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Full text of "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofin771967indi 



PROCEEDINGS 

of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 



Volume 77 
1967 



William R. Eberly, Editor 

Manchester College 
North Manchester, Indiana 



Spring Meeting 
April 28-29 

MeCormick's Creek State Park 
Fall Meeting 
October 20-21 

Indiana University 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 

1968 



1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana State Li- 
brary, 140 N. Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Authors appear at the end of this volume, P. 450. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and corre- 
spondence concerning exchange arrangements should be addressed: 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana Academy of Science 
c/o Indiana State Library 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the State Library at $5.00 
per volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers can often be secured from the authors. 
They cannot be supplied by the State Library nor by the officers of the 
Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from v. 74 are available to 
members upon application to the Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the 
various volumes can be supplied relatives and friends of deceased members 
by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspond- 
ents may be addressed care of the State Library. Papers published in the 
Proceedings of the Academy of Science are abstracted or indexed in appro- 
priate services listed here: 

Annotated Bibliography of Economic Geology 

Bibliography of Agriculture 

Bibliography of North American Geology 

Biological Abstracts 

Chemical Abstracts 

Chemisettes Zentralblatt 

Current Geographical Publications 

Geological Abstracts 

Metallurgical Abstracts 

Pesticides Documentation Bulletin 

Psychological Abstracts 

Review of Applied Entomology 

The Torrey Bulletin 

Zoological Record 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Part 1 

THE WORK OF THE ACADEMY 

Page 

Sesquicentennial Medal Awarded Academy 8 

Officers and Committees for 1967 10 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting 13 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) 18 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Session) 21 

Annual Financial Statement 23 

Annual Report, Junior Academy of Science 25 

Biological Survey Committee Report 32 

New Research Grant Policy Announced 35 

Necrology 37 

Full Membership List 47 



Part 2 

ADDRESSES AND CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 

Presidential Address 75 

"Indiana's New System of Scientifiic Areas and Nature Preserves", 

Alton A. Lindsey 
"Science: Boon or Bane?" 84 

Ralph E. Cleland 

Anthropology 

G. K. Neumann — Stature of some Prehistoric American Indian Pop- 
ulations of Eastern United States* 95 

G. K. Neumann and S. S. Saksena — Diagnostic Morphological 
Characteristics in the Diagnosis of Ancestral Components in 
Negro-white Hybrids in the United States* 95 

J. F. Tincher — Preliminary Report on some Burials from the Ilini- 

wek Indian Cemetery at Fort Chartres* 95 

B. Morris — A Preliminary Report on a Probable Occupation Site* 95 

S. Townsend and B. Morris — Mound Four, West, New Castle 

Site* 96 

R. L. Buchman — A Preliminary Report of the Pottery from New 

Castle Site Hn 1* 96 

B. K. Swartz, Jr. — Basic Data Report on Artifact Slips: an Exam- 
ination of an Archeological Procedure* 96 

G. K. Neumann and C. G. Waldman — Regression Formulae for the 
Reconstruction of the Stature of Hopewellian and Middle Mis- 
sissippi Amerindian Populations 98 

R. L. Blakely and P. L. Walker— Mortality Profile of the Middle 
Mississippian Population of Dickson Mound, Fulton County, 
Illinois 102 

E. C. Griffin — Water and Soil Conservation by Prehistoric Indian 

Cultures in the Sierra M?dre Occidental of Mexico 109 

D. R. Burnor and J. E. Harris — Racial Continuity in Lower 

Nubia: 12,000 B.C. to the Present 113 

*Abstract or Note only 

1 



2 Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 
Bacteriology 

D. Carver and D. W. Dennen — Sulfatase Activity and Secondary 

Metabolism of Cepalosporium *Sp.* 123 

L. E. Beaty and M. E. Hodges — Induction of Arginase by the 

Shope Papilloma Virus* 123 

L. H. Barbosa and J. Warren — The Effect or Parenteral Mitogens 

on Tissue Cultivation* 124 

M. Kende — Application of Latex-agglutination to the Measurement 

of Antibody Response to M. pneumoniae Vaccines* 124 

B. S. Wostmann — Serological Changes in Ex-germfree Rats Mono- 
associated with Salmonella typhimurium* 124 

J. S. Ingraham and B. H. Petersen— Specialization of Antibody 
Formation Among Individual Spleen Cells Responding to a 
Complex Antigen* 125 

T. J. Starr and 0. Holtermann — Uncoating and Development of 
Vaccinia Virus in Tissue-Cultured Cell-Fragments Induced with 
Concentrated Extracts from Marine Algae* 125 

J. Sedmak and R. Ramaley — Identification of the Major 82 P Phos- 

phohistidine Protein from E. coli as Succinyl CoA Synthetase* 126 

Botany 

F. L. Patterson — Breeding Behavior and Vigor in Nullisomic and 

Monosomic Avena sativa L.* 127 

M. S. Ghemawat and J. F. Schafer — An Unusual Isolate of 

Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici* 127 

A. J. Ullstrup and A. F. Troyer — A Noninfectious Lethal Leaf 

Spot in Maize* 128 

H. Murray and S. N. Postlethwait — Sexual Differentiation of the 

Lateral Buds of Zea mays* 128 

D. M. Shultes and S. N. Postlethwait — The Adherent Tassel 

Mutant of Maize* 129 

D. D. Husband and S. N. Postlethwait — The Milk-weed Pod 

Mutant of Zea mays* 129 

H. M. Leon-Gallegos — The Use of Fluorescence in the Histopa- 

thology of Plant Tissues* 130 

G. J. Anderson and D. L. Dilcher — Cuticular Analysis of the 

Extinct Genus Dryophyllum* 130 

L. and A. Beesley — Wild Flowers of Indiana and Franklin County* 131 

P. Weatherwax — The Nodal Complex in Grasses 132 

W. R. Eisinger and D. J. Morre— The Effect of Sulfhydryl Inhib- 
itors on Plant Cell Elongation 136 

L. M. Alves, A. E. Middleton and D. J. Morre — Localization of 
Callose Deposits in the Pollen Tubes of Lilium longiflorum 

Thunb 144 

C. J. Kroening, W. W. Bloom and K. E. Nichols — A Study of 

Sleep Movements in the Genus Marsilea 148 

K. E. Nichols and W. W. Bloom — A Circadian Rhythm in the 

Sleep Movements of the Marsileaceae 152 

Cell Biology 

F. Padgett and A. S. Levine — A Collodian-methacrylate Support- 
ing Film* 154 

*Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents 3 

Page 

D. J. Morre, J. Horst, S. Nyquist and W. Yunghans — Use of 

Plasma Fractions as Aids to Golgi Apparatus Isolation* 154 

J. F. Schmedtje — Nonspecific Neutral Esterase and Agranular 

Endoplasmic Reticulum* 154 

I. Watanabe, S. Donahue and N. Hoggatt — The Fine Structure of 

Human Leukocytes from Peripheral Blood* 155 

J. R. Welser— Fine Structure of the Canine Pinealocyte* ......... 155 

M. McConnell, S. N. Grove, and C. E. Bracker — Studies on the 

Hyphal Wall of the Fungus Pythium ultimum* 156 

R. A. Jersild and P. S. Gibbs— Studies on the Effects of Ethionine 

on Intestinal Fat Transport* . 156 

M. Pensaert — An Electron Microscopic Study of Transmissible 

Gastroenteritis in Swine* 157 

C, R. Morgan and R. A. Jersild — Electron Microscopic Study of 

Human Islet B-Cell Adenomas* 157 

A. Kahn — Protochlorophyll Holochrome Participation in Photorear- 
rangement of Tubular Membranes in Prolamellar Bodies of 
Etiolated Bean Leaf Proplastids* 158 

A. E. Middleton, D. J. Morre, L. M. Alves, R. L. Hamilton and 
R. Mahley — Immunochemical Identification of Very Low Den- 
sity Serum Lipoproteins in Golgi Apparatus from Rat Liver. . . 159 

W. J. VanDerWoude and D. J. Morre — Endoplasmic Reticulum — 
Dictyosome — Secretory Vesicle Associations in Pollen Tubes of 
Lilium longiflorum Thunb 164 

Chemistry 

A. J. McElheny and R. E. Davis — Out-of-Plane Bending Force 
Constants of Carbonium Ions: A Novel Suggestion Explaining 
Fast Solvolysis Rates without Invoking Non-classical Ions* .... 171 

R. E. Davis and C. T. Theisen — Studies on the Willgerodt Reac- 
tion. IV. The Kinetics of Isomerizations of l,3-Diphenyl-2- 
propanone by Sulfur and Morpholine* . 171 

L. A. McGrew and D. Stibbins — Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra 
of Some l,3-Bisaryl-2,4-uretidinediones and Trisaryl-s-triazine- 
(lH,3H,5H)2,4,6-triones* 171 

L. A. McGrew — Catalyst and Substituent Effects in the Dimeriza- 

tion and Trimerization of Aryl Isocyanates* 172 

H. Morrison and S. Kurowsky — Dehydration of 3-Hexen-2,5-diol. 
Evidence for alpha-Protonation of an Aliphatic, Conjugated 
Dienol* 172 

R. R. Jaeger and M. E. Lipschutz — The Shock Histories of Iron 

Meteorites and Their Implications* 172 

M. Burton, R. R. Hentz and W. V. Sherman — The Mechanism of 

Hydrogen Formation in the y-Radiolysis of 1,4-Dioxane* ...... 173 

M. Burton, R. R. Hentz and R. J. Knight— The Mechanism of 
Radiation-Induced Luminescence from Scintillators in Cyclo- 
hexane* . 173 

C. R. Mueller — -Molecular Beam Scattering Technique and the The- 
ory of Chemical Reactions* 174 

E. Campaigne and S. Osborn — Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of 

the Isometric Napthobenzothiophene and Napthobenzofurans* . . 174 

J. Wolinsky and D. Nelson — The Synthesis of Matatabiether and 

Related Terpenes* 174 

*Abstract or Note only 



4 Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 
M. A. Wechter and F. Schmidt-Bleek — Exchange on Gas-Chro- 

matographic Columns* 175 

J. R. Siefker and L. J. Jardine — Aqueous Solution Studies of 0- 
Tolyl Biguanide Complexes of Cobalt (II), Copper (II), and 
Nickel (II) 176 

Ecology 

A. Faller III and M. T. Jackson — Vegetation Gradients on Wizard 

Island, a Volcanic Cinder Cone in Crater Lake, Oregon* 183 

W. E. Myers and R. 0. Petty — Beckville Woods: A Remnant of 

the Presettlement Forest Mosaic of the Tipton Till Plain* 183 

D. Schmelz — Kramer Woods: An Old-Growth Stand on the Ohio 

River Terrace* 184 

H. E. McReynolds — Creel Census of Lake Michigan Shoreline* . . . 184 

J. S. Nelson — Ecology of the Southernmost Sympatric Population 
of the Brook Stickleback, Culaea inconstans, and the Ninespine 
Stickleback, Pungitius pungitius, in Crooked Lake, Indiana 185 

R. S. Benda and J. R. Gammon — The Fish Populations of Big 

Walnut Creek 193 

J. 0. Whitaker, Jr. — Relationship of Mas, Peromyscus and Micro- 
tins to the Major Textural Classes of Soils of Vigo County, 
Indiana 206 

Entomology 

D. Nesbitt and H. L. Zimmack — The Biological Control of the 

European Corn Borer Through the Use of Bacteria* 213 

F. N. Young — Reproductive Behavior and Social Organization in 

the Coleoptera* 213 

G. E. Gould and C. A. Edwards — Damage to Field Corn by 
Symphylans 214 

J. R. Munsee — Nine Species of Ants (Formicidae) Recently Re- 
corded from Indiana 222 

Geology and Geography 

H. E. Kane] — Arroyos of the Southeastern Portion of the Canon 

City Embayment, Colorado* 229 

B. Lowell and T. R. West — A Topographic Map of the Bedrock 
Surface of Tippecanoe County, Indiana, as Drawn by a 
Computer* 229 

B. Moulton — Genesis of a Belt Road* 230 

W. T. Straw — The Upper Alluvial Terrace Along the Ohio River 

Valley in South-Central Indiana 231 

R. L. Powell. — The Geology and Geomorphology of Wyandotte 

Cave, Crawford County, Indiana 236 

A. N. Palmer — The Survey of Blue Spring Cave, Lawrence Co., 

Indiana 245 

S. H. Murdock and R. L. Powell — Subterranean Drainage Routes 

of Lost River, Orange County, Indiana 250 

A. K. Turner and R. D. Miles — Terrain Analysis by Computer. . 256 

A. F. Schneider — The Tinley Moraine in Indiana 271 

W. J. Wayne: — The Erie Lobe Margin in East-Central Indiana Dur- 
ing the Wisconsin Glaciation 279 

*Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents 5 

Page 
C. E. Wier — Stratigraphic Classification of Rocks of Pennsylvanian 

Age in Indiana 292 

L. V. Miller — An Investigative Study of Six Indiana Coals 299 

L. Guernsey — Selected Effects of Glacial Till on the Physical Char- 
acteristics and Existing Land Use of Indiana's Strip Mined 

Lands 305 

T. F. Barton — Lack of Planning or Failures in Pre-construction 

Planning of the Monroe Reservoir 312 

C. F. Dinga — Analysis of Retail Site Locations in Terre Haute, 

Indiana 321 

D. A. Blome — A More General Approach to the Concept of Thres- 

hold Population 326 

History of Science 

W. E. Edington — Biographical Sketches of Indiana Scientists, IV. . 336 

E. E. Campaigne — The Development of the Science Departments 

at Indiana University 340 

Physics 

G. T. Emery — Chemical Effects on Nuclear Transitions* 347 

J. C. Swihart — Strong Coupling Superconductors* 347 

M. B. Sampson, M. E. Rickey, B. M. Bardin and D. W. Miller — 
Planned 200-Mev Indiana University Cyclotron: Properties and 
Unique Features* 347 

Plant Taxonomy 

D. C. Nelson — The Taxonomic Relationship of Chenopodium quinoa 

and Chenopodiwn nuttaliae* 349 

C. E. Jones — The Genus Cyclanthera (Cucurbitaceae)* 349 

D. R. Walters — The Origin of Variation in the Cultivated Forms 

of Schizanthus (Solanaceae)* 349 

M. J. Murray— Evolution in the Genus Mentha* 350 

W. H. Welch — Hookeriaceae Species and Distribution in North and 

Central America and West Indies 351 

A. D. Savage and T. R. Mertens — A Taxonomic Study of Genus 

Polygonum, Section Polygonum (Avicularia) in Indiana and 

Wisconsin 357 

G. S. Marks — Teratological Androecia of Saponaria officinalis 370 

Soil Science 

S. A. Barber — Residual Nitrogen in Continuous Corn Culture* .... 373 
R. K. Stivers — Characteristics of Purdue Soil Testing Data from 

Plugs Taken Out of Experimental Plots 374 

R. W. Skaggs, L. F. Huggins and E. J. Monke — An Aerodynamic 

Method for Sizing Sands and Other Granular Materials 377 

L. A. Schaal and B. O. Blair— The Temperature Factor in Corn 

Production in Tippecanoe County, Indiana 389 

D. F. Post and H. P. Ulrich — Characterization of the Pembroke 

Soils from Indiana 396 

D. F. Post and J. L. White — Quantitative Minerological Analysis 

of Soil Clays 405 



'Abstract or Note only 



6 Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 
Zoology 

N. Eichelkraut and W. C. Gunther — Sugar Preference and Water 

Uptake in Heatstressed Chicks* 413 

J. A. Mueller — Morphogenetic and Antigenic Studies on Aeolosoma 

hemprichi (Oligochaeta)* 413 

Sr. M. J. Wallace and T. M. Menke — The Manipulation of Mouse 

Ova in a Cytochemical Study of Early Cleavage* 413 

F. D. Fulk — The Effect of the June Opening of Gigging Season on 

Indiana Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana)* 414 

M. E. Damiano and H. Tamar — Effects of Ultraviolet and Anti- 
biotics on Halteria grandinella* 414 

D. Rubins — Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles in the Indiana State 

University Collections* 415 

J. B. Baker and J. H. Hamon — Some Intestinal Parasites of Robins 

from Marion County, Indiana 417 

R. K. Zwerner and W. J. Eversole — Effects of Aminoglutethimide 

on Corticosteroids in Adrenal Vein Plasma of the Rat 420 

P. A. Holdaway — Effects of Amino-glutethimide and Diphenyl- 

hydantoin Sodium on the Rat Adrenal Cortex 427 

J. P. Allen, J. H. Hamon and R. W. McFarlane — Some Studies 
of the Spermatozoa of Certain Species of the Icteridae 
(Blackbirds) 434 

D. Rubin — Amphibian Breeding Dates in Vigo County, Indiana. . . . 442 

J. McGrath, M. Banerjee and R. W. Bullard — Adaptive Changes 

in Cardiac Muscle Activity under Hypozia of High Altitude .... 445 

Instructions for Contributors 450 

Index 452 



*Abstract or Note only 



PARTI 

THE WORK 

OF THE 
ACADEMY 

1967 



Alton A. Lindsey, President 



Medal Awarded to the Academy 

The state government presented one of the Indiana Sesqui- 
centennial medallions to the Indiana Academy of Science 
in recognition of its contributions to the sesquicelebration 
through a special spring symposium and publication of the 
resulting book Natural Features of Indiana. 

One side (top) reproduces the state seal of Indiana; 
the other suggests 150 years of progress from the log cabin 
society of 1816 to a modern industrial and agricultural state. 
Leaves and flowers of the state tree Liriodendron tulipifera 
are seen along the margins. The designer and sculptor was 
Mr. Warner Williams. The silver medallion was struck by 
the Metallic Art Company of New York City, the firm that 
produced the Indiana Centennial Medallion in 1916. 

This award comes not only as an honor to the Academy 
but also as a recognition of the outstanding work of Dr. 
Alton A. Lindsey who, as President-elect during this year, 
was instrumental in developing not only the spring sym- 
posium but also the fall symposium on the History of Indiana 
Science published in Volume 76 of the Proceedings. Dr. 
Lindsey was named chairman of a special Sesquicentennial 
Committee by President Carrolle A. Markle. Other members 
of the committee were Lois Burton, Ralph E. Cleland, Nellie 
M. Coats, Clarence F. Dineen, William R. Eberly, Ned 
Guthrie, Edward L. Haenisch, Warren E. Hoffman, Willis 
H. Johnson, Carrolle A. Markle, and William J. Wayne. 

Ed. 



Officers and Committees for 1967 
officers 



President Alton A. Lindsey, Purdue University 

President-elect William J. Wayne, Indiana University 

Secretary James R. Gammon, DePauw University 

Treasurer . .Frank A. Guthrie, Rose Polytechnic Institute 

Editor. . William R. Eberly, Manchester College 

Director of Public Relations. . . James A. Clark, Indiana Department of 

Natural Resources 

DIVISIONAL CHAIRMEN 

Anthropology George K. Neumann, Indiana University 

Bacteriology Joseph S. Ingraham, Indiana U. Med. Center 

Botany. S. N. Postelthwaite, Purdue University 

Cell Biology. Ralph Jersild, Indiana Medical Center 

Chemistry G. B. Bachman, Purdue University 

Ecology Marion T. Jackson, Indiana State University 

Entomology George H. Bick, Saint Mary's College 

Geology and Geography Allan F. Schneider, Indiana University 

History of Science .... Lawrence H. Baldinger, University of Notre Dame 

Physics . Konstantine Kolitschew, Indiana Central College 

Plant Taxonomy Fr. Damian Schmelz, St. Meinrad, Indiana 

Soil Science A. Zachary, Purdue University 

Zoology J. Hill Hamon, Indiana State University 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

(Past Presidents,* Current Officers, Divisional Chairmen, 
Committee Chairmen) 



Bachman, G. B. 
*Baldinger, L. H. 

Behrens, 0. K. 

Bick, G. H. 
*Christy, 0. B. 

Clark, J. A. 
*Cleland, R. E. 

Coats, N. 

Cook, D. J. 

Daily, F. K. 
*Daily, W. A. 
*Day, H. G. 
*Degering, E. F. 

Eberly, W. R. 
*Edington, W. E. 
*Edwards, P. D. 

Gammon, J. R. 
*Girton, R. E. 



* Guard, A. T. 

Guthrie, F. A. 
*Haenisch, E. L. 

Hamon, J. H. 

Jackson, M. T. 
*Johnson, W. H. 

Kaufman, K. L. 

Kessel, W. G. 

Kolitschew, K. 
*Lilly, Eli 

Lindsey, A. A. 

List, J. C. 
*Markle, C. A. 
*Markle, M. S. 
*Mellon, M. G. 
*Meyer, A. H. 
*Michaud, H. H. 
*Morgan, W. P. 



Moulton, B. 

Neumann, G. K. 

Petty, R. 0. 
*Porter, C. L. 

Postelthwaite, S. N. 
*Powell, H. M. 

Schmelz, D. 

Schneider, A. F. 

Stockton, Sister M. R. 
*Visher, S. S. 
^Wallace, F. N. 

Wayne, W. J. 
*Weatherwax, P. 

Webster, J. D. 
*Welch, W. H. 
*Welcher, F. J. 

Youse, H. R. 

Zachary, A. 



10 



Officers and Committees 11 



BUDGET COMMITTEE 



President, Lindsey, A. A.; President-elect, Wayne, W. J.; Secretary, 
Gammon, J. R.; Treasurer, Guthrie, F. A.; Editor, Eberly, W. R.; 
Director of Public Relations, Clark, J. A.; Retiring President, Markle, 
C. A.; Director of Junior Academy, Winslow, D. R.; Library Committee, 
Coats, N.; Program Committee, Day, H. G.; Relation of Academy to 
State, Daily, W. A. 

COMMITTEES ELECTED BY ACADEMY 

Academy Foundation: Morgan, W. P., chairman; Daily, W. A. 

Bonding: Cook, D. J., chairman; Brooker, R. M. 

Research Grants: Behrens, 0. K., chairman; Hart, J. F.; Michaud, H. H.; 
Stephenson, W.; Welch, W. H. 

COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 
(President an ex officio member of all committees) 
Academy Representative on the Council of A.A.A.S.: Johnson, W. H. 
Auditing Committee: List, J. C, chairman; Cooper, R. H. 

Youth Activities Committee: Heniser, V., chairman; Barton, Mrs. R.; 
Bateman, J.; Brooker, R.; Colglazier, J.; Crider, Mrs. Elizabeth; 
Davis, J. V.; Kaufman, K.; Kessel, W.; Kirkman, G.; Lefler, R.; 
Middendorf, R. J.; Reed, H.; Winslow, D. 

Indiana Science Talent Search: Heniser, V., chairman; Baldinger, L. H.; 
Henry, R.; Johnson, C; Schreiber, M. M.; Zimmack, H. 

Indiana Science Fairs State Coordinator: Kaufman, K. L. 

Visiting Scientists Steering Committee: Kessel, W. G., director; Cooper, 
R. H.; Crider, Mrs. Elizabeth; Gordon, R. E.; Guthrie, F. A.; List, 
J. C; Litweiler, E. L. 

Library Committee: Coats, Nellie, chairman; Burton, Mrs. Lois; Klotz, 
J. W.; Lilly, Eli; Malin, B. 

Program Committee: Day, H. G., chairman; Barton, T. F.; Heniser, V.; 
McClung, L. S.; Souers, C; Wayne, W. J. 

Publications Committee: Eberly, W. R., chairman; Clark, J. A.; Frey, 
D. G.; Melhorn, W. N.; Pelton, J.; Wayne, W. J. 

Relation of Academy to State: Daily, W. A., chairman; Clark, J. A.; 
Dineen, C. F.; Eberly, W. R. 

Membership Committee: Stockton, Sr. M. Rose, chairman; Bakker, G. R.; 
Behrens, 0.; Hayden, J. F.; Bick, G. H.; Burger, W. L.; Burns, M.; 
Carlson, K. H.; Coats, N.; Coleman, R. H.; Cummins, G. B.; Danehy, 
J. P.; Edmundson, F. K.; Feldman, H.; Forbes, Mrs. Olive; Frieders, 
F.; Gammon, F. R.; Gunther, W. C; Guthrie, F. A.; Hale, R. E.; 
Hoffman, W. E.; Hopp, W. B.; Hurt, W. R.; Johnston, E. R.; Kent, 



12 Indiana Academy of Science 

R. L; Kohnke, H.; Leighly, H. P.; Mayo, Mrs. Marie; McFarland, J.; 
Miller, D. E.; Miller, G. R.; Moussa, M. A.; Murphy, M.; Nussbaum, 
E.; Orpurt, P. A.; Patton, J. B.; Pelton, J. F.; Petty, R.; Postlethwaite, 
S. N.; Reynolds, L. M.; Schneider, A. F.; Shanks, M. C; Siegrist, J.; 
White, H. K.; Wilhelm, H. G.; Willig, L.; Zeller, F. J.; 
Zygmunt, W. A. 

Fellows Committee: Moulton, B., chairman; Driver, H. E.; Fraser, D.; 
Welch, W. H.; Seymour, K. M.; Miller, D. E.; Montgomery, B. E.; 
Daily, F. K.; Carlson, K. H.; Conklin, R. L.; Heiser, C. B.; Asher, 
E. J.; Barber, S. A. 

Resolutions Committee: Baldinger, L. H., chairman; Newman, J. E.; 
Smith, J. M. 

Invitations Committee: Youse, H. R., chairman; Cooper, R. H.; Webster, 
J. D.; Hopp, W. B.; Stephenson, W. K. 

Necrologist: Daily, F. K. 

Parliamentarian: Weatherwax, P. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 

Biological Survey Committee: Webster, J. D., chairman; Chandler, L.; 
Heiser, C. B.; Marks, G. C; Mumford, R.; Welch, W. H.; 
Young, F. N. 

Academy Conference Representative (President-elect): Wayne, W. J. 

Emeritus Members Committee: Cleland, R. E., chairman; Haenisch, E. L.; 
Markle, M. S.; Michaud, H. IL; Welch, W. H. 

Preservation of Scientific Areas: Petty, R. 0., chairman; Gutschick, 
R. C; Krekeler, C. H.; Moulton, B.; Schmelz, D.; Wayne, W. J.; 
Welch, W. H. 



SPRING MEETING 

McCormick's Creek State Park, Spencer, Indiana 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 
April 28, 1967 

The meeting was called to order by the president, Dr. Alton A. 

Lindsey, at 4:30 p.m. in Canyon Inn, McCormick's Creek State Park, 

Spencer, Indiana. 

A motion on emeritus status was read by Dr. Lindsey and approved 

as follows: 

"Persons who have been active members of the Academy without 
interruption for 25 years or more, and who have reached the 
age of 65 or have retired from professional activities, are eli- 
gible for election to Emeritus Membership. 
There shall be a Standing Committee whose duty it shall be to 
study the membership yearly in order to determine who has 
become eligible for emeritus status. This committee shall 
ascertain the wishes of all eligible members. The Committee 
shall recommend to the Executive Committee, for election to 
Emeritus Membership, all eligible persons who are desirous 
of this change of status. Members who have become eligible for 
emeritus membership are privileged to bring this fact to the 
attention of the Standing Committee. Emeritus members are 
not required to pay dues and have all the privileges of active 
membership except the right to hold office." 

The treasurer, Dr. Frank A. Guthrie, submitted the financial report 
for the period January 1, 1967 through April 22, 1967. A summary is 
as follows: 

Academy Accounts 

Balance as of January 1, 1967 $4266.55 

Receipts through April 22, 1967 4359.35 

Expenditures through April 22, 1967 828.64 

Balance as of April 22, 1967 $7797.26 

Administered Accounts 

Balance as of January 1, 1967 $17,419.12 

Receipts through April 22, 1967 17,802.32 

Expenditures through April 22, 1967 17,375.41 

Balance as of April 22, 1967 $17,846.03 

Library Committee: Miss Nellie Coats reported that a new edition 
of serial titles and holdings of the library has been printed and will be 
distributed to all academy members and exchange libraries. 

Membership Committee: Sister M. Rose Stockton reported that 4,000 
applications were sent to chairmen of all science departments in the 
colleges and universities of Indiana and to other scientific centers. She 

13 



14 Indiana Academy of Science 

recommended that a similar distribution be made next year to state 
high schools. 

Invitations Committee: Dr. Howard R. Youse recommended that 
invitations from Hanover College to host the 1969 meetings and Earlham 
College to host the 1971 meetings of the Academy be accepted. The 
schedule of future meetings will then be: Ball State University (1968), 
Hanover (1969), Indiana State University (1970), Earlham College 
(1971). 

Preservation of Scientific Areas Committee: Chairman R. O. Petty 

reported that Academy members, high schools, colleges and universities 
have been surveyed about natural areas and their educational use. The 
survey indicates that natural areas do play an important educational 
role in secondary undergraduate and graduate schools. Academy mem- 
bers have submitted 209 possible sites that may be considered for 
preservation. 

Publications Committee: 

1. A motion was approved to change "instructions for Contribu- 
tors" as follows: 

"Indiana Academy of Science members in good standing are 
eligible to submit papers for publication in the Proceedings. 
When a paper is signed by more than one author, at least one 
must be a member of the Academy. Preferably, eligibility should 
be established before submitting the papers, as such papers are 
given priority. In any case, all authors must be certified by 
the treasurer for payment of dues and old reprint bills at the 
time of the deadline (see below). Invited papers may be con- 
sidered for publication regardless of the membership status of 
the author. 

All papers submitted for publication in full will be reviewed 
by qualified reviewers, selected by the Publication Committee. 
Papers read by title only may also be considered for publication. 
Among papers of primarily regional interest, e.g., in certain 
aspects of botany, zoology, geology, geography and anthro- 
pology, those dealing with Indiana material will be accorded 
preference. The selection of papers for the Proceedings is the 
responsibility of the Publication Committee." 
(Abstracts) 

"Two copies of an abstract should be submitted to the Divisional 
Chairman at the time the title of a paper is submitted for the 
Fall Program. All abstracts will be published in the Proceed- 
ings. The original copy of the abstract should be marked "for 
the editor." The carbon copy of the abstract should be marked 
"for the divisional chairman" and may include information 
about time, projection facilities needed, etc. The abstract should 
be prepared according to the form used in the Proceedings (see 
any current copy of the Proceedings). The abstract should be 
complete and clear in itself and not over 5% of the length of 
the paper. It should normally not exceed 200 words in length. 



Spring Meeting 15 

Abstracts are not reprinted except for those which are included 
at the head of a paper published in full." 

2. The committee recommendation to publish special monographs 
was also approved. The recommendation is as follows: 

"The Publication Committee, acting on the directive of the 
executive committee at the meeting on October 21, 1966, sub- 
mits the following recommendation: 

'Because of the difficulties often encountered seeking a publisher 
for specialized monographic length manuscripts often of local 
or regional interest, it is here proposed that the INDIANA 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCE undertake to publish such manu- 
scripts prepared by any of its members in a special series of 
publications known as the Indiana Academy of Science 
MONOGRAPHS. The selection, editing and publishing of these 
monographs shall be under the supervision and direction of the 
Publication Committee of the Academy. It is proposed that these 
special publications shall be issued in paper cover and shall be 
distributed to members at reduced prices upon request and to 
all exchange institutions and shall be available for sale to 
others. All manuscripts submitted to the Publication Committee 
shall be sent to qualified reviewers wherever such persons may 
be found. The final acceptance of a manuscript for this series 
shall be the responsibility of the Publication Committee.' " 

An ad hoc Planning Committee considered the question as to whether 
the Academy should become actively concerned with the dissemination 
of scientific information to the general public, and with attempts to 
service the needs of the State, insofar as these involve matters re- 
quiring scientific competence. The Committee recommends the follow- 
ing: 

"1. The Academy should establish, by Presidential appointment, 
a standing committee of 9-12 persons, serving staggered three-year 
terms, to be designated the Committee on Science and Public Affairs, 
or some other suitable title. This Committee should be set up without 
delay. It should include representatives of industry who are members 
of the Academy. 

2. While the Committee may be able to initiate only a limited 
program at first, it should develop plans for the establishment, as soon 
as possible, of a permanent office to be staffed by a Director with 
supporting personnel. This office will serve the needs not only of this 
Committee but also of the Academy as a whole. The possibility should 
be explored of the State furnishing space for this office. 

3. The President of the Academy should address a letter to the 
Governor of the State outlining the nature and activity, present and 
proposed, of the Academy, indicating that its State Charter, and the 
continued support from the State, place upon it the obligation to serve 
the State in every way possible. This letter might point to important 
facts regarding the history of the Academy, mentioning a few of the 
prominent persons who have served as President or otherwise. It could 



16 Indiana Academy of Science 

emphasize the importance of science to industry and to many of the 
activities and decisions of the State government." 

"It might present the facts regarding the membership of the 
Academy, its distribution among industrial and educational institutions, 
public and private. It should stress the fact that service is rendered by 
the Academy only for the public good and not for the private profit of 
individual firms or persons; that such service is rendered by its 
members without fee, on an out-of-pocket expense basis. The letter 
might then raise the question as to whether the Governor would welcome 
the establishment of a Governor's Science Advisory Council to be 
appointed by him with the assistance of the Academy. The letter might 
suggest the possibility of a conference in which the President of the 
Academy and the Chairman of the Committee of Science and Public 
Affairs might discuss with the Governor the possible role of the Acad- 
emy in advising the various offices and agencies of the State Government. 

4. The Committee on Science and Public Affairs should also 
undertake: 

(a) to develop means and methods for disseminating scientific in- 
formation and offering scientific advice to the citizens of the state, 
through establishment of a Speaker's Bureau; the use of news media, 
radio and TV, and the publication of informative brochures; and also 
by setting up a consultative program by which municipalities or other 
government units, as well as bodies of private citizens concerned with 
problems relating to the public welfare, could receive competent advice. 
Such problems might have to do with water and air quality control, the 
proper use of pesticides, park acquisition, the preservation of natural 
areas, the establishment of cultural facilities such as arboreta, zoos, 
museums, etc. 

(b) to mobilize the membership of the Academy in support of 
these efforts. 

There are a number of foundations in Indiana that might become 
interested in supporting such a development. Certain aspects might be 
eligible for State and Federal support. Assurance of such a program 
might make it possible to obtain widespread support of industry via 
industrial memberships or grants. It might also result in more aca- 
demic people in the State becoming members of the Academy. It would 
be a responsibility of this committee to assist in obtaining the funding 
for the program envisaged. 

It is suggested that the President of the Academy consult with 
those in charge of the programs of the Indiana Historical Society, the 
Indiana Commission of the Arts and the proposed commission for the 
preservation of historical sites in order to gain their support and to 
establish proper liaison." 

A move to accept the report and implement the suggestions was 
passed unanimously, the ad hoc committee to form the nucleus of a 
permanent committee. That ad hoc committee consisted of Harry G. 
Day, William Eberly, Willis Johnson, Helmut Kohnke, Ralph E. Cleland 
(Chairman), H. B. Wells (Honorary Chairman), and Paul Klinge 
(Consultant). 



Spring Meeting 17 

Applications of 23 new individual members and five new clubs were 
presented and approved at a brief noon meeting on April 29, 1967. 

Approved October 20, 1967 James R. Gammon, Secretary 



FALL MEETING 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 
October 20, 1967 

The meeting was called to order at 7:30 p.m. by Dr. Alton A. Lind- 
sey, president of the Academy, in Room 105 of the Chemistry Building. 

The minutes of the Executive Committee and the General Session 
of the Spring Meeting of the Academy held April 28-29, 1967, at 
McCormick's Creek State Park were approved. 

Treasurer — Dr. Frank A. Guthrie reported the Academy funds as 
follows: 

January 1, 1967 balance $21,685.67 

Income to October 19, 1967 21,453.77 

Expended to October 19, 1967 . , 29,545.67 

Balance, October 19, 1967 19,593.77 

The Editor — Dr. William R. Eberly reported that at least one manu- 
script is in preparation for possible consideration as a special Mono- 
graph. 

Trustees of The Academy Foundation — William A. Daily reported 
in the Academy Fund, balance as of October 1, 1966— $1,192.38; dis- 
bursements as of November 23, 1966 — $300.00; disbursement as of 
December 7, 1966 (transferred to the Academy General Fund)— $964.58; 
receipts as of October 1, 1967 — $708.80; ending balance as of October 1, 
1967— $636.60. In the John S. Wright Fund, balance as of October 1, 
1966— $502.27; receipts as of September 28, 1967— $8,728.70; disburse- 
ments as of September 28, 1967 (including $6,000.00 transferred to 
principal) — $6,739.87; ending balance as of September 28, 1967 — 
$2,491.00 

Relation of the Academy to the State — William A. Daily stated that 
the requested increase of $1,500.00 per annum for the next biennum 
was not approved and that $4,000.00 per annum was provided. 

The Library Committee — Miss Nelle Coats reported that work con- 
tinues on the acquisitions purchased through the third Lilly Endowment 
grant and that 525 copies of Natural Features of Indiana remain. 

Research Grants Committee — Dr. O. K. Behrens reported the ap- 
proval of two grants totalling $500.00 thus far this year. 

Youth Activities Committee — Dr. V. Heniser stated that a general 
meeting probably will be held during this school year to evaluate the 
present program. Mr. Winslow noted that eight new clubs have applied 
for membership this year. Dr. Kaufman reported that an active cam- 
paign to increase the Indiana Science Education Fund, Inc. is now in 
progress. Dr. Kessel reported that the Visiting Scientist Program will 

18 



Fall Meeting 19 

be discontinued because the National Science Foundation has decided 
to no longer fund the various state programs. During the eight years of 
the program, 125 Academy members made 1,683 visits. Efforts are 
being made to obtain other funds so that this program can be continued. 

Membership Committer — Sister Mary Rose suggested that under- 
graduate college students be encouraged to join the Academy. 

Invitations Committee — Dr. Howard Youse stated that no additional 
invitations for the Academy meeting have been received since the Spring 
meeting. The schedule of future fall meetings is as follows: 1968 — Ball 
State University; 1969 — Hanover College; 1970 — Indiana State Univer- 
sity; 1971— Earlham College; 1972— open. 

Fellows Committee — Dr. B. Moulton recommended the following for 
Fellows of the Academy: 

David G. Frey Allan F. Schneider 

Sherman A. Minton William J. Wayne 

Robert D. Petty J. Dan Webster 

John A. Ricketts Charles E. Wier 
John F. Schafer 

A motion was approved to accept these members as Fellows of the 
Academy. 

Special Emeritus Committee — Dr. Winona Welch reported that 12 
members had petitioned for emeritus status. They are: 

Miss Edna Banta Prof. Edward Kintner 

Dr. Williard Berry Prof. Aubrey H. Smith 

Mr. Lester Bockstahler Dr. 0. H. Smith 

Dr. William C. Clark Dr. Ina Spangler 

Dr. H. George DeKay Mr. Matt F. Taggart 

Dr. Nina Gray Miss Ruth Wimmer 

A motion was approved to accept these members as emeritus members 
of the Academy. 

Special Committee on Science and Society — Dr. Willis H. Johnson, 
chairman, reported that although several more appointments are needed 
to complete the committee, four proposals had been discussed since the 
Spring meeting: 

1. the establishment of a subcommittee on Science and Government, 

2. appointment of a subcommittee on a Speaker's Bureau, 

3. creation of a subcommittee on Finance, 

4. preparation of a brochure outlining the goals to be achieved as 
a result of the new program. 

The subcommittee on Science and Government will approach the 
leaders of the Senate and House to explain the Academy's plan of action, 
to ascertain the problems now being considered by legislative commit- 
tees that are science related, and to ascertain the probable extent of 
interest on the part of legislators in the Academy's plan to make sci- 
entific information available to them. It was emphasized that the sole 
function of the Academy or its committees would be to render service 



20 Indiana Academy of Science 

to the state and local governments and simultaneously keep informed 
regarding legislative and executive proposals. 

The Speaker's Bureau subcommittee will first canvass the member- 
ship to obtain cooperation, then broadcast a list of available speakers 
to service clubs and other organizations throughout the state. 

The subcommittee on Finance will explore possible sources of fund- 
ing this new program and also the establishment of a central office with 
an Executive Director. 

A motion was approved to provide $100.00 for current expenses. 

Special Scientific Areas Committee — Dr. R. Petty reported that 238 
areas have been suggested and that a priority list will be the next stage 
of discussion. 

A motion was approved directing the President to appoint a com- 
mittee to study By-laws Article I. Dues for clarification and possible 
changes. 

Motions were approved to amend Article V, Section 1 of the Consti- 
tution (Committees) as follows: 

(15) Preservation of Natural Areas. The Committee on the Pres- 
ervation of Natural Areas shall consist of nine members appointed for 
three-year rotating terms from the fields of Botany, Geology-Geography, 
and Zoology, and with as wide a geographic distribution in the State 
as practicable. This committee shall serve as a channel through which 
suggestions made by members as to the conservation and preservation 
of natural areas may be referred to the Executive Committee in the 
form of recommendations. 

(16) Science and Society. The Committee on Science and Society 
shall study the role of the Academy in the dissemination of scientific 
information to the general public and in serving the needs of the State 
in matters requiring scientific competence. 

(17) Emeritus Members. The Committee on Emeritus Members 
shall take steps to implement Article II, Section 4, by recommending 
members eligible for this status. 

The meeting was adjourned at 10:00 p.m. 

Approved October 21, 1967 James R. Gammon, Secretary 



MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 

Indiana University, October 21, 1967 

The annual Fall Meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science was 
held in Wittenberger Auditorium of Indiana University Memorial Union, 
Bloomington, Indiana on Saturday, October 21, 1967 at 11:00 a.m. Dr. 
Alton A. Lindsey, President, called the meeting- to order. Academy 
members were welcomed in an address by Dr. Doris Merrit, Associate 
Dean for Advanced Studies and Research, Indiana University. 

The minutes of the Executive Committee of Friday, October 20, 
1967 were read by the secretary and approved as read. 

Fay Kenoyer Daily read a biographical sketch of each member who 
had died since the 1966 Fall meeting. These are printed under Necrology. 

Dr. Ralph E. Cleland presented an excellent address entitled "Sci- 
ence: Boon or Bane?" 

A luncheon for Junior and Senior Academy members was held in 
Alumni Hall at 12:30 p.m. Dr. Willis Johnson and Chancellor Herman 
B Wells reported on the progress and aspirations of the Committee on 
Science in Society. 

The annual dinner meeting of the Academy was held in the 
Frangipani Room of the Memorial Union at 6:30 p.m. Dr. William J. 
Wayne, President-elect, presided. 

The secretary presented applications for membership to the 
Academy. A motion was approved accepting the applicants as members. 

Dr. Lawrence H. Baldinger, chairman of the Resolutions Committee, 
submitted the following resolutions: 

"(1) That the Academy members here assembled express their 
appreciation to Indiana University for all the courtesies which have 
been extended to the membership during this meeting. We are indebted 
especially to Mr. Norris Wentworth, Director of Conferences; to Dr. 
Doris Merrit, Associate Dean for Advance Studies and Research, for 
her cordial welcome to the Academy members; to Dr. Harry Day, 
Chairman of the Program Committee, and his committee members for 
their efficient handling of all meeting arrangements; and to Dr. Ralph 
Cleland for his inspiring address at the general meeting. 

(2) That the Indiana Academy of Science recognize with special 
appreciation the efforts of Howard Michaud of Purdue University and 
William Kessel of Indiana State University in directing the operations 
of the Visiting Scientists' Program during the past eight years. The 
Academy expresses thanks also to the individual members who have 
cooperated with the directors of the program by making 1683 visits 
to the high schools during the tenure of the operation. 

Because of the great benefits which have accrued to the younger 
members of our Indiana communities through the Visiting Scientists' 
Program, the committee expresses the sincere hope that necessary funds 
can be obtained with which to continue this worth activity; failing this, 
that a volunteer program be instigated by the Academy." 

21 



22 Indiana Academy of Science 

The resolutions were approved. 

Dr. Carrolle A. Markle, Chairman of the Nominating Committee, 
presented the names of the divisional chairmen for 1968: Anthropology, 
B. K. Schwartz, Ball State University; Bacteriology, H. Campbell, Jr., 
Eli Lilly and Company; Botany, T. R. Mertens, Ball State University; 
Cell Biology, R. Jersild, Jr., Indiana University Medical Center; Chem- 
istry, L. A. McGrew, Ball State University; Ecology, W. B. Crankshaw, 
Ball State University; Entomology, L. Chandler, Purdue University; 
Geology and Geography, L. I. Dillon, Ball State University; History of 
Science, R. H. Cooper, Ball State University; Physics, E. C. Craig, Ball 
State University; Plant Taxonomy, C. A. Markle, Earlham College; 
Soil Science, M. F. Baumgardner, Purdue University; Zoology, J. 0. 
Whitaker, Indiana State University. 

The following slate of Officers and Elected Committees were pre- 
sented for election by Dr. Carrolle A. Markle: President, William J. 
Wayne, Indiana State Geological Survey; President-elect, Howard R". 
Youse, DePauw University; (Secretary, James R. Gammon, DePauw 
University; Treasurer, Frank A. Guthrie, Rose Polytechnic Institute; 
Editor, William R. Eberly, Manchester College; and Director of Public 
Relations, James A. Clark, Department of Natural Resources, all con- 
tinue since their terms of office are for three years and have not ex- 
pired) ; Academy Foundation Trustee, William A. Daily, Eli Lilly 
Company (1969); Bonding Committee, Donald J. Cook, DePauw Uni- 
versity and Robert M. Brooker, Indiana Central College (both 1968); 
Research Grants Committee, John B. Patton, Indiana University (1972). 
A motion to accept the officers and committee members was approved 
unanimously. 

Dr. Alton A. Lindsey explained "Indiana's New System of Scientific 
Areas and Nature Preserves" and illustrated his address with colored 
slides of some unusual areas by a triple slide panorama technique. 

The meeting was adjourned at 9:00 p.m. James R. Gammon, Sec. 



FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
January 1 — December 31, 1967 

I. ACADEMY ACCOUNTS 

A. 1967 Income: 
Item or Description 

Initiation Fees (primarily for 1967) 
Arrears Dues 
1967 Dues 
Advance Dues 

Sale of Reprints to Authors 
Balance, Vol. 75 (1966) 
Partial, Vol. 76 (1967) 

Sales of Proceedings 

Sales of Natural Features of Indiana 

Miscellaneous 

NSF — Visiting Scientists (indirect) 

Others 

TOTAL 1967 INCOME: 

Plus Interest Credited to Saving's Accounts 

TOTAL 1967 INCOME & CREDITS: 
Less 1967 Expenditures 

NET GAIN FOR 1967: 
Plus Balance, Jan. 1, 1967 

Balance, Dec. 31, 1967: 

B. 1967 Expenditures: 

Item or Description 
Secretary- 
Clerical 
Postage, etc. 

Treasurer 
Clerical 
Postage, etc. 

Office Supplies & Expenses 
Stationary (1967 & 68) 
Miscllaneous 

Travel Allowance & A.A.A.S. Conference 
Dues 

President's Contingency Fund 

Membership Committee 

Reprints (President's Address, Necrol- 
ogy, etc.) 

Junior Academy of Science 

Proceedings Publication Costs 
Editorial, Vol. 76 
Printing, Vol. 76 
Mailing, Vol. 76 

Reprint Costs, Vol. 76 







Income 




162.00 






590.00 






3,633.00 






179.00 


$ 4,564.00 




339.50 






1,796.05 


2,135.55 






492.50 
1,921.33 




69.14 






6.50 


75.54 






$ 9,188.92 






_}-953.03 






$10,141.95 






—7,483.28 




2,658.67 






-|-4,266.55 






6,925.22 




Expend- 


Budg- 




iture 


eted 


$ 216.00 






12.79 


$ 228.79 


$ 250.00 


$ 130.00 




86.60 


216.60 


225.00 


$ 133.25 




26.22 


159.47 
167.00 


175.00 




165.00 




30.62 


125.00 




30.10 


75.00 




111.00 


150.00 




44.56 


150.00 


$ 400.00 






2,932.76 






58.72 


3,391.48 
2,041.30 


475.00 







23 



24 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Program Committee 
Chairman 
Printing- 
Mailing- 

Science and Society Committee 
Mailing Expenses (Natural Features of 

Indiana) 
Library, Journal Binding (bill pending) 
Miscellaneous (incl. NSF-VSP deficit) 

TOTAL 1967 EXPENDITURES & 
BUDGET: 



39.38 
310.52 
150.00 


499.90 

196.63 

86.38 

279.45 


500.00 




350.00 
1,000.00 



$7,483.28 $3,640.00 



Item or Description 



II. ADMINISTERED ACCOUNTS 

1967 
Jan 1, 1967 Expendi- Dec 31, 

Balance Receipts tures Balance 



Publications Fund 
Operational Funds 
including interest 

ACADEMY ACCOUNTS: 



1,821.81 
2,444.74 



1,921.33 
8,220.62 



3,019.14 
4,464.14 



4,266.55 



10,141.95 



7,483.28 



STATE ACCOUNTS: 
N.S.F. Grant GW-1110 



TOTAL IN ALL 
ACCOUNTS: 



17,169.90 



17,290.00 



!3, 816.65 



249.22 



5,886.30 



6,410.52 



21.685.67 



32,365.22 



37,435.45 



724.00 
6,201.22 



6,925.22 



Academy Research Funds 


1,498.58 


790.00 


1,610.00 


678.58 


Science Fair 


6,107.24 


14,000.00 


18,168.48 


1,938.76 


Science Talent Search 


1,076.36 


2,500.00 


1,256.41 


2,319.95 


J.S. Wright Fund 


134.28 


— 


— 


134.28 


Lilly Endowment I 


.27 


— 


.27 


— 


Lilly Endowment II 


22.58 


— 


22.58 


— 


Lilly Endowment III 


8,274.59 


— 


2,708.91 


5,565.68 


Miscellaneous 


56.00 


— 


50.00 


6.00 



10,643.25 



17.568.47 



Bank Balances: Terre Haute First National Bank, Terre Haute, Ind. 2,301.11 
Lytton Savings & Loan, Los Angeles, Calif. 4,821.97 

First Western Savings & Loan, Las Vegas, Nev. 10,445.39 

TOTAL ASSETS IN BANKS AND SAVINGS: 17,568.47 

Dr. Frank A. Guthrie, Treasurer 
December 31, 1967 



April 26, 1968 

We the undersigned have audited the treasurer's records, for the 
Indiana Academy of Science, for the year 1967 and find them to be ac- 
curate and in order. 

James C. List, Robert H. Cooper 



INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Thirty-Fifth Annual Meeting 

OFFICERS 

President: Steve Jost, Muncie Central High School, Muncie 
Vice-President: John Peterson, Brebeuf Preparatory School, Indianapolis 
Secretary: Valerie Savage, Division of University Schools, Bloomington 

JUNIOR ACADEMY COUNCIL 

Dr. Howard Michaud, Chairman, Purdue University, Lafayette 

Mr. Keith Hunnings, New Haven Senior High School, New Haven 

(1965-1969) 
Mr. F. Ray Saxman, Cascade High School, Clayton (1966-1970) 
Mr. Charles Souers, Division of University Schools, Bloomington 

(1966-1970) 
Miss Helen Reed, Manual High School, Indianapolis (1967-1971) 

YOUTH ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE 

Prof. Virgil Heniser, Chairman, Indiana University, Bloomington 
Prof. Donald R. Winslow, Director, Junior Academy, Division of 
University Schools, Bloomington 



PROGRAM 
Saturday, October 21, 1967 

8:00 A.M.-8:30 A.M. 

Junior Academy Council Meeting, Room 300-C, Indiana Memorial 
Union. 

8:00 A.M.-11:30 A.M. 

Registration and Election of Officers, Indiana Memorial Union. 
Club representatives may file their ballots with the Junior Academy 
Council representative stationed in the lobby. Whittenberger 
Auditorium. 

9:00 A.M.-11-.00 A.M. 

Junior Academy Council Interviews for "Best Boy" and "Best 
Girl" Awards. Students nominated for an interview should register 
in Room 300-C, Indiana Memorial Union. 

9:00 A.M.-11:00 A.M. 

Tours of laboratories and research facilities. Whittenberger Lobby. 

11:00 A.M. 

General Session, Jordan Hall, Room 124. Address: "Science and 
Law," Kent B. Joscelyn, Professor in the Indiana University De- 
partment of Police Administration. 

25 



26 Indiana Academy of Science 

12:30 P.M. 

Luncheon — for Junior and Senior Academies. 

2:00 P.M. 

General Business and Presentation of Papers. Place: Chemistry, 
Room 122. John Peterson, presiding. "Welcome to the University," 
Prof. Virgil Heniser, Co-ordinator for School Science, Indiana 
University. 

3:45 P.M. 

Announcements, presentation of awards, adjournment. 

PROGRAM OF PAPERS 

1. The Effects of Colchicine on Serratia marcescens. 
Jim Siverly, Muncie Central High School, Muncie. 

2. A Limnological Study of a Farm Pond. 

Betty Sue Settle, Portland Senior High School, Portland. 

3. The Oligodynamic Action of Heavy Metals. 

Rachel Elaine Koontz, New Haven High School, New Haven. 

4. Experimental Methods in a Study of Ice Crystal Aggregation. 
James J. Peterson, Brebeuf Preparatory School, Indianapolis. 

5. Radioactive Induced Lactose Fermenting Mutations in Escherichia 
coli. 

Sam Combs, Cass High School, Logansport. 

6. The Development of Bacillus megatherium, var. X, as a Bacterial 
Inhibitor. 

Mike Ball, Adams High School, South Bend. 

7. The Isolation of Two Native Forms of Bovine Plasminogen. 
April Baker, Muncie Central High School, Muncie. 

8. The Zeeman Effect as a Basis for Spectrochemical Analysis. 
Michael Harnish, New Haven High School, New Haven. 

9. The Effects of Fluoride and Detergent on Plants. 

Betty Dugger, E. Wayne Gross Academy, University School, Bloom- 
ington. 

10. Identification of Fern Species by the Comparison of the Rate of 
Germination and the Number of Protonema Cells. 

Donna Belviy, J. F. Kennedy Memorial High School, Indianapolis. 

11. Thin Layer Chromatography. 

Mark Snyder, MSE Academy, University School, Bloomington. 

12. Ionic Propulsion. 

Douglas Stephen, Portland Senior High School, Portland. 

13. Worms in a Spin. 

Cindy Souers, MSE Academy, University School, Bloomington. 

14. Determination of Genetic Damage on Cucumis melo Caused by X- 
irradiation. 

Patricia Gaither, J. F. Kennedy Memorial High School, Indianapolis. 



Program 27 

15. How Acids and Bases Affect Tooth Decay. 

Karn Otteson, E. Wayne Gross Academy, University School, Bloom- 
ington. 

16. A Gas Chromatography Apparatus for Use in Physico-Chemical 
Studies. 

John W. Peterson, Brebeuf Preparatory School, Indianapolis. 

Hosts 

Members of the E. Wayne Gross Honors Academy and The MSE Science 
Academy of the Division of University Schools were hosts for this 
meeting. Mr. Charles Souers, Mr. Eliott Koyanagi, Mr. Billie 
Stucky and Mr. George Luginbill are sponsors. 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FIFTH ANNUAL 

MEETING OF THE 

INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

The thirty-fifth annual meeting of the Indiana Junior Academy of 
Science was held on Saturday, October 21, 1967, on the campus of 
Indiana University, Bloominton, Indiana. Two hundred thirty-nine 
students and twenty-nine sponsors representing twenty-one high schools 
had registered by the tme Vice-President Johhn Peterson opened the 
first general session of the meeting. He introduced Prof. Kent B. 
Joscelyn, of the I. U. Department of Police Administration, who gave 
a talk entitled "Science and Law." Previous to this session, members 
of the Junior Academy had enjoyed tours and lectures in various 
science departments on campus. 

After a joint luncheon for members of both the Junior and Senior 
Academies in Alumni Hall, John Peterson conducted a short business 
meeting during which the minutes of the thirty-fourth annual meeting 
were read by Acting Secretary Betty Dugger. After approval of the 
minutes, John next introduced Prof. Virgil Heniser, Co-ordinator for 
School Science, who, on behalf of the University, welcomed the group 
to the campus. 

Following the presentation of the sixteen papers listed in the 
program, Mr. Darrell Peterson of the University of Notre Dame, 
representing the Indiana Branch of the American Society for Micro- 
biology, announced the names of the winners of the Society awards for 
the best papers in microbiology. Sam Combs of Cass High School, 
Logansport, received a certificate and a check for $25.00 for his 
paper entitled "Radioactive Induced Lactose Fermenting Mutations in 
Escherichia coli." Mike Ball of South Bend Adams High School was 
given a certificate for his paper "The Development of Bacillus 
megatherium, var. X, as a Bacterial Inhibitor." 

Mr. Charles Souers next announced the winners of the "Best Girl" 
and "Best Boy" awards. Betty Sue Settle of Portland Senior High 
School, whose paper was entitled "A Limnological Study of a Farm 
Pond," and April Baker of Muncie Central High School, whose paper 



28 Indiana Academy of Science 

was entitled "The Isolation of Two Native Forms of Bovine Plasmino- 
gen" tied for the "Best Girl" award. Dennis Waltke of University- 
School received the "Best Boy" award. Each of these students receive 
a year's honorary membership in the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science and a year's subscription to SCIENCE. 

The following announcements were then made by Mr. Winslow, 
Director of the Junior Academy. Next year's meeting will be held on 
the Ball State campus during the weekend of October 18 and 19. Mr. 
David Blase of Arlington High School in Indianapolis will become the 
new member of the Junior Academy Council. 

The newest clubs to become affiliated with the Junior Academy are 
those of the Indian Creek School of Trafalgar and the LaSalle High 
School of South Bend. 

The newly elected officers for 1968 are as follows: 
Dennis Waltke University School President 
James Peterson Brebeuf Vice-President 

Rachael Koontz New Haven Secretary 

Mr. Winslow then announced the death of Mrs. Elizabeth Crider 
of Washington High School of Indianapolis. She had been a long- 
time club sponsor and former member of the Junior Academy Council. 
The group stood for a moment of silence in tribute to the former 
teacher. 

John Peterson adjourned the thirty-fifth annual meeting of the 
Indiana Junior Academy of Science at 4:35 P. M. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Betty Dugger and Karn Otteson 

Acting Secretaries 



INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
1967-1968 



Town 
Acton 

Bedford 

Bloomington 

Bloomington 

Bloomington 

Clarksville 

Clarksville 

Columbus 

Crawfords- 
ville 

Fort Wayne 

Fort Wayne 
French Lick 

Gary 



Club and School 

Sigma Mu Chapter of FSA, Frank- 
lin Central H. S. 

Bedford Science Problems Research 
Group, Bedford H. S. 

National Scientific Honor Society, 
Bloomington H. S. 

E. Wayne Gross Academy, Uni- 
versity H. S. 

MSE Academy, University Junior 
High 

Clarksville H. S. Science Club, 
Clarksville Junior, Senior H. S. 

Phy-Chem, Our Lady of Providence 
H. S. 

Science Club, Columbus Senior H.S. 

Up-N-Atom, Crawfordsville H. S. 

Albertus Magnus Science Club, 
Central Catholic H. S. 

Phy-Chem Club, Elmhurst H. S. 

Springs Valley Science Club, 
Spring Valley H. S. 

Andrean Biology Club, Andrean 
H. S. 



Gary Mu Alpha Theta, Andrean H. S. 

Gary Biology Club, Lew Wallace H. S. 

Griffith Griffith Junior High Science Club, 

Griffith Junior H. S. 

Griffith Griffith Senior High Science Club, 

Griffith Senior H. S. 

Hammond Chemistry Club, Oliver P. Morton 

H. S. 
Hartford City Hartford City H. S. Science Club, 

Hartford City H. S. 
Highland Science Club, Highland H. S. 



Sponsor 

Margaret Richwine 

Paul Hardwick 

Orville Long 

Billie Stucky 

Charles Souers 

Gerald K. Sprinkle 

Sr. Jean Marian 
L. N. Carmichael 
David Wells 

Sr. Winifred 
Ruth Wimmer 

D. L. Clark 

Sr. Marie Antoine, 

SS.C.M. 
Sr. Maria Carmel, 

SS.C.M. 

Sr. M. Nadine, 
SS.C.M. 

Lola Lemon 
Fred Meeker 
Geraldine R. Sherfey 
Mary J. Pettersen 

Jon Hendrix 



29 



30 Indiana Academy of Science 

Hobart Hobart Senior High Science Club, 

Hobart Senior H. S. Stanley J. Senderak 

Huntington Aristotelian, Huntington Catholic 

H. S. Sr. M. Petrona 

Huntington Science, Huntington H. S. Robert Diffenbaugh 

Indianapolis Arlington Science Club, Arlington 

H. S. Robert McClary 

Indianapolis Nature Club, Arsenal Technical 

H. S. Michael Simmons 

Indianapolis Brebeuf Science Club, Brebeuf 

Preparatory School Donald G. Mains 

Harold J. Sommer 
Indianapolis Science Club, Howe H. S. Jerry Motley 

Indianapolis Kennedy Research Center KRC, 

Kennedy Memorial H. S. Sr. Mary Alexander, 

C.S.J. 

Indianapolis Mendelian Science Club, Ladywood 

H. S. Sr. Helen Jean 

Indianapolis North Central H. S. Science Club, 

North Central H. S. Robert Prettyman 

Indianapolis Science Club, George Washington 

H. S. William Baldwin 

Indianapolis Science Club of Westlane, Westlane 

Junior H. S. John Van Sickle 

Jamestown Science Club of Granville Wells, 

Granville Wells School Cecil 0. Bennington 

LaPorte Bi-Phi-Chem Club, La Porte H. S. Frances M. Gourley 

Byron Bernard 

Lebanon Junior Explorers of Science, Leb- 

anon Junior H. S. Tom Ewing 

Logansport Lewis Cass H. S. Science Club Raymond T. Kozer 

Mrs. Jane Kahle 

Madison Madison Science Club, Madison 

Consolidated High David Dunkerton 

Muncie Muncie Central Science Club, Mun- 

cie Central H. S. Bill Norris 

William Beuoy 

New Albany Science Club, New Albany Senior 

H. S. Roger Moody 

New Haven New Haven Science Club, New 

Haven H. S. Keith Hunnings 

E. H. Sanders 

Portland Science Club, Portland-Wayne 

Township Junior H. S. Mary Zehner 

Portland Portland Senior H. S. Science and 

Mathematics Club, Portland Sen- Ralph Settle 
ior H. S. Robert Freemyer 



Junior Academy of Science 31 

South Bend Junior Izaak Walton League, John 

Adams H. S. Ernest Litweiler 

South Bend JETS Junior Engineering Tech- 
nical Society, Central H. S. 

South Bend Second Year Biology Class, Clay 

H. S. John V.Davis 

South Bend IONS Club, J. W. Riley H. S. John Marker 

Terre Haute Pius X Science Teens, Schulte H. S. Sr.Marie Barbara, 

S.P. 
Tipton Tipton H. S. Science Club, Tipton 

H. S. Richard Garst 

Fredrick Calhoun 
Vincennes Sikma Tau Science Club, St. Rose Sr. Anna Margaret 

Academy Sr. Aloyse 



Biological Survey Committee, J. Dan Webster, Chairman 

Publications of 1966-1967 

Dealing with the Flora and Fauna of Indiana 



Vascular Plants: 



Protozoa: 



Parasitic Worms: 



1968. Wild flowers of 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 



Beesley, L. and Beesley, Adele. 
Indiana and Franklin County, 
for 1967. In press. 

Jackson, M. T. and Newman, J. E. 1967. Indices for ex- 
pressing differences in local climates due to forest cover 
and topographic differences. Forest Science 13:60-71. 

Murray, M. J. 1968. Evolution in the genus Mentha. Proc. 
Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1967. In press. 

Myers, W. E. and Petty, R. O. 1968. Beckville Woods: A 
remnant of the presettlement forest mosaic of the Tipton 
Till plain. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1967. In press. 

Savage, A. D. and Mertens, T. R. 1968. A taxonomic study 
of the genus Polygonum section Polygonum (Avicularia) 
in Indiana and Wisconsin. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 
1967. In press. 

Schmelz, D. 1968. Kramer Woods: An old-growth stand 
on the Ohio River Terrace. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 
1967. In press. 

Tamar, H. 1966. The responses and movements of Halteria 
grandinella (Oligotrichida). Protozool. 13: Suppl. p. 14. 

Tamar, H. 1967. Further observations on Halteria grandi- 
nella (Oligotrichida). J. Protozool. 14: Suppl. p. 27. 

Baker, J. B. and Hamon, J. H. 1968. A preliminary study 
of some intestinal parasites of robins from Marion 
County. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1967. In press. 

Cable, R. M. and Dill, W. T. 19 67. The morphology and 
life history of Patdisentis fractus Van Cleave and Bang- 
ham 1949 (Acanthocephala). J. Parasitol. 53:810-817. 

Pond, G. G. and Cable, R. M. 1966. Fine structure of 
photoreceptors in three types of ocellate cercariae. 
(Trematoda, Digenea). J. Parasitol. 52:483-493. 

Stang, J. C. and Cable, R. M. 1966. The life history of 
Holostephanus ictaluri Vernberg, 1952 (Trematoda: 
Digenea) and immature stages of other North American 
freshwater cyathocotylids. Amer. Midland Natur. 75 : 
404-415. 



Insecta: 



Vertebrates, 
general: 



Pisces: 



Munsee, J. R. 1968. Nine species of ants (Formicidae) 
recently recorded from Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 
1967. In press. 

Rubin, D. 1968. Fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in the 
Indiana State University collections. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. for 1967. In press. 

Benda, R. S. and Gammon, J. R. 1968. Age and growth, 
length-weight relationships, and distribution of fishes in 
Big Walnut Creek, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 
1967. In press. 

Nelson, J. S. 1968. Ecology of the southern-most sym- 
patric population of the Brook Stickleback, Culaea 
inconstans, and the Ninespine Stickleback, Pungitius 
pungitius, in Crooked Lake, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad, for 
1967. In press. 



32 



Biological Survey 



\va 



Amphibia: 



Aves: 



Rubin, D. 1967. Growth and body proportions of sympatric 
Plethodon cinereus (Green) and Plethodon dorsalis Cope. 
Herpetologica 23:8-11. 

Baker, Mrs. H. A, 1966. Breeding bird census # 62 ; 

grazed, bushy fields and tree-bordered creek. Aud. Field 

Notes 20: 656. 
Indiana Audubon Society Members. 1967. Many titles in 

Indiana Audubon Quarterly Vol. 45. 
Smith, Shelia. 1966. Breeding bird census # 85 ; suburban 

edge. Aud. Field Notes 20:670-671. 
Webster, J. D. 1967. Winter bird population study #14; 

tornado-disturbed beech-maple forest. Aud. Field Notes 

21: 467. 
Webster, J. D. 1967. Winter bird population study # 34 ; 

corn stubble. Aud. Field Notes 21:475-476. 



Mammalia: 



Corthum, K. W., Jr. 1967. Reproduction and duration of 
placental scars in the Prairie Vole and the Eastern Vole. 
J. Mammal. 48:287-292. 

Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1967. Habitat and reproduction of 
some of the small mammals of Vigo County, Indiana, 
with a list of mammals known to occur there. Occ. Pap. 
Adams Ctr. Ecol. Stud. 16:1-24. 

Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1968. Relationship of M us, Peromyscus, 
and Microtus to major textural classes of soils of Vigo 
County, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1967. In press. 



Fungi: 



Theses Completed and Placed on File 
Dealing with the Flora and Fauna of Indiana 

Webster, J. R. 1967. Microfloral population response to 
microenvironment in the litter of three mesic sites. B.A. 
Wabash. 



Vascular Plants: Miller, Lilian W. 1964. A taxonomic study of the species 
of Acalypha in the United States. Ph.D. Purdue. 

Miller, K. I. 1964. A taxonomic study of the species of 
Tragia in the United States. Ph.D. Purdue. 

Milstead, W. D. 1964. A revision of the North American 
species of Prenanthes. Ph.D. Purdue. 

Invertebrata, Deol, U. S. 1967. The effect of inorganic pollution on 

general: macro-invertebrate populations of Deer Creek. M.A. 

DePauw. 



Protozoa: 



Damiano, M. E. 1967. The development of a better culture 
for Halieria grandinella (Ciliata). M.Sc. Indiana State. 

Mark, Y. W. 1967. A balanced salt culture medium for 
Halteria grandinella (Ciliata). M.Sc. Indiana State. 



Insecta: 



Munsee, J. R. 1966. The ecology of ants in strip-mines. 
M.Sc. Indiana State. 



Vertebrata, 
general: 



Jones, G. S. 1967. Vertebrate ecology of a strip-mined 

area in southern Indiana. M.Sc. Purdue. 
Pentecost, E. 1967. Amphibians and reptiles of Franklin 

County, Indiana. M.Sc. Ball State. 



Pisces: 



Benda, R. S. 1967. A preimpoundment study of the fishery 
resources of Big Walnut Creek. M.A. DePauw. 

Corwin, J. 1967. Fishes of Madison County, Indiana. M.Sc. 
Ball State. 



34 

Amphibia: 

Mammalia: 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Webster, J. R. 1967. A study of a revine salamander popu- 
lation (Plethodontidae). B.A. Wabash. 

Miller, W. C. 1967. Ecological and ethological isolating 

mechanisms of Microtus pennsylvanicus and Microtus 

ochrogaster at Terre Haute, Indiana. M.A. Indiana 
State. 



Work in Progress, but not yet Published 
Dealing with the Flora and Fauna of Indiana 



Bryophyta: 
Vascular Plants: 



Parasitic 

Invertebrates: 

Platyhelminthes: 
Arthropoda: 
Pisces: 
Amphibia: 



Reptilia: 



Aves: 
Mammalia: 



Animal Ecology 



Lantz, L. A. Fort Wayne. Liverworts of Indiana. 
Craske, A. G., Jr. and Jackson, M. T. Indiana State. 

Taxonomic and ecologic differences in two taxa of hard 

maples in Indiana. 
Cravello, T. J. Notre Dame. Flora of St. Joseph County. 
Cravello, T. J. Notre Dame. Studies on Cruciferae of 

Indiana. 
Markle, Carolle A. Earlham. Taxonomic and ecologic study 

of Sedgwick's Rock Preserve in Wayne County, Indiana. 
Marks, G. C. Valparaiso. Teratological androecia in 

Saponaria officinalis. 
Petty, R. O. Wabash. Hemlock seedling survival under 

hardwood litter and on denuded sites ; plantation study. 
Whigham, D. Wabash. Floodplain phytosociology of Sugar 

Creek in Turkey Run State Park. 



Whitaker, J. O., Jr. Indiana State, 
of Vigo County, Indiana. 



Parasites of Mammal: 



Cable, R. M. and students. Purdue. Studies on larval 
trematodes of Little Pine Creek and their life cycles. 

Ward, G. L. Earlham. Relationship of spiders and three 
genera of mud-dauber wasps. 



Whitaker, J. O., Jr. and Wallace, 
Fishes of Vigo County, Indiana. 



D. C. Indiana State. 



Frey, J. T. and Jackson, M. T. Indiana State. Migration, 
home range, and territorial patterns in several species of 
frogs. 

Whitaker, J. O., Jr. Indiana State. Life history of Swamp 
Cricket Frog, Pseudacris triseriata. 

Williams, E. Wabash. Continuation of study of Terrapene 
Carolina populations in Allee Woods. 

Cope, J. B. Earlham. Birds of the Whitewater Valley. 
Whitaker, J. O., Jr. and Miller, W. A. Indiana State and 
Indiana State Board of Health. R abies in Indiana bats. 
Cope, J. B. Earlham. Bats of the Whitewater Valley. 

Gammon, J. R. DePauw. Fish and invertebrate popula- 
tions of the Wabash River as affected by heated effluents. 

Gammon, J. R. DePauw. The effect of sedimentation on 
aquatic ecosystems. 



COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH GRANTS 

Announcement of New Research Grant Policy 

Modest requests, not to exceed a few hundred dollars, are more 
likely to receive approval. Oral presentation of the results of investi- 
gations to the Academy are encouraged. 

STATEMENT OF POLICY 

1. The following are eligible to apply for research grants: 

a. Any member of the Academy in good standing for the 
preceding year. 

b. Any graduate or undergraduate university or college student 
member sponsored by an instructor who is himself eligible to 
receive a grant. 

c. Any high school student who is a member of the Junior 
Academy and is sponsored by an instructor eligible to receive 
a grant. 

(In the case of b or c above, the grant is made to the sponsor for 
use by the student.) 

2. Preference will be given to applications from members who have 
limited access to other research funds. 

3. Only in exceptional cases will grants be made for the purchase of 
capital equipment. 

4. Grants will not be approved in support of meeting attendance or 
publication costs. 

5. The applicant should ordinarily have made sufficient progress on his 
project to indicate that he has a problem falling within the range of 
his abilities and resources and promising tangible results within a 
reasonable time. 

METHOD OF APPLICATION 

Six copies of the application should be submitted to the Chairman 
of the Research Grants Committee. The Committee has three deadlines 
for receipt of applications: January 1, February 20, and August 20. 
Respective dates for decisions on these applications are approximately 
March 1, April 20, and October 20. 

The application may be informal in nature, but it should include 
the information called for below: 

1. The applicant's name, complete address, and other pertinent data 
including his academic position or other significant connections. 

2. An outline description of the project for which aid is requested. This 
statement should be brief and to the point, but it should include the 
following: 

a. A statement of the problem and a summary of progress already 
made. 

35 



36 Indiana Academy of Science 

b. A list, in bibliographic form, of the applicant's publications on 
this or related studies (reprints not necessary). 

c. Specific scope of the problem, indicating whether it is an 
isolated unit or a part of a more comprehensive study, when 
this part will probably be completed, and whether it is 
expected to result in publication. 

3. A statement of the amount requested and over what period. The 
allocation of funds for various purposes (student aid, expendable 
supplies, etc.) should be specified. Funds available from other 
sources and applications for other support should be detailed. 

4. If you are a student member falling in category la or lb in the 
"Statement of Policy," give the name and indicate the position of 
your sponsor and have him include a letter indicating his approval 
of the request. 

5. Give any other information which you regard as pertinent to your 
application. 

6. A request for renewal of a grant may be abbreviated by reference 
to the original application. A statement of progress should be 
included, and efforts to find other sources of support should be 
indicated. 



NECROLOGY 

Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 



Oliver W. Brown 

Vermillion Grove, Illinois Bloomington, Indiana 

June 25, 1873 April 20, 1967 

When Oliver W. Brown was 92 years old, he was the subject of 
a wonderful article in the Indiana Alumni Magazine (October, 1965), 
which paid tribute to his 70 years of work in chemical laboratories. 
He was still continuing- his work at the time, and has been at Indiana 
University as student and professor longer than anyone else living*. 
He retired from teaching in 1943 when he became Professor Emeritus. 

He was born at Vermillion Grove, Illinois, June 25, 1873. His 
high school training was received at Kokomo, Indiana. He received 
a B.S. from Earlham College, an A.M. from Indiana University, 1896, 
and an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Huntington College 
in 1941. 

His career was quite varied between industry and teaching because 
of his interest in electro-research. Prof. Brown taught at the Colorado 
School of Mines and Cornell University before joining the Indiana 
University faculty in 1899. He once served as Vice-President of the 
Smith-Brown Battery Co. and took a leave of absence from Indiana 
University in 1914 to become chief battery engineer at Presto Lite Co. 
when it opened in Speedway, Indiana. He was consultant for the 
Calco Chemical Division of the American Cyanimid Corp., chemist for 
the J. N. Hurty Lab. in Indianapolis, electro-chemist at the Muncie 
Pulp Co., and instructor of chemical engineering at the University of 
Wisconsin. He trained many of the country's battery engineers. 

Prof. Brown had a summer home near Plainfield, Indiana, where 
he raised shorthorn cattle. He became interested in vitamin E and 
its value in treating a muscular disease in lambs and calves. 

Two of his children, Edward T. S. Brown and Alice Pawelec, be- 
came chemists, and another son, Oliver W., Jr., became a minister. 

Prof. Brown joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1925, and 
was co-author of several papers presented at Academy meetings. These 
were concerned with a modified method for determining lead peroxide 
in red lead, chlorine in the lead storage battery and the catalytic 
activity of reduced vanadates of nickel, copper and lead. He was made 
a fellow in 1961 and was still an annual member at his death. He 
was also a charter member of the Epsilon Chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma, 
professional chemical fraternity, a member of Sigma XI and the 
Society of Friends. He is listed in Who's Who in the Central States, 
1947. 

After more than 67 years at Indiana University with a fine record 

37 



38 Indiana Academy of Science 

in teaching and research, Oliver W. Brown succumbed April 20, 1967, at 
93 years of age. 

Elizabeth H. Crider 
Horse Cave, Kentucky Francesville, Indiana 

October 15, 1920 September 24, 1967 

Mrs. Crider, teacher at Washington High School for 12 years, was 
the victim of an automobile accident Sunday, September 24, 1967, in 
which one other person was killed and the driver of the automobile 
was critically injured. 

The birthplace of Elizabeth Crider was Horse Cave, Kentucky, and 
her date of birth, October 15, 1920. She had lived in Indianapolis 40 
years. She attended Hanover College from 1939 to 1941 and received 
a B.A. from Butler University in 1943 and an M.A. in 1951. She 
taught at Ben Davis High School, Ben Davis, Indiana, before going to 
Washington High School, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

She joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1954 and is known 
among members primarily for her active support of the Junior Academy 
of Science. She served on the Visiting Scientists Committee in 1961 and 
1962, and on the Youth Activities Committee from 1963 to 1967. She 
was sponsor of the Washington High School Science Club and many 
students received outstanding awards through her efforts. 

She was returning from a meeting of the Order of the Eastern 
Star at Gary, Indiana, when the accident occurred. Other society 
memberships included: the National Society of Biology Teachers; 
president of the biological section of the Indiana State Teachers Asso- 
ciation; officer of the Indianapolis Educational Association; and Na- 
tional Science Teachers Association. She was associate biological 
editor of the American Biology Teachers Journal and co-author of 
Biology Investigation, a laboratory program used internationally. In 
1962, she was the first to receive the honor of being named Outstanding 
Biology Teacher in Indiana and the Midwest District by the National 
Association of Biology Teachers. She was a member of Delta Kappa 
Gamma, teacher's honorary society. 

She is survived by her husband, Robert, and three children. 

Elizabeth Crider had a dynamic, engaging personality and a zeal 
for biology teaching. Indianapolis lost an outstanding teacher when 
she died, September 24, 1967. 

Edgar Roscoe Cumings 
North Madison, Ohio Arlington, Virginia 

February 20, 1874 August 1, 1967 

Dr. Edgar Roscoe Cumings was a member of the Indiana Academy 
of Science for 67 years, a record seldom equalled. He became a 
Fellow in 1906 and President of the Indiana Academy of Science in 
1925. He presented many papers on geological formations, stratigraphy 
and paleontology at Academy meetings and served on a number of 
committees. He became an Emeritus Member in 1946. 



Necrology 



39 




EDGAR R. CUMINGS 
1874-1967 



40 Indiana Academy of Science 

Born on a farm at North Madison, Ohio, February 20, 1874, Dr. 
Cumings was educated at Union College, N. Y., where he received an 
A.B. in 1897; Cornell University, 1897 to 1898; and at Yale, 1901 to 
1903, where he received a Ph.D. degree. He received an Honorary Sc.D. 
from Union College in 1942. He taught in a country school a short 
time before coming to Indiana University in 1898. He was Instructor 
in Paleontology, Assistant Professor of Geology, Associate Professor, 
Professor and Head of the Department of Geology at Indiana Uni- 
versity. The latter position was held from 1903 to 1942. He was Acting 
Dean of the Graduate School from 1914 to 1919 and 1923. He became 
Professor Emeritus in 1944. 

Dr. Cumings was not only associated with teaching and administra- 
tion at Indiana University, but contributed substantially to the research 
program of the state geological survey. This relationship was dis- 
cussed by Wilton N. Melhorn in "A century and a half of Geology in 
Indiana" (Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, v. 76). 
Dr. Cumings was shown to favor removal of the State Geologist from 
electoral office and reinstitution of a system of appointment by a com- 
mission responsible to the governor. With the arrangement, the State 
Geologist became a member of the faculty at Indiana University and 
members of the geology faculty of Indiana University held non-paid 
appointments with the State Geological Survey. Thus under the State 
Geologist, Dr. William N. Logan, "some of the greatest documentaries 
of Hoosier geology" were published. These included Cumings and 
Shrock, Geology of the Silurian rocks of Northern Indiana (1928) and 
a section on stratigraphy in the Handbook of Indiana Geology (1922) 
by Dr. Cumings. 

Prof. Cumings was not only honored by the Academy in becoming 
a Fellow but also by the A.A.A.S. (1901), Geology Society of America, 
and Paleontological Society. He was Vice-president of the Geological 
Society of America and President of the Paleontological Society in 
1931. He is listed in American Men of Science and Indiana Scientists. 

Dr. Cumings had lived at the Mar Salle Home in Washington D.C., 
since 1965 and died there August 1, 1967, at 93 years of age. His long 
life of service to Indiana University, the state and academy are remark- 
able records! 

John R. Kuebler 
Evansville, Indiana Indianapolis, Indiana 

July 8, 1890 June 17, 1967 

Mr. John R. Kuebler, chemist and fraternity executive, died June 
17. He was known as "Mr. Alpha Chi Sigma" and was recognized 
for his great service to that fraternity in 1961 by the establishment 
of an annual award in his name. He held numerous positions in Alpha 
Chi Sigma and was honorary president in 1960. 

Mr. Kuebler was a native of Evansville, Indiana, born July 8, 1890. 
He received a B.A. degree in chemistry in 1912 and an M.A. degree in 
1915 from Indiana University. He was Instructor in physics and 
chemistry at Butler University from 1912 to 1914 and taught 
chemistry at Shortridge High School at Indianapolis, Ind., from 1915 



Necrology 41 

until 1942 except for two years served in the army. He was Sergeant 
First Class in the Research Division of the Chemical Warfare, U. S. 
Army, 1917-1919. 

John Kuebler joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1931. 
He was also a member of the American Chemical Society, chairman 
of the Indiana section 1944 to 1945 and represented the section on 
the national council of the society 1944, 1945-1946, 1950-1952. He be- 
longed to the A.A.A.S. and Indiana Chemical Society (president 1945 
to 1946). 

He was an able teacher at Shortridge High School and is remem- 
bered fondly by his students. He also encouraged participation in sports 
and revived the bowling league. His writing ability was recognized 
by Alpha Chi Sigma when he was made special feature editor of the 
official publication, The Hexagon, from 1919 until 1920, assistant editor 
from 1920 to 1922 and Grand Editor from 1922 to 1926. Alpha Chi 
Sigma is a national professional fraternity for chemists and chemical 
engineers. 

John R. Kuebler was 76 when he died June 17, 1967, leaving a 
record of service and devotion to his profession. 

Charles L(yman) Porter 

Mackinaw, Illinois Spring Valley, Illinois 

February 22, 1889 December 24, 1966 

Contributions to the industrial applications of the study of fungi 
occupied much of Dr. C. L. Porter's time and effort. The ecological 
relations exhibited by fungi were of considerable research interest to 
him. As a professor at Purdue University, many students destined for 
both teaching and industrial employment came under his able guidance 
and sometimes novel teaching methods. He directed the Purdue Micro- 




CHARLES L. PORTER 
1889-1966 



42 Indiana Academy of Science 

biological Summer Institute for instruction of industrial microbiologists 
for twelve years before he retired. 

His academic training included a B.S. from Illinois Wesleyan in 
1911, A.B. from the University of Illinois in 1913, A.M. in 1921 and 
Ph.D. in 1923. He was an Instructor of Biology at Parson's College 
from 1914 to 1916; Head of the Department of Biology, Fairmount 
College from 1916 to 1919; Botany Assistant, University of Illinois 
from 1919 to 1921; botanist for the State Natural History Survey of 
Illinois in 1922; Assistant Professor of Botany, Purdue University, 
from 1923 to 1928; Associate Professor in Plant Sciences from 1928 
to 1934; and Professor from 1934 to 1959 when he became Professor 
Emeritus. He served in the U. S. Army in 1917. 

Dr. Porter belonged to a number of scientific societies including the 
Phytopathology Society; Mycological Society; Industrial Microbiological 
Society of which he was secretary-treasurer from 1950 to 1957, secre- 
tary from 1957 and 1958, president from 1958 to 1959; Society of Ameri- 
can Bacteriologists; and the Academy of Microbiology. His son, John, 
has also served as president of S.I.M. 

He joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1923, serving in many 
ways. He was a member of various committees including membership, 
invitations, resolutions, Junior Academy of Science, Indiana Talent 
Search, Research Grants and was chairman of the Botany and History 
of Science Divisions. He contributed many papers to the sectional pro- 
grams. He was Vice-President of the Indiana Academy of Science in 
1943 and president in 1949. In his presidential address on the "Re- 
sponsibilities of a Mycologist," Dr. Porter outlined three objectives of 
every science including mycology. They were (a) self improvement, 
which can be accomplished only by investigation and research; (b) a 
better and more closely integrated relationship with other, and more 
particularly, closely allied sciences; (c) a recognized responsibility to 
the public and to society generally. His discussion reveals a great 
understanding and appreciation of the various types of research in 
Mycology and the desirability of promoting all of them. His assessment 
of the role of these various disciplines sometimes applies to all botany 
as well. 

He was honored by election to Fellow of the Indiana Academy of 
Science in 1928 and received an award for outstanding service from 
the Industrial Microbiological Society in 1959. He is listed in American 
Men of Science and Indiana Scientists. 

This enthusiastic, capable man died after a short illness on Decem- 
ber 24, 1966. 

Jerome Potter Seaton 

Glen Carlin, Virginia Lafayette, Indiana 

July 17, 1896 January 24, 1967 

Prof. Jerome P. Seaton was the son of Charles H. Seaton, who 
for many years was editor for the Bureau of Soils of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Jerome Seaton was born in a small rural com- 



Necrology 43 

munity near Washington, D. C, July 17, 1896. With this background, 
his interest in soils and growing things developed at an early age. 

Prof. Seaton attended public school in the Washington, D. C, area 
and graduated from a Washington High School in 1914. His college 
education was interrupted by active military service in the field artillery 
during World War I in which he became a first lieutenant. He resumed 
his education after the armistice, obtaining a B.S. degree in 1920 from 
Pennsylvania College. He became the first teacher of forest soils at 
Purdue University at Lafayette, Indiana, in March, 1920, where he 
continued his own education, receiving an M.S. degree in 1932. He 
found teaching at Purdue challenging, interesting and enjoyable during 
a long career. In an article in the Purdue Agriculturist (v. 53, no. 7), 
April, 1962, announcing that Prof. Seaton had become faculty advisor 
to the Agriculturist, it was stated that he had taught all the under- 
graduate courses in soils at Purdue since 1920. During that period 
about 12,000 students had attended his classes, among them some very 
prominent people. Another article in the same journal (Nov., 1957) 
mentioned that he enjoyed following the careers of former students and 
instructing their sons and grandsons. He enjoyed painting with water 
colors and loved to sing. He sang tenor and high baritone with quartets 
around the university. He appreciated the quiet and beauty of nature 
when fishing and as an outdoorsman. For many years he was an 
instructor of forest soils in the annual summer camp for forestry stu- 
dents. He also enjoyed gardening, bowling and spectator sports. He 
played an important role working with the Indiana High School soil 
judging project in 4-H and FFA in its promotion and organization, 
which was a great source of pleasure. 

From 1917 to 1942, summer months were spent in cereals research 
at the United States Department of Agriculture Arlington Farm in 
Virginia. He worked with G. O. Mott for nine years studying pasture 
fertility and eight years with J. C. Callahan studying forest soil fer- 
tility. He published a number of papers and co-authored bulletins and 
laboratory manuals of soils. 

He was elected to membership in Alpha Zeta and Ceres. He be- 
longed to the American Association of University Professors, American 
Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, and joined the 
Indiana Academy of Science in 1924. He is sketched in Who's Who in 
the Midwest for 1958. 

Professor Seaton's service to Purdue University was summed up 
by a colleague at the time of his retirement in 1965: "I have never 
known anyone to do such a fine job of working young men into an 
organization, tutoring them, helping them and handing to them re- 
sponsibility and a chance to earn reputation and acclaim as you have 
done. This extremely unselfish and generous action on your part 
bespeaks of your warm heart and exceptionally kind and generous 
spirit." 

Jerome P. Seaton had been in failing health four years and in the 
hospital four weeks before he died January 24, 1967. He had dedicated 
45 rewarding years to teaching at Purdue. 



44 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Stephen Sargent Visher 



Chicago, Illinois 
December 15, 1887 



Bloomington, Indiana 
October 25, 1967 



One of the nation's outstanding geographers, Dr. Stephen S. Visher 
was a prolific writer. He was the author of Climatic Atlas of the 
United States, Climate of Indiana, an excellent section on Geography 
in the Handbook of Indiana Geology (1922), as well as many other 
books, articles and newspaper items. He searched for a key to the 
success of outstanding persons with reference to their environment and 
geographic origins. He considered the basis for achievement in an 
article (Indianapolis Star, 1951) in which the amount of work one 
accomplishes was stated to be dependant upon: "(1) having things one 




STEPHEN S. VISHER 
1887-1967 



Necrology 45 

wishes to do which he has the qualification to do, (2) time to do them, 
and (3) conviction that the doing of them will be beneficial." Some of 
his work reflects the expressed desire to be helpful to others in the 
reorganization of records for selected usage. 

Dr. Visher, born December 15, 1887, was the son of a minister 
and native of Chicago, Illinois. His childhood was spent in South 
Dakota where he became a rural schoolteacher at the age of 17. He 
received a B.S. and M.S. degree from the University of Chicago in 
1909 and 1910, respectively, was a fellow 1913 to 1915, and received a 
Ph.D. degree in 1914. He obtained an M.A. from the University of 
South Dakota in 1912. He is survived by his wife, Halene Hatcher 
Visher, also a geographer, whom he married in 1951. 

Stephen S. Visher was Assistant State Geologist of South Dakota 
1908 and from 1910 to 1915; Scientist at the Carnegie Desert Labora- 
tory, Arizona, in 1909; Instructor at the University of South Dakota 
from 1910 to 1913; Professor of Geography and Geology at Minnesota 
State Normal School, Moorhead, Minnesota, 1915-1917; land classifier 
with the U. S. Geological Survey, 1918; Scientist with the Bureau of 
Soils, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1918; Huntington Fellow at 
Yale from 1920 to 1921; Bishop Museum Fellow from 1921 to 1922; 
Acting Geographer of the U. S. Department of State from 1931 to 1932; 
collaborator on a soil conservation survey with the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, 1936; from Assistant Professor to Professor of Geography 
at Indiana University from 1919 to 1958, and Emeritus Professor from 
1958 to 1967. Geography was given in association with the Department 
of Geology at Indiana University until 1946 when a Department of 
Geography was formed. He also held visiting professorships at the 
University of Colorado, Cornell University, University of Pennsylvania 
and University of British Columbia. 

His investigations included study in the West Indies in 1915; 
Spain, Italy and Britain in 1920; the Yale expedition to the South 
Seas, Australia and Far East from 1921 to 1922. 

For his achievements, several honors were awarded. He received 
a Distinguished Alumnus Citation at the University of Chicago in 1943; 
an award for Distinguished Service to Geography from the National 
Council of Geography Teachers in 1948; an Outstanding Achievement 
Award from the Association of American Geographers, 1959; and 
honorary life membership in the National Geographic Society, 1945. 
He belonged to the Geological Society of America (fellow), American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, American Meteorological 
Society, Royal Meteorological Society (fellow), Royal Geographical So- 
ciety of Great Britain (fellow), Ecological Society of America, Soil 
Conservation Society, Association of American Geographers (vice- 
president), National Educational Society, and Geophysical Union. He 
is listed in Who's Who in America, Who's Who in the Midwest, Amer- 
ican Men of Science, Indiana Scientists and International Who's Who. 

Dr. Visher joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1919 and 
became a fellow in 1924. He contributed papers to the annual meetings 
averaging more than one a year. The range of subjects included Indi- 



46 Indiana Academy of Science 

ana's weather, nobelists, National Academy members, boundaries, size, 
water supply, soils, human resources etc. He discussed regional con- 
trasts with respect to kinds of disease, death rate, temperature and 
precipitation, soil erosion and causative agents, corn yield, richness or 
poorness and yield of prominent persons. He wrote Indiana Scientists, 
a biographical directory and analysis with sections by other scientists, 
published by the Indiana Academy of Science in 1951. He contributed 
"A Brief History of Geography in Indiana" to the Proceedings of the 
Academy (V. 76), an invited paper in a symposium arranged by the 
Sesquicentennial Committee of the Academy. This article includes some 
good bibliographic material for Dr. Visher's contributions to Indiana 
geography. He was Vice-President of the Indiana Academy of Science 
in 1940 and 1949 and president in 1950. He served on many committees 
and was Chairman of the History of Science Section. His interest in the 
society did not wane when failing health kept him from meetings. An 
exchange of letters to keep him informed usually followed election of 
officers or transaction of business in which he was particularly inter- 
ested. One contribution to the Academy made by Dr. Visher has been 
a well-kept secret according to his wishes. He gave the money to pro- 
vide annual awards for several years for distinguished papers published 
in the Proceedings. These awards were named for outstanding Academy 
members. He was elected to Emeritus Member in 1965. 

The Academy lost a great friend and benefactor when Dr. Visher 
died after a massive stroke and prolonged illness, October 25, 1967. 
That his efforts were appreciated widely can be seen by publication 
of a memorial editorial in the Indianapolis Star, October 27, 1967, which 
concluded, "The public owes much to such dedicated scientists as Dr. 
Visher." 



Membership List as of January 1, 1968 

The following list contains the names and addresses of all members 
of the Indiana Academy of Science. The letter following the address 
indicates the Division of the Academy in which the member has indi- 
cated his major interest, according to the following code: 

A — Anthropology 

B — Botany 

C — Chemistry 

E — Entomology 

G — Geology and/ or Geography 

H — History of Science 

L — Ecology 

M — Mathematics 

O— Cell Biology 

P — Physics 

R — Bacteriology 

S — Soil Science 

T — Plant Taxonomy 

Y — Psychology 

Z — Zoology 

Mr. William H. Adams, S00 Eastside Drive, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. 

Dr. S. Clifford Adams, Box 217, Hanover, Ind. 47243. G 

Mr. William B. Adams, 700 Anita St., Blooming-ton, Ind. 47401. B 

Prof. A. R. Addington, 1353 N. Calaveras St., Fresno, Cal. 93706. G 

Sister Mary Adelaide, Marian College, Indianapolis, Ind. 46222. B 

Dr. Allen F. Agnew, 1005 E. 10th St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. G 

Mr. James L. Ahrlichs, 214 Wood, Lafayette, Ind. 47906. S 

Prof. Jack L. Albright, Animal Sciences Dept, Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. Z 
Mr. Edwin F. Alder, R. 9, Box 277, Indianapolis, Ind. 46239. B 
Dr. Jacob Wm. H. Aldred, R. 5, Florence, Ala. 35630. C 
Prof. Gerald L. Alexander, 701 Alden Road, Muncie, Ind. 47304. C 
Mr. Paul S. Alexander, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan. BZ 
Dr. Frederick J. Allen, Chemistry Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. C 
Mr. Phillip R. Allen, 429 Lafayette Ave., Columbus, Ind. 472 01. Z 
Dr. E. D. Alyea Jr., Physics Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. P. 
Mr. Terzo P. Amidei, 4487 Monroe St., Gary, Ind. 4640S. BZ 
Mr. James F. Annis, 321 W. South College, Yellow Sprgs., Ohio 45387. A 
Miss Aliki Antonis, 416 W. Marion St., South Bend, Ind. 46601. B 
Mr. Gary L. Archer, R.R. 4, Peru, Ind. 46970. Z 
Dr. Ross H. Arnett, Jr., Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. E 
Dr. Richard T. Arnold, Mead Johnson Res. Ctr., Evansville, Ind. 47721. C 
Prof. E. J. Asher, Psychology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907. Y 
Mr. John Avila, P.O. Box 657, Evansville, Ind. 47702. G 

Dr. Robert F. Babcock, American Oil Co., P.O. Box 710, Whiting, Ind. 46394. C 
Mr. Wm. C. Babcock, Jr., P.O. Box 237, Rensselaer, Ind. 47978. C 
Prof. G. B. Bachman, Chemistry Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. C 

47 



48 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mr. John B. Baker, Biology Dept., Marian College, Indianapolis, Ind. 46222. Z 
Dr. Gerald R. Bakker, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374. C 
Dr. Lawrence H. Baldinger, 1234 Hillcrest Rd., South Bend, Ind. 46617. C 
Dr. Ira L. Baldwin, 2 02 A Bacteriology Bldg., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 

Wis. 53706. CBR 
Miss Henrietta S. Ball, 1213 S. Third St., Lafayette, Ind. 47905. BZC 
Dr. Mukul R. Banerjee, Anatomy & Physiology Dept., Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401. Z 
Miss Edna Banta, R. 1, Nashville, Ind. BZ 

Mr. David J. Barr, 725 Allen St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. G 
Dr. Gary W. Barrett, Biology Dept., Drake University, Des Moines, la. 

50311. ZBE 
Mr. John P. Barrett, Armour & Co. Patent Law Office, 401 N. Wabash, 

Chicago, 111. 60611. E 
Mrs. Patricia R. Barrows, R.R. 3, Box 683, Greenwood, Ind. 46142. LZ 
Mr. David H. Barter, R.R. 1, Box 379, W. Terre Haute, Ind. 478S5. G 
Dr. Glenn G. Bartle, Harpur College, Vestal Parkway E., Binghamton, 

N. Y. 13901. G 
Mr. James D. Barton, Jr., Southhampton College, L. I. U., Southhampton, 

N. Y. 11968. G 
Prof. Thomas F. Barton, Dept. of Geography, Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 47401. G 
Miss Karleen A. Bascon, 1156 N. King Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46222. Z 
Mr. Leonard J. Bast, Jr., 1026 E. First St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. A 
Mr. Jack A. Bateman, Chemistry Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. C 
Dr. Marion F. Baumgardner, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. S 
Mr. Charles H. Bechert, Dept. Natural Resources, State Office Bldg., Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. 46204. GH 
Miss K. Eileen Beckett, 506 N. Lebanon St., Lebanon, Ind. 46052. B 
Mr. Max Bedwell, 711 N. Main, Salem, Ind. 47167. ZB 
Dr. Thomas W. Beers, Forestry & Cons. Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. BT 
Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd Beesley, R. R. 1, Box 106, Cedar Grove, Ind. 47016. B 
Prof. Floyd E. Beghtel, 2271 Maple Lane, Evansville, Ind. 47711. RBZ 
Dr. Otto K. Behrens, Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis, Ind. 46206. C 
Dr. F. J. Belinfante, Physics Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. P 
Mr. Henry L. Bell, 1509 E. Superior St., Apt. G, Duluth Minn. 55812. Z 
Mr. James O. Bellis, F49 Banta Apts., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. A 
Mr. David A. Beltz, 755 N. Emerson Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46219. 
Mr. Robert S. Benda, Hess Trailer Ct., 1218 S. Bloomington, Greencastle, 

Ind. 46135. Z 
Prof. Harvey A. Bender, Biology Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. Z 
Prof. Paul Bender, 1804 Mayflower Place, Goshen, Ind. 46526. P 
Mrs. Alice S. Bennett, Science Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. C 
Escal S. Bennett, 438 S. High School Road, Indianapolis, Ind. 46241. G 
Mr. William Benninghoff, Botany Dept., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 

Mich. 4S104. BG 
Miss Irene F. Bergdall, Huntington College, Huntington, Ind. 46750. M 
Mr. Byron G. Bernard, Biology Dept., LaPorte High School, LaPorte, Ind. 

46350. BZ 
Sister Marie Bernard, OSF, Marian College, 3200 Cold Springs Road, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 46222. BZ 
Dr. F. Leon Bernhardt, R. R. 8, Box 481, Muncie, Ind. 47302. H 
Dr. Willard Berry, Box 6665, Duke University Coll Sta., Durham, N. C. 

27708. G 
Prof. Wm. H. Bessey, Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 46207. P 
Mr. Howard T. Betz, Mounted Rt., Box 260, Chesterton, Ind. 46304. P 
Mr. John M. Bevington, 217 Pierce St., W. Lafayette, Ind. B 



Membership List 49 

Dr. George H. Bick, Biology Dept., St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556. Z 
Mr. William L. Biehn, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. BO 
Dr. John H. Billman, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405. C 
Dr. C. Franklin Bishop, Coshen College, Goshen, Ind. 46526. B 
Dr. Byron O. Blair, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. GS 
Dr. Robert P. Blair, 3728 Berneway Dr., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46808. G 
Mr. Robert F. Blakely, Indiana Geol. Surv., Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 47401. G 
Mr. Robert L. Blakely, Anthropology Dept., Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 47401. A 
Sister Mary Blanche S.P., Providence Convent, St. Mary of the Woods, Ind. 

47876. P 
Dr. Emily J. Blasingham, Curator of Anthropology, Illinois State Museum, 

Springfield, 111. A 
Dr. Donald A. Blome, Geography Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. G 
Miss Anna G. Bloom, 755 Dove St., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. B 
Mr. William W. Bloom, Biology Dept., Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, 

Ind. 46383. BZ 
Dr. Patricia A. Boaz, Chemistry Dept., I. U., 518 Delaware, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46205. CMP 
Mr. Lester Bockstahler, 2440 Prospect Ave., Evanston, 111. 60201. CGP 
Dr. Charlotte Boener, Science Division, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809. Z 
Mr. Harold L. Boisen, 3350 E. Fall Creek Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. BZ 
Miss Alta Bolenbaugh, Apt. 16, 736 E. Third St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. B 
Mr. Roger F. Boneham, Indiana U., Regional Campus, 2300 S. Washington, 

Kokomo, Ind. 46901. BG 
Miss Esther Bower, 306 W. Staat St., Fortville, Ind. 46040. B 
Mr. Elmer J. Bowers, 309 E. Kercher Road, Goshen, Ind. 46526. C 
Prof. Charles E. Bracker, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Mr. John R. Brackett, 129 The Lane, Hinsdale, 111. 60521. LZO 
Prof. Charles E. Brambel, Chemistry Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. C 
Dr. Malcolm D. Bray, Eli Lilly & Company, 7 40 S. Alabama St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46206. C 
Dr. W. R. Breneman, Zoology Dept., Jordan Hall, Indiana Univ., Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 47401. Z 
Mr. Albert H. Brethauer, II, 1423 Brunswick, Indianapolis, Ind. 46227. A 
Dr. William J. Brett, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. Z 
Mr. Walter Brigadier, 11 Green Hill Road, Madison, N. J. 07940. ZE 
Mr. Joe N. Brittingham, 9042A McConnell, LaughliR AFB, Del Rio, Tex. 

78840. B 
Dr. Thomas D. Brock, Microbiology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. R 
Dr. Robert M. Brooker, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Central College, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. C 
Mr. Arthur C. Brookley, Jr., Continental Oil Co., Box 847, Ventura, Cal. G 
Mr. Austin Brooks, Jr., Biology Dept., Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 

47933. B 
Mr. C. Reid Brooks, 5336 W. 36th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46224. GZ 
Mr. Charles L. Brosey, 4034 Carrollton Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. ZP 
Mr. Earle Brown, 301 Caleb St., Salem, Ind. 47167. B 
Prof. Herbert C. Brown, Chemistry Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. C 
Dr. Mary J. Brown, 3111 E. St. Joseph St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46201. Z 
Dr. Ralph E. Broyles, 5701 Fairfield Ave., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46807. RC 
Mr. Ralph Brubaker, Box 241, Leesburg, Ind. 46538. RC 



50 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mr. David S. Bruce, Biological Sciences Dept, Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. Z 
Mr. Walter I. Brumbaugh, 736 N. Howard St., Union City, Ind. 47390. CP 
Mr. Walter Bubelis, 3801 N.E. 155th St., Seattle, Wash. 98155. B 
Mr. Randall L. Buchman, Defiance College, Defiance, Ohio. 43512. A 
Mr. John A. Buehler, Lemoyne College, Memphis, Tenn. 38126. C 
Mr. C. W. Buesking, 4617 Taylor, Evansville, Ind. 47715. M 
Dr. William B. Bunger, Chemistry Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809. C 
Prof. Howard B. Burkett, 700 Shadowlawn, Greencastle, Ind. 46135. C 
Mr. Duane R. Burnor, 902 S. Main St., Adrian, Mich. 49221. A 
Dr. Kenneth D. Burnharm, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, 

Ind. 47306. Z 
Mr. John T. Burns, R. R. 3, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. Z 
Dr. Maurice Burns, Dean, Marion College, Marion, Ind. 46222. R 
Prof. Irving W. Burr, 1141 Glenway, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47907. M 
Mrs. Lois Burton, Indiana State Library, 140 N. Senate, Indianapolis, Ind. 

42604. C 
Prof. Milton Burton, Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Ind. 46556. C 
Mr. Thomas M. Bushnell, 430 Russell St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. CS 
Mr. Louis W. Cable, 5223 Brendon Park Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46226. G 
Dr. Raymond M. Cable, Biology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. Z 
Mr. A. Lee Caldwell, 1049 W. 141st St., R. R. 2, Box 432A, Carmel, Ind. 

46032. C 
Dr. Lynton K. Caldwell, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. L 
Dr. Ralph M. Caldwell, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Dr. Herbert F. Call, 1S15 N. Capitol, Indianapolis, Ind. 46202. A 
Prof. Ernest E. Campaigne, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 47405. C 
Dr. Edward J. Campau, 114 Willow Road, Greenfield, Ind. 46140. E 
Dr. Kenneth N. Campbell, Mead Johnson Res. Labs, Evansville, Ind. 47721. C 
Miss Mildred F. Campbell, 29 N. Hawthorne Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46219. AZB 
Miss Marilyn F. Campbell, R. 7, Box 4235, Terre Haute, Ind. 47805. 
Dr. Irving J. Cantrall, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann 

Arbor, Mich. 48100. E 
Dr. Kermit H. Carlson, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. M 
Dr. Marvin Carmack, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. 
Dr. Donald F. Carmony, Box 15, R. R. 3, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. S 
Mr. Paul E. Carmony, R. R. 3, Box 102, Alexandria, Ind. 46001. Z 
Mr. Merrill Carr, Gerstmeyer High School, Terre Haute, Ind. 47801. BZ 
Miss Rebecca A. Carr, 375 W. 18th St., Apt. 117, Hialeah, Fla. 33010. B 
Dr. Henry Carroll, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. P 
Mr. Gordon Carter, R. R. 1, Gaston, Ind. 47342. B 
Dr. J. E. Carter, I. U. Medical Center, 1100 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46207. O 
Mr. R. Vincent Cash, 70 Pendleton Road, New Britain, Conn. 06053. C 
Mr. Donald R. Cassady, 6025 Winnpeny Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. C 
Dr. James C. Cavender, Biology Dept., Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 

47933. B 
Dr. Harold D. Caylor, 303 S. Main St., Bluffton, Ind. 46714. Z 
Miss Mary E. Cedars, R. R. 6, Box 1094, Kokomo, Ind. 46901. G 
Mr. Richard K. Chambers, 530 Brown St., Anderson, Ind. 46016. RCZ 
Mrs. Florence E. Chapman, 612 N. Third St., Vincennes, Ind. 47591. Z 
Mr. Chesteen Chappie, Silver Lake, Ind. 46982. PC 

Dr. John E. Christian, Bionucleonics Dept., Purdue University, W. Lafa- 
yette, Ind. 47907. C 
Dr. O. B. Christy, Greenwood Village, Greenwood, Ind. 46142. B 



Membership List 51 

Mr. Donald L. Clark, R. R. 1, West Baden, Ind. 47469. MP 

Mr. James A. Clark, 5519 E. 21st St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46218. E 

Dr. William C. Clark, Indiana University, School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46207. Z 
Mr. Herbert M. Clarke, Birge Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

53706. B 
Prof. Ralph E. Cleland, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405. B 
Mr. John H. Cleveland, Geography & Geology Dept., Indiana State Uni- 
versity, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. G 
Dr. Merrill Cleveland, 1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, Ind. 47591. E 
Miss Sarah Clevenger, 717 S. Henderson St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. B 
Mr. Brian C. Clifford, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Lilly Hall, Purdue Univ., 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Miss Nellie M. Coats, Indiana State Library, 140 N. Senate, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 42604. EG 
Mr. James S. Coartney, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Mr. Stephen P. Coburn, Fort Wayne State School, 801 E. State Blvd., Fort 

Wayne, Ind. 46805. C 
Dr. Thomas A. Cole, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. Z 
Dr. Ralph H. Coleman, 529 S. Spring St., Evansville, Ind. 47714. M 
Mr. Jerry M. Colglazier, 925 S. Pasadena St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46219. P 
Mr. Richard L. Conklin, Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. 47243. P 
Miss Phyllis Conrad, R. R. 8, Lafayette, Ind. 47905. B 
Dr. A. Gilbert Cook, Chemistry Dept., Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 

46383. C 
Anne Cook, Apt. 28, Bart Villa, 2301 E. 2nd, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. Z 
Dr. Donald J. Cook, 625 E. Washington St., Greencastle, Ind. 46135. C 
Mr. Kenneth E. Cook, Chemistry Dept., Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 

46011. C 
Dr. Robert H. Cooper, R. R. 9, Box 242, Muncie, Ind. 47302. RBZ 
Mr. James B. Cope, J. Moore Museum, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 

47374. LZ 
Miss Audrey E. Corne, 1116 Woodlawn Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46203. R 
Mr. Kenneth W. Corthum, Jr., 103 Link Ave., Salisbury, N. C. 28144. Z 
Mr. Walter A. Cory, Jr., 2948 Oak Hill Ct., Madison, Ind. 47250. Z 
Mr. C. F. Cox, 528 N. Oxford St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46201. BZ 
Mr. Michael J. Grafton, 670 E. 82nd St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46240. C 

47306. P 
Prof. Edwin C. Craig, Physics Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 
Prof. George G. Craig, Jr., Biology Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. E 
Mr. Alfred G. Craske. Jr.. 1622 S. Fourth St., Terre Haute. Ind. 47802. BLT 
Dr. Frederick L. Crane, Biol. Sciences Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. O 
Dr. Wm. B. Crankshaw, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. B 
Dr. Ray R. Crittenden, Physics Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. P 
Mr. John A. Cromer, 5111 Welwyn Ct., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805. E 
Dr. Harold W. Crowder, 447 W. Lenox, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46807. EZ 
Mr. Dennis R. Crowe, Geography Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809. G 
Dr. Sears Crowell, Zoology Dept., Jordan Hall, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. Z 
Miss Suzanne L. Crozier, Anthropology Dept., Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 47405. A 
Dr. Harry E. Crull, 18 Kilmer Court 3, Delmar, N. Y. 12054. M 
Dr. Clyde G. Culbertson, Lilly Research Labs, Eli Lilly & Company, Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. 46206. ZR 
Dr. William J. Culley, Muscatatuck State Hospital, Butlerville, Ind. 47223. C 
Mr. R. Bruce Cummings, 123 Ursal Lane, Greenwood, Ind. 46142. E 



52 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mr. Richard E. Cummings, 522 E. Minnesota St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46203. Z 
Dr. George B. Cummins, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Prof. Robert H. Cunningham, 410 E. Gale, Angola, Ind. 46703. P 
Dr. T. W. Cutshall, 4221 E. Kessler Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. C 
Mr. Tom Daggy, Biology Dept., Davidson College, Davidson, N. C. 28036. EZ 
Mr. William A. Daily, 5884 Compton St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. BR 
Mrs. William A. Daily, 5884 Compton St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. BR 
Mrs. Catherine W. Dale, 222 N. Harvey Ave., Griffith, Ind. 46319. B 
Dr. Robert F. Dale, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. SEP 
Prof. G. F. DAlelio, Chemistry Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. C 
Mr. David Dalgleish, III, 16 Prairie Parkway, Brownsburg, Ind. 46112. B 
Mr. Barry Dancis, Zoology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. Z 
Mr. James P. Danehy, Chemistry Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. C 
Mr. James F. Daniel, 3535 N. Richardt, Indianapolis, Ind. 46226. G 
Mr. David L. Daniell, Zoology Dept., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46208. ELZ 
Mr. Robert P. Daniels, 4556 Arrow Head Rd., Okemos, Mich. 48864. B 
Mr. Larry Darlage, Science & Technology, Iowa State Univ., Ames, Iowa 

50010. C 
Mr. Herschel G. Dassel, 1310 N. Boeke Road, Evansville, Ind. 47711. P 
Prof. Carol R. Davidson, R. R. 1, Velpen, Ind. 47590. Z 
Mx*. J. Maxwell Davis, 818 S. Rotherwood Ave. Evansville, Ind. 47714. 
Mr. John V. Davis, 53242 Crestview Drive, South Bend, Ind. 46635. BZ 
Mr. Percival W. Davis, Jr., Birch Hill Drive, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 12603. Z 
Prof. Robert E. Davis, Chemistry Dept., Purdue University, W. Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. C 
Mr. Edwin J. Day, 114 Crown Lane, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46800. G 
Dr. Harry G. Day, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47405. C 
Mr. Howard O. Deay, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. EZ 
Mr. Anthony F. DeBlase, Zoology Dept., Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, 

Okla. 74074. Z 
Mr. Johnathan E. Decker, 1315 Monroe St., Rochester, Ind. 46975. G 
Dr. H. George Dekay, School of Pharmacy, Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. ACG 
Dr. Eliseo D. Delfin, Biology Dept., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46227. ELZ 
Mr. Anthony Delia, 23 Baker Ave., Berkely H'ts., N. J. 07922. C 
Mr. Richard S. Demaree, Jr., Zoology Dept., Colorado State Univ., Ft. 

Collins, Colo. 80521. Z 
Prof. John F. Deters, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. C 
Dr. H. A. Dettwiler, Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis, Ind. 46206. R 
Dr. Robert D. Deufel, Biology Dept., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46227. R 
Dr. Thomas Devries, Chemistry Dept., Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. C 
Mr. C. A. Dhonau, Vincennes University, Vincennes, Ind. 47591. C 
Dr. Norman A. Dial, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind. 47S09. Z 
Prof. David L. Dilcher, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. B 
Mr. William T. Dill, R. R. 1, Box 83, Delphi, Ind. 46923. Z 
Dr. Lowell I. Dillon, Geog. & Geology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, 

Ind. 47306. G 
Dr. Clarence F. Dineen, Biology Dept., St. Mary's College, Norte Dame, Ind. 

