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of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 

Volume 81 

Marion T. Jackson, Editor 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 

Spring- Meeting* 

April 23-24 

Mary Gray Bird Sanctuary, Connersville 

Fall Meeting 

October 28-29 

Earlham College, Richmond 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 

1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana State Library, 140 N. 
Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Contributors appear at the end of this volume, P. 410-411. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and correspondence con- 
cerning exchange arrangements should be addressed: 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana Academy of Science 
c/o Indiana State Library 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the State Library at $5.00 per volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers can often be secured from the authors. They cannot 
be supplied by the State Library nor by the officers of the Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from Vol. 74 are available to members 
upon application to the Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the various volumes can 
be supplied to relatives and friends of deceased members by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspondents may be 
addressed care of the State Library. Papers published in the Proceedings of the Academy 
of Science are abstracted or indexed in appropriate services listed here: 

Annotated Bibliography of Economic Geology 

Bibliography of Agriculture 

Bibliography of North American Geology 

Biological Abstracts 

Chemical Abstracts 

Chemisches Zentralblatt 

Current Geographical Publications 

Geological Abstracts 

Metallurgical Abstracts 

Pesticides Documentation Bulletin 

Psychological Abstracts 

Review of Applied Entomology 

The Torrey Bulletin 

Zoological Record 


Part 1 


Officers and Committees for 1971 3 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (Executive Committee) 6 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (General Session) 10 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) ........... 11 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Session) 15 

Annual Financial Statement 17 

Annual Report, Indiana Junior Academy of Science 22 

Necrology ............. 27 

New Members for 1971 37 

Part 2 


Presidential Address 45 

"Minicourses and the Audio-Tutorial System," S. Postlethwait 

"The Role of Scientists in the Preparation and Evaluation of 

Environmental Impact Statements/' Alton A. Lindsey .... 51 


B. K. Swartz, Jr.— A Brief Synthesis of Indiana Prehistory* .... 55 

G. M. Heathcote, Y. Toyoda and B. K. Swartz, Jr.— A Second 
Report on Earthwork Seven, the New Castle Site, a Portion of 
the Southeast Quadrant— 1971* 55 

H. G. Stacy and B. K. Swartz, Jr. — Continued Excavation of 

Earthwork Four, New Castle Site, Indiana* ............... 55 

R. E. Pace — Aerial Photography in Archaeological Survey* ..... 56 

R. Little: — Archeology of Tell Hesban, Jordan* .... .... 56 

G. K. Houck and B. K. Swartz, Jr. — The Commissary Site: A 

Woodland Cemetery* 56 

A. J. Perzigian — Bone Growth in Two Prehistoric Indian Popu- 
lations 58 

R. M. Little— The McKinley Site 65 

R. W. Alexander, Jr. — The Hybrid Origin of the Arikara 

Indians 71 

*Abstract or Note only 


iv Indiana Academy of Science 


M. L. Brashear, Sharon K. Cupp and Debora Mackie— 

Excavations at the Daughtery-Monroe Site, 1971 76 

B. K. Swartz, Jr. — A Provisional Taxonomy of Prufer's Scioto 

Tradition 81 

R. W. Alexander, Jr. — Multivariate Analysis and Human Skeletal 

Populations 86 


R. K. Togasaki and Margaret O. Hudock — Inorganic Arsenate as 
a Tool for Genetic and Biochemical Analysis of Photosynthetic 
Metabolism in Algae* 91 

