

The township selected them had no settlers, while more southern 
townships already had at least a few, and hence were not all federal land. 10 

Promptly after the township was set aside in support of a state 
institution of higher learning, Bloomington was started just north therof. 11 
Although the actual site of the "seminary" was not fully determined until 
1820, 12 its probable location was evident in 1816 when Bloomington's first 
settlers came, because the most favorable site in the designated township 
was by a large spring on a slight elevation in a valley believed not to be 
subject to flooding, a quarter mile from the center of Bloomington. Monroe 
County was organized early in 1818, with Bloomington as its county seat. 13 
The town was plotted in April, 1818, and the first lots were soon sold by 
auction, some of them at the surprisingly high price of $200 a lot. 14 The 
prospectus of the auction, published in newspapers of Vincennes, Louis- 
ville, and Cincinnati, listed among the advantages of the townsite that it 
had many fine springs, that the soil was fertile, and that it was at the 
head of navigation on Clear Creek down which flatboats could descend 
via Salt Creek, and the White, Wabash, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers. 15 
Bloomington was established on the northern margin of the "Seminary 
township" because on the other margins the land is distinctly more rugged. 10 
Another advantage of the site in the flatboat era was that five miles north 
is Bean Blossom Creek which flows into the West Fork of the White River, 
affording additional flatboat possibilities. Indeed during several years in 
the 1830's and 1840's, as many as a dozen flatboats which were loaded on 
Bean Blossom Creek near Bloomington descended to the Wabash, Ohio, 
and Mississippi rivers. 17 

Hence, at first locational factors were of prime significance. However, 
soon Bloomington ceased to be near the center of the State's population, 
which center has moved farther away each decade, stimulated, for example, 
by the establishment of the State Capitol at Indianapolis near the center 
of the state in 1825, 18 and the construction of the National Road from 
Richmond to Terre Haute soon thereafter, 11 ' and the Michigan Road, from 
Indianapolis to Michigan City. 20 Important also was the conspicuous 
increase in the usefulness of central Indiana, much of which had been of 
little value because of poor drainage. 21 Also, Bloomington's situation as 
to navigation became much less significant as roads were constructed, and 
became unimportant when railways appeared. Bloomington's location in 
the shallow depression of the Limestone Belt became increasingly signifi- 
cant for a time as settlers came by the thousands along this route from 
Kentucky, the Carolinas, and elsewhere. After a railway was constructed 
from Louisville to the northern end of the Belt in 1853 and thence to 
Chicago in 1854, 22 many additional people travelled this route, and much 
freight. But later, after railways became numerous, and good roads were 
constructed in many parts of the state, the transportational significance 
of the Limestone Belt declined. At present no national road follows it, nor 
is it followed by an airplane route, and only locally by a pipeline. Thus a 



History of Science 267 

belt which during a few decades had been exceptionally favorable for 
transportation chiefly because of its less than average ruggedness and its 
possession of few streams which were difficult to cross (the latter due 
largely to the underground drainage in the soluble limestone) became far 
less significant. 

Bloomington's location on a drainage divide had distinct advantages 
in early years partly because divides are seldom subject to floods. Divides 
were favored sites for early roads also because they entail fewer stream- 
crossings, which were difficult before there were bridges or ferries. 23 An 
early road followed the divide near Bloomington, as does the town's second 
railway. 21 Situation on the divide long facilitated storm-water drainage 
and sewage disposal, but when the city expanded onto the north slope, as 
it has recently, much sewage has to be pumped over the divide before it 
can flow to the city's sewage disposal plant. Location on the divide also 
became a handicap when Bloomington's water supply had to be pumped 
from reservoirs located at a notably lower altitude (about 230 feet). 

The forest which originally occupied the Bloomington area retarded 
its development because laborious land-clearing was necessary before 
crops could be grown, and Bloomington long depended primarily upon 
agriculture. Some of the trees removed were useful for fuel, building 
materials or fencing, but most of them had so little value in the early 
years that they were burned. During the second half -century of Bloom- 
ington's history, however, much furniture was manufactured largely from 
local supplies of hardwoods. For several years in the 1920's, a Blooming- 
ton furniture factory was reputed to be the largest in the nation. It then 
sold most of its output to Sears, Roebuck and Co. When local supplies of 
suitable lumber were nearly depleted, by 1930, the increasing costs asso- 
ciated with importing lumber contributed to the withdrawal of Sears, 
Roebuck and to a sharp decline in the local furniture industry. 

The soils of the Bloomington area generally were productive when 
first farmed, but in this rather hilly, unglaciated area, most upland soils 
soon deteriorate badly, partly because even during the cooler months, 
torrential rains often fall. In recent decades little of the upland has been 
farmed; much is pastured or abandoned to brush, and hence local crop- 
growing has contributed relatively little to the support of Bloomington, 
possibly less than five percent. The decline in local agriculture reflects 
also the great increase in agricultural production in other areas, for 
example in relatively level central Indiana, in the prairies, and in the 
Great Plains. 

The limestone upon which Bloomington rests was little used during 
the town's first half century, but soon thereafter it became significant. 
This followed the discovery of methods which take advantage of the 
relative ease whereby it can be sawed and grooved. Important also was 
the availability of large amounts of stone which possess comparable 
qualities. From about 1900 to 1933 limestone played a highly significant 
role, as then the Bloomington-Bedford area was the world's largest pro- 
ducer of cut building stone. During recent years, however, the stone 
industry has declined as a result of increased competition of artificial 
substitutes, increased labor and transportation costs, and partial deple- 
tion. Whereas about 1925 perhaps a fifth of Bloomington's income flowed 



268 Indiana Academy of Science 

from stone quarries and mills, in recent years less than five percent has 
come thence. 26 

Bloomington's location on soluble limestone has played a significant 
role but a varying one. During early years, one of the assets stressed by 
promoters was the numerous springs; but as the area became settled, the 
springs fed by rain which entered sinkholes at higher levels became con- 
taminated, and for decades Bloomington had a relatively high death-rate 
from typhoid. 27 Moreover, because of the cavernous limestone, no safe 
water was obtainable from wells in the limestone. Below the limestone, 
the strata contain little water, and that is mostly bitter or saline. 28 

Furthermore, leaks soon developed after dams were constructed. The 
city erected a series of dams at increasing distances southwest in 1894, 
1907, 1909, and 1915, each to take advantage of a large spring and a very 
small natural lake. But each reservoir soon leaked when the increased 
water pressure cleared the accumulated mud from some solution opening 
in the cavernous limestone. 2S The water famine became severe enough in 
especially dry seasons to induce State-wide consideration of moving the 
University to another city. 20 Moreover, the only industries which could 
prosper were those that required little water, notably furniture, basket- 
making, quarrying and stone-cutting, and, recently radio and electronic 
equipment. Fortunately for Bloomington, the Limestone Belt's eastern 
margin is only a short distance east of the city, and reservoirs constructed 
in the shale beyond the limestone do not leak. The first reservoir there was 
built by the University in 1910. The city constructed a sizable reservoir 
nearby in 1924, and notably increased the dam's height in 1940. In 1953 
a dam located a dozen miles northeast across Bean Blossom Creek forms 
a reservoir large enough to supply the city's need for a long time. 

Bloomington's attractiveness for residence has also fluctuated. In 
early years, its being well-drained made it considerably more attractive 
than most of the State, a large share of which was poorly-drained and 
rendered unhealthful partly by malaria and partly by a common herb in 
wet land, the water hemlock or white snakeroot, which caused many deaths 
by poisoning the milk of cows which ate it. 80 Later, after extensive ditch 
and tile drainage, the virtual extermination of malaria, and the building 
of many bridges, the level land of central Indiana and elsewhere increased 
greatly in value and attractiveness for residence, while sloping land 
deteriorated as a result of soil erosion. Hence until relatively recently, the 
fact that Bloomington is in a rolling-to-rugged area was increasingly 
unfavorable. 

Recently, however, Bloomington's site has been rendered increasingly 
attractive for residence by three developments, first by the great growth 
of the University, which for many years was tiny but recently has 
attracted many thousands of students and numerous faculty members, 
service personnel and others. The money brought into Bloomington annu- 
ally now as a result of the University is many times as much as from all 
other sources combined except its two largest industries. Its largest 
present industry, electronics, grew up there because its talented founder 
(an immigrant) heartily appreciated Bloomington's recreational and edu- 
cational opportunities. He also was attracted by the scenic beauty of the 
rolling landscape, with its exceptionally fine autumn and spring-time 



History of Science 269 

colors. The recreational attractiveness has been increased recently by the 
creation of several nearby artificial lakes and recreational areas, includ- 
ing two state parks and two state forest parks, and the construction of 
several excellent state highways. Bloomington's residential attractive- 
ness also has been increased by the apparent solution of the long-trouble- 
some water-supply problem. The taking over by the Radio Corporation of 
America of a huge building unused when the furniture industry collapsed 
(when Sears, Roebuck withdrew) has also contributed by affording many 
positions, especially for women. At present Bloomington is reputed to 
have in that building the largest color TV factory in the world. 

In brief, it is apparent that environmental factors fluctuate in sig- 
nificance. In Bloomington's beginning, locational factors were predomi- 
nant; their significance, and that of soil, forest, and underlying rock have 
declined; topography has increased in importance; climate, favorable 
most of the year, has become notably less significant; drouths have been 
partly counteracted by adequate water-supply reservoirs; air-condition- 
ing has alleviated the hot spells, and furnace heating the cold spells. The 
damage done by the frequent torrential rainfalls has been decreased by 
storm-sewers, paving, and by the use of most sloping land for grass or 
trees rather than for tilled crops. 

Literature Cited 

1. David D. Banta. "History of Indiana University," in Centennial Memorial Volume 
(Indiana University, Bloomington, 1921), 11, 12. Judge Banta, dean of the I. U. 
Law School, 1889-1896, was the author of a respected history of Johnson County, 
1867. By a Congressional Act of 1804, a township was donated to the Vincennes 
District of Indiana Territory for support of an institution of higher learning. It 
was located by Secretary of the Treasury AJbert Gallatin in Gibson County in 1806, 
and was appropriated by the territorial legislature to Vincennes University, which 
was established in Nov. 1806. It opened in 1810 but was closed for years following 
1825. John D. Barnhart and Donald F. Carmony, Indiana From Frontier to Indus- 
trial Commonwealth. (2 vols., Lewis Historical Co., Inc., New York, 1954), 1, 271. 

2. Banta, "History of Indiana University," 12. 

3. Weston Goodspead, "Monroe County," 294 pp. of Chas. Blanchard (ed), Counties 
of Morgan, Monroe and Brown, Indiana. (F. A. Battey & Co., Chicago, 1884), 374. 
Included is a description of Bloomington of 1883. 

4. Banta, 12. George Pence and Nellie C. Armstrong, Indiana Boundaries, Territory, 
State, and County. (Indianapolis, 1933), 601 ; this in vol. XIX of the Indiana His- 
torical Publications. 

5. Barnhart and Carmony, Indiana, 1, 164. Baynard R. Hall, the first professor in 
the predecessor of Indiana University, wrote of the Bloomington area as he knew 
it, 1824-1832, in The New Purchase, or Seven and a Half Years in the Far West. 
The 1843 Philadelphia (Appleton) edition was reprinted, edited by J. A. Woodburn 
(Princeton University Press, 1916). A concise description of Bloomington of 1849 
is in Indiana Gazetteer (Indianapolis, 1850). (This is a third edition of John 
Scott's Gazetteer (Centreville, 1826) which gives very little about Bloomington 
and that partly erroneous. David Starr Jordan tells considerable about Blooming- 
ton as he knew it as professor and president 1879-1891 in Days of a Man (2 vols. 
World Book Co., New York, 1922). 

6. Banta, 12. Logan Esarey, A History of Indiana (2 vols. Ft. Wayne, 1924), I, 243- 
245. (The first edition was 1914 ; this 1924 edition is slightly altered therefrom.) 

7. Harlow Lindley (ed), Indiana as seen by early travellers; . . . prior to 1830. 
(Indianapolis, 1916), passim; this is Vol. Ill, Indiana Historical Collections: R. 
Carlye Buley, The Old Northwest; Pioneer Period 1815-1840, (2 vols., Indiana 
Historical Society, Indianapolis, 1950), passim. Barnhart and Carmony, Indiana, 
1, 280-284. 



270 Indiana Academy of Science 

8. S. S. Visher, Economic Geography of Indiana (New York, 1923), 17-24. idem, 
"Regionalization of Indiana," Association of America Geographers, Annals, 38 
(1948), 282-300. 

9. Clyde A. Malott, "Physiography of Indiana," and S. S. Visher, "Geography of 
Indiana", Pts. 2 and 1 of Handbook of Indiana Geology (Indiana Department of 
Conservation, Indianapolis, 1922), passim. 

10. Banta, 14 : Goodspeed, 451. 

11. Goodspeed, 453-455. Banta, 14 ; also History of Lawrence and Monroe County, 
Indiana, (author not mentioned although small sections are accredited to named 
individuals) (B. F. Bowen & Co., Inc., Indianapolis, 1914), 369. This volume 
briefly describes Bloomington of 1913, Baskin. Forster and Co. (Chicago, 1876) 
Historical Atlas of Indiana presents a brief description of Bloomington of 1875 
and something of its earlier history. A valuable aspect of this atlas are plats of 
towns, and somewhat detailed maps of townships and counties. 

12. Banta, 18. 

13. Pence and Armstrong, 600. 

14. Goodspeed, 455. 

15. Bowen, 369. 

16. This is clearly revealed by the U. S. Geological Survey topographic map, Bloom- 
ington Quadrangle. 

17. Goodspeed, 491. 

18. Barnhart and Carmony, Indiana, 1, 171, 191-193. 

19. Lee Burns, "The National Road in Indiana," Indiana Historical Society Publica- 
tions, VII (1923), summarized in Barnhart and Carmony, Indiana, 1, 289, 290. 

20. Barnhart and Carmony, 1, 292-293. 

21. Lindley, op. cit. ; Richard L. Powers, "Wetlands and the Hoosier Stereotype," 
Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 22 (1935), 33-48, idem "The Hoosier as an 
American Folk-type." Indiana Magazine of History, (Bloomington. 1905), 38 
(1942), 107-122. 

22. Thomas Carter Perring, in Bowen, (cited in footnote 11), 448. 

23. George Wilson, "Early Indiana Trails," Indiana Historical Society Publication*, 
VI (1919), 347-457. 

24. The Illinois Central R. R. was built through Bloomington in 1906. Perring, op. cit., 
453. 

25. S. S. Visher, "Climate of Bloomington," Chapter 26 of Climate of Indiana (Indi- 
ana University, 1944), 215-253, 466-467. 

26. S. S. Visher, "The Indiana Oolitic Limestone Industry," Economic Geograpy, VII 
(1931), 50-58. Joseph A. Batchelor, Economic History of the Indiana Oolitic Lime- 
stone Industry (Indiana University School of Business, Bloomington, 1944) 

27. S. S. Visher, "Geographic Variations in Deathrates in Indiana." Indiana Academy 
of Science Proceedings 33 : (1925) 55-61, 34 : 154-156 ; 44 : (1934) 168-173. 

28. J. W. Beede, "Geology of the Bloomington Quadrangle." 39th Indiana Geological 
Report (Indianapolis, 1915) 190-312. 

29. Information on Bloomington's water supply problems has been assembled from 
official unpublished and newspaper reports by students who wrote term papers or 
masters theses under my supervision : Paul S. Visher, 1941 ; Eldon Jann, 1942 ; 
Don Rothrock, 1951 ; and Harry Taylor, 1955. 

30. Don E. Bloodgood, "Early Health Conditions in Indiana," Indiana Academy of 
Science Proceedings, 61 (1952), 252-260. 



Some Scientific Expeditions to the Southeastern United States 
Taken by David Starr Jordan 

Fay Kenoyer Daily, 1 Butler University 

In 1874, David Starr Jordan came to Indianapolis to teach at the 
Indianapolis High School (now Shortridge High School) and in the 
summer of 1875 "accompanied by a young engineer named Harper from 
Purdue" (7, p. 178) went to teach the local flora to a group of young 
geologists at Camp Harvard Summer School of Geology in Cumberland 
Gap, Tennessee, a natural passage through the mountains. The tents of 
the school were pitched where an artillery camp once stood and battle- 
ments and marks of the recent Civil War were quite evident in the region. 
The alpine grandeur of the area offered beauty as well as interesting 
material for natural history study. 

During his stay at Cumberland Gap, Jordan was elected to the pro- 
fessorship in Biology in the Northwestern Christian University (now 
Butler University). When he returned there in the fall, one of his first 
duties was to transfer collections and apparatus on a dray from the College 
Avenue location to the new site in Irvington. 

The position that he left at the Indianapolis High School was filled 
by a former school associate at Cornell University, Herbert Copeland, 
with whom he lived from 1875-1876. They resumed joint studies begun at 
Cornell and during the course of a year and one-half they worked on three 
projects: study of the life history of the Johnny Darters, the Ethiosto- 
midae; identification of fishes described from the falls of Ohio by Con- 
stantine Rafinesque; and a catalogue of the fresh water fishes of the 
United States. 

The association with Copeland ended tragically with Copeland's death 
when he fell into White Itiver in January, 1877, and died of exposure 
shortly thereafter. Copeland's position at Indianapolis High School was 
filled by Alembert W. Brayton, who had been another associate of Jor- 
dan's at Cornell. 

In the summer of 1876 on a trip to Georgia to study the fish fauna, 
Jordan was accompanied by his wife and Charles H. Gilbert who had 
been a student of his at Indianapolis High School and was now at North- 
western Christian University (Butler). Jordan's Manual of the Verte- 
brates arrived just as he was leaving home. The party went through 
Livingston, Ky., and by way of Lookout Mountain, establishing head- 
quarters at Rome, Georgia, at the junction of the red waters of the 
Etowah River and clear Oostenaula River flowing from the Missionary 
Ridge on the north. They stayed at Rome for a month, then traveled to the 
Chattahoochee River and through Atlanta passing the Ocmulgee River 
Basin to the southeast. 

The results of this expedition are embodied in The Fishes of Upper 
Georgia (3) which is a monographic review of the local fish fauna. Speci- 
mens were deposited in the Museum of Butler University where at least 
some of the preserved collections from that region are still located. 



1. The author wishes to thank Dr. Will E. Edington for suggesting this subject 
and aid in obtaining material, as well as Miss Mildred Campbell ; Dr. Richard Starr ; 
Dr. Lee Brayton, grandson of Alembert Brayton ; Dr. Nathan Pearson and Dr. Albert 
Mock for their aid. 

271 



272 Indiana Academy of Science 

In August, 1877, Jordan again set out on a summer exploration of the 
south, this time with a larger party which met at Morristown, Tennessee. 
Jordan and William Russell Dudley (another former associate at Cornell) 
came from the east where Jordan had visited the Smithsonian Institution. 
This summer trip was under the auspices of the United States Fish Com- 
mission (2, p. 25). Jordan and Dudley were joined at Morristown by 
Alembert Brayton; Charles Gilbert; Jordan's cousin, Edward Ely; John 
H. Oliver; and Wade Ritter, all students at Butler. They had walked from 
Rock Castle River, past Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, to Morristown. 
Above Morristown, the party walked up the French Broad River, through 
the beautiful Great Smokies to Asheville, North Carolina. They then 
followed the Swannanoa to its source and climbed Mount Mitchell, North 
Carolina, the highest mountain east of the Rockies. In Jordan's words 
(7, p. 162), "This wild rough mass locally known as Black Mountain, 
beset with balsam firs, soft moss, and many subalpine plants rises 6,711 
feet above tidewater ... On its towering summit under an overhanging 
rock, we passed the night." They then explored rivers around Greenville, 
South Carolina, and Spartanburg, and westward to Atlanta, Georgia. 

In Atlanta, they visited Alexander H. Stephens, late Vice-President 
of the Confederate States, who entertained them with interesting remi- 
niscences. 

From there they journeyed to Rome, Georgia, and moved on to 
examine fishes of the Chickamauga River at Ringgold, Georgia, thus 
ending this long summer trip in the south. The many collections taken this 
summer were described by D. S. Jordan and Alembert W. Brayton in a 
bulletin of the U. S. National Museum in 1878 (4), and types of the new 
species were placed in the U. S. National Museum in Washington. Some 
specimens were placed at Butler. 

This 1877 expedition was summed up by a ^Harper's Magazine article 
(8, p. 508) on summer schools in this way, "One of the most successful 
from the scientific point of view as well as one of the most ubiquitous of 
the schools of last summer was that connected with Butler University of 
Irvington, Ind. It was composed of a dozen professors and students and 
in the course of its eight weeks session, its members traveled over a thou- 
sand miles by rail and three hundred miles by foot. It . . . embraced the 
most picturesque scenery of the central Southern States. The mountains 
and caves of Cumberland Gap, the gorges, cliffs and Niagara-like rapids 
of the French Broad, the valley of the Swannanoa with its magnificent 
white laurels, the rugged grandeur of the Black Mountains and the falls 
of the Toccoa as well as the glen and cataracts of the Tallulah formed a 
series of the most sublime and beautiful views of mountain and river 
scenery. . . . But the athletic and social element as well as the aesthetic 
was more cultivated by the members of the expedition than is usual among 
schools of its peripatetic type. A base-ball club was organized which was 
wont to consider itself worthy to meet any nine in the Gulf States. Along 
the line of march, too, the frolicsome enthusiasm of the party found a 
vent, and its lagging footsteps were often quickened by its song: 
We're a band of jolly brothers 
From the Hoosier state we come 
And we're known through Northern Georgia 
For our wisdom, wit and fun. 



History of Science 273 

The scientific results of the expedition are, however, as valuable as 
the trip was delightful. Collections from the flora of the regions traversed 
were made and specimens illustrative of several departments of geology 
and zoology were gathered. . . ." 

In the summer of 1878, Jordan made another expedition to the south 
with still a larger group of companions. Alembert Brayton; Charles 
Gilbert; Barton Evermann, who later had a long-standing scientific rela- 
tionship with Jordan; Evermann's wife; Miss Clapp, a former acquaint- 
ance at the school at Penikese; Charles Merrill, later a partner in the 
Indianapolis publishing firm of Bobbs-Merrill; Charles Moore, a cousin 
of Charles Merrill; Horace G. Smith and others were included. 

An announcement by Jordan in the American Naturalist (5, pp. 412- 
413) describes the proposed trip thus: "Butler University Scientific Expe- 
dition and Summer Tramp will leave Indianapolis June 20 going by rail 
to Livingston, Ky., and then by foot via Rock Castle River, Wild Cat 
Mountain, Cumberland Gap and Clinch Gap to Morristown, Tennessee, 
exploring caves and seining the rivers, thence up the Big Pigeon River 
over the Great Smoky and great Balsoni Mountains, summit higher than 
the White Mountains and far more beautiful and wild; thence over the 
mountains of Chilhowee, over the Nantahala, up the Little Tennessee 
River to the Estatoah Falls, through Rabun Gap to the Tallulah Falls, 
the wildest and most beautiful cascades east of the Rocky Mountains. At 
Toccoa Falls, Georgia (about July 17th) the party will divide, a portion 
marching through Georgia to collect fishes, the other remaining in the 
mountains returning as they please. Objects: natural history, health and 
scenery. Full instructions in Field Geology, Zoology and Botany. The two 
previous trips have been eminently successful, forty species of animals 
new to science having been obtained. For account of the last see Harper's 
Magazine for March. Tuition $15.00. Board $1.00 per day (average). Total 
expenses about $70.00. Eastern students join at Morristown. Address 
Prof. D. S. Jordan, A. W. Brayton, C. H. Gilbert, Directors, Irvington, 
Indiana." 

The wild beauty of this trip is also described dramatically and poeti- 
cally in Jordan's Days of a Man (7, pp. 165-172). He speaks of the moun- 
tain wall of the Blue Ridge "particularly delightful because of its out- 
cropping white quartzite set against the 'piney woods' and for its heavy 
growth of Rhododendron, Azalea and Kalmia . . ." Then he says, "On the 
road we straggled along in groups, the party in advance marking every 
fork with a branch of Rhododendron flowers, and so laying out the Rhodo- 
dendron Trail. This precaution was constantly necessary in a region where 
all paths diverge and very few lead anywhere in particular. Most of them 
in fact were like Thoreau's 'Old Marlborough Road/ merely a direction 
out there, a bare possibility of going somewhere, finally dwindling to a 
squirrel track and running up a tree." The falls, chasms, cascades and 
lacelike spray were of breathtaking beauty. 

Of the instruction, Jordan says (7, p. 169), "In the evening, settling 
in front of a little mountain cabin, Brayton, Gilbert and I would give a 
talk on some phase of the natural history of a region we had that day 
passed over. The Botany was always interesting and the Geology usually 
so. These discussions were much appreciated and Evermann insists that 



274 Indiana Academy of Science 

he learned more science from me on the road than in my laboratory from 
which he took his doctor's degree." 

Gilbert, Brayton, the Evermanns and Miss Clapp left the others at 
Toccoa City and went on with Jordan to Beufort, North Carolina, where 
they stayed about a month studying fishes. Beufort is represented among 
the fish specimens at Butler University Museum. Jordan finally finished 
the summer's trip at the Smithsonian Institution. Jordan's Notes on the 
Fishes of Beufort Harbor was published in 1879 (6). 

The academic year, 1878-1879, was Jordan's last at Butler Univer- 
sity, when he left for a position at Indiana University, but he later recalled 
the summer tramps taken between spring and fall teaching assignments 
in Indianapolis as the beginning of his exploration for fish inhabitants of 
the United States, and which were to lead him to carry his explorations 
over half the earth (1, p. 136). 

Literature Cited 

1. Dye, Charity. 1917. Some torch-bearers in Indiana, pp. 1-327. Hollenbeck Press. 
Indianapolis. 

2. Inlow, William D. Mar., 1960. Indiana physician as geologist and naturalist. Ind. 
Mag. of Hist. LVI (1) : 1-35. 

3. Joedan, D. S. June 1, 1877. A partial synopsis of the fishes of upper Georgia with 
supplementary papers on fishes of Tennessee, Kentucky and Indiana. Ann. of N. Y. 
Lyceum of Nat. Hist. XL : 307-377. Salem Press. 

4. and Alembert W. Brayton. 1S78. Contributions to the North Ameri- 
can Ichthyology. Papeer 3A. On distribution of fishes of the Alleghany Region of 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee with descriptions of new or little known 
species. Bui. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 12. pp. 1-95. 

5. — . 1S78. Announcement of scientific expedition and summer tramp. 

Amer. Nat. XII : 412-413. 

6. and Charles Gilbert. 1879. Notes on fishes of Beufort Harbor, N. C. 

U. S. Nat. Hist. Proc. 1(55) : 365-388 (for 1878). 

7. . 1922. The days of a man, being memories of a naturalist, teacher 

and minor prophet of democracy. Vol. 1. World Book Co. 

8. Thwing. C. F. Mar. 1878. Summer schools. Harper's New Monthly Magazine LVI : 
501-510. 



MATHEMATICS 

Chairman: Merrill E. Shanks, Purdue University 
John Yarnelle, Hanover College, was elected chairman for 1962 

No papers or abstracts received. 

PHYSICS 

Chairman: Howard Black, Indiana State College 
R. T. Dufford, Evansville College, was elected chairman for 1962 



ABSTRACTS 



A Gaseous Atomic Beam Light Source. 1 R. W. Stanley, Purdue Uni- 
versity. — It has recently become possible to observe the light emitted from 
atoms of a permanent gas which are traveling nearly perpendicular to 
the line of sight. A beam of neutral atoms, moving through a highly 
evacuated region, is bombarded with electrons from an electron gun. As 
a result of the electron bombardment some of the gaseous atoms are 
excited to higher energy states and subsequently emit optical radiation. 
The resulting spectrum may be quite different from that observed in an 
ordinary light source. One important property of the emitted light is 
that it is highly monochromatic. The gaseous atomic beam apparatus will 
be described and some recent results will be given. 

Machine Literature Searching. H. B. Thompson, General Electric 
Company, Cincinnati 15, Ohio. — The need for a more rapid and discrimi- 
nating method of locating literature is apparent to those who have made 
any appreciable state-of-the-art search in recent times. Manual coordi- 
nate indexing came into use in the '50's to meet this need. General Elec- 
tric's Flight Propulsion Division at Cincinnati established such a system 
in 1953 and converted its manual system to an IBM 704 computer in 1958. 
Several other firms have made similar moves to make their literature 
handling effective. With such a system, the searcher obtains in about % 
hr. of machine time, all the references in the particular collection that 
have been indexed as dealing with the combination of subjects desired. 
Choices "ors," and negations (but not relationships), can also be used for 
selection with proper programming. Many are trying to retain the con- 
text or usage of the words and in certain cases with appreciable success. 
No system thus far developed satisfies all desires, but all help greatly in 
establishing the state-of-the-art in a given field quickly and, thus, in 
reducing duplication of effort. 

Beta-Gamma Directional Correlation in EU 15 \ K. S. R. Sastry, In- 
diana University. — The energy dependence of the fi-y directional correla- 
tion between the 1.86 Mev outer /3-ray group of Eu 151 and the 123-kev cas- 
cade gamma-ray of the daughter Gd 15t has been measured with a shaped 
magnetic field p-y coincidence spectrometer. The correlation coefficient, e, 
measured to an accuracy of about 5%, is negative and varies from -0.11 



1. This research was supported in part by a grant from the National Science 
Foundation. 

275 



276 Indiana Academy of Science 

to -0.18 in the energy range 0.80 to 1.60 Mev. The experimental results 
indicate predominant contribution due to the B tj matrix element. It will 
be shown that the modified B tJ approximation is not consistent with the 
spectrum shape measurement of Langer and Smith and our directional 
correlation data. A more general analysis of the data together with the 
experimental shape factor yields a set of the nuclear parameters x, u, and Y 
(in Kotani's notation) namely, 

x = -0.19 ± 0.08 u = +0.08 ± 0.04 Y = 0.84 ± 0.08 

The resulting nuclear matrix elements are considerably reduced relative 
to the ones expected for a perfect overlap of the initial and final state 
wave functions indicating that a selection rule effect (probably due to 
K-for-biddenness) rather than a mutual cancellation of the matrix ele- 
ments is responsible for the undue retardation of the transition. 

Gamma Radiation from Ne 20 . 2 W. W. Eidson, Indiana University. — 
The 22 Mev alpha beam of the Indiana University cyclotron has been used 
to bombard targets of natural neon gas. Particle-gamma coincidence 
spectra of the reaction Ne 20 (oc,oc , 7)Ne 20 have been studied employing 
standard fast-slow coincidence techniques. The existence of new gamma- 
emitting levels in Ne 20 at 5.88 Mev and 7.93 Mev excitation energy is 
implied by the data. As these levels are unbound to alpha emission they 
must have unnatural spin and parity (J^ L) to prevent the favored alpha 
decay. A 3 + assignment for both of these levels is consistent with known 
information. Possible interaction mechanisms for production of such 
levels will be presented. Qualitative arguments will be discussed concern- 
ing possible collective model interpretation of Ne 20 . 

Peaks in Pion Production Reactions. John Higgins, Indiana Univer- 
sity. — The 600 and 900 Mev peaks in the cross-section for t + N-*t + ttN 
are examined on the basis of an isobar mechanism. The reaction is assumed 
to proceed in two steps. First tt -f- N -> w -f- isobar, then the isobar decays 
into a nucleon and a pion. Describing the isobar decay in terms of the 
known low energy tt + N -> tt + N amplitude and using given angular 
momentum and isotopic spin assignments for the peaks the amplitude for 
the production process can be written down. This amplitude is then sym- 
metrized and from it momentum spectra of the pions and charge ratios 
are calculated. 

The Physics and Mathematics Backgrounds of 350 Indiana High School 
Physics Teachers. H. T. Black and E. D. Gorham, Indiana State College; 
and T. Pickett, Evansville College. — In the spring of 1961 a question- 
naire was sent to Indiana high school physics teachers requesting infor- 
mation concerning their training in physics and mathematics, their par- 
ticipation in N. S. F. Institutes, their attitudes concerning P. S. S. C. 
physics and the enrollment of their schools. The average training of the 
350 teachers reporting is 23 Semester Hours in physics and 28 Semester 
Hours in mathematics. The relation between average physics training 
and: (1) N. S. F. Institute Attendance; (2) Plans to Teach P. S. S. C. 
Physics; (3) High School Enrollment, was investigated and will be 
reported. 



2. Supported in part by the joint program of the Office of Naval Research and the 
Atomic Energy Commission. 



A Method for Measuring Neutron Flux by a Paraffin Oil 
Bath Technique 

A. W. Manning, Valparaiso University, and Thomas R. Jeter and 

Howard Schmuckler, Terminal Ballistics Laboratory, 

Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 

This method is based upon the procedure of slowing down neutrons 
to thermal energies and then measuring these neutrons with a 'point' 
neutron scintillation detector. 1,2 (Nuclear-Chicago, Model DS8-10) Though 
paraffin oil (Esso,Primol D) is unpleasant to handle, nevertheless, it was 
selected in preference to water in order to avoid any competing reactions 
from oxygen. 3,4 

SELSYN INDICATOR UftTno _ B11I . 

TRANSMITTER ^ 0T0R DRIVE 




OETECTOR 



FIGURE X 

277 



278 



Indiana Academy of Science 



An aluminum tank having a radius of 22 inches and a height of 46 
inches was constructed. (Figure 1) An opening sufficiently large, so as 
to accommodate the Van de Graaff target tube, was built into the side of 
the tank so that the target was essentially at the center of the paraffin 
oil bath. 

In order to facilitate the procedure of taking the experimental data, 
a rotating motor driven bar with evenly spaced holes was mounted above 




FIGURE 0-> 

the tank. By inserting the neutron detector through one of the holes in 
the cross-bar and adjusting the height of the assemblage so that the 
sensitive tip of the counter was at the center of the target tube, a complete 
series of measurements could be taken at the same distance from the 
source target and at the various angles indicated by the selsyn transmitter. 
Let Q s = the total neutron emission from a source or target 

q (r,(p,6) = thermal neutrons/cm 3 - sec. at r, (p, 6 

c (r,(p,e) =the counts which will be registered by the photo- 
multiplier counter at various positions. 

Kc = q 

where K = constant depending upon counter efficiency 
then 

CO 7T 2tT 

Q =KJ J J C(v, ,9) r 2 sin 0d<£>d0dr 

S 

Assuming symmetry around the axis of the Van de Graaff tube (i.r.t. the 
integration of the angle <p) the volume integral will then become 



Physics 



279 



00 "K 

Q = 2 ttK / J* CiYyO)^ sin d#dr,C in this case will be a function 

S 

of r and 6 only 

By plotting C(r,0)r 2 as a function of r for each of the values of 6 that 
could be measured (e.g.) (Figure 3) and integrating under the curve, a 
series of areas were found. 



(s)* 



t, 



= conSTft-H 



u*+ 




A smc 




By plotting each one of these values of A sin 
Figure 4) 
the volume integral was evaluated. 



as a function 0(e.g. 



Experimental Procedures 

The apparatus was set up as indicated in Figure 1 with a calibrated 
source in position where the Van de Graaff target is to be placed. Meas- 
urements were taken at angles from 0° to 160° as measured from the 
forward direction of the tube position. The volume integration was then 
performed as outlined and a value of Ki determined equivalent to 2tt/c in 
the above formula. 

As a check on the experimental accuracy of this method and the 
calibration constant, another standard source was measured in a similar 
manner. Using the obtained constant Ki, a value within 7% of the given 
value of this source was obtained. 

Measurements were made on the neutron output of a deuterium target 
bombarded with deuterons. A summary of the experimental results is 
given in Table I below and on the following pages. 



Source 


Yield (std) 


A Final 


Measured Yield 


% Dev. 


200 mg 
Ra-Be 


2.29 x 10 6 n/sec 


23.9 






55 curie 
Pu-Be 


9.16 x 10° 
± 10% n/sec 


102 


9.79 x 10 6 n/s 


7% 


H 2 target 
bombarded 
with deuterons 




209 


2 x 10 T n/sec. or 

4 x 10 6 n/microcoulomb 



A 200 mg. Ra - Be neutron source having an output of 2.29 x 10° n/sec 
was used to calibrate the oil bath. Typical graphs for various angular 
positions are given in Figures 5, 6 and 7. The final value of the volumetric 
integral is given by the graph as indicated in Figure 8. The value of Ki 
was calculated to be 9.6 x 10*. (Figure 8) 



280 



Indiana Academy of Science 



90,000 
45,000 
40,000 
J5.000 
30,000 
25,000 
20,000 
15,000 
10,000 




f 


^X 
























/ 


\ 
























/ 






a 


= 20* 










































































































































































































The accuracy of the experimental procedure and the value of the 
constant was checked using a 55 curie Pu - Be source. The value of the 
source as given by the manufacturer is 9.16 x 10° n/s ± 10%. The value 
as found by this experimental procedure is 9.79 x 10 6 n/sec. The deviations 
between these two values is less than 7%. 

A deuterium target of 446 micrograms per sq. cm. was measured for 
neutron output when bombarded with deuterons at 1 mev. The target out- 
put was measured to be 2 x 10 7 n/sec. or 4 x 10° n/microcoulomb. 



, 


























~i 


























1 




































8 -■ 90* 
















- 




























- 1 




























- / 




























- / 














































^^ 











The following errors might be considered: errors in extrapolation, 
determination of areas under the experimental curves, flux depressions 
by the 5 introduction of the neutron counter, loss from the sides of the 
0,7 vessel due to neutron escape, fast neutron absorption and neutron 8 
energy variations. Since, however, the value of the constant Ki was deter- 
mined and used under identical conditions, these errors should be mini- 
mized. It would be well to make a systematic study of the above in order 
to increase the accuracy of this experimental procedure. 



Physics 



281 



100,000 
80.000 
80.000 
70,000 
60,000 
50,000 
40.000 
J0.0O0 
20.000 












































































8 « 120* 






















































\ 






























\ 






























\ 
































\ 




















































/ 




















' 




1 


FIGURE 7, 





20 22 



Q s = 27TK f fc(r { B) r 2 sin 6 d 0dr 



(2.29)(I0) 6 = K, (23.90) 



36 
32 

26 
24 
20 
16 
12 
8 
4 














K , 


= (9 pHim 4 






































































































































































\ 






































\ 






































\ 


V 






































\ 






































\ 






































\ 


\ 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 "160 170 180 190 



FIGURE 8 

Literature Cited 

1. Larson, K. E. 1955. Arkiv Fysik 9 : 293. 

2. Larsson, K. E. 1958. J. Nuclear Energy 6 : 322. 

3. Marion, J. B. Fast Neutron Physics, Vol IV, Fart I-A Interscience Publisher, Inc. 

4. Elliot, Hincks. May, 1948. Can J. Research 26 : 386. 

5. Auerbach, T. 1955. BNL 370 (T-68). 

6. Macklin, R. L. Nuclear Instruments 1 : 355 (1957). 

7. Macklin, R. L. and J. H. Gibbons. 1958. Physical Review 109 : 105. 

S. Graves and Froman, Misc. Physical and Chem. Techniques of the Los Alamos 
Project, Vol. V-3, McGraw Hill 1952 (Chapter 2). 



A Constant Voltage Supply for a Pressure Transducer 

James E. Brock, Stephen Pursley, M. G. Dunn, and 
Alan Clausen, Purdue University 

Dry cells are the usual source of voltage for operating a pressure 
transducer of the strain gauge type. The voltage available from a dry cell 
decreases with use so some means of compensation is necessary in order 
to maintain a constant voltage to the transducer. The voltage supply 
described here maintains a constant output voltage over a relatively large 
range of current loads. 