46556. Z 
Mr. Carl F. Dinga, Geol. & Geog. Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809. G 



Membership List 53 

Dr. Ruth V. Dippell, 218 Jordan Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. O 
Dr. H. Marshall Dixon, Box 44, Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 46207. I' 
Mrs. Martha C. Dobbs, 1644 Milroy Place, San Jose, Calif. 95124. R 
Dr. Richard C. Dobson, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. E 
Mr. P. J. Docter, 1716 Klondiwke Rd., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. Z 
Dr. Gerald E. Doeden, 3111 Torquay Road, Muncie, Ind. 47304. C 
Mr. Robert E. Dolphin, Entomology Res. Div., 1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, 

Ind. 47591. E 
Dr. Sheila Donahue, Indiana U. Medical Center, 1100 W. Michigan St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46207. O 
Mr. Edward W. Donovan, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577. Z 
Dr. N. M. Downie, 505 Lingle Terrace, Lafayette, Ind. 47901. Y 
Mr. John J. Doyle, Marian College, 3200 Cold Springs Road, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46222. Y 
Dr. Donald W. Dragoo, Section of Man, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa. A 
Dr. Harold E. Driver, Anthropology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405. ZA 
Dr. Robert R. Drummond, Geol. & Geog. Dept., Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. G 
Prof. R. T. Dufford, 512 S. Weinbach Ave., Evansville, Ind. 47714. P 
Mr. Robert F. Duncan, 3113 Idle Days, North Highlands, Shreveport, La. 

71107. CP 
Mr. Ronald J. Duncan, 108 Rawles Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. A 
Prof. David H. Dunham, 230 Connolly St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. RBZ 
Mrs. Esther Dunham, R. R. 1, Jonesboro, Ind. 46938. RB 
Dr. E. W. Durfiinger, Zoology Dept., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46207. Z 
Dr. John H. Dustman, Indiana Univ., N. W. Campus, 3400 Broadway, Gary, 

Ind. 46408. Z 
Mr. Edward J. Eames, 7131 Constantine Ave., Springfield, Va. 22150. G 
Miss Frances M. Early, 606 Miami, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962. B 
Mr. Wayne G. Easterday, R. R. 5, Box 469, Marion, Ind. 46952. R 
Dr. Nelson R. Easton, Director Chem. Research Div., Eli Lilly & Company, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46206. C 
Dr. William R. Eberly, Manchester College, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962. BZ 
Mr. Paul F. Eble, P. O. Box 273, Angola, Ind. 46703. P 
Mrs. Pauline V. Eck, 5844 A Central Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46209. Z 
Dr. Harold L. Eddleman, Div. of Biol., California Institute of Technology, 

Pasadena, Cal. 91109. R 
Miss Virginia Edington, Indiana U., Gary Campus, 3400 Broadway, Gary, 

Ind. 46408. BLZ 
Dr. Wm. Edmund Edington, 703 E. Franklin St., Greencastle, Ind. 46135. M 
Dr. Frank K. Edmondson, Goethe Link Observatory, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47405. MP 
Mr. Donald M. Edwards, Agricultural Eng. Dept., Univ. of Nebraska, Lin- 
coln, Neb. 68503. S 
Dr. Joshua L. Edwards, 103 Myers Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. O 
Prof. P. D. Edwards, 203 Gardendale Road, Terre Haute, Ind. 47803. MP 
Dr. James P. Egan, Psychology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47405. Y 
Miss Lynn E. Eilenfeldt, 233 Scheele Hall, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. G 
Dr. Lawrence J. Eilers, Life Sciences Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809. Z 
Mr. Arthur L. Eiser, Science Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. T 
Mr. William Eisinger, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Mr. Ernest L. Eliel, Chemistry Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. C 



54 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. R. C. Ellingson, Research Center, Mead Johnson & Company, Evans- 
vine, Ind. 47721. C 
Dr. Nathan K. Ellis, AES Building-, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. B 
Mr. Robert G. Ellis, 4750 N. Milwaukee Ave., Chicago, 111. 60630. P 
Dr. Guy T. Emery, Physics Dept., Indiana University, Blooming-ton, Ind. 

47401. P 
Dr. T. L. Engle, Indiana Univ. Reg. Campus, 2101 East U.S. 30 By-Pass, 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805. Y 
Mrs. Mary P. Ericksen, 4740 Connecticut Ave. N.W., Washington, D. C. 

2000S. A 
Mr. Melvin E. Everly, 411 Cherry Lane, Glenview, 111. 60625. Z 
Mr. Ray T. Everly, Entomology Dept., Agr. Hall, Purdue University, Lafa- 
yette, Ind. 47907. EB 
Dr. Wilburn J. Eversole, Science Dept., Indiana State College, Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809. Z 
Mr. Adolph Faller, Life Sciences Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47801. 
Dr. L. Dwight Farringer, R. R. 2, Box 43A, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962. P 
Mr. John J. Favinger, 640 Parkway, Whiteland, Ind. 46184. Z 
Dr. William R. Featherston, Animal Sciences Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. 
Mr. Harrison L. Feldman, 4622 Evanston Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. RBZ 
Dr. John M. Ferris, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. ES 
Marion M. Fidlar, Mountain Fuel Supply Co., P. O. Box 11368, Salt Lake 

City, Utah 84111. CG 
Mr. H. Richard Finley, Geog. & Geology Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809. G 
Mr. John C. Finney, 2515 W. 28th St., Anderson, Ind. 46011. G 
Mr. Gordon F. Fix, 6035 Winnpeny Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. G 
Mr. Wm. Lloyd Fix, 202 S. Chestnut St., Huntingburg, Ind. 47542. B 
Mr. Lawrence V. Fleming, 4207 Burkhart Dr., Apt. C, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46227. R 
Mr. Robert I. Fletcher, DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 46135. BR 
Mrs. Arlene F. Foley, 1357 Hempstead Road, Kettering, Ohio 45429. Z 
Mrs. Paul R. Foltz, 18 South 19th St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. B 
Mrs. Olive E. Forbes, 132 First Ave., Oakland City, Ind. 47560. C 
Dr. Lee Ford, R. R. 1, Box 230, Butler, Ind. B 

Dr. Robert B. Forney, 5312 Woodside Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46208. C 
Mr. Mark A. Fraker, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. Z 
Dr. Donald P. Franzmeier, Agronomy Dept., Life Sci. Bldg., Purdue Univer- 
sity, Lafayette, Ind. 47907. S 
Prof. Dean Fraser, Bacteriology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405. R 
Dr. Leslie W. Freeman, Indiana Univ. Medical Center, 1100 W. Michigan St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46207. Z 
Mr. Robert R. French, Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut Grove Ave., Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 47401. G 
Dr. David G. Frey, Jordan Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. Z 
Mr. Charles. H. Frick, Mathematics Dept., South Dakota University, Ver- 
million, S. D. 57069. M 
Mr. Jack A. Frisch, Anthropology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405. A 
Prof. Cleota G. Fry, 1100 Hillcrest Road, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. M 
Dr. Margaret Fulford, Botany Dept., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, 

Ohio 45221. B 
Prof. Daniel L. Fuller, 601 N. Wayne, Shady Acres Tr. Crt., Angola, Ind. 

46703. C 
Dr. Forst D. Fuller, Zoology Dept., DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 
46135. ZO 



Membership List 55 

Mr. John J. Furlow, 2441 McLeay Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. BOT 
Dr. Henry M. Galloway, 3-414 Life Science Bldg., Purdue University, Lafa- 
yette, Ind. 47907. S 
Dr. James R. Gammon, Zoology Dept., DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 

46135. E 
Dr. Max W. Gardner, Plant Path. Dept., Univ. Cal., 147 Hilgard Hall, Berke- 
ley, Cal. 94720. B 
Dr. Murvel R. Garner, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374. BA 
Prof. Benjamin J. Gamier, Geography Dept., McGill University, Montreal, 

Canada. G 
Dr. Louise W. Gates, 126 D. North Hall Annex, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Ind. 47306. Y 
Dr. Paul H. Gebhard, 416 Morrison Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. A 
Mr. Charles L. Gehring, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. B 
Miss Florence E. Geisler, 3717 N. Riley, Indianapolis, Ind. 46218. BG 
Prof. Ernest H. Gerkin, 918 E. Bowman St., South Bend, Ind. 46613. CP 
Dr. Shelby D. Gerking, Zoology Dept., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, Ariz. 

85281. PZ 
Dr. A. F. O. Germann, South Whitley, Ind. 46787. AC 
Dr. A. N. Gerritsen, 100 Wheeler Dane, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. PH 
Dr. W. C. Gettelfinger, 2814 Newburg Road, Louisville, Ky. 40205. BP 
Mr. Robert E. Geyer, Jr., 1603 8th Ave., Terre Haute, Ind. 47804. Z 
Dr. H. William Gillen, Ind. U. School of Medicine, 1100 W. Michigan St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46207. CHZ 
Dr. Ronald L. Giese, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, W. Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. E 
Mr. Walter G. Gingery, R. R. 1, Box 251, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. CM 
Mr. William E. Ginn, 1536 Carroll White Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46219. Z 
Dr. Raymond E. Girton, 155 Purdue Avenue, Berkeley, Cal. B 
Mr. William R. Gommel, Earth Sciences Dept., Indiana Central College, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46227. GMS 
Dr. Ansel M. Gooding, Geology Dept., Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 

47374. G 
Dr. C. J. Goodnight, Biology Dept., Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, 

Mich 49001. BZ 
Dr. Robert E. Gordon, Biology Dept., Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

Ind. 46556. O 
Dr. George E. Gould, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. EZ 
Miss Frances M. Gourley, 606 Maple Ave., LaPorte, Ind. 46350. BZ 
Dr. Nina E. Gray, 815 S. Fell Ave., Normal, 111. 61761. BZ 
Mr. William E. Gray, Botany Dept., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

43210. B 
Dr. Ralph J. Green, 4813 Talahassee Ave., Rockville, Md. 20853. T 
Mr. Leon Greenwalt, 911 S. Seventh St., Goshen, Ind. 46526. BZ 
Mr. Ernst C. Griffin, 112 N. 12th Avenue, Indiana State Univ., Evansville, 

Ind. 47712. G 
Rev. Francis X. Grollig, S.J., Loyola University, 6525 Sheridan Road, Chi- 
cago, 111. 60626. A 
Mr. Stanley Grove, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 47907. B 
Mr. Arthur T. Guard, Savannah Science Museum, 4405 Paulsen St., Savannah, 

Ga. 31405. B 
Prof. Frank T. Gucker, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405. C 
Mr. & Mrs. Carl W. Guernsey, Apt. B2, Park Center Apts., 501 Lawrence 

Road, Broomall, Pa. 19008. GBS 
Mr. E. Y. Guernsey, 2401 Indian River Drive, Cocoa, Fla. 32922. A 
Dr. Lee Guernsey, Science Dept., Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809. G 
Prof. Edward P. Guindon, 2431 Oxford St., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46806. C 
Prof. W. C. Gunther, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. Z 



56 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mr. Frank A. Guthrie, Rose Polytechnic Institute, 5500 Wabash Ave., 

Terre Haute, Ind. 47803. C 
Dr. George D. Guthrie, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. CRO 
Dr. Flora A. Haas, R. 2, Box 571, Apopka, Fla. 32703. BR 
Dr. Charles E. Hadley, 900 S. Washington St., Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. Z 
Prof. Edward L. Haenisch, P. O. Box 366, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. C 
Dr. Charles W. Hagen, Jr., Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405. B 
Mr. Malcolm D. Hale, U. S. G. S., 611 N. Park, Indianapolis, Ind. 46204. GS 
Prof. Robert E. Hale, 926 Poplar St., Huntington, Ind. 46750. P 
Mr. Charles R. Hall, 3733 Brehob Road, Indianapolis, Ind. 46217. B 
Miss Dawn Hall, 127 N. Second West, Brigham City, Utah 84302. B 
Prof. A. E. Hallerberg, Mathematics Dept., Valparaiso University, Val- 
paraiso, Ind. 46383. M 
Mr. P. Hamilton, Director Kokomo Public Library, 120 S. Main St., Kokomo, 

Ind. 46901. H 
Dr. J. Hill Hamon, Life Science Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47S09. Z 
Dr. Robert J. Hanson, Biology Dept., Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, 

Ind. 46383. R 
Dr. Robert S. Harcourt, 6408 Breamore Road, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. Z 
Mr. Robert R. Hare, Jr., 6306 Huntover Lane, Rockville, Md. 20852. P 
Dr. Rolla N. Harger, 346 Medical Science Bldg., Indiana Univ. Med. Center, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46207. C 
Mr. & Mrs. J. E. Harrell, R. R. 6, Madison, Ind. 47250. Z 
Dr. Paul N. Harris, Toxicology Building, Eli Lilly & Company, Greenfield, 

Ind. 46140. O 
Mr. Edward F. Harrison, 2256 E. Walnut St., Evansville, Ind. 47714. R 
Mrs. Henrietta Hart, 1005 E. Sherman St., Marion, Ind. 46952. Z 
Mr. John W. Hart, 303 South A St., Richmond, Ind. 47374. E 
Mrs. Karen Hartman, Biology Dept., Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 

46383. Z 
Mr. Robert D. Harter, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. S 
Dr. Stanley E. Hartsell, Biological Science Dept., Purdue University, Lafa- 
yette, Ind. 47907. BA 
Mr. James G. Hartsock, AH., AE. & Ent. Lab Bldg., 177A Agr. Research 

Center, Beltsville, Md. 20705. E 
Dr. H. Harold Hartzler, Mankato State College, Mankato, Minn. 56001. MP 
Dr. Felix Haurowitz, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. C 
Mr. James F. Hayden, 7805 N. Sherman Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46240. Z 
Mr. Donald C. Hazlett, Russellville, Ind. 46175. G 
Dr. William H. Headlee, Microbiology Dept., Indiana Univ. Sch. of Med., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46207. BEZ 
Mr. George E. Heap, 414 W. Thompson St., Sullivan, Ind. 47882. G 
Mr. Michael L. Heckaman, Penn High School, 56100 Bittersweet Road, 

Mishawaka, Ind. 46544. CP 
Mr. Martin T. Hetherington, 2322 Apache Dr., Lafayette, Ind. 47905. Z 
Mr. Gary A. Heidt, 1551 D. Sparton Village, E. Lansing, Mich. 48823. Z 
Miss Caryl E. Heintz, Microbiology Dept., Indiana U. Medical Center, Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. 46207. O 
Dr. Charles B. Heiser, Jr., Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405. B 
Mr. Jon R. Hendrix, 835 N. Renssalaer St., Griffith, Ind. 46319. RBZ 
Mr. Virgil Heniser, 103 Morrison, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. C 
Dr. Joe F. Hennen, R. R. 1, Box 365 %, W. Terre Haute, Ind. 478S5. BT 
Dr. George F. Hennion, Chemistry Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. C 
Dr. Robert L. Henry, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. P 
Mr. Jack C. Henson, Marion Heights, Oakland City, Ind. 47560. BZ 



Membership List 57 

Dr. Raymond EI. Henzlik, Physiology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, 

Ind. 47306. Z 
Mr. Francis J. Herber, R. R. 2, Roanoke, Ind. 46783. C 
Mr. David L. Herbst, 1035 Harris, Brownsburg, Ind. 46112. L 
Mr. Eugene D. Herbst, 40 S. 21st St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803. C 
Mr. Elmer B. Hess, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. GS 
Dr. Clyde W. Hibbs, 1508 Riley Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47304. S 
Mr. Calvin E. Higgins, Lilly Research Labs, 740 Alabama St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46206. BR 
Dr. Ralph Hile, R O. Box 640, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48107. EZ 
Dr. William H. Hill, Jr., Route 2, Angola, Ind. 46703. P 
Mr. Max Hinchman, 303 W. Fourth St., Greenfield, Ind. 46140. R. 
Rev. Richard Hindel, OSB, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577. Z 
Dr. Maynard K. Hines, 4580 N. Meridian, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Dr. E. J. Hinsman, Veterinary Science, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. O 
Prof. Vaclav Hlavaty, Grad. Inst. Math. & Mech., Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47405. M 
Prof. M. E. Hodes, Ind. Univ. Medical Center, 1100 W. Michigan St., Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. 46207. C 
Mr. Harry Hodges, R. R. 10, Lafayette, Ind. 47906. BS 
Miss Margaret E. Hodson, R. R. 2, Sheridan, Ind. 46069. BZ 
Prof. Johan E Hoff, 628 Avondale Dr., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. C 
Dr. Roger M. Hoffer, 1220 Potter Dr., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. S 
Mr. Warren E. Hoffman, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Inst, of Tech., Fort 

Wayne, Ind. 46803. C 
Prof. Henry W. Hofstetter, Div. of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 47401. Y 
Mr. Paul A. Holdaway, Life Science Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809. Z 
Dr. Francis D. Hole, 204 Soils Building, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 

Wis. 53706. G 
Mr. William G. Holliday, 2450 Sycamore Lane 34B, W. Lafayette, Ind. 

47901. Z 
Dr. John C. Hook, Geography Dept., Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809. G 
Prof. Eberhard Hopf, 512 S. Swain Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. M 
Dr. William B. Hopp, Biology Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809. Z 
Mr. Lothar E. Hornuff, Jr., Biology Dept., Central State College, Edmond, 

Oklahoma 73034. E 
Dr. Alan S. Horowitz, Geology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47405. G 
Dr. Naomi M. Hougham, 300 N. Water St., Franklin, Ind. 46131. BZ 
Mr. John F. Houlihan, 804 S. Locust St., Greencastle, Ind. 46135. P 
Mr. J. C. Householder, 5043 Primrose Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. ZA 
Dr. Robert Howe, Dr. Jean Howe, 106 Drury Lane, W. Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. C 
Prof. James Howald, Huntington College, Huntington, Ind. 46750. C 
Dr. L. B. Howell, 9 Yz Mills Pla., Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. RCG 
Mr. Hillis L. Howie, R. R. 6, Box 37A, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. A 
Mr. John J. Huber, R. R. 6, Portland, Ind. 47371. C 
Mr. Roger T. Huber, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. E 
Prof. George A. Hudock, Zoology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47405. Z 
Mr. Ben R. Huelsman, Anthropology Dept., Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 47401. A 
Mr. John C. Huffman, Box 130, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 47405. C 
Dr. L. F. Huggins, Agr. Eng. Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 
47907. S 



58 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Harold K. Hughes, Physics Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809. P 
Mr. Norwood R. Hughes, 5133 W. 15th St., Speedway, Ind. 46224. M 
Dr. Richard J. Hull, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, Lafa- 
yette, Ind. 47907. BO 
Dr. Malcom E. Hults, Physics Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. P 
Mr. Jack E. Humbles, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. BZ 
Mr. James D. Hunn, 1643 W. 57th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208. G 
Mr. Keith Hunnings, 815 Park Ave., New Haven, Ind. 46774. C 
Dr. Ploy Hurlbut, 121 N. Tillotson, Muncie, Ind. 47304. G 
Dr. Zylpha D. Hurlbut, Barber-Scotia College, Concord, N. C. 28025. BZ 
Mr. Robert N. Hurst, Biological Sci. Dept., Purdue University, W. Lafayette, 

Ind. 47906. Z 
Dr. Wesley R. Hurt, Indiana Univ. Museum, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. A 
Mr. David D. Husband, 2113 Manitou Dr., Lafayette, Ind. 47905. B 
Mr. David M. Hutton, 4006 Meadows Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. RLZ 
Dr. Joseph S. Ingraham, Indiana Univ. Med. Center, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46207. RZA 
Dr. William D. Inlow, Spring Hill Road, Shelbyville, Ind. 46176. HA 
Mr. Paul M. Inlow, 103 W. Washington, Shelbyville, Ind. 46176. Z 
Rev. Brian H. Irving, O. F. M., 333 E. Paulding Rd., Fort Wayne, Ind. 

46806. MP 
Mrs. May S. Iske, Zoology Dept., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46207. Z 
Mr. Marion T. Jackson, Life Sciences Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809. B 
Prof. Hubert M. James, 316 Forest Hills Drive, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. P 
Mr. William H. James, Gerstmeyer High School, Terre Haute, Ind. 47801. CP 
Mr. Leslie J. Jardin, R. R. 1, Westville, Ind. 46391. CP 
Dean Glenn D. Jenkins, Pharmacy Dept., Purdue University, W. Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. CB 
Dr. W. Terry Jenkins, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. C 
Dr. Ralph Jersild, Jr., Anatomy Dept., Indiana U. Med. Center, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46207. O 
Prof. & Mrs. W. L. Jinks, 1317 N. Tuxedo St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46201. Z 
Mr. Christian J. Johannsen, McClure Research Park, 1220 Potter Dr., W. 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. S 
Dr. Charles H. Johnson, DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 46135. M 
Mr. Gerald H. Johnson, 105 Caron Road, Williamsburg, Va. 23185. G 
Mr. John I. Johnson, Jr., Biophysics Dept., Michigan State Univ., E. Lansing, 

Mich. 48823. Y 
Dr. Robert B. Johnson, Geology Dept., Colo. State Univ., Fort Collins, Colo. 

80521. G 
Dr. Vivian A. Johnson, Physics Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. P 
Dr. Willis H. Johnson, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. Z 
Dr. Ernest R. Johnston, Purdue University Center, 1125 E. 38th St., Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. 46205. M 
Mr. Richard B. Johnston, 1S35 P Street, Smithsonian Institute, Lincoln, 

Neb. 68508. A 
Mr. Claris E„ Jones, Jr., Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. BT 
Mr. Daniel D. Jones, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Dr. David T. Jones, P. O. Box 1, Bourbonnais, 111. 60914. Z 
Dr. G. Neville Jones, Botany Dept., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

61801. B 
Miss Ruth Jordan, 230 Harrison St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. CY 
Mr. James W. Joyner, R. R. 1, Box 183, Centerville, Ind. 47330. Z 
Prof. Robert W. Judd, 2035 Fruit St., Huntington, Ind. 46750. B 



Membership List 59 

Prof. Albert Kahn, Biological Sci. Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. B 
Mr. Theodore Kallas, P. O. Box 257, Marshall, 111. 62441. PC 
Miss Susan Kampmeyer, 1472 Crestwood Dr., Chattanooga, Tenn. 37405. B 
Dr. Henry E. Kane, Science Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. G 
Prof. Zyg-munt Karpinski, P. O. Box 303, South Bend, Ind. 46624. CMP 
Dr. Christian E. Kaslow, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. C 
Dr. Karl L. Kaufman, College of Pharmacy, Butler University, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46207. CH 
Dr. Virgene W. Kavanagh, 231 Blue Ridge Road, Indianapolis, Ind. 46208. ZR 
Dr. Wayne F. Keim, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. BT 
Dr. James H. Kellar, Anthropology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. A 
Dr. M. Wiles Keller, 518 Carrolton Blvd., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. M 
Mr. Thomas F. Kellogg, 1205 Woodward Ave., South Bend, Ind. 46556. 
Dr. Cecil R. Kemp, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. Z 
Mr. Byron W. Kemper, Stanford Medical School, Stanford, Cal. 94305. C 
Mr. Michael J. Kenney, Bot. & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. BT 
Mr. Robert L. Kent, Biology Dept., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46227. B 
Prof. Charles D. Kenyon, Box 268, Angola, Ind. 46703. 

Dr. Frank D. Kern, 140 W. Fairmount Ave., State College, Pa. 16801. B 
Mr. Orville L. Kern, Ind. Inst, of Technology, 1600 E Washington, Fort 

Wayne, Ind. 46803. P 
Dr. William G. Kessel, Chemistry Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47S09. C 
Prof. Wayne E. Kiefer, Geography-Geology Dept., Valparaiso University, 

Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. G 
Mr. Sidney A. Kilsheimer, Chemistry Dept., Butler University, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 46207. C 
Dr. Philip A. Kinsey, Evansville College, Evansville, Ind. 47704. C 
Mr. Edward Kintner, Peabody Home, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962. EBZ 
Miss Bonnie S. Kirby, R. R. 2, Wabash, Ind. 46992. BZ 
Dr. Robert V. Kirch, 151 E. Hampton Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. G 
Dr. Charles M. Kirkpatrick, Forestry & Conservation, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. Z 
Dr. Ralph D. Kirkpatrick, R. R. 1, Jonesboro, Ind. 46938. Z 
Rev. James E. Kline, CSC, Kings College, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 18702. PM 
Dr. Richard M. Kline, Eli Lilly & Company, Research Labs, Greenfield, Ind. 

46140. R 
Mr. Paul E. Klinge, Jordan Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47405. CBZ 
Dr. John W. Klotz, Concordia Senior College, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46S05. B 
Mr. Percy L. Knight, Jr., 51213 Grape Road, R. R. 1, Granger, Ind. 46530. Z 
Mr. William W. Knowles, 5836 Indianaola Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. G 
Mr. John R. Koble, 620 E. Main, Flora, Ind. 46929. RC 

Dr. G. David Koch, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. G 
Miss Norma Koch, 27 W. Hanna, Indianapolis, Ind. 46217. GZB 
Mr. Roderic M. Koch, 10 S. Eleventh Ave., CPO Box 358, Evansville, Ind. 

47704. 
Dr. Henry Koffler, Biological Sciences Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. RBZ 
Dr. K. G. Kohlstaedt, Vice Pres., Eli Lilly Co., 740 S Alabama St., Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 46206. 
Dr. Helmut Kohnke, 208 Forest Hill Drive, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. SCR 
Mr. Donald W. Kolberg, Geography Dept., Valparaiso University, Val- 
paraiso, Ind. 46383. G 
Dr. K. D. Kolitschew, 1405 Windermire St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46227. PM 



60 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. David E. Koltenbah, Physics Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

46140. P 
Mr. Robert Konrath, 822 25th St., South Bend, Ind. 46615. B 
Mr. William T. Kowitz, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. G 
Mr. Elliot Y. Koyanagi, 2630 Dekist St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. P 
Mr. Carl H. Krekeler, 360 Mclntyre Court, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. Z 
Dr. John W. Kroeger, c/o Fredrick H. Levey Co., IN380 Madison Ave., 

New York, N. Y. C 
Miss Carole Kroening, 5320 W. Pleasant Dr., 113 N., Mequon, Wis. 53092. B 
Mr. Gordon M. Krueger, Taylor University, Upland, Ind. 46989. C 
Dr. Joseph Kuc, Biochemistry Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. RBC 
Mrs. Ester K. Kupferberg-, 601 Monroe St., Apt. 2545, Indio, Cal. 92201. ZRY 
Mrs. Clemie E. Kuykendall, 2202 N. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208. B 
Mr. John Labavitch, Waug-h Hall, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 

47933. Z 
Prof. Bernard R. Lallathin, 2808 W. Twelfth St., Anderson, Ind. 46011. B 
Miss Maud O. Lang, Box 284, Boonville, Ind. 47601. RB 
Prof. & Mrs. T. G. Lansford, 703 W. Park, Angola, Ind. MY 
Mrs. Larry Lantz, 1118 E. State Blvd., Fort AVayne, Ind. 46805. BT 
Dr. Aubrey Larsen, Mead Johnson Research Ctr., Evansville, Ind. 47721. C 
Mr. Kenneth D. Laser, Box 83, Culver Military Academy, Culver, Ind. 

46511. B 
Mr. Vinnedge M. Lawrence, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 47907. E 
Mr. Charles O. Lee, 502 S. Johnson St., Ada, Ohio. 45810. CB 
Mr. Howard W. Lee, Box 297, Princeton, Ind. 47570. G 
Mr. Mordie B. Lee, 4665 Sunset Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208. BZ 
Prof. Ralph W. Lefier, 121 Hideaway Lane, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. P 
Prof. Glen E. Lehker, 136 Drury Dane, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. E 
Prof. Hollis P. Leighly, Vincennes University, R. R. 2, Vincennes, Ind. 

47591. CG 
Dr. John A. Leighty, 740 S. Alabama St., Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46208. 
Mr. Richard K. Leininger, Indiana Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut Grove 

Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47405. G 
Mr. Samuel E. Leraan, 114 N. Center St., Bremen, Ind. 46506. C 
Miss Lola M. Lemon, Gary Hotel, Gary, Ind. 46400. B 
Mr. H. M. Leon-Gallegos, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Dr. W. Leroy Leoschke, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. C 
Mr. James E. Leslie, P. O. Box 172, Miamiville, Ohio 45147. R 
Mr. Howard C. Lewis, 352 S. Jefferson, Danville, Ind. 46122. B 
Dr. Jon E. Lewis, Pitman-Moore Div., Dow Chemical Co., Box 10, Zionsville, 

Ind. 46077. Z 
Dr. Laurence A. Lewis, Geography Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. G 
Dr. Eli Lilly, 5807 Sunset Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 4620S. A 
Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, Biology Sciences Dept., Purdue University, W. Lafa- 
yette, Ind. 47907. B 
Mr. Frank A. Lindsey, Evansville Museum, 411 S.E. Riverside Drive, Evans- 
ville, Ind. 47713. Z 
Dr. Goethe Link, Hill Road, Brooklyn, Ind. 46111. MPZ 
Mr. Henry A.dolph Link, R. 2, DeKalb County, Waterloo, Ind. 46793. B 
Mr. Robert G. Lipscomb, 820 Pasadena Drive, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46807. B 
Dr. James C. List, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. Z 
Prof. Joseph Liston, Sch. Aeronautical Engr., Purdue University, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 47906. GP 
Mr. Robert M. Little, 6363 Monitor Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 4 6220. A 
Mr. Harold D. Lloyd, Biology Dept., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 46227. CLZ 



Membership List 61 

Di\ Keith E. Lorentzen, Indiana Univ. N. W. Campus, 3400 Broadway, Gary, 

Ind. 46408. C 
Mr. Robert D. Loring, Geography & Geology Dept., DePauw University, 

Greencastle, Ind. 46135. G 
Mr. A. V. Liott, 139 W. Jefferson St., Sellersburg, Ind. 47172. BPG 
Dr. Richard W. Lounsbury, Earth Sciences Dept., Portland State College, 

Portland, Ore. 97207. G 
Mr. George D. Lovell, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. Y 
Dr. Murrill M. Lowry, Zoology Dept., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46207. Z 
Sister M. Ruth Lucey, St. Mary-of-the-Woods College, St. Mary-of-the- 

Woods, Ind. 47876. BZ 
Mr. Frederic Luther, 4515 Marcy Lane, c/o Box 239, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46205. G 
Miss Blanche McAvoy, 3701 N. Cincinnati Ave., Tulsa, Okla. 74106. Z 
Prof. Earl T. McBee, P. O. Box 2200, West Lafayette, Ind. 47906. C 
Mr. Charles F. McClary, 1019 E. Powell Ave., Evansville, Ind. 47714. C 
Dr. L. S. McClung, Div. of Biological Science, Jordan Hall, Ind. Univ., 

Bloomington, Ind. 47405. BZR 
Mr. Robert D. McCord, 1749 Colony Dr., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805. 
Mr. Jack McCormick, Academy of Nat. Sci. of Phil., 860 Waterloo Road, 

Devon, Pa. 19333. B 
Mr. Robert N. McCormick, Biology Dept., Southwood College, Salemburg, 

N. C. ZCR 
Mr. Max McCowen, Lilly Research Ctr., Limitederl Wood Manor, Surrey, 

England. BZ 
Mr. Scott McCoy, 8609 Manderly Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46240. ZB 
Mrs. Jean E. McCracken, 831 Maplewood St., Anderson, Ind. 46012. B 
Mrs. Eleanor L. McCrumb, 17 Anthony Apts., Muncie, Ind. 47308. A 
Mrs. Mildred L. McDannel, R. R. 3, Petersburg, Ind. 47567. B 
Dr. Margaret McElhinney, 3816 Brook Drive, Muncie, Ind. 47304. B 
Dr. William W. McFee, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. S 
Mr. Preston McGrain, Kentucky Geol. Survey, University of Kentucky, Lex- 
ington, Ky. 40506. G 
Rev. James J. McGrath, CSC, Biology Dept., Box 369, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556. B 
Dr. Leroy A. McGrew, Chemistry Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. C 
Dr. J. M. McGuire, Lilly Research Labs, Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46206. B 
Mr. Roy McKee, 302 E. North B. St., Gas City, Ind. 46433. CBZ 
Dr. Donald L. McMasters, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 47401. C 
Dr. Edward V. McMichael, Anthropology Dept., Indiana State University, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 53203. 
Mr. Ronald R. MacDonald, 618 Washington St., Oakland City, Ind. 47560. G 
Mr. H. E. McReynolds, 633 W. Wisconsin Ave., U.S. Forest Service, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 53203. L 
Mr. Charles B. Mack, Biology Dept., St. Josephs College, Rensselaer, Ind. 

47978. L 
Dr. David B. MacLean DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 46135. C 
Mr. David B. MacLean, Agriculture Hall, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. E 
Mr. Jerry M. Macklin, 337 Transylvania Pk., Lexington, Ky. 40508. E 
Mr. Donald L. Mahoney, P. O. Box 552, Lafayette, Ind. 47902. B 
Mr. Richard S. Manalis, Inst. Psychiatric Res., Ind. Univ. Med. Ctr., Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 46207. Z 
Dr. Robert L. Mann, Lilly Research Labs, Eli Lilly & Company, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 46206. C 
Mr. Jerry V. Mannering, Lilly Hall of Science, Agr. Dept., Purdue Univ., 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. S 
Prof. Armin W. Manning, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. P 



62 Indiana Academy of Science 

Sister Marina OSF, Marian College, 3200 Cold Springs Road, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46222. P 
Drs. C. A. & M. S. Markle, 528 National Road W., Richmond, Ind. 47374. BZ 
Mr. Gayton C. Marks, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. B 
Mr. Max M. Marsh, 740 S. Alabama St., Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46206. C 
Mrs. George F. Martin, R. R. 3, Box 559, Newburgh, Ind. 47630. A 
Mrs. Amy Mason, R. R. 1, Box 279, West Terre Haute, Ind. BTZ 
Mr. Dorsey P. Marting, Weather Bureau, Airport Station, Box 473, Winslow, 

Ariz. 96047. GBP 
Mr. Richard C. Mason, 19 Goodale Circle, New Brunswick, N. J. Z 
Mr. Harry R. Mathias, 123 E. Evers Ave., Bowling- Green, Ohio 43402. M 
Mr. Milton Matter, Jr., Box 51, Nashville, Ind. 47448. Z 
Dr. Daniel S. May, Biology Dept., Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 

47374. BCZ 
Mrs. Marie J. Mayo, Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. BZ 
Mrs. Carolyn J. Mayrose, 714B E. Cedar St., South Bend, Ind. 46617. B 
Mr. Charles Medvick, P. O. Box 210, Terre Haute, Ind. 47808. S 
Dr. Warren G. Meinschein, Geology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. GLB 
Mrs. Melva Meisberger, 3060 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208. RBC 
Dr. Wilton N. Melhorn, Geology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. G 
Dr. Melvin G. Mellon, 338 Overlook Drive, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. C 
Mr. Robert Menke, St. Henry Road, Huntingburg, Ind. 47542. B 
Miss Teresa M. Menke, Box 98, St. Marys College, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556. RLZ 
Mr. George W. Merkle, 9880 W. Tenth St., 2-7, Indianapolis, Ind. 46234. CZ 
Dr. Clair Merritt, Forestry & Cons. Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. B 
Dr. Lynne L. Merritt, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. C 
Prof. Neal R. Merritt, 508 N. Wayne, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962. G 
Mr. Thomas R. Mertens, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. B 
Sister Alma L. Mescher, St. Mary-of-the-Woods, Ind. 47876. 
Dr. A. H. Meyer, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 463S3. G 
Dr. Frederick R. Meyer, Biology Dept., Wilson College, Chambersburg, Pa. 

17201. Z 
Mr. Robert W. Meyer, Entomology Dept., Agr. Hall Purdue Univ., Lafa- 
yette, Ind. E 
Prof. Harold L. Michael, 1227 N. Salisbury St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. S 
Dr. Howard H. Michaud, Forestry Dept., Purdue University, W. Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. BZ 
Mr. Charles D. Miles, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47405. TB 
Prof. Robert D. Miles, 1724 Sheridan Road, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. G 
Dr. Donald E. Miller, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. BOZ 
Dr. Forrest T. Miller, County Extension Office, Greencastle, Ind. 46135. BLH 
Dr. Glen R. Miller, 607 College Ave., Goshen, Ind. 46526. CG 
Mr. Louis V. Miller, Ind. Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 47401. GC 
Mr. Paul A. Miller, 1709 North 20th St., Lafayette, Ind. 47904. S 
Mr. Wm. C. Miller, Div. Life Science, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809. LZ 
Mr. Samuel C. Millis, 201 Wallace Ave., Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. E 
Mr. Wallace B. Miner, Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, 111. 60115. CMP 
Dr. Sherman A. Minton, Jr., Ind. Univ. Med. Ctr., W. Michigan St., Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 46207. Z 
Mr. Thomas J. Miranda, 16731 Brick Road, Granger, Ind. 46530. C 
Dr. Sherwin Mizell, Anatomy & Physiology Dept., Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401. BCZ 



Membership List 63 

Mr. Philip B. Mislivec, 522 N. Seventh St., Clinton, Ind. 47842. B 

Dr. Kozaburo Miyakawa, Institute of Technology, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

46803. P 
Dr. Paul G. Moe, Agriculture Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. S 
Dr. Edwin J. Monke, Agr. Engineering Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. S 
Dr. B. Elwood, Montgomery, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 47907. ZB 
Mr. Michael E. Montgomery, 51590 Pond St., South Bend, Ind. 36637. E 
Mr. John I. Moore, P. O. Box 3097, San Angelo, Texas 76901. G 
Dr. Walter J. Moore, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. C 
Dr. Carl R. Morgan, Indiana U. Med. Center, 1100 W. Michigan, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46207. O 
Prof. Fred D. Morgan, 2320 College Ave., Huntington, Ind. 46750. 
Mr. William E. Morgan, 918 Seventh St., Tell City, Ind. 47586. G 
Dr. W. P. Morgan, 8501 S. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46217. BZ 
Dr. D. James Morre, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Dr. Charles S. Morris, Physics Dept., Laverne College, Laverne, Calif. 

91750. PM 
Dr. Harry Morrison, Chemistry Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. C 
Dr. Benjamin Moulton, Geography & Geology Dept., Indiana State Univer- 
sity, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. G 
Mr. Thomas E. Mouzin, 1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, Ind. 47591. E 
Dr. Charles R. Mueller, Chemistry Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. C 
Dr. & Mrs. W. P. Mueller, Biology Dept., Univ. of Evansville, Evansville, 

Ind. 47704. Z 
Dr. Joseph C. Muhler, Ind. Univ. Sch. of Dentistry, 1121 W. Michigan St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46202. C 
Mr. Donald J. Mulcare, Biology Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. Z 
Dr. Russell E. Mumford, Forestry & Cons. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. Z 
Mr. Jack R. Munsee, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. ZB 
Mr. Edward A. Munyer, Biology Dept., Vincennes University, Vincennes, 

Ind. 47591. LZ 
Mr. Stanley H. Murdock, 204 E. Main St., Paoli, Ind. 47454. G 
Mr. Francis L. Murphy, 155 E. N. Albany Ave., Vincennes, Ind. 47591. B 
Rev. M. J. Murphy, CSC, Geology Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. G 
Miss Mary A. Murphy, 905 N. Deland, Indianapolis, Ind. 46219. L 
Mr. Charles E. Murray, 306 E. Central St., Bluffton, Ind. 46714. G 
Dr. Haydn H. Murray, G. A. Kaolin Company, 433 N. Broad St., Elizabeth, 

N. J. G 
Mr. Merritt J. Murray, 2718 Oakland Drive, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49001. ZBT 
Prof. Raymond G. Murray, Anat. & Physiology Dept., Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401. Z 
Dr. R,uth L. Myers, Psychology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. Y 
Mr. William E. Myers, 213 W. Jefferson, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47993. T 
Dr. F. C. Neidhardt, Biological Science Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. R 
Mr. David C. Nelson, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. B 
Dr. Joseph S. Nelson, Zoology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. Z 
Mr. David H. Nesbitt, 1022 E. Sherman, Marion, Ind. 46952. E 
Mr. Erik A. Neumann, 704 S. Rose Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. A 



64 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Georg K. Neumann, Anthopology Dept., Indiana University, Blooming- 

ton, Ind. 47405. A 
Dr. Holm W. Neumann, 704 S. Rose Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. A 
Prof. James C. Newman, Agron. Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. S 
Mr. Kenneth E. Nichols, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. BZ 
Mr. Stanley A. Nichols, Life Sciences Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. O 
Miss Judy M. Nicholson, 5340 Camden St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46227. Z 
Mr. K. W. Nightenhelser, R. R. 1, Arcadia, Ind. 46030. P 
Dr. R. Emerson Niswander, Manchester College, N. Manchester, Ind. 

46962. B 
Mr. Victor E. Nixon, 406 W. 9th St., Jasper, Ind. 47546. BZ 
Mr. Elmer Nussbaum, Taylor University, Upland, Ind. 46989. P 
Mr. Dale J. Nyman, 3168 Sherry Drive, Baton Rouge, La. 70816. G 
Mr. Dennis M. O'Brian, Toxicology Dept., Squibb Inst. Med. Research, New 

Brunswick, N. J. 08903. Z 
Mrs. Gladys O'Brien, 410 N. Chester Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46201. G 
Dr. Alvin J. Ohlrogge, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. SCB 
Dr. Jeanette C. Oliver, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. R 
Dr. Montague M. Oliver, 1111 E. 19th Ave., Gary, Ind. 46407. Z 
Mr. Patrick F. Oliver, 1218 Alden Road, Muncie, Ind. 47303. Z 
Mr. Richard Olsen, Physiology & Health Dept., Ball State University, 

Muncie, Ind. 47306. RBZ 
Dr. J. Bennet Olson, Biological Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. H. 
Dr. Claude E. O'Neal, 265 W. Fountain Ave., Delaware, Ohio 43015. RB 
Mr. John E. Organ, 301 W. Washington St., Sullivan, Ind. 47882. G 
Dr. Philip A. Orpurt, Biology Dept., Manchester College, N. Manchester, 

Ind. 46962. B 
Dr. R. William Orr, Geography & Geol. Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, 

Ind. 47306. G 
Prof. John V. Osmun, 2533 Newman Road, Lafayette, Ind. 47906. ZE 
Rev. Thomas Ostdick, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577. CM 
Dr. Ralph E. Otten, Darlington, Ind. 47940. RYC 
Dr. Donald E. Owen, Geography & Geology Dept., Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. G 
Mr. Frank Padgett, Microbiology Dept., I. U. School of Medicine, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 46207. 
Mr. Arthur N. Palmer, 403 William Street, Pittsfleld, Mass. 01201. G 
Dr. C. M. Palmer, R. A. Taft San. Eng. Center, 4676 Columbia Parkway, 

Cincinnati, Ohio 45226. RB 
Dr. Dorothy Parker, The Rockefeller Foundation, 111 W. 50th St., New 

York, N. Y. 10020. B 
Mr. Francis Parks, Rd. 2, Box 91, Centerville, Ind. 47330. B 
Mr. Oattis E. Parks, Ayrshire Collieries, 105 S. Meridian St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46225. G 
Mr. Homer D. Paschall, Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 47306. BZ 
Dr. Daniel J. Pasto, Chemistry Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. C 
Dr. Fred L. Patterson, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. B 
Mrs. M. Hilbert Patterson, 3818 Central, Apt. 20, Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. Z 
Mr. John B. Patton, Geology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47405. G 
Dr. Elmer C. Payne, 440 River Road, Chatham, N. J. 07928. C 
Dr. Fernandus Payne, 620 Ballentine Road, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. Z 
Mr. Philip Peak, 2000 E. Second St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. M 
Dr. Nathan E. Pearson, 599 W. Westneld Blvd., Indianapolis, Ind. 4620S. Z 
Dr. John F. Pelton, Botany Dept., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46207. B 



Membership List 65 

Mr. Woodrow Pemberton, 5800 Twickingham Court, Evansville, Ind. 

47711. P 
Dr. Maurice B. Pensaert, Sch. Vet. Sci. & Med., Purdue University, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 47907. RO 
Mrs. Barbara M. Peri, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. R 
Mrs. Joseph I. Perrey, 7825 Pfeiffer Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45242. G 
Dr. Dennis G. Peters, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Blooming-ton, 

Ind. 47401. C 
Dr. J. B. Peterson, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. 
Dr. Robert Petty, Biology Dept., Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 

47933. B 
Mr. G. H. Pfaltzgraff, 3229 N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19140. Z 
Mr. Richard N. Phillips, 3200 Cold Spring Road, Marian College, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 
Mr. William F. Phillips, Research & Development Div., Commercial Sol- 
vents Corp., Terre Haute, Ind. C 
Mrs. Barbara L. Pickarcl, Hudson Valley Comm., College Vandenburg Ave., 

Troy, N. Y. 12180. Z 
Dr. Robert C. Pittenger, Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis, Ind. 46206. R 
Mr. Robert W. Piwonka, 115 Fordham Rd., 1A, Syracuse, New York 13203. Z 
Mr. Eiffel G. Plasterer, R. R. 5, Huntington, Ind. 46750. PC 
Mr. Julian R. Pleasants, Lobund Laboratories, University of Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Ind. 46556. R 
Mr. Gayther L. Plummer, Botany Dept., University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

30601. B 
Miss Elisabeth Poe, Taylor University, Upland, Ind. 46989. BZ 
Dr. J. Crawford Polley, 4 Locust Hill, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. M 
Mr. Lawrence Poorman, Physics Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47803. P 
Mr. Robert H. Poppe, 1400 N. State Parkway, Chicago, 111. 60610. Z 
Dr. Charles L. Porter, 924 N. Chauncey Ave., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. BT 
Dr. Donald H. Porter, 4105 S. Wigger St., Marion, Ind. 46952. M 
Dr. Donald F. Post, Ag. Chem. & Soils Dept., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, 

Ariz. 85709. S 
Dr. S. N. Postlethwait, Biological Science Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Dr. Horace M. Powell, 5565 Washington Blvd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. R 
Mr. Richard L. Powell, Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut Grove, Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 47401. G 
Dr. Paul S. Prickett, R. R. 8, Browning Road, Evansville, Ind. 47711. R 
Dr. Max A. Proffltt, Science Dept., Indiana State College, Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809. Z 
Mr. Nicholas Purichia, Marian College, 3200 Cold Spring Rd., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46222. Z 
Dr. Paul R. Quinney, Chemistry Dept., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46207. C 
Mr. Robert B. Quinn, 2714 W. 39th St., Anderson, Ind. 46013. P 
Mr. Robert A. Ragains, 4210 Woodberry St., University Park, Hyattsville, 

Md. 20782. BZE 
Mr. Downey D. Raibourn, 969 Water St., Indiana, Pa. 15701. A 
Mr. Rogers E. Randall, 2395 W. 20th Place, Gary, Ind. 46404. CP 
Mr. Reevan Dee Rarick, Indiana Geological Sur., 611 N. Walnut Grove, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401. G 
Mrs. Steven Rathka, 122 Floyd St., Elkhart, Ind. 46514. H 
Mrs. Marion A. Rector, 104 Riley Road, Muncie, Ind. 47304. BZ 
Mrs. Bloor Redding, 7530 Washington Blvd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46240. BZ 
Miss Helen E. Reed, 1070 W. Maple St., Greenwood, Ind. 46142. BZ 
Mr. James R. Rees, Biology Dept., Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 

46011. B 
Mr. Richard A. Reeves, Indiana Inst, of Technology, 1600 E. Washington 

Blvd., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46803. P 
Mr. Charles W. Reimer, 856 Cricket Road, Secane, Pa. 19018. B 



66 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Mark Reshkin, Indiana Univ. N. W. Campus, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Ind. 

46408. G 
Dr. Albert E. Reynolds, Zoology Dept., DePauw University, Greencastle, 

Ind. 46135. Z 
Mr. John W. Reynolds, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. E 
Mr. Pyrl L. Rhinesmith, 1012 W. Park Ave., Angola, Ind. 46703. C 
Dr. Marcus M. Rhoades, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. B 
Dr. Francis O. Rice, Radiation Lab, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

Ind. 46556. C 
Dr. Marion M. Rice, Chemistry Dept., Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. 53511. BR 
Mr. Ronald L. Richards, 1400 N. Jordan, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. AGZ 
Dr. Arthur Richter, 720 Hume Mansur Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204. 
Dr. John A. Ricketts, 236 Hillsdale, Greencastle, Ind. 46135. C 
Dr. Martin E. Rickey, Physics Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. P 
Dr. S. A. Rifenburgh, 246 Marstellar St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. Z 
Mr. Charles L. Rippy, Zoology Dept., University of Kentucky, Lexington, 

Ky. 40506. Z 
Mr. John Robbins, Jr., 841 Capitol Blvd., Corydon, Ind. 47112. S 
Miss Louise M. Robbins, Anthropology Dept., University of Kentucky, Lex- 
ington, Ky. A 
Mr. Allan Roberts, 120 Hayes Road, Richmond, Ind. 47374. Z 
Prof. Carleton W. Roberts, c/o Polymer Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Bldg. 335, 

Midland, Mich. 48640. C 
Mr. Tully M. Robison, 4828 E. 19th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46218. G 
Mr. Michael J. Rodeffer, 1140 E. Washington, Muncie, Ind. 47305. A 
Mr. John C. Roehm, 883 68th Ave. S., St. Petersburg, Fla. 33707. GY 
Mr. Harlan H. Roepke, Geol. & Geog. Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, 

Ind. 47306. G 
Mr. Richard M. Rogers, Standard Materials Corp., 11 N. Pennsylvania St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46204. G 
Dr. Mary Avery Root, 740 S. Alabama, Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46206. RHZ 
Dr. Gordon L. Rosene, Physiol. & Health Sci. Dept., Ball State University, 

Muncie, Ind. 47306. Z 
Dr. Frederick D. Rossini, 411 N. Ironwood Dr., South Bend, Ind. 46615. C 
Mr. Wayne A. Rosso, 2118 S. Sixth St., Lafayette, Ind. Z 
Dr. J. N. Roth, Biology Dept., Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 46526. Z 
Mr. Paul L. Roth, Forestry Dept., S. Illinois Univ., Carbondale, 111. 

62901. BZ 
Mr. Henry S. Rothrock, Experimental Station, E. I. Dupont deNemours Co., 

Wilmington, Del. 19801. C 
Mr. Frederick M. Rothwell, 104 S. 17th St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47807. B 
Dr. Edward J. Rowe, 5332 Bendonridge Road, Indianapolis, Ind. 46226. C 
Mr. David Rubin, Life Science Dept., Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809. Z 
Drs. R. F. & J. A. Rumaley, Microbiology Dept., Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 47401. RZ 
Mr. Charles E. Russell, 6901 E. 10th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46219. EZ 
Dr. Philip A. St. John, Zoology Dept., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46208. Z 
Dr. M. B. Sampson, Physics Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. P 
Mr. John F. Santos, Psychology Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. Y 
Mr. Edward S. Saugstad, R. R. 4, Minot, N. D. 58701. E 
Dr. Argyle D. Savage, 16 Acres, Muncie, Ind. 47304. T 
Dr. Earl J. Savage, Biology Dept., University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

Ind. 46556. B 
Mr. F. Ray Saxman, 1316 N. Wabash Ave., Hartford City, Ind. 47348. C 



Membership List 67 

Mr. Lawrence A. Schaal, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. G 
Dr. Riley Schaeffer, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. C 
Mr. John F. Schafer, Botany Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. BT 
Dr. John F. Schmedtje, Anatomy Dept., I. U. Medical Center, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46207. O 
Rev. Damian Schmelz, OSB, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577. B 
Mr. Frederic C. Schmidt, 209 S. Union St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. C 
Dr. Allan F. Schneider, Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401. G 
Dr. Gene W. Schnell, Mead Johnson Res. Center, Evansville, Ind. 47721. R 
Miss Myrtle V. Schneller, Jordan Hall, Zoology Dept., Ind. Univ., Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 47405. Z 
Prof. Bernard H. Schockel, 101 Woodlawn Ave., Aurora, Ind. 47001. G 
Dr. J. R. Schramm, 320 E. Ind. Memorial Union, Bloomington, Ind. 47405. B 
Dr. Marvin M. Schreiber, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Mr. John Schuck, 2840 S. East St., Apt. C-2, Indianapolis, Ind. 46225. 
Mr. Donald L. Schuder, Entomology Dept., A. E. S. Annex, Purdue Univ., 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. ZE 
Mr. Theodore C. Schwan, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. C 
Mr. Ward P. Schwartz, 2104 Superior Ave., Whiting, Ind. 46394. Z 
Dr. Leonard B. Schweiger, Miles Research Labs, Elkhart, Ind. 46514. R 
Mr. Robert E. Scofield, 1530 Old Porter Road, Portage, Ind. 46368. BZ 
Mr. Glenn R. Sebastian, 607 S. Sixth St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47807. G 
Dr. R. L. Seifert, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. C 
Dr. L. B. Senterfit, Charles Pfizer & Co. Inc., Terre Haute, Ind. 47802. R 
Dr. Frank M. Setzler, 950 E. Shore Road, Culver, Ind. 46511. A 
Mr. Stephan G. Sever, R. R. 1, Shelbyville, Ind. 46176. B 
Dr. Keith M. Seymour, Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 46207. C 
Dr. William G. Shafer, Oral Pathology Dept., I. U. School Dentistry, Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. 46207. O 
Dr. Barbara Shalucha, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. B 
Prof. Henry D. Shands, 100 Thornbush Drive, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. B 
Miss Elizabeth L. Shaner, 6316 S. Harrison, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46807. Z 
Prof. Merrill E. Shanks, 1107 Hillcrest, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. M 
Mr. Gerald J. Shea, 1105 Spring Hill Road, Terre Haute, Ind. 47802. G 
Claire J. Shellabarger, Kresge Med. Research Bldg., Ann Arbor, Mich. Z 
Mr. Robert L. Shelley, 3030 Ethel Ave., Muncie, Ind. 47304. C 
Miss Geraldine R. Sherfey, 343 N. Rensselaer, Griffith, Ind. 46319. YZ 
Mr. Stanley S. Shimer, Science Teaching Center, Indiana State Univ., Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809. BZC 
Miss Kathleen Simmons, Biology Dept., St. Bonaventure Univ., St. Bona- 

venture, N. Y. 14778. Z 
Dr. V. J. Shiner, Jr., Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. C 
Dr. Nathan W. Shock, U.S. Public Health Service, Baltimore City Hospital, 

Baltimore, Md. 21224. 
Dr. Edward W. Shrigley, Microbiology Dept., I. U. Medical Center, Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. 46207. Z 
Dr. Harrison Shull, Chemistry Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. C 
Dr. Akrtar H. Siddiqi, Geography Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809. G 
Mr. Joseph R. Siefker, Chemistry Dept., Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809. C 
Rev. Urban J. Siegrist, St. Joseph College, Rensselaer, Ind. 47918. B 
Mr. Robert E. Simpers, R. R. 3, Glen-Fruin, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. B 



68 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Russell E. Siverly, Physiology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, 

Ind. 47306. E 
Mr. R. W. Skaggs, Agr. Eng., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907. S 
Mr. Olind Skinner, 111 E. 73rd Ave., Crown Point, Ind. 46302. P 
Dr. David C. Skomp, 1123 Euclid Ave., Marion, Ind. 46952. A 
Dr. Kenneth H. Slagle, Chem. Engineering- Dept., Tri-State College, Angola, 

Ind. 46703. C 
Mr. Hayes Slaughter, P. O. Box 27941, Indianapolis, Ind. 46227. CMP 
Mr. Mack W. Slusser, Box 186, Lebanon, Ind. 46052. C 
Mr. Arthur L. Smith, 501 W. Washington St., South Bend, Ind. 46601. 
Prof. Aubrey H. Smith, Mathematics Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. M 
Dr. Charles E. Smith, Jr., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 47306. Z 
Mr. Dale Metz Smith, Biol. Sciences Dept., University of California, Santa 

Barbara, Cal. 93106. B 
Mr. David Lee Smith, Forestry & Cons. Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. Z 
Dr. Earl C. Smith, 35 S. 24th St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803. C 
Mr. James M. Smith, Box 23, Liberty, Ind. 47353. GS 
Mr. L. O. Smith, Jr., Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. C 
Mr. Ned M. Smith, 2717 Covington St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. G 
Mr. Orrin H. Smith, R. R. 1, 5025 88th St., Everett, Wash. 98201. P 
Mr. Robert C. Smith, 3527 Addison St., South Bend, Ind. 46614. 
Dr. Samuel W. Smith, 1714 Poplar, Terre Haute, Ind. 47807. G 
Mr. William M. Smith, Howe High School, 4900 Julian Ave., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46201. BZ 
Mr. Andrew T. Smithberger, 53085 Oakmont Park, E. Drive, South Bend, 

Ind. 46637. 
Prof. Arthur A. Smucker, Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 46526. C 
Mr. S. J. Smucker, American Embassy, c/o U.S. AID A.P.O., San Francisco, 

Cal. 96352. B 
Mr. John B. Snodgrass, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933. Z 
Dr. Herbert H. Snyder, Mathematics Dept., Southern Illinois Univ., Carbon- 
dale, 111. 62901. MP 
Dr. Perrie D. Somers, Jr., 9912 Harriet Ave. S., Minneapolis, Minn. 55420. C 
Dr. Tracy M. Sonneborn, Zoology Dept., 220 Jordan Hall, Ind. Univ., Bloom- 

ington, Ind. 47401. Z 
Mr. Charles V. Souers, 2552 E. 8th St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. R 
Dr. Eugene A. Southwell, Psychology Dept., Indiana Univ. N. W., Gary, Ind. 

46408. Y 
Mr. Ted M. Sowders, 1511 N. Fenton, Indianapolis, Ind. 46219. P 
Miss Ina Spangler, 128 E. Foster Parkway, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46806. BZ 
Mr. Harley O. Spencer, Mishawaka Public Library, 122 N. Hill St., Misha- 

waka, Ind. 46544. 
Dr. Theodore M. Sperry, Biology Dept., Kansas State College, Pittsburg, 

Kan. 66762. Z 
Dr. Newton G. Sprague, 1212 Ridge Road, Muncie, Ind. 47304. PC 
Mrs. Helen Stares, 4250 Crittenden Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. B 
Mr. Ralph W. Stark, R. R. 2, Box 4, Lebanon, Ind. 46052. B 
Mr. W. Max Stark, Microbiological Res. Dept., Eli Lilly & Company, Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. 46206. R 
Prof. Otis P. Starkey, Geography Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. G 
Dr. Richard C. Starr, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. B 
Dr. Theodore J. Starr, Lobund Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Ind. 46556. R 
Mr. & Mrs. A. Logan Steele, Ind. Bell Telephone Co., 240 N. Meridian St., 

Indianapolis, 46204. Y 
Charles H. Steinmetz Md., 1700 E. Imperial Highway, El Segundo, Cal. 

90245. Z 
Dr. William K. Stephenson, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374. Z 
Dr. Forrest F. Stevenson, 3529 Peach Tree Lane, Muncie, Ind. 47304. B 



Membership List 69 

Dr. Jerry L. Stevenson, Biology Dept., Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 

46011. R 
Dr. Russell K. Stivers, Agron. Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. S 
Sister Mary R. Stockton, 3200 Cold Springs Road, Indianapolis, Ind. 46222. C 
Mr. Bill Stone, Princeton High School, Princeton, Ind. 

Mr. Robert L. Stone, 4537 Park Forest Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46226. R 
Dr. Edward R. Strain, 1133 E. Southport Road, Indianapolis, Ind. 46227. Y 
Mr. David B. Straley, Oakland City College, Oakland City, Ind. 47560. Z 
Mr. James F. Stratton, 342 S. Sixth, Clinton, Ind. 47842. G 
Mr. W. Thomas Straw, Geology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. G 
Mr. James T. Streator, Manchester College, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962. C 
Mr. Dennis R. Streeter, 4133 Mathews Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46202. BZ 
Mr. Frank Streightoff, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206. R 
Dr. Alvin Strickler, 312 Michigan Ave., Frankfort, Mich. 49635. C 
Mr. Billie W. Stucky, 111 S. Bryan Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. BZ 
Mrs. Ruthann P. Sturtevant, Indiana State University, 112 N. 12th Ave., 

Evansville, Ind. 47712. RZ 
Mr. Edward S. Suagstad, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. E 
Mr. Gerald Sullivan, Box 253, R. R. 3, Elwood, Ind. 46036. BC 
Mr. Russell Sullivan, 2908 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208. MP 
Mr. Elmer G. Sulzer, Radio & Television, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. 
Mr. Jack A. Sunderman, Ind. Univ. Ft. Wayne Campus, 2101 E. US 30 

By-Pass, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805. G 
Dr. Roderick A. Suthers, Anat. & Physiol. Dept., Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401. Z 
Dr. B. K. Swartz, Jr., Soc. & Anthropology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, 

Ind. 47306. A 
Mr. Jack Swelstad, 1702 Napoleon St., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383. Z 
Miss Mary K. Swenson, Indiana Univ. Med. Center, 1100 W. Michigan St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46207. C 
Dr. James C. Swihart, Physics Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. P 
Prof. R. J. Swindell, Chemistry Dept., Ind. Inst, of Technology, Fort Wayne, 

Ind. 46803. C 
Dr. Lasuo Szegedy, 229 W. Maple Grove Ave., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46806. C 
Mr. John C. Tacoma, 878 E. Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46201. BT 
Mr. Matt F. Taggart, 1212 SE Second Ave., Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. C 
Dr. Arthur W. Tallman, 179 Hudson Terrace, Piermont, N. Y. 10968. RC 
Dr. Gerhardt Talvenheimo, 26 Coopergate Drive, Basking Ridge, N. J. 07920. 
Dr. Henry Tamar, Zoology Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809. Z 
Dr. J. C. Tan, Biology Dept., Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 

463S3. ZB 
Mr. Irvin E. Taylor, 4461 N. Kitley, Indianapolis, Ind. 46226. C 
Mr. Harvey D. Telinde, Biological Science Dept., Purdue University, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 47907. BO 
Dr. D. J. Tendam, Physics Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 47907. P 
Mi\ Clarence H. Thomas, Jr., 5730 E. Washington St., Apt. 4, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46219. B 
Mr. Robert J. Thomas, 11 F. O. B., DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 

46135. M 
Prof. Tracy Y. Thomas, Apt. 512, 10530 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Cal. 

90024. M 
Mr. Daniel J. Thompson, 1927 Suffolk Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46260. Z 
Mr. Harold B. Thompson, 8501 Wicklow, Cincinnati, Ohio 45236. P 
Mr. Wm. David Thornbury, Dept. of Geology, Ind. University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. G 
Prof. James Thorp, 606 SW. A St., Richmond, Ind. 47374. G 
Mr. Donald E. Tiano, 1402 E. Dudley, Indianapolis, Ind. 46227. P 



70 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mr. Al. J. Tieken, Box 63, Haubstadt, Ind. 47539. A 

Dr. Joseph A. Tihen, Biology Dept., Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556. Z 
Dr. Wm. J. Tinkle, 118 W. South St., Eaton, Ind. 47338. Z 
Mr. Curtis H. Tomak, 210 N.E. 9th St., Linton, Ind. 47441. A 
Mr. William L. Toms, R. R. 1, Morristown, Ind. 46161. A 
Dr. Theodore W. Torrey, Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. Z 
Dr. Yeram S. Touloukian, Thermophysical Prop. R. Ctr., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. P 
Mr. Schuyler Townsend, 1705 W. Main St., Muncie, Ind. 47303. A 
Dr. Robert J. Trankle, Biology Dept., Franklin College, Franklin, Ind. 

46131. B 
Prof. John B. Tressler, Box 158, Hudson, Ind. 46747. P 
Mr. Otis C. Trimble, 7802 Wildwood Drive, Tacoma Park, Md. 20012. Y 
Dr. W. A. Trinler, Science Dept., Indiana State College, Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809. C 
Dr. Lee C. Truman, 1208 Oakwood Trail, Indianapolis, Ind. 46260. Z 
Mr. Rolla M. Tryon, Gray Herbarium, Harvard Univ., 22 Divinity Ave., 

Cambridge, Mass. 02138. B 
Miss Marilyn Tschannen, 945 Chicago Ave., Evanston, 111. 60202. G 
Mr. A. Keith Turner, School of Civil Eng., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. G 
Dr. Kenyon S. Tweedell, Biology Dept., Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

Ind. 46556. Z 
Dr. Kenneth W. Uhlhorn, Science Div., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809. Z 
Dr. Arnold J. Ullstrup, Botany & Plant Path. Dept., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. B 
Mr. P. T. Ulman, R. R. 2, Noblesville, Ind. 46060. BAE 
Mr. H. P. Ulrich, Agron. Dept., Life Science Bldg., Lafayette, Ind. 47907. SG 
Mr. & Mrs. J. L. Van Camp, 400 Jordan Road, Indianapolis, Ind. 46217. E 
Miss Betty Vanderbilt, R. R. 3, Nashville, Ind. 47448. G 
Mr. Estil B. Vandorn, 1053 W. 35th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208. CP 
Marie VanHorn, 6032 Birchwood, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. C 
Mr. William S. Vanscoik, 4711 Highwood Dr., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805. E 
Dr. Jules R. Vautrot, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. R 
Mr. Dante Ventresca, 4460 Broadway, Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. RB 
Dr. Edward A. Vondrak, Physics Dept., Indiana Central College, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 46227. P 
Mr. Claude F. Wade, Division of Entomology, Rose Polytechnical Inst., 

Terre Haute, Ind. 46209. 
Miss Lucille C. Wahl, 941 Hervey St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46203. B 
Mrs. Cheryl A. Waldman, 623 E. Atwater Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47401. A 
Sister M. Jean V. Wallace, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556. A 
Dr. Coy W. Waller, Mead Johnson & Co., Evansville, Ind. 47721. C 
Mr. Frank N. Wallace, 113 4th St. N.E., Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Dirk R. Walters, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. BT 
Mr. George W. Walton, R. 1., Farmersburg, Ind. 47850. P 
Mr. Lloyd C. Wampler, 400 S. Michigan St., Plymouth, Ind. 46563. AE 
Mr. James E. Wappes, Entomology Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907. E 
Mr. Daniel B. Ward, 733 S.W. 27th St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601. B 
Gertrude L. Ward, Biology Dept., Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 

47374. BZ 
Mr. Glen W. Warner, Jr., 3301 S.E. 62nd Ave., Portland, Ore. 97206. PM 
Prof. C. P. Warren, Soc. & Anthropology Dept., Univ. of 111. at Chicago, 

Chicago, 111. 60680. A 
Dr. I. Watanabe, I. U. Medical Center, 1100 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, 
Ind. 46207. O 



Membership List 71 

Dr. Wm. John Wayne, Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. G 
Dr. Paul Weatherwax, Botany Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. AB 
Mr. Henry D. Weaver, Jr., Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 46526. 
Mr. George W. Webb, Geography & Geology Dept., Indiana State Univer- 
sity, Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. G 
Dr. Harold D. Webb, 812 W. Delaware St., Urbana, 111. 61801. P 
Mr. Glen C. Weber, 1330 W. Michigan, Indianapolis, Ind. 46202. RC 
Mr. Robert C. Weber, 3649 Algonquin Pass, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46807. BZ 
Mr. Walter J. Weber, 36 W. Roberts Road, Indianapolis, Ind. 46217. CBE 
Dr. J. Dan Webster, Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. 47243. Z 
Dr. Rex N. Webster, 4721 N. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208. RBO 
Mrs. Virginia Weddle, Dunwerkin R. 4, Nashville, Ind. 47448. BZ 
Dr. Harry R. Weimer, Manchester College, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962. C 
Dr. Eugene D. Weinberg, Bact. Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. R 
Mr. Richard A. Weismiller, Soil Science Dept., Michigan State Univ., 

Lansing, Mich. 48823. S 
Mr. Richard A. Weismiller, Agron. Dept., Life Sci. Bldg., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. S 
Mr. Melford S. Weiss, Soc. & Anthropology Dept., Ball State University, 

Muncie, Ind. 47306. A 
Dr. Winona H. Welch, P. O. Box 2S3, Greencastle, Ind. 46135. BR 
Zara D. Welch, Chemistry Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. C 
Dr. Frank Welcher, 7340 Indian Lake Rd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46236. C 
Dr. George W. Welker, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. R 
Dr. Lowell E. Weller, Chemistry Dept., Univ. of Evansville, Evansville, Ind. 

47704. C 
Dr. H. B Wells, Ind. Univ. Fdn. Inc., Memorial Union Bldg., Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401. 
Dr. John Welser, Anatomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. O 
Mr. Kenneth A. Wenner, 858 Carol Dr., Crown Point, Ind. 46307. S 
Prof. William G. Wert, 406 S. Brown Ave., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803. PBZ 
Dr. Grace E. Wertenberger, Physiology Dept., Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 47401. Z 
Dr. Terry R. West, Sch. Civil Engineering, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. G 
Prof. Howell N. Wheaton, Agron. Dept., Life Sci. Bldg., Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907. S 
Dr. John O. Whitaker, Science Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809. Z 
Mr. Roger F. Whitcomb, Jr., 218 W. Broadway, Shelby ville, Ind. Z 
Mr. Charles E. White, 2441 E. Northview Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220. E 
Mr. Charley M. White, Forestry & Cons. Dept., Purdue University, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 47907. Z 
Prof. Joe L. White, Agron. Dept, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907. GS 
Mr. Brian Wicke, 727 Davidson Road, Nashville, Tenn. 37205. C 
Prof. Grant T. Wickwire, 43 Fenwood Grove Rd., Saybrook, Conn. G 
Mrs. Charles E. Wier, 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, Ind. 47401. G 
Prof. Dan Wiersma, Agron. Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907. S 
Mr. Gerald E. Wilcox, 1957 Ind. Trail Drive, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. S 
Mr. Paul D. Wilkinson, R. R. 4, Box 298, Terre Haute, Ind. 47802. C 
Mr. Wm. Arnold Wilier, 5849 Goshen Road, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46808. BZP 
Dr. Eliot C. Williams, Jr., Biol. Dept., Wabash College, Crawfordsville, 

Ind. 47933. Z 
Mr. Robert D. Williams, U. S. Forest Service, Bedford, Ind. 47421. B 
Mr. Leslie A. Willig, Tri-State College, Angola, Ind. 46703. Y 
Mr. Kenneth S. Wilson, 1344 N. Jay Circle, Griffith, Ind. 46319. B 



72 Indiana Academy of Science 

Miss Ruth M. Wiramer, 2222 Hoagland Ave., Apt. 2, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

46804. C 
Mr. Theodore A. Winkel, 607 N. East St., Madison, Ind. 47250. C 
Prof. & Mrs. D. R. Winslow, P. O. Box 246, Blooming-ton, Ind. 47401. Z 
Mr. John L. Winters, Jr., 406 Conduitt Drive, Mooresville, Ind. 46158. T 
Dr. Charles D. Wise, Science Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. Z 
Mi'. Robert E. Wise, Purdue University, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805. MP 
Dr. P. A. Wiseman, 3804 University Ave., Muncie, Ind. 47304. C 
Dr. Samuel W. Witmer, 1608 S. 8th St., Goshen, Ind. 46526. BZ 
Mr. Ronald J. Wolf, 4160 Guilford Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. G 
Prof. Harold E. Wolfe, 812 S. Fess Ave., Blooming-ton, Ind. 47401. M 
Dr. Joseph Wolinsky, Chemistry Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

46907. C 
Mr. Gerhard N. Wollan, 325 Hollowood Drive, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. M 
Prof. Daniel E. Wonderly, Grace College, Winona Lake, Ind. 46590. Z 
Mr. Tim Tun Yuey Wong, 1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, Ind. 47591. E 
Mr. Darl F. Wood, 201 Miami Club Drive, Mishawaka, Ind. 46544. RCB 
Prof. Vida G. Wood, Taylor University, Upland, Ind. 46989. BO 
Prof. Kenneth B. Woods, 902 N. Chauncey Ave., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906. G 
Dr. Bernard S. Wostmann, Lobund Laboratory, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Ind. 46556. C 
Mr. Howard F. Wright, 3601 Guilford, Indianapolis, Ind. 46205. RZ 
Mrs. Marilyn J. Wright, 62J Candle Berry Court D, Kirkwood, Mo. 63122. B 
Dr. Willard F. Yates, Jr., Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. T 
Dr. John E. Yarnelle, Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. 47243. M 
Miss Nancy W. S. Yeh, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, Ind. 

47306. E 
Mr. Larry R. Yoder, 2427 Chapman Road, Huntertown, Ind. 46748. B 
Dr. & Mrs. F. N. Young, Jr., Zoology Dept., Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 47401. E 
Mr. Joseph W. Young, 14270 Sunset, Livonia, Mich. 48154. A 
Dr. Ralph W. Young, Indiana Inst, of Technology, 1600 E. Washington 

Blvd., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46S03. M 
Dr. Howard R. Youse, P. O. Box 253, Greencastle, Ind. 46135. B 
Mr. Frank J. Zeller, Zoology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401. Z 
Dr. Leon G. Zerfas, Box 96, R. R. 1, Camby, Ind. 46113. RZ 
Dr. Paul L. Ziemer, Bionucleonics Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Ind. P 
l^r. Harold L. Zimmaek, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 

47306. E 
Mr. Earl G. Zimmerman, Zoology Dept., Univ. of Illinois., Urbana, 111. Z 
Dr. A. L. Zachary, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. SB 
Dr. W T aiter A. Zygmunt, Research Labs Mead Johnson, Evansville, Ind. 

4 7721. R 
Dr. Joseph E. Yahner, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907. S 
Mr. Robert K. Zwerner, 2510 N. 8th St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809. Z 



PART 2 

ADDRESSES 

AND 

CONTRIBUTED 

PAPERS 



Bloomington, Indiana 
October 21, 1968 



The address, "Indiana's New System of Scientific Areas 
and Nature Preserves," was given by retiring president Dr. 
A. A. Lindsey at the annual dinner meeting of the Academy 
at the Memorial Union of Indiana University on Saturday 
evening, October 21, 1967. The second address, "Science: 
Boon or Bane?", was given by Dr. Ralph E. Cleland, Dis- 
tinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Botany, Indiana 
University. This statement comes as an introduction to the 
newly-emerging work of the recently appointed Committee 
on Science and Society, of which Dr. Cleland was the first 
chairman and convenor. 

Certain innovations (for the Proceedings) will be noted 
in the printing of the contributed papers read at the various 
Divisional meetings during the Fall Meeting. Brief abstracts 
are included with papers published in full. Future contribu- 
tors will note the style when typing manuscripts. In addition 
to abstracts of papers not published in full, a few papers of 
a discussional or informational nature are published as 
"Notes." Titles of papers presented at the Fall Meeting and 
not represented by either abstracts or complete publication 
are listed by title only at the end of the abstract section in 
each Division. 



74 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



Indiana's New System of Scientific Areas and 
Nature Preserves 

Alton A. Lindsey 

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University 

Our civilization is considered the most advanced and progressive 
the world has known to date. I believe it is likely to be marked his- 
torically as the most destructive, and that the major stigma of this 
destruction will be attached to oar own generation. 

We are not paying enough attention to this destruction. We are not 
doing much to prevent it. What will we have gained by our higher 
education, by our dazzling scientific conquests, if they so blind us to 
the basic values that we fail to protect our inheritance of life? For 
many men and women do not yet realize that as we destroy it we 
destroy ourselves. 

The cost of adequate conservation is small compared to what we 
spe?id on space exploration, aviation, superhighways, electronic devices, 
etc., yet the natural resources we neglect offer far more to us and 
to our children than do all such enterprises combined. 

Charles A. Lindbergh 

The current "conservation explosion" was touched off, in my opinion, 
by Rachel Carson and the controversy over her 1962 book Silent Spring. 
Without the resulting public education on the intricacies of natural eco- 
systems, it would hardly have been politically possible for President 
Johnson to have delivered the historic message to Congress on conserva- 
tion and natural beauty on February 8, 1965. 

What does the term "conservation" mean today, if anything? Is 
the bird-watcher or the duck-hunter a true conservationist, or may both 
be so? Is it the Sierra Club member who opposes dam-building in the 
Grand Canyon, or the developer who favors it? The veteran fly-fisher- 
man who wants a good trout stream let alone, or the "sport" who insists 
it be heavily stocked with big, tame hatchery fish? The recreationist 
who requires massive artificial developments in order to enjoy the 
outdoors, or the perceptive-recreationist who doesn't want them? All 
these diverse people consider themselves conservationists. 

The position of a proposal or project on the extended continuum 
of "conservation" may be judged by the relative proportion of two com- 
ponents, exploitation vs. renewal. The exploitation philosophy is short- 
term. In its extreme form it asks two questions: "What is in it for me 
right away?" and "what has posterity ever done for us?" 

The renewal viewpoint has, I suggest, these four bases: (1) Wise 
management of renewable resources grounded on the principle of perma- 

75 



76 Indiana Academy of Science 

nently sustained yields; (2) Non-wasteful use of non-renewable 
resources; (3) Consideration of recreational, scientific, educational and 
aesthetic objectives as well as economic; and (4) Consideration of 
minority rights of the perceptive-recreational users who value quali- 
tative elements of outdoor recreational resources. 

Policy Support of Preservation and Renewal 

The President's Water Resources Council issued in 1962 Senate 
Document 97 on planning for the use and development of water and 
related land resources. This states: "Proper stewardship in the long- 
term interest of the Nation's natural bounty requires in particular 
instances that . . . areas of unique natural beauty, historical and sci- 
entific areas be preserved and managed primarily for the inspiration, 
enjoyment and education of the people." 

The National Academy of Sciences — National Research Council in 
1966 published a report entitled "Alternatives in Water Resource Man- 
agement." This is the finest statement to be found on water resource 
policy, yet it has attracted little attention or application. 

A regulation of March 6, 1967, issued by General Wm. Cassidy, 
Chief of Engineers, requires that the Engineer Corps give consideration 
to aesthetic and other intangible, non-economic factors in planning 
and carrying out the civil works program. Citing the growing interest 
in this nation in channeling "an increasing proportion of its material 
and human resources into activities which help satisfy the intellectual, 
emotional and aesthetic aspirations of its people," the General pointed 
out in this directive that the public now is "not only willing to invest 
a significant proportion of the national income in the preservation and 
enhancement of beauty, but is willing to forego increases in economic 
wealth when this is necessary to preserve areas of unusual natural 
beauty." 

Henceforth the Army Engineers are to "recommend the carrying 
out of a potential development only when convinced that the sum of 
the prospective economic and aesthetic gains would exceed the sum of 
the economic and aesthetic losses." If "the potential net economic 
benefits do not clearly outweigh the intangible aesthetic values that 
would be lost, serious consideration should be given to deferring de- 
velopment until doubts are resolved." 

It remains unclear if and when the practice in Corps district offices 
will catch up with Washington policy promulgations.! 

The U.S. Supreme Court on June 5, 1967, handed down a decision 
of great conservation significance. In announcing the 6-2 ruling, Justice 
Douglas called, before power dams are authorized, for "an exploration 
of all issues relevant to the public interest, including . . . alternate 
sources of power, the public interest in preserving reaches of wild 
rivers and wilderness areas, the preservation of anadromous fish for 



1 This agency has continued to actively promote all the 5 midwestern 
projects which conservationists have opposed: Red River Gorge (Ken- 
tucky), Allerton Park (Illinois), and the Big Walnut reservoir, Burns 
Ditch Port and a steel company lake-landfill in Indiana. A.A.L., Addendum, 
July, 1968. 



Presidential Address 77 

commercial and recreational purposes, and the protection of wildlife . . . 
We cannot assume that the Act commands the immediate construction 
of as many projects as possible." 

Academy Participation in Conservation Affairs 

From 1953 through 1955 the Indiana Academy of Science had a 
rather active committee on natural area preservation. Its chief accom- 
plishment was initial promotion of the interest which eventually brought 
Pine Hills Natural Area into the state park system as an annex to The 
Shades. This committee also assembled the complex boundary descrip- 
tions of the 17 parcels which went into the 600-acre tract, and turned 
them over to the Nature Conservancy which purchased Pine Hills and 
donated it to the state in 1962. 

In 1966 President Carrolle Markle reactivated this Academy work 
by appointing a Committee on the Preservation of Scientific Areas, 
with Dr. Robert Petty of Wabash College as chairman. The Academy 
registry of areas suggested for preservation now includes 238 tracts. 
The committee has also canvassed colleges and high schools on their 
use of "outdoor classrooms and laboratories," finding a surprisingly 
heavy use and intense interest in natural areas in Indiana. 

Like individual scientists throughout the country, the Indiana 
Academy of Science has recently stepped up its participation in public 
affairs. It appears that the first time this academy went on record in 
helping toward a decision on any controversial public issue was in its 
1965 resolution on the proposed Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. 
The National Park Service printed our statement on the back cover of 
its color brochure for the Lakeshore. (The Ecological Society of 
America also broke precedent by endorsing the Lakeshore). A resolu- 
tion was passed at the October 22, 1966, general session commending 
Academy members who had actively supported the proposal, and thank- 
ing members of the U.S. Congress for their support. The Academy 
also presented testimony at a 1966 hearing in Logansport on new 
water quality standards for the local watershed. 

More recently, the Academy presented testimony before the Natu- 
ral Resources Committee of the state legislature on the Nature 
Preserves bill, which later passed and was signed into law. Since its 
provisions are vital to the subject of my address, I shall summarize its 
contents. 

Legislation for a System of Nature Preserves 

Senate Controlled Act No. 176 was sponsored by the Indiana State 
Division of the Izaak Walton League and written by League member 
James M. Barrett III, a Fort Wayne attorney, and introduced by 
Senator William Christy and Representative Sam Rea. States having 
such a law include Illinois, Iowa, Connecticut, Wisconsin and New 
Jersey. 

Quoting from the bill: "It is essential to the people of the State of 
Indiana that they retain the opportunities to maintain close contact 
with such living communities and environmental systems of the earth 
and to benefit from the scientific, aesthetic, cultural and spiritual 



78 Indiana Academy of Science 

values they possess. It is therefore the public policy of the State of 
Indiana that a registry of such areas be established and maintained 
by the department, that such areas be acquired and preserved by the 
state, and that other agencies, organizations and individuals, both public 
and private, be encouraged to set aside such areas for the common 
benefit of the people of present and future generations." Section 5 
states: "In furtherance of the purposes of this act, the president of 
the Indiana Academy of Science is hereby made an ex-ofncio member 
of the (Natural Resources) commission." I should add that no one in 
the Academy either sought or was called upon to approve this provision. 
The bill directs the establishment of a new Divisioyi of Nature 
Preserves in the Department of Natural Resources to administer the 
Act. Mr. William Barnes was appointed Director of this Division and 
assumed his duties on February 15, 1968. 

An area is to become a Nature Preserve when articles of dedica- 
tion are accepted by the Natural Resources Department. "An estate, 
interest or right in an area may be dedicated by any state agency having 
jurisdiction thereof, and by any private owner thereof." 

When a new highway is to be built, the path of least resistance is 
through the parks. To many politicians and engineers, any place having 
a remnant of natural vegetation is "waste land." How does this bill 
foresee holding, against recurrent threats of "improvement," lands that 
become dedicated as preserves? The bill says, "They shall not be taken 
for any other use except another public use after a finding by the com- 
mission of the existence of an imperative and unavoidable public 
necessity for such other public use, and with the approval of the gov- 
ernor." Before finding such necessity for other public disposition, the 
Natural Resources Commission must announce and hold a public hearing. 

The bill includes an appropriation of $30,000 to make it possible 
to employ a director and to get the system started during this biennium. 

What is to be the relation of Indiana nature preserves to mass 
recreation? Outdoor recreation has recently become politically profit- 
able, since it attracks large grants of public tax money. But mass 
recreation (a right) based on natural resources, appeals to the general 
public much more than mass understanding (a responsibility) relating 
to the management and perpetuation of these resources. The same atti- 
tude is reflected in the philosophies of many public agencies. The idea 
that when people are recreating out of doors they are thereby fostering 
conservation is a delusion propagated by not a few public agencies. 
The familiar rabbit stew of conservation consists of one horse for 
recreation, one rabbit for fundamentals. (By fundamentals I do not 
mean just scientific or historic perceptions, but include skills in outdoor 
sports and living, renewal viewpoint, outdoor manners, etc.) 

Whether dedicated nature preserves which remains in private own- 
ership would be open to the public would remain at the option of the 
owner. State-owned nature preserves would ordinarily be publicly avail- 
able for walking restricted to the maintained trails. Other "develop- 
ments" that merely add water to the already thin soup of Indiana wild 
nature should be discouraged. Nature preserves are primarily for 



Presidential Address 79 

educational, scientific, scenic-aesthetic, and perceptive-recreational (as 
opposed to mass-recreational uses). Larger and less unique and less 
vulnerable public lands are available for outdoor recreation as that 
term is commonly understood, involving fresh-air and change of scene, 
picnicing, physical exercise of sports and games, trophy-hunting, etc. 
The size of the nature preserves in the state system will probably 
average only about 40 acres each. If 100 such natural areas should 
comprise the nature preserve system eventually, they would total only 
about one-hundredth of one per cent of the area of our state. 

The point is that preserves of outstanding scientific quality are 
required for scientific research and teaching, but that these few unique 
areas are not essential or suitable for the more popular forms of out- 
door recreation. Education should work toward the time when public 
appreciation and perception of the more subtle outdoor values will as- 
sume a larger place in the outdoor recreation picture. Nature preserves, 
properly administered, should assist in this, not by opening up more 
lovely country so much as by helping to open the potentially lovely 
human mind. The biologist seeing the trash-littered recreation areas of 
today, might wish for, in our future evolution, a drastic mutation 
from the species Man to the human being. 

The Indiana Natural Areas Survey 

Last spring your speaker received a two-year grant from the Ford 
Foundation to support a relatively detailed survey and scientific descrip- 
tion of actual and potential nature preserves in Indiana. The present 
school year is being taken for a sabbatical leave. The field work began 
June 1, 1967, with a team of five men. The Ford Foundation is subsi- 
dizing our preparation and publication of a book on Priorities in 
Natural Area Preservation in Indiana. The Foundation hopes that this 
will encourage similar activity in other states, supported by natural 
resource departments, universities, etc., hopefully to further the pres- 
ervation of natural and scientific areas throughout the country. 

My Purdue associates on this survey at present are: Professor 
Emeritus Thomas M. Bushnell (who directed the Indiana soil survey 
for 35 years) as soil scientist and geologist, Rev. Damian Schmelz as 
forest ecologist, Mr. Martin Hetherington as limnologist, and Mr. 
Stanley Nichols as phytosociologist, air-photo analyst and cartographer. 
A terrestrial zoologist will be needed during the summer of 1968. 

Contrary to much public opinion, natural areas are not picnic 
groves, city parks, artificial reservoirs, managed commercial forests, 
roadside rest areas, golf courses, or hunting preserves. It is more diffi- 
cult to define for practical purposes what they are, because in any 
state, areas acceptable for preservation are relative to the remaining 
opportunities. Rather than set up rigid criteria, it seems more practical 
to state an ideal in general terms, the approach to which in selecting 
areas should be a matter of informed judgment. Ideally, both areas 
representing the original widespread vegetation types and the precious 
special spots (as glacial relict biota) should be preserved. While ex- 
amples of climatic climax should be obtained first, because disappearing 
rapidly, no stage in the ecological succession should be neglected in the 



80 Indiana Academy of Science 

long run. If recurrent fires were required to maintain the type under 
pre-settlement conditions, as in tall-grass prairie, management by con- 
trolled burning should not be ruled out. 

We are classifying natural areas, according to their primary 
interest and potential, under these headings: 

1. Scientific 

a. Geological 

b. Aquatic Biological 

c. Terrestrial biological 

2. Scenic 

3. Perceptive-recreational 

4. Educational 

Geological areas pose special problems because many geological phe- 
nomena are of such a broad scope spatially that the best that could be 
done with these might be to provide an overlook point for observation, 
with informative signs. This tends to be true of scenic points also, most 
of which are not suitable as nature preserves, but are more often 
associated with roads. 

Educational areas may have rather less outstanding natural quality 
than the other categories, but are justified for inclusion in the system 
by virtue of their close proximity to population centers and schools. 
Hence these areas may be important, now or later, as field trip destina- 
tions, school forest sites, or nature centers. 

Obviously the values and uses mentioned are not mutually exclusive. 

The Director and other officials of our state Natural Resources 
Department have indicated that in starting the nature preserves system 
they expect to rely heavily on the findings of our natural areas survey. 
Several conferences have been held to coordinate plans and pass along 
results to date. 

The state parks, although heavily used, are relatively natural in 
most portions of many of them. No state park should be considered a 
nature preserve in its entirety; instead, we are describing the scientific 
aspects of the most outstanding natural parts of some of them, for 
areas averaging perhaps 60 acres in each of those few parks to be 
included. If we can get these excellent portions especially dedicated 
now, this may at some future time help in deterring artificial develop- 
ments from encroaching there. 

Operating from two station wagons and a camping trailer, the 
natural areas survey has to date visited 156 places, at least alleged to 
be natural areas. The more promising ones have been accorded more 
attention; as much as 5 days have been spent at some. The majority of 
those places suggested in older natural area inventories have fallen 
victim to real estate development, agricultural expansion, timber cut- 
ting, or highway or reservoir developments. About twenty areas, 
including several of the very finest quality and scientific interest, have 
been spoiled in the past decade. 

Areas that are definitely being destroyed, as potential nature 
preserves, at this writing (or are very seriously threatened) by im- 
poundment projects are Big Walnut Valley north of Rt. 36, Putnam 



Presidential Address 81 

County; Hovey Lake, Posey County; upper Big Pine Creek, Warren 
County; and Mystery Mounds, Lake County. 

Promoters and developers often remark that conservationists never 
compromise. Actually, the conservation community in Indiana has re- 
cently been compromising substantially in a manner not evident to the 
public. Our preservation organizations have private objections to several 
of the more than 25 large federal dam proposals in Indiana, but have 
had to select a very few of these on which to concentrate efforts for 
effective opposition. These are (1) the approximately 30 miles of the 
Sugar Creek Valley from Rt. 32 to the Wabash River and (2) the 
four-mile reach of Big Walnut Creek from Higgins Bridge south to Rt. 
36. In a given reservoir proposal, a "compromise" to an intermediate 
level for the maximum flood pool may simply amount to a loss for all 
interests with no gain for either side commensurate to the loss; i.e., 
either a maximum reservoir or total restraint at that site may make 
more sense than a so-called compromise that would destroy the integ- 
rity of an ecological unit. If a narrow natural valley is to be disrupted 
by inundation, a higher water level may be preferable to unsightly mud 
flats for five months each year within the former natural area. 

Wing Haven, just east of Pokagon State Park in Steuben County, 
has a chain of lakes outstanding for beauty and aquatic vegetation 
communities. The resort has been sensitively protected in the past, 
but is threatened by probable real estate developments now. Thirty-acre 
Black Lake in Whitley County, still without a cottage along its wooded 
shores, is being sold for intensive recreational use. The finest old-growth 
forest in Harrison or Crawford Counties, Parkhill Woods, is falling 
victim to Interstate Highway 64. 

Among the once outstanding forests, mostly reported on in Indiana 
biological literature, but now too disturbed to have special scientific 
interest, are Berkey Woods, Crawford Woods, Gray's Woods, Klein's 
Woods, Lewis Woods, Little Cypress Swamp, Nash's Woods, Oaks Woods, 
Post Oak Flat, and others. 

The finest remaining original forests in Indiana today, the loss of 
any one of which would be a major tragedy, are Beckville Woods (Mont- 
gomery Co.), Donaldson's Woods of Spring Mill State Park, Hoot Woods 
(Owen Co.), Manlove Woods (Fayette Co.), Meltzer Woods (Shelby 
Co.), Pioneer Mothers Memorial Forest or Cox Woods near Paoli, Ros- 
brugh Woods (Kosciusko Co.), Conboy Woods (Jennings Co.), Weaver 
Woods (Wayne Co.), Officers Woods (Jefferson Co.), and the tamarack 
stand at Tamarack Bog near Mongo in Steuben Co. All but three of 
these are privately owned. 

Two famous bogs, Pinhook Bog in LaPorte County and Cowles Bog 
(owned by the town Dune Acres) , have been dedicated as National Sci- 
entific Landmarks by the National Park Service and marked by appro- 
priate plaques. Cabin Creek Raised Bog, the exceptional nature of which 
has been made known by Butler University botanists, fully merits the 
same status and the proposal is now under study by the N.P.S. 

Role of Public Institutions and Private Organizations 

The Nature Conservancy owns the Blue Bluffs, Cedar Bluffs and 
Portland Arch tracts. This organization in 1961 purchased Pine Hills 



82 Indiana Academy of Science 

and donated this outstanding preserve to the State as Pine Hills Natural 
Area of Shades State Park, the first state property to be designated a 
natural area or nature preserve. 

ACRES, Inc., was founded in Allen County in 1958 and has acquired 
and preserved Beechwood Nature Preserve, Bender Memorial Forest, 
Hanging Rock (on the Wabash River near Largo), Spurgeon Preserve, 
Witmer Preserve, and Woodland Bog Preserve. It has stimulated the 
Army Engineers to preserve Wygant Woods on the Salamonie Reservoir. 

Colleges and universities own and preserve many natural areas. Earl- 
ham owns John Cring Memorial Forest and Sedgwick's Rock Preserve. 
Huntington College has Thornhill Nature Preserve, with two ponds. 
Indiana University owns Bradford Woods Natural Area, Grassland 
Research Tract, and Lilly Woods, and operates its own Crooked Lake 
Biological Station. The University bought Cedar Bluffs and donated it 
to the Nature Conservancy. Marion College has Botany Glen near Gas 
City. Purdue University has the Davis Compartment 1 Nature Preserve 
near Farmland, and the Ross Biological Reserve near Lafayette which 
has been studied intensively since 1948. Wabash College has carried on 
a massive ecological program under AEC auspices in its Allee Memorial 
Forest near Annapolis since the college acquired the tract in 1957. 

Northwestern University in 1963 was associated with the leveling 
of the best portion of the Indiana Dunes by its purchase of much sand 
for lake-fill to extend its Evanston, Illinois, campus lakeward. 

Indiscriminate clearing of fine forest stands for new campus de- 
velopment at the Michigan City branch of Purdue and the Evansville 
branch of Indiana State universities represent missed opportunities to 
have gracious campuses shaded by mature oak trees. 

Two remarkable preserves and conservation-education centers of 
more than 600 acres each, and possessing both terrestrial and aquatic 
interest, are not sponsored by colleges or public agencies. Mary Gray 
Bird Sanctuary in Fayette County is operated by the Indiana Audubon 
Society. Merry Lea Nature and Religious Center was recently estab- 
lished by Mr. and Mrs. Lee A. Rieth of Sturgis, Michigan. This prop- 
erty stretches between High Lake and Bear Lake in Noble County. Part 
of the plan is to provide lakeside laboratory facilities which can be 
leased for use by Indiana colleges and universities. 

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources is to be com- 
mended for its purchase of Wyandotte Cave: it is hoped that this 
splendid tourist attraction will be added to the state park system so 
that the visiting public will be enabled to benefit from an appropriate 
geological interpretive program. The state plans to dedicate a consid- 
erable reach of the Blue River in Harrison County as a scenic "free- 
flowing stream." This is a fine choice for such a project. Even better 
would be the Sugar Creek Valley from Rt. 32 to the Wabash River. 
This stretch contains Pine Hills Natural Area, Shades State Park, 
Turkey Run State Park, Allee Memorial Forest, a Girl Scout Camp, and 
forested private lands. As a "wild stream," this reach of Sugar Creek 
has a profusion and continuity of remarkable areas from the geological, 
terrestrial and aquatic biological, scenic and recreational standpoints 



Presidential Address 83 

that make it unrivalled in Indiana. Future impoundment on Sugar 
Creek, if any, should be restricted to the reaches upstream from 
Crawfordsville. 



Science: Boon or Bane? 

Ralph E. Cleland, Distinguished Service Prof. Emeritus 
Botany Department, Indiana University 

As I contemplate the space ship that we call earth, and what is 
taking- place on it, I am reminded of a hot and breathless day many 
years ago. From our house perched on a hilltop we could see 30 to 40 
miles in all directions. Early in the morning local thunderstorms began 
to build up in a half dozen localities around the horizon. As the day 
wore on, they slowly grew in size without seeming to move much from 
their centers of origin and finally began to run together. By noon we 
were ringed by ominous storms which crept inward from all sides. 
When they got near enough for the thunder to become apparent, the 
sound was stifled, as though it had been covered with a blanket — such 
was the effect of the solid ring of storm clouds. Finally about 3 p.m. the 
storm closed in and for three solid hours it rained as I had never seen 
it rain before. When the storm finally played out at 6 in the evening, 
we found that 5 trees had been struck by lightning within 200 feet of 
our house. 

I sometimes think that we are in a comparable situation in the 
world in which we reside. All around us, there is the rumbling of 
storms. Some are growing in size and intensity. Some are much 
too close for comfort. One wonders whether they may not soon merge 
into one cataclysmic world conflict that will leave civilization devastated 
and all but destroyed. 

My thesis today is that science and science-based technology are 
to a large extent responsible for the magnitude and intensity of the 
storms brewing all about us and that it is therefore a major re- 
sponsibility of scientists and engineers to work toward their dissipation 
before they overwhelm us. Science has been an incredible boon to 
mankind in alleviating suffering and disease and in developing con- 
venience and comfort, but it has also had a baneful effect which it 
is our responsibility as scientists to counteract. 

In saying that science and technology are largely responsible for 
the magnitude of the world's problems today I do not believe that I am 
exaggerating. The world has always had its problems and its conflicts, 
but in the prescientific age these were usually local in extent, never 
world-wide. But with the shrinking of the globe and the expanding of 
the human population, both of them resulting from the activity of 
scientists, it becomes constantly more difficult to contain foci of trouble. 
Conflicts beginning in one region have a way of spreading into other 
areas and involving peoples in all sectors — as witness our involvement 
in Vietnam. 

The world we live in is a completely different world from the 
one our founding fathers knew. Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin 
Franklin would have recognized themselves as being in the same world 
if they had been transported back a thousand years. The world of 800 
AD and 1800 AD differed only in relatively minor details. But if these 

84 



Address 85 

two gentlemen could have been transported ahead — not 1000 but a 
mere 170 years or so, they would have thought themselves on a dif- 
ferent planet. Scarcely an activity, even the most trivial, would be 
performed in the same way and with the same equipment that they 
were used to. Scarcely an aspect of civilization would be recognizable — 
communication, transportation, housing, manufacture — all would be 
utterly new and miraculous — and all of it due to science and science- 
based technology. 

But it is not just the world of gadgets that has been transformed 
by science. Science has also had a profound effect on the minds and 
aspirations of man. In pre-scientific days, the undeveloped parts of the 
world were largely isolated, knowing little about other areas than 
their own. The life people led they took more or less for granted — its 
hardships and privations were accepted without serious question. The 
masses were even reconciled to the presence in their midst of great 
wealth in the hands of the few who owned all the land and who deter- 
mined the lot of the many. These days are gone. Science has opened 
up the world to everyone. Through radio, television and other forms 
of mass communication there is scarcely a part of the world where 
the inhabitants have not learned how the rest of the world lives, of its 
comforts, its freedoms, its widespread distribution of the ownership 
of land, its literacy. People everywhere now have an image of the 
affluent society, and for the first time an overwhelming tide of dis- 
content is sweeping across the world, stimulated and encouraged, 
of course, by sinister political groups who hope to exploit the miseries 
of the world for their own benefit. People everywhere are demanding 
land of their own, freedom to live their own lives, education to open 
doors of opportunity, the conveniences and even the luxuries of civilized 
life. Science and the technological fruits of science have opened up 
the world, have brought all areas into close contact and made us all 
close neighbors. 

At the same time, through its other activities, science has created 
other problems that are almost overwhelming in their extent. One of 
these has come about through the development of weapons that have 
enormously increased the ability of already powerful nations to 
dominate and destroy, and are making hitherto powerless nations a 
threat to world peace. The increase in population which far exceeds 
the increase in food supply produces all the tensions that normally lead 
to war, and at the same time the potential destructiveness of modern 
warfare has increased at an exponential rate. The extent to which the 
fruits of science are being used for destructive purposes staggers the 
imagination. Take the matter of the arms race as an example. The 
military budgets of the world at present total over 180 billion dollars 
a year. If a man had begun to count at the rate of one a second in the 
year 4000 B.C., more than 2000 years before Abraham, and could still 
be counting, he would just be reaching 180 billion at the present day. 
And this is the military cost to the world for only a single year. Of 
this sum, 85% is incurred by 7 nations. This means a crippling loss 
to the economies of the vast majority of the nations of the world. 
It represents 8 to 9% of all the world's production of goods and 



86 Indiana Academy of Science 

services (1). The effect is bad enough in the countries responsible 
for most of this expenditure; it is utterly disastrous to the under- 
developed countries which are trying to catch up with the rest of the 
world but are falling constantly behind because they think that they 
have to build up their military strength. As a result, the gap between 
the developed and the developing countries is constantly widening. In 
the developed countries the annual income increased during the years 
1960-62 about $100 per capita, whereas in the developing countries it 
rose only about $5 (8). 

In addition to the effect on the economy of nations, the military 
build up has had other serious side effects, such as the rise of suspicion, 
fear, and hatred among the nations and a consequent heightening of 
tensions. Another side effect has been the pollution of the atmosphere 
and the soil by radioactive wastes. During the years leading up to the 
recent test ban treaty, there was a noticeable increase in the amount 
of radioactive contamination in the atmosphere. The 1961-2 atomic 
explosions caused the level of strontium-90 and caesium-137 to more 
than double. The carbon-14 level in 1964 was 85% over the natural 
level (5). As long as the test ban treaty continues to be observed 
there is hope for a gradual reduction in their level. The chief danger 
at present lies in the fact that neither France nor China has been 
willing to adhere to the treaty. 

But it is not merely the misuse of the results of scientific research 
that has led to the major problems facing the world today, the 
legitimate and proper use of scientific discoveries has also posed 
severe and all-but-insoluble problems. This is true, for example, 
of those sciences that are basic to our communication and transporta- 
tion systems, for these are the sciences ultimately responsible for 
shrinking the world down to the point where we all know what the 
other parts of the world are doing, resulting in the rising tide of 
expectation on the part of the masses. Nothing happens these days 
without having widespread and often world-wide repercussions. The 
prejudices of an Asian potentate, the mad antagonisms of a Caribbean 
dictator, the dreams of grandeur of a mid-eastern tyrant obsessed by 
hatred, all have global importance. This was only made possible 
because of our modern ability to communicate instantly and to travel 
swiftly around the space-ship called earth. 

All of this has come about, not by the misuse of the products of 
science but as a result of the proper and altogether desirable utilization 
of scientific information. If all human beings were men of good will, 
these results would be wholly beneficial, adding enormously to the 
pleasure, the comfort and the interest of life on our planet. Un- 
fortunately, however, man is still the most savage of all animals. In a 
world dominated by such a species the glorious feats of the sciences 
basic to the arts of communication and transportation are bound to 
have some unfortunate consequences and to be partially responsible for 
many of humanity's problems. 

But perhaps the sciences that have contributed as much as any 
to the creation of man's problems are those that are most devoted 
to the alleviation of man's ills — the health and sanitation sciences — 



Address 87 

the most humanitarian of all in their ideals and aims. I would like 
to dwell for a moment on the situation which they have brought about, 
as an example par excellence of how science, that has been a great 
boon to man, has also had a most baneful effect. 

It can be argued with justification that the number one problem 
facing the human race today is that of population. Perhaps this is an 
even more serious problem than the threat of nuclear war, since 
there is a real likelihood that the latter will never eventuate, but 
there is no way whatever of avoiding the population problem. Even if 
we take all possible steps to curtail birth rates, the human population 
on an already overcrowded planet will still continue to grow. 

The main reason for this sudden population explosion is not 
primarily an increase in birth rates but rather a dramatic decrease 
in death rates. Birth rates have continued at a more or less uniform 
level in recent years, while death rates have decreased in all parts of 
the world. Even in India, with its famine and overcrowding, the 
death rates fell by 30% in the period 1946-1960. This is the smallest 
decrease of any country of the world. In many countries the death 
rate decreased 50% or more in this short period of 15 years, and in a 
few countries it decreased by over 60% (4). This is the result largely 
of the introduction of public health measures. To some extent the 
decline is also a result of improved food production, but in comparison 
with the effect of public health measures this is of minor significance. 

Nor have public health services reached the level of diminishing 
returns. Most of the decreased death rate is the result of reduced infant 
and child mortality, but we have a long way to go before the less 
developed areas of the world begin to approach the mortality figures of 
the most advanced nations. For example, infant mortality (i.e., deaths 
during the first year per 1000 live births) is less than 16 in the 
Scandinavian countries; in the U.K. the figure is 20 and in the USA 
23.4: but in Burma and Laos it is 221, in Cambodia and Thailand 179, 
in Mexico 125, in central Africa 230, in British Borneo 253 and so 
on (2,3). A quarter of all the babies born in North Borneo die in their 
first year. In South Africa, infant mortality among the Bantus ap- 
proaches 400 (i.e., 40%) as contrasted with 27 (2.7%) for the white 
population (7). As medical and public health services improve in 
these regions, and who is there who would not encourage such im- 
provement, the population is bound to increase at an even more 
phenomenal rate than is now the case, and these are the countries that 
oftentimes already have the highest birth rates and the highest annual 
rate of population increase. At present rates of increase, the popula- 
tion of Cambodia and India will double in about 30 years, of Mexico 
in 22 years, of North Borneo in 19 years. Contrast this with the United 
States and the USSR where doubling will occur in about 50 years at 
current rates, or most of the Scandinavian countries where it will 
take about 100 years for the population to double (10). 

The population problem is a relatively new one and one that is 
a direct result of scientific activity of the most laudable type. A 
solution must be found if the world is not to sink into utter chaos 
and this solution must involve the scientist as well the social scientist. 



88 Indiana Academy of Science 

Some alleviation can be achieved by increased agricultural productivity, 
and every possible emphasis should be placed on endeavors to bring- 
under cultivation every bit of useable land, to develop improved strains 
of crop plants and farm animals, to train natives in modern methods 
of agriculture, and to develop new and palatable protein-rich foods 
from sources not now considered to be edible. But when all has been 
done along this line that can be done, the results are not likely to be 
sufficient to compensate for the growth of human population if present 
rates are permitted to continue. It is perfectly clear that the only 
solution to the problem of over population is limitation of birth rates. 
If birth rate levels could be brought in line with decreasing death 
rate levels, we might approach a stable situation, in which conditions 
would be no worse than they are at present. 

It is sometimes argued that increased industrialization in under- 
developed areas of the world will make possible increased levels 
of population and that industrialization is therefore one solution to 
the problem of over-population. But there is one element in the situa- 
tion that is forgotten by those who argue thus, namely, that all these 
people must be fed and clothed. It is true that industrial societies 
are able to support denser populations than primarily agrarian so- 
cieties, but these have to be backed up by an agrarian segment of the 
population somewhere. The real bottleneck in most of the world is 
agricultural production. There is not enough food being produced now 
to nourish the world population properly. 

In order to tackle the population program with some measure of 
success, a systems approach is essential. Many things are needed and 
they are all needed at once if results are to be achieved. On the 
agricultural front, better seed alone will not solve the problem if the 
soil is deficient or if plant diseases are not controlled. Superior strains 
of farm animals will thrive only if they are provided with an environ- 
ment where they will develop and reproduce satisfactorily. And nothing 
that is done to improve agricultural plants and animals will be of any 
use until native farmers are taught, and accept, improved methods 
of agriculture, and native populations learn to accept new and more 
nutritious food products. Increase in agricultural productivity calls for 
a massive and simultaneous attack on all fronts and results are bound 
to come slowly. Even at best, however, there is no possibility that 
improvements in this direction will keep pace with growing populations. 
Even if food production can be made to keep pace with the growth 
of population, the absolute number of hungry will increase, even 
though the proportion of hungry remains constant. But agricultural 
production is not keeping pace with the growth of population. It has 
been estimated by the head of FAO (Dr. Sen) that an annual increase 
of 4% in agricultural production will be necessary to maintain the 
present balance between food and people, assuming a continuance of 
the present annual increase in population. At present, however, the 
annual increase in agricultural production, instead of being 4%, is 
less than 2.5% (6). (A recent article in the N. Y. Times quotes the 
same source as stating that agricultural production must now increase 



Address 89 

by 7% instead of 4%, in order to maintain the present balance between 
food and people.) 

One is forced to the conclusion, therefore, that increase in food 
production is not going to be enough, that reduction in the birth rate 
is the only practical means of stemming the tide of burgeoning popula- 
tions. The systems approach to the population problem must include 
not only a simultaneous approach to all aspects of the agricultural 
problem — it must also include a monumental attack on the problem 
if high birth rates. Scientists must approach the problem from both 
sides simultaneously — slowing down the rate of population increase and 
speeding up of the rate of production of food. 

Before leaving this example of a problem caused by scientific 
activity, I should emphasize that what I have been talking about is 
how to make possible a balance between food and people sufficient to 
enable all men everywhere to keep soul and body together. But of course 
this is not going to satisfy the peoples of the underdeveloped countries. 
They want something more than mere existence — they want some of the 
luxuries that they see in American movies and on TV shows, and hear 
about on the radio. To give them what they really want is unfortunately 
utterly impossible, even with the population level as it is, to say nothing 
of increasing levels. To quote Prof. Philip M. Houser of the University 
of Chicago: "If you assume that all of the world's resources, present 
total product, all goods and services produced, were available, and 
then ask how many people could the world support at the European 
level of living, the answer is: about 1,500 million and we already 
have a population of 3,200 million." He then asks how many people 
the world could support "at the North American level of living; the 
answer is: only 500 million, and we have 3,200 million." (9). It is a 
sobering thought that the human population is already too large for 
everyone in the world to be able to live at the European or American 
level of affluence or anywhere near it. The earth cannot produce enough 
food and other necessary commodities, no matter what we do, to permit 
over 3 billion people to live as we in the United States live. The best 
that can be hoped for is to eliminate starvation and malnutrition from 
the more than half of the world's population that now suffers from these 
misfortunes, and the situation will certainly become worse before we 
can achieve even this limited goal. 

I have chosen increasing population as one example of the type of 
problem that has come into being as a result of scientific discovery 
and activity. It is only one, though the most important one, of the 
many problems that face civilization today as the result of scientific 
activity. I could dwell on other problems such as the side effects of 
increased industrialization with its attendant increase in the production 
of wastes, resulting in air and stream pollution, with its accelerated 
demand upon natural resources, threatening the future of our forests, 
our lake and ocean fronts and the destruction of areas of natural 
beauty. Or I could discuss automation which has helped accentuate 
many of our problems. Negroes, for example, forced off the farms in 
the south by the development of automation, have migrated in increasing 
numbers to the cities of the north, only to find that the only jobs which 



90 Indiana Academy of Science 

they are capable of holding are disappearing, again because of automa- 
tion. These are social and economic problems, but they have developed 
largely because of science and science-based technology, and they are 
not going to be solved without the assistance of the scientist and the 
technician. 

When one considers the role that science has played in creating 
these global problems, and the fact that they cannot be solved without 
the aid of science does it not seem that we scientists, individually and 
collectively, have a responsibility to do everything we can to assist 
in preventing the holocaust that will engulf mankind without their as- 
sistance? What then should we be doing? 

At the very lowest level, we should be more seriously and actively 
concerned about these problems and should as individuals seize every 
opportunity that comes our way to make our contribution. This means 
that we should emphasize wherever possible in our teaching the nature 
and magnitude of the problems facing the world and the role that 
science must play in meeting these problems. It means that we should 
seriously consider the matter of relevancy in our research. Basic 
research is essential, and one cannot always see just how one's findings 
will benefit mankind, but even the basic scientist can often choose 
problems that give promise of adding to our store of useful knowledge. 
Too often, scientists tend to retreat into their ivory towers, and ask 
for only two things — financial support and freedom from disturbance. 
In view of the increasing severity of the difficulties that beset mankind, 
it is quite certain that relevancy is going to play a much larger role 
in the future as a criterion upon which support will be granted indi- 
vidual scientists. More and more, scientists should be studying the 
world's major problems, and attempting to relate their research, whether 
basic or applied, to the solution of these problems. 

The individual scientist, in addition, should be willing to devote 
a portion of his time to the initiation of, and participation in, programs 
designed to attack specific social problems. Many scientists gladly do 
this now. For example, the National Academy of Sciences — National 
Research Council, which carries on its work almost exclusively through 
unpaid committees, is currently using the talents of over 5,000 different 
scientists. Many more are serving as panelists and advisors to the 
various government agencies and private foundations. Much of this 
activity is for the benefit of science itself, but to a large extent it also 
involves the application of scientific knowledge and competence to prob- 
lems related to the public welfare. These are important forms of 
service and everyone who is asked to participate in such activities should 
respond with enthusiasm to the extent that his regular duties permit. 

It is also important that we do all we can to inform the general 
public about the nature of science and the activities of scientists. There 
is a vast realm of ignorance even in our relatively enlightened populace, 
who tend to think of scientists as miracle workers and who evaluate 
science only in terms of dollars and cents. We occasionally encounter 
newspaper men and congressmen who do not understand what science 
is all about, and poke fun at research programs that they do not under- 
stand. We even see an occasional public official who cannot understand 



Address 91 

why a state university should engage in research, not realizing that 
it is scientific research that has transformed the world of Franklin 
and Jefferson, and it is research that will discover the principles 
and develop the mechanisms by which the ills of society will be cured 
in the future if cures are to be found. There is much that individual 
scientists can do to make the general public more aware of the serious 
problems that face humanity, as well as inform them about science, 
its aims and ideals, its objectives, its methods and limitations, what it 
contributes to Society, and the fact that the most esoteric research often 
leads to the most epoch-making advances. Scientists should be ready 
and willing to respond when called upon as speakers or in other ways 
by civic groups and organizations of all kinds. 

But although as individuals can contribute greatly to the education 
of our citizenry and the solution of Society's ills, it is through organ- 
izations that most of the solutions of the world's problems will continue 
to be made. As members of such organizations, or when called upon 
by them, individuals can make their most important contributions. And 
many of these organizations are greatly in need of the services of 
competent scientists. For a good many years I was a member of the 
Unesco Committee of the National Research Council and for six years 
served on the board of the International Union of Biological Sciences. 
On many occasions we attempted to find American scientists who would 
be willing to devote a portion of their time, or in some cases to take 
leaves of absence for a year to two, to carry out projects of an 
international character. It was much easier to find European or Asian 
scientists than Americans for these assignments. 

But coming back from the global to the local scene, it may not be 
inappropriate to ask what the role of the Indiana Academy of Science 
should be in assisting the citizens of this state with their problems 
and in informing them about science and scientific progress. For 
many years the Academy has carried on an active program involving 
the holding of semiannual meetings and these have been of great 
value in knitting the scientists of the State into a cohesive body and in 
stimulating their research interests. The Academy has published the 
findings of its members and it has supported to a limited degree their 
investigations. These activities have been primarily for the benefit 
of the scientists themselves. In addition, however, the Academy has 
carried on a very active and valuable program on behalf of the youth 
of the State, through the Junior Academy and through its support of 
science fairs. But what has the Academy done on behalf of the adult 
laity of the State? In common with many other State academies, it 
must be confessed that it has done very little to inform the general 
public about what is going on in the realm of science, and it has taken 
little part in assisting the State or its citizens in the solutions of 
problems that require scientific competence and judgment. Perhaps the 
time has come for the Academy seriously to consider this matter. 