P. Weatherwax — The "Liquid" Endosperm of Grasses* .... 91 

A. T. Guard— The Dichotomous Dilemma* 91 

R. A. Riepe and D. L. Dilcher — A Comparison of Modern and 

Cretaceous Sassafras Leaves* 91 

C. T. Hammond and P. G. Mahlberg — Structure of Glandular 

Hairs of Marihuana* 92 

L. R. Yoder and P. G. Mahlberg — Chromic Acid as a Selective 

Stain for Laticifers in Vinca rosea* 92 

C. L. Gehring and S. N. Postlethwait — The Terminal Inflores- 
cence of the Maize Mutant Tassel seed-2* 93 

G, E. Dolph — A Review of the Fossil Apocynaceae from the 

Eocene of Western Tennessee and Kentucky* 93 

F. W. Potter, Jr., and D. L. Dilcher — Revaluation of Engelhardia 

of the Eocene of Southeastern United States* 94 

C. P. Daghlian and D. L. Dilcher — Middle Eocene Sabaloid 

Palms* 94 

R. K. Horine — Cell Wall Regeneration Around Protoplasts Iso- 
lated from Convolvulus arvensis Tissue Culture* 95 

R. W. Olson and A. L. Eiser — Initiation of Callus Tissue of 

Abies concolor (White Fir) by Tissue Culture Techniques ... 96 

Cell Biology 

F. Padgett and W. A. Summers — Electron Microscopic Study of 

Anaplasma marginal by Negative Staining* 101 

L. F. Ellis and R. J. Douthart — Growth Cycle of Penicillium 

chrysogenum Virus* 101 

D. A. Werderitsh, D. Shelton, C. Swan, C.-M. Haun, W. 
Yunghans and D. J. Morre — Toxic Response of Mice to a 
DDT Diet, Its Supression by Feeding and the Effect of 
Estrogen* 101 

: Abstract or Note only 

Table of Contents v 

D, M. Huang, D. J. Morre and T. W. Keenan— NADH De- 
hydrogenase Activity of Golgi Apparatus from Rat Liver* , . 102 

T. W. Keenan, C. M. Huang and D. J. Morre: — Golgi Apparatus- 
Medicated Cytomembrane Differentiation in Rat and Bovine 
Mammary Gland* 102 

Anne S. Susalla and P, G. Mahlberg — Ultrastructure of Green 

Plastids in Leaves of Genetic Albino Tobacco* . ....... 108 

Shirley Siew— Use of the Scanning Electron Microscope in the 

Investigation of Cardiac and Pulmonary Tissue* 103 

G. B, Boder and L. F. Ellis — Ultrastructure of Mouse Heart 

Cell Culture* 103 

I. Watanabe, V. Patel and W. Zeman — Ultrastructures of Neu- 
ronal Lipofuscin and Ceroid* ............................. 104 

M. E. Jacobs — Effect of Beta-alanine on Glucose Catabolism and 

Growth of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells* ................... 104 

P. V. Blair and L. Y. Chao — Inhibition of Succinate Oxidation in 
Beef Heart Mitochondria by Derivatives of Pyridine Adenine 
Dinucleotide* 104 

J. H. Elder, C. A. Lembi, L. Anderson and D. J. Morre— 
Scale Calcification in a Chrysophycean Alga: A Test System 
for the Effects of DDT on Biological Calcification .......... 106 

R. Barr, J. D. Hall, T. Baszynski, J. Brand and F. L. 
Crane — The Effect of Mineral Deficiency on the Photosyn- 
thetic Apparatus in Maize. I. The Role of Chloroplast 
Sulfolipid 114 

F. E. Wilkinson, Sally E. Nyquist, W. D. Merritt and 
D. J. Morre — Aryl Sulphatases: Properties and Subcellular 
Distribution in Rat Liver ................................ 121 

T. W. Keenan and F. L. Crane — Constancy of Unsaturation in 
Molecular Species of Cardiolipin and Phosphatidyl Ethanola- 
mine from Beef Heart Mitochondria 133 


L. Mullins, T. L. Kruger, Theresa Cheng, and J. Sharp — 
The Synthesis and Decomposition of Some Interesting 1- 
Pyrazolines* 139 

T. L. Kruger, Nancy E. Tharp, and James W. Kress — Prop- 
erties and Reactions of Some N, N-Diethylaniline Oxides* . . . 139 