The circuit arrangement is shown in Fig. 1, and takes advantage of 
the regulating properties of a Zener diode. For this experiment a small 
isolating transformer was used with a 36 volt secondary. 




. To R?tefrho m«ter 

A 



^Trftuselucf 



Fig. 1. Zener Reference Voltage Circuit for a Pressure Transducer. 

The output from the transformer was rectified by a full wave dry 
plate rectifier of about 50 ma. capacity. Smoothing was secured with two 
50 mfd condensers G and C 2 and the 270 ohm series resistor Ri. The 
variable resistor R 2 , in conjunction with the transducer load resistance of 
about 340 ohms, lowers the voltage to a point where the zener diode 
1N1771A controls and maintains a constant 10 volt input to the transducer. 
The output from the transducer was measured with a potentiometer. 




3e> 4o 

p - cm a 



f% 



Pig. 2. Pressure vs. Millivolts curves for C. E. C. Type 4-32G Pressure Transducer at 

77.5°F and 82.5°F 



Physics 283 

Two calibration curves for a Consolidated Electrodynamics Corpora- 
tion, type 4-326, pressure transducer made at different temperatures are 
shown in Fig. 2. The calibrating pressures to the transducer were supplied 
from a mercury in glass manometer. 

The calibration was linear and the reproducibility depended on the 
accuracy of reading of the height of the mercury column in the manometer. 
There was no observable hysteresis effect. 

The solid state devices used in the voltage supply network, and also 
the transducer, are temperature sensitive. Obviously, the system should 
be calibrated under conditions simulating closely those in which it is to 
be used. 



PLANT TAXONOMY 

Chairman: Mrs. Helene Starcs, Health and Hospital Corporation 
of Marion County 

Grady Webster, Purdue University, was elected chairman for 1962 



ABSTRACT 



Natural Vegetation Types of Costa Rica, Central America. Alton A. 
Lindsey, Purdue University. — The vegetation of Costa Rica was surveyed 
during July and August, 1961, according to the classification proposed for 
the Central American Tropics by Holdridge. The types found are illus- 
trated by Kodachrome slides. They range in elevation from sea level to 
11,500 ft., and in mesophily from "dry" tropical forest to paramo and 
"wet" rain forest. 

Cabomba caroliniana Back in Indiana. Helene Starcs, Health and 
Hosp. Corp. of Marion County. — The fanwort Cabomba caroliniana Gray 
was found in Knob Lake (Sawmill Hollow Lake), located in Jackson 
County State Forest, Sec. 19, Twp. 5N, Rge. 5E, September 7, 1958. It 
formed several flowering colonies on the mucky western border of the 
small lake (8 acres). It was still there September 11, 1960. The species 
was reported by Ridgway in 1872 and by Schneck in 1876 in the ponds of 
the Lower Wabash Valley. Later it could not be found there. Charles C. 
Deam (Flora of Indiana, 1940:452) assumed the fanwort extinct in 
Indiana, killed by drought periods. Lindsey and co-workers recently re- 
checked the Foote's Pond, mentioned by the previous authors, and found 
no Cabomba for the Lower Wabash Valley. Now it is back again in south- 
ern Indiana. Herbarium specimens are deposited at Butler University 
and at Indiana University. 

A Re-evaluation of the Ecologic Status of Tsuga canadensis in In- 
diana. Robert Petty, Ronald Laughlin and James MeWhinney, Wabash 
College, Ohio State University and University of New Mexico. — The paper 
presents a new evaluation of site-habit of eastern hemlock in Indiana. 
Data are presented which contradict findings of earlier workers regarding 
moisture regimes in Indiana hemlock stands. These earlier published 
papers describe hemlock as occurring on "rigorous sites" and situated 
ecologically between Oak-Hickory and Beech-Maple on a soil-moisture 
spectrum. Current soil-moisture data and phytosociological analyses show 
maximum hemlock expression to occur on sites significantly cooler and 
moister than those of mesic climax beech and maple, giving a contempo- 
rary site index that more closely agrees with its earlier interpreted posi- 
tion as a relict, postclimax species. Phytosociological data are presented 
from six stands distributed throughout the state range of the species. 
Total state distribution is presented with current stand vigor compared 
to that described by Charles C. Deam several decades ago. 



284 



A Decade of Oldiield Succession in an Indiana 
Biological Reserve 1 

R. A. deLanglade and A. A. Lindsey, Wabash College and 
Purdue University 

Introduction 

The Ross Biological Reserve is a 54 acre tract located 8 miles south- 
west of West Lafayette, Indiana in the southwestern portion of Tippe- 
canoe County. Prior to 1949 the tract had been used for various agricul- 
tural purposes. In that year the Biological Sciences Department of Purdue 
University acquired the tract as its various abandoned oldfields and 
second growth forest offered wide opportunities for research and teaching. 
From early research in the Reserve Kenneth H. Bush determined three 
major vegetation types: oldfield, woodland, and forest; Chester W. Miller 
determined the flora, and Clifford R. Faulkner delimited the soil types 
(2, 3, 4). The present study was the second in an expected series to deter- 
mine serai developments over ten year periods. 

Methods 

Following the procedures used by Bush (2), quantitative data were 
obtained from permanent herbaceous quadrats five links square (1/4000 
A.), and woody quadrats 10 links by 50 links (1/200 A.). These quadrats 
were located at permanent metal posts, 2 chains apart, which divide the 
Reserve into a grid pattern. All species in the herbaceous quadrats were 
counted while tree species under four inches diameter breast height (dbh) 
in the woody quadrats were counted and listed as to height classes. Attri- 
butes of frequency and density per acre were determined for the various 
species and these compared to similar data from the 1950 analysis. Quan- 
titative data were supplemented by photographs taken from the exact 
location and direction as those of the 1950 analysis (1). 

Bush (2) recognized, and designated after dominant species, 13 
vegetation sub-divisions in the Reserve. These were recognized in the 
present study but for clarity the designations were not changed even 
though new dominants were present. Only three sub-divisions of the 
oldfield type will be presented since these show the most striking changes. 

Results 

The first of these sub-divisions of the oldfield type is the Grass- 
Ambrosia Upland. This area, located on the upland plateau, is relatively 
flat, 2-6% slope, and has Russell Silt Loam soil type. Although quadrats 
were not laid out in this particular area in 1950, Bush (2) indicated that 
Ambrosia elatior, Rubus flagellaris, Verbena urticae folia, Daucus Carota, 
and Sonchus sp. were the dominant herbaceous species. Attributes deter- 
mined in the present analysis show Poa compressa, 261,796/A., and Rubus 
flagellaris, 38,333/A., as the dominant herbs. Poa represented 61% and 
Rubus 9% of the total density for all species combined. Respective fre- 
quencies were 92 and 62. The former dominants, Ambrosia elatior and 
Daucus Carota, now having respective densities of 5,227/A. and 871/A. 



1. Part of a thesis submitted to the Graduate School of Purdue University in 
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science. 

285 



286 



Indiana Academy of Science 



and frequencies of 46 and 8, are minor species representing only 1% and 
.2% of the total density for all species. Verbena urticae folia and Sonchus 
sp. were so infrequent that none were counted in the quadrats. 

Liriodendron tulipifera and Ulmus fulva were the only tree species 
present in 1950; neither had a dbh of 4 in. or greater. Seventeen tree 
species, represented by 113 individuals all less than 4 in. dbh, were found 
in the quadrats in 1960. Liriodendron and Fraxinus americana, represent- 
ing 35% and 18% of the total number of individuals in the quadrats, were 
the most abundant. Reproduction density (for all species combined) 
decreased through the 3-4, 1-2, and 5-7 foot height classes. 



Table 1. Herbaceous species of the Poa-Andropogon-Rubus 
Upland Oldfield. 

1!'(J(I 1050 



Species 


Density/A. 


Freq. 


Poa compressa 


525,769 


100 


Rubus flagellaris 


38,333 


89 


Monarda fistulosa 


30,828 


50 


Potentilla simplex 


28,750 


22 


Draba repens 


17,860 


22 


Panicum spp. 


14,810 


67 


Daucus Carota 


11,326 


61 


Lysimachia lanceolata 


11,326 


6 


Rhus radicans 


10,454 


22 


Achillea millifolium 


7,841 


33 


Danthonia spicata 


6,970 


6 


Desmodium spp. 


6,098 


61 


Veronica verna 


5,227 


17 


Andropogon virginicus 


4,792 


33 


Lactuca sp. 


3,920 


39 


Solidago spp. 


3,920 


22 


Cerastium spp. 


2,614 


22 


Rubus allegheniensis 


2,614 


22 


Ambrosia elatior 


1,307 


17 


Cirsium sp. 


1,307 


17 


Dianthus Armeria 


1,307 


6 


Melilotus officinalis 


1,307 


6 


Car ex spp. 


871 


17 


Fragaria virginiana 


871 


11 


Galium spp. 


871 


11 


Plantago spp. 


871 


6 


Rumex acetosella 


871 


17 


Solanum sp. 


871 


11 


Potentilla erecta 


436 


6 


Erigeron sp. 


218 


6 


Mentha sp. 


218 


6 


Specularia perfoliate 


218 


6 


Oxalis sp. 


218 


6 



Density/A. Freq. 



not counted 
3,354 88 
1,581 65 



1,176 59 



653 29 



5,184 88 



4,763 



82 



479 



29 



Total 



744,996 



18,440 



Plant Taxonomy 



287 




The Poa-Andropogon-Rubus Upland is another oldfield sub-division 
having 2-6% slope and Russell Silt Loam soil type. Eight herbaceous 
species were noted in the 1950 analysis; Poa compressa, Andropogon vir- 



'wmms&iimmmmm 








mam 



iliitl 



liiaiillii 



■•Miff 



usA 11 






wmmmammemmii 



;»'■.■■■, 



jtif§«. J»II«B«& 




Figure 1. Poa-Andropogon-Rubus Upland Oldfield taken from the same location 
and direction, (upper — 1950, lower — 1960) 



288 



Indiana Academy of Science 



ginicus, 5,184/A., Ambrosia elatior, 4,763/A., and Rubus fiagellaris, 
3,354/A., were the dominants. Respective frequencies (except Poa) were 
88, 83, and 88. Andropogon represented 28%, Ambrosia 26%, and Rubus 
18% of the total density for all species in 1950. Thirty-two herbaceous 
species were noted in the present analysis; Poa compressa, 525,769/A., 
Rubus fiagellaris, 38,333/A., and Monarda fistulosa, 30,828/A., were the 
dominants. Respective frequencies were 100, 89, and 50. Rubus repre- 
sented 18% and Monarda 14% of the total density for all species. n Former 
dominants, Andropogon and Ambrosia, now have respective densities of 
4,792/ A. and 1,307/ A., and represented only 2%> and .6% of the total 
density for all species combined (Table 1). 

No data were collected for trees under 4 in. dbh in the 1950 analysis. 
In the 1960 analysis of woody quadrats 24 tree species, represented by 376 

Table 2. Herbaceous Species of the Andropogon Sandslope Oldfield. 





I960 




1950 


Species 


Density /A. 


F'req. 


Density/A. F'req. 


Poa compressa 


252,648 


67 


not counted 


Andropogon virginicus 


20,909 


8:] 


55,321 83 


Rubus fiagellaris 


19,166 


50 


16,553 67 


Potentilla simplex 


8,276 


33 




Rumex acetosella 


5,663 


17 




Panicum spp. 


3,920 


67 




Convolvulus spp. 


3,049 


33 


7,840 33 


Desmodium spp. 


3,049 


33 




Galium spp. 


3,049 


33 




Lactuca sp. 


2,613 


33 




Lysimachia lanceolata 


2,613 


17 




Tradescantia canaliculata 


2,613 


33 




Parthenocisus quinque folia 


1,742 


17 


6,870 33 


Solidago spp. 


1,307 


17 




Monarda fistulosa 


1,307 


17 




Achillea millifolium 


436 


17 




Antennaria Parlinii 


436 


17 




Oxalis sp. 


436 


17 




Potentilla erecta 


436 


17 




Rudbeckia hirta 


436 


17 




Ambrosia elatior 








26,572 67 


Danthonia spicata 








3,049 17 


Rubus allegheniensis 








1,307 17 


Total 


329,311 


127,095 



individuals, were found. Based on the percentage of the total number of 
individuals in the quadrats XJlmus fulva, 24%, Fraxinus americana, 15%, 
Acer saccharum, 14%, Malus sp., 9%, and Rhus glabra, 8%, were the 
major species. Reproduction density for all species ranged downward 
through the 3-4, 1-2, and 5-7 foot height classes. No trees were recorded 



3. Since Poa was not counted in the 1950 study, its 1960 density was not included 
in the total density for all species in order that percentages for the two years would be 
comparable. 



Plant Taxonomy 



289 



with a 4 in. or greater diameter in the 1950 quadrat analysis; in the 
present study a Quercus velutina, dbh 4.95 in., Fraxinus americana, dbh 
6.0 in., and Populus grarididentata, dbh 5.1 and 7.0 in., were recorded. 




¥' 




:/. 





Figure 2. Andropogon Sandslope Oldfield taken from the same location and 
direction, (upper — 1950, lower — 1960) 



290 Indiana Academy of Science 

Other individuals having 4 in. or greater dbh were scattered throughout 
the field ; e.g., Platanus occidentalis, 4-8.4 in. dbh, Liriodendron tulipifera, 
4-7.1 in. dbh, (Fig. 1). 

The last oldfield sub-division to be discussed is the Andropogon Sand- 
slope. This area has a 12-18% slope. Its soil is Oaktown Loamy Fine Sand 
except in the draw which is Russell Sandy Loam. Eight herbaceous species 
were recorded in the quadrats in 1950. Andropogon virginicus, 55,321 /A., 
Ambrosia elatior, 26,572/ A., and Rubus flagellaris, 16,553/A., were the 
dominants representing 43%, 21%, and 13% of the total density for all 
species. Twenty herbaceous species were found in the same quadrats in 
the present study. Poa compressa, 252,648/A., Andropogon virginicus, 
20,909/A., and Rubus flagellaris, 19,166/A., were dominant. The latter 
two represented 27% and 25% of the total density for all species. Ambrosia 
elatior was so infrequent that none were found in the quadrats (Table 2). 

Large trees were restricted to a natural draw cutting through the 
field; Platanus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Fraxinus americana, Sassa- 
fras albidum, Quercus velutina, and Liriodendron tulipifera predominate. 
Small Juglans nigra and Quercus velutina were present on the sand ridge- 
crest (Fig. 2). Considering tree species under 4 in. dbh, 18 species were 
found in the 1960 quadrat analysis. Ulmus fulva, Quercus alba, Fraxinus 
americana, and Juglans nigra, having respective percentages (of the total 
number) of 20, 15, 13, and 12 were the most prevalent in the quadrats. 
Reproduction density for all species decreased through the 1-2, 3-4, and 
8-10 foot height classes. 

Discussion and Conclusions 

Herbaceous cover in the Grass-Ambrosia and Poa-Andropogon-Rubus 
Upland oldfields has increased during the decade in the number of species 
present as well as density of these species. The majority are perennials 
rather than annuals as formerly. Dominance has shifted in 10 years from 
Ambrosia elatior and Daucus Carota to Poa compressa and Rubus flagel- 
laris in the Grass-Ambrosia Upland oldfield. In the Poa-Andropogon- 
Rubus Upland oldfield, Poa and Rubus are dominants. Andropogon, a 
former dominant, has decreased drastically in density representing 28% of 
the total density for all species in 1950 and only .2% in 1960. Ambrosia 
decreased in density from 25% of the total density in 1950 to .6% in 1960. 
Liriodendron, Fraxinus, Ulmus, and Acer are early-invasion tree species. 
In the Grass-Ambrosia Upland 53% of the individuals noted in the quad- 
rats were Liriodendron and Fraxinus. In the Poa-Andropogon-Rubus 
Upland, Ulmus, Fraxinus, and Acer composed 53% of the individuals 
noted in the quadrats. Liriodendron represented only 2% of the individ- 
uals in the quadrats. This latter condition appears to be related to the 
number of seed sources in the adjacent forest. In considering the rate 
of succession during the decade in both areas, there has been rapid ecesis 
of various herbaceous and woody species. Both oldfields have the same 
general appearance and species present, varying only in the density of 
these species. Marked physiognomic changes in the future will be much 
slower since future dominants are present and need only to expand in 
density. Eventually both upland oldfields will probably support a mixed 
mesophytic climax forest. 



Plant Taxonomy 291 

Herbaceous species have also increased in the number present and 
density in the Andropogon Sandslope oldfield. Andropogon, which once 
practically covered the area, is now restricted to the sand ridge-crest, 
represented 43% of the total density for all species in 1950 and only 27% 
in 1960. Ambrosia was completely lacking in the quadrats. Only Rubus 
fiagellaris, of the former dominants, had an increase in density per acre ; 
representing 13% of the total density in 1950 and 25% in 1960. Ulmus 
fulva, Quercus alba, Fraxinus americana, and Juglans nigra composed 
60% of the tree species under 4 in. dbh in the quadrats. Large trees are 
restricted to the draw running through the area where soil moisture is 
sufficient to support their development. As in the above-mentioned old- 
fields, marked physiognomic changes will be much slower in the future. 
Succession will probably terminate at a sub-climax of oak-hickory due to 
the relative xeric edaphic conditions of the area. 

Literature Cited 

1. deLanglade, R. A. 1961. The Vegetation and Flora of the Ross Biological Reserve — - 
1960. Unpublished M. S. Thesis, Purdue Univ. 

2. Bush, K. H. 1951. A Vegetational Analysis of the Ross Biological Reserve. Unpub- 
lished M. S. Thesis, Purdue Univ. 

3. Faulkner, C. R. 1951. Soil Types of the Ross Biological Reserve. Unpublished M. S. 
Thesis, Purdue Univ. 

4. Miller, C. W. 1951. The Vascular Flora of the Ross Biological Reserve. Unpub- 
lished M. S. Thesis, Purdue Univ. 



New County Records for Fayette and Franklin 
Counties, Indiana 

Phil C. Baker and James B. Cope, Earlham College 

In the course of a research project sponsored by the Charles F. Ket- 
tering Foundation on the Flora of the Whitewater valley in relation to 
the glacial tills and their respective soil types, we became interested in 
the fact that some species that we were encountering were county records. 
Each plant specimen has been placed in the Herbarium of the Joseph 
Moore Museum of Earlham College with the nomenclature in accord with 
Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th Edition. The following list is in the order 
used in Beam's Flora of Indiana, and includes 33 species in the same 
number of genera. In several instances Deam's nomenclature is given 
parenthetically. Following each species is the name of the county in which 
it was collected. 

Ophioglossum vulgatum, Franklin. Botrychium dissectum var. tenui- 
folium, Fayette. Osmunda Claytoniana, Franklin. Onoclea sensibilis, 
Fayette. Dryopteris noveboracensis, Franklin. Athyrium Felix-femina, 
(A. asplenoides or A. Angustium), Franklin. Lycopodium complanatum 
var. flabelliforme, (L. flabelliforme), Franklin and Fayette. Alisma sub- 
cordatum, Franklin. Arisaema Dracontium, Franklin. Juglans cinerea, 
Franklin and Fayette. Ostrya virginiana, Fayette. Quercus bicolor, 
Franklin. Quercus palustris, Franklin. Boehmeria cylindrica, Franklin. 
Hepatica acutiloba, Franklin. Clematis virginiana, Franklin. Asimina 
triloba, Franklin. Nasturtium officinale, Franklin. Platanus occidentalis, 
Franklin. Gymnocladus dioica, Franklin. Acer rubrum, Fayette. Tilia 
americana, Franklin. Panax quinque folium, Fayette. Nyssa sylvatica, 
Fayette. Gaylussacia baccata, Franklin. Fraxinus nigra, Franklin. 
Scrophula?-ia marilandica, Fayette. Cephalanthus occidentalis, Franklin. 
Virburnum dentatum, (V. pubescens), Franklin. Lobelia Cardinalis, 
Franklin. Eupatorium fistulosum, Franklin. Cacalia Muhlenbergii, 
Franklin. 

Three of the previous species have significance for this area of the 
state. In both counties we found the Lycopodium complanatum var. flabel- 
liforme growing in reasonably sunny, open spots surrounded by low 
second growth timber. It covered an area approximately 1,700 sq. ft. in 
two locations in Franklin Co., while the area covered in the Fayette Co. 
location was about 300 sq. ft. According to the Plant Distribution Records 
I through XVII of Indiana, Jefferson Co. is the only other county in the 
eastern half of the state to have a previous recording. We were also sur- 
prised to find Gaylussacia baccata growing in Franklin Co. although it 
has been recorded in Bartholomew, Jefferson, and Switzerland counties, 
all of which are within 40 miles. The condition under which we found it 
was a flat, poorly drained, wooded area of Clermont silt loam and trees 
of sweet gum, black gum, black oak, swamp-white oak, and pin oak. The 
Osmunda Claytoniana which we collected was taken from a very small 
stand in a woods of primary growth in northern Franklin Co. The distri- 
bution records include this for Jefferson Co., but as the only other record 
for southeastern Indiana. 

292 



Algae of Putnam County, Indiana 

Charles R. Hall, Emmerich Manual Training High School, Indianapolis 

The collections of algae, from which the accompanying list was com- 
piled, were made between December 1959 and April 1961. All collections 
were made in Putnam County. Farm ponds, temporary pools, streams, 
quarries and an artificial lake were the sources of the collections. All of 
the species and varieties are new reports for Putnam County with the 
exception of Chara contraria A. Braun (1), Char a vulgaris Vaillant ex. 
Linnaeus, Chara globularis Thuillier (2), Draparnaldia plumosa (Vau- 
cher) C. A. Agardh (3), Spirogyra borgeana Transeau, and Spirogyra 
majuscula Kuetzing (4). The species and varieties marked by an asterisk 
are new reports for the state. 

There are 42 families, 98 genera, 192 species and 15 varieties reported 
by the writer as being collected in Putnam County. As far as known, 1 
family, 3 genera, 35 species and 5 varieties are new reports for the state. 
The writer wishes to thank Dr. Winona H. Welch, under whose direc- 
tion this work was conducted. To Mr. W. A. Daily and Mrs. Fay Kenoyer 
Daily for their suggestions and assistance in the determination of the 
Myxophyceae and Characeae, the writer extends his appreciation. The 
writer is indebted to the Indiana Academy of Science for a research grant 
and to DePauw University for the use of all necessary equipment, all of 
which have made possible this study. 

All specimens collected for this study are deposited in the T. G. 
Yuncker Herbarium, of the Botany Department of DePauw University, at 
Greencastle, Indiana. 

Chlorophyta 

Chlamydomonas globosa Snow 

Phacotus lenticularis (Ehrenberg) Stein 

Gonium pectorale Mueller 

Pandorina morum (Mueller) Bory 

Eudorina elegans Ehrenberg 

Volvox aureus Ehrenberg 

Sphaerocystis schroeteri Chodat 
*Gloeocystis ampla (Kuetzing) Lagerheim 

Tetraspora cylindrica (Wahlenberg) C. A. Agardh 

Tetraspora gelatinosa (Vaucher) Desvaux 

Tetraspora lubrica (Roth) C. A. Agardh 

Ulothrix tenerrima Kuetzing 

Geminella interrupta (Turpin) Lagerheim 
*Radiofilum flavescens G. S. West 

Cylindrocapsa geminella Wolle 

Draparnaldia glomerata (Vaucher) C. A. Agardh 

Draparnaldia plumosa (Vaucher) C. A. Agardh 

Stigeoclonium stagnatile (Hazen) Collins 

Chaetophora elegans (Roth) C. A. Agardh 

Chaetophora incrassata (Hudson) Hazen 

Chaetophora pisiformis (Roth) C. A. Agardh 
*Chaetopeltis americana (Snow) Collins 

Aphanochaete repens A. Braun 

293 



294 Indiana Academy of Science 

Protocoecus viridis C. A. Agardh 
*Coleochaete orbicularis Pringsheim 

Coleochaete scutata Brebisson 
*Chaetosphaeridium globosum (Nordstedt) Klebahn 

Cladophora glomerata (Linnaeus) Kuetzing 

Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum (C. A. Agardh) Kuetzing 

Pithophora varia Wille 

Basicladia chelonum (Collins) Hoffman and Tilden 

Bulbochaete varians Wittrock var. subsimplex (Wittrock) Hirn 

Oedogonium crenulatocostatum Wittrock 

Oedogonium grande Kuetzing var. aequatoriale Wittrock 

Oedogonium hirnii Gutwinski 

Oedogonium inconspicuum Hirn 

Oedogonium iowense Tiffany 

Oedogonium mexicanum Wittrock 

Oedogonium moniliforme Wittrock 

Oedogonium plagiostomum Wittrock 

Oedogonium rugulosum Nordstedt var. minutum (Hansgirg) Tiffany 

Oedogonium vaucherii (Le Clerc) A. Braun 

Oedogonium westii Tiffany 

Oedogonium wyliei Tiffany 
*Characium ambiguum Hermann 

Characium pringsheimii A. Braun 
*Characium rostratum Reinhard 

Hydrodictyon reticulatum (Linnaeus) Lagerheim 

Pediastrum boryanum (Turpin) Meneghini 

Pediastrum duplex Meyen 

Pediastrum duplex Meyen var. rotundatum Lucks 

Pediastrum simplex (Meyen) Lemmermann var. duodenarium (Bailey) 
Rabenhorst 

Pediastrum tetras (Ehrenberg) Ralfs 

* Pediastrum tetras (Ehrenberg) Ralfs var. tetrodon (Corda) Hansgirg 
Sorastrum spinulosum Naegeli 

Coelastrum cambricum Archer 
Coelastrum microporum Naegeli 
Botryococcus braunii Kuetzing 
Oocystis borgei Snow 
Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck 
*Quadrigula closterioides (Bohlin) Printz 
Planktosphaeria gelatinosa G. M. Smith 
Gloeotaenium loitlesbeigerianum Hansgirg 
Nephiocytium agardhianum Naegeli 
Kirchneriella obesa (W. West) Schmidle 
Ankistrodesmus convolutus Corda 
Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs 

* Ankistrodesmus fractus (West & West) Brunnthaler 
Ankistrodesmus spiralis (Turner) Lemmermann 
Tetraedron caudatum (Corda) Hansgirg 

*Tetraedron constrictum G. M. Smith 
Tetraedron gracile (Reinsch) Hansgirg 

* Tetraedron limneticum Borge 



Plant Taxonomy 295 

Tetraedr on minimum (A. Braun) Hansgirg 
*Tetraedron regular e Kuetzing var. incus Teiling 

Scenedesmus abundans (Kirchner) Chodat 

Scenedesmus acutiformis Schroeder 

Scenedesmus arcuatus Lemmermann var. platydisca G. M. Smith 

Scenedesmus bijuga (Turpin) Lagerheim 

Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kuetzing 

Scenedesmus opoliensis P. Richter 

Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turpin) Brebisson 

Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turpin) Brebisson var. quadrispina (Chodat) 
G. M. Smith 

Crucigenia fenestrata Schmidle 

Crucigenia irregularis Wille 

Crucigenia lauterbornii Schmidle 

Micr actinium pusillum Fresenius 
*Errerella bornhemiensis Conrad 

Vaucheria geminata (Vaucher) DeCandolle 

Vaucheria repens H assail 

Vaucheria sessile (Vaucher) DeCandolle 

Spirogyra borgeana Transeau 

Spirogyra ellipsospora Transeau 
^Spirogyra hatillensis Transeau 

Spirogyra juergensii Kuetzing 

Spirogyra majuscula Kuetzing 

* Spirogyra parvula (Transeau) Czurda 
*Spirogyra plena (W. & G. S. West) Czurda 

Spirogyra singidaris Nordstedt 

Spirogyra spreeiana Rabenhorst 

Spirogyra varians (Hassall) Kuetzing 
*Mougeotia miamiana Transeau 

Mougeotia scalaris Hassall 

Zygnema leiospermum DeBary 
*Zygnema sterile Transeau 

Micrasterias americana (Ehrenberg) Ralfs 

Micrasterias radiata Hassall 

Micrasterias truncata (Corda) Brebisson 

Staurastrum setigerum Cleve var. brevispinum G. M. Smith 

Cosmarium circulare Reinsch 
*Cosmarium porrectum Nordstedt 

Cosmarium reniforme (Ralfs) Archer 

Euastrum interme Lundell 

Euastrum pulchellum Brebisson 

Euastrum verrucosum Ehrenberg 

Pleurotaenium ehrenbergii (Brebisson) DeBary 

Penium margaritaceum (Ehrenberg) Brebisson 

Closterium ehrenbergii Meneghini 
*Closterium gracile Brebisson var. elongatum W. & G. S. West 

Closterium leibeinii Kuetzing 

* Closterium littorale Gay 

Closterium moniliferum (Bory) Ehrenberg 
Closterium venus Kuetzing 



296 Indiana Academy of Science 

Onychonema filiforme (Ehrenberg) Roy & Bissett 

Onychonema laeve Nordstedt var. latum W. & G. S. West 
*Spondylosium planum (Wolle) W. & G. S. West 

Hyalotheca dissiliens (J. E. Smith) Brebisson 

Desmidium swartzii C. A. Agardh 

Arthrodesmus convergens Ehrenberg 

Chara contraria A. Braun ex. Kuetzing 

Chara delicatula C. A. Agardh 

Chara globularis Thuillier 

Chara sejuncta A. Braun 

Chara vulgaris Vaillant ex. Linnaeus 

Chrysophyta 
*Centritr actus belanophorus Lemmermann 

Ophiocytium arbusculum (A. Braun) Rabenhorst 

Botrydium granulatum (Linnaeus) Greville 
*Botrydium wallrothii (Kuetzing) Mueller 

Trihonema utriculosum (Kuetzing) Hazen 
*Mallomonas acaroides Perty 
*Mallomonas caudata Iwanoff 
*Mallomonas pseudocoronata Prescott 

Synura uvella Ehrenberg 
*Dinobryon calciformis Bachmann 

Dinobryon divergens Imhof 

Dinobryon sociale Ehrenberg 

Dinobryon tabellariae (Lemmermann) Pascher 

Uroglenopsis americana (Calkins) Lemmermann 

Asterionella, formosa Hassall 
*Surirella splendida (Ehrenberg) Kuetzing 

Cymatopleura elliptica (Brebisson) Wm. Smith 

Euglenophyta 

Euglena acus Ehrenberg 

Euglena ehrenbergii Klebs 

Euglena spirogyra Ehrenberg 

Euglena tripteris (Dujardin) Klebs 

Phacus caudatus Huebner 

Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin 
*Phacus suecicus Lemmermann 

* Phacus tortus (Lemmermann) Skvortzow 
Trachelomonas acanthostoma (Stokes) Deflandre 

: 'Trachelomonas armata (Ehrenberg) Stein var. longispina (Playfair) 
Deflandre 

* Trachelomonas dybowskii Drezepolski 

* Trachelomonas pulcherrima Playfair 

* Trachelomonas robusta Swirenko 

* Trachelomonas superba (Swirenko) Deflandre 
^Trachelomonas superba (Swirenko) Deflandre var. duplex Deflandre 

Pyrrophyta 
Glenodinium quadridens (Stein) Schiller 
Peridinium cinctum (Mueller) Ehrenberg 
Ceratium hirundinella (Mueller) Schrank 



Plant Taxonomy 297 

Cyanophyta 

Anacystis cyanea (Kuetzing) Drouet & Daily 

Anacystis dimidiata (Kuetzing) Drouet & Daily 

Anacystis montana (Lightfoot) Drouet & Daily 

Anacystis thermalis (Meneghini) Drouet & Daily 

Agmenellum quadruplicatum (Meneghini) Brebisson 

Agmenellum thermale (Kuetzing) Drouet & Daily 

Gomphosphaeria aponina Kuetzing 

Gomphosphaeria lacustris Chodat 

Gomphosphaeria wichurae (Hilse) Drouet & Daily 

Oscillatoj^ia anguina (Bory) Gomont 

Oscillatoria chalybea Mertens 

Oscillatoria curviceps C. A. Agardh 

Oscillatoria irrigua (Kuetzing) Gomont 

Oscillatoria limosa C. A. Agardh 

Oscillatoria ornata Kuetzing 

Oscillatoria princeps Vaucher 

Lyngbya aestuarii (Mertens) Liebmann 

Lyngbya diguetii Gomont 
*Lyngbya epiphytica Hieronymus 

Spirulina major Kuetzing 

Spirulina princeps (West & West) G. S. West 

Microcoleus paludosus (Kuetzing) Gomont 

Nostoc microscopicum Carmichael 

Nostoc muscorum C. A. Agardh 

Anabaena circinalis (Harvey) Rabenhorst 

Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngbye) Brebisson 
* Anabaena unispora Gardner 

Cylindrospermum muscicola Kuetzing 

Aphanizomenon holsaticum Richter 

Scytonema myochrous (Dillwyn) C. A. Agardh 

Scytonema ocellatum Lyngbye 

Scytonema tolypotrichoides Kuetzing 

Tolypothrix distorta Kuetzing 

Tolypothrix lanata Wartmann 

Tolypothrix tenuis Kuetzing 

Calothrix parietina (Naegeli) Thuret 

Gloeotrichia pisum (C. A. Agardh) Thuret 

Rhodophyta 

Batrachospermum sp. 
Lemanea sp. 

Literature Cited 

1. Daily, P. K. 1945. The Characeae of Indiana — A Preliminary Report. Butler 
University Botanical Studies 7 : 1-8. 

2. Daily, F. K. 1953. The Characeae of Indiana. Butler University Botanical Studies 
11 : 5-49. 

3. Hazen, F. E. 1902. Ulotricaceae and Chaetophoraceae of the United States. Mem- 
oirs of the Torray Botanical Club 11 : 135-250. 

4. Smith, B. H. 1932. The Algae of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of 
Science 41 : 177-206. 



Some Algae of the Cabin Greek Raised Bog, Randolph 
County, Indiana 

William A. Daily, 1 Butler University 

The Cabin Creek Raised Bog, located 6 miles north of Modoc in Ran- 
dolph County, was described and named in 1946 by the late Drs. Ray C. 
Friesner and John E. Potzger of Butler University (1). 

Raised bogs are chiefly limited to coastal areas in North America, 
however, these unusual physiographic features have been found in the 
interior at Urbana, Ohio, Itasca Park, Minnesota, and Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park. Of the three general types of raised bogs in America the 
Cabin Creek Bog represents those inland bogs due to artesian spring 
water, high in calcium, with mosses, sedges and grasses as chief peat 
formers. Of two variations, the Cabin Creek Bog is an example of those 
having weakly expressed hydrostatic pressure which gives rise to wet 
areas favorable to luxuriant growth of mosses as well as sedges and 
grasses. The Cabin Creek Bog has risen at least ten feet above the flood- 
plain at the maximum elevation, and covers an area of approximately 15 
acres. There is no open water in or beneath the raised portion of the bog. 
The deepest boring in the bog indicated 32 feet of peat beneath the raised 
portion. 

The algae of raised bogs have been neglected in study, because to our 
knowledge, besides the three species of Chara cited for the Cabin Creek 
Bog in 1946 (1), F. B. Chapman's algal list for the Ohio raised bog (2), 
remains the only study to date in the United States in which identifications 
to species are noted. 

The following list of algae, comments and illustrations are based upon 
collections and observations made during the years 1939, 1944, 1960 and 
1961. The diatoms, treated by Dr. Charles W. Reimer, appear in another 
paper in this issue of the Proceedings. 

Algal Habitats 

The surface of the Cabin Creek Bog is covered with a black mucky 
soil. The vegetation is still much the same as reported by Friesner and 
Potzger, loc. cit., with a few exceptions. There are three general areas in 
which the algae were collected, the Spring Areas in the west part of the 
bog, and the Grassy-Sedge Knoll in the eastern part of the bog. 

Spring Areas 

Spring 1, in the north section, has at least one visible flowing source 
of water. The water is ponded over an area of several square meters to 
a depth of 2-4 inches, before flowing slowly down the slopes in two small 
streamlets. 



1. I wish to express my appreciation to Mr. and Mrs. Robert Holliday for their 
hospitality and collecting privileges on the raised bog ; their son, Michael, who aided 
with collecting (1960-1961) ; Mrs. Fay K. Daily, Dr. Francis Drouet, and Dr. G. W. 
Prescott for aid in identification of certain species ; the curators of the Chicago Natural 
History Museum and Earlham College Herbaria for the loan of herbarium specimens; 
Mrs. E. J. Cejnar, Butler University Library, and Mrs. Lois Burton, Indiana State Li- 
brary for providing pertinent literature and Mr. W. E. Kruse, Eli Lilly & Co., who pre- 
pared lantern slides and plate. 

298 



Plant Taxonomy 



299 



Spring 2, in the south section, is somewhat similar to Spring 1 with 
the exception that the water flowing away from the source has formed a 
moderately steep-sided channel which separates the Spring Areas from 
the Grassy-Sedge Knoll. On May 28, 1961, the acidity of the spring water 
at its immediate source from the ground was pH 6.9, the temperature was 
52° F. and the temperature of the air was 72° F. Approximately 100 feet 
downstream from the spring the pH of the water had risen from 6.9 to 7.5 
and the temperature from 52° to 55° F. The mucky soil in the springs and 
streams contained much fine and coarse granular marl. 

Grassy-Sedge Knoll 

This grass and sedge covered marshy area is wet in varying degrees 
throughout the year. No flowing springs are evident in this area. One 
shallow streamlet bed (with occasional flowing water) which lies in an 
east-west direction on the west slope of the knoll, has sides and bottom 
covered with a light grey granular marly soil layer. The pH of one of the 
numerous small puddles of stagnant water was 7.3 and the temperature 
was 62° F. 

THE ALGAE 
Charophyceae 

Three species, Chara Brittonii Allen ; C. contraria A. Br., and C. vul- 
garis Vaill. ex L. were found in 1944 and again during this study. 
C. Brittonii has been collected only once before in Indiana (in a bog), once 
in Michigan, and the type locality. The other two species are rather widely 
distributed in Indiana, however, C. vulgaris is confined to the glaciated 
region chiefly in the northern half of the state and to bodies of water fed 
by springs or artesian wells indicating the importance of mineral nutri- 
tion in distribution. 

Chlorophyceae and Heterokontae 

Spirogyra varians (Hass.) Kiitz., Tribonema minus (Wille) Hazen, 
Oedogonium sp. (sterile) Chaetophora elegans (Roth) Ag. and Stigeo- 
clonium lubricum (Dillw.) Kiitz. were found in the springs area. The first 






1. Netrium digitus var. rectum 2. Palmogloea protuberans 3. Chlorotylium cataractum 





4. Scytonema involvens 



5. Nostcc foliaceum 



Plate 1 



300 Indiana Academy of Science 

three were found floating in shallow pools; the last two species were 
attached to substrates in flowing streamlets. The cytoplasm of random 
cells of S. varians contained a purple pigment. Chlorotylium cataractum 
Kiitz. (Plate 1, fig. 3), apparently a new report for Indiana, was found 
as a green encrusting layer on marl pebbles in the springs area in flowing 
water. A submerged moss plant in the springs area was partially covered 
with a copious mass of the saccoderm desmid, Netrium digitus var. rectum, 
(Turner) Krieger (Plate 1, fig. 1). This variety is a new report for 
Indiana, however, the species is reportedly common in elevated boggy 
moorlands of Europe. Palmogloea protuberans (Sm. & Sow.) Kiitz. (Plate 
1, fig. 2), a coccoid form, was found intermingled with various Myxophy- 
ceae in gelatinous masses on the Grassy-Sedge Knoll. Vaucheria sp. 
(sterile) was abundant in a drainage ditch bordering the north edge of 
the raised bog, but was not found on the raised portion. 