Why should a State Academy not bear the same relation to the 
State government that the National Academy of Sciences does to the 
Federal Government? The National Academy is a private organization 
but with a congressional charter, and an obligation to advise and assist 



92 Indiana Academy of Science 

the Federal Government in matters involving science. It responds to 
requests from Congress or the Executive Branch, and is also at liberty 
to offer suggestions and advice on its own initiative. More and more 
the bills before Congress and the decisions that must be made by the 
President and his Cabinet involve science. It is rare to find a major 
piece of legislation that does not require expert scientific advice and 
opinion. So complex has become the involvement of the Federal Govern- 
ment in science that the President's Office has now established the 
President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC) with its associated 
Office of Science and Technology and the Federal Council on Science 
and Technology; and most of the major government agencies, even 
including the State Department, have scientific offices or divisions, often 
of huge proportion. Congress itself has created its Science Policy Re- 
search Division in the Library of Congress. Thus, it is realized in 
Washington that science is involved in a major way in most govern- 
mental decisions and determined efforts are being made to secure the 
necessary scientific advice, in part from governmental sources, but on 
matters of major importance, also from the non-governmental National 
Academy. 

The same situation undoubtedly applies at the State level. Both in 
the legislative and executive branches of the State government decisions 
must often be made that involve matters of a scientific nature. The 
Constitution of the Academy states that "Inasmuch as the State makes 
an annual appropriation to assist in publication, the Academy shall, 
upon request of appropriate officials, act through its Executive Com- 
mittee as an advisory body in the direction and execution of any investi- 
gation within its province — ." Perhaps the time has come for the 
Academy to take this responsibility more seriously, to study this matter 
and develop recommendations regarding the best way for the State 
Government to capitalize on the scientific competence that exists in such 
abundance in the State, and that is so little utilized at present. 

It is fortunate, therefore, that President Lindsey of the Academy 
has seen fit to set up a committee under the Chairmanship of Prof. 
Willis Johnson of Wabash College whose function it will be to study 
in depth the whole problem of the Academy's responsibility to the 
citizens and government of the State and to recommend steps that might 
be taken by the Academy to make it of increasing usefulness to the 
people of our community. This is a step that requires the whole- 
hearted support and cooperation of the membership of the Academy. I 
hope that all of us will assist the committee by submitting ideas and 
proposals for programs, and by agreeing to serve in the development 
of such programs when called upon to do so. It is quite possible that 
stepped-up activity on the part of the Academy in this direction may 
contribute greatly to the strengthening of the economy of the State. 

In conclusion, let me add that, in discussing current problems that 
have resulted from scientific activity, and which it is a responsibility of 
scientists to help solve, I have chosen to emphasize one or two that 
are of direct concern to mankind as a whole. There is a whole 
category of problems in addition, however, that have to do with the 
relation of science to society, and to government, about which I will 



Address 93 

not have time to speak. How should science be supported? To what 
extent should tax money be used for research? Should the government 
support basic as well as applied research? Who should decide the areas 
that should be supported? Can the government support research with- 
out interfering with the freedom of the investigator? To what extent 
should geography enter into the question as to how to distribute 
support? How can the research and teaching functions in our colleges 
and universities be coordinated? These are but samples of the many 
problems that face government, educators and the public in general 
with regard to science — and their relation to it. As the Indiana 
Academy of Science considers its future role in the State, it will no 
doubt be concerned with these problems, as well as with the larger 
ones I have discussed, and can no doubt make a major contribution 
toward their solution also, especially as they relate to the State of 
Indiana. 

Literature Cited 

1. Calder, Ritchie. 1964. Peaceful uses for military energy. Unesco Courier. 
November 29-32. 

2. Cook, Robert C. 1960. Population growth and economic development in 
the ECAFE region. Population Bulletin. 16:25-41. 

3. . 1960. World population 1960. Population Bulletin. 16:153-168. 

4. Jones, J. M. 1962. Does overpopulation mean poverty? Center for Inter- 

national Economic Growth, Washington. 64p. 

5. Kuzin, Alexander M. 1964. Fall-out hazards— now and yesterday. Unesco 
Courier. November 11-13. 

6. Sen, B. R. 1966. To be or not to be. Unesco Courier. February 10-15. 

7. Summary of Report by a U.N. Special Committee. 1965. Apartheid in 
South Africa. Unesco Courier. April 20-28. 

8. Thant, U. 1965. Turning point. Unesco Courier. October 4-9, 30-34. 

9. V alters, Eric N. 1966. Our shrinking planet. Unesco Courier. February 4-9. 

10. World Population Data Sheet 1964. Population Reference Bureau, Wash- 
ington. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman: Georg K. Neumann, Indiana University 
B. K. Schwartz, Ball State University, was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

Stature of some Prehistoric American Indian Populations of Eastern 
United States — Geographic Clines and Phyletic Lines. Georg K. Neu- 
mann, Indiana University. — Clinal studies usually concern themselves 
with the elucidation of the relationship of some structural or functional 
characteristic to particular ecological conditions across geographical 
areas on a synchronous level, whereas phyletic studies usually deal 
with the tracing cf biological populations identified by clusters of struc- 
tural or functional characteristics that distinguish evolutionary lines 
over a span of time. In this paper the results of studies employing 
these two approaches are contrasted as they apply to the distribution 
of stature of prehistoric American Indian populations of eastern United 
States over a time span of approximately eight thousand years. 

Diagnostic Morphological Characteristics in the Diagnosis of Ancestral 
Components in Negro-white Hybrids in the United States. Georg K. 

Neumann and Sudha S. Saksena, Indiana University. — A morpho- 
logical and a morphometric assessment was made on three biological 
populations representing two major geographical races (the Full Negro 
and British White) to verify the reliability of the two methods of as- 
sessment in racial discrimination. A multivariate analysis was employed 
to select metric characteristics which discriminate most the two groups. 
The visual, i. e., observational method was used to assess the morpho- 
logical categories. The two methods produced highly concordant results 
in the two-group comparison, the addative nature enhancing the total 
discrimination. 

Preliminary Report on some Burials from the Iliniwek Indian Cemetery 
at Fort Chartres. John Frederick Tincher, Indiana University. — Al- 
though excavations have been carried out at the site of Fort Chartres, 
west of the town of Prairie du Rocher in Randolph County, Illinois, 
little is known about the different bands of Iliniwek Indians who had 
two villages in the vicinity of the French fort between 1697 and 1765. 
Recent flooding of the Mississippi exposed a series of shallow burials 
accompanied by Woodland pottery and French trade goods which are 
described in this paper. 

A Preliminary Report on a Probable Occupation Site. Ben Morris, 
Ball State University. — In a pre-glacial river bottom near a known 
Fort Ancient cemetery located in Henry Township, Henry County, 
Indiana, a survey indicated a single component occupation site, probably 
Fort Ancient in time. 

An assemblage of artifacts included drills, celts, scrapers, manos 

95 



96 Indiana Academy of Science 

and extremely thin, well chipped, triangular points of tan or gray chert 
with an average length of about one and one-quarter inches. 

All of the artifacts were recovered in a well defined area, which, in 
addition, supported the geographic criteria necessary to sustain a 
population. 

Mound Four, West, New Castle Site. Schuyler Townsend and Ben 
Morris, Ball State University. — The third season of excavation of 
Mound Four (Site Hn-1, New Castle, Indiana) lasted from June 12 to 
July 14, 1967. Our objective was to excavate the northwest quadrant of 
Mound Four until proven sterile. Our findings consisted of a point, 
5V 2 inches long, assumed to be possibly an unhafted knife, and an ash 
lens containing pottery sherds. The most significant accomplishment 
was completing the sherd sample from the cremation pit area previously 
uncovered. 

A Preliminary Report of the Pottery from New Castle Site Hn 1. 

Randall L. Buchman, Ball State University.— An inventory of the 
pottery found at Mound 4 (a unit of the New Castle site), Henry 
County, Indiana. The sherds are compared to other types in the Wood- 
land Ware and Series. A new type is described in the work and a 
discussion of some of the problems of Woodland pottery, including a 
new system of classifying Adena pottery, is presented. 

NOTES 

Basic Data Report or Artifact Slips: An Examination of an Archaeo- 
logical Procedure. B. K. Swartz, Jr., Ball State University. — After the 
materials of an excavation are catalogued, the next standard procedure 
practiced by most American archaeologists is the preparation of artifact 
slips or cards. On these the following information is usually included: 
(1) catalogue number (to tie slip to catalogue record), (2) site, (3) 
provenience, (4) measurements, (5) associations, (6) description of the 
specimen, and (7) a sketch of the object. Advocates of artifact slips 
say that when all the material is recorded in this manner you can write 
a site report with an analysis and description of the artifacts from 
these slips. The collection is no longer necessary, but they will admit 
that "checking back" is advisable. After the report is composed little 
is mentioned of the disposition of the slips. 

I feel that there is an inherent flaw in this procedure. Who can check 
your typology? This is not only a question of competence on the part 
of the archaeologist, but in the course of continuing research additional 
data requiring modification and revision of most any typology will 
eventually appear. The artifact slip advocate can say — "Check the 
collection." Practical experience demonstrates that this is seldom pos- 
sible. The basic reason is that the collection is probably no longer 
intact. Even if it is, however, often a researcher has neither time nor 
money to travel long distances to consult with the materials. What has 
happened is that we have a proliferation of typologies, all of which 
must be considered realistic on the basis of faith or the reputation of 
the investigator. They cannot be checked. 



Anthropology 97 

I propose that another alternative be followed. It is a standard opera- 
tion of the experimental and natural sciences — the Basic Data Report. 
Here you would type artifacts — not slips of paper. The information 
contained on artifact slips would be listed on large sheets of paper, 
preferably 8%xll inches, first by type and then by catalogue number, 
with the additional information following. Drawings of the objects 
would be on separate, but adjacent, sheets, labeled by catalogue number, 
which would key them to the typological listing. 

The advantage of the Basic Data Report is that all your raw data 
can be made easily available to other researchers. It would be a simple 
matter, with present-day copying machines, to mail copies of a basic 
data report to anyone desiring it. Important data could be published 
on microcards by the Archives of Archaeology, Department of Anthro- 
pology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Other papers read 

The Commissary Component: A Fort Ancient Site. John M. Hartman, 

Ball State University. 

Interim Report of White Site. Mary Fran Lenhart, Ball State Uni- 
versity. 



Regression Formulae for the Reconstruction of the Stature of 
Hopewellian and Middle Mississippi Amerindian Populations 

Georg K. Neumann and Cheryl Gruber Waldman, Indiana University 

Abstract 

Formulae in the form of regression equations for the reconstruction of 
stature from the lengths of long bones are available for Central Europeans, 
American Negroes, Chinese, Indians of southern Mexico, and a few other popula- 
tions. Since there is considerable variability in bodily proportions in different 
varieties of Man an interracal formula is unsatisfactory when applied to specific 
groups, especially those that tend to represent the extremes of the range. In 
order to provide a reliable formula for the reconstruction of stature of pre- 
historic Indians of the Middle West, regression formulae for both sexes have 
been worked out for a Middle Mississippi population dated ca. 1200-1450. The 
applicability of this formula to members of a Hopewellian population, which 
occupied the Illinois Valley about 2000 years ago, is also discussed. 

The statistical method most appropriate to the reconstruction of 
stature from long bone measurements is one developed by Karl Pearson 
in 1898-1899. Pearson, a professor of mathematics, showed that "if we 
know an organ A, then the most probable value of an organ B is that 
given by the regression formula for the two organs." Such a regression 
equation is a linear function presupposing a normal or at least "linear" 
correlation. All reconstruction formulae not based on the theory of 
correlation are insufficient. 

Pearson's method was utilized by Stevenson (7), Mendes-Correa (5), 
Munter (6), Breitinger (1), Telkka (8), Dupertuis and Hadden (2), 
Trotter and Gleser (9), and Genoves (3). Each of these authors had 
considered the possibility of using other statistical methods for the 
reconstruction of stature, but after deliberation it was found that 
Pearson's method was indeed most applicable. This statistical method, 
therefore, was also employed in the present paper. 

One question of great import was raised in each of these studies, 
that is, to what extent might a formula for estimation of stature apply 
to an individual, a race, or a group of races ? It is the consensus that 
reconstruction of stature should be attempted only through use of a 
formula derived from that specific population to which the formula or 
formulae will be applied. Of all of the studies following Pearson's, 
only Mendes-Correa, working with the Portuguese, felt that Pearson's, 
formulae would apply to the specific population with which he worked, 
although Stevenson especially set out to prove that Pearson's formulae 
were inter-racially applicable. After an analysis of the factors which 
seemingly influence the constants in the formulae, Stevenson came to 
the conclusion that it is practically impossible to pre-determine the 
inter-racial applicability of the formulae. In general, the smaller the 
group, variety, race, etc. to which the formulae will be applied, the 
more necessary a formula derived specifically for that population. 

The present study, therefore, is a derivation of regression formulae 
for reconstruction of stature which may be applied to a series from a 

98 



Anthropology 99 

Middle Mississippi population. Some comment will then be made as to 
the possible applicability of these formulae to a Hopewell series. 

To initially devise a formula for stature reconstruction one must 
have a cadaver length or equivalent measure of stature to determine 
the relationships of long bone length to total stature. Gottfried Kurth 
(4) determined that the grave length in situ may be used as a measure 
of total stature when the skeleton is extended. Where the grave length 
is available, the proportion of trunk to extremity is preserved. Kurth 
does note shiftings in the grave, especially affecting the skull. But the 
vertebral column, lodged as it were between the skull and the pelvis, 
keeps its proper proportions. Kurth shows that the difference in skeletal 
length and cadaver length, accounted for by the missing soft tissues of 
the former, is 2 cm., irregardless of sex. That is, the cadaver length 
is 2 cm. greater than the skeletal length. As the cadaver length is also 
2 cm. greater than the living height, the grave length and the living 
height may be equated. 

The materials employed in the present study were a series of skele- 
tons from Dickson "Mound" in Fulton County, Illinois. The Dickson 
Cemetery, F-34, is located on the edge of a bluff overlooking the valley of 
the Spoon River, which empties into the Illinois River a few miles to 
the Southeast opposite the city of Havana. The skeletal material under 
consideration is representative of a cemetery and village site belonging 
to the Spoon River Focus, Monks Mound Aspect, Middle Phase, Mis- 
sissippi Pattern. Although the site is in the form of a crescent- 
shaped mound, it actually is a cemetery, for the extended burials were 
made in pits. Later additions were added to the surface and covered 
with soil so that the mound grew at least ten feet in height over the 
estimated 250 year period during which it was used for burials by the 
Spoon River Focus group. 

Systematic excavations have been carried on at site F-34 by Dr. Don 
Dickson since 1927, leaving the remains in situ under the roof of a 
permanent building. It has been estimated that the entire cemetery 
originally contained close to 1600 skeletons, of which approximately 
350 are presently under the roof of the exhibit. 

The earliest developments of the Middle Mississippi culture may date 
back to A.D. 500. Good-sized villages were in existence by A.D. 900, 
and by around A.D. 1200 the occupants of site F-34 had become a 
stabilized population. The main use of the cemetery falls into the 
climactic period of the culture, that is, between 1220 and 1450. 

Work on the exposed skeletal material, such as the numbering of 
the individual skeletons, reconstruction of some of the crania, and the 
anthropometric description of the skulls of the adult males, was begun 
by the senior author as early as 1930. Subsequently he devoted about a 
month in the field to determining the sex, age at time of death, and 
measuring the femoral and tibial lengths, as well as stature of the indi- 
vidual in the grave. These data form the nucleus of this study. 

Unfortunately the measurement of the stature of the individual in 
the grave was greatly limited due to the inaccessibility of some of 
the remains. Many of the skeletons are superimposed on one another, 



100 Indiana Academy of Science 

and further excavations would have detracted from the exhibit value 
of the site. In addition to the inaccessibility of some of the skeletons, 
the exclusion of children, adolescents and the aged, along with any 
cases which manifested pathological conditions, decreased the size of 
the sample still more. 

The two length measurements utilized in this study are the great- 
est length of the femur between the highest point on the head and a 
plane tangent to the two condyles, and the greatest length of the tibia 
taken between the superior articular surface of the lateral condyle and 
the medial malleolus. In order to obtain an accurate "grave length" of 
the individual, whenever necessary, a correction was made for the 
forward tilt of the head, and flexion of the legs or bending of the trunk. 
Accurate "grave length" was available only for 19 males and 28 
females. Nevertheless, on the basis of the study of the long bones of 
over 1000 individuals of the Spoon River Focus population, we can be 
fairly confident that this limited number probably constitutes a rep- 
resentative sample of a Middle Mississippi people. 

In order to include the reduction in stature concomitant with age, 
a correction was made in all grave length measurements for all indi- 
viduals over 30 years of age. Trotter and Gleser have stated that on 
the average after the 30th year the stature of the individual decreases 
6 mm. per year. 

The regression equations computed by the junior author are as 
follows: 

Males 

S = 1177.29 mm. + 1.134 F mm. 
= 1117.34 mm. + 1.489 T mm. 
= 1100.56 mm. -f 0.706 (F+T) mm. 

Females 

S = 1091.76 mm. + 1.201 F mm. 

= 876.81 mm. + 2.018 T mm. 

= 828.49 mm. -f 0.992 (F+T) mm. 
Where S = stature, T = tibia, and F = femur 

In comparing the regression lines obtained from the experimental 
data with regression lines appearing in reports published by Pearson, 
Breitinger, Dupertuis and Hadden, and Genoves, the most striking 
phenomenon is the consistently flatter slope for the experimental data. 
It is also evident that mean differences occur in the samples. The 
formulae from the present study differed more from the published 
formulae than the latter differed from each other. 

The present authors feel that this difference was not particularly 
due to the small sample size of the present study. It has been seen 
that the difficulty in obtaining a large sample was the securing of 
accurate grave length measurements. The grave length was taken only 
for those individuals in which it was obvious that the obtained meas- 
ure would be accurate. Therefore, the small sample may be as ac- 
curate as, or even more accurate than, a larger sample which might 



Anthropology 101 

include grave length measurements which were somewhat doubtful. 
As the formulae from the present study are accurate for the sample 
from which they were derived, and assuming that the sample itself was 
typical of Middle Mississippi populations, they should be reliable for 
other Middle Mississippi populations. 

In comparing a series from a probable ancestral Illinois Hopewell 
Indian population which probably was ancestral to the Middle Mis- 
sissippi series, it was found that that there are no statistically significant 
differences in the long bone lengths of the lower extremities of the two 
groups. The values for the 40 Hopewellian females are so close to those 
from the Middle Mississippi values that their long bone lengths can be 
said to be identical. The comparison of 55 Hopewellian males to the 
Middle Mississippi males showed a greater trend toward significance; 
such differences, however, never did reach the level of statistical sig- 
nificance. Unfortunately, grave lengths or comparable measures of 
stature were not available for the Hopewell series. The formulae for 
the determination of stature for the Middle Mississippi populations can 
be applied to the Hopewell series only if there is also no significant 
difference in stature, i.e. if there is no proportional difference in the 
stature /long bone ratios. Without a statural measure as a control, a 
final conclusion must be held in abeyance, although direct common 
ancestry of the two populations would support the assumption that their 
bodily proportions are the same. Therefore, until a statistically adequate 
sample of Hopewellian grave lengths are obtained, the formulae given 
in this paper are the best available. 

Literature Cited 

1. Breitinger, E. 1938. Zur Berechnung der Koerperhoehe aus den langen 
Gliedmassenknochen. Anthropol. Anz. 14:249-274. 

2. Dupertuis, C. W. and J. A. Hadden, Jr. 1951. On the Reconstruction of 
Stature from Long- Bones. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., n.s. 9:15-54. 

3. Genoves, Santiago T. 1966. La proporcionalidad entre los huesos largos 
y su relacion con la estatura en restos mesoamericanos. In: Anales, 
Cuaderno n. 19, 3:15-62. 

4. Kurth, Gottfried. 1950. Ueber die Verwendbarkeit der Grablaenge vor-und 
Fruehgischichtlicher Reihengraeberserien zur Bestimmung einer genauen 
Koeperhoehe. Zeitschrift fur Morphol. und Anthropol. 42:293-306. 

5. Mendes-Correa, A. A. 1932. La Taille des Portugais d'Apres les os longs. 
Anthropologic (Prague) 10:268-272. 

6. Munter, A. Heinrich. 1936. A Study of the Lengths of the Long Bones of 
the Arms and Legs in Man, with Special Reference to Anglo-Saxon Skele- 
tons. Biometrika 38:258-275. 

7. Stevenson, Paul H. 1929. On Racial Differences in Stature Long Bone 
Regression Formulae, with Special Reference to Stature Reconstruction 
Formulae for Chinese. Biometrika 21 :303-321. 

8. Telkka, Antti. 1951. On the Prediction of Human Stature from the Long 
Bones. In: Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 6:206-220, 

9. Trotter, Mildred and Goldine C. Gleser. 1952. Estimation of Stature 
from Long Bones of American Whites and Negroes. Amer. J. Phys. An- 
thropol., n.s. 10:463-514. 



Mortality Profile of the Middle Mississippian Population of 
Dickson Mound, Fulton County, Illinois 

Robert L. Blakely and Phillip L. Walker, Indiana University 

Abstract 

The analysis of skeletal material excavated at Dickson Mound, Fulton 
County, Illinois, beginning in 1927 and continuing through 1967, reveals 
certain correlations between age, sex, and culture in the Middle Mississippian 
population represented. During the investigation of exclusively Middle Mis- 
sissippian burials by the authors in the summer of 1967, a mortality profile 
was constructed which illustrates significant mortality frequencies. From 
this study, inferences concerning- cultural activities, sex, and age rela- 
tionships were indicated. It was found that various mother-child relation- 
ships were reflected in the death rate. The analysis also suggests certain 
male-oriented activities which affect the mortality profile. 

Dickson Mound (F°34) is one of over fourteen hundred pre- 
historic American Indian sites in Fulton County, Illinois. The semilunar- 
shaped mound is located on a bluff overlooking the west floodplain of the 
Illinois River approximately thirty-five miles southwest of the present 
Peoria, Illinois. The artifact assemblage associated with the burials 
indicates that the site was utilized as a burial cemetery by a population 
possessing a predominantly Middle Mississippian culture (1). How- 
ever, recent evidence suggests that a few of the burials represent a 
population with a Late Woodland artifact inventory (2). Radiocarbon 
dates for the Eveland site, a Middle Mississippian occupation site ad- 
jacent to Dickson Mound, range from 950 to 1350 A.D. (communication 
from E. J. Blasingham). 

The majority of the burials are in an excellent state of preservation 
due to the alkalinity of the loess deposits of which the mound is con- 
structed. The Middle Mississippian burials are predominantly supine 
and extended and indicate a moderate degree of prehistoric and historic 
disturbance. A discussion of the artifact inventory accompanying the 
burials is beyond the scope of this paper, however it should be noted 
that the grave goods conform to those of related Middle Mississippian 
burial cemetery sites and differ neither quantitatively or qualitatively 
(3 and 8). 

During the summer of 1967 the authors were employed by the 
Illinois State Museum to analyze the burials excavated at Dickson 
Mound. The burials included those removed during the 1966 and 1967 
summer excavations as well as those left exposed in situ in the en- 
closed museum for display purposes. The authors examined the burials 
to determine the age at the time of death, the sex, and the gross 
skeletal pathology. As the authors processed the skeletal material a 
number of interesting variations in the death rate were noted. The 
number of individuals which died at each age were graphed and the 
curve illustrating the relative frequencies of deaths was termed a 
mortality profile. 

The purposes of this paper are two-fold: first, to indicate the 

102 



Anthropology 103 

fluctuations in the frequencies of deaths, and second, to offer possible 
explanations for these variations. 

All 479 burials utilized in the study were analyzed by the authors. 
The purpose in so doing was not to compound the writers' error, but 
rather to insure that all the criteria employed to determine the ages 
and the sex remained constant throughout the investigation. It should 
be noted that the ages reflect physiologic ages and not necessarily 
chronologic ages which are not, in many instances, equivalent. For 
this reason, the mortality profiles represent a close approximation to 
the death rate as determined chronologically in living populations. Gen- 
erally speaking, age assessment becomes less accurate as the age of the 
subject increases because the maturation rate decreases as an indi- 
vidual ages. Consequently the criteria employed to determine age by 
the physical anthropologist become less specific, and concomitantly 
less accurate, the older the subject. Similarly, age criteria which re- 
flect physiologic degeneration are less constant than those indicative of 
early maturation. For these reasons, the authors have arbitrarily desig- 
nated three age categories: infants, children, and adults. The ages for 
infants were determined in months, while ages for children ranging 
from three years to 11.9 years were measured in half years and the 
age at death among adults was assessed in years. 

It is not the objective of this paper to justify the aging criteria 
employed by the authors. However it should be mentioned that whenever 
possible multiple criteria were applied in conjunction with one another 
to obtain the maximum accuracy possible. Deciduous and permanent 
eruptions of dentition (communication from G. K. Neumann) as well as 
the degree of dental attrition determined specifically for the F°34 
population (communication from A. D. Harn) were often used con- 
comitantly with the linear length of long bones (communication from 
K. B. Hunter) to assess the ages of infants and children. Epiphyseal 
union (5), age changes in the pubic symphysis (6), endocranial suture 
closure (7), and general texture (communication from G. K. Neumann) 
were often utilized together to determine the physiologic ages of 
adolescents and mature adults, here regarded as a single age category. 

F°34 adult males and females were differentiated on the basis of 
two assumptions. First, it was assumed that the sexual dimorphism of 
the population was great enough to allow consistent and accurate 
identification of sex. Secondly, it was observed that the mortality pro- 
file would reflect a sexual division of activity which would remain 
undetected had male and female curves not been graphed independently. 
Because there exists no proven criteria for distinguishing the sexes of 
subadults, and so to avoid spurious conclusions, no attempt was made 
to separate the sexes among children and infants. 

All those burials having Late Woodland affiliations were omitted 
from the study. The twenty-three Late Woodland burials excavated 
at Dickson Mound as of 6 September, 1967, were eliminated because 
the authors felt that to include such individuals in the study might 
invalidate the findings. Because burials with Late Woodland grave 
goods may represent a population subjected to different sociocultural 



104 Indiana Academy of Science 

and physical factors than those of the Middle Mississippian population, 
it was regarded advisable to omit that variable from the current study. 
The criteria employed to define the Late Woodland burials were the 
grave position of the burials (flexed or semiflexed) and the associated 
grave goods (communication from J. R. Caldwell and H. D. Winters). 
A total of 479 burials were analyzed by the authors during the 
summer of 1967. Of these 304 represent adults, here defined as those 
individuals of twelve years of age and older. The remaining 175 sub- 
adults included fifty-five children, or individuals ranging from three to 
11.9 years of age, and 120 infants. Ten infants were determined to 
be fetuses from five to eight fetal months. Thirteen burials represent 
neonates, or those infants which died at childbirth or during the subse- 
quent two-week period. The remaining infants, or ninety-seven burials, 
were between one and thirty-five post-natal months. 

Of the 304 adult burials 166 were determined to be males, with the 
remaining 138 being adult females. Thus 54.6 percent of the adult 
population is male and 45.4 percent is female. The observed deviation 
from a one-to-one ratio which one might expect to find in any popu- 
lation easily falls within the normal range of variability seen in many 
American Indian populations, both prehistorically and historically (4). 
Parenthetically, it is very seldom that a one-to-one sexual ratio is 
realized in any naturally breeding population. 

The composite average age of death for the entire F°34 population 
is 23.39 years. This figure may seem exceedingly low because of the 
inclusion of the 175 subadults in the average. The average age of 
death for the entire male population was derived by adding fifty per- 
cent of the subadult average age of death to that derived for the adult 
males. A similar procedure was followed to estimate the average age 
of death for females. The resulting averages are 25.05 years for males 
and 21.39 years for females. It should be pointed out that in the ab- 
sence of absolute statistics concerning the sex of the infants and 
children that the averages for each sex represent a hypothetical ap- 
proximation. Perhaps more revealing for comparative purposes are the 
average ages of death derived for the adult population only. The average 
age at death for adult males (those twelve years and older) was 
calculated to be 37.23 years as contrasted to the average age at death 
for adult females of 33.27 years. The difference in the average age at 
death for adult males and females is 3.96 years with the males living 
longer. The average age at death for the total adult population is 
35.43 years. 

It might be of interest to note that 33.4 percent (represented by 
160 burials), or over one-third, of the population died prior to age nine 
years illustrating the relatively high frequency of deaths among in- 
fants and young children (Figures 1 and 2). By age fifty years ap- 
proximately ninety-two percent of the population had died. 

The mortality profiles illustrate the fluctuations in the number of 
deaths occurring at different ages. The curves show clusters of deaths 
at certain ages and a virtual lack of deaths at other ages and it is 
possible that these variation reflect, to a greater or lesser extent, 



Anthropology 



105 



< 

5 a 



Q s 



© fcA 



INFANTS 




10 12 14 16 18 20 
AGE IN MONTHS 

Figure 1. 



22 24 26 28 30 



n 



factors external to the individual. It is not the objective of this paper, 
nor is it possible at this time, to determine precisely the causal factors 
for the variations in the number of deaths at different ages. It is pos- 
sible, however, to make some tentative speculations concerning socio- 
cultural or physical factors which may have influenced the increases 
and decreases in the rate of death illustrated by the mortality profiles. 
The highest frequency of deaths among all ages represented in this 
study occurs precisely at birth, represented by thirteen neonates, or 
newborn infants (Figure 1). Subsequent to the time of birth a some- 
what erratic decline in the number of deaths is observed. The curve at 



CHILDREN 




• 7 • 8 • 9 
AGE IN YEARS 

Figure 2. 



10 



11 



12 



106 



a S 

M 

U. QO 

O 

U • 

a 

s ~ 



Indiana Academy of Science 

ADULT FEMALES 




# » 



» »• » 



12 16 20 24 28 32 



36 40 44 48 
AGE IN YEARS 

Figure 3. 



52 56 60 64 68 72 



birth is not particularly atypical when compared to data for contem- 
poraneous American Indian populations (4). It is probable that this 
high mortality frequency reflects a failure on the part of the infant to 
adjust to an immediate post-natal environment coupled with a relative 
lack of technical knowledge concerning childbirth. The decrease in the 
number of deaths from birth to approximately nine months may in- 
dicate the infant's increasing ability to adjust to a post-natal en- 
vironment. 

Following a period during which few deaths occurred (between 



H 

a 



ADULT MALES 




-♦-*«©- 



12 16 20 24 28 32 



36 40 44 48 
AGE IN YEARS 

Figure 4. 



52 56 60 64 68 72 



Anthropology 107 

ages thirteen and nineteen months) is a relatively rapid increase in 
the frequency of mortalities represented by eight individuals at ages 
twenty-two, twenty-four, and thirty months (Figure 1) and nine indi- 
viduals at age three years (Figure 2). Although it is conceivable that 
the specific peak at age twenty-four months may reflect investigative 
techniques, the curve itself may represent deaths resulting from a 
failure on the part of the infant to successfully make the transition 
from a weaning to a post-weaning diet. Findings from the diagnosis 
of F° 34 skeletal pathology were not sufficiently consistent to indicate 
whether conditions of malnutrition are more prevalent among individ- 
uals of this age. A similar hypothesis has been advanced for other 
American Indian populations for which mortality curves have been 
constructed (communication from K. B. Hunter). 

Seven deaths were recorded for age seven years and five deaths at 
both age six and age eight years (Figure 2). It is possible that this 
increase in the frequency of deaths among children may be attributable 
to fatalities resulting from aboriginal childhood diseases. At present 
there is no evidence, pathological or otherwise, to substantiate such a 
hypothesis other than that of the mortality profile. 

It may be noted by comparing the mortality profiles of F°34 adult 
males and adult females that there are certain similarities in the curves 
illustrating the relative frequencies of mortality (Figures 3 and 4). To 
demonstrate a possible sexual division of activity on the basis of mor- 
tality profiles requires that there be observable differences in the 
frequency curves for adult female and male mortality. Therefore, it 
is necessary to determine the degree of difference which is sufficiently 
significant to posit a sexual division of labor. 

There is a substantial increase in the number of adult female 
deaths beginning at eighteen years (Figure 3). The frequency remains 
relatively high for the next twelve years, through age thirty years. 
During this period 43.5 percent of the adult female population died. 
During the equivalent period, only 25.9 percent of the adult male 
population died (Figure 4). However, at age thirty years an equal 
number of male and female deaths are observed. It is impossible from 
the evidence available to state whether the former discrepancies and 
the latter similarity are attributable to factors related to the sexual 
division of activity. It is conceivable that the female curve may rep- 
resent deaths as a result of difficulties encountered during childbirth. 
If this hypothesis is correct, then a different answer must be sought to 
explain the increase in the number of male deaths during the same 
period, and specifically at age thirty years. It is possible that his curve 
may reflect activities partially or exclusively relegated to males. 

Both the male and female mortality profiles illustrate a relatively 
symmetrical curve during the fourth decade. Among females, this curve 
reaches an apex at age forty-eight years, (seven burials) and among 
adult males at age forty-five years (ten burials). Although the evi- 
dence is as yet inconclusive, it seems probable that these parallel curves 
represent fatalities due to diseases commonly referred to as "old age 
factors." It is difficult to substantiate this hypothesis because diseases 



108 Indiana Academy of Science 

or the combinations of diseases which may ultimately result in death 
are rarely evidenced by the skeletal material. In Figure 4 the curve 
beginning at age thirty-five years with an apex at ages thirty-seven 
and thirty-eight years may represent the initial (left hand) shoulder of 
the curve just discussed. 

It is not possible at this time to attempt to formulate any gen- 
eralized conclusions concerning the lives of the Middle Mississippian 
population represented in this study. That has not been the primary 
objective of this paper; it has been, rather, to provide data which, 
pending further archeological and physical anthropological analyses of 
the data from Dickson Mound and other sites, may contribute to a 
greater understanding of prehistoric man in the Illinois Valley and 
elsewhere. 

Literature Cited 

1. Caldwell, J. R. 1959. The Mississippian Period. In: Illinois Archaeology, 
Bui. No. 1. 

2. 1967. New discoveries at Dickson Mound. Living Museum 



29:139-142. 



Deuel, T. 1958. American Indian ways of life. Illinois State Museum, 
Story of Illinois Series, No. 9. 

Neumann, G. K. 1937. Preliminary Notes on the crania from Fulton 
County, Illinois. In: Cole, F. and T. Deuel. Rediscovering Illinois. University 
of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 227-264. 

Stewart, T. D. 1954. Basic readings on the identification of human skele- 
tons: estimation of age. Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological 
Research, New York. 

Todd, T. W. 1920. Age changes in the pubic bone. Amer. J. Phys. 
Anthropol. 3:285-334. 

Todd, T. W. and C. W. Lyon. 192 5. Cranial suture closure. Amer. J. 
Phys. Anthropol. 8:23-71. 

Wrat, D. E. 1952. Archeology of the Illinois Valley: 1950. In: James B. 
Griffin, Ed. Archeology of the Eastern United States. University of 
Chicago Press, Chicago. 



Water and Soil Conservation by Prehistoric Indian Cultures 
in the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico 

Ernst C. Griffin, Indiana State University 

Abstract 

Prehistoric indian cultures, probably Toltecs, constructed crude check- 
dams known as trincheras through-out the Sierra Madre Occidental of 
Mexico some 900 to 1100 years ago. The trincheras served as soil and 
water conservation structures and helped support a much denser popula- 
tion in this semi-arid region then at present. 

Introduction 

Anthropological research substantiates the conclusion that the arid 
and semi-arid regions of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico sup- 
ported larger populations a thousand years ago than today (2). Unique 
water and soil conservation structures may well have been responsible 
for these denser prehistoric indian populations. 

Trinchera distribution and characteristics 

Trincheras, crude stone check-dams, were constructed throughout 
the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico in the present day Mexican 
states of Chihuahua and Sonora, by prehistoric indian cultures, most 
probably Toltecs, between 900 and 1100 years ago (3). Figure 1 shows 
the limits of distribution of trincheras within the Sierra Madre Occi- 
dental. These structures were placed across stream channels and ar- 
royos to obstruct and control the normal flow of water. 

Trincheras were constructed from locally abundant angular frag- 
ments of Tertiary ago volcanic rocks. The fragments, about the size of 
a basketball, were piled in layers one upon another until an average 
height of 3 or 4 feet w T as attained. The rocks were then back-filled with 
material from the upstream side of the trinchera wall. The widths of 
trincheras were determined by the widths of the stream channels or 
arroyos they occupied. Average widths are less than thirty feet. Al- 
though most trincheras are either straight or slightly curved in shape, 
a great variety of other designs can be found. Figure 2 shows a typical 
cross sectional plan of a trinchera in the Sierra Madre Occidental as 
well as several common shapes. 

Basic engineering principles appear to have been employed in the 
placement of trincheras. A "head-to-toe" positioning of checkdams is 
common, i.e., the "head" or top of the lower trinchera is at the same 
elevation as the "toe" or base of the next higher trinchera. In addition to 
"head-to-toe" placement many trincheras were secured against bedrock 
along the side channels of their stream courses or arroyos. The fact 
that trincheras still remain in nearly undisturbed condition throughout 
the Sierra Madre Occidental testifies to their proper placement and 
sound construction. 

109 



110 



Indiana Academy of Science 



W))ll))l)I)!l!llllll))im 




Figure 1. 



Purposes and Functions 

The purposes and functions of trincheras remain somewhat in 
doubt (1). As water conservation structures, trincheras would have 
impeded water flow, thereby raising soil moisture levels by increasing 
the length of time available for infiltration to occur. In addition, 
trinchera ponds could have afforded local moisture sources away from 



Anthropology 



111 



J0rK 






TYPICAL PLAN VIEWS 




Downsfrcom 



%?£&. 



TYPICAL CENTER CROSS SECTION 



Figure 2. 

perennial streams. Since this semi-arid region of the Sierra Madre 
Occidental annually suffers from a prolonged April to mid-July drought, 
trincheras may have been intended to regulate stream flow, thereby 
allowing increased moisture to be available for crops and other uses 
over longer periods of time. 

Agricultural plots were also limited throughout this area. As 
trincheras held back sediments on their upstream sides, small, level 
soil plots were developed behind each trinchera. The soil in these 
trinchera plots today is at the level of the top of the trincheras, in 
many instances 3 or 4 feet deep. Because trincheras were back-filled, 
sedimentation rates would have been accelerated. Beans and squash, 
along with corn the basic food crops of the agriculturally oriented in- 
habitants of the region, could readily have been grown in the rapidly 
accumulated soils developed from the swiftly weathered volcanic rocks 
of the area. 

As a season progressed, water which had permeated the soil be- 
hind the trinchera, would rise by capillary action to the level of the 
crop's root system. This made a crude but rather effective kind of 
irrigation. 



Conclusions 

It can be asumed from present conditions that water and soil were 
major environmental obstacles to settlement in the Sierra Madre 
Occidental of Mexico. Trincheras serving as soil conservation struc- 
tures, water conservation structures, or both, aided the prehistoric 
Indian cultures of the Sierra Madre Occidental in supporting a denser 
settlement of population than occurs at present. Further research into 



112 Indiana Academy of Science 

trincheras and other structures created to alter the physical environ- 
ment in arid and semi-arid regions, perhaps could afford us with a 
better understanding of early population distribution patterns in these 
areas. 

Literature Cited 

1. Harold, L. C. 1965. Trincheras and physical environment along- the Rio 
Gavilan, Chihuahua, Mexico. Technical paper no. 65-1 University of 
Denver. 

2. Leopold, Aldo 1949. Song of the Gavilan. In: A Sand County Almanac. 
Oxford University Press. 

3. Withers, A. 1963. Rock check dams in the northern Sierra Madre, 
Chihuahua, Mexico. A paper presented at the 32 nd Annual Meeting of 
the Society for American Anthropolgy, Boulder, Colorado. 



Racial Continuity In Lower Nubia: 12,000 B.C. to the Present 

Duane R. Burnor, Indiana University 
James E. Harris, University of Michigan 

Abstract 

An evaluation of the literature indicated that the Nubian populations 
in Lower Nubia living- between Maharraga and the Second Cataract have 
been relatively stable for thousands of years. A two-stage project was 
launched to study the cranio-facial growth and variability of the popula- 
tions of selected villages and to test the hypothesis that there has been 
no mass replacement of the population in the area. Cephalograms were 
obtained from 715 skulls from the C-Group, Meroitic, X-Group, Christian, 
and Moslem archaeological Periods and also from 1,000 living Nubians. 
Angular and linear measurements were entered into a series of multi- 
variate statistical programs which were developed to indicate the differen- 
tial growth between the interrelated dependent skeletal components of 
the cranio-facial complex. A preliminary inspection of the results indi- 
cates that there has been no replacement of the populations in the peasant 
villages of this region during the last 4,000 years. Due to an influx of 
foreign soldiers, there has been some population replacement in the 
garrison towns and perhaps also in the ancient administrative centers. 

Introduction 

This paper heralds the publication during 1968 of a monograph 
edited by Dr. James E. Harris and containing chapters by the various 
researchers who have participated in this predominantly cephalometric 
study of the ancient and modern Nubians. Therefore, it assumes the 
form of a combined preliminary and progress report. 

A special word of gratitude is extended to Mr. Nickolas Millet of 
The American Research Center in Egypt, Inc. and to Dr. Robert Adams 
and Dr. Keith C. Seele of the Oriental Institute of the Universtiy of 
Chicago. It was due to their invitation to utilize their previously ex- 
cavated skeletal material in Egyptian Nubia that made this study 
possible. 

This research was supported by the United States Public Health 
Service, National Institutes of Health grant 5x2511, Public Health 
Service Research grant 1 S01 FR-5321-04 from the General Research 
Support Branch, Division of Research Facilities and Resources, and 
assisted by a grant from the Faculty Research Fund of the Horace H. 
Rackham School of Graduate Studies of the University of Michigan. 

The Racial Background 

For over 5,000 years, since King Menes of the First Dynasty shortly 
after 3,400 B.C. sent an army up the Nile to subdue the tribes and 
exploit the natural resources (4), Nubia has been an important fringe 
of the Mediterranean world and has often been cited in ancient and 
modern literature. Although this is the time when the inhabitants of 
Nubia first entered the pages of history, their ancestors had already 
lived in the area for thousands of years. 

113 



114 Indiana Academy of Science 

Various writers have defined the boundaries of Lower Nubia in 
several ways, but, for this paper, Lower Nubia will be considered to be 
that section of the Nile Valley lying between the First and the Second 
Cataracts, both of which have been natural barriers to transportation 
and communication. 

It must be noted, however, that for thousands of years the northern 
politicial border has fluctuated wildly, with the result that the popula- 
tion, between Aswan, at the First Cataract, and Maharraga, to the 
south, has undergone several replacements. In view of this fact, we will 
further limit the area in question to that portion of the Nile Valley 
lying between Maharraga and the Second Cataract, but, in order to 
comprehend the racial situation in this part of the valley, the racial 
history and the archaeological record of the surrounding areas must 
also be examined. 

During the historic period, Africa has been the home of three races. 
Two of these, the Congoid, or Negroes proper, and the Capoid, or 
Bushmen, evolved there, but the third group, the Caucasoid, entered the 
continent as invaders. This element includes the mixed and unmixed 
descendants of several peoples who entered Africa from Western Asia 
and also from Europe at various times between 12,000 B.C. (5) and the 
early years of the last century, and it is represented in groups such as 
the Arabs, Berbers, Turks, the Cushitic tribes living in the Horn of 
Africa, and even some of the inhabitants of the Highlands of East 
Africa, the Sudan, and Nubia. 

In Africa, not even the Sahara represents a sharp cultural divide, 
so the various races living there have not been kept effectively sep- 
arated. It has been stated (10) that, in Africa, peoples and cultures 
do not replace one another. Instead, they simply move aside, so earlier 
and later arrivals may be found living next to each other. 

During the Pleistocene, the ancestors of the living Capoids inhab- 
ited the shores of the Mediterranean and the Sahara, while the Con- 
goids lived south of the desert (5). From the archaeological and linguis- 
tic evidence at hand, it then seems that the Capoids moved to South 
Africa via the East African Highlands due to pressure exerted upon them 
by the invading Caucasoids, and, in doing so, they displaced or absorbed 
various Congoid populations that were more primitive than themselves. 

The indigenous population of Africa today is mostly clinal in 
nature. Through East Africa and the Sudan, Caucasoids shade off into 
Negroids. In the Sahara and also along the northern borders of the 
desert, small groups of partly Capoid people are still to be found. In 
South Africa, the Bantu tribes have absorbed some earlier Capoid 
peoples, and, on the northern fringe of the Kalahari Desert, some 
Congoids speak Bushman languages (5), an indication of earlier 
mixtures. 

From about 4,500 B.C. onward, people possessing various Stone Age 
hunting cultures were gradually pushed southward and into the forests 
of Africa as more advanced groups with a knowledge of cultivation 
and the domestication of animals spread through the northern part of 
the continent. At about that time, it is thought (17) that food plants 



Anthropology 115 

and domesticated animals were introduced into Egypt and other parts 
of North Africa from Western Asia, where they had first been cultivated 
and tamed. In Egypt, the first farmers undoubtedly settled on the high 
terraces along the Nile Valley and along the banks of the Fayum De- 
pression, which then held a larger lake than exists there now. The 
swampy and wooded bottom of the Nile Valley was probably left to 
the earlier hunters, who still pursued the hippopotamus, waterfowl, and 
fish. Later, the two peoples intermarried when the forests were cut and 
cultivation of the annually inundated valley took place. 

In Egypt, these early hunters dwelling in the valley "contained a 
strong native African genetic component, and the Neolithic farmers who 
settled on the open flanks of the valley to either side were Caucasoid, 
having come directly from Western Asia. Before the end of predynastic 
time, the two elements had probably fused" (5). This hypothesis was 
tested by J. M. Crichton (6), who compared 296 predynastic Egyptian, 
dynastic Egyptian, and Negroid skulls by employing a multiple dis- 
criminant analysis that used 34 measurements and seven indices and 
angles. The results obtained indicated that the predynastic Egyptian 
skulls were more like those of the Negroids tested than the skulls of 
the dynastic Egyptians were. Also, it was shown that the dynastic 
Egyptian skulls were more Caucasoid than were those of their predynas- 
tic predecessors. 

It has been speculated (3) that the African element in the pre- 
dynastic Egyptian population might have been Bushmen, but Crichton 
did not have a large enough series of Bushman skulls to use for a com- 
parison in order to test this hypothesis. 

During the Nubian Salvage Campaign, the University of Colorado 
and Southern Methodist University excavated two Mesolithic sites in 
the Wadi Haifa area, near the southern border of Lower Nubia. These 
may date between 13,000 B.C. and 8,000 B.C., but the latter date might 
be more correct (5). This collection of complete adult skulls proved to 
be dolichocranic, and they possessed bun-shaped occiputs, massive brow- 
ridges, sloping foreheads, extreme facial flattening in the orbital and 
nasal regions, a great amount of alveolar prognathism, large teeth, and 
large deep mandibles. These traits are common in many of the present 
day Nubians. 

All this evidence indicates (5) that Africa north of the Sahara was 
originally inhabited by a non-Caucasoid population that can, in general, 
be termed Negroid. When the first Caucasoids arrived, they mixed with 
some of the original natives and drove the others southward. Successive 
waves of Caucasoids made the population of North Africa more and 
more Caucasoid, and the importation of slaves into the area did not 
reverse this trend, as Herzog (personal communication) has pointed 
out. Records discovered by him prove that the vast majority of every 
slave shipment was dead within a couple of years after its arrival 
in the Nile Valley. If this had not been the case, the great numbers of 
slaves imported yearly for millenniums would have completely smoth- 
ered the Caucasoid element in this region. The massive penetration of 
Negroid Africa by Caucasoid genes during the last 14,000 years and the 



116 Indiana Academy of Science 

result of the mixture that has taken place can be seen in the features 
of the living Nubians. 

Before 3,200 B.C., according to Steindorff and Seele (19), Lower 
Nubia and Egypt possessed not only a homogeneous population, but 
also a basically common culture. However, during the third millennium 
B.C., the culture of Lower Nubia was revitalized by the arrival of two 
groups of invaders. Pressing northward out of the Sudan, a population 
possessing a heavy admixture of Negroid genes established itself be- 
tween the First and the Second Cataracts. Also, from the North, a 
light-skinned, blue-eyed group of Caucasoids, the Temeh, that may 
have crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from Europe, had been migrating 
eastward along the coast of the Mediterranean and through the oases 
of the Libyan Desert. Gradually, they moved up the Nile into Nubia, 
where they settled with the older population (19). Together, these two 
groups of newcomers changed the culture of Lower Nubia, and they 
reinforced the existing Negroid-Caucasoid racial mixture of the popula- 
tion. 

Some Egyptologists feel that the C-Group Culture, which existed 
from about 2,250 B.C. to approximately 1,546 B.C., was brought in 
from west of the Nile by tribes forced out of the Western Desert by 
the increasing desiccation of the land (2). However, other authorities 
present evidence that the Sahara did not become a desert land until 
well after the beginning of the Christian Era (14; Coon, personal com- 
munication). It is known, however, that after the beginning of the C- 
Group Period the Egyptians withdrew from Nubia and left the native 
tribes in peace. 

The Second Intermediate Period (1,780-1,546 B.C.), which began 
with the invasion by the Hyksos during the Thirteenth Dynasty (19), 
marked the beginning of the end for the C-Group Period in Nubia. 
These invaders from the East at one time pushed into Upper Egypt as 
far as Thebes, and, at that time, Emery (8) speculates that large num- 
bers of Egyptian refugees may have flocked into Nubia. Although there 
are no written records of this settlement, there is evidence from the 
excavated cemeteries of a change in burial practices that became in- 
creasingly similar to those in Egypt and to those employed in Nubia 
during the New Kingdom Period. 

When the Hyksos were finally driven out of Egypt in the Seven- 
teenth Dynasty, the Egyptians, during the following New Kingdom 
Period (1,546-1,085 B.C.), turned their attention once again to the 
South and proceeded to destroy the Kingdom of Kush, located in Upper 
Nubia, which is above the Second Cataract, but the Egyptian army did 
not molest the inhabitants of Lower Nubia. Instead, a small number 
of Egyptian governmental officials settled in the area (20) and married 
Nubian women. In the large mass graves of the upper classes of this 
period, we find the remains of Caucasoid males buried with those of 
large numbers of females of the typical Nubian mixed Negroid- 
Caucasoid type. In the lower class graves, the physical type was Nubian. 
While the culture of Lower Nubia was strongly Egyptianized at this 
time, the physical type of the population remained generally un- 
changed. 



Anthropology 117 

From the time of the collapse of the New Kingdom in 1,085 B.C. 
to the rise, about 300 B.C., of the Meroitic Empire centered at Meroe in 
the Sudan, there is little archaeological evidence to prove that Lower 
Nubia was inhabited (20). Perhaps the vast majority of Nubians re- 
treated south of the Second Cataract to join the people of Kush as the 
result of a natural catastrophe, such as a famine or an epidemic. On 
the other hand, it may be that the culture of this vast area at that time 
was not distinctive enough to be distinguished from that of the previous 
New Kingdom Period. At any rate, according to Emery (8), Lower 
Nubia at this time was important only as a military route for the pas- 
sage of armies from the North and the South. 

During the Meroitic Period, which lasted in Lower Nubia from 
aproximately 300 B.C. to about 250 A.D., the Dodecaschoinos region, 
which stretched through the northern part of the territory from the 
First Cataract to Maharraga, contained many Egyptians who had 
settled among the native Nubians. However, south of Maharraga, the 
cultural stimulus was mainly from the city of Meroe. 

At first, this northern Dodecaschoinos area was ruled by the Ptole- 
maic kings of Egypt (8), but later the Romans controlled the area for 
about 200 years. In addition, Meroitic forces occasionally penetrated this 
region (8). 

Although the northern part of Lower Nubia was frequently con- 
tested at this time, the southern portion in which the study area was 
located saw little upheaval in the population. The governmental officials 
were undoubtedly sent north from Meroe, and some or all of the upper 
classes may have come from the South; but there is every reason to 
believe that the main body of the population remained static. 

From the third to the sixth centuries A.D., the X-Group Culture 
flourished in Lower Nubia (8). Various Egyptologists have hypothesized 
that this new culture resulted from mass migrations of Berbers from the 
West (15), or of Blemmyes from the East (7), or of Nubians or Nobadae 
from the South (11, 12). However, these mutually conflicting claims are 
substantiated by very little evidence, and it seems that, from examining 
the archaeological remains, the X-Group Culture was a home-grown 
product. 

In the northern part of Lower Nubia, at least, this was a period of 
almost constant warfare with such people as the Blemmyes, who raided 
out of the Eastern Desert and who used the Nile Valley as a base from 
which to pillage Upper Egypt. Also, the Nobatae, whom Emperor 
Diocletian persuaded to settle in the valley to act as a buffer between 
the Blemmyes and Egypt (13), were at odds with the former group. 
Most of the fighting occurred in the North, so the population in the 
southern section of Lower Nubia was little affected. If the Blemmyes 
entered this part of the Nile Valley, they probably did not mix to any 
extent with the local population, in the same way as the modern Beja, 
the probable descendants of the Blemmyes, do not intermarry with the 
Nubians today. 

The Kingdom of Nobatia, which was ruled from its capital at Faras 
just south of the Sudanese border, accepted Monophysite Christianity in 



118 Indiana Academy of Science 

about the year 543 A.D. (8); but, although the culture of Nubia changed, 
the population remained stable. Christian settlements were reported in 
Nubia as late as the 1520's, but Christianity ceased to be a power by 
the 1,300's (1,9). 

By 640 A.D. the Arabs had subdued Egypt, but they were at first 
defeated by the Nubian bowmen when they tried to push south of the 
First Cataract. By 652 A.D., however, an Arab army managed to march 
south and beseiged the city of Dongola in the Sudan, but after demon- 
strating their power, according to Trigger (20), they withdrew. 

During the Christian Period in Nubia, there may have been some 
intermarriage between Arabs and Nubians, but much in the way of proof 
either way is lacking. About the most that one may say is that it seems 
probable, on the basis of the present feelings of disdain which the 
Nubians and the Arabs have for each other, that few outside genes 
entered the Nubian population at this time. 

Gradually the Nubians acquired most of the elements of the Moslem 
faith. For the physical anthropologist, this was a great pity, for only in 
a few instances has the government of Egypt allowed the excavation 
of Moslem graves. Therefore, we have little evidence of the amount 
of foreign genes entering the population of Nubia from the 1,300's A.D. 
to the present day. 

One of the few places where excavations of this type have been 
permitted was at Gebel Adda, which was the headquarters for the 
expedition. Such Moslem skeletal material that was available was 
generally of the usual Nubian mixed Caucasoid-Negroid physical type. 

It should be pointed out that, generally speaking, the Egyptians, 
Arabs, and Turks have had an intense dislike for the dark-skinned 
peoples living south of the First Cataract of the Nile, with the result 
that the Nubians have long been considered to be fit only to live as 
slaves for these groups. Also, the Nubians have had good reason for 
remaining aloof from these invaders, and these feelings have tended to 
limit the amount of intermarriage in this area. Not only is intermarriage 
with outsiders a rarity, but premarital and extramarital intercourse in 
Nubia is almost unknown. A Nubian girl or woman who is even 
suspected of engaging in activities of this type is usually promptly 
executed by her family. Drowning in the Nile is the usual method. One 
notable exception to this situation was the Mamelukes, who were 
Christian children captured mainly in the Caucasus and taken to Egypt, 
where they were trained to be Moslem soldiers (16). 

The Mamelukes probably first entered Nubia when they were driven 
there by Napoleon's push up the Nile Valley. At that time they laid 
waste to many Nubian villages. When Napoleon's forces returned down- 
river, the Mamelukes moved into Upper Egypt. 

On March 1, 1811, Muhammed Ali, the ruler of Egypt, invited the 
Mamelukes to the Citadel in Cairo for a ceremony and treacherously 
slaughtered 480 of them. Later, Ibrahim, Muhammed Ali's eldest son, 
moved against those in Upper Egypt who had previously fled from 
Napoleon (16,18). However, according to Moorehead (16), about 300 
men with their wives managed to escape into Nubia. 



Anthropology 119 

Gradually, the main body of Mameluke survivors worked its way 
upriver, and, after pillaging Dongola above the Third Cataract (16), 
disappeared into the vastness of the Sudan. However, a few dropped 
out along the way and settled down in various favorable locations, and, 
wherever they settled, they ruled. 

Today, their descendants are to be found principally among the 
upper classes of Nubians. Many of the local village rulers, the omdahs, 
are of mixed Nubian-Mameluke stock, for the Mamelukes, out of neces- 
sity, began marrying Nubians and, therefore, were the last to contribute 
to the gene pool in Lower Nubia. The descendants of these mixed mar- 
riages, however, form, like the mixed Nubian-Arabs, distinct breeding 
isolates within the present general population. 

The Nubians of Lower Nubia today retain basically the same 
physical type as the inhabitants of northeastern Africa 14,000 years 
ago, after the invading Caucasoids had mixed with the indigenous 
Negroid peoples. The most unstable section of Lower Nubia has been 
the northern part, between the First Cataract and Maharraga. South 
of this region, in the area in which this study was undertaken, the 
population has been extremely stable, as populations go, for millenniums. 

Method 

A careful evaluation of the literature indicated that the Nubian 
populations between Maharraga and the Second Cataract had been rela- 
tively stable for thousands of years, so it was decided to launch a 
two-stage project to study the cranio-facial growth and variability of 
the populations of selected villages and to test the hypothesis that 
there has been no mass replacement of the population in the area. 

Since the Broadbent-Bolton cephalometer was conceived in 1933, it 
has become the commonly used and accepted method of taking stand- 
ardized X-ray films of the human skull. Therefore, it was employed in 
this study. 

During the first stage of the study, in the spring of 1965, cephalo- 
grams were obtained from 715 skulls with well preserved dentitions. 
These ekulls had previously been recovered by expeditions from The 
American Research Center in Egypt, Inc. and from the Oriental Institute 
of the University of Chicago at sites located at Gebel Adda, Ballana, 
Qustul, and Adindan, all of which were along the Nile between Abu 
Simbel Temple and the Sudanese border. Three cephalometric views 
were obtained from each skull, i.e., a lateral film, an anterior-posterior 
(PA) view, and a view of the cranial base. Therefore, each skull was 
recorded permanently in three dimensions. In addition, dental examina- 
tions, color photographs, and casts of the dentitions were included to 
record pathologies, abnormalities, dental morphology, etc. 

The cemeteries investigated provided skeletal material from the 
C-Group, Meroitic, X-Group, Christian, and Moslem archaeological Pe- 
riods, and they ranged in time from approximately 2,000 B.C. to 1,800 
A.D. Material from the Gerzean, Archaic, and New Kingdom Periods 
was unavailable due to the previous inundation of the Nile, which had 
raised the water level about six meters. 



120 Indiana Academy of Science 

Since the population of Egyptian Nubia had been moved by villages 
to the Kom Ombo area of Upper Egypt, the expedition worked there 
during the second stage of the project in the early part of 1966 and 
X-rayed approximately 1,000 people from the village of Ballana. An- 
terior-posterior and lateral cephalograms were obtained from each per- 
son. Also, everyone in this sample received a complete dental examina- 
tion, a test for color blindness, and had his height and weight recorded. 

The understanding of the etiology of malocclusion is dependent 
upon the study of cranio-facial variation in the same population over a 
long period of time, so a unique opportunity existed to observe the 
cranio-facial variation of the Nubians over a 4,000-year period. Our in- 
sight into the cranio-facial variability of the modern Nubians is 
enhanced by this long skeletal record. Therefore, a new dimension was 
added to cranio-facial growth studies that had previously been con- 
ducted mainly in the United States, Scandinavia, and Canada. 

Interpretation 

The cephalograms are now in the process of being evaluated by a 
set of angular and linear measurements derived from tracings on 
acetate overlays. Thirty-eight variables of this type were selected for 
the skulls and 44 were employed for the living Nubians. These variables 
were selected to indicate the vectoral growth of the facial skeleton and 
the resulting occlusion. All the measurements, linear and angular, were 
entered into a series of multivariate statistical programs which have 
been developed to indicate the differential growth between the inter- 
related dependent skeletal components of the cranio-facial complex. 
Computer programs using principal components, stepwise regression 
theory, and discriminant analysis allow close inspection of the inter- 
dependence of the many variables. 

Preliminary findings indicate a previously unsuspected heterogeneity 
in the population at Gebel Adda, with a resultant variability in facial 
growth patterns and occlusion, and it is significant that there is varia- 
bility both within and between each archaeological period. These vari- 
ations in occlusion represent all of the major Angle classifications of 
malocclusion. 

On the other hand, the populations of the villages of Ballana, 
Qustul, and Adindan have proved to be quite homogeneous. This is 
understandable when one considers the fact that Gebel Adda had been a 
fortified garrison town for thousands of years and remained so until the 
early years of the last century. Foreign soldiers from various parts of 
Europe, Egypt, other parts of the Middle East, and from further south 
in Africa had been stationed there, while the peasant populations of the 
surrounding villages remained static. 

At this date, it appears that replacement of the population of Lower 
Nubia from Maharraga to the Second Cataract has been limited to the 
garrison towns and possibly also to the ancient administrative centers. 
Overwhelming proof for this point should be available with the publi- 
cation of the final report in 1968. 



Anthropology 121 

Literature Cited 

1. Arkell, A. J. 1955. A History of the Sudan from the Earliest Times 
to 1821. The Athlone Press, London. 

2. Arkell, A. J. 1961. A History of the Sudan to 1821. 2nd. ed. The 
Athlone Press, London. 

3. Biasutti, R. 1905. Crania. Aegyptica. Arch. l'Antropol. Etnol. 35:322-362. 

4. Breasted, J. H. 1959. A History of Egypt. Hodder and Stoughton, 
London. 

5. Coon, C. S. 1965. The Living Peaces of Man. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 

6. Crichton, J. M. 1964. A Multiple Discriminant Analysis of Egyptian 
and African Negro Crania. Senior Honors Thesis for the A.B. degree in 
anthropology. Peabody Museum Library, Harvard University. 

7. Emery, W. B. 1938. The Royal Tombs of Ballana and Qustul (2 vols.). 
Government Press, Cairo, Egypt. 

8. Emery, W. B. 194 8. Nubian Treasure. Methuen and Co., Ltd., London. 

9. Fairservis, W. A., Jr. 1962. The Ancient Kingdoms of The Nile. Thomas 
Y. Crowell Co., New York. 

10. Frobenius, L. 1962. Ekade Ektab, Die Felsbilder Fezzans. Akademische 
Druck und Verlagsgesellschaft, Graz. 

11. Junker, H. 1931. Die Grabungen der Agyptischen Altertumsverwaltung 
in Nubien. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Instituts fiir Altertumskunde 
in Kairo 3, (Part 2). 

12. Kir wan, L. P. 1937. A Survey of Nubian Origins. Sudan Notes and 
Records 20:47-62. 

13. Lepsius, C. R. 1880. Nubische Grammatik mit einer Einleitung iiber 
die Volker und Sprachen Afrikas. Berlin. 

14. Lewis, B. 1960. The Arabs in History. Harper & Row, Publishers. New 
York and Evanston. 

15. Monneret de Villard, U. 193S. Storia della Nubia Christiana. Orientalia 
Christians Analecta, No. 118. Rome. 

16. Moorehead, A. 1962. The Blue Nile. Harper & Row, Publishers. New 
York and Evanston. 

17. Oliver, R. and J. D. Face. 1962. A Short History of Africa. Penguin 
Books, Baltimore. 

18. Steindorff, G. 1929. Outline of the History of Egypt. In: K. Baedeker, 
Egypt and The Sudan. 8th. revised ed. Karl Baedeker, Publisher, 
Leipzig. 

19. Steindorff, G. and K. C. Seele. 1958. When Egypt Ruled The East. 
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

20. Trigger, B. G. 1965. History and Settlement in Lower Nubia. Yale Uni- 
versity Publications In Anthropology, No. 69. Yale University, New 
Haven. 



BACTERIOLOGY 

Chairman: J. S. Ingraham, Indiana University Medical Center 
H. Campbell, Jr., Eli Lilly and Company, was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

Sulfatase Activity and Secondary Metalobism of Cephalosporium Sp. 

Diane Carver and David W. Dennen, Antibiotic Manufacturing and 
Development Division, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis. — Methionine, 
added to culture media, induces a sulfatase in a number of micro- 
organisms while its replacement by inorganic sulfate circumvents cel- 
lular requirements for this enzyme and it is normally repressed. Other 
investigators have shown that in the fungus, Cephalosporium, methioine 
also has a unique role in yield stimulation of the secondary metabolites 
penicillin-N and cephalosporin-C as well as supplying sulfur into the 
structure of these antibiotics. Cephalosporium cultures were therefore 
examined for the presence of a sulfatase and the possible relation of 
this enzyme to secondary metabolite regulation. 

In particular, a wild-type strain (ATCC 11,550) was found to con- 
tain a sulfatase constitutive with respect to sulfate or methionine, 
while in a mutant strain the enzyme responded readily in a classical 
manner to the addition of these nutrients to the culture medium. The 
sulfatase of Cephalosporium has an approximate molecular weight of 
50,000, a catalytic temperature optimum for p-nitrophenol sulfate 
(PNPS) at 68 C, and an activation energy of 7.8 KCal. Kinetic para- 
meters which compare favorably with those in other organisms in- 
clude an apparent K m of 8 xlO 4 M and a pH optimum between 7-8. 
The enzyme, with PNPS as a substrate, is inhibited in vitro by taurine 
and choline sulfate suggesting its hydrolytic action on these metabolites 
in vivo. 

Induction of Arginase by the Shope Papilloma Virus. L. E. Beaty, and 
M. E. Hodes, Cancer Research, Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry 
and Medical Genetics, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis. 
— The Shope papilloma contains high levels of arginase. Although 
papillomas are induced by the Shope papilloma virus, they are fre- 
quently contaminated with a second virus, the rabbit kidney vacuolating 
virus. Therefore, the induced arginase could be either the product of 1) 
the Shope virus genome, 2) the RKV virus genome, or 3) a derepression 
of the genetic apparatus of the host cell. In order to determine which 
of these mechanisms is responsible for the induced arginase, the two 
viruses have been separated one from another in density gradients of 
cesium chloride. The buoyant density of the Shope virus is 1.34 gm/cm 3 
while the RKV virus has an apparent density of 1.32 gm/cm 3 . In vitro 
infection of rabbit kidney cells with either of the purified viruses re- 
sults in an elevation of arginase activity. However, the RKV virus in- 
duces an elevated activity of all the enzymes of the urea cycle. In order 
to exclude the possibility that virus infection serves only to derepress 

123 



124 Indiana Academy of Science 

the host cell, cells lacking arginase were sought. Escherichia coli 
spheroplasts infected with the Shope papilloma virus show an induced 
arginase activity which reaches a maximum level three hours after 
infection. This activity is not seen in control cultures. Since Escherichia 
coli is known to be devoid of arginase, these experiments strongly sug- 
gest that the Shope virus contains the genetic information necessary 
to direct synthesis of an arginase. 

The Effect of Parenteral Mitogens on Tissue Cultivation. Luiz Horta 
Barbosa and Joel Warren, Department of Biologies Research, Chas. 
Pfizer and Co., Inc. Terre Haute. — The blastogenic effects of phyto- 
hemagglutinin on leukocyte cultures have been described in several 
publications. Barker, et al., recently reported that extract of pokeweed, 
Phytolacca americana, also prolongs the viability of leukocyte cultures. 
We have investigated the ability of pokeweed extract to enhance the 
growth of various tissues from laboratory animals. The addition of 
pokeweed extract to monolayer cultures of kidney, liver or lung had 
no effect on cell growth. However, when the donor animal was inocu- 
lated parenterally with 100 mg/kg two to six days prior to removal 
of the organ, these tissues grew more rapidly than those of control 
animals. Glucose consumption was increased in such cultures and higher 
yields of certain viruses were obtained. 

Application of Latex-agglutination to the Measurement of Antibody Re- 
sponse to M. pneumoniae Vaccines. Meir Kende, Biologies Research 
Dept., Chas. Pfizer and Co. Terre Haute. — The use of inert carrier 
particles for adsorption of antigens has been reported by several in- 
vestigators. Morton described a procedure for adsorbing live myco- 
plasma cells to latex and agglutination of the complex by antiserum. 
Vice versa latex-adsorbed mycoplasma antibodies could be used for 
detection of specific antigen. Because of a need for a mycoplasma serol- 
ogic test which is not based on inhibition of metabolism (neutralization 
and tetrazolium reduction tests, respectively), latex agglutination 
procedures were standardized and used to measure the response to 
killed vaccines. Sera from guinea pig and monkey appeared to be the 
best for this purpose, while rabbit serum required pre-treatment with 
trypsin-periodate to eliminate non-specific agglutination. The latex ag- 
glutination was compared with complement fixation and tetrazolium 
reduction inhibition to determine its usefulness as an index of myco- 
plasmal immunity. 

Serological Changes in Ex-germfree Rats Mono-associated with 
Salmonella typhimurium. B. S. Wostmann, Lobund Laboratory, Univer- 
sity of Notre Dame, Notre Dame. — Germfree rats were inocculate per os 
with Salmonella typhinurium (ND 750 A) in order to study the activa- 
tion of the complex of antimicrobial defense mechanisms. This paper 
describes changes in serum proteins as then relate to the stimulation 
of the reticuloendothelial system. 

S. typhimuriam established itself in the gut tract in a concentration 
approximating that of the total bacterial population in the conventional 
rat. The animals showed a pronounced loss in body weight and, depend- 



Bacteriology 125 

ing on the diet, a death rate up to 25%. Spleen and lymph nodes 
demonstrated transitory hypertrophy, with a miaximum at approximately 
10 days after association. Serum albumin showed a temporary loss, and 
serum a and j8 globulins transient increases in concentration. Minimum 
albumin and maximum a and p globulin values occurred at day 4. 
"Gamma globulin" (denned in the electrophoretic pattern as protein 
with electrophoretic mobility slower than that of transferrin) started to 
increase after 5 days. Total serum protein remained at approximately 
6%. 

The immunoelectrophoretic pattern of the germfree rat usually 
showed 5 protein fractions with mobilities equal to or slower than that 
of transferrin. The concentration of each of these fraction was affected 
by the association with S. typhimurium. One are in the slower gamma 
globulin range indicated a pronounced but a transient increase in con- 
centration with a maximum approximately 3-4 days after association, 
and is speculated to represent an acute phase protein rather than an 
immunoglobulin. Specific agglutinins could be detected at the third day 
but did not reach maximum values until 2 weeks after association. 

Specialization of Antibody Formation Among Individual Spleen Cells 
Responding to a Complex Antigen. Joseph S. Ingraham and Bruce H. 
Petersen, Dept. of Microbiology, Indiana University Medical Center, 
Indianapolis. — Suspensions of spleen cells from mice or rabbits injected 
with sheep red blood cells (rbc) were examined for antibody forming 
cells by a localized hemolytic plaque assay (Ingraham and Bussard, 
J.E.M. 119: 667). The resulting plaques could be separated into two 
groups: one clear in which almost all of the rbc were lysed, and one 
cloudy having a large fraction of unlysed rbc. With a given suspension 
of spleen cells the proportion of cloudy plaques, was quite constant. 
These plaques were as large as the clear plaques, they developed at 
the same rate, and did not clear up with prolonged incubation. There- 
fore these plaques appear to result from a difference in quality rather 
than quantity of antibody. Although they could possibly be the product 
of cells making hemolytically less efficient, presumably 7s, antibody, the 
fact that 40% of the plaques in a mouse spleen suspension 4 days after 
a single injection of rbc may be cloudy appears to argue against this. 
At present we believe that these cloudy plaques may result from hetero- 
geniety in the antigenic composition of the sheep rbc such that some 
spleen cells make antibodies against an antigen present on only a 
fraction of the red cells. 

Uncoating and Development of Vaccinia Virus in Tissue-Cultured Cell- 
Fragments Induced with Concentrated Extracts from Marine Algae. 

Theodore J. Starr and Ole Holtermann, University of Notre Dame, 
Department of Microbiology, Notre Dame. — This preliminary report 
evolved from continuing studies concerned with virus development in 
abnormal cell types. Recently, we described (Starr et al, Tex. Rep. Biol. 
Med., 24:208) the phenomena of amitosis, micronucleation and multiple 
cytokinesis which were induced in tissue-cultured cells (McCoy) with 
concentrated extracts of marine algae. As observed by time-lapse cinema- 
tography and in fixed-preparations stained with acridine orange, multi- 



126 Indiana Academy of Science 

pie cytokinesis provided a unique population of "miniature cells." Of 
those cells which were affected in this manner, three or more daughter 
cells were produced per mother cell. In effect, the progency of each cell 
contained only part of the total chromosonal complement. Such "cells" 
were subsequently grown on coverslips in Leighton tubes and were 
challenged with vaccinia virus. Development of inclusions or "factory 
areas" were noted in these "miniature cells." Our observations will be 
discussed in view of 1) the postulated role of the host-cell genome in 
the "uncoating" process (Joklik, J. Mol. Biol., 8:277) and 2) the recent 
biochemical evidence on messenger RNA synthesis by a "coated" viral 
genome (Kates and McAuslan, Proc. N.A.S., 58:134). 

Identification of the Major 3L P Phosphohistidine Protein from E. coli 
as Succinyl Co A Synthetase. James Sedmak and Robert Ramaley, De- 
partment of Microbiology, Indiana University. — Previous studies in Dr. 
P. D. Boyer's laboratory (Isolation and Properties of the Phosphorylated 
Form of Succinyl CoA Synthetase, R. F. Ramaley, W. Bridger, R. W. 
Moyer, and P. D. Boyer, J. Biol. Chem., in press) have shown that the 
only protein capable of being phosphorylated in partially purified prep- 
arations of Succinyl CoA Synthetase was Succinyl CoA Synthetase. 

These studies have been further expanded by the use of crude cell 
extracts of E. coli. The cells were grown in a minimal salts medium 
containing 2.2% sodium succinate. The cells were disrupted by sonic 
oscillation, the 105,000 x g soluble extract dialysed and incubated at 
0°C with 0.1 mM ATP-T- 32 P, 10 mM Mg, and 50 mM Tris (pH 7.2). The 
reaction was terminated after 5 to 10 minutes by the additon of EDTA 
(pH 7.2) and the ATP and inorganic phosphate were removed by 
chromatography on Sephadex G-50 or Sephadex G-200. 

The excluded or 32 P containing protein peak was then placed on 
DEAE-Sephadex and the proteins eluted with a linear KC1 gradient in 
0.05 M Phosphate (pH 7.2). The fractions were analysed for protein 
and for protein-bound phosphohistidine. 

The results of these experiments with crude cell extracts suggest 
that, under the time and conditions employed, Succinyl CoA Synthetase 
is the predominant if not the only protein phosphorylated by ATP. 

Other papers read 

Hydrocarbon Metabolism by Micrococcus cerificants. R. Makula and 

W. R. Finnerty, Indiana University Medical Center. 
Intermediary Metabolism in a Hydrocarbon Oxidizing Microorganism. 

R. Lerud and W. R. Finnerty, Indiana University Medical Center. 
Quantitative Carbohydrate Changes during Schizophyllum commune 

Basidiospore Germination. Brent Aitken and Donald J. Nieder- 

pruem, Indiana University Medical Center. 
Ultrastructure and Nuclear Behavior in a Fir Mutant of Schizophyllum 

commune. DONALD J. NlEDERPRUEM and RALPH JERSILD, Indiana 

University Medical Center. 
Temperature Limits of Cyanidium. William B. Doemel and Thomas D. 

Brock, Indiana University. 



BOTANY 

Chairman: S. N. Postlethwait, Purdue University 
T. R. Mertens, Ball State University, was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

Breeding Behavior and Vigor in Nullisomic and Monosomic Avena sativa 
L. Fred L. Patterson, Purdue University. — A naturally occurring mul- 
lisomic, discovered in Clintland 60 oats, is low in vigor and is male sterile 
in some environments but partially fertile in others. Seed set from 
selfing in glassine or cloth bags in the field at Lafayette, Indiana, 
ranged from 1.3% to 16.7% and averaged 9.6% for 4 years. Natural 
crossing ranged from 9.9% to 11.7% and averaged 11.0% for 4 years. 
Percent seed set in crosses in glassine or cloth bags was similar to that 
from natural crossing. 

Monosomic plants appeared fully fertile under most conditions. 
Megaspores with 20 or 21 chromosomes were found in about a 3:1 ratio. 
Pollen grains with 20- or 21-chromosome gametes appeared equally 
competitive. The univalent chromosome is one with a submedian 
centromere. 

The monosomic plants are nearly normal in phenotype but are not 
as productive as disomic plants under stress. In one year monosomic 
Clintland 60 was equal to Clintland 60 in yield and Fi hybrid monosomies 
in five crosses were similar to the better disomic parent. Yields of Fi 
hybrid monosomies have been observed in 2 drouth years in 10 crosses. 
The Fi hybrid monosomies averaged only about 69% of the disomic 
parent mean in 1966 and 61% in 1967. 

An Unusual Isolate of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici. M. S. Ghemawat 
and John F. Schafer, Purdue University. — A monoconidial isolate of 
Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal was obtained from 
greenhouse plants at Lafayette, Indiana, to provide a pure culture for 
experimental use. The German differential varieties used by Nover and 
other wheat varieties were inoculated. Carsten V, a universal susceptible 
check in the German differential set, proved resistant. It showed 
reaction types 0-1 with extensive chlorosis and necrosis. Rarely, pustules 
of reaction type 3 developed with little chlorosis and necrosis. Hence, 
this isolate is different from any reported on the German differential 
set. It differs in virulence on at least one other variety from any of the 
races reported by Leijerstam or Wolfe, and is designated race 50. 
Salzmiinde and Hope selection were susceptible, and all other varieties 
of the German set were resistant. 

This isolate appears important in breeding for powdery mildew 
resistance. It represents new virulence in that under some conditions it 
attacks seedlings of Purdue 5752C1-7-5-1, a derivative of Triticum 
timopheevi, previously completely resistant. With certain conditions, the 
response reached reaction type 4 with severity percentage up to 70. 

127 



128 Indiana Academy of Science 

Flag leaves of mature plants maintained their resistance in contrast 
to the seedlings. Seedlings of Suwon 92 C.I. 12666, another important 
resistance source, also proved susceptible. 

A Noninfectious Lethal Leaf Spot in Maize. A. J. Ullstrip and A. 
Forrest Troyer, Purdue University and the Pioneer Corn Company, 
Mankato, Minnesota. — A necrotic leaf spot was observed in an F 2 
population involving two proprietary Inbred Lines AEIHF6 and B4AMI. 
The necrosis was not observed in either of these inbred lines and it is 
presumed that the mutation was present, but in recessive condition, in 
one of the two plants used in making the original cross. The mutation 
may also have occurred in the Fi. 

Leaf lesions resemble those incited by Race 1 of Helminthosporium 
carhonum. It was not possible to isolate a pathogen or to demonstrate 
the presence of one in the affected tissues. Leaf lesions were first ob- 
served in seedlings about 3 weeks after emergence at a temperature of 
20-25° C. The lesions rapidly enlarged from minute chlorotic flecks to 
necrotic areas 1 x 2.5 cm. in size. Leaves of affected plants become 
completely necrotic and the latter died at flowering or soon thereafter. 
Necrosis progressed from the older to younger tissue. Benzimidizole 
(40 ppm.) had no effect in delaying onset of necrosis or preventing it 
when the solution was fed to intacted plants or to detached leaves. 
Ratios of affected to normal plants in F 2 and backcross progenies indi- 
cate that a single recessive gene controls inheritance of the necrosis. 

Sexual Differentiation of the Lateral Buds of Zea mays. H. Murray and 
S. N. Postlethwait, Purdue University. — Lateral buds of maize can 
be induced to sprout if de-leaved stems are caused to undergo a geotropic 
curvature. This provides a new method for studying tassel and ear 
development. 

All leaves were carefully removed from 2-3 month old Zea mays 
plants growing in pots in a greenhouse. Lanolin was smeared over the 
injured areas to prevent excess drying. The pots were placed in a 
horizontal position on a laboratory shelf for 3 days during which time 
they underwent a geotropic curvature due to the elongation of intercalary 
meristem cells on the basal side of several internodes. Lateral buds in 
the bending areas often sprouted. No sprouting occurred in similar 
plants left upright, i.e., not undergoing geotropism. Plants were placed 
under fluorescent lights. When the lateral buds had grown at least 
5 cm., they were excised along with 2 cm. of the main stem. Four 
explants (from 3 different plants) were rooted in moist vermiculite, 
then transferred to soil in a greenhouse where they were grown to 
maturity. The plants produced a normal number of internodes before 
differentiating a terminal sexual structure. Two plants produced an ear 
at the apex and two produced a structure consisting of half tassel 
(topmost) and half ear. Except for some husklike leaves on one of 
the "ear-plants," the plants were vegetatively indistinguishable from 
plants grown from seed. The plants were fertile. It appears that sex 
expression in maize is influenced by a gradient of forces which extent 
from the base to the apex and can be maintained over a period of ex- 
tensive vegetative growth before being expressed. 



Botany 129 

The Adherent Tassel Mutant of Maize. Diane M. Shultes and S. N. 
Postlethwait, Purdue University. — The normal maize tassel expands at 
anthesis to the familiar, freely dissociated branches of the panicle. The 
adherent tassel mutant, in contrast, remains in a compact, club-shaped 
form throughout anthesis. This may be caused by a "sticky" substance 
secreted by the tassel and which appears to harden while the tassel is 
still within its sheath and binds the tassel branches into the character- 
istic phenotype of the mutant. 

The mutant condition is visible at the seedlings stage of develop- 
ment. At this time the first leaves adhere at their tips causing the 
newly emerging leaf to bend over with its tip stuck to the leaf below. 
Closer examination in the region where the tips are fused reveals a 
thickening in the cell walls wherever there is contact between them. 
The thickened walls seem to be cemented together by a hardened sub- 
stance secreted by the cells. Since the cell walls experiencing no contact 
with other cell walls appear normal, contact between the two leaves, 
namely, contact between two cell walls, may be a stimulus for the 
secretion of the cement holding the walls together. 

From the seedling stage until the emergence of the tassel the 
mutant plant appears normal. Even as the tassel begins to develop, the 
adhering nature is not evident. Later, as the growing tassel presses 
upward between the enclosing leaf sheaths its parts are forced into con- 
tact and it is at this time that the adhering nature is first seen. The 
same thickening of adjacent cell walls in the area of contact is evident 
in the tassel as it is in the leaves of the seedling, and the same cement- 
like substance seems to be secreted by these thickened cell walls. The 
mechanism for adherance appears to be the same for both phenotypic 
expressions of the mutant. 

The Milk-weed Pod Mutant of Zea mays. David D. Husband and 

S. N. Postlethwait, Purdue University. — The Milkweed Pod (mw) 
gene causes several abnormal traits to develop beginning about 4 weeks 
of age. The base of the sheaths may have an extra layer of tissue 
growing from the epidermis, forming a flap of tissue with its two 
lateral sides free, but attached to the true sheath at the middle. Vascular 
bundles in this flap of tissue are oriented with the xylem toward the 
adaxial side of the sheath. Bundles in the juncture of the flap and the 
sheath are transitionally oriented and sometimes amphicribral. Some- 
times the free lateral sides of this extra flap of tissue will continue to 
grow, curling inside itself and giving the appearance in cross-section 
of a fern croizer. 

At the base of each leaf the intercalary meristem is much broader 
than in normal maize, producing two wide auricles. Some leaves have a 
light colored strip continuing distally from the intercalary meristem. 
Since these leaves often have folds and invaginations along these strips, 
it is possible that these cells continue some meristematic activity, and 
being surrounded by non-dividing cells, folds develop. The leaf blade 
also seems to be weak along these strips and tears often develop. 

At the point at which the leaf blade departs from the stem there 



130 Indiana Academy of Science 

is residual elongation in the stem, resulting in the node being extended 
above its normal position. 

The ear is sharply tapered at each end and at maturity resembles a 
milkweed pod. The shucks also may exhibit the phenotypic expression 
of folds and invaginations as well as extra flaps of tissue. 

There is often much pubescence associated with the various ab- 
normal features. On the sheaths the pubescence has a sharp line of 
delination at the apex; just above this pubescence there may appear 
a growth of tissue resembling a ligule. 

The tassel is normal in appearance. 

The Use of Fluorescence in the Histopathology of Plant Tissues. Hector 
M. Leon-Gallegos, Purdue University. — Experiments were set up to 
examine the usefulness of a fluorescent dye (disodium salt of 4,4 '-bis 
[4-anilino- 6-bis ( 2-hydoxy ethyl ) amino-s-triazin-2-ylamino ] -2-2 ' -stil- 
bene-disulfonic acid) to detect fungi within maize tissues. 

Fusarium monili forme Sheldon and Cephalosporium acremonium 
Corda were used in these studies. For both fungi, 1% malt-extract 
proved to be a satisfactory medium for both sporulation and absorption 
of the dye. The concentration of the dye found most satisfactory was 
0.2%. Hydrogen-ion concentrations in a range of pH 3 to 8 had no effect 
on absorption of the dye, but fluorescence was accentuated in hyphal 
tips and septa when cultures were incubated in darkness for 8 to 10 
days at 26± 1 C. During spore germination, fluorescence was evident in 
the germ tubes and mycelium for two days. The fluorescence of spores 
used as inoculum enhanced their detection within the xylem vessels of 
the maize plants. This technique of tagging fungal structures with 
fluorescent dyes is useful in distiguishing and identifying fungi in the 
host tissues. 

Cuticular Analysis of the Extinct Genus Dryophyllum. G. J. Anderson 
and D. L. Dilcher, Department of Botany, Indiana University. — 
The genus Dryophyllum is an abundant leaf form found in the Eocene 
clays of western Tennessee. Dryophyllum is the genus used to indicate 
relationship with the Fagaceae when no modern generic designation 
can be made. Two species of the seven proposed by E. W. Berry 
(1916, 1924, and 1930) are being studied in detail. An effort is 
being made in order to elucidate the true affinities of the possibly arti- 
ficial genus Dryophyllum and to correctly speciate some members of 
this group. The fossils are found as leaf compressions and good cuticle 
and some mesophyll remains are still preserved. Gross morphological 
characters and leaf epidermal characters, evident in cuticular prepara- 
tions, have been studied. The morphological characters proposed by 
Berry, especially venation, are consistent in discerning the two species 
studied from one another. However, many other gross morphological 
characters are quite similar between the two leaf types. Cuticular char- 
acters are also not totally partisan. Differences in and the lack of epi- 
dermal hairs seem to be a consistent speciating character. The stomatal 
apparatus has also been studied, but has yielded no conclusive discerning 



Botany 131 

evidence. Currently, comparisons are being made with extent members 
of the Fagaceae. Work supported in part by NSF GB-5166X. 

NOTES 

Wild Flowers of Indiana and Franklin County. Lloyd and Adele Bees- 
ley, Cedar Grove, Indiana. — We have found and photographed in color 
over one hundred species of wild flowers not previously recorded in 
Franklin County and have around 500 species to date, including 9 of 
the 16 native genera of true orchids and 16 of the 39 species. We are 
also photographing the fleshy fungi, with quite a number to date. 

The native orchids are: Orchis spectabilis, Orchis spectabilis alba, 
Cypripedium reginae, Cypripedium candidum, Cypripedium parviflorum 
pubescens, Habineria peramoena, Habineria pyscodes, Pogonia ophiog- 
lossoides, 3 species of Spiranthes, Calopogon pulchellus, Corallorrhiza 
wisteriana, Liparis liliifolia and Aplection hyemale. However we are not 
finished with any of our studies. 

Other papers read 

Cell Differentiation in Volvox. Richard Starr, Indiana University (by 
invitation). 



The Nodal Complex in Grasses 
Paul Weatherwax, Indiana University 

Abstract 

In addition to the entities usually associated with the nodes of grass 
stems, namely, the axillary bud, the attachment of the leaf, the anastomosis 
of vascular bundles, the intercalary meristem, and the origin of adventi- 
tious roots, some grasses show clearly a stem segment of appreciable 
length between the leaf insertion and the intercalary meristem. The 
recognition of this structure, here designated as the rhizogenic segment, is an 
aid to the interpretation of the nodal complex in other grasses. In some 
genera a highly specialized nodal structure provides a unique instrument 
of seed dispersal. 

In view of the extensive investigations that have been made on 
the anatomy of the Gramineae, it might seem that little more could be 
said about the nodal anatomy of the grass stem. Most studies heretofore 
made on this structure, however, have been characterized by two limita- 
tions: (1) they have been based upon such species as wheat, corn, or 
other well known cereal or forage grasses, in which the true structure 
is largely concealed by extreme condensation; and (2) they have focused 
attention on the vascular anastomosis, to the exclusion of some other 
significant details (1, 2, 3, 4, 6). There are certain genera in which the 
looser, more extended nodal complex discloses some significant features 
which have been largely overlooked; and what we find there seems 
applicable to the interpretation of the nodes of all grasses. 

Since the word node may have different meanings in different con- 
texts, an exact definition is less important than a recognition of the 
various structural features associated with the term. These include: 
(1) the visible ring around the base of the leaf sheath, commonly known 
as the leaf node; (2) the insertion of the leaf on the stem, marked by 
the lower margin of the leaf node; (3) the intercalary meristematic 
plate, the stem node, by which the internode elongates; (4) the insertion 
of the axillary bud or branch; (5) the complex anastomosis of the vascu- 
lar bundles of stem and leaf, this forming the framework of the septum 
in hollow stems; and (6) the place of origin of the adventitious roots. 
Most grasses have all these six entities so compactly arranged that it 
has been convenient to lump them all together as one thing, the node 
(Fig.l). 

In suitable species of such genera as Tripsacum, Sclerachne, 
Rottboellia, Mcmisuris, Sorghum, or Saccharum there can readily be 
seen an additional part of the nodal complex. This is a segment of 
appreciable length, sometimes as much as 10 mm., between the stem 
node and the level of insertion of the leaf sheath (Figs. 2, 3, 4). The 
main vascular bundles of the stem run straight through this segment, 
and its tissues are as well matured as those of the upper part of the 
internode below (Figs. 3, 4). Since this structure is doubtless present, at 
least in a condensed form, in all grasses, it becomes an important key 
to the entire pattern of stem morphology in this complex family. For 

132 



Botany 



133 




Figure 1. Node of Zea mays L. with leaf removed. 
Figure 2. Nodal complex of Tripsaoum dactyloides L. 
Figures 3, 4. Longitudinal sections through nodal complex of Rottboellia 
exaltata L. f. 

Figure 5. Fruits of Sclerachnc (above) and Rottboellia. 
Figure 6. Portion of rachis, inflorescene of Rottboellia, with a pair of 
spikelets, one imbedded in the rachis and fertile and the other pedicelled 
and staminate. 

Figure 7. Longitudinal section of structure shown in Fig. 6. 
Ab, Abscission zone ; Ax, Insertion of axillary branch ; Fs, Fertile 
spikelet ; Lf, Insertion of leaf ; Ln, Leaf node ; Pk, Parenchyma knob ; Rs, 
Rhizogenic segment ; Sh, Leaf sheath ; Sn, Stem node ; Vp, Vascular plate. 



want of a better term, we are calling it the rhizogenic segment since it 
is from it that adventitious roots may arise. Recognition of this special 
segment of the stem clarifies some observations made long ago and 
makes possible some new interpretations. 



134 Indiana Academy of Science 

The stems of grasses, like those of many other monocotyledons, 
elongate largely by growth of the stem node, a meristem in the upper 
part of each nodal complex (Figs. 2, 3, 4). As each internode becomes 
older, it matures from the top downward, but it retains at its lower end 
this segment of embryonic tissue, by which it may continue to grow for 
a long time. The great rapidity of elongation in some stems, sometimes 
more than two feet in a day, is due to this distribution of regions of 
growth, but each of the meristems constitutes a mechanically weak place 
in the stem. Compensation for this structural deficiency is made by 
having the internode surrounded by the early maturing leaf sheath; 
and this ferrule function of the sheath is enhanced by its extending 
downward for a short distance over the firm rhizogenic segment (Figs. 
3,4). 

It is equally significant that the axillary branch, which is going to 
need support for some time, and the adventitious roots, which help to 
hold upright stems in position, are attached to this structurally strong 
segment and not in any essential way connected with the intercalary 
meristem as might be expected. The vascular bundles coming in from 
the axillary unit extend diagonally downward through the rhizogenic 
segment and join the bundles of the main stem (Fig. 4). The adventitious 
roots originate in interfascicular parenchyma cells, but the exact de- 
tails vary from species to species. 

It is well known that a young internode can easily be pulled out 
of the leaf sheath, the break occurring in the intercalary meristem. The 
detasseling process, which played a prominent part in the early stages 
of the development of hybrid corn, took advantage of this anatomical 
peculiarity. 

In a young leaf the sheath increases in length by meristematic 
activity at its lower end, in the upper margin of the leaf node, and its 
tissues mature basipetally. The sheath usually reaches its ultimate 
length and matures long before cessation of growth at the lower end of 
the enclosed internode, but the leaf node may remain meristematic for 
a long time and may be stimulated to renewed activity. When a grass 
stem is bent over or placed in a horizontal position, as in the "lodging" 
of the cereal plants, it may, if it is not too old, bring its terminal part 
again into an upright position by a series of bends at the nodes. Both 
the leaf node and the stem node are involved in this process. When, as 
in most grasses, these two meristems are at almost the same level, it 
may seem externally that there is a single curve; but when there is 
some distance between the two, that is, when a rhizogenic segment of 
appreciable length is present, the curvature occurs in two places. This 
often results in a noticeable distortion of the lower part of the leaf 
sheath since it can bend in only one place. 

This analysis of the nodal complex throws some light on the prob- 
lem of an interesting device which aids in the dispersal of the seeds of 
several genera of grasses of Southeast Asia and Indonesia. Rottboellia, 
Sclerachne, Polytoca, Chionachne, Coelachne, and several others provide 
good illustrations (Fig. 5). In these grasses the fertile member of a 
pair of spikelets is deeply imbedded in a cavity in the side of the rachis 



Botany 135 

of the inflorescence (Fig. 6). At maturity the rachis breaks up into seg- 
ments, each containing one caryopsis, and each bearing at its lower end 
a small but conspicuous knob of parenchyma which fitted into a socket 
in the upper end of the next lower seed-bearing segment. It has been 
observed that ants carry these fruits to their nests, grasping them by 
this parenchyma knob (5, p. 116). Since these plants are all more or 
less closely related to sugar cane, a reasonable hypothesis would be that 
these little knobs contained sugar, but tests show that the attractive 
substance is a fat rather than a sugar. The ants apparently do not eat 
the seeds. 

Longitudinal sections of the rachis show that the knob consists of 
a mass of stem pith in the upper part of the internode (Fig. 7). Al- 
though abscission occurs above it, this knob remains firmly connected 
with the vascular plate and remnants of the rhizogenic segment of the 
nodal complex above it; and, early in development, it separates itself 
from other parts of the internode of which it is a part. This behavior 
poses a question as to just where the significant dividing point between 
two successive internodes is, and it may also help to explain the frequent 
breaking of grass stems just below the leaf node. 

One of the amazing things about the morphology of the grass 
family is the way in which a relatively small number of simple building 
blocks have been manipulated so as to produce such great diversity of 
form. This means that any basic structural unit found in one species 
is likely to appear in some form in other species; and when it is highly 
specialized and difficult to interpret in one, a clue to its interpretation 
may sometimes be found in its homologue in another. This is well 
illustrated by the nodal complex, and there are other puzzles in grass 
morphology which may well be attacked in the same way. 

Literature Cited 

1. Arber, Agnes. 1934. The Gramineae. Macmillan, Cambridge. 

2. Chrysler, M. A. 1906. The nodes of grasses. Bot. Gaz. 41:1-12. 

3. Evans, Arthur T. 1928. The vascularization of the node in Zea mays. 
Bot. Gaz. 85:97-103. 

4. Hayward Herman E. 193S. The structure of economic plants. Macmillan, 
New York. 

5. Holttum, Richard E. 1954. Plant life in Malaya. Longmans-Green, New 
York. 

6. Metcalfe, C. R. 1960. Anatomy of the monocotyledons. I. Gramineae. 
Clarendon, Oxford. 



The Effect of Sulfhydral Inhibitors on Plant Cell Elongation 1 

W. R. Eisinger and D. J. Morr6, Department of Botany and Plant 
Pathology, Purdue University 

Elongation of plant cells is a metabolic process. It involves a re- 
laxation of wall bonding or wall loosening which is controlled by auxin 
and thought to require direct participation of enzymes (1, 2, 5, 7, 8). 
Inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis stop elongation independently 
of the degree of wall loosening (2, 5, 7, 8), and N-ethylmaleimide 
(NEM), a specific sulfhydryl reagent (14), blocks cell elongation without 
significantly affecting wall loosening. These results with inhibitors sug- 
gest that enzymes are not only involved in wall loosening but also 
catalyze the expansion of the auxin-loosened walls. 

Materials and Methods 

Sections (1 cm long) cut 0.3 cm below the apical hook (9) from 
the third internode of eight days old etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum 
sativum var. Alaska) were placed in cold distilled water for 15 to 30 
minutes before use. Ten sections per treatment were incubated in 1 x 5 
cm petri plates containing 3 to 5 ml of solution. Solutions were buffered 
with 2.5 mM potassium maleate, pH 4.5. Increase in section length was 
measured with a stage micrometer fitted to a binocular dissecting 
microscope. 

Extensibility of tissue boiled in methanol and rehydrated in water 
was determined using an Instron linear stress strain analyzer (10) 
which provided a direct measure of cell wall loosening. Tissue deforma- 
bility (a measure of cell wall loosening and turgor pressure) was de- 
termined by bending methods (6, 7). 

Conductivity of incubating solutions (10 sections per 3 ml) was 
determined using an Industrial Instruments Model 162B conductivity 
bridge (Industrial Instruments, Cedar Grove, N. J.) with a Beckmann 
3997-P pipet type conductivity cell calibrated against sodium chloride 
solutions (1 mM NaCl = 100 ^mhos). 

Results 

Elongation of sections treated with auxin (0.1 mM 2,4-D) in the 
presence of 0.1 to 1 mM NEM seldom exceeded that of untreated con- 
trols (Fig. 1A, Table 1). Elongation of sections incubated with 0.1 mM 
NEM alone was inhibited about 50 percent during the first hour and 
was completely blocked during the second hour (Fig. 1A). The initial 
decline in cell wall extensibility of sections incubated without auxin 
was accelerated by 0.1 mM NEM but after about 2 hours, the extensi- 
bilities of control and NEM-treated sections were nearly equal (Fig. 
IB). Extensibility of tissues treated with 2,4-D remained high both in 
the presence and absence of NEM (Fig. IB, Table 1). 



1 Purdue University AES Journal Paper No. 3265. Supported in part by 
a contract with the U. S. Army Biological Laboratories, Frederick, 
Maryland. 



136 



Botany 



137 




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Figure 1. Time course of cell elong-ation (A) and extensibility (B) of 1 
cm etiolated pea 3rd internode sections in the presence and absence of 
0.1 mM 2,4-D with and without 0.1 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). 



138 Indiana Academy of Science 

After a 4 hour incubation, sections treated with 2,4-D ± 1 mM NEM 
were about twice as deformable as untreated controls (Table 2). Both 
residual and total deformability of the control sections declined whereas 
that of the 2,4-D-treated sections increased slightly. Deformability with 
NEM alone (50°) was higher by 20° than that predicted from cell wall 
extensibility (30°) suggesting a loss of cell turgor as a possible conse- 
quence of NEM treatment. 

TABLE 1. 

Effect of 1 mM N-Ethylmaleimide and Dithiothreitol on Expansion and 
Cell Wall Extensibility of Pea Internode Tissue in the Presence and 
Absence of 0.1 mM 2,4-D. Sections were Incubated for 4 Hours. 



Change in Length Extensibility After 

After 4 hr (mm) 4 hr (cm/g X 10 3 ) 

Treatment — 2,4-D + 2,4-D —2,4-D + 2,4-D 

None 0.7 ± 0.2* 2.7 ± 0.5* 0.48 0.66 

N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) 0.3 ±0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.44 0.64 

Dithiothreitol (DTT) 0.6 ± 0.1 2.4 ± 0.4 0.46 0.64 

NEM + DTT 1.0 ±0.3 2.2 ± 0.6 0.52 0.62 

* One standard deviation from the mean. 

TABLE 2. 

Deformability (7) of Pea Internode Tissue Treated With and Without 
1 mM N-Ethylmaleimide in the Presence and Absence of 0.1 mM 2,4-D. 
Sections were Incubated for 4 Hours. 

Deformabilty, Degrees 

Treatment 

Initial (0 Hours) 
Control (4 Hours) 

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 
N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) 
NEM + 2,4-D 

* One standard deviation from the mean. 

Conductivity of the incubation medium was used as a measure of 
NEM effects on electrolyte leakage. Between 1 and 4 hours, the net 
rate of leakage from NEM-treated sections was about twice that of 
controls but was unaffected by 2,4-D (Fig. 2A, Fig. 3). To estimate the 
total change in electrolyte absorption and release, sections were auto- 
claved for 10 mintes at 14 lb. per sq. inch at 120° C. in 3 ml of media. 
After cooling, the conductivity of the solution was measured and con- 



Total 


Residual 


60 ± 5* 


23 ± 2* 


35 ±5 


9±1 


77 ±2 


24 ±2 


50 ±7 


11 ±1 


63 ±1 


18 ±2 



Botany 



139 



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Figure 2. Conductivity of media in which ten 1 cm pea internode sections 
were incubated in the presence and absence of 1 mM N-ethylmaleimide 
(NEM) as a function of incubation time ± 0.1 mM 2,4-D (A); as a function 
of dithiothreitol (DTT) concentration after 4 hrs (B); as a function of 
incubation time in various combinations with 0.1 mM 2,4-D and 1 mM DTT 
(C); and transferred to 2,4-D only or 1 mM NEM + 1 mM DTT for 3 hrs 
after a 1 hr preincubation in 0.1 mM 2,4-D -f- 1 mM NEM (Tissue treated 
with NEM + 2,4-D throughout the experiment was not transferred). (D). 



140 Indiana Academy of Science 

ductivity changes during incubation were expressed as percent of 
autoclaved values corrected for initial conductance due to buffer and 
added chemicals (Fig. 3). Thus, at the end of 4 hours, the net NEM- 
induced leakage was equivalent to 20 percent of the total electrolytes. 
Dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl protectant (4), at a concentration 
of 1 mM eliminated the NEM-induced leakage and growth inhibition in 
the absence (Fig. 2B, Table 1) and presence (Fig. 2C, Table 1) of 2,4-D. 
DTT did not significantly affect either growth in the absence of NEM 
or wall extensibility measured after 4 hours (Table 1). 

Maximum rate of leakage was established by preincubation of tissue 
in NEM and 2,4-D for 1 hour. When preincubated sections were then 
transferred to 2,4-D alone or 2,4-D -f NEM + DTT for an additional 3 
hours, the rate of leakage of the transferred sections was found to be 
similar to that of sections treated with NEM -f 2,4-D throughout the 4 
hour period (Fig. 2D). However, a small amount of growth was re- 
stored by transfer from NEM -f 2,4-D to NEM + 2,4-D + DTT (Table 3). 

TABLE 3. 

Effect of 1 mM Dithiothreitol on Expansion of Pea Internode Tissue 
Pretreated with I mM N-Ethylmaleimide + 0.1 mM 2,4-D. 





Char 


ige in Length 


Pretreatment (1 hr) 


Treatment (3 hr) Aft< 


ir 4 hr (mm) 


None 


None 


1.0 ± 0.2* 


2,4-D 


2,4-D 


2.6 ± 0.2 


N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) 


N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) 


0.5 ± 0.2 


2,4-D + NEM 


2,4-D + NEM 


1.2 ± 0.1 


2,4-D + NEM 


2,4-D 


1.3 ± 0.1 


2,4-D + NEM 


2,4-D + NEM + Dithiothreitol 


1.6 ± 0.2 



* One standard deviation from the mean. 

Discussion 

Growth inhibition by sulfhydryl reagents is a well established 
phenomenon (1, 11, 12, 13) and mercuric chloride is similar to N-ethyl- 
maleimide in its ability to inhibit auxin-induced cell expansion inde- 
pendently of wall loosening (8). High concentrations (ImM) or pro- 
longed incubation with low and intermediate concentrations of NEM 
may affect membrane semipermeability as evidenced by increased rates 
of solute leakage. Growth of some tissues are extremely sensitive to 
changes in external osmotic concentration (8) and Cleland (3) has 
pointed out that a decrease in the internal osmotic pressure of less 
than 20 percent will account for a 50 percent reduction in growth rate 
of Avena coleoptiles. 

However, with the information available, it is not possible to equate 
NEM-induced solute leakage with the cessation of growth. If conductivity 
changes reflect the loss of osmotically active solutes, the change due to 
NEM after 1.5 hours (when growth inhibition is complete) accounts for 



Botany 



141 




TIME . Hours 



Figure 3. Conductivity of media in which ten 1 cm pea internode sections 
were incubated in the presence and absence of 0.1 mM 2,4-D with and with- 
out 1 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Values are expressed as percent of 
autoclaved values corrected for initial conductivity due to buffer and 
added chemicals. 



only a 5 to 6 percent reduction in internal osmotic pressure. Even at 
1 mM NEM, solute leakage is not detected during the first hour of NEM 
treatment and at lower NEM concentrations, this period may be sev- 
eral hours. Yet growth is 50 percent inhibited during the first hour and 
eliminated thereafter by NEM concentrations as low as 0.1 mM. Thus, 
the seemingly obvious conclusion that NEM inhibits growth by disrup- 
tion of the semipermeability properties of the cellular membranes and a 
concomitant reduction in cell turgor is not readily verified by the data 
available. Furthermore, when sections were first incubated in NEM and 
then transferred to a sulfhydryl protectant (DDT) -f NEM + 2,4-D, 



142 Indiana Academy of Science 

some growth was restored with no effect on the rapid rate of solute 
leakage characteristic of prolonged NEM treatment. 

Direct measurements of turgor are difficult. An indirect indicator of 
turgor changes is provided by a comparison of tissue deformability (by 
bending methods) with wall extensibility (by fiber testing methods). A 
loss of turgor results in greater deformability than predicted from cell 
wall extensibility, as shown by sections treated with NEM in the 
absence of 2,4-D. However, a corresponding loss of turgor is not ap- 
parent in sections treated with NEM -f 2,4-D even though both sets of 
sections are equally leaky in conductivity studies. 

The somewhat equivocal relationship between NEM effects on 
growth and turgor do not detract from the observation that auxin- 
induced wall loosening is not significantly affected by the NEM treat- 
ment under conditions where growth is completely inhibited. Although 
many hormone effects appear to be mediated through nucleic acid 
metabolism, the results with NEM make it less clear that the auxin 
effect on wall loosening is under direct nuclear control. The apparent 
tolerance of the wall loosening machinery to NEM and other sulfhydryl 
inhibitors is suggestive of a lower order of complexity. An interaction 
of auxin with a pre-existing protein whose functioning is not appreciably 
altered by sulfhydryl poisons seems a more reasonable expectation. 

Summary 

N-ethylmaleimide, a specific sulfhydral inhibitor, blocks cell elonga- 
tion in etiolated pea third internode sections without significantly af- 
fecting wall loosening induced by auxin. Electrolyte leakage induced by 
high and intermediate N-ethylmaleimide concentrations and the at- 
tendant reduction in growth rate appear to proceed independently. The 
results suggest that the N-ethylmaleimide inhibition of cell expansion is 
mediated through an inhibition of growth active enzymes and that 
auxin interacts with a pre-existing protein whose function in cell wall 
loosening is not appreciably altered by incubation of the tissue with 
sulfhydryl inhibtors. 

Literature Cited 

1. Cleland, R. 1961. The relation between auxin and metabolism. In: 
W. Ruhland ed. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, 14:754-783. Springer- 
Verlag, Berlin. 

2. Cleland, R. 1965. Auxin-induced cell wall loosening in the presence of 
actinomycin D. Plant Physiol. 40:595-600. 

3. Cleland, R. 1967. Extensibility of isolated cell walls: Measurement and 
changes during cell elongation. Planta 74:197-209. 

4. Cleland, W. W. 1964. Dithiothreitol, a new protective reagent for SH 
groups. Biochem. 3:480-482. 

5. Coartney, J. S., D. J. Morr£ and J. L. Key. 1967. Inhibition of RNA 
synthesis and auxin-induced cell wall extensibility and growth by 
actinomycin D. Plant Physiol. 42:434-439. 

6. Lockhart, J. A. 1959. A new method for the determination of osmotic 
pressure. Amer. J. Botany 40:704-708. 



Botany 143 

7. Morre, D. J. 1965. Changes in tissue deformability accompanying 
actinomycin D inhibtion of plant growth and ribonucleic acid synthesis. 
Plant Physiol. 40:615-619. 

8. Morr£, D. J. and W. R. Eisinger. In Press. Cell wall extensibility: its 
control by auxin and relationship to cell elongation. In: Proceedings 
Sixth International Conference on Plant Growth Substances, Ottawa, 
Canada, July, 1967. 

9. Morr£, D. J. and J. L. Key. 1967. Auxins, In: F. Wilt and N. Wessels, 
eds., Methods in Developmental Biology. T. Y. Crowell, New York. 

10. Olson, A. C, J. Bonner and D. J. Morr£. 1965. Force extension analysis 
of Avena coleoptile cell walls. Planta 66:126-134. 

11. Ray, P. M. 1962. Cell wall synthesis and cell elongation in oat coleoptile 
tissue. Amer. J. Botany 4*):928-939. 

12. Thimann, K. V. and W. D. Bonner. 1948. Experiments on the growth 
and inhibition of isolated plant parts. I. The action of iodoacetate and 
organic acids on the Avena coleoptile. Amer. J. Botany 35:271-281. 

13. Thimann, K. V. and W. D. Bonner. 1949. Experiments on the growth 
and inhibition of isolated plant parts, II. The action of several enzyme 
inhibitors on the growth of the Avena coleoptile and in Pisum inter- 
nodes. Amer. J. Botany 36:214-221. 

14. Webb, J. L. 1966. Enzyme and Metabolic Inhibitors. Academic Press, 

New York. 



Localization of Callose Deposits in Pollen Tubes of 
Lilium longiflorum Thunb. 

by Fluorescence Microscopy 1 

Leo M. Alves,- Arthur E. Middleton- and D. James Morre, 
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University. 

Since pollen tubes elongate rapidly, identification of cell wall consti- 
tuents in pollen tubes is of interest with regard to elucidating the 
mechanisms of cell growth in plants. Growth of pollen tubes is largely 
restricted to the tube tip (8, 9, 11) and thus represents a rapid, localized 
deposition of cell wall materials (11). Rates approaching 7.5 mm per 
hour are reported for tube elongation in the style (3) while pollen 
tubes cultured in vitro elongate at approximately one tenth this rate 
(3,11). 

Cell walls of pollen tubes are composed principally of glucose poly- 
mers (11), but the manner in which the glucose units are linked is not 
known. The existence of one type of glucoside polymer can be estab- 
lished through fluorescence microscopy. This is a /3-1,3-linked glucan 
known as callose (5). Callose is synthesized rapidly in many types of 
plant cells (4, 6) and may be deposited in large quantities in localized 
cell wall regions (4). The enzymes necessary for this polymerization 
are widespread in plants (6). In this study, stains reported to be fluoro- 
specific for callose were utilized to determine the extent of /3-1,3-glucan 
deposition in pollen tube cell walls of Lilium longiflorum. 

Materials and Methods 

Mature lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. var. Ace) anthers were 
collected from greenhouse grown plants, dried and stored at — 70° C. 
Pollen grains were germinated at 28° C in a 10% sucrose solution con- 
taining 100 ppm boric acid (9). Tubes were stained approximately 2 
hours after the beginning of germination. 

Living material was stained with aniline blue (a 0.01% solution of 
water soluble aniline blue prepared in M/15 dibasic phosphate for 10 
min) for detection of small amounts of callose (5) or with acridine 
orange (0.01% acridine orange in 0.01 M phosphate-citrate buffer, pH 
7.5 to 8.5 for 5 min) (2). After staining, material was viewed in a 
darkened room using a fluorescence microscope [American Optical; 
Model 645 Fluorolume (200 watt mercuiy arc lamp)]. Preparations were 
photographed with two exciter filters [Schott BG-12 (350-450 mn) of 
3 mm thickness and Corning 5840 (350-400 m>) of 2 mm thickness] and 
a water barrier filter in the light path. 



1 Purdue University AES Journal Paper No. 3242. Supported by research 
grants NSF GB 1084, GY 2452 and GY 2495. The authors are grateful to 
William J. VanDerWoude and to Professors J. F. Tuite and G. B. Bergeson 
for kindnesses rendered. 

2 St. Norbert College, De Pere, Wisconsin; undergraduate student. 

3 Department of Biology, St. Joseph's College. 

144 



Botany 145 

Results 

Some tubes which were stained with aniline blue fluorochrome 
showed a pale yellow fluorescence characteristic of callose (tube A, Fig. 
1). In many tubes, however, this fluorescence appeared only as a yellow 
haze (tube B, Fig. 1) or was absent. The tube tip did not fluoresce 
with aniline blue. Heavy callose deposits were found in the tube distal 
to the tip in plug formations (Fig. 1, P). Aniline blue staining of tubes 
fixed with formalin-acetic acid or staining at a pH of 9 to 10 (5) gave 
similar results as did staining of pollen tubes of trumpet vine {Campsis 
radicans Seem.). In general, the plugs of callose were formed at regular 
intervals along the length of the tube as the tube elongated (arrows, 
Fig. 2). The continued plugging eventually subdivided the tubes into 
many small segments. 

Acridine orange fluorochrome yielded an intense red fluorescence in 
a limited number of trials, a reaction reported to indicate callose 
deposition (2). The pH was critical with an optimum between pH 7 
and 8 over the pH range of 5 to 10. The tip region proper (5 to 15 
fi from the tube tip; T in Fig. 3) fluoresced a bright red to reddish 
orange while the subtip region (zone 20 to 30 ji in length from arrow at 
T to arrow at ST) fluoresced a deeper, more subdued, shade of red. The 
periphery of the tube (p) assumed the coloration of the subtip region. 
The pollen grain (g) and the central region of the tube were character- 
ized by a yellow to yellowish green fluorescence. 

Discussion 

With aniline blue, dense callose deposits were restricted to plugs 
as reported previously by Currier (4) and Skvarla and Larson (10) for 
pollen tubes of other species. Callose plugs have been observed by 
fluorescence microscopy in pollen tubes growing in stylar tissues (7), 
and by phase microscopy in pollen tubes growing in culture. According 
to Brubaker and Kwack (3), the rapid tube elongation is a process of 
cell wall synthesis involving little or no net increase in cytoplasm. This 
they attribute to continued vacuolation of mature regions of the tube 
following callose plugging. In this manner, the callose plugs are thought 
to restrict the mass of cytoplasm to the growing tube tip. 