J. E. Rogers, Jr., and James Jose — Synthesis and Identification 
of p-Benzoquinones Occurring in Arthropod Defensive Secre- 
tions* 139 

*Abstract or Note only 

vi Indiana Academy of Science 


C. T. Botkin and R. E. Van Atta — A Chemical Study of the 

White River at Muncie* 140 

B. N. Storhoff and D. F. Storhoff — A New Experiment for 

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry* 140 

B. N. Storhoff — Rhenium (I) Complexes of 2-Cyanoethyldiphenyl- 

phosphine* 140 

J. A. Scarlett and W. J. Stratton — Chelating Behavior of Some 

New Sterically Hindered Tetrafunctional Azine Ligands* . . . 140 

D. J. Harris and W. J. Stratton — Conductivity Studies in Ace- 

tonitrile for a Novel Series of Metal Chelates with 2- 
Pyridylmethylketazine* 140 

J. D. Naylor and J. H. Meiser — A Counterdiffusion Study of 

Ferric and Silicate Ions in Agar Media* 141 

R. M. Lawrence and J. R. Relford — Liquid X-Ray Diffraction 
Studies of the Structures of Aqueous Metal Nitrate, Acetate, 
and Perchlorate Solutions Using Overviewing Techniques* . . 141 

T. L. Kruger and J. W. Kress — Molecular Orbital Calculations on 

Some Nitrogen Heterocycles* 141 

R. M. Brooker — An Anticholinesterase Agent and Myasthenia 

Gravis* . 142 

P, Andermatt — The Biosynthesis of Steroidal Sapogenins* . 142 

B. A. Thornburgh and P. F, Ma — Thin-Layer Gel Filtration 
Studies of Adenosine Deaminases from Beef and Beef Fetus 
Livers* . . 143 

T. A. Magers and P. F. Ma — A Comparative Study of Adenosine 

Deaminase in Human Tissue* 143 

M. L. Druelinger and S. R. Lammert — Photochemical Synthesis 

and Destruction of Oxaziranes* 143 

L. L. Garber — Some New Approaches to Teaching Chemistry 

for Non-Science Majors* 144 


P. T. McKelvey — A Water Quality Study of the Tippecanoe 

River* 147 

R. H. L. Howe — The Howe's Rapid Biochemical Oxygen Demand 

Index and its Technique* 147 

W. R. Chaney and A. C. Leopold — Stimulation of Branch Abscis- 
sion in Quercus alba by 2-Chloroethylphosphonic Acid* 147 

H. E. McReynolds — Basic Leakage Considerations in Ecological 

and Hydrological Studies of Experimental Watersheds* 147 

: Abstract or Note only 

Table of Contents vii 


J. W. Hart and Jessie M. Turner — A New System for Ecological 

Education— SEE* 148 

R. M. Hoffer and L. A. Bartolucci — Calibration Techniques for 

Remote Sensing Measurements of Water Temperatures ..... 150 

Linda K. Escobar and A. A. Lindsey — Natural Areas in the 
Beech-maple and Maple-basswood Forest Regions of Nine 
States 154 

Christine O. Hopkins, W. E. Hopkins and G. W. Barrett — 
Importance Per Cent Values of a Browsed Southeastern Indiana 
Forest 160 

R. E. Kirkpatrick, Marsha R. Roy, G. A. Wise and L. L. 
Haruman — Contents of Southern Indiana Wild Turkey Drop- 
pings 165 


R. W. Meyer and J. V. Osmun — Insects and Other Arthropods of 

Economic Importance in Indiana During 1971* 171 

B. E. Montgomery — Survival of Odonata Naiads Through Drought 

and Freezing* 171 

R. E. Siverly — Myiasis in Delaware County, Indiana, 1971, with 
a Confirmed Case of Infestation by Wohlfahrtia vigil (Walker) 
(DipterarSarcophagidae)* 171 