Myxophyceae 

One collection, no. 29^6, composed of Gomphosphaeria lacustris Chod., 
G. aponina Kiitz., Anacystis dimidiata (Kiitz.) Dr. & Da. and Oscillatoria 
tenuis var. tergestlna Rabenh., was of unusual interest because it was 
found in ponded water scarcely 2-3 inches in depth in one of the spring 
pools. G. lacustris is generally an open-water plankter at least in Indiana 
and found chiefly in our lakes of glacial origin (4). Here atop the bog, 
the irregularly lobed plants are composed of a large number of closely 
packed protoplasts, slightly reminiscent of those found in small ponds and 
shallow water. The other three species are also found in the open or deep 
water, but more generally in shallow water of lakes, ponds and rivers. It 
would be interesting if these coccoid species are members of a relict com- 
munity and remnants of the now extinct lake. 

Calothrix parietina (Nag.) Thur. was found attached to a submerged 
board in the flowing water of Spring 1. 

The remaining Myxophyceae were collected from the Grassy-Sedge 
Knoll on the streamlet bed previously described. They are: Anacystis 
thermalis (Menegh.) Dr. & Da. f. thermalis, Coccochloris stagnina Spreng., 
Microcoleus acutissima Gard., M. paludosus (Kiitz.) Gom., Nostoc ellipso- 
sporum (Desmaz.) Rabenh., N. foliaceum Moug. (Plate 1, fig. 5), Schizo- 
thrix lacustris A. Br., Scytonema mirabile (Dillwyn) Born, and S. invol- 
vens Rabenh. (Plate 1, fig. 4). N. foliaceum apparently has not been 
reported previously for the United States. On the Grassy-Sedge Knoll it 
was found on the streamlet bed as small, foliose, pale green gelatinous 
masses. The spongy and lacunose nature of the plants was quite evident. 
In collection no. 2957, mature spores are evident and they remain the 
chief diagnostic characteristic of the species. Of the four specimens on 
file in the Chicago Natural History Museum, only one contains mature 
spores (Remiremont, ex herb. Lenormand). 

Scytonema involvens, a new report for Indiana, is closely related to 
S. crustaceum Rabenh., and F. Drouet believes it may be an ecological 
variant of the latter species. King (3) reported S. crustaceum for Wayne 
County, Indiana, which adjoins Randolph County. 

Chapman lists 38 species for the Urbana raised bog, of which 2 were 
charophytes, 3 were Myxophyceae and the remainder were diatoms, Chloro- 



Plant Taxonomy 301 

phyceae and heterokontae. Many of these occurred in the ditch encircling 
the bog. 

In this paper, the Cabin Creek Raised Bog algal flora is as follows: 
3 charophytes, 14 Myxophyceae, 8 Chlorophyceae and one heterokont. No 
efforts were made to collect intensively from the drainage ditches which 
partially surround this bog in preparation for this preliminary study. 

This study is based upon collections on file in the Ray C. Friesner 
Memorial Herbarium, Butler University, and are numbered as follows: 
F. K. and W. A. Daily 89, 28 US, 281*5, 291*6-2959, 2961-2964, 2969-2971, 
2973-2975, 2977, 2978, 2980-2983, 3006-3008, Tribonema minus coll. by 
F. K. Daily; 1+7 IB (Mich.) W. A. & F. K. Daily, Fish Lake, Barry Co., 
Sept. 5, 1955. 

Literature Cited 

1. Friesner, Ray C. and J. E. Potzger. 1946. The Cabin Creek Raised Bog - , Randolph 
County, Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 8 : 24-43. 

2. Chapman, P. B. 1934. The Algae of the Urbana (Ohio) Raised Bog. Ohio Jour. Sci. 
34 : 327-332. 

3. King, L. J. 1943. A list of Myxophyceae from Wayne County, Indiana. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. Proc. 52 :71-81. 

4. Daily, W. A. 1959. In search of some blue-green wanderers. Indiana Acad, of Sci. 
Proc. 68 : 43-57. 



Notes on Vascular Plants of the Cabin Greek Raised Bog 

Helene Starcs, Health and Hospital Corp. of Marion County, 
Indianapolis 

Fifteen years have passed since the publication of The Cabin Creek 
Raised Bog, by R. C. Friesner and J. E. Potzger (1). During that period 
of time the bog seemed to become drier and to grow over with vegetation, 
as observed by Fay K. Daily, Butler University (personal communica- 
tion). To check the present vascular flora, the bog was visited repeatedly 
in 1961, and plants were collected. I am greatly indebted to the Robert 
Holliday family for their hospitality during my field trips. My thanks 
are due to Dr. Marion T. Hall, Butler University, and to Mr. Floyd A. 
Swink, Morton Arboretum, Lisle, for confirming and identifying my col- 
lections. Specimens are deposited at the herbaria of Butler University, 
Indiana University and Chicago Natural History Museum. Nomencla- 
ture is in accord with Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. 

As stated by Friesner and Potzger (1), Cabin Creek Bog is located 
in the floodplain of Cabin Creek, 6 miles north of Modoc, Randolph County, 
Indiana, along Highway 1. It is a raised bog due to artesian spring water, 
high in calcium, with mosses (Drepanocladus), sedges and wood as chief 
peat formers. The weakly expressed hydrostatic pressure gives rise to wet 
areas favorable to a luxuriant growth of plants, and the accumulating 
remains build up a mound to ten feet above the floodplain. Moisture is 
derived from springs which give rise to several small streams which flow 
from the peat mass. Marl is abundant. There are lime tufa concretions 
around the springs and rivulets. 

The mound is divided by a central north-south depression and a 
drainage ditch into two main parts: the western and the eastern. The 
western part has several springy areas, divided by chanels of the rivulets. 
On the eastern knoll the water seepage is slower, accumulating in small 
pools. The tussocks of sedges are predominant, accompanied by grasses 
and showy herbs, many of them prairie species and those of northern 
distribution (1). Several colonies of Lilium michiganense were found on 
the western springy area, toward the central wooded depression. The 
eastern knoll has a large area dominated by Eleocharis rostellata, with 
Cacalia tuberosa abundant, and Calopogon pulchellus and Pogonia ophio- 
glossoides infrequent. Here William and Fay K. Daily found Drosera 
rotundi folia in 1960. It is a northern disjunct in this area, two counties 
south of its general distribution in Indiana. Drosera grows on moss 
cushions around the pools and seepages. There was no Sphagnum found 
in the raised bog. Scirpus validus goes along the rivulets. The springs, 
stream beds and the shallow pools have a sod of Rhynchospora capillacea, 
with other calciphiles: Triglochin palustris, Scleria verticillata, Juncus 
brachycephalus, Eleocharis elliptica, Parnassia glauca, Lobelia Kalmii. 

The shrubby cinquef oil (Potentilla fruticosa) is dispersed all over the 
mound, especially around the margins. Other shrubs and young trees 
also appear invading the open spaces: Salices, Carpinus caroliniana, Rhus 
vernix. Previously the trees and shrubs had been kept back by a yearly 
burning over. It has not been burned for several years, according to 
Robert Holliday (personal communication). 

302 



Plant Taxonomy 



303 



The southeastern side of the mound is covered by a tall sedge meadow 
(Carex lacustris, C. stricta). West of the raised area there is an open 
shrubby marsh toward Highway 1, with tall Carices, Eleocharis calva, 
Typha, Sagittaria. On the south, along the highway, it is joined by a 
compact reed marsh (Phragmites communis). The northwestern border of 
the raised bog proper is marked by an open shrub zone, beyond which 
the pasture of the Holliday Farm begins. The central wooded area has 
several tall hardwood trees, groups of young trees and an abundance of 
shrubs and vines. 



New Species for the 

On the raised springy areas: 

Cyperus rivularis 

Scirpus validus var. creber 

Eleocharis elliptica 

Carex Buxbaumii 

C. granularis 

C. interior 

C. lanuginosa 

C. leptalea 

C. prairea 

C. sterilis 

C. stricta 

C. tetanica 

J uncus Dudley i 

Lilium michiganense 

Pogonia ophioglossoides 

Calopogon pulchellus 

Carpinus caroliniana var. 
virginiana 

Drosera rotundifolia 

Epilobium leptophyllum 
Southeastern sedge meadow: 

Typha latifolia 

Eleocharis calva 

Carex lacustris 

C. lanuginosa 

C. prairea 

C. stipata 

C. stricta 
Marsh at the highway: 

Typha latifolia 

Sagittaria latifolia 

Leersia oryzoides 

Cyperus rivularis 

Eleocharis calva 

Carex conjuncta 

C. cristatella 

C. lacustris 

C. stipata 

C. stricta 



Cabin Creek Raised Bog 

Juncus Dudleyi 
Epilobium color atum 
C. molesta 
C. Shortiana 
C. stipata 
C. tribuloides 
C. trichocarpa 
Juncus Dudleyi 
Carpinus caroliniana v. 

virginiana 
Anemone canadensis 
Iodanthus pinnatifidus 
Epilobium coloratum 
Colvolvulus sepium 
Sambucus canadensis 
Verbesina helianthoides 
Heliopsis helianthoides 

Central wooded area: 
Panicum clandestinum 
Carex blanda 
C. amphibola var. turgida 
C. granularis 
C. rosea 

Arisaema atrorubens 
A. Dracontium 
Trillium sessile 
Smilax lasioneura 
S. tamnoides var. hisjnda. 
Dioscorea villosa 
Juglans nigra 
Carpinus caroliniana var. 

virginiana 
Ostrya virginiana 
Celtis occidentalis var. cai 
Mortis rubra 
Urtica procera 
Polygonum cristatum 
Anemone virginiana 
Iodanthus pinnatifidus 
Platanus occidentalis 



304 Indiana Academy of Science 

Central wooded area (continued): Northwestern shrub zone : 
Xanthoxylum americanum Cyperus strigosus 

Ptelea trifoliata Carex conjuncta 

Vitis riparia C. granularis 

Parthenocissus quinquefolia Blephilia hirsuta 

Colvolvidus sepium Scrophularia marilandica 

Cuscuta Gronovi Sainhucus canadensis 

Verbesina helianthoides 

Altogether 63 new plant species for the Cabin Creek Raised Bog were 
found. Among those are 32 new Randolph County records. This "raised 
bog" might be called a fen as understood by Curtis (2) : "A fen is a grass- 
land on a wet and springy site, with an internal flow of water rich in 
calcium and magnesium bicarbonates. It is to be considered a hybrid 
community where the unusual combination of environmental factors has 
sorted out and retained suitably adapted species from each of the major 
formations as they passed by in postglacial times." 

Literature Cited 

1. Friesner, Ray C. and J. E. Potzger. 194G. The Cabiu Creek Raised Bog, Randolph 
County, Indiana. Butler Un. Botan. Studies 8 : 24-43. 

2. Curtis, John T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. An Ordination of Plant Com- 
munities. The Univ. of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 



Some Aspects of the Diatom Flora of Cabin Greek Raised 
Bog, Randolph Co., Indiana 

Charles W. Reimer, Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia 

This is a brief study of the diatoms from Cabin Creek Raised Bog in 
Indiana. To my knowledge it is the only report of diatoms from such an 
area in this country other than that of Chapman (1). Chapman listed a 
total of nine diatom taxa from the Urbana (Ohio) Raised Bog with a short 
note of their occurrence and frequency. 

Bogs and raised bogs have been studied from the standpoint of extant 
diatoms in Europe with greater frequency, but even there, much work is 
yet to be done in separating out the various floristic expressions as they 
correlate with the type of bog. 

In North America several profile studies of lakes and bogs have been 
made with reference to the diatoms. Patrick has published on the diatom 
deposits of the Great Salt Lake (31), Linsley Pond, Connecticut (32), 
Patschke Bog, Texas (33) and Bethany Bog (34). Hutchinson et al. (12) 
have studied the diatom sediments of Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. In Indiana, 
Weaver (46) studied some of the diatoms from a profile of Lakesville Bog. 
None of these works, however, deal primarily with the present-day flora 
and none are studies of a raised bog. 

Materials and Methods 

For a detailed description of the origin, history and structure of the 
bog the reader is referred to Friesner & Potzger (9) and Daily (5). 

Collections for diatoms were made in all three areas mentioned by 
Daily (5), viz. Spring #1, Spring #2 and Grassy-sedge Knoll area. The 
first two areas are near the summit of the raised portion and the third is 
on the eastern slope. This report is restricted to the collection from 
Spring #1. 

The samples from Spring #1, collected by Mr. W. A. Daily, were 
composited and treated as a single sample. One half of the material was 
preserved in 3% formalin with no further treatment and retained without 
further analysis as "uncleaned material." The remainder was "cleaned" 
of organic matter with nitric acid and potassium dichromate, the common 
method for diatom "cleaning." Cover slips were placed on a hot plate and 
some of the "cleaned" diatom material was added by dropper to these 
cover slips. The sample bottle was thoroughly shaken before the dropper 
was filled. The material on the cover slips was then allowed to dry under 
low heat. The cover slips were then inverted onto a 3" x 1" slide containing 
a drop of hyrax. The entire mount was then returned to the hot plate for 
about 1 minute to evaporate the hyrax solvent. 

For this analysis a single, evenly distributed slide from the com- 
posite collection material of Spring #1 was used. The diatoms were 
observed under oil immersion by rows, each specimen being identified and 
tabulated until a total of approximately 8,300 were counted. Results of 
this analysis are given in Table 3. 

Results (Floristic) 

As is true of most diatom samplings and analyses of this type, a large 
number of taxa (about 45% of all taxa observed) were seen only a very 

305 



306 Indiana Academy of Science 

few times (Table 3, Frequency "A"). This pattern is indicated by the 
work of Patrick et al. (35). Such a pattern points up the advisability of 
doing mass counts in a floristic study. 

Table 1 shows the general structure of the diatom population analyzed. 
It is clear that there is no direct relationship between the numbers of 

TABLE 1. Structure of diatom population analyzed 





Number of 


Appx. percentage 


Genera 


subordinate taxa 


of population 


Achnanthes 


8 


47 


Amphora 


2 


-1 


Anomoeoneis 


1 


1 


Caloneis 


5 


2 


Cocconeis 


2 


-1 


Cymbella 


14 


■1 


Denticula 


1 


1 


Diploneis 


3 


1 


Epithemia 


2 


-1 


Eunotia 


3 


2 


Fragilaria 


2 


-1 


Gomphonema 


8 


1 


Mastogloia 


2 


-1 


Navicula 


33 


15 


Neidium 


6 


-1 


Nitzschia 


18 


10 


Pinnularia 


6 


2 


Rhopalodia 


4 


-1 


Stauroneis 


7 


-1 


Surirella 


5 


1 


Synedra 


4 


11 



subordinate taxa and their percentage representation in the population 
analyzed. There is even a suggesion of an inverse relationship between 
the two. 

Although it is often dangerous to consider the absence of certain 
genera as important in such a study, it is well to note that the genera 
Cyclotella, Stephanodiscus, Melosira and, in fact, all of the other members 
of the order Centrales are lacking from the generic list. 

Hustedt (21) notes this phenomenon in a high mountain (swampy) 
spring area in Switzerland. Woronikhine (47) lists diatoms found in a 
spring area in the Caucasus Mountains. His list shows the same situation 
but no particular note is made of the absence of the Centrales. 

Also of note in this connection is the very low numbers of species of 
Araphidineae. Only 6 taxa are diatoms which have no active means of 
locomotion and these are generally considered as epiphytic and rheobionts. 
Of the 81 forms found by Hustedt (21) in the spring area, only 3 lacked 
the ability of active motion. 

A comparison of the diatom population observed (Spring #1) and 
those populations observed by others in different habitats is given in 
Table 2. Only such studies have been included here in which large num- 
bers of extant diatoms have been observed. 



Plant Taxonomy 



307 



TABLE 2. Percentage occurrence (in other floristic studies) of 
diatom taxa found in Spring #1, Cabin Creek Raised Bog. 1 

STREAMS AND RIVERS 



Dystrophic 



Soft water 



Hard water 



New Jersey 

Assunpink Creek 

(95,000) 2 

25% 



California 

Sacramento River 

(67,000) 

28% 



Maryland 

Potomac River 

(60,500) 

30% 



SPRINGS 



SPRINGS 



ACID BOGS 
pH 3.5-5 



Florida (Hohn-11) 

Silver Springs 

(ca. 300,000) 

26% 



Denmark (Foged-7) 

Danish Springs 

(ca. 10,000) 

50% 



Germany (Niessen-30) 

Murnauer Moor 

(100 samp.) 

23% 



LAKES 



SALT BOG 



MOOR & RAISED 
BOGS pH 7-8.5 



Switzerland (Hust.-21) 

Lakes of Davos 

(50 samp.) 

40% 



Denmark (Foged-6) 

Langemose Bog 

(8,000) 

41% 



Germany (Niessen-30) 

Murnauer Moor 

(100 samp.) 

42% 



1. Based od approximately 8,300 specimens. Data supplied through courtesy of 
Dr. Ruth Patrick, Head, Limnology Department, Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia. 2. Indicates number of specimens counted or number of samples. 



We have here some suggestion that the diatom flora in Spring #1 is 
more completely represented in the lake, danish spring, neutral to alkaline 
bog and raised bog studies. The percentage agreement with river studies 
seems relatively low. There is also a low percentage agreement with the 
Silver Springs study. 

Some of the taxa listed in Table 3 have rather wide-spread occurrence 
and are reported for a wide variety of ecological conditions. Most of the 
frequently observed species would fit this category. There is one exception 
amongst thet common species. That is Navicula tantula Hust. (15). This 
taxon was originally observed in Poggenpohls Moor, Germany. Later, 
Hustedt (21) found it in two lakes in Switzerland and more recently he 
reported it as rare in the Weser River (24). I can find no published 
records of its distribution outside of Europe. 

Other species in Table 3 seem not to be quite so widely distributed 
either ecologically or geographically. Some remarks about a few of 
these species might be of interest in a better understanding of the flora 
analyzed. 

The following notes are taken from some of Hustedt's major floristic 
and ecological studies: Cymbella leptoceros — a littoral form especially 
numerous in alkaline waters (19) ... found widespread and frequent in 
alkaline lakes of subalpine region but absent in acid lakes and lakes with 
a wide pH range (24). Cymbella norvegica — found in alpine lakes, a 



308 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE 3. List of diatoms observed 







Description and 






Citation Illustration Fr 


equency 


ACHNANTHES 








exigua v. heterovalvata Krasske 


13 


p. 202, textfig. 288 


A 


flexella (Kiitz) Brun 


14 


p. 416, textfig. 869 


A 


lanceolata Breb. 


13 


p. 207, textfig. 306a 


T) 


lanceolata v. elliptica CI. 


13 


p. 208, textfig. 306c 


D 


lapponiea (Hust.) Hust. 


14 


p. 414, textfig. 868 


1) 


microcephala Kiitz. 


13 


p. 198, textfig. 273 


G 


minutissima Kiitz. 


13 


p. 198, textfig. 274 


F 
A 


sp. 
AMPHORA 








*ovalis Kutz. 


13 


p. 342, textfig. 628 


A 


ovalis v. pediculus Kiitz. 


L3 


p. 343, textfig. 629 


A 


ANOMOEONEIS 








* variabilis (Ross) Reim. 


37 


p. 194, pi. 1, fig. 7-8 


D 


CALONEIS 








alpestris (Grun.) CI. 


13 


p. 240, textfig. 372 


1) 


bacillum (Grun.) Meresch. 


13 


p. 236, textfig. 360a-c 


D 


bacillum v. fontinalis Hust. 


IS 


p. 282, pi. 5, fig. 17-19 


A 


silicula v. truncatula Grun. 


13 


p. 238, textfig. 363-364 


A 
A 


sp. 
COCCONEIS 








diminuta Pant. 


13 


p. 190, textfig. 265 


A 


patrickii sp. nov. 






A 


CYMBELLA 








*aspera (Ehr.) CI. 


13 


p. 365, textfig. 680 


A 


cesatii (Rabh.) Grun. 


13 


p. 351, textfig. 638 


D 


cesatii v. linearis var. nov. 






D 


hybridiformis Hust. 


22 


p. 937, pi. 40, fig. 23-25 


A 


incerta Grun. 


1 3 


p. 360, textfig. 665 


A 


laevis Naeg. 


13 


p. 353, textfig. 643 


D 


leptoceros (Ehr.) Grun. 


13 


p. 353, textfig. 645 


B 


microcephala Grun. 


13 


p. 351, textfig. 637 


B 


*naviculiformis Auersw. 


13 


p. 356, textfig. 653 


A 


norvegica Grun. 


13 


p. 359, textfig. 664 


B 


obtusa f. krasskei Foged 


8 


p. 56, pi. 11, fig. 5-6 


A 


turgida (Greg.) CI. 


13 


p. 358, textfig. 660 


C 


*ventricosa Kiitz. 


13 


p. 359, textfig. 661 


A 
A 


sp. 
DENTICULA 








elegans Kiitz. 


13 


p. 382, textfig. 725 


D 


DIPLONEIS 








elliptica (Kutz.) CI. 


13 


p. 250, textfig. 395 


A 


oculata (Breb.) CI. 


13 


p. 250, textfig. 392 


A 


ovalis v. oblongella (Naeg.) CI. 


13 


p. 249, textfig. 391 


D 


EPITHEMIA 








argus v. protracta A. Mayer 


29 


p. 100, pi. 6, fig. 15 


B 


zebra v. saxonica (Kiitz.) Grun. 


13 


p. 385, textfig. 730 


A 



Plant Taxonomy 



309 



Description and 
Citation Illustration 



Frequency 



EUNOTIA 
arcus Ehr. 
arcus v. bidens Grun. 
*lunaris (Ehr.) Grun. 

FRAGILARIA 

brevistriata v. inflata f . curta Skv. 
construens v. venter (Ehr.) Grun. 

GOMPHONEMA 

angustatum v. intermedia Grun. 

angustatum v. producta Grun. 
*constrictum Ehr. 

intricatum Kiitz. 

intricatum v. dichotomum (Kiitz.) 
Grun. 
*parvulum Kiitz. 

subtile v. sagitta (Schum.) Grun. 

sp. 
MASTOGLOIA 

grevillei W. Sm. 

smithii v. lacustris Grun. 

NAVICULA 

amphibola v. polymorpha Fusey 

arvensis Hust. 

bacilliformis Grun. 

bryophila Ostr. 
*cryptocephala Kiitz. 

cryptocephala f. terrestris Lund 

cincta v. leptocephala (Breb.) 
Grun. 

cincta v. rostrata var. nov. 
*cuspidata Kiitz. 

dailyi sp. nov. 

dicephala v. lata M. Per. 

friesneri sp. nov. 

graciloides A. Mayer 

hustedtii Krasske 

indianensis sp. nov. 

insociabilis Krasske 

minima Grun. 

minima v. okamurae Skv. 

perpusilla v. distans Cl.-Eul. 

potzgeri sp. nov. 

potzgeri v. quadripunctata var. 
nov. 

pupula Kiitz. 

pupula v. capitata Hust. 

pupula v. mutata (Krasske) Hust. 



13 p. 175, textfig. 216 B 

13 p. 175, textfig. 217 D 

23 p. 70, pi. 2, fig. 11-15 B 



40 p. 17, pi. 1, fig. 18 

13 p. 141, textfig. 138 

43 pi. 24, fig. 47 

43 pi. 24, fig. 52-55 

43 pi. 23, fig. 6 

43 pi. 24, fig. 28-29 

43 pi. 24, fig. 30-31 

45 textfig. 11-14 

43 pi. 23, fig. 27 



13 p. 215, textfig. 313 

13 p. 217, textfig. 316 

10 p. 15, textfig. 67, 68, 69 

18 p. 249, pi. 20, fig. 19-20 

13 p. 273, textfig. 446 

17 pi. 404, fig. 45, 46, 47 

13 p. 295, textfig. 496 

27 p. 86, textfig. 9H-W 

43 pi. 7, fig. 16 

13 p. 268, textfig. 433 

42 p. 56 

13 p. 299, textfig. 515 

13 p. 273, textfig. 449 

26 p. 114, pi. 3, fig. 17 

13 p. 272, textfig. 441-442 

41 p. 203, pi. 1, fig. 23 

4 p. 168, fig. 848d 



13 p. 281, textfig. 467a 
13 p. 281, textfig. 467c 
13 p. 281, textfig. 467f 



A 

A 

A 

A 
A 

E 

A 
B 

A 

A 

A 
C 

B 

A 
A 
B 
B 

A 

D 

B 
A 
A 
B 
B 
B 
A 
A 
B 
C 
A 
A 
C 

A 

E 
B 

A 



310 



Indiana Academy of Science 







Description and 






Citation Illustration Fr 


equency 


pupula v. rectangularis (Greg.) 








Grun. 


13 


p. 281, textfig. 467b 


B 


*radiosa Kiitz. 


13 


p. 299,textfig. 513 


A 


radiosa v. parva Wallace 


44 


p. 3, pi. 1, fig. 5 


A 


radiosa v. tenella (Breb.) Grun. 


13 


p. 299 


D 


stroemii Hust. 


16 


pi. 399, fig. 25-28 


B 


subhamulata Grun. 


18 


p. 282, textfig. 468 


A 


tantula Hust. 


in 


pi. 399, fig. 54-57 


E 


sp. 






A 


sp. 






A 


NEIDIUM 








binodis (Ehr.) Hust. 


36 


p. 17, pi. 2, fig. 4 


C 


bisculcatum (Lagerst.) CI. 


18 


p. 242, textfig. 374 


B 


bisculcatum v. baicalensis (Skv.) 








Reim. 


36 


p. 18, pi. 2, fig. 2 


B 


iridis (Ehr.) CI. 


13 


p. 245, textfig. 379 


A 


iridis f. vernalis Reichelt 


18 


p. 245, textfig. 380 


A 


iridis v. conspicua A. Mayer 


28 


p. 115, pi. 11, fig. 16 


A 


NITZSCHIA 








^amphibia Grun. 


13 


p. 414, textfig. 793 


C 


angustata (W. Sm.) Grun. 


18 


p. 402, textfig. 767 


c 


angustata v. acuta Grun. 


13 


p. 402 


A 


communis v. obtusa Grun. 


43 


pi. 69, fig. 33-34 


B 


denticula Grun. 


18 


p. 407, textfig. 780 


1) 


denticula v. abberans Fusey 


10 


p. 20, textfig. 100 


A 


dissipata (Kiitz.) Grun. 


18 


p. 412, textfig. 789 


C 


frustulum (Kiitz.) Grun. 


13 


p. 414, textfig. 795 


B 


hiemalis Hust. 


21 


p. 223, textfig. 57-59 


B 


intermedia Hantz. 


43 


pi. 69, fig. 10 


A 


kuetzingiana Hilse 


13 


p. 416, textfig. 802 


C 


linearis W. Sm. 


18 


p. 409, textfig. 784 


1) 


*palea (Kiitz.) W. Sm. 


13 


p. 409, textfig. 784 


E 


palea v. tropica Hust. 


28 


p. 147, pi. 13, fig. 26-29 


A 


paleoides Hust. 


19 


p. 483, pi. 41, fig. 11 


E 


*sigmoidea (Ehr.) W. Sm. 


13 


p. 419, textfig. 810 


A 


sp. 






A 


sp. 






A 


PINNULARIA 








braunii v. amphicephala 








(A. Mayer) Hust. 


18 


p. 319, textfig. 578 


B 


gibba v. mesogongyla (Ehr.) Hust. 


18 


p. 327, textfig. 603 


n 


microstauron (Ehr.) CI. 


18 


p. 320, textfig. 582 


A 


: ' : streptoraphe CI. 


13 


p. 337, textfig. 620 


A 


undulata v. subundulata Grun. 


13 


p. 315 


A 


*viridis (Nitz.) Ehr. 


18 


p. 334, textfig. 617a 


B 


RHOPALODIA 








gibba (Ehr.) 0. Mull. 


18 


p. 390, textfig. 740 


A 


gibba v. parallela (Ehr.) 0. Mull. 


43 


pi. 32, fig. 3 


B 



Plant Taxonomy 



311 



Description and 
Citation Illustration 



Frequency 



gibberula v. vanHeurckii 0. Mull. 

musculus (Kiitz.) O. Mull. 
STAURONEIS 

acuta W. Sm. 
*anceps Ehr. 

ignorata Hust. 

ignorata v. rupestris (Skv.) Reim. 

norvegica Hust. 

phoenicenteron v. amphilepta 
(Ehr.) CI. 

smithii Grun. 
SURIRELLA 

linearis v. constricta (Ehr.) Grun. 

robusta Ehr. 

spiralis Kiitz. 

tenera Greg. 

tenera v. nervosa A. Mayer 
SYNEDRA 

amphicephala v. intermedia 
Cl.-Eul. 

parasitica W. Sm. 

parasitica v. subconstricta Grun. 
*ulna (Nitz.) Ehr. 



13 p. 391, textfig. 744 A 

13 p. 392, textfig. 745 A 

13 p. 259, textfig. 415 A 

25 p. 772, textfig. 1120a B 

37 p. 201, pi. 2, fig. 7 A 

37 p. 202, pi. 2, fig. 8 A 

25 p. 795, textfig. 1141 A 

3 p. 149 A 

25 p. 810, textfig. 1157a-c C 

13 p. 434, textfig. 839 D 

13 p. 438, textfig. 850 A 

13 p. 445, textfig. 870 B 

13 p. 438, textfig. 853 A 

13 p. 439, textfig. 854 B 



13 p. 161, textfig. 195 C 

13 p. 161, textfig. 196 F 

13 p. 151, textfig. 158-159 A 



Key to frequencies 



* Previously reported for Indiana. 



A — 1-5 specimens observed 
B — 6-20 specimens observed 
C — 21-50 specimens observed 
D — 51-150 specimens observed 
E — 151-500 specimens observed 
F — 501-1000 specimens observed 



nordic-alpine species. In Germany it has been found only in the Riesenge- 
birge and in springs of Tyrol. Mastogloia grevillei — it is frequent as a 
littoral species in alpine lakes (14). Mastogloia smithii var. lacustris — 
frequent as a littoral form in fresh water lakes . . . generally favors 
standing waters but in Europe sometimes found in springs and brooks 
(19). Navicula insociabilis — an aerophilous species especially in springs 
and swamps at a pH of 5.5-8.0 with maximum development around pH 
7.0 (19). Pinnularia braunii var. amphicephala — the species is acidophi- 
lus. In contrast to the species, however, var. amphicephala is frequent at 
pH's of 7.5 and at higher temperatures (19) . Stauroneis smithii — in North 
Germany the species is certainly alkaliphilous. It is missing in acid lakes 
but very widespread in alkaline ones. Likewise in the alpine lakes it 
prefers alkaline waters. The species can certainly be characterized as 
alkaliphilous even if here and there it is found in more or less weakly 
acid water (24). 

Results (Systematic) 
The diatoms included in this section are considered as new taxa. 
Other forms were observed which may have been new, but they have been 



312 Indiana Academy of Science 

excluded from this section and merely listed in Table 3 as "sp." since clear 
observation of the valve features was not possible. 
The following data applies to all of the new taxa: 

Type locality: Indiana, Randolph Co., Cabin Creek Raised Bog, 
6 miles north of Modoc ; artesian rivulet at summit of bog. 
Collection #2835A of W. A. Daily, July 9, 1960. 

Illustration slides: All illustrations were taken from the same 
preparation which is deposited in the Diatom Herbarium of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in the 
General Collection with the designation: ANSP-GC 45669. 

Holotypes: The holotypes for all of the following new taxa are 
here designated as being on the above slide. 

Sub-order : Monoraphidineae 
Family: Achnanthaceae 
Sub-family: Cocconeioideae 

Cocconeis patrickii sp. nov. pi. 1, fig. 7A, 7B 

Valva elliptica. Valva cum raphe: Area axiali et raphe sigmoid. Area 
centrali parva, ovata. Valva sine raphe : Area axiali angustalanceolata, 
diagonalis, non clare sigmoid. Area centrali non clare diversa ab area 
axiali. Striis diagonalibus, punctatis tenuiter. Longitudo 10-19 mu, lati- 
tudo circa 5 mu, striis (valva cum raphe) 28 in 10 mu ad 34 in 10 mu 
prope apices; striis (valva sine raphe) 26 in 10 mu ad 32 in 10 mu prope 
apices; punctis 33-36 in 10 mu. 

Valve elliptical. Raphe-valve with sigmoid axial area and raphe. 
Central area small, oval. Pseudo-raphe-valve with narrow lanceolate axial 
area, diagonal, but not distinctly sigmoid. No distinct central area. Striae 
on both valves diagonal, very finely punctate, curved. Length 10-19 mu; 
width about 5 mu; striae on raphe-valve 28 in 10 mu at center becoming 
34 in 10 mu at ends; striae on pseudo-raphe-valve 26 in 10 mu at center 
becoming about 32 in 10 mu at ends; puncta about 33 to 36 in 10 mu. 

This taxon is similar to Eucocconeis elliptica Savelj-Dolgowa (38) 
but is smaller, has mostly curved-diagonal striae and a more straight 
pseudo-raphe. It also resembles Cocconeis diruptoides Hust. (14) but, 
again, is narrower and has more diagonally displaced striae which are not 
distinctly punctate as in C. diruptoides. 

This diatom is named in honor of the well-known limnologist-diato- 
mist Dr. Ruth Patrick, Head, Limnology Department, Academy of Natural 

explanation of plate figures 

Fig. 1 Navicula cincta var. rostrata vai*. nov. 

2 " friesneri sp. nov. 

3 " dailyi sp. nov. 

4 " indianensis sp. nov. 

5 " potzgeri sp. nov. 

6 " " var. quadripunctata var. nov. 
7A Cocconeis patrickii sp. nov. (raphe-valve) 

7B " " " " (psendoraphe-valve) 

The plate figures were made by Miss Helen Wu, Limnology Department, Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 



Plant Taxonomy 



313 



o 




o 





o 




o 





o 





314 Indiana Academy of Science 

Sciences of Philadelphia to whom I express my great appreciation for 
having stimulated my interest in diatoms. Dr. Patrick also very kindly 
reviewed this manuscript and offered several helpful suggestions. 

Sub-order : Biraphidineae 
Family: Naviculaceae 
Sub-family: Naviculoideae 

Navicula cincta var. rostrata var. nov. pi. 1, fig. 1 

Apicibus angustis, protractis, rostratis. Longitudo 28-32 mu, lati- 
tudo 6 mu, striis 14 in 10 mu. 

Valve with narrow, protracted-rostrate ends. Length 28-32 mu ; width 
6 mu, striae 14 in 10 mu. 

The nominate variety has attenuate ends not distinctly set-off from 
the valve body which makes it easily distinguishable from var. rostrata. 
The var. leptocephala has some suggestion of distinct ends but they are 
not protracted and rostrate as in this variety. 

Navicula daily i sp. nov. pi. 1, fig. 3 

Valva lineari, apicibus cuneatis. Area axiali angusta, lineari. Area 
centrali parva aut non clare dissimili ab area axiali. Raphe filiformi, 
apicibus distalibus versis in eodem cursu. Striis lineatis tenuiter, parallelis 
in media parte valvae, radiatis ad apices. Longitudo 20-22 mu, latitudo 
circa 8 mu, striis 11 in 10 mu ad 15 in 10 mu prope apices. 

Valve linear with cuneate ends. Axial area narrow, linear. Central 
area very small, irregular, or lacking completely. Raphe filiform, distal 
ends curving in same direction. Striae parallel in center becoming radiate 
toward ends, finely lineate. Length 20-22 mu, width about 8 mu, striae 
11 in 10 mu at center, 15 in 10 mu near ends. 

This taxon is most similar in shape to N. ocallii Hohn (11), but is 
distinguished by the much smaller central area, parallel central striae 
and radiate terminal striae, the opposite of which is true of N. ocallii. 

It is best distinguished from N. destricta Hust (20) by the coarse 
striae (Hustedt gives 24 in 10 mu). It differs from N. gradata Hust (18) 
by having more narrow, pointed ends and being about one-half as wide. 
The extremely radiate striae of N. medica Skv. (40) eliminate it from 
that taxon. 

This diatom is named for the well known Indiana phycologist and 
former president of the Indiana Academy, Mr. W. A. Daily, who made 
the collections from Cabin Creek Raised Bog which formed a basis for 
this paper. I wish to express my thanks to him for his many kindnesses. 

Navicula friesneri sp. nov. pi. 1, fig. 2 

Valva lineari, margine undulata exliter; apicibus valvae latis ros- 
tratis vel subcapitatis. Area axiali angusta, lineari. Area centrali parva, 
orbiculari aut non clare dissimili ab area axiali. Raphe filiformi, apicibus 
proximalibus propinquis, apicibus distalibus versus in eodem cursu. Striis 
punctatis-lineatis, parallelis, convenientibus prope apicibus. Longitudo 
19-24 mu, latitudo 3.5 mu, striis 22-24 in 10 mu. 

Valve linear with slightly undulate margins and broadly rounded 
rostrate to sub-capitate ends. Axial area narrow, linear. Central area 



Plant Taxonomy 315 

very small, circular, or lacking completely. Raphe filiform, proximal ends 
close, distal ends hooking slightly in same direction. Striae punctate- 
lineate, parallel except at the ends where they become convergent. Length 
19-24 mu, width 3.5 mil, striae 22-24 in 10 mu. 

This taxon is similar to N. nympharum Hust. (18) in general appear- 
ance. It does not, however, have longitudinal axial furrows characteristic 
of N. nympharum. In N. friesneri the striae are coarser (Hustedt gives 
30 in 10 mu for his species), convergent at the ends and parallel through- 
out the remainder of the valve, not radiate at the ends and near the center 
as in Hustedt's species. 

This diatom is named in honor of the late Dr. R. C. Friesner, former 
Head of the Botany Department, Butler University, under whom I was 
privileged to study. Dr. Friesner and Dr. J. E. Potzger were the first to 
make an intensive botanical investigation of this raised bog. 

Navicula indianensis sp. nov. pi. 1, fig. 4 

Valva lineari, margine triundulata subtiliter, apicibus latis, obtuse 

rotundatis. Area axiali angusta, lineari. Costa longitudinali axiali mani- 

f este, intermissis ad area centraliam. Area centrali parva, oblonga. Raphe 
filiformi, apicibus distalibus versus in eodem cursu. Striis radiatis in 
media parte valvae, convenientibus prope apices. Costis transversalibus 
in apices inter se N. pupula. Longitudo 25-29 mu, latitudo circa 4.5 mu, 
striis 24 in 10 mu, in media parte valvae, residuus 36-39 in 10 mu. 

Valve linear with slightly undulate sides and blunt, broadly rounded 
extremities. Axial area narrow-linear with accompanying longitudinal 
ribs which are interrupted by the central area. Central area small, oblong. 
Raphe filiform, distal ends curved in same direction. Striae radiate, 
becoming convergent at the ends. Striae in center of valve distinct, above 
and below which they become suddenly fine and difficult to resolve. Heavy 
transverse ribs at the ends as in N. pupula. Length 25-29 mu, width about 
4.5 mu, striae 24 in 10 mu at center then abruptly 36-39 in 10 mu. 

This species resembles N. micropupula Choln. (2) but is distinguished 
by having convergent (not radiate) striae at the ends and longitudinal 
ribs on either side of the raphe. It is excluded from the puputa-complex 
on the basis of the convergent striae at the ends. 