In contrast to results with aniline blue, the pollen tube tip fluoresced 
for a length of 30 to 40 n following acridine orange staining suggesting 
that callose was not the substance reacting. In pollen tubes, dictyosomes 
of the Golgi apparatus (8) produce secretory vesicles which migrate to 
the tube tip where they coalesce to pool wall precursor materials (9, 
11). The tip region, where vesicle coalesence and fusion with the cell 
wall occur, corresponds to the region of bright red fluo:rescence with 
acridine orange fluorochrome. The subtip region which fluoresces a 
subdued shade of red may correspond to the region of vesicle accumula- 
tion, especially under the conditions of abnormal growth provided by 
the acridine orange solutions. These are the same regions that stain for 
polysaccharides following application of periodic acid-Schiff reagents or 
alcian blue (9). In the remainder of the tube, dictyosomes are distributed 
in random groups and secretory vesicles are fewer in number. 



146 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figures 1 to 3. Living- pollen tubes of lily (Lilium longiflorum) stained 
for polysaccharides and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Fig. 1. Aniline 
blue fluorochrome for callose showing variations in the intensity of 
fluorescence among different tubes. P denotes a callose plug formation. X 
280. Fig. 2. Aniline blue fluorochrome showing a single tube with multiple 
plug formations of callose (arrows). X 280. Fig. 3. Acridine orange 
fluorochrome, pH 7.8, for tube tip matrix polysaccharides. Reddish 
fluorescence of tube tip (T) extends over subtip region to arrow (ST) and 
along the periphery (p). The grain (g) and the central portion of the 
tube were characterized by a yellow to yellow green fluorescence. This 
fluorochrome did not appear to be combining exclusively with callose. 
X 320. 



Botany 147 

Response to injury may contribute to the pattern of acridine orange 
fluorescence (1). Tube growth is easily disrupted by a variety of condi- 
tions including routine handling. Under these conditions, secretory 
vesicles often accumulate in the tip and subtip regions. Since acridine 
orange was used as a vital stain in these studies, such accumulations 
would be expected. Furthermore, they would account for the observation 
that the extent of the strongly fluorescent regions in the presence of 
acridine orange is somewhat greater than the region of vesicle ac- 
cumulations observed in thin sections of pollen tubes fixed during steady 
state growth (11). 

Summary 

Using a fluorospecific stain, aniline blue, callose was found to be 
localized in plug deposits distal to the growing tip in pollen tubes of 
germinating lily {Lilium longifiorum) pollen. The results with acridine 
orange differed from those with aniline blue on identical material, thus 
casting doubt on the usefulness of acridine orange as a fluorospecific 
stain for callose. The dense reddish fluorescent deposits at the growing 
tips of pollen tubes which had been vitally stained with acridine orange 
corresponded to accumulations of wall precursors which were at least 
partially derived from the Golgi apparatus. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bertalanffy. L. von. 1963. Acridine orange fluorescence in cell physiology, 
cytochemistry and medicine. Protoplasma 57:51-83. 

2. Bhaduri, P. N. and P. K. Bhanja. 1962. Fluorescence microscopy in the 
study of pollen grains and pollen tubes. Stain Technology 37:351-355. 

3. Brewbaker, J. L. and B. H. Kwack. 1961. The calcium ion and substances 
influencing pollen growth. In. H F. Linskens, ed., Pollen Physiology 
and Fertilization. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam. 

4. Currier, H. B. 1957. Callose substances in plant cells. Amer. J. Bot. 

44:478-488. 

5. Eschrich, W. and H. B. Currier. 1964. Identification of callose by its 
diachrome and fluorochrome reactions. Stain Technology 30:303-307. 

6. Hassid, W. Z. 1967. Transformation of sugars in plants. Ann. Rev. 
Plant Physiol. 18:253-280. 

7. Martin, F. W. 1959. Staining and observing pollen tubes in the styles 
by means of fluorescence. Stain Technology 34:125-128. 

8. Mollenhauer, H. H. and D. J. Morre'. 1966. Golgi apparatus and plant 
secretion. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 17:27-46. 

9. Rosen, W. G., S. R. Gawlick, W. V. Dashek and K. A. Siegesmund. 1964. 
Fine structure and cytochemistry of LiUum pollen tubes. Amer. J. Bot. 
51:61-71. 

10. Skvarla, J. J. and D. A. Larson. 1966. Fine structural studies of Zea 
mays pollen. I. Cell membranes and exine ontogeny. Amer. J. Bot. 
53:1112-1125. 

11. Vanderwoude, W. J. and D. J. Morre. 1968. Endoplasmic reticulum- 
dictyosome-secretory vesicle associations in pollen tubes of Lilium 
longifiorum. Proc. Indiana Acad. Science 77: — . 



A Study of Sleep Movements in the Genus Marsilea 

Carole J. Kroening,i William W. Bloom, and Kenneth E. Nichols 
Valparaiso University 

Abstract 

Studies of young- sporophyte plants of Marslea mucronata indicate that the 
first bifid leaves are capable of sleep movements. A mechanism for the 
sleep movements in the Marsileacease is proposed. 

Many plants, notably Mimosa pudica and Oxalis (4), exhibit the 
so-called "sleep movements" which are thought to be the result of 
reversible changes of turgor pressure in certain of the plant cells. The 
movements may be initiated in several ways, although the mechanism 
for causing the turgor changes is not yet clearly understood. There are 
a few references to the "sleep movements" in the Marsilea in the litera- 
ture (1, 2). In Marsilea the mature leaves are extended in a plane at 
right angles to the sun's rays during the day, but they assume a folded 
position with the four leaflets together, the basal pair on either side of 
the distal pair, at night. 

To determine any difference in the time required for opening and 
closing at different times of the day, three pots of Marsilea mucronata 
were kept in the greenhouse and six healthy leaves at different stages 
of maturity were labeled in each as references. At each hour between 
8 AM and 5 PM a pot was placed in the dark for one hour and then 
brought back into the light and the time required for the labeled leaves 
to open completely was noted and recorded. An hour of darkness was 
sufficient to cause the leaves to close completely during the morning 
and late afternoon, and they opened again in an average of 20 to 25 
minutes in the morning and 15 to 20 minutes in the afternoon. Timing 
was complicated by the fact that in full sun and high afternoon 
temperatures the leaves often assumed a partially folded position for 
several hours. In this case one hour in the dark caused little additional 
closure and upon being readmitted to light the leaves opened rapidly, 
often in less than ten minutes; or they did not open at all until later 
in the afternoon. 

Marsilea quadrifolia sporelings were used to determine the stage in 
development at which the sleep movements first occur. To secure spore- 
lings a sporocarp was scarified and placed in a vial with 30 ml. of tap 
water. Development of the gametophytes occurred rapidly and numerous 
sporelings were available within a week. These were then transferred 
to soil kept moist with a constant watering device. In the development 
of the young plant there are first two to four spatulate leaves followed 
by two to four bifid leaves, in turn followed by the first quadrifid leaf. 
There are many variations in the amount of indentation of the spatulate 
leaves and of the completeness of division of the bifid leaves. There is 
also an occasional trifid leaf. It is clearly seen by observing the young 



N.S.F. Undergraduate Research Participant, under grant No. GY2553. 

148 



Botany 149 

sporelings that the bifid leaves do close in a manner similar to the 
quadrifid leaves of the mature plant. Some variation exists, however. In 
some the second bifid leaf, or the first to be completely divided, is the 
first to react to a change in light; while in others even an incompletely 
divided leaf showed some degree of closure. Documentation of the 
movement in the young leaves was done photographically showing the 
entire young plant with its bifid leaves closed, and comparing open 
and closed leaves removed from the plant (Fig. 1). 

Both quadrifid leaves and bifid leaves were sectioned and stained 
in an attempt to determine the tissue responsible for the leaf movements. 
Those portions of the adult leaflets that are attached to the petiole and 
the entire bifid leaves were fixed in either Bouin's or Formalin and em- 
bedded in paraffin according to general fixing and embedding schedules 
and procedures. Both longitudinal and cross sections were made at ten 
microns, and stained with a safranin and fast green combination (5). 

In some plants the turgor movements are reported to result from 
changes in certain thin-walled cells of the pulvini. When these cells 
are evenly distended the leaf is supported, but unequal turgor pressure 
on one side of the pulvinus causes the petiole to move toward the side 
with the reduced pressure (4). Marsilea does not seem to possess this 
pulvinus-type arrangement. Examination of the sections revealed an area 
of specialized cells in and sometimes adjacent to the upper epidermis, 
near the junction of lamina and petiole (Figs. 2 and 3). These spe- 
cialized cells stain more densely with safranin and contain many 
safranin-stained granules which also occur in large numbers near the 
vascular bundles. Similar specialized cells occur in the petiole near the 
point of attachment of the leaflets. 

This finding suggests a possible explanation for the "sleep move- 
ments" in Marsilea similar to that cited by Steward (6) for the be- 
havior of the guard cells of stomata. Guard cells are thought to respond 
to light with a starch to sugar conversion and an increase in turgor 
pressure resulting in a change in shape and volume. Steward suggests 
that the starch is converted to glucose-1-phosphate and finally to glu- 
cose and free phosphate. These reactions would occur in light as carbon 
dioxide is used in photosynthesis and the pH of the cell rises favoring 
the catalytic action of phosphorylase in converting starch to sugar. In 
this scheme the conversion back to glucose-1-phosphate would require 
energy and the hexokinase enzyme system, and would require oxidation. 
Stomatal closure would depend on energy and respiration but opening 
in light would occur as a result of photosynthesis. If the specialized 
upper epidermal cells in Marsilea decrease in size and lose turgor pres- 
sure due to loss of water as sugar is converted to starch in the dark, the 
greater turgor pressure of cells opposite these specialized cells would 
cause the leaflets to close. In light a conversion of starch to sugar would 
increase the sugar concentration and raise the turgor pressure in the 
specialized cells to a higher level than that in adjacent cells, and the 
leaflets would open. Further studies to test this hypothesis as the cause 
of the "sleep movements" in Marsilea are in progress. 



150 



Indiana Academy of Science 




' [ fi»r^4 




Botany 151 

Figure 1. Bifid leaves from young- plants of Marsilea quadrifolia, in the 
open (left) and closed (right) positions. 

Figure 2. Longitudinal section of a bifid leaf of Marsilea quadrifolia in the 
closed position. Note the dense protoplasts of the cells of the upper epidermis 
on the facing surfaces in the center of the figure in contrast to the rest of 
the cells, especially the lower epidermis at the exereme left and right of 
the section. 

Figure 3. Cross section of a mature quadrifid leaf of Marsilea mucronta in 
the open position. Only a portion of one leaflet (upper right) and the 
petiole (lower left) just above the point of attachment of the leaflet is 
shown. Note the dense protoplasts of the upper epidermis and adjacent 
cells (area nearest the petiole) in contrast to the rest of the cells. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bloom, William W. and Kenneth E. Nichols. 1967. Some response by 
members of the Marsileaceae grown under field conditions. Proc. Indi- 
ana Acad. Science 76:215-216. 

2. Eames, Arthur J. 1936. Morphology of Vascular Plants. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., Inc., New York. 

3. Humason, Gretchen L. 1967. Animal Tissue Techniques. Freeman and 
Co., San Francisco. 

4. Meter, Bernard S., and Donald B. Anderson. 1939. Plant Physiology. D. 
Van Nostrand Co., New York. 

5. Sass, John E. 1940. Elements of Botanical Microtechnique. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., Inc., New York. 

6. Steward, F. C. 1964. Plants at Work. Addison-Wesley Co., Reading, 
Mass. 



A Circadian Rhythm in the Sleep Movements of the Marsileaceae 

Kenneth E. Nichols and William W. Bloom, Valparaiso University. 

Abstract 

Plants belonging to the genus Marsilea exhibit "sleep movements" 
when placed in the dark and "waking- movements" when transferred from 
the dark to the light. These more immediate responses which occur in 
less than an hour upon the changes in light conditions appear to be 
superimposed upon a circidan rhythm which persists for several days 
when plants are maintained in complete darkness or in continuous light. 

Observations on sleep and helionastic movements in members of 
the genus Marsilea grown under field conditions were previously re- 
ported to the Academy (1). It was noted that sleep movements in this 
genus could be induced during the day by covering the plants and pre- 
vented after sundown by providing artificial light. 

Since the opening of the leaves was assumed to be a light response, 
we were interested in determining its action spectrum. Studies in this 
connection revealed that individual leaves cut to include a portion of 
the rhizome and maintained in vials of water responded to light in 
much the same way as leaves of whole plants. 

The isolated leaves were held in one of the following conditions: 
a) continuous fluorescent light; b) continuous monochromatic light; or 
c) continuous darkness. Monochromatic light was obtained by means of 
interference filters, but no attempt was made at this time to provide 
equal intensities at each of the wavelengths. Examination of the leaves 
at various times during the day and night revealed that the leaves in 
all three groups assumed sleep positions at night and were open during 
the day. 

At the time these observations were being made, other studies were 
in progress for the purpose of determining the mean time required for 
the leaves to change from the fully closed to the fully opened position 
and for the reverse response. Whole potted plants were transferred from 
a lighted window sill to a dark closet or from the dark closet to the 
lighted window sill. The leaves of plants remaining overnight in the 
closet were found to be in the open position in the morning although 
they had received no light stimulus. 

Studies of a possible circadian rhythm in plants held in continuous 
darkness have been limited for lack of any recording techniques or 
methods of observation which would avoid stimuli which might inter- 
fere with the responses under study. 

A circadian rhythm has been recorded in whole plants held in 
continuous light. The plants in this study were illuminated by a combina- 
tion of fluorescent and incandescent light with intensities of from 350 
to 450 fc. at the level of the leaves. The plants were photographed at 
regular intervals by means of an 8 mm movie camera. Examination of 
the film record revealed a circadian rhythm which persisted for from 
three to four days. 

152 



Botany 153 

To date, the studies have involved only Marsilea quadrifolia, M. 
Drummondii, and M. rnucronata. All have exhibited the circadian 
rhythm. Further studies are planned when necessary equipment becomes 
available. 

The authors believe this to be the first report of a circadian rhythm 
in a member of the Marsileaceae. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bloom, William W. and Kenneth E. Nichols. 1967. Some responses by 
members of the Marsileaceae grown under field conditions. Proc. Indiana 
Academy of Science. 76:215-216. 



Cell Biology 

Chairman : Ralph Jersild, Indiana University Medical Center 
Dr. Jersild was reelected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

A Collodian-methacrylate Supporting Film. Frank Padgett and Alvin 
S. Levine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis. — A new 
supporting film for specimens has been developed for use in the electron 
microscopy of biological materials. The ingredients of collodian and 
butyl methacrylate impart properties to this film which are lacking in 
collodian or formvar substrates alone. The resistance of this film to 
the effects of air currents and moisture during its preparation and its 
resistance to the damaging effects of the electron beam are of special 
interest. The preparation and properties of this supporting film will 
be discussed. 

Use of Plasma Fractions as Aids to Golgi Apparatus Isolation. D. James 
Morre, John Horst, Sally Nyquist and Wayne Yunghans, Depart- 
ment of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University. — Golgi ap- 
paratus of plant and animal ceils consist of dictyosome subunits made 
up of plate-like lamellae and a peripheral system of tubules. During 
isolation from cells, the tubular connections between adjacent dictyo- 
somes are broken, followed by further decomposition of the tubules and 
loss of bonding substances between adjacent lamellae. Separated lamel- 
lae swell and often appear in section as large vesicles. Golgi apparatus 
breakdown is retarded by conditions of low shear homogenization, iso- 
tonic sucrose buffered at a pH between 6.0 and 6.5 and various additives 
including dextran and divalent ions. Even under these conditions, break- 
down is rapid. Loss of structure is prevented by addition of 0.1 to 2.5% 
gluteraldehyde to the homogenization medium (Morre' et al., J. Exptl. 
Res. 38:672) but such chemically stabilized fractions show either greatly 
reduced (phosphoryl-choline-cytidyl transferase) or occasionally in- 
creased (acid phosphatase; cytidine triphosphatase) enzymatic activities. 
With liver, plasma fractions added to the homogenization medium 
have made possible isolation of intact Golgi apparatus in a biochemically 
active state. With plant tissues, isolation media containing centrifuged 
coconut liquid endosperm (coconut milk) have yielded similar results. 
Dictyosomes isolated from onion stem or rat liver using plasma fractions 
appear suitable for detailed enzymatic studies.! 

Nonspecific Neutral Esterase and Agranular Endoplasmic Reticulum. 

John F. Schmedtje, Department of Anatomy, Indiana University 
School of Medicine, Indianapolis. — Nonspecific neutral esterases are 
widely distributed intracellular enzymes that hydrolyze simple esters of 
alcohols, phenols, and naphthols, and that are most active at a pH 
approaching neutrality. Because they do not readily hydrolyze fats they 



i Work supported in part by NSF GB 1084 and GB 03044. 

154 



Botany 155 

are distinguished from lipases. The exact intracellular site and the 
physiological significance of this group of enzymes is unknown. Histo- 
chemical techniques for light microscopy indicate they are in the 
cytoplasm, but histochemical techniques aimed at electron microscopy 
have yielded contradictory evidence on their exact intracytoplasmic 
location. 

In the present investigation esterase activity was visualized with 
the light microscope in the supranodular epithelial cells of the rabbit 
appendix. The fine structure of similar cells from adjacent and com- 
parable sections was observed with the electron microscope. There was 
an association between the amount of neutral esterase visualized with 
light microscopy, and the amount of agranular endoplasmic reticulum 
visualized with electron microscopy. 

These observations are interpreted as presumptive evidence that 
nonspecific neutral esterase is located in the agranular endoplasmic 
reticulum, either inside the membrane bound tubules, or in the membrane 
wall itself. This is in accord with other evidence on the organelle lo- 
cation of chemically related enzymes. 

The Fine Structure of Human Leukocytes from Peripheral Blood. Itaru 
Watanabe, Sheila Donahue, and Norma Hoggatt, Department of 
Pathology, Indiana University Medical Center. — A procedure for the 
preparation of human blood for electron microscopic studies is described. 
Venous blood is taken into a test tube, mixed thoroughly with EDTA, 
and centrifuged at 1,000 r.p.m. for 9 minutes to obtain a buffy layer. 
After removing as much supernatant plasma as possible, chilled 6.25% 
glutaraldehyde solution in 0.1 M phosphate buffer is layered over the 
buffy coat. This fixative transforms the remaining plasma into a gel 
which is rubbery. The buffy layer in the solidified blood plasma is diced, 
osmicated, dehydrated in an ethanol series, rinsed briefly in propylene 
oxide and embedded in 27 parts of Araldite 502, 23 parts of DDSA and 
1 part of DMP-30. Our sections are stained with uranyl acetate and 
lead citrate. 

The findings in human white blood cells are of interest. Neutrophil 
leukocytes have three kinds of granules: large dense spherical or el- 
lipsoid, large pale cylindrical granules in which there is a crystal and 
small granules of intermediate density. Eosinophils and basophils both 
have crystalline structures in the cores of the granules with a repeat 
period of about 40 A. 

Fine Structure of the Canine Pinealocyte. J. R. Welser, Department of 
Veterinary Anatomy, School of Veterinary Science and Medicine, Purdue 
University. — The pinealocyte, principal cell of the pineal gland of the 
dog, was studied with the electron microscope. The typical pinealocyte 
was round to oval with few cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasm 
surrounded the large, round-to-oval nucleus in a narrow fringe. 

Dark pinealocytes with smaller, darker nuclei, as well as an in- 
crease in ribosomes and cell organelles in the cytoplasm, were found. 

Orangelles indicative of an active cell were in the cytoplasm of the 
pinealocyte. Individual ribosomes and polysomes were scattered through 



156 Indiana Academy of Science 

the cytoplasm. Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticula were seen in 
short, isolated segments, as well as long, undulating layers forming 
networks in the cytoplasm. A Golgi complex was present in most pine- 
alocytes, and many vesicles of several sizes and electron densities were 
in close association with it. 

Mitochondria of many shapes and sizes, as well as giant mitochon- 
dria (4 to 5 fi in diameter), were present in the cytoplasm. Microtubules 
(with a banded appearance), lysomes, and groups of large lipid droplets 
were also seen. Cilia were observed in many electron micrographs, indi- 
cating that single cilia probably existed on most pinealocytes. Sub- 
surface cistemae were observed underlying a considerable portion of 
the cytoplasmic membranes. 

The endothelial cells had pinocytotic vesicles. 

Studies on the Hyphal Wall of the Fungus Pythium ultimumA Michael 
McConnell, Stanley N. Grove, Charles E. Bracker, Department of 
Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University. — In accordance with 
the general concept of cell walls, the hyphal wall of the plant pathogenic 
Oomycete Pythium ultimum Trow is a two-phase system in which a 
network of fibrils is embedded in an amorphous matrix. This information 
has been gained from electron microscopic analyses of mechanically 
isolated, heavy metal shadowed wall fragments and from ultra-thin 
sections of chemically fixed cells. The wall varies in thickness from 
less than 0.1 fi to over 0.4 /x depending on age. In primary walls (i.e. 
those laid down in the hyphal tip region) the outer surface of the wall 
is largely amorphous with little evidence of fibrils, whereas the inner 
surface is highly fibrillar with minimal amounts of matrix material. 
The fibrils are oriented in a random manner with respect to each other 
and do not assume a preferential orientation with respect to the hyphal 
axis. The outer surface of frozen-etched cells is coated by a layer of 
blunt spines. This wall component is not seen using other preparative 
conditions. In aged hyphae, secondary wall formation is evident. The 
centripetal portion of the secondary wall is pitted by a series of small 
radial channels (less than 0.03 n diam.), some of which are filled with 
densely staining material. The fibrils in these walls are oriented in such 
a way that they avoid certain regions of the wall, thus forming the 
channels. The channels may be segmented by bands of fibrils which 
serve as septations. The channels do not extend to the outer wall surface. 
Walls formed centripetally during cell regeneration in response to in- 
jury are intermediate in some respects between the primary and sec- 
ondary walls. We find no consistent evidence to indicate that lomasomes 
function in the formation of fungal walls. Instead, vesicles, of the type 
derived from the Golgi apparatus, are suggested as carriers of wall 
material in the hyphal tip region. 

Studies on the Effects of Ethionine on Intestinal Fat Transport. Ralph 
A. Jersild and Philip S. Gibbs, Department of Anatomy, Indiana Uni- 
versity Medical Center, Indianapolis. — Ethionine treatment has been 
shown by others to inhibit protein synthesis and to interfere with in- 



1 Supported by National Science Foundation Grant GB-3044. 



Botany 157 

testinal fat transport, which is thought to result from an impairment 
in chylomicron formation. Fat accumulation in the absorptive cells re- 
sults. A study of these effects by electron microscopy forms the basis 
of this report. 

Fatty chyme, obtained from fat-fed donor animals, was injected 
into ligated intestinal segments of recipient rats for 30 minute ab- 
sorption periods. Both normal and ethionine-treated rats were used. 
Morphological aspects of fat absorption were distinctly altered from 
normal in animals with reduced protein synthesis, as determined by 
leucine-H3 incorporation. Fat droplets, which typically form in the 
ER lumen, were fewer in number. Accumulation of droplets in the 
Golgi apparatus varied from negligable to moderate amounts. Extra- 
cellular droplets, or chylomicrons, were considerably reduced in number. 
Most striking was the abundance of large fat globules in the cell matrix 
in proportion to ER-enclosed droplets. The results support the concept 
that ethionine interferes with chylomicron formation and therefore 
with the transport of fats from the absorptive cells. The evidence sug- 
gests that the ER may be the site of this interference, and that the 
chylomicron^ protein component is normally supplied here. 

An Electron Microscopic Study of Transmissible Gastroenteritis in 
Swine. M. Pensaert, School of Veterinary Science and Medicine. De- 
partment of Veterinary Microbiology, Pathology and Public Health, 
Purdue University. — A sequential electron microscopic study was made 
on transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus-infected small intestinal 
loops of pigs. A segment of the jejunum was removed from the small 
intestine of 7 day old pigs and, while still attached to its mesenteric 
blood supply, placed in a subdermal pocket. Continuity of the small 
intestine was assured by end to end anastomosis. The intestinal loop 
was infected with TGE virus and tissues were removed at different time 
intervals. Virus-like particles, 70-80 m/n in size, were detected in smooth 
walled cytoplasmic vesicles in the columnar epithelium cells on the 
villi. Early in the infection, the microvilli of the cells became short, 
uneven or were lost. The terminal web area decreased in size or disap- 
peared and degeneration and desquamation of the cells then occurred. 
They were replaced by flat to cuboidal cells which showed short, uneven 
microvilli and contained numerous free ribosomes. Differentiation of 
these cells to normal mature columnar cells occurred between 2 and 3 
days after infection. 

Electron Microscopic Study of Human Islet B-Cell Adenomas.i Carl R. 
Morgan and Ralph A. Jersild, Department of Anatomy, Indiana Uni- 
versity Medical Center, Indianapolis. — Three cases of insulinoma (ex- 
cessive amounts of circulating insulin produced by a pancreatic islet 
B-cell tumor) were studied with the cooperation of the departments of 
Medicine and Surgery. Tissues for EM study were recovered at surgery 
and within minutes were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide. 
Fixed tissues were embedded in epon. Tissue sections were double 



1 Supported in part by USPHS Grant HE06308, Am. Cancer Soc. Grant 
IN46-G, and Indiana Elks EM fund. 



158 Indiana Academy of Science 

stained with uranylacetate and lead citrate. The typical granules of 
islet B-cells were sparse in the tumor tissues of these 3 patients. 
Numerous small vesicles of the size of B-granule enveloping membranes 
were observed. Of special interest were large amounts of amorphous 
and fibrillar material between and within some of the tumor cells, 
particularly in the area of basement membranes. This material has not 
been identified precisely, but it is probably amyloid. The sparsity of 
mature B-cells in the adenoma cells correlated well with the moderate 
insulin responsiveness of the patients to normal insulin releasing stimuli 
prior to surgery and the low insulin content of extracts of the adenomas. 
Portal and peripheral levels of insulin declined to normal levels fol- 
lowing excising of the tumor. All of the evidence agreed with the 
concept that the adenomas were secreting insulin independently of 
normal physiological mechanisms. 

Protochlorophyll Holochrome Participation in Photorearrangement of 
Tubular Membranes in Prolamellar Bodies of Etiolated Bean Leaf 
Proplastids.i Albert Kahn, Purdue University. — A close relationship 
between light absorption by protochlorophyllide and rearrangement of 
paracrystalline tubular membranes in etiolated bean leaf proplastids 
has been established previously. The photoreduction of protochlorophyl- 
lide to chlorophyllide a and membrane rearrangement in the prolamellar 
bodies have similar or identical light requirements and are closely 
sequenced or concomitant. Irradiation of etiolated leaves by a single, 
electronic flash elicits both phenomena. 

Prolamellar bodies with tubular membranes were isolated from 
dark grown bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The prolamellar 
bodies were studied by phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy and 
by negative contrast electron microscopy. New evidence was obtained 
for solution-filled channels within the tubular membrane elements of 
paracrystalline prolamellar bodies. Protochlorophyll holochrome, a spe- 
cific complex of photoreactive pigment and a protein macromolecule, 
was tentatively identified in the tube walls. Protochlorophyllide was lo- 
calized in the membrane walls with certainty. 

These results, considered together with older observations, led to 
the formulation of a speculative mechanism for light-elicited rearrange- 
ment of tubular membranes in paracrystalline prolamellar bodies: The 
photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide a is coupled 
with the oxidation of a protein component (the protein portion of 
protochlorophyll holochrome) of the tubular membranes. Bonds of 
unspecified nature in the protein are made or broken as a result of the 
photo event, inducing the membranes to form a less-ordered configura- 
tion of higher free energy. Preliminary experiments on the photore- 
action, using specific inhibitors that react with sulfhydryl groups, sup- 
port this hypothesis. 



1 Work supported in part by NSF grant GB 2897. The skilled assistance 
of Dorothy A. Werderitsh is gratefully acknowledged. 



Immunochemical Identification of Very Low Density Serum 
Lipoproteins in Golgi Apparatus from Rat Liver 1 

Arthur E. Middleton, D. James Morre, Leo M. Alves, Robert L. 
Hamilton and Robert Mahley, Department of Biology, St. Joseph's 
College, Departments of Botany and Plant Pathology and Biology, 
Purdue University and Departments of Anatomy and Pathology, Vander- 
bilt University Medical School. 

In mammalian systems, lipids are carried in the circulation as 
complex lipoproteins with the liver being the principal site of fatty 
acid absorption and conversion to lipoprotein triglyceride. The lipopro- 
teins facilitate transport from liver to extrahepatic tissue where the 
triglycerides are utilized. Alternatively, they may accumulate in the 
circulation and contribute to cardiovascular disease such as athero- 
sclerosis. 

Of the various lipoprotein classes found in plasma (10), very low 
density lipoproteins (VLDL) have a density of less than one, a diameter 
of 300 to 800a and a triglyceride content of 50% or more. This form of 
lipoprotein is a major vehicle for triglyceride transport and has been 
consistently implicated in the formation of pathological lipid deposits 
in blood vessels (2). When livers are perfused in situ with free fatty 
acids (FFA), the major portion of the esterified fatty acids released 
appear as triglycerides in lipoproteins of the VLDL fraction (3). 

Studies on the sites of lipoprotein production generally have im- 
plicated the Golgi apparatus in the assembly and secretion of lipopro- 
teins (1, 3, 5, 6, 11). Osmiophilic particles having diameters near those 
of VLDL were observed in electron micrographs of rat livers perfused 
with FFA, whereas these particles were much less prevalent in micro- 
graphs of non-perfused livers (3). This report introduces immunochem- 
ical evidence in support of the hypothesis that the Golgi apparatus is a 
site of VLDL assembly and secretion. 

Materials and Methods 

The first step in immunochemically linking VLDL with the Golgi 
apparatus was to isolate VLDL from rat serum by a notation centri- 
fugation method adapted from the procedure of Lindgren et al. (8). 
The animals, 200 to 250 g male rats (Holtzman Company, Madison, 
Wisconsin), were fasted for 24 hours before bleeding to reduce the 
numbers of chylomicra in the plasma. VLDL was isolated from plasma 
as a floating fraction after prolonged centrifugation (20 hours at 
35,000 rpm, Spinco #40 rotor) through saline solution (density < 1.006). 
The isolated VLDL was then used as an antigen to stimulate the syn- 
thesis of VLDL antibody in rabbits. For this purpose, VLDL suspended 
in Freund's complete adjuvant was injected intramuscularly into white 
male rabbits. Three weeks after the first injection, the rabbits were 



1 Journal Paper Number 3244. Supported by grants NSF GB 1084, GB 
03044, GY 2452, GY 2495 and NIH 5 F2 AM 24 and HE 01570. 

159 



160 Indiana Academy of Science 

challenged with an intravenous injection of freshly prepared VLDL 
without adjuvant. After an additional 2 weeks, the rabbits were bled, 
an antiserum fraction containing the VLDL antibody was separated 
and a titer determination was made by serial dilution using the pre- 
cipitin interface ring test. The precipitin interface ring test was also 
used to detect VLDL in cell fractions of rat liver prepared by low 
shear homogenization (Polytron) and differential and sucrose density 
gradient centrifugation (9). 

All fractions were tested for a precipitin reaction with VLDL 
antiserum after their resuspension in distilled water alone or after 
subjection to a series of 3 freezing and thawing cycles to release VLDL 
from membrane-bounded compartments. 

Results 

Rat serum and purified VLDL subjected to freezing and thawing 
gave a normal precipitin reaction with the VLDL antiserum (Table 1) 
showing that immunochemical reactivity was not altered by the freeze- 
thaw cycles. Of the several fractions tested using the precipitin inter- 
face ring test, VLDL was conclusively demonstrated only in purified 
Golgi apparatus which had been frozen and thawed to disrupt secretory 
vesicles. Double diffusion analysis in Ouchterlony plates against the 
antiserum gave a precipitin line similar to native VLDL with purified 
Golgi apparatus fractions. The total homogenate, a mitochondria-micro- 
body-lysosome fraction, purified endoplasmic reticulum and a supernatant 
fraction were immunochemically inactive both before and after the 
freeze-thaw cycles. Both the frozen and thawed crude Golgi apparatus 
fraction and the treated purified Golgi apparatus fraction were mar- 
ginally reactive which suggested small quantities of immunochemically 
accessible VLDL. 

TABLE 1. 

Immunochemical Evidence for Distribution of Very Low Density 
Lipojyroteins Among Rat Liver and Plasma Fractions 

Positive Prescription Test with VLDL 
Antibody Showing Presence of VLDL Antigen 



Frozen- 
Source of Antigen Untreated Thawed 

PLASMA FRACTIONS 

Serum + + 

Purified VLDL -f- + 
LIVER FRACTIONS 

Total Homogenate — — 

Microsomal Supernatant — — 

Mitochrondria-Microbody-Lysosome — — 

Endoplasmic Reticulum — — 

Crude Golgi Apparatus — — 

PURIFIED GOLGI APPARATUS ± + 



Botany 



161 



Particles similar to those described by Hamilton et al. (3) were 
present in the isolated and purified Golgi apparatus (Fig. 1). Similar 
particles were not observed in the endoplasmic reticulum or mito- 
chondrial fractions from the same sucrose gradients. 




Figure 1. Electron micrograph of a portion of an isolated hepatocyte 
Golgi apparatus negatively stained with 1% phosphotungstic acid, pH 
6.7. Clusters of small particles tentatively identified as very low density 
lipoprotein and surrounded by the limiting membrane of a secretory 
vesicle are shown by the arrows. Bar = 0.5 u . 



Discussion 

The apoprotein of VLDL is probably synthesized, like other proteins 
for export, from messenger RNA associated with polyribosomes of the 
granular endoplasmic reticulum. Most of the 300 to 800 A particles 
appear first in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (6) which seems to 
correspond at least in part to the system of peripheral tubules and 
plate-like structures which are continuous with the Golgi apparatus 
cisternae (Fig. 1). These membranes are also considered as sites of 
triglyceride synthesis (6). During lipoprotein assembly, the conforma- 
tion of the /3-lipoprotein is altered (7) and it is possible that the tubular 
membrane system provides a mechanism facilitating the conformation 
changes attendant to lipoprotein synthesis. Antiginicity depends upon 



162 Indiana Academy of Science 

conformation as well as chemical composition (7). Our failure to dem- 
onstrate conclusively VLDL in the total homogenate or crude Golgi 
apparatus fractions presumably is due to the dilution by extraneous 
protein of the small amounts of VLDL present. A similar explanation 
may account for the inability to associate VLDL with the supernatant 
and purified endoplasmic reticulum fractions. However, it is also possi- 
ble to explain the unreactivity of the endoplasmic reticulum on the 
basis that the protein moiety of /3-lipoprotein may exist in more than 
one antigenic state depending on conformation (7). 

These observations are consistent with a role of the Golgi apparatus 
in VLDL assembly involving synthesis of the lipid moieties and con- 
formation changes in the apoprotein. Since lipoproteins may actually 
be glycolipoproteins, it is conceivable, as suggested by Jones et al. (6), 
that the Golgi apparatus plays a further role in lipoprotein synthesis 
by addition of the carbohydrate moiety. 

Summary 

Particles tentatively identified as very low density lipoprotein 
(VLDL) were observed in electron micrographs of Golgi apparatus 
isolated from rat liver. Using immunochemical methods, only the Golgi 
apparatus obtained by centrifugation in a sucrose gradient gave a 
positive immunochemical precipitin reaction with antiserum prepared 
against purified plasma VLDL. Crude liver homogenates, purified mito- 
chondrial and endoplasmic reticulum fractions and a supernatant frac- 
tion from rat liver did not react. These results provide additional evi- 
dence that the Golgi apparatus is a source of low density plasma 
lipoproteins in rat hepatocytes. 

Literature Cited 

1. Brunt, C. and K. R. Porter. 1965. The fine structure of the parenchymal 
cell of the normal rat liver. Amer. J. Pathol. 46:691-755. 

2. Gould, R. G. 1951. Lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Amer. J. Med. 
11:209-227. 

3. Hamilton, R. L., D. M. Regen, Mary E. Gray and V. S. Lequire. 1967. 
Lipid transport in liver. I. Electron microscopic identification of very 
low density lipoproteins in perfused rat liver. Lab. Invest. 16:305-319. 

4. Heimberg, M., I. Weinstein, G. Dishmon and M. Fried. 1965. Lipoprotein 
lipid transport by livers from normal and CCL-poisoned animals. Amer. J. 
Physiol. 209:1053-1060. 

5. Jersild, R. A. 1966. A time sequence study of fat absorption in the rat 
jejenum. Amer. J. Anatomy. 118:135-162. 

6. Jones, A. L., N. B. Ruderman and M. G. Herrera. 1967. Electron micro- 
scopic and biochemical study of lipoprotein synthesis in the isolated 
perfused rat liver. J. Lipid Res. 8:429-446. 

7. Lees, R. S. 1967. Immunochemical evidence for the presence of B pro- 
tein (apoprotein of ^-lipoprotein) in normal and abetalipoproeinemic 
plasma. J. Lipid Res. 8:396-405. 

8. Lindgren, F. T., H. A. Elliott and J. W. Gofman. 1951. The ultracentrif- 
ug-al characterization and isolation of human blood lipids and lipo- 
protein, with applications to the study of atherosclerosis. J. Physic, 
and Colloid. Chem. 55:80-93. 



Botany 163 

9. Mollenhauer, H. H., D. J. Morre' and Louise Bergmann. 1967. Homology 
of form in plant and animal Golgi apparatus. Anat. Record 158:313- 
318. 

10. Oncley, J. L., 1958. In: F. Homberger and P. Bernfeld, eds. The Lipo- 
proteins: Methods and Clinical Significance. S. Karger, New York. 

11. Parks, H. F. 1967. An experimental study of microscopic and sub- 
microscopic lipid inclusions in hepatic cells of the mouse. Amer. J. 
Anatomy 120:253-280. 



Endoplasmic Reticulum — Dictyosome — Secretory Vesicle 
Associations in Pollen Tubes of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. ' 

William J. VanDerWoude and D. James Morre 
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University. 

Rapid growth of pollen tubes is restricted to the tube tip. The 
localized deposition of wall materials depends upon the addition of 
membrane-bounded packets of wall material in the form of secretory 
vesicles (3, 5, 8, 9). The vesicle membranes contribute new plasma 
membrane, and the vesicle contents provide precursors for the cell 
wall (6). These vesicles originate from the Golgi apparatus (8, 9, 10) 
but other cell components may be involved. Chief among these is an 
extensive membranous reticulum which extends throughout the area 
of vesicle production and deposition. This report describes the endo- 
plasmic reticulum of lily pollen tubes including an unusual secretory 
vesicle-endoplasmic reticulum association. 

Materials and Methods 

Anthers of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. var. Ace were collected from 
greenhouse grown plants, allowed to dry and dehisce, and stored at 
— 70° C. Pollen was seeded on liquid medium (10% sucrose; 10 ppm boric 
acid). After 3 hr at room temperature, tubes from germinated grains 
were fixed at room temperature in a solution of 0.1 M glutaraldehyde, 
0.1 M acrolein and 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer (pH 7.2) for 1 hr. 
This was followed sequentially by post-fixation with l°/c osmium 
tetroxide in cacodylate buffer (pH 7.2) for 2 hr, and transfer to 0.1 
M buffer succeeded by distilled water and saturated uranyl acetate 
overnight at 5° C. Specimens were again washed with distilled water, 
dehydrated in a graded ethanol series followed by acetone and were 
embedded in an epon - araldite mixture. Polymerization was carried out 
in a nitrogen atmosphere at 70° C for about 72 hrs. 

Thin sections were cut with a diamond knife using a Porter-Blum 
MT-2 ultramicrotome. They were subsequently post stained with lead 
citrate (7) and viewed using a Philips EM/200. 

The methods used provide minimal distortion of the protoplasm as 
observed by phase microscopy. Fixation and staining were judged ade- 
quate for the maintenance and discernment of membranous organelles. 
Satisfactory fixation is suggested by the preservation of the inter- 
cisternal elements of dictyosomes (See Fig. 3). 

Observations and Discussion 

Ultrastructural studies of the pollen tube (3, 5, 8, 9, 10) have sug- 
gested a mechanism of tip growth involving secretory vesicles produced 
by dictyosomes of the Golgi apparatus. In Fig. 1, the portion of the 



1 Work supported in part by grants from the NSF GB 1084 and 03044. 
Purdue University AES Journal Paper No. 3247. 

164 



Botany 



165 



(Wp+M) GA 




Figure 1. Cell wall matrix polysaccharides and membrane compart- 
mentalization during- pollen tube tip growth. 



scheme connected by solid lines represents the contribution of mem- 
brane (M) and wall precursors (Wp) to the plasma membrane (PM) 
and the wall. These vesicles are assumed to migrate to the cell surface 
where the vesicle membranes fuse with the plasma membrane and dis- 
charge their contents into the cell wall region. Assuming that the 
contribution of the vesicle contents to the cell wall matrix involves no 
radical volume changes, it is possible to calculate the amount of mem- 
brane available for surface growth of the plasma membrane. Such 
calculations are shown in Table 1 and show the possibility of a re- 
markable stoichiometry between vesicle surface and increase in plasma 
membrane during steady state growth. As is true with most first ap- 
proximations, the actual situation appears more complicated. 

Associated with the regions of vesicle formation and deposition is 
an extensive membranous reticulum (Fig. 2) which extends throughout 
the tube cytoplasm. It is a complex system of anastomosing tubules and 
cisternae and is identified here as endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the 
apical 5 to 10 (x of the tube the ER is without associated ribosomes 
(Figs. 3, 4). Behind the tip, the ER is largely agranular but limited 
regions have associated ribosomes. Granular endoplasmic reticulum is 



166 Indiana Academy of Science 

TABLE 1. 

Calculated Rate of Vesicle Production and Cell Surface (Membrane and 
Cell Wall) Increase for* Elongating Pollen Tubes. 

Rate of tube elongation* 12^/min 

Tube diameter* 16/* 

Wall matrix thickness* .05/* 

Vesicle diameter* .30^ 

Vesicle volume .014^3 

Vesicle surface .28/i 2 

Increase in wall volume 30m 3 /min 

Vesicle production 2150/min 

Vesicle membrane production 600> 2 /min 

Increase in plasma membrane 600/*2/min 

* Direct measurements. Remamining entries are calculated from these 
measurements. 

most frequently encountered in mature regions of the tube. The bulk of 
the ribosomes and polyribosomal configurations in the area of vesicle 
formation and deposition are found free in the cytoplasm (Figs. 3, 4). 
Ribosomes are present throughout the tube cytoplasm and, in contrast 
to a previous report (9), extend to the extreme tube tip. The lumen 
of the ER has a fibrous appearance which suggests a nonproteinaceous 
accumulated product. 

Two types of membrane associations implicate ER as part of the 
endomembrane system involved in cell wall deposition. Transition ele- 
ments (4) of the ER are closely associated with dictyosomes (Fig. 3) 
and with the masses of accumulated product in the tube tip (Fig. 4, 5). 
The ER - product associations are characteristic and frequently occur 
in the regions of vesicle fusion (Fig. 4). Higher magnification (Fig. 5) 
shows that these masses of product are partly enveloped by ER (double 
arrows) and partly surrounded by the single membranes (single ar- 
rows) characteristic of secretory vesicles. In the regions adjacent to 
ER there is no evidence of any single limiting membrane. Instead, the 
outer surface of the ER cisterna (black double arrows) bounds the 
accumulated product. Where portions of membranes appear in cross 
section, they are well stained immediately adjacent to the regions of 
product accumulation (Figs. 4, 5). Associations of ER with amorphous 
material appear elsewhere in the cytoplasm without evidence of a 
contributory association with secretory vesicles. Such an accumulation 
in Fig. 3 is adjacent to a dictyosome. The contents of these regions 
appear similar to those of the dictyosome-derived vesicles but the 
characteristic single limiting membrane is absent. 

One explanation of these observations is that the ER secretes poly- 
saccharides directly into the cytoplasm. The polysaccharides might 
originate from the fibrous material contained in the ER lumina. A chem- 
ical transformation as simple as methylation of free carboxyl groups 
during secretion could account for the differences in staining. These 
materials might then combine with the contents of Golgi apparatus- 




167 









ri 






lm>Y» 



-^ p % 



bffv 






Figure 2. Electron micrograph of the apical 20^ of a Lilium longiforum 
pollen tube tip showing the spatial relationships among the extensive 
system of endoplasmic reticulum (ER); dictyosomes (D); secretory vesicles 
(v) ; the region of vesicle cacumulation (VA) with accumulated product 
(p); mitochrondria (m) and cell wall (W). Bar — 5 [X . 

derived vesicles to contribute materials directly to the cell wall (dotted 
arrow of Fig. 1). 

A limited protein synthetic capacity for pollen tube ER should not 
be dismissed especially for those regions with associated ribosomes. 
However, the pollen tube is not known to synthesize large quantities of 
proteins for export and abundant free polyribosomes are available for 
synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins. The chief function of the pollen tube 
is one of cell wall deposition. According to Brewbaker and Kwack (2), 



168 



Indiana Academy of Science 







Figure 3. A portion of the cytoplasm approximately 30 M from the tube 
tip showing the association of endoplasmic reticulum (er) and a dictyosome 
(D). Intercisternal elements (i) of the dictyosome are found at the arrows. 
The contents of dictyosome-drived vesicles (v) differ in staining- properties 
from those of the ER lumina but are similar to those of the presumed 
product accumulations bordered by ER (p). X 63,000. 



rapid tube elongation is a process of cell wall synthesis with little 
increase in cytoplasm. Based on information from other cell types (6), 
it appears that the Golgi apparatus segregates products of synthesis for 
secretion and is endowed with only limited synthetic capacity. Thus, for 
future studies, we wish to consider the pollen tube ER as a potential 
site of polysaccharide biosynthesis. Materials would then be transferred 
either to dictyosomes for packaging into secretion vesicles (dashed 
arrows of Fig. 1) or secreted directly into the cytoplasm. Again a 
product transformation would account for staining differences. There 
is cytochemical evidence for methyl esterification of free carboxyl groups 
at the level of the secretory vesicle in lily pollen tubes (3). 

In the region of vesicle fusion, a transfer of membranous material 
from secretory vesicles to ER might accompany any scheme for 
polysaccharide transport. Any excess membrane would be absorbed by 



Figure 5. The product (p) accumulation of Fig. 3 at higher magnification. 
Bounding membrane surfaces derived from ER (double arrows) are ad- 
jacent to the accumulated product (black arrows) and the cytoplasm 
(white arrows). The ER lumen is bounded by these paired membranes. 
The single membrane similar to that bordering secretory vesicles (single 
arrow) may have resulted from fusion of a secretory vesicle with the 
mass of accumulate product. X 79,000. 



Botany 




Figure 4. A portion of the cytoplasm containing extensive agranular 
endoplasmic reticulum approximately 7 T from the tube tip showing a 
product (p) accumulation bordered bby ER on the left and bottom and 
by a presumed secretory vesicle membrane on the top right. Ribosomes 
(r) often in polyribonsomal configurations do not appear to be associated 
with membranes. X 41,000. 



170 Indiana Academy of Science 

the ER and ultimately transferred back to the dictyosome via a mem- 
brane belt (1). The calculations presented in Table 1 suggest that such 
a contribution would be limited but the possibility of membrane transfer 
via ER cannot be excluded. 

Summary 

Cell wall deposition in pollen tubes of Lilium longiflorum involves 
dictyosomes of the Golgi apparatus and associated secretory vesicles. 
Closely associated with these cell components is an extensive system of 
largely agranular endoplasmic reticulum consisting of anastomosing 
tubules and cisternae. In the region of vesicle accumulation and else- 
where in the tube cytoplasm, accumulations of secretory product are 
found to be enveloped by profiles of endoplasmic reticulum. In the 
region of vesicle fusion, single membrane-bounded secretory vesicles 
appear to fuse with these masses of product. These observations are 
consistent with a role of the endoplasmic reticulum in cell wall deposition. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bennett, H. S. 1956. The concepts of membrane flow and membrane 
vesiculation as mechanisms of active transport and ion pumping. J. 
Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 2 (Suppl.) :99-103. 

2. Brewbaker, J. L. and B. H. Kwack. 1964. The calcium ion and substances 
influencing pollen growth. In: H. F. Linskens, ed. Pollen Physiology 
and Fertalization. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam. 

3. Dashek, W. V. and W. G. Rosen. 1966. Electron microscopal localization 
of chemical components in the growth zone of lily pollen tubes. Poto- 
plasma 61:196-204. 

4. Jamieson, J. D. and G. E. Palade. 1967. Intracellular transport of sec- 
retory proteins in the pancreatic exocrine cell. II. Transport to con- 
densing vacuoles and zymogen granules. J. Cell Biol. 34:597-615. 

5. Larson, D. A. 1965. Fine structural changes in the cytoplasm of germ- 
inating pollen. Amer. J. Bot. 52:139-154. 

6. Mollenhauer, H. H. and D. J. Morre'. 1966. Golgi apparatus in plant 
secretion. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 17:27-46. 

7. Reynolds, E. S. 1963. The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron 
opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17:208-212. 

8. Rosen, W. G. and S. R. Gawlik. 1966. Fine structure of lily pollen tubes 
following various fixation and staining procedures. Protoplasma 
61:181-191. 

9. Rosen, W. G., S. R. Gawlik, W. V. Dashek and K. A. Siegesmund. 1964. 
Fine structure and cytochemistry of Lilium pollen tubes. Amer. J. Bot. 
51:61-71. 

10. Sassen, M. M. A. 1964. Fine structure of Petunia pollen grain and pol- 
len tube. Acta Botan, Neerl. 13:175-181. 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: G. Bryant Bachman, Purdue University 
L. A. McGrew, Ball State University, was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

Out-of-Plane Bending Force Constants of Carbonium Ions: A Novel 
Suggestion Explaining Fast Solvolysis Rates without Invoking Non- 
classical Ions. A. J. McElheny and R. E. Davis, Department of Chem- 
istry, Purdue University. — Detailed quantum mechanical calculations 
have been made on methyl cation, CH 3 +, as a function of the HCH 
angle in the plane and the H-CH 2 angle out-of-the-plane. Evidence is 
presented that the out-of-plane force constant of the C-H bond goes 
through a minimum when the angle of the other HCH unit is 90 °. The 
out-of-plane force constant of the C-H bond is then compared with the 
out-of-plane force constant of = CH 2 . 

It is suggested from these data that fast carbonium reactivity us- 
ually observed with strained compounds can be explained using force 
constant changes rather than invoking nonclassical resonance structures. 
Thus the qualitative reasons of H. C. Brown in rejecting the nonclassical 
concept, has very strong theoretical foundation. 

Studies on the Willgerodt Reaction. IV. The Kinetics of Isomerization of 
l,3-Diphenyl-2-propanone by Sulfur and Morpholine. R. E. Davis and 
Miss Cynthia T. Theisen, Department of Chemistry, Purdue Uni- 
versity. — A kinetic study is reported on a Willgerodt reaction. The 
reaction is first order in ketone and first order in sulfur. Although the 
kinetic data reported in this paper are limited, the data are such that 
they disprove every single mechanism previously published. In keeping 
with the serious critique, no new mechanism is suggested, however. 
Recent work on the Willgerodt reaction demonstrates that the system of 
an amine, ketone and elemental sulfur is an extremely complex mixture. 
The nature of the mixture has only been recently appreciated. 

Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Some l,3-Bisaryl-2,4-uretidinediones 
and Trisaryl-s-triazine-(lH,3H,5H)2,4,6-triones. LeRoy A. McGrew and 
David Stibbins, Ball State University. — The ultraviolet absorption 
characteristics of the title compounds were determined in ethanol so- 
lution in the wavelength region 340-200 millimicrons. The spectra of 
both types of compounds were characterized by two absorption maxima. 
The primary band occurred in the region 200-210 millimicrons, and a 
secondary band was observed in the region 250-270 millimicrons. The 
ratio of molar absorptivities, e 2 /ei for the secondary and primary bands 
fell in the range 0.42-1.17 for the uretidinediones and in the range 
0.07-0.21 for the s-triazinetriones. This difference in ratio may be used 
as a means of differentiating between the two types of compounds. The 
spectra of substituted aryl derivatives showed that the positions of the 
absorption maxima were insensitive to the presence of auxochromic 

171 



172 Indiana Academy of Science 

groups. Spectra of the title compounds were compared to the spectra 
of selected acyclic model compounds and found to be similar. 

Catalyst and Substituent Effects in the Dimerization and Trimerization 
of Aryl Isocyanates. LeRoy A. McGrew, Ball State University. — The 
polymerization reactions of substituted aryl isocyanates were studied 
using tributylphosphine and triethylamine catalysts. The phosphine 
catalyst caused formation of cyclic isocyanate dimers if no ortho substit- 
uent was present, while the amine catalyst caused cyclic trimer forma- 
tion. The presence of a ring substituent in an ortho position, or of a 
nitro group in any position, prevented dimer formation, and trimers 
were observed to form with either catalyst. The various dimers and 
trimers were characterized by their infrared and ultraviolet spectra, 
and by the selective cleavage of the dimer ring by secondary amine 
bases. These results were correlated with ionic mechanisms in which 
the dimerization was conceived to be a rapid, unfavorable equilibrium, 
with trimerization being a slower, irreversible process. 

Dehydration of 3-Hexen-2,5-diol. Evidence for alpha-Protonation of an 
Aliphatic, Conjugated Dienol. Harry Morrison and Steve Kurowsky, 
Department of Chemistry, Purdue University. — Acid-catalyzed dehydra- 
tion of 3-hexen-2,5-diol leads to the formation of 4-hexen-2-one, with 
only small amounts of the conjugated isomer produced. Dehydration in 
deuterophosphoric acid /deuterium oxide results in the formation of 
4-hexen-2-one deuterated at the methylene carbon but not at the vinyl 
positions. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the unsaturated 
ketone are discussed and it is shown that the experiments in deuterated 
media require the postulate of protonation exclusively at the alpha 
position of 2,4-hexadien-2-ol. 

The Shock Histories of Iron Meteorites and Their Implications. Ralph 
R. Jaegeri and Michael E. Lipschutz, Departments of Chemistry 
and Geosciences, Purdue University. It has been found that shock 
pressures in excess of 130,000 atm. (130 kb) induce effects in iron 
meteorites (octahedrites) which can be detected by metallography and 
X-ray diffraction analysis. Of 65 iron meteorites, 63 have had their 
trace amounts of gallium and /or germanium measured and 46 have had 
their cosmic-ray exposure ages determined by other workers. 

There is a correlation between shock history, Ga-Ge content and 
exposure age. The unshocked meteorites seem randomly distributed both 
with respect to trace element content and cosmic-ray exposure age. The 
shocked meteorites, on the other hand, are heavily quantized both with 
respect to gallium and germanium contents, and exposure ages. These 
correlations, together with ancillary observations, suggest the following 
conclusions: 

(1) About half of all iron meteorites reaching Earth have been 
shocked, in preterrestrial collisions, to pressures above 130 kb. 

(2) Most of the shocked iron meteorites were produced in a single 
collision 650 ± 60 million years ago. 



1 Present address: Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Laboratory, 
Miamesburg-, Ohio 45342. 



Chemistry 173 

(3) One of the partners to this collision seems to have been an 
asteroid whose initial orbit was largely, if not entirely, within 
the Asteroidal Belt. Its metallic portions had gallium and 
germanium contents corresponding to those of Group III (a 
standard geochemical classification for one of the gallium- 
germanium classes of iron meteorites). 

(4) The more massive partner may have been the parent of a 
majority of the stony meteorites. Its initial orbit possibly 
crossed that of Mars. 

(5) The collision resulted in the injection of meter-sized stony 
fragments into orbits crossing that of Mars. 

(6) Gravitational forces exerted by Mars resulted in the continuous 
injection of iron material into orbits crossing that of Earth, at 
least over the last million years. 

(7) Gravitational forces together with effects of secondary collisions 
resulted in the injection of stony material into Earth-crossing 
orbits. 

The Mechanism of Hydrogen Formation in the T - Radiolysis of 1, 4- 
Dioxane. Milton Burton, Robert R. Hentz and Warren V. Sherman, 
Radiation Laboratory,! University of Notre Dame. — A study has been 
made of the mechanism of formation of molecular hydrogen from cobalt- 
60 gamma-irradiated 1, 4-dioxane. It was found that the yield of hydro- 
gen from carefully dried dioxane (1.4 molecules per 100 ev absorbed) 
is significantly smaller than reported previously by other workers. How- 
ever, a progressive increase in yield was observed in the presence of 
increasing initial concentrations of water. The mechanism suggested to 
explain these results is that in pure dioxane combination of the radio- 
lytically-produced ion-electron pairs is a very inefficient process for 
hydrogen formation. However, with water present, proton transfer from 
the dioxane cation to water can precede charge neutralization such that 
the previous neutralization process is replaced partially by one involving 
the hydronium ion and the electron. This results in the formation of 
hydrogen atoms and subsequently hydrogen molecules (by abstraction 
from the solvent). The enhancement of the hydrogen yield from dry 
dioxane by other proton acceptors (methanol, ammonia) and the lack of 
sensitivity to electron scavengers (nitrous oxide, iodine) support the 
proposed mechanism, as does the observation that the enhanced hydro- 
gen yield in the presence of a proton acceptor can be depressed by 
addition of an electron scavenger prior to irradiation. 

The Mechanism of Radiation-Induced Luminescence from Scintillators 
in Cyclohexane. Milton Burton, Robert R. Hentz and Ronald J. 
Knight, Radiation Laboratory ,- University of Notre Dame. — Studies of 
radiation-induced luminescence from scintillators in various solvents 



1 The Radiation Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame is op- 
erated under contract with the U. S. Atomic Energ-y Commission. This is 
AEC Document No. COO-38-570. 

3 The Radiation Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame is op- 
erated under contract with the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. This is 
AEC Document No. COO-38-569. 



174 Indiana Academy of Science 

have shown that different mechanisms are involved in aromatic and 
alkane solvents. It has been established that scintillator luminescence 
in benzene solutions occurs via energy transfer from the iB 2u state 
of the solvent to the scintillator. A corresponding mechanism for 
cyclohexane solutions is precluded by lack of evidence for a cyclohexane 
excited state of sufficient lifetime to participate in such an energy- 
transfer process. Recent work on the role of transient ion pairs in the 
radiation chemistry of alkane solutions suggests their involvement in 
the mechanism of radiation-induced luminescence from scintillators in 
alkane solutions. To test such a mechanism, a number of solutes char- 
acterized by previous work as electron scavengers were added to 
scintillator solutions in cyclohexane. The solutes chosen did not quench 
luminescence excited by direct absorption of uv light in the scintillator 
but did quench the luminescence induced by ^Co T irradiation. A cor- 
relation was established between quenching in the T-irradiated scintil- 
lator solutions and suppression of G(N 2 ) in 10~ 2 M N 2 solutions in 
cyclohexane. Such a correlation implicates the electron as a precursor 
common to both effects. It is proposed that excitation of the scintillator 
results from neutralization of its anions or cations which are formed by 
electron capture or positive charge transfer, respectively. 

Molecular Beam Scattering Technique and the Theory of Chemical 
Reactions. C. R. Mueller, Purdue University. — The molecular beam 
technique will be discussed with special emphasis on its implication on 
the theory of reaction rates and the lack of evidence for the activated 
complex. The quantum mechanical nature of the collision process will 
be emphasized. Specific quantum effects in chemical kinetics will be 
shown on the basis of a model which enables one to predict reactive 
cross-sections and scattering fine structure. 

Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of the Isomeric Naphthobenzothiophene 
and Naphthobenzofurans. E. Campaigne and S. Osborn, Chemistry 
Laboratories of Indiana University. — Synthetic methods for the con- 
venient preparation of the three possible isomers of the isomeric 
naphthobenzothiophenes, naphtho[2, l-b]benzothiophene, naphtho[l, 2-b] 
benzothiophene and naphtho[2, 3-b]benzothiophene, are described. Simi- 
lar methods lead to the formation of the oxygen analogs of these 
compounds, the naphthobenzofurans. 

The ultraviolet absorption spectra of the above compounds are 
shown to be characteristic, and sufficiently different to permit their use 
in identification of the different isomers. Comparisons will be made 
between these compounds and the analogous nitrogen (benzocarbazoles) 
and carbon (benzofluorenes and tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) com- 
pounds. The spectra of the related analogs are very similar, with 
bathochromic shifts in the principal maxima related to ability of the 
respective atoms or groups (-0, CH 2 , -S-, NH, -CH=CH-) to release 
electrons to aromatic resonance. 

The Synthesis of Matatabiether and Related Terpenes. Joseph 
Wolinsky and David Nelson, Purdue University. — Actinidia polygama, 
a silver vine found in the Far East and known in Japan as Matatabi, is 



Chemistry 175 

of considerable interest because it is attractive to felines and certain 
insect species. Professor Sakan and his collaborators have isolated a 
variety of methylcyclopentane terpenes from the plant (cf. T. Sakan, 
J. Wolinsky, et al., 1965, Tetrahedron Letters 4097) and have shown 
that the lactone fraction is attractive to cats, whereas the ether and 
alcohol fractions lure a species of lacewing. In this paper we describe 
the synthesis of 4 of the insect attractants. 

Exchange on Gas-Chromatographic Columns. M. A. Wechter and F. 
Schmidt-Bleek, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University. — We 
have recently observed a distinct correlation between dissociation en- 
ergies (as a "bulk" physical parameter) and the ease of elemental 
and/or isotopic exchange of halogens on the surface of gas chroma- 
tographic columns. Data are presented and discussed in terms of a) 
exchange reaction mechanisms b) the exchange probabilities with re- 
spect to physical parameters. 

Other papers read 

Computers in Chemistry. Harrison Shull, Indiana University (by in- 
vitation). 

Application of Vapor Phase Electron Diffraction to the Question of 
Aromaticity in l,6-Methano-2,4,6,8,10-cyclodecapentane. Lawrence K. 
Montgomery and J. Coetzer, Indiana University. 

Cis, Cis-Triaminocyclohexane and Some of Its Complexes. R. A. D. 
Wentworth and John Felton, Indiana University. 

Structural Studies by X-ray Diffraction. R. 0. Schaeffer, Indiana 
University. 



Aqueous Solution Studies of O-Tolyl Biguanide Complexes of 
Cobalt(II), Copper(II), and Nickel(II). 

Joseph R. Siefker and Leslie J. Jardine, Indiana State University 

Abstract 

The o-tolyl biguanide complexes of bipositive cobalt, copper, and nickel 
were found to be only slightly soluble in aqueous solutions. The maximum 
solubilties at 25 degrees centrigrade appeared to be approximately 0.005 
molar. The nickel and copper complexes were quite stable in solution. 
The cobalt (II) complex decomposed gradually, perhaps by oxidation to a 
cobalt (III) complex. 

The extent of formation of complexes in solution was studied by a 
spectrophotometric method. A method of successive approximations was 
applied to the absorption data to calculate the dissociation constant and 
the molar absorptivity of each complex. The final calculated values for 
Cu(C t .H 14 N 5 k++ were K = 1.12 x 10- 7 and € = 373 at 350 n^. Those for 
Ni(C 6 H 14 N 5 ) 2 ++ were K = 2.67 x 10- 7 and e = 77.7 at 450^. 

In a previous report, certain o-tolyl biguanide complexes were 
studied in l-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as the solvent (6). Metal salts, 
o-tolyl biguanide, and complexes of the ligand with various cations are 
quite soluble in this solvent. For this reason, solution studies were first 
made in l-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. 

Careful solubility studies showed that o-tolyl biguanide and its 
complexes have maximum solubilities in water in the range of 0.005 to 
0.01 M. Spectrophotometric tests of various solutions indicated that 
enough absorption of light occured in these relatively dilute aqueous 
solutions to permit studies of the complexes. The present study was 
thus made to allow comparison of the parameters of molar absorptivities 
and dissociation constants, in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. 

Although the biguanides contain five nitrogen atoms, only two of 
these are involved in chelate formation, as has been shown by various 
investigators, including Ray and Saha (4). Curd and Rose (1) suggested 
a slightly different structure for the complex, but again found bidentate 
ligand behavior. The data presented by Siefker and Wence (6) and the 
present data further verify that the ligand does coordinate in a biden- 
tate fashion. An excellent review of many references concerned with 
biguanide coordination chemistry appearing prior to 1961 has been 
published by Ray (3). Although complexes of biguanides and guany- 
lureas in general have been studied in quite some detail, the complexes 
of o-tolyl biguanide specifically have received relatively little attention. 

Experimental 

Solutions were prepared following the method of continuous vari- 
ations of Job (2). In this method, the total concentration of metal ion 
plus ligand is kept constant. Several solutions are prepared with the 
extreme at one end containing only metal ion with no ligand, and that 
at the other end containing only ligand with no metal ion. For the 
present studies, nine or ten solutions containing intermediate amounts 
of metal ion and ligand were prepared. 

176 



Chemistry 177 

The o-tolyl biguanide was obtained from Monsanto Chemical 
Company. All inorganic salts were reagents of the highest analytical 
grade that could be purchased. The ligand was used in the form, o-tolyl 
biguanide • V2 PLO, and was not dried. Because of a possibility of 
decomposition, the anhydride was not used. Some of the inorganic salts 
were dried and weighed in the anhydrous form. Others decomposed 
readily at elevated temperatures and were weighed as hydrated salts to 
avoid this problem. 

A Perkin-Elmer Model 202 recording UV-visible spectrophotometer 
was used to scan spectra of solutions containing only inorganic salts, 
solutions containing only o-tolyl biguanide, and solutions containing 
complexes of metal ions and o-tolyl biguanide. For precise absorbance 
determinations at selected wavelengths, a Beckman Model DU quartz 
spectrophotometer equipped with 1-cm. cuvettes was used. All data were 
collected at approximately 25° C. 

Most of the solutions studied were quite stable. Some of the so- 
lutions did show a change in absorbance with time. The solutions con- 
taining Co (II) and o-tolyl biguanide gave absorbance readings which 
drifted enough that meaningful results could not be obtained. 

Data for the Cu(NO s ) 3 and o-tolyl biguanide system are given in 
Table 1. At 350 m/x the Cu(II) and ligand solutions showed very little 
absorption while the complex showed high absorption, thus the wave- 
length of 350 m^a was chosen for the study of this system. 

TABLE 1 



Cone. Cu(II) 


Cone, o-tolyl 


Absorbance 


(X10 3 M) 


big. 


(X 10 3 M) 


at 350 m/m 


0.00 




5.00 


0.037 


0.50 




4.50 


0.172 


1.00 




4.00 


0.367 


1.50 




3.50 


0.490 


2.00 




3.00 


0.565 


2.50 




2.50 


0.500 


3.00 




2.00 


0.361 


3.50 




1.50 


0.244 


4.00 




1.00 


0.168 


4.50 




0.50 


0.0854 


5.00 




0.00 


0.000 



For Ni(NO.i):; and o-tolyl biguanide, the unmixed solutions showed 
little absorption at 450 m/m while mixed solutions containing the com- 
plex showed maxima at this wavelength. The choice of this wavelength 
for the study of the second system is thus obvious. The data are shown 
in Table 2. 

A wavelength of 390 mfi was used for the third system. Co(N0 3 h 
and o-tolyl biguanide absorbed slightly at this wavelength while the 



178 


Indiana Academy of Science 
TABLE 2 




Cone. Ni(II) 


Cone, o-tolyl 


Absorbance 


(X 10 3 M) 


big. (X 10 3 M) 


at 450 m/i 


0.00 


5.00 


0.0015 


0.50 


4.50 


0.057 


1.00 


4.00 


0.080 


1.50 


3.50 


0.098 


1.67 


3.33 


0.102 


2.00 


3.00 


0.082 


2.50 


2.50 


0.069 


3.00 


2.00 


0.060 


3.50 


1.50 


0.039 


4.00 


1.00 


0.021 


4.50 


0.50 


0.018 


5.00 


0.00 


0.002 



complex absorbed light to a considerable extent. Data are shown in 
Table 3, but these data cannot be considered to be highly accurate 
values because the solutions were unstable and the readings drifted 
with time. 

TABLE 3 



Cone. Co(II) 


Cone, o-tolyl 


Absorbance 


(X KFM) 


big. 


(X 10 3 M) 


at 390 m/x 


0.00 




5.00 


0.005 


0.50 




4.50 


0.640 


1.00 




4.00 


0.719 


1.50 




3.50 


0.753 


1.67 




3.33 


0.765 


2.00 




3.00 


0.490 


2.50 




2.50 


0.385 


3.00 




2.00 


0.307 


3.50 




1.50 


0.155 


4.00 




1.00 


0.104 


4.50 




0.50 


0.029 


5.00 




0.00 


0.001 



A possible explanation for the instability of the Co (II) complexes 
might be described in terms of the crystal field theory. The Co might 
favor a more stable d 6 (Co+ 3 ) low spin state to a less stable d 7 (Co+ 2 ) 
high spin state due to the larger crystal field produced by the ligand 
than by the water itself. The excess electrons of the ligand which con- 
tains five nitrogens as compared to the water which contains one 
oxygen would cause this greater splitting, and a larger crystal field 
splitting due to the o-tolyl biguanide would be expected. 



Chemistry 179 

Calculations and Results 

All solutions of the complexes were colored. This can be attributed 
to the ligand field splitting of the d orbitals of the transition metal ions 
involved in the complexes, and the following absorption of light energy 
of a certain wavelength which was used to temporarily excite these 
electrons to a higher split energy level. Thus, the color observed was 
due to the absorbance of the energy of the wavelength or wavelengths 
of light characteristic of the complex and the transmission of other 
wavelengths. 

As was shown by Job (2) and Vosburgh and Cooper (7), the ab- 
sorption of light is at a maximum when the metal ion and the ligand 
concentrations are at the ratio of the formula of the most stable com- 
plex. As can be seen in Tables 1, 2, and 3, the ratio of metal ion to 
ligand was 1 to 2 at the maximum absorbance in the present studies, 
indicating a formula of M(o-tolyl biguanide ) 2 + + , where M represents 
Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II), respectively. 

Calculations were made to find the molar absorptivities of the 
hydrated metal ion, the o-tolyl biguanide, and the most stable complex 
ion, as well as the dissociation constant of the latter. 

Let cm equal molar absorptivity of the metal ion, e x equal molar 
absorptivity of the o-tolyl biguanide, and e c equal molar absorptivity of 
the most stable complex ion. Then the total absorbance, A, for any so- 
lution containing metal ion and ligand is given by 

A = e M [M] + e x [X] + ec [MX„] 

(-0 
assuming that the concentrations of intermediate complexes are negligi- 
ble. In the present cases, solutions containing the metal ions absorbed 
light to the least extent and e M was taken as zero so that only two 
terms of equation (1) were considered. Using the symbol C x to represent 
the total analytical concentration of ligand, equation (1) can then be 
written as 

A = e x (Cx-n [MX n ]) + e c [MXn] 

(2) 
With C n defined as the total analytical concentration of metal ion 
in the solution, the overall dissociation constant expression can be 
written as 

(Cm- [MXn]) (Cx-n [MX n ])" 

K= [MX„] 

(3) 

With the molar absorptivity of the ligand being obtained by studies 
of solutions containing only o-tolyl biguanide, equations (2) and (S) 
contain only two unknowns, e c and K. Because the equations are some- 
what complicated, the solution by a direct simultaneous calculation is 
not readily accomplished, and the equations can more easily be solved 
by a method of successive approximations, as discussed in previous 
papers (5, 6). 

Data of solutions containing only o-tolyl biguanide were analyzed 
statistically to obtain the best values for the molar absorptivities at 



180 Indiana Academy of Science 

the various wavelengths used in these studies. The values found were: 
e x = 1.65 at 350m/i, e x =z3.17 at 450 m/* and e x = 1.10 at390 imx, 

Approximate values were obtained for e c by making calculations 
with solutions which contained high concentrations of ligand and cor- 
respondingly low concentrations of metal ion. In such solutions, the 
equilibrium is driven strongly in the direction of nearly complete con- 
version of hydrated metal ions into complex ions. A first approximation 
for e c in each case was obtained by assuming that under such condi- 
tions the concentration of the complex could be estimated to be equal 
to the total analytical concentration of metal ion in the solution. 

The method of successive approximations was applied in the fol- 
lowing fashion. All known and measured values plus the approximate 
value for ec were substituted into equation (2). This was done using 
data of solutions having concentrations in the ratio of about 1:2 for 
metal ion to ligand. Solution of the equation then gave an approximate 
value for [MX„1 at the specified concentrations. Equation (3) was then 
solved to give an approximate value for K. 

Data at a high ligand and low metal ion concentration were then 
substituted into equation (3). The approximate K obtained by the 
method stipulated above was used and an aproximate [MX„] was found. 
This value for [MX,,] was substituted into equation (2), and a second 
value was found for ec. This value differed slightly from the first ap- 
proximation, and was a better value, because an approximate equilibrium 
constant was used the second time. 

The new value of e c was used with the data of the solutions con- 
taining the metal ion and ligand in the ratio of approximately 1:2 in 
the same fashion as stated two paragraphs above. The resulting calcula- 
tions gave a better value of [MX,,] and subsequently of K. 

This better value of K was used as before to find a new value for 
[MX n ] at a high ligand and low metal ion concentration. The better 
value for [MX,,] permitted the calculation of a better value for K. 

These calculations were repeated back and forth until no changes 
were noted in e c or K. Usually four or five cycles of calculations were 
required to obtain the convergence to the actual experimental values. 

The final calculated values for Cu(C«H»Nr,) 2 + + were K = 1.12 x 10 T 
and ec — 373 at 350 m^. Those for Ni (C«HmN b )s+ + were K = 2.67xl0 7 
and e c = 77.7 at 450 m/n. 

Literature Cited 

1. Curd, F. H. S., and F. L. Rose. 1046. A Possible Mode of Action of 

Paludrine. Nature 138:707-708. 

2. Job, P. 192X. Formation and Stability of Inorganic Complexes in Solu- 
tion. Annales de chimie 9:113-203. 

3. Ray, P. 1961. Complex Compounds of Biguanides and Guanylureas with 
Metallic Elements. Chem. Reviews 01:313-359. 

4. Ray, P. and H. Saha. 1937. Complex Compounds of Biguanide with 

Trivalent Metals. I. Chromium Biguanides. Jour. Indian Chem. Soc. 
14:670-684. 



Chemistry 181 

5. Siefker, J. R. and C. S. SPRINGER Jr. 1964. A Complex of Cadmium (II) 
and Pyrocatechol Violet. Determination of the Molar Absorptivity and 
Dissociation Constant. Proc. Indiana Acad. Science 73:135-138. 

6. Siefker, J. R. and R. L. Wence. 1966. O-Tolyl Biguanide Complexes of 

Some Transition Metal Ions in l-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Science 75:100-104. 

7. Vosburgh, W. C. and G. R. Cooper. 1941. The Identification of Complex 
Ions in Solution by Spectrophotometric Measurements. Jour. Amer. 
Chem. Soc. 63:437-442. 



ECOLOGY 

Chairman : Marion T. Jackson, Indiana State University 
W. B. Crankshaw, Ball State University, was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

Vegetation Gradients on Wizard Island, a Volcanic Cinder Cone in 
Crater Lake, Oregon. Adolph Faller III and Marion T. Jackson, 
Indiana State University. — Wizard Island, which covers about one-half 
square mile, is a volcanic cone extending about 760 feet above the 
present level of Crater Lake. Continuous belt transects 43.56 ft wide 
were run across the island in each of the four main compass directions 
to determine vegetation changes with respect to elevation, exposure and 
substrate. Eighty-seven species of vascular plants are known to occur 
on the island, including 17 new species reported in this study. 

Forest associations include a rather dense Tsuga mertensiana- Abies 
magnified var. shwstensis-Pinns monticola forest which encircles the 
base of the cone; moreover, a less dense stand of similar composition 
occurs on the western lava flow. A scattered Pinus albicaulis-dominated 
stand encircles the windswept crater rim of the cinder cone. 

Diversity indices indicate that floral richness follows the environ- 
mental gradients with respect to both slope aspect and elevation. In 
order of decreasing diversity were the north-facing slope, east-facing 
slope, west-facing slope and south-facing slope. With respect to elevation, 
the cinder covered mid-slopes had the greatest diversity on all aspects, 
followed by scoriaceous upper slopes and lava flows in that order. An 
excellent direct correlation exists between soil moisture levels and 
density and diversity of the herbaceous stratum. 

Factors controlling vegetation distribution on the upper cone are 
low soil moisture, slope instability, low soil nutrient supply and summer 
temperature extremes. On the gently-sloping, angular basaltic lava 
flows, trees reaching 40" DBH, 135 ft tall and upwards of 500 years 
old were relatively common. 

Beckville Woods: A Remnant of the Presettlement Forest Mosaic of 
the Tipton Till Plain. W. E. Myers and R. 0. Petty, University of 
Wyoming and Wabash College. — A Phytosociological study was made of 
23 acres of oldgrowth forest in eastern Montgomery County, Indiana. 
The Beckville Woods is shown to be a relatively undisturbed stand in 
which wetland segregates of the mixed mesophytic forest interdigitate 
with upland climax associates on Brookston silt loam. A full tally is 
presented with stand attributes given for the 41 tree species present 
within the stand. The study further emphasizes the landscape gradient 
and the disposition of species in response to soil moisture levels which 
produces a mosaic of community types. The high species diversity, high 
density and large stems (to 60 inches dbh, 52 stems over 36 inches dbh), 
plus the presence of 3 discernible community types (Beech-Maple, Oak- 

183 



184 Indiana Academy of Science 

Hickory and Red Maple-Elm) make this forest remnant a valuable 
segment of the remaining natural history resources of the state. 

Kramer Woods: An Old-Growth Stand On The Ohio River Terrace. 

Damian Schmelz, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. — The 212 
acre stand is located in Spencer County, Indiana. In a full tally of 21 
acres, 34 species with dbh over 4 inches were recorded; 2 more species 
with dbh over 2 inches were represented. Quercus shumardii contributed 
17% of stand density and 30% of stand basal area. Density and basal 
area factors combined, Q. shumardii had an importance value of 23.5%, 
Gary a ovata-laciniosa 13.5%, Quercus palustris 9.4%, Liquidambar 
styracifl.ua 8.4%, Uhnus americana 7.5%, Quercus bicolor 6.3%, and 
Fraxinus pennsylvanica 4.7%. The largest stems were those of the 
three Quercus species mentioned, one Q. shumardii measuring 51.5 
inches dbh. Reproduction was predominately C. ovata-laciniosa, F. 
pennsylvanica, and U. americana. The stand differed markedly from 
other Indiana bottomland stands in species composition, in higher aver- 
age stem diameter, and in lower stand density; it was similar in stand 
basal area and in size-class distribution. 

Creel Census of Lake Michigan Shoreline. H. E. McReynolds, U.S. 
Forest Service, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. — During late spring and summer, 
Lake Michigan fishermen along the Indiana shoreline are concentrated 
in two small localities (Gary area and Michigan City). Pressure is six 
times as high at Michigan City as it is at Gary. Fishing at other shore- 
line points is negligible. The catch approximates 1.0 fish per hour. 
Yellow perch comprise 90% of the total catch during this period, 
distantly followed by bluegill and carp. Game fish are insignificant in 
the catch. 

Other papers read 

Preliminary Report on Thermal Effluent Effects at the IPALCO Plant 
on the White River with Special Reference to Fishes. Max A. Profitt, 

Indiana State University. 



Ecology of the Southernmost Sympatric Population of the 

Brook Stickleback, Culaea inconstans, and the Ninespine 

Stickleback, Pungitius pungitius, in Crooked Lake, Indiana 1 - 

Joseph S. Nelson, 3 Indiana University 

Abstract 

The southernmost locality where Culaea inconstans, the brook stickle- 
back, and Pungitius pungitius, the ninespine stickleback, occur in sympatry 
is Crooked Lake, Indiana. Both species were first found in Crooked Lake 
in 1966 with rotenone, gillnets, and Plexiglas traps. Culaea and Pungitius 
occur between Zy 2 and 10 m and 5 and 3 m, respectively. The summer range 
in pH for the two species is 7.6 to 8.6 and 7.4 to 8.6, respectively. The 
temperature range is between 12 and 24 and 6 and 24, respectively. 

Both sticklebacks probably spawn in rooted aquatics. Pungitius adults, 
however, generally occur below the zone of rooted aquatics. Fully ripe 
eggs were found in the limited number of Culaea adults between June 26 
and July 19. Pimgitius with fully ripe eggs were found from April to August. 
Identifiable young of Culaea and Pungitius, 12 mm standard length, were 
first collected July 19 and June 15, respectively. The largest Culaea was 
38 mm while the largest Pungitius was 59 mm standard length. 

Culaea was found in the stomachs of Micropterus salmoides and Perca 
flavescens. Stomachs of the latter two species and of Esox americanus 
contained Pungitius. 

Introduction 

Culaea (—Eucalia) inconstans (Kirtland), the brook stickleback, 
occurs in lakes, ponds, and streams across northern North America 
from northeastern British Columbia to New Brunswick and south to 
Indiana. Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus), the ninespine stickleback, oc- 
curs in the freshwaters and along the coastlines of northern Asia, 
Europe, and northern North America. The southernmost locality where 
these two fish of the stickleback family, Gasterosteidae, occur in sympa- 
try is Crooked Lake, Indiana (Fig. 1). 

Crooked Lake lies on the border of Noble and Whitley counties at 
41°16'N latitude and 85°29'W longitude in the glaciated lake district 
of northern Indiana. Crooked Lake, part of the Wabash River drainage, 
is the second deepest lake in Indiana and has a maximum depth of 
33 m (108 ft). This marl lake covers 79 ha (195 acres) and is at an 
elevation of 276 m (906 ft). This report notes some aspects of the 
comparative ecology of Culaea and Pungitius in Crooked Lake. 

Methods and Materials 

Populations of both Culaea and Pungitius were first found in 
Crooked Lake by Nelson (6) in 1966 with relatively new collecting 



1 Contribution #806 from the Department of Zoology, Indiana Uni- 
versity. 

2 The author gratefully acknowledges the field help of D. Ort, K. Shan, 
W. Weaver, and C. Zimmerman. The financial assistance of the Indiana 
Department of Natural Resources is appreciated. 

3 Present address: Department of Zoology. The University of Alberta, 
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 

185 



186 



Indiana Academy of Science 



-42° LAKE 




Figure 1. Locality records in Indiana for Culaea inconstans. The distri- 
bution of the species in western Ohio is included (modified from Traut- 
man (12)). 1 — Whitewater drainage near Richmond, Plummer (7); 2 — Flat 
Rock River tributaries, Shannon (9); 3— Clifty Creek and its tributaries, 
Shannon (9); 4— Kentner Creek, Ulrey (13) and Ind. Mus. No. 5454, in 
University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology; 5— Turkey Lake ( = Lake Wawa- 
see), Ind. Mus. No. 8900, in University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, 
collected 1895; 6 — Lake Maxinkuckee, Evermann and Clark (4); 7 — White- 
water drainage near Richmond, Shoemaker (10); 8— Big Blue River oxbow, 
collected 1964 by F. R. Lockard; 9— Pretty Lake, collected 1964 by T. d! 
Beard and 1967 by J. S. Nelson; and 10— Crooked Lake, collected 1966 
and 1967 by J. S. Nelson. The long dashed line denotes the maximum 
southern extent of Wisconsin glaciation. 

techniques. Monofilament nylon gillnets of 12 mm stretched mesh, Plexi- 
glas traps (2), and rotenone emulsion (Chem Fish Special) were em- 
ployed. The rotenone was dispensed by pumping 125 to 175 cc of the 
liquid, diluted with an equal volume of water, into toy balloons. The 
balloons were attached to the end of a weighted line and were broken 
with a messenger armed with sharpened nails. The dead sticklebacks 
floated on the surface 1 to 4 hours later and were collected with a dip 
net. Sampling was done at various depths on the lake bottom. The area 
affected by the rotenone extended for at least 2 m above the point of 
release. 

Temperature was recorded at 1 m intervals with a Yellow Springs 



Ecology 187 

Instrument thermistor thermometer. Oxygen was measured at 2 m 
intervals with the Azide modification of the Winkler method. The pH 
was determined at 1 m intervals with a portable Photovolt Instrument, 
Model 126. 

Results and Discussion 

Distribution in Indiana 

Culaea inconstans was first reported in Indiana by Plummer (7). 
Since 1851 it has been found in scattered localities in the glaciated 
portion of Indiana (Fig. 1). Only one or a few specimens have been 
reported in five of the nine known localities. Except for a population 
from Merrick Lake, northeastern New Mexico, which available evidence 
suggests is native (William J. Koster, personal communication), the 
Culaea in Crooked, Maxinkuckee, Wawasee, and Pretty lakes are the 
southernmost known lake populations of the species. Populations oc- 
curring further south in Indiana, Nebraska, and Ohio occupy springs or 
rivers. The southernmost locality record for the species, except for 
Roster's New Mexico record, is in Decatur County, Indiana, reported by 
Shannon (9). Culaea is common in the tanks of bait dealers in the 
northern half of Indiana (and perhaps have been present for about the 
last 15 years). These Culaea, which are mixed in with the bait fish 
Pimephales promelas, are obtained from Minnesota and have shorter 
spines than native Indiana specimens. Present information, however, 
cannot exclude the possibility that the Crooked Lake population was 
introduced. Some bait dealers reported Culaea to be present in several 
northern streams but seining operations did not verify these reports. 

The abundant Crooked Lake population of Pungitius pungitius is 
the first verifiable report of the species in Indiana and the only known 
indigenous population in Mississippi drainage. Blatchley (1) reports it 
to be known in Indiana from Lake Michigan and the Calumet River 
but gives no authority. Recent collecting in the Indiana tributaries of 
Lake Michigan has failed to take Pungitius although it is known from 
the lower Calumet River in Illinois. The species is absent from Ohio 
and is known from only a few localities in inland Michigan. 

All collecting suggested that Pungitius was much more numerous 
in Crooked Lake than Culaea. In contrast to Pungitius, Culaea was very 
rarely taken in the gillnets or Plexiglas traps. Rotenone collections 
commonly yielded over 150 Pungitius but rarely more than 20 Culaea. 
Little Crooked Lake, connected to Crooked Lake and about 75 m (246 
ft) to the southeast, was extensively sampled without finding Culaea. or 
Pungitius. 

Limnology of Crooked Lake 

Stahl (11) and Wetzel (14, 15) give details on the limnology of 
Crooked Lake. The lake has a relatively high oxygen concentration 
(Fig. 2). Two maxima in the oxygen distribution were very pronounced 
in 1967. Data from Higgins (5) for 1964 also suggest two oxygen 
maxima, although less marked than that found in this study. Eberly 
(3) and Stahl (11) found a metalimnetic oxygen maxima. 



188 



Indiana Academy of Science 




50 100 

% SATURATION 



2 4 6 8 10 

OXYGEN - ml/L 
Figure 2. Vertical distribution of oxygen in Crooked Lake, 1967 



Isopleths for pH and temperature are shown in Figure 3. An index 
of light penetration was obtained with a Secchi disk. Between July 5 
and August 8 the mean values stayed within 0.2 m of 5.0 m. Between 
August 18 and August 28, Secchi disk readings decreased from 3.7 to 
2.9 m. 

Altogether, 30 species of fish were collected from Crooked Lake in 
1966 and 1967. They are as follows: Lepisosteus oculatus, Amia calva, 
Coregonus artedii, Salmo gairdnerii, Esox americanus, Notemigonus 
crysoleucas, Notropis heterodon, Notropis volucellus, Pimephales 
notatus, Erimyzon sucetta, Ictalnrus natalis, Ictalurus nebulosus, 
Noturus gyrinus, Fundulus diaphanus, Fundulus notatus, Culaea in- 
constans, Pungitius pungitius, Ambloplites rupestris, Chaenobryttus 
gulosus, Lepomis cyanellus, Lepomis gibbosus, Lepomis macrochirus, 
Lepomis microlophus, Micropterus salmoides, Pomoxis nigromaculatus, 
Etheostoma exile, Etheostoma microperca, Etheostoma nigrum, Perca 
flavescens, and Labidesthes siccuhis. Only about half of these species 
may be readily taken in a seine. 

Vertical distribution 

Culaea and Pungitius were collected between SV2 and 10 m and 5 
and 30 m, respectively, in Crooked Lake, between early June and late 
August, 1967. The two species were frequently taken together between 
6 and 8 m in samples collected with rotenone. Sampling in July and 
August at various depths with rotenone showed that larger Pungitius 
individuals tended to occur in deeper water than smaller individuals. In 
most localities where Culaea and Pungitius are known they can be 
collected in shallow water, although they are known from deep water 



Ecology 



189 







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Figure 3. Vertical distribution of pH and temperature in Crooked Lake, 
1967. 



190 Indiana Academy of Science 

in the Great Lakes. Extensive seining during every month, except Feb- 
ruary when the lake was frozen over, failed to take any sticklebacks. 
Occasionally, dead specimens were found on the shoreline. Indeed, the 
first specimens of Culaea and Pungitius were found dead (June 16, 1966 
and November 6, 1965, respectively). 

During the summer months Culaea and Pungitius were in water of 
pH 7.6 to 8.6 and 7.4 to 8.6, respectively. The temperature range was 
between 12 and 24 and 6 and 24, respectively. 

Reproduction 

No nests of either species were found. Fully ripe Culaea females 
were found from at least June 26 to July 19, 1967. From the study of 
Reisman and Cade (8) it would be expected that reproduction in 
Crooked Lake Culaea would be confined to the lower zone of rooted 
aquatics where the temperature is lower than 19 °C. Fully ripe Pungitius 
females were found between April 9 and August 24, 1967. Data from 
the Plexiglas traps suggest that Pungitius moved from deep water into 
the rooted aquatics, less than 9 m deep, to spawn. After spawning, they 
apparently moved into deep water. Between June 9 and June 23 the 
majority of adults were in water between 6 and 18 m. After the above 
date, the majority of large adults were in water deeper than 18 m. 
The diameter of fully ripe eggs in Culaea ranged between 1.0 and 1.3 
mm while in Pungitius it ranged between 1.4 and 1.8 mm. 

The young of both species first appeared in the rooted aquatics. 
Identifiable Pungitius individuals of 10 mm standard length were first 
found on June 15. Young of Culaea and Pungitius, 12 to 14 mm stand- 
ard length, were first taken together at 7 m on July 19. 

Predation 

Culaea was found in the stomachs of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, 
and largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. One 23 mm Culaea was 
found in a Micropterus as small as 52 mm standard length. Pungitius 
was commonly found in the stomachs of Perca. It was rarely found in 
Micropterus and the grass pickerel, Esox americanus. 

Morphological distinctions 

Culaea and Pungitius over 12 mm standard length can be readily 
distinguished by external characters. In a sample of 100 Culaea from 
Crooked Lake, 93 have 5 spines and 7 have 6 dorsal spines. In a sample 
of 500 Pungitius, 3 have 7 spines, 58 have 8 spines, 345 have 9 spines, 
92 have 10 spines, and 2 have 11 spines. Culaea has a deeper body and 
longer spines than Pungitius (Table 1). The greatest difference in spine 
length is among the smaller specimens. Both body depth and spine 
length in Culaea show clinal variation. The greatest difference from 
Pungitius exists in the Wisconsin to Ohio area while the least difference 
exists in the British Columbia to Saskatchewan area. In Culaea the 
caudal peduncle is deeper than it is wide whereas in Pungitius it is 
wider than it is deep. Culaea has a series of 31 to 34 small circular 
bony scutes along the lateral line (visible only when stained), whereas 
Pungitius has 10 to 16 lateral bony scutes on the caudal peduncle. The 



Ecology 



191 



TABLE 1 

Proportional measurements of 20 Culaea and 20 Pungitius and meristic 
counts of 10 Culaea and 10 Pungitius from Crooked Lake. Body propor- 
tions expressed as thousandths of standard length. 





Culaea 


Pungitius 


Character 


Range 


Mean 


Range 


Mean 


Standard length (mm) 


22-37 


28 


22-37 


27 


Body depth 


200-256 


234 


148-186 


164 


Caudal peduncle depth 


39-53 


46 


17-25 


21 


Pelvic spine length 


90-165 


124 


45-99 


77 


First dorsal spine length 


50-105 


77 


14-58 


39 


Precaudal vertebrae 


13-14 


13.1 


15-16 


15.1 


Caudal vertebrae 


18-20 


18.7 


18-20 


19.0 


Total vertebrae 


31-33 


31.8 


34-35 


34.1 


Dorsal soft-rays 


9-11 


9.7 


9-11 


9.8 


Anal soft-rays 


9-11 


10.2 


7-10 


8.8 


Pectoral rays 


8-10 


9.1 


9-10 


9.9 


Caudal rays 


12 


12 


11-12 


11.9 



opercular opening in Culaea does not extend as far past the upper edge 
of the pectoral fin as it does in Pungitius. Culaea tends to have a 
rounded posterior edge to the caudal fin while Pungitius has a slightly 
forked caudal fin. The soft fin rays and first arch gillrakers are about 
the same in number in both species. Pungitius in Crooked Lake attains 
a larger size than the Culaea. The largest Culaea obtained was 38 mm 
while the largest Pungitius was 59 mm standard length. 

Summary 

The southernmost locality where Culaea inconstans, the brook 
stickleback, and Pungitius pungitius, the ninespine stickleback, occur 
in sympatry is Crooked Lake, Indiana. Populations of both species were 
first found in Crooked Lake in 1966 with rotenone, gillnets, and Plexi- 
glas traps. Culaea and Pungitius occur between 3^ and 10 m and 5 
and 30 m, respectively. The summer range in pH for the two species is 
7.6 to 8.6 and 7.4 to 8.6, respectively. The temperature range is between 
12 and 24 and 6 and 24° C, respectively. 

Fully ripe eggs were found in Culaea adults between June 26 and 
July 19. Pungitius with fully ripe eggs were found from April 9 to 
August 24. Identifiable young of Culaea and Pungitius were first col- 
lected July 19 and June 15, respectively. The largest Culaea was 38 
mm while the largest Pungitius was 59 mm standard length. 

Culaea was found in the stomachs of Micropterus salmoides and 
Perca flavescens. Stomachs of the latter two species and of Esox 
americanus contained Pungitius. 



192 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Blatchley, W. S. 1938. The fishes of Indiana. Nature Publishing Co., 
Indianapolis. 121p. 

2. Breder, C. M., Jr. 1960. Design for a fry trap. Zoologica 45(4) :155-160. 

3. Eberly, W. R. 1964. Further studies on the metalimnetic oxygen maxi- 
mum, with special reference to its occurrence throughout the world. 
Invest. Indiana Lakes and Streams 6:103-139. 

4. Evermann, B. W., and H. W. Clark. 1920. Lake Maxinkuckee, a physical 
and biological survey. Indiana Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis. 
Volume 1. 

5. Higgins, B. E. 1965. Food selection by the cisco, Coregonus artedii 
(Le Sueur), in Crooked Lake (Noble- Whitley Co.), Indiana. Ph.D. 
Thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington. 131 p. 

6. Nelson, J. S. 1968. Deep-water ninespine sticklebacks, Pungitius pungi- 
tius, in Mississippi drainage, Crooked Lake, Indiana. Copeia 196S (2) : 
2:326-334. 

7. Plummer, J. T. 1851. List of fishes found in the vicinity of Richmond, 
Indiana. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 3:54-55. 

S. Reisman, H. M., and T. J. Cade. 1967. Physiological and behavioral as- 
pects of reproduction in the brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans. 
Amer. Midi. Natur. 77(2) :257-295. 

9. Shannon, W. P. 1887. A list of fishes of Decatur County, Indiana: The 
fishes inhabiting Cliffy Creek within the borders of Decatur County. 
Greensburg. 2 p. Published privately. 

10. Shoemaker, H. H. 1942. The fishes of Wayne County, Indiana. Invest. 
Indiana Lakes and Streams 2:268-296. 

11. Stahl, J. B. 1966. Characteristics of a North American Sergentia lake. 
Gewasser und Abwasser 41/42:95-112. 

12. Trautman, M. B. 1957. The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State Univ. Press, Co- 
lumbus. 638 p. 

13. Ulrey, A. B. 1894. On the fishes of Wabash County. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci. 1893, 9:229-231. 

14. Wetzel, R. G. 1965. Nutritional aspects of algal productivity in marl 
lakes with particular reference to enrichment bioassays and their 
interpretation. Mem. 1st Ital. Idrobiol., Suppl. 18:137-157. 

15. Wetzel, R. G. 1966. Productivity and nutrient relationships in marl 
lakes of northern Indiana. Verh. Internat. Limnol. 16:321-332. 



The Fish Populations of Big Walnut Creek 

Robert S. Bendai and J. R. Gammon, DePauw University. 



Abstract 

The fish population of six pools in a central Indiana stream were 
studied during- the fall of 1965 and 1966. Data is presented on population 
estimates, standing crops, scale radius-total length relationships, length- 
weight relationships and average growth rates of important species as 
well as morphome try and bottom characteristics of the pools. 

Catostomids dominated the fish population and comprised 50% to 
90% of the total weight of the standing crop. Golden and black redhorse 
(Moxostoma erythrurum and M. duquesnei) were abundant throughout the 
stream. Silver and shorthead redhorse (M. anisurum and M. breviceps) 
were common in the pools below a low-head dam, while hog suckers 
(Hypentelimn nigricans) were especially abundant above. Carpsuckers 
(Carpiodes carpio, C. cyprinus and C. velifer) were found in considerable 
numbers below the dam and sporadically above. From 5% to 28% of the 
total weight was contributed by centrarchids, primarily smallmouth bass 
(Micropterus dolomieui), longear sunfish (Lepomis megelotis) and rock bass 
(Ambloplites rupestris). Minnows generally totaled less than 5% except in 
the most shallow pool. 

Carp (Cyprinus carpio), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and western 
silvery minnow (Hybognathus nuchalis) were restricted to the portion of 
the stream below the dam and made up 14% to 30% of the total weight 
of fish here. 

Pools above the dam averaged approximately 365 pounds of fish per 
acre while those below averaged approximately 750 pounds per acre. The 
larger standing crop in the lower pools results mainly from the addition 
of carp and gizzard shad to the fish community and secondarly from the 
fact that these pools are slighly larger in surface area and considerably 
deeper. 

Many species appear to vacate shallow areas and congregate in deep 
areas in late fall. The standing crop of fish in the deepest pool below the 
dam in mid-November of 1965 was estimated to be in excess of 3000 
pounds per acre, while in October of 1966 it was estimated at 880 pounds 
per acre. 

Introduction 

This paper summarizes the results of a two-year study of the 
fishery resources of Big Walnut Creek near Greencastle, Indiana. The 
study was undertaken to gather preimpoundment data and to give 
insight into the fishery resources of Big Walnut Creek prior to the 
construction of a proposed multiple-purpose reservoir by the U. S. Army 
Corps of Engineers. Another objective of the study was to determine 
if the Greencastle waterworks dam (six-foot head) has had any in- 
fluence on the upstream migration and distribution of fish in Big 
Walnut Creek. 

Information was collected relating to the abundance and distribu- 
tion of fish in the pools, age and growth relationships of the primary 
species, and data contributing to the population dynamics of stream 
fishes. 



1 Present address: Indiana State Board of Health, Stream Pollution 
Division, 1330 W. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46207. 

193 



194 Indiana Academy of Science 

Description of Study Area 

Big Walnut Creek flows through agricultural bottomland with an 
average gradient of 5 to 10 feet per mile. The stream is from 30 feet 
to 80 feet wide and flows clear and sustained throughout the year. 

Four pools were studied in the fall of 1965 and two additional 
stations were added in the fall of 1966. The stations are numbered in 
accordance to their relationship to the Greencastle waterworks dam: 
1A — the first station above the dam, IB — the first station below the 
dam, etc. All stations varied in depth, width, volume of water, and 
bottom composition and are believed to be representative of the major 
pool habitats in the study area (Table 1). 

TABLE 1 

Hydrologic parameters and bottom characteristics of the pool stations. 









Station 






Parameter 


1A 


2A 


3A 


4A 


IB 


2B 


Pool length - m. 


147.8 


136.9 


208.5 


100.6 


124.1 


137.2 


Average width - m. 


10.9 


7.9 


15.4 


14.1 


15.7 


15.4 


Average depth - cm. 


28.2 


33.5 


26.3 


37.1 


32.5 


56.1 


Volume - cubic m. 


457.9 


363.4 


844.2 


526.4 


633.8 


1,181.0 


Area - acres 


0.40 


0.27 


0.79 


0.35 


0.48 


0.52 


Sand - % 


59.3 


52.9 


56.4 


26.5 


59.9 


28.3 


Mud - % 


29.3 


24.5 


7.1 


10.3 


25.1 


12.4 


Gravel - % 


4.3 


14.7 


29.5 


45.6 


5.9 


49.6 


Rock - % 


7.1 


7.8 


7.1 


17.7 


9.1 


9.7 



Methods 

Fish were captured by the use of a floating, 50-foot electric seine 
with 24-inch copper drop electrodes spaced at 28-inch intervals along 
the seine. Hand electrodes at each end of the seine were utilized for 
fringe species. The seine was powered by a portable 2-cycle, 7.8 amp., 
115-volt AC generator rated at 900 watts and was a modification of one 
used by Larimore (10), originally described by Funk (4). It allowed a 
complete sweep of the stream except in a few wide parts of the pools. 
The stunned fish were picked up in dip nets and retained in a holding 
net for processing. As few as four persons were needed for the opera- 
tion, but six to eight usually participated. 

After a single run of the pool the fish collected were processed 
for length, weight, and scale samples. Total lengths were measured to 
the nearest millimeter, and weights were recorded to the nearest gram. 
Scales were removed from the suckers between the origin of the dorsal 
fin and the lateral line, while scales of the sunfish and bass were re- 
moved below the lateral line near the distal half of the pectoral fin. 

Whenever possible the populations were estimated by the Petersen 
method, marking the fish by clipping a fin on one day and recapturing 



Ecology 195 

the next. This sufficed for species populations which were abundant 
throughout the stream, but several species were abundant in some 
pools and scarce in others. Enough data was collected on the latter 
species to indicate a fairly consistent relationship of the number of 
individuals captured in one pass through the pools to the estimated 
population size. This "catchability" ratio was used to estimate the 
population size where populations were small and for minnows in one 
pool. 

The scales of the suckers were mounted dry between two glass 
slides and read for age on a Bausch & Lomb Tri-Simplex Micro-Pro- 
jector with maximum 40x magnification. Bass and sunfish scales were 
washed and impressed on plastic for projection. 

As the redhorse increases in age the scale takes on a "shouldered" 
appearance, and the anterior margin becomes quite irregular (12). 
Because of this the scale measurements were taken on the dorsoventral 
axis instead of the conventional anterio-posterior scale axis. All scale 
measurements were recorded to the nearest millimeter under 20x mag- 
nification. Due to the time of capture, the distance from the last annulus 
to the margin of the scale was counted as a completed annular mark. 
In many instances the redhorse scales contained a disruption in the 
circuli midway between the focus and the first definite annulus. It was 
decided that it was probably due to a change in the feeding habits of 
the young redhorse in their first year of growth. No reference to this 
circulus disruption could be found in the available literature. 

Scale data were processed on a 1620 IBM computer using a modi- 
fication of Gerking's program (8). The programs computed the correla- 
tion coefficients and the regression line formula for the scale radius 
and the total length of the fish, length-weight relationships using the 
standard logarithmic method, and back-calculations of age and length 
relationships. 

Fish Populations and Standing Crops 

Fifty-two species were identified during the study (2). Most of these 
were species which contributed little to the overall standing crop, some 
because they normally inhabited riffles and only occasionally strayed 
into pools and others because they occurred in very low numbers. Typical 
and important pool residents, their estimated population size for each 
pool and their contribution to the total weight of fish in each pool are 
summarized in Tables 2 and 3. 

Golden and black redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum and M. 
duquesnei) are perhaps the most typical residents of the pools, com- 
prising well over half of the standing crop of fish in pools above the 
dam and contributing substantially to those below. Black redhorse ap- 
pear to be less abundant below the dam than above, while silver and 
shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum and M. breviceps) become 
abundant only below the dam. Hog suckers (Hypentelium nigricans) 
also are abundant residents, especially above the dam. All of these 
typical stream species, together with the other species of suckers and 
the carpsuckers, occupy the central part of the pools near the bottom. 



196 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE 2 

Estimated size of fish populations in the pools of Big Walnut Creek 
(* indicates that the population estimate is based on an average catch- 
ability ratio; — indicates that the species was not taken; + indicates 
that the species was taken, but population was not estimated). 



Species 



Year 



LA 



3A 



1A 



IB 



2B 



Golden Redhorse 
Black Redhorse 
Silver Redhorse 
Shorthead Redhorse 
White Sucker 
Spotted Sucker 
Hog- Sucker 
Carpsuckers 
Smallmouth Bass 
Rock Bass 
Longear Sunfish 
Bluegill Sunfish 
Grass pickerel 
Gizzard Shad 
Carp 

Striped Shiner 
Other minnows 



1965 




207 


343 


217 




1019 


1966 


171 


83 


50 


262 


178 




1965 




157 


384 


117 




171 


1966 


hm; 


207 


92 


184 


115 


39 


1965 




6* 


4* 


6 




351 


1966 


— 


— 


— 


8* 


24 


41 


1965 




2* 


6* 


Id 




264 


1966 


— 


* 


— 


■ — 


— ■ 


10* 


1965 




4 


12* 


18 




2* 


1966 


10 


4 


80 


16* 


2* 


2* 


1965 




— 


— 


— 




2* 


1966 


3 


8 


— 


2* 


12 


6* 


1965 




108 


462 


108 




4* 


1966 


72 


75 


95 


22 4 


49 


13* 


1965 




— 


2* 


— 




248 


1966 


1ft 


— 


12 


4* 


46 


98 


1965 




121 


in 


18* 




12* 


1966 


21 


48 


54 


18* 


22 


20* 


1965 




48 


1 2* 


3 




15* 


1966 


24 


49 


8* 


20* 


22* 


16* 


1965 




289 


100* 


70* 




92 


1966 


253 


210 


84* 


56* 


87 


2 80 


1965 




— 


— 


— 




4* 


1966 


4 


— 


— 


4* 


55 


14* 


1965 




5* 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


1966 


2* 


18 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1965 




— 


— 


— 




515 


1966 


— ■ 


— 


— - 


— 


195 


118 


1965 




— 


— 


— 




72 


1966 


— 


— 


— 


— 


12* 


45 


1965 




96 


612 


210 




12* 


1966 


354 


67 


266 


50* 


56 


+ 


1965 




+ 


7000 


+ 




+ 


1966 


+ 


+ 


5100 


+ 


+ 


+ 



Shorthead redhorse and hog suckers were always located near the up- 
stream riffles, while the others exhibited no pronounced preferences. 

Another group of fishes was always found near the edges of pools 
and was especially abundant when cover in the form of tangled roots 
or fallen trees was present. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) , 
rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and longear sunfish (Lepomis meg- 
alotis) were present in significant numbers in all stations. Grass pick- 
erel (Esox americanus vermiculatus) joined this contingent in the 
upper part of Big Walnut Creek while carp (Cyprinus carpio) , spot- 
ted bass (Micropterus punctulatus) and channel catfish (Ictaluras 
punctatus) were important edge species below the dam. 

The importance of cover to these important sport fishes was il- 
lustrated by the changes that occurred in the smallmouth bass popula- 



Ecology 197 

tion of one pool during the study. In the fall of 1965, pool 2A con- 
tained a number of fallen, partially-submerged trees, exposed roots, 
large boulders and undercut banks. It also supported approximately 
120 smallmouth bass weighing in aggregate about 30 pounds. Spring 
floods removed some trees and also caused sediment accumulation be- 
hind those that remained. The population decreased to about 50 fish 
weighing 17 pounds by the fall of 1966. An intensive effort in May 1967 
revealed that approximately nine bass weighing less than four pounds 
remained. Further deterioration of the habitat had occurred in the 
interim. The standing crop of rock bass remained stable at 7 pounds 
during the period, while that of longear sunfish dropped only slightly 
from 19 pounds in 1965 to 14 pounds in 1966 and 1967. 

The low dam has been surprisingly effective in limiting the upstream 
migration of three species of fish. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) , gizzard shad 
(Dorosorna cepedianum) and the silvery minnow (Hybognathus nuchalis) 
were plentiful below the dam but apparently absent above. All of the 
carp captured were large. Therefore, it seems likely that they do not 
reproduce in this part of the stream and that those that are present 
have migrated from farther downstream. The dam is probably not a 
perfect barrier, but is effective enough to prevent a significant carp 
population from being established above it. Gizzard shad and the 
silvery minnow were present much farther downstream 25 years ago 
(5) and have worked their way up to, but not beyond, the dam in the 
ensuing years. 

The estimates of population size for the more abundant redhorse 
and the carpsuckers are quite reliable. An average of 50% of the esti- 
mated population of redhorse, carpsuckers and suckers (except hog 
suckers) was captured in any one pass through a pool. As mentioned 
before, a "catchability" ratio was used to arrive at estimates of less 
abundant populations. Hog suckers were probably less catchable (ratio 
= 0.22) because of their tendency to stay in riffles as well as pools. 
Smallmouth bass, gizzard shad and striped shiner (Notropis chryso- 
cephalus) had averages of 0.35, while longear sunflsh averaged 0.25. 
A ratio for minnows based on mark and recapture data for pool 3A in 
1965 was used to arrive at the 1966 population estimate for this mixed 
group. This was the only pool studied that contained a large minnow 
population. 

The total estimated quantity of fish in the pools varied greatly 
from one pool to another as might be expected and ranged from 91 to 
1652 pounds per pool and from 134 to 3181 pounds per acre. The 1966 
estimate for pool 4A is believed to be high because generator trouble 
postponed recaptures for two weeks and some marked fish did move out 
of the pool during this period. A more realistic estimate of the standing 
crop is probably 135 to 140 pounds per acre. 

The other estimates are believed to be more accurate. Even the 
extremely high standing crop estimated in pool 2B during 1965 is be- 
lieved to be fairly accurate, although the recapture rate was unusually 
low here for all species. This deep pool literally teemed with fish 
when visited on November 12 and 13, 1965. The standing crop was more 



198 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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200 Indiana Academy of Science 

typical, but still higher than any other pool, on October 14 and 15, 
1966. Cold temperatures prior to the 1965 estimate are believed to have 
caused many species to abandon shallow areas for deeper areas. A 
small, shallow pool near pool IB had been shocked in late September 
and was found to contain good populations of the usual species. When 
it was again shocked on November 19 and 20, 1965, it was almost devoid 
of fish. However, fish were concentrated in the very deepest part of a 
long pool just upstream and were absent in the more shallow water. 
This same phenomenon may explain the decrease of standing crop 
found in pool 3A in 1966 from the 1965 estimate. On October 21 and 
22, 1966, this pool contained only very small golden and black redhorse. 
A movement of larger individuals of these species out of this shallow 
pool would explain the 53% reduction in total standing crop. 

If the atypical estimates just discussed are omitted, the pools above 
the dam contain standing crops which average approximately 365 
pounds per acre, while those below average 750 pounds per acre. Big 
Walnut Creek supports significantly more fish than comparable-sized 
streams elsewhere. Larimore and Smith (11) estimate that the streams 
of Champaign County, Illinois, support an average of 250 pounds per 
acre. 

Growth Rates of Principle Species 

The growth rates of six common stream fishes were determined 
using individuals of both sexes and data from both years. Golden 
redhorse and black redhorse were included in this part of the study 
because of their obvious importance in the stream community; small- 
mouth bass, rock bass and longear sunfish were selected because of 
their value to the angling community. 

The relationship of body length to scale radius for these species 
is summarized in Table 4. The anterior scale measurement (x20) was 
used for all but the black and golden redhorse where an irregular 
anterior margin necessitated the use of the dorsolateral scale measure- 
ment. Separate relationships were initially established for each pool 
population of golden and black redhorse. Since the regression equations 
were essentially similar, the data were subsequently combined. In most 
cases the relationship approached a linear relationship closely enough 
to justify fitting by the least squares method. 

TABLE 4 

The relationship of magnified scale radius S in millimeters and total 
length L in millimeters. 

Species No. Body — scale relationship r 2 

Golden redhorse 491 L = 40.000 + 2.546 S .874 



black redhorse 


301 


L = 


= 38.184 


+ 


3.119 S 


.916 


hog sucker 


34 


L = 


= 31.125 


+ 


3.166 S 


.871 


rock bass 


36 


L = 


= 12.631 


+ 


2.033 S 


.936 


longear sunfish 


55 


L = 


= 32.947 


I 


1.713 S 


.454 


smallmouth bass 


66 


L = 


= 44.051 


_j_ 


3.126 S 


.876 



Ecology 201 

A summary of the results of the age and growth study is pre- 
sented in Table 5. The growth rates of black and golden redhorse were 
first computed for individual stations. These growth rates were com- 
pared for significant differences by the t-test. Since there were no sig- 
nificant differences, all of the data was combined to obtain an overall 
growth rate for the entire population. 

TABLE 5 

Calculated mean total lengths and total length increments in millimeters 
for Big Walnut Creek in the Falls of 1965 and 1966. 

Age 
class 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

1 

II 

III 

IV 
V 
VI 
VII 

I 

II 

III 

IV 
V 
VI 
VII 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 



Number 


Mean total 


Total length 


of fish 


length (mm) 


increment (mm) 




golden 


redhorse 




2 




118.8 


118.8 


70 




153.3 


34.5 


127 




187.1 


35.0 


113 




222.1 


33.8 


133 




259.3 


37.2 


37 




285.9 


26.6 


7 




319.2 


33.3 


2 




369.7 


50.5 




black 


redhorse 









130.5 


130.5 


69 




168.5 


38.0 


145 




212.0 


43.5 


89 




250.4 


38.4 


41 




282.1 


31.7 


7 




320.2 


38.1 


1 




353.2 


33.0 




hog suckers 









82.3 


82.3 


1 




115.8 


33.5 


4 




150.2 


34.4 


18 




187.0 


36.8 


8 




232.6 


45.6 


:i 




267.5 


34.9 


1 




284.4 


16.9 




rock bass 









51.7 


51.7 


3 




88.4 


36.7 


15 




134.2 


45.8 


12 




154.6 


30.4 


3 




200.7 


36.1 


3 




220.7 


20.0 


1 




246.5 


25.8 


1 




256.6 


10.1 





smallmouth bass 




3 


96.4 


96.4 


13 


148.9 


52.5 


17 


193.4 


44.5 


21 


235.4 


42.0 


9 


278.1 


42.7 


1 


325.5 


47.4 


1 


355.8 
longear sunfish 


30.3 





60.8 


60.8 





86.8 


26.0 


18 


106.1 


19.3 


25 


117.2 


11.1 


12 


121.0 


3.8 



202 Indiana Academy of Science 

TABLE 5— Continued 

Age Number Mean total Total length 

class offish length (mm) increment (mm) 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 



The growth rate of golden redhorse appears to be less than that 
reported for this species in the Des Moines River (12), in Ohio streams 
(14) and in the Neosho River in Kansas (3). Excellent growth occurs 
during the first year, but thereafter a nearly linear growth pattern is 
exhibited. Black redhorse grow faster than golden redhorse, but the 
basic pattern is smilar. No growth rates for this species were found in 
the literature with which to compare these results. The growth rate of 
rock bass is somewhat better in Big Walnut Creek than in Richland 
Creek, Indiana (7), but is less than in the lakes of northern Indiana (9). 
The growth of longear sunfish compares favorably to that in Richland 
Creek (7) and in the northern lakes (9). The hog sucker grows at a 
rate comparable with those in New York streams (13). Smallmouth 
bass grow less well here than in streams of Michigan (1) even though 
the food supply seems abundant and the growing season is longer. 