S. Betras and R. E. Siverly — Preliminary Investigation of the 
Effects of Three Hormonomimetic Compounds on Larvae of 
Culex pipiens pipiens L (Northern House Mosquito)* 172 

D. A. Shroyer and R. E. Siverly — A Preliminary Study of 
Autogeny and Host Preference of Culex pipiens pipiens L. 
(Northern House Mosquito) in East-Central Indiana* 172 

F. N. Young — Genetic Studies on Melanic Forms of Tropisternus 

collaris (Fabricius) from North and South America* 173 

H. R. Lawson — The Planipennia (Neuroptera) in Indiana* 173 

E. M. Shull — Indiana State Records and Notes on Some Rare 

Butterflies and Skippers in the State 175 

Gertrude L. Ward — Aggregations of Chalybion calif ornicum (Saus- 
sure) (Hymenoptera:Sphecidae) near Centerville, Wayne 
County, Indiana 177 

R. E. Dolphin — Observations of Halictus confusus Smith (Hy- 

menoptera:Halictidae) on Woodland and Field Flowers 182 

Geography and Geology 

M. J. Murphy and J. P. Szabo — Glacial Geology of St. Joseph 

County, Indiana (Map 1 :62,500) * 187 

*Abstract or Note only 

viii Indiana Academy of Science 


R. W. Orr and W. D. Rebuck — Age and Correlation of Middle 

Devonian Strata of Jasper County, Indiana* 187 

R. L. Powell — Structural Control of Cavern Development in 

Northwestern Washington County, Indiana* 188 

J. H. Cleveland — To Harmonize a County — -A Proposed Integrated 

Study of Vigo County, Indiana* 188 

A. H. Meyer — Geography's Inherent Role in Environment Con- 
trol* 189 

S. K. Pontius — Factors Associated with the Decline of Central 
Place Functions on the Rural Poor of Monroe County, 
Indiana* 189 

H. W. Bullamore — The Relationship of Expensive Residential 

Dwellings to Hilly Terrain* 189 

F. P. Kallay — Fulmendosa River: A Multipurpose Irrigation Proj- 

ect in Sardinia* . 190 

D. L. Dilcher — Coal Age Tree Stumps in Indiana* 190 

S. H. Murdock — Earth Dam Problems — and the Geological Site 

Investigation 191 

N. K. Bleuer and M. C. Moore — Glacial Stratigraphy of the 
Fort Wayne Area and the Draining of Glacial Lake 
Maumee 195 

T. R. West — Engineering Soils Mapping in Indiana by Computer 

from Remote Sensing Data 210 

S. H. Murdock and R. A. Pettijohn — Status of Interagency 

Erosion and Sediment Studies in Indiana 217 

A. J. Rudman, J. Mead, R. F. Blakely and J. F. Whaley 

— Precambrian Geophysical Provinces in Indiana 223 

G. S. Austin and J. B. Patton — History of Brick Manufacture in 

Indiana 229 

A. C. Freeman and G. W. Webb — A Comparison of Public Utility 
and Governmental Rates and Services Provided Mobile Home 
Park Residents and Other Residents: A Case Study of Tippe- 
canoe County, Indiana 238 

C. H. Judy— Heavy Water— A Natural Tracer 242 

L. V. Miller — A Preliminary Investigation of Sludge Refuse from 

Indiana Coal Mines 246 

D. B. Waldrip and M. C. Roberts — The Distribution of Slopes in 

Indiana 251 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

R. H. L. Howe — Comparative Growth Kinetics of Microbial Bio- 
Oxidation* 259 

*Abstract or Note only 

Table of Contents ix 


J. Butler, D. Docauer, M. Downing, M. Dulin, K. Fisch- 
vogt, W. Gardiner, J. Holloway, J. Jacoby, J. Neff and 
L. Schell — A Survey of Pollution Levels in the Bean Blossom 
Watershed (Lake Lemon) and in the Salt Creek Watershed 
(Lake Monroe) — Brown and Monroe Counties, Indiana* . ... 259 