Navicula potzgeri sp. nov. pi. 1, fig. 5 

Valva lineari, apicibus protractis, rostratis ad sub-capitatis. Pseudo- 
septis praesentibus in valvam circa Mj longitudinem apicium. Area axiali 
angusta, lineari, amplificante ad area centrali. Area media dilatata 
transverse in fasciam quae paene attingit margines valvae. Raphe fili- 
formi, apicibus distalibus versus in eodem cursu. Striis punctatis, radiatis 
leniter in media parte valvae, parallelis ad apices. Longitudo 18-30 mu, 
latitudo 4-4.5 mu, striis 19-22 in 10 mu, puncta 24-26 in 10 mu. 

Valve linear with protracted rostrate to sub-capitate ends. Pseudo- 
septa at ends extending barely % the length of ends. Axial area narrow, 
essentially linear, expanding somewhat toward center. Central area trans- 
versely expanded, rectangular, irregularly bordered at the margins by a 
few very short striae. Raphe filiform, distal ends curving in same direc- 
tion. Striae distinctly punctate, radiate in center becoming parallel at the 



316 Indiana Academy of Science 

ends. Length 18-30 mu, width 4-4.5 rau, striae 19-22 in 10 mu, puncta 
24-26 in 10 mu. 

Hustedt's N. septata (20) has the same general features as this 
diatom but has strongly radiate striae throughout and a smaller central 
area than N. potzgeri. Fusey (10) describes a N. jurassensis which is 
also similar. It has, however, a broad raphe and lacks a pseudoseptum. 

This species is named in honor of my former professor, the late Dr. 
J. E. Potzger, botanist and plant ecologist at Butler University, who 
pioneered the field of palynology in this country and who, in collaboration 
with Dr. R. C. Friesner, did a very comprehensive profile study of the 
Cabin Creek Raised Bog. 

Navicula potzgeri var. quadripunctata var. nov. pi. 1, fig. 6 

Valva margine raphe, striis, area axiali quam descripta speciei. Area 

centrali cum quattuor punctis distinctis, duo utrobique raphe, ordinatis 

formare figuram orthogoniam parvam. Longitudo 19-22 mu, latitudo 4 

mu, striis 19-20 in 10 mu, puncta 22-24 in 10 mu. 

Differs from the nominate variety by the presence of four isolated 

puncta at the center, one each on both sides of the proximal raphe-ends 

forming a rectangle. Length 19-22 mu, width 4 mu, striae 19-20 in 10 mu, 

puncta 22-24 in 10 mu. 

Family: Cymbellaceae 
Sub-family : Cymbelloideae 
Cymbella cesati var. linearis var. nov. pi. 1, fig. 8 

Valva linearis, apicibus protractis, capitatis. Longitudo 24-30 mu, 
latitudo circa 5 mu, striis 20-21 in 10 mu, 24 in 10 mu prope apices. 

Valve linear with protracted capitate ends. Length 24-30 mu, width 
about 5 mu, striae 20-21 in 10 mu, 24 in 10 mu near apices. 

This diatom is smaller and has a different shape than var cesati. The 
nominate variety is narrow-lanceolate with indistinctly set-off ends. 

There are also certain similarities between this diatom and C. broen- 
lundensis Foged (8), but the distal raphe-ends of var. linearis make it 
easily distinguishable from Foged's species and align it closely with C. 
cesati (Rabh.) Grun. 

Discussion 

In general, the flora observed here is composed of several segments 
which seem to show up most frequently in certain springs, alkaline lakes 
and circumneutral to alkaline bogs. 

A sample of water taken from Spring #1 in April, 1961 showed a 
total hardness of 376 ppm and a calcium hardness of 242 ppm. The pH 
was 6.9. On May 28, 1961 the springs were revisited by Mr. and Mrs. 
Daily who recorded in the field a pH of 6.9 and a water temperature of 
52 degrees F. At about 2 to 3 feet from the bubbling source the pH was 
7.2 and at 15 feet from the source the pH was 7.1. 

This data, although rather meager, does tie in with the indications 
from general distribution data that the habitat is a rather stable, neutral 
to alkaline hard water one. Most of the species in the spring for which 
data from the literature was available were listed as "alkaliphilous" 
species. 



Plant Taxonomy 317 

The relatively low percentage of species in the genus Nitzschia is 
probably indicative of an oligosaprobic-type situation in which very little 
organic matter is present. 

Even from this introductory study, one is tempted to consider that 
the presence of several more typically lake and lake-shore diatom species 
in the spring area may have some correlation with the original post-glacial 
impoundment or lake. Could these forms be remnants of the original open- 
water area having survived because of an adaptability to the change in 
environment? The absence of most non-motile and unattached forms 
might possibly be explained on this basis. 

Although present in an open-water situation they would not be able 
to survive a flowing-water habitat, but the benthic, attached forms and 
the highly motile ones would. The very few remaining slower water micro- 
habitats could possibly support some planktonic elements but their num- 
bers in relation to the total growth would be very small. The low percentage 
of Cabin Creek diatoms found in Silver Springs may bear some relation- 
ship to the non-lake origin of the latter. 

Hustedt (21) hypothecates that the non-motile forms are very scarce 
in spring and lake areas in the high mountains of Switzerland because of 
their inability to invade from downstream. This presents a second possi- 
bility which must be considered; that is, that the invasion proceeded on 
the bog from downstream areas. 

This is possible, but seems unlikely for Cabin Creek (into which the 
bog rivulets drain) does not flow through what can be considered a lake 
district and so the sources for lacustrine diatoms would not be available. 

Summary 

1. The diatom flora of Spring #1, Cabin Creek Raised Bog, was studied, 
approximately 8,300 diatoms being observed. 

2. A total of 135 taxa representing 21 genera were recorded from the 
composite sample. 

3. The occurrence of the taxa observed is correlated with other studies. 
The structure of the diatom population from Spring #1 showed great- 
est similarity to that of certain other spring areas, neutral to alkaline 
lakes and circumneutral to alkaline bogs. There was considerably less 
agreement with the flora of streams, rivers and one spring area in 
Florida. 

4. Floristically the rivulet at Spring #1 reflects a neutral to alkaline 
hard water situation, in agreement with the chemical data available 
(pH 6.9-7.1, total hardness 376 ppm., Ca hardness 242 ppm.). 

5. The relatively low representation of Nitzschia probably indicates an 
oligosaprobic condition. 

6. The diatom association at Spring #1 has no Centrales and has but a 
meager representation of Arayyhidineae. This, together with other 
ecMogical evidence for many other species present suggests the possi- 
bility that the present diatom flora has remnants of the old open-water 
area of Cabin Creek Valley which developed after the Early Wisconsin 
glaciation. 

7. Of the total diatom flora reported here there are 5 species and 3 
varieties described as new. A total of 117 taxa are new records for 
Indiana. 



318 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Chapman, P. B. 1934. The algae of the Urhana (Ohio) raised bog. Ohio Jour. Sci. 
34(5) : 327-332. 

2. Cholnoky, B. J. 1057. Uber die Diatomeenflora einiger Gewasser in den Magalies- 
Bergen nahe Rustenburg (Transvaal). Bot. Notiser 110(3) : 353. fig. 61-63. 

3. Cleve, P. T. 1894. Synopsis of the naviculoid diatoms. K. Svenska Vet. Akad. 
Ilandl. 26(2) : 194. 

4. Cleve-Eulee, A. 1953. Die Diatonieen von Schweden und Finnland. K. Svenska 
Vet. Akad. Ilandl. Fjare Serien. 4(5) : 168, fig. 848d. 

5. Daily, W. A. 1961. Some Algae of the Cabin Creek Raised Bog, Randolph County, 
Indiana. Indiana Acad, of Sci. Proc. 71 : 298-301. 

6. Foged, N. 1949. Diatoms in the salt bog of Langemose in East Funen. Dansk Bot. 
Arkiv. 13(6) : 31 pp. 

7. Foged, N. 1951. The diatom flora ot* some danish springs. Natura Jutlandicae 
4 : 1-84. 

8. Foged, N. 1953. Diatoms from West Greenland. Medd. om Gronland. 147(10) : 1-86. 

9. Fkiesner, R. C. and J. E. Potzgek. 1946. The Cabin Creek Raised Bog, Randolph 
County, Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 8 : 24-43. 

10. Fusey, M. P. 1948. Contribution a la flore algologique du Jura ; I. Florule algo- 
logique de la tourbiere de Frasne (Doubs). Rev. Gen. Bot. 55: 1-22. 

11. IIohn, M. II. 1961. The relationship between species diversity and population 
density in diatom populations from Silver Springs, Florida. Trans. Amer. Micros. 
Soc. 80 : 140-165. 

12. Hutchinson, G. E., Ruth Patrick and E. S. Deevev 1956. Sediments of Lake 
Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 87 : 1491-1504. 

13. Hustedt, F. 1930. Bacillariophyta (Diatomeae). In Pascher : Die Sfisswasser- 
Flora Mitteleuropas. 10(2) : 1-466. 

14. Hustedt, F. 1933. Die Kieselalgen. In Rabenhorst : Kryptogamen-Flora von 
Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz. 7(2) : 321-576. 

15. Hustedt, F. 1934. Die Diatomeen-Flora von Poggenpohls Moor bei Dotlingen in 
Oldenburg. Bremer Wiss. Ges., Abh. und Vortrage. 8 : 362-403. 

16. Hustedt, F. 1934. A. Schmidt's Atlas der Diatomaceenkunde. pi. 399. 

17. Hustedt, F. 1937. A. Schmidt's Atlas der Diatomaceenkunde. pi. 404. 

18. Hustedt, F. 1937. Systematische und okologische Untersuchungen fiber die Dia- 
tomeen-Flora von Java, Bali and Sumatra. Arch, ffir Hydrobiol. Suppl. 15 : 187-295. 

19. Hustedt, F. 1938. Systemstische und okologische Untersuchungen fiber die Dia- 
tomeen-Flora von Java, Bali und Sumatra. Arch, ffir Hydrobiol. Suppl. 15 : 393-506. 

20. Hustedt, F. 1942. Sttsswasser-Diatomeen des indomaylayischen Archipels und der 
Hawaii-Inseln. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. und Hydrogr. 42(1) : 54, 64. 

21. Hustedt, P. 1943. Die Diatomeen-Flora einiger Hochgebirgseen der Landschaft 
Davos in den Schweizer Alpen. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. und Hydrogr. 43(2.4) : 124- 
197, 225-280. 

22. Hustedt, F. 1945. Diatomeen aus Seen und Quellgebieten der Balkan-Halbinsel. 
Arch, ffir Hydrobiol. 40(4) : 867-973. 

23. Hustedt, F. 1949. Sfisswasser-Diatomeen aus dem Albert-Nationalpark in Bel- 
gisch-Kongo. In : Exploration du Tare National Albert Mission H. Damas (1935- 
1936)8 : 199pp. Brussells, Belgium. 

24. Hustedt, F. 1957. Die Diatomeenflora des Flusssystems der Weser im Gebiet der 
Hansestadt Bremen. Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremen. 34(3) : 181-440. 

25. Hustedt, F. 1959. Die Kieselalgen. In Rabenhorst : Kryptogamen-Flora von 
Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz. 7(6) : 737-845. 

26. Krasske, G. 1932. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Diatomeenflora der Alpen. Hedwigia. 
72 Suppl : 92-134. 

27. Lund, J. W. G. 1946. Observations on soil algae : II Ecology, size and taxonomy 
of British soil diatoms. New Phytol. 45(1) : 56-110. 



Plant Taxonomy 319 

28. Mayer, A. 1913. Baclllariaceen der regensburger Gewasser. Ber. Naturw. Ver. 
Regensburg. 14 : 1-364. 

29. Mayer, A. 1936. Die bayerisehen Epithemien. Denkschr. Bayerischen Bot. Gesell. 
20(nf 14) : 87-110. 

30. Niessen, II. 1956. Oekologische Untersuchungen iiber die Diatomeen und Desniid- 
iaceen des Murnauer Moores. Arch, fiir Hydrobiol. 15(3) : 281-375. 

31. Patrick, R. 193G. Some diatoms of Great Salt Lake. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 63 : 157- 
166, lpl. 

32. Patrick, R. 1943. The diatoms of Lindsley Pond, Connecticut. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia 95 : 53-110, 2pl. 

33. Patrick, R. 1946. Diatoms from Patschke Bog, Texas. Not. Nat. 170 : 17. 

34. Patrick, R. 1954. The diatom flora of Bethany Bog. Jour. Protozol. 1 : 34-37. 

35. Patrick, R., M. H. Hohn and J. H. Wallace 1954'. A new method for determining 
the pattern of the diatom flora. Not. Nat. 259 : 1-12. 

36. Reimer, C. W. 1959. The diatom genus Neidium: I-New species, new records and 
taxonomic revisions. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 111 : 1-35. 

37. Reimer, C. W. 1961. New and variable taxa of the diatom genera Anomoeoneis 
Pfitz. and Stauroneis Ehr. from the United States. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia 113(9) : 187-214. 

38. Saweljewa-Dolgowa, A. J. 1925. Materialen zur Kenntnis der Bacillariaceen- 
Flora des Bassins des Flusses Oka im Murom-Gebiete (in Russia). Raboty Okskoi 
Biologicheskoi Stantsii (Arb. Biol. Oka-Stat.) 3(2) : 47. 

39. Skvortzow, B. W. 1935. Diatoms from Calcutta, India. Phil. Jour. Sci. 58(2) : 184, 
pi. 1, fig. 25. 

40. Skvortzow, B. W. 1936. Diatoms from Kizaki Lake, Honshu Island Nippon. Phil. 
Jour. Sci. 61(1) : 9-74. 

41. Skvortzow, B. W. 1937. Diatoms from Ikeda Lake, Satsuma Province, Kiusiu 
Island, Nippon. Phil. Jour. Sci. 62(2) : 191-218. 

42. Tempere, J. and M. Peragallo. 1908. Diatom£es du inonde entier, 2 ed. 17-112. 
Archacon (Gironde), France. 

43. Van Heurck, H. 1880-1885. Synopsis des diatomees de Belgique. 132 pi. Anvers. 

44. Wallace, J. H. 1960. New and variable diatoms. Not. Nat. 331 : 1-0 

45. Wallace, J. H. and Ruth Patrick. 1950. A consideration of Gomphonema parvu- 
lum Kiitz. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 9 : 227-234. 

40. Weaver, J. R. 1948. Fossil diatoms from Lakeville Bog, Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. 
Stud. 8 : 126-138. 

47. Woronikhine, N. N. 1927. Materiuax pour l'etude de la flore algologique et des 
vegetaux des sources minerales du gruppe des eaux minerales du caucase (in Rus- 
sian). Inst. Bal. aux Eaux Min. du Caucase 5 : 90-121. 



Hoot Woods, A Remnant of Virgin Timber, Owen County, 

Indiana 

Robert 0. Petty and Alton A. Lindsey, Wabash College 
and Purdue University 

Introducton 

Few examples remain of the presettlement forest of Indiana. Rem- 
nants, however small, which have been protected from decimation, are 
increasingly difficult to find outside of the heavily trampled acreage of 
our state parks. When such an area is discovered it is important botani- 
cally that a detailed description of it be added to our scant record of the 
original vegetation of the midwest. 

The virgin stand reported in this paper is owned by the heirs of the 
late George and Bertha Hoot. The authors express their gratitude to 
Anne, Alice and Robert Hoot for permission to conduct the study. 

Location and Description of the Area 

Hoot Woods is located approximately 3 miles northwest of the town 
of Freedom, Owen County, Indiana. The stand occupies 64 acres of a 
gentle east-facing slope which is drained by a small intermittent stream. 
The area is on the eastern edge of the Crawford Upland described by 
Malott (6) and was subjected to Illinoian glaciation and mild subsequent 
erosion. A few trees have been removed over the years; these primarily 
from the northern end of the stand. In all other respects the woods has 
been undisturbed with the natural processes of competitive development, 
windthrow, gap replacement and decay allowed to operate. Soil support- 
ing the timber is a highly melanized podsolic type having a thick, loose 
mull humus which grades into an A horizon relatively high in potassium 
and phosphorus. Soil pH varies between 5.0 and 5.5. Texture analysis of 
ten samples throughout the tract averaged 28% clay, 68% silt and 4% 
gravel-sand (these determinations were made by the Bouyoucos hydro- 
meter method) . 

Vegetation Analysis 

In the summer of 1961, a rectangular segment of the stand, 17 acres 
in area, was fully tallied and the corners marked with steel posts to allow 
future reference and the study of subsequent change. All trees four inches 
dbh were tallied and their diameters recorded to the nearest one tenth 
inch as measured by standard diameter tapes (Table 1). From these data, 
relative basal area per acre and relative density were determined for each 
species (Table 2). Species nomenclature follows Fernald (3). 

Stand Attributes 

Twenty-two tree species were recorded with 1,263 individuals above 
4 inches dbh, giving a density per acre of 73 stems. This density correlates 
with the stands of greatest maturity described by Griffin (4) and confirms 
the Hoot Woods' relatively undisturbed condition. Griffin relates stands 
having 80 or less stems per acre to an age in excess of 150 years, which 
predates settlement of this region of the state. The stand is clearly domi- 
nated by beech (Fagns grandifolia) having a density per acre of 32, with 
sugar maple (Acer saccharum) expressing a co-dominance with 23 stems 

320 



Plant Taxonomy 



321 



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322 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE II. Stand Attributes 



Species 


D 2 


D 3 


B, 


B 3 


V 3 


Fagus grandifolia 


30.3 


41.5 


63.40 


46.5 


44.0 


Acer saccharum 


23.8 


32.6 


41.42 


30.4 


31.5 


Liriodendron tulipifera 


6.3 


8.6 


14.76 


10.8 


9.7 


Fraxinus americana 


2.5 


3.4 


4.60 


3.4 


3.4 


Sassafras albidum 


2.0 


2.1 


1.98 


1.5 


2.1 


Ulmus fulva 


1.4 


1.9 


1.81 


1.3 


1.6 


Prunus serotina 


0.87 


1.19 


1.40 


1.02 


1.1 


Quercus rubra 


0.52 


0.71 


1.33 


0.97 


0.84 


Ulmus americana 


0.92 


1.26 


0.31 


0.22 


0.74 


Fraxinus penn. var. Ian. 


0.52 


0.71 


0.98 


0.71 


0.71 


Quercus Muehlenbergii 


0.23 


0.31 


1.51 


1.1 


0.70 


Nyssa sylvatica 


0.81 


1.11 


0.20 


0.14 


0.62 


Carya cordiformis 


0.52 


0.71 


0.59 


0.43 


0.57 


Celtis occidentalis 


0.52 


0.71 


0.54 


0.39 


0.55 


Quercus alba 


0.55 


0.47 


0.52 


0.38 


0.47 


Juglans nigra 


0.23 


0.31 


0.27 


0.19 


0.25 


Carya ovata 


0.29 


0.39 


0.24 


0.17 


0.23 


Juglans cinerea 


0.23 


0.31 


0.14 


0.10 


0.20 


Carpinus caroliniana 


0.17 


0.23 


0.02 


0.01 


0.16 


Carya glabra 


0.125 


0.16 


0.01 


0.007 


0.08 


C. laciniosa 


0.06 


0.08 


0.01 


0.007 


0.04 


Ostrya virginiana 


0.06 


0.08 


0.006 


0.004 


0.04 



per acre. Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and white ash (Fraxinus 
americana) ranked third and fourth. Many of the trees measured with an 
Abney level exceeded 120 feet in height (Plate II). Thirty-three stems 
were greater than 30 inches dbh, notable of which was a yellow oak 
(Quercus Muehlenbergii), 46.5 inches dbh (Plate II-4). Beech also con- 
tributed the greatest basal area per acre (Plate 1-2). Numerical expres- 
sion of density and basal area are presented in Table 2. Attribute symbols 
are those of Lindsey (5) : D 2 , density per acre; D 3 , relative density; Bi, 
basal area; B 2 , basal area per acre; B 3 , relative basal area; V 3 , importance 
value, in this instance the average of the D 3 and B 3 figures. 

Phytosociological Considerations 

The Hoot Woods lies in a tension zone between the beech-maple type 
extending northeast, east and southeast and an arm of oak-hickory 
type; these communities were described by Braun (1). The stand's cur- 
rent development affiliates it with the beech-maple dominated mixed- 
mesophytic system. The nature of this regional type, dominated so clearly 
by beech and its frequent co-dominant, sugar maple, has been reported 
extensively for Indiana by the late John E. Potzger, Ray C. Friesner and 
their students (9), (10), (11), (12), both as it occurs today in isolated 
mature secondary stands and as depicted by the systematic records of the 
original land surveys of 1819-1830. Petty (7) has recently related a con- 
temporary virgin stand in Parke County, both to the regional forest 
complex and to the original land survey records of 1820. In his study, 
and in Potzger's data, beech and maple dominate the size classes below 



Plant Taxonomy 



323 



30-36 inches dbh, while white oak and tulip poplar contribute the larger 
diameters, being conspicuously reduced in the lower size classes. This is 
true of tulip poplar and yellow oak in the Hoot stand. 




Plate II 



(1 

(2) 



(3) 
(4) 
(5) 



Typical tulip poplar and beech in the Hoot Woods. Man gives scale. 
Stems of white ash damaged by recent localized tornado. Note the 
extent of crown opening, providing a niche for opportunizing intol- 
erant species, e.g. tulip poplar, sassafras and wild black cherry, 
in addition to the previously established seedlings of the tolerant 
genera. Man gives scale. 

Yellow oak (Quercics Muehlenbergil), 42 inches dbh. 
Yellow oak, 46.2 inches dbh. 

Aspect of clear-length ; a typical group. Many individuals exceed 
120 ft. in height ; 60 and 90 ft. to the first limb. Man gives scale. 



324 



Indiana Academy of Science 




8 II 14 17 20 23 26 29 32 35 
DIAMETER SIZE CLASS MID POINTS IN INCHES 



38 41 





















30 


- 








20 
10 

































Fg 



As 



Lt 



Fa 



Ss Other 



MEAN BASAL AREA 

Plate I 

(1) Graph showing size class distribution for the four most important species. 

(2) Basal area per acre of the five most important species: density (D 2 ) plotted 
against mean basal area per tree determines the area of the rectangle. Fg refers 
to Fagus grandifolia ; As, Acer saccharum ; Lt, Liriodendron tulipifera ; Fa. 
Praxinus americana ; Ss Sassafras albidum ; plus all other species combined. 



Plant Taxonomy 325 

The most typical serai pattern, following extensive cutting in west- 
central Indiana, is a progression from second growth oak (predominantly 
white, red and black) to oak-maple (chiefly Acer saccharmn, but on 
some sites Acer nibmim) to maple-oak, and with increased mesic condi- 
tioning of the seedling environment, beech accomplishes ecesis, gradually 
resulting in maple-beech, with the eventual shift to beech dominated 
mixed-mesophytic hardwoods. The oaks are rarely completely eliminated 
during climax equilibration. A few of the species of oak (Quercus 
alba, Q. rubra, Q. Muehlenbergii and even Q. velutina) and the hickories 
(predominantly Carya glabra, C. ovata, C. laciniosa and C. cordiformis) 
continue to ecize under natural release conditions of windthrow and death 
removal of a canopy area. In many localities of Indiana, chiefly in the 
unglaciated portion, drought cycles and general moisture regime retard 
mesic conditioning and maintain the oak, oak-hickory or oak-maple phase 
in the more xeric edaphic equilibrium. Stands within this region were 
also described by Potzger (8). 

It should perhaps be pointed out that while it is possible to charac- 
terize small isolated stands as continuous or discontinuous with a proposed 
regional type, both vegetationally and microclimatically, it is important 
to remember that contemporary vegetational distributions within phyto- 
sociological patterns cannot be explained solely by means of environmental 
parameters. The causation of our contemporary patterns is at best im- 
perfectly interpreted due to our scant knowledge of post-Pleistocene 
population centers, rates of segregation and the more specific invasion 
radii. 

In the Hoot Woods, as in many mature stands in Indiana, white oak 
is probably somewhat under-represented due to extensive selection of this 
species by the lumber industry (adjacent to the stand is an even-aged 
second-growth of 3 or 4 acres which is comprised of a rapidly moving 
midseral oak complex dominated by white oak). If, however, we accept 
the aforementioned characterization of serai pattern, then the selective 
cutting of oak since early settlement days (which left depressurized places 
for beech, maple, ash and other mesic components) simply augmented a 
natural process. 

Despite notoriously low germination percentages, the abundant seed 
source and rapid growth rate of tulip poplar, together with sufficient 
windthrow, clearings, abandoned fields, etc. has maintained this intolerant 
species as a major climax associate, frequently ranking third after beech 
and maple as it does in the Hoot Woods. Periodic disturbance in the stand 
has also allowed the maintenance of such intolerant species as sassafras 
and wild black cherry (Primus serotina) in the dominant complex, rank- 
ing fifth and seventh respectively in importance value (V 3 , Table II). 
This natural process of gap replacement is frequently under-emphasized. 
High prevalence of natural canopy opening by death removal can be a 
major selective factor in the maintenance of seedling environments, which 
are the ultimate immediate determiners of species composition in the 
mature stratum (Plate II-2). 

Should the Hoot Woods continue to survive the pressures of civiliza- 
tion, the dominant expression of beech should increase with increased 
trends toward equilibration of the soil, climate and vegetation. 



326 Indiana Academy of Science 

Acknowledgment 

The authors wish to thank Mr. Joseph Ludlow, senior botany major 
at Wabash College, for his assistance in the field. 

Literature Cited 

1. Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Blakiston, Co. 

2. Blewett, M. B. and J. E. Potzger. 1950. The forest primeval of Marion and 
Johnson Counties, Indiana, in 1819. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 10 : 40-52. 

3. Febnald, M. L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. 8th ed. New York : Amer. Book Co. 

4. Griffin, C. D. 1948. A study of abundance of stems per acre in relation to age of 
stand. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 8 : 219-232. 

5. Lindsey, A. A. 1956. Sampling- methods and community attributes iu forest ecol- 
ogy. Forest Sci. 2(4) : 287-296. 

6. Malott, C. A. 1922. Handbook of Indiana Geology (sect. The physiography of 
Indiana) Indiana Dept. of Conservation. 

7. Petty, R. O. 1962. Vegetational analysis of the Allee Memorial Woods. Parke 
County, Indiana. Annual progress report. U. S. Atomic Energy Commission 
At(ll-l) 547. 

8. Potzger, J. E. and R. C. Friesner. 1935. What is climax in central Indiana? A 
five mile quadrat study. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 4 : 181-195. 

9. — - — -, M. E. Potzger and J. McCormick. 1956. The forest primeval of 

Indiana as recorded in the original U. S. land surveys and evaluation of previous 
interpretations of Indiana vegetation. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 13(1) : 95-111. 

10. — and R. C. Friesner. 1943. An ecological study of Berkey Woods : 

a remnant of forest primeval in Kosciusko County, Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. 
Stud. 6 : 10-16. 

11. , R. C. Friesner and C. Keller. 1942. Phytosociology of the Cox 

Woods ; a remnant of forest primeval in Orange County, Indiana. Butler Univ. 
Bot. Stud. 5 : 190-221. 

12. and M. Esther Potzger. 1950. Composition of the forest primeval 

from Hendricks County southward to Lawrence County, Indiana. Proceedings. 
Ind. Acad. Sci. 60: 109-113. 



PSYCHOLOGY 

Chairman: Nicholas Long, Indiana University 
S. M. Gerger, Indiana University, was elected chairman for 1962 



Effect of Non-Optimally High Incubation Temperatures on 
T-Maze Learning in the Chick 1 

W. C. Gunther and Robert K. Jones, Valparaiso University 
and Purdue University 

Introduction 

Considerable research effort has been expended in efforts to assess 
the effects of various types of environmental stress on behavior (11). 
Much of this work has involved exposing organisms post-natally to stress- 
producing situations. Several investigators have sought a correlation 
between the incidence of mental deficiency in humans and time (season) 
of conception (7, 8). Their reports indicate some statistical evidence of a 
higher number of mentally deficient babies conceived during the hot 
summer months. Gunther (3) and Gunther, et al (5), have pointed up 
the desirability of extending this type of investigation to a study of the 
effects of stressful agents operative during the course of embryonic 
development and have reported qualitative observations of the effects of 
non-optimal incubation temperatures on the behavior of chicks. Such 
effects as structural anomalies of various parts of the body, inability to 
ingest food or water, heightened aggressive and fearful behavior, and 
hyperexcitability have been observed to result from such temperature 
insults. More recently, Gunther and Jones (4) have also found lowered 
mean weights and reduced rates of weight gain in animals which were 
hatched from eggs incubated at non-optimally high temperatures for 
varying numbers of days. 

The present investigation is concerned with the effect of non-opti- 
mally high incubation temperatures on the chick's ability to learn an 
alternation pattern and a visual discrimination in the T-maze. 

Materials and Methods 

The T-maze employed in all experiments reported below has been 
described in detail elsewhere (5). The maze is constructed of wood and 
is painted flat black inside and out. It is 6" wide throughout and has a 
6" x 6" start box with sliding panel door, a 17" runway, and 24" arms. 
Illumination, in addition to normal daylight, is provided by fluorescent 
lamps mounted over the arms of the maze. The food receptacles used were 
colored plastic trays, 4" x 4" x IV2". For the temporal maze habit de- 
scribed below, two identical yellow trays were used; for the discrimination 
task, a red and a green tray were employed. In order to specify the 
approximate hue, reflectance, and saturation values of the trays used in 
the discrimination task, the colors of these trays were matched with the 
dull sides of color chips from the Ostwald Color Harmony Manual (1). 



1. This research was supported by grant B-2128, Council on Neurological Diseases 
and Blindness, National Institutes of Health, United States Public Health Service. 

327 



328 Indiana Academy of Science 

These matches were accomplished independently by three different indi- 
viduals who unanimously agreed that the colors most closely approxi- 
mated the following in the Ostwald system: red, 7na; and green, 181a. 
These two colors have reflectance values of 17 and 30, respectively. 

The animal subjects in all experiments were White Leghorn chicks 
of the DeKalb strain. No crippled animals were used. Control animals 
were hatched from eggs incubated at the optimal temperature of 37.5° 
(all temperatures herein are reported as centigrade). Experimental ani- 
mals were hatched from eggs incubated at 41° for varying numbers of 
days during either the initial or the terminal phases of the incumbation 
period and at the optimal temperature for the remainder of the period. 
Identification of the various experimental groups is in terms of both time 
and length of exposure to the 41° temperature. Thus, 1-day and 2-day 
experimental groups were composed of animals hatched from eggs incu- 
bated at 41° for the first 24 hours and for the first 48 hours, respectively, 
of the incubation period; during the remainder of the period, the incuba- 
tion temperature was optimal. Sixteen-day, 17-day, 18-day, 19-day, and 
20-day experimental groups were composed of animals hatched from eggs 
which were incubated at the optimal temperature for the first 360, 384, 
408, 432, and 456 hours, respectively, of the incubation period; during the 
remainder of the period, the incubation temperature was 41°. Although 
it was hoped to have available 10 experimental groups (5 comprised of 
animals hatched from eggs subjected to the 41° temperature during the 
initial phases of the incubation period and 5 consisting of animals hatched 
from eggs exposed to the higher temperature terminally in the incubation 
period), insufficient numbers of chicks hatched to compose 3-day, 4-day, 
and 5-day groups. All animals received 4 days of pre-training, beginning 
at 4 days of age. The pre-training on each day consisted of placing the 
animals individually in the T-maze for 10 minutes with food available in 
both arms. Prior to each pre-training and test session, the animals were 
subjected to overnight deprivation of food but not of water. 

Since preliminary investigation revealed that individual chicks often 
display consistent position and/or stimulus preferences in the T-maze and 
also that the specific nature of these frequently varies among the animals 
within a particular group, it was deemed desirable to obtain checks on 
these preferences prior to running the animals on the learning tasks. 
Consequently, 15-trial position and color preference series were run on 
all groups before the learning series were begun. The data of these prefer- 
ence tests were analyzed by means of chi-square to identify significant 
preferences which might be shown by entire groups, and also to detect 
significant between-group differences in terms of these preferences. The 
criterion of significance employed was the .05 level of confidence. In addi- 
tion, preferences shown by individual animals were examined, and these 
were regarded as significant if a particular animal displayed a consistent 
preference on 80% or more of the trials. On the basis of the results of 
these tests, attempts were made to equate as closely as possible those 
groups performing the same task. 

Since several hours were required to run all groups through a par- 
ticular learning task, animals were selected at random from among the 
various control and experimental groups in order to establish control for 



Psychology 329 

between-group differences in motivational level due to differential tem- 
poral effects of deprivation. Extension of any part of an animal's body 
into an arm of the maze in the direction of the negative food tray was 
regarded as an error. Upon reaching the positive food tray, the animal 
was allowed to peck at the food (Purina Starteena) 2 or 3 times before 
being returned to the start box for the next trial. As the animals grew 
larger, it was necessary to elevate the food trays so that the food in the 
positive tray could not be seen. The criterion of learning employed in all 
tests was 13 correct trials out of a total trial sequence of 15 (P = -004). 

Results 
Temporal Maze Habit 

Ten control animals, ten 1-day animals, and ten 2-day animals were 
run on a simple alternation pattern in the T-maze. Position preference 
tests were run when the animals were 8 days old. The results indicated 
that no significant differences were in evidence among the groups in terms 
of strength of displayed preference. The data for individual animals 
revealed that 7 control animals, seven 1-day animals, and eight 2-day 
animals manifested consistent position preferences on 80% or more of 
the 15 trials. None displayed spontaneous alternation habits. 

The learning situation series was begun when the animals were 9 
days old, and consisted of learning an alternate pattern of reinforcement, 
i. e., the position of the positive food tray was alternated on successive 
trials. Thus the task involved learning a R L R L R L, etc., pattern. The 
initial position of the positive tray was randomized left and right within 
animals on all 15-trial sequences. A non-correction procedure was em- 
ployed, and a total of 645 trials was run. 

Eight control animals, five 1-day animals, and no 2-day animals 
attained the criterion. The Fisher exact probability test (9) was used to 
compare the number of control animals reaching the criterion with the 
number of experimental animals in both the 1-day and 2-day groups reach- 
ing the criterion. The results of this test indicated the difference between 
the two numbers to be significant at the .02 level of confidence. Since 
different numbers of animals in the control and 1-day groups achieved the 
criterion, it was not possible to compare meaningfully the mean number 
of trials required to achieve the criterion by these 2 groups. However, 
a t-test was used to compare the mean score of the 5 animals of the 1-day 
group which attained the criterion with the mean score of the first 5 
control animals to attain the criterion. The mean for the five 1-day animals 
was 404.40 and that of the 5 control animals 353.80. This test elicited a 
non-significant value of t of .540. 

Although limitations of space rendered it impossible to retain the 
animals long enough to run retention tests on all those which reached the 
criterion, tests were re-run on the 3 control and three 1-day animals which 
attained the criterion earliest 2 weeks from the date on which the criterion 
was attained by each animal. In these tests of retention, 2 of the 3 control 
animals achieved the criterion within 15 trials and the third in 30 trials. 
Of the three 1-day chicks, one ran to criterion in 30 trials, a second re- 
quired 60 trials, and the third had not attained the criterion after having 
run 135 trials. 



330 Indiana Academy of Science 

Discrimination Learning 

In an exploratory investigation in which position and stimulus pref- 
erences were uncontrolled, significant differences were obtained between 
mean criterion scores of a control group, a 1-day group, and a 2-day group 
on a red-green discrimination task (n = 8 in each group). The animals 
employed in this study were not the same as those used in the temporal 
maze task reported above. The mean criterion scores were the following: 
control, 40.25; 1-day, 60.75; 2-day, 70.37. Tests of mean differences indi- 
cated the control vs. 2-day and control vs. 1-day mean differences to be 
significant (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively), while the 1-day vs. 2-day 
mean difference was non-significant. 

In view of these findings, further exploration of the discrimination 
habit under conditions permitting control over preference behavior seemed 
desirable. Accordingly, the following groups incubated initially at the 
optimal temperature were given a color preference series when the animals 
were 16 days old: control (n =6) ; 20-day (n = 6) ; 19-day (n = 6) ; 
18-day (n = 6) ; 17-day (n == 5) ; 16-day (n = 6). The results disclosed 
that no group manifested a significant preference for either of the 2 
colored trays, although all groups showed a non-significant tendency to 
prefer the green stimulus over the red. No significant differences in 
stimulus preference behavior were in evidence between the groups. The 
data for individual chicks revealed that one animal in each of the control, 
20-day, 19-day, 18-day, and 16-day groups displayed a consistent prefer- 
ence for the green tray over the red on 80% or more of the trials, while no 
such preference was shown by any of the animals in the 17-day group. 

A position preference series was run when the animals were 17 days 
old. The results indicated that of the 6 groups a significant position prefer- 
ence (right) was displayed by only the 17-day group. The data for indi- 
vidual animals disclosed that 3 animals in the control group, 4 in the 
20-day group, 4 in the 19-day group, none in the 18-day group, 2 in the 
17-day group, and 2 in the 16-day group displayed consistent position 
preferences on 80% or more of the 15 trials. 

The discrimination task was begun when the animals were 18 days 
old. A correction procedure was employed with the green tray as the 
positive stimulus. Immediately after an animal attained the criterion, a 
discrimination reversal sequence was run. Presentation of stimuli for 
both the discrimination and the reversal series was in accordance with 
randomly selected Gellerman sequences (2). 

An analysis of variance of the criterion scores for the initial dis- 
crimination task elicited a non-significant F of .886. In Table 1 are shown 

Table 1 
Mean criterion scores of the six groups on discrimination task 



Group : 


Control 


20-day 


18-day 


19-day 


16-day 


17-day 


Mean: 


39.00 


39.33 


43.83 


46.33 


53.00 


58.40 



the mean criterion scores of the 6 groups on the discrimination task. It 
may be seen that, although none of the mean differences is significant, the 
order of magnitude of these differences is generally such that animals 



Psychology 331 

hatched from eggs exposed to the temperature insult for longer periods 
of time tended to require greater numbers of trials to attain the criterion. 
Table 2 is the summary of an analysis of variance of the discrimina- 
tion reversal scores. The F of 2.932 is significant at beyond the .05 level 

Table 2 
Summary of analysis of variance of criterion scores on 





discrimir 


lation reversal task 






Source 


df 


SS 


MS 


F 


Between Groups 
Within Groups 
Total 


5 

29 
34 


2908.65 
5753.52 
8662.17 


581.73 
198.40 


2.932* 



*P <.05 

of confidence, indicating differences in performance between the 6 groups. 
A Bartlett test indicated error variances to be homogeneous. Table 3 
contains the mean criterion scores of the 6 groups for the discrimination 
reversal series and the results of tests of mean differences. The "least 
significant difference" method, described by Steel and Torrie (10), was 

Table 3 

Results of tests of mean differences of criterion scores on discrimination 

reversal task ("least significant difference" method) 



Group : 


Control 18-day 20-day 


19-day 


16-day 


17-day 


n : 
Mean: 


6 6 6 
71.33 76.67 81.33 


6 
86.50 


6 
94.17 


5 
97.60 
















gnifieantly. 








not differ si 






Means underscored by the same line do 





Means not underscored by the same line differ significantly at 
or beyond the .0f> level of confidence. 

employed to assess the reliability of group mean differences at the .05 
level of confidence. In Table 3 it is seen that the following 6 mean differ- 
ences are significant: control vs. 16-day; control vs. 17-day; control vs. 
19-day; 20-day vs. 17-day; 16-day vs. 18-day; and 17-day vs. 18-day. 