Length-weight relationships were computed for all species (Table 6) 
studied without regard to sex, state of maturity, or time and year of 
collection. All specimens were measured for total length to the nearest 
millimeter and weighed to the nearest gram. The lengths and weights 
were fitted logarithmically to the formula: log W = log c + n Log L 
where W = weight, L = length and c and n are constants. 

Discussion 

Big Walnut Creek has a varied and abundant fish population. Dif 
ferences in the species composition of the pools are not great, although 
the low-head dam has been influential as a barrier in limiting carp, 
gizzard shad and silvery minnow to the downstream pools. The two 
upper stations provided habitat favorable to some species not found 
downstream, namely, grass pickerel, creek chubsucker and, incidentally, 



Ecology 203 

TABLE 6 

Logarithmic regression equations of weight (W) in grams on length (L) 
in millimeters for the important species in Big Walnut Creek. 

Species Number Equation r2 

Golden redhorse 491 Log W = 1.6786 + .3242 Log L .95364 

Black redhorse 301 Log W = 1.6846 + .3325 Log L .97063 

Hog suckers 34 Log W = 1.6632 + .3294 Log L .98781 

Rock bass 36 Log W = 1.6076 + .3192 Log L .98898 

Smallmouth bass 66 Log W = 1.6674 + .3184 Log L .93107 

Longear sunfish 55 Log W = 1.6639 + .2675 Log L .81777 



the mudpuppy Necturus maculosus. The stream above the dam is domi- 
nated by the sucker family (Catostomidae) which comprise from 70% 
to nearly 90% of the total weight of the standing crop. The sunfish 
family (Centrarchidae) constituted from 5% to 28% of the total weight. 
Minnows contributed less than 10% except in the most shallow pool 
where they made up approximately 30% of the total weight. 

Catostomids were equally abundant below the dam but, because of 
the addition of carp and gizzard shad, comprised only about 50% of 
the standing crop. Reduced contributions from black redhorse and hog 
suckers were more than compensated for by increases in silver redhorse 
and three species of carpsuckers (Carpiodes, carpio, C. cyprinus, and 
C. velifer). Gizzard shad and carp each comprised approximately 15% 
to 30%, while centrachids made up only about 6% of the total weight. 

Relationships of the total standing crop with various morpho- 
metry parameters are poorly developed. Gerking (6) studied the fish 
populations of six small pools in four different streams in Indiana and 
found significant positive correlations only between the total weight of 
fish present and (1) the area of the two-foot contour and (2) the 
volume of water within the two-foot contour. In general, deep pools 
supported greater and shallow pools smaller standing crops, but the 
addition of carp and gizzard shad to the fish populations downstream 
appears to have a positive effect on the total weight of fish supported. 
The number of pools studied is insufficient to draw general conclusions, 
but an indication of the effect is suggested by comparing pool IB with 
the average of the upstream pools. The average "A" pool contained 
approximately 165 pounds of fish and 548 m 3 of water with a surface 
area of 0.45 acres and an average depth of 12.2 inches. Pool IB had a 
volume of 634 m 3 , a surface area of .48 acres and an average depth of 
12.8 inches. It also supported approximately 300 pounds of fish, 170 
pounds of which were the same species found upstream and 130 pounds 
of which were carp and gizzard shad. This single comparison suggests 
that carp and gizzard shad have not seriously affected the other species. 
The shad would be expected to compete only slightly with other species, 
feeding as they do by straining microalgae from the mud and water. 
Carp, however, are extremely efficient feeders on bottom fauna and 



204 Indiana Academy of Science 

probably compete with suckers, redhorse and carpsuckers for food. Any 
competition for food might be reflected by lower growth rates of the 
latter species, however, growth rates above and below the dam of the 
main species are essentially similar. 

Summary 

1. The fish populations of six pools in Big Walnut Creek were 
studied during fall of 1965 and 1966. Two were located below a low- 
head dam near Greencastle, Indiana and four above. 

2. All fish were collected with an electric seine powered by a 
950 watt, 115 volt generator. One complete pass through the pool was 
made on each of two successive days. Populations were estimated 
using the Petersen method. The ratio of fish captured on any one pass 
to the estimated population varied according to species: carpsuckers, 
redhorse and most suckers averaged 0.50; smallmouth bass, gizzard 
shad and striped shiners averaged 0.35; longear sunfish averaged 0.25; 
and hog suckers averaged 0.22. 

3. Scales were removed from important species and used to esti- 
mate growth rates. Golden and black redhorse grow rapidly the first 
year, reaching total lengths of 119 and 130mm. respectively. Growth 
thereafter is nearly linear at 33 and 37 mm. per year respectively. 
Longear sunfish, rock bass and hog suckers grew at rates comparable 
to those found for these species in other streams in the east and 
midwest, while smallmouth bass grew more slowly. 

4. Members of the sucker family predominated in the fish popu- 
lations, comprising 50% to 90% of the total weight of the standing 
crop. Centrarchids contributed 5% to 28%, while minnows generally 
totaled less than 5% except in the most shallow pool where they made 
up approximately 30%. 

5. Carp, gizzard shad and the silvery minnow were restricted to 
the portion of Big Walnut Creek below the dam. Carp and gizzard 
shad comprised from 14% to 30% of the total weight of fish in the 
two pools below the dam. 

6. Pools above the dam averaged approximately 365 pounds of 
fish per acre while those below averaged 750 pounds per acre. The 
larger standing crop in the lower pools results mainly from the addition 
of carp and gizzard shad to the fish community and secondarily from 
the fact that these pools are slightly larger in surface area and con- 
siderably deeper. 

7. Many species vacate shallow areas and congregate in deep areas 
in late fall. 

Acknowledgements 

The enthusiastic assistance of numerous interested students in 
the field operations is gratefully acknowledged. Our special thanks to 
Mr. Paul Bickford for adapting computer programs to our needs and 
equipment. 



Ecology 205 

Literature Cited 

1. Bean, T H. 1943. Annulus ormation on scales of certain Michigan 
game fishes. Papers Mich. Acad, of Sci., Arts & Letters 28:281-312. 

2. Benda, R. S. 1967. A preimpoundment study of the fishery resources of 
Big- Walnut Creek. M. A. thesis, DePauw University. 42 pp. 

3. Deacon, J. E. 1961. Fish populations, following a drought, in the 
Neosho and Marais des Cygnes Rivers of Kansas. Univ. Kansas Publ. 
Mus. Natur. Hist. 13(9) :359-427. 

4. Funk, J. L. 1949. Wider application of the electrical method of col- 
lecting fish. Trans Amer. Fish Soc. 77:49-60. 

5. Gerking, S. D. 1945. The distribution of the fishes of Indiana. Invest. 
Indiana Lakes & Streams 3:1-137. 

6. Gerking, S. D. 1949. Characteristics of stream fish populations. Invest. 
Indiana Lakes & Streams 3:283-309. 

7. Gerking, S. D. 1953. Evidence for the concepts of home range and 
territory in stream fishes. Ecology 34(2) :347-365. 

8. Gerking, S. D. 1965. Two computer programs for age and growth 
studies. Prog. Fish-Cult. 27(2):59-66. 

9. Hile, R. 1931. The rate of growth of fishes of Indiana. Invest. Indiana 
Lakes & Streams, No. 107:8-55. 

10. Larimore, R. W., Q. H. Pickering and L. Durham. 1952. An inventory 
of the fishes of Jordan Creek, Vermillion County, Illinois. 111. Natur. 
Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes No. 2*>:l-26. 

11. Larimore, R. W. and P. W. Smith. 1963. The fishes of Champaign 
County, Illinois, as affected by 60 years of stream changes. 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. 28(2):299-382. 

12. Meyer, W. H. 1962. Life history of three species of redhorse (Moxo- 
stoma) in the Des Moines River, Iowa. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 
2»(4):412-419. 

13. Raney, E. C. and E. A. Lachner. 1946. Age, growth and habits of the 
hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans (LeSueur), in New York. Amer. 
Midland Natur. 3©(l):76-86. 

14. Roach, L. 1948. Golden mullet. Ohio Cons. Bull. 12(2) :13. 



Relationship of Mus, Peromyscus and Microtus to the Major 
Textural Classes of Soils of Vigo County, Indiana 

John 0. Whitaker, Jr., Indiana State University 

Abstract 

Soils of Vigo County, Indiana, are of three major textural classes: 
upland silt loam, bottomland silt loam and sandy loam. The common 
small mammals of the county were studied in relation to the distribution 
of these soils in cultivated, oldfield and wooded situations. Both Mus 
mus cuius and Peromyscus maniculatus bairdi occurred in greater abundance 
in sandy loam than in the silt loams. It was hypothesized that this was 
because of better cover due to increased herbaceous vegetation in the 
case of Mus and because of looser soil for burrowing in the case of 
P. m. bairdi. In oldfields, Microtus ochrogaster was widely distributed in 
fair and good cover in all three soil types, but Microtus pennsylvanicus 
was essentially limited to bottomland silt loam in areas with good 
herbaceous cover. In wooded situations, Per'omyscus leucopus was more abun- 
dant in bottomland silt loam than in upland silt loam, possibly because 
of increased herbaceous cover there. 

Introduction 

During studies of the mammals of Vigo County, Indiana (5), it 
was pointed out that the distribution of some species might be cor- 
related with differences in the soils. This paper is an attempt to de- 
termine if such correlations existed. 

Methods 

Mammals included in this study were collected by means of snap- 
traps in a series of 429 randomly chosen study plots in Vigo County. 
Twenty-five traps baited with peanut butter were used in each plot for 
three nights. The trapping methods are discussed in detail in a general 
paper on the mammals of the county (5). Details concerning the vege- 
tation in the various habitats is presented in a paper on the food habits 
of some of the species (4). 

Information concerning the soil types is from the soils map of the 
county presented by Shannon (3), but the soil nomenclature has been 
updated by using the Resource Area Map of Vigo County, published by 
the United States Department of Agriculture. 

Information concerning the mammals was converted to number 
taken per 100 trap-nights and summarized by soil type in the following 
three general habitat categories: cultivated areas, woodland areas, and 
old-field areas. Comparisons were made and conclusions were drawn 
regarding soil influence on relative population size. Chi-square goodness 
of fit tests were used to test the null hypothesis that there was no dif- 
ference in the density of mammals with respect to the various soil types. 

Description of Vigo County 

Vigo County, which includes 402 square miles, is located in west 
central Indiana and borders Illinois. The Wabash River enters the 
north central portion of the county and flows to the southwest, forming 

206 



Ecology 207 

the Illinois-Indiana border in the southwest part of the county. The 
major creeks of the county flow into the Wabash River, three from the 
west and four from the east, while a few small streams in the south- 
east part of the county flow into the Eel River. The main valley of the 
Wabash River is about five to six miles wide, thus greatly influencing 
the topography of the county. This valley was the bed of the much 
wider glacial Wabash River, and in it are present many flood ponds, 
bayous and permanent ponds. A terrace about two miles wide runs the 
length of the county along the eastern edge of the valley. This terrace 
is about 40 to 80 feet above the valley throughout most of the county 
but grades into the bottomlands in the south. The uplands, in turn, are 
about 40 to 80 feet above the level of the terrace. Bluffs, forming the 
boundary between the upland and the terrace, are often quite abrupt. 

Underlying the county are great beds of coal. There are numerous 
shaft mines, and 7,727 acres (1) have been stripmined for coal. 

The entire area of the county was covered by the Illinoian Glacial 
advance, while the Wisconsin terminal moraine is present in the 
northwest corner of the county. 

Soils of Vigo County 

There is no recent soil survey of Vigo County, although one is 
currently in progress. 

Shannon (3) listed 10 types of soils as occurring in Vigo County. 
They were Knox silt loam, Modi silt loam, Wabash silt loam, Sioux 
sandy loam, Wabash clay loam, Wabash gravelly loam, Sandy clay 
loam, Vigo black prairie, Knox sand, and morainic soils. 

The three major soil types of the county are the Knox silt loam 
occurring on the uplands, the sandy loams on the terrace and the 
Wabash silt loam of the flood plains. The Morainic soils, the Knox sand, 
and the Vigo black prairie soils are distinctive, but not enough in- 
formation was accumulated concerning the mammals occurring on them 
to draw meaningful conclusions. Discussion will thus be limited to the 
three major groups of soils of the county, termed here the upland silt 
loam, the bottomland silt loam and the sandy loams. 

Upland silt loam 

Included in this category are the Knox and Modi silt loams of 
Shannon, totaling about 212 square miles. This is the most extensive 
soil type in the county and occurs over most of the uplands on both 
sides of the main river valley. The soils here under the present classi- 
fication scheme belong mostly to the Alford, Princeton, Cincinnati, 
Gibson, Muren, Iva, and Iona, and to the 852, 853 series, according to 
the Resource area map of Vigo County published by the United States 
Department of Agriculture. They are essentially light colored wind 
deposited forest silty clay loams of Illinoian till. Most of the land in 
this soil class is level or only gently undulating. 

Bottom land silt loam 

The bottom land silt loam category includes mainly the Wabash 
silt loam but also the Wabash gravelly loam of Shannon. It is the 



208 Indiana Academy of Science 

water deposited soil of the bottoms of the Wabash River and the main 
streams of the county, comprising about 71 square miles. The soils 
here are light to grayish brown depending on the amount of organic 
matter present. They are essentially of Wisconsin or Illinoian outwash, 
depending on the soil types in the areas of their origin. The soil is tacky 
and forms clods if plowed when wet. These soils are usually well drained 
except in slough areas, where many bayous and flood ponds are present. 
Much of the included area is flooded nearly every year in late winter 
or in spring. Soils here are currently in the Genesee, Eel and Shoals 
series. 

Sandy loam 

The Sioux sandy loam of Shannon is the major soil of the terrace. 
Two minor soil types, the sandy clay loam and Wabash clay loam, are 
also included. These soils are currently included in the Fox, Ockley and 
Warsaw series. They consist of dark colored, wind deposited prairie 
sandy loams. The soil is brown to black, from 19 to 24 inches deep and 
contains a great amount of organic matter. Below the surface are 
layers of gravel, usually many feet in depth. The land is generally level 
and is excellent for farming. 

Cultivated Situations 

There were eight habitats in strictly cultivated situations. They 

were plowed fields (48 plots), Soybeans (16), Wheat (9), Corn (38), 

cultivated fields (Sorghum, Lespedeza, and Clover, 22), Soybean stub- 
ble (22), Wheat stubble (15), and Corn stubble (50). 

Two species of mice, Mus musculus and Peromyscus manicidatus 
bairdi, were abundant enough in these situations to be considered. Mus, 
in cultivated situations in Vigo County, occurs in increased numbers 
with increased ground cover (5). This is well illustrated in Table 1 
(note the numbers of house mice per 100 trap-nights of 2.97, 4.44 and 
3.20 in fair to good cover, and the corresponding numbers of 0.55, 0.24 
and 0.00 in poor cover, in the major soil types). Apparently Mus moves 
from area to area as good cover becomes available. Peromyscus manicu- 
latus bairdi shows increased numbers with less ground cover (5). Since 
cover influences mouse abundance so strongly, information concerning 
soil was summarized separately by cover type. 

In both Mus and P. m. bairdi it should be noted that both types 
of silt loam support similar numbers of mice, probably because the two 
soils have many similarities. Both are, of course, silt loams, and ac- 
tually much of the bottomland soil would have originated in the sur- 
rounding uplands, hence would be basically similar to the upland silt 
loams. The question thus has been narrowed to the comparison between 
the silt loams and the sandy loams. 

In fair to good cover, Mus was significantly more abundant in the 
sandy loam than in the silt loams (Chi-square = 11.17**, 1 df). It 
would seem likely that the increased numbers of Mus in the sandy loam 
would be because of increased herbaceous ground cover there. If this 
line of reasoning is correct, there should be a greater proportion of plots 



Ecology 209 

TABLE 1 

Mus musculus and Peroynyscus maniculatus bairdi as associated with soil 
types in cultivated situations in Vigo County, Indiana. 







Fair-Good Cover 




Poor Cover 










No. Mice 






No. 


Mice 




Trap- 


No. of 


100 trap- 


Trap- 


No. of 


100 trap- 




nights 


Mice 


nights 


nights 


Mice 


ni 


ghts 


UPLAND SILT LOAM 














Mus 


3900 


116 


2.97 


4200 


23 




0.55 


P. m. bairdi 




66 


1.69 




93 




2.21 


BOTTOMLAND SILT LOAM 












Mus 


1500 


48 


3.20 


1125 







0.00 


P. m. bairdi 




11 


0.73 




20 




1.78 


SANDY LOAM 
















Mus 


3150 


140 


4.44 


2100 


5 




0.24 


P. m. bairdi 




114 


3.62 




88 




4.19 



with better cover in the sandy loam than in the silt loams. Of 40 plots 
in corn, soybeans and cultivated fields in the silt loams, 33 or 82.5% 
had good or fair cover and 7 or 17.5% of the plots had poor cover. In 
26 plots in sandy loam, 24 or 92.3% had fair or good cover, while only 
2, or 7.7%, had poor cover. Although not significant (Chi-square = 0.17, 
1 df) the low number of plots in poor cover would infer support for 
increased ground cover in the sandy loam. The small sample size here 
may explain the lack of significance. 

Increased vegetative cover in the sandy loam could result from 
differences in nutrient or water holding ability, increased aeration be- 
cause of larger soil particles in the sandy loam, or differences in fer- 
tility. Fertility would not seem to be a factor, however, since we are 
discussing here cultivated lands in which widespread and variable fer- 
tilizing is practiced. 

If the above reasoning is correct, that is, that Mus is more abundant 
on the sandy loam because of increased amounts of herbaceous cover 
there, it would seem that P. m. bairdi, which attains larger populations 
in poorer cover, would attain larger populations on the silt loams than 
on the sandy loam, since the average amount of cover is less there. 
Actually, as with Mus, the sandy loam supports significantly greater 
numbers of Peromyscus (Chi-square = 61.57**, 1 df) than does the 
silt loam. Increased abundance of P. m. bairdi with decreased herbaceous 
ground cover does not mean that the species does not need cover. 
Rather, this mouse utilizes another type of cover. It burrows in the soil. 
For this reason, the ease of burrowing in a soil might be an important 
difference between soil types with respect to mice living there. The 
sandy loam might be easier to burrow in than the silt loams. If the 



210 Indiana Academy of Science 

soil was simply harder to burrow in than the silt loam, then there is 
no reason why there should be decreased numbers of mice overall. If 
food and other limiting factors are adequate, normal populations should 
be maintained although burrowing is harder for the mice. On the other 
hand, if the ease of burrowing is acting as an important limiting factor, 
it would seem that the soil either could be burrowed in or it could not 
at any one place. If in the silt loams the soil could less often be bur- 
rowed in, then the population reduction there should be due not to a 
reduction in numbers throughout the area of the silt loam, but to in- 
creased areas where the mice could not occur. There should be a greater 
proportion of plots lacking mice in the silt loams than in the sandy 
loam. In only 14 of 73 or 19.2% of the plots in the sandy loam were 
mice of this species absent, while in the silt loams, they were absent in 
76 of 143 or 53.1%. This difference was significant (Chi-square = 
13.35** 1 df). It is clear that P. in. bairdi exists in a much smaller 
proportion of the area in the silt loams than in the sandy loam. Soil 
structure or texture might again be the key factor. The sandy loam is 
coarser; thus, it would be easier to burrow in than the finer, more 
compact silt loams. 

In the case of the house mouse, Mus musculus, the situation was 
quite different. In 116 plots in the silt loams, mice of this species were 
absent in 30 or 25.9% of the plots, and in the sandy loam they were 
absent in about the same proportion of plots, or 11 of 42 (26.1%). This 
indicated that the decreased number of mice in the silt loam is not a 
matter of exclusion from a major proportion of the area, but rather to 
decreased populations throughout. 

Weedy and Grassy Fields 

In weedy and grassy fields, little could be gleaned since the data 
were so scanty (Table 2). The cover trends again were apparent, with 
all species except Peromyscus maniculatus bairdi being more abundant 
in better cover (the latter species being more abundant in poorer cover). 

The most interesting distribution was that of Microtis. M. ochro- 
gaster, the common and widespread prairie vole, was found in both 
good and fair cover in all three soil types, but M. pennsylv anicus was 
found only in good cover and only on the bottom land silt loam. Vigo 
County is on the edge of the range of Microtus pennsylv anicus. The 
species is common in the northeastern United States, but to the west 
Hoffmeister and Mohr (2) state that in Illinois "the meadow vole is 
fairly common in extreme northern Illinois and is known to occur as 
far south as an imaginary line drawn between Kankakee and Havana." 
The special combination of factors of good cover in grassy fields on 
bottom land silt loam would appear, at least in part, to explain why M. 
pennsylv aniens apparently does not occur far westward. This combina- 
tion of factors, especially with regard to major areas of bottom land 
silt loam, diminishes to the west of Vigo County. It would be interesting 
to examine the lower Wabash Valley on the Illinois side of the Wabash 
River to see how far south M. pennsylv anicus extends in the area of 
the bottom land silt loam. It should be noted that a large number 
(several hundred) meadow voles, Microtus pennsylv aniens, were taken 



Ecology 



211 



TABLE 2 

Relationship of rodents of grassy and weedy fields to upland and bottom 
land silt loams in Vigo County, Indiana. 



Good Cover 


Fair Cover 


Poor Cover 


7 plots 


10 plots 


6 plots 


525 trap- 


750 trap- 


450 trap- 


nights 


nights 


nights 


No./lOO 


No./lOO 


No./lOO 


Trap- 


Trap- 


Trap- 


No. nights 


No. nights 


No. nights 


UPLAND SILT LOAM 






Mus 11 2.10 


3 0.40 


3 0.67 


P. m. bairdi 3 0.57 


11 1.47 


8 1.78 


P. leucopus 6 1.14 


5 0.67 


0.00 


M. ochrogaster 10 1.90 


1 0.13 


0.00 


M. pennsylv aniens 0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


BOTTOM LAND SILT LOAM 






12 plots 


11 plots 


2 plots 


900 trap- 


825 trap- 


150 trap- 


nights 


nights 


nights 


Mus 63 7.00 


8 0.97 


0.00 


P. m. bairdi 8 0.89 


9 1.09 


4 2.67 


P. leucopus 36 4.00 


6 0.73 


1 0.67 


M. ochrogaster 10 1.11 


4 0.48 


0.00 


M. pennsylv anicus 19 2.11 


0.00 


0.00 



in Vigo County about one mile east of the Illinois line in the valley 
of Clear Creek. Clear Creek originates in Illinois and flows eastward 
through Vigo County, Indiana, into the Wabash River. Eight mice of 
this species also were taken in the Clear Creek valley in Illinois just 
west of the state line, thus constituting an Illinois record about 80 
miles south of the Kankakee-Havana line. 



Wooded Situations 

The only species taken in great enough numbers to accumulate 
meaningful information in the wooded situations was Peromyscus 
leucopus. Likewise, meaningful numbers of plots occurred only in the 
two types of silt loam (Table 3). 

Overall, 3.44 mice of this species per 100 trap-nights were taken on 
the bottom land silt loam, and only 1.86 on the upland silt loam. This 
difference is significant (Chi-square = 10.34, 1 df). There is a direct 
relationship between the number of mice of this species and the amount 



212 Indiana Academy of Science 

TABLE 3 

Occurrence of Peromyscus leucopus in woodland areas on the upland and 
bottom land silt loams of Vigo County, Indiana. 





Good Cover 


Fair Cover 


Poor Cover 


UPLAND SILT LOAM 








Plots 





10 


23 


Trap-nights 




750 


1725 


P. leucopus, no. 




16 


30 


No./ 100 trap-nights 




213 


1.73 


BOTTOM LAND SILT LOAM 








Plots 


G 


9 


9 


Trap-nights 


450 


675 


675 


P. leucopus, no. 


30 


25 


7 


No./ 100 trap-nights 


6.67 


3.70 


1.04 



of herbaceous ground cover (5). The difference in cover probably ex- 
plains the difference in abundance of P. leucopus on the two soil types. 
Of 33 plots on the upland silt loam, none had good cover, while of 24 
plots on the bottom land silt loam, six or 25 per cent had good cover. 
This difference was not significant (Chi-square = 0.97, 1 df), but again 
this was thought to be due to the small sample size. 

Literature Cited 

1. Guernsey, L. 1960. Land use changes caused by a quarter century of 
strip coal mining - in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 69:200-209. 

2. Hoffmeister, D. F. and C. O. Mohr. 1957. Fieldbook of Illinois mammals. 
Natur. Hist. Surv., Urbana. 233 p. 

3. Shannon, C. W. 1911. Soil survey of Clay, Knox, Sullivan and Vigo 
Counties, Indiana. Ann. Rept. Indiana Dept. Geol. and Nat. Res. 
36:135-280. 

4. Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 19 66. Food of Mus musculus, Peromyscus maniculatus 
bairdi and Peromyscus leucopus in Vigo County, Indiana. J. Mammal. 

47:473-486 

5. . 1967. Habitat and reproduction of some of the small mam- 



mals of Vigo County, Indiana, with a list of mammals known to 
occur there. Occas. Papers Adams Ctr. Ecol. Studies No. 16. West. 
Mich. Univ., Kalamazoo. 24 p. 



Entomology 

Chairman: George H. Bick, St. Mary's College 
Leland Chandler, Purdue University, was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

The Biological Control of the European Corn Borer Through the Use 
of Bacteria. D. Nesbitt and H. L. Zimmack, Ball State University. — 
The research work has been an attempt to find one or more bacteria 
that would have a pathogenic effect on the European corn borer and 
not be pathogenic to humans or animals. 

The screening with mass rearing was conducted to learn whether 
any of the bacteria had a definite pathogenicity for the corn borer. The 
results of this experiment were negative. There was no indication of 
outstanding pathogenic effects on the larvae. The bacteria tested on 
the individually reared larvae did not cause any outstanding mortality. 
There was very little difference between the control group and the 
three experimental groups of larvae that were used. The egg production 
of the females in the control group was 1.66 times that of the Serratia 
marcescens Bizio group, 1.95 times the Escherichia coli (Migula) pro- 
duction, and 2.70 times the E. coli-S. 'marcescens group. The eggs 
per female per day was 1.60 times as many for the control group as 
for the Serratia group; 3.14 times as many as for the E. coli group; 
and 1.83 times as many as for the E. coli-S. marcescens females. The 
greatest difference among the four groups of larvae tested was in the 
egg production. 

Reproductive Behavior and Social Organization in the Coleoptera. Frank 

N. Young, Indiana University. — Reproductive behavior of Coleoptera 
includes not only simple male-female relationships in mating but also 
paired conflicts between males, parental care of the young, and co- 
operative colony formation. The behavior patterns are sometimes com- 
plex and overlap those found among the primitive bees and wasps. 
None of the beetles, however, form perennial colonies in which there 
is distinct division of labor and caste formation, but the Sylvanidae, 
Ipidae, Platypodidae, some Tenebrionidae, and the Passalidae form as- 
sociations which are close to truly social organizations. As in the 
Hymenoptera the binding force in these associations seems to be 
pheromones or ectohormones which are exchanged in feeding or groom- 
ing or are released into the air. The beetle subsocieties are thus more 
closely comparable to the mammalian family held together by male- 
female, parent-child eroticisms rather than the vertebrate society 
organized by heirarchy, territory, and leadership. 

Other papers read 
Colloquium on Insect Reproduction: Odonata. George H. Bick, St. Mary's 
College (by invitation). 

Colloquium on Insect Reproduction: Culicidae. George B. Craig, Jr., 
University of Notre Dame (by invitation). 

213 



Damage to Field Corn by Symphylans 1 

George E. Gould and C. A. Edwards 2 
Purdue University 

Abstract 

During the past two years infestations of symphylans have been found 
in eight corn fields in five counties: Clinton, Shelby, Ohio, Harrison and 
Randolph. All were the garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata New- 
port, except for those from Clinton County where S. nodicerous Michel- 
bacher was the species concerned. Although only areas of 1 to 15 acres 
were attacked, damage within these areas was extensive. The roots of 
young corn were attacked soon after plant emergence and the plants died 
or were severely stunted within a week. Surviving plants remained 
stunted throughout the season and few produced even small ears. Popu- 
lations of 50 to 100 symphylans feeding on the fine roots were not unusual. 
The infestations were usually on sloping land with high humus content 
and uncompacted soil. In two fields where a 6-row planter was used, 
rows 2 and 5 which had been compacted by the tractor fields produced 
many more normal plants than the other rows. In 1967 no symphylans 
were found in soil samples taken to a depth of 9 inches on May 2 and at 
planting time on May 27, but 10 days after planting there were up to 
100 symphylans per plant and many young plants were dying. This in- 
crease in numbers was probably due to migration from deeper soil rather 
than hatching of eggs. Plots treated with a fumigant and six different 
insecticides had only slightly fewer damaged plants than did the untreated 



The garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata (Newport), is not 
a new pest in Indiana, but only in the past three years has it been 
found in destructive numbers around the roots of field corn. Known 
under such names as the greenhouse centipede, the "white elephant," 
and the "galloping dragon," this small animal was studied by Riley of 
this Department in the years from 1927 to 1931. In the late 1940's 
vegetable growers in the Indianapolis area reported damage to crops 
both inside greenhouses and on adjacent land outside. The first com- 
plaints of damage to field corn came from Shelby and Clinton Counties 
in June of 1966, although later conversations with farmers indicated 
that they had seen injury as early as 1964. The senior author has 
worked with soil insects around corn roots since 1951, but observed few 
symphylans prior to these outbreaks. During the past two summers 
infestations were found in 10 corn fields in five widely separated 
counties: Clinton, Shelby, Ohio, Harrison, and Randolph. All infestations 
were the garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata, except those from 
Clinton County where S. nodicerus Michelbacher was the species con- 
cerned. 

The purpose of this paper is to review the known information on 



1 Journal Paper No. 3235 of the Purdue University Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station. 

2 Edwards is a National Science Foundation Visiting Professor at 
Purdue University, permanently assigned to Rothamsted Experimental 
Station, Hampenden, England. 

214 



Entomology 215 

these small animals and to report on their habits and destructiveness in 
Indiana fields. 

Symphylans were first recognized as economic pests by Woodworth 
(11) in 1905 on field-grown asparagus in California. Davis (1) found 
them in Illinois greenhouses where as early as 1908 they were damaging 
fern asparagus and smilax. Their importance as greenhouse pests was 
reflected in the extensive research on biology and control in the late 
1920's in Ohio (3, 4) and Indiana (8, 9). Control recommendations in- 
cluded steam sterilization of the soil, fumigation with carbon disulfide, 
sanitation, and the use of raised benches. Wymore (12) in California 
found that flooding of fields for 30 days would check symphylans for 
several years. Michelbacher (5) did a thorough study on their biology, 
host range, and ecology. Morrison (7) in Oregon found that this pest 
caused serious damage in the field to the roots and underground por- 
tions of many crops, including potatoes, beans, beets, strawberries, corn, 
mint, hops, asparagus, rhubarb, and caneberries. Several fumigants 
were satisfactory in Oregon, while parathion and Zinophos R (0,0-diethyl 
0-2-pyrazine phosphorothioate) gave only temporary protection. 

The U.S.D.A. Cooperative Economic Insect Reports (10) since 1960 
have carried numerous records of symphylan damage to field corn from 
the western States of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and Colo- 
rado and the Province of British Columbia. The first records from the 
midwest and east were from Iowa, Ohio, and Pennsyvania in 1963. 
Virginia and Indiana reported damage in 1966 and Maryland, Connecti- 
cut, and "the eastern half of Pennsylvania" in 1967. The 1964 Report 
(pages 467 and 790) stated that symphylans were known from 14 Iowa 
counties and were serious pests on corn or soybeans wherever they 
occurred. The 1966 Report (page 694) recorded their presence in seven 
counties of Ohio and stated that it "occurred over the State." 

Details of symphylan life history under field conditions are not 
well known. Morrison (7) reported that eggs, nymphs, and adults 
could be found any month of the year in Oregon, but most eggs oc- 
cured during the winter and early spring. Nymphs and adults became 
active in the spring and were present in peak numbers in the upper 
six inches of soil during July and August. They remained in the upper 
soil until cold, rainy weather or extreme dryness drove them deeper. 
Their habit of descending to very deep soil under such conditions made 
control difficult, as only a small proportion were near the surface at 
one time. Complete development required two to three months, so there 
was one and possibly two generations each year. Individual symphylans 
were long-lived and in the laboratory lived for five years, molted reg- 
ularly, and produced eggs periodically during this time. 

Filinger (4) stated that symphylans were terrestrial in habits and 
lived in earthworm burrows, in natural crevices in the soil, and in 
openings left by decaying roots. With the approach of warm weather 
in the summer they migrated, in the greenhouse, to the subsoil 24 to 36 
inches below the surface. The optimum temperature for activity was 
found to be 65 °F. He demonstrated the inability of the symphylan to 
make its own burrows by placing moist loam soil in two stender dishes. 



216 Indiana Academy of Science 

Both were tamped down to make a smooth surface and five individuals 
were placed in each. Leaf lettuce for food was placed in each dish and 
in one, two small earthworms were added. In the dish with earthworms 
the symphylans had followed the earthworm burrows into the soil by 
the second day, while in the other dish four of the five individuals (one 
died) were still on the surface at the end of six months. 

Wymore (12) discussed possible sources of infestation and methods 
of dissemination in the field. In certain areas he observed a possible 
association with flooding, but noted that new infestations often became 
evident in small, slightly elevated spots, such as in one corner of a field 
or in a circular area adjacent to moist soil. The principal spread was in 
the direction of the rows with a rather slow lateral movement. Many 
farmers felt that barnyard manure was a serious source of infestation, 
but Wymore found no symphylans in the main manure pile and enor- 
mous numbers about plant roots around the edge of well-decomposed 
manure. Filinger also mentioned that manure was often piled outside 
a greenhouse and symphylans were taken wherever the rotted manure 
was used. 

The garden symphylan, also known as the greenhouse centipede, is 
a centipede-like animal belonging to the Class Symphyla. It is not a true 
centipede (Class Chilopoda) nor an insect (Class Insecta), but is re- 
garded by some as ancestral to both groups. Symphylans are delicate, 
white, soft-bodied animals from 0.2 to 0.3 inches in length. Adults have 
15 to 22 body segments, 11 or 12 pairs of legs, and paired cerci. 
Scutigerella immaculata is recorded throughout the United States and 
is generally distributed throughout the world. Distribution records in- 
clude most of Europe, Algeria, Mexico, Argentina, and Canada. 

Scutigerella nodicercus is closely related to S. immaculata and is 
distinguished from it by the shape of the dorsal scuta, the cerci, and 
the chaetotaxy. This species was originally described from Germany 
and has been recorded only from the west coast of the United States. 
Although S. immaculata is the species usually described as causing 
economic damage, most species of Scutigerella feed on plant roots. In a 
survey of cultivated sites Edwards (2) found several economic species 
and stated that such forms may be dominant in some areas and cause 
more damage than S. immaculata. Much more thorough surveys are 
needed to determine the distribution and damage caused by the various 
species. Preliminary identification of the genus Scutigerella in the 
United States can be made in the keys by Michelbacher (6). Currently 
specimens of Symphyla from the midwest are being examined and the 
distribution of the various species may be clarified in the near future. 

The first indication of a symphylan infestation destructive to corn in 
Indiana was a call to the Entomology Department in early June of 
1966. The location was a farm adjacent to the sewage disposal plant 
at the edge of Shelbyville in Shelby County. Here young corn plants on 
some 12 acres in a higher area of the field and adjacent to an old bam 
were stunted in size and purplish in color. These plants were 4 to 8 
inches in height and had the purplish color typical of phosphate 
deficiency. Normal plants in the same rows, but out of the infested 
area, were 12 to 15 inches tall and bright green in color. Digging in 



Entomology 217 

the soil around the corn roots revealed 10 to 25 of the small, white 
symphylans around each plant. The fine rootlets had been eaten and the 
entire root system was less than an inch across as compared with 2 to 
3 inches in the healthy plants. The soil at this time was moist and 
quite loose. 

This field had been planted with corn for several years and in the 
spring of 1966 had received an application of aldrin for control of 
rootworms and other soil insects. The infested area, although on higher 
ground, was slightly depressed and held moisture longer than adjacent 
land. The farmer reported that a small area in another field had the 
same problem. In the past sludge from cleaning out the sewage plant 
had been spread over part of the field. 

The second call in 1966 was received in late June from a farm near 
Manson in Clinton County. Again, the infested area was on sloping 
land. The fence around this 10-acre sod field was removed in the spring 
and the area became a part of a 240 acre corn field. Aldrin for soil 
insect control was broadcast over the entire field before seed was 
planted. As the young plants emerged and started to grow, the symphy- 
lan attack became apparent on some 200 rows. In the first few weeks, 
many plants were killed, while the survivors remained stunted and 
grayish in color throughout the remainder of the season. On the early 
cultivation the farmer had to lift the cultivator shovels out of the 
ground to keep the soil from covering the small plants. Weeds, espe- 
cially giant foxtail, were not seriously affected by the symphylans. 

Typical healthy plants in this field on July 1 were 60 to 70 inches 
tall and had no symphylans around their roots. Surviving plants in the 
infested area were 15 to 20 inches tall and were wilted and gray in 
color, typical of severe drought symptoms. A four-inch soil sample 
taken in this area showed from 25 to 100 symphylans around the roots 
of each surviving plant. Throughout the season certain rows in the 
infested area showed stunting and wilting and yet were taller than 
adjacent rows. These better rows were explained by the farmer as 
being planted by boxes 2 and 5 on a 6-row planter. Thus, these two 
rows were planted in soil compacted by the passage of the tractor 
wheels. This soil was quite loose, as the farmer had plowed to a depth 
of 10 inches and then had used a field cultivator between the tractor 
and corn planter. Earthworm burrows were quite abundant and about 4 
inches down there was an almost continuous layer of the plowed-under 
sod. 

After a 6-inch rain the field was examined again, on August 9th. 
Plants in the uninfested areas were growing well and the differences 
between the healthy and the damaged were quite pronounced. Normal 
plants were in full tassel and were 8 to 9 feet tall, whereas plants in 
rows 2 and 5 of infested areas had few tassels and were only 3 feet tall 
(Figure 1). Plants in the other four infested rows were few in number 
and were about 2 feet tall with no tassels. Weeds, primarily foxtail, 
had taken over the uncultivated areas and often were as tall as the 
stunted corn plants. Roots on these plants showed little increase in 
size, although the number of symphylans present was down to 5 to 10 
per plant. 



218 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 1. The damage resulting- from symphylan feeding on corn roots — 
a healthy plant on left and a survivor from the infested area on right. 



In mid- September, differences in growth were still quite apparent. 
Plant and ear counts showed the following numbers per 100 feet of row: 
Normal corn 105 plants 90 large ears 

Rows 2 and 5 in infested area 90 plants 70 nubbins 

Rows 3 and 4 in infested area 59 plants 3 nubbins 

The symphylan count around infested roots had dropped to 4 per plant. 



Entomology 219 

Reports of symphylan infestations in Harrison County were received 
in early August. Upon investigations three farms were found to have 
these pests. On the one farm, three fields including one planted to 
popcorn were involved. Populations at this time were light and the 
number of seriously injured plants low. Again, it was noted that these 
soils were loose and had many earthworm burrows. 

In 1967, symphylans were found on a second farm in Clinton 
County located three miles north of the first infestation. Immediately, 
a similarity of farming operations was noted: both raised corn on most 
of their land; both used a field cultivator in their corn planting opera- 
tion; both raised beef cattle in feed lots and hogs in confinement feed- 
ing; and both spread manure on their fields. The areas infested with 
symphylans were near the feed lots and had received heavy applications 
of manure. As on the other farm, corn planted in rows 2 and 5 was 
better than that in the other four rows. 

During 1967, farms in Randolph and Ohio Counties were found to be 
infested with symphylans. In the first county the infestation was on 
high sloping land adjacent to a vegetable garden. The farmer reported 
that injury to vegetables and adjacent corn had been observed for at 
least the last three years. Manure from a cattle feed lot operation had 
been spread on the symphylan-infested area for several years. In Ohio 
County injured corn plants were visible in three fields from the highway. 
In each instance the infestation was located on sloping land and the 
injured area small. 

The infested Harrison County fields were checked again in 1967, 
and were found to have only slight damage. Barley planted in one field 
had no recognizable damage from symphylan feeding. In Shelby County 
the infested field had been planted to soybeans. Rainfall during the 
summer months was quite low and the plants in the infested area were 
suffering in early September from both the drought and the feeding of 
symphylans. This area was recognizable by smaller plants with fewer 
leaves and more signs of maturity than the nearby normal plants. Dig- 
ging in the hard, dry soil revealed a poor root system and only one or 
two symphylans per shovelful of dirt. At harvest in early October plants 
in the infested area were still holding some yellow leaves, while normal 
plants were bare. 

On the first Clinton County farm six chemicals were applied in 
1967 in an attempt to control the symphylans. Since the area of high 
populations was not known for certain, treatments were made in the 
higher sloping land in the center of the field. A fumigant (Vorlex R ) 
containing methyl isothiocyanate and chlorinated C 3 hydrocarbons was 
applied May 2 with equipment supplied by the manufacturer. The soil 
had been plowed to a depth of 12 inches and disked, but was still lumpy 
and moist. The applicator with chisel shovels placed the liquid fumigant 
at a 4 to 6 inch depth and then the soil surface was smoothed by a heavy 
log chain dragged behind the applicator. Areas on either side of the 
fumigation were left untreated or were treated with insecticides broad- 
cast at planting time on May 27. These materials in a granular forma- 
tion were applied with an applicator on the front of the field cultivator 



220 Indiana Academy of Science 

which was mounted in front of the planter. The granules were covered 
by the soil stirred by the cultivator shovels. 

Soil sampled on April 19, May 2, and May 27 in the infested area 
of 1966 showed no symphylans. On June 7 when corn plants were 3 or 
4 inches tall, the area was already showing wilting and dying plants 
and as much as 50 feet in some areas was bare of plants. Later samp- 
lings showed a gradual increase in the symphylan population to 50 to 
100 around the roots or surviving plants. Regardless of the treatment 
used rows 2 and 5, in general, had more and better plants than the 
other four. The last stand count, on July 25, showed that many of the 
500-foot rows had over 100 feet with no plants. 

The pattern of the infestation indicated little or no population of 
symphylans on the west 72 rows and the east 100 rows. Three untreated 
areas were left across the field and rows 85 to 90 had an average of 
70 feet with no plants, rows 145 to 174 with 104 feet and rows 205 to 
210 with 84 feet. The various treatments did not reduce the symphylan 
to any great extent, although some improvement was noted. For in- 
stance, rows 121 to 144 in the fumigated area averaged 62 feet of blank 
space, while rows 175 to 198 treated with Bux R (a 1:4 mixture of 
M-(l-ethylpeopyl) phenyl methyl carbamate and M-(l-methylbutyl) 
phenyl methyl carbamate) had an average of 83 feet blank. Because of 
low infestations comparisons of other treated areas with the untreated 
check were not considered reliable. 

Summary 

Symphylan damage to corn was found on 10 farms in Indiana 
during 1966 and 1967. The feeding of these small animals on the roots 
killed many corn plants before they were 12 inches high. Plants surviv- 
ing this early attack were stunted and had a grayish color throughout 
the remainder of the season. These survivors reached a height of two to 
three feet and seldom produced an ear. The areas of infestation within 
a field were irregular and were not necessarily identical in the two 
years. At present these infestations are small, ranging in size from 2 
to 15 acres. However, they do occur on highly productive land and 
appear to be spreading. Factors influencing abundance in corn fields 
include loose, moist soils, high organic content, and the presence of 
many earthworms. Tests in 1967 with chemicals for control were not 
successful, perhaps due in part to improper methods of application. 

The two species of symphylans found in Indiana corn fields were 
Scutigerella immaculata (Newport) and S. nodicerus Michelbacher. This 
is the first record of the latter form outside of California. The discovery 
of S. immaculata feeding on the roots of corn in the field is a major 
change in habitat from that of the greenhouse. 

Literature Cited 

1. Davis, J. J. 1912. Report on insects injurious to flowering and orna- 
mental greenhouse plants in Illinois. 27th Rpt. of State Entomologist 
of Illinois, pp. 138-139. 

2. Edwards, C. A. 1957. The bionomics of Symphyla. Univ. Wis. Dis- 
sertation Abstracts 2093. 



Entomology 221 

3. Filinger, G. A. 1928. Observations on the habits and control of the 
garden centipede, Scutigerella immaculata, a pest in greenhouses. J. 
Econ. Entomol. 21:357-360. 

4. Filinger, G. A. 1931. The garden symphylid, Scutigerella immaculata 
(Newport). Ohio Agr. Expt. Station Bull. 486. 

5. Michelbacher, A. E. 1938. The biology of the garden centipede, 
Scutigerella immaculata. Hilgardia 11 :55-148. 

6. Michelbacher, A. E. 1942. A synopsis of the genus Scutigerella. Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 35:267-288. 

7. Morrison, H. E. 1965. Controlling the garden symphylan. Ore. Agri. Ext. 
Service Bull. 816. 

8. Riley, H. K. 1929. The greenhouse centipede. Purdue Univ. Agri. Expt. 
Station Bull. 331. 

9. Riley, H. K. 1930. Greenhouse soil fumigation to control soil insects. 
Indiana Veg. Growers Assoc. 3:20-24. 

10. U.S.D.A Cooperative Economic Insect Report, 1961, p. 166; 1963, pp. 
232, 246, 489, 641, 706, 861, 880; 1964, pp. 253, 467, 790; 1966, pp. 601, 
631, 666, 694; 1967, pp. 616, 644, 890. 

11. Woodworth, C. W. 1905. A new centipede of economic importance. 
Cal. J. of Technol. 6:38-42. 

12. Wymore, F. H. 1931. The garden centipede. Cal. Agri. Expt. Station 
Bull. 518. 



Nine Species of Ants (Formicidae) Recently Recorded 
from Indiana 

Jack R. Munisee, Indiana State University 

Abstract 

As many as 92 species of ants have been previously reported from 
Indiana. It has been possible, however, to synonymize some of these 
forms. A list of 56 additional species had been proposed to include species 
that probably could be found in the state but which had not been re- 
corded. During a recent study six of the species of the added list have 
been taken from a strip-mine area. They are: Aphaenog aster mariae Forel, 
Dolichoderus plagiatus (Mayr), Leptothorax muscorum Nylander, Myrmica 
punctiventris punctiventris Roger, Ponera trigona opacior Forel, and Stenamma 
diecki Emery. Also, three species not previously reported or indicated as 
probably being- found in Indiana have been taken from the same area in 
Vermillion County. These species are : Proceratum pergandei Emery, Smith- 
istruma filitalpa Brown, and Stenamma meridonale Smith. These nine species 
of ants are mostly forms and occurred infrequently in pitfall trap collec- 
tions. This paper attempts to update the original list of 92 species of ants. 

In his annotated list of the ants found in Indiana, Morris (9) lists 
"some 92 species, subspecies and varieties known to have been taken in 
the state," This is twice as many as indicated by Wheeler (15) who 
described some specimens sent to him from Indiana by W. S. Blatchley. 
Blatchley's ants came from "various parts of the state" which suggests 
that the specimens studied by Wheeler represented a small sample of the 
state's ant population. It is not surprising, therefore, that Morris' list 
based on county collections is more extensive than Wheeler's. In his 
annotated list, Morris appends the names of 56 species of ants "which 
have not been recorded from Indiana but which are probably present." 

Since Morris published his list, the studies of several investigators 
have resulted in significant revisions of the taxonomy of ants. Among 
the important recent works are those of Creighton (3), Gregg (5) and 
the Wheelers (13). The contributions that are pertinent to this study 
that they as well as a number of other myrmecologists have made to 
the problems of ant classification are brought together in Muesebeck 
et al. (10), and in the supplements to their work by Krombein (7), and 
Krombein and Burks (8). 

One reason for preparing this paper is to bring the taxonomy of 
Morris' (9) list of the ants of Indiana up to date inasmuch as possible. 
This was done by checking the names of the ants as given by Morris 
against the names of corresponding species given in the catalog of the 
Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico (10), as well as by checking 
in the first and in the second supplements to the catalog (7, 8). It 
may be expected that since 1943 significant changes have been made in 
the names of the ants listed by Morris. Many of the original species 
names are not changed; however, changes in rank involving the genus 
through and including the varietal forms are common. Fourteen of the 
original 92 species are lost in synonymy; one is not listed in the 
catalog; and one is relegated to "unrecognized forms." Of the 76 

222 



Entomology 223 

recognized forms, the names of 52 are changed. Similarly, Morris' (9) 
list of 56 ants which he believed were present in the state but had not 
been collected is reduced to 45 species. Of the original 56, six are sunk 
in synonymy; four are not listed in the catalog; and one species is 
considered as an unrecognized form. 

One other reason for this paper is to present the names of nine ant 
species recently recorded from Indiana for the first time and to relate 
the findings to pertinent work of other investigators. Six of the nine 
species discussed here are to be found in Morris' appended list. These 
species are: Aphaenogaster mariae Forel, Dolichoderus plagiatus 
(Mayr), Leptothorax muscorum (Nylander), Myrmica punctiventris 
punctiventris Roger, Ponera trigona opacior Forel, and Stenamma diecki 
Emery. These six species may be added to the revised list of 76 ants. 
Three species of ants not given in Morris' appended list of probable forms 
found in the state are: Proceratium pergandei Emery, Smithistruma 
filitalpa Brown, and Stenamma meridonale Smith. Adding these three 
species brings Morris' list of the ants of Indiana to 85 species. i 

All nine species of ants were taken from a limited area in Ver- 
million County. This area embraced the spoil banks of a strip-mine as 
well as undisturbed adjacent sites. One worker of Aphaenogaster 
mariae was collected on a spoil bank using a pitfall trap. The bank 
sloped to the west and was well covered with vegetation. Wheeler (16) 
considered this species to be rare and confined to the Atlantic states. 
However, the Wessons (12) collected A. mariae from southcentral Ohio. 
They stated that the species is a member of the tree crown fauna 
often nesting high above the ground in oaks. The nests were made in 
small "stobs" or in rotten cavities under the bark. The vegetation on the 
spoil bank, however, consisted chiefly of forbs, vines and a few scat- 
tered trees, none of which were oaks. 

Apparently, Dolichoderus plagiatus is a woodland ant, since several 
investigators including Wheeler (14) have taken this species from 
wooded areas. The Wheelers (13) report the findings of other investi- 
gators, viz., Talbot, Gregg, Cole, and the Wessons, all of whom col- 
lected D, plagiatus in woodland situations. Similarly, the only specimen 
taken by pitfall trap in the present study came from an undisturbed 
stand of oak. The Wheelers (13) report this species as rare in North 
Dakota. Apparently, it is an uncommon ant in Indiana, also. 

Two workers and one female of Leptothorax muscorum (Nylander) 
were collected by pitfall traps. This species is synonymous with L. 
acervorum canadensis Provancher which was given by Morris (9) in 
his list of ants that are probably present in Indiana. The synonymy 
is cited in Krombein (7). Leptothorax muscorum is considered by 
Brown (2) as being one of the few truly boreal-alpine species of ants. 
He states that it has been taken within a few miles of the Arctic Ocean. 
Gregg (5) has shown that L. muscorum is extremely widespread in the 
mountains of Colorado and that his records show that its center of 
ecological abundance is in the Canadian or montane zone. In North 



1 Identifications checked by Dr. David R. Smith, U.S. National Museum, 
Washington, D.C. 



224 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dakota, the Wheelers (13) obtained all collections of this species from 
woodlands. In the present study, L. muscorum was taken from the two 
most heavily wooded undisturbed sites as well as from one south- 
facing slope of a spoil bank. 

Another of the ants that Morris listed as probably occurring in 
Indiana and which seems to be indigenous to wooded areas is Myrmica 
punctiventris. This species was taken in 47 collections, only two of 
which were from disturbed sites. Though never taken in large numbers 
in a single collection, it may be considered to be a common ant at 
least in the wooded area of the present study. Wheeler (14) noted 
that it was a rather uncommon ant of moist, shady woods. Kannowski 
(6) listed M. punctiventris among the bog ants of southeastern Mich- 
igan, and noted that the females chose soil chambers as nesting sites. 

Certain of the ants discussed here seem to be associated more 
closely with the spoil banks than with the undisturbed areas. Ponera 
trigona opacior is one of these species. The vegetation of the spoil 
banks is primarily herbaceous, although trees of varying size are 
common. Barren patches of spoils result in discontinuous or open areas 
so that few of the banks are completely under cover of vegetation. 
Ponera trigona opacior was taken exclusively from spoil banks having 
patchworks of vegetation. Dennis (4) stated that this species is widely 
distributed in Tennessee and preferred open situations such as clearings 
or at the borders of woods. He believed that Tennessee was the north- 
ernmost limit of the ant; however, it was taken by Gregg (5) in a few 
places in Colorado. Gregg also reported that its range in the eastern 
part of the country extended as far north as Ohio. 

One other species of ant which appears to be indigenous to the 
spoil banks is Smithistruma fllitalpa. This ant is one of the three which 
had not been reported by Morris (9) in his annotated list nor in his 
appended list of 56 probable species for the state. It appears that this 
species was taken by W. L. Brown, from Brown County State Park (8). 
No collection date is given, and it is possible that Brown's record for 
the state precedes my record for June, 1964. At least, Krombein and 
Burks {op. cit.) include the Hymenopterous literature of 1963, and in 
some cases most of the papers from 1964. Smithistruma fllitalpa was 
taken by pitfall traps in the present work. One or two specimens were 
usually taken in 26 collections which included this ant. It is quite 
probable, as Brown (1) noted, that this species may be considered as 
being very rare, but the use of Berlese funnels may prove that the ant 
is more common than suspected, especially, if the ant is looked for in 
the right places. 

Stenamma diecki was cited by Morris (9) as S. brevicome diecki 
Emery in his list of probable ants for Indiana. The species was taken 
only from an undisturbed wooded stand in this study, except for a 
dealate female which was collected from a flat grassy stand in the spoil 
bank area. One or two specimens were taken in each of five separate 
pitfall trap collections. The ant is by no means a common species. 
Gregg (5) stated that species of Stenamma are rare. In Colorado, he 
collected it only in lower foothill canyons where the ant almost always 



Entomology 225 

chose cool, mesophytic sites on north-facing slopes. The Wheelers (13) 
consider Stenamma diecki an eastern deciduous forest species and found 
it in the wooded areas of North Dakota. 

Stenamma meridonale is another ant which was taken infrequently 
from the wooded undisturbed sites adjacent to the spoil banks. Smith 
(11) reported this species as being an inhabitant of oak-hickory woods. 
In the present study, this ant was only collected on one day from two 
adjacent wooded areas by use of pitfall traps. It also appears to be a 
rare species, and was not included in Morris' lists. 

The Genus Sysphincta Roger, has been transferred to Proceratium 
Roger (8). Therefore, the species, S. pergandei Emery is now recognized 
as Proceratium pergandei (Emery). Only two specimens of this form 
were collected, and both of these from wooded undisturbed sites ad- 
jacent to the spoil banks. This species was not included in Morris' 
list. The Wessons (12) collected this ant from glacial drift areas of 
Ohio in wooded sites composed chiefly of pines and oaks. Dennis (4) 
collected P. pergandei at elevations from 2000 to 5000 feet in oak- 
chestnut stands in Tennessee. 

More than likely, the list of ants to be found in the state could be 
lengthened if more thorough methods of collecting were used, and if 
the collecting was done at the right time and place. New records for 
the state aid in determining trends in the geographical distribution of 
the Formicidae. 

There follows a revised list of ant species based on Morris (9). 
The numbers in the first column correspond to those given in his an- 
notated list. Breaks in the numerical sequence represent species that 
have been lost in synonymy; not listed in the catalog or supplements; 
or are considered as unrecognized forms. The nine species discussed in 
this paper are given at the end of the list. 

1. Stigmatomma pallipes pallipes (Hald) 

2. Proceratium silaceum Roger 

4. Ponera coarctata pennsylvanica Buckl. 

5. Neivamyrmex nigrescens (Cresson) 

6. Myrmecina americana Emery 

7. Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus) 

8. Monomorium minimum (Buckley) 

9. Solenopsis molesta molesta (Say) 

10. Pheidole pilifera pilifera (Roger) 

11. Pheidole bicarinata bicarinata Mayr 

12. Crematogaster lineolata lineolata (Say) 

13. Crematogaster cerasi (Fitch) 

14. Crematogaster clara Mayr 

16. Stenamma brevicorne (Mayr) 

17. Aphaenogaster treatae treatae Forel 

18. Aphaenogaster fulva Roger 

20. Aphaenogaster rudis picea Emery 

21. Aphaenogaster texana carolinensis Wheeler 

22. Aphaenogaster tennesseensis (Mayr) 

23. Myrmica brevinodis brevinodis Emery 



226 Indiana Academy of Science 

24. Myrmica brevinodis sulcinodoides Emery 

26. Myrmica sabuleti americana Weber 

27. Myrmica lobicornis fracticornis Emery 

28. Myrmica schenki emeryana Forel 

29. Leptothorax schaumi Roger 

31. Leptothorax longispinosus Roger 

32. Leptothorax curvispinosus Mayr 

33. Leptothorax ambiguus ambiguus Emery 

34. Leptothorax pergandei pergandei Emery 

35. Tetramorium caespitum (Linnaeus) 

36. Trachymyrmex septentrionalis (McCook) 

37. Dolichoderus mariae Forel 

39. Dolichoderus pustulatus Mayr 

40. Dorymyrmex pyramicus pyramicus (Roger) 

41. Tapinoma sessile (Say) 

42. Iridomyrmex pruinosus pruinosus (Roger) 

43. Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis (Andre) 

44. Brachymyrmex depilis Emery 

45. Prenolepis imparts imparts (Say) 

48. Paratrechina parvulla (Mayr) 

49. Paratrechina longicomis (Latreille) 

50. Lasius yieoniger Emery 

51. Lasius niger (Linnaeus) 

52. Lasius minutus Emery 

53. Lasius umbratus (Nylander) 

54. Acanthomyops inter jectus inter jectus (Mayr) 

55. Acanthomyops claviger claviger (Roger) 

56. Acanthomyops latipes (Walsh) 

57. Formica subnuda Emery 

58. Formica rubicunda Emery 

59. Formica subintegra Emery 

60. Formica puberula Emery 

61. Formica obscuripes obscuripes Forel 

62. Formica integra integra Nylander 

63. Formica obscuriventris obscuriventris Mayr 

64. Formica dakotensis Emery 

65. Formica postoculata Kennedy and Dennis 

66. Formica querquetulana Kennedy and Dennis 

67. Formica exsectoides Forel 

68. Formica ulkei Emery 
70. Formica fusca Linnaeus 

74. Formica cinerea montana Emery 

75. Fonnica neogagates Emery 

76. Formica schaufussi schaufussi Mayr 

78. Formica pallidefulva nitidiventris Emery 

80. Polygenes rufescens breviceps Emery 

81. Polygenes lucidus lucidus Mayr 

82. Camponotus castaneus Latreille 

83. Camponotus americanus Mayr 

84. Camponotus pcnnsylv aniens (DeGeer) 



Entomology 227 

85. Camponotus ferrugineus (Fabricius) 

86. Camponotus noveboracensis (Fitch) 

87. Camponotus caryae caryae (Fitch) 

88. Camponotus nearcticus Emery 

90. Camponotus subbarbatus Emery 

91. Camponotus caryae discolor (Buckley) 
Aphaenogaster mariae Forel 
Dolichoderus plagiatus (Mayr) 
Leptothorax muscorum (Nylander) 
Myrmica punctiventris punctiventris Roger 
Ponera trigona opacior Forel 
Proceratium pergandei Emery 
Smithistruma filitalpa Brown 
Stenamma diecki Emery 

Stenamma meridonale Smith 

Literature Cited 

1. Brown, W. L. Jr. 1953. Revisionary studies in the ant tribe Dacetini. 
Amer. Midland Natur. 53:79-80. 

2. Brown, W. D. Jr. 1955. The ant Leptothorax muscorum (Nylander) in 
North America. Entomol. News 66:47-50. 

3. Creighton, W. S. 1950. The Ants of North America. Bull. Mus. of Comp. 
Zool. Vol. 104. Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 585 p. -j~ 57 pi. 

4. Dennis, C. A. 1938. The distribution of ant species in Tennessee with 
reference to ecological factors. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 31:272,274, 
277,304. 

5. Gregg, R. E. 1963. The Ants of Colorado. Univ. of Colorado Press. 
Boulder, Colorado, xvi + 792 p. 

6. Kannowski, P. B. 1959. The flight activities and colony-founding be- 
havior of bog ants in southeastern Michigan. Insectes Sociaux 6:124. 

7. Krombein, K. V. 1958. Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synop. 
Cat. 1st Suppl. USDA Agr. Monogr. no. 2. Supt. of Doc. U.S. Gov't 
Print. Office, Washington, D. C 

8. Krombein, K. V. and B. D. Burks. 1967. Hymenoptera of America north 
of Mexico. Synop. Cat. 2nd Suppl. USDA Agr. Monogr. no. 2. Supt. of 
Doc. U.S. Gov't. Print. Office, Washington, D. C. 

9. Morris, R. L. 1943. An annotated list of the ants of Indiana. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 52:203-224. 

10. Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, H. K. Townes, et al. 1951. Hym- 
enoptera of America north of Mexico. Synop. Cat. USDA Agr. Monogr. 
no. 2. Supt. of Doc. U. S. Gov't. Print. Office, Washington, D. C. 

11. Smith, M. R. 1957. Revision of the Genus Stenamma Westwood in 
America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Amer. Midland 
Natur. 57:169. 

12. Wesson, L. G. Jr. and R. G. Wesson. 1940. A collection of ants from 
south-central Ohio. Amer. Midland Natur. 24:93. 

13. Wheeler, G. C. and J. Wheeler. 1963. The Ants of North Dakota. Univ. 
of North Dakota Press. Grand Forks, North Dakota, viii + 326 p. 

14. Wheeler, W. M. 1905. The ants of New Jersey. Amer. Mus. Natur. 
Hist. Bull. 21:306, 315-316, 388. 

15. Wheeler, W, M. 1916. A list of the ants of Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci. 26:465. 

16. Wheeler, W. M. 1920. Ants-Their Structure, Development and Behavior. 
Columbia Univ. Press, New York, xxv + 663 p. 2nd Print. 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY 

Chairman: Allan F. Schneider, Indiana Geological Survey. 
L. I. Dillon, Ball State University, was elected chairman for 1968. 

ABSTRACTS 

Arroyos of the Southeastern Portion of the Canon City Embayment, 
Colorado. Henry E. Kane, Department of Geography and Geology, Ball 
State University. — Channels of ephemeral streams of the southeastern 
portion of the Canon City Embayment of Colorado display many degrees 
of arroyo development ranging from incipient, shallow arroyos to deep 
and vertical-walled trenches. Arroyos are well developed in the outcrop 
area of the Cretaceous Pierre and Smoky Hills shales. 

In the initial developmental stage, headward positions of the arroyo 
contain scarps which are developed in the fine-grained alluvium of 
upland valleys. A semicircular plunge pool usually occurs at the base of 
the scarp. From the plunge pool position, the channel deepens, with the 
walls assuming a vertical position until, with increased development, 
the channel is 20 or more feet deep and flanked by high vertical walls. 
Arroyo channels and adjacent areas display many features, such as 
circular holes, vertical channels, tunnels, and fallen columns and blocks, 
all of which contribute to arroyo enlargement. 

The explanation for arroyo cutting and development is similar to 
Scott's explanation for the development of the arroyos in the Kessler 
quadrangle near Denver, Colorado. Arroyo cutting is considered to be 
induced by climatic change and accelerated by fire and man's land 
practices, such as overgrazing. The present arroyo cycle is one of many 
similar cycles that have occurred in the Southern Rockies, most of 
which have antedated man on the North American continent. 

A Topographic Map of the Bedrock Surface of Tippecanoe County, 
Indiana as Drawn by a Computer. Brent Lowell and Terry R. West, 
U. S. Geological Survey and Purdue University. — Using available water 
well date, a contour map was drawn for the bedrock surface of Tippe- 
canoe County, Indiana, by an IBM 7094 computer. Elevations on the 
bedrock surface were obtained by subtracting the depth to bedrock 
from surface elevations at well locations. Wells were located by x and y 
coordinates with the z coordinate registering the elevation above sea 
level. 

Trend surfaces from the first through sixth degree were fitted to 
the data and the residuals obtained. The sixth degree surface, which is 
a surface containing a sixth power polynomial as the highest power in 
the equation, showed the best fit with the input data. 

A topographic map was drawn by the computer for each power 
equation using different characters for each contour interval. This 
contouring technique shows promise, as the sixth degree surface had 
an 82% duplication of the input data. 

229 



230 Indiana Academy of Science 

Contouring by computer is not more accurate than contouring by- 
hand, but it is considerably faster. As such, the method is not meant as a 
complete replacement for manual contouring, but it can be applied to 
large areas when searching for general trends that warrant further 
investigation. 

Genesis of a Belt Road. Benjamin Moulton, Indiana State University. 
— Four streets of Terre Haute encompassing a large share of the urban 
population and on the inner margin of the suburban fringe give strong 
indications of becoming a belt road. This belt road, 21 miles in length, 
has experienced remarkable industrial, commercial and service function 
growth in the last decade. It shows ribbon or strip development with 
little nucleation. Many of the functions now found along the route were 
once in the C B D or near C B D. The growth reflects the need for 
careful planning. 



The Upper Alluvial Terrace Along the Ohio River Valley 
in South-central Indiana 

W. Thomas Straw, Indiana University 

Abstract 

Remnants of maximum Pleistocene alluviation along- the Ohio River 
through the area of Chester outcrop in southcentral Indiana are preserved 
as terraces mantled with silt and sand dunes. In vertical section the 
maximum grain size of the outwash incorporated in these terraces de- 
creases from gravel, with some cobbles and boulders on the upper surface 
of the valley train, to sand at depth. This coarsening-upward of grain 
sizes was caused by deposition in response to invasion of the Ohio River 
Basin by glacial meltwaters. 

Excavation of the previous valley fill was evidently accomplished by 
the initial flow of meltwater. Subsequently, the valley was buried by an 
outwash train in which particles sizes formed a continuum with the 
smallest grains in the lead and an increase in grain size upstream. Ag- 
gradation of the valley caused the coarser sediments to override, rather 
than displace, the finer particles. The lack of symmetry, and of sediments 
corresponding to a waning phase of deposition, seems to indicate that 
abatement of meltwater flow was abrupt. The valley train material is 
surmounted by as much as 25 feet of clay, silt and sand which was ap- 
parently deposited as overbank material during floods prior to deep en- 
trenchment of the River. 

Return of the River to an essentially nonglacial regimen caused en- 
trenchment of the aggraded surface producing the existing fill and cut 
terraces. 

Introduction 

The upper alluvial terrace was studied in that reach of the Ohio 
River Valley which extends from Mauckport to Cannelton, Indiana. In 
this area the bedrock valley of the Ohio River is cut mainly in rocks 
of the Blue River and Chester Groups (Mississippian). Sediments re- 
sulting from maximum Pleistocene alluviation are preserved in this 
part of the Valley as extensive terrace tracts that are locally overlain 
by silt and sand dunes. The materials comprising these tracts can be 
most readily studied where natural exposures, gravel pits and wells 
penetrate the fine-grained overbank deposits that mantle the valley- 
train material. In the study area exposures are located as follows: 
(1) two extensive sand and gravel pits at Mauckport, Indiana; (2) a 
small sand and gravel pit near Cape Sandy, Indiana; (3) a large natural 
exposure along Yellowback Creek in Breckinridge County, Kentucky; 
(4) a sand and gravel pit at Cloverport, Kentucky (Figure 1). Data 
from these exposures coupled with well information permits interpre- 
tation of the sedimentary history of this portion of the alluvial deposits 
in the study area. 

Characteristics of the Upper Alluvial Terrace 

The upper alluvial terrace stands about 90 feet above normal pool 
stage of the Ohio River and about 45 feet above the modern floodplain. 
In most areas the boundary between the terrace and floodplain is dis- 

231 



232 



Indiana Academy of Science 



INDIANA 



il# 



Hancock 




Figure 1. — Index map of study area showing' location of exposures. 
1. Mauckport, Indiana; 2. Cape Sandy, Indiana; 3. Yellowbank Creek, Breck- 
inridge County, Kentucky; //. Cloverport, Kentucky. 

tinct and scarp-like. The terrace surface is relatively flat and rises 
from an elevation of 425 feet at Cannelton to 455 feet at Mauckport, 
Indiana, and has a gradient of 5 inches per mile. In comparison, the 
modern Ohio has a low-water gradient of about 4 inches per mile (1). 

The exposures at Mauckport are typical and more extensive than 
elsewhere. Here, well information indicates that there is a basal zone 
of coarse gravel and boulders overlain by fine sand. A progressive up- 
ward increase in grain size, from this fine sand at depth, culminates in 
gravel-sized material near the upper surface of the valley-train deposits. 
The sand and gravel is cross-bedded and contains local intercalations of 
silt and clay. Sieve analysis of the outwash material indicates that there 
is a progressive decrease in mean-grain size downstream. 

Throughout the area there is a distinct disconformity between the 
valley-train material and the overlying fine-grained deposits. Locally, as 
along Yellowbank Creek in Kentucky, braid channels and islands are 
preserved on the upper surface of the outwash sand and gravel. These 
channels are 4 to 6 feet deep and contain boulders to 18 inches in 
diameter. This irregular surface is overlain by 10 to 25 feet of fine- 
grained leached and oxidized overbank deposits. At Wolf Creek, Ken- 
tucky, and Dexter and Tobinsport, Indiana, these overbank deposits are 
mantled by elongate silt and sand dunes. 



Geology and Geography 233 

Depositional History 

A large portion of the pre-Wisconsin alluvial fill of the Ohio River 
Valley was excavated during late Sangamon and early Wisconsin time. 
The initial flow of glacial meltwaters coupled with a low stand of sea 
level most likely caused the deepest scouring. That most of this ma- 
terial was removed is indicated by small remnants of older alluvium 
penetrated in two wells located in protected areas of the River Valley. 
The course gravel and boulders on the bedrock floor of the valley are 
interpreted as the bed load of the stream which produced this scour. 

Subsequent to excavation the valley was buried by an outwash 
train in which particle sizes formed a continum with the smallest 
grains in the lead and an increase in grain size upstream. Aggradation 
of the valley caused the coarser sediments to override, rather than 
displace, the finer particles. The lack of symmetry of the valley train 
deposit, that is, the lack of sediments referable to a waning phase of 
deposition, seems to indicate that abatement of meltwater flow was 
abrupt. Withdrawal of the glacier from the Ohio River Basin is the 
most likely cause of this sudden change in regimen of the Ohio River. 

The upper surface of the valley-train has been interpreted as an 
erosional surface by Walker (2). Ray attributes the fine-grained over- 
bank deposits to the waning phase of glacial outwash deposition, and 
thus denies the existence of a disconformity between the valley train 
and the overbank deposits (1). That the upper surface of the valley 
train is not an erosional surface is indicated by the presence of relic 
braid channels and islands, such as those preserved along Yellowbank 
Creek in Kentucky. Undoubtedly local unprotected areas were scoured 
prior to deposition of the overbank deposits. Flat unconformity surfaces 
such as the one at Mauckport were most likely produced in this manner. 
The sharp line of demarkation between the fine-grained materials and 
the valley train and the contrasting compositions of the two materials 
precludes interpretation of this contact as being gradational. 

Abatement of meltwater flow caused an abrupt change in regimen 
of the River; consequently, the River began to entrench the valley-train 
materials and formed a single channel (Figure 2 A & B). Floods during 
this period of downcutting spread fine-grained sediments across what 
is now the upper surface of the terrace. Overbank deposits were laid 
down on this surface until the River was entrenched to the point that 
this surface was no longer inundated during floods (Figure 2 C). At 
present only very large floods reach the base of the terrace scarp, and 
overbank deposition is taking place mainly on the modern flood-plain 
(Figure 2D). 

This interpretation of the origin of these fine-grained sediments is 
at variance with the postulates of Walker (2) and Ray (1). Walker 
considered there deposits to be normal nonglacial sediments deposited 
because of a late glacial rise in sea level. As mentioned above Ray 
considered this material to be deposits laid down during the waning 
phase of valley-train emplacement. 



234 



Indiana Academy of Science 





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Figure 2. — Sequential development of the alluvial fill of the Ohio River 
Valley. A. Maximum alluviation due to glacial outwash; B. Following- a 
change in regimen the river formed a single channel and entrenched the 
outwash; C. Progressive entrenchment and deposition of overbank ma- 
terial by the River; D. Configuration of present alluvial fill. 



Geology and Geography 235 

Summary 

Most pre-Wisconsin sediments in that reach of the Ohio River 
Valley from Mauckport to Cannelton, Indiana, were removed by erosion 
prior to invasion of the Valley by outwash of Wisconsin age. Invasion 
of the Valley by glacial meltwaters and outwash resulted in emplace- 
ment of a valley train in which maximum particle sizes grade from 
fine sand near the base to gravel at the upper surface. This material 
is overlain disconformably by fine-grained overbank deposits of dom- 
inantly non-glacial origin. Entrenchment of these materials by the 
Ohio River formed the terrace tracts present in this reach of the Ohio 
River Valley. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ray, L. L. 1965. Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology of the Owens- 
boro Quadrangle Indiana and Kentucky. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 
488. 72 p. 

2. Walker, E. H. 1954. The deep channel and the alluvial deposits of the 
Ohio Valley in Kentucky. U.S. Geol. Survey Water-supply Paper 1411. 
25 p. 



The Geology and Geomorphology of Wyandotte Cave 
Crawford County, Indiana 

Richard L. Powell, Indiana Geological Survey 1 

Abstract 

Wyandotte Cave, western Crawford County, Indiana, consists of about 
5.5 miles of known passages at two major levels entirely within strata of 
the upper part of the Blue River Group. The Old Cave (upper level) lies 
above a prominent shale about 50 feet above the New Cave (lower level) 
which lies below the Lost River Chert Bed entirely within the Ste. 
Genevieve Limestone. Large rooms extend upward into the base of the 
Paoli Limestone where the passages collapsed, apparently into a lower 
level, now filled, in the upper part of the St. Louis Limestone. The floors 
of the passages are nearly everywhere covered with thick sediments con- 
sisting predominantly of clay. Bedrock floor is seen in a few hanging 
passages. 

Disconnected remnants of the upper level passages were fed by verti- 
cal tributaries that headed on adjacent hillsides. This passage drained 
southward at about the level of the Blue River Strath during late Teritary 
time. The lower level lies slightly above Blue River at grade with a minor 
strath level of early Pleistocene age. There are indications that a large 
filled passage of early to middle Pleistocene age lies at grade with the 
deep channel of Blue River. 

Wyandotte Cave was apparently first explored in about the year 
1800 with the discovery of the upper level and westernmost passage. 
The cave was known as Epsom Salts Cave in 1820 following mining of 
that mineral from the passage, and was also known as Indiana Saltpeter 
Cave, perhaps mistakenly. Additional discoveries were made in about 
1850 that opened into lower levels and were named the "New Cave." 
The upper level then became known as the "Old Cave." Subsequent 
exploration lead to the naming of the "South Branch" and the "North- 
ern Arm" in 1851. Another major discovery in 1858 opened the north- 
ernmost upper levels, subsequently named the "Unexplored Regions" 
and here renamed the "Langsdale Passage" because they were first 
mapped by George I. Langsdale (5). Numerous minor discoveries have 
increased the length of the cave, particularly the "Discovery of 1941" 
(3). The most recent survey by the Indiana Geological Survey, as- 
sisted by the Bloomington Indiana Grotto of the National Speleological 
Society, and explorations by the present management and guides have 
discovered several new passages in excess of the more than five miles 
that have been mapped. The place names used, however, are those used 
by earlier surveys and reports (1). 

The ridge that contains Wyandotte Cave is located in the eastern 
part of the Crawford Upland, just north of Blue River (Figure 1). The 
upper part of the ridge is capped with about 200 feet of alternating 
units of sandstone, shale and limestone of the West Baden Group 
(Figure 2A). The base of this group is at an altitude of 620 feet near 



1 Published with permission of the State Geologist, Indiana Department 
of Natural Resources, Geological Survey. 

236 



Geology and Geography 






MM 




5000 FEET 



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Figure 1. Topographic map of Wyandotte Cave and vicinity showing the 
extent of mapped cave passages. Base from the Leavenworth Quadrangle, 
U.S.G.S., 1947. 



238 Indiana Academy of Science 

the entrance to Wyandotte Cave. The lower part of the ridge and 
adjacent valleys are underlain by carbonate strata of the Blue River 
Group. These strata contain the cave passages, which range in altitude 
from about 450 feet to 600 feet. Nearby, Blue River flows at about 390 
feet above sea level. The entrance to the cave is 575 feet in altitude 
and is stratigraphically in the lower part of the Paoli Limestone, as 
may be the unexamined ceiling portions of Odd Fellows Hall and 
Rothrock Cathedral, the two largest rooms in the cave (Figure 2B). 
The remainder of the passages are entirely within the Ste. Genevieve 
Limestone, but the lowest levels, which are filled with alluvial materials, 
may extend as deep as the St. Louis Limestone. 

Five major factors have controlled orientation and the evolution of 
the passage levels of Wyandotte Cave: joint pattern, structure, piezo- 
metric slope, lithology and geomorphic history of the area. The cave 
consists of a series of subparallel passages that trend from the north- 
east to the southwest, generally following the local dip of the bedrock. 
The passages that exhibit solution features follow the joint pattern of 
the particular beds within which the passages have been dissolved 
(Figure 3A), but the same joint patterns usually are not found in the 
immediately overlying beds seen in the ceilings of the cave passage. 
Traversable passages lie at numerous levels and are developed on par- 
ticular stratigraphic horizons, each with particular hydrologic gradient 
and each have distinct cave sediment surfaces. These different levels 
are here grouped into three major levels: the upper level, the lower 
level, and an unexplorable, completely sediment filled lowest level. 

Four distinct erosion surfaces are recognizable in the Wyandotte 
Cave area (2). The highest surface, that represented by accordant sum- 
mits on the ridges of the Crawford Upland, has been called the Lex- 
ington (Highland Rim) Peneplain and is of Tertiary age. The present 
topography postdates this erosion surface. The valley of Blue River, 
which is deeply entrenched below the Lexington Peneplain, contains 
two bedrock terrace levels above the deeply filled bedrock valley bottom. 
The Blue River Strath, the uppermost of these terraces, lies at an alti- 
tude of about 525 feet in the vicinity of Wyandotte Cave, but may be 
traced upstream to lie at grade with the Mitchell Plain (6). This erosion 
surface is of late Tertiary or Pleistocene age. A lower bedrock terrace 
is preserved at an altitude of about 420 feet just southwest of the cave 
in an abandoned meander loop of Blue River. Other remants along 
Blue River upstream from Wyandotte Cave lie at grade slightly above 
the present stream level. Collectively, they represent an unnamed strath 
or stage of valley deepening of early or middle Pleistocene age, pos- 
sibly of Kansan age. The bedrock floor of the Blue River valley was 
established by the maximum erosion during middle Pleistocene time, 
and is probably of Illinoian age. The downstream part of the valley of 
Blue River was the site of a Wisconsin age lake (8). The present stream 
is incised into the lacustrine sediments. 

The upper level of Wyandotte Cave, including the Old Cave and the 
Langsdale Passage, lies at grade with the Blue River Strath and is 
therefore of similar age (Figure 2A). The Old Cave formed in the upper 



Geology and Geography 



239 



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Fig-ure 2A„ Generalized projected profile of Wyandotte Cave. 

Figure 2B. Geologic cross section through Odd Fellows Hall and Rothrock 

Cathedral. 

Figure 2C. Geologic cross section at the Cliffs. 



240 



Indiana Academy of Science 




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Double Pits 



sjl^MilroY 
~4 Temple 



Round Wildcat % 
Room Avenue 



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2000 Feet 

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Figure 3A. Map of Wyandotte Cave showing- passages formed by solution 
(black) and those modified by collapse (gray). 

Figure 3B. Map of Wyandotte Cave showing floor areas of bedrock (black), 
breakdown (lines) and alluvium (gray). 



Geology and Geography 241 

part of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone below a prominent bed of thick 
dolomite that resembles a siltstone. The dolomite bed formed the ceiling 
of the original solution passage from Bandit Hall to the Cliffs. North of 
the Cliffs the limestone units above the dolomite have collapsed into 
the passage. Bedrock floor of the Old Cave is on limestone above a 
prominent shale bed that is exposed in the Old Cave only at the Cliffs 
(Figure 2C). Elsewhere the floor of the passage is buried by as much 
as 20 feet of sediments or breakdown (Figure 3B). 

All of the key marker beds useful in establishing continuity in 
Wyandotte Cave are exposed in the section at the Cliffs (Figure 2C). 
The section measured there exposes most of the strata that can be seen 
in the cave. Units higher than the dolomite bed are well exposed at the 
entrance. Lower units are well exposed at the end of Avenue Three. 

The Langsdale Passage, a new name here used for the passage 
that for more than 100 years has been called the "Unexplored Regions," 
is an upstream segment of the upper level below the dolomite bed and 
above the shale. The connection between the two segments of the upper 
level is not traversable because of collapse of the passage. The passage 
generally is high and narrow whereas the Old Cave is wider and has 
therefore been more susceptible to collapse. The floor of the passage is 
bedrock in many places, and thick sediments are generally lacking. The 
dolomite bed is not seen in the Langsdale Passage because the ceiling 
of the passage has not collapsed and exposed that stratigraphic horizon. 
The dip of the bedrock is slightly greater than the original stream 
gradient of the upper level. 

The upper level of the cave originally developed at the top of a 
fluctuating water table just above the level of the shale bed (7). The 
passage was formed by precipitation diverted underground vertically 
from the local hillsides to the water table. The water then followed the 
piezometric slope down dip along joints to Blue River where it dis- 
charged at the level of the Blue River Strath. The Old Cave sediments 
were probably deposited as a result of aggraded conditions at the level 
of the Blue River Strath. 

The lower levels of Wyandotte Cave generally have formed within 
the lower part of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone, below the Lost River 
Chert Bed, and include nearly all of the passages of the New Cave, 
excluding the Langsdale Passage. A bed of dolomite that averages 
about 2 feet thick was traced along the ceiling of the Northern Arm 
from Rothrock Cathedral northward to Wabash Avenue, where it is 
near the passage floor. The gradient of the original ceiling of the lower 
level prior to any ceiling collapse was slightly less than the local dip 
of the strata. The New Cave passages predominantly have an alluvial 
clay floor, although collapsed portions are covered with breakdown 
(Figure 3B). Bedrock floor is seen within a few passages, such as 
Wabash Avenue and Avenue Three, and a few remnants of bedrock 
floor that lie above the level of the clay fill are scattered along the 
routes of the New Cave. These bedrock areas are within a few feet of the 
ceiling of the lower level and thus they indicate a primary stage in its 



242 Indiana Academy of Science 

development that would correlate with the minor straith on Blue River 
discussed earlier that lies slightly above present stream level. 

The alluvial floor of the New Cave passages slopes from the 
northeast end of the cave at Wabash Avenue and Morton Marble Hall 
southwestward to the Hall of Representatives. South of there the floor 
slopes northward to the Hall of Representatives, except for smaller, 
more recent, channels eroded into the fill material. The depth to which 
the passage is filled is estimated to range from 20 to 50 feet, assuming 
that the bedrock floor lies at grade with or is slightly above the 
bedrock valley of Blue River. This lowest level of the cave was formed 
as a tributary to Blue River during the period of maximum Pleistocene 
downcutting which is probably of Illinoian age. Most of the alluvial fill 
material is of Illinoian and Sangamon age, but the upper fill materials 
in the south end of the cave are Wisconsin age backwater deposits. 

The lowest observable level of Wyandotte Cave is that floored by 
the alluvial deposits, but the lowest level is obviously that of the 
bedrock floor. Several collapsed areas of more than normal cave passage 
width suggest that this lowest level is large and deep. The inferred 
size of this passage is such that it may have been formed by a much 
larger stream than that which dissolved the higher passages in the 
cave. Such a stream may have been fed by water diverted from Blue 
River to the northeast as suggested by Malott (4), in addition to water 
from the local hillsides above the cave and that water diverted from the 
upper level. 

The shale horizon in the upper level is breached by erosion and 
collapse in several places, particularly in the Langsdale Passage. The 
diversion of the stream from the upper level into the lower level was 
apparently progressive in an upstream direction, first through several pits 
in the Round Room area, then in a series of six pits northeast of Wild- 
cat Avenue, and finally in a half dozen pits in the northeast end of the 
Langsdale Passage near the Double Pits and the present sources of 
the water. 

Wyandotte Cave lacks any significant stream at the present time, 
although water is encountered in several places in the cave in small 
amounts depending upon the weather. Drainage off the hillside brings 
water into the main passage at the south end of Wabash Avenue at 
Crawfish Spring (not shown on map), in the northern end of the 
Langsdale Passage, and in the South Branch, particularly at Helen's 
Dome. A small waterfall is usually flowing in Milroy Temple in a pas- 
sage near the ceiling above the shale unit. Small seeps of water occur 
at scattered locations in the cave. The water does not form a stream 
because it percolates into the fill materials in the floor of the lower 
level within a short distance of where it enters the cave. The water 
probably passes through the fill and enters the valley of Blue River at 
one or more springs south of the cave. 

The major collapse features of Wyandotte Cave are nearly all 
associated with the lowest levels. Two different types of collapse were 
recognized. The large rooms, such as Odd Fellows Hall, Rothrock 
Cathedral, the Hall of Representatives and Milroy Temple, appear to 



Geology and Geography 243 

have collapsed into a large lower level. The amount of collapse exceeds 
30 feet in the Hall of Representatives, is about 50 feet in Odd Fellows 
Hall and Milroy Temple, and is 100 feet in Rothrock Cathedral. 

Several small rooms south of Rothrock Cathedral in the New Cave 
and north of the Hall of Representatives are of another type of collapse. 
Six rooms in this area have formed by collapse of the Lost River 
Chert Bed at places where two passages intersect, producing a room 
higher than the intersecting passages by the thickness of the chert bed 
which ranges from about 4 to 5 feet thick. The Lost River Chert Bed 
is well exposed in the collapsed areas where it consists of numerous 
thin irregular lenses and nodules of chert. 

In most of the cave the Lost River Chert Bed consists of scattered 
chert nodules in a few bands within a thick limestone unit. The sedi- 
mentation of the shale bed, which lies 10 to 20 feet above the chert, 
was apparently related to the conditions that caused deposition of the 
chert bed, for where the chert is well developed, as in the area south 
of Rothrock Cathedral, the shale unit is absent. The shale is about 5 
feet thick in Spades Grotto and northward, but thins southward and is 
absent at the south end of Rothrock Cathedral. It is also absent in Bandit 
Hall and the Hall of Representatives, but is 3 feet thick in Helen's 
Dome. The shale unit has served as the base of a perched water table 
because flowstone has been deposited on it in places and water still 
flows off it in other places. 

Wyandotte Cave is unique among caverns in the Crawford Upland 
mainly because of the clarity with which its stratigraphic position and 
geomorphic history may be interpreted. Wyandotte Cave has developed 
along joints in the bedrock, more or less along the dip of the strata, as 
a subterranean tributary to Blue River. The three major cavern levels 
lie at grade with three erosion levels along Blue River, indicating that 
the different levels range in age from tertiary to middle Pleistocene 
age. Each level, however, has its pecularities, depending upon differences 
in lithology which markedly control the shape of the original solution 
passages and the mechanics of cavern collapse. 

Literature Cited 

1. Blatchley, W. S. 1897. Indiana caves and their fauna. Indiana Dept. 
Geology and Nat. Resources, Ann. Rept. 21, pp. 121-212. 

2. Gray, H. H. and R. L. Powell, 1965. Geomorphology and groundwater 
hydrolog-y of the Mitchell Plain and Crawford Upland in southern 
Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Field Conference Guidebook No. 11. 

26 p., 20 figs. 

3. McGrain, Preston. 1942. Helectites in the New Discovery at Wyandotte 
Cave, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 51:201-206. 

4. Malott, C. A. 1946. Recent Wyandotte research. National Speleological 
Society Bull. 8:58-59. 

5. Owen, Richard. 1862. Wyandot Cave: Report of a geological reconnois- 
sance of Indiana made during the years 1859 and 1860 under the direc- 
tion of the late David Dale Owen, M. D. ( State Geologist. H. H". Dodd and 
Co., Indianapolis, Indiana, pp. 149-158 and map p. 361. 



244 Indiana Academy of Science 

6. Powell, R. L. 1964. Origin of the Mitchell Plain in south-central Indiana. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 73:177-182. 

7. Swinnerton, A. C. 1932. Origin of limestone Caverns. Geol. Soc. America 
Bull. 43:663-694. 

8. Thornbury, W. D. 1950. Glacial sluiceways and lacustrine plains of 
southern Indiana. Indiana Division of Geology Bull. 4. 21 p., 2 pis., 3 figs. 



The Survey of Blue Spring Cave 
Lawrence Co., Indiana 

Arthur N. Palmer, State University of New York, College at Oneonta. 

Abstract 

Blue Spring- Cave, with 18.8 miles of surveyed passage, is the longest 
cave in Indiana and sixth longest in the world. Results of a compass- 
and-tape survey show that the cave is the conduit for a ground-water 
flow system draining about ten square miles of the Mitchell Plain south- 
west of Bedford, Indiana, and discharging at Blue Spring on the East 
Fork of White River. The maximum observed discharge in the main stream 
is 300,000 g.p.m. Little correlation exists between cave passage and surface 
sinkholes, except where collapse sinkholes have developed in areas of 
widespread passage breakdown. Most sinkholes and sinkhole ponds appear 
to contribute water to the cave system through narrow lateral joints and 
fissures. Some sinkhole ponds are located directly over air-filled cave 
passages. The cave developed in three distinct levels, as the East Fork of 
White River became entrenched into the Mitchell Plain, with a possible 
fourth level existing below present base level. 

Blue Spring Cave, located four miles southwest of Bedford, Indiana, 
contains a total of 18.8 miles of surveyed passages. Comparison with 
survey figures for other caves shows it to be the longest cave in Indiana 
and sixth longest in the world. 

The cave is developed in the upper Salem Limestone and basal St. 
Louis Limestone of Middle Mississippian age. The entrance is one mile 
west of Hartleyville on the George Colglazier farm in a collapse sinkhole 
in the St. Louis Limestone. The cave is a conduit for a dendritic 
ground-water flow system draining about ten square miles of the 
Mitchell sinkhole plain and discharging at Blue Spring on the East Fork 
of White River. 

Prior to 1964, the known part of the cave consisted of only a two- 
mile segment of the main stream passage. Penetration downstream 
was halted at a point where the water touched the ceiling, and upstream 
progress was limited by low, wet crawlways. Between January and 
October, 1964, four major discoveries of several miles each were made 
in the upstream direction by a group of Indiana University students. 
The known length of the main passage was doubled, and numerous 
tributary stream passages and dry, upper levels were found. Additional 
discoveries continued to be made throughout the following three years 
while the cave was being mapped. 

The survey of the cave was initiated by the author in June, 1964, 
and completed in August, 1967, in conjunction with field work for a 
Ph.D. dissertation in karst hydrology at Indiana University. A mounted 
Brunton compass and tape were used to obtain the survey line, and 
sketches and cross sections were made of the passages to provide detail 
for the map. The average error on closed survey loops was about 0.5%. 
Elevations were inferred from stratigraphic data and from several 
water wells which pentrate the cave. The mapping of the cave required 

245 



246 



Indiana Academy of Science 



41 trips of between 8 and 18 continuous hours each, involving a total 
of about 1500 man-hours. The survey notes were plotted on the standard 
scale for large caves, 100 ft. /in., which resulted in a map twelve feet 
long and six feet wide. This map was later reduced to topographic-map 
scale for convenience and for geomorphic analysis (Figure 1). 

Several significant hydrologic and geomorphic observations can be 
made from the map. The dendritic stream pattern has been masked by 




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Figure 1. Map of Blue Spring- Cave, Indiana; E. entrance; S-S: course of 
main stream through cave; M: Maze; A: abandoned spring alcove; W: 
waterfalls. 



Geology and Geography 247 

numerous piracies and diversions, mainly the result of passage collapse. 
Apparently breakdown of the type that produces collapse sinkholes is 
impermeable enough that in most cases a subsurface stream will be 
diverted around the breakdown, enlarging nearby joints by solution 
under pressure rather than continuing to flow through the breakdown. 
As an example, collapse midway in the main stream passage has re- 
sulted in the formation of the Maze, a complex diversion system of 
joint-controlled passages (Figure 1, M). Except for a few large collapse 
sinkholes, there is very little apparent correlation between passages in 
the cave and sinkholes on the surface. Most sinkholes appear to be 
sources of water to the cave by way of minor joints and fissures which 
connect with the main passages. Several sinkhole ponds lie directly 
over passages in the cave and contribute a small, perennial trickle of 
water to the cave. 

The profile of the cave shows a dual-stage development of the 
present stream course (Figure 2 A, 2 and 3). The main stream and its 
tributaries are presently cutting headward at waterfalls, whose distance 
from the spring is proportional to the stream discharge in each passage 
(Figure 1, W). The amount of downcutting at the waterfalls is con- 
sistently about fifteen feet throughout the cave. Above the waterfalls 
the average passage gradient is between 50 and 100 feet/mile, whereas 
below the waterfalls the average passage gradient is between 10 and 
20 feet /mile. The actual stream gradient in the downstream part of 
the cave is as low as 5 feet /mile. This low gradient is the result of 
alluviation of the river valley by 85 feet of glacial outwash and the 
ponding of the river by the Williams dam, 10 miles downstream from 
Blue Spring, which has totally flooded the lower half-mile of the main 
stream passage. The dip of the rocks is about 30 feet /mile to the south- 
west, and the cave drops progressively lower stratigraphically in the 
upstream sections, but trends stratigraphically upward in the down- 
stream sections. The lowest stratigraphic points in the cave are about 
midway between the furthest exploration upstream and the spring exit. 

Below the waterfalls, many of the major passages in the cave have 
cross sections which reflect the downcutting of the stream to the lower 
level (Figure 2 B, a). In other cases the lower level is distinct from 
the upper level as the result of diversion, rather than downcutting, which 
has created dry, upper levels, most of which are in the St. Louis Lime- 
stone (Figure 2 B, b and c). Certain passages are developed along 
major joints in the Salem Limestone, and the resulting cross section 
is that of a high, narrow fissure (Figure 2 B, d). 

At elevations higher than either of the above-mentioned levels, 
remnants of a still higher level may be seen in discontinuous segments 
terminated by breakdown and clay fill (Figure 2 A, 1). Dripstone forma- 
tions are numerous in this level of the cave. 

There is evidence for a fourth level below the present stream levels 
(Figure 2 A, 4). A small pool in the Maze has been found to be 28 
feet deep and the source for a small stream which flows into the main 
passage. The pool is only one foot in diameter at the top, but increases 
in diameter with depth. It is possible that this is an outlet for a cave 



248 



Indiana Academy of Science 



MITCHELL PLAIN 





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Figure 2 

A. Idealized block diagram through the main stream passage of Blue 
Spring Cave, showing relationship of the four major levels of development 
to the geology and topography. 

B. Representative passage cross sections, a: Main stream passage above 
Maze, showing dual-level development, b: A dry upper level in St. Louis 
Limestone, c: Main stream passage below entrance, showing lower level in 
Salem Limstone. d: A typical joint-controlled passage. 



Geology and Geography 249 

level developed prior to alluviation of the river valley and subsequently 
flooded. 

The main stream passage (Figures 1, S-S) carries a low flow in 
summer and fall of about 500 g.p.m. and an observed peak flow of 
300,000 g.p.m. during a period of combined snow melt and heavy rain- 
fall. Discharge figures were obtained with a type AA rod flow meter. 

The development of the cave has been controlled by the downcutting 
of the East Fork of White River into the Mitchell Plain. Cave levels 
appear to have formed at grade with temporary base levels provided by 
pauses in downcutting. Dissection of the Mitchell Plain provided 
enough local relief to cause subsurface drainage to be established by 
underground diversion of streams and by development of solution 
channels by ground water at the level of the water table. Major pauses 
in downcutting occurred when the river was at elevations of about 70, 
110, and 125 feet below the Mitchell Plain surface, with the result 
that the three main cave levels were developed approximately at grade 
with these elevations. The fourth and lowest level apparently formed at 
a time when the river was at a deeper stage than at present. The fact 
that the third level is actively forming today suggests that it may be 
more recent than the lowest level. In this case the third level would be 
forming in response to the change in base level caused by alluvial 
filling of the valley. 

Throughout the solutional enlargement of the cave, collapse has been 
an important process in controlling the pattern of ground-water flow, 
passage morphology, and surface karst features. The uppermost level 
has already been truncated by collapse to the extent that its original 
dendritic pattern has been obscured, and today this process is also 
acting upon the lower levels. The development of Blue Spring Cave is 
apparently an important phase in the solutional lowering of the lime- 
stone surface. 



Subterranean Drainage Routes of Lost River, 
Orange County, Indiana 

Stanley H. Murdock, Soil Conservation Service and 
Richard L. Powell, Indiana Geological Survey* 

Abstract 

The upper Lost River watershed consists of a drainage net of sinking 
streams that are tributary to the main stream through subterranean 
channels and intermittent surface floodwater routes. The subterranean 
routes developed during early to middle Pleistocene time and beneath a 
topographic surface of Tertiary age. Material eroded from the Mitchell 
Plain during middle to late Pleistocene time alluviated the subterranean 
systems. Floodwater from the sinking streams overflows through higher 
relic surface and subterranean channels. 

Fluorescein was used to trace the subterranean routes within the 163 
square mile topographic drainage basin to their outlets. Subsurface 
water from a portion of the basin that lies on the Mitchell Plain, about 139 
square miles, was traced along the trend of the westward dipping bedrock 
and descends 100 to 150 feet to resurge at the rise of Lost River and the 
Orangeville Rise. Drainage in a 14.5 square mile area in the Crawford 
Upland along the South Fork of Stamper Creek is diverted downdip south- 
westward beneath the topographic divide into Lick Creek which lies about 
80 feet below the sinks. Drainage from Dry Branch, a 9.4 square mile 
karst valley in the Crawford Upland, follows the strike and descends 90 
feet to the Orangeville Rise. 

The Lost River drainage basin upstream from the rise one mile 
southwest of Orangeville covers an area of 163 square miles in Orange, 
Lawrence, and Washington Counties, Indiana (Figure 1). The basin 
lies mostly in the Mitchell Plain, a karst plateau, but is partly within 
the Crawford Upland, a dissected cuesta (2). The Mitchell Plain portion 
of the basin is characterized by surface streams flowing on Tertiary 
age clay deposits that range from 20 to 50 feet in thickness. During 
Pleistocene time many of these streams were diverted into subterranean 
routes and the clay has been eroded by sapping through sinkholes. The 
subterranean routes and their outlets were described by C. A. Malott 
(5) but he was unable to trace in detail some of the subterranean 
routes that he proposed. 

The present investigation established positive subterranean drain- 
age connections for the major sinking streams and rises in the Lost 
River area by use of commercial water-soluble fluorescein dye. Ap- 
proximately one pound of dye was placed into each sink for each cubic 
foot per second flow into the swallow hole. This amount of dye was 
used to assure positive results and thus conserve expensive labor on the 
part of the authors. The resurgences were checked both visually and 
by the use of activated charcoal detectors. All tests were verified by 
the presence of fluorescein in activated charcoal placed in the particular 
resurgence. 



1 Published with permission of the State Geologist, Indiana Department 
of Natural Resources, Geological Survey. 

250 



Geology and Geography 



251 




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Map of the Lost River area showing- subterranean drainage 



The stream tracing experiments were conducted to determine better 
the size of several minor drainage basins in the upper portion of the 
Lost River basin. Data collected will be used by the Soil Conservation 
Service in planning impoundments and channel improvements. Engineer- 
ing for proposed structures on Lick Creek near Paoli and Lost River 
near Prospect must take into account the runoff characteristics of all 
sections of the Lost River drainage basin. The data obtained is for low 



252 Indiana Academy of Science 

flow to normal flow conditions, but knowledge of the subterranean 
routes contributes to the prediction of flood flow conditions. 

Ten separate fluorescein tests were conducted to determine sub- 
terranean drainage routes within the Lost River watershed upstream 
from the rise of Lost River, about one mile southwest of Orangeville. 
All of the tested routes proved to be entirely within the Lost River 
drainage basin, but five were found to be tributary to Lost River below 
its rise. One of these five was traced to Sulphur Creek and four were 
traced to Lick Creek above Paoli (Figure 1). Five tests determined the 
major routes of Lost River drainage above the rise. Of these, three 
were detected at the Orangeville Rise and two were traced to the rise 
of Lost River. The tests and their results are here listed in geographic 
order from northwest to southeast (Table 1). 

The fluorescein test in Wadsworth Hollow (1, Figure 1) provided 
valuable insight into the selection of the topographic boundary of the 
northwest side of the study portion of the Lost River drainage basin. 
Wadsworth Hollow is a karst valley that is topographically continuous 
with that of Beaver Creek to the northwest. Malott (5) suggested that 
the drainage of the dismembered portions of Beaver Creek, including 
areas to the northwest of Wadsworth Hollow, were tributary to the 
Orangeville Rise through caverns such as Beaver Creek Swallow Hole 
Cave and Salts Cave (7). However, the fluorescein test has proven that 
this area drains instead to Sulphur Creek, more or less down the dip 
of the local bedrock rather than along the strike. The caverns, the two 
mentioned above and Canto Cave, which receives the water diverted 
underground at the swallow hole in Wadsworth Hollow, tend to follow 
joints parallel to both the strike and dip of the local bedrock. The 
subterranean gradient from the swallow hole to the spring on Sulphur 
Creek is 27 feet per mile, which is about the same as the local dip of 
the bedrock. 

Showfarm Cave (2, Figure 1) trends along strike-oriented joints 
southward towards the Orangeville Rise (7). The dye test showed that 
the drainage resurges at Orangeville. Flood waters follow surface chan- 
nels of Dry Branch to Orangeville. 

Malott (5) suggested that drainage in the area of Orleans was 
tributary to the Orangeville Rise. Topographic maps show that the 
surface drainage is to Orangeville, but, the divide between subter- 
ranean drainage that is tributary to the Orangeville Rise and that 
which is tributary to the rise of Lost River is not discernable on the 
surface. 

Two tests were made, therefore, to trace subterranean drainage at 
Orleans to an outlet. Fluorescein was dumped into a sinking stream, 
Flood Creek, on the west side of the town of Orleans, and into the 
sewage plant (3 and 4, Figure 1) that discharges its wastes into a sink- 
hole on the south side of town. Both were detected at the Orangeville 
Rise, where, incidentally, the water is sometimes used for domestic 
supply. A direct route between the sinks and the resurgence would 
pass beneath the dry bed of Lost River in the vicinity of the Mathers 



Geology and Geography 



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254 Indiana Academy of Science 

Storm water Rises (5), thus suggesting a possible floodwater exchange 
between the dry bed of Lost River and the subterranean passages. 

The northern boundary of the Lost River drainage basin with the 
Mitchell Plain is arbitrarily drawn (Figure 1) along a low topographic 
divide where sinkholes are less numerous or lacking, apparently be- 
cause a thick deposit of clay mantles the bedrock. Drainage to the 
north most probably is to the East Fork of White River through such 
caverns as Blue Springs Cave (6) and the Donaldson-Twin Caves 
which drain the sinks of Mosquito Creek (1). 

Drainage of the upper part of Lost River (5, Figure 1) was traced 
to the rise of Lost River about one mile south of Orangeville. The dye 
was detected visually in the rise at Wesley Chapel Gulf, confirming 
the studies of Malott (3). The stream includes drainage from Carter 
Creek, and the North and South Forks of Lost River. On each of these 
tributaries a flood control structure is planned by the U. S. Soil Conser- 
vation Service. Near the sink where the dye was injected Lost River 
is joined by an upland dry bed or overflow route that carries overflow 
from the South Fork of Stamper Creek, joins Stamper Creek and sev- 
eral other small streams that drain westward off the thick clay covered 
portion of the Mitchell Plain. This overland route is scheduled to be 
improved by the Soil Conservation Service to decrease flooding in the 
downstream ends of these sinking streams. 

The sinks of Stamper Creek (6, Figure 1) were traced to the rise 
of Lost River, contrary to the connection with Lick Creek to the 
southeast proposed by Malott (5). Hudelson Cavern (4) lies along the 
direct route between the sinks of Stamper Creek and the rise of Lost 
River. 

The drainage of the South Fork of Stamper Creek is diverted into 
subterranean routes through many swallow holes along the stream 
bed, each successive swallow hole diverting water underground de- 
pending upon the amount of water in the stream. All of the subter- 
ranean drainage of the South Fork of Stamper Creek discharges into 
Lick Creek which lies down dip and topographically lower to the 
southwest. Three tests were conducted, in three selected sinks spaced 
evenly along the stream. The upstream part of the South Fork in the 
vicinity of Trotters Crossing (9, Figure 1) was found to be diverted 
westward into the headwaters area of Lick Creek. All of the downstream 
part of the valley of South Fork (7 and 8, Figure 1) is tributary to 
Spring Mill on Lick Creek. The downstream end of the South Fork was 
dyed during flood conditions, the only time that water flows this far 
downstream. Although most of the water resurged at Spring Mill, the 
cavernous routes were flooded to such an extent that some of the muddy 
water resurfaced at springs in the valley to the north about 10 to 
15 feet higher than at Spring Mill. 

Malott, on an unpublished map, indicated that Half Moon Spring on 
Lick Creek (F, Figure 1) was in part fed by the South Fork of Stamper 
Creek, but the only drainage traced to that spring by the fluorescein 
studies was that which sinks in the sinks of Lick Creek. 



Geology and Geography 255 

The Lost River topographic watershed above the rise of Lost 
River can be divided into three parts on the basis of tracing the 
normal and low flow subterranean drainage. The northwestern part 
includes about 40.7 square miles in the Crawford Upland and Mitchell 
Plain that is tributary to the Orangeville Rise. The central portion 
is mostly within the Mitchell Plain and covers about 107.8 square miles 
of drainage, including the upper part of the Lost River, that is tribu- 
tary to the rise of Lost River. This portion includes the major part of 
the dry bed and sinkhole plain area commonly associated with Lost 
River. The remaining part is the karst valley of the South Fork of 
Stamper Creek that is tributary to Lick Creek, an area of 14.5 square 
miles. Flood flows within the entire drainage basin fill the subterranean 
conduits and overflow into surface flood channels or dry beds, ultimately 
to discharge at the rise of Lost River. Thus modern flood flows occupy 
essentially the late Tertiary or early Pleistocene surface routes that 
were regularly used prior to the development of karst features and 
caverns during early and middle Pleistocene time. 

Literature Cited 

1. Brune, G. M. 1941. Reservoir sedimentation in limestone sinkhole terrain. 
Agricultural Engineering" 30:73-77. 

2. Malott, C. A. 1922. The physiography of Indiana. In: Handbook of 
Indiana Geology, p. 59-256. Indiana Dept. Conser. Pub. 21; Indianapolis. 

3. . 1932. Lost River at Wesley Chapel Gulf, Orange County, 



Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 41:285-316. 

. 1948. Hudelson Cavern, a stormwater route of underground 



Lost River, Orange County, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 58:236-243. 
. 1952. The swallow-holes of Lost River, Orange County, Indi- 



ana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 61:187-231. 

Palmer, A. N. 1968. The Survey of Blue Springs Cave. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 77. 

Powell, R. L. 1961. Caves of Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Circ. 
8. 127 p. 



Terrain Analysis by Computer 

A. Keith Turner and Robert D. Miles, Purdue University 

Abstract 

The first part of this paper discusses the development of suitable 
terrain sampling- procedures. Reproducible sampling- is an important pre- 
requisite to satisfactory terrain analysis. Terrain variability measures 
have been developed to differentiate between unique terrain types. The 
results of these analyses are used to develop stratified samples of com- 
pound areas covering entire map sheets. 

Several computer-oriented terrain analysis methods have been developed 
and are described in the second part of this paper. Some of these methods 
are extensions of previously developed or suggested geomorphic techniques 
in which the computer is used to expedite procedures; other methods are 
new developments. 

Examples of computer-prepared contour maps are included. Such maps 
are useful for rapid study and comparison of different terrain types. 

Introduction 

Geomorphology is becoming an increasingly quantitative science. 
Many geomorphologists now view the landscape as a series of open 
physical systems tending toward energy equilibrium (1). Such scientists 
naturally attempt to describe terrain in unambiguous meaningful quanti- 
tative terms. Accurate, reproducible, numerical descriptors of terrain 
have become of great concern to several scientific disciplines, including 
engineering geology, military geology, soil science, and land locomotion 
engineering. This paper describes techniques for the analysis of terrain 
using the computer. Further additions and refinements to the techniques 
are anticipated. 

This research was sponsored by the Indiana State Highway Com- 
mission and the Bureau of Public Roads; however, this paper has not 
had the benefit of their review. The opinions, findings, and conclusions 
expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessar- 
ily those of the Bureau of Public Roads or the Indiana State Highway 
Commission. 

The authors also wish to acknowledge the assistance of Dr. V. L. 
Anderson, Department of Statistics, Purdue University, who reviewed 
the statistical implications of this study. 

Terrain Sampling Procedures 

Map digitization, the reduction of graphical to numerical data, is 
required before computer analysis is possible. Development of simple, 
logical, and reproducible sampling procedures is an important prerequi- 
site to satisfactory terrain analysis. Sampling can be performed at a 
series of irregularly spaced points or at a regular spacing forming a 
sample grid. 

Irregularly spaced samples can often describe the terrain better 
with equal or smaller numbers of sample points than can grid systems 
which tend to sample repetitiously in uniform areas. Irregularly spaced 

256 



Geology and Geography 257 

samples are favored by surface fitting operations, such as trend surface 
analysis, since the smaller number of sample points minimizes compu- 
tational complexities. 

With gridded samples, the position of a sample in the array auto- 
matically denotes its X and Y coordinates. This feature may ease data 
storage problems within the computer and can be used to advantage 
when computations require knowledge of adjacent points, since lengthy 
data search routines are unnecessary. While data are most frequently 
collected on rectangular coordinate systems, polar coordinates have 
been used. Stone and Dugundji (11) discuss the merits of various 
systems. 

This research used gridded data to analyze the roughness and vari- 
ability of homogenous areas. These values in turn allowed the deter- 
mination of appropriate irregularly spaced sampling distributions of 
larger areas. Gridded samples were also used to develop hypsometric 
integrals of various terrain types. 

Descriptive Measures of Homogenous Terrain 

Two techniques for computer analysis of homogenous terrain types 
have been evaluated. One of these measures the surface roughness; the 
other is a technique for estimating the hypsometric integral whereby 
the labor of calculating this measure is substantially reduced. 

Estimation of Surface Roughness 
A technique for measuring roughness has been suggested by Hobson 
(4). This study has used a modified version of his program VECTOR. 

Description of Program VECTOR 

A rectangular array of elevation readings is the basic input data. 
A set of interesting triangular planar surfaces are defined by groups 
of three adjacent elevation readings (Figure 1A). Two different sets of 
triangles can be obtained from the same data by redefining the triangle 
corners as shown in Figure IB. Type 1 triangles have "northeast-south- 
west" diagonals, while Type 2 triangles have the opposite diagnoals. 

Normals to these planes are represented by unit vectors. Mean 
vector orientation, vector strength, and vector dispersion are computed 
using methods defined by Fisher (3) and described by Watson (15). 
Vector strength, Rl, is obtained by using the direction cosine method 
(5). The standardized vector strength, R, (where R equals Rl divided 
by the number of triangles) ranges in value from zero for no preferred 
orientation to one for identical orientation. Fisher's dispersion factor, 
K, (3) indicates the variability or spread of the unit vectors; it takes 
on small values for highly dispersed distributions and extremely high 
values for low dispersions. 

"Smooth" areas generally have high vector strengths and low dis- 
persions (high K values) as shown in Figure 1C. Such areas may be 
flat or may have a regional tilt. "Rough" areas of non-systematic 
elevation changes yield low vector strengths and high vector dispersion, 
thus low K values (Figure ID), 



258 



Indiana Academy of Science 




DEFINITION OF TRIANGULAR PLANES FROM ELEVATION MATRIX 



1 / 

/z 


3 / 
/ 4 


5/ 

/ 6 


7 / 
/ 



\. 1 
2 X. 


\ 3 
4 \ 


\ 5 

6 N. 


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TYPE1 TRIANGLES 



TYPE 2 TRIANGLES 







/ 




'SMOOTH TERRAIN 



LOW VECTOR DISPERSION 





'ROUGH" TERRAIN 



HIGH VECTOR DISPERSION 



FIGURE I- PROGRAM VECTOR ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 

(modified after Hobson ) 



Geology and Geography 259 

Description of Test Sites 

Twenty-five sample areas were used, twelve of which were located 
in Indiana. Eleven sites were measured on 1:24,000 scale topographic 
maps; the twelfth was located on a 1:62,500 scale map and corresponds 
to one of the 1:24,000 scale test sites. These sites represent several 
characteristic Indiana landforms including karst plains (2 sites); hills 
(3 sites), plateaus (1 site), escarpments (2 sites), ground moraine (2 
sites), ridge moraine and dunes (1 site), and outwash plains (1 site). 
A thirteenth site was selected to analyze drumlin topography; part of 
the Weedsport Quadrangle (1:24,000), New York State, was used for 
this purpose. Twelve micro-terrain maps were selected for analysis 
from a series of specially surveyed maps prepared by Stone and 
Dugundji (11). These maps were prepared with contour intervals rang- 
ing between one-tenth and one foot and scales from 1:180 to 1:4800. A 
variety of California terrain types is represented including flood plains, 
badlands, and a variety of desert landforms (playas, pediments, wadis, 
dunes). 

Results of Terrain Analysis by Program VECTOR 

Analysis of twenty-five test sites, encompassing a variety of land- 
forms and map scales, by program VECTOR suggests that meaningful 
terrain analysis can be performed on the computer. The following sum- 
marize the results of the current analyses: 

1) Program VECTOR is equally suitable for analysis of micro and 
macro terrains, provided that maps of suitable scale and contour inter- 
vals are available for the test sites. 

2) Fisher's dispersion factor, K, is an excellent descriptor of terrain 
roughness. Roughness is described as "the presence of nonsystematic 
elevation changes" (see Figure 1C and ID). Fisher's dispersion factor 
is defined as 

N— 1 



K 



N — Rl 



where N is the number of observations (triangles), and Rl is the vector 
strength (3, 4). 