R. F. Ramaley — The Use of Pollution Surveys as Aids in 

Environmental Protection and Planning* .................. 259 

S. C. Burt — The Impact of Water Pollution on Recreational Areas 

in Delaware County* 260 

D. L. Peterson and A. S. Bennett — The Effects of Glucose, 
Acetate, and Malonate Upon Fatty Acid Distribution in 
Aspergillus niger 262 


I. J. Hansen and E. M. Compy — Effects of Pressure on Elec- 
tronic Properties of Bismuth* 267 

R. Kaitchuck and N. G. Sprague — Photoelectric Photometry of 

an Eclipsing Binary Star System* 267 

D. E. Michael and L. M. Reynolds — Neutron Activation Cross 

Sections Using 2.8 MeV Neutrons* 267 

J. Swez, J. Westgard and L. Plew — The Numerical Lathe Fabrica- 
tion and Theoretical Evaluation of an Electron Lens* 268 

J. B. Westgard and D. G. Pitts — Tayex: A Taylor Expansion 

Equation Solver* 268 

C. T. Wunker and P. R. Errington — D-178B Minuteman Missile 

Computer Interfacing* 268 

D. L. DeMoss and C. C. Sartain— Growth of Single Crystals of 

Alkali Niobates* 268 

K. E. Wright and C. C. Sartain— A Critical Study of the 
Various Factors Limiting Resolution in Solid State De- 
tectors* 269 

P. S. Marcus— Calculus Without Differentials 269 

T. K. E. Alvager, R. A. Llewellyn and R. E. Pace: — Neutron 
Activation Analysis of a Metal Button from the Site of Fort 
Harrison* 269 

G. E. Haring and E. B. Nemanic — A Study of the Rate of 

Absorption of Methylated Mercury by Carassius auratus .... 271 

Plant Taxonomy 

T. J. Crovello — The Computerization of the Edward Lee Greene 

Herbarium (NDG) at Notre Dame* 275 

*Abstract or Note only 

x Indiana Academy of Science 


C. B. Heiser, Jr.— The Origin of Seed Planting* 275 

L. and A. Beesley — Wild Flowers of Franklin County and 

Indiana* 275 

G. M. Brooks and T. R. Mertens — A Biosystematic Study of 

Polygonum ramosissimum and Polygonum tenue 277 

Winona H. Welch — Studies in Indiana Bryophytes XIV 284 

L. C. Brown — The Effects of Preservation Time on Chroma- 
tographic Patterns in Equisetum hiemale 290 

Fay K. Daily — Comments on a Check List of Indiana Algae: 

Purpose and Problems 294 

Science Education 

L. L. Bodie, Jr. — Uses of a Student Responder System* 297 

C. C. Hinds — An Audio-tutorial, Independent Study Program for 

the Elementary Teacher* 297 

S. S. Shimer, Linda B. Knight and H. H. Jaus — Training- 
Supervising Teachers to Evaluate and Counsel Pre-Service 
Teachers on the Basis of Teaching Techniques Derived from 
Methods Courses* 298 

H. D. Shock — An Environmental Science Conservation Course* . 298 

W. D. Brooks — Reading Habits of Prospective Secondary Earth 

Science and Geography Teachers* 299 

J. W. Hart and Jessie M. Turner — SEE — System for Ecological 

Education 301 

Soil Science 

J. L. White and Maribel Cruz — Soil Colloids and Behavior of 

Pesticides in Soils* 305 

D. E. Phinney and J. E. Newman — The Precision Associated 
with Sampling Frequencies of Total Particulate at Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana* 305 