Discussion 

Despite the fact that the number of animals employed in this study 
was quite small, there would appear to be little doubt that exposure of 
eggs to incubation temperatures which were higher than optimal for the 
periods mentioned above had a depressive effect on the ability of the 
experimental animals to perform the two types of learning tasks. Gen- 
erally the effect was found to be greater the longer the exposure to the 
higher temperature. Although perhaps somewhat premature, it is inter- 
esting to speculate regarding the nature and locus of this effect. Since 
accuracy rather than speed of performance was stressed by the response 
measure (number of trials to criterion), it seems unlikely that the effect 
on learning is related to inter-group differences in quality of motor 
functioning. 



332 Indiana Academy of Science 

The temporal maze habit would appear to be a task which is near the 
ceiling of the chick's capacity to learn. Hunter (6) has suggested that 
the salient cues in the learning of this type of pattern are kinesthetic in 
nature. If this is assumed to be the case, the impaired learning ability of 
the experimental animals may have been a function of disturbance of 
kinesthetic feedback or of a reduced ability to utilize kinesthetic cues. 

Although the group differences obtained on the initial discrimination 
series failed to attain statistical significance, the order of the group means 
was generally that which would be expected if the higher incubation 
temperature produced a reduction in ability to learn this task. For the 
discrimination reversal series this order was maintained, and significant 
group mean differences were found. Since the colored food trays used for 
this task differed in hue, saturation, and reflectance, further research will 
be necessary in order to determine the stimulus dimension or combination 
of dimensions which the animals utilized in making the discrimination. 
In the case of this task, hypotheses concerning the nature and locus of 
the effect of the temperature insult would vary, depending on the particular 
properties of the stimuli which were critical for the accomplishment of 
the discriminative response. 

Gunther and Jones (4) have found lower mean weights and reduced 
rates of weight gain in chicks hatched from eggs incubated for various 
periods of time at non-optimally high temperatures. In considering pos- 
sible underlying mechanisms which might have mediated these findings, 
the most plausible appeared to be protein denaturization of one or several 
enzymes which may have resulted in reversible or irreversible injury to 
the enzyme systems involved. On this hypothesis, the poorer performance 
of the experimental animals in the present study may have been related 
to a generalized pathological effect of the temperature insult on several 
or possibly all types of tissue. It is interesting to note that, as in the case 
of reduced weights, deleterious effects on learning ability were evident 
when the animals were incubated both initially and terminally at non- 
optimally high temperatures. 

In view of the demonstrated deleterious effect of non-optimally high 
incubation temperatures on weight and rate of weight gain, it is also 
conceivable that the higher temperature may have more or less perma- 
nently altered the motivational level of the experimental animals in such 
a manner that identical periods of food deprivation may have produced 
differences in strength of hunger drive between control and experimental 
animals. 

Obviously further study of these phenomena, both at the behavioral 
level and subsequently at more molecular levels, is indicated. Such research 
is currently in progress in our laboratory. 

Summary 

Chicks hatched from eggs incubated at the optimal temperature of 
37.5° (control group) and animals hatched from eggs incubated at 41° 
for varying numbers of days during the initial phases of the incubation 
period and at the optimal temperature thereafter (experimental groups) 
were given a simple alternation task in the T-maze. A significantly greater 
number of control animals attained the criterion of learning than did 
experimental animals. 



Psychology 333 

In a second experiment a control group and animals hatched from 
eggs incubated at 41° for varying numbers of days terminally in the 
incubation period (experimental groups) were run on a color discrimina- 
tion task followed by a discrimination reversal series in the T-maze. The 
order of magnitude of the mean criterion scores of the various groups was 
such that animals hatched from eggs which were exposed to the non- 
optimally high temperature for longer periods of time tended to require 
greater numbers of trials to attain the criterion on both the discrimina- 
tion task and the reversal series. Significant differences were found be- 
tween the mean criterion scores of control and experimental groups for 
the reversal series, while group mean differences for the initial discrimi- 
nation task were non-significant. Possible underlying mechanisms of the 
observed effects were considered. 

Literature Cited 

1. Color Harmony Manual, 3d Edition. 1948. Container Corporation of America, 
Chicago. 

2. Gellerman, L. W. 1933. Chance orders of alternating stimuli in visual discrimi- 
nation experiments. J. Genet. Psychol. 42 : 207-208. 

3. Gunther, W. C. 1958. Effect of abnormal incubating temperature on chick be- 
havior. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 68 : 303-366. 

4. Gunther, W. C. and R. K. Jones. 1962. Effect of environmental stress on chick 
weight. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 71 : 385-398. 

5. Gunther, W. C, Robert K. Jones, and Paul Manske. 1961. The effect of high 
and low incubating temperatures on chick behavior. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 70 :285- 
292. 

6. Hunter, W. S. 1928. The behavior of raccoons in a double alternation temporal 
maze. J. Genet. Psychol. 35 : 374-388. 

7. Knobloch, H., and B. Pasamanick. 1958. Seasonal variation in the births of the 
mentally deficient. Am. J. Pub. Health 48 : 1201-1208. 

8. Pasamanick, Benjamin, Simon Dinitz, and Hilda Knobloch. 1959. Geographic 
and seasonal variations in births. Public Health Reports 74(4) : 285-288. 

9. Siegel, Sidney. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
Inc., New York. 

10. Steel, Robert G. D., and James H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and Procedures of 
Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York. 

11. Thompson, W. R. 1960. Research trends in comparative psychology. In Waters, 
R. H., D. A. Rethlingshafer, and W. E. Caldwell (Eds.), Principles of Comparative 
Psychology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York. 



SOIL SCIENCE 

Chairman: Ronald Tukey, Purdue University 
Dan Wiersma, Purdue University, was elected chairman for 1962 



ABSTRACT 
Maximizing the Use of Micro-Climate. James E. Newman. — Maxi- 
mizing the use of favorable micro-climate can only be accomplished through 
a working concept of its causes, its dimensions, how it varies in time and 
space, plus some knowledge of possible controls. Micro-climates are 
caused by changes in methods of energy transfer associated with soil and 
plant surfaces. For this reason micro-climates always exist near any 
surface that intercepts radiant energy within the open environment. They 
vary according to changes in energy levels and forms through time ; that 
is, from day to night and from summer to winter. Finally, control can 
only be accomplished through changes in energy balances and gradients. 
To accomplish a desirable control a favorable change in energy balance 
must be created. Such a goal can only be created through a rather com- 
plete understanding of the energy changes within the micro-climate pro- 
file associated with a given radiating surface. Each radiating surface, 
whether it be a soil or some vegetative surface has an associated micro- 
climatic profile. This profile extends some distances in both vertical direc- 
tions from the receptive radiating surface. These vertical dimensions 
depend on the physical properties of the underlying soil as well as the 
physical dimensions and arrangement of the vegetative cover. For these 
reasons, micro-climates can be identified and classified according to physi- 
cal characteristics. Therefore, it is possible to generalize from one similar 
set of micro-climatic conditions to another. 



334 



Establishing Crop Potentials for Indiana Soil Types 

Harry M. Galloway, Purdue University 
For about sixty years the soil survey program in the United States 
has been gathering soil facts. Soils have been classified and mapped 
according to characteristics which influence the use of the soil for various 
purposes, chief of which has always been the growing of crop plants. The 
surveys are available in published form for some 61 Indiana counties 1 and 
in field sheet form only for soil conservation planning in all or parts of 
72 counties. 2 

Early Yield Potential Studies 
Prediction values by actual crop yields or by crop index levels for 
given soils have been included in soil survey reports for at least the past 
25 years. Farm managers, bankers, and professional agriculturists have 
found these very useful in setting yield goals for given lands. Assessors 
in some states have used them as a major guide in tax valuation studies. 

The yield potentials have been only as reliable as the data gained 
about the soils during the course of the survey. Crop yields reflect as 
much the willingness or skill of the operator in applying the many neces- 
sary factors of production as they reflect differences in the potential of 
the soils themselves. So, the possible yield levels have generally been 
stated at two levels of management: (1) a level attained at the time by 
a majority of the farmers using these soils and (2) a level attained by 
the "innovator" or "early adopter" class of farmer who were at the time 
applying most of the better practices in crop production. 

Great Production Increases Realized 

In the past 25 years, we have witnessed a revolutionary increase in 
crop yields. Average soil type yields of 40 bushels of corn have been 
pushed up to 80 or more. Our better farmers are setting their sights on 
150 and 200 bushel field yields. Small field yields of over 200 bushels of 
corn have been attained by a few good farmers who are blessed with 
especially favorable or responsive soils. At the same time, soybean and 
other crop yields have steadily risen. Disease resistance, better tillage 
and crop culture, improved drainage and moisture management, and 
increasing use of commercial fertilizers with new varieties which have 
higher production abilities have all played major parts in this crop yield 
revolution. 

There are many who feel that the yield levels already reached are 
not yet near the ultimate. Yet they are surely closer to the ultimate on 
some soils than others. Most farmers now producing at high levels feel 
that the easiest increases are behind them and probably resulted most 
from better varieties and greater use of fertilizers. More intelligent use 
of fertilizers is going to be necessary to maximize production further. 
But just as importantly other factors will have to be applied in combina- 
tions designed to fit given soil conditions. For example, sloping, erosive 



1. Of these only 38 can be purchased ; the rest may he consulted in libraries. About 
39 of those are considered suitable for estimating potential yield levels. 

2. Available in Work Unit Offices of S. C. S. 

335 



336 Indiana Academy of Science 

soils must be handled better so as to check the losses of water in rainy 
periods and prolong the use of soil water in peak use seasons. 

On the artificially drained, level and depressed soils, where runoff 
water adds to that which falls as rain, there are problems of over abun- 
dance of water at some seasons and a lack at others. Increasing the soil 
aeration in the early season by improved tillage and managing the avail- 
able water wisely will be keys on those soils to the further profitable use 
of good practices, particularly the use of more fertilizers. Farmers on 
such good level soils who are far out on the periphery of good management 
are those who are reaping the rewards of continually increasing crop 
yields at lower unit costs of production. 

If all of Indiana was of such level unerosive soil we would be hard 
put to make any estimate of attainable future production. However, these 
nearly level lands are limited in amount to some 12 million acres which 
is about half of all land in Indiana." 

It is apparent that all farmers are not managing to reach anywhere 
near the potential of their soils. For example in the most level central 
Indiana counties we see cornfield after cornfield making 100 bushels per 
acre or more at least 4 out of 5 years. In one of these counties there may 
be 20 to 40 entrants in the Indiana Crop Improvement Association 5-Acre 
Corn Contest with yields in the 120 to 150 bushel bracket. The tendency 
is to think that the average county corn yields would approach these 
figures. But they don't. Corn production figures in six of the most level 
productive, central Indiana counties ranged from 66 to 81 bushels in 1959 
and 1960. Obviously there is many a farmer who does not capitalize fully 
on his soil resources. To maintain or improve his position in the competi- 
tive system, and to make his proper contribution to society's future food 
needs, he must use his land resources more efficiently. 

Recent Yield Potential Study 

The Purdue Agronomy Department recently completed a study of 
crop yield potentials for Indiana's important soils. The National Plant 
Food Institute will publish and distribute the results to fertilizer dealers, 
elevators, banks and educational agencies. In compiling this information 
we studied the records of experimental fields for several Indiana soils 
used for many years for the common crops. To these limited figures we 
added the estimates that agronomists and agricultural economists had 
made for field production of crops on a wider range of soils. Yield tables 
from the soil survey reports were particularly valuable in setting the 
relative potential between soils. 

Yields were estimated by soils and related to the several soil regions. 
These are shown on a map published as a wall chart for use by the dealers, 
bankers and educators. Agronomists further grouped the Indiana soil 
regions geographically to facilitate easy assembly of 3 check lists cover- 
ing a north section, a central part and a southern part. Check lists include 
yields of four crops on all important soils and a list of the production 
factors needed to assure maximum yield from each soil. These will be 
take-home items for distribution to all interested farmers. In the check 



3. From Soil and Water Conservation Needs Inventory data of Soil Conservation 
Service. 1961. 



Soil Science 337 

lists, we arranged the soils by recognizable characteristics in soil regions. 
This will help farmers who do not have soil maps to learn soil names and 
select those soils which they most likely have at home. Table 1 gives crop 
yield estimates for representative important soils of each Indiana soil 
region. These are included on the wall charts which can be exhibited in 
places where farmers gather. 

A Look Ahead 

Economists make some interesting predictions of trends ahead.' If 
the yearly change in gross output per unit of gross input reached in the 
1950-58 period (about 2.5 percent per year) continues we can look for 
further surpluses even in 1975. The population appears to be expanding 
at only 1.8 percent yearly. Since these gains have been made with a 
fairly constant land supply and a diminishing labor supply, operating 
capital and current operating expenses have increased greatly. Lower 
farm prices have encouraged greater efficiency and a quest for lower unit 
production costs. The substitution of machinery for labor has resulted in 
a larger farm investment and a resulting competition for extra lands to 
allow full use of the machinery. If land and labor both decrease further, 
as predicted, the capital investment must grow to maintain production. 
This can be considered as technology which acts as a substitute for land 
and labor resources. Land charges contributed only about 11 percent of 
the total investment in farm production in 1959. 

Land and labor in agriculture will both decrease further. Increased 
population growth assures that pressure on land will increase. By 1975, 
estimates are that Indiana will lose about 2.7 percent of its land to urban 
and other uses which will take it out of agriculture. 5 This is about 5 per- 
cent of land currently in crops. A three percent loss in croplands is 
expected in the most productive central part of Indiana where urban 
pressures are greatest. Pasture and range lands will move to croplands. 
Woodlots will disappear from the more level lands. After these adjust- 
ments are made, changes in land use can not be expected to make greater 
areas of cropland available. Between 1975 and 2000 we will probably 
lose cropland at an increased rate even if effective zoning and taxing 
procedures are operating then. 

To try to integrate all these changes into an equation which would 
predict future land needs and estimate probable production would be 
folly. It could not integrate the contribution to be made by technology 
which has made possible the gains we have already seen in the 1950-60 
decade. A 1952 report to the President by the Water Resources Policy 
Committee foresaw the need for 100 million extra cropland acres by 1975 
to fill expected food needs. Current predictions imply that 1975 produc- 
tion needs can be met with even fewer cropland acres than were used 
in 1952. 

However, we must recognize that further food increases must come 
from a diminishing land resource. Also that production boosting practices 



4. Vernon W. Ruttan, Technological Change and Resource Utilization in Ameri- 
can Agriculture. A paper presented at the 1961 annual meeting of Indiana Academy of 
Science at Indiana State College, Terre Haute. 

5. Soil and Water Conservation Needs Inventory data of Soil Conservation 
Service. 1961. 



338 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. Crop yield estimates of important soils in each Indiana Soil Region. 





Soil 
Name 


Soil Description 
Soil color, topography, texture 
and natural internal drainage 


You 


can build up to at least 
these average yields 1 


Soil 
Region 


Corn 


Soybeans 


Wheat Adapted 
Hay 


A 


Maumee 


Very dark gray, flat sandy loams 

and loamy sands; poorly drained 


90 


35 


35 


3.5 




Door 2 


Dark brown, level to sloping 
prairie sandy loams to silt 
loams — well drained 


75 


35 


45 


3.5 




Plainfield 


Light brown, level to duney 
sands & loamy sands, droughty 


35 


20 


25 


2.5 


B 
B 


Rensselaer 
(west) 

Hoytville 
(east) 


Very dark gray level silty 
clay loams; poorly drained 

Same 


105 

95 


40 
36 


35 
35 


4.0 
8.5 


C 


Chalmers 


Same 


115 


42 


42 


4.0 




Parr 2 


Dark brown, sloping to level 
prairie silt loams; well drained 


90 


40 


45 


4.0 


D 
E 


Brookston 


Very dark gray, flat clay 
loams; poorly drained 


105 


40 


35 


4.0 




Crosby- 


Gray, nearly level silt 
loams; imperfectly drained 


90 


34 


40 


3.5 




Miami 2 


Brownish, sloping to rolling 
loams and silt loams, well 
drained 


80 


36 


45 


3.5 




Fox, 

Kame phase 


Brownish, sloping to rolling 
sandy loams; well drained 


55 


26 


40 


3.0 


F 


Pewarao 


Very dark gray level silty 
clay loams; poorly drained 


95 


36 


35 


3.5 




Blount 


Gray, nearly level silt loams 
imperfectly drained 


90 


34 


35 


3.5 




Morley 


Brown, sloping silt loams, 
well drained 


75 


34 


40 


3.0 


G 


Brookston 


Very dark gray, level silty 
clay loams ; poorly drained 


105 


40 


35 


4.0 




Fincastle 


Gray, nearly level silt loams : 
imperfectly drained 


90 


34 


40 


3.5 




Russell 


Brown, sloping to rolling silt 
loams; well drained 


80 


36 


45 


3.5 


H 

North 


Genesee 


Bottom lands, graying brown 
silt loams, clay loams & sandy 
loams, well drained 


100 


40 


40 




„ * . Fox- Warsaw 
Central 

H Huntington 
South 


2 Brown, level to sloping silt 
loams & sandy loams, well 
drained to droughty 

Bottomlands; grayish brown 
silt loams; clay loams & 
sandy loams; well drained 


70 
110 


30 

44 


40 
40 


3.5 




Wheeling 2 


Brown, nearly level silt 
loams; well drained 


85 


38 


40 


3.5 


I 


Vigo 


Light gray silt loams of 
nearly level divides; clay pan; 
imperfectly drained 


90 


28 


45 


2.5 



Soil Science 



339 





Soil 
Name 


Soil Description 


You 


can build up to at least 
these average yields 1 


Soil 
Region 


Soil color, topography, texture 
and natural internal drainage 


Corn 


Soybeans 


Wheat 


Adapted 
Hay 


J 


Clermont 


Light gray flat silt loams; 
cemented pan; poorly drained 


100 


28 


45 


2.5 




Cincinnati 


Brownish, sloping silt loams, 
well drained 


75 


30 


40 


3.0 


K 


Switzerland 


Brown, sloping silt loams; 
well drained 


75 


30 


40 


3.0 


L 


Tilsit 


Brown, nearly level silt loams, 
cemented pan; mod. well drained 


70 


26 


30 


2.5 




Zanesville 


Brown sloping to rolling silt 
loams; cemented pan; well drainec 


[ 60 


26 


30 


2.5 


M 


Bewleyville 


Brown, undulating to sloping red 
clay subsoil; well drained 


90 


35 


35 


3.0 




Bedford 


Brown, nearly level silt loams; 
reddish subsoil; mod. well drained 


80 


30 


35 


2.5 


N 


Montgomery- 


Dark gray level silty clay 
loams; poorly drained 


110 


50 


40 


3.0 





Princeton 2 


Brown sloping silt loams & 
sandy loams; well drained 


90 


30 


40 


3.0 




Bloomfield 


Light brown wavy to duney 
loamy sands; droughty 


45 


24 


25 


2.5 


P 


Iva 


Light gray silt loams of nearly 
level divides; imperfectly drained 


105 


35 


45 


3.0 


P 


Alford 


Brown, sloping silt loams; 
well drained 


100 


35 


45 


3.5 



Farmers using well recognized superior management practices over a period of 
years may well exceed these averages 2 out of 4 years. 

Yields are for nearly level, mostly uneroded areas. For other conditions adjust 
yields as below : 

(1) For slopes up to 0% gradient which are severely eroded decrease yields 15-20%. 

(2) For slopes over 6% gradient essentially uneroded decrease yields about 20%. 

(3) For slopes over 6% gradient which are severely eroded decrease yields 30-40'%. 

For sandy loam types of these soil series decrease potential yields 20-30%. 
Genesee and Huntington soils are not commonly used for hay. 



like irrigation are useful only where water is available and this means 
largely underground sources. Only the droughty soils will benefit enough 
from supplemental water in a climate like Indiana's to make irrigation 
pay. 

Six central Indiana counties mentioned before with corn yields rang- 
ing from 66 to 81 bushels, have cropland soils largely of level Crosby and 
Brookston types. These two soils can be built up to produce an average 
corn yield of at least 90 and 105 bushels respectively. Sloping soils could 
be expected to yield at about the county average levels or around 75 
bushels. A 25 percent increase in corn yield could be expected in these 
counties very soon from applying only the presently known management 
techniques in growing our present corn hybrids. 

Farmers who have made notable strides in fertility and other cultural 
management have pointed the way to eventual yields well above the esti- 
mates for Brookston and Crosby. By concentrating the grain crops on 
such productive soils the present crop production could be maintained on 



340 Indiana Academy of Science 

one-quarter to one-third less acres. By releasing sloping, eroded and less 
productive lands to use for pasture we could provide more and better low 
cost feeds for our livestock industry. This would protect the soils for later 
more intensive use to feed the expanding population a generation or two 
hence. Also, by reducing floods and erosion which affect the use of crop- 
lands and also the general welfare, these poorer lands will assume even 
greater usefulness. 

All in all the food producing potential for a generation ahead in 
Indiana looks adequate. We have time to sharpen our technology further. 
To do so, continuing agricultural research is absolutely essential even in 
this period of plenty. 

Agronomists hope that the recognition of their potential yields will 
help stimulate farmers who have not reached this potential to aim higher. 
Higher production means lower unit costs and increased efficiency, a goal 
of all far-looking farmers. 

Some Values of the Production Potentials 

1. Learning crop yield levels to fertilize and manage for. Use of more 
nitrogen than for the expected yield is wasteful. Where the potential 
yield is likely to be only 80 bushels of corn it adds to the unit produc- 
tion cost to use enough to raise 100 bushels or more. 

2. Studying alternative uses of land and probable earning capacity in 
direct family help Extension programs like Better Farming-Better 
Living. These yield levels are a basis for economic analysis of crop 
and pasture systems adapted to different enterprises in the several 
soil situations in Indiana. 

3. Projecting the long time food needs of our growing population and 
determining how these may be met with the fixed amount of land 
available at given times ahead. 

4. To help determine the economic impact on communities where farmers 
set out to achieve higher production in line with their potential yields. 

5. In comparing actual yields with potential yields some soil areas will 
be seen to offer much improvement. Their soils will be more responsive 
to efficient use than other soils which already approach more closely 
the potential. This will point to areas where Extension management 
programs may operate more intensively and be especially fruitful. 



The Edge of Hunger 

Norman Desrosier, Purdue University 

The first generation of men in the atomic age have at least one prob- 
lem in common with the very first generation of modern men on Earth. 
We both inherited a world in which starvation loomed on the horizon for 
all people. 

The new age finds seven nations in ten struggling with sub-marginal 
living standards at a time when they already have under cultivation most 
of their good farm land. Furthermore, eight of ten people in the world 
are living on or near to a farm and semi-starvation is the rule rather than 
the exception. 

Concentration Effects on Human Life 

Coupled with the above situations is the current increase in human 
numbers on Earth. While man indeed needed to be concentrated in suitable 
areas to evolve societies, which permitted specialization of human efforts, 
there are obviously limits of safety to human population densities which 
must be observed. Most societies on earth already have encountered the 
quality-quantity barrier. 

In spite of this, a human population has been added to this planet 
during the past four years which equals the number of people living on 
Earth at the time of Christ. The reason for our real concern is that there 
has not been a concurrent development in our abilities to generate the 
essentials of the good life for this new population. 

While each of us may know some of the effects of starvation, the 
majority of the people in the world today are experiencing many of the 
effects of starvation and the situation for them has existed for most of 
their lives. 

While we do not often regard thinking as a biological process, people 
in advanced semi-starvation have sluggish intellectual processes. The 
repercussions of starvation extend beyond physical health and include the 
whole being. 

Modern societies are intellectual societies. Mental processes are in- 
creasingly important as machines replace muscle in work tasks. Here 
again, even though our food supplies and populations would remain fixed, 
the acuteness of the problems of starvation would become increasingly 
limiting to human advancement. 

The situation is far from being hopeless since solutions are available, 
but now public action is required to put them into play. The reasons for 
this become more clear when we probe into the history of our present food 
supply system. 

Brief History of Food Production 

The earliest known culturing of plants by man was in the Tigris- 
Euphrates River valleys about 8,000 years ago, plus or minus a few 
hundred years. Food production started with the discovery of planting 
seeds in the ground and having them yield more than were planted. The 
soil lost productivity in the process. Next, it was found to be replaceable 
by careful selection and rotation of crops. But to force food production 
further, fertilizer had to be added, seeds planted even more closely to- 
gether, the plants artificially watered, and insects and pests controlled. 

341 



342 Indiana Academy of Science 

These were undertaken with variable effectiveness. Next, good land 
became in short supply, but by then it was possible to successfully farm 
most land provided capital resources were available and could be applied. 
As a matter of fact, food could be produced with this system without land, 
and this was done in hydroponics agriculture. The nutrient needs of plants 
were provided in a solution pumped to plants standing in water or sand. 
The system was surprisingly effective. It was very good for plants but 
not very effective for man. 

In the first place, there are physical limits to this system . . . increas- 
ing investment does not necessarily result in further food production. 
When plant populations exceed definite limits, they shade each other, 
lowering yields. The carbon dioxide content of the air also limits food 
production on earth and this is not often realized. We must also consider 
the increased water, nutrient, disease and weed problems. And, all months 
of the year are not adequate for field production of crops. There are there- 
fore several indications that this particular path to more intensive crop- 
ping in soils in the evolution of food production is terminal. 

Furthermore, there have been no new food crops of any significance 
introduced into world agriculture since the discovery of America, and 
no new method of preserving foods has been found in the past 160 years 
which is now used by most people. Twentieth Century man has been con- 
tent to refine age old crops and systems. . 

Easing the pressure of the present day must occur, but to do it 
effectively the evolutionary processes in man's ability to produce good 
food must be quickened. Where could it go? To gain some insight we might 
review briefly the nature of the world's resources for food production. 
These are as follows : 

Land — Four-fifths of the world's good farm land is already under 

cultivation. 
Water — There is an enormous amount of water in the world but gen- 
erally man cannot increase his control of it. He is largely at the 
mercy of the weather. 
Plants — There no doubt are more good crops in the world but none of 
any consequence has been found for 450 years, and these actually 
were discovered about 1,500 years prior to their introduction into 
world agriculture. 
Animals — There have been notable improvements in the efficiency of 
refining grain into meat (chickens and hogs) but no new animal 
crop has been introduced in the past several thousand years. 

Relation of Food Needs and Supplies 

Let us look at the food problem in another perspective. A person eats 
about 10 times his body weight a year. Assume we averaged the weight 
of all people in the world, and we found it to be 120 pounds. Each person 
would then need about 1,200 pounds of food a year. This number is perhaps 
not too far from the truth, and we will use it here. 

It would also be useful to have some idea of the presently available 
food supplies in the world. While this information can only be estimated, 
we now produce in the vicinity of 2.4 trillion pounds annually for the 
present 3.0 billion people. Distributed to each this would amount to about 



Soil Science 343 

800 pounds per person per year, or about two-thirds present needs even in 
bulk, with no mention being made of quality. 

From 25-50 percent of the food produced is lost in storage and dis- 
tribution. Using the lower figure, the consumed supply must be reduced 
by one-fourth, leaving about 600 pounds per person. 

Even in terms of bulk, to meet human food needs we must about 
double the supplies available today to feed the people now alive. What are 
the prospects for even this ? 

Food Production Must Be Directed to Man's Needs 

To double the world's food supplies in the next 40 years, it will be 
necessary not only to use the most efficient agricultural methods in all 
parts of the world, but we must also greatly increase the land under culti- 
vation. Using present practices it is inevitable that more grain and less 
meat be eaten. Yet, it is doubtful that even the best agricultural practices 
now used will be able to keep the world's population alive if its rapid 
expansion continues even 20 more years. 

Now, the above data facts are merely statistics and are subject to 
endless discussion and error. These data are subject to each one's inter- 
pretation. The real cause for concern is that these facts represent only 
quantities, tonnages, etc., and do not adequately reflect the true picture. 
A pound of grain in such statistics has the same weight as a pound of 
meat but they are not equal as food. The situation is thus worse than 
statistics would lead one to believe. Because of this, to meet the food 
needs of the future, new types of food production must be found and these 
must be turned to the food requirements of man. This is the first departure 
we must make from the past. 

The starvation that is widespread in the world is a special starva- 
tion . . . protein starvation. It is protein that is short in the world, and 
just any kind of protein is not adequate. Man requires a high quality 
protein — one which contains the proper kinds and amounts of building 
blocks (amino acids) required to form and repair human protoplasm. 
Such protein is found in no one plant, but is characteristic of most animals. 
The tragedy is that present food production is not man-oriented. 

The reason for this development is relatively clear. It was not until 
a century ago that our ideas of food began to crystallize. From the begin- 
ning of modern man some 10,000 years ago until the last century, whatever 
filled man's stomach and kept him alive was called food. A century ago 
food was found to be composed of three major factors — the carbohydrates, 
fats and proteins. In the last 100 years, the list has grown to include 
more than 50 essential chemical compounds. Present understanding of 
human nutrient needs is adequate to demand shifts in food production. 

But, during the whole period in which food production was evolving 
it tended to become oriented to the most "food" per unit of land by the 
earlier understanding. In fact, whatever "food" was available in an area 
became incorporated into local diets. Cultures eventually accepted the 
idea that the local diet was the best and those ideas have been perpetuated 
ever since. They need not be particularly related to human needs for good 
health. 

Since grains yield the most "food" for the work involved, grain pro- 
duction increased, and eventually man shifted from eating mostly meat 



344 Indiana Academy of Science 

to eating mostly grain. Grain eating people have not led the world's civi- 
lizations to date. In fact, the poor have one thing in common the world 
over — they are the grain eating people of the world. 

It is not technologically difficult to produce carbohydrates (the main 
crop for which is grain) since these are the immediate photosynthetic 
products in plants. Producing edible oils is somewhat more difficult, yet 
early men were ingenious in oil production, i.e. olive and palm plantations. 
It is high quality protein which is difficult to produce and this is the com- 
modity in short supply in the world. Food production systems are not 
geared to yield this essential component for buoyant human life. 

To man, the difference between high and low quality proteins is some- 
what analogous to the difference in two jig-saw puzzles, one of which 
contains all pieces, the other missing several which were replaced with 
pieces from some other picture. High quality protein contains the essential 
pieces needed by man; low quality protein does not yield the same picture. 

Man's protein intake is a good index to the quality of diets. An intake 
of 50-60 grams per person per day of which a third at least is from animal 
sources is considered a working minimum. Some countries have available 
more than 100 per day. For all countries, however, the average human 
intake amounts to something in the order of 10-15 grams and this is 
largely of low quality. 

It is highly improbable that we can produce 40-50 grams more per 
person per day with present practices. A pound of beef steak, pork, fish 
or chicken only contains 20 percent protein. A pound of meat therefore 
only has about 90 grams of protein. At rock bottom we need about a four 
or five fold increase in present supplies now, and a 1,000 percent increase 
in 40 years! If we are to produce 1,000 percent more animal protein with 
grain, we would need 2,500 percent increases in grain supplies to yield the 
protein in the form of chicken flesh, 4,000 percent increase for pork, or 
10,000 percent increase to yield the beef, that we will need within the next 
40 years. Just 20 years from now, we need a 500 percent increase in grain 
for chickens, or 2,000 percent increases for pork or 5,000 percent increases 
for beef. Present technology if applied worldwide would result in a 2.5 
percent increase annually and most countries cannot sustain even this. 
If we are to look forward to a day when all men might enjoy good health, 
there must be dramatic improvements in food production technologies. 

In pursuit of this goal, let us rearrange the world resources and look 
at them from a different vantage point. What is the case then? 

— Less than 10 percent of the earth's surface is used for food pro- 
duction. 

— Less than one percent of the energy received by the earth from the 
sun is fixed in photosynthesis. 

— Less than one calorie in a million reaching the earth is presently 
usable as human food. 

We must conclude that food production is a very inefficient affair, 
that it is not particularly geared to man, and that food production is in 
its infancy. 

It is not enough to hybridize crops, produce and apply more ferti- 
lizers, develop better farming equipment, decrease spoilage and improve 
food distribution and improve our knowledge and practice of human 



Soil Science 345 

nutrition. Such are under development at the present time and we already 
see, as the figures above show, not only the limitations in our present 
approach, but the limitation of our present thinking. 

For the future we need a system of food production that would allow 
a large increase in high quality protein for diets and the system should 
be operative with the resources men have available. As was true with the 
legume rotation, for example, the new system must be an improvement in 
technology. Since 70 percent of this planet's surface is occupied by salt 
water it would seem reasonable to be able to use it in food production. 

Untapped Potentials 

Some significant discoveries in the field of atomic energy were the 
demonstrations that uranium underwent fission under certain circim- 
stances, that such fission events could be sustained, and that the energy 
released in the process could be harvested. We need discoveries of this 
order of magnitude in food production. 

Fission also occurs in living cells. Fission is the general method of 
cell division, creating two from one. This reaction, too, under certain cir- 
cumstances can be sustained. If the cell undergoing fission is a photo- 
synthetic cell, it can also harvest solar energy for us. This process is 
recognized as the basic energy system for life in oceans and waters. 

The cellular system is known, the cells are called algae, and they have 
been a laboratory curiosity for more time than has been the fission of 
uranium. In fact, more is known about plant growth from the study of 
algae than from any other plant. In the course of study it was found that 
the algae are about five times more efficient in the photosynthetic process 
than are the higher (seed bearing) plants. Furthermore, the nutrient 
requirements of algae are essentially present in sea water. 

Some strains of algae have phenomenal growth rates. Under certain 
circumstances, for example, the algae can be forced to grow into very 
dense populations, approaching 50 million cells per drop; a pound of algae 
cells could be harvested from a gallon of such a population each week. At 
this rate, a 50 gallon unit would equal the productive capacity in a year 
of an acre of farm land planted to soybeans or wheat. In fact dry algae 
are half protein but like beans and grain are not good human food alone. 
However, algae can serve as the bulk for animal feeding. 

To speculate, a 50,000 gallon unit, about the size of a large double 
garage, would be equal to feed produced by 100 acres of good farm land 
in a year, and conceivably could yield more than a pound of chicken flesh 
a day for 1,000 people after the eighth week of operation and at this rate 
thereafter. 

Furthermore, it might be useful to explore the growth of single celled 
animals since some also have very great reproduction rates, as do insects, 
which already serve as animal feed in nature. If these can be fed on 
algae, and also maintained in a logarithmic growth phase, rather phe- 
nomenal production of feed might be possible. This would then permit us 
to dramatically increase high quality protein supplies to supplement pres- 
ent systems. 

Since electric light can be used by algae instead of sunlight in photo- 
synthesis, we might eventually even explore the conversion of hydroelectric 
power into meat or milk, or, atomic energy can be released and the energy 



346 Indiana Academy of Science 

converted to electricity to light to be converted into food. Since in the 
latter process a large amount of radiation is also released, and the food 
produced is perishable, we could pass it back through the radiation to 
sterilize the food to permit effective storage and distribution. The United 
States government has already invested many millions of dollars in more 
than 100 laboratories over the past seven years to perfect this process of 
food preservation. Adequate technology now exists with which we can 
now destroy all the parasites, worms and insects which are present in our 
foods and which constitute a major public health menace to man. 

The "closed cycle" generation of food would make us less dependent 
on fertile land. The system might find widespread application in civil 
defense since each community could probably assemble workable genera- 
tors with materials already available locally. 

On the other hand, protein starvation at present occurs in the greatest 
degree in a zone around the earth bounded by 25° North latitude and 25° 
South latitude. In this belt, photosynthetic rates are very high, but the 
rates of respiration of plants are also high. The result is a low net accu- 
mulation of photosynthetic materials in higher plants. As a consequence, 
there are small natural animal populations and many people residing in 
the area as suffering from protein starvation. This belt around the earth 
has good sunlight and temperatures favorable for single celled plant and 
animal growths. For example, molds are rich in protein and one difficulty 
in the tropics is to keep molds from growing! Mold growth on and with 
algae is recognized as a natural process — the lichens. There are many 
edible lichens, i.e., the rains of manna in the Bible, useful as animal food. 

The only time when such innovations can be tried and perfected is 
when some groups of people are not forced to consume every green shoot 
that emerges from the earth. Three nations in ten are still in a position 
to come to the aid of the seven in ten in trouble. 

The overall problem we must attack is sub-marginal living standards 
which presently limit the effectiveness of the majority of the people in the 
world. Solutions to improving standards of living are hinged on adequate 
food production and improvements must be based on the resources avail- 
able to have lasting effects. Since the resource base of nations is relatively 
fixed, the solution is to be found in expanding our technologies of food 
production. It is now clear that our ability to increase the food supplies 
on earth with the resources available to the point where most men could 
enjoy good health is limited mainly by our present thinking. For the first 
time in history man now has the technological capability to conquer starva- 
tion, which has limited human life since civilization began. 

Reviewing the past, we see mankind existing mainly on the edge of 
hunger. Looking to the future, it appears mankind is on the brink of an 
historic change. Some might call the change one toward the industrializa- 
tion of food production. 



Increasing Crop Potentials Through Water Availability 1 

Dan Wiersma, Purdue University 

Water is essential for all life. It has probably had more influence on 
the development of man's history than any other resource. Agriculture, 
with its production of food and fiber, is especially dependent on water. 

In this symposium we are concerned with maximizing Indiana agri- 
culture. Water and its availability, however, knows no political boundaries, 
but is of national, and even of international interest. 

Water and its availability is a broad subject. There is much discussion 
about agriculture's competition for water with industry, domestic use, 
power, navigation, and the host of other interests. There are many inter- 
esting facts about the physiological response of the plant to optimum 
water conditions, the economic aspects of water and agriculture, and a 
vast amount of statistics. These remarks, however, will be confined to the 
availability of Indiana's water resources. 

We are all familiar with the hydrologic cycle. The sun is the over-all 
source of energy, while the ocean and land masses, rotation of the earth 
and other factors are responsible for our weather and rainfall patterns. 
It is a large scale system but an inefficient system in distribution both in 
time and space. The moist air masses moving from the Pacific Ocean 
eastward across the North American Continent go on from the East 
Coast with more than three-fourths of their original moisture. (Acker- 
man and Lof 1959). Further, it is estimated that even a heavy storm 
precipitates only 0.5 percent of the overhead moisture in the storm area. 
Indiana is favorably located in that its normal rainfall is more than 
adequate for all uses in the foreseeable future. 

As with any circle, or cycle, there is no logical beginning or ending 
point. However, when the atmospheric moisture condenses and falls as 
rain, it no longer is a part of the large scale system, but becomes an 
integral part of a watershed. The Indiana Water Resources Study Com- 
mittee (4), has defined 18 major Watersheds in Indiana for us in their 
1956 report. They have taken the hydrologic data from the various sources 
and have made an analysis which is extremely valuable. 

As soon as the rain falls on the watershed it can then be related to a 
hydrological equation; namely: P = R.O + E T + AS + ASMD + aG + L 
Where 

P = Precipitation 
R.O => Runoff 
E T = Evapotranspiration 
S = Surface Storage 
SMD = Soil Moisture Deficit 
G = Ground water 
L = Leakage from watershed 

In this equation we have incoming water as precipitation and out- 
going water as runoff and evapotranspiration. The surface storage, soil 
moisture deficit, and ground water include the storage within a watershed. 