For smooth surfaces, all the unit vectors tend to the same orienta- 
tion; thus Rl approaches N, and N — Rl tends to zero, and accordingly 
K approaches infinity. Conversely, for very rough terrains Rl tends to 
zero, and thus K approaches one. The smallest K value obtained in 
this study was 31. This was measured for a wadi in the Mohave Desert 
(11, Figure 29) while the largest K value, 374,773, was measured for 
a playa surface (11, Figure 55). Indiana sites gave less extreme values. 
The roughest Indiana site was part of the New Albany Escarpment 
(K = 81) while the smoothest site was the ground moraine just west of 
Tipton (K = 30,044). Because of the very large range of K values, the 
log K transformation is frequently useful. 

3) All test sites were analyzed by program VECTOR using Type 1 and 
Type 2 triangles (Figure IB). No important differences were observed 
in any of the measures as a result of type of triangles used in the 



260 



Indiana Academy of Science 



IOOO00 



50000- 



10000- -s 



\Q\ > 




FIGURE 2- EFFECT OF TRIANGLE TYPE ON V 



analysis. Figure 2 shows the values of log K for Type 1 triangles plot- 
ted versus log K for Type 2 triangles; all points lie close to the 45° 
line. 

4) Since K is a measure of vector dispersion it may be correlated with 
measures of the variability of attitudes of the triangular planes. The 
log (variance of dips) was plotted against log K (Figure 3B) and a 
least squares linear regression line fitted. The linear correlation co- 
efficient, r = — 0.964, indicates a strong correlation between log (variance 
of dips) and log K. 

If log (maximum dip) is plotted against log K (Figure 3A) and a 
least squares regression line fitted, r = — 0.950. The difference between 
the two correlation coefficients is not statistically significant. A strong 
correlation between log (maximum dip) and log K is geomorphically 
reasonable, since steep slopes are normally associated with rough topog- 
raphy. However, given two areas with the same maximum slope value, 



Geology and Geography 261 



r= -0.950 



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If * *^ 






K (log scale) 



500 1000 5000 10000 50000 100000 



60- 

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1- 
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Variance of Dips 
(log scale) 

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Fisher's Dispersion Factor - K (log scale) 

1 1 1 1 1 1 —i 1 — 



10 50 100 500 1000 5000 10000 50000 100000 . 

FIGURE 3 - RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN '«' AND 
STRIKE AND DIP VARIABILITY 



262 



Indiana Academy of Science 



one might have a much greater range in slope values, and hence a larger 
variance of dip and greater roughness. Thus maximum dip may not be 
quite as good a descriptor of terrain roughness as variance of dip. 

Initially it was believed that a similar correlation might exist 
between log (variance of strikes) and log K. Figure 3C is a plot of 
log (variance of strikes) versus log K. The linear correlation coefficient 
r = 0.009 indicates essentially no linear correlation exists between log 
(variance of strikes) and log K. This may be due in part to the test 
sites all having highly variable strike values. Careful examination of 
the results suggests that K may be related to a function of the variabil- 
ities of both strikes and dips. At the present time, however, a satis- 
factory model has not been discovered, although several have been tried. 
5) The orientations of the triangular planar elements become progress- 
ively poorer estimators of the true terrain roughness as the sample 
spacing increases, as shown in Figure 4. A filtering action takes place 
so that smoothing of the terrain occurs; statistics, such as K, derived 
from the triangle orientations reflect this smoothing. 



Oriqinol Profile 






1 ' 


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If 

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FIGURE 4- EFFECT OF SAMPLE SPACING ON TERRAIN 
ROUGHNESS ESTIMATION 



Geology and Geography 263 

Photographic enlargements up to four diameters of several test 
sites were produced, sampled, and analyzed using program VECTOR. 
Since all these data sets were rectangular arrays, it was also possible 
to analyze alternate columns and rows. These procedures allowed the 
examination of the effects of grid size (sample spacing) on results of 
program VECTOR analysis. 

Testing of these comparisons for significance requires the use of 
non-parametric statistics. Strahler (12, 14) showed that slopes have 
normal distributions. In contrast, the distributtions of dips of the 
triangular planes are not normal, but vary widely from skewed to 
almost exponential distributions. Similar uncertainties surround the 
distribution of K and of strikes of these planes. Transformation of 
these distributions to more nearly normal form would allow the use of 
parametric statistics. The Walsh test, described by Siegel (10), is a 
suitable non-parametric test, and was used to evaluate K values 
measured for Indiana sites. The test showed that samples collected on a 
500 foot spacing gave significantly smoother K values (at the 95% 
confidence level) than did samples collected on a 125 foot spacing. The 
investigator must consider the effect of sample spacing on roughness 
estimators when determining the roughness of any area and set his 
grid size accordingly. 

Most terrain types have a characteristic slope length. Statistics 
derived from grid spacings equal to or less than the equivalent map 
distance will probably show much less dependence on grid size than will 
values obtained from larger grids. One method of selecting a grid size 
would be to estimate the characteristic slope lengths for the terrain to 
be studied and use a grid size slightly smaller than the equivalent 
map distance. 

Another method is possible if the primary purpose of determining 
the roughness is to compare areas so as to design suitable stratified 
sampling procedures, as described in a following section. In such a 
case a grid size equal to the minimum sampling distance needed for the 
purposes of analysis, applied to all subareas, will allow their compari- 
son on equal terms. 

Estimation of the Hypsometric Integral 

A second method of comparing two or more homogenous areas is 
to compare their hypsometric integrals. The hypsometric integral was 
devised by Strahler (13). It is a dimensionless measure of subsurface 
volume of a drainage basin. Strahler suggested that, under certain 
conditions, this integral would provide a quantitative expression of stage 
of basin denudation and Schumm (9) successfully used it for this purpose. 

Strahler's method of measuring the hypsometric integral is some- 
what tedious and this may explain why this morphometric measure has 
been little used. Chorley and Morley (2) suggested a simplification. They 
approximated drainage basins by a regular geometrical form, a lemnis- 
cate, and were able to more easily calculate the hypsometric integral. 
However, their technique resulted in values which varied from Strahler's 
values. They suggested a transformation to correct their values. 



264 Indiana Academy of Science 

Description of Program GCON 

The availability of a computer program GCON, originally written 
in the MAD language by Professor W. R. Tobler, University of Michi- 
gan, Ann Arbor, suggested a second method of estimating the hypso- 
metric integral. This program accepts gridded elevation values and 
performs linear interpolation on them to produce contour maps on the 
normal computer line printer. Various scaling and contour interval 
specification options are available. 

The program defines a map as an array of printing posittions, N 
characters per line wide and M lines long. Thus there are N x M char- 
acter spaces in the entire map. Each character position is evaluated in 
turn and the appropriate interval list is incremented by one. Thus a 
frequency table is readily produced of percent area within each contour 
interval. 

Accuracy of this integration procedure is controlled by the fixed 
size of the unit incremental area, a single character. Thus larger map 
sizes will increase the accuracy of the area determinations. Visual com- 
parison of the computer-developed contour map with the original 
topographic map allows the investigator to estimate the reliability of 
his estimated hypsometric integral. 

While the program requires rectangular map areas, analysis of 
irregular watersheds can be accomplished by setting all areas outside 
the watershed to arbitrarily very high values. The maximum and mini- 
mum contour levels corresponding to the highest and lowest values for 
the watershed are included as data. The program calculates the elevation 
range and excludes all elevations lying more than one range above the 
watershed's highest point, or one range below the lowest point. The 
frequency table will accordingly show the number of character spaces 
within each contour level in the basin. These values can be quickly 
transformed for plotting the hypsometric curve. A new subroutine has 
been developed to allow the computer to make this transformation, plot 
the curve, and estimate the area below the curve — the hypsometric 
integral. 

Results of Analysis by Program GCON 

The above concepts were tested by re-analyzing seven drainage 
basins whose hypsometric integrals were measured by Strahler (13). 
Figure 5 A is a copy of Strahler's map of one of these basins; Figure 
5B is a copy of a computer-generated contour map of the same basin. 
Figure 6 is a plot of the hypsometric curve for the same basin. Strah- 
ler's values are also plotted showing the close agreement between the 
two methods. Table 1 tabulates the results for all seven drainage basins, 
Chorley and Morley's uncorrected values for the same basins are also 
listed for comparison. 

Methods of Stratified Sampling of Map Sheets 

Most topographic quadrangle maps cover a variety of terrain types. 
Such areas may be termed "compound" as opposed to "simple" terrains 



Geology and Geography 



265 



1880 



/V- Original Contour Map 

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FIGURE 5- DRAINAGE BASIN, VERDUGO HILLS, CALIFORNIA. 



Indiana Academy of Science 




0.5 



▲ Computer-generated values 
O Strahler's values 



FIGURE 6- HYPSOMETRIC CURVE, DRAINAGE BASIN IN 
VERDUGO HILLS (see Figure 5) 

TABLE 1 

Comparison of Hypsometric Integrals 



Values from Strahler (13) 



Composite Values 

Estimated 
Single-Basin Mean Population 

Figure Hypsometric Hypsometric Standard 
Number Integral Integral Deviation 



Approximated 
Computer Hypsometric 
Estimated Integral 

Hypsometric from Chorley 
Integral and Morley (2) 



14 


79.5% 






78.7% 


86.0% 


15 


43.0% 






43.5% 


41.0% 


16 


17.6% 






16.3% 


12.7% 


17-1 




59.7% 


6.55% 


62.5% 


59.6% 


17-2 




54.2% 


5.20% 


54.4% 


53.2% 


17-4 




46.8% 


4.58% 


43.6% 


44.5% 


17-5 




40.8% 


5.88% 


46.2% 


35.7% 



Geology and Geography 



267 



which show only one type of landform. In statistical terminology such 
compound map areas contain more than one population. 

Suppose a researcher wishes to digitize a map area as shown in 
Figure 7A. He might partition the map into three "simple" areas as 
shown in Figure 7B. The investigator may decide on a total number of 
sample locations for the entire map, or he may decide on some sampling 
density for any one of the simple areas. In either case, if he wishes to 
sample all areas with equal reliability, he must distribute the number 
of sample points for each subarea according to its relative area and its 
relative variability. 

The percent of the total map area contained in any subarea is 
easily estimated. It can be obtained by a planimeter if greater accuracy 



ground moraine 




bedrock hills 
A. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MAP AREA ( after Lobeck ) 




AREA TABLE 



SUBAREA 



I. bedrock hills 

2. ground moraine 

3. flood plain 



% AREA 



47 
17 
36 



B. MAP SUBDIVIDED FOR STRATIFIED SAMPLING 



FIGURE 7- STRATIFIED SAMPLING PROCEDURES 



268 Indiana Academy of Science 

is desired. Thus, the problem resolves into determining- a suitable 
numerical descriptor of the variability of the various terrain types. 

Terrain Variability Measures 

A perfectly smooth, planar, horizontal surface can be adequately 
described by a single elevation value; any planar inclined surface re- 
quires three elevation values, and associated X and Y coordinates, to 
describe it. Gently curved surfaces require still more data points to 
satisfactorily describe their overall orientation. The overall orientation 
of subareas might be described in a number of ways. The range of the 
elevations is the simplest value to obtain, requiring no prior sampling 
procedure. 

A particular subarea's roughness will also affect the number of 
sampling points required to describe it. It has already been shown 
that K, Fisher's dispersion factor, is an ideal numerical descriptor of 
roughness. Since K values can range from one to extremely large num- 
bers the variability factor, v, is denned as 

Range of elevations (feet) 



log (K) 

v can range from zero for completely flat surfaces which must by defi- 
nition be smooth, to the range in elevations for extremely rough areas 
(K = 10, thus log (K) = 1). Table 2 lists values of elevation range, 
K, log (K), and the resulting v for all twenty-five test sites. 

If the variability factor and the percent area belonging to each 
subarea on a map sheet, such as Figure 7B, are known and the total 
number of samples to be distributed on the map is decided on, the 
following equation will distribute the points among the various subareas 

ViaiN 



rii — 



Sv.ai 



where i is the subarea number, Vi is the variability of the ith subarea, 
ai is the percent area of the ith subarea, and N is the total number of 
samples on the map. Such a distribution of sample points among the 
various subareas, will result in approximately equal sampling reliability 
over an entire map area. 

Conclusions 

Homogenous terrain types can be compared using measures of 
roughness, variability, and the hypsometric integral. The digital com- 
puter can aid in the calculation of these measures. In addition to their 
geomorphic applications these measures could be used as predictors of 
several engineering construction costs, such as highway grading costs, 
since they are associated with terrain geometry. 

The variability factor can be used to determine appropriate ir- 
regularly spaced sampling distributions of larger compound areas cov- 
ering one or many map sheets. The importance of these techniques 
should not be underestimated. Mclntyre (7) states that irregularly 
spaced random samples may better digitize topographic maps than 
e;ridded data under at least some conditions. Computer analysis of these 



Geology and Geography 



269 



TABLE 2 

Results of Program VECTOR Analyses 



Test Site 
Number 



Terrain Type 



Varia- 

Elevation Roughness bility 

Range (ft) K log K v (ft) 



A. Turner Test Sites 



02393-1 


escarpment 


315 


85 


1.929 


163.5 


02393-3 


escarpment 


278 


82 


1.914 


145.1 


03022-1 


hills 


340 


397 


2.599 


131.0 


02487-1 


hills 


277 


220 


2.342 


118.5 


02039-2 


hills 


212 


158 


2.199 


96.5 


W-l 


drumlins 


183 


222 


2.346 


78.3 


02039-1 


karst plain 


166 


723 


2.859 


57.2 


02039-3 


karst plain 


170 


1329 


3.124 


54.6 


02393 


plateau 


81 


1759 


3.245 


25.0 


02393-2 


ridge moraine and dunes 


i 53 


2892 


3.461 


15.3 


02329-2 


ground moraine 


60 


24664 


4.392 


13.7 


02329-1 


outwash plain 


28 


18024 


4.256 


6£ 


02625-1 


ground moraine 


26 


30044 


4.478 


5.8 



B. Stone and Dugundji Sites (subarea numbers are figure numbers) 



M-29 Boulder-free wadi 

M-57 Pleistocene lake terrace 

M-33 Micro-badlands 

M-45 Sand-sheet 

M-49 Complex dunes 

M-53 Turret dunes 

M-41 Playa drainage channels 

M-37 Floodplain mounds 

M-39 Floodplain ridges 

M-35 Salt ploygons 

M-47 "Devil's Cornfield" 

M-55 Playa 



25.0 


3] 


1.491 


16.8 


10.8 


51 


1.708 


6.3 


9.0 


117 


2.068 


4.4 


10.5 


309 


2.490 


4.2 


8/7 


161 


2.207 


3.9 


7.0 


133 


2.124 


3.3 


5.3 


233 


2.367 


2.2 


3.0 


269 


2.430 


1.2 


2.3 


189 


2.276 


1.0 


1.4 


102 


2.009 


0.7 


1.15 


975 


2.989 


0.4 


0.47 


374773 


5.573 


0.084 



compound areas by techniques such as trend-surface analysis will open 
the way to a number of interesting studies. 

Map comparison procedures, as suggested by Miller (8), are one 
obvious application. Geometric analysis of at least more regular terrain 
types, such as drumlinized topography, by the methods developed by 
Whitten (16) and Loudon (6) could have useful applications to glacial 
geology, geomorphology, and civil engineering. The authors are currently 
examining the applicability of trend surface analysis to the highway 
location problem. 



270 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Chorley, R. J. 1956. Some neglected source material in quantitative 
geomorphology. Jour. Geol. 64:422-423. 

2. Chorley, R. J. and L. S. D. Morley. 1959. A simplified approximation for 
the hypsometric integral. Jour. Geol. 67:566-571. 

3. Fisher, R. A. 1953. Dispersion on a sphere. Proc. Royal Society of 
London, series A. 217:295-305. 

4. Hobson, R. D. 1967. FORTRAN IV programs to determine surface 
roughness in topography for the CDC 3400 computer. Kansas Geol. 
Survey Computer Contrib. 14:28p. 

5. Johnson, R. E. and F. L. Kiokemeister. 1957. Calculus with analytic 
geometry. Allyn and Bacon Inc. 709p. 

6. Loudon, T. V. 1964. Computer analysis of orientation data in structural 
geology. Office of Naval Research, Geography Branch, Tech. Rept. 13, 
ONR Task No. 389-135 :129p. 

7. McIntyre, D. B. 1967. Trend-surface analysis of noisy data. Kansas 
Geol. Survey Commputer Contrib. 12:45-56. 

8. Miller, R. L. 1964. Comparison-analysis of trend maps. Computers in 
the Mineral Industries, Stanford Univ. Publ., Geol. Sci. 9:669-685. 

9. Schumm, S. A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in bad- 
lands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol. Soc. American Bull. 67:597-646. 

10. Siegal, S. 1956. Nonparametric statistics. McGraw-Hill. 

11. Stone, R. O. and J. Dugundji. 1965. A study of microrelief — its map- 
ping, classification, and quantification by means of a Fourier analysis. 
Engineering Geology 1:89-187. 

12. Strahler, A. N. 1950. Equilibrium theory of erosional slopes approached 
by frequency distribution analysis. Amer. Jour. Science 24S:673-696, 
800-814. 

13. Strahler, A. N. 1952. Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis of erosional 
topography. Geol. Soc. American Bull. 63:1117-1142. 

14. Strahler, A. N. 1956. Quantitative slope analysis. Geol. Soc. America 
Bull. 67:571-596. 

15. Watson, G. S. 1957. Analysis of dispersion on a sphere. Royal Astron. 
Soc. Monthly Notices, Geophysics Supp. 7:153-159. 

16. Whitten, E. H. T. 1967. Fourier trend-surface analysis in the geomet- 
rical analysis of subsurface folds of the Michigan Basin. Kansas Geol. 
Survey Computer Contrib. 12:10-11. 



The Tinley Moraine in Indiana 1 

Allan F. Schneider, Indiana Geological Survey 



Abstract 

The Tinley Moraine, which was named in Illinois for a subsidiary 
ridge behind the main part of the Valparaiso Morainic System, has received 
little recognition as a discrete moraine in Indiana. Recent mapping sug- 
gests, however, that ice of the Lake Michigan Lobe probably did recede 
some unknown distance from its position along the Valparaiso Moraine 
and then readvanced to form the Tinley Moraine. 

The Tinley Moraine enters Indiana in west-central Lake County, and 
its main ridge can be traced for about 20 miles across Lake County and 
western Porter County. It is more readily recognized as a discrete moraine 
by ice-block depressions and drainage relations along its distal margin 
than by its height or good internal morphology. The crest of the Tinley 
ridge gradually decreases in elevation from 736 feet at the state line to 
about 700 feet at the eastern end of the segment, where the moraine be- 
comes obscure near a prominent gap in the Valparaiso Moraine. Here the 
terminal zone of the Tinley ice apparently curved northward through an 
arc of about 90 degrees and is represented by an upland till plain that was 
probably deposited with the ice front standing in a lake. Farther north- 
east the terminal zone of the ice possibly is marked by an undulating 
till belt that trends eastward through northeastern Porter County and 
northeastward through northwestern LaPorte County. This belt has long 
been considered to be part of the Lake Border Morainic System, which is, 
however, presumably younger than the Tinley Moraine. The Lake Border 
moraines date from the Glenwood stage of glacial Lake Chicago, whereas 
the Tinley Moraine is generally considered pre-Glenwood in age. Hope- 
fully this possible enigma can be resolved by further field and laboratory 
investigations. 

Introduction 

The Tinley Moraine has been recognized for many years in Illinois 
(Fig. 1), where it is considered to mark a distinct readvance of the 
Lake Michigan Lobe after it had withdrawn from the Valparaiso 
Moraine. In Indiana, however, the Tinley Moraine has received little 
attention. Recent work, aided greatly by modern topographic maps, 
indicates that the moraine probably does represent a readvance of the 
ice during the Gary Subage (Wisconsin Age). Its distal margin can be 
traced along the back side of the Valparaiso Moraine for at least 20 
miles through Indiana from the Illinois state line (Fig. 2). Accordingly, 
this extension of the Tinley ice margin is recognized on a regional map 
of the Chicago area that is now in preparation (15). 

The probable sequence of events centering about a prominent gap 
in the Valparaiso Moraine just west of Valparaiso was recently sum- 
marized by the writer (14). An important episode in this sequence 
involves a readvance of the Lake Michigan Lobe following its retreat 
from the Valparaiso Moraine. The purpose of the present discussion is 
to consider the status and character of the Tinley Moraine and the 



1 Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Department of Natural 
Resources, Geological Survey. 

271 



272 



Indiana Academy of Science 



possible position of the Tinley ice margin in Indiana more fully than 
in the earlier paper. 

Previous Recognition of the Tinley Moraine in Illinois and Indiana 

The Tinley Moraine was formally named by Bretz (3) for a 
morainic ridge in back of the main part of the Valparaiso Moraine in 
northeastern Illinois (Fig. 1). It was interpreted to represent a still- 
stand of the ice front after the Lake Michigan Lobe had retreated an 
unknown distance from the Valparaiso Moraine and then readvanced, 
encroaching upon but not overriding the Valparaiso. Earlier it had been 
called the Arlington Heights Moraine northwest of Chicago and the 
Tinley Park Moraine south of Chicago and was regarded as the inner- 
most member of the Valparaiso Morainic System (10, 11). The name 
was then abbreviated to Tinley Moraine and applied to the entire ridge 
from its northern extremity to the Indiana state line. Although the 
name Tinley Moraine was first formalized in publication by Bretz in 
1939 (3), it apparently had been used for several years prior to this, 
as evidenced in part by its use on an unpublished map by W. E. Powers 
and A. F. Banfield dated 1932.2 




Figure 1. Map showing - moraines and moraine correlations around the 
south end of Lake Michigan. Adapted from Bretz, 1951; base information 
and labels have been modified but the geology is unaltered. 



2 In a written communication dated October 4, 1967, Professor Powers 
recalls that the name Tinley Moraine was used by members of the Illinois 
State Geological Survey well before 1930. The 1932 map, used as a field 
guide for teaching purposes at Northwestern University, was prepared by 
Banfield from an earlier map compiled by Powers about 1928. The use of 
Tinley Moraine on the 1932 map shows that Dr. Bretz's designation was 
in common use by members of the Illinois survey prior to that date, 
according to Professor Powers. 



Geology and Geography 273 

The Tinley Moraine was extended into Indiana (Fig. 1) on maps by 
Bretz (3, 4, 5), but neither the name Tinley nor the concept of a discrete 
moraine on the back side of the Valparaiso has won general recognition 
by Indiana geologists. Until very recently (14) the name Tinley Moraine 
was used in Indiana literature only by Bieber and Smith (2) on a map 
prepared mainly to show industrial sand deposits. 

The Tinley Moraine is essentially equivalent to the inner or 
northern of three ridges recognized by Leverett (13) in the Valparaiso 
Morainic System of Lake and Porter Counties. Although this ridge 
is shown as an identifiable moranic feature on some maps (7, 13, 17), it 
either bears no name or carries no hachures to indicate the outer limit 
of a significant glacial advance. On other maps (16, 18) it is not 
distinguished in any way from the overall Valparaiso morainic complex. 
In short, the Tinley Moraine in Indiana has generally been considered 
to be part and parcel of the Valaparaiso system. 

This general lack of recognition accorded the Tinley Moraine in 
Indiana no doubt reflects, at least in part, the lack of good topographic 
coverage. The first modern topographic maps of the area were not 
published until the mid-1950s; studies of the Valparaiso morainic 
complex have been aided immeasurably by their availability. 

Terminal Zone of the Tinley Ice in Indiana 

The terminal zone of the Tinley ice in Indiana can be considered in 
three parts: (1) an east-west segment of end moraine in Lake County 
and western Porter County that is clearly a continuation of the Tinley 
Moraine of Illinois; (2) an upland till plain, which has previously been 
mapped as end moraine, at the east end of the truly morainic segment 
in northwestern Porter County; and (3) an undulating till belt that may 
or may not represent the marginal zone of the Tinley ice across north- 
eastern Porter County and northwestern LaPorte County. 

The Tinley Moraine enters Indiana from Illinois in west-central 
Lake County (Fig. 2). The crest of the moraine is about 3 miles south 
of Dyer and trends nearly east-west; its elevation at the state line is 
736 feet above sea level — about 100 feet above the highest or Glenwood 
shoreline of glacial Lake Chicago. From here a low till ridge can be 
traced eastward and east-northeastward for about 20 miles across Lake 
County and into western Porter County. (See U.S. Geological Survey 
topographic maps of the Dyer, St. John, Crown Point, and Palmer 
Quadrangles.) The ridge is nowhere more than a mile wide nor more 
than 50 feet high. The crest of the ridge gradually decreases in altitude 
from west to east from above 730 feet to about 700 feet, or only slightly 
higher than the elevation of the southern edge of the moraine through- 
out its length. At the eastern end of the 20-mile segment, which term- 
inates at the head of a prominent gap in the Valparaiso Moraine (14), 
the identity of the moraine as a distinct ridge becomes obscure. 

The Tinley Moraine is recognizable as a discrete moraine through 
features along its distal or southern margin more readily than by its 
height or good internal morphology. The distal margin is defined by a 
shallow, roughly linear trough, which generally parallels the crest of 



274 



Indiana Academy of Science 




EXPLANATION 



Lake plains, beaches, and dunes 

Fine-grained and sandy lacustrine sediments 
bar beach and dune deposits 



^ 



Sluiceways 

Valley tram sand and gravel overlain in places 
by thin lacustrine, paludal or alluvial deposits 



End moraines 

Mostly till but includes ice-contact stratified drift 
especially in LaPorte County 



Till plains 

Till of ground -moraine and wave-scoured 
lake -bottom areas 



Outwash plains 

Sand and gravel of outwash plains and deltas 







5 MILES 



Figure 2. Generalized glacial map of parts of northwestern Indiana and 
adjoining states. Simplified from part of Indiana Geological Survey Re- 
gional Geologic Map No. 4 by Schneider and Keller, in preparation. 



the Tinley ridge and separates it from the Valparaiso Moraine proper 
to the south. On one of his glacial maps of the state, Leverett (13) 
showed the general area of the trough as a belt of "undulating drift, in 
part morainic" between the northern and middle ridges of the Valparaiso 
Morainic System in Lake County and western Porter County. 

The floor of this trough is nearly everywhere between 690 and 700 
feet above sea level, or about the same elevation as the floor of the 
gap in the Valparaiso Moraine through which Tinley meltwaters above 
700 feet escaped southward toward the Kankakee sluiceway (14). Shal- 
low ice-block depressions along the trough are partly filled with peat 



Geology and Geography 275 

or muck and organic-rich colluvium; commercial peat is currently being 
dug from at least one of the depressions and has been produced from 
others in the past. Some of the depressions are partially drained by 
shallow channels or ditches fed in part by short incipient streams 
that descend the forward slope of the Tinley ridge. Most of the exterior 
drainage escapes via two streams that head in the trough. West Creek 
gathers its discharge from several small frontal-slope streams that 
converge at the base of the ridge near the state line; thence it flows 
southward through the Valparaiso Moraine to the Kankakee River (Fig. 
2), following the only through channel of several north-south depressions 
in the moraine. Farther east the frontal trough is drained by Deep 
River and its tributaries, a partly natural, partly man-made drainage 
system, the trunk of which generally follows the trough northeastward 
for many miles before turning northward and abandoning the trough 
through a gap in the low part of the Tinley ridge. 

If one considers all the terrain behind (north of) the Tinley ridge 
and south of the Glenwood shoreline to be part of the Tinley Moraine 
(rather than ground moraine or the overridden and little modified 
northern part of the Valparaiso Moraine), then the Tinley Moraine dis- 
plays a distinctly asymmetric transverse profile, having a short distal 
slope and a gentle proximal slope that is as much as six or seven 
times as long as the front slope. The asymmetry of the profile is 
accentuated, however, because in descending to the Glenwood shoreline 
at about 640 feet, the proximal slope drops 50 feet more than does the 
distal slope in descending to the edge of the frontal trough. At the 
western end of the belt the gradient of the forward slope virtually 
everywhere exceeds 75 feet per mile and in some places is as great as 
125 feet per mile, whereas the backslope descends at an average rate of 
35 to 40 feet per mile. The proportionate width of the backslope and 
the asymmetry of the moraine decrease from west to east as the main 
ridge drops in elevation and the terrain behind it narrows. 

The till of the Tinley Moraine is not demonstrably different from 
that of the Valparaiso Moraine. Some workers (9) have stated that the 
Tinley till contains a higher percentage of silt and clay than the 
Valparaiso; such statements, however, are apparently based on the pre- 
sumption that the Tinley till contains reworked fine-grained lake sedi- 
ments and not on actual analyses. In Indiana, as in Illinois (6), the 
Valparaiso and Tinley tills are lithologically similar, if not indistinuish- 
able. Both drifts are compact calcareous tills containing a high per- 
centage of silt and clay and are only moderately pebbly, the majority 
of the pebbles being rather small. 

In western Porter County, northwest of the gap through the Valpa- 
raiso Moraine, the Tinley ice margin appears to have curved through 
an arc of about 90 degrees and thence trended northward for about 4 
miles to the vicinity of Portage (Fig. 2). In this area the Tinley ridge is 
low and indistinct, gradually decreasing in elevation from 700 feet to 
650 feet at its northern tip. The landscape is not that of true end- 
moraine topography but rather that of an upland till plain. This seg- 
ment was recently mapped, therefore, as ground moraine (15), although 



276 Indiana Academy of Science 

it has been shown as end moraine on several earlier maps (2, 12, 13, 17). 
On one of the earliest and most detailed maps of the region, however, 
most of the area was shown as till plain by Ashley (1), who recognized 
only a central sliver as being morainic. 

Mapping of the Tinley Moraine or its equivalent in this area is 
further complicated because the pebble-poor clay-rich Tinley till is 
virtually identical with lacustrine clays that overlap or grade into the 
till on both the east and west sides of the till plain (Fig. 2). The front 
of the Tinley ice apparently formed one shore of a sizable body of 
standing water that appreciably affected the resultant topography. 
Slumping or sliding of material off the wave-washed snout of the ice 
lobe might well have resulted in substantial modification of normal end- 
moraine topography, as well as in the character of glaciolacustrine 
sediments deposited near the ice front. 

The above interpretation implies the existence of a pro-Tinley and 
perhaps pre-Tinley lake of unknown extent at the south end of the 
Lake Michigan basin. A pre-Glenwood stage of Lake Chicago, called 
Incipient Lake Chicago by Bretz (5) and Early Lake Chicago by Hough 
(8, 9), has in fact been inferred for several years. Evidence in Illinois 
for a post- Valparaiso, pre-Tinley lake stage was cited by Bretz (5, 6), 
but the existence of such a lake in Indiana has never been verified by 
objective evidence. Corroborative radiocarbon data and stratigraphic evi- 
dence for a pre-Glenwood stage are now being sought. 

If the till upland south of Portage actually represents the terminal 
zone of the Tinley ice, as seems probable, one may speculate on the 
position of the ice border farther north. Did the terminus of the Lake 
Michigan Lobe continue northward for another 5 miles or more to and 
beyond the present shoreline of Lake Michigan? Or did the ice border 
swing northeastward, so that the marginal zone is represented by the 
undulating till belt that trends in an east-west direction north of Chester- 
ton between Portage and the Porter-LaPorte County line and thence 
continues northeastward to the state line and into Michigan (Fig. 2) ? 
This latter possibility was suggested originally, but not adopted, by 
Leverett (12) near the turn of the century. 

If the first alternative is the correct interpretation, the possibility 
of tracing the terminal zone seems remote indeed because of the ex- 
tensive cover of thick eolian and lacustrine sands (Fig. 2). If the 
second alternative should prove correct, major modifications in the 
late Cary history of the entire area around the south end of Lake 
Michigan would be necessitated, because the till belt north of Chesterton 
has always been considered to be part of the Lake Border Morainic 
System (2, 5, 12, 13), which is thought to be younger than the Tinley 
Moraine. All of the Lake Border moraines date from the Glenwood 
stage of glacial Lake Chicago (6), whereas the Tinley Moraine is pre- 
Glenwood in age. 

Bretz (6) reported that Ekblaw traced the Tinley Moraine north- 
ward into the Waukegan area of northern Illinois, where it is truncated 
by the Park Ridge Moraine — the outermost and oldest member of the 
four Lake Border moraines on the west side of Lake Michigan (Fig. 1). 



Geology and Geography 277 

None of the Lake Border moraines are present around the southwest 
end of the lake, and thus they cannot be traced through Chicago and 
the Calumet region of Indiana to the southeast side of the lake. Either 
the moraines were not built or they were subsequently destroyed; in 
any event, the existence of an ice margin across the intervening area 
has not been questioned, and the belts on either side of the lake have 
been considered correlative for nearly 70 years (3, 12). 

The east-west till belt north of Chesterton, described by Leverett 
(12) as the outer ridge of the Lake Border system, presumably cor- 
relates with the Park Ridge Moraine of Illinois (Fig. 1). At its western 
end the belt is clearly truncated by sand dunes and other shoreline 
features associated with the Calumet stage of glacial Lake Chicago 
(Fig. 2); a few miles farther east it is overlapped by dunes that almost 
certainly are of Glenwood age. The till, therefore, is no younger than 
Glenwood and probably no younger than mid-Glenwood (5). A pre-Glen- 
wood — that is, a Tinley age — for the till cannot now be supported by 
objective evidence, but neither can it be rejected on the basis of our 
present knowledge. Hopefully the extension of the Tinley ice margin 
north or east of its known position can be determined by further work, 
but the question cannot be resolved without meticulous attention to the 
many details of a complicated late Wisconsin history in this area. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ashley, G. H. 1898. Geological map of Lake and Porter Counties, p. 25-104. 
In: W. S. Blatchley, The geology of Lake and Porter Counties, Indi- 
ana. Indiana Dept. of Geology and Nat. Resources. Ann. Rept. 22nd 
Ann. Rept. 

2. Bieber, C. L. and N. M. Smith. 1952. Industrial sands of the Indiana 
dunes. Indiana Geol. Survey Bull. 7. 31 p. 

3. Bretz, J H. 1939. Geology of the Chicago region. Illinois State Geol. 
Survey Bull. 65, pt. 1. 118 p. 

4. Bretz, J H. 1943. Surfical geology of part of the Dyer Quadrangle. 
Chicago area geologic maps, map 24. Illinois State Geol. Survey Bull. 
65 Supplement. 

5. Bretz, J H. 1951. The stages of Lake Chicago: Their causes and cor- 
relations. Amer. Jour. Sci. 1*49:401-429. 

6. Bretz, J H. 1955. Geology of the Chicago region. Illinois State Geol. 
Survey Bull. 65, pt. 2. 132 p. 

7. Flint, R. F., chairman, and others. 1959. Glacial map of the United 
States east of the Rocky Mountains. Geol. Soc. America. 

8. Hough, J. L. 1958. Geology of the Great Lakes. Univ. Illinois Press, 
Urbana. 313 p. 

9. Hough, J. L. 1963. The prehistoric Great Lakes of North America. 
Amer. Scientist 51:84-109. 

10. Leighton, M. M., and G. E. Ekblaw. 1933. Annotated guide across Illi- 
nois, p. 13-23. In: Glacial geology of the central states. 16th Internat. Geol. 
Congress Guidebook 2 6. 

11. Leighton, M. M., and G. E. Ekblaw. 1933. Annotated guide across north- 
eastern Illinois, p. 47-51. In: Glacial geology of the central states. 16th 
Internat. Geol. Congress Guidebook 26. 



278 Indiana Academy of Science 

12. Leverett, Frank. 1899. The Illinois glacial lobe. IT. S. Geol. Survey 
Monogr. 38. 817 p. 

13. Leverett, Frank, and F. B. Taylor. 1915. The Pleistocene of Indiana 
and Michigan and the history of the Great Lakes. U. S. Geol. Survey 
Monogr. 53. 529 p. 

14. Schneider, A. F. 196S. History of a morainal gap at Valparaiso, Indiana 
(Abstract). In: Abstracts for 1967. Geol. Soc. America Spec. Paper (in 
preparation). 

15. Schneider, A. F., and S. J. Keller. In preparation. Geologic map of the 
1° x 2° Chicago Quadrangle, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, showing 
bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Indiana Geol. Survey Regional 
Geologic Map 4. 

16. Wayne, W. J. 1956. Thickness of drift and bedrock physiography of 
Indiana north of the Wisconsin glacial boundary. Indiana Geol. Survey 
Rept. Prog. 7. 70 p. 

17. Wayne, W. J. 1958. Glacial geology of Indiana. Indiana Geol. Survey 
Atlas Map 10. 

18. Wayne, W. J. and W. D. Thornbury. 1955. Wisconsin stratigraphy of 
northern and eastern Indiana. Fifth Biennial Pleistocene Field Conf. 
Guidebook, p. 1-34. 



The Erie Lobe Margin in East-Central Indiana 
During the Wisconsin Glaciation 1 

William J. Wayne, Indiana Geological Survey 

Abstract 

The ice sheet that deposited the Trafalgar Formation during the 
Tazewell Subage became inactive east of White River after building the 
Knightstown Moraine and disappeared by downwasting. Patches of low- 
relief ice-disintegration hummocks cover much of the Tipton Till Plain 
in east-central Indiana south of the Union City Moraine, where kames, 
eskers, and ice-walled disintegration channels are the dominant geo- 
morphic features of the landscape. The low Union City Moraine marks the 
margin in east-central Indiana of the Lagro Formation, a till sheet de- 
posited by the Erie Lobe during the Cary Subage of the Wisconsin (glacial) 
Age. The moraine disappears as a recognizable topographic feature across 
Delaware County because in that region the Erie Lobe ice rode over the 
thin sheet of stagnant ice that still remained from the earlier advance 
that deposited the Trafalgar Formation. 

Introduction 

The topographic features produced by melting ice in east-central 
Indiana — particularly in and around Muncie — have intrigued geologists 
for nearly a century. Phinney described them in two reports published 
in the 1880's, in which he recognized the esker system at Muncie and 
described but did not name the moraines of that area (12, 13). He 
regarded the eskers and troughs to have been formed by feeder channels 
for the flood of "Collett's Glacial River" farther south. 

Leverett, who devoted nearly his lifetime to study of the glacial 
deposits of the central United States, mapped and named a narrow ridge 
across Randolph County, the Union Moraine (9, pp. 475-494, pi. 11). He 
was not willing to call the feeble development of a ridge northwest of 
Muncie a moraine, and his 1902 map showed a moraine only east of that 
city. He did indicate, though, that he thought it represented an ice- 
marginal position for a brief time. Later (10, pi. 6) he corrected the 
name to Union City Moraine and mapped the position across the state 
as a narrow moraine, but he evidently regarded it to be an insignificant 
strip of undulating drift that was part of the "Bloomington Morainic 
System" of Leverett (8, p. 113). 

Malott (11, p. 151) believed that the weakly developed rise called 
the Union City Moraine was related to the other larger Erie Lobe mo- 
raines to the east and called the Union City the edge of the "late Wis- 
consin differentiated lobes" (11, pi. 3). His interpretation was based 
principally on the parallel and concentric orientation of the group of 
moraines. 

Buckhannon and others (1) recognized a distinction in the texture 
and composition of the soils of northern and southern Randolph County. 
They drew their boundary along the south edge of the Union City 



1 Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Geological Survey, 
Department of Natural Resources of Indiana. 

279 



280 Indiana Academy of Science 

Moraine. Farther east, in Ohio, the south edge of the Union City 
Moraine is mapped as representing a significant ice border position 
(4), and Ohio glacial geologists find the surface till to be more clayey 
to the north of that line. 

Wayne and Thornbury (22, p. 14, 18) were unable to recognize the 
more clay-rich till of the Erie Lobe west of the Mississinewa Moraine 
in Wabash County, and they found a notable difference in depth of 
leaching of carbonates on either side of that boundary, so they regarded 
the Mississinewa Moraine to be the limit reached by the Erie Lobe 
during the Cary Subage. Thornbury and Deane (17, p. 24, 38) evi- 
dently found no evidence in Miami County to cause them to dispute 
this interpretation. 

Thornbury (16, p. 457) later thought it more likely that the Union 
City Moraine marked the margin of the Cary drift, thus reasserting 
Malott's interpretation. My 1958 map (18) showed a "significant ice- 
marginal position" along the Union City Moraine, but I remained un- 
convinced that Erie Lobe till lithologies could be traced southwest of 
the Mississinewa Moraine except near the eastern edge of the State. 
I mapped the overlap of the Lagro Formation only as far as that 
boundary (19, p. 43-44, fig. 5). Wayne and Zumberge (24, p. 71) sug- 
gested, however, that the Union City Moraine probably was part of the 
same sequence that included the Mississinewa and younger moraines. 

During the summer of 1966, new field work was undertaken in 
west-central Indiana in preparation of more accurate maps to be used 
in compilation of the glacial geology part of the Muncie Regional 
Geologic Map. Many new exposures, a careful reexamination of older 
exposures in critical places, and the availability of modern topographic 
maps coupled with stereoscopic examination of aerial photographs and 
the use of a soil auger to check lithologies between exposures has 
permitted me to gain enough new data to justify a reinterpretation of 
the significance of the Union City Moraine and related deposits. During 
the summers of 1966 and 1967, I was capably assisted in both airphoto 
study and soil auger manipulation by Mr. Robert Nicoll. 

Geomorphic Development of the Tipton Till Plain 

Central Indiana was covered during the most extensive glaciation 
of the Wisconsin Age by ice of the East White Sublobe of the coalesced 
Ontario-Erie and Huron-Saginaw Lobes. High bedrock along both the 
eastern and western sides of the state caused interlobate reentrants 
to form there, thus separating the East White Sublobe from the Miami 
Sublobe in Ohio and from the Lake Michigan Lobe in Illinois. Although 
gross aspects of the glacial history are similar from lobe to lobe, details 
as interpreted from stratigraphic and physiographic evidence differ. 

Active ice and the older moraines. The advance of the glacier to 
its maximum position has been dated by radiocarbon analyses of wood 
from beneath the till it deposited at about 21,000 years B.P. (before the 
present, or more specifically, before 1950). Almost immediately the ice 
margin melted from this position of greatest advance and a pioneer 
community of vegetation, most likely subarctic and northern open-land 



Geology and Geography 281 

grasses and small shrubby plants, began to grow in favorable spots on 
the newly emergent land surface (21). When the glacier margin re- 
advanced again, large quantities of outwash sand and gravel were 
deposited as broad plains and valley trains on the recently deglaciated 
till surface, particularly near the Wabash and White River valleys. Loess 
blown from these sediments accumulated on nearby areas along with 
some of the plants and snails that lived there. This veneer of silt with 
its incorporated fossils was buried beneath the ice during its readvance, 
as were the outwash deposits from which the silt was blown. Wood 
fragments from the silt, called by Wayne (19) the Vertigo alpestris 
oughtoni bed and regarded by Gooding (5) to represent an interstadial 
phase of the Wisconsin glaciation that he named the Connersville 
Interstade, have been dated by their radiocarbon content at 20,000 
years B.P. 

The Shelbyville Moraine, across much of Indiana a weakly developed 
end moraine that exhibits minor kame and kettle topography in some 
places, marks the earlier and more extensive of these two ice advances 
both of which fall within the limits of the Tazewell Subage. A more 
massive morainal system was built during the advance of the glacier 
that buried the Vertigo alpestris oughtoni bed. Although it had for half 
a century been correlated with the Champaign and Bloomington Moraines 
of Illinois, physiographic and stratigraphic evidence show that this 
morainal complex truncates the Champaign, Bloomington, and Normal 
ridges of the Lake Michigan Lobe and may be correlative with the 
younger Chats worth Moraine (20). The outer morainal belt was renamed 
the Crawfordsville Moraine, and a younger belt northeast of the great 
outwash plains along the East Fork of White River was called the 
Knightstown Moraine. The Knightstown Moraine may represent one or 
as many as three recognized ice-marginal positions northwest of the 
East Fork of White River (fig. 1). 

The direction of ice motion of the East White Sublobe was recorded 
by two sets of lineal features that cross the nearly flat till plain (15). 
One group of lineations, shallow flutes with intervening broad ridges 
that resemble very long and low drumlinoid features, are readily evi- 
dent on topographic and soils maps of Cass, Carroll, and Howard 
Counties but are barely perceptible from a ground examination. These 
features were produced by an active glacier, as were the moraines and 
outwash plains. The low drumlinoid ridges have been recognized only in 
the area between the Wabash River and White River. The other set of 
lineal landforms is a group of eskers and esker troughs that fan out 
through the Crawfordsville Moraine. Even though eskers are the re- 
mains of subglacial streams and are normally preserved only by stag- 
nant ice, they undoubtedly came into existence while the ice was still 
active and their trends thus parallel reasonably well the direction of 
ice motion. 

The remarkable flatness of the till plain surface is largely a result 
of mass wasting that took place after the glacier melted and before the 
new land surface had been blanketed by a full vegetation cover. Cross- 
sections through the areas of light and dark mottling of the present 



282 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 1. Glacial geomorphology and Pleistocene stratigraphy of central 
Indiana. Heavy lines indicate limits of the members of the Trafalgar 
Formation and of the Lagro Formation. Eskers in Delaware, Madison and 
northern Henry counties shown in solid black. Modified from Wayne, 1965, 
fig. 2. 



Geology and Geography 



283 




— "HANCOCK-^V/ 



Castle 

sty \/ff t> 



•I 

■V 



Figure 2. Major geomorphic elements of Delaware and Madison County 
area (enlargement of part of figure 1; for explanation see figure 1). 



surface show that relief was considerably greater when the ice disap- 
peared than it is now. Early in the postglacial history of the till plain 
solifluction undoubtedly was the dominant process; thus the low areas 
on the till surface were filled and a surface of almost no relief came 
into existence soon after the land became free of ice. 

Disappearance of the ice lobe. Southeast of White River the Tipton 
Till Plain is characterized by a large number of shallow anastomosing 
channels, some of which now are the courses of modern streams and 
some of which carry no surface drainage. Eskers are present in or 
along some of the channels and are particularly notable in parts of 
Madison, Hamilton, Hancock, Henry, and Delaware Counties (fig. 1, 2). 

Some of the streamless troughs that anastamose across the Tipton 
Till Plain are clearly part of a system of sluiceways that carried melt- 
water from the glacier; they connect with larger sluiceways and are 
floored with outwash sand and gravel, although they may have a veneer 
of alluvium or muck. Others have irregular courses that can be followed 
short distances but end without seeming to join another watercourse. 



284 Indiana Academy of Science 

Most of the channels of this kind are partly filled with organic sedi- 
ments, silt, or clay, which may with equal frequency be found to overlie 
till or gravel and sand. Channels of this kind are more or less parallel, 
although some are connected angularly by minor intersecting channels. 

Broad open troughs such as these were described by Gravenor and 
Kupsch (6, p. 55), who regarded the ones they studied in Saskatchewan 
to be erosional features formed by meltwater during the decay of a 
mass of stagnant ice. Most of the ice-walled channels that cross the 
till plain in east-central Indiana probably formed first in tunnels 
through and under dead ice but became open ice-walled valleys in the 
last phases of their existence. The valleys now followed by Big Blue 
River and Flatrock Creek probably owe their positions and present form 
to former ice marginal streams, but may have originated under ice 
(14, p. 11-14, 34). The Buck Creek-Big Blue River trench retains its ice- 
walled valley morphology to a point well south of the divide. Some, 
such as the trenches near Springport in northern Henry County, rise 
into some scattered kamelike gravel mounds at their southern ends and 
may have formed entirely in closed tunnels. 

The divide between southward-flowing Big Blue River and north- 
ward-flowing Buck Creek is in the middle of a flat-bottomed trench 
more than a half mile wide that passes through the Knightstown Moraine 
in the north edge of Henry County. From the divide southward the valley 
of Big Blue River takes on increasingly the shape of a glacial sluiceway. 
North of the divide the trench of Buck Creek is one of several similar 
valleys cut by southward flowing streams of glacial meltwater that 
undoubtedly flowed through subglacial tunnels. 

The trench floor now has a northward gradient that originated by 
subglacial erosion but has been smoothed by postglacial deposition on 
the originally uneven floor of the trench. Excavations, ditch bank ex- 
posures, and auger borings along Buck Creek show that in some places 
a thin cover of muck and alluvial sand and silt lies directly over till or 
outwash; elsewhere lenses of marl and peat exceed 10 feet in thickness. 

Studies of the snails in a bed of late glacial alluvial sand and silt 
exposed along the bank of Buck Creek one mile north of the Delaware- 
Henry county line suggest that Buck Creek and other similar trenches 
remained a series of sloughs and ponds for several thousand years after 
active ice had disappeared from the area. A radiocarbon date from a 
piece of coniferous wood collected from the base of the 90 cm. thick 
bed of late-glacial fossiliferous silt along Buck Creek gave a 10,150 
± 250-year B.P. age (IU-20). 

Stereoscopic study of airphotos has shown that the surface of the 
till plain in east-central Indiana is covered in many places with patches 
of low hummocky microtopography that is almost undetectable on the 
ground. The soil pattern in these patches resembles the pattern of 
knob and kettle topography in contrast to the broad light and dark 
mottling characteristic of most of the till plain. The areas that ex- 
hibit the hummocky pattern seem to follow no definite trend, and the 
margins of many of them grade imperceptably into non-hummocky till 
plain. Excavations and hand-auger cuttings show that the surface ma- 



Geology and Geography 285 

terials in the hummocky patches consist of loose till mixed with thin 
layers of crudely water-washed sediments, a composition that readily 
fits the standard concept of ablation till (3, p. 120-122). 

Harrison (8) recognized similar landforms in Marion County and 
compared them with some of the geomorphic elements produced by 
stagnant ice described by Gravenor and Kupsch (6) from Sasketchewan. 
Although their relief is slight, the features of the till plain in east- 
central Indiana resemble those of an uncontrolled hummocky disintegra- 
tion moraine of low relief. Such disintegration features are formed as 
a result of the decay of masses of stagnant ice. A hummocky pattern 
resulted from local washing and sloughing that took place when buried 
ice supporting englacial and superglacial debris melted. 

In contrast to the interpretation offered for higher relief dead ice 
moraines of the Missouri Coteau, which are thought to represent the 
collapse of thick superglacial till (2), the extremely low relief (less than 
10 feet) of the disintegration moraine of the east-central Indiana till 
plain probably resulted from the decay of ice that carried a large basal 
load but had little surface debris. 

Along the Missouri Coteau, active ice is thought to have continued 
to bring large amounts of subglacial drift-filled ice to the top of the 
glacier along thrust planes where it provided a thick, insulating blanket 
of superglacial drift that eventually collapsed when the buried dead 
ice melted, whereas in central Indiana the entire lobe became stagnant 
and melted in place. Low relief disintegration features in Indiana began 
to come into existence after the clean ice in the upper part of the 
glacier had melted and only the relatively thin debris-charged basal 
zone remained to ablate. 

The Erie Lobe Drift 

Moraines of the Erie Lobe form an arcuate series of concentric 
ridges that mark the positions of the ice margin at successively younger 
stands. The moraines in this series are the Union City, Mississinewa, 
Salamonie, Wabash, and Fort Wayne in Indiana and the Defiance in 
Ohio. 

The Union City Moraine. The outermost moraine of this group, 
the Union City Moraine, is an insignificant looking feature, but it rep- 
resents a major re-expansion of glacial ice into east-central Indiana. 
The distal margin of the moraine marks the limit of overlap of a clay- 
rich till sheet, the New Holland Till Member of the Lagro Formation, 
onto the older Trafalgar Formation, a much sandier and stonier silty 
till. Named from Union City on the Indiana-Ohio state line, where it 
stands as a distinct though narrow ridge, the moraine becomes almost 
unrecognizable across Delaware County and forms only a slight rise 
in Madison County northwest of Alexandria, but the thin till sheet it 
bounds is present as a distinctive and mappable stratigraphic unit. 

Its clay-rich lithology contrasts greatly with the underlying sandy 
and silty till. Reexamination of western Wabash County road cuts indi- 
cates that the clayey till is present there, but is generally less than 3 
feet thick, thus within the leached portion of the soil profile. The 



286 Indiana Academy of Science 

stagnant ice features on the surface of the Trafalgar Formation in east- 
central Indiana take on a different appearance north of the boundary of 
the Lagro Formation. Patches of low relief disintegration hummocks 
that characterize the surface of the Trafalgar Formation are drained 
internally; in contrast similar features that have been recognized on 
the Lagro are part of an embryonic surface drainage system. The 
differences in lithology clearly correlate with differences in permeabil- 
ity, thus differences show up in the landforms and their appearance on 
airphotos. In addition to a few long, narrow, shallow, generally till- 
floored channels that cross the till plain between the Union City and 
Mississinewa Moraines and several large shallow boggy areas, two other 
groups of geomorphic features ascribable to glacier stagnation are 
present in that area. These are the Muncie esker system and a pair of 
ice-walled troughs in southern Grant County. 

The Muncie esker system. The esker system east and north of Muncie 
is a series of disconnected ridges and hills of gravel that extends from 
the south edge of the Mississinewa Moraine southward to White River 
east of Muncie, where it runs into a complex group of disintegration 
channels and small esker fragments that lead southward to the broad 
valley train of Big Blue River (fig. 2). The parts of the Muncie esker 
system meander somewhat, but the main trend is S 10° W from its 
beginning east of Eaton to its diffuse terminus east of Muncie. Along 
this course it is joined by segments of several small eskerine tributaries. 
The main trend of the esker system is parallel to the dominant trend of 
the ice-walled disintegration channels south of the margin of the Lagro 
Formation between Muncie and Newcastle and to the trend of the large 
esker just south of Anderson (fig. 2). 

Most of the segments of the esker system near Muncie have a cover 
of 4 to 15 feet of clayey till lithologically similar to that of the Lagro 
Formation. Although patches of till are reasonably common on eskers, 
this particular till cover is unusual enough to warrant further study of 
the conditions of deposition. 

The Erie Lobe evidently carried little coarse material in its ad- 
vance that deposited the Lagro Formation in eastern Indiana. As a result, 
few extensive outwash deposits or kames and eskers are associated 
with the till of the Lagro Formation. Both eskers and large amounts of 
coarse outwash sediments are commonly found with the till of the 
Trafalgar Formation, however. 

The Muncie esker system as well as the pair of disintegration 
trenches in Grant County are aligned with eskers and disintegration 
channels south of the Union City Moraine. In contrast, the very shallow 
and narrow channels of the rest of the outer part of the Erie Lobe 
tills seem to be part of a system that crosses this alignment in many 
places and only locally coincides with it. To consider the Delaware 
County esker system and the Grant County trenches as geomorphic 
elements of the earlier ice advance that left the Trafalgar tills would 
seem a reasonable hypothesis, but if these features existed at the time 
the Erie Lobe ice expanded to the Union City Moraine, the overriding 
ice sheet should have extensively modified or destroyed them. Neither 
has taken place. 



Geology and Geography 287 

The Erie Lobe tills have long been regarded as considerably younger 
than the Wisconsin tills south of their overlap. The principal argument 
for this age differentiation has been based on the nearly perfect ellipti- 
cal boundary of the lobe and the series of moraines that mark its 
successive positions. To have produced such a smooth boundary prob- 
ably would have required the earlier ice to have melted and the re- 
advance to have begun well within the area of the present Lake Erie 
basin. The length of time for this to take place was variously estimated 
in the range of several thousand years prior to the use of radiocarbon 
to date the bulk of Wisconsin deposits, but the total time available 
for the many fluctuations of the Wisconsin glacier across the Indiana 
landscape has been compressed into a brief 6,000 years. Ice began to 
build the Crawfordsville Moraine 20,000 years ago, and by 14,000 years 
ago the active margin of the glacier had melted to some point east of 
the Wabash Moraine. Such a short time helps explain the absence of 
either a weathering profile or remains of vegetation along the contact 
between the Trafalgar and Lagro Formations. 

Geomorphic evidence seems to indicate that the ice that deposited 
the younger tills of the Trafalgar Formation disappeared by stagna- 
tion. Even though active ice began to readvance through the Lake Erie 
basin, it probably required several hundred years or longer to reach 
its maximum extent. During this time little soil formation would have 
taken place in the area into which the Erie Lobe expanded because it 
still lay beneath the decaying remains of the earlier ice lobe. 

Stagnant Ice and the Erie Lobe Margin 

Geomorphic features along the margin of the till sheet indicate that 
little remained of the Tazewell dead ice mass between the Wabash River 
and Alexandria in northern Madison County by the time the Erie Lobe 
glacier built the weak Union City Moraine, which probably marks the 
maximum extent of ice into east-central Indiana during the Cary 
Subage. Lack of any evidence of weathering or the remains of vegeta- 
tion along the contact between Lagro and Trafalgar tills suggests that 
the ice had not been gone long. In northern Delaware and southern 
Grant Counties, though, the greatly thinned and heavily drift- 
charged remains of the earlier glacier probably still remained. I be- 
lieve that the esker system near Muncie existed as gravel fill in an 
open ice-walled channel through which meltwater and rainfall drained 
from the stagnant ice. The double trench in southern Grant County 
probably was the site of a subglacial tunnel. 

The stream that flowed through the ice-walled channel in which the 
Muncie eskers and kames formed may have trenched its course far 
enough below the original upper level of esker fill that soil develop- 
ment had begun on the sandy sediment at the top of the esker. In two 
places a thin brown noncalcareous zone that resembles a profile of 
weathering has been discovered on sand that lies beneath 8 to 10 feet 
of calcareous Lagro Formation till (23, p. 22). In one of the thin 
embryonic paleosols, exposed in 1951 in the upper part of an elongate 
kame 2 miles southeast of Eaton, a tubular inclusion in the sand filled 
with poorly stratified clayey till was buried beneath 8 feet of clayey 



288 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Lagro till (fig. 3). The most likely explanation for the tubular in- 
clusion is to consider it a former animal burrow. The development of 
weathering features like these and the excavation of the burrow prob- 
ably took place after the esker tunnel became unroofed, and they were 
preserved because the ice walls of the disintegration channel still re- 
mained to form a ramp across which the active Erie Lobe ice moved. 
The dead ice need not have been more than 60 to 70 feet thick at that 
time. The thinness of the Lagro till sheet (generally no greater than 
10 feet under the till plain between the Union City and Mississinewa 
Moraines and less than 5 feet over much of western Wabash County) 
strongly suggests that the depositing ice sheet could not have been 
thick (7), Relatively thin and highly mobile ice carrying a debris load 
that was dominantly clay and silt could have spread across a thin mass 
of dead ice highly charged with stony and sandy drift without causing 
the stagnant ice to become active again. Reactivation of the ice would 
have destroyed the esker rather than allow it to remain and become 
blanketed with the younger till. 




Modern soil 






profile 



_ Till, grayish-brown, 
l _ clayey, calcareous, 

i blocky; contains few 

l_ pebbles or cobbles 



"Tin-filled " 

burrow 



8- 



10- 



-— -t— _ ; — *- __/ Durrow _ . 

'^0mmm^^Mmf^am^m ?. colc 



y/.i Sand, brown, 

areous, 
Slightly clayey 



Sand, light 
yellowish brown 
calcareous, loose 



Figure 3. Lagro Formation clayey till over weathered sand with a Un- 
filled tubular inclusion (burrow?); overburden at gravel pit in segment 
of Muncie esker system 2 miles southeast of Eaton (sketched from photo- 
graphs taken in September 1951). 



Irregularities on the surface of the stagnant ice probably were 
planed off or obscured by the base of the overriding ice sheet. The 
Union City Moraine represents only a slight thickening of Erie Lobe 
till, thus it shows up as a very low rise on the level till plain in Madison, 
Grant, and Howard Counties. The rise is almost completely obscured 



Geology and Geography 289 

across Delaware County where the Erie Lobe crossed dead ice. The 
irregularity of topography produced by the melting of the underlying 
ice masked the low, smooth rise of the Union City Moraine. The small 
amount of till left by the Erie Lobe on top of the thin debris-laden 
dead ice that it overrode was inadequate to produce the effect of col- 
lapsed sediments that seem to be so abundant in North Dakota, although 
some minor stagnation landforms were produced in the overlap area 
when thin ice melted. 

Summary 

The Union City Moraine is an insignificant-looking low rise that 
marks the boundary of a major reexpansion of Erie Lobe glacial ice 
into east-central Indiana during the Wisconsin glaciation. It marks the 
limit of overlap of a clay-rich till sheet, the New Holland Till Member 
of the Lagro Formation, onto the slightly older stony and sandy till of 
the Trafalgar Formation. The surface of the Trafalgar Formation in 
east-central Indiana is covered with very low relief ice-disintegration 
ridges and hummocks discernable in airphoto study and is crossed by 
many shallow to deep ice-walled channels and eskers that give the 
topography of southern Delaware County a rugged aspect. Most of the 
ice-walled channels end at the proximal edge of the Knightstown 
Moraine. The pattern of these linear features outlines well the orienta- 
tion of the ice lobe before it became stagnant. Two major esker systems, 
one at Anderson and the other at Muncie, are part of this pattern, 
as is the set of till-, sand- and gravel-lined troughs that leads through 
the Knightstown Moraine into Big Blue River Sluiceway. 

North of the edge of overlap by the Lagro Formation, ice-dis- 
integration ridges change character because of the changes in till 
lithology, and long, narrow, shallow ice-walled channels extend across 
the till plain. These channels are floored with Lagro till, although in 
many gravel lies below the till, and some segments of the Muncie 
esker system are capped with the same till. Northwest of Alexandria 
the edge of the Lagro till is distinct and readily mapped along the low 
Union City Moraine but from Alexandria to eastern Delaware County 
the moraine ceases to look like an active ice feature and seems to 
merge with the dead ice topography of that region. 

In its advance to the Union City Moraine, the glacier crossed ter- 
rain free of ice except for a few scattered blocks northwest of Alex- 
andria, but from Alexandria to eastern Delaware County it probably 
overrode thin debris-charged stagnant ice. Gravel-filled channels in the 
dead ice mass were not destroyed by the overriding glacier, but a veneer 
of clayey till was spread over them as well as over the supporting stag- 
nant ice. A thin and highly mobile ice lobe carrying a small debris 
load of silt and clay could have spread across thin dead ice heavily load- 
ed with sandy and stony till without causing it to become active again. 
Such a history would account for the loss of active ice features along 
the Union City Moraine in Delaware County and the presence of Lagro 
till on most of the segments of the Muncie esker system. 



290 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Buckhannon, W. H., M. E. Waggoner, F. E. Barnes, and W. J. B. Boat- 
man. 1936. Soil survey of Randolph County, Indiana. U. S. Dept. Ag- 
riculture Bur. of Chem. and Soils. Series 1931, No. IS. 36 p. 

2. Clayton, Lee. 1967. Stagnant-glacier features of the Missouri Coteau 
in North Dakota. North Dakota Geol. Survey Misc. Series 30: 25-46. 

3. Flint, R. F. 1957. Glacial and Pleistocene geology. New York. John 
Wiley & Sons, Inc. 553 p. 

4. Goldthwait, R. P., G. W. White, and J. L. Forsyth. 1961. Glacial map of 
Ohio. U. S. Geol. Survey Map 1-316. 

5. Gooding, A. M. 1963. Illinoian and Wisconsin glaciation in the White- 
water basin, southeastern Indiana, and adjacent areas. Jour. Geology 
71:665-682. 

6. Gravenor, C. P., and W. O. Kupsch. 1959. Ice-disintegration features in 
western Canada. Jour. Geology 67:46-64. 

7. Harrison, Wyman. 1958. Marginal zones of vanished glaciers recon- 
structed from the preconsolidation-pressure values of overridden silts. 
Jour. Geology 66:72-95. 

8. . 1963. Geology of Marion County, Indiana. Indiana Geol. 



Survey Bull. 28. 78 p. 

9. Leverett, Frank. 1902. Glacial formations and drainage features of the 
Erie and Ohio basin. U. S. Geol. Survey Monogr. 41. 802 p. 

10. and F. B. Taylor. 1915. The Pleistocene of Indiana and 

Michigan and the history of the Great Lakes. U. S. Geol. Survey 
Monogr. 53. 529 p. 

11. Malott, C. A. 1922. The physiography of Indiana, p. 59-256. In: Logan, 
W. N., and others. Handbook of Indiana geology. Indiana Dept. Cons. Pub. 
21. Indianapolis. 

12. Phinney, A. J. 1882. Geology of Delaware County, p. 126-149. In: Indiana 
Dept. of Geology and Nat. History. 11th Ann. Rept. Indianapolis. 

13. . 1886. Henry County and portions of Randolph, Wayne, and 

Delaware, p. 97-116. In: Indiana Dept. Geology and Nat. History, 15th 
Ann. Rept. Indianapolis. 

14. Schneider, A. F. and H. H. Gray. 1966. Geology of the Upper East Fork 
drainage basin, Indiana. Indiana Geol. Survey Special Rept. 3. 55 p. 
Bloomington. 

15. Schneider, A. F., G. H. Johnson, and W. J. Wayne. 1963. Some linear 
features in west-central Indiana (abstract). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
72:172-173. 

16. Thornbury, W. D. 1958. The geomorphic history of the upper Wabash 
Valley. Amer. Jour. Sci. 256:449-469. 

17. and H. L. Deane. 1955. The geology of Miami County, Indi- 
ana. Indiana Geol. Survey Bull. 8. 49 p. 

18. Wayne, W. J. 1958. Glacial geology of Indiana. Indiana Geol. Survey. 
Atlas of Mineral Resources Map No. 10. 

19. . 1963. Pleistocene formations in Indiana. Indiana Geol. 

Survey Bull. 25. 85 p. 

20. . 1965. The Crawfordsville and Knightstown Moraines in Indi- 
ana. Indiana Geol. Survey Rept. Prog. 28. 15 p. 

21. . 1967. Periglacial features and climatic gradient in Illinois, 

Indiana, and western Ohio, east-central United States, p. 393-414. In: 
Cushing, E. J., and H. E. Wright, Jr., eels., Quarternary Paleoecology. 
Internat. Assoc. Quaternary Research, 7th Congress, Proc. 7. Yale 
Univ. Press, New Haven. 



Geology and Geography 291 

22. and W. D. Thornbury. 1951. Glacial geology of Wabash 

County, Indiana. Indiana Geol. Survey Bull. 5. 39 p. 

23. . 1955. "Wisconsin stratigraphy of northern and eastern 

Indiana. Indiana and Ohio State Geol. Surveys. 5th Biennial Pleistocene 
Field Conf. Guidebook, p. 1-34. 

24. Wayne, W. J., and J. H. Zumberge. 1965. Pleistocene geology of Indiana 
and Michigan, p. 63-84. In: Wright, H. E., Jr., and D. G. Frey, eds. 
The Quaternary of the United States. Princeton Univ. Press. 



Stratigraphic Classification of Rocks of Pennsylvanian Age 

in Indiana 

Charles E. Wier, Indiana Geological Survey* 

Abstract 

Pennsylvanian rocks in Indiana exhibit rapid lateral and vertical 
variations. In order to divide these rocks at the formational level, certain 
requirements should be met, namely, homogeneity of type, distinctive 
lithology, reasonable lateral continuity, and appropriate thickness to be 
mappable and meet practical needs. In the formational classification of 
Pennsylvanian rocks these requirements must be compromised in that the 
formation may be heterogeneous but is readily recognized on the basis 
of marker beds at the top or bottom. Limestone and coal beds are the 
most distinctive and laterally persistent and therefore are most useful in 
marking the boundary of formational units. These distinctive beds, and 
certain sandstone beds have been designated as formal members. Each 
named member is one bed of a single lithology in some places but changes 
laterally and includes additional lithologic units in other places. 

Introduction 

Stratigraphic classification of rocks of Pennsylvanian age in Indiana 
is difficult because each rock unit exhibits rapid lateral and vertical 
variations. A classification is a generalization of these variations and 
it is a workable classification only if it includes the range of variation 
within a unit, but excludes characteristics of adjacent units. 

History of Classification 

Early classification of Pennsylvanian rocks in Indiana was simple 
(2): 

Upper or barren coal measures 
Middle or productive coal measures 
Lower coal measures or millstone grit 

This was not a bad beginning. This three-part classification was based 
on abundance and thickness of coal beds. The middle 500 feet of rocks 
does contain the widespread thick commercial coals; sandstone exposures 
of the lower rocks resemble the millstone grit near the base of coal- 
bearing rocks in England; and the upper part is devoid of coal thick 
enough to be of commercial importance and is barren in that sense. 
These units were not exactly defined or delimited but, in general, in 
Indiana the millstone grit corresponds to the Raccoon Creek. Group of 
present terminology, the productive coal measures to the Carbondale 
Group, and the barren coal measures to the McLeansboro Group 
(Table 1). 

About 90 percent of the Pennsylvanian rocks in Indiana are the 
common classics: mudstone, gray shale, siltstone, and sandstone; the 
remaining 10 percent are mostly underclay, coal, limestone, and black 
slaty shale. These latter four lithologic units are generally characterized 



1 Published with permission of the State Geologist, Indiana Department 
of Natural Resources, Geological Survey. 

292 



Geology and Geography 



293 



TABLE 1 

Names of rocks of Pennsylvania!! age as used by various workers. 



Lesquereaux Cox (3) Ashley (2) 


Wier and Gray (7) 


1862 


1869 


1899 


1961 




Coal 


Coal 


Division 


Group 


Formation 


17 




IX 




Mattoon 


16 






McLeansboro 


Bond 


15 




VIII 




Patoka* 


14 




VII 






13 


N 


VII 
VI 




Shelburn 


12 






11 


M 


V 




Dugger 


10 


L 








9 




IV 


Carbondale 


Petersburg 


8 


K 








7 


J 








6 


I 
H 


III 




Linton 


5 








G 


II 




Staunton 


4 


F 








3 


E 










D 




Raccoon* 


Brazil 


2 


C 




Creek 




1C 


B 








IB 




I 




Mansfield 


1A 


A 









* New names (see Wier, C. E., in preparation. Stratigraphy of middle and 
upper Pennsylvanian rocks in southwestern Indiana. Indiana Geol. 
Survey Bull.) 



by great lateral persistence and singly or in combination are useful 
stratigraphic markers as a means of identifying and classifying the 
rocks. 

David Dale Owen simply numbered the coals from the bottom up in 
western Kentucky and Lesquereaux (6) followed his example and 
applied numbers to coals in southern Indiana. Later E. T. Cox (3) used 
a similar system for the northern part of the coal region and named the 
coals by letters. In 1896 when G. H. Ashley and his associates started a 
comprehensive survey of the coal-bearing rocks in Indiana the arabic 
number system of Lesquereaux for the southern area and the letter 
system of Cox for the northern area seemed incompatable. Ashley's 
solution was to use a new system and number the coals from the bottom 
up with Roman numerals (2). At the time of the Ashley survey many 
rock units of older systems in Indiana had formal group and formation 
names and it seemed desirable to divide the Pennsylvanian rocks in a 
similar manner. The apparent heterogeneity of the rocks seemed to 



294 Indiana Academy of Science 

defy division into units that were on the order of 100 feet in thickness, 
that were somewhat homogeneous, and were distinct from units above 
and below. Because the shales and sandstone beds are the most abundant 
rocks they should be utilized, but a sandstone or shale bed in one part 
of the stratigraphic sequence is similar to a sandstone or shale bed in 
many other positions in the column. Because of their economic signifi- 
cance the coal beds were given most attention by the early workers 
and the geographic distribution of the thicker coals was fairly well 
known. On the basis of this information Ashley (2) divided the Pennsyl- 
vanian rocks into divisions (Table 1) by utilizing coal beds to mark 
the upper boundaries of these divisions. Thus Division V contains Coals 
V, Va, and Vb. Later Fuller and Ashley in 1902 (5) and Cumings in 
1922 (4) began dividing the Pennsylvanian rocks into groups and 
formations that were modifications of the divisions of Ashley. 

The cyclothemic concept became somewhat in vogue in the 1930's 
and 1940's and was extensively applied in adjacent states but only 
sparingly in Indiana. This system allows the lumping of all rocks in 
a cyclic unit of deposition. Ideally the base of a cyclothem is the un- 
conformable base of a sandstone and the cyclothem contains 10 units: 
1 sandstone bed, 4 shale beds, 3 limestone beds, 1 underclay bed, and 1 
coal bed. It is not uncommon for a cyclothem to contain only four beds 
and it is uncommon to find a place where all 10 beds are present. If 
the basal sandstone is not well developed in the cyclothem or in the 
overlying cyclothem the boundaries are hard to find and it is difficult to 
plot the distribution of a cyclothem on a map. Although many cyclothems 
would make acceptable formational units, others are too thin or too 
irregular in distribution. In present practice two or more cyclothems 
may be lumped together to form a formation. 

Formations 

The formation is generally accepted as the basic rock unit and the 
definition of each formation may utilize marker beds such as coal and 
limestone. According to the "code of stratigraphic nomenclature" (1) 
a formation should have internal lithologic homogeneity and be map- 
pable. If homogeneity were used as the major criterion then the 1600 
feet of Pennsylvanian rocks in Indiana would be divided into about 300 
formations many of which would be less than a foot thick. Obviously 
this is impractical from the mapping standpoint. It is impossible to divide 
these rocks into formations in such a manner that they are homogeneous, 
have a distinctive lithology different from formations above and below, 
are continuous, and are of appropriate thickness to be mappable and 
meet practical needs. These requirements must be compromised such 
that a formation is heterogeneous but is readily recognized on the basis 
of marker beds at the top or bottom or both. The limestone and coal 
beds are the most distinctive and laterally persistent and are most 
useful in marking the boundary of formational units. It may be difficult 
to distinguish an individual coal bed from another but the fact that a 
coal is bright, dull, well banded or poorly banded or contains well de- 
fined shale partings or lacks shale partings is distinctive. Other cri- 



Geology and Geography 295 

teria are the recognition of underclay and limestone below the coal and 
black fissile shale and limestone above or the lack thereof. Thus present 
day formations are denned in much the same manner as the divisions 
of Ashley. 

Members 

Many beds of coal and limestone are distinctive and easily recog- 
nized and have been designated as named members; underclays and 
black slaty shales also are distinctive but they commonly are present 
immediately below and above coals and can be described in relationship 
to the coal without adding to the multitude of names. Many sandstone 
beds also have been named. Sandstone is more resistent to erosion than 
shale and thus crops out as spectacular bluffs and in some areas sand- 
stone may be the only rock exposed even though it is less than half of 
the total rocks. Thus names were applied by early workers and most of 
these names have been retained. 

Each of these members is one bed of a single lithology in some 
places but may change laterally and include additional lithologic units 
or may be absent. Because of this lateral variation a lithologic member 
may contain impurities in that it includes minor amounts of other kinds 
of rocks. The degree of variation and the amount of impurities that one 
can allow apply the lithologic member name poses a difficult question. 

Limestone members are difficult to define precisely. In some areas a 
named limestone member may consist of a single lithologic unit that 
is easily defined and delimited, but it may vary laterally and in other 
areas be a fossiliferous, calcareous shale or two limestone beds separated 
by shale (Figure 1). If a named limestone member varies laterally and, 
in local areas, is a shaly limestone or a fossiliferous shale the limestone 
member name is retained for this local variation in lithology as far as 
it can be traced. If the limestone contains a thin gray shale parting 
the shale parting is also included in the formal member (Figure 1, B). 
In the case of the West Franklin Limestone Member of the Shelburn 
Formation and Livingston Limestone Member of the Bond Formation, 
where one to three limestone beds are present separated by several 
feet of shale, some flexibility is necessary. If only one bed of limestone 
is present (Figure 1, A, C, E) then the limestone member consists of 
a single limestone bed even though the bed in one place may not be 
equivalent to a bed elsewhere. If two or more limestone beds are 
present, the upper and lower limestone beds and the intervening rocks 
are included in the limestone member (Figure 1 A, B, D). At one locality 
a thin coal is present in the medial shale of the West Franklin Lime- 
stone Member. This raises the question as to the position of the over- 
lying and underlying beds of limestone in a cyclothem and raises the 
question as to how much impurities one will allow in a member, but 
for practical reasons the theoretical question is here ignored and the 
coal is included in the West Franklin Limestone Member. 

Coal Members also are not pure coal in the lithologic sense; com- 
monly they contain small amounts of shale and pryite in horizontal 
partings and pyrite, gypsum, calcite, and clay in thin vertical films. In 
some areas a thin shale parting may increase in thickness until it is 



296 



Indiana Academy of Science 
B C D 





Sandstone 



Sandstone 



Shale3-i_=r^_- 




Figure 1. Diagrammatic section showing variation in a limestone member. 

Figure 2. Diagrammatic section showing variation in a coal member. 

Figure 3. Diagrammatic section showing interflngering of sandstone 

and shale members. 

Figure 4. Diagrammatic section showing the irregularities of sandstone 

members. 



Geology and Geography 297 

more than a foot thick, or, locally, may be thicker than the combined 
overlying and underlying coal beds (Figure 2). If both parts of the 
split coal bed are recognized as parts of a single member, the in- 
cluded shale is part of the coal member. If the lower part is absent, 
only the upper bed can be identified as the named member. 

Because sandstone beds provide some of the best exposures, many 
sandstone units have been formally designated as members. Sandstones 
are the disruptive lithologic units and many problems become apparent 
when one tries to define sandstone members precisely. There is no 
problem where a sandstone is massive and obviously comprises one 
sandstone unit and thus is one member, or where the unit is entirely 
shale and thus the sandstone member is absent (Figure 3). Questions 
arise, however, where the interval consists of alternating sandstone and 
shale beds or shaly sandstone that grades into sandy shale. As used 
here formally named sandstone members are laterally restricted to 
areas where sandstone is the dominant rock of the interval and is 
thick enough to be useful, either stratigraphically or economically. For 
subsurface studies this means that the sandstone member must be on 
the order of 10 feet or more in thickness. In some localities the sedi- 
ments overlying a sandstone may be eroded and sandstone deposited on 
top of sandstone (Figure 4). If drilling information is available only at 
either location B or C (Figure 4) it would be difficult to separate the 
three sandstone members. If factual data is available in adjacent areas 
the picture may develop such that the position of each sandstone body 
as related to the coal and shale beds is clear (Figure 4A). If a 
limestone or coal member cannot be identified above and below a sand- 
stone member the identification of the sandstone member is subject to 
error. 

Summary 

In summary, the most practical system of classification of the 
rocks of Pennsylvanian age in Indiana is dependent on recognizable 
and extensive key beds. Using selected key beds as boundaries the 
rocks are divided into formations that are a sequence of lithologic 
units that total 100 feet or more in thickness and contain named and 
unnamed members. Formations are lumped together into three groups 
mostly on the basis that the formations in the middle group contain 
thick widespread commercial coals and those in the upper and lower 
groups contain coals that are thin or local in extent. 

Literature Cited 

1. American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature. 1961. Code of 
stratigraphic nomenclature. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists 45:645-665. 

2. Ashley, G. H. 1899. The coal deposits of Indiana, p. 92-130. In: Indiana 
Dept. Geology and Nat. Resources Ann. Rept. 23. Indianapolis. 

3. Cox, E. T. 1869. First annual report of the geological survey of Indiana 
made during the year 1869, p. 13-174. 

4. Cumings, E. R. 1922. Nomenclature and description of the geological 
formations of Indiana, p. 403-570. In: Handbook of Indiana geology, 
Indiana Dept. Conserv. Pub. 21. Indianapolis. 



298 Indiana Academy of Science 

T>. Fuller, M. L. and G. H. Ashley. 1902. Description of the Ditney Quad- 
rangle. U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas Folio 84. 8 p. 

6. Lesquereux, L. 1862. Report on the distribution of the gelogical 
strata in the coal measures of Indiana, p. 269-341. In: Owen, R., A 
geological reconnaissance of Indiana, 1859-1860. 

7. Wier, C. E. and H. H. Gray. 1961. Geologic map of the Indianapolis 1° 
x 2° Quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, showing bedrock and uncon- 
solidated deposits. Indiana Geol. Survey Regional Geologic Map 1. 



An Investigative Study of Six Indiana Coals 

Louis V. Miller, Indiana Geological Survey 

Abstract 

Proximate and ultimate analyses of 21 coal samples from six Indiana 
coals have been determined. Total sulfur in the "whole" coal is compared 
with the total sulfur retained in the "coke-button" after pyrolysis at 
950° C and with the total sulfur retained in the ash after combustion at 

750° C. 

The Illinois Basin comprises portions of Indiana, Illinois, and 
Kentucky. The Indiana portion (Fig. 1) along the eastern edge of the 
basin, covers an area of approximately 6,500 square miles (5). Within 
this area coals of commercial value are all Pennsylvanian in age (3). 

The significant coal members of the Pennsylvanian period (Fig. 2) 
that are considered in this paper, and in order of decreasing age are: 

(1) The Upper Block Coal of the Brazil Formation 

(2) The Seelyville Coal (III) of the Staunton Formation 

(3) The Springfield Coal (V) of the Petersburg Formation and 

(4) Coal Vb, the Hymera Coal (VI), and the Danville Coal (VII) 
of the Dugger Formation. 

These coals are all ranked as high volatile bituminous. 

In dollar value of mineral production during 1966, coal ranked first 
in Indiana with the approximate FOB mine value of $65,730,000 rep- 
resenting a production of over 17 million tons (Hutchinson, H., and 
M. B. Fox, personal communication). The mining of the Springfield 
(V), Hymera (VI), and Danville (VII) Coals constitutes about 88% of 
total production in Indiana. 

Coal samples collected for this study were taken from 14 active 
mines over a 7-county area. At the time of sampling, overburden had 
been removed from the various coal seams for less than a week. In all 
cases the samples were face channel samples and before sampling the 
coal face was chipped away to insure a "non-oxidized" surface. Upon 
collection, the samples were stored in air-tight cans to minimize the 
loss of moisture. 

Preparation of the samples and subsequent chemical analysis fol- 
lowed the procedures and specifications of ASTM-D-271-58. 

The analyses considered in this paper are the proximate, ultimate 
and calorific. 

Proximate Analysis 

The proximate analysis consists of the determination of moisture, 
ash, volatile and fixed carbon. In Table 1 moisture is on the as-received 
basis and the remainder of the data is on the moisture-free basis. 
Moisture refers only to the amount of weight loss of the coal sample 
when it is heated at 105° C for a period of 2 hours. It is considered to 
be inherent and extraneous water but does not refer to water of 
hydration. 

299 



300 



Indiana Academy of Science 




OUTLINE MAP OF INDIANA 
SHOWING LOCATION OF MAP AREA 




20 30 Miles 



Figure 1. Map of southwestern Indiana showing- eastern limits of Indiana's 
major coals. Roman numerals designate Seelyville Coal (III), Springfield 
Coal (V), Hymera Coal (VI), and Danville Coal (VII). 



Geology and Geography 



301 



TIME 
UNIT 



230 

to 

345 



145 

to 

450 



**jjN**gr 



ROCK 



UNIT 



SIGNIFICANT 
MEMBER 



Danville Coal (YE) 
Hymera Coal ("21) 

Coal TTb 

Alum Cave Limestone 



Springfield Coal (TZ") 



Survant Coal (ET) 
Colchester Coal (Ha) 



Seelyville Coal (IE) 



Perth Limestone 
Minshall Coal 
Upper Block Coal 
Lower Block Coal 



FORMATION 



Dugger 



Petersburg 



Linton 



Staunton 



Brazil 



Mansfield 



GROUP 



Carbondale 



Raccoon Creek 



MISS. 



^nF 



Glen Dean Ls. 



Stephensport 



Figure 2. 
coals. 



Column showing- stratigraphic position of important Indiana 



Ash is the non-combustible residue resulting from the burning of 
coal. As determined, ash is not present in the coal (2) ; iron, for example, 
that is present as the oxide in the ash may be present as the sulfide 
(pyrite) in the coal. 

The volatile determination, an empirical test, is the percent weight 
loss of the coal when it is pyrolyzed in the absence of air at 950° C for 
exactly 7 minutes (1). 

Fixed carbon on the as-received basis is the difference between 100 
and the sum of moisture, ash, and volatile material and is the recipient 
of all errors. 

Ultimate Analysis 

Ultimate analysis refers to the determination of carbon, hydrogen, 
nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and ash. 

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen exist in both the organic and in- 
organic substances of the coal. Little is known about the mode of 
occurrence of nitrogen except that it is a part of the organic fraction of 
the coal substance (4) and is probably present in cyclic structures. 



302 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Sulfur in coal occurs in three forms — pyritic, organic, and sulfate. 
Pyritic and organic sulfur comprise a major portion of the total sulfur. 

Ash was denned in the proximate analysis but must be considered as 
part of the total for ultimate analysis. 

Oxygen is the difference between 100 and the sum of carbon, 
hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash; and as for fixed carbon in the 
proximate analysis, oxygen is the recipient of all errors. 

The calorific value refers to the heating value and is expressed 
here as British thermal units per pound or Btu. 

TABLE 1 

Proximate and Ultimate Analysis 





Seelyville Springfield 


Hymera Danville 


Coal U. 


Block Coi 


il (III) Coal (V) Coal Vb Coa: 


L (VI) Cc 


>al (VII) 






% As Received 








Moisture 


16.2 


11.8 


11.7 


13.8 


11.1 


12.9 






% Moisture Free 








Ash 


5.6 


17.2 


10.2 


12.8 


13.4 


11.4 


Volatile 


38.9 


40.3 


40.9 


39.8 


39.6 


41.0 


Fx. Carbon 


55.5 


42.5 


48.8 


47.3 


47.0 


47.6 


Carbon 


76.3 


63.6 


*71.1 


68.2 


68.6 


69.1 


Hydrogen 


5.27 


4.78 


*4.93 


4.85 


4.76 


4.92 


Oxygen 


9.5 


7.6 


*8.6 


8.6 


7.8 


9.5 


Nitrogen 


1.56 


1.23 


1.54 


1.54 


1.55 


1.61 


Sulfur 


1.8 


5.6 


3.9 


4.1 


3.8 


3.5 


BTU 


13,740 


11,720 


12,670 


12,230 


12,040 


12,490 


No. of Samples 


1 


2 


7 


2 


4 


5 



Average for 6 samples only. 



As one observes the data in Table 1 it must be kept in mind that 
the collected channel samples were from the face and may include some 
impure materials that would increase the ash and sulfur values and 
lower all other values. Cleaned or tipple samples would show a lower 
ash and sulfur value and consequently would increase all other values. 

The data in Table 1 are not meant to categorize any one coal 
member but rather to show a slight trend within the range of analysis. 
These data do not indicate any specific entity that could be used to 
identify or delineate the various coal members. It will be shown in 
Table 2 that the range of analyses, from highest to lowest value, could 
change values of one coal member to within the range of values of 
another — thus making identification difficult if not impossible. 

The data in Table 1 are the averages of the number of samples 
represented at the base of the table. Certainly, the sample population is 
too small to make any valid statistical analysis for identification 



Geology and Geography 



303 



purposes. These data need to be compared and included with the data 
from a larger suite of samples. 

The data in Table 2 illustrate the difference between the highest 
and lowest values for the number of samples of each coal member. The 
great variance, not only within the same coal member, but also between 
coal members, would certainly confirm the fact that coal is a hetero- 
genous material and that these variances would negate categorizing these 
coal members on the basis of proximate and ultimate analyses alone. 

TABLE 2. Range of Analyses 





Seelyvi 


Le 


Springfield 




Hymera 


Danville 


Coal 


Coal (III) 


Coal (V) Coal Vb 


Coal (VI) 


Coal (VII) 






% As Received 








Moisture 


1.5 


% 


1.7 

Moisture Free 


2.0 


1.8 


5.6 


Ash 


0.8 




7.3 


3.8 


6.0 


1 .9 


Volatile 


0.6 




4.1 


0,9 


6.0 


1.6 


Fx. Carbon 


1.4 




6.0 


3.0 


6.3 


8.2 


Carbon 


0.1 




*7.0 


4.2 


9.8 


2.4 


Hydrogen 


0.16 




*0.60 


0.30 


1.02 


0.10 


Oxygen 


1.0 




*2.4 


0.6 


7.9 


0.9 


Nitrogen 


0.02 




0.67 


0.01 


0.16 


0.34 


Sulfur 


1.63 




3.33 


1.27 


2.23 


2.46 


BTU 


180 




1,270 


840 


960 


650 


No. of Samples 


2 




7 


2 


4 


5 



Range for 6 samples only. 



Table 3 illustrates the sulfur retention in the ash and in the 
"volatile coke button" during and after pyrolysis of the various coal 
members. These data, too, show a variability, especially so with regards 
to the percent of sulfur that is retained in the ash. Analysis of the ash 
might possibly reveal some material that would have an affinity for the 
sulfurous gases that are given off during combustion and explain the 
high retention of sulfur in the ash of the Springfield (V) and Hymera 
(VI) Coals and conversely the lower percentages in the Seelyville (III) 
and Danville (VII) Coals and Coal Vb. The ash was not analyzed for 
other elements but certainly needs to be. 

If one considers the average sulfur retention in the ash of all coals 
(53.4%) and the average total sulfur for all coals then one must realize 
that upon combustion approximately 46.6% of the total sulfur is ex- 
hausted into the atmosphere as sulfurous compounds. Putting this in- 
formation into more elemental terms, one can say that on the average 
basis and with the number of samples and analyses considered here that 
from this uncleaned coal approximately 38 pounds of sulfur for each ton 



304 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE 3. Sulfur Retention During Pyrolysis 



Coal No. 



Whole % Total 

Coal Sulfur 

% Total Retained 

Sulfur in 

Moisture "Vol. 

Free Button" 



% Whole 

Coal % Whole 
% Total Sulfur Coal 

Sulfur Retained Sulfur 

Retained in "Vol. Retained 

in Ash Button" in Ash 



Danville 

Coal (VII) 

Hymera 

Coal (VI) 

Coal 

Vb 

Springfield 

Coal (V) 

Seelyville 

Coal (III) 

U. Block 

Coal 

Avg. (excluding 

U. Block Coal) 



3.5 
3.8 
4.1 
3.9 
5.6 
1.8 
4.1 



2.9 
3.7 
3.8 
3.1 
4.8 
1.6 
3.6 



1.2 
3.4 
1.4 
2.6 

2.4 

2.2 



82.8 
97.4 
92.7 
79.5 
85.7 
88.9 
87.6 



34.3 

89.5 

34.1 

66.7 

42.8 
* 

53.4 



Not determined. 



of coal burned would be exhausted into the atmosphere — providing, of 
course that no sulfur recovery from exhaust gases was applied. 

The method used for the determination of the volatile material is 
essentially the equivalent of the coking process — the heating of coal in 
the absence of air. When considering the retention of sulfur in the 
"volatile coke button," one can readily realize why Indiana coals, which 
are all relatively high in sulfur, cannot be used in metallurgical coke 
and especially so when the specifications for coke require a coal with a 
sulfur content of one percent or less. Not only that, the by-product 
gases and volatile organics would contain 12.4% of the total sulfur of 
the whole coal which could be disadvantageous in some systems of by- 
product recovery. 

Literature Cited 

1. American Society for Testing- Materials. 1964. Book of ASTM Standards, 
Part 19, Laboratory Sampling and Analysis of Coal and Coke. ASTM D 

271-64. 

2. Rees, O. W. 1966. Chemistry, Uses and Limitatitons of Coal Analyses. 
Illinois Geological Survey R. I. 220. 

3. Spencer, Frank. 1953. Coal Resources of Indiana. U. S. Geological Survey 
Circular 266. 

4. Van Krevelen, D. W. 1961. Elsevier Publishers. 



5. 



Wier, C. E. 1959. Coal Stratigraphy and Resources Studies, 1949-1957. 
Econ. Geology, June-July, Vol. 54. 



Selected Effects of Glacial Till on the 

Physical Characteristics and Existing Land Use of 

Indiana's Strip Mined Lands 

Lee Guernsey, Indiana State University 

Abstract 

The paper is a case study of the texture and acidity of glacial till 
spoil banks as compared to nonglaciated spoil banks. It also measures 
land use changes in reclaiming glaciated and nonglaciated strip mine 
areas. Finally, an appeal is made for reclamation plans to better 
correlate physical capabilities and existing land use of the strip mined 
lands in Indiana. 

Introduction 

Surface mining has affected an estimated 3.2 million acres of land 
in the United States prior to January 1, 1965. Approximately 125,300 
acres, or about four percent of the nation's land which has been surface 
mined, are located in Indiana. Currently thirty-seven coal mining compa- 
nies are strip mining coal in southwestern Indiana, and in 1966 they 
disturbed 3,100 acres of land (5). Hoosier coal companies have disturbed 
about 100,000 acres since 1917 (see Figure 1). 

In 1964, only thirty-one percent of the total area disturbed by all 
surface mining activities in the United States was even partially re- 
claimed. This is true despite the fact that a myriad of physical and 
land use changes are caused by surface mining. Unreclaimed surface 
mining adversely affects virtually all of our major natural resources 
such as land, water, fish, wildlife, and natural beauty. Therefore, it is 
necessary to take proper measures to limit the effects of surface mining 
that have harmful impacts upon the environment. 

To help eliminate the effects of surface-mining operations that have 
harmful impacts, fundamental research should be conducted to provide 
a better understanding of needed reclamation practices. The last session 
of the Indiana General Assembly passed an act which requires that a 
reclamation plan shall be filed and approved by the Natural Resources 
Commission of the State of Indiana before surface mining can be con- 
ducted. The reclamation plan must include land-use objectives, specifi- 
cations for grading, and the manner and type of revegetation. The law 
was amended last March in an attempt to improve the aesthetic value 
of the landscape, and to increase the economic productiveness of Indi- 
ana's strip mined areas (1). 

A Case Study 

This paper is a study of three physical factors which were mea- 
sured in strip coal mining areas of southwestern Indiana. More spe- 
cifically, it is a case study of the texture and acidity of twenty-two 
samples taken on glacial till spoil banks as compared to samples of 
nonglaciated spoil banks in twenty-two selected areas of Indiana. 
Comparisons were also made between existing land use and whether or 

305 



306 



Indiana Academy of Science 







Figure 1. 



not the overburden and spoil banks contain glacial till deposits (Fig- 
ure 2). 

The tests were all made during early June of 1965 and 1966 in 
reasonably accessable areas. One half of the samples were collected 
from areas with overburden containing glacial till and the other half 
of the samples were from areas located south of the Illinoian glacial 
boundary. 

There are great variations in the procedures used for analyzing 
spoil materials. Based upon practical time limitations in the field and 
a mosaic of physical contrasts that exist within the strip-mined areas, 
a random sampling survey was adopted for this study without regard to 
age, drainage, slope, or other variables. The tests were conducted as 
on-site examinations using a balance scales, a two mm screen, and a pH 
meter. 

It was assumed that glacial till in the overburden improves both 
the texture and pH of the spoil banks, but the study was an attempt to 
correlate more exactly the relationships among those factors. The two 
physical variables of texture and pH were selected because of their 
overriding importance in reclaiming Indiana's strip mined lands. 



Geology and Geography 
SITE OF SAMPLE AREAS 



307 



LEGEND 



County Boundaries 



Illinoian Glacial 
Boundary 

Field Sites of 
Sample 




10 



10 20 30 1+0 



Scale in Miles 
Figure 2. 



MAP AREA 



V 



The texture of the spoil is the major factor in affecting the degree 
of aeration and permeability of the spoil material, and the amount of 
moisture that spoil material will make available to revegetated plants. 
The percentage of fine-textured materials (e.g., the percentage of soil- 
sized particles of less than two millimeters in diameter) was used as a 
variable for it is generally accepted that most plant nutrients and 



308 Indiana Academy of Science 

humus can be rebuilt more readily in spoil banks which are high in 
fine-textured materials. 

There was a seventy percent positive relationship between the per- 
centage of fine-textured materials in the spoil and the percentage of 
glacial till in the overburden. These twenty-two samples showed that 
deposits of glacial till are highly beneficial in the revegetation of Indi- 
ana's strip mined lands since increased quantities of fine-textured ma- 
terials will increase the survival rate and plant growth. In contrast, 
where excessive stoniness exists, the possibility of obtaining a ground 
cover is hampered by the rapid run-off and lack of soil. 

The acidity of spoils is also of major importance in affecting the 
survival and growth of plants. Strip mined lands which have a pH of 
4.0 or less are lethal to most plants. Acid-tolerant plants can grow in 
pH areas of 4.0 to 5.5 and most plants can grow in spoils with a pH 
between 5.5 and 8.0. The twenty-two samples taken during the survey 
indicated that the spoil material had a pH between 4.5 and 6.7 with a 
mean value of 5.6 for the glacial till. The mean value for the non- 
glaciated samples was 4.7 with the range from 3.0 to 6.1. The correla- 
tions showed an eighty-four percent positive relationship between the 
pH of the spoil and the percentage of glacial till in the overburden 
(Tables 1 and 2). 

About thirty percent of the land which has been strip mined for 
coal was located in areas which have not been glaciated. However, sixty- 
five percent of the 1965 strip mine coal tonnage was produced in non- 
glaciated areas of Indiana (4). It is projected that the counties which 
will have the greatest increase in coal production will be Daviess, Gibson, 
Knox, Pike, Spencer and Warrick (2). The problems of reclaiming acidic 
spoil banks with small quantities of soil-sized particles will, therefore, 
become more widespread. But, on the other hand, only about one-third 
(17,491 acres) of these counties were in cropland before strip mining 
occurred. The detrimental impacts of the strip mining process are less 
severe than in the areas of glacial till even though about 18,000 acres 
of idle spoil banks are still unreclaimed in Indiana's nonglaciated 
counties (3). 

Surface mining has created opportunities to develop recreational 
areas. This is because water collects in about 15 percent of the strip 
mined area in the form of small ponds between ridges with crests fifty 
or more feet high that are located from fifty to one hundred feet apart. 
In addition, the last box cut lake is normally several acres in size and 
has water depths which vary from thirty to sixty or more feet. About 
70 percent or 14,000 acres of the approximate 18,000 acres of strip 
mined lands used primarily as water-oriented outdoor recreation fa- 
cilities are located in the areas of glacial till and only about thirty 
percent of the recreation land is south of the glacial boundary. 

Conclusions 

This case study has shown (1) a high positive relationship to exist 
between the pH of spoil banks and the percentage of glacial till in the 
overburden; (2) a high positive relationship also exists between the 



Geology and Geography 



309 



TABLE 1. Glacial Till Samples 



Sample 


Percent of 






No. 


Glacial 




Percent 




Till 


pH 


Fines 


1 


67.6 


7.3 


60.0 


2 


55.0 


6.9 


64.3 


3 


62.7 


7.1 


62.8 


4 


63.0 


7.3 


71.0 


5 


13.0 


4.5 


40.0 


6 


17.0 


3.8 


38.0 


7 


9.0 


5.7 


35.0 


8 


5.0 


4.0 


25.0 


9 


16.0 


4.9 


31.0 


10 


5.0 


4.4 


32.0 


11 


15.5 


5.1 


35.0 


12 


16.0 


5.0 


36.0 


13 


6.2 


4.3 


50.0 


14 


4.0 


5.0 


35.0 


15 


6.0 


5.0 


33.0 


16 


18.0 


5.1 


36.0 


17 


16.0 


5.0 


31.0 


18 


7.7 


(5.3 


43.0 


19 


36.5 


6.7 


60.0 


20 


8.0 


6.3 


41.0 


21 


36.0 


6.7 


49.0 


22 


15.5 


6.0 


39.0 


Average or 








glacial area 










22.7 


5.6 


43.05 



percentage of fine-texured materials and glacial till; and (3) a definite 
improvement in the quality and intensity in the land use of reclaimed 
strip mined lands with the presence of glacial till in the overburden. 

On the other hand, it must be remembered that the detrimental 
effects of strip coal mining are more severe in areas of glacial deposi- 
tion since most of the area disturbed was in cropland prior to strip 
mining. In addition, the percentages of fine-texured materials in the 
glaciated areas are often strikingly reduced by mining methods which 
deeply bury the glacial till below the bedrock. Often acidic materials are 
left on the surface from the bedrock which originally lie directly above 
the coal seam. 

Reclamation should be considered by the mining companies as an 
integral part of strip coal mining. It has been demonstrated that when 
reclamation of strip mined lands is integrated into both pre-planning 
and operation stages, it can be done more effectively and at a lower 
cost than as a separate operation. This is true because machinery used 



310 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE 2. Nonglaciated Area Samples 



Sample 


Percent of 




No. 


Glacial 
Till 


pH 


1 


0.0 


3.0 


2 


0.0 


3.6 


3 


0.0 


3.6 


4 


0.0 


4.1 


5 


0.0 


4.9 


6 


0.0 


5.0 


7 


0,0 


5.4 


8 


0,0 


4.2 


9 


0.0 


5.0 


10 


0.0 


5.4 


11 


0.0 


4.2 


12 


0.0 


5.0 


13 


0.0 


4.5 


14 


0.0 


5.6 


15 


0.0 


6.1 


16 


0.0 


4,9 


17 


0.0 


5.6 


18 


0.0 


5.1 


19 


0.0 


4.7 


20 


0.0 


5.0 


21 


0.0 


5.1 


22 


0.0 


4.7 


Average for 






nonglacial 






area 







Percent 

Fines 



0.0 



1.7 



31.0 
22.0 
22.0 
30.0 
23.0 
22.0 
28.0 
50.0 
48.5 
2.1 
23.0 
43.7 
35.0 
34.0 
31.0 
17.0 
35.0 
20.0 
20.0 
22.0 
22.0 
27.0 



27.7 



in mining can also be used in striking off the peaks, segregating toxic 
materials, and establishing proper drainage. 

Currently, most strip mined lands are reclaimed without an overall 
understanding of the physical characteristics of the glacial surface 
features. A detailed regional reclamation plan as now required before 
strip coal mining can take place in Indiana should be helpful in ob- 
taining a better correlation between physical capabilities and existing 
use of the strip mined lands. Whether or not a more conforming re- 
lationship will be followed by Indiana strip coal mining companies only 
time will tell. At any rate, it is important that accurate data are made 
available on the physical characteristics of the spoil material to comply 
with the intent of the amended law for strip mine reclamation. These 
data should be included before the reclamation plan is approved by the 
Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Since the welfare of the 
people of Indiana is at stake, it is up to us to see that an accurate 



Geology and Geography 311 

reclamation plan improves the aesthetic value of the landscape and in- 
creases the economic productivity of the reclaimed strip mined lands. 

Literature Cited 

1. State of Indiana. 1967. Chapter 344, p. 1296-1304. In: Laws of the State 
of Indiana (Acts) for 1967. Indianapolis. 

2. Deasy, George F. and Phyllis R. Greiss. 1967. Local and Regional Dif- 
ferences in Long- Term Bituminous Coal Production Prospects in Eastern 
United States. Annals Assoc. Amer. Geographers. 57(3) :533. 

3. Guernsey, Lee. 1959. Land Use Changes Caused by a Quarter Century 
of Strip Coal Mining in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Science 69:200. 

4. Lane, James. 1967. Cross Wabash Valley Waterway: The Mineral In- 
dustry. Wabash Valley Interstate Commission. 

5. Udall, Stewart L. 1967. Surface Mining and Our Environment. U. S. 
Department of Interior, GPO, Washington. 



Lack of Planning or Failures in Pre-construction 
Planning of the Monroe Reservoir 

Thomas Frank Barton, Indiana University 

Contrary to newspaper reports that "Indiana does a good job of 
launching flood control . . . projects" (2) and "Although the initial 
planning for Monroe Reservoir was excellent," (3) prior to the comple- 
tion of this dam only the mechanical pre-construction engineering plan- 
ning by the United States Corps of Engineers proved to be superior. 
The four counties (especially Monroe) and the state of Indiana which 
should have furnished the leadership failed to supply the geographic, 
economic, social and political pre-construction planning so necessary for 
maximum utilization of the Monroe Reservoir in a minimal development 
period. The county and state agencies either failed to foresee many of 
the major problems involved or if they did identify some of them, little 
if anything was apparently done to prevent their occurrence or to 
promptly implement plans for their solution. 

In the fall of 1960 this writer prepared a paper which was: 1. read 
at an Annual Meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science; 2. widely 
publicized by newspaper and radio in Indiana; and 3. published about a 
year later in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science (re- 
prints and mimeographed copies were widely distributed). This paper 
stressed the need for greater non-federal planning (5), yet five years 
later conditions reveal that little more has been accomplished. Why? 

Is the pre-construction planning of other Indiana flood control res- 
ervoirs that have been started in this 1960 decade as poor or poorer than 
that of the Monroe Reservoir ? 

Lack of physical environmental surveys 

Question 1. Why did not the Indiana Flood Control and Water Resources 
Commission or the Monroe County Planning Commission request Indi- 
ana's Soil Conservation Service to make an up-to-date scientific soil 
survey (and perhaps Indiana's Geological Survey a geologic study) of 
at least the Salt Creek watershed and perhaps the four county area of 
the Monroe Reservoir — Monroe, Brown, Lawrence and Jackson? 

Since the end of World War II it has been a common practice in 
the United States to make scientific surveys of flood control and other 
conservation projects to collect new data and correlate it with that of 
the old to provide the best possible information on which to: 1. base 
value judgments; 2. design projects; 3. make short and long range plans 
for the most efficient use of these projects; and 4. construct and place 
structures in operation. 

Prior to construction of the Monroe Reservoir dam and work on 
the area to be flooded, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers with the aid 
of other agencies made careful surveys of the site and immediate 
environs of the dam and reservoir area. The Indiana Flood Control and 

312 



Geology and Geography 313 

Water Resources Commission employed a staff of geologists "for 
geologic studies relative to flood control structure planning and design 
from about 1948 until 1952."i Furthermore, in 1960, the year that 
construction started on the dam, the Geological Survey of the Indiana 
Department of Conservation published a 19-page report (including a 
folded map) entitled Engineering Geology of Dam Site and Spillway 
Areas for the Monroe Reservoir, Southern Indiana. The Army Corps of 
Engineers insisted on up-to-date scientific information on which to 
base their plans and implementation of this project. The Corps is not 
responsible for planning land use of the surrounding countryside. 

Since planning for the changes in land use in Monroe, Brown, 
Lawrence and Jackson Counties, as influenced by the largest artificial 
lake in the state, was not a Corps of Engineers or a federal responsi- 
bility, why did not the Indiana Flood Control and Water Resources 
Commission and /or the Monroe County Planning Commission request 
state agencies to make soil and/or geologic surveys? 

During both the pre-construction and construction stages of this 
reservoir, both state and county leaders stressed the great potential 
development of private homes, resort accommodations, business and 
industry which the reservoir would stimulate. Yet scientific surveys 
were not made so developers would have valuable environmental data. 
For example, the Soil Conservation Service adopted a new format about 
1958 which emphasizes the non -agricultural and urban uses of lands 
as well as the agricultural uses. By May, 1967, soil surveys of eight 
counties were published. 2 But none of these counties were in the four 
county area of the Monroe Reservoir. 

Undoubtedly such soil surveys will prove helpful in determining 
better land and water use in these counties, but one can not help but 
raise the question, if the federal government and the state of Indiana 
would be called upon to invest 20 to 30 million dollars during the 1960's 
on only one multiple use project, the Monroe Reservoir, why was not a 
request made for a county soil survey which could have been published 
several years ago ? One could argue that a soil survey of this type is 
needed more in Monroe County than any other in the state. This is 
especially true because one of the largest environmental handicaps 
adjacent to the Monroe Reservoir is the fact that the soil and bedrock 
conditions are generally unsuitable to septic tank sewage disposal and 
present problems of both surface and underground drainage. It is 
ironic, but the Monroe County Planning Commission failed to use effi- 
ciently what soil data was already available. 

County-wide comprehensive zoning not available 

Question 2. Why did not and why does not the state of Indiana adopt 
a policy of delaying construction of flood control reservoirs in counties 
until there is in operation scientific comprehensive county plans of land 
use and county- wide zoning ? 



1 William J. Wayne, Indiana Geological Survey. Letter dated September 
13, 1967. 

2 Harry M. Galloway, Purdue University. Letter dated May 24, 1967. 



314 Indiana Academy of Science 

For many it is difficult to believe that state, federal and county 
agencies have spent and or plan to spend 20 to 30 million dollars on a 
reservoir project in a county whose citizens refuse to adopt compre- 
hensive land planning and zoning to protect the expenditures. Un- 
fortunately, the Monroe County Planning Commission was established 
approximately a decade before construction started in the Monroe 
Reservoir dam and basin with an announced goal to stop planning. For 
nearly two decades this commission has successfully delayed and pre- 
vented county-wide land use zoning. 

Just how many millions of tax dollars will be spent on the Monroe 
Reservoir and its development in the first ten year post-construction 
period is not known, but it has been estimated that at least 10 to 15 
millions. As of May, 1966, the state of Indiana had spent approximately 
7.76+ million dollars and the federal government 6.58+ millions more 
on the dam and reservoir. But these 14.35+ millions^ was only the 
start. Indiana's Department of Natural Resources plans to spend 7.2 
million on recreation development around this reservoir (4). The cost 
of access roads, federal recreational facilities and other expenditures 
by state, federal and county governments will amount to many millions 
more. 

Repeated predictions that Monroe County would adopt a county- 
wide land use plan and zoning have failed to materialize. Some had 
predicted that the action would be taken before construction started on 
the dam and basin and others believed that it would be taken surely be- 
fore the dam and basin were completed. But as late as the fall of 1967, 
approximately thirty-two months after the gates were closed and the 
reservoir started to fill up to normal pool stage, the Monroe County 
Commissioners and their Planning Commission had successfully blocked 
county-wide action. The Commission has perhaps illegally established 
zoning in that part of the Salt Creek watershed located in the county. 
But the administration of planning and zoning this small section of the 
county is apparently dominated by those who had so effectively delayed 
planning. Their administration of this small area leaves much to be 
desired. 

Land value increments lost to state 

Question 3. Why did not the state of Indiana secure the land some 
distance back (perhaps a mile) from the Monroe Reservoir shoreline 
and pay a significant part of its share of the cost of building the res- 
ervoir by retaining profits from rising land values and sales? 

This type of management has been practiced as early as the 
1930's by the Tennessee Valley Authority and is being demonstrated by 
the privately-operated Beech River Development Authority which is 
constructing a series of dams along the Beech River located roughly 
midway between Nashville and Memphis, Tennessee (7). These reser- 
voirs were being filled with water during the spring of 1966, about the 
same time that the Monroe Reservoir was being filled, but under a 



3 William J. Andrews, Deputy Director of the Indiana Department of 
Natural Resources. Letter dated May 6, 1966. 



Geology and Geography 315 

drastically different economic climate. In Tennessee a significant share 
of the cost of reservoir projects is obtained by retaining profits on 
land sales. 

In the water-retention projects in Indiana (such as all the flood 
control reservoirs) where new water frontage is created, the fortunate 
owners of land abutting the publicly-financed waters stand to pile up 
huge land profits without investing in improvement. Unfortunately, 
these real estate economic windfalls do not go, in general, to people 
who have owned the land for agricultural purposes. During the long- 
range planning process people "in the know" got options to purchase 
or did purchase shoreline lands from the unsuspecting landowners. The 
exchange of land along the shorelines of potential reservoirs a few years 
prior to construction would make an interesting study. 

Lack of potential water use surveys 

Question 4. Why were not surveys of water and sewage needs in Monroe, 
Brown, Lawrence and Jackson counties in the 1960's and the potential 
needs in the 1970's made before the construction of the Monroe Res- 
ervoir dam or while it was under construction? 

The Indiana legislature passed an act in 1963 granting the Indiana 
Flood Control and Water Resources Commission the authority to sell 
water stored in the Monroe Reservoir (1). The section of the law 
granting general authority for sale of water reads as follows: 

"The Indiana Flood Control and Water Resources Commission is 
hereby authorized and empowered to contract and to provide certain 
minimum quantities of stream flow or to sell water on a unit 
pricing basis for water supply purposes from the water supply 
storage in such reservoir impoundments or portions thereof as 
have heretofore or may hereafter be financed by the State of Indi- 
ana. Such water may be made available for direct withdrawal 
from the reservoir impoundment or released from the reservoir 
impoundment to create increased flowage beyond normal stream 
flow for use by the contracting party and /or purchaser at some 
downstream point . . ." (Acts 1963, c. 342, s. 2). 

The state of Indiana expects to recover a large share of its 7.76+ 
million dollars invested in the dam and reservoir from the sale of water 
taken directly from the reservoir or from the augmented flow of Salt 
Creek and the White Rivers. 

In spite of the state's plan to recover its investments from the sale 
of water, not one of the four counties in the reservoir area has made 
surveys of water or sewage needs either of present conditions or of 
those expected in the 1970's. Why were not such surveys made during 
the pre-construction or construction periods ? 

Today a patchwork pattern of rural water systems are being 
created in Monroe, Brown and Lawrence counties with little if any 
concern for the need of water throughout the counties or the sewage 
problems which the rural water systems will create. 



316 Indiana Academy of Science 

Inadequate provision for business-industrial sites 

Question 5. Why did not the Indiana Flood Control and Water Resources 
Commission or the Monroe County Planning Commission zone, option 
and /or purchase land for industrial parks and/ or business-industrial- 
circulation corridors ? 

From the very beginning, the proponents of the Monroe Reservoir 
maintained that it should be built to supply water to attract industry to 
industrial-hungry southern Indiana. The largest paper in the Monroe 
Reservoir area reiterated time and again in news stories and editorials 
the contribution the stored water would make in creating a favorable 
industrial climate. For example, an editorial appearing in the Daily 
Herald Telephone on December 12, 1958, included the following state- 
ments : 

"But that isn't enough to attract industry in large quantities. South- 
ern Indiana must have something to sell. This product can be water — 
water in quantities which only cities along the Ohio River, Lake Mich- 
igan and perhaps the Wabash river at present have to offer. . . ." 

But, in addition to water, industry needs building sites, water and 
sewage facilities and adequate transportation. Industries are attracted 
to industrial parks where land may be secured at reasonable prices and 
where water, sewage, electricity and railway and highway transportation 
are available. Soon after Lake Lemon became a reality and a small 
industrial park was established west of Bloomington, industries started 
to move in. The Monroe County Planning Commission failed to zone 
areas in the Salt Creek watershed for either industrial parks or indus- 
trial sites or business-industrial corridors. 

The first move to provide for a business-industrial corridor in the 
Monroe Reservoir area came in the spring of 1967. After the Monroe 
County commissioners granted the city of Bloomington the right to 
zone its two mile fringe, city administrators considered the possibility 
of zoning the land on both sides of Knight Ridge Road (Highway 446) 
at its junction with the Nashville Road (Highway 46) (8) as a busi- 
ness-industrial corridor. Before this proposed zoning, residences, apart- 
ment complexes and residential subdivisions had beeR appearing parallel 
to and /or adjacent to the narrow Knight Ridge Road. Naturally the 
occupants of these residential units protested the potential invasion of 
business and/ or industry. 

Moreover the value of this potential site for a business-industrial 
corridor has been greatly impaired if not primarily destroyed. At the 
present time the junction is a bottleneck and a traffic hazard for the 
tourist traffic attempting to pull trailers to the reservoir. Knight Ridge 
Road is a narrow, twisting, "ungraded" (by late twentieth century 
standards) country road or trail on which a relatively thin coat of 
macadem has been spread to accommodate automobile traffic. The road 
does not have adequate drainage or burms. And now water mains have 
been laid parallel to the road with apparently no thought of future 
widening to a three or four lane highway. 