R. K. Stivers — High Rates of Urea Fertilizer for Corn (Zea 

mays L.) on Two Soils, 1969-1971 306 

J. E. Newman and D. E. Phinney — Weekly and Seasonal 
Changes in Total Suspended Particulate Concentrations at 
Indianapolis, Indiana 312 

D. E. Linvill and R. F. Dale — Temperature and Relative Hu- 
midity Inside Corn Canopies and in Standard Shelters during 
July and August, 1970 and 1971 319 

"Abstract or Note only 

Table of Contents xi 

W. L. Stirm, M. Bauer and 0. Loewer, Jr. — Predicting Southern 
Corn Leaf Blight Development in 1971 by Computer Simu- 
lator EPIMAY 325 

E. J. Monke and R. M. Alverson — Some Effects of Soil and 

Ambient Air Temperature Differences on Tomato Growth . . . 330 


K. Abler and D. H. Taylor — Perception of the Plane of Polarized 

Light and its Use by Orienting Salamanders* 339 

C. E. Mays and M. A. Nickerson — A Population Study of the 

Ozark Hellbender Salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis 
bishopi* 339 

J. H. Clark, J. A. Anderson and E. J. Peck, Jr. — Specific 
Estrogen Binding Sites in the Nuclear Fraction of the Rat 
Uterus* . 340 

A. Lairje and N. A. Dial — Effects of Differentiated Brain on the 
Development of the Nervous System of the Explanted Chick 
Embryo* 340 

T. Joseph — Coccidial Immunity Studies in the Grey Squirrel* . . . 341 

K. Belcher — Relationship between Metabolic and Emergency 

Rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster* 341 

R. L. Suddith — Sites of Cell Proliferation in a Colonial Hydroid, 

Campanularia flexuosa . 342 

R. S. Benda — Fish Populations in the White River near Peters- 
burg, Indiana* . 343 

N. A. Dial — Some Effects of Methylmercury on Early Frog 

Development* 343 

Susan L. Donaldson, J. L. Albright and W. C. Black — Primary 

Social Relationships and Cattle Behavior 345 

Susan L. Donaldson, J. L. Albright and Mary Ann Ross — Space 

and Conflict in Cattle 352 

D. R. Goins — A Check List of Freshwater Ostracods of Indiana — 

Including Sixteen New Recordings and a Description of Two 
New Species 355 

D. R. Lank, Jr. — Parasites of the Bullfrog in Indiana . . .... 359 

Virginia R. Ferris and J. M. Ferris — Distribution of Free-living 
Soil Nematodes of the Belondiroidea in Indiana and the 
United States 365 

R. L. Richards — The Woodrat in Indiana: Recent Fossils 370 

J. O. Whitaker, Jr., and R. E. Mumford — Notes on Occurrence 

and Reproduction of Bats in Indiana 376 

*Abstract or Note only 

xii Indiana Academy of Science 


W. C. Houtcooper — Rodent Seed Supply and Burrows of Peromys- 

cus in Cultivated Fields 384 

L. G. Martin, T. F. Myers and Grace E. Wertenberger — Effect of 
Aging on Ability to Acclimate to Chronic Hypoxia of Simulated 
Altitude 390 

W. G. Gunther and M. W. Wagner — Preferences for Natural and 
Artificial Sweeteners in Heat-Stressed Chicks of Different 
Ages 401 

Instructions for Contributors 410 

Index 413 

Cumulative Index Volumes 71-80 423 





Samuel N. Postlethwait, President 


President Samuel N. Postlethwait, Purdue University 

President-elect Otto K. Behrens, Eli Lilly & Co. 

Secretary J. Dan Webster, Hanover College 

Treasurer Damian V. Schmelz, St. Meinrad College 

Editor Marion T. Jackson, Indiana State University 

Director of Public Relations . Paul E. Klinge, Indiana University 

Program Chairmen . ...Carrolle A. Markle and W. K. Stephenson, 

Earlham College 


Anthropology .William R. Adams, Indiana University 

Botany .James R. Rees, Anderson College 

Cell Biology ... ......... .William J. Griffing, Eli Lilly & Co. 