1. Contribution from Purdue University, Agriculture Experiment Station, Journal 
Paper No. 1835. 

347 



348 Indiana Academy of Science 

Adapting this equation to Indiana conditions we have from past 
records the annual mean precipitation of about 36 inches in the north and 
42 inches in the south. This is the only source of water for the watershed, 
excepting possibly the extreme right hand term, Leakage. In some water- 
sheds, water may move in or out through porous formations. Hydrologi- 
cally this water is usually difficult to account for, and unless known to 
occur, it is assumed to be negligible. 

Again, the physical forces of the atmosphere are responsible for the 
amount, intensity and location of precipitation (Ackerman and Lof 1959) 
(2). Weather modification studies have shown that cloud seeding has 
increased precipitation by 10-15% in orographic areas, which does not 
include Indiana. Meteorologists are continuing to improve their tech- 
niques in predicting precipitation and climatologists have been doing 
excellent work in developing probabilities of occurrence. The fact remains 
that to date, man has practically no control of rainfall occurrence. 

Each of the terms of the right hand side of the equation has peculiar 
characteristics, but in turn the terms are related to each other. Runoff, 
R.O., has two component parts, namely, the surface and the groundwater. 
The surface runoff is water which does not infiltrate into the soil during 
a storm, but flows directly overland to the watershed outlet. This is the 
water which causes rise in stream and river flow, and frequently flooding. 
The ground water runoff is water contributed to the watershed outlet 
from the underground source. It is the source which keeps the stream or 
river at its base flow level. The total of these two is measured on a hydro- 
graph and constitutes the hydrologic data referred to as "runoff." 

The next term "evapotranspiration" is a water loss from the water- 
shed as transference from liquid to vapor occurs. It consists of (1) evapo- 
ration from open water surfaces such as lakes, streams, bare soil, and 
plant surfaces, and (2) transpiration, which involves the movement of 
liquid water from the soil through the plant to the leaf surface and its 
subsequent change from liquid to vapor. Evapotranspiration is an energy 
process, and is dependent on the sun for its energy source. This is a definite 
water loss and involves the water being returned to the large scale system. 

Surface storage is water retained in ponds, sloughs, lakes, and other 
means of retention. Change in level occurs due to evaporation and ground 
water percolation. 

Soil Moisture Deficit, SMD, is directly related to evapotranspiration. 
A porous medium such as soils will retain some water in its interstice, the 
amount depending largely upon texture and structure. Soils differ in their 
capacity to hold water, the fine textured soils holding more than the 
coarse textured. The amount of water held in a particular soil against 
the force of gravity is referred to as "field capacity." Water infiltrating 
into the soil must satisfy the "soil moisture deficit," the amount of water 
below "field capacity," before percolation will proceed downward to the 
ground water. Ground water is the region where all the interstices are 
completely filled with water. Movement within this water reservoir is 
dependent on the geologic formation. 

As to the inter-relationship of these terms, from an agricultural 
standpoint we are very much interested in SMD or "soil moisture deficit." 
If this is maintained at a minimum and other environmental conditions 



Soil Science 349 

are equal, plants will respond favorably. Evapotranspiration is entirely- 
responsible for the occurrence of this SMD. The amount of water a soil 
can store varies from less than Vz inch per foot of soil to over 2V 2 inches 
per foot. Direct field measurements can be made of the storage capacity 
of a soil, or it can be estimated in the laboratory. These measurements 
are presently being made on many of our Indiana soils. The rate of evapo- 
transpiration is dependent on isolation, wind, vapor pressure deficit and 
temperature. Naturally the highest rate occurs during the growing season 
when rainfall is normally the lowest and most irregular. These rates can 
be estimated by measuring the SMD, however, this is slow and laborious. 
Attempts have been made to estimate this rate by the use of climatic data. 
Since temperature is a climatological parameter easily measured, and 
taken in the routine weather station observations, several attempts have 
been made to relate this with evapotranspiration. Notable of these are 
the Blaney-Criddle and Thornthwaite formulas. These give reasonably 
accurate estimates if adapted to a particular geographic area, and the 
period of time is extended over several days. Other relatively simple 
measurements which have been correlated with evapotranspiration are 
net radiation, and evaporation from the Weather Bureau Class A open 
pan, the Livingston atmometer, and the Bellani plate. Also, Penman of 
England has derived a formula combining theoretical and emperical con- 
sideration involving all the influences of evaporation. Modifications of 
this equation have been developed in our country by Van Bavel and others. 
None of these are extremely accurate on a day to day basis, but approach 
it over a period of several days. These measurements are especially helpful 
to a farmer who is equipped to irrigate. Rates as high as 0.36 inches for 
one day have been measured in Indiana, and for a period of several days 
average 0.23 inches per day. The rate for July and August ranges from 
0.16 to 0.20 inches per day with the overall average about 0.18 inches. 

Ground water is the source of water for all our wells. The lowering 
of the ground water level always creates considerable interest. Naturally 
pumping will lower the level, and the only source of recharge is from the 
precipitation over the watershed surface. A relatively small amount of 
water may flow back into ground water storage during high flow of a river 
or stream; but this is usually minor. Also a considerable amount of water 
may enter the ground water storage from streams which have porous beds. 
Measurements taken the past few years by the U. S. Geological Survey 
indicate fluctuation in ground water levels in Indiana have been minor, 
other than in a few regions of heavy withdrawal. In general, there is an 
abundant supply of accessible water in the glacial Wisconsin drift and 
outwash plains of Northern and Central Indiana, but only small supplies 
are available from the Illinoian drift and unglaciated areas of Southern 
Indiana. 

A crucial area in the hydrologic cycle and which does not appear in 
the equation is at the point of water entry into the soil. The rate of infil- 
tration will largely determine the fate of water in a particular storm. 
There are four general situations; namely: 

1. The rainfall intensity is less than the infiltration rate, and the 
rainfall amount is less than the soil moisture deficit. This results 
in no surface runoff, ground water accretion or increase in stream 
flow. 



350 Indiana Academy of Science 

2. The rainfall intensity is less than the infiltration rate and the 
total amount of rainfall is greater than the soil moisture deficit. 
This results in no surface runoff, an increase in ground water 
accretion and an increase in stream flow. 

3. The rainfall intensity is greater than the infiltration rate, and the 
total amount is less than the soil moisture deficit. This results in 
surface runoff, no ground water accretion, and some increase in 
stream flow. 

4. The rainfall intensity is greater than the infiltration rate, and the 
total amount is greater than the soil moisture deficit. This results 
in surface runoff, ground water accretion and increase of stream 
flow. 

Relating the overall equation specifically to Indiana, and disregarding 
the L (Leakage), it should be apparent that the three right hand terms 
are in reality water storage. They will fluctuate, but in the humid area 
where the hydrologic year is taken as beginning March 1, on this date 
SMD can be considered as zero, and over a period of years surface storage 
and ground water will assume a constant level. Runoff and Evapotrans- 
piration remains as water loss terms and it can be assumed : 

P = R.O. + E T 
or 

P — R.O. = E T 

Taking the 25 year records (Table I) for all of the 18 watersheds 
and applying this revised equation, the annual E T averages 26.7 inches. 

Table I. Rainfall, Runoff, Exapotranspiration relationships for the 18 

major watersheds of Indiana. Record taken for 25 year 

period 1929-1954. 













Calculated 








Rainfall 


Runoff 


Evapotranspiration 


Watershed 






(Inches) 


(Inches) 


(Inches) 


Lake Michigan 






39.4 


10.7 


28.7 


St. Joseph 






36.0 


11.5 


24.6 


Kankakee 






38.7 


10.9 


27.8 


Maumee 






34.6 


10.1 


24.5 


Tippecanoe 






35.9 


11.5 


24.4 


Upper Wabash 






37.6 


11.1 


26.5 


Mid-Wabash 






38.4 


11.2 


27.2 


Lower Wabash 






40.4 


11.3 


29.1 


Upper White, 


West 


Fork 


38.2 


11.7 


26.5 


Lower White, 


West 


Fork 


41.4 


12.8 


28.6 


Upper White, 


East 


Fork 


39.6 


13.5 


26.1 


Muscatatuck 






43.9 


14.8 


29.1 


Lower White, 


East 


Fork 


42.1 


14.8 


27.3 


Patoka 






43.0 


16.2 


26.8 


Whitewater 






38.5 


13.1 


25.4 


Laughery 






41.3 


14.1 


27.2 


Mid-Ohio 






42.0 


16.8 


25.2 


Lower Ohio 






42.9 


17.9 


25.0 



Soil Science 351 

This amount is very uniform from North to South. The extreme for any 
of the watersheds on either side of this average is less than 2.5 inches. 
The standard deviation for all the watersheds is 1.71 inches. 

On all the watersheds averaging more than 40 inches rainfall, the 
average R.O. is 14.8 inches and the E T is 27.3 inches, while the watersheds 
averaging less than 40 inches have a R.O. of 11.5 inches and an E T of 
26.2 inches, a difference in E T of about 1 inch. Six watersheds along the 
Northern border of the State have an average rainfall of 36.9 inches, a 
R.O. of 11.0 inches, and an E T of 25.9 inches, while six southern water- 
sheds average 42.5 inches of rainfall, a R.O. of 15.8 inches and an E T of 
26.8 inches. Therefore, the additional precipitation of Southern Indiana is 
principally utilized as runoff. 

Attempts have been made to suppress evaporation from bare soil by 
mulches, and other conservation practices (3). Monomolecular layers of 
long chain alcohols such as hexadecanol have been reported to reduce 
evaporation by as much as 30% on open water surfaces. There have also 
been reports of using this substance to reduce the transpiration rate of 
plants, but this has not been definitely verified. There are many who 
ascribe to the idea that the future of the agriculture water economy lies 
in this area, that is reduction of evapotranspiration. It may well be. 
Certainly research should be continued on the physics involved in the 
evaporation processes, and the physiology of plants in water use. 

From an Agricultural viewpoint, minimizing soil moisture deficit 
is most important in maximizing producton. We have in Indiana about 
Wz millions acres of soil on which moisture is an acute problem almost 
every year. These areas are principally in the northern sandy regions, 
along the river bottoms in central Indiana, and on a large section of the 
Wabash Valley in Southwestern Indiana. The problem then is to find a 
source of water to supplement these acute areas and thus alleviate the 
SMD during the periods of low summer rainfall. The means of supple- 
menting this water is commonly known as "irrigation." 

Ground water is one source. This is a vast resource, however, no one 
seems to know just how much. It appears to be ample in some regions, 
particularly in the northern areas of the state. But this source is not 
inexhaustible as it ultimately must come from precipitation, and if with- 
drawal is greater than recharge, eventually there will be a problem. 

The other source is runoff. It is obvious that some runoff must be 
maintained in our streams and rivers as base flow. An estimate of the 
runoff necessary to maintain this base flow is made by taking information 
from the Indiana Water Resource Committee report on a typical water- 
shed and using runoff data for the period May through September, about 
8.50 inches annually should be a conservative estimate. If this estimate is 
anywhere near correct, then in Northern Indiana there is approximately 
3 inches of water and in Southern Indiana 7 inches which is excess flow 
and is lost as flood water. These are the peaks of our stream hydrographs. 
One approach is to transfer these peak or excess Runoff, R.O., to surface 
storage, S. This does not upset the hydrologic equation, but merely alters 
the terms, changing R.O. to S. and ultimately to SMD and thus maximizing 
our agricultural resource. 

To be specific, for every 0.6 inch of water taken from the excess 
runoff from the total area in Indiana, and stored, a million acres could be 



352 Indiana Academy of Science 

irrigated to alleviate the Soil Moisture Deficit. This is allowing an acre 
foot of water for an acre of irrigated land. This would take considerable 
storage area, for example, it would require 10,000 reservoirs averaging 
10 acres in size and 10 feet deep. This sounds fantastic, but this is a 
natural resource being lost every year. 

How much additional output can we expect by management of the 
SMD. We know from research that a 30 to 100% increase is not unusual. 
Looking at the production pattern, we note that with supplemental water, 
the annual yield output should be more nearly uniform each year. Other 
environmental factors then become the limiting ones. We can also appre- 
ciate that the lower the water holding capacity of the soil, the greater the 
yearly fluctuations. Leveling out these fluctuations gives the producer 
more stability, and greater flexibility in that he may produce crops which 
require an ample and an assured water supply. 

Some of this may seem far fetched and not economically sound, but in 
this symposium we are thinking about utilizing our resources for maximum 
agricultural production. In reality, we are even today working toward 
these objectives in our conservation and watershed programs. 

By way of summarization, I would like to quote Edward A. Acker- 
man (1) of the Carnegie Institution, who in a talk given at a meeting of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science and speaking 
of the States located east of the 98th meridian where he said : "This is 
where the major Agricultural development of the future will be, even 
more heavily weighed than in the past. This region has the lion's share of 
the land, the water, and the future market. As yet, however, the develop- 
ment of artificially supplied water has been small. Aside from the soil 
moisture received from precipitation, water is a very minor agricultural 
input. Perhaps because of this we know very little about its productivity 
relative to inputs under the conditions prevailing in several parts of the 
East. Yet when we view such important potential agricultural areas as 
the lower Mississippi Valley this productive promise of water application 
appears to be of first rank." He further states: "The first need for action 
therefore, is rigorous economic evaluation of the relative productivity of 
water in humid land cultivation, considered in the light of modern agri- 
cultural technology. I believe that wise and fruitful public investment 
cannot be made for water development without the results from such 
studies." 

We may not be ready to build 10,000 reservoirs in Indiana, but its 
food for thought for food and fiber for the future. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ackeeman, E. A. 1960. "Water Resource Planning and Development in Agricul- 
ture." Water in Agriculture, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Publication No. 62: 3-14. 

2. Ackerman, E. A., and Lof, G. O. G. 1959. Technology in American Water Develop- 
ment. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore 356-383. 

3. Harbeck, G. E. 1960. "Suppressing Evaporation from Water Surfaces." Water in 
Agriculture, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Publication No. 
62: 171-172. 

4. Indiana Water Resources Study Committee. 1956. Technical Report on Indiana 
Water Resources. 



Technological Change and Resource Utilization in American 

Agriculture 1 

Vernon W. Ruttan, Purdue University 
1.0 Technological change in agriculture poses a major policy issue in 
almost every country of the world. 
— In most countries the problem remains, as in the time of Malthus, 

how to relieve the "pressure of population on food supplies." 
— In the U. S. the problem has been, for more than three decades, how 

to relieve the "pressure of food supplies on population." 
The transformation between these two situations made possible by 
technological change is illustrated by the following item: 
"Greek farmers grow enough wheat to meet home needs for the first 
time in history by using higher yielding varieties, more fertilizer, and 
switching to better tillage methods. Greece this year produced about 
62 mllion bushels. Prior to World War II about half its requirements 
were imported, mostly from the U. S." (Wall Street Journal, October 
10, 1961, p. 1). 

The situation in Greece is not unique. The FAO continues to report 
additional countries in which the pressure of "population on food 
supplies" is being transformed into the pressure of "food supplies on 
population." Even the most densely populated areas of Western 
Europe are approaching self sufficiency in food production. (See 
"Trends in European Agriculture" FAO Monthly Bulletin of Agricul- 
tural Economics and Statistics," Vol. 9, #10, October 1960.) 

2.0 Identification of the role of technological change in this transforma- 
tion involves a number of difficult conceptual and emperical problems. 

2.1 The conceptual problem : 

2.11 Before technological change can occur certain prior events are 
necessary. The stage must be set by inventions or by scientific 
discoveries. Technological change does not occur until the new 
discoveries are utilized in production. 

2.12 When technological change occurs its effects are felt in many 
ways. For purposes of economic analysis three aspects are par- 
ticularly significant: (a) changes in production costs and/or the 
product mix of individual firms; (b) shifts in the demand for 
inputs used by firms and industries and shifts in the supply of 
products produced by firms and industries; (c) changes in the 
total level of resource utilization in relation to output in the 
economy as a whole. For the economy as a whole all cost reduc- 
ing innovations become, through the operation of factor and 
product markets, output increasing innovations. 

2.13 The significance of technological change for the growth of agri- 
cultural output, and for economic growth in general, is that it 
permits the substitution of knowledge for resources. Tradition- 



1. This report is based on research conducted under Purdue Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Project 917. Project 917 is financed by Grants from the National Science 
Foundation and from Resources for the Future. 

353 



354 Indiana Academy of Science 

ally, we have thought of economic growth stemming from the 
substitution of resources (land, capital) for labor. 
2.2 The measurement problem — how to separate the contribution of tech- 
nology from the contribution of resources? 

2.11 Partial productivity measures. [0 = T(W)] 

Such measures as output per unit of labor, land, breeding stock, 
or feed are useful but biased. Charges in these measures can 
occur as a result of changes in resource inputs as well as a result 
of changes in technology. 

2.12 Total productivity approach. [0 = T (wW + 1L + cC + eE)] 
The total productivity (output per unit of total input) or index 
number approach accounts for all inputs but does not take into 
account the fact that the rate of substitution between inputs and 
output, among inputs, and between inputs and technology varies 
with the amount used (fertilizer example). 

2.13 Production function approach. [0 — T A (W w L 1 C° E e )] 

A non-linear function such as the exponential permits wider 
latitude for substitution. Other functional forms are available. 
When estimated statistically the production function describes 
the new technology only as it exists on the average or typical 
farm in the group being studied. 

2.14 The diffusion function. [T A = R (T,) ] 

In actual practice the technology used in the typical farm or 
the average technology for the nation as a whole will differ from 
the technology on the innovating farms depending on (a) the 
receptivity of the population to new ideas; (b) the efficiency of 
the communication or education system; (c) the size of the 
investment in obsolete equipment; (d) the rate of technological 
change itself; and others. 

The best that can usually be done emperically is to measure 
T A rather than T,. 



2.15 The development level. 



[O T A (W w L 1 C c E e )"| 
P P J 



The per capita output of a society is a useful index to its level 
of economic development. If both sides of the production func- 
tion equation are divided by the level of population the per 
capita output level (D) for the industry or economy being con- 
sidered is obtained. The level of resource inputs necessary to 
achieve a particular level of per capita output depends on the 
relationship between the rate of technological change and the 
rate of population growth. If the rate of technological change 
can be pushed above the rate of population growth the level of 
per capita output can be increased with no increase in resource 
inputs. 

3.0 The Output Explosion in American Agriculture. 

This background on the conceptual and emperical issues relating to 

technological change should shed new insight on the output explosion in 

American agriculture that we have experienced over the last several 

decades. 



Soil Science 355 

3.1 Significance of output explosion in relation to discussion of early 
1950's. 

The President's Water Resources Policy Commission {Water 
Policy for the American People, Vol. I, USPGO, Washington 1952, 
p. 156-1959) warned that equivalent of 100 million acres of crop- 
land would have to be added to meet 1975 farm output require- 
ments. It warned that approximately two-thirds of this increase 
would have to come from resource development activities such as 
irrigation, flood protection, drainage and land clearing if Ameri- 
can farmers were to fill, in the Department of Agriculture's ter- 
minology, the "fifth plate" resulting from population growth. By 
1960 the nation's farmers had already filled the "fifth plate" and 
were well on their way toward filling a sixth. The error of these 
and other projections of the early 1950's reflected failure to 
visualize technology as a substitute for resource inputs. 

3.2 The longer run picture. 

3.11 The last decade is in sharp contrast to longer run picture 
(See Figure 1 and Table 1). 

Figure I. Indexes of Output, Input, Productivity and Real Prices in Agriculture, 1870-1959 



<*0 



140 



ro 



HO 



Total Produc 



7 



4\ 

/ / '.^->V""~ - Total Inputs- 7 



-Real Prices'^ 



1880 1900 1920 1940 I960 

USDA, "Changes in Farm Production and Efficiency". Stat. Bui. 233, July I960, p. 48 

Barnett, Harold J. "Measurement of Natural Resource Scarcity and Its Economic Effects" National Bureau 
of Economic Research, October 1958, (Mimeographed). 

Between 1870 and 1900 almost two-thirds of the increase in 
output was accounted for by increased inputs and one-third 
by technological change. Output rose by 3.7 percent per 
year while resource inputs expanded by 2.0 percent per year 
and total productivity by 1.1 percent per year. The supply 
of resources was sufficiently elastic, when combined with 
the flow of new technology, to permit an extremely rapid 
rate of increase in farm output with no increase in "real" 
farm prices. 



356 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1. Annual Average Rates of Change in Total Output, Inputs 
and Productivity in American Agriculture, 1870-1958. 1 

1870-1900 1900-25 1925-50 1950-58 



Changes of 




(percent per year) 




Gross Output 


3.2 


0.9 


1.5 


2.5 


Gross Inputs 


2.0 


1.0 


0.4 


0.0 


Gross output per unit 










of gross input 


1.1 


-0.0 


1.2 


2.5 



1. TJSDA, "Changes in Farm Production and Efficiency," Stat. Bui. 233, July, 
1960, p. 48. 

2. Harold J. Barnett, "Measurement of Natural Resource Scarcity and Its Eco- 
nomic Effects," National Bureau of Economic Research, October, 1958 (mimeographed). 

Between 1900 and 1925 a slow rate of growth in resource 
inputs combined with failure to achieve any measurable 
increase in total productivity reduced the rate of growth of 
farm output to less than 1%. This was the only period since 
1870 which experienced a sustained increase in agricultural 
prices relative to the general price level. With the applica- 
tion of new technology proceeding only fast enough to offset 
the effect of diminishing returns even relatively rapid price 
increases were not sufficient to draw additional resources 
into agricultural production fast enough to maintain a rate 
of growth in agricultural output equal to the rate of popu- 
lation growth. 

Since the mid 1920's the rate of technological change has 
risen at an increasing rate. Between 1925 and 1950 a 1.2 
percent annual change in total productivity and a 0.4 per- 
cent annual increase in resource utilization combined to 
produce an output expansion of 1.5 percent per year. By 
the 1950 decade total productivity was increasing at a suffi- 
ciently rapid rate to account for the entire increase in farm 
output. 
3.12 Significance of 1910-1925 for development of (a) conserva- 
tion and (b) research and extension policies. 

The implications of lagging productivity and diminishing 
returns to resources during the first quarter of this century 
were brought to the attention of consumers and legislators 
through the mechanism of rising food prices. The public 
concern with resource policy generated during this period 
expressed itself in terms of both (a) increased emphasis on 
conservation and development of physical resources and 
(b) in increased allocation of public funds for research and 
education designed to speed the rate of technological change 
in American Agriculture. 

The success of these policies is further evidence that it is 
possible to regard technological change and resource invest- 
ment as partial substitutes for each other in achieving 
agricultural development. The problem of agricultural de- 
velopment can now be stated in terms of achieving the most 
efficient combination of expenditures on resource conserva- 



Soil Science 357 

tion and research and education leading to technological 
change rather than simply assuring that the nation and 
the world will be able to meet expanding food and fiber 
requirements. 

4.0 Implications of technological change for future resource require- 
ments in American Agriculture. 

4.1 Impact of alternative rates of technological change on use of 
input factors (Table 2). 

It is not possible to predict the precise level of farm output that 
will be attained by 1975 or any other future date. Nor can the 
exact combination of inputs that will be used to produce a par- 
ticular level of output be specified precisely. It is possible, how- 
ever, to arrive at a fairly reasonable output projections for the 
mid-1970's. It is possible, without specifying the rate of techno- 
logical change that will actually be achieved during the next 
decade and a half, to analyze the probable effects of alternative 
rates of technological change on the inputs required to produce a 
given level of output. The rate of technological change that will 
actually be achieved will, of course, depend upon many factors 
over which decisions have yet to be made — the financial resources 
to be devoted to research and development, and the quality of 
research personnel which the colleges send into industry, for 
example — as well as the many intangible elements which enter 
into the effectiveness of basic and applied research. 

Since projections, in contrast to predictions, serve to illustrate 
the consequences of decisions and actions over which some degree 
of control still exists, their most effective use is in guiding policy. 
The challenge is, for example, to bring about a level of techno- 
logical change which is consistent with both the required level of 
farm output and feasible changes in land, labor, and capital 
inputs in American agriculture. 

Four basic technological change possibilities are identified in 
Table 2. For purposes of contrast, input requirements are first 
shown for the situation that would exist if technical change — 
growth in output per unit of total input — completely ceased. 
Extremely large quantities of capital and current operating ex- 
penses would have to be employed, along with a rather constant 
quantity of land and some additional decline in farm labor, in 
order to achieve the required level of farm output. 

In the second situation — identified as "slow technical prog- 
ress" — a rate of technological change similar to the average rate 
since 1910-1914 is assumed. Even with this fairly modest rate 
of change (see Table 2), substantial reductions in input require- 
ments are indicated as compared to the zero technological change 
situation. 

"Rapid technical progress" — proceeding at a rate similar to 
that of the last three decades — results in further declines in 
input requirements, but a larger share of the decline is felt in 
terms of declining labor requirements and less in terms of decline 
capital and current input requirements. 



358 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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Soil Science 359 

In the last situation — identified as "very rapid technical prog- 
ress" — the consequences of a rate of technical progress which 
would permit aggregate inputs to remain unchanged between 
1950 and 1975 are examined. Although total inputs are held at 
the 1950 level, substitution of capital and current operating 
expenses for labor is projected. 

Within each of the four major projections, a situation char- 
acterized as "high" and "low" level land inputs is presented. 
Considerable controversy has surrounded the question of future 
land requirements. Part of this controversy seems related to the 
traditional practice of stating future output requirements in 
terms of acreage equivalents — "by 1975 increased food and fiber 
requirements will require the equivalent of 50 million additional 
acres of land" — instead of dealing explicitly with the contribu- 
tion of technological change to farm output. Assuming a maxi- 
mum decline of land inputs to an index of 90 and a maximum 
rise to an index of 110 probably brackets the reasonable range of 
alternatives, and serves to illustrate the effects of alternative 
land policies on requirements for other inputs. 

Table 3. Indexes of Farm Output and Input Changes 1950-59 and 
Projections to 1960 and 1975. 







Actual 
1959 1 


19.14 Pi 


•ojeetions 2 


Revised 




1960 


197.") 


Projection s : - 


Output— % of 1950 ov. 


itput 


126 


122 


160 


160-65 


Labor 




66 


78 


67 


45-50 


Land 




96 a 


96-104 


90-110 


90-110 


Non-Land Capital 












(includes buildings 




119 


121-27 


122-44 


130-35 


Operating Expenses 




139 


138-48 


173-210 


170-200 



a. The 1959 index is based on acreage of harvested crops only. The projections 
are in terms of a weighted quantity index in which irrigated cropland, non-irrigated 
cropland and pasture are given separate weights based on productivity and market 
price criteria. The decline in acreage harvested since 1950 has been at least in part 
offset by increases in irrigated acreage. 

Source: (1) Computed from U. S. Department of Agriculture, Changes in Farm Pro- 
duction and Efficiency, Statistical Bulletin 233, Washington, July I960. 

(2) V. W. Ruttan. "The Contribution of Technological Progress to Farm 
Output : 1950-75," Review of Economics' and Statistics, Vol. 38, No. 1, 
February 1956, pp. 61-64 (Models VII and VIII). 

(3) Revisions of data presented in V. W. Ruttan. Iliid. 

4.2 Where are we heading by 1975 (Table 3) ? 

The projections presented in Table 2 (constructed in 1954) 
appear to underestimate the rate at which capital inputs were 
substituted for labor inputs during the decade of the 1950's. 
Overall patterns appear, however, to conform rather closely with 
that of Models VII and VIII. In Table 3 the projections are com- 
pared with the actual experience of the last decade and revised 
projections which takes this experience into account are pre- 
sented. It would appear, with total productivity rising at close 
to 2.5 percent per year and population expanding at 1.8 percent 
per year the American Economy will continue to experience 
"pressure of food supplies on population." 



360 Indiana Academy of Science 

5.0 Question — What does a rate of technological change which exceeds the 
rate of population growth imply for research workers, 
farmers and consumers? 
The record of the past several decades indicates that research 
workers in agriculture have been particularly successful in develop- 
ing new knowledge leading to the substitution of technology for re- 
sources inputs in agricultural production. Farmers have attempted, 
through agricultural programs, to capture a significant share of these 
gains. In this attempt they have been only partially successful. The 
declining agricultural prices during the last decade indicates that a 
substantial share of the gains from new technology are being passed 
on to consumers. 

In the future consumers will be best served by a continuation of a 
national policy which encourages the support of agricultural research, 
development and education. The rising food costs that could result 
from failure to maintain a rate of technological change that at least 
approximates the rate of population growth could easily exceed the 
costs of agricultural research and education. A rate of technological 
change in agriculture which exceeds the rate of growth in demand 
will, on the other hand, create political pressures on the part of 
farmers for protection against the loss of asset values and income 
stemming from declining farm prices. 



Response of Wheat to Nitrogen on Indiana Soils 1 

R. K. Stivers, H. F. Hodges, R. F. Dudley and C. F. Douglas, 
Purdue University and Agricultural Engineering Research Division, 

Agricultural Research Service, U. S. D. A. 

In 1946 Horrall (2) found that nitrogen needed for maximum yield 
of wheat varied with each experimental location. This difference, he 
thought, was due primarily to the degree of rust and scab infestation 
rather than to soil differences. At that time, 20 pounds of nitrogen at 
planting plus 40 pounds of nitrogen top-dressed in spring was the highest 
yielding treatment on three of his four test locations. 

Peterson (3) found that anhydrous ammonia and ammonium nitrate 
applied in the fall were more effective on poorly-drained, strongly acid 
soils than on well-drained, slightly acid soils. Fall and spring applied 
anhydrous ammonia and ammonium nitrate were compared at several 
rates and on six locations. In general, he found that the tallest wheat and 
the largest yields were obtained with the application of ammonium nitrate 
broadcast in spring. However, he noticed that at one location in the 
second year of the experiment that fall applications of nitrogen reduced 
the winter killing of the wheat. Soil properties and yield results of Peter- 
son's research with wheat are summarized in a Purdue publication about 
wheat fertilization (1). In addition to Peterson's work, this publication 
reports a fall versus spring nitrogen application experiment with wheat 
on Plainfield sand. It definitely shows that spring application was much 
better than fall on this sandy soil. 

Results of eight years of demonstrations are reported in another 
Purdue publication concerning small grains (4). It shows that \ x k to 2 
more bushels of wheat were obtained per acre from 25 pounds of nitrogen 
top-dressed in the spring than from the same amount of nitrogen top- 
dressed in the fall. 

The purposes of this study were (1) to compare application of all of 
the nitrogen at planting in two different 1-1-1 ratio fertilizers with appli- 
cation of a small amount of nitrogen in the fall at planting plus most of 
the nitrogen top-dressed in early spring, and (2) to study rates of nitrogen 
top-dressed in spring in relation to soil type and cropping and fertilization 
history. 

METHODS AND PROCEDURES 

Experiment 1 

This experiment was conducted on four locations with winter wheat 
in 1957-1958. The descriptions of the soils used are given in Table 1. 
Certified Dual wheat was seeded at 6 to 7 pecks per acre on three locations. 
Certified Vermillion was seeded at the same rate on the Purdue Agronomy 
Farm, the fourth location. 



1. Journal Paper No. 1837, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Contribution from the Department of Agronomy and from the Agricultural Engineer- 
ing Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. D. A., Beltsville, Maryland. 
The authors are indebted to H. N. Wheaton, Purdue University, and to H. J. Retzer, 
Agricultural Engineering Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. D. A., 
Beltsville, Maryland, for their assistance. 

361 



362 



Indiana Academy of Science 



A randomized block design with four replications and four treatments 
was used at each of the four locations. Time of nitrogen fertilizer appli- 
cation was the variable studied. Treatments are given in Table 2. The 
hypothesis tested was that spring application of most of the nitrogen on 
winter wheat was better than fall application at planting. Two grades of 
fertilizer, a 12-12-12 and a 15-15-15, were used to apply all of the nitrogen 
in fall at planting. A 5-20-20 was used for the remaining two treatments. 

Fall application of the nitrogen was in late September or in early 
October at seeding. Spring application was in March or early April before 
rapid spring growth started. Row fertilizer was applied with a farm wheat 
drill. Rates of phosphate and potash applied were essentially the same on 
all treatments. Spring top-dressing was done by hand using ammonium 
nitrate as the fertilizer material. 

Lodging percentages were estimated visually. Two people working 
independently made the Purdue Agronomy Farm estimates. One person 
made each of the other estimates. 

Yields were determined by harvesting all of each plot except a small 
strip across each end with a combine. Plot size was approximately 100 
feet long by 5 feet wide. 

Table 1. Description of soils used in experiments. 





Crop & Yield 
in 1957 


Soil 
Typo 


Soil 
pH 


Purdue Soil Tests 


Farm 


Available 

Phosphate 

Lbs. A. 


Available 
Potash 
Lbs. A. 


Purdue Agronomy 
Lafayette, Indiana 


Soybeans 
35-40 bu. 
per A. 


Russell 

silt 
loam 


6.8 


108 
(medium) 


198 
(medium) 


Wm. Windle 
Lafayette, Indiana 


Soybeans 
27 bu. 
per A. 


Elston 
loam 


6.1 


45 
(low) 


133 
(low) 


Roy Becht 
Milroy, Indiana 


Sweet corn 
5 tons 
per A. 


Fincastle- 
Crosby 
silt loams 


6.1 


48 
(low) 


198 
(medium) 


Frank McRoberts 
Hazelton, Indiana 


Corn 

70-80 bu. 
per A. 


Alford 
silt loam 


5,9 


14 
(very low) 


79 
(very low) 


Wolfe & Summers 
Carlisle, Indiana 


Soybeans 
yield not 
known 


Princeton 
sandy loam 


ill 


124 
(medium) 


160 
(low) 


Oatley Thrasher 
Rockport, Indiana 


Tobacco 
about 2000 
lbs. per A. 


Weinbach 
clay loam 


5.6 


146 
(medium) 


110 
(low) 



Experiment 2 

This experiment was conducted on Alford silt loam at Hazelton, 
Indiana, in conjunction with Experiment 1. 

A randomized block design with four replications was used. Variety, 
rate, and time of seeding were the same as that used in Experiment 1. 
Fertilizer grade and rate was the variable. Treatments are given in 
Table 3. The hypothesis tested was that rates of spring applied nitrogen 
as high as 65 pounds per acre would increase yields of winter wheat. In 



Soil Science 363 

addition, spring top-dressing of phosphate and potash fertilizer was 
tested. 

Fall application of row fertilizer was by a wheat drill at planting. 
Spring top-dressing was by hand using ammonium nitrate. 

Yields were determined by harvesting with a combine. Plot size was 
approximately 120 feet long by 5 feet wide. 

Experiment 3 

This experiment was conducted at two locations with winter wheat 
in 1959-1960. The description of the soils used is given in Table 1. Certified 
Vermillion wheat was seeded in October at the rate of 6 to 7 pecks per 
acre. 

A randomized block design with four replication and four treatments 
was used at each of the two locations. As in the two previous experiments 
fertilizer nitrogen applied to winter wheat was the variable tested. Treat- 
ments are given in Table 4. The hypothesis tested was that rates of spring 
applied nitrogen as high as 90 pounds per acre would increase yields of 
winter wheat. Plot size was approximately 60 feet long by 3.5 feet wide. 
Harvesting was done with a small plot combine. 

All plots had 300 pounds per acre of 0-20-20 drilled into the soil 
before seeding plus 300 pounds per acre of 5-20-20 drilled at seeding. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 
Experiment 1 

There was some lodging on two of four locations. Only on the Russell 
silt loam was there an apparent relation of lodging to treatment. The 
treatment with 29 pounds per acre of nitrogen applied in the spring had 
50% lodging on this soil. Other treatments had less. The treatment which 
received the least nitrogen, 9.5 pounds per acre, had the least lodging, 33 
per cent. There was a tendency toward lower yields on the treatment which 
had the most lodging. Yields are given in Table 2. However, yields of 
wheat were not significantly different on either the Russell silt loam or on 
the Fincastle-Crosby silt loams. 

Spring application of 29 pounds per acre of nitrogen along with 
5-20-20 drilled in the fall on Elston loam resulted in a meaningful increase 
in yield of 9.6 bushels per acre more than fall application of 5-20-20 alone. 
Also, spring application of most of the nitrogen resulted in significantly 
higher yields than applying all of the nitrogen at planting in 15-15-15 or 
12-12-12 on the same farm. This Elston loam because of its high porosity 
apparently allowed nitrates to leach out of the rooting zone over the 
winter. Hence, spring application of most of the nitrogen was highest 
yielding and appeared to be related to soil type. 

On the Alford silt loam the general relationship of yield to treat- 
ments was the same that was found on the Elston loam. Yields were not 
as high, and the differences in yields among treatments were not as great 
as those found on the Elston loam. 

The Alford silt loam near Hazelton, Indiana, is approximately 140 
miles south of the Elston loam near Lafayette, Indiana. In this southern 
location winters are somewhat less severe with less frozen soil and more 
winter leaching. This should have resulted in greater yield differences 
among treatments on the Alford silt loam than on the Elston loam. How- 



364 



Indiana Academy of Science 



ever, the reason for the smaller differences may be related to higher soil 
tests for available phosphate and available potash and lighter soil texture 
on the Elston loam than that found on the Alford silt loam. 



Table 2. Influence of fertilization upon yields of winter wheat 
at four locations in Indiana, 1958 



Time and 


rate of 

plication 

Spring 

lbs./A. 


Fertilizer 

grade applied 

in fall 2 




Yields 




nitrogen ar 

Fall 
Ibs./A. 


Russell 

silt loam 

bu./A. 


Elston 
loam 
bu./A. 


Fincastle 

Crosby silt 

loams bu./A. 


Alford 
silt loam 

bu./A. 


9.5 


29 


5-20-20 


43.1 


49.4 


30.7 


29.8 


38.7 





15-15-15 


47.6 


44.5 


31.1 


27.2 


38.9 





12-12-12 


47.4 


46.2 


31.0 


28.1 


9.5 





5-20-20 


46.9 


39.8 


31.2 


25.4 


Average 




46.3 


45.0 


31.0 


27.7 


Least significant difference 
at the 5% level 


not sig- 
nificant 


2.4 


not sig- 
nificant 


1.9 


Least significant difference 
at the 1% level 


not sig- 
nificant 


3.5 


not sig- 
nificant 


2.7 



Experiment 2 

Wheat yields given in Table 3 largely reflected the influence of phos- 
phate and potash fertilizer or phosphate, potash, and nitrogen fertilizer. 
Of course, the 0-62.4-62.4 fertilizer had a much higher yield than the 
treatment with no fertilizer applied. There was an indication of a higher 
yield although not a significant one, with 12.9-51.4-51.4 than with the 
0-62.4-62.4 fertilizer. There was a definite trend toward higher yields with 
nitrogen top-dressed in spring in addition to 12.9-51.4-51.4 drilled at 

Table 3. Influence of fertilizer upon yields of wheat on 
Alford silt loam in Indiana, 1958. 





Treatment 






Lbs./A. drilled 
at seeding 
N-P 2 5 -K 2 


Lbs./A. top-dressed 

in spring 

N-P 2 CyK 2 


Yield 

bu./A. 