The failure to establish industrial parks and /or business-industrial 
corridors is one more example of the lack of planning and a good one 



Geology and Geography 317 

of piecemeal development resulting in an unregulated "economic de- 
velopmental jungle." An Indiana legislator remarked at a luncheon 
meeting in Bloomington in the summer of 1967, "How can the state 
plan the construction of major highways to the reservoir until it knows 
where the heavy traffic routes will be?" The heavy routes of traffic 
should be related to scientific county-wide land use planning and zoning 
in at least Monroe and Lawrence counties. 

Lack of Adult Education 

Question 6. Why did not the leadership in villages and townships, cities 
and counties and the state launch a successful adult education program 
to inform the public about: 1. the multiple use potentials of the reser- 
voir; and 2. the short-ranged and long-ranged plans required to secure 
the maximum utilization of the lake ? 

Lack of information (which might have been gathered in scientific 
surveys) and the spread of inaccurate information has plagued and 
handicapped the efficient development of the reservoir from its inception. 
Some are still confused about many facets of the reservoir development. 
The following questions are repeatedly raised: 1. Why was not the dam 
built 20 feet higher? 2. Why didn't the federal government establish a 
wildlife refuge on and adjacent to it above the causeway? 3. Why have 
not scenic easements been secured with the purchase of right-of-ways 
bought for road construction to serve the reservoir? 4. How much of 
the sediment carried into the reservoir is being dumped in the silt pool? 
5. Have adequate precautions been taken to stop serious soil erosion in 
the Salt Creek watershed above the dam? 6. In case of a conflict in 
water use, will recreation have a priority over water needed to cool 
the thermal electric generators located below the junction of the East 
Fork of the White River and the White River? 7. If the State is to 
regain its investment primarily through the sale of water to users 
below the dam, approximately how much of it must be released below 
the 538-foot level during the summer months? 8. Why were the outlets 
of the dam placed so the lake may be lowered to the 515 foot elevation 
if the reservoir is never to be lowered to that elevation? 

The public should be given accurate, scientific, truthful answers to 
these and other questions. 

Lack of recognition and vision 

If planning is foresight involving the consideration of potential 
problems and arranging to prevent their occurrence or resolving the 
problems when they do occur before they get too big, then it is obvious 
in many cases that the State and counties have not been "three jumps 
ahead" of the situation but have been stumbling along attempting to 
solve the problems years if not a decade too late. 

Why did the Indiana Flood Control and Water Resources Commis- 
sion fail to recognize the need for long-ranged planning and legislation 
to control water priority rights? The first sentence under a centerhead, 
Conflict of Use, in an article published in 1961 reads as follows: "The 
State of Indiana may become, if it is not already, involved in water 
rights and priority of use." (5). 



318 Indiana Academy of Science 

Approximately four years later in response to an inquiry, the 
author received this reply : 

". . . The Policy is to work toward the provision of regional sup- 
plies as in the case of Monroe. Hence neither Bloomington nor 
Monroe County, or any other community, industry or interest, has 
a vested priority right to the water in Monroe Reservoir."* 

Nevertheless the Indiana Water Resources Study Committee (a com- 
mittee created in 1961) is planning to carry on a major study of water 
rights in the 1967-69 biennium. 

Will the two thermal electric power plants now under construction 
below the junction of the two White Rivers be in operation before 
this water rights study is completed and any needed legislation passed? 

Why did not the Indiana Flood Control and Water Resources Com- 
mission or county leadership plan or at least suggest the possible 
construction of one huge water plant and perhaps one gigantic sewage 
plant to serve the four-county area of the Monroe Reservoir? This type 
of regional management of water facilities for cities, villages and 
countryside dwellers in a group of counties is being placed in operation 
in southern Illinois at the present time. 

Why did not members of the Indiana Flood Control and Water 
Resources Commission foresee more of the many problems involved in 
utilizing the reservoir which would require state legislation, and start 
a legislative program as soon as dam construction started or before? 
Although recreation was not to be a major use of the reservoir, it 
should have been obvious to anyone that its water and the adjacent 
land would be extensively used for recreational, residential and business 
purposes. 

Conclusion 

Should Indiana continue forging ahead with a program of com- 
pleting a "flood control reservoir a year" during the next ten years, 
without evaluating the efficient use of present reservoirs constructed and 
thereby benefitting from past mistakes ? 

If one were to rate the different governmental agencies on planning 
in relation to construction and wise use of the reservoir in the fall of 
1967, the federal government (in "far away Washington, D.C.") would 
rank the highest in performance and the county the lowest. In part, the 
state ranks above the counties in planning because planning activities 
by the counties (Monroe, Lawrence, Brown and Jackson) have often 
been so negligible and not because the State has a commendable record. 
In no way is any criticism of Donald Foltz, Director of the Department 
of Conservation under former Governor Matthew Welsh, implied. The 
readers should be aware that, during the pre-construction period and 
most of the construction period, the state administration of the Monroe 
Reservoir was in the hands of the Indiana Flood Control and Water 
Resources Commission. This agency was not a part of the Department 
of Conservation. 



4 J. F. Perrey, Chief Engineer, Indiana Flood Control and Water Re- 
sources Commission. Letter dated March 19, 1965. 



Geology and Geography 319 

Perhaps Monroe County's performance of "do nothingism" or very 
little has set a state record which will last for many decades. A recent 
newspaper item entitled "Big Plans Are in the Works for Monroe 
Reservoir" appeared in the Bloomington Tribune on March 26, 1967. 
The fourth and introductory paragraph of the article reads as follows: 

"Few will know and few will care about the blood, sweat and tears 
that poured into the lake before the dam was constructed." 

People who make sacrifices for the public good deserve the congratula- 
tions and gratitude of the benefitted citizens. It is unfortunate that 
the combined membership of the Indiana Flood Control and Water Re- 
sources Commission and the Monroe County Planning Commission did 
not demonstrate: 1. more knowledge about multiple use reservoirs; 
2. greater vision in short and long ranged planning; 3. a stronger 
belief in the need of scientific surveys; and 4. greater articulation in 
helping make the general public aware of the problems involved. As 
some people have remaked bluntly and undiplomatically, "Sure! blood, 
sweat and tears were poured into the Monroe Reservoir project, but 
perhaps the ingredient in short supply was brains or know-how." In the 
last half of the twentieth century there is absolutely no excuse for not 
securing all the scientific data possible before investing and perhaps 
wasting millions and millions of the taxpayers' dollars. 

And to suggest that obtaining scientific surveys such as a county 
soil survey would have delayed the project is only an alibi. Construction 
officially started on the reservoir in the Fall of 1960 and the water did 
not stand at 538-foot normal pool level until about six years later. 
Major field work for the Madison County Soil Survey was done in the 
period 1959-1961 and the report was published in March, 1967. De- 
velopers, both private and public, are still groping around in Monroe 
County making errors which may run into millions of dollars in a 25- 
year period without the benefit of a scientific soil survey. 

Finally, if one rationalizes and claims that mistakes made primarily 
by state and county agencies were due to the fact that it was the first 
large multiple-use flood control reservoir in the state, one could ask: 
has the construction of flood control reservoirs built or under construc- 
tion since the completion of the Monroe Reservoir been better? Will 
the State and Federal governments continue to pour millions of dollars 
into reservoir and other projects in counties that have not adopted 
county-wide comprehensive land use plans and implement the planning 
with zoning? Will governmental agencies throughout the hierarchy 
from city and township through county and state continue to spend 
millions without first having scientific surveys made? 

There is evidence that more and more of the educated citizens and 
administrators agree with the wise philosophy of Patrick Henry who 
emphatically stated, "I am willing to know the whole truth, to know the 
worst and to provide for it." How many more decades will be lost be- 
fore the four counties in which the Monroe Reservoir area is located 
organize a Regional Planning Commission to survey, advise and expedite 
the maximum development of the reservoir? (6) Unfortunately if an- 



320 Indiana Academy of Science 

other decade is wasted, many, if not most, of the present opportunities 
for wise use of the Monroe Reservoir's physical environment will 
disappear. 

Literature Cited 

1. Anonymous. 1965. Report No. 2, Recommended Rates and Charges for 
Water, Monroe Reservoir. January 29. 

2. Anonymous. 1965. Quit doing - halfway job, grow up, editor tells state. 
Daily Herald-Telephone, May 21, Sect. 1, p. 1. 

3. Anonymous. 1965. Tourists will expect facilities. Daily Herald-Tele- 
phone, October 21, Sect. 2, p. 6. 

4. Anonymous. 1966. Monroe Lake due $7.2 million. The Courier-Journal, 
Section B, Indiana News, September 1, p. 1. 

5. Barton, Thomas Frank. 1961. The Monroe Reservoir: a multiple use 
project. Proc. Indiana Acad. Science 70:170-181. 

6. . 1967. Underdeveloped resources of Indiana with emphasis 

on southern Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Social Sciences 1 (third 
series): 22-23. 

7. Clay, Grady. 1966. TVA, local group to capture land-value profits at 
profit. The Courier- Journal, Sect. E, April 10, p. 3. 

8. Coate, Judi. 1967. Map. Sunday Herald-Times, July 2, p. 10. 



Analysis of Retail Site Locations in Terre Haute, Indiana 

Carl F. Dinga, Indiana State University 



Abstract 

The concern of this study was to test whether or not and to what 
degree street "connectivity" or the density of the road network within an 
arbitrary area around a commercial retail enterprise was related to the 
market population in the same area. Analysis of connectivity and popula- 
tion of twenty-five randomly selected retail sites in Terre Haute, Indiana, 
revealed that virtually no correlation existed. Further analysis based on 
Proudfoot's classification of locating retail sites into one of four general 
types within an overall city retail structure revealed that each city retail 
type had its own degree of connectivity. The highest degree of connectivity 
was found in the central business district followed by an intermediate 
degree of connectivity for ribbon pattern sites located along the major 
arterial streets of the city. Retail sites located in outlying shopping 
centers and neighborhood establishments ranked relatively low in con- 
nectivity. However, high connectivity does not mean that sites are 
more accessible because the problem of traffic congestion becomes more 
prevalent with an increase in the density of the road network. In short, 
the best location for a retail enterprise is one that offers a balance of 
both accessibility and connectivity between all population market areas. 

Introduction and Purpose 

Terre Haute, Indiana, like most standard metropolitan statistical 
areas, has an existing retail structure that can be subdivided into a 
series of types (3). One of the most marked of all the types is the 
central business district. It is normally located at the near focal point 
of the city's road transportation network and central to the entire 
population. Above all, however, it is marked by a distinct concentration 
of retail establishments (2). Second, and with the advantage of being 
adjacent to the primary transportation networks, are those retail 
establishments which have developed in a ribbon-like pattern along the 
major arterial roads converging on the focal point of the city and in 
turn depend principally on business drawn from these streets. The third 
type of retail structure is composed of those outlying shopping centers 
which resemble, except for size and number, the retail services offered 
by the central business district. Fourth, and last, are the small isolated 
clusters or individual retail establishments at the neighborhood level 
catering to a rather restricted population area primarily from the 
standpoint of convenience. 

Of the many variable and interrelated cultural, environmental, and 
economic factors that are inherent for the success of a commercial re- 
tail enterprise in any one of the type localities mentioned above, two 
basic variables seem to stand out more dominantly than the others. 
One is a localized population market created by the population in the 
immediate vicinity of a retail site which would tend to purchase the 
commodity or service being offered by that particular enterprise. The 
second is the factor of accessibility of the retail site to the population 
market or the ease with which the population is able to move from any 
point within the market area to the retail site. The factor of accessibil- 
ity to a business site may be aided by what can be called "connectivity" 

321 



322 Indiana Academy of Science 

or the density of the network of roads and intersections within the 
localized market area. 

The primary purpose of this study and analysis is to detect whether 
or not and to what degree the connectivity of the transportation net- 
work around retail sites in Terre Haute is related to the population 
market density around these sites. Another factor to be considered 
while testing the relationship between connectivity and population is 
whether or not street connectivity varies with respect to retail site 
location within the overall city retail structure of Terre Haute. 

Methodology 

In order to determine whether or not any relationship exists be- 
tween retail site connectivity and market population, a system of 
quantification for site connectivity was developed by first selecting 
twenty-five sites at random from a group of 285 retail establishments 
within the city limits of Terre Haute. Represented within this original 
group of 285 were pharmacy and drug stores, furniture stores, general 
merchandise and grocery stores of both independent and chain type, 
jewelry, appliance, hardware stores, and dry cleaning establishments 
(4, p. 811-812). 

For each of the twenty-five randomly selected sites an arbitrary 
and constant market area was inscribed by a circle. A circle radius of 
one-quarter mile was chosen to delimit the market area. (The radius 
size was chosen merely for convenience.) Population density and site 
connectivity were then calculated for each of the twenty-five sites 
within the arbitrary market area. 

The quantification of site connectivity was accomplished by assign- 
ing unit values to each street and intersection within the arbitrary 
market area. The unit value assigned to an individual street or inter- 
section was based on its importance in an overall structure classification 
of highway and street standards (1, p. 289-292). Individual parts of the 
transportation network were assigned unit values in the following 
manner: 

10 units — Major arterial roads, roads which traverse the city and 
are part of a U.S. or Interstate highway system. 
8 units — Major arterial roads, roads which traverse the city and 

are part of the Indiana state highway system. 
4 units — Minor arterial roads, streets which have a continuous 

length of greater than two miles. 
2 units — Minor arterial roads, streets which have a continuous 

length of less than two miles. 
2 units — 4-way intersection. 
1 unit — 2 or 3-way intersection. 
On the basis of this street network quantification method, connectivity 
for each of the retail sites was computed within its corresponding 
market area. 

The arbitrary market area was also used to establish the population 
market to which the selected retail establishment could readily cater. 
Since all the arbitrary market areas were held constant, the population 



Geology and Geography 



323 



density was simply expressed as the total population. Population statis- 
tics were taken from the 1960 Census Tracts of Terre Haute. Since 
these statistics are subject to change over short periods of time, caution 
was exercised in areas which had been cleared for urban renewal or 
where new construction was prevalent. 

No quantification of the site locations within the overall city retail 
structure was made. As the twenty-five retail sites were selected they 
were coded in the following manner: (A) sites located in the central 
business district; (B) ribbon pattern sites; (C) outlying shopping 
centers; and (D) neighborhood retail establishments. The purpose of 
coding the individual sites was to detect if the means of retail site 
connectivity within each of the retail structure types of the city varied 
significantly from one another. 



Analysis of Site Location Quantification 

The bivariate data (see Table 1) consisting of market area connec- 
tivity and population density for each of the twenty-five randomly 

TABLE 1. Quantified market area population, retail site connectivity 
and city retail structure type 



Site 


Structure 


Connectivity 


Area Market 


Number 


Type 


Site 


Population 


1 


B 


75 


2160 


2 


B 


68 


1580 


3 


B 


80 


1520 


4 


A 


78 


1400 


5 


B 


68 


1720 


6 


B 


53 


700 


7 


B 


42 


1290 


8 


A 


109 


1070 


9 


B 


86 


1540 


10 


D 


53 


1460 


11 


D 


50 


1050 


12 


D 


59 


1070 


13 


B 


86 


2640 


14 


A 


112 


1450 


15 


C 


42 


480 


16 


D 


46 


1030 


17 


C 


56 


490 


18 


c 


57 


470 


19 


c 


61 


1110 


20 


B 


(54 


1210 


21 


C 


56 


1760 


22 


A 


108 


1050 


23 


D 


64 


1650 


24 


C 


52 


660 


25 


D 


58 


1390 



324 Indiana Academy of Science 

selected sites was tested by the Pearson product-moment correlation 
method. The product-moment correlation coefficient obtained for the 
above data was a — .357. This indicates that there was virtually no re- 
lationship between street connectivity in an area around retail site 
locations and the population within this same area. A variance inter- 
pretation of the correlation coefficient — .357 revealed that only 12 per 
cent of the variance of one variable (connectivity) was predictable 
from the variance of the other variable (population). In short, this 
meant that 84 per cent of the factors necessary to make predictitons 
about site location connectivity with respect to the population in the 
market area were unaccounted for in this correlation. 

Although the above correlation was poor, the plotting of site data 
by city retail structure type on a scatter diagram (see Figure 1) yielded 
one interesting factor: namely, a grouping of retail site types within 
certain limits of site connectivity. Therefore, the means of site con- 
nectivity were computed within each of the retail structure types and 
the results revealed each mean was different. 

Connectivity Means Retail Structure Type 

100 Central Business District 

71 Ribbon Pattern Service Site 

54 Outlying Shopping Centers 

55 Neighborhood Retail Site 

To test whether or not the differences between the above means 
were significant or simply due to sampling error, an analysis of vari- 
ance was made. Analysis of variance showed that the differences be- 
tween the means were not attributed to sampling error; consequently, 
each retail structure type has its own degree of connectivity. 

Conclusion 

This study revealed that a considerable emphasis is placed on 
streets which traverse not only the market area but the entire city as 
well, and that a great degree of interconnectivity exists between popu- 
lation market area of all city retail structure types. The main factor 
that accounts for the poor correlation within a controlled area may be 
the degree of interconnectivity between controlled market areas. A 
high interconnectivity would provide easy access for the movement of 
population from one market area to another. The central business 
district and the ribbon-pattern establishments in Terre Haute are 
prime examples of this interconnectivity. While they have high con- 
nectivity within an immediate area, their existence is not dependent 
upon an immediate or local population market area. 

Another variable is that a high density transportation network 
leads to the problem of traffic congestion especially where the area is 
dominated by retail establishments. With increased congestion, a site 
becomes less accessible even though connectivity remains relatively high. 
Outlying shopping centers and neighborhood retail stores, while having 
a low connectivity, are on the whole more accessible than the central 
business district. In short, the best location for a retail enterprise is 
one that offers a balance between connectivity and accessibility. 



Geology and Geography 



325 



SCATTER DIAGRAM OF RETAIL SITE CONNECTIVITY 

VS 
SITE AREA POPULATION MARKET DENSITY 















2800- 












2600- 
2400- 




Mean Mean 
Type C] |Type D 


Mean 
Type B 


V 


Mean 
Type A 


2200- 




i i 


▼ 






2000- 




i i 








1800- 
1600- 




i i 

i i 

i A 

n ♦ 


v ! 
v ! 

Id 






1400- 

1200- 
1000- 


▼ 


!! * 
♦ ♦!!♦* 

1 1 


▼▼ 


a 


800- 
600- 




i 1 

#! 








400- 


A 


1 > 

r I 




1 1 


— T 1 1 1 1 



40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

RETAIL SITE CONNECTIVITY 



sso 



Retail 

Structure 

Type 

A 
B 
C 
D 



Symbol Legend 

Symbol Location Description 

D Central Business District 

▼ Ribbon Pattern Site 

A Outlying Shopping Centers 

♦ Neighborhood Retail Site 

Figure 1. 



Literature Cited 

1. Gallion, Arthur B. and Simon Eisner. 1963. The Urban Pattern. D. Van 
Nostrand Company, Inc. 

2. Guernsey, Lee. 1961. Characteristics of the Terre Haute Central Business 
District. Proc. Indiana Acad. Science 71:203-09. 

3. Proudfoot, Malcolm J. 1937. City Retail Structure. Economic Geography 
13:425-28. 

4. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1966. Statistical Abstract of the United 
States. Washington. 



A More General Approach to the Concept of Threshold Population 
Donald A. Blome 1 , Indiana University 

Abstract 

There have been several efforts to operationally define or empirically 
measure Christaller's theoretical notion of the lower limit of the range of 
a good. The most widely used model for estimating- this notion, referred 
to as the threshold population, is the one developed by Berry and Gar- 
rison nearly a decade ago. Although Berry and Garrison's model utilizes 
least squares averaging techniques, it is basically a deterministic model 
which provides single valued threshold population estimates. In this 
paper, Berry and Garrison's model is generalized so that for a given level 
of probability the threshold population for a specific central function is 
expressed as an interval rather than as a single value. 

The generalized model is used to estimate the threshold population 
intervals for forty-two different types of central functions found in 
forty-four communities in Southwestern Michigan. In addition to estimating 
the threshold intervals, the model also appears to be useful in re-assessing 
the hitherto accepted notion of "centrality" for certain central functions 
such as gas stations, grocery stores, and independent auto repair shops. 
Moreover, the model also serves to specifically point out, but not to solve, 
the well known problems associated with correctly classifying or identi- 
fying multi-functional establishments such as hardware and department 
stores. 

A notion of particular importance in the development of central 
place theory is that of the range of a good (2,3,4,5). Regarding the 
theoretical implications of this notion, Christaller states that every 
good has a range which 

". . . is a ring around a central place. It has an outer (upper) limit 
and an inner (lower) limit. The upper limit of a particular good 
is determined by the farthest (economic) distance from which it 
can be obtained from this central place; and indeed, beyond this 
limit, it will either not be obtained, or it will be obtained from 
another central place. The lower limit of the range of central goods 
is . . . determined by the minimum amount of consumption of this 
central good needed to pay for the production or offering of this 
central good (7)." 2 

The term "threshold population" has been introduced as a descriptive 
synonym for Christaller's lower limit of the range of central goods and 
it is with respect to this concept that this paper is concerned (2,3). 

While there is a rather large body of literature devoted to closely 
related aspects of central place theory, only a relatively small number 
of research efforts have been directed toward an empirical estimation of 
the range of a good (5). One of the earliest attempts to establish, at 
least implicitly, threshold population levels for selected economic ac- 
tivities in small communities was done by Hoffer (8). Arbitrarily estab- 



JThe assistance of Gary Thompson, Michael Biechler, Henry Coppock, 
David DeTemple, Lewis Easterling and Cyrus Young in gathering these 
data is gratefully acknowledged. 

2 The italics are my own. 

326 



Geology and Geography 327 

lishing ten population size groups of small urban centers, Hoffer de- 
termined the percentage of the communities within each group that con- 
tained a specific economic function. Although Hoffer's work does not 
concern itself directly with the minimum numbers of people required to 
support these functions, he postulates 

". . . three types of specialty stores: drug stores, grocery stores and 
hardware stores are apt to exist in a town having a population of 
less than 500. A town having a population of 1,000 is much more 
complete from the standpoint of a variety of services offered but 
some of the services which cannot exist in a town of that size have to 
locate in larger places." (8) 

The most well known recent attempt to determine sets of threshold 
populations is by Berry and Garrison (2). Using an exponential growth 
model, 3 threshold populations were estimated for a set of fifty-two 
central functions in Snohomish County, Washington. As in almost any 
empirical research, the estimates which the model provides reflect the 
time period and the regional setting where it is carried out. Nevertheless, 
the close adherence of the model to the theoretical constraints and 
assumptions of central place theory attest to its conceptual validity. Or, 
as Beriy and Garrison state 

". . . (this) threshold measure thus provides only a crude ap- 
proximation to a complex notion, but since better measures have 
yet to be suggested, it is put forth here as a first approximation 
to the concept of inner range." (3) 

The Basic Model 

The threshold population model to be developed here is a semi- 
logarithmic linear trend model, mathematically equivalent to the ex- 
ponential growth model used by Berry and Garrison (2). The model is 
developed to test the hypothesis that there is a functional relationship 
between the dependent variable, or the logarithm of the population size 
of the members of a set of central places, and the total number of each 
specific central function offered in each of those communities which 
comprise the set of central places. Expressed symbolically, this hypo- 
thesis reads 

j = l,2,..,N 
Yj^logP^f (X, k ) ;i = l,2,...,M 

k = 0,l,...,Q 

where j is one of N central places with population Y; i is a single 
specific central function X found in community j, such as a grocery 
store; M is the total number of different kinds of central functions found 
in the set of N central places; and k is the number of specific central 
functions found in any one community j, i.e. three, or up to as many 
as Q, grocery stores in central place j. 

A set of M scatter diagrams are prepared by plotting Yj and k for 
each Xi as an ordered pair of numbers, and a linear regression equation 



3 The exponential growth model used by Berry and Garrison is of the 
form P — ABx 



328 Indiana Academy of Science 

is determined for each scatter diagram by the least squares method. 
Each regression equation is based on N observations with unique 
parameters log A and log B which estimate the relationships between 
the population sizes of the set of central places and the number of 
specific central functions offered in these communities. Equation one 
expresses this relationship as 

Y = logP = logA + X, (logB) (1) 

In the following analysis, forty-two different central functions 
found in the study area are investigated, hence forty-two individual 
regression equations are derived. Each equation is based on forty-four 
observations, the number of central places in the study area. But since 
the notion under investigation here is the threshold population, or the 
minimum number of people required to support a single central function, 
equation one is evaluated with each Xs set equal to one. One condition 
required for estimating threshold populations in this manner is that 
at least one central place must contain more than one of the specific 
central functions in question. If this condition is not met, the parameters 
log A and log B, and consequently the threshold population estimate, are 
meaningless. 

However, as with any least squares fit, the predicted threshold 
populations are subject to errors of estimate. That is, for a given level 
of probability, the estimated threshold population for each central func- 
tion varies about the "true" threshold population. In a more realistic 
sense then, the threshold population should actually be considered as 
an interval rather than a single value. Thus, the threshold interval for 
each central function or Xi is operationally defined by the standard 
confidence limits for least squares estimates in "equation," or more 
precisely inequality, two 

* r 1 (x,— x~r i % 

V 2 a i { N (N— 1) S\ j i ^ 



Y + t Sv-x J — J- 



r i (X,— x, y >, % 

1— V 2 a i I N (N— 1) sv ] w 

where /xy.Xi is the "true" threshold population or a specific central func- 

tion and Y is the estimated threshold population from equation one with 
each Xi set equal to one. t is the sampling distribution, and the confi- 
dence coefficient a = .05, S y . x . is the standard error of estimate and 

S x 2 is the variance associated with the total number of individual func- 
tions found in the study area towns. It should be stressed here that the 
threshold confidence interval presented above corresponds only with 
Christaller's lower limit of the range of a good and does not in any 
way allude to the theoretical upper limit or maximum range of a good. 
If a central function is found repeatedly in places with a population 
size below the indicated minimum threshold level or is absent from a 
community where the population size exceeds the maximum threshold 



Geology and Geography 329 

limit, four alternative explanations are advanced. First, the function 
may not be a central one. This is to suggest that in Berry and Garrison's 
ordered ranking of central goods, the goods at the lowest end of the 
hierarchy may have such a low population threshold that they may be 
offered independent of central places (4). Christaller recognizes that 
certain goods 

". . . are of such a local nature that we cannot call them central 
goods; they are goods which are offered for sale in every village 
(and indeed, in the rural countryside itself), e.g., the food and 
home wares demanded by the households or the services of the ele- 
mentary schools. "(7) 4 

Of course, with such a low population threshold, these goods also appear 
in the smallest of central places. 

Secondly, the function may be present in a town, but not as a unique 
central activity. For example, consider a hardware store w T hich offers a 
wide variety of central functions such as general hardware items, paint, 
household appliances, sporting goods, lawn and garden supplies, toys, 
heating and plumbing fixtures, farm supplies, pet supplies and electrical 
apparatus. Paradoxically then, the hardware store may be thought of 
as a single identifiable central function and at the same time, it must 
be considered as a collection of several functions operating as a single 
retail outlet. This same multiple offering of functions is also present in 
general merchandise stores, supermarkets, large drug stores and de- 
partment stores. Thus, if a single central function is offered by a 
multiple function retail outlet, it may preclude the occurrence of an 
individual store attempting to singularly offer that function. This notion 
manifests itself as a problem of classification. Thomas suggests this 
problem can be partially circumvented by categorizing the offering of 
central goods in terms of establishments, functions and functional 
units (10). 

The third alternative explanation questions the "population size" 
of a central place. Christaller recognizes that in addition to the town 
population, the rural population in the complementary area is necessary 
for the support of the central functions within the central place. Beck- 
mann has succinctly formalized this notion by showing that the size of 
a city is proportional to the rural population which it serves (1). Bunge 
points out that Berry and Garrison did not consider this notion and 
suggests that their threshold populations for the several functions may 
be underestimated (6). The model presented here, like the one used by 
Berry and Garrison does not consider the rural population in the "popu- 
lation size" of a central place. But the rural population in the area under 
consideration in this study is quite sparse; so sparse in fact that there 
is good reason to believe that the threshold estimates offered here are 
not in serious error. However, in areas where the rural population is 
densely distributed, cognizance of this fact should be incorporated into 
the model. 

The fourth explanation suggests that the central place may simply 
be in a state of functional disequilibrium. It is recognized that when a 



4 The italics are my own. 



330 



Indiana Academy of Science 



central place experiences rapid population growth or decline the cor- 
responding addition or loss of central functions does not coincide per- 
fectly with the population change. Since this notion is a time varying 
process, and the collection of data reflects only one point in time, then 
the presence or absence of certain central functions from a particular 
place may only be temporary. 

An Empirical Test of the Model 

Forty-four communities in Allegan, Barry, Calhoun and Kalamazoo 
counties of Southwestern Michigan are considered in this study (see 
Fig. 1). The population sizes of these communities range from 3,125 in 



The Study Area 



KIDDLE VI LI* 

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Figure 1. 



Geology and Geography 331 

Plainwell to 16 in Milo. The number of variable central functions ranges 
from 105, again in Plainwell, to one found in six separate communities, 5 
The data used in this study were collected by field survey and the 
primary central activities carried on in each community were recorded. 
For the most part, the central activities investigated correspond rather 
closely to Thomas' definition of an establishment, or the primary ac- 
tivity carried on in an individual building (10). Hardware stores, there- 
fore, were identified as a single function and the multiple function offer- 
ings within them were not counted separately. The same criterion was 
applied to other multi-functional units such as supermarkets, general 
merchandise stores and variety stores. However, exceptions were per- 
mitted where a gasoline function was operated in conjunction with a 
small town grocery store or hardware store and a dry cleaning pick 
up station was present in another local business activity. Also repair 
functions were counted only if they operated independently from a 
major sales function such as furniture reupholstery and repair, shoe 
repair and auto repair. Wherever possible, an attempt was made to 
keep classification of retail and business services compatible with the 
SIC classification listed in the 1963 Census of Business. With this notion 
in mind and following the rules adopted by the 1958 Census of Business, 
the small town general store was classified as a grocery store (11). For 
a complete listing of the functions found in the study towns, see 
Table 1. 

Of the forty-two functions which appear more than once in at least 
one of the study places, ten were present in all towns whose population 
size exceeded the minimum threshold limit. Twenty-three functions were 
found in communities whose population size was below the minimum 
threshold and some twenty-six functions were absent from a few towns 
whose population size exceeded the maximum threshold limit. 

Nearly 50% of the communities with a population size under the 
minimum threshold level for food stores and churches contained at 
least one. The same holds true for over 40% of the communities with 
regards to a gasoline function and approximately 20% of the towns 
contained an auto repair function in disrespect for its lower threshold 
limit. Finally, just over 16% of the communities had an elementary 
school in deference to its lower population threshold. Of the four 
alternative explanations offered above for these deviations, the first 
one seems appropriate. Christaller specifically indicates that a food 
function and the elementary school may not be central functions. 
Certainly, the automobile has become an ubiquitous necessity in the 
United States and the demand for automobile services and maintenance 
can be considered equally ubiquitous. In fact, the empirical evidence 
offered here appears to support the notion that the demands for auto 
services are even greater in their local nature than those for elementary 
schools. 

An analysis of the other end of the spectrum suggests that another 



5 These figures refer only to those central functions which vary in 
number from place to place and therefore do not necessarily indicate the 
total number of central functions in these central places. 



332 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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of the alternative explanations is operative. In this study, the classi- 
fication and enumeration of the entire range of central functions ap- 
pears to be incomplete. For example, a clothing store is not present in 
% of the study places even though their population sizes are greater 
than the maximum threshold limit. However, with one exception, those 
places without a clothing store per se did contain a dry goods and 
general merchandise store which does carry a limited line of ready to 
wear clothing. The one exception, furthermore, is located quite close to 
the city of Kalamazoo. 

Similar examples exist with regards to used car, household ap- 
pliance, heating and plumbing, sporting goods and auto repair functions. 
Used car and auto repair functions are usually offered in conjunction 



Geology and Geography 333 

with new car sales. Also, modern service station complexes usually 
offer rather extensive repair services in addition to their regular func- 
tion of pumping gasoline and other auto services. Complete lines of 
sporting goods are found in hardware stores, certain dry goods and 
general merchandise stores, as well as larger drug stores. Thus, while 
the sporting goods function is present in the larger communities, it does 
not exist as a single shopping entity. The same argument also applies 
to household appliances and heating and plumbing functions. 

Two rather obvious non-central functions are pointed out in this 
section of the analysis. Bait shops, as individual shopping entities are 
absent in all of the largest towns in the study. In fact, the only bait 
stores in the study area are located in those towns situated immediately 
adjacent to popular local fishing areas. The other non-central function 
absent from over half of the larger communities is the fuel dealer 
(considered here to be a fuel oil dealer or a bottled gas dealer). Not 
only is this function subject to rather strict county zoning ordinances, 
but by urban standards, this type of fuel function is land use extensive 
and is forced into rent competition where it cannot successfully compete. 
Secondly, this good is generally ordered by phone or mail to be de- 
livered to the consumer and according to Christaller this method does 
not require a central place (7). Therefore, one would expect to find fuel 
dealers at most any location, subject to a communication and transpor- 
tation constraint. 

The functions which are present in all towns whose population sizes 
are above the minimum threshold limit are clearly central functions. 
Furthermore, each function is readily identified and not likely to be 
misclassified or duplicated in another central function. In this study, 
these functions are variety stores, dairy products stores, drug and 
apothecary stores, florists shops, banks, newspaper and printing estab- 
lishments, laundromats, dry cleaning establishments, funeral homes, and 
auto parts stores. 

In summary, some reflections on the model appear to be in order. 
The generalized model presented here suggests a more comprehensive 
operational definition for Christaller's notion of local variation in the 
lower limit of the range of a good. In addition, the model provides a 
means of critically evaluating the centrality of a specific function under 
local conditions as well as accentuating the inadequacies in recording 
and classifying the occurrence of central functions in central places. 
However, the ultimate criterion for evaluating a model, or for that 
matter an operational definition, is its usefulness of understanding the 
phenomenon under investigation within theoretical constraints. To this 
end, the more general model presented here appears to be useful in 
operationally fulfilling one of the elusive assumptions upon which central 
place theory is predicated. 

Literature Cited 

1. Beckmann, M. J. 1958. City hierarchies and the distribution of city 
size. Econ. Development Cult. Change 6:243-248. 

2. Berry, B.J.L. and W. L. Garrison. 1958. Functional bases of the central 
place hierarchy. Econ. Geography 34:145-154. 



334 Indiana Academy of Science 

3. Berry, B.J.L. and W. L. Garrison. 1958. A note on central place theory 
and the range of a good. Econ. Geography 34:304-311. 

4. Berry, B.J.L. and W. L. Garrison. 1958. Recent developments of central 
place theory. Papers Proc. Regional Science Assoc. 4:107-120. 

5. Berry, B.J.L. and A. Pred. 1961. Central place studies: A bibliography 
of theory and applications. Regional Science Research Institute, 
Philadelphia. 

6. Bunge, W. W. 1962. Theoretical geography. C.W.K. Gleerups, Lund, 
Sweden. 

7. Christaller, W. (Trans. C.W. Baskin). 1966. Central places in Southern 
Germany. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 

8. Hoffer, C. R. 1928. The study of town-country relationships. Tech. Bull 
No. 181 Ag. Experiment Station, Michigan State University. 

9. Stafford, H. 1963. The functional bases of small towns. Econ. Geog- 
raphy. 3S):165-175. 

10. Thomas, E. N. 1960. Some comments on the functional bases for small 
Iowa towns. Iowa Business Digest. 31:10-14. 

11. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1964. 1963 Census of business, Retail trade: 
Michigan, BC63-RA24. U. S. Government Printing Office, "Washington, 
D. C. 



HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Chairman: L. H. Baldinger, University of Notre Dame 
R. H. Cooper, Ball State University, was elected chairman for 1968 



Other papers read 

Scientific Communication: A Modern Tower of Babel. Robert E. Gordon, 
University of Notre Dame. 



Biographical Sketches of Indiana Scientists IV 
Will E. Edington, DePauw University 

This is the fourth paper of a series begun in 1960, presenting brief 
sketches of Indiana scientists whose careers were largely completed 
before Who's Who in America and American Men of Science became 
comprehensive. In their day they were outstanding teachers whose in- 
fluence extended far beyond their class rooms. 

James Harvey Baxter was born in Hillsdale County, Michigan, and 
later gave his home address as Lawrence, Michigan. He began his 
Indiana teaching career in 1905 as an assistant professor of mathe- 
matics in the Indiana State Normal School in Terre Haute. Following 
the organization of the Eastern Division of the Indiana State Normal 
School in 1918 in Muncie as a branch under the supervision of the 
Terre Haute school, a number of the younger members of the faculty 
of the Terre Haute School were transferred to the Muncie school as 
Heads of Departments. Thus James Harvey Baxter became the first 
Head of the Department of Mathematics of what is now Ball State 
University. Baxter had graduated from Tri-State Normal School at 
Angola, Indiana, and later, in 1903, received a "general diploma" from 
the Ypsilanti Normal School, now Eastern Michigan University, but 
neither institution records that any degree was conferred. However, he 
received the A.B. degree in 1906 from the University of Michigan and 
later spent the year 1911-1912 there in graduate study. He never 
married. He was an excellent and popular teacher who encouraged his 
students to continue their study. He aided many worthy ones financially 
who went on to outstanding careers: Raleigh Schorling, William D. 
Reeve, Marshall Byrne, and others. At the time of his death several 
students were living in his home. He was active in civic affairs in Muncie, 
being a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Exchange Club, the 
Masons and the Elks. In his later years he suffered from a heart con- 
dition and died suddenly on July 29, 1926, of a heart attack. 

Ruth Gentry was born on February 22, 1862, in Stilesville, Indiana, 
and died on October 18, 1917, in Indianapolis, Indiana. Her ancestors 
came from Kentucky to Hendricks County, Indiana, in 1832, her father 
being Jeremiah Gentry, a farmer and stock trader. She received the 
education afforded by her community and then entered the Indiana 
State Normal School from which she graduated in 1880. Following 
several years of teaching, she entered the University of Michigan 
where her talent for mathematics became apparent. She received the 
Ph.B. degree in 1890 and also was awarded a Fellowship in Mathe- 
matics to study at Bryn Mawr College for the year 1890-1891 under 
the celebrated English woman mathematician, Charlotte A. Scott, who 
had come to Bryn Mawr at its founding in 1885 to head the Depart- 
ment of Mathematics. In 1891 Miss Gentry was the recipient of the 
European Fellowship of the Association of Collegiate Alumni and spent 
the year 1891-1892 as a student in mathematics at the University of 

336 



History of Science 337 

Berlin. The next year as a Fellow in Mathematics at Bryn Mawr, she 
studied at the Sarbonne, in France. She was a Fellow by Courtesy in 
Mathematics at Bryn Mawr during the year 1893-1894 and received the 
Ph.D. degree in Mathematics and Physics at Bryn Mawr in 1896. In 
1894 she became an Instructor in Mathematics at Vassar College and 
in 1900 was promoted to Associate Professor. Two years later she be- 
came Associate Principal and Head of the Department of Mathematics 
in a private school in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. From 1905 to 1910 I 
have no record of her activities. In 1910-1911 she was a volunteer 
nurse. From 1911 to 1914 she traveled extensively in the United States 
and Europe. She is listed in the Directories of the American Mathe- 
matical Society as retired from 1914 to 1917, giving Stilesville as her 
home address. Ruth Gentry became a member of the New York Mathe- 
matical Society in February, 1894. This Society became the American 
Mathematical Society later in 1894 and Miss Gentry continued as a 
member until her death. Her mathematical interest was in geometry 
and her thesis for the doctorate was an outstanding contribution in the 
study of quartic curves. Ruth Gentry was a woman of unusual intel- 
lectual attainments and was the first native-born Indiana woman to 
receive a Ph.D. degree in Mathematics and probably the first native 
Indiana woman to receive an earned Ph.D. in any scientific discipline. 

Oscar Lynn Kelso was born in Ireland, DuBois County, Indiana, 
on October 10, 1855. After graduating from the Indiana State Normal 
School in 1879 he entered the Junior Class at Indiana University in 
1882, received the B.S. degree in 1884, and the A.M. degree in 1890. 
He was Principal of the Bruceville, Indiana, schools from 1879 to 1882 
and also did some teaching in Bedford from 1882 to 1884 while a student 
at Indiana University. He was Principal of the Anderson, Indiana, High 
School in 1884-1885, and of the Richmond, Indiana, High School from 
1885 to 1894. In 1894 he was made Professor and Head of the Depart- 
ment of Mathematics in the Indiana State Normal School (now Indiana 
State University). He retired in 1924. During the summers of 1897 and 
1898 he did graduate study in mathematics at the University of Chicago. 
He was author of Arithmetic for High Schools, Normals and Academies 
and joint author, with Robert J. Aley of Indiana University, in the 
revision of the Cook-Cropsey Arithmetic. He was also author of three 
papers published around 1900. In 1907 the American German Trust 
Company in Terre Haute was incorporated with Professor Kelso as 
President, but he sold his interests six years later. At one time he was 
President of the Kettle Valley Mining Company in Terre Haute. He 
was a member of the Indiana Academy of Science from 1896 to 1911, 
and also active in the Indiana State Teachers Association. During the 
Thanksgiving season of 1927 he suffered a broken hip and was confined 
in the Union Hospital continuously until his death on July 13, 1930. 
Professor Kelso was a most effective and influential teacher who was 
known to a large number of the teachers in Indiana. 

William Butler Morgan was born on December 21, 1830, in Dublin, 
Indiana, but most of his early life was lived in Raysville, Indiana, one 
mile east of Knightstown. He learned the carpenter trade from his 



338 Indiana Academy of Science 

father but his mother influenced him to enter (in 1848) the Friends 
Boarding School, later Earlham College, where he studied a year and a 
half. After teaching one term at West Milton, Ohio, he entered Haver- 
ford College where he received the A.B. degree in 1852 and the A.M. 
degree in 1853, and also taught some Latin in this last year. Following 
two years of teaching Latin in Westtown Boarding School in Phila- 
delphia, he returned to Earlham in 1855 to teach Latin and Greek for 
five years. About 1858 he became President of the "Philosophical and 
Literary Institute of the Indiana Yearly Meeting," and this Society, 
led by Morgan, designed, erected (in 1861), and partially equipped the 
astronomical observatory on the Earlham campus. This observatory 
contained a large achromatic telescope with a six and one-half inch 
object glass. Morgan also secured through the Coast Survey in 1861 
the loan of a fine transit telescope from the U. S. Government which 
reloaned it in 1881 after learning that it was still in use at Earlham. 
The Observatory at Earlham was the first observatory in the State 
and the big telescope is still in use. 

In 1860 Morgan began teaching mathematics at Earlham but two 
years later entered the University of Michigan to study mathematics 
and astronomy. At Michigan he received the B.S. degree in Civil 
Engineering in 1863 and then returned to Earlham, teaching mathe- 
matics for two years. He spent the year 1865-1866 as an associate 
professor of mathematics at the University of Michigan and then 
returned to Earlham again for a year. In 1868 he went to Spiceland 
Academy to teach mathematics. It should be realized that Quaker 
academies like Spiceland and Bloomingdale were more than high 
schools. Bloomingdale Academy offered courses in trigonometry and 
analytic geometry as early as 1863 and Spiceland Academy was offering 
courses in analytical geometry, calculus and astronomy in 1873. While 
at Spiceland Morgan built its library up to 3,000 volumes. Several years 
after going to Spiceland he taught in the Indianapolis High School. 
In 1874 he was appointed the first Professor of Mathematics at Purdue 
University, teaching algebra, geometry, trigonometry, surveying and 
civil engineering, at a salary of $2,000 a year. However, Purdue, a 
land-grant college, set up as one of its seven professorships a military 
professorship, of which Morgan did not approve, and he resigned in 
1875. He returned to Earlham to teach chemistry and serve as Governor, 
similar to a Dean of Men. In 1876 he went to Penn College, in Oskaloosa, 
Iowa, where he taught mathematics for seven years and also served as 
President the last two years. Finally he returned to Earlham in 1883 
where he taught mathematics until his retirement in 1898. However, in 
1893, he became interested in a mathematics institute in Lowell, Kansas, 
which he founded and where he worked during his vacations. He was 
also interested in the Wyandotte and Modoc Indians who lived in 
Kansas. Following his retirement he went to Lowell, Kansas, to live. 
His death occurred there on February 22, 1904. William B. Morgan was 
a remarkable man of strong convictions and sterling character who 
helped tremendously in making Earlham one of the outstanding colleges 
of the State. 



History of Science 339 

Moses Cobb Stevens was born in Windham, Maine, on July 5, 1827. 
His early education was received in the Friends Boarding School in 
Providence, Rhode Island, where he taught five years after his gradua- 
tion. In 1852 he came to Indiana to teach mathematics in the Friends 
School known as Farmers Institute, near Lafayette. The next year he 
accepted a similar position in the Greenmount Hicksite School in Rich- 
mond, Indiana, and remained there four years. He spent the year 
1857-1858 teaching mathematics in the Friends Boarding School, later 
Earlham College, in Richmond, and was then appointed Professor of 
Mathematics in Haverford College where he remained until 1871. From 
1871 to 1880 he was Superintendent of Schools in Salem, Ohio, and 
also taught mathematics in the High School. In 1880 he became Regis- 
trar and Librarian at Purdue University. Following the retirement in 
1883 of David G. Herron, Professor of Mathematics at Purdue, Stevens 
was made Professor of Mathematics. Also in 1880 he began twelve 
years of service as a Trustee for Earlham College. Earlham conferred 
an honorary A.M. degree on him in 1883. Although a member of the 
Faculty, he was appointed Secretary of the Purdue Board of Trustees 
in 1885 serving in that capacity until 1889. He continued teaching until 
1902 and then retired as Emeritus Professor of Mathematics. 

Professor Stevens was one of the first nine Indiana men to join 
the New York Mathematical Society in 1891. This Society became the 
American Mathematical Society in 1894 and Stevens remained a mem- 
ber until his retirement in 1902. He also joined the Indiana Academy of 
Science shortly after its founding in 1885. His death occurred on March 
20, 1910. Following his death a contemporary of his wrote: "It is im- 
possible to convey to those who did not know him personally a sense of 
his fine character and estimable qualities. He expected thorough work 
from all his students and had no tolerance for the negligent or in- 
competent. In spite of these rigid classroom requirements he was 
probably the best beloved instructor who has ever served the university." 



The Development of the Science Departments 
at Indiana University 

Ernest E. Campaigne, Indiana University 1 

The growth of science at Indiana University was marked by a 
gestation period of about sixty years, followed by a brief active period 
of about twenty years during which some dozen science departments 
were born. This was followed by a quiescent time of about fifty years, 
while these departments reached maturity. Finally during the last ten 
years or so, a new period of growth activity is apparent, which involves 
realignment of faculty members and a fusion of departments. 

A State Seminary for Indiana was chartered in 1820, and opened 
its doors to Bloomington students in 1824. By act of the legislature in 
1828, the seminary became Indiana College, and in 1829 Professor John 
H. Harney was appointed to the Chair of Mathematics, Natural and 
Mechanical Philosophy, and Chemistry. Thus the sciences began at 
Indiana. Professor Harney offered courses in what would now be as- 
tronomy, biology, geology, mathematics and physics. The first building 
to have a laboratory room was completed in 1836. 

When Harney resigned in 1832, the Science Chair was taken by 
Professor E. N. Elliott, and he in turn resigned in 1837, to be replaced 
by Professor Theophilus A. Wylie, a cousin of President Andrew Wylie. 

T. A. Wylie spent forty-eight years at Indiana, not including the 
years 1854-1855 when he held the Chair of Natural History at Miami 
University. At one time or another, he taught nearly all of the science 
offerings at Indiana College. He also served as Librarian, Superintendent 
of Grounds, and on two occasions as Interim President of the University. 
During the period 1864-1867, he was listed as Professor of Greek and 
Latin. His course offerings in Natural History included Physiology, 
Hydrostatics, Mathematics, Optics, Mechanics, and Astronomy. Theophi- 
lus Wylie retired as Emeritus Professor of Physics in 1886, and it is 
quite clear that he had a strong influence on the development of the 
sciences at Indiana. 

In 1838, Indiana College became Indiana University, with authority 
to grant degrees in Law and Medicine, and in 1840 a new building 
devoted solely to Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, with lecture room, 
laboratory, and museum space, was opened. Professor Wylie was in 
charge, and emphasis was shifted toward premedical training. Following 
the return of T. A. Wylie from Miami in 1855, two notable additions to 
the Natural History area were made, which were destined to have a 
great influence on the sciences. The first was Daniel Kirkwood, ap- 
pointed in 1856. He concentrated chiefly in the area of Mathematics and 
Astronomy. The names Kirkwood Hall, Kirkwood Observatory, and 



1 1 am indebted to several faculty members, especially Professors Paul 
Weatherwax, Botany, Frank Edmondson, Astronomy, and Harry G. Day, 
Chemistry, for useful information and encouragement in the preparation 
of this report. 

340 



History of Science 341 

Kirkwood Avenue give some indication of his ultimate influence on the 
university and the community. The second notable appointment was that 
of Richard Owen, who took over the Chair of Natural Philosophy in 
1864. Apparently T. A. Wylie was moved to the Chair of Greek and 
Latin to make room for this distinguished scientist, if one can read 
between the lines. 

Richard Owen was the son of Robert Owen of New Harmony, and 
perhaps the most distinguished of the four Owen brothers. He was a 
Doctor of Medicine, ex-army officer, having served with distinction in 
both the Mexican and Civil Wars, a well-known explorer, and held the 
post of State Geologist. He was invited to join the faculty at Indiana 
University earlier, but the War Between the States intervened. The 
catalog of 1864 notes that Owen had an extensive collection of minerals, 
fossils and zoological specimens, which were displayed in the museum. 
Following his appointment at I. U., he continued his main interests in 
geology, making surveys in the southwestern United States and South 
America. He taught courses in most of the sciences, along with Kirk- 
wood, but emphasized minerology and geology. He also taught German, 
French, and Spanish on request. 

The first real division of responsibility in the sciences occurred in 
1867. Professor T. A. Wylie returned to the Chair of Natural Philosophy, 
and Owen was named Professor of Natural Science and Chemistry. 
Wylie's principal responsibilities, with the help of Kirkwood, were in 
physics, mathematics, and astronomy, while Owen taught geology and 
chemistry, and listed courses under the titles "Botany" and "Zoology" 
in the catalog (1869). 

The year 1874 saw another major advance in the sciences, with the 
opening of a three-story "Science Hall" which housed the Owen cabinet 
of minerals, as well as a museum of zoological specimens, a science 
library, and laboratories for chemistry and physics. At this time Thomas 
C. Van Niiys, M.D., was appointed Professor of Chemistry, the first full- 
time professor of a single science. Thus 1874 marks the separation of 
"Chemistry" from the Natural Sciences. 

In 1880, David Starr Jordan, another scientific giant of that era, 
arrived on campus. He had been appointed to replace Owen, who had 
recently retired, as Professor of Natural History. With an assistant, 
Gilbert, he taught assorted courses in geology, botany and anatomy, 
(with occasional modern languages). His principal interests, however, 
were in zoology, particularly fish, and he expanded the museum ex- 
tensively in this direction. The science divisions at this time, besides 
Jordan and Gilbert in Natural Histoiy, were Wylie and Kirkwood in 
Natural Philosophy, and Van Niiys in Chemistry. The first M.S. degree 
was awarded in 1882 to S. B. Wylie, an assistant to Van Niiys in 
Chemistry. 

The major changes, which occurred in the sciences at Indiana in 
the next twenty years, probably began with the disaster which befell 
the University in the summer of 1883. The new Science Hall, including 
library, museums, apparatus, and personal papers of Wylie, Kirkwood, 
Van Niiys, Jordan and others, was totally destroyed by fire. However, 



342 Indiana Academy of Science 

this only precipitated a needed change, that of the development of a 
newer and larger campus in "Dunns Woods," on the eastern edge of 
Bloomington. The first buildings, occupied in 1885, were both devoted to 
science, and are both still standing. Wylie Hall housed the divisions of 
Natural Philosophy under Wylie, and Chemistry under Van Niiys, while 
Owen Hall housed Natural History under Jordan. The difficulties of 
reestablishing the libraries, museums and laboratories of these sciences 
are the subject of another history, but that this was done in so short a 
time is a real tribute to these professors. 

The year 1885 also is a landmark in the history of the Science 
Departments at Indiana University because it was in that year that 
David Starr Jordan became President of the University. One of his first 
acts as President was to divide Natural History into two parts, retain- 
ing the Chair of Biology for himself, and appointing John C. Branner 
as Professor of Natural History. In this same year the Indiana Academy 
of Science was founded, with Jordan as its first President. 

President Jordan was the leader of the educational revolution which 
resulted in the introduction of the European "Major" system of in- 
struction, in which a student was required to concentrate on a major 
subject after two years of general university studies. This system was 
adopted at Indiana University in 1886, one year after Jordan became 
president, and required the supervision of major departments. Jordan 
immediately began this proliferation and by 1904 at least ten science 
departments had been created. 

The retirement of Theophilus Wylie in 1886 provided the oppor- 
tunity to create a Physics Department, with J. P. Naylor as Head. 
Benjamin Snow became the Head of this department in 1891, and in 
1897 Arthur Foley took over the department as head, a position he 
retained until 1938. From 1938 to 1964 Allan C. G. Mitchell was Head 
of Physics, and since 1965, Professor Lawrence M. Langer has been 
Chairman. 

Chemistry, which had been nearest to a science department since 
1874, was officially designated as a department with Van Niiys as 
Head in 1886. Robert E. Lyons joined this department in 1889 as 
Assistant Professor, and became Head in 1895, a position he retained 
until 1938. H, T. Briscoe, later Dean of Faculties, joined the department 
in 1922, and became Head in 1938. Ralph Shriner was called from 
Illinois to be the Head of Chemistry in 1941, and Frank Mathers, who 
joined the faculty in 1903, was Acting Head, 1946-47. Frank T. Gucker, 
Jr. was then called from Northwestern University to Chair the De- 
partment in 1947, and when he became Dean of Arts and Sciences in 
1951, Harry G. Day, who had joined the department in 1940, became 
Chairman. A five-year rotating chairmanship was established with the 
appointment of V. J. Shiner, Jr. in 1962, followed by Riley Schaeffer in 
1967. Chemistry also established a first on campus, with the dedication of 
a new building devoted exclusively to one science in 1931. 

The year 1886 also saw the creation of a Department of Astronomy 
and Mathematics, headed by Joseph Swain, another well memorialized 
name in Bloomington, since he became President of the University in 



History of Science 343 

1893. Robert J. Aley headed this department from 1891 to 1900. The two 
departments were separated in 1900, with John A. Miller as Head of 
Astronomy, and Aley as Head of Mathematics. W. A. Cogshall succeeded 
Miller as Head of Astronomy in 1907, and remained until he retired in 
1944. Since then, Frank Edmondson, the present Head, has been in 
charge. The mathematics department is noted for a number of dis- 
tinguished mathematicians, such as Davisson, Hanna, and Rothrock, 
and more recently Hlavaty, to name only a few. In 1912, the first Ph.D. 
in mathematics awarded in the state went to Cora B. Hennel, later an 
outstanding member of the department. 

By 1888 the Biology Department, headed by President Jordan, was 
proving to be administratively cumbersome, and two new departments, 
Zoology, headed by Jordan, and Botany were created. Carl Eigenmann 
was appointed to the Zoology faculty at this time and in 1891 he be- 
came Head of the department, a position he retained until 1925. Eigen- 
mann was a world-famous ichthyologist and was also the first Dean of 
the Graduate School, a post created in 1908. Eigenmann had the ability 
to recognize good people, as the appointment of W. J. Moenkhaus 
(Curator of the Zoology museum in 1893), Fernandus Payne (Assistant 
Professor, 1909) and Alfred C. Kinsey (instructor, 1920) showed. 
Fernandus Payne followed Eigenmann as Head of Zoology and Dean of 
the Graduate School from 1925-1948, when T. W. Torrey became De- 
partment Chairman, to be followed by W. R. Breneman in 1965. The 
Jordan Hall of Biology was occupied in 1955. 

Douglas Campbell was the first Head of Botany, but he followed 
David Starr Jordan to Stanford in 1891, when D. M. Mottier became 
Head, and held this post until 1937, a period of forty-six years. Botany 
was strengthened by the appointment of J. M. Coulter, of Wabash Col- 
lege, to the Presidency of Indiana University in 1891. Coulter was an 
outstanding botanist, and a former president of the academy (1887). 
Paul Weatherwax, Acting Head 1937-1938, joined the department in 
1915 and only recently retired (1959). Ralph Cleland became Head of 
the Department in 1938, retiring in 1963, and was then followed by 
Marcus Rhodes, who came to the position from the University of Illinois. 

In 1884 William Lowe Bryan was appointed to the Faculty of 
Natural History, a department still headed by Jordan. J. C. Branner 
continued as Head of this department from 1885, but in 1890 the de- 
partment was divided into Psychology, with W. L. Bryan as Head, and 
Geology and Geography, with Branner as Head. William Lowe Bryan 
became President of the University in 1902, but remained responsible 
for Psychology. E. R. Cumings became Head of the Geology and 
Geography Department in 1902 and remained as Head until 1942. In 
1918 the eminent Geologist C. A. Malott joined the staff, and in 1919 
the well-known geographer S. S. Visher came to Indiana as a member 
of this department. 

Shortly after the appointment of Bryan as president, the Graduate 
School was created. Another departmental fragmentation occurred in 
1904, when Zoology was divided into Anatomy, Physiology, under W. J. 
Moenkhaus, and Zoology, under Eigenmann. With this division, relative 



344 Indiana Academy of Science 

quiet descended on campus, and few new science departments were 
created in the next 40 years. President William Lowe Bryan's ad- 
ministration (1902-1937) was marked by small turnover in departments 
or departmental administrations. There were about eleven science de- 
partments in 1905, Anatomy, Astronomy, Botany, Chemistry, Geology, 
Mathematics, Pathology and Bacteriology, Physics, Physiology, Psy- 
chology, and Zoology. Among these W. A. Cogshall was Head of 
Astronomy, (1907-1944); D. M. Mottier was head of Botany, (1891- 
1937); Robert E. Lyons was Head of Chemistry, (1895-1939); E. R. 
Cumings was Head of Geology, (1902-1942); Arthur Foley was head of 
Physics, (1897-1938); W. J. Moenkhaus was Head of Physiology, (1904- 
1941); and Zoology had the distinction of having had two Heads, Eigen- 
mann, (1891-1925) and Payne, (1925-1948). It should be noted that 
both of these men were Deans of the Graduate School during their 
tenure as Heads of the Zoology department The watchword of the 
Bryan Administration may well have been "stability." 

Immediately after the second world war new departments began 
to proliferate again. In 1946, Anthropology, which had been taught as 
part of the Zoology Department with the appointment of George Neu- 
mann in 1943, became a separate department. Bacteriology was orig- 
inally taught by Lyons in the Chemistry Department (1896-1905), but 
in 1905 a Department of Pathology and Bacteriology was created as 
part of the Medical School. In 1940 L. S. McClung joined the Botany 
faculty and was responsible for bacteriology there until 1946, when a 
separate department, with McClung as Head, was organized. This de- 
partment became Microbiology, Chaired by Professor Howard Gest, in 
1965. The year 1946 also saw the division of Geology and Geography. 
Following the retirement of E. R. Cumings from the headship in 1942, 
C. A. Malott had been active head of Geology and Geography, 1942- 
1945, when Charles F. Deiss was appointed chairman. The following 
year Otis P. Starkey was appointed chairman of the newly created 
Geography Department, and Deiss continued in Geology until 1959. John 
B. Patton, the present Chairman of Geology, was appointed in 1959. 
Following Starkey's retirement from the chair of Geography in 1956, 
it has been chaired by J. F. Hart (acting, 1956-'57), George H. T. 
Kimball (1957-'62), Norman Pounds (1962-'65) and since then by D. C. 
Bennett. 

While some departmental splintering continues, the trend of the 
sixties seems to realignment. The sciences have so far separated, since 
the days when a man studied Natural Philosophy, that some of the 
scientists in certain departments have become lonesome for others who 
can speak their "language." Some of the chemists find themselves more 
at home with certain physicists, and a special program in Chemical 
Physics was established (1963). The biochemists found themselves 
isolated in different departments, and banded together as a special 
"committee" with members from chemistry, several of the biological 
sciences, and the Medical School. It is noteworthy that eighty years 
after the Department of Biology was created, the year 1965 saw the 
several separate departments — Anatomy, Botany, Microbiology, Physiol- 



History of Science 345 

ogy and Zoology — banded together again as the Division of Biological 
Sciences, with Frank Putnam, a well-known biochemist, as director. 

The 1967-1968 Graduate Catalog at Indiana lists twenty-eight 
science departments, divisions, or programs. These include Astrophysics, 
Biochemistry, Chemical Physics, History and Philosophy of Science, 
Earth Sciences, Mathematical Physics, Medical Genetics, and Physio- 
logical Optics. These are all interdisciplinary. Possible programs such 
as Chemical Mathematics and Pharmacological Chemistry are under 
discussion. As faculty members of individual departments have found 
themselves further and further removed from each other in interests and 
scientific language, they have become closer and closer to members of 
other departments. The resulting dialogs have led to a desire to formal- 
ize these mutual interests without actually leaving the basic depart- 
ments — hence the creation of interdisciplinary "area" programs. 

At Indiana University, the nineteen-sixties appear to be an era of 
ferment in science organizatioon and administration similar to that of 
the eighteen-eighties and nineties. It is certain that interesting re- 
organization will occur. It is hoped that those responsible will keep 
accurate records for future historians. 

Literature Sources 

1. Lyons, R. E. 1931. The History of Chemistry at Indiana University. 
Indiana University News Letter, Vol. XIX, No. 3. 

2. McClung, L. S. 1944. History of Bacteriology at Indiana University. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Science 53:59-61. 

3. Torrey, T. W. 1949. Zoology and Its Makers at Indiana University. Bios. 
20:67-99. 

4. Visher, S. S. 1951. Indiana Scientists. Indiana Academy of Science, Indi- 
anapolis. 



PHYSICS 

Chairman: Konstantin Kolitschew, Indiana Central College 
E. C. Craig, Ball State University, was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

Chemical Effects on Nuclear Transitions. Guy T. Emery, Indiana Uni- 
versity. — Some of the interactions between nuclei and their atomic 
surroundings are reviewed, especially those in which a change in the 
chemical or structural form of the surroundings has an influence on the 
half life of nuclear transitions or on the spectrum of emitted radiation. 
It is pointed out that such a study of internal conversion spectra can 
constitute a measurement of the electric charge density, in certain 
inner parts of the atom, corresponding to individual electronic eigen- 
tions. Such measurements may be useful for chemistry and solid state 
physics. 

Strong Coupling Superconductors. J. C. Swihart, Indiana University. 
■ — Most superconductors behave in a similar manner to each other when 
they are described in terms of the proper reduced variables. That is, 
they obey a so-called "law of corresponding states." This behavior is 
well understood in terms of the theory of Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrief- 
fer (the BCS theory). However some superconductors, particularly lead 
and mercury, exhibit anomalous behavior. These are also the materials 
for which the electron-phonon interaction (the interaction responsible 
for superconductivity in the first place) is the strongest. The BCS 
theory has been generalized to handle the effects of this strong coupling. 
We shall present the results of calculations applying this generalized 
theory to models of lead, mercury, tin, indium, and aluminum. Com- 
parisons with experimental results will be made for the critical field, 
the condensation energy, the thermal conductivity, and other observable 
phenomena. 

NOTES 

Planned 200-MeV Indiana University Cyclotron: Properties and Unique 
Features.! M. B. Sampson, M. E. Rickey, B. M. Bardin, and D. W. 
Miller, Indiana University. — The Indiana University Cyclotron group 
is engaged in the design and development of a unique variable energy 
accelerator to replace the old C.W. machine which is now at the end 
of its useful life. The new accelerator will be capable of producing a 
high quality beam of 10 ~ 100 microamperes of 200 MeV protons as 
well as other light and heavy ions to an e/m of 1/6. It will consist of 
an external ion source and 500 KeV D.C. supply capable of injecting a 
pulsed beam into a four sector isochronous separated radial sector 
machine to produce a beam of approximately 10 MeV. This beam is 
then injected into a second similar 4-sector machine where it attains the 



1 Work supported in part by the National Science Foundation. 

347 



348 Indiana Academy of Science 

final energy. It appears possible to extract nearly all of the beam, well 
defined in energy, and angular spread. 

The fields of research are planned to take advantage of the 
previously uninvestigated range of energy covered by this accelerator. 
The reearch areas will be: the extension of our previous nuclear struc- 
ture and polarization studies to higher energies, the investigation of iso- 
baric analogue states, low energy (p, -k) reactions and the use of par- 
tially stripped heavy ions to produce beams of the order if 10 to 14 
MeV per nucleon. 

The building is being designed with optimum flexibility to provide 
a variety of beams and areas for research. 

A computer program of orbit dynamics has been worked out and is 
giving excellent results. 

Model and analogue studies are in progress to measure the magnetic 
fluids produced by the magnet and coil geometries. Shielding require- 
ments are being studied along with details of the mechanical and electri- 
cal design of the accelerator. 

Present plans are to construct and test the 10 MeV stage in the 
old cyclotron wing while the new building is in progress. 

Other papers read 

A Computer-Controlled Film Scanner. R. R. Crittenden, K. A. Potocki, 
and W. F. Prickett, Indiana University. 

The Preparation of a Physics Teacher. R. W. Lefler, Purdue University 
(by invitation). 



PLANT TAXONOMY 

Chairman: Damian Schmelz, Purdue University 
C. A. Markle, Earlham College, was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

The Taxonomic Relationship of Chenopodium quinoa and Cheno podium 
nuttalliae. David C. Nelson, Indiana University. — Chenopodium quinoa 
Willdenow, cultivated in South America, and Chenopodium nuttalliae 
Safford, cultivated in Mexico, share many morphological features in 
common, particularly in the seeds. Recognition of the similarities of the 
cultivated chenopodiums of these two regions has led some investigators 
to suggest that only one species is involved. This paper discusses the 
disposition of these taxa and new evidence for justifying the mainte- 
nance of C. quinoa and C. nuttalliae as separate species. 

The Genus Cyclanthera (Cucurbitaceae). C. Eugene Jones, Indiana Uni- 
versity. — The genus Cyclanthera consists of approximately 35 species 
which are distributed more or less continuously from Southwestern 
United States through Central America and throughout most of South 
America. Heinrich Adolph Schrader described the genus in 1831, de- 
limiting the type species, Cyclanthera pedata, from Momordica pedata 
of Linneaus. The only treatment of the genus was conducted by Alfred 
Cogniaux and published in 1871. There seems to be two main cultivated 
species, C. pedata and C. explodens. C. pedata is probably Peruvian in 
origin. This conclusion is supported by Bukasov, who maintains that 
the most widely used common names for this species are all Peruvian in 
origin; by Larco, who has found fruits of this species represented 
among Cupisnique ceramics on the north coast of Peru dating from the 
Formative Epoch or about 750 B. C; and by the occurrence in Peru of 
a semi-wild entity, which may be an ancestral type of C. pedata. The 
origin of cultivation of the other cultigen, C. explodens, is obscured 
by several taxonomic difficulties; for example, plants grown from seeds 
obtained from fruits sold in the markets of either Ecuador or Peru as 
C. explodens, turned out to be two morphologically and genetically 
distinct species. Recriprocal crosses involving four species have been 
attempted and the results indicate that the species have developed 
rather extensive isolating barriers. 

The Origin of Variation in the Cultivated Forms of Schizanthus (Sol- 
anaceae). Dirk R. Walters, Indiana University. — Preliminary work 
indicates that the variability found in the cultivated forms of Schizan- 
thus arose through interspecific hybridization. Almost all of the dozen 
or so wild species, all native to Chile, are known to have been culti- 
vated in Europe since 1822. At present the cultivated forms show a 
broad, continuous range of variation in color, size, and shape of floral 
parts and size and degree of lobing of the leaves. All cultivated forms 
have shown a chromosome number of n=10, the same as that reported 

349 



350 Indiana Academy of Science 

for wild species. The cultivated forms and hybrids between them are 
characterized by pollen stainabilities ranging from 60 to 80%. Evidence 
is given which indicates that the cultivated varieties most closely re- 
semble £. pinnatus R. & P. but show certain characters that might 
have come from S. grahami Gill. The cross between these two species 
could not be secured. 

Evolution in the Genus Mentha. Merritt J. Murray, A. M. Todd 
Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan. — In addition to the development of a 
polyploid series of 2n, 4n and 8n species, dominant gene mutations and 
interspecific hybridization have contributed to the variability found in 
the genus Mentha. The paper also discusses the taxonomist's frequent 
use of the symbol X for "hybrid species" as opposed to "non-hybrid 
species." 



Hookeriaceae Species and Distribution in North and 
Central America and West Indies 1 

Winona H. Welch, DePauw University 

Abstract 

Since 1808, when the orig-inal description of Hookeria was published, 
the number of species described in the Hookeriaceae, a moss family, has 
increased into the hundreds. In the larg-e amount of literature which has 
resulted, there are very few keys to genera and species. Floras, manuals, 
and monographs treating this family are scarce. A list of presently known 
North and Central American and West Indian species of Hookeriaceae 
in a geographical assemblage is presented as an aid to determining col- 
lections of Hookeriaceae from these specific geographical areas. Apparently, 
the center of distribution of the species in this family, in the Americas, 
is in the tropics. The directions of distribution are mostly north and 
south. The patterns of distribution are presented. In the Hookeriaceae, the 
number of genera and species and endemism increase from Alaska and 
Canada to and through Central America and the West Indies. One species, 
Hookeria acutifolia Hook. & Grev., has been collected in five Indiana 
counties. 

Many years ago, the late Edwin B. Bartram suggested to the author 
that the Hookeriaceae needed monographic study. The original descrip- 
tion of the genus Hookeria was published in 1808. The number of species 
and varieties described since that date is in the hundreds. The writer 
once counted the names (species, varieties, and forms) in the family, 
approaching a total of almost one thousand. Many of these are 
synonyms and probably the number of synonyms will increase as 
monographic studies are completed. Also, it may be assumed that new 
species will be described. The family Hookeriaceae is composed of 38 
genera. 

In the study of the collections of Hookeriaceae and in the deter- 
mination of specimens from various countries and islands, one discovers 
that the number of keys to the genera and species is very small. Those 
which exist are for the specific areas covered by the publications. The 
descriptions are in a large number of publications throughout the world 
and often in articles other than moss floras or manuals. Frequently 
the treatises pertain to all mosses of a specific area and have no keys. 

Under these circumstances, how may one proceed upon receipt of 
numerous collections for determination if one is unacquainted with the 
Hookeriaceae of that specific country or island, and of publications 
pertaining to same? In doing monographic work in this family, the 
writer has prepared a card file of the species, varieties, and forms, and 
the references to publications concerning each. A reference library of 
the original descriptions of each and additional source materials are at 



1 This paper is dedicated to Dr. Ralph E. Cleland in appreciation of his 
invitation to teach the first Bryophyte Course in an Indiana University 
Summer Session, in 1956, and in gratitude for the privilege of working 
with him as an expedient chairman, on Indiana Academy of Science com- 
mittees. 

351 



352 Indiana Academy of Science 

hand. Recently the author has completed a list of Hookeriaceae species 
and varieties with the geographical areas of the world in which each 
occurs. These data provide an indication of the descriptions of genera 
and species which may be read by a bryologist as an aid in determining 
the collections from a specific area. 

This list has been compiled from the four volumes of Index 
Muscorum, prepared by Wijk, Margadant, and Florschiitz (3) for the 
International Bureau of Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature of the 
International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Without these very use- 
ful volumes, this reference material concerning Hookeriaceae species 
and distribution could not have been assembled. 

The names recorded in the following lists are those cited in the 
Index (3) as valid epithets. The synonyms have been omitted. Ap- 
parently the Index treats Mexico as a part of Central America instead 
of North America. The author refers to North America as composed of 
Canada, United States, and Mexico. The species listed under America 1 
in this study are based upon the writer's monographic publications 
(1, 2) on North American Hookeriaceae; some of those under America 
3 are included in the author's manuscript, in process, on Cuban Hook- 
eriaceae. The asterisk before the epithet indicates the species and 
varieties which are not known to occur in other geographical areas 
than the one cited. 

A survey of the Hookeriaceae genera in North America, beginning 
in the far north, shows one genus in Alaska, Canada, and through the 
mainland of the United States to the southeastern states, where there 
are three additional genera. The number increases to eleven in Mexico. 
In Central America, the same genera occur with eight additional, making 
a total of nineteen genera. In the West Indies there are eighteen 
genera known, adding one to the Central American list and omitting 
two. 

Continuing the survey, the number of species increases from one 
in Alaska to two in Canada and the mainland of the United States, 
while in the southeastern states four species are known, resulting in a 
total of five for Canada and the United States. In Mexico there are 
thirty-one additional species, making a total of thirty-six North Amer- 
ican species. Continuing into Central America, ninety-five species and 
varieties have been recorded. The number reported for the West Indies 
is one hundred and eight species and varieties. In comparing the species 
recorded for Central America with those of North America, there are 
over two and one-half times as many in Central America, and three 
times as many in the West Indian Islands. These data show that this 
family of mosses is more abundant in tropical areas than in the North 
Temperate zone. No Hookeriaceae are known in Arctica and Antarctica. 

According to the data available in this study of species and varie- 
ties within the geographical areas cited, a large number of endemic 
species occur in Central America and the West Indies, forty-four in the 
former and fifty-nine in the latter. In contrast, only seven endemic 
species are known presently in North America, all in Mexico. 



Plant Taxonomy 353 

The following distribution patterns and ranges have been observed 
in this study. Probably they will change somewhat as additional areas 
are covered by collectors in future years and as the monographic 
studies of the family are continued. 

Some species occur from southeastern United States, through 
Mexico, Central America, West Indies, and the northern half of South 
America: e.g., Adelothecium bogotense, Callicostella pallida, Cyclodic- 
tyon albicans, Hookeriopsis cruegeriana, Isodrepanium lentulum, and 
Lepidopilum radicale. Other species are known from southeastern 
United States to southern South America: Crossomitrium patrisiae, 
Daltonia gracilis, Lepidopilum polytrichoides, and L. scabrisetum. 
Cyclodictyon varians has been recorded in southeastern United States 
and the West Indies. 

Hookeriaceae presently known in Mexico and Central America are 
Callicostella ciliata, Cyclodictyon erubescens, C. humectatum, Lepido- 
pilum falcatulum, L. mohrianum, and Leskeodon mexicanus. A group of 
species known to occur in Mexico, Central America, and West Indies 
consists of Callicostella bernoullii, Lepidopilum cubense, and Rhyn- 
chostegiopsis flexuosa. Cyclodictyon roridum, Daltonia longifolia, and 
Lepidopilum tortifolium have been collected in Mexico, Central America, 
West Indies, and northwestern South America. Another pattern of 
distribution combines Mexico, West Indies, and northwestern South 
America as is illustrated by Lepidopilum radicale. Still another is com- 
posed of Mexico, Central America, and northwestern South America, as 
shown by collections of Cyclodictyon rubrisetum, Lepidopilum brevipes, 
and L. cameum. 

There are some species which presently are not known to occur in 
North America. Considering Central America and the West Indies, 
the distribution range is illustrated by Hookeriopsis falcatula, Lepido- 
pilum diaphanum, and Stenodictyon sericeum. Another distribution pat- 
tern includes species from Central America, West Indies, and north- 
western South America: Callicostella scabriseta, Hookeriopsis falcata, 
H. undata, Leskeodon andicola, and L. pusillus. Callicostella depressa 
and Hookeriopsis acicularis indicate a distribution pattern which in- 
cludes Central America, West Indian Islands, and northeastern South 
America. A combination of Central America, West Indies, and the 
northern half of South America is indicated by Cyclodictyon cuspidatum, 
Daltonia stenophylla, and Hemiragis aurea. Callicostella scabriseta and 
Hookeriopsis incurva occur in Central America, West Indies, and 
throughout South America. It is also observed that Central America 
and northwestern South America have a distribution pattern as shown 
by Daltonia tenuifolia, Hookeriopsis diffusa, H. subfalcata, and Lepi- 
dopilum semi-laeve. Another pattern includes Central America and the 
northern half of South America, characterized by the following species: 
Hookeriopsis crispa, H. variabilis, Hypnella pilifera, and Philophyllum 
tenuif 'olium. 

Based upon reports we note a distribution relationship between the 
West Indian Islands and northwestern South America as illustrated 
by Callicostella rivularis, Cyclodictyon denticulatum, C. lindigianum, C. 



354 Indiana Academy of Science 

ulophyllum, Lepidopilum muelleri, and L. robustum. Another is between 
the West Indies and northeastern South America: e.g., Cyclodictyon 
olfersianum, Hypnella cymbifolia, Lepidopilidium portoricense, Lepi- 
dopilum intermedium, L. sub auri folium, Leskeodon auratus, and L. 
cubensis. Another combines the West Indies and the northern half of 
South America as indicated by Hypnella diversifolia and H. leptor- 
rhyncha. 

Due to the positions of North, Central, and South America and the 
West Indian Islands, the north and south direction of distribution of 
species would be anticipated. However, three species, Hookeria acutifolia, 
H. lucens, and Daltonia splachnoides, appear to have an east and west 
direction of distribution. Hookeria acutifolia is a species with a very 
wide distribution, being- reported from nine of the Index Muscorum 
geographical areas, including the three Americas, three Asiatic areas, 
and Oceania. H. lucens has been reported from northern North America, 
Europe, northern Africa and adjacent Asia. Daltonia splachnoides has 
been recorded from Central America, Europe, Central Africa, Australia, 
and New Zealand. 

America 1: North America, Greenland, Aleutian Islands, Bermudas. 

No Hookeriaceae are known from Greenland. 

Adelothecium bogotense (Hampe) Mitt.; Callicostella bernoullii 
(Hampe) Broth.; C. ciliata (Schimp.) Jaeg.; *C. mexicana Robins. & 
Welch; C. pallida (Hornsch.) Aongstr.; Crossomitrium patrisiae (Brid.) 
C. Muell.; Cyclodictyon albicans (Hedw.) Kuntze; *C, arsenei Ther.; 
C. erubescens Bartr. ; C. humectatum Card.; C. roridum (Hampe) 
Kuntze; C. rubrisetum (Mitt.) Kuntze; C. varians (Sull.) Kuntze (only 
species reported from Bermuda); Daltonia gracilis Mitt.; D. longifolia 
Tayl.; Hookeria acutifolia Hook. & Grev.; H. lucens (Hedw.) Sm. 
(northernmost species in Hookeriaceae) ; Hookeriopsis cruegeriana (C. 
Muell.) Jaeg.; *H. heteroica Card.; Isodrepanium lentulum (Wils.) 
Britt. ; * Lepidopilum apophysatum Hampe ; L. brevipes Mitt. ; L. carneum 
Bartr.; L. cubense (Sull.) Mitt.; *L. deppeanum (C. Muell.) Mitt.; 
L. falcatulum C. Muell.; *L. filiferum Besch.; L. mohrianum C. Muell.; 
*L. nitidum Besch.; L. polytrichoides (Hedw.) Brid.; L. pringlei Card.; 
L. radicale Mitt.; L. scabrisetum (Schwaeger.) Steere; L. tortifolium 
Mitt.; Leskeodon mexicanus Card.; Rhynchostegiopsis flexuosa (Sull.) 
C. Muell. 

America 2: Central America and Cocos Island. 

*Actinodontium standleyi Bartr.; Adelothecium bogotense (Hamp.) 
Mitt.; * Callicostella aquatica Bartr.; C. bernoullii (Hamp.) Broth.; C. 
ciliata (Schimp.) Jaeg.; C. depressa (Hedw.) Jaeg.; *C. disticha 
Aongstr.; *C. fallax (C. Muell.) Broth.; *C. heterophylla Aongstr.; *C. 
hondurensis Crum; *C. oerstediana (C. Muell.) Jaeg.; C. pallida 
(Hornsch.) Aongstr.; C. scabriseta (Hook.) Jaeg.; *C. tenerrima Bartr.; 
*C. vatteri Bartr.; *C. virens Ren. & Card.; * Crossomitrium acuminatum 
Bartr.; *C. herminieri (Besch.) Jaeg.; *C. heterodontium Ren. & Card.; 
*C. oerstedianum C. Muell.; C. patrisiae (Brid.) C. Muell.; *C. scab- 



Plant Taxonomy 355 

risetum Bartr. ; C. wallisii C. Muell.; Cyclodictyon albicans (Hedw.) 
Kuntze; *C brittonae Bartr.; C. cuspidatum Kuntze; C. erubescens 
Bartr.; C. humectatum Card.; *C. liebmannii (Schimp.) Kuntze; *C. 
maxonii Williams; C. roridum (Hamp.) Kuntze; C. vubvisetum (Mitt.) 
Kuntze; Daltonia gracilis Mitt.; D. longifolia Tayl.; D. splachnoides 
(Sm.) Hook. & Tayl.; D. stenophylla Mitt.; D. tenuifolia Mitt.; Hemi- 
ragis aurea (Brid.) Ren. & Card.; Hookeria acutifolia Hook. & Grev. ; 
Hookeriopsis acicularis (Mitt.) Jaeg.; *H. angustiretis Bartr.; *H. 
callicostelloides Herz. & Ther. ; H. crispa (C. Muell.) Jaeg.; H. crueg- 
eriana (C. Muell.) Jaeg.; H. diffusa (Mitt.) Jaeg.; H. falcata (Hook.) 
Jaeg.; H. falcatula (Besch.) Jaeg.; *H. guatemalensis Bartr.; H. 
incurva (Hornsch.) Broth.; *H. laevinervis Ren. & Card.; *H. levieri 
(Broth.) Broth.; *H. obtusi folia Bartr.; *H. panamensis Bartr.; *H. 
standleyi Bartr.; H. sub falcata (Hamp.) Jaeg.; H. undata (Hedw.) 
Jaeg.; H. variabilis (Mitt.) Jaeg.; Hypnella pilifera (Hook. & Wils.) 
Jaeg.; *H. wrightii (Sull. & Lesq.) Jaeg.; Isodrepanium lentulum 
(Wils.) Britt.; *Lepidopilidium subdivaricatum (Ren. & Card.) Broth.; 
*Lepidopilum apiculatum Bartr.; *L. apollinairei Broth. & Par.; L. 
brevipes Mitt.; L. carnev/m Bartr.; *L. contiguum Ren. & Card.; *L. 
crassisetum Williams; L. cubense (Sull.) Mitt.; L. diaphanum (Hedw.) 
Mitt.; L. falcatulum C. Muell.; *L. floresianum Ren. & Card.; *L. 
genuflexum C. Muell.; *L. haplociliatum (C. Muell.) Par.; *L.laetenitens 
Ren. & Card.; *L. livens Besch.; L. mohrianum C. Muell.; *L. platy- 
phyllum Ren. & Card.; L. polytrichoides (Hedw.) Brid.; L. pringlei 
Card.; *L. quadrif avium Herz.; L. radicale Mitt.; *L. rotundif olium 
Bartr.; L. scabvisetum (Schwaegr.) Steere; L. semi-laeve Mitt.; *L. 
skutchii Bartr.; *L. subtovti folium Bartr.; L. tor tif olium Mitt.; Les- 
keodon andicola (Spruce) Broth.; L. mexicanus Card.; L. pusillus 
(Mitt.) Broth.; *Neohypnella mucronifolia Bartr.; Philophyllum tenui- 
f olium (Mitt.) Broth.; *Pseudohypnella mucronifolia Bartr.; Rhyn- 
chostegiopsis flexuosa (Sull.) C. Muell.; Stenodictyon sericeum Bartr. 

America 3: West Indies 

*Actinodontium portoricense Crum & Steere; Adelothecium bogo- 
tense (Hamp.) Mitt.; *Amblytropis denticulata Ther.; Callicostella 
bernoullii (Hamp.) Broth.; *C. colombica Williams; C. depressa (Hedw.) 
Jaeg.; *C. depressa var. rubella (Besch.) Wijk & Marg.; *C. depres- 
sula Jaeg.; *C filescens (Schimp.) Jaeg.; *C. hahniana (Besch.) 
Jaeg.; *C leonii Ther.; C. pallida (Hornsch.) Aongstr. ; *C radicans 
(Besch.) Jaeg.; C. rivularis (Mitt.) Jaeg.; C. scabriseta (Hook.) Jaeg.; 
::: C. subfissidentoides (Besch.) Broth.; C. subpallida Ren. & Card.; 
Crossomitrium cruegeri C. Muell.; *C. cubense P. Vard. & Ther.; *C. 
ovbiculatum C. Muell.; C. patvisiae (Brid.) C. Muell.; *C sintenisii 
C. Muell.; *C. subepiphyllum (Besch.) Jaeg.; Cyclodictyon albicans 
(Hedw.) Kuntze; *C. albicaule (Besch.) Kuntze; *C. bicolov (Besch.) 
Kuntze; *C. blandum (Lor.) Kuntze; C. cuspidatum Kuntze; *C densi- 
f olium (Broth.) Broth.; C. denticulatum Kuntze; *C. dussii Broth.; *C. 
hyalinum (Besch.) Kuntze; :;: C. limbatulum (Broth.) Broth.; C. lindi- 
gianum (Hamp.) Kuntze; C. lindigianum var. acunae Ther.; *C 



356 Indiana Academy of Science 

obliquicuspis (C. Muell.) Crum & Bartr.; C. olfersianum (Hornsch.) 
Kuntze; *C. prasiophyllum (Besch.) Broth.; C. roridum (Hamp.) 
Kuntze; *C subglareosum (Broth.) Broth.; C. ulophyllum (Besch.) 
Broth.; C. varians (Sull.) Kuntze; Daltonia gracilis Mitt.; D. longi- 
folia Tayl. ; D. ste?wphylla Mitt.; Hemiragis aurea (Brid.) Ren. & Card.; 
Hookeria acutifolia Hook. & Grev.; *#. dussii Besch.; *H. obliquicuspis 
C. Muell.; Hookeriopsis acicularis (Mitt.) Jaeg.; *H. borinquensis 
Crum & Steere; H. cruegeriana (C. Muell.) Jaeg.; *H. cubensis Ther.; 
*H. dimorpha (C. Muell.) Broth.; H. falcata (Hook.) Jaeg.; H. falcatula 
(Besch.) Jaeg.; *H. fissidentoides (Hook. f. & Wils.) Jaeg.; *H. guada- 
lupensis (Brid.) Jaeg.; *H. hospitans (Besch.) Jaeg.; *H. hypniformis 
(Besch.) Jaeg.; H. incurva (Hornsch.) Broth.; *H. leiophylla (Besch.) 
Jaeg.; *H. luteo-ruf escens (Besch.) Jaeg.; *£T. obsoletinervis Ther.; 
*H. rufa (Besch.) Jaeg.; *H. subincurva Ther.; H. undata (Hedw.) 
Jaeg.; *Hypnella cymbifolia (Hamp.) Jaeg.; H. diversifolia (Mitt.) 
Jaeg.; *H. filifomnis (Hook. & Grev.) Jaeg.; H. leptorrhyncha (Hook. 
& Grev.) Jaeg.; Isodrepanium lentulum (Wils.) Britt; Lepidopilidium 
portoricense (C. Muell.) Crum & Steere; *Lepidopilum amplirete 
(Sull.) Mitt.; *L. antillarum Mitt.; L. aureo-fulvum C. Muell.; L. 
cub ens e (Sull.) Mitt.; *L. cubense f. integrifolia Ther.; *L. cubense f. 
latifolia Ther.; *L. cubense f. robusta Ther.; L. diaphanum (Hedw.) 
Mitt.; *L. dominicense Bartr.; *L. integrifolium Broth.; L. intermedium 
(C. Muell.) Mitt.; L. muelleri (Hamp.) Spruce; L. polytrichoides 
(Hedw.) Brid.; *L. polytrichoides var. pellucens Besch.; *L. purpuras- 
cens Schimp.; L. radicale Mitt.; L. robustum Mitt.; L. scabrisetum 
(Schwaegr.) Steere; *L. stolonaceum C. Muell.; L. subaurifolium Geh. 
& Hamp.; Leskeodon andicola (Spruce) Broth.; L. auratus (C. Muell.) 
Broth.; L. cubensis (Mitt.) Ther.; *L. dussii (Besch.) Bartr.; *L. 
longipilus (Besch.) Bartr.; *L. mariei (Besch.) Broth.; *L. parvulus 
(Besch.) Broth.; L. pusillus (Mitt.) Broth.; *Neohypnella diversifolia 
(Mitt.) Welch & Crum; Rhynchostegiopsis flexuosa (Sull.) C. Muell.; 
*JS. lutescens Britt.; *R. planifolia Crum & Bartr.; *R. serrata (Besch.) 
Broth.; *Stenodictyon pallidum Crum & Steere; S. sericeum Bartr. 

This study of the citations in the Index Muscorum has given the 
writer a perspective of the family Hookeriaceae not attained previously 
through the monographic preparations. 

Literature Cited 

1. Welch, Winona H. 1962. The Hookeriaceae of the United States and 
Canada. The Bryolog-ist 65(l):l-24. 

2. Welch, Winona H. 1966. The Hookeriaceae of Mexico. The Bryologist 
6»(l):l-68. 

3. Wuk, R. van der, W. D. Margadant, and P. A. Florschutz. 1959, 1962, 
1964, 1967. Index Muscorum. Vol. 1-4. Utrecht, The Netherlands. 



A Taxonomic Study of Genus Polygonum, Section 
Polygonum (Avicularia) in Indiana and Wisconsin 1 

Argyle D. Savage and Thomas R. Mertens, Ball State University 



Abstract 

Study of herbarium specimens and collection of fresh plants reveal 
that five species of Polygonum, sect. Polygonum, occur in Indiana and Wis- 
consin. These species are P. ramosissimum, P. erectum, P. arenastrum, P. 
aviculare, and P. buxiforme. P. tenue is also found in both states, but evi- 
dence indicates that it belongs to sect. Duravia. On the basis of distinctive 
morphological characteristics, P. buxiforme should be considered as a taxon 
separate from P. arenastrum and P. aviculare, although all three species 
belong to the P. aviculare complex. P. arenastrum appears to be the most 
widely collected species of the P. aviculare aggregate in North America. 
Distribution records for the six species of Polygonum dealt with herein 
were revised and additional county records are reported. The chromosome 
number for P. erectum collected in Porter County, Indiana, was determined 
to be 2n — ca. 40. All five species of sect. Polygonum occurring in Indiana 
and Wisconsin produce abnormal, enlarged, olivaceous achenes late in the 
growing season. This trait should be investigated and its physiology 
should be determined. 

Introduction 

The limits of genus Polygonum, sect. Polygonum, were established 
on the basis of pollen morphology by Hedberg (4). Excluded from sect. 
Polygonum are most of the species native to North America, which are 
assigned to sect. Duravia. A detailed biosystematic study of sect. 
Polygonum in the British Isles enabled Styles (9) to establish species 
limits based primarily on flower and achene characteristics. These traits 
were correlated with plant habit, leaf characteristics, chromosome 
number, and habitat. The investigations of Hedberg (4) and Styles (9) 
concerning Old World species of sect. Polygonum and a preliminary 
study of North American representatives of the section by Mertens and 
Raven (6) serve as the foundation for the present study. 

Despite these investigations the taxonomy of this group remains 
quite confused. There is little agreement among systematists as to 
what species comprise sect. Polygonum, and there is disagreement with 
species identification itself. The confusion is exemplified by the treat- 
ment given sect. Polygonum by Fernald (2) and by Gleason (3) (Table 
1). Both authors include in sect. Polygonum, P. Douglasii and P. tenue, 
which have been shown to belong to sect. Duravia (4, 6). 

This paper summarizes a taxonomic investigation in which both 
herbarium specimens and newly collected plants of sect. Polygonum 
from Indiana were studied. In addition, herbarium specimens from 
Wisconsin were investigated. The species found in these states were 
characterized and records of their distribution were compiled. 



1 This study was supported by a grant from the Indiana Academy of 
Science. 

357 



358 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE 1 

Treatment of Polygonum, section Polygonum by two leading taxonomists. 
For full discussion, see text. 



Fernald (2) 

1. P. glaucum 

2. P. Raii 

3. P. oxyspermum 

4. P. Fowler i 

5. P. alio car pum 

6. P. exsertum 

7. P. prolificu?n 

8. P. ramosissimmn 

9. P. boreale 

10. P. erectum 

11. P. achoreum 

12. P. aviculare 

13. P. tenue 

14. P. Douglasii 



Gleason (3) 

1. P. glaucum 

2. P. Raii (— P. oxyspermum) 

3. P. Fowleri (= P. allocarpum) 

4. P. proliflcum 

5. P. ramosissimum (= P. exsertum) 

6. P. erectum 

7. P. achoreum 

8. P. aviculare 

9. P. tenue 

10. P. Douglasii 

11. P. Bellardi 

12. P. arenarium 



Materials and Methods 

Much of the data procured in this study was derived from examina- 
tion of 126 Indiana specimens of sect. Polygonum from the Indiana Uni- 
versity Herbarium and 426 Wisconsin specimens from three herbaria 
in Wisconsin (Table 2). The parameters studied were achene texture, 



TABLE 2 

A summary of the species identity of the 1102 specimens examined. 



UW-M 1 MPM 3 UW £ 



IIT 



BSIP 



Total 



P. ramosissimum 


2 


9 


27 


11 





49 


P. erectum 


4 


19 


42 


2 


30 


97 


P. arenastrum 


2 


24 


82 


30 


216 


384 


P. aviculare 


5 


8 


21 


8 


56 


98 


P. buxiforme 


2 


16 


52 


44 


172 


286 


Unidentifiable 


1 


6 


11 








18 


(No achenes) 














Not in section 














Polygonum 














P. tenue 


1 


15 


73 


31 


47 


170 



Total Specimens 



20 



97 



309 



126 



551 



1102 



iUW-M 

2 MPM 

3 UW 

*IU 

C BSU 



University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee 

Milwaukee Public Museum 

University of Wisconsin at Madison 

Indiana University 

Ball State University (collecttions made by A.D. Savage) 



Plant Taxonomy 359 

color, shape, and size; inflorescence position; and fruiting perianth 
characteristics, including relative depth of perianth divisions. Measure- 
ments of achene size were made with normal, mature achenes, selected 
at random from each of the specimens studied. Plants without mature 
achenes are extremely difficult to identify. 

In addition to the study of herbarium collections, fresh accessions 
of sect. Polygonum from Indiana were secured and examined. The first 
collections were made in counties in the southern part of the state where 
flowering and fruiting occur earlier in the year; subsequent collections 
were successively more northward. Collection sites were chosen at 
random, but some regard was paid to habitat; e.g., sites which were 
similar to those described by Deam (1) for some of the species of sect. 
Polygonum were sought after and more frequently selected than other 
possible sites. 

New maps were prepared of the distribution of each species studied 
in Indiana. These maps show only the counties in which a certain 
species of sect. Polygonum was positively identified by the investigators. 
Finally, the newly collected plants provided viable achenes for de- 
termination of chromosome numbers. 

Data and Discussion 

Five species of Polygonum, sect. Polygonum, were found to occur in 
both Indiana and Wisconsin. These species are P. ramosissimam, P. 
erectum, P. arenastrum, P. aviculare sensu stricto, and P. buxiforme. 
Another species, P. tenue, is also included as a part of this study be- 
cause it is traditionally placed in sect. Polygonum (2, 3). 

Most of the species of sect. Polygonum are variable in plant habit 
and are markedly affected by habitat conditions (9), thus making them 
extremely difficult to differentiate from one another. The most con- 
sistent method of identifying these plants is on the basis of achene and 
perianth characters, which were used extensively in this study. 

1. P. ramosissimum Michx. is a distinctive species native to North 
America (5, 6), having inflorescenes that appear to be terminal, the 
flowers being clustered near the ends of stems in the axils of reduced 
leaves or bracts. The much-branched plant typically has a yellowish- 
green cast that extends to the perianth. The sharply angled, trigonous 
achenes are borne on relatively long pedicels which are exserted from the 
sheathing ocreae. The average achene is 2.87 mm long and 1.98 mm wide 
and is completely included in the tightly oppressed, persistent perianth. 

Herbarium specimens previously identified as P. atlanticum (Rob- 
inson) Bicknell or P. exsertum Small were referred to P. ramosissimum. 
Gleason (3) properly regards P. exsertum as a synonym of P. ramosis- 
simum. In this species, as in most of the species dealt with herein, 
enlarged, olivaceous achenes having thin-walled, atypical pericarps may 
be formed, especially late in the growing season (2, 9). Such achenes 
are characteristically flattened, wrinkled, and viable (9); they are 
sufficiently different from the normal fruits borne by the same plant, 
that they have led to the identification of plants having a predominance 



360 Indiana Academy of Science 

of such achenes as a separate species (P. exsertum). Normal aclienes 
of P. ramosissimum ranged from 2.33-3.25 mm in length and from 1.50- 
2.25 mm in width, whereas "late season" fruits tended to be longer 
(e.g., 3.58 mm) than most typical achenes. 

During the present investigation, no new specimens of P. ramosis- 
simum were collected in Indiana. Therefore, the data for the distribu- 
tion of this species are based solely on herbarium specimens from Indi- 
ana University, most of which were originally identified as P. exsertum. 
Since very few specimens of this species have been collected in Indiana 
it seems worthwhile to cite those examined. 

Posey Co., Deam 51489. Posey Co., Deam 35171. Fountain Co., Buser 
2720. Posey Co., Deam 29112. Warren Co., Deam 9700. Jasper Co., 
Deam 42253. Greene Co., Deam 24082. Clay Co., Deam 56737. Clay 
Co., Deam 53217. Warren Co., Buser 3666. 

The chromosome number for P. ramosissimum is reported to be 
2n = 20 (5). 

2. P. tenue Michx. is a distinctive and readily identified species. 
Thirty-one herbarium specimens from Indiana University were all cor- 
rectly annotated prior to the present study, while only three among 92 
Wisconsin herbarium sheets were originally misidentified. 

The shiny black achene of this species possesses three concave 
faces which are smooth and glossy, while the margin of each face is 
stippled or striated. No species of sect. Polygonum is known to these 
investigators in which this pattern exists. The achenes ranged from 
2.00-2.67 mm in length (mean 2.38 mm) and from 1.17-1.75 mm in 
width (mean 1.49 mm). 

Plants of this species can be identified beyond reasonable doubt, 
even in the absence of achenes; they are slender with few branches and 
possess an erect growth habit. Achenes are clustered at the ends of 
stem tips; leaves are very narrow to linear. 

Late in the growing season the five species of sect. Polygonum 
that occur in Indiana and Wisconsin all produce abnormal achenes 
similar to those described in the discussion of P. ramossissimum. In 
contrast, no such achenes were noted on the 170 specimens of P. tenue 
studied. This fact may further differentiate P. tenue from sect. 

Polygonum. 

The distribution of P. tenue in Indiana is shown in Figure 1. 
P. tenue is found in areas where the soil is predominantly sandy and 
the land is hilly. The chromosome number for this species is reported 
to be 2*1=20 (5). 

3. P. erectum L. A combination of the following characteristics 
distinguishes this species: (a) Mature fruit color is light brown to tan 
in contrast to the much darker colors exhibited by mature fruits of 
other species in sect. Polygonum, (b) Fruit texture is characteristically 
dull and granular, (c) The achene has two more-or-less equal convex 
sides and one narrow, slightly concave side. Fifty-eight achenes were 
measured; they ranged from 2.33-2.92 mm in length (mean 2.62 mm) and 



Plant Taxonomy 



361 




Figure 1. Map of Indiana showing counties in which P. tenue has been 
collected; IU — collections from Indiana University Herbarium; BSU — new 
collections housed at Ball State University. 
Figure 2. Map of Indiana showing the distribution of P. arenastrum. 



362 Indiana Academy of Science 

from 1.58-2.17 mm in width (mean 1.89 mm), (d) The fruiting perianth 
is constricted just below the apex, giving it a unique "bottle" shape, (e) 
The leaves are blunt and rounded in contrast to those of many species 
of this section, which are to various degrees lanceolate in shape. 

P. erectum discussed herein should not be confused with P. aviculare 
L. var. erectum Roth (Koch), which is usually considered to be synony- 
mous with P. aviculare sensus stricto. Unlike other workers (2, 3, 5), 
we were unable to find any character by which to consistently distinguish 
P. erectum L. from P. achoreum Blake. Gleason's (3) description and 
and illustration of P. erectum. must, in fact, be P. aviculare, while his 
description and illustration of P. achoreum are without question P. 
erectum. Herbarium sheets were encountered which originally were 
identified as P. erectum, but subsequently annotated P. achoreum. Such 
specimens were re-annotated P. erectum in the present study. 

In the collection at Indiana University, 24 plants were originally 
labeled P. erectum. Only two of these were found to be P. erectum; 
six were either "late season" or immature forms of P, aviculare, and 
the remaining 15 specimens were referred to P. buxiforme. Therefore, 
previously published distribution records for P. erectum are practically 
useless. 

P. erectum has rarely been collected in Indiana; therefore, it seems 
worthwhile to cite the specimens examined in this study. 

Fountain Co., Buser 2797 (IU). Nobel Co., Deam 14315 (IU). Porter 

Co., Savage 58-1 (BSU). 

Achenes of P. erectum were germinated and root-tip squashes were 
prepared to determine the chromosome number for this species. Al- 
though Love and Love (5) report 2n = 20, in the present investigation 
the diploid chromosome number was found to be ca. 40; P. erectum. 
Hillcrest Park, just east of Valparaiso, Porter Co., Indiana, along a 
gravel road, 1966, Savage 58-2 (BSU). 2n - ca. 40. 

Polygonum aviculare Aggregate 

In the British Isles four species comprise the P. aviculare aggregate 
(9): P. aviculare L., sensu stricto; P. arenastrum Jord. ex Bor. ; P. 
boreale Small; and P. rurivagum Jord. ex Bor. Mertens and Raven (6) 
recognized three of these species as constituting the North American 
representatives of the P. aviculare aggregate. P. rurivagum was ex- 
cluded because plants described as belonging to this species by Love and 
Love (5) are not in agreement with those described by Styles (9). 

Plants in the P. aviculare complex ". . . are characterized by their 
dull, striate fruits and flowers in axillary fascicles" (6). Separation of 
the complex into distinct species is based primarily on fruit and perianth 
characters, although differences in certain plant traits (e.g., presence or 
absence of heterophylly) and chromosome number were found to cor- 
relate positively with particular fruit and perianth characters (9). 

Although the distinction between P. arenastrum and P. aviculare 
is quite clear in British and European collections (9), Mertens and 
Raven (6) encountered difficulty in detecting sharp differences in many 



Plant Taxonomy 363 

cases. Thus, numerous North American collections were referred to 
P. arenastrum ". . . largely on the basis of fruit size . . ." (6), even 
though the fruits lacked the narrow concave side and the two convex 
sides that characteristically distinguish P. arenastrum from the other 
species of the aggregate. Similar difficulties were encountered in the 
present study; however, examination of the P. aviculare-\ike plants led 
to the conclusion that P. avictdare, sensu lato, is represented by still 
another species in North America — P. buxiforme Small. 

In the present investigation a concerted attempt has been made to 
detect differences between P. aviculare, P. arenastrum, and P. buxiforme. 
Achene and perianth characters afford the most satisfactory means of 
differentiating these species. Study of over 750 specimens of the ag- 
gregate suggests that at least some of the difficulties encountered by 
Mertens and Raven (6) in dealing with the P. aviculare complex could 
have been resolved by recognizing P. buxiforme as a distinct taxon 
within the aggregate. In all likelihood some collections referred to 
P. arenastrum by Mertens and Raven were, in fact, P. buxiforme, 
especially if the achenes lacked the shape characteristics of P. 
arenastrum. 

4. P. arenastrum Jord. ex Bor. is the most readily discernible and 
the most widely collected member of the P. aviculare aggregate (Table 
2). It is characterized by having trigonous, dark brown achenes, which 
are striated, but still shiny along the edges. Typically the achenes have 
two convex sides and one narrow, slightly concave side (9). Achenes 
ranged in length from 1.58-2.50 mm (mean 2.03 mm) and in width 
from 1.00-1.75 mm (mean 1.26 mm), and are thus somewhat smaller in 
size than the fruits of either P. aviculare or P. buxiforme. The charac- 
teristic fruiting perianth of P. arenastrum is divided for only slightly 
more than half of its length (9). 

Plants of P. arenastrum typically are prostrate in growth habit, 
often forming dense mats close to the soil surface. P. arenastrum 
thrives in places where man trods it underfoot, such as along sidewalks 
and paths; it is not uncommon as a lawn weed. P. arenastrum is further 
characterized by having branch leaves and main stem leaves which are 
approximately equal in length and lanceolate in shape (9). 

In the present study, many specimens were referred to P. arenas- 
trum, which were originally erroneously identified as P. aviculare var. 
angustissimum or P. neglectum Bess. P. aviculare var. angustissimum 
is a synonym of P. aviculare, sensu stricto (9). However, in the present 
study the specimens so identified were without question P. arenastrum. 
P. neglectum is a species ". . . hopelessly confused in the literature . . ." 
(9) and not similar to any form encountered in Western Europe. Thus, 
this latter taxon would not seem to be identical with P. arenastrum. 
The fact remains, however, that many North American collections 
identified as P. neglectum Bess, are quite probably P. arenastrum. 
Plants identified by Love and Love (5) as P. neglectum were shown to 
have In = 40, the chromosome number characteristic of P. arenastrum 
(9). 



364 Indiana Academy of Science 

The distribution of P. arenastrum in Indiana is shown in Figure 2. 
The following collections from the Indiana University Herbarium have 
been identified as P. arenastrum: 

Monroe Co., Anderson 3178. Jefferson Co., Young 10399. Clark Co., 
Deam 65042. Jefferson Co., Young 9947. Lagrange Co., Deam 45243. 
Lagrange Co., Deam 31294. Wells Co., Deam. Warren Co., Deam 
53130. Greene Co., Weatherwax 1039. Laporte Co., Deam 34841. 
Lake Co., Deam 39450%. Harrison Co., Deam 63716. Monroe Co., 
Reed 99. Vanderburgh Co., Zeiner. Monroe Co., Gullion 3324. St. 
Joseph Co., Deam 55577. Lagrange Co., Deam 45242. Clay Co., Deam 
53219. Cass Co., Deam 53486. Cass Co., Deam 51245. Warrick Co., 
Deam 51500. Lawrence Co., Kriebel 902. Posey Co., Deam 37706. 
Sullivan Co., Deam 51389. Tippecanoe Co., Deam 52873. St. Joseph 
Co., Deam 51155. Allen Co., Deam 54685. Franklin Co., Deam. 
Steuben Co., Deam. Fulton Co., Deam 46064. 

Collections by Savage, mapped in Figure 2, include the following 
county records: Newton, Jasper, Delaware, Porter, Wayne, Fayette, 
Union, Dearborn, Ripley, Jennings, Ohio, Switzerland, Scott, Floyd, 
Jackson, Washington, Spencer and Knox. All of these collections are 
housed at Ball State University. 

5. P. aviculare L., sensu stricto, is a commonly collected entity in 
Great Britain having quite distinctive characters (9). Earlier investiga- 
tions (6) and the present study (Table 2) indicate that P. aviculare is 
less commonly encountered in North American collections. Plants re- 
ferred to P. aviculare generally have achenes which are dull and 
coarsely striated. Occasional exceptions possess fruits in which the 
edges are mildly shiny and the striations less extreme. Thirty achenes 
varied from 2.25-3.08 mm in length (mean 2.62 mm) and from 1.42-2.25 
mm in width (mean 1.74 mm). Generally the trigonous achene is com- 
pletely included in the persistent perianth, which is divided for three- 
fourths or more of its length. P. aviculare is characterized by marked 
heterophylly, branch leaves being notably smaller than those on the 
main stem (9). Some difficulties are encountered with this characteristic 
due to the fact that as the plant matures the larger stem leaves tend to 
drop off, thus destroying all evidence of the trait. The chromosome 
number for this species is reported to be 2n = 60 (6, 9). 

The distribution of P. aviculare in Indiana is given in Figure 3. 
It is important to note that Deam (1) did not differentiate between 
P. arenastrum and P. aviculare. Therefore, his data on the distribution 
of P. aviculare in Indiana are practically useless since they represent 
P. aviculare, sensu lato. In the collection at Indiana University, 37 
specimens had been originally referred to P. aviculare. After a thorough 
study of all the specimens in the collection, only eight plants were 
found to be P. aviculare, sensu stricto. Of these eight, six had previously 
been labeled P. erectum. Of the specimens originally annotated P. 
aviculare, only two were found to be P. aviculare, sensu stricto; 22 
of the specimens were referred to P. arenastrum and the remaining 13 
were annotated P. buxiforme. 



Plant Taxonomy 



365 




Figure 3. Map of Indiana showing the distribution of P. aviculare sensu 

stricto. 

Figure 4. Map of Indiana showing the distribution of P. buxiforme. 



366 Indiana Academy of Science 

The following collections from the Indiana University Herbarium 
have been referred to P. aviculare : 

Monroe Co., Brooks 1196. Fountain Co., Buser 3273. Harrison Co., 
Deam 63565. Allen Co., Deam 19236. Clay Co., Deam 56735. Monroe 
Co., Anderson 3441. Greene Co., Weatherwax 895. Monroe Co., 
Brooks 973. 

Savage obtained the following county records for P. aviculare in 
Indiana: Wayne, Fayette, Union, Franklin, Ripley, Dearborn, Ohio, 
Switzerland, Clark, Washington, Scott and Porter. These specimens 
were placed in the Ball State University herbarium. 

6. P. buxiforme Small. The name, P. buxiforme, was first applied 
by Small (8) to plants, the achenes of which were described as 
". . . triquetrous, 2-2.5 mm long, broadly ovoid, usually somewhat 
constricted and often conspicuously so below the summit, enlarged and 
rounded at the base, dark brown, more or less granular, mostly dull, 
sometimes shiny" (7). The persistent perianth covering such achenes 
was said to be ". . . five-parted to below the middle . . ." and the 
inflorescence was described as ". . . axillary, consisting of clusters with 
from two to six flowers ..." (7). 

Many authors (2, 3, 6) have not regarded P. buxiforme as a sep- 
arate taxon. Raven (personal communication, 1966) has suggested that 
P. buxiforme may be a small-fruited form of P. aviculare, sensu stricto. 
The achenes of P. buxiforme resemble those of P. aviculare and to a 
certain extent those of P. arenastrum, and appear to be intermediate 
between them. The present study indicates that a number of achene and 
perianth characters consistently distinguish these three entities. 

The achenes of P. buxiforme are dark brown and striated, usually 
with smooth, shiny edges. Typically, the achenes are broad relative to 
their length, giving them a characteristic "heart shape." The achenes 
of P. buxiforme resemble those of P. aviculare in that in both species 
the achenes have two more-or-less equal, concave sides and one broader, 
flat or slightly concave side. The 60 achenes measured varied from 
1.92-2.75 mm (mean 2.26 mm) in length and from 1.33-2.00 mm (mean 
1.64 mm) in width. In mean length, the fruits are intermediate between 
those of P. aviculare and P. arenastrum. 

The perianth of plants referred to P. buxiforme is especially unique 
due to the characteristic "flange" or border located at the base of the 
calyx. The fruiting perianth is divided for nearly two-thirds of its 
length, thus resembling Small's description (7). Therefore, a character- 
istic combination of fruit size, shape and texture traits along with the 
typical perianth features permit the separation of P. buxiforme from 
both P. aviculare and P. arenastrum. 

In many respects P. buxiforme appears as an intermediate between 
P. arenastrum and P. aviculare with reference to achene and perianth 
characters. These observations may lead one to the conclusion that 
P. buxiforme is the product of interspecific hybridization. However, 
species belonging to the P. aviculare aggregate, like other species of 
this section of the genus, are cleistogamous (9). Styles attempted to 



Plant Taxonomy 367 

obtain hybrids among the species belonging to the aggregate in British 
Isles, but he never encountered an artificial or natural hybrid (9). 

The problem of the identity of P. buxiforme definitely necessitates 
further investigation. Although Love and Love (5) report the chrom- 
osome number as 2n — 20, confirmation of this count in a number of 
plants from different populations should be made. It has been further 
suggested that P. buxiforme is indigenous to North America (5); this 
is hardly to be expected since other members of the P. aviculare ag- 
gregate in North America are Eurasian introductions. Also, a careful 
biosystematic study of the entire P. aviculare complex would seem to be 
in order. The constancy of the apparently unique and identifying charac- 
ters of each species must be ascertained if the present species designa- 
tions are to be at all meaningful and useful. To determine the constancy 
of these characters, cultivation of populations of P. arenastrum, P. 
aviculare, and P. buxiforme under controlled environmental conditions 
is necessary. 

The distribution of P. buxiforme in Indiana is shown in Figure 4. 

Our study of sect. Polygonum confirms Deam's (1) prediction that 
P. buxiforme would be found throughout the state. In addition to new 
records collected by Savage from Laporte, Delaware, Wayne, Fayette, 
Union, Franklin, Ohio, Switzerland, Jefferson, Ripley, Scott, Jackson, 
Spencer, Washington, and Warrick Counties, the following collections 
from Indiana University have been determined as P. buxiforme: 

Grant Co., Deam 43592. Crawford Co., Deam 53396. Jasper Co., 
Deam 59111. Wells Co., Deam 57536. White Co., Deam 51258. Knox 
Co., Deam 55681. Steuben Co., Deam 58421. Elkhart Co., Deam 
57535. Porter Co., Deam 55551. Noble Co., Deam 6775. Greene Co., 
Weatherwax 2431. Wells Co., Deam 58549. Dearborn Co., Deam 
48512. Wells Co., Deam 59365. Porter Co., Deam 45449. Steuben Co., 
Deam 58422. Steuben Co., Deam 45859. Fulton Co., Deam 57912. 
Wells Co., Deam 63013. Jennings Co., Deam 52540. Newton Co., 
Deam 49191. Lagrange Co., Deam 61468. Noble Co., Deam 54496. 
Kosciusko Co., Deam. Posey Co., Deam 59273. Lake Co., Deam 55508. 
Morgan Co., Willis 106. Clay Co., Deam 53228. Knox Co., Deam 
53278. Knox Co., Deam 51471. Gibson Co., Deam 45581. Gibson Co., 
Deam 35127. Crawford Co., Deam 53395. Monroe Co., Price 3880. 
Monroe Co., Deam 12354. Perry Co., Deam 51587. Posey Co., Deam 
24279. Posey Co., Deam 51495. Tippecanoe Co., Young 10398. Ver- 
million Co., Deam 53174. Wells Co., Deam. Wells Co., Deam 61979. 
Harrison Co., Deam 63717. 