Chemistry .. ... ...... Wilmer J. Stratton, Earlham College 

Ecology .................. Carl H. Krekeler, Valparaiso University 

Engineering Robert L. Swaim, Purdue University 

Entomology Robert E. Dolphin, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 

Geography and Geology .Charles E. Wier, Dept. of Natural Resources 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Robert F. Ramaley 

Indiana University 

Physics .Malcolm E. Hults, Ball State University 

Plant Taxonomy Fay K. Daily, Butler University 

Science Education .Kenneth W. Uhlhorn, Indiana State University 
Soil Science .................. Russell K. Stivers, Purdue University 

Zoology .....William J. Brett, Indiana State University 


(Past Presidents*, Current Officers, Divisional Chairmen, 

Adams, W. R. 

Behrens, 0. K. 

Brett, W. J. 

Brooker, R. M. 

Chandler, L. 
*Christy, O. B. 
*Cleland, R. F. 

Coats, Nellie 

Daily, Fay K. 
*Daily, W. A. 
*Day, Harry G. 

Dhonan, C. A. 

Dolphin, R. E. 
*Edington, W. E. 
*Edwards, P. D. 
*Girton, R. E. 

Griffing, W. J. 

Committee Chairmen) 

*Guard, A. T. 
*Guthrie, F. A. 
*Haenisch, E. L. 

Hopp, W. B. 

Hults, M. E. 

Jackson, M. T. 
*Johnson, W. H. 

Kaufman, K. L. 

Kessel, W. G. 

Klinge, P. E. 

Krekeler, C. H. 

* Lilly, Eli 
*Lindsey, A. A. 

* Markle, Carrolle A. 
McBurney, W. F. 

*Mellon, M. G. 

* Meyer, A. H. 

*MlCHAUD, H. H. 

* Morgan, W. P. 


Newman, J. E. 
Nisbet, J. 
Patton, J. B. 
Petty, R. 0. 
Postlethwait, S. N. 

* Powell, H. M. 
Ramaley, R. F. 
Rees, J. R. 
Schmelz, D. V. 
Stephenson, W. K. 
Stratton, W. J. 
Stivers, R. K. 

*Wayne, W. J. 
*Weatherwax, P. 


4 Indiana Academy of Science 

Webster, J. D. *Welcher, F. J. Winslow, D. R. 

*Welch, Winona H. Wier, C. E. *Youse, H. R. 

Williams, E. C. 


President, Samuel N. Postlethwait; President-elect, Otto K. Beh- 
Rens; Secretary, J. Dan Webster; Treasurer, Damian V. Schmelz; 
Editor, Marion T. Jackson; Director of Public Relations, Paul 
E. Klinge; Retiring President, Frank A. Guthrie; Director of 
Junior Academy, Donald R. Winslow; Library Committee, Nellie 
Coats; Relation of Academy to State, William A. Daily; Program 
Chairmen, William K. Stephenson and Carrolle A. Markle. 


Academy Foundation: William A. Daily, 1972, Chairman; W. P. 

Morgan, 1971. 

Bonding: Robert M. Brooker, 1971, Chairman; Howard H. Michaud, 

Research Grants: James E. Newman, 1973, Chairman; Nelson R. 
Easton, 1974; John B. Patton, 1972; William K. Stephenson, 
1971; Winona H. Welch, 1975. 


(President an ex officio member of all committees.) 

Academy Representative on the Council of the A.A.A.S.: Willis H. 

Auditing Committee: C. A. Dhonan, Chairman; Robert E. Dolphin. 

Youth Activities Committee: Paul E. Klinge, Chairman; Sr. Mary 
Alexandria; Robert M. Brooker; Jerry Colglazier; John V. 
Davis; William Field; Emil Hoffman; Karl L