0-0-0 


0-0-0 




17.1 


0-62.4-62.4 


0-0-0 




26.4 


12.9-51.4-51.4 


0-0-0 




28.4 


12.9-51.4-51.4 


25-0-0 




31.8 


12.9-51.4-51.4 


45-0-0 




31.8 


12.9-51.4-51.4 


65-0-0 




29.7 


16.5-16.5-16.5 


45-45-45 




33.2 


Least significant difference at the 5% 


level 


3.5 


Least significant difference at the 1% 


level 


4.6 



seeding. The 33.5 bushels per acre with 16.5-16.5-16.5 drilled with the 
seed plus 45-45-45 top-dressed in spring was highest yielding although not 
significantly higher than two of the treatments. Inasmuch as it had been 



2. Phosphate applications were 38 lbs./A. of P 2 5 from 5-20-20, 38.7 lbs./A. of 
P 2 5 from 15-15-15, and 38.9 lbs./A. of P 2 5 from 12-12-12. Potash applications ex- 
pressed in lbs./A. of K n O were the same as phosphate. 



Soil Science 365 

predicted that this treatment would not perform this well, more research 
should be done on testing this method of fertilizing wheat. 

Experiment 3 

On one of the two locations reported in Table 4 yields decreased sig- 
nificantly and on the other yields increased significantly with increasing 
rates of top-dressed nitrogen. Increasing rates of nitrogen resulted in 
decreased yields on the Weinbach clay loam. It contained a considerable 
amount of available nitrogen from the previous tobacco crop. Had this not 
been true, lodging probably would not have increased significantly with 
increasing rates of top-dressed nitrogen. The correlation coefficient show- 
ing the relation between yields and estimated percentages of lodging was 
-0.77. This r value is significant at the 1% level. 

On the Princeton sandy loam soil, results were much different from 
those on the Weinbach clay loam. This sandy soil with its porous nature 
was much more likely to allow leaching of previously applied nitrogen 
than Weinbach clay loam. As shown in Table 4, there was no lodging of 
wheat at any rate of nitrogen on the Princeton sandy loam, and it appears 
that there would have been somewhat higher yields with more than 90 
pounds per acre of nitrogen top-dressed. Yield increases varied from 17 
bushels per acre for the first 30 pounds per acre of top-dressed nitrogen to 
4.9 bushels per acre for the last 30 pounds per acre of top-dressed nitrogen. 
These yield responses were highly significant. 

Table 4. Influence of rates of top-dressed nitrogen on yields and lodging 
percentages of wheat on two locations in Indiana, 1960. 







Yields 




Lodging 


Lbs./A. 
of nitrogen Weinbach 
top-dressed clay loam 
in spring bu./A. 


Princeton 

sandy loam 

bu./A. 


Weinbach 

silt loam 

% 


Princeton 
sandy loam 

% 





50.2 


25.1 


30 





30 


39.8 


42.1 


40 





60 


34.5 


50.6 


16 





90 


34.5 


55.5 


55 





Least significant 










difference at the 










5% level 


6.9 


2.7 


7 


none 


Least significant 










difference at the 










1% level 


10.0 


3.9 


10 


none 



Summary 

Three different fertilizer experiments were conducted with winter 
wheat. The first experiment was conducted on four different soil types in 
the 1957-1958 cropping year. Significant differences in yields were ob- 
tained at only two of the four locations. Spring top-dressed nitrogen 
produced greater yield increases than nitrogen applied at planting in 
the fall on both the Elston and Alford soils. Difference in response to 
nitrogen between these two soils appeared to be related to soil type. 

In Experiment 2 yields were increased significantly as a result of 
phosphate and potash fertilization at planting. There was a trend toward 



366 Indiana Academy of Science 

higher yields with 25 pounds per acre of nitrogen top-dressed in spring 
compared to no top-dressed nitrogen when nitrogen, phosphate and potash 
were applied in the fall at planting. 

In Experiment 3 increasing rates of spring top-dressed nitrogen 
resulted in significantly decreased yields on Weinbach clay loam. There 
was a significant negative correlation between lodging and yield of wheat 
on this soil. On the Princeton sandy loam yields of wheat were increased 
significantly with increasing rates of spring top-dressed nitrogen. These 
two soils differed in previous treatment and in texture, both of which 
apparently influenced nitrogen availability for wheat. 

Literature Cited 

1. Fall versus spring application of nitrogen on wheat. Rev. February, 1959. Purdue 
Mimeo AY 143. 

2. Horrall, N. 1946. Field response of wheat to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium 
fertilizer. Master of science thesis, Agronomy Department, Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Indiana. 

3. Peterson, Noble K. 1952. Anhydrous ammonia as a source of nitrogen for wheat. 
Master of science thesis. Agronomy Department, Purdue University, Lafayette, 
Indiana. 

4. Summary of county wheat variety and fertilizer demonstrations and the same 
variety in experiment station trials. Revised, January, 1961. Purdue Mimeo AY In. 



ZOOLOGY 

Chairman: L. E. DeLanney, Wabash College 
James B. Cope, Earlham College, was elected chairman for 1962 



ABSTRACTS 
Further Studies on the Infection of Paramecium by Kappa. 1 Jo Anne 

Mueller, Indiana University. — Paramecium aurelia includes strains 
known as killers which release a particulate toxin capable of killing sensi- 
tive strains. The production of toxin is associated with the presence of 
genically supported cytoplasmic particles known as kappa. The contents 
of stock 51 killers, syngen 4, contain material that can cause stock 51 
sensitive animals to become infected and subsequently develop into killer- 
cultures (Sonneborn, 1948). Two components from the killers are required 
for successful infection. Disrupted killer animals centrifuged at 25,000 
x G for 5 minutes results in the separation of the two components. The 
centrifugate contains infective kappa particles and the supernatant con- 
tains a co-factor (Tallan, 1959). The following experiments investigate 
conditions conducive to enhanced infectivity of sensitive animals. The 
sensitive animals used for the detection of infective particles vary in their 
response to the infective mixture. If the detectors are grown, previous to 
exposure, in a medium buffered with CaCOs and Ca(OH), they are much 
less susceptible to invasion by infective particles than if they are grown 
in the same type of medium but with a sodium phosphate buffering 
system. In the former, vast quantities of kappa particles are required to 
insure infection, a thousand-fold increase to that required when the sensi- 
tive detectors have been grown with the phosphate buffering system. 

The Axial Skeleton of the Pygmy Sunfish (Elassoma). 2 Rolliana A. 
Binder and Clarence F. Dineen, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame. — 
The Pygmy Sunfish, Elassoma, has been reclassified from a single genus 
family, Elassomidae, to the family Centrarchidae (sunfish) where it had 
originally been placed. These classifications have all been based on external 
characteristics. In order to gain additional evidence for proper classifica- 
tion, the axial skeletons of 19 specimens (two species) were cleared and 
stained for bone. Individual bones were compared chiefly with those of 
Archoplites interruptus as a representative of the Centrarchids. The major 
differences were the absence of interneurals, the fusion of the hypurals of 
the caudal fin, modifications of the ultimate vertebra, greater constriction 
of the centra and unique modification of the anterior abdominal haemal 
spines. As evidenced by the axial skeleton, the Elassoma is less closely 
related to the Archoplites interruptus than is the latter to the other Cen- 
trarchid fishes. 

The Pleistocene Passeriform Avifauna of Reddick, Florida. J. Hill 
Hamon, Indiana State College. — The fossil-beds of Reddick, Florida are 



1. This work was supported by a grant to T. M. Sonneborn from the American 
Cancer Society No. E 81 B. 

2. Supported in part by National Science Foundation grant No. G12586. 

367 



368 Indiana Academy of Science 

the richest Pleistocene deposits in eastern North America. They bear a 
tremendous vertebrate fauna including 60 species of mammals, 63 species 
of birds, and 50 species of amphibians and reptiles. The passeriform avi- 
fauna is the richest in North America and is composed of 26 species, four 
of which are extinct. The deposit is the filling of a former large cave. The 
bone-bed is of fresh water origin and is thought to have been deposited 
during the Illinoiaan glacial stage. This age assignment is corroborated 
by extinction ratios and by stratigraphic evidence. The avifauna has some 
members with boreal and some with Sonoran affinities. Parallel faunal 
origins exist among the mammals. The climate during the time of deposi- 
tion of bone-beds is thought to have been about 6°F. cooler in summer, and 
about 7°F. cooler in winter. 

Horizontal Distribution of Cladocera Remains in Surficial Sediments 
of Indiana Lakes. Wayne P. Mueller, Indiana University. — An examina- 
tion of lake sediment reveals an abundance of chitinous exuviae of Clado- 
cera which are identifiable to species. These remains are found distributed 
over the entire lake bottom and can broadly be divided as those derived 
from the littoral zone inhabitants — principally the Family Chydoridae; 
and the planktonic inhabitants consisting mainly of Daphnia and Bosmina. 
Due to these habitat differences and the movement of remains after molt- 
ing, a non-uniform distribution is found in the surficial sediments. To 
investigate the distribution of remains over the lake bottom, dredge hauls 
of sediment were taken along transects in three Northern Indiana glacial 
lakes. Qualitative and quantitative examinations reveal a uniform dis- 
tribution of species over the lake bottom and a pronounced decrease in 
littoral remains as deep water is approached. Total remains per gram 
dry weight of sediment increases with depth although the maximum value 
is usually found before maximum depth is reached. A sediment collector 
was placed in Winona Lake to determine when redeposition of littoral 
remains into deep water locations occurs. Available data suggest a con- 
tinuous removal of littoral remains during thermal stratification due to 
the overlying epilimnetic water. At fall overturn a six to seven fold 
increase of total remains was observed but at this time deep water sedi- 
ment enters the circulating water column. 

The Identification and Significance of Bosmina (Crustacea, Cladocera) 
Remains in Lake Sediments. Clyde E. Goulden, Indiana University. — 
Because of the great variability in the genus Bosmina, much confusion 
has existed in delimitation of species. At one time over nine species were 
recognized in Europe, but now only two species are recognized, Bosmina 
longirostris and B. coregoni based on Burckhardt's description of the 
postabdominal claws. This problem is important to the study of lake 
ontogeny because Bosinina exuviae compose over 50% of the cladoceran 
remains in many lake sediments, and because B. coregoni tends to be more 
closely associated with oligotrophy lakes. Postabdominal claws are very 
scarce as compared to head shields and shells in lake sediments and hence 
of limited use for identification of species. In a study of sediments from 
Esthwaite Water in England, a method for the identification of head 
shields by use of lateral head pores has been discovered. This method is 
apparently usable in living forms as well as fossil material and thus is 
of some taxonomic as well as paleolimnological importance. 



Zoology 369 

Defensive Actions of Newly-hatched Hog-nosed Snakes (Heterodon 
platyrhinos). William B. Hopp and J. Hill Hamon, Indiana State Col- 
lege. — Five of a clutch of eight eggs laid by a captive female Heterodon 
platyrhinos on July 10, 1961, hatched on September 8, 1961. When first 
observed, four had just emerged and the fifth was still partially within 
the egg shell. Upon the slightest disturbance, all feigned death imme- 
diately, without first going into the threatening activities frequently 
observed in older specimens. 

Some Observations on Energy Balance in Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 
During Premigratory Fat Deposition. Cameron E. Gifford, Earlham Col- 
lege. — Energy balance has been determined for twenty Bobolinks kept 
under laboratory photoperiodic stimulation for a period of a year. Under 
non-migratory conditions the bobolink requires 13-16 Kcal/bird/24hr., 
whereas the same bird during the premigratory period of fat deposition 
requires 30-35 Kcal/bird/24hr. Premigratory fat deposition or positive 
energy balance in the bobolink is brought on by the increase of gross 
energy input or hyperphagia. 

Local Movements of Some Indiana Bats. James B. Cope, Earlham 
College. — Data on migrating bats was obtained by mist netting in front 
of caves for three years during the spring and fall. Shifting of bats from 
one colony to another, both in summer and winter, has definitely been 
established. Movements of Myotis lucifugus, little brown bat, from winter 
quarters to summer quarters and from summer quarters to winter quar- 
ters, are reported for the first time. 

Effects of Environmental Factors on Populations of Ostracods. 
Charles D. Wise, Ball State Teachers College, and Louis S. Kornicker, 
A. and M. College of Texas. — Few data from laboratory experiments on 
ostracods have been recorded in the literature, but preliminary experi- 
ments indicate that laboratory cultivation and experimentation can be 
extremely useful in solving problems concerning the effects of environ- 
mental factors on the distribution of ostracods. A most promising tech- 
nique is culturing ostracods under controlled laboratory conditions and 
determining the manner in which specific environmental variables affect 
the population. In this way, it was shown in the laboratory that ostracods 
varied in size when grown under different ecological conditions, e. g., 
ostracods cultured in the absence of light were smaller than those cultured 
in the light, and those cultured at lower temperatures were larger than 
those cultured at higher temperatures. A species of fresh-water ostracod 
cultured in the laboratory was found to be smaller at maturity than speci- 
mens of the same ostracod collected from nature. The fresh-water ostracod 
species studied did not develop in laboratory cultures when the tempera- 
ture was kept continuously at 37 deg. C, but did develop when the tem- 
perature varied diurnally between 30 deg. C. and 40 deg. C, a condition 
approaching that found in nature. At temperatures used, Cyprinotus 
dentatus was found to develop best at 25 deg. C. Experiments performed 
on the marine ostracod, Hemicy there conradi, showed that specimens 
acclimated at 25 deg. C. could not survive temperatures above 36 deg. C. 
nor below 6 deg. C. This species of ostracod exhibited positive phototropism 
and preferred silty sand to oolitic sand when given free choice in the 
laboratory. 



Long Term Cyclic Changes in the Temperature of Man 

William J. Brett, Indiana State College 
Rhythmicities of various frequencies (solar-day, lunar-day, lunar- 
month and annual) have been reported for a great number of organisms 
ranging from single-celled plants and animals to the most highly developed 
organisms. Many of these rhythms have been shown to persist in constant 
conditions in regards to light, temperature, pressure and humidity. An 
excellent review of the work in this area was done by Webb and Brown (8) . 
More recent work has demonstrated the effects of cosmic radiation, mag- 
netic fields and electrostatic fields on responses in living organisms. 
(3,5,9). 

Some work has been done with cycles in the human organism; but, 
with rare exceptions, most of this work has been concerned with cycles of 
24 hours or less duration. The main exception is the well known repro- 
ductive or menstrual cycle in the human female. Lunar month cycles 
have been pointed out in another mammal, the rat (2). And although 
many M.D.'s and concerned persons have kept close records on individual 
daily temperature changes for one or several months, there has, to the 
author's knowledge, been little if any work clone to determine the nature 
of the temperature cycle as it applies to the species. There has been no 
effort made to uncover any correlation of this cycle with one of the cosmic 
frequencies. The research described here was conducted to that end. 

Methods and Results 

Volunteers were asked to take their temperature twice daily for a 
minimum of 30 days. The two times selected were: (1) in the morning 
just before rising; and (2) at noon just before eating. In this report only 
the early morning records were analyzed. Each individual was provided 
with the same type of thermometer which had been checked for accuracy. 
Each volunteer kept a daily record to indicate any illness or other unusual 
occurrence which might disrupt the normal temperature pattern. Any 
temperature record determined as abnormal for these reasons was dis- 
carded. Records were kept for February and March of 1959 and May, 
June and July of 1960. 

Ninety monthly records were obtained and analyzed. Of these, fifty- 
nine were female and thirty-one male. The temperature range for different 
subjects varied from a minimum of .7° F. to a maximum range of 2.8° F. 
In order to prevent one individual's record from contributing more to the 
total picture than any other's, each individual's daily temperature was 
expressed as a percent of his deviation range from his daily mean tem- 
perature and plotted as a plus or minus percentage value. 

A mean value was obtained for each day of the lunar month for all 
the female records and for all the male records. Figure 1A depicts the 
average value for the females for each day of the lunar month. Two main 
temperature drops can be observed. The first occurring on the 13th day 
after new moon is the minor one; and the second one occurring from the 
16th through 19th day after new moon is the major one. It will be 
noticed that the temperature maximum occurs on the day before full 
moon and the temperature drop starts on the day of new moon. Menaker 

370 



FULL MOON 




DAYS 



Figure 1 A. The mean temperature value for the females for each day of the 
lunar month. B. The same for the males. 



372 



Indiana Academy of Science 



and Menaker in their work on lunar periodicity in human reproduction 
found the day of maximum births to be the day before full moon (7). 
The temperature data for the male records shows a rather random tem- 
perature fluctuation (Figure IB). 

An attempt was made in this study to demonstrate a correlation of 
monthly temperature change in females with mean daily barometric pres- 
sure. Other workers have shown that barometric pressure changes show 
a rather close correlation with some biological rhythms (4). Figure 2 



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Figure 2. Comparison of the mean daily temperature for the females and the 
mean daily barometric pressure for the month of March, 1959. 



shows the mean daily values for females and the mean daily barometric 
pressure for the month of March 1959. The correlation was obtained by 
sliding the barometric pressure over three days resulting in a three day 
lead-lag relationship between temperature and pressure. A two day lead- 
lag relationship was shown between respiration in several organisms and 
barometric pressure by Brown, Webb and Macey (6). 

Discussion 

The results suggest that there is a definite lunar frequency for 
female temperature variation. The major temperature drop starts on the 
day of full moon. This temperature drop in an individual is usually inter- 
preted by obstetricians and endocrinologists as signaling ovulation. A 
period of 266 days is accepted as the mean duration of the period between 
conception and birth in the human female. Recalling that a lunar month 
is 29.5 days it is seen that 9 lunar months equal 265.5 days; therefore, it 
would appear to be more than mere coincidence that these results show a 
major temperature drop on the day of full moon and Menaker and Men- 



Zoology 373 

aker's work shows a significant birth increase on the day before full 
moon. Knowing how many factors, both physical and psychological, can 
disrupt the menstrual cycle it is quite remarkable to obtain a mean tem- 
perature cycle of this magnitude. 

The three day lead-lag relationship between human temperature 
change and barometric pressure would appear extraordinary if previous 
work by Brown and co-workers had not suggested this type of correlation 
might occur. Further work may uncover a closer correlation with another 
parameter of barometic pressure or with some other cosmic frequency. 
Experiments with other organisms (quahogs, fucus, fiddler crabs, etc.) 
have shown that the correlation with barometric pressure is not a corre- 
lation with the immediate causative force (1). Rather one is more apt to 
regard the correlation as being an indirect one, with human temperature 
variations being correlated with some causative force which is also corre- 
lated with barometric pressure. Further work may indicate that there is 
no single causative force but rather there is a complexity of causative 
forces by which living systems are regulated and correlated. If one con- 
siders the idea of a complexity of external physical cycles which have an 
effect on biological rhythms, it is possible to explain the persistence of 
many biological rhythms, in so-called "constant conditions." Elimination 
of one or several of the external physical forces might change the magni- 
tude of the biological rhythm but would not destroy it. If, on the other 
hand, it is ever possible to eliminate all external contributing forces, then 
lacking a phasing or setting force, the endogenous timing mechanisms of 
the living organism will, with a passage of time, dissipate and disappear; 
and in turn all biological rhythms will disappear. 

It is hoped that future work on a more extensive scale may uncover 
more long term cycles in man. 

Literature Cited 

1. Brown, Frank A., Jr. 1956. Studies of the Timing Mechanisms of Daily, Tidal, 
and Lunar Periodicities in Organisms. Perspectives in Marine Biology, ed. by A. A. 
Buzzati-Traverso. Pp. 269-282. 

2. Brown, F. A., Jr., J. Shrinbr and C. L. Ralph. 1956. Solar and Lunar Rhythmicity 
in the Rat in "Constant Conditions" and the Mechanism of Physiological Time 
Measurement. Am. Jour. Phys. 184 : 491-496. 

3. Brown, F. A., Jr., H. M. Webb and M. F. Bennett, 1958. Comparisons of Some 
Fluctuations in Cosmic Radiation and in Organismic Activity During 1954, 1955 
and 1956. Am. Jour. Phys. 195 : 237-243. 

4. Brown, F. A., Jr., H. M. Webb, M. F. Bennett and M. I. Sandeen. 1955. Evidence 
for an Exogenous Contribution to Persistent Diurnal and Lunar Rhythmicity 
under so-called Constant Conditions. Biol. Bull. 109 : 238-254. 

5. Brown, F. A., Jr., H. M. Webb and W. J. Brett. 1960. Magnetic Response of an 
Organism and its Lunar Relationships. Biol. Bull. 118 : 382-392. 

6. Brown, Frank A., Jr., II. M. Webb and Erwin J. Macey. 1957. Lag-Lead Corre- 
lations of Barometric Pressure and Biological Activity. Biol. Bull. 113 : 112-119. 

7. Menaker, Walter and Abraham Menaker. 1959. Lunar Periodicity in Human 
Reproduction : A Likely Unit of Biological Time. Am. Jour. Obstet. & Gyn. 77 : 
905-914. 

8. Webb, H. Marguerite and Frank A. Brown, Jr. 1959. Timing Long-Cycle Physio- 

logical Rhythms. Phys. Rev. 39 : 127-161. 

9. Webb, H. Marguerite, Frank A. Brown, Jr. and William J. Brett. 1959. Effects 
of Imposed Electrostatic Field on Rate of Locomotion in Ilyanassa. Biol. Bull. 
117 : 430. 



Adrenal Cortical Accessory Tissue and Azo Dye 
Carcinogenesis 

W. J. Eversole, 1 Indiana State College 
Introduction 

Adrenal cortical tissue in lower vertebrates is scattered along the 
dorsal body wall in close association with cardinal veins. In mammals, 
however, such tissue is generally considered to be organized into a discrete 
gland, forming a cortex which encloses the adrenal medulla. The presence 
of cortical tissue in laboratory rats, accessory to that found in the main 
glands, has been reported in experiments designed to study the influence 
of adrenalectomy and hormone treatment on azo dye carcinogenesis (1, 2). 
The present investigations were undertaken in attempts to determine the 
extent to which adrenal cortical accessory tissue is present in Long-Evans 
laboratory rats, and the influence that such tissue may have upon the 
course of azo dye carcinogenesis. 

Materials and Methods 

The procedure for producing liver carcinogenesis was similar to that 
previously reported (1, 3). Rats were fed a semisynthetic diet containing 
0.058% 3'-methylparadimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAB) for four 
months. Controls were unoperated, whereas experimental rats were 
adrenalectomized and treated with either 50-75 mg/month or 10 mg/month 
of desoxycorticosterone trimethylacetate (DCT). In the first series of 
experiments (Table 1) the perirenal areas were searched macroscopically 
for adrenal cortical accessory tissue. Animals in which such tissue was 
found were considered separately (Group 4, Table I) and comparisons 
were made on the degree of liver involvement in this group with that in 
other groups in which no accessory tissue was found. Upon autopsy, livers 
were excised, weighed, and examined for the presence and size of lesions. 
Diseased livers without obvious lesions showed rough granulated-appear- 
ing surfaces and were classified as "lobulated." Livers with lesions were 
separated into two categories: those with small lesions (<5.0 mm in 
diameter) and those with large lesions (>5.0 mm in diameter). Paraffin 
and frozen sections of representative areas of the livers were prepared 
and stained respectively with hemotoxylin and eosin and Scharlach R. 
Tissue from livers was classified as carcinomatous only when neoplastic 
areas were epitheloid in appearance. 

In another series of experiments 41 rats were adrenalectomized, 
treated with low doses of DCT and fed the carcinogen for four months. 
At autopsy the perirenal areas were examined grossly for accessories and 
when such bodies were found they were preserved, sectioned, and studied 
to determine whether or not they were truly cortical tissue. In these 
animals the liver and perirenal areas were stripped from the carcass and 
prepared for histological study. Adrenal cortical tissue found in perirenal 
areas was then classified as either macroscopic or microscopic accessories. 
Livers were studied histologically and classified as carcinomatous or non- 
carcinomatous. Correlations were then made between sizes of accessory 
bodies and cancer incidence. 



1. The author wishes to thank Prof. Lucio Severi of the University of Perugia, 
Italy for aid in the histopathologic aspects of this study. 

374 



Zoology 



375 



TABLE I 

Liver Appearance and Cancer Incidence in Rats Fed 
3'-ME-DAB for 4 Months 



Group Treatment 


No. Liver wt. Liver 
Rats g/100gBW Appearance 


No. Carcinomatous 
Livers No. </ c 






mean±S.E 










1 


none 


36 7.7+0.2 


Lobulated 
Small lesions 
Large lesions 


3 

13 

20 

~3(T 




11 
20 
3T 


86 


2 


Adrenalectomy 
50-75 mg DCT/month 


15 4.3±0.1 


Normal 


L3 









(no macroaccessories) 




Lobulated 
Small lesions 
Large lesions 


I 

1 



~15 











3 


Adrenalectomy 

10 mg DCT/month 

(no macroaccessories) 


38 4.8±0.2 


Normal 
Lobulated 
Small lesions 
Large lesions 


L9 

1 1 

7 

1 

~38 




1 

3 

1 

~5~ 


13 


4 


Adrenalectomy 
DCT 


15 5.9±0.4 


Normal 


1 









(macroaccessories) 




Lobulated 
Small lesions 
Large lesions 


7 
4 
3 


2 
3 
3 












15 


8 


53 



Results 

All control rats fed azo dye, but otherwise receiving no treatment, 
had enlarged and abnormal appearing livers; 86% of these were found 
to be carcinomatous (Table I, Group 1). The five non-cancerous livers in 
this group were either grossly lobulated or contained small lesions. Micro- 
scopic examination revealed areas that appeared swollen, inflamed, and 
hemorrhagic; there was an increase in stainable fat and connective tissue. 

Adrenalectomized, azo dye-fed rats receiving large doses of DCT had 
carcinoma-free livers but two livers in the group (Table I, Group 2) 
appeared to be mildly diseased. Also, in most all livers of this group 
histological study revealed signs of hypertrophy, inflammation, and fatty 
infiltration, although mean liver weight was approximately that expected 
for stock Long-Evans rats. 

Most of the adrenalectomized animals given small doses of DCT had 
livers that were cancer-free, but again histological evidence of swelling, 
fatty infiltration, and hemorrhage was present. Mean liver weight, while 
slightly greater than in the previous groups, was about normal (Table I, 
Group 3). 



41 


8 


20 


8 


12 


8 



376 Indiana Academy of Science 

In the group of rats that was adrenalectomized but exhibited macro- 
scopically visible accessories upon autopsy 14 of 15 had abnormal appear- 
ing livers, and eight of these were carcinomatous (Table I, Group 4) . 

In the second series of experiments where a search was made for both 
macroscopic and microscopic accessories the results showed that 20 of the 
41 adrenalectomized rats had adrenal tissue present; twelve macroscopic 
and eight microscopic accessories were found. In this group the only rats 

TABLE II 

Correlation of Adrenal Cortical Accessories with Liver Carcinomas 
in DCT-Treated Adrenalectomized Rats Fed 3'-ME-DAB 

No. with 
carcinomas 

Number rats studied 

Number with acces. tissue 

Number with macro acces. 

Number with micro, acces. 8 

with cancerous livers were those that had adrenal cortical accessories of 
macroscopic dimensions. Rats with microscopic accessories did not have 
liver cancer but evidence of liver pathology was present as evidenced by 
marked eosinophilia of liver parenchyma cells and hemorrhagic areas. 
Also, those livers from rats in which no accessory tissue was found showed 
evidence of histological change since liver cords appeared swollen and 
cells were strongly eosinophilic. 

Accessory adrenal cortical tissue did not exhibit the typical histologi- 
cal appearance as seen in adrenal glands. The adrenal cortical cells were 
large and well differentiated but arranged in irregular nests and columns. 
The connective tissue capsule around the accessories was thin and indis- 
tinct, unlike the well differentiated capsule of regular glands. 

Discussion 

The experiments reported here again confirm the observations made 
previously (1, 2, 3) that adrenalectomy and desoxycorticosterone treat- 
ment inhibits azo dye carcinogenesis. However, they also indicate that 
such procedures may not completely suppress the carcinogenic process. 
The finding that protected livers show histologic deviations, confirms the 
report of Symeonides et al (2). Whether the signs of hypertrophy and 
inflammation in otherwise normal appearing livers are reflections of 
resistance to carcinogenic dye, to DCT treatment, or to some other factor, 
is unknown. 

The results reported here clearly demonstrate that azo dye cancer 
incidence is higher in adrenalectomized desoxycorticosterone treated ani- 
mals with macroscopic adrenal cortical accessory tissue than it is in 
similarly treated animals where no such tissue could be found. Such 
findings imply that adrenalectomy and desoxycorticosterone treatment is 
an effective means of inhibiting azo dye carcinogenesis, providing func- 
tional accessory adrenal cortical tissue is absent. Credence is given to 
this implication by previous studies which showed that azo dye carcino- 
genesis could not be inhibited by desoxycorticosterone treatment in un- 
operated rats (3). 



Zoology 377 

Summary 

Adrenal cortical accessory tissue was found to be present in large 
numbers of long-term adrenalectomized Long-Evans rats. In a detailed 
study of the perirenal areas from 41 adrenalectomized rats, 12 animals 
were found to have accessories that were macroscopically detectable and 
8 others had accessories of microscopic dimensions. 

Adrenalectomy and desoxycorticosterone treatment effectively inhib- 
ited azo dye carcinogenesis, especially in animals lacking macroscopically 
detectable adrenal cortical tissue. The presence of small accessories ap- 
peared to have little, if any, influence upon the protective effects of adren- 
alectomy and desoxycorticosterone treatment. 

The protective effects of adrenalectomy and desoxycorticosterone 
treatment in azo dye carcinogenesis were somewhat limited since micro- 
scopic studies revealed that normal-appearing livers contained areas of 
inflammation and cellular hypertrophy. 

Literature Cited 

1. Eversole, W. J. 1957. Inhibition of azo dye carcinogenesis by adrenalectomy and 
treatment with desoxycorticosterone trimethylacetate. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 
96 : 643-646. 

2. Symeonidis, A., A. S. Mulay, and F. H. Burgoyne. 1954. Effect of adrenalectomy 
and of desoxycorticosterone acetate on the formation of liver lesions in rats fed 
p-dimethylaminoazobenzene. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 14 : 805-817. 

3. DaVanzo, J. P., and W. J. Eversole. 1958. The effects of adrenalectomy and 
desoxycorticosterones on liver enzymes and protein in rats fed 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl- 
aminoazobenzene. Cancer Res. 18 : 796-801. 



Burrows and Oscillative Behavior Therein of Lumbricus 

terrestris 

James W. Joyner and N. Paul Harmon, Earlham College 1 
Introduction 

Our paper is presented as a contribution to the knowledge of the 
annelid worm Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (part) Miiller 1774 
(part). This large peregrine earthworm was an accessory to the importa- 
tion of plants from Europe by our colonists and has become widely estab- 
lished (3, 6, 7, 8, 9). There has been no complete study of the life history, 
ecology and behavior of L. terrestris though Darwin (1) and others (4) 
have made significant contributions. 

While it is not the purpose of this paper to detail any behavior but 
oscillative activity in the burrow, it is pertinent to this report that L. 
terrestris performs certain basic burrowing, feeding and reproductive 
activities which differ from those of other Lumbricidae found in associa- 
tion with them. The latter seldom leave the earth and are inclined to feed 
on the organic fraction of the soil. Incidentally, many species of worms, 
including L. terrestris, willingly forsake the soil to take up residence in 
suitable concentrations of organic waste such as leaves or compost, but 
since such concentrations are atypical the phenomena will be noted only 
in passing. 

The burrows of L. terrestris open directly to the surface of the soil 
and at night the worm extends its body from it in search of food which, 
if found, is grasped in the mouth and drawn back to the burrow opening 
where it remains until consumed. In some cases such a large amount of 
food is accumulated around a burrow opening that the name "earthworm 
midden" has been applied to it. 

The relation of the reproductive activity of L. terrestris to this report 
is found in the manner in which copulation is frequently, if not always, 
carried out on the soil surface. It seems to us that if L. terrestris con- 
structed a network of interconnecting burrows it would copulate there, as 
do other Lumbricidae, rather than at the surface where they are more 
vulnerable to predators. In other words above-ground copulation tends to 
indicate that no extensive interconnecting burrow systems are constructed 
by L. terrestris. 

Burrows of Lumbricus terrestris 

The surface of the soil occupied by L. terrestris will usually be raam- 
milated with mounds of castings at the burrow openings. The castings 
are, of course, the excreta which results from the consumption of soil by 
the worm during burrowing. The quantity of soil which accumulates on 
the surface indicates that L. terrestris must actively ingest soil and bring 
it to the surface for deposit, thus excavating a burrow. While it cannot be 
stated with certainty that L. terrestris does not cast underground, the 
practice of surface casting, to the degree observed, contrasts with the 



1. The authors wish to acknowledge the valuable aid of the unpublished research 
of Michael Ilinshaw (5). We also wish to acknowledge the financial support of an NSF 
Grant G-1332G made to the senior author and an NSF Undergraduate Research Par- 
ticipation award (G-16060) to the junior author. 

378 



Zoology 379 

subsurface casting into burrows, root tunnels and chambers by Allolobo- 
phora caliginosa, Allolobophora chlorotica and various Diplocardia sp. 

The apparent extensive burrowing activity of L. terrestris, as indi- 
cated by the accumulation of castings and the observation of distinct 
burrows beyond 12 inches, led us to a more thorough investigation of the 
burrows. Attempts to trace the extent and pattern of these met with 
limited success until we turned to the use of natural rubber latex. The 
feasibility of using this material was reported some years ago by Gar- 
ner (2). 

Methods and Materials 

Investigation of the burrows of L. terrestris was undertaken on blue- 
grass sod away from the roots of trees. The sod which would interfere 
with the flow of latex was removed by scalping the surface with a spade. 
The burrow (or burrows) located before scalping was cleared of soil 
particles to allow drainage of the latex. A circular container open at both 
ends was placed over the burrow to act as a reservoir for the latex while 
drainage into the burrow was completed. Latex was added to the reservoir 
until all drainage ceased and a thin cap of rubber was allowed to form on 
top of the soil. 

Natural rubber latex coagulates to elastic rubber upon water loss and 
change in pH. Soil absorbs both the moisture and the ammonia used to 
maintain the liquid state of the latex. Our experience suggests that latex 
casting in moist soils will not be successful and we recommend that initial 
attempts at casting be made in dry soils. 

After a minimum of 24 hours the arduous task of digging the cast 
was undertaken. It was necessary to make a deep excavation adjacent to 
the area containing the cast to facilitate its removal. In the laboratory 
the cast was washed to remove clinging soil particles and then photo- 
graphed. (The casts tend to become sticky in time and cannot be stored 
indefinitely.) 

Discussion 

The flexible, three dimensional casts obtained by the above method 
disclosed that the burrows of L. terrestris are distinctly separate vertical 
tunnels. The terminal depth of burrows in this study was three feet but 
it is probable that burrow depth would vary with soil and moisture con- 
ditions. Guild (4) reports that Darwin and Miiller both noted that L. 
terrestris burrows to a depth of ten feet under certain soil conditions in 
Great Britain. 

The cast illustrated (Fig. 1) is included to show that the earthworm 
burrow did not come out as a simple cast as other spaces filled by latex 
complicate the picture. Two other recognizable types of soil space were 
filled by the latex. These were: (1) the soil cracks common to dry soil, 
and (2) long branching tunnels formerly occupied by roots. The latter 
structures were recorded in fine detail. 

Oscillative Behavior 

The behavior of L. terrestris at the surface coupled with the new 
knowledge gained from latex casts that a single worm occupies a non- 
branching vertical burrow led us to an investigation of the behavior of 
the worm in the burrow and in particular its vertical movement. We 
desired answers to such questions as how far, how often, in what direction, 



380 



Indiana Academy of Science 





■ 



mm 



:;:- 7 



; LATEX CAST 
Hi A OF 

§ EARTHWORM 
BURROWS 



Pe 
JL tftiuttius 







Figure 1. Latex cast of the bur: 



Lumbricus 1< 



itris. 



when and with what regularity did it display what we have termed oscil- 
lative behavior. 

Since visual observations of such worm movements under field con- 
ditions were impossible we turned to radioactive isotope tagging; a tech- 
nique which had already found application in tracing the movements of 
many kinds of animals. 

Methods and Materials 

For the purposes of our investigation, earthworms were gathered at 
night when they came to the surface. After careful removal by hand they 
were placed in numbered containers. The burrows were marked with a 
corresponding number and plugged so that the worm could be returned to 
its own burrow following its being tagged with a radioactive isotope. 



Zoology 381 

In the laboratory each of the worms was etherized, confined in a sheet 
of plastic between the jaws of a paper clamp, and then injected intra- 
coelomically with approximately 12 lambdas of Aurcoloid, a commercial 
preparation of radioactive gold (Au-198), diluted in 12 lambdas of double 
strength invertebrate Ringer's solution. After injection the worms were 
held in petri dishes in a cool room for at least a day to be sure that the 
injection caused no ill effects. 

The choice of Au-198 was based on its being a high gamma source and 
its having a short half-life of 2.7 days. The high gamma source was 
required because it was known that a probable barrier of from four to six 
inches of soil interposed between the injected worm and the window of a 
G-M tube would preclude the use of an isotope which emitted the lower 
energy alpha and beta particles. 

On the site where the worms were captured, a two inch auger shaft 
was sunk to 36 inches approximately four inches away from each of the 
several numbered burrows. If a small quantity of water poured in the 
burrow opening appeared in the auger shaft it was taken as an indication 
that the burrow had been intersected by the auger shaft and such a burrow 
was not used. 

After the above preparations had been made, the injected worms were 
released into their own burrows and the process of tracing their move- 
ments was begun. The tracing was accomplished by lowering a Geiger- 
Miiller tube attached to a graduated stick into the auger shaft. The point 
of highest radiation as monitored visually on a Nuclear-Measurements 
field survey meter was recorded to the nearest two inch interval. The depth 
location of the worms was monitored and recorded in this manner every 
two hours during the periods that the studies were carried out. 

Results 

The first field study of earthworm movement was conducted for seven 
consecutive days from July 20 through July 26. During this period weather 
conditions were warm and humid. Rain showers were noted on each day 
of the study period. 

Data were gathered on the position of each of eight worms at two 
hour intervals for the entire period. Taken as individuals, vertical move- 
ment of the worms varied a great deal. The oscillation in the burrow by 
one worm was limited to the 3 inch to 15 inch zone. In contrast, two 
worms oscillated between the surface and 30 inches. The greatest depth 
attained by any worm was 34 inches. Certain worms were never detected 
at the surface. The mean depth maintained by all worms for the entire 
period was 16 inches. 

When the mean depth of the eight worms at each two hour interval 
was plotted on a graph against time, a daily oscillative movement was 
disclosed. The upward trend of the oscillation began about 6:00 p.m. and 
peaked during the period following midnight. The downward trend, begun 
in the early morning hours, terminated during a period following noon. 
Figure 2 and Figure 3 display curves similar to those obtained in the 
first study. 

The mean data used in the graph hides the fact that certain worms 
were erratic in their movement. We refer, in particular, to sudden drops 



382 



Indiana Academy of Science 




9=00 5=00 



100 9:00 5=00 

HOUR OF DAY 



r— i 
100 9:00 



5=00 



Figure 2. Mean bihourly depth of four earthworms for three days with bihourly 
temperature readings superimposed. (Centigrade scale inverted.) 




1:00 



5:00 9 ; 00 

HOUR OF DAY 



Figure 3. Mean bihourly depth of four worms for oue day as related t< 
differences in soil temperatures at two fixed points. 



Zoology 383 

in position during the night followed by a return to the same or higher 
position. Two examples of this behavior were as follows: 

(1) Night Depth (2) Night Depth 

10:00 7 inches 10:00 10 inches 

12:00 34 inches 12:00 30 inches 

2:00 13 inches 2:00 inches 

In the second field study, carried out August 5 through August 9, 
similar procedures were followed except that four worms were studied for 
five days and data on several environmental factors were recorded simul- 
taneously with the depth location of the worms at two hour intervals. 
Temperature readings were obtained from air, soil surface, and soil at 18 
inches. Soil moisture, expressed as percent of dry weight, was obtained 
by collecting, weighing, drying and reweighing soil samples from the 
surface near the burrows. Relative humidity of air data were obtained 
with a Serdex hygrometer. 