The parameters measured in this study were used to construct a 
key to the species of sect. Polygonum which occur in Indiana and Wis- 
consin. For convenience, P. tenue is also included in the key. 

Key to the Species of Polygonum Traditionally Referred 
to Sect. Polygonum Occurring in Indiana and Wisconsin 

Achene surface predominantly smooth and shiny but may have stippled 
or striated edges; inflorescences appear to be terminal, the flowers 



368 Indiana Academy of Science 

being more-or-less clustered at the ends of stems among reduced leaves 
or bracts; perianth tightly oppressed to the achene, which has three 
equal concave sides. 

Achene surface completely smooth, achenes dark reddish brown, 
sharp angled; calyx yellowish green; plant large, much branched 

1. P. ramosissimum 

Each face of black, trigonous achene is smooth and shiny but 
bordered with striated or stippled margin; plant slender, stiff or 

wiry; leaves linear 2. P. tenue 

Achenes normally stippled, striated, or granular, achene surface usually 
dull but edges may be smooth and shiny; inflorescences axillary and 
scattered along stem. 

Achenes light brown to tan, dull and characteristically granular, 
having two equal convex and one narrow, slightly concave side; 
perianth uniquely bottle-shaped, i.e. constricted just below apex; 
persistent perianth often has a border or "flange" where the calyx 
is flattened along the margin; fruiting perianth divided for less 
than half its length; plant erect with rounded or blunt leaves 
3. P. erectum 

Achenes striated or stippled, dull to somewhat shiny but not gran- 
ular, dark brown in color when mature; leaves lanceolate; plants 

typically prostrate in growth habit P. aviculare aggregate 

Achenes with two equal convex and one narrow, slightly con- 
cave side, 1.58 to 2.50 mm long; fruiting perianth divided for 
only slightly more than half its length ... 4. P. arenastrum 
Achenes with two more-or-less equal concave sides and one 
broader, flat to slightly concave side; fruiting perianth divided 
% to % of its length. 

Achenes typically extremely dull with coarse striations, 
2.25-3.08 mm long, 1.42-2.25 mm wide; fruiting perianth 
divided nearly to the base; well grown plants exhibit 

heterophylly 5. P. aviculare, sensu stricto 

Achenes striated with shiny edges, relatively broad and 
heart-shaped, 1.92 to 2.75 mm long and 1.33 to 2.00 mm 
wide; fruiting perianth divided for about % its length, 
perianth typically has a border or "flange" where the calyx 
is flattened along the margin 6. P. buxiforme 

Conclusions 

1. Five species of Polygonum, sect. Polygonum occur in both Indiana 
and Wisconsin. The species are P. ramosissimum, P. erectum, P. 
arenastrum, P. aviculare, P. buxiforme. 

2. P. tenue is also present in both Indiana and Wisconsin, but there 
is evidence that it belongs to sect. Duravia. 

3. On the basis of distinctive morphological characteristics it would 
appear that P. buxiforme should be considered as a taxon separate from 
P. arenastrum and P. aviculare, although all three species belong to the 
P. aviculare complex. 



Plant Taxonomy 369 

4. This study supports previous investigations which indicate that 
P. arenastrum is the most widely collected species in the P. aviculare 
aggregate in North America. 

5. The distribution records for species of sect. Polygonum are quite 
inaccurate and therefore need to be prepared anew. Preliminary 
remapping of these species has been initiated in this investigation. 

6. The diploid chromosome number for P. erectum was determined 
to be circa 40. The chromosome numbers for P. ramosissimum, P. tenue, 
and P. buxiforme are still questionable and should be ascertained. 

7. All five species of sect. Polygonum occurring in Indiana and 
Wisconsin produce abnormal achenes late in the growing season. This 
trait should be investigated thoroughly and the physiology of this 
phenomenon determined. 

Literature Cited 

1. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indiana Department of Conservation, 
Indianapolis. 

2. Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. Ed. 8. American Book 
Co., New York. 

3. Gleason, H. A. 1952. Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States 
and Adjacent Canada. Vol. 2. New York Botanical Garden. 

4. Hedberg, O. 1946. Pollen morphology in the genus Polygonum L. s. lat. 
and its taxonomical significance. Svensk. Botan. Tidskr. 40:371-404. 

5. Love, A., and D. Love. 1956. Chromosomes and taxonomy of eastern 
North American Polygonum. Can. Jour. Botan. 34:501-521. 

6. Mertens, T. R., and P. Raven. 1965. Taxonomy of Polygonum, section 
Polygonum (Avicularia) in North America. Madrono 18(3):85-92. 

7. Small, J. K. 1895. Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia College 1:102. 

8. Small, J. K. 1906. Studies in North American Polygonaceae-II. Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club 33:51-57. 

9. Styles, B. T. 1962. The taxonomy of Polygonum aviculare and its allies 
in Britain. Watsonia 5:177-214. 



Teratological Androecia of Saponaria officinalis 

Gayton C. Marks, Valparaiso University 

Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) is commonly found in our range 
in the "double" condition (4) (5). The Caryophyllaceae in general is 
noted for genera which sometimes possess petaloid staminodes (6). 

A manifestation of this "double" flower may be the diversity of 
anomolies found in the androecium. While many investigators have 
concluded that most petals are derived from stamens (1), others such as 
Engard believe that it is quite possible that stamens have no homologies 
with vegetative organs in the past and should be regarded as organa sui 
generis (3). The relationship of stamen to leaf seems less clear. While 
Canright (2) believes that only the broad microsporophylls of the 
Ranales to be primitive, it is generally accepted that most stamens, 
at least in the primitive families, have had their origin in leaves. 

A clone of "double" flowered Saponaria Was found in the town of 
Schererville, Lake County this summer. Collected specimens revealed 
upon examination, deviations from normal staminate structures. These 
abnormalities were reflected in the corolla only, with no observable 
malformation of the leaves. 

The transformation of stamens into petals by genetic mutation in 
the roses and camellias was accomplished by broadening of the filaments 
or anthers of all or most of the stamens according to Benson (1). 
Middleton believes that in Saponaria petal stamens and petals arise 
from the same primordial tissue (7). The unpublished work of Smith 
(8) favors this viewpoint. 

Thomson strengthens this position by her work with the vascular 
system of the Caryophyllaceae (9). In Dianthus or Gypsophila she 
observes that either petals or stamens may be derived from the extra 
strand of vascular tissue provided by the splitting of a stamen trace. 
She also observes that the vascular supply for the petals consistently 
arises as a single strand but suggests that the dichotomies in petal 
venation is a secondary elaboration in response to the demands of an 
expanded organ. 

The "double" Saponaria examined point to a relationship of specific 
structures of the corrolla with the androecium. Many petal-like parts 
bear irregular patches of sporogenous tissue which might suggest 
that such structures are primarily petaloid and secondarily 
microsporophyllous. 

The normal flower of Saponaria is borne in cymes, more or less 
congested. It is pentamerous with two whorls of stamens, one 
antesepalous, the other antepetalous. Each stamen consists of two pollen 
chambers on each side of small connective and a free filament somewhat 
triangular in cross section and enclosing a single vascular strand. The 
sometimes bilobed calyx is of five sepals united into a tube. The two 
(sometimes three) slender styles terminate the cylindric ovary of two 
carpels. The hypogynous gynoecium is usually one celled and completely 

370 



Plant Taxonomy 371 

ovuliferous. Each petal consists of a proximal claw and a distal limb 
or blade (lamina) notched at the apex. Two awl-shaped appendages 
(variously described as ligules, corona or paracorolla), two to three 
millimeters in length, are found at the juncture of the claw and limb. 
These seem to arise from two prominent wings or keels Which extend 
from the base of the appendages proximally to the base of the claw. 
These keels seem to coincide with the base of the triangular filament in 
petaloid stamens. 

A profusion of petaloid parts are found in the abnormal "double" 
flower seemingly as a result of the shortening of the axis of the 
inflorescence. Several dichotomies may be found within one calyx. 
This does not seem to be the phenomenon of petalody described for other 
members of the Caryophyllaceae (8). One flower yielded plus or minus 
sixty petaloid structures. Many of these were microsporophyllous and 
thus it is virtually impossible to draw a sharp line of demarcation 
between the androecium and the corolla. Some members were clearly 
petal-like but bore microsporania in varying degrees and form. In 
sharp contrast to previous reports (8) that other members of the family 
when "double" were primarily pistillate, a preponderance of micro- 
sporangia and pollen indicated that the opposite must be true. This was 
substantiated by the lack of fertile ovules or the set of fruit on any of 
the examined plants. Apparently unrelated, was the discovery of a pair 
of stipule-like structures at the base of some petals. 

Other petal-like members bore one, two, three, and sometimes four 
elongate pollen sacs medially and parallel to the long axis of the 
"petal." In still others, the long axis of the microsporangium displayed 
complete disregard for polarity. 

Paradoxically those microsporophylls which were most stamen-like 
exhibited the most teratology. The least complex of these approached 
the normal stamen except for the smaller and misshapen parasitic 
microsporgenous lobes randomly attached to the usual two pair of pollen 
sacs. Another variation of the near normal stamen produced attenuate 
petaloid apices on the anther. Linear petal-like strands, in a few 
instances, bore typically normal anthers. Other stamens appeared to be 
completely doubled with eight anther lobes and bilobed filament. This 
may be attributed to splitting described by Smith (8). 

Most unique were the small mounds of meristematic tissue found 
on the adaxial side of the "petal." In some, these graded into normal 
appendages with apparent maturity. In other floral members, this 
transition was anomalous, three and four appendages being produced. 
Most significant was the transition of four sterile appendages into four 
normal appearing anther lobes. In certain instances only one or more 
of the appendages became microsporogenous while the other(s) remained 
sterile. The perfectly developed anthers were most frequently located at 
the site of the appendages of the normal petal. When filaments appeared 
with the anther on the anomalous petal, their origin seemed to cor- 
respond to the position of the wings or keels. Middleton observes that 
in the normal flower, the wings guide the filament of the antepetalous 
stamen (7). 



372 Indiana Academy of Science 

In summary, the "double" flower of Saponaria strongly suggests a 
definite relationship of the appendages and the wings of the petals 
to the androecium. A transition is evident of either sterile appendages 
to fertile anthers or fertile anthers to sterile appendages. Engard 
believes that since most organs are outward transformation within a 
field, the necessity for stating the direction of the transformation is 
alleviated (3). In any case, the microsporophyll seems to exhibit so 
much variation that it is extremely difficult to distinguish between the 
corolla and the androecium. Whether this is an expression of palingenesis 
of evolutive metamorphosis or it is immediate metamorphosis (3) is a 
problem of intrigue that may be resolved by future investigation. 

Literature Cited 

1. Benson, Lyman. 1957. Plant Classification. D. C. Heath and Co. 

2. Canright, James E. 1952. The Comparative Morphology and Relation- 
ships of the Magnoliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 39:484-497. 

3. Englard, Charles J. 1944. Organogenesis in Rubus. University of Hawaii 
Res. Pub. 21. 

4. Fernald, Merritt L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th Ed. American 
Book Co. 

5. Gleason, Henry A. and Cronquist, Arthur. 1963. Manual of Vascular 
Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. D. Van 
Nostrand and Co. 

6. Lawrence, George. 1964. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. The Macmillian 
Co. 

7. Middleton, Florence. 1914. Organogeny of the Flower of Saponaria 
officinalis. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Columbia University. 

8. Smith, Ora. 1927. Variations and Development of the Androecium and 
perianth of Dianthus caryophyllus. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Columbia 
University. 

9. Thomson, Betty F. 1942. Floral Morphology of the Caryophyllaceae. 
Amer. J. Bot. 29:333-349. 



SOIL SCIENCE 

Chairman: A. L. Zachary, Purdue University 
M. F. Baumbardner, Purdue University, was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

Residual Nitrogen in Continuous Corn Culture. Stanley A. Barber, 
Purdue University. — The effect of nitrogen applied the first year on the 
corn produced the second and third year after application was investi- 
gated at the Purdue Agronomy Farm. Experiments were conducted on 
both Raub and Chalmers soils. The effect was measured both by 
measuring yield increases and by measuring the change in nitrogen 
composition of the ear leaf. A supplementary experiment was conducted 
at the Purdue Sand Field. 

Nitrogen applied the first year gave noticeable increases in corn 
yields the second year; however, the effect on the third crop was not 
statistically significant. Soil type affected the magnitude of the residual 
effect with the Chelsea sand giving essentially no residual benefit. 



373 



Characteristics of Purdue Soil Testing Data from 
Plugs Taken Out of Experimental Plots 1 

Russell K. Stivers, Purdue University2 

Abstract 

Fifteen individual soil plugs from a single field experimental plot 
were taken at four different locations in Indiana. These individual plugs 
were tested for pH, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the 
Purdue Soil Testing- Laboratory. Statistical analyses were then run on 
these data. 

The coefficients of variation were smallest with soil pH values and 
ranged from 2.3 to 6.8 percent. The coefficients of variation for potassium 
ranged from 7.5 to 19.6 percent and for phosphorus from 17.3 to 36.9 
percent. 

The number of cores or plugs required to obtain a sample with 19 to 
1 odds of being within plus or minus 10 percent of the true mean was 
smallest for soil pH and greatest for phosphorus and potassium. From 
3 to 5 cores were required for soil pH, 5 to 18 for potassium, and 15 
to 55 for phosphorus to meet these requirements. There was a positive 
correlation between coefficients of variation and numbers of cores required. 

Cline (1) reported potassium and calcium data from single soil cores 
or plugs when he described principles to be observed in sampling soils. 
Hammond, Pritchett, and Chew (2) found that the number of soil 
samples needed and the expected variance of a mean were much lower 
for pH than for either phosphorus or potassium soil test values. Reed 
and Rigney (3) found that variation among soil samples from the same 
field is often so great that great precision used in analyzing these 
samples in the laboratory is unnecessary. 

It is the purpose of this study to (1) characterize Purdue Soil 
Testing Laboratory data from individual plugs taken from experimental 
plots, and (2) to determine the number of plugs required to obtain 
averages of soil chemical determinations which will fall within a stated 
confidence interval of the true mean. 

Methods and Procedure 

Soil plugs Were taken from one experimental plot in each of four 
fertilizer experiments in the fall of 1966. These four experiments were 
located on Runnymede loam on the Pinney-Purdue Farm near Wanatah, 
on Blount silt loam on the Herbert Davis Farm near Farmland, on 
Crosby silt loam on the Animal Science P'arm near Lafayette, and on 
Crosby silt loam on the Robert E. Brown Farm near Lafayette. Fifteen 
Hoffer tube soil plugs of the plow layer were taken about two and one- 
half feet apart in a vertical line between the two center of four corn 
rows in each plot on three of these farms. On the fourth, or Animal 
Science Farm, these fifteen plugs were taken approximately one foot 
apart between the center two corn rows. No samples were taken nearer 
than five feet to the end of a plot. 



1 Journal Paper No. 3214. Purdue University Agr. Exp. Sta. 

2 The author acknowledges the help of Wyman E. Nyquist and N. T. 
Houghton. 

374 



Soil Science 375 

All plots had been in continuous corn with high annual rates of 
broadcast phosphorus and potassium fertilizer for three or more years 
just previous to this sampling. The Runnymede loam and the Crosby 
silt loam on the Brown Farm had been limed during the previous three 
year period. 

The soil plugs were air dried, crushed, run through a 10-mesh 
screen, and analyzed for soil pH, available phosphorus, and available 
potassium by the methods of Spain and White (5, 6) as used in the 
Purdue Soil Testing Laboratory. 

The range, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and 
standard error of the mean, as denned by Snedecor (4), were used to 
characterize pH, phosphorus, and potassium values from each plot. 

The number of plugs required to obtain a mean with a given 
confidence interval was calculated using the method of Stein explained 
by Steel and Torrie (7). 

Results and Discussion 

The range in both phosphorus and potassium values for the 15 plugs 
within a plot was quite wide (Table 1). The coefficients of variation for 
soil pH values were smallest, ranging from 2.3 to 6.8 percent. The 
coefficients of variation for potassium ranged from 7.5 to 19.6 percent, 
and for phosphorus from 17.3 to 36.9 percent. 

The number of plugs required to obtain a sample with 95 to 5 odds 
of being within ± 10 percent of the true mean was smaller for pH 
and greater for phosphorus and potassium. From 3 to 5 cores were 
required for soil pH from 5 to 18 for potassium, and from 15 to 55 for 
phosphorus to stay within the ± 10 percent confidence interval. 

When a ± 5 percent confidence interval for the mean was used, the 
number of plugs required to obtain such an average increased over the 
number used for the ± 10 percent confidence interval. However, the 
increase for pH was not relatively as great as that for phosphorus or 
potassium. It is believed that phosphorus and potassium fertilizers 
had not been as well mixed with the plow layer as had lime. 

Literature Cited 

1. Cline, Marlin G. 1944. Principles of soil sampling-. Soil Science 58:275- 
288. 

2. Hammond, Luther C, William L. Pritchett, and Victor Chew. 1958. 
Soil sampling- in relation to soil heterogeneity. Soil Science Soc. Amer. 
Proc. 22:548-552. 

3. Reed, J. F. and J. A. Rigney. 1947. Soil sampling from fields of uniform 
and non-uniform appearance and soil types. J. Amer. Soc. Agronomy 
39:26-40. 

4. Snedecor, George W. 1956. Statistical methods, 5th ed. The Iowa State 
College Press, Ames, Iowa. 

5. Spain, J. M. and J. L. White. 1960. pH and lime requirement determina- 
tion. Purdue soil testing mimeograph, Lafayette. 

6. Spain, J. M. and J. L. White, n.d. Procedure for the determination of 
phosphorus and potassium. Purdue soil testing mimeograph, Lafayette. 

7. Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and Procedures of 
Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York. 



376 



Indiana Academy of Science 






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An Aerodynamic Method for Sizing 
Sands and Other Granular Materials 1 

R. W. Skaggs, L. F. Huggins, and E. J. Monke. Purdue University 



Abstract 

A method of separating- granular materials according to size by- 
virtue of their relative displacements when dropped from rest into a 
moving air stream is presented. The equations of motion for a spherical 
particle in a moving air stream were solved using an analog computer. 
This method of solution allowed the drag forces in both the horizontal 
and vertical directions to be evaluated in a relatively easy manner. The 
solution was used to design an apparatus to separate granular materials 
in the sand size range. The apparatus was constructed and tests were 
conducted to determine the trajectories of various particle sizes for a 
range of air velocities. The results were compared with those predicted 
by the analog solution. The agreement of the predicted and observed tra- 
jectories and the reliability with which the apparatus will size samples 
of glass beads and sands are discussed. The apparatus will be useful for 
sizing large quantities of granular materials for use in mechanics of 
erosion, infiltration and overland flow studies. 

Introduction 

Sands, glass beads, or other small granular materials satisfying 
narrow size range requirements are often needed by the researcher 
conducting experimental work in soil science, geology, engineering or 
related areas. These materials are usually difficult to obtain, especially 
when large quantities are needed for studies such as the mechanics of 
soil erosion and flow of fluids through porous media. The conventionally 
used method of sizing the materials by sieving techniques is a slow 
process requiring that the material be passed through a number of 
sieves of decreasing opening sizes. Often the desired size range cannot 
be obtained by available standard sieves. 

Aerodyamic methods have been used commercially for several years 
in the separation of chaff, weed seeds and other undesirable materials 
from grain and seeds. Muller, et al. (3) designed an apparatus to sort 
walnuts on the basis of their different aerodynamic properties. Meyer 
(2) used an aerodynamic method to size glass beads, sands, and 
carborundum. 

This paper describes an apparatus which separates, according to 
size, small granular materials in the sand size range by virtue of their 
horizontal displacement when dropped from rest into a horizontally 
moving air stream. Analytical solutions of the equations of motion for 
a particle in a moving air stream are presented. Application of these 
solutions to the design of the separator and results of experiments for 
determining the reliability with which the separator can be used to size 
glass beads are discussed. 



1 Journal Paper No. 3223, Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue 
University. 

377 



378 Indiana Academy of Science 

Theory 

The first step in the design of the separator was the derivation of 
the equations of motion for a particle in a uniformly moving air stream. 
Consider a particle released from rest into a horizontal air stream 



if* 



VELOCITY DIAGRAM FORGE DIAGRAM 



Figure 1. Velocity and Force Diagrams for a Particle in a Horizontal 
Air Stream. 

(Figure 1). At any point along its trajectory the particle has a tan- 
gential velocity (V). The relative velocity (V r ) between the particle and 
the air is the vector difference between these two velocities. The 
x and y components of the relative velocity may be written as follows: 

V r x = Vx— Va CO 

V ry = V y (*) 

Then V r may be evaluated 

V r = ((Vx — V a ) 2 +V y 2 )^ (3) 

There are two forces acting on the particle, the weight (F w ) acting 
in the downward (-f-y) direction and the drag force (Fa) acting in a 
direction opposite to Vr. The equations of motion for the particle are 
obtained in terms of these forces by applying the second law of motion: 



U) 



in which F w and F rt are 





d^x 




V rx 




dt 2 




Fa 

MVr 


d s y 

df J 


1 

~ M 


(Fw 


V ry 
F„) 

Vr 


•e 










E 


w 


Mg 




F d = 


V r 2 

DAp 

2 



(5) 

(6) 

(7) 



and where x, y = coordinates of the particles position 
M = mass of the particle 



Soil Science 379 

A = projected area of the particle on a plane perpendicu- 
lar to the direction of motion 

D = the drag coefficient as denned by Vennard (4) 

p = density of the fluid 

t = time 

ix = viscosity of the fluid 

g = acceleration due to gravity 

For spherical particles the relationship between the drag coefficient 
and the Reynolds number (R) is well known, e.g. Bird, et al. (1). 
Preliminary calculations showed that the Reynolds number range for 
the intended application was 1 ^ R < 100 with the particle diameter as 
the characteristic length. It was also determined that this range can be 
approximated within 2% by the equation 

K 
D = — (8) 

R 

where K = aR -f- b and the parameters a and b are step functions of 
R having the following values: 





a 


b 


1 < R ^ 10 


1.889 


22.01 


10 ^ R < 30 


0.95 


31.5 


30 < R ^ 60 


0.80 


36.0 


60 ^ R ^ 100 


0.65 


45.0 



When R ^ 1, K = 24; hence for all values of R < 1, Equation 7 reduces 
to the familiar Stoke's law for creeping flow around a sphere. 

By using the defining equation for Reynolds number and evaluating 
A and M in equations 6 and 7 in terms of the radius of the sphere (r) 
and its density (P), and by substituting the resulting relationships along 
with Equation 8 into Equations -4 and 5, the equations of motion for a 
spherical particle in a moving air stream may be written as follows: 

d 2 x 3K/i 



dt 2 16r 2 P [V a — dx/dt] 



(9) 



d 3 y 3K/x dy 

= g : (10) 



dt 2 16r 2 P dt 

Solution of the Equations of Motion 

The next step in the design of the separator was the solution of 
Equations 9 and 10 subject to initial conditions of x = y = and 
dx dy 

— = — = 0. Equations 9 and 10 Were programmed on an EAI TR-48 
dt dt 

analog computer as shown in Table 1 and Figure 2. The constant 
input data were the values of the particle density (P) and the viscosity 
of the air (/*). Solutions in the form of plots of the trajectories of 



380 



Indiana Academy of Science 




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382 



Indiana Academy of Science 




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FIGURE 2. A SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE ANALOG COMPUTER SOLUTION OF THE EQUATIONS 
OF MOTION FOR A SPHERICAL PARTICLE IN AN AIR STREAM 

the particles for a range of air velocities and particle radii were 
obtained by simply changing the potentiometer setting corresponding 
to these values in the analog program. Solutions for six glass bead 
sizes at two different air velocities are shown in Figure 3. 

The Separator 

Solutions were obtained for a wide range of air velocities to deter- 
mine the dimensions of a separator to size material with diameters less 
than 500 microns. A separator was designed and constructed on the 
basis of these solutions. A schematic diagram of the separator is shown 
in Figure 4 and an overall pictorial view in Figure 5. 

To meet the conditions under which the analytical solutions were 
obtained, the separator was designed such that the velocity profile in 
the separator duct was uniform and non-turbulent. This condition was 
best obtained with a suction system. A centrifugal blower was used to 
pull air through the separator duct into a plenum where a constant 
negative pressure was maintained. The blower had an inlet diameter 
of 10.75 inches and was powered by a % HP, 2 speed electric motor. 
A variable speed pulley arrangement allowed a velocity range in the 



Soil Science 



383 




HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT (FT.) 
FIGURE 3. THEORETICAL TRAJECTORIES OF SPHERICAL PARTICLES IN A HORIZONTAL AIR STREAM 

separator duct of 2.5-20.0 fps. The blower RPM was calibrated to 
the air velocity in the duct. The velocity range could be extended 
downward to zero fps by partially closing the outlet of the exhaust 
blower. 

To retard boundary layer buildup at the entrance, an entrance 
section consisting of 4 cylindrical sections with radii of 6 inches was 
used. Partitions were placed at 3 inch intervals in the bottom of the 
separator duct forming 30 collection hoppers. A sliding gate at the 
front of each hopper allowed its contents to be easily emptied. One 
side of the separator duct was constructed of a transparent plastic 
sheet to enable the operator to view the trajectories of the particles 



FEEDEF 
HOPPEF 



ENTRANCE 
SECTION 



mA 



24* 



i 



SEPARATION DUCT 



nif^iinlnininininininir^^'ninln'riinininlnln'ninlnlnhinioin 

* coi i Fr.Tinw unppFRQ — » 



COLLECTION HOPPERS- 



77 



PLENUM 
32' 



TTT 



EXHAUST 
BLOWER 



/ 



gy 



2 SPEED 1/2 HP 
AC MOTOR 
WITH VARIABLE 
SPEED PULLEY 
ARF1ANGEMENT 



FIGURE 4. A SCHEMATIC DRAWING OF THE SEPARATOR 



384 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 5. Front view of the separator. 



Soil Science 385 

and the filling' of the hoppers. The particles were introduced into the 
separator by a feeder hopper which allowed a thin stream of particles 
to fall through a slit in the top of the duct. An adjustable opening 
controlled the rate of inflow. Since the separator was designed on 
the basis of solutions for a single particle, inflow rates large enough 
to cause interference between particles would obviously limit the effi- 
ciency of separation obtained. Satisfactory separation was obtained, 
however, with a slit width of approximately three times the diameter 
of the largest particle. 

Evaluation of Performance 

Velocity profiles measured for centerline velocities of 5 and 10 fps 
showed that, at the point of particle entry, a uniform velocity was 
obtained 0.4 and 0.3 inches, respectively, below the top of the duct. 
Substituting the measured velocity profiles into the analog computer 
program proved that boundary layers of this size had a negligible 
effect on particle trajectories. Although quantative measurements of 
turbulance in the duct were not made, observations using smoke and 
dust indicated turbulence along the bottom of the duct. This turbu- 
lance was primarily due to the hopper partitions. In preliminary tests 
glass beads that were displaced more than 5 feet from the point of 
entry tended to "float" due to the turbulence and to the flatness of 
their trajectories. Separation occurring beyond this point was not 
considered reliable. 

The degree of separation expected from a single pass through the 
separator is shown in Figure 3. Good separation can be obtained for 
particles ranging in size from 100 to 200 microns using a velocity of 
4.5 fps. For particles in the 200 to 400 micron range, much better sep- 
aration can be obtained using a velocity of 8.5 fps. However, if this 
velocity was used for the smaller particles they would be carried into 
the region where turbulence becomes important resulting in inadequate 
sizing. Therefore, if the sample to be sized has a wide range of par- 
ticle diameters, a multipass procedure is desirable. 

Reliability of Separation 

The limits of accuracy with which glass beads can be sized at a 
given velocity were determined theoretical and compared to observed 
values. Samples of three different bead sizes were passed through the 
separator with an air velocity of 10 fps. The beads which were col- 
lected in hoppers at 15 inches, 22 inches, and 28 inches from the point 
of entry were passed through the separator a second time at the same 
velocity. Then samples Were taken from each of the three hoppers. 
Microscopic determinations of the diameters of 50 beads selected at 
random were made, and their means and standard deviations computed. 
Solutions for the mean diameter and for the range of diameters which 
would theoretically fall in each of the three hoppers were also deter- 
mined. Assuming that the samples had uniform distribution of par- 
ticle sizes, the theoretical standard deviation for each hopper was 
computed and compared to the value for the observed data. A summary 
of the results is presented in Table 2. 



386 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE 2 

Comparison of Predicted and Actual Displacements 
For Three Sizes of Glass Beads 



Mean Diameter 
(microns) 



Standard Deviation 

Observed Theoretical 

(microns) 



Displacement 
Actual Theoretical 
(inches) 



472 
245 
225 



12.4 
6.5 

5.8 



12.2 
5.8 

5.8 



14-17 
32-35 
38-41 



14.6-17 
34 -38 

38 -42 



An envelope of the trajectories of beads with a mean diameter of 
472 microns was drawn on the transparent front of the separator dur- 
ing a run. The theoretical trajectories for the maximum and minimum 
sizes collected and the envelope of the observed trajectories are com- 
pared graphically in Figure 6. 




X (FT) 
FIGURE 6. THEORETICAL AND OBSERVED TRAJECTORIES FOR A VELOCITY OF 10 FT. /SEC. 

The reliability with Which the separator could size samples of glass 
beads with a large range of diameters was determined. Approximately 
4 gallons of glass beads ranging in diameter from 50 to 525 microns 
were sized with the separator. Two passes through the separator were 
required for this size range. The first pass was made at an air velocity 
of 4.5 fps. Samples of beads were taken from each of the hoppers 
and the diameters of 25 randomly selected beads were determined 
microscopically. The beads which were displaced less than 2 feet were 
mixed and rerun at a velocity of 8.5 fps. Samples Were again taken 
and microscopic measurements made as before. The mean diameter 
and standard deviation were determined for the beads in each of the 



Soil Science 387 

hoppers. Theoretical values for the displacements were obtained from 
the analog solutions and, assuming a uniform distribution of particle 
sizes, theoretical standard deviations were calculated. Results shown 
in Table 3 indicate beads With diameters less than 200 microns were 
adequately sized with an air velocity of 4.5 fps. A higher air velocity 
(in this case, 8.5 fps) was needed with larger diameter beads. 

The summary in Table 3 shows that the coefficients of variation 
were on the order of 6 to 11 percent for bead sizes less than 200 
microns and 4 percent for bead sizes greater than 200 microns. A 
notable exception was the 275 micron bead size where the coefficient 
of variation was 11 percent. This relatively high coefficient of varia- 
tion was caused by a nonuniform distribution of particle sizes in the 
original sample. Beads in the two adjacent hoppers were of the same 
mean diameter indicating that the sample contained a large number of 
beads with diameters around 240 microns and relatively few beads 
between 250-360 microns. A similar circumstance occurred with beads 
having a mean diameter of 128 microns. A discontinuity between 
bead sizes of 130 and 100 microns existed giving a small fraction With 
a mean diameter of 128 microns and, hence, a relatively large coefficient 
of variation. 

It was concluded that in general the degree of separation and the 
coefficients of variation obtained were acceptable for most purposes. 

TABLE 3 

Summary of Data for Sizing Glass Beads 



Mean 
(microns) 


Standard Deviation 

Theo- 
Observed retical 
(microns) (microns) 


Coefficient 
of Variation 

Theo- 
Observed retical 

( % ) ( % ) 


Horizontal 

Displacement 

Observed 

(inches) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


500 


19 


22 


3.8 


4.4 


8-11 


8.5 


455 


20 


18.5 


4.4 


4.0 


11-14 


8.5 


410 


15 


14.4 


3.7 


3.5 


14-17 


8.5 


360 


15 


11.5 


4.2 


3.2 


17-20 


8..5 


275 


30 


10.0 


11.0 


3.6 


20-23 


8.5 


244 


10 


14.4 


4.1 


5.7 


23-29 


8.5 


225 


5 


5.8 


2.2 


2.6 


29-32 


8.5 


217 


10 


4.9 


4.6 


2.3 


32-35 


8.5 


207 


9 


3.8 


4.4 


1.8 


35-38 


8.5 


200 


8 


3.5 


4.0 


1.7 


38-44 


8.5 


176 


11 


4.9 


6.3 


2.9 


38-44 


4.5 


144 


10 


4.6 


7.0 


3.2 


20-23 


4.5 


134 


5 


3.8 


3.7 


2.8 


23-26 


4.5 


128 


14 


7.8 


11 


6.1 


29-38 


4.5 


98 


11 


2.0 


11 


2.0 


38-41 


4.5 


86 


10 


1.7 


11.6 


2.0 


41-44 


4.5 


75 


7 


1.7 


10 


2.3 


44-47 


4.5 



388 Indiana Academy of Science 

They would compare favorably to those which could be obtained with 
standard sieving techniques. 

Summary 

An apparatus was designed and constructed to use an aerodynamic 
method to size granular materials in the sand size range. The material 
was sized by virtue of the relative displacements of particles of dif- 
ferent diameters when dropped from rest into a horizontal air stream. 

The equations of motion for a spherical particle in an air stream 
were derived and an analog computer was programmed to solve these 
equations for wide ranges of air velocities and particle diameters. The 
design of the separator was based on these solutions. Glass beads were 
used in experiments to determine the reliability with which the sep- 
arator could size materials. The results of the experiments showed a 
close correspondence between observed trajectories and displacements 
of the particles and those values predicted by the analog computer 
solutions. A sample of beads ranging in diameter from 50 to 525 
microns was sized using the separator. The results favorably compared 
to those that could be obtained using the slower, conventional sieving 
techniques. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot. 1960. Transport Phe- 
nomena. Wiley, New York. 

2. Meyer, L. D. 1961. Mechanics of Soil Erosion by Rainfall and Runoff as 
Influenced by Slope Length, Slope Steepness and Particle Size. Un- 
published Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, Lafayette. 

3. Mueller, R. A., D. B. Brooker, and J. J. Cassidy. 1967. Aerodynamic 
Properties of Black Walnuts: Application in Separating- Good From 
Bad Walnuts. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agr. Eng. 10(1):57-61. 

4. Vennard, J. K. 1961. Fluid Mechanics. Wiley, New York. 



The Temperature Factor in Corn Production 
in Tippecanoe County, Indiana 

Lawrence A. Schaali- and Byron 0. Blair-, Purdue University 



Abstract 

The ten best years for corn production in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, 
were compared with the ten poorest years using- the period of 1923 
through 1966 in the selection. Weekly comparisons of air and soil tempera- 
tures showed that the best corn yields occurred in years when tempera- 
tures averaged above normal during the establishment period and below 
normal during the grand growth and reproduction periods. 

The reduction of weather factors to an equation and a set of num- 
bers concurrent with the yield of a crop such as corn, continues to be 
a challenge to agricultural scientists. This analysis considers the weekly 
average of daily maximum temperature of the ten poorest years for 
corn production in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, with the ten best years. 

Literature 

Most studies in the past concerning Indiana corn yield and temper- 
atures have utilized either state or area averages. L. M. Thompson (3) 
in his analysis of the climatic factors among the corn belt states, con- 
cluded that August temperatures in Indiana need to be lower than 
average for highest corn yields. He also concluded that higher than 
average May temperatures might adversely affect Indiana corn yields. 
There may be considerable differences in optimum climate for corn 
across Indiana considering the high temperatures and evapotranspira- 
tion of the south compared to those in the cool, more cloudy, northeast 
area. 

John Rose (2; 7, p. 412-425) in 1932 studied the effect of weather 
on corn yields for five Well distributed Indiana counties, namely, St. 
Joseph, Huntington, Tippecanoe, Rush and Knox. He correlated monthly 
precipitation and temperature for the central months of the growing 
season with the respective seasonal corn yields. The correlation coeffi- 
cients for the several climatic factors he studied and corn yields ranged 
(for the five Indiana counties) from .64 in Rush County to .91 in 
Huntington. Tippecanoe County cofficient was .71. Rose believed that 
Indiana climatic factors for optimum corn production were quite varied 
considering the cool northeast versus the warm southwest with the 
inter-relations between factors varying considerably. 

Data and Procedure 

In this investigation air temperatures were related to Tippecanoe 
County average corn yields to estimate the optimum temperatures 
through the season for good corn growth. Corn yields per acre for 
the period of 1923 through 1966 were obtained from the Agricultural 



1 Environmental Science Services Administration. 

2 Agronomy Department. 

389 



390 Indiana Academy of Science 

Statistician, Statistical Reporting Service, U.S.D.A. Average yields 
ranged from 25.7 bushels per acre in 1930 to 105.2 bushels per acre 
in 1965. 

To estimate optimum temperatures for corn, other climate factors 
such as moisture stress, were minimized when a group of best years 
for corn growth were selected. Figure 1 shows crop yields in Tippe- 
canoe County, Indiana, beginning with 1923. The "best years" were 
arbitrarily selected by taking every new highest yield after 1923 through 
1966. This resulted in ten "best years," circled in Figure 1. Years of 
lowest yield were selected by taking the lowest producing year start- 
ing backwards from 1966. This method provided nine "poorest years," 
but in order to have ten for comparative purposes, 1930 was also 
selected which was within 1.4 bushels of the absolute low yield estab- 
lished in 1934, Figure 1. 



110 

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+ + + Poorest years used 

• Years not used. 



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1930 1940 1950 I960 

Figure 1. Average corn yields in bushels per acre in Tippecanoe County, 
Indiana, and the best and poorest years selected for comparison. 

Favorable corn progress in the selected ten best years was sub- 
stantiated by a review of reports at the time (5, 6). In all of the 
selected "best years," the seasons and the growth periods within the 
seasons seemed close to ideal with one possible exception. In 1925 
the corn was planted in dry soil and while subsequent rains after 
the first week of June brought the com along nicely, the fall was 



Soil Science 391 

rainy, corn ripening was slow, and there was reported loss from a 
delayed harvest. 

It was assumed that the ten worst years resulted from any, all, 
or a composite of growth inhibiting effects such as, too much rain 
at planting or harvesting time, too little rain with hot weather, or 
cool, wet conditions. 

The temperature argument used was the daily maximum tempera- 
ture. This measurement was used throughout whether for a Weekly 
average or a growth period. It is commonly accepted that the high 
temperature of the day is more representative of solar radiation and 
effective temperature than either the daily low temperature, usually 
occurring at the earily morning hours, or the mean temperature obtained 
by averaging the maximum and minimum temperatures for the day. 

The daily high temperatures for each week of the growing season 
were averaged for both the "best years" and "poorest years" for corn 
in Tippecanoe County. Climatological weeks were used; thus week 
number 1 was March 1-7 every year, March 8-14 was the second week, 
etc. 

The weekly averages were pooled to approximate the five growth 
periods of corn described by Blair (1), namely, the germination period 
of May 1-12, the establishment period of May 18-June 12, the grand 
growth period of June 15-July 19, the reproduction period of July 20- 
August 15, and the maturity period of August 15-October 1. 

The average daily maxima for each Week of the growing season 
for all twenty years are shown in Table 1. In order to compare the 
temperatures of the ten best years with the ten poorest years, ten-year 
weekly means were calculated for both groups. The results are shown 
in Figure 2. The greatest differences occurred in the reproduction 
period of the last two weeks of July and the first week in August. 
The average daily maximum temperatures of the ten best years aver- 
aged 4 or 5 degrees lower than those of the ten poorest years. The 
grand growth period in the last half of June and early July showed 
mean daily maximum temperatures of 84° F. in the best years while 
the poor years averaged 86°F. 

The ten best years favored a warm establishment period occurring 
in the last week of May and the first two weeks of June. In the 
germination period, the first two weeks of May, there Was no clear-cut 
indication of consistent temperature differences. 

To examine the idea that one or two years may have dominated 
the averages, the frequency of each week above or below the 20-year 
mean was computed. Some results are shown in Figure 3. The weekly 
mean exceeded the 20-year mean in seven of the ten poorest years in 
the period of June 28 to July 11, and generally more than half the 
years in the eight week period from June 21 to August 15. In the Week 
of June 28-July 4 there were eight years out of the ten best years 
when temperatures were below the 20-year average. The ten best years 
also produced nine years out of ten when the weekly temperatures aver- 
aged below the 20-year mean in the period of July 26 through August 



392 






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June 



Figure 2. Weekly averages of daily high temperatures of the 10 best 
years is compared to the 10 poorest years for growing- corn in Tippecanoe 
County, Indiana. 

8. Generally more than half the years were below the mean from June 
28 to August 8. Differences between the ten best years and the ten 
poorest years were less and not too consistent for other periods. 

Further consolidation of the data was done by combining: the 
weeks into the five periods of corn growth, germination, establishment, 
grand growth, reproduction, and maturity. The resulting averages are 
shown in Table 2. A serious shortcoming is that the same calendar 
weeks were used every year although any particular season may pro- 
gress one or two weeks ahead or behind the average. Germination may 



10 

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h- / I.*-' years 

• / * - -°\/\/ 

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10 poorest years 

■*— H i HH 1 i i I H 1— H l i t I I » 



Apr. May 



June 



July 



Aug 



Sept 



Figure 3. Frequency of the mean weekly daily high temperature averaging 
below the 20-year mean which occurred 9 years out of 10 in the best 
years in late July and early August. 



394 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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Soil Science 395 

occur late in May due to weather factors, changing technology and 
farming practices since the 20's. Within the same season crop progress 
may also accelerate to make up for the tardy beginning. Average 
temperatures in the germination period, defined as the first two weeks 
in May, were practically the same for the ten best and the ten poorest 
years. In the establishment period the ten best years were 3 degrees 
warmer than the ten poorest years but 2 degrees cooler in the grand 
growth stage. The most outstanding differences were shown in the 
reproduction period of July 19 to August 15 with the ten best years 
4 degrees cooler than the ten poorest years which averaged 88 degrees. 
This supports the idea that the number one deterrent to maximum 
yield is the dry, hot weather often experienced in the grand growth 
and reproduction periods. But temperature cannot be considered an 
independent deterrent. If moisture is adequate, more solar radiation 
is converted into vapor and less sensible heat but when soils are dry 
more energy is converted to heat and higher temperatures. 

Conclusions 

For best corn yields in west central Indiana or Tippecanoe County, 
temperatures should average above normal in the establishment period. 
Highest corn yields were obtained when temperatures averaged a little 
below normal during the grand growth and reproduction periods from 
June 14 through August 15. It appears that high daily maximum tem- 
peratures limit corn production more than low daily maximum temper- 
atures and normal daily maximum temperatures are too high for 
optimum growth in mid-summer. 

Literature Cited 

1. Blair, B. O. and Tom Budd. 1967. Weather is Corn Growing- Key. Prairie 
Farmer 9:15. 

2. Rose, John Kerr. 1932. Climate and Corn Yield in Indiana, 1887-1930. 
Proc. Indiana Aead. Science 41:317-321. 

3. Thompson, Louis M. 1966. Weather and Technology in the Production of 
Corn and Soybeans. College of Agriculture, Iowa State University. 
CAED Report 17. 

4. Thompson, Louis M. 1966. Weather and the 1966 Corn Crop. Wallaces 
Farmer 23:24-25. 

5. U. S. Weather Bureau, Environmental Science Services Administration. 
1923-1966. Indiana Weekly Weather and Crop Report. Washington. 

6> _ __ — , 1923-1966. Climatological Data — Indiana. Lafayette. 

7. Visher, Stephen S. 1944. Climate of Indiana. Indiana University Press, 
Bloomington. 



Characterization of the Pembroke Soils from Indiana 1 
Donald F. Post and H. P. Ulrich- 

Abstract 

Pembroke soils which have developed from high grade calcitic lime- 
stone, capped with a shallow loess overburden, were studied to determine 
changes in clay mineral composition and soil properties which occurred 
in the soil profile. Analysis showed a major clay mineral transformation 
from an illitic type in the parent rock to a mixed suite of clay minerals 
including a significant quantity of kaolinite. Special consideration is given 
to the genesis of the clay minerals. 

The well drained Pembroke soils have weathered from high grade 
Mississippian age limestone. The solum is usually 40-100 inches thick 
and commonly has a thin (less than 18 inches thick) loess mantle. 
These soils occur in south-central Indiana, General Soil Region M. 

The Pembroke soils of this study would be classified as a member 
of the fine, kaolinitic, mesic family of the Ultic Hapludalfs.3 Under 
the 1938 soil classification system this soil was classified in the Red- 
Yellow Podzolic great soil group. 

The Pembroke sites were sampled and designated as Pembroke I 
and II. The results from the two sites were very similar and therefore 
only the results for the Pembroke II site will be presented. Refer 
to Post (4) for the complete analyses of both sites. The following is the 
detailed profile description of Pembroke II: 

Location: NW 1/4 of SE 1/4 Sec. 21, TIN, R2E; Madison Twp. Wash- 
ington County, Indiana. 

Vegetation: Grass and second growth shrubs and cedars. 
Parent Material: High grade Mississippian age limestone, St. Genevieve 
Formation, with a shallow loess overburden. 

Slope: 11% 

Permeability: Moderate. 
Drainage: Well (IV). 

Comments: This soil was sampled from a brush covered site on the east 
side of a gravel road. The loess overburden is 17 inches thick and the 
13-17" B21t appears to be a transitional horizon. The B21t has a distinct 
accumulation of coarse cherty and high iron rock fragments, suggestive 
of a former land surface. 



1 Contribution from Purdue University Agronomy Department, Lafa- 
yette, Indiana. Published with the approval of the Director of the Purdue 
University Agricultural Experiment Station as Paper No. 3209. 

2 Formerly Graduate Assistant, now Assistant Professor, Department 
of Agricultural Chemistry and Soils, University of Arizona, and Associate 
Professor of Agronomy, Purdue University, respectively. 

3 There is some question yet as to the final classification of this series. 
It is listed in the Classification of the Northeastern (Region) Soil Series, 
July 1967 as a member of a fine silty mixed mesic family of Ultic 
Paleudalfs. This research was supported in part by National Science 
Foundation Grant GP-1219. 

396 



Soil Science 397 

Al 0-2": Brown (10YR 5/3 moist, pale brown (10YR 6/3) dry, silt loam; 
moderate medium granular structure; friable; many fibrous grass roots; 
mildly alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary. 

A2 2-9": Light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) moist, very pale brown 
(10 YR 7/4) dry, silt loam; moderate medium granular and very weak 
platy structure; friable; medium acid; clear smooth boundary. 

Bit 9-13": Yellowish red (5 YR 4/6) moist, reddish yellow (10 YR 6/6- 
6/7) dry, heavy silt loam; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky 
structure; friable to slightly firm; very strongly acid; clear smooth 
boundary. 

B21t 13-17": Yellowish red (5YR 4/6) moist, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) 
dry, clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable 
to slightly firm; high proportion of coarse material present; very 
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. 

II B22t 17-28": Dark red (2.5YR 3/6) moist, red (2.5YR 4/6) dry, clay; 
moderate medium and coarse angular blocky structure; firm; common 
clay skins; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. 

II B23t 28-54": Dark red (2.5YR 3/6) upper horizon grading to red 
(2.5YR 4/6) dry, clay; moderate coarse angular blocky structure; very 
firm; common yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay skins becoming thicker and 
more numerous with depth; few Fe-Mn concretions in lower part of this 
horizon; very strongly acid; abrupt; smooth boundary. 

II B3-C 54-54.5": Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) moist, reddish brown 
(5YR 4/3-4/4) dry, clay; massive; very firm; many white and gray 
highly weathered, calcareous limestone fragments; pH of the B3 material 
is slightly acid to neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. 

II R 54.5"+: High grade calcitic limestone. 

Table 1 gives the mechanical analyses and pH data for the Pembroke 
soils. The thick II B23t, 28-54 inch horizon, was subdivided for 
laboratory analyses. 

The Roman Numeral prefix II was used in the field to denote the 
break between silty textured, brown to yellowish red colored loess over- 
burden and the clayey textured, reddish color of the limestone residuum. 
The mechanical analyses results in table 1 clearly support the field 
observation of this parent material break. The B21t horizon is a transi- 
tion horizon with 37.6% clay as compared to 26.9% in the Bit horizon 
and 60.4% in the II B22t horizon. 

A detailed study was made to characterize the types of clay found 
in this soil. The clay was fractionated into two size groups, 2.0-0.2^, and 
a detailed x-ray analyses was made. Selected x-ray tracings for the 
2.0-0.2^ fraction are presented in Figure 1. 

The most significant feature of these treatments is the variable 
14.2 to about 17 A spacings of the vermiculite-montmorillonite type 
clays, and in certain horizons, the resistance to collapse to 14.2 A with 
K-saturation and mild heat treatment. The variable expansion charac- 
teristics is a function of the variable layer charge of this fraction. Post 
and White (4) have discussed this in greater detail. The resistance 



398 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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Soil Science 



399 



PEMBROKE E 

2Q-0 2|> 



K- SATURATED 
- Air Dri«<J 




Figure 1. Selected x-ray diffraction tracings for the 2.0-0.2^ clay fraction 
of Pembroke II. 



400 Indiana Academy of Science 

to collapse, most pronounced in the upper loess derived horizons and 
lowest residuum horizons, suggests the presence of hydroxy aluminum 
interlayers. 

It is often important to estimate the clay components and these 
results are included in Table 2. (The problem of quantifying the clay 
minerals in soil clays is discussed by Post and White (5) in the same 
issue of these prodeedings). 

Summary and Conclusions 

Physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of the lime- 
stone-derived Pembroke soils showed them to be very clayey, highly 
acidic, and highly oxidized soil profiles. The laboratory results supported 
field observations that these soils have a shallow overburden of loess. 
The following points relative to the mineralogical composition of the 
solum should be noted: 

1. The kaolinite content was high in the residuum horizons. 

2. Large amounts of quartz and /or amorphous materials were 
present in the upper solum horizons. 

3. Vermiculite was highest, as was kaolinite, in the residuum 
horizons. 

4. Montmorillonite occurred only in the loess derived horizons and 
the lowest residuum horizons. 

5. Mica remained relatively constant throughout the solum. 

6. Evidence for some interstratification was noted. 

7. Significant amounts of interlayering, presumably hydroxy- 
aluminum interlayers, occurred in the loess horizons and lowest 
residuum horizons. 

The presence of a shallow loess deposit necessitates the evaluation of 
two weathering regimes to determine the genesis of the clay in this soil. 

It was impossible to determine the nature and properties of the 
parent clay minerals in the loess prior to weathering. However a 
detailed characterization was made of the clay minerals occurring in 
the insoluble residue from the limestone parent rock. 

The total composition of the insoluble residue shows mainly illite 
present in the < 2.0/t fraction with quartz and illite present in the 
> 2.0/a fraction. With this high percentage of illite and the general illitic 
nature of limestone residues, it follows that illite is the primary parent 
mineral of the Pembroke clay. 

Results of x-ray diffraction showed an abrupt transformation from 
illite in the parent rock insoluble residue to a mixed clay mineral 
suite of kaolinite, vermiculite, mica, and montmorillonite. The abrupt 
change is attributed to the presence of some readly weathered illite 
inherited from the parent rock and the time factor which is thought 
to be quite long. A comparison of the illite 10 A/5A peak height ratio 
and layer charge density measurements indicates the illite in the parent 
rock has a lower K content and possibly some iron in lattice coordination. 
This low K content illite weathers first, leaving a mica-type mineral 
which persists in the solum. 



Soil Science 



401 





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402 Indiana Academy of Science 

Barshad (1), after an extensive survey of the colloids in soils, con- 
cluded that the chemical environment which exists during soil develop- 
ment determines the kind of clay minerals that are being formed. This 
is particularly true of limestone soils where the initial stage of soil 
formation consists of the accumulation of residues through dissolution 
of the carbonate rock. It is often easy to characterize the macro- 
environment, but truly the heterogeneous micro-environment of the 
carbonic acid-carbonate rock-subsequent soil residue should be consid- 
ered. Particular consideration must be given to the abnormal surface 
acidity of the colloidal clay. 

The occurrence of interlayering in clays has been reported by many 
workers. Jackson (2) recognized this and has incorporated it as a part 
of chemical Weathering sequences. Interlayering, thought to be predomi- 
nately of the hydroxy-aluminum type, was very prevalent in the soil- 
rock contact sample and also in the upper loess-derived horizons. The 
nature and properties of this interlayer material are very important to 
a complete understanding and interpretation of the Pembroke clay 
genesis. Montmorillonite was noted in the same horizons where the 
interlayer material was most prevalent. 

It is concluded from this study that nearly identical weathering 
sequences are occurring in the upper solum horizons and at the soil- 
rock contact. The general weathering sequence is as suggested by 
Jackson (2). However the time factor is quite different for these two 
regimes and therefore the clay mineral composition varies. 

In brief the following sequence of reactions are thought to occur. 

As illite Weathering progresses, potassium and other interlayer 
cations slowly diffuse out of the interlayer spaces. This can occur on the 
edges of the mica flakes where only the edge of the main flake will 
expand. This is referred to as "frayed-edge" type of interlayering. 
However it is possible that any given mica interlayer segment may tend 
to remain completely filled with K or else to become completed affected 
by interlayer swelling. This can be depicted as follows: 
Mica— >illite^vermiculite^montmorillonite 

It is easy to see that interstratification Would result if random expansion 
occurs in a mica flake. This is very widespread in soils and sediments. 

The sequence of a non-expandable 2:1 mineral (mica) weathering 
to a partially expandable 2:1 mineral (illite) weathering to a freely 
expandable 2:1 mineral (vermiculite or montmorillonite), as indicated 
above, is shown in most weathering sequences. This implies a lowering 
of the layer charge. In soils there is a gradation between dioctahedral 
vermiculite and dioctohedral mortmorillonite and varible-charge expand- 
able 2:1 minerals are found. It would seem that a low-charge vermiculite 
may characteristically be very simlar to a high-charge montmorillonite. 
Therefore the significance of montmorillonite in the sequence may be 
open to question. 

The next step, Which appears to be a characteristic function of 
chemical weathering in soils (2), is that of intercalation of hydroxy- 
alumina interlayers in the expanded 2:1 layer silicates. Not only can this 



Soil Science 403 

hydroxy-alumina interlayer be attached on the two interlayer surfaces 
of vermiculite, but it can precipitate on one interlayer surface of an 
expanded montmorillonite. A montmorillonite intergrade appears to 
form frequently in alkaline soils whereas a vermiculite intergrade is 
more common in acid soils. 

The reaction 

mica— ^vermiculite— »14 A intergrade 
is favored by relatively rapid decomposition of any montmorillonite 
formed because of higher specific surface of edges, with release of 
aluminum for formation of hydroxy-alumina interlayers in the more 
highly charged and larger vermiculite particles forming from mica. 
This disposition of aluminum tends to preclude free Al(OH) 3 (gibbsite) 
formation so long as there are actively weathering 2:1 layer silicates 
present. This weathering then proceeds as follows: 

14 A intergrade— >A1 chlorite— »kaolinite 
It is thought that as weathering progresses the 2:1-2:1 intergrade 
accumulates aluminum in acid soils to a point where the transformation 
to a 1:1 occurs. The true nature of this transformation is not known. 

This final kaolin product can perhaps be visualized as being formed 
in the outermost parts of the mica plates, the "frayed edges," and 
progressing along the original cleavage expansion plane. The skeleton 
of weathered minerals can serve as a concentrated source of silica and 
alumina, but all progress through a solution phase or surface migration 
to give rearrangement of ions. 

The presence of much vermiculite in the residual horizons is due 
to the weathering and expansion of the dioctahedral mica in the lime- 
stone. The decomposition of montmorillonite was noted earlier as the 
source of alumina for interlayer development. This could be the 
controlling step in this process. 

The reason montmorillonite occurs in certain horizons is that the 
formation of montmorillonite is promoted by a higher pH which exists 
at the rock contact. The pH is also higher in the upper horizons due 
to cycling of bases by the vegetation. However the montmorillonite in 
the upper horizons could be simply inherited from the loess. 

These reactions can be summarized as follows (2) : 

Mica ►Vermiculite > Montmorillonite ^ Pedogenic 

Illite \ k- 2:1-2:2 

Swelling 18 A 
Intergrade 




J 



Pedogenic 

2:1-2:2 14 A — ->A1 >Kaolinite 

Intergrade Chlorite 

The intense red color and clayey character of limestone soils are 
functions: (1) of the inherited parent material, and (2) of the time 
factor, which appears to be great. Mechanical analyses of the parent 
rock insoluble residue showed 50% < 2.0,u in size. It seems the iron is in 
the parent rock as discrete iron compounds segregated in the rock, and 



404 Indiana Academy of Science 

when freed, remain as inert iron oxide in the soil. It is possible iron may 
be coating the surfaces of the clay minerals. 

The fact that the Pembroke soil is well drained is envisioned as 
promoting the weathering reactions which have occurred. 

Literature Cited 

1. Barshad, J. 1966. Factors affecting- the frequency distribution of clay- 
minerals in soils. Abstract in Clays and Clay minerals, 14th Conf. 207. 

2. Jackson, M. L. 1963. Interlaying of expansible layer silicates in soils 
by chemical weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals. 11th Conf. 29-46. 

3. Post, Donald F. 1967. Characterization and genesis of the clay minerals 
in limestone and limestone derived soils. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue Univer- 
sity. Lafayette. 

4. Post, Donald F. and J. L. White. 1967. Clay mineralogy and mica 
vermiculite layer charge density distribution in the Switzerland soils 
of Indiana. Soil Science Soc. Araer. Proc. 31:419-424. 

5. Post, Donald F. and Joe L. White. 1968 (In press). Quantitative min- 
eralogical analysis of soil clays. Proc. Indiana Acad. Science. 

6. Ulrich, H. P. 1966. Soils, p. 57-90. In: Natural Features of Indiana. 
Indiana Academy of Science, State Library, Indianapolis. 



Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis of Soil Clays 1 

Donald F. Post and Joe L. White? 



Abstract 

Quantification of the components in the <^ 2.0^ fraction of soils is at 
best semi-quantitative in nature. Degree of crystallinity, particle size 
distribution, and chemical composition greatly affect results obtained from 
any quantitative study. It is best to use more than one diagnostic method 
to make quantitative estimations. 

There is an increasing interest in agricultural and soil mechanics 
laboratories with respect to the different kinds of clay minerals in 
soils and their quantitative estimation. This is especially true for soils 
of countries in which practical experience on land reclamation, construc- 
tion of buildings, roads, etc. is not yet available. Pedologists are inter- 
ested in the kind and amount of clay minerals in soils for the study, 
characterization, and classification of soil profiles. 

The complexity of the problem of quantitative determination of 
minerals in clays is recognized by all workers. This holds for studies 
of standard minerals and is an even greater problem with multi- 
component soil clays. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review 
useful techniques and to comment on those found to be satisfactory for 
Indiana soils. Due consideration will be given to information gained 
relative to the efficiency of time spent. 

Review of Literature 

Konta (5) reported a comparative study by nine laboratories on 
the quantitative mineralogical analysis of a clay he supplied to each. 
The laboratories were free to use any technique or combination of 
techniques they desired. X-ray diffraction was used by all laboratories 
and is recognized as the most effective single method. This was supple- 
mented by differential thermal analysis, infrared, chemical analyses, 
cation exchange capacity, and surface area measurements. From this 
study he concluded the results were only of a semi-quantitative rather 
than quantitative nature. 

Mackenzie (7) concluded all clay mineralogical methods currently 
in general use can give quantitative data with some degree of accuracy. 
He has studied differential thermal analysis in greatest detail and 
stated, "Where applicable, the DTA method can give results of a good 
degree of accuracy and the relationship between peak area and amount 
of material is very nearly, if not perfectly, linear." However this has 
serious limitations because some minerals give peaks in such a close 



1 Contribution from Purdue University Agronomy Department, Lafa- 
yette, Indiana. Published with the approval of the Director of the Purdue 
University Agricultural Experiment Station as Paper No. 3212. This study 
was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant GP-1219. 

2 Formerly Graduate Assistant, now Assistant Professor, Department 
of Agricultural Chemistry and Soils, University of Arizona, and Professor 
of Agronomy, Purdue University, respectively. 

405 



406 Indiana Academy of Science 

temperature interval that they can not be resolved, or they may give 
such small reactions that extremely high sensitivity and accuracy of 
recording are necessary. In addition, some minerals may give no thermal 
reaction in the usual 0-1000°C temperature range. 

Van der Marel (12, 13) treated the quantification of soil clay 
minerals with x-ray, differential thermal analysis, infrared, cation 
exchange capacity, and chemical analyses. His conclusion, like the others, 
was that the quantitative determination of clay minerals in soils is a 
very difficult problem. Differences in the grade of structural ordering 
in the crystallites and an amorphous layer covering the clay particles 
were the two main factors he suggested which hinder quantitative 
analyses. In addition, amorphous organic and inorganic substances and 
variable crystalline composition of the clay mineral particles are further 
hindrances. Van der Marel has included a very complete bibliography as 
a part of his articles which would be most helpful for anyone 
contemplating further study in this area. 

MacEwan (6) discussed another aspect of this problem Which is 
usually not considered — the structural irregularities which are particu- 
larly liable to occur in soil clay minerals. Such iregularities may 
have a considerable effect on the intensities of x-ray reflections given 
by such minerals. This would be true of any type of interstratification, 
but is particularly true of random interstratification. 

Recently selective dissolution followed by chemical analysis for 
dissolved components has been successfully used for quantification of 
soil clay components (1). They present flow-sheets for a system of 
quantitative mineralogical analysis of clays of soils and sediments that 
the Wisconsin group has developed over a period of years. They offer 
as best evidence of the accuracy of the system of analysis the consistent 
total recovery of nearly 100%. They conclude this is a significant 
measure of the specificity of this method. 

Dixon (2) combined the differential thermal and selective dissolution 
analyses to measure amount of kaolinite and gibbsite in soil clays. He 
was interested in kaolinite and gibbsite, as they are important con- 
stituents in the soils of southeast United States. He reasoned that if 
these two major components can be accurately determined, the estimates 
of other constituents would be improved. 

Results and Discussion 

It was originally thought a detailed quantitative study of entire soil 
profiles might be enlightening as to the genesis of the soil clay minerals. 
Therefore it was of special interest to obtain a better estimate of the 
clay mineral components. The following discussion describes methods 
which the authors feel would provide a good evaluation of soil clays. 

The Seventh Approximation (11) has established a scheme for 
the clay mineralogy classification of soils at the family level based on 
all materials < 2.0ft in size. Post and White (10) were the first to 
mention significant contents of amorphous materials in Indiana soils. 
Commonly the quartz content has not been estimated, though clearly 



Soil Science 407 

present as seen on the x-ray diffraction tracings. The earlier Indiana 
work included estimates of only layer lattice silicates; an average of 
10% amorphous material was assumed in some of the determinations. 

Table 1 presents part of the results of the selective dissolution 
analyses. (Refer to ref. 9 for the complete table.) Clearly the percent 
recovery, the only measure of accuracy for this method, is very poor. 
A number of factors probably have contributed to this error and will 
be discussed later. In the following discussion the minerals will be 
considered in groups according to the method of analysis. 

Mica (Illite) 

The term "illite" will be used as denned by Grim, et al. (3) as 
follows: "The term is not proposed as a specific mineral name, but as 
a general term for the clay mineral constituent of argillaceous sediments 
belonging to the mica group." This very adequately defines the variable 
nature of the micaceous minerals commonly found in Indiana parent 
materials. Post and White (10) using the 10 A/ 5 A peak height ratio 
for mica have concluded that the 10 A material found in the solum 
horizons has a full complement of potassium and is good muscovite; 
however the parent material mica often has a variable potassium content 
and more appropriately should be called illite. 

The low potassium content-illite is readily weathered, as can be 
seen by the abrupt illite vermiculite transformation in going from the 
parent material to the lower B horizon (8, 9, 14, 15). 

Mica and K-feldspars, the latter usually not present in the soil clay 
fraction, are the two major sources of potassium in the soil. Therefore 
a measurement of total K in the clay fraction should be an accurate 
measure of the mica content. Jackson (4) reported soil micas to contain 
about 10% K2O. Thus, dissolution and determination of % K 2 and 
multplying this by a factor of 10 should be a good approximation of 
the % mica. 

It is felt this mica determination for solum horizons is a reasonable 
quantitative measurement. The "illitic" character or parent material 
horizons with variable potassium contents does, however, decreases the 
specificity for these horizons. The x-ray diffraction tracings should 
always be checked for presence of feldspars. 

Kaolinite and Amorphous Material 

It appears from this Work that the differential thermal analysis, 
perhaps combined with x-ray peak height measurements, should be used 
for quantifying kaolinite. Particle size and crystallinity do affect DTA 
and x-ray peaks, but perhaps a combination of the two compared to 
standard mixtures, would provide a reasonable estimate. 

The question of amorphous material is problematical. In general, 
it is agreed amorphous materials are present but there is no completely 
satisfactory measurement technique available. The probability that 
the treatment will attack poorly crystalline or very small crystalline 
minerals must be considered. Alexiades and Jackson's procedure (1) 



408 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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Soil Science 409 

which utilizes boiling for 2 minutes in 0.5 N NaOH as the extracting 
agent, is probably as good as any. The question of amorphous materials 
in Indiana soils has not been resolved and needs additional research. 

Vermiculite-Montmorillonite 

Alexiades and Jackson's (1) method is based on that part of the 
total initial cation exchange capacity lost on drying K-saturated samples 
at 110°C overnight. 

Results obtained on Pembroke soil horizons were generally lower 
than expected from x-ray diffraction results. Probably the biggest 
source of error is the many washings involved in saturating 100 mgs of 
clay with the respective cations and then washing out the excess salt. 
The chance for loss of the very fine sample in decanting the supernatant 
washing liquids is great. Polyethylene tubes are not satisfactory in 
this determination as the clay tends to adhere to the sides and does 
not sediment smoothly to the bottom. As an example of this difficulty, 
in 16 Pembroke samples only 70 mgs of the original 100 mgs were 
recovered at the end of the procedure. 

A serious error using cation exchange capacity to estimate the 
expansible clay minerals is the cation exchange capacity contribution 
by the other constituents, in particular, amorphous material. Alexiades 
and Jackson (1) have corrected for this in their calculations, but this is 
only a general correction factor. Also the presence of calcium 
carbonates in unweathered horizons would introduce a great error in 
the Ca ++ analysis in the CEC determination. 

Summary and Conclusions 

It should be pointed out in all fairness to the selective dissolution 
technique that this was the first attempt to use this method. Some 
errors which contributed to the poor duplication experienced with this 
procedure could be due to poor technique. The percent total recovery 
was about 80%. 

It appears very likely that, because of their low degree of crystal- 
linity, small particle size, and/or chemical makeup, the kaolinite and 
vermiculite in the Pembroke soil horizons (9) in certain horizons are 
reacting with the extracting reagents and being measured as amorphous 
material. The selective dissolution method, like most others, was cal- 
ibrated against "standard" minerals and "standard" average correction 
factors applied where it was found necessary. 

In conclusion, the authors feel the following suggested procedure 
would provide a maximum for quantifying and characterizing Indiana 
soil clays on a routine basis. 

1. In some cases there would be little advantage in fractionating 
the <2.0/i clay into two size fractions, especially for general 
characterization work. The nature of the study Will determine 
this. 

2. Saturation with a known cation prior to any analyses is always 
required. The Fe and organic matter removal usually would not 
be necessary. 



410 Indiana Academy of Science 

3. Make two x-ray diffraction tracings per sample: 

(i) Mg-saturated ethylene glycol-solvated and (2) K-saturated, 
heated to 110°C overnight and glycolated. This should suffi- 
ciently characterize the sample. (Heating the K-saturated sam- 
ple to 525 °C may be necessary if the presence of chlorite is 
suspected.) The distinction between montmorillonite and ver- 
miculite should be carefully considered as saturating cation, par- 
ticle size, and the solvating organic molecule all effect the degree 
of expansion. 

4. Make a differential thermal analysis of the Mg-saturated sam- 
ple. Use this information and x-ray peak height measurements 
compared to standard mixtures to calculate kaolinite content. 
The true potential of DTA as an additional aid in Indiana soil 
clay investigation has not been recognized to date, mainly due 
to lack of an adequate instrument. 

5. If no feldspars were noted by x-ray diffraction, run total K after 
dissolution of the Mg-saturated clay to calculate mica content. 

6. Determine the amorphous content by selective dissolution anal- 
ysis on the Mg-saturated sample. (At the present time the Al-Si 
colorimetric measurements are tedious. However Si and Al can 
be rapidly measured by atomic absorption. Amorphous Fe and 
free iron oxides after dithionite extraction can also be measured 
by this technique). 

7. If the x-ray tracings show the presence of quartz and feldspars, 
these should also be determined by selective chemical dissolution. 

8. Montmorillonite and vermiculite can be assumed to make up the 
balance. X-ray peak height checks should be used to quantify 
these two components. 

After giving due consideration to step 1, steps 4 to 6 should be 
carried out to supplement the x-ray analyses of step 3. At best the 
results will still be semi-quantitative. However, this gives a truer pic- 
ture of the clay composition and should provide useful information for 
interpreting weathering trends and genesis. 

If time will not permit the characterization study suggested above, 
it is recommended that the relative amounts (Small, moderate, predom- 
inant) of montmorillonite, vermiculite, mica (illite), and chlorite be 
estimated from areas or peak heights of first order basal x-ray diffrac- 
tion peaks. Kaolinite (and gibbsite, if present) could be estimated from 
the size of the respective DTA endothermic peaks as compared to stand- 
ards. Amorphous material should also be determined. 

Literature Cited 

1. Alexiades, C. A. and M. L. Jackson. 1966. Quantitative clay mineralog-- 
ical analysis of soils and sediments, p. 35-52. In: Clays and Clay 
Minerals, 14th Conf. 

2. Dixon, J. B. 1966. Quantitative analysis of kaolinite and gibbsite in 
soils by differential thermal and selective dissolution methods, p. 83- 
89. In: Clays and Clay Minerals, 14th Conf. 



Soil Science 411 

3. Grim, R. E., R. H. Bray, and W. F. Bradley. 1937. The mica in agril- 
laceous sediments. Amer. Mineral. 23:813-829. 

4. Jackson, M. L. 1956. Soil Chemical Analysis — Advanced Course. Pub- 
lished by the author, Dept. of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison. 

5. Konta, J. 1963. Quantitative mineralogical analysis of blue clay from 
Vonsov, Bohemia. A comparative study of nine laboratories. Clay 
Mineral. Bull. 5:255-264. 

6. MacEwan, D. M. C. 1961. The effect of structural irregularities on the 
quantitative determination of clay minerals by x-rays. Acta Universi- 
tatis Carolina-Geologica Supplementum. 1:83-90. 

7. Mackenzie, R. C. 1961. The quantitative determination of minerals in 
clays. Acta Universitatis Carolina-Geologica Supplementum. 1:11-21. 

8. Post, D. F. 1965. Mica weathering in a residual limestone soil profile. 
M.S. Thesis, Purdue University, Lafayette. 

9. Post, D. F. 1967. Characterization and genesis of the clay minerals 
in limestone and limestone derived soils. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette. 

10. Post, D. F. and J. L. White. 1967. Clay mineralogy and mica-vermicu- 
lite layer charge density distribution in the Switzerland soils of Indi- 
ana. Soil Science Soc. Amer. Proc. 31:419-424. 

11. Soil Survey Staff. 1960. Soil Classification — A Comprehensive System. 
7th Approximation. Soil Conservation Service, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington. 

12. Van der Marel, H. W. 1961. Quantitative analysis of the clay separate 
of soils. Acta Universitatis Carolina-Geologica Supplementum. 1:23-82. 

13. Van der Marel, H. W. 1966. Quantitative analysis of clay minerals and 
their admixtures. Contr. Mineral and Petrol. 12:96-138. 

14. White, J. L., G. W. Bailey, and J. U. Anderson. 1960. The influence of 
parent material and topography on soil genesis in the midwest. Purdue 
Res. Bull. No. 693, Lafayette. 

15. Zachary, A. L. 1966. Mineralogy and chemical study of the genesis of 
Miami, Russell, and Avonburg soils. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, 
Lafayette. 



ZOOLOGY 

Chairman: J. Hill Hamon, Indiana State University 

J. 0. Whitaker, Indiana State University, 

was elected chairman for 1968 

ABSTRACTS 

Sugar Preference and Water Uptake in Heat-stressed Chicks. Nan 

Eichelkraut and W. C. Gunther, Valparaiso University. — Fertile White 
Rock eggs were subjected to an nonoptimally high temperature of 41°C 
for the first three days of incubation. The eggs were then returned to 
normal temperature of 37.5°C and permitted to hatch. Upon hatching 
the chicks were presented daily with three different sugar solutions of 
two concentrations (lactose, sucrose, and dextrose each at 8% and 16%). 
Water was available at all times. The heat-stressed birds drank sig- 
nificantly less water than the controls. The controls preferred both the 
8% and 16% sugar solutions (all sugars combined for total consump- 
tion) to a greater degree than the experimentals. Both the stressed and 
the control chicks preferred the 8% dextrose and lactose solutions over 
the 16%, but preferred the 16% sucrose solutions over the 8% concen- 
tration of sucrose. 

Morphogenetic and Antigenic Studies on Aeolosoma hemprichi (Oli- 
gochaeta)J Jo Anne Mueller, University of Evansville. — Aeolosoma 
hemprichi is a versatile laboratory tool especially suited to morpho- 
genetic and regeneration studies, aging experiments, and antigenic anal- 
ysis. Antisera have been made against crushed A. hemprichi. The 
serum obtained contains antibodies that cause cilia on the ventral sur- 
face of the prostomium to stick together. Animals affected by antiserum 
writhe about on the bottom of the culture vessel unable to progress for- 
ward through the fluid, feed, or produce zooids. The antisera are specific 
and no cross reactions were detected between animals and serum ob- 
tained from different cultures of A. hemprichi. 

A marking technique has been devised which facilities morpho- 
genetic and regeneration studies. Animals exposed to methylene blue 
concentrate the stain in lipoid epithelial globules. The stain remains 
in the globules throughout the organism's life span thus enabling the 
investigator to follow globule distribution as the worms reproduce, age, 
and die. The marked globules are used to distinguish newly formed 
tissue from old tissue during morphogenesis and regeneration. 

The Manipulation of Mouse Ova in a Cytochemical Study of Early 
Cleavage. Sr. M. Jean Wallace and Teresa M. Menke, St. Mary's 
College, Notre Dame. — A simple method for manipulating mouse ova is 
described along with preliminary observations on the distribution of 
mucopolysaccharides during early cleavage made using this technique. 
The method involves two main procedures: (1) the mircopipetting of 



Supported by American Cancer Society grant # E-416. 

413 



414 Indiana Academy of Science 

individual specimens from culture to slide and (2) fluid change in fix- 
ing, buffering and staining. The techniques were developed for use in 
a study of murine ova by fluorescence and light microscopy. The study 
proposes to locate mucopolysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids 
by the uptake of specific stains during the first four cleavage divisions. 
The preliminary work reported on the deposition of mucopolysaccharides 
in mouse ova was based on the absorption of the fluorochrome acridine 
orange at pH 5.0 and by the reaction to Alcian Blue and to the Periodic 
Acid-Schiff test. 

The Effect of the June Opening of Gigging Season on Indiana Bull- 
frogs (Rana catesbeiana). F. Don FULK, Indiana State University. — 
A large number of female bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, taken in June, 
1963, during the Indiana gigging season, were gravid. The present study 
was conducted to determine if the number of egg-bearing females being 
taken during the gigging season could affect the population. Collections 
of 507 frogs were made along twenty miles of the White River, and 
from twelve strip pits in Owen County, Indiana, in June through August 
of 1964, 1965, and 1966. The frogs were sexed, measured, and the 
females checked for eggs. 

Averaged for three years, 79 per cent of the females Were gravid 
in June, 31.3 per cent in July, and 14.3 per cent in August. The time 
required for the collection of frogs increased from 7.5 minutes per indi- 
vidual in 1964 to 10.5 minutes per individual in 1966. It would appear 
that there had been a population decline in this area during the time 
of the study. It is recommended that June be eliminated from the Indi- 
ana bullfrog gigging season since a high proportion of females are 
gravid at that time. 

Effects of Ultraviolet and Antibiotics on Halteria grandinella. Michael 
E. Damiano and Henry Tamar, Indiana State University. — 
Halteria grandinella in a pond water-fly medium and in a balanced 
salt-milk medium were exposed to 0.7 watts per square foot of a prin- 
cipal wavelength of 2537 A. Fluid depths under 1 mm. were used (27°C, 
pH7). In the fly medium most died after three minutes, and all after 
five minute exposures. In the balanced salt medium most died after 
two minute, and all after four minute exposures. A greater quantity 
of amino acids in the fly medium may have been protective, as has been 
reported for bacteria. The bacterial plate count (24, 240 hrs.) after five 
minutes exposure was 250 for the fly medium and three for the balanced 
salt medium. 

Antibiotics were dissolved in balanced salt solution or distilled 
water and diluted with balanced salt-milk medium containing Halteria 
grandinella. After one hour in 10 mgs. per cc. streptomycin sulfate 
(27°C, pH7), almost all of the protozoans were dead, but the bacterial 
plate count was still 9. After 15 minutes in 1.25 mgs. per cc. erythro- 
mycin estolate most Halteria died, but the bacterial plates were 
overgrown. 



Zoology 415 



NOTES 



Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles in the Indiana State University 
Collections. David Rubin, Indiana State University. — Fish and amphib- 
ian and reptile collections begun at Indiana State University in 1962 
have grown rapidly. Since the material contained in the collections may 
be of research use to Indiana ichthyologists and herpetologists, these 
people should be aware of the existence of these collections. 

Specimens are catalogued by lot. One collection number is given 
for each jar which includes specimens of one species from one locality 
on one date. One collection number may cover more than one specimen 
and often does. Several species are represented by very large series. 
Because of this, the collections can be used not only as teaching refer- 
ence collections and for locality data but also for comprehensive work 
on particular species or groups. 

All specimens are fixed in 10% formalin and then transferred to 
alcohol for permanent storage. A label giving complete data is inserted 
with each collection number in a jar. Two catalog books are kept, one 
for fishes and one for amphibians and reptiles, in which collection data 
are entered in numerical sequence as specimens are catalogued. In addi- 
tion, separate data cards are kept for each species. Thus data on all 
specimens of a given species in the collections can be quickly obtained 
by going to the card file in which the species are arranged alphabetically 
within their families. The collection number serves as the link among 
specimens in the jars, the catalog books, and the species cards. 

The fish collection includes 39,069 specimens representing 159 spe- 
cies. The majority of the specimens are from Vigo County, Indiana 
and were collected during the course of a survey of the fishes of the 
county by J. 0. Whitaker, Jr. and D. C. Wallace. There also are speci- 
mens from elsewhere in Indiana as well as some from Florida, New 
York, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Forty-seven species are repre- 
sented by over 100 specimens and several Cyprinids by over 1000 
specimens. 

The amphibian and reptile collection is more diverse than the fish 
collection and contains specimens from all over the United States as 
well as a few from other countries. The collection includes 9,104 speci- 
mens representing 227 species. Most polytypic species are represented 
by more than one subspecies. A large number of specimens are from 
Indiana, North Carolina, Arizona, and Arkansas. 

The amphibian section is particularly strong because there are large 
series available for many species. There are 4,458 specimens of sal- 
amanders representing 47 species. The genera Plethodon and Desmog- 
nathus are especially well represented and there are several rare species 
in the collection (A?nbystoma mabeei, A, annulatum, Desmog?iathus 
ocoee, Eurycea tynerensis, Plethodon caddoensis, P. longicrus, P. oua- 
chitae, P. yonahlossee, Typhlotriton spelaens) . There are 3,747 speci- 
mens of frogs representing 48 species. Pseudacris triseriata and the 
genera Scaphiopus and Bufo are particularly well represented. 

The reptile section is more of a synoptic collection with only one 



416 Indiana Academy of Science 

or a few specimens for most species. The reptile section includes 25 
species of turtles (159 specimens), 47 species of lizards (212 specimens), 
and 61 species of snakes (529 specimens). Among the more uncommon 
reptiles in the collection are Clemmys muhlenbergi, Tantilla wilcoxi, 
Micruroides euryxanthus, and Crotalus tigris. 

Loans of materials will gladly be made for research purposes. In- 
stitutions to which loans have already been made include the University 
of Chicago, University of North Carolina, and Ohio State University. 



Some Intestinal Parasites of Robins from 
Marion County, Indiana 

John B. Baker and J. Hill Hamon 
Marion College and Indiana State University 

Abstract 

A sample of twenty- eight robins, Turdus migratorius, was collected in 
Marion County, Indiana, during- March, April, and May, 1967, and ex- 
amined for intestinal parasites. Nearly half (49.9 percent) of the birds 
were parasitized. The worms identified were the cestodes Dilepus undula 
and Hymenolepis sp. ; Tetrameres pusilla, a nematode ; and Mediorhynchus 
sipocotensis, an acanthocephalan. 

There are few reports in the literature concerning endoparasites 
of the robin, Turdus migratorius. Among the workers who have pub- 
lished on robin parasites are Cram (2) in New Jersey; Hughes (5 and 
6) in Oklahoma; Ransom (13) from a wide range in North America; 
Rayner (14) in Quebec, Canada; and Webster (19) in New York. The 
most recent reports are from Mettrick (10) in North American robins 
and Slater (17) who studied a Colorado population. Apparently there 
are no reports of internal parasites from Indiana robins. 

Our appreciation is expressed to Dr. William B. Hopp for confirma- 
tion of species identification, and for his helpful criticism of the 
manuscript. 

Materials and Methods 

A sample collection of robins was made in Marion County, Indiana, 
during March, April, and May, 1967. All twenty-eight specimens col- 
lected were mature adults, seventeen males and eleven females. The 
robins were shot, placed temporarily in a portable cooler, and later 
frozen. The parasites were removed from the intestine by curretting 
with a curved probe, and examined with a binocular microscope. The 
parasites are now in the Indiana State University collection. 

Results 

Nearly half (49.9 percent) of the robins examined were parasitized 
by intestinal parasites, 28.5 percent being males and 21.4 percent 
females. 

List of Parasites 
Class Cestoda 

Eight tapeworms representing the genera, Dilepis and Hymenolepis y 
were found. 

Dilepis undula belongs to the family Dilepididae, characterized by 
a double row of rostellar hooks and unilateral gonopores (15). D. undula 
contains numerous testes and a persistent sacciform or lobulated uterus 
(4). 

Three specimens representing the genus Hymenolepis could not be 

417 



418 Indiana Academy of Science 

identified to species because the diagnostic scoleces were missing. The 
genus was determined by the presence of three testes and both external 
and internal seminal vesicles. This tapeworm parasite occurs primarily 
in birds, especially passerine, anserif orm, gallinaceous, and wading birds 
(9). 

Hymenolepis serpentulus was found in robins by Ransom (13). 
Jones (7) described a subspecies Hymenolepis serpentulus turdii from 
Virginia, and Ogren (12) reported Dilepis undula in Illinois robins. 

Class Nematoda 

One nematode Was collected, Tetrameres pusilla. This parasite has 
previously been reported in robins by Travassos (18). This species is 
placed in the subfamily Tetramerinae. A few of the synonyms for 
Tetrameres cited by Yorke and Maplestone (22) are Tropisurus (3), 
Tropidurus (20), Asotum (16), and Acanthophrus (8). Tetrameres 
shows great sexual dimorphism. The males are filiform, while the 
females are stout and spindle shaped. The females are usually reddish 
in color. The specimen collected in this study was a white filiform male. 
These parasites commonly infest the proventriculus of birds (22). 

Phylum Acanthocephala 

The thirty-one acanthocephalan worms collected represent the Order 
Archiacanthocephala. This taxon contains three genera known to infect 
birds, Mediorhynchus, Heteracanthorhynchus, and Oligacanthorhynchus 
(21). Mediorhynchus sipocotensis was found in the Marion County 
robins. One of the five parasitized birds contained twenty-one of these 
acanthocephalans. M. sipocotensis has a sac-like body with no spines 
on the trunk, large unfragmented epidermal nuclei, and a globular 
proboscis armed With concentric spines. Females have two ligament 
sacs, and the males possess eight cement glands (1). These spiny 
headed worms parasitize the intestinal tract of many vertebrates, and 
usually infect roaches and grubs as intermediate hosts (1). Yamaguti 
(21) was the first worker to report M. sipocotensis in birds. Moore (11) 
has reported M. grandis from robins in Ohio. 

Avian parasitology is presently the most neglected branch of orni- 
thology. With much new knowledge about the migrational patterns of 
birds, and with our increased awareness of possible avian vectors of 
human diseases, this area of investigation has become increasingly 
important, and a very fruitful one for study. 

Literature Cited 

1. Cheng, T. C. 1964. The Biolog-y of Animal Parasites. W. B. Saunders 
Co., Philadelphia and London. 727 p. 

2. Cram, E. B. 1932. New Records of Nematodes of Birds. (Porrocaccum) 
J. Parasitol. 19:93. 

3. Diesing, K. M. 1861. Revision der Nematoden. Sitzungsb d. Math.- 
Naturw. Classe der Akad. der Wissensch. 42:595. Vienna. 

4. Hyman, L. H. 1951. The Invertebrates; Platyhelminthes and Rhyncho 
eoela. Vol. II. McG-raw Hill, New York. 550 p. 



Zoology 419 

5. Hughes, R. C. 1940. The genus Hymenolepis. Tech. Bull. Oklahoma Agr. 
Exp. Sta. 8:1-42. 

6. Hughes, R. C. 1941. Key to the species of Hymenolepis. Trans. Amer. 
Micro. Soc. 60. 

7. Jones, A. W. 1945. Studies in Cestode Cytology. J. Parasitol. 31:213-235. 

8. Linstow, O. von. 1876. Helminthologische Beobachtungen. Archiv. f. 
Naturg. 1:1. Berlin. 

9. Mayhew, R. 1925. Studies on the avian genera of the Hymenolepididae. 
Illinois Biological Monogr. 10. 

10. Mettrick, D. P. 1958. Helminth parasites of Herfordshire birds. II. 
Cestoda. J. Helminthol. 33:159-194. 

11. Moore, D. V. 1962. Morphology, life history and development of the 
acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus grandis (Van Cleave). J. Parasitol. 

48:76-86. 

12. Ogren, R. E. 1958. The hexacanth embryo of a dilepidid tapeworm. I. 
The development of hooks and contractile parenchyma. J. Parasitol. 
44:477-483. 

13. Ransom, B. H. 1909. The taenoid cestodes of North American Birds. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. No. 69. 141 p. 

14. Rayner, J. A. 1932. Parasites of wild birds in Quebec, Canada. J. Agr. 
Science 12:307-309. 

15. Rothschild, M. and T. Clay. 1957. Fleas, Flukes, and Cuckoos. Mac- 
millan Co., New York, 305 p. 

16. Schlotthauber. 1860. Beitrage zur Helminthologie. Amtl. Ber ii. d. 31. 
Versamml. deutsch. Naturf. u. Aertze. Gotting, p. 121. 

17. Slater, R. L. 1967. Helminths of the Robin, Turdvs migratorins. Ridg- 
way, from Northern Colorado. Amer. Midland Natur. 77:190-199. 

18. Travossos, L. 1876. Sobre as especies brazileiras do genero Tetrameres 
Creplin, Braz. Med. 28:163, 183. 

19. Webster, J. D. 1943. Helminths from the robins, with the description 
of a new nematode, Porrocaecum brevispiculum. J. Parasitol. 29:161-163. 

20. Wiegmann, A. F. A. 1835. Bericht iiber die Fortschritte der Zoologie 
im Jabre 1834 (Entzoon). Arch. f. Natur. 1:301. 

21. Yamaguti, S. 1963. Systema Helminthum. Vol. 5. Acanthocephala. John 
Wiley and Sons, New York. 327 p. 

22. Yorke, W. and P. A. Maplestone. 1962. The Nematode Parasites of 
Vertebrates. Hefner Publishing Co., New York. 536 p. 



Effects of Aminoglutethimide on Corticosteroids 
in Adrenal Vein Plasma of the Rat 

R. K. Zwerneri and W. J. Eversole, Indiana State University 



Abstract 

Aminoglutethimide phosphate (AGP) was given s.c. to male albino 
rats (Charles-River strain) in 50 rag/Kg body weight doses, one-half hour 
before withdrawal of blood. Following heparinization, the renal vein was 
ligated medial and lateral to the confluence of the adrenal vein with the 
renal vein. Adrenal vein blood was then withdrawn and centrifuged until 
2.5 or 3.0 ml of plasma was obtained. By studying the chromatographic 
plates, it became obvious that AGP had, in some manner, altered the corti- 
costeroid production of the adrenal cortex. A spot, corresponding with the 
cortisone standard, and tentively designated as such, showed up in large 
quantity in all of the treated samples, but was not seen in any of the 
control samples. This seems to indicate that AGP is inhibiting, to a 
degree, 11-hydroxylation, while inducing 17-hydroxylation. 

Aminoglutethimide phosphate, 2 in doses of 250-500 mg three times 
a day, is moderately effective in controlling nuero-muscular seizures (1). 
Pittman and Brown (7), Working with rats, showed that 250 or 500 
mg/Kg caused an increase in thyroid and ovarian weight, as well as 
an increase in adrenal weight. Dexter et al. (3) have reported prelim- 
inary evidence that 30 mg of aminoglutethimide per rat modifies steroid 
synthesis at a step prior to A5-pregnenolone. 

Thin-layer chromatography has been shown by several workers (2, 
8, 10) to be an effective method for the separation of a mixture of 
corticosteroids. Since these molecules are so closely related, often dif- 
fering by only a hydroxyl or keto grouping, different solvent systems 
can be employed to obtain the best separation. Also, the separations, 
using thin-layer chromatography, are noticeably sharper than those 
obtained by paper or column chromatography. Another advantage of 
thin-layer chromatography is that the sample needs only to contain a 
few micrograms in order to be seen on a plate, whereas in paper or 
column chromatography, larger samples are needed to produce spotting. 

The problem in the present study Was to investigate possible 
changes in types of corticosteroids in adrenal vein plasma after the 
administration of aminoglutethimide phosphate. Fluctuations in adrenal 
vein corticosteroids should reflect changes in release and presumably 
production of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex. Thin-layer chroma- 
tography was used to separate the corticoid and changes in steroid 
types were determined by simultaneous comparisons of standards, con- 
trol samples, and samples from the treated animals. 

Materials and Methods 

Male albino rats (Charles-River strain) weighing between 350 and 
400 grams were used. Treated animals were injected subcutaneously 



1 Present address: 760 South Main, Crown Point, Indiana 46307. 

2 The authors wish to thank Dr. Robert Gaunt, CIBA Corporation, 
Summit, N. J. for generous supplies of aminoglutethimide phosphate. 

420 



Zoology 421 

with 50 mg/Kg of aminogluetethimide phosphate (AGP). Adrenal vein 
blood was obtained during a ten minute interval starting about one- 
half hour after the injection of the drug. This interval Was chosen 
since Eversole and Thompson (4) found that subcutaneous injections 
induced muscular ataxia in 15-30 minutes after injection, thus indi- 
cating rapid absorption. The animals were anesthetized with sodium 
pentobarbital intraperitoneally and then placed under ether until blood 
withdrawal was completed. A laparotomy was performed to expose the 
left kidney and renal vein, the left adrenal gland and its vein from 
the gland to its point of entry into the renal vein, and the left sper- 
matic vein. The spermatic vein was ligated. A ligature was placed 
around the renal vein between its confluence with the inferior vena 
cava and the adrenal vein; a second ligature was placed around the 
renal vein between the adrenal vein and the hilus of the kidney. Before 
these were drawn tight, the animal was heparinized, heparin sodium 
being injected into a branch of the superior mesenteric vein, and then 
the vein being occluded with a hemostat. The ligatures were then drawn 
tight, taking precautions against obstructing or constricting the adrenal 
vein at its confluence With the renal vein. Having performed this step, 
a pocket is thus formed by the renal vein into which adrenal vein blood 
will flow. A #23 one-quarter inch needle was inserted into the renal 
"pocket" and blood was withdrawn over a ten minute period (6.0-8.0 
ml of blood collected from 2 or 3 rats). The plasma was separated by 
centrifuging the collected blood and 2.5 or 3.0 ml of plasma Was 
extracted. The plasma was placed in a graduated centrifuge tube and 
dichloromethane, 2.5 times the volume of plasma, was added. This was 
shaken for one minute and then centrifuged. The dichloromethane frac- 
tion, the lower portion, was then withdrawn and placed in a beaker. 
The material remaining in the centrifuge tube was then treated With 
a second portion of dichloromethane, 2.5 times the original volume of 
plasma. The two dichloromethane fractions were combined in the 
beaker, placed in a desiccator, and allowed to evaporate. The sides of 
the beaker were washed with 1 ml of dichloromethane and the extract 
was evaporated to dryness once more. The plasma residues, prior to 
plating, Were taken up in 0.5 ml of methanol. 

A rectangular chromatography tank was prepared by placing a 
strip of filter paper around the inside of the tank and adding the 
solvent (dichloromethane :methanol:water, in the ratio 225:15:1 ml) 
twelve hours prior to the running of the plate. The plates used were 
Merck pre-coated analytical grade coated with Silica Gel-F^, containing 
an inorganic fluorescent indicator. They were placed in a drying oven at 
120°C, one hour before they were to be used. Extracted plasma samples 
and standards (1 /.igm/ixl in methanol) Were applied 2.0 cm from the 
lower margin of the plate with a 0.01 ml micro pipet, and then 
the spotted plates were placed in the drying oven for 30 seconds at 
60°C to drive off methanol. Each plate was placed in a metal rack, 
which held it upright, and this assembly was transferred to the chroma- 
tography tank and allowed to run 16 cm (30-40 min). After the solvent 
migration, the plate was taken from the tank and viewed under UV-light 



422 



Indiana Academy of Science 



(wavelength 2540 A), the steroids showed up as dark spots, because they 
blocked the fluorescent indicator. 

Since humidity and temperature varied slightly from day to day, 
standard samples were run on the chromatographic plate with the 
treated and control samples. 

Results 

In viewing the chromatograms it became obvious that corticosteroid 
production in the rat was definitely being altered in some manner by 
AGP treatment. 

Table 1 shows a numerical representation of the results, in which 
the density of the spots was approximated on the basis of -f -f + + 
being the highest concentration of the substance and + being a spot 
which was barely visible. Distance migrated referred to the distance 
the spot moved from its point of application onto the plate to the 
point it ended up after the run was completed. The Rf value was cal- 



TABLE 1 

Effects of AGP on Adrenal Vein Steroids 
Control Samples Experimental Samples 





Chromatogram No. 1, 


2.5 ml Plasma 






Distance 






Distance 




Density 


Migrated 




Density 


Migrated 




Value 


(cm) 


R f Value 


Value 


(cm) 


R f Value 


+ + + 


14.6 


.91 


+ + + 


14.6 


.91 


+ 


11.7 


.73 


+ 


11.5 


.72 


j_ 


10.5 


.66 


+ 


10.7 


.67 


+ + + 


8.6 


.54 


+ + + 


8.8 


.55 


+ 


5.8 


.36 














+ + 


5.1 


.32 






Standards: 












Cortisone 




5.2 


.32 






Corticosterone 




7.3 


.46 






Hydrocortisone 




3.2 


.20 






Aldosterone 




4.G 


.29 




Chromatogram No. 2, 


2.5 ml Plasma 




-T 


12.6 


.79 


+ + 


12.5 


.75 


+ 


11.0 


.61) 








+ 


8.5 


.53 


+ 


8.2 


.51 








+ 


6.7 


.42 


+ 


6.1 


.3 8 


+ + + + 


6.1 


.38 


+ 


4.6 


.2!) 














+ + 


3.9 


.24 


+ + 


2.3 


.14 












Standards: 












Cortisone 




3.9 


.24 






Corticosterone 




5.2 


.32 






Hydrocortisone 




2.5 


.16 






Aldosterone 




3.6 


.22 







Zoology 




423 




Chromatogram No. 3, 


3.0 ml Plasma 






Distance 






Distance 




Density- 


Migrated 




Density 


Migrated 




Value 


(cm) 


R f Value 


Value 


(cm) 


R £ Value 


+ + + + 


11.5 


.72 


+ + + + 


11.6 


.73 


+ 


10.4 


.65 








+ 


8.2 


.51 


+ 


8.1 


,50 








+ + 


6.8 


.42 


+ + + 


6.4 


.40 














+ + + 


5.8 


.36 


+ + 


4.8 


.30 














+ + + + 


4.2 


.26 






Standards: 












Cortisone 




3.9 


.21 






Corticosterone 




5.2 


.32 






Hydrocortisone 




2.5 


.16 






Aldosterone 




3.4 


.21 




Ch 


■oraatogram No. 4, 


3.0 ml Plas 


ima 




+ + + + 


12.1 


.76 


+ + + + 


12.2 


.76 


+ 


8.7 


.54 


+ 


8.6 


.54 


+ 


7.9 


.49 


+ 


7.8 


.49 








+ + 


6.4 


.10 


+ + + 


5.7 


.lit; 














+ + + 


5.0 


.31 


+ + 


4.3 


.27 














+ + + + 


3.8 


.24 






Standards: 












Cortisone 




3.9 


.24 






Corticosterone 




1 9 


.31 






Hydrocortisone 




2.5 


.16 






Aldosetrone 




3.5 


.22 



culated as the distance the spot migrated divided by the distance the 
solvent system migrated (the distance for the solvent system migra- 
tion was standardized to 16 cm). Since the standards were always 
applied in a concentration of 1 figmf/A, no density value for them was 
needed. 

As shown in Table 1, the most obvious result was the appearance 
of a spot in the region corresponding with the cortisone standard in 
the treated animals. This spot did not appear in any of the samples 
from untreated animals, but was present in a high concentration in 
all samples from the treated animals. An excerpt from Table 1 shows 
this very close correlation: 

CORTISONE STANDARD 

Plate Distance R f Value Amount of 
Number Migrated Plasma in 

(cm) Sample (ml) 

1 5.2 .32 2.5 

2 3.9 .24 2.5 

3 3.9 .24 3.0 

4 3.9 .24 3.0 



TREATED ANIMALS 




Density 


Distance 


Rr 


Value 


Value 


Migrated 
(cm) 






+ + 


r>.i 




.32 


+ + 


3.9 




.,24 


+ + + + 


4.2 




,2tf 


+ + + + 


3.8 




.24 



424 Indiana Academy of Science 

None of the plasma-extract spots had Rf values like those of 
aldosterone, but a spot with an R f value similar to hydrocortisone 
was seen in the control sample on chromatogram no. 2. The average 
R f value for corticosterone on the four plates was 0.35. All control 
and experimental samples exhibited spots with Rf values clustered near 
(± 10%) the corticosterone average, but in only one case (chro- 
matogram 4, experimental sample) were the Rf values identical. 

There were some difference in the chromatograms obtained from 
2.5 and 3.0 ml experimental plasma samples. The most significant dif- 
ference related to this study was that the density of the spots asso- 
ciated with cortisone Was considerably greater in the more concentrated 
sample (3.0 ml plasma). 

When AGP was run on a plate, it had an R f value higher than 
corticosterone (AGP = 0.39; corticosterone — 0.32). It was also found 
that AGP was not miscible with dichloromethane. 

Discussion 

In these studies it was demonstrated that AGP was affecting 
alteration of adrenal blood corticosteroids. 

The most obvious change was the appearance of a spot corre- 
sponding With the cortisone standard in all of the treated animals; this 
spot was not present in any of the control animals. This new substance 
was being produced in high concentrations. In a personal communica- 
tion, Dr. Sheppard of the CIBA Corporation stated that it was diffi- 
cult for him to believe that cortisone was being secreted by the rat 
adrenal cortex. In his own experimentation he found that 18-hydroxy- 
11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH DOC) will have an Rf value similar to 
that for cortisone. The solvent system which he used Was dichloro- 
methane, containing 5% absolute alcohol and saturated with a volume 
of water equal to 5% of the total volume. This solvent system is 
similar to the one used in this experiment, except that Dr. Sheppard 
used about ten times as much water, which, being highly polar, might 
account for the fact that his R f values for cortisone and 18-OH DOC 
were similar. Quesenberry and Ungar (8) using a solvent system of 
dichloromethane:methanol:water:150:9:0.5, obtained Rf values for cor- 
tisone and 18-OH DOC, of .48 and .82 respectively. Therefore, the pos- 
sibility exists that cortisone was actually being formed following admin- 
istration of AGP. 

Studies on the rat adrenal gland have revealed that although the 
gland does secrete corticosterone, the enzymes for synthesis of 17- 
hydroxycorticoids are present. In the rat, the distribution of enzymes 
appear to be such that hydroxylation of carbon-11 (is favored and that 
this reaction reduces the hydroxylation of carbon-17), so that the 
former reaction precludes the latter (11). In an experiment on dogs 
in 1959 by Jenkins, Meaklin, and Nelson (5), it was shown that admin- 
istration of large doses of metyrapone (SU 4885), an adrenal inhibitor, 
resulted in a fall in total steroid production. However, with a smaller 
dosage (75 mg/Kg) there was no reduction in total 17-hydroxycorti- 



Zoology 425 

coids, but there was an inhibition of hydrocortisone production with 
concomitant secretion of large quantities of 11-deoxyhydrocortisone, 
indicating that the adrenal 11-hydroxylating enzyme system was espe- 
cially sensitive to the effects of this drug. Therefore, it seems possible 
that AGP could be acting by inhibiting 11-hydroxylating mechanisms 
and thus permitting ketone formation at C-ll and hydroxylation at 
C-17. Such a process would favor the production and release of 
cortisone. 

Dr. Sheppard (personal communication) also mentioned that the 
distinctive spots obtained with an Rf of .55 on Plate 1, .38 on Plate 
2, .36 on Plate 3, and .31 on Plate 4, could very possibly be AGP. 
When AGP was run as a separate sample, its R f value was slightly 
higher that corticosterone. But when AGP was mixed and centrifuged 
with dichloromethane, they were not miscible, and it seems that in the 
plasma, the AGP Would have been separated out with other material 
non-miscible with dichloromethane. The density of these spots showed 
a substance in high concentration, and it is unlikely that any residual 
carry over of AGP would have been this concentrated. Further con- 
firmation of the probable absence of AGP in the samples was gathered 
from the results obtained with extract obtained from 2.5 ml of control 
plasma; here there was a substance that migrated at the same rate 
as the four spots mentioned above, yet the plasma extract was obtained 
from rats that had not been injected with AGP. 

One puzzling problem was the apparent lack of conclusive evidence 
that corticosterone was present, except in one sample. In the rat the 
steroid highest in concentration (8-33 ugm/ 100ml peripheral blood) has 
been reported to be corticosterone (11). The operative procedures used 
in this experiment required the use of ether and the performance of a 
laparotomy. Ether has been shown to induce the production of ACTH, 
and a stress will induce an "alarm reaction," the initial phase of which 
is the "phase of shock," and is characterized by changes which are 
similar to those seen in acute adrenal insufficiency (6). Since blood was 
not withdrawn for fifteen minutes following laparotomy and twenty 
minutes following administration of ether, the corticosterone in both 
the control and treated animals, might have been depleted or in low 
quantity when blood Was withdrawn. Another possibility is that cortico- 
sterone in the extract was attached to a carrier Which slightly impeded 
its migration, thus accounting for the plasma sample spots clustered 
near the corticosterone standard. 

Hydrocortisone and aldosterone are both released by the rat adrenal 
in very minute amounts (9), therefore, it is not surprising that neither 
of these were found on the plates. It would be worthwhile to take a 
larger blood sample, and in doing this attempt to obtain plasma extracts 
which show the presence of these and other steroids. Some of the sub- 
stances were undoubtedly lost during the separation process and by using 
larger volumes of plasma there Would be more assurance that the con- 
centration of corticoids in the extract would be higher and thus show 
more distinctly as dense spots. 



426 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Bauer, R. and J. S. Meyer. 1960. Clinical evaluation of Elipten. J. Mich. 
Med. Soc. 5»:1829-1832. 

2. Chang, Edward. 1964. Partition thin-layer chromatography of steroids 
of the C-19 series. Steroids 4(2) :237-247. 

3. Dexter, R. N., L. M. Fisher, A. C. Black, Jr., and R. L. Net. 1966. 
Inhibition of adrenal corticosteroid synthesis by aminoglutethimide. 
Clinical Res. 14:16. (Abstr.) 

4. Eversole, W. J., and D. J. Thompson. 1967. Effects of aminoglutethimide 
on ovarian structure and function. Fed. Proc. 26:535. 

5. Jenkins, J., J. W. Meakin, and D. Nelson. 1959. A comparison of the 
inhibitory effects of 2-methyl-l,2-bis (3-pyridyl) -1-propane and Am- 
phenone B on adrenal cortical secretion in the dog". Endocrinology 
64:592-578. 

6. Moore, W. W. 1962. Cited in: E. E. Selkurt. Physiology. Little, Brown, 
and Company, Boston, pp. 687-688. 

7. Pittman, J. A., and R. W. Brown. 1964. Antithyroid and antiadreno- 
cortical activity of aminoglutethimide. J. Clin. Endo. and Metab. 
26:1014-1016. 

8. Quesenberry, R. Q., and F. Ungar. 1964. Thin-layer chromatographic 
systems for adrenal corticosteroids. Anal. Biochem. 8:192-199. 

9. Turner, C. D., 1966. General Endocrinology. Fourth Edition, W. B. 
Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 

10. Yawata, M., and E. M. Gold. 1964. Thin-layer chromatography of corti- 
costeroids. Steroids 3(4) :435-451. 

11. Zarrow, M. X., J. M. Yochtn, and J. L. McCarthy. 1964. Experimental 
Endocrinology. Academic Press, New York. 



Effects of Aminoglutethimide and Diphenylhydantoin 
Sodium on the Rat Adrenal Cortex 

Paul A. Holdaway, Indiana State University 



Abstract 

Amino-glutethimide phosphate (AGP) was injected subcutaneously at 
a dosage level of lOOmg/Kg body weight into a group of Charles River 
strain male rats 21 days of age. Diphenylhydantoin sodium (Dilantin) 
was administered at the same dosage level to a second group of animals 
of the same strain. The control animals were injected with physiological 
saline at a dose of lml/Kg body weight. Single daily injections were ad- 
ministered throughout the study. 

The study was conducted in three stages. First, a series of 30 suc- 
cessive days of treatment; secondly a week of treatment at which time the 
test animals were sacrificed; and thirdly, a period like the second trial, 
but the rats were left a week without treatment before being sacrificed. 
Histological examination revealed a definite increase in adrenal fat in 
the AGP-treated rats when compared to the control or Dilantin-treated 
rat. The cortical fat in the AGP-treated animals was deposited in larger 
intercellular globules than in the non AGP-treated animals. There was 
little difference in the adrenal weights between the Dilantin and control 
animals, but there was an adrenal weight increase found in the AGP- 
treated animals. However, the body weight was higher in the control 
groups than in either the Dilantin or AGP-treated groups, by percentage 
gained. Chromatographic methods indicated a slight increase in cholesterol 
content in the treated animals versus the controls. 

Introduction 

Amino-glutethimide phosphate (AGP) and diphenylhydantoin sodium 
(Dilantin, DPH) are anticonvulsive agents which have been used inde- 
pendently and in combination for the treatment of epilepsy in humans 
(2, 10). Dilantin administration decreased adrenal response in some 
epileptic children (3), but this mild effect has not detracted from the use 
of this drug as an antiepileptic agent. In other studies, Rallison et al. 
(10) reported that AGP induced goiter formation and reduced thyroid 
activity in children, and Pittman and Brown (9) reported adrenal and 
ovarian enlargement following administration of this compound in rats. 
Findings such as these have reduced the clinical use of this drug as an 
antiepileptic agent. Bonnycastle and Bradley (3) reported that Dilantin 
probably inhibits functional activity of the pituitary-adrenal axis, 
whereas Fishman et al. (6) found that amino-glutethimide, in large 
doses, consistently caused an increase in plasma ACTH thus implying 
that the compound acted peripherally on corticosteroid synthesis rather 
than through the pituitary. The purpose of the present investigation 
was to study the effects of these two drugs on the microscopic structure 
of the adrenal cortex of the male rat and to determine What effect the 
compounds have on adrenal fat and cholesterol. 

Materials and Methods 

In this study 47 male rats of the Charles River strain were used. 
Treatment started at the age of 21 days, at which time experimental 

427 



428 Indiana Academy of Science 

animals were placed in groups of six or eight and maintained on Wayne 
Laboratory Chow and water ab libitum. Litter mates were selected as 
test animals in attempt to minimize possible genetic differences. 

AGP and Dilantin were dissolved in physiological saline and admin- 
istered in a dose of lOOmg/Kg body weight; daily injections Were given 
subcutaneously throughout the study. The control animals were injected 
with physiological saline in a dose of 0.1ml/ 100 gms. body weight, and 
adjustments in dosages were made weekly after body weights were 
taken. 

The study Was conducted in three stages. (1) a long term study 
of 30 days of single daily injections to 31 animals; (2) a short term 
study of 7 days for 8 animals; (3) another 7-day term of treatment for 
8 animals followed by a week of no treatment. Animals were sacrificed 
by a single blow to the back of the head, the adrenals removed, gently 
trimmed of excess tissue and carefully weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg 
on a microbalance. Upon removal the adrenals were frozen in microgel, 
wrapped in Saran Wrap and stored at — 15 degrees centigrade until 
used. They were then sectioned at Sfi in 80 fi intervals using a rotary 
microtome (International Cryostat) at — 15 degrees C. The staining 
procedures were modified from those described by Lille (8), using Sudan 
IV stain for fat. 

Extracts of adrenal cholesterol were obtained by a method similar 
to that used by Hechter et al. (7). The adrenals, after removal, were 
rinsed in saline to remove blood and then stored in acetone under 
refrigeration for 14-48 hours. The acetone layer was poured off and 
allowed to dry; the residue was then extracted with chloroform and dried 
again. The tissues were thoroughly minced and extracted four times 
With chloroform, and the extracted residue from the acetone portion was 
added to the tissue extract fraction. This mixture was allowed to dry 
and then dissolved in methanol and spotted on chromatographic strips. 

Instant thin layer silica gel chromatographic strips were heated at 
110 degrees C for one hour to activate them. Following activation the 
strips were cooled and spotted with test material. The extracts were run 
with a known standard cholesterol spot for comparison. The spots were 
placed 2 cm from the bottom of the strip and run a distance of 16 cm. 
Each chromatographic run took 20-40 minutes in a Gelman Rapid 
Chromatographic Chamber. Following the run the strips were dried and 
then sprayed with phosphoric acid and water (1:1) and heated at 110 
degrees C for ten minutes. After heating the strips were sprayed with 
phosphomolybdic acid and methanol (1:2) and reheated at 110 degrees C 
for ten minutes. The sprays helped intensify the spots. The solvent used 
for the ascending technique was 100% benzene. 

Results 

Treatment did not cause severe adverse effects in the rats, but 
amino-glutethimide did induce ataxia Within five minutes following 
injection. These animals appeared feeble, especially in the hind legs, 
and remained this way for 15-30 minutes unless disturbed. If the rats 



Zoology 



429 



were stimulated to move, they could do so without difficulty, but most of 
the animals sat quietly. 

In all cases the control groups gained more weight than the treated 
groups. At the same time, the mean adrenal weight was higher in the 
AGP-treated animal compared to the Dilantin-treated or control animal, 
but such differences were not statistically significant (Table 1). Fat 
infiltration was found to be much greater in the adrenal cortex of the 

TABLE 1 

Effects of Aminoglutethimide and Dilatin on the Body Weight and 
Adrenal Weight on the Male Rat 









Initial 






Actual 








Age 


Mean 


Body Wt. 


Adrenal Wt. 


Treat 


ment 




(days) 


(grams) 


(rag) 


Long- Term 


Group 


(30)* 




Init. 


% Gain 


Combined±S.E. 


AGP (100mg/Kg)** 


21 


47.3 


333.2 


31.8+1.29 


(10)*** 














Dilantin 


(lOOmg/Kg-; 


21 


39.5 


408.4 


30.6±0.78 


(11) 














Control (0.1ml/100 


gras) 


21 


41.1 


454.3 


30.6±1.02 


(10) 














Short Term 


(7) 












AGP 






21 


41.0 


69.9 


22.1+0.40 


(3) 














Dilantin 






21 


35.7 


85.0 


18.1+2.03 


(3) 














Control 






21 


35.0 


94.2 


17.8±1.28 


(2) 














Short Term 


(7) + 












AGP 






21 


43.0 


95.2 


25.1+0.29 


(3) 














Dilantin 






2! 


42.7 


89.1 


24.3+1.57 


(3) 














Control 






21 


41.5 


102.5 


23.0±0.33 


(2) 















* Number of days treated. 

** Dosage levels for respective agents used. 

*** Number of animals tested per group. 

+ Animals treated for 7 days and left 7 days without treatment. 



AGP-treated animal than in either the Dilantin-treated or control 
animal. The relative amount of fat Was estimated by direct observation 
and found to be approximately 15-20% higher in the AGP-treated 
animal. There was little difference in the fat deposition between the 
Dilantin-treated rat and the control rat. These findings correlated closely 
with the adrenal weights as shown in Table 1. Fat was deposited in 
intercellular globules which appeared to be larger and more prevalent 
in the AGP-treated rat than in the other animals studied (Fig. 1). Most 
of this deposition Was found throughout the zona fasciculata. A ring of 
intercellular fat was seen between the capsule and the zona fasciculata 
in the adrenals of all rats studied (Figs. 1, 2, 3). This ring of fat was 
made up of small globules and accounted for most of the fat observed 



430 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Zoology 431 

in the adrenals of the control and Dilantin-treated animals. In the latter 
groups there was no indication of fatty infiltration in any of the zones 
of the adrenal cortex. 

Cholesterol was found in all of the chromatographs as evidenced by 
the consistency of the Rf values. However, the intensities of the spots 
were so variable that it was difficult to interpret the relative amounts 
of cholesterol found in the various tests. There seemed to be a tendency 
for the adrenals of the AGP-treated and Dilantin-treated animals to 
show an increase in adrenal cholesterol concentration when compared 
with controls. Confirmation of this apparent increase in cholesterol in 
the adrenals of treated rats must await further investigation where more 
refined methods might reveal a clearer picture as to possible influences 
of these drugs on adrenal cholesterol content. 

Discussion 

The results of this investigation indicate that amino-glutethimide 
influences fat deposition in the rat adrenal cortex, where diphenyl- 
hydantoin apparently has no effect in this respect. Lack of effect with 
DPH could be related to low dosage and it would be interesting to 
determine whether increased amounts modify adrenal morphology. The 
ataxia observed in this study after AGP treatment has also been reported 
in human patients receiving large daily dosages (1500 mg) of this 
compound (1). The sedative action of this compound is a well known 
effect and it can be modified by replacement or shortening the aliphatic 
chain on the glutarimide molecule. 

Significant adrenal weight increases in the intact rat administered 
AGP has been reported by Pittman and Brown (9). However these 
investigators used dosages 2.5-5.0 times larger than those employed 
here, which probably accounted for the fact that the adrenals of their 
treated animals were much heavier than those reported in the present 
investigation. Dexter et al. (4) reported that the increase in adrenal 
weight in AGP-treated rats was associated with a prop