The data obtained on worm movement during the second study were 
similar to the first study both in the mean depth maintained of 16 inches 
and in the general nature of the daily oscillative movement (Fig. 2). 

In seeking relationships between movement and environmental fac- 
tors we have plotted bihourly air temperature readings (scale inverted) 
on the graph of daily oscillative movement (Fig. 2). As the temperature 
rose the worms went deeper and as the temperature fell the worms came 
nearer to the surface. 

Temperature difference between surface soil and soil at 18 inches 
(Fig. 3) when positioned with earthworm movement at a given time 
showed that the worms were located in the region of cooler temperature 
or were moving while the temperatures were equal. 

Discussion 

An obvious daily oscillative movement existed during the period of 
our study. Soil moisture, air temperature and other environmental factors 
were not at such levels that they limited activity. 

Air temperature variations and soil temperature differences both 
showed a direct relation to earthworm movement but we do not, at this 
point, believe that this is an absolute relationship since it is obvious that 
temperature changes, during the period under study, were a function of 
heating during the day and cooling during the night and perhaps only 
coincidentally varied with the earthworm's movement. 

Summary 

The general pattern of burrowing of Lumbricus terrestris (L.) was 
established by liquid latex casting and disclosed that the worms con- 
structed vertical burrows to a depth, in this instance, of 36 inches. 

Investigation of the worm's movement in the burrow was accom- 
plished by means of intracoelomic tagging with radioactive gold (Au- 
198). The course of their movements, following release, was checked 
bihourly by lowering the Geiger-Miiller tube of a survey meter into an 
auger shaft adjacent to the vertical burrow. 

Bihourly mean depth data for periods of seven and five days were 
plotted against time. A daily oscillative trend in movement was disclosed. 
The worms reached a mean point near the surface of the soil after mid- 



384 Indiana Academy of Science 

night and then began a descent which reached its lowest mean point after 
noon. Some 800 depth position figures were obtained; the mean of these 
was 16 inches. 

Literature Cited 

1. Darwin, C. 1881. The formation of vegetable mould through the action of worms. 
London. 326 pp. 

2. Garner, M. R. 1953. The preparation of latex casts of soil cavities for the study of 
tunneling activities of animals. Science. 118 : 380. 

3. Gates, G. E. 1942. Checklist and bibliography of North American earthworms. 
Amer. Mid. Nat. 27 : 86-108. 

4. Guild, W. J. McL. 1955. Earthworms and soil structure. Soil Zoology. D. Keith 
Kevan, Ed. Butterworth Sci. Publ. London. 512 pp. 

5. Hinshaw, M. A. 1960. Application of radioisotopes to the study of vertical move- 
ments of Lumbricus terrestris: Report in files of W. Stephenson, Earlham College. 

6. Joyner, J. W. 1960. Earthworms of the Upper Whitewater valley. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. 69 : 313-319. 

7. Murchie, W. R. 1956. Survey of the Michigan earthworm fauna. Papers of the 
Mich. Acad, of Arts, Science, and Letters. 41 : 53-72. 

8. Olson, H. W. 1928. The earthworms of Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey. Bulletin No. 
17 : 47-90. 

9. Smith, F. 1917. North American earthworms of the family Lumbricidae . . . Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Museum. 52 : 157-182. 



Effect of Environmental Stress on Chick Weight 1 

W. C. Gunther and Robert K. Jones, Valparaiso University 
and Purdue University 

Introduction 

It has been demonstrated that subjecting chick eggs to varying de- 
grees of non-optimal incubating temperatures has a deleterious effect on 
the behavior of the hatched birds (3, 4). While observing this, it soon 
became apparent that the size of the experimental birds was quite different 
from that of the normal birds (Figs. 1, 2). There seemed to be a consistent 




Fig. 1. Newly hatched chicks from eggs incubated at normal temperature (right) 

and at 41° for the first three days of incubation (left). 

Fig. 2. Five-week-old roosters hatched from eggs incubated at normal temperature 

(left) and at 41° for the first three days of incubation (right). 

decrease in body weight with an increase in incubating temperature. 
Before proceeding with further analysis of this phenomenon, it seemed 
desirable to test these data statistically in order to determine the relia- 
bility of the weight differences. This report is concerned with the results 
of this statistical treatment. 

Materials and Methods 
A total of 864 chicken eggs was incubated. The eggs were divided into 
3 groups of 288. Each group was further subdivided into 48-egg lots. 
Group I (White Leghorn, De Kalb Strain) consisted of 5 lots of 48 eggs, 
each lot incubated respectively for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days at 42° C. (all tem- 
peratures herein reported are centigrade) and then placed in a normal 
temperature incubator (37.5°) for the remainder of the incubation period. 
Group II (White Rock, unknown strain) consisted of 5 lots of 48 eggs, 
each lot incubated respectively in a normal temperature incubator for 16, 
17, 18, 19, and 20 days and then placed in an incubator at 42° until 
hatched. Group III (White Leghorn, De Kalb Strain) consisted of 5 lots 
of 48 eggs, each lot incubated respectively for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days at 41 a 
and then placed in a normal temperature incubator for the remainder of 
the incubation period. A sixth lot (Control) of 48 eggs in each group was 
incubated for the entire incubation period at normal temperature. 



1. This research was supported by grant B-2128, Council on Neurological Diseases 
and Blindness, National Institute of Health, United States Public Health Service. 

385 



386 Indiana Academy of Science 

Incubators were of the standard Montgomery Ward 416-egg, forced- 
air type. Humidity and temperature were carefully controlled, the incu- 
bators being modified with Fenwal thermo-regulators. Continuous record- 
ings of temperature and humidity were made by means of Dickson Mini- 
corders and Short and Mason recording hygrometers. Temperatures varied 
within the limits of ±. x k° during all incubation periods, and humidities 
were kept constant at a level recommended by the manufacturers of the 
incubators. Eggs were regularly turned at 8-hour intervals. The room 
housing the incubators was maintained at a constant temperature of 23° 
and at a humidity level of 55-59% R.H. Room temperature and humidity 
were recorded by means of a Dickson Minicorder and a Short and Mason 
hygrometer. 

At hatching, the chicks were carefully weighed to the nearest tenth 
of a gram and tagged with wing bands. The various lots were then placed 
in separate compartments of a hatching brooder. Food (Purina Starter 
Mash) and water were available ad lib. All birds were weighed once a 
week on the same day. 

Results 
Group I 

The data relevant to the hatching of the eggs are summarized in 
Table 1. It is readily seen that an incubation temperature of 42° is lethal 

TABLE 1 
Hatching data of Group I 





No. of eggs 


No. 


. of days 


No. of chicks 


Total incubation 


Lot* 


incubated 


incubation at 42° 


hatched 


period (days) 


Control 


48 







24 


20- 


-22 


1-day 


48 




1 


12 


19- 


-22 


2-day 


48 




2 


2 




21 


3-day 


48 




• > 


1 




22 


4-day 


48 




4 







— 


5-day 


48 




5 







— 



*Reference is made in the text to the different lots of eggs and to the 
hatched chicks by means of these designations. 

when eggs are initially exposed for 4 or more days, and that the number 
of chicks hatched drops sharply upon exposure of the eggs to this tem- 
perature for 24 or more hours. However, the total incubation time of the 
hatched eggs does not vary appreciably among the 6 lots. Since only one 
animal was obtained in the 3-day lot, the data for this bird are not con- 
sidered in subsequent statistical analyses. 

The mean weight of each lot was computed at hatching and at the 
end of the first, second, and third weeks after hatching. These mean 
weights appear in Table 2, which also includes the results of Kruskall- 
Wallis one-way analyses of variance (8) which were performed on the 
data at hatching and at the end of each post-hatching week. The non- 
parametric Kruskall-Wallis procedure was deemed most appropriate for 
the evaluation of lot mean differences because of the small number of 
animals in the 2-day lot, and also because the results of Bartlett's tests (9) 
run on the data at hatching and at the end of each post-hatching week 
indicated the error variances at each of these periods to be nonhomo- 
geneous. 



Zoology 387 



TABLE 2 

Mean weights and analyses of variance of lots of Group I at hatching 

and at the end of each post-hatching week 

Mean weight (grams) 



Lot 


Hatching 


1st Week 


2nd Week 


3fZ Week 


Control 

1-day 

2-day 


44.8 
44.5 
49.5 


62.1 
60.7 
30.8 


115.2 

125.0 

64.9 


201.7 
198.3 
124.3 


Kruskall-Wallis one 


-way analyses of variance 






H 


df 


P 




Hatching 
1st week 
2nd week 
Sd week 


3.31 
6.43 
6.06 
3.73 


2 

2 
2 
2 


.19 
.04* 
.05* 
.16 





♦Significant 

An inspection of the mean weights reveals a general decline in weight 
with increase in time of exposure to the temperature insult. If P = .05 is 
adopted as a minimal level of statistical significance, the results of the 
Kruskall-Wallis analyses reveal significant differences in mean weights 
among the three lots at first and second weeks after hatching (P = .04 
and P = .05, respectively), while the values of H obtained at hatching 
and at the third post-hatching week have associated P values of .19 and .16. 
The Kruskall-Wallis test was also used to identify significant differences 
between pairs of lot means at the first and second post-hatching weeks. 
The results indicated the Control and 1-day animals to be significantly 
heavier than the 2-day birds at both the first and second weeks after 
hatching (P ^ .04 for all comparisons). The control and 1-day mean 
differences failed to attain significance at either of these periods. 
Group II 

The hatching data for this group are summarized in Table 3. Unlike 
the procedure employed with Group I, the temperature insult of 42° was 

TABLE 3 

Hatching data of Group II 

No. of eggs No. of days No. of chicks Total incubation 

Lot* incubated incubation at 42° hatched period (days) 



Control 


48 





33 


20-21 


20-day 


48 


1 


23 


19-20 


19-day 


48 


2 


11 


20-21 


18-day 


48 


3 


4 


20 


17-day 


48 


4 





— 


16-day 


48 


5 





— 



♦Reference is made in the text to the different lots of eggs and to the 
hatched chicks by means of these designations. 

imposed during the last five days of incubation in this case. A sharp 
decline in number of chicks hatched with increased exposure is again 
evident. Two of the four 18-day chicks were badly crippled and the 
remaining 2 fared so poorly that the data for these 4 animals was not 



388 Indiana Academy of Science 

included in this report. As in Group I, the total incubation time varies 
very little for those lots in which some eggs hatched. 

In Table 4 are presented the mean weights of the lots of this group 
at hatching and at the end of each post-hatching week, and also the 

TABLE 4 

Mean weights of lots of Group II at hatching and at the end of each past 

hatching week and summary of repeated measures analysis of variance. 

Mean weight (grams) 



Lot 


Hatching 




1st week 




2nd week 3d week 


4th week 


Control 

20-day 

19-day 


42.7 
42.7 
40.2 




55.2 
51.7 
44.1 




98.7 
93.7 
78.9 


174.1 
164.1 
143.3 


267.9 
256.5 
244.3 


Repeated 


measures 


analysis of 


variance 


of data of Group II 


Source 




df 


i 


SB 




MS 


F 



Between Lots 


2 


9,792.82 


4,896.41 


3.888* 


Animals within Lots 


59 


74,311.63 


1,259.52 


5.314** 


Weeks 


4 


2,056,292.32 


514,073.08 


2,168.810** 


Weeks X Lots 


8 


3,941.68 


492.71 


2.079* 


Animals X Weeks 










within Lots 


236 


55,938.05 


237.03 




Total 


309 


2,200,276.50 






*P < .05 










**P < .001 











summary of a repeated measures analysis of variance performed on the 
complete data for the group. Bartlett's tests for homogeneity of variance 
were run on both the correlated and uncorrelated error variances of the 
analysis summarized in Table 4 and on the error variances of all analyses 
of variance reported below in this section. The results of these tests 
indicated the assumption of homogeneity to be tenable in each case. 

An inspection of the mean weights in Table 4 reveals that these 
weights decrease steadily from the Control to the 19-day lots from hatch- 
ing to the fourth week after hatching. The analysis of variance summary 
indicates that a significant difference (P < .05) exists between lot means, 
as reflected in the F for between Lots. The low P associated with the F 
for animals within Lots reflects the presence of significant individual 
differences between animals, while the P associated with the F for the 
Weeks term indicates significant weight gain for the entire group of 
animals across the four-week period. In this analysis, interest is directed 
to the value of P associated with the interaction term, Weeks X Lots, 
which indicates significant differential rates of weight gain among the lots. 

Table 5 includes the results of analyses of variance of the data at 
hatching and at the end of each post-hatching week, and also the results 
of tests of lot mean differences at these periods. The "least significant 
difference" method, described by Steel and Torrie (9), was employed to 
evaluate differences between lot means. The values of F at hatching and 
at the fourth post-hatching week do not attain significance, although 
highly significant differences between lot means are evident at the first, 



Zoology 389 

TABLE 5 

Analyses of variance of Group II data at hatching at the end of each 

post-hatching week and results of tests of mean differences. 

Analyses of variance 





Source 


df 


as 


MS 


F 


Hatching 


Between Lots 


2 


56.10 


28.05 


1.888 (NS) 




Within Lots 


64 


951.30 


14.86 






Total 


66 


1,007.40 






1st week 


Between Lots 


2 


899.99 


450.00 


7.700* 




Within Lots 


61 


3,564.90 


58.44 






Total 


63 


4,464.89 






2nd week 


Between Lots 


2 


2,535.93 


1,267.96 


7.067* 




Within Lots 


59 


10,585.80 


179.42 






Total 


61 


13,121.73 






3rd week 


Between Lots 


2 


6,352.65 


3,176.32 


5.977* 




Within Lots 


59 


31,354.96 


531.44 






Total 


61 


37,707.61 






4th week 


Between Lots 


2 


4,223.56 


2,111.78 


1.478 (NS) 




Within Lots 


59 


84,302.17 


1,428.85 






Total 


61 


88,525.73 






*P < .005 












NS: P> . 


05 











Results of tests of mean differences ("least significant difference" 
method) for lots of Group II. Table entries are lot mean differences. 



Comparison 


Hatching 


1st week 


2nd week 


'Aid week 


4t)i week 


Control— 20-day 
Control — 19-day 
20-day— 19-day 


0.1 

2.4 

2.5 


3.5 

11.2** 

6.1* 


5.1 

19.9** 
14.8** 


10.1 

30.9** 

19.1* 


11.4 
23.6 
12.2 


*P ^ .05 

**P ^ .01 













second, and third post-hatching weeks. The results of the tests of mean 
differences reflect no significant differences between the Control and 
20-day lots. At the first, second, and third weeks after hatching the mean 
weights of the 19-day animals were significantly lower than those of the 
Controls, and the 19-day means were significantly lower than those of the 
20-day lot. 

A trend analysis performed on the lot means for all weekly weighing- 
periods elicited significant differences in linear trend (P < .01) between 
all possible pairs of the three lots, the growth curve of the Controls dis- 
playing the largest linear trend component and that of the 19-day lot the 
smallest. 

In order to identify the periods during which differential rates of 
gain occurred among the lots, repeated measures analyses of variance 
were run on all lots for each interval of one week. The results of these 
analyses indicated that significantly different rates of gain between the 
lots were in evidence for the interval between hatching and the first post- 



390 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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• — • Control 




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20 Day 








11 Day 










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Hatching to 
Week 1 



Week Ito 
Week 2 



WEEK 2 TO 

Week 3 



Week 3 to 

w EE a 



Pig. 3. Mean weight gain of the three lots of chicks in Group II 
during four weekly intervals. 



hatching week (P < .005), between the first and second post-hatching 
weeks (P < .01), and between the second and third post-hatching weeks 
(P < .05). During the interval between the third and fourth post- 
hatching weeks the lots did not differ significantly in terms of rate of 
weight gain. 

Fig. 3 is a plot showing mean weight gain of the three lots during the 
four weekly intervals. Analyses of variance run on the weight differences 



Zoology 391 

for those intervals during which significant differential rates of gain 
were found, viz., Hatching to Week 1, Week 1 to Week 2, and Week 2 to 
Week 3, elicited significant values of F (P < .005, P < .025, and P < .05, 
respectively). Tests of mean differences ("least significant difference" 
method) were performed to identify those lots which differ significantly 
in mean rate of gain at these weekly intervals. These results indicated 
that the mean rate of gain of the Controls was significantly greater than 
that of the 19-day lot during all three intervals (all P's < .05) and that 
the mean increase of the 20-day lot was significantly greater than that of 
the 19-day lot during the intervals Hatching to Week 1 and Week 1 to 
Week 2 (P < .05). Of particular interest is the rapid gain in weight of 
the 19-day birds during the interval Week 3 to Week 4. 
Group III 

Hatching data for this group are summarized in Table 6. The eggs 
were exposed to the non-optimally high temperature of 41° during the 

TABLE 6 
Hatching data of Group III 

No. of eggs No. of days No. of chicks Total incubation 

Lot* incubated incubation at 41° hatched period (days) 



Control 


48 





27 


21-23 


1-day 


48 


1 


29 


20-22 


2-day 


48 


2 


22 


21-22 


3-day 


48 


3 


12 


21-23 


4-day 


48 


4 


8 


21-23 


5-day 


48 


5 





— 



* Reference is made in the text to the different lots of eggs and to the 
hatched chicks by means of these designations. 

first five days of the incubation period. It may be seen that the number 
of chicks hatched from eggs exposed to the high temperature for only the 
first 24 hours compares favorably with the number hatching in the Control 
lot. A slight decline in the numbers hatched is evident at two days' 
exposure, and a marked decline exists for the remaining lots. 

Mean weights and the summary of a repeated measures analysis of 
variance for the complete data of this group are shown in Table 7. 
Except for the first post-hatching week, the mean weights of the chicks 
declined steadily with increased number of days' exposure of the eggs to 
the 41° temperature. The results of Bartlett's tests run on the correlated 
and uncorrected error variances of this analysis indicated these variances 
to be nonhomogeneous. In view of this, the degrees of freedom associated 
with the error terms, Animals within Lots and Animals X Weeks within 
Lots, were multiplied by one-half before the P values associated with the 
F ratios were determined. The Between Lots term is significant (P < .03), 
indicating differences in mean weights among the lots. The value of F for 
Animals within Lots (P < .001) reflects the presence of significant indi- 
vidual differences between animals. The F for the Weeks term indicates 
significant weight gain for the entire group of animals across the four- 
week period. The F for Weeks X Lots has an associated P < .001, again 
reflecting highly significant differential rates of weight gain among the 
lots. 



392 Indiana Academy of Science 

TABLE 7 
Mean weights of lots of Group III at hatching and at the end of each post- 
hatching week and summary of repeated measures analysis of variance 
Mean weight (grams) 

Lot Hatching Is* week 2nd week 3d week 4th week 

Control 44.2 58.9 84.5 140.1 238.8 

1-day 42.9 59.6 81.7 134.0 228.8 

2-day 41.7 60.1 79.6 129.7 216.1 

3-day 41.0 55.3 72.1 122.6 210.8 

4-day 37.6 52.7 58.6 104.9 175.5 

Repeated measures analysis of variance of data of Group III 



Source 


df 


88 


MS 


F 


Between Lots 


4 


11,563.40 


2,890.85 


3.452* 


Animals within Lots 


83 


69,503.41 


837.39 


5.472** 


Weeks 


4 


1,929,282.07 


482,320.52 


3,152.009** 


Weeks X Lots 


16 


8,385.41 


524.09 


3.425** 


Animals X Weeks 










within Lots 


332 


50,802.73 


153.02 




Total 


439 


2,069,537.02 







*P < .03 P values were obtained after multiplying degrees of freedom 
**P < .001 for error terms by one-half. 

Analyses of variance of the weekly weight data are shown in Table 8, 
along with the results of tests of lot mean differences. Bartlett's tests 
indicated that the error variances of the analyses summarized in Table 8, 
as well as those of analyses reported below in this section, may be regarded 
as homogeneous. The analyses of variance elicit significant values of F 
at hatching and at the second, third, and fourth post-hatching weeks. The 
F for the first post-hatching week does not attain a significant level. 

The results of tests of mean differences ("least significant difference" 
method) disclose highly significant differences between the Controls and 
4-day animals and between the 1-day and 4-day birds in all analyses, with 
the exception of the first post-hatching week. Significant differences are 
found between the Controls and 3-day animals at each week (except for 
the first post-hatching week) and between the Controls and the 2-day 
birds at hatching and at the end of the fourth week after hatching. Other 
between-lot differences attain significance also, but these are sporadic. 
In the above comparisons the mean weights of the Control lot are greater 
in each case. 

A trend analysis was run on the lot means across all weekly weighing 
periods. Significant differences in linear trend (P < .01) were found 
between the growth curves of all possible pairs of the five lots with the 
exception of the comparison of the 2-day and 3-day lots. As in the Group 
II data, an inverse relationship exists between the magnitude of the linear 
trend component of the growth curve of each lot and the length of the 
period of exposure to the temperature insult, the curve for the Control 
lot displaying the greatest linear trend and that of the 4-day lot the least. 



Zoology 



393 



TABLE 8 

Analyses of variance of Group III data at hatching and at the end of 

each post-hatching Week and results of tests of mean differences 

Analyses of variance 





Source 


df 


SS 


MS 


F 


Hatching 


Between Lots 


4 


316.49 


79.12 


9.105** 




Within Lots 


92 


799.19 


8.69 






Total 


96 


1,115.68 






1st week 


Between Lots 


4 


243.66 


60.92 


1.571 (NS) 




Within Lots 


83 


3,218.77 


38.78 






Total 


87 


3,462.43 






2nd week 


Between Lots 


4 


2,100.06 


525.02 


4.270* 




Within Lots 


83 


10,204.56 


122.95 






Total 


87 


12,304.62 






3c? week 


Between Lots 


4 


4,050.01 


1,012.50 


2.923* 




Within Lots 


83 


28,746.12 


346.34 






Total 


87 


32,796.13 






4th week 


Between Lots 


4 


13,903.02 


3,475.76 


3.648* 




Within Lots 


8;^ 


79,084.88 


952.83 






Total 


87 


92,987.90 







*P < .03 
**P < .001 
NS: P> .05 

Results of tests of mean differences 

("least significant difference" method) for lots of Group III. 

Table entries are lot mean differences. 



Comparison 


Hatching 


1st week 


2nd week 


3rd week 


4th week 


Control — 1-day 


1.3 


0.7 


2.8 


6.1 


10.0 


Control — 2-day 


2.5** 


1.2 


4.9 


10.4 


22.7** 


Control — 3-day 


3.2** 


3.6 


12.4** 


17.5* 


28.0* 


Control — 4-day 


6.6** 


6.2 


25.9** 


34.2* 


63.3** 


1-day — 2-day 


1.2 


0.5 


2.1 


4.3 


12.7 


1-day — 3-day 


1.9 


4.3 


9.6 


11.4 


18.0 


1-day — 4-day 


5.3** 


6.9 


23.1** 


28.1* 


53.3* 


2-day — 3-day 


0.7 


4.8 


7.5 


7.1 


5.3 


2-day — 4-day 


4.1** 


7.4 


21.0** 


23.8 


40.6 


3-day — 4-day 


3.4* 


2.6 


13.5 


16.7 


35.3 



*P ^ .05 
**P^.01 

To determine the periods during which the various lots differed in 
terms of mean rate of weight gain, repeated measures analyses of variance 
were run on the data for each interval of one week. These results disclosed 
significant differences in rate of gain between the first and second post- 
hatching weeks (P < .01) and between the third and fourth post-hatching 
weeks (P < .025). 

Fig. 4 shows the mean weight gains of the five lots for the four weekly 
intervals. Analyses of variance run on the weight differences for the 



394 



Indiana Academy of Science 



tv 








"Control 






-- 1 Day 


/ / 


M0- 


2 Day 


/ / 
/ / 




• 3 Day 


/ / • 
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Hatching to 
Week 1 



Week 1 to 
Week 2 



Week 2 to 
Week 3 



Week 3 to 
Week 1 } 



Fig. 4. Mean weight gain of the five lots of chicks in Group III 
during four weekly intervals. 



intervals Week 1 to Week 2 and Week 3 to Week 4 elicited significant 
values of F (P < .01 and P < .005, respectively). The results of tests of 
mean differences at these intervals indicated that during the interval 



Zoology 395 

Week 1 to Week 2 the mean gain of the Control lot was significantly 
greater than those of the 1-day, 2-day, 3-day, and 4-day lots (all P's < .05) 
and that the mean gain of the 1-day birds was significantly greater than 
those of the 3-day and 4-day animals (both P's < .05). During the 
interval Week 3 to Week 4 the rate of gain of the Controls was significantly 
greater than that of the 2-day animals (P < .01) and 4-day animals 
(P < .05) ; also, the 1-day animals gained at a significantly faster rate 
than did the 4-day birds (P < .05). It may be seen in Fig. 4 that the rate 
of weight gain of the 3-day birds during the interval Week 3 to Week 4 
was greater (but not significantly so) than that of the 2-day animals. 
Furthermore, even though the mean weight gain of the Controls was 
smaller than those of the 1-day and 2-day birds during the first post- 
hatching week (non-significant differences), the Controls gained weight 
more rapidly than the experimental animals and maintained their lead 
for the entire period of observation. 

Discussion 

On the basis of the results of statistical analyses, it appears incon- 
trovertible that increased incubation temperature for varying numbers 
of days resulted in a reduction of total body weight in these chicks. 
Coupled with this is the fact of increased mortality of the embryos with 
increased temperature and length of exposure. 

Of interest is the fact that a decrease of only one degree of incubation 
temperature (from 42° to 41°) results in a marked decrease in mortality 
of the embryos. Total incubation time is not appreciably different, regard- 
less of temperature or length of exposure under these conditions. Mor- 
tality rate and total incubation time are not considered further in this 
report since primary concern is with phenomena associated with weight. 
Extensive work has been done on mortality rate and total incubation time 
(7, 10), although that work does not coincide exactly with the results of 
this research. 

It was surprising that significant differences in weight of the hatched 
chicks occurred both when the eggs were incubated for five days at 42° 
initially (Group I) and when another group (Group II) was incubated 
at 42° for the last five days of incubation. According to Romanoff (6), 
the temperature effect is greatest during the early stages of incubation, 
but comparison of Tables 2 and 5 indicates that the temperature effect on 
weights persisted through the first and second post-hatching weeks in 
Group I and through the third post-hatching week in Group II. Moreover, 
in both of these groups significant differences in weight did not occur 
until after hatching. Because of lack of space the Group I birds were 
not available for weighing after the third post-hatching week. The Group 
II birds, however, were weighed at the fourth post-hatching week, and 
Table 5 reveals that no significant differences in mean weights were found 
at that time, although the mean weights are seen to be appreciably less 
the longer the exposure to the 42° temperature (Table 4). 

A different type of situation exists in Group III, in which the eggs 
were incubated at 41° initially. This is one degree lower than the non- 
optimal temperatures used with Groups I and II. Here it is seen that, 
except for the first post-hatching week, highly significant differences in 
weight of the hatched birds persisted through the fourth week (Table 8). 



396 Indiana Academy of Science 

In other words, there was no apparent reduction of the temperature effect 
as the birds grew older. It could be speculated that the 42° temperature 
used in Groups I and II was fatal to all but extremely well-adapted or 
healthy birds and that these consequently were able to overcome the effects 
of the abnormal temperatures. At 41° (Group III) chicks not so well 
adapted and not so healthy may have survived and were not able to over- 
come the ill effects of the non-optimally high temperature. 

When the data on the differential rates of weight increase are exam- 
ined critically (Figs. 3, 4), it is apparent that there is basically no differ- 
ence in the causes underlying the disparities in the results between Groups 
II and III. The best interpretation here is that the birds in Group III 
simply partially recovered from the effects of the temperature insult of 
41° more rapidly than the birds of Group II did from the temperature 
insult of 42°. Insofar as the differences in mean weight gain are con- 
cerned, the point to be made here is that these differences occur between 
the lots of birds almost in an inverse step-wise fashion and that they are 
statistically meaningful. As will be seen in the following paragraphs, 
these results fit in rather well with an assumption of protein denaturi- 
zation. 

The physiological basis for these differences in mean weight is un- 
known. Studies aimed at determining this are currently being conducted 
in our laboratory. It has been suggested that at higher temperatures the 
eggs lose too much water and appear to dry up (10). Barott (1) found 
that when eggs were incubated at 38.8° the hatched chicks were smaller, 
less lively, and less alert than those hatched from normally incubated 
eggs (4). Recent work indicates that the quantity of polysaccharides is 
diminished in liver and kidney cells of chick embryos when the eggs are 
exposed to high temperatures (5). This suggests an interference with 
the normal conversion of sugars to glycogen. On the other hand, this lack 
might be the result of a more rapid use of sugars because of the higher 
temperature. 

With respect to dehydration as a result of the higher temperatures, 
it would seem necessary to assume that, if drying occurred, weight differ- 
ences at hatching should be significant. As is apparent in Tables 2 and 5, 
no significant differences were found in weights of the newly hatched 
chicks in Groups I and II. However, Table 8 reveals highly significant 
differences in hatching weights among the birds in Group III. Further- 
more, unlike the situation in Groups I and II, these weight differences 
remained significant through the fourth week, although no significant 
differences were found at the first post-hatching week. One might assume 
that in spite of the lack of weight differences in the newly hatched birds 
of Groups I and II dehydration had occurred, and that it would be 
expected that with continued growtff the weight differences would shortly 
disappear. This was found to be the case. In the case of the Group III 
chicks it could be said that no dehydration occurred in spite of the highly 
significant weight differences at hatching, and that the differences con- 
tinued during the period under observation because of some factor other 
than dehydration. If it were to be argued that dehydration occurred in 
Group III but not in Groups I and II, an explanation would have to be 



Zoology 397 

forthcoming for the continued weight difference in Group III and for the 
evening out of the weight differences in Groups I and II. 

In view of the conflicting nature of the evidence it might be more 
profitable to assume that dehydration was not a factor, and to seek an 
answer in the effects of temperature on biological systems. Already men- 
tioned has been the work of Preda and Cracium (5). The rapid depletion 
of carbohydrate stores would force an early dependence on protein and 
fat reserves. By measuring the respiratory and thermal quotients it has 
been found that carbohydrates are oxidized mainly during the first 2 days 
of incubation, proteins mainly from days 3-10, and finally fat from day 

II on. Some evidence is accumulating to the effect that carbohydrates may 
be principally utilized up to the tenth day of incubation (11). The point 
is that an earlier dependence on the reserves in the egg could cause a loss 
of the total dry weight of these substances, and, instead of being used for 
tissue building, these would be lost in the form of waste metabolites. This 
would account for the significant difference in the weights of Group III 
(incubated initially at 41°) at hatching, but not for its continuance beyond 
the fourth week, since the birds should have had ample time to recuperate 
by that time. The above analysis would not hold for Groups I and II 
(incubated at 42°), since no significant differences in the mean weights 
were found between lots in these two groups at hatching. 

A third possibility exists. The answer to the cause of the weight loss 
might be found in the area of cell physiology. Specifically, protein dena- 
turization of one or several enzymes can so affect the system that weight 
losses occur at different times and in different ways. The thermal inactiva- 
tion of enzymes may, in one system, be irreversible, as might have been 
the case in Group III (incubated at 41°). Even within groups (Group III 
in particular at the first post-hatching week) some reactions might readily 
be either irreversible or reversible. According to Giese (2), even if a 
denatured enzyme is not irreversibly altered, a cell might die because of 
prolonged sub-lethal heat treatment. This has the effect of suspending life 
processes necessary for the continued existence of a cell long enough to 
do irreversible damage. In other words, the heat treatment may not be 
at a temperature sufficiently high to cause irreversible denaturization oi 
enzymes but may be of sufficient duration to cause an irreversible altera- 
tion. Heat injury may also be caused by a derangement of the lipids of 
the cell, and it has been suggested that the disruption of these important 
cellular components could easily lead to death. It has also been suggested 
that heat releases calcium from the cell, which liberates a clotting enzyme 
that could cause the protoplasm to gel. It would appear that these latter 
two reactions are irreversible and that this could not account for the 
observed differences in the chicks' weights, especially in those groups in 
which weights returned to normal. It seems more likely that reversible 
enzymatic denaturization occurred in Groups I and II and that in Group 

III an irreversible reaction occurred. Different enzyme systems become 
affected at different times in development, and at different temperatures. 

Whatever the actual cause it seems reasonable to assume that, on the 
basis of the statistical evidence, these weight differences are real, and that 
further investigation of the problem is fully warranted. Such investiga- 
tion is being continued in our laboratory. 



398 Indiana Academy of Science 

Summary 

Chick eggs were incubated at higher than normal temperatures for 
varying periods of time up to five days, both at the beginning and at the 
end of the incubation period. The eggs were then permitted to hatch. The 
chicks were weighed at hatching and at the end of each early post-hatch- 
ing week. 

Statistical analyses disclosed significantly greater mean weight for 
control animals hatched from eggs incubated at normal temperatures as 
compared with the weight of experimental birds. In two groups of chicks 
(eggs incubated at 42° for the first five days and for the last five days of 
incubation, respectively) the differences in mean weights failed to attain 
significance at hatching and at the third and fourth weeks after hatching, 
although significant differences appeared between these times. In a third 
group (eggs incubated at 41° for the first five days of incubation) signifi- 
cant differences in mean weights were found at hatching and at the 
second, third, and fourth weeks after hatching but not at the first week 
after hatching. Highly significant differential rates of weight gain also 
appeared among the different lots of chicks within these groups, the con- 
trol birds gaining weight from week to week at a higher rate than the 
experimental animals. 

The possible causes of the observed weight differences are discussed 
in terms of dehydration, protein denaturization, thermal injury to lipid 
organization, and release of coagulating enzymes. 

Literature Cited 

1. Barott, H. G. 1937. Effect of temperature, humidity and other factors on hatch 
of hen's eggs and on energy metabolism of chick enbryos. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. 
Bui. 553. 

2. Giese, Arthur C. 1957. Cell Physiology. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 

3. Gunther, W. C. 1958. Effect of abnormal incubating temperatures on chick be- 
havior. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 68 : 363-366. 

4. Gunther, W. C, Robert K. Jones, and Paul, Manske. 1961. The effect of high 
and low incubating temperatures on chick behavior. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 70 : 
285-292. 

5. Preda, V., and O. Cracium. 1959. The influence of temperature of incubation and 
of the nervous system on the MacManus reaction in the liver and kidney of chick 
embryos. Folia Morpnol. 10(4) : 403-409. 

6. Romanoff, A. L. 1939. Effect of temperature shock on development of chick 
embryos. Seventh World's Poultry Cong. Proc. pp. 184-186. 

7. — , . 1960. The Avian Embryo. The Macmillan Company, New York. 

8. Siegel, Sidney. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
Inc., New York. 

9. Steel, Robert G. D., and James H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and Procedures of 
Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York. 

10. Taylor, Lewis W. (Ed.). 1949. Fertility and Ilatchability of Chicken and Tur- 
key Eggs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 

11. Witschi, Emil. 1956. Development of Vertebrates. W. B. Saunders Company, 
Philadelphia. 



A Study of the Box Turtle, Terrapene Carolina Carolina (L), 
Population in Allee Memorial Woods. 1 

Eliot C. Williams, Jr., Wabash College 

As part of a general long-range ecological study of Allee Memorial 
Woods, the population of the Common Box Turtle, Terrapene Carolina 
Carolina (L.), has been under study since 1958. This report summarizes 
the findings during the period 1958-60. 

Allee Memorial Woods is a 180 acre wooded tract located along the 
eastern side of Sugar Creek in Parke County, Indiana, about two miles 
northwest of the town of Annapolis. This area of partially virgin forest 
was acquired during his lifetime by the late Dr. Warder C. Allee. Dr. 
Allee's heirs gave the tract to Wabash College as a biological preserve. 

The box turtle is a fairly abundant, permanent resident of Allee 
Woods. In view of their size, long life span, and relatively slow movement, 
it was felt that these organisms offered excellent material for a specific 
population study. Studies on populations of the Common Box Turtle 
(T. Carolina Carolina) have been made in New York by Nichols (4) and 
by Stickel (5) in Maryland. Gould (1) made a study of the homing ten- 
dencies in this species. The work of Stickel was very extensive and involved 
the use of techniques similar to those employed in this study. Legler (2) 
gives a very complete report on the natural history of the Ornate Box 
Turtle {Terrapene ornata ornata Agassiz) in Kansas. He includes data 
on population size and home range. 

Starting in June 1958, each box turtle seen was marked and released 
at the point of marking after taking certain measurements and deter- 
mining the sex of the specimen. Date and time of capture as well as 
location of the organism were also recorded. The location was taken in 
terms of known land marks or permanent quadrats early in the summer, 
but later in 1958 topographic maps of the area were obtained and a num- 
bered grid was made on the map, dividing the area into hectares, and 
locations of captures were indicated in terms of this grid. Early in the 
summer of 1959 an 85 acre tract at the south end of the preserve was 
surveyed and stakes were placed at 100-foot intervals in a grid pattern. 
With the completion of the staked-out grid, it was possible to pin-point 
the location of each capture by pacing the distance from the point of 
capture to the nearest stake and taking a compass reading of the azimuth 
of the line from the stake to the turtle. Marking the capture on the map 
by use of a protractor and ruler gives a very close indication of the actual 
point of capture. The printed map is scaled so that one millimeter on the 
map is equal to ten feet on the ground. A sample of the pattern of recovery 
for turtle 15 is given in Map 1. 

During the first year of this study (1958) the turtles were marked by 
drilling holes in the marginal scutes. Each of the scutes was assigned a 
number and the number designating any particular specimen is determined 
by the sum of the numbers designated by drilling. 

Starting in 1959 a numbered monel metal tag was placed at the rear 
of the carapace to the right of the tail. This necessitates drilling only one 
hole and eliminates the possibility of misreading the number. 



1. Supported by A. E. C. Contract AT (11-1) 547. 

399 



400 



Indiana Academy of Science 






TURTLE # 15. 


1. 


30 June 1958 


2. 


18 July 1958 


3. 


5 Sept 1958 


Allee Woods 4 « 


17 Sept 1958 




22 June 1959 


6^ 


23 oune 1959 


7. 


13 July 1959 


8. 


20 July 1959 


5 <*»*-«* 9. 


30 July 1959 


10. 


31 July 1959 


... a«/»/«/. 11# 


19 Aug 1959 


^111 fcncr iifleslS # 


7 July 1960 



Map 1 

Portion of the Allee Memorial Woods used in the turtle study. Dots show the location 

of consecutive captures of Turtle No. 15. Dates of these captures are given ahove. 



In the three-year period 255 turtles have been marked in the 85 acre 
grid area. In 1958, some turtles were marked in the area north of the study 
grid, but since that time the work has been confined to the grid area. All 
the figures on captures given below are based on turtles in the grid area. 

In 1958, 138 turtles were marked. In 1959, 66 new turtles were 
marked and 46 turtles marked in 1958 were recovered at least once. In 
1960, 51 new turtles were marked and 65 turtles marked the two previous 



Zoology 401 

years were captured at least once. Thus, 41 per cent of the individuals 
captured at least once in 1959 had been marked in 1958, and 56 per cent of 
those captured at least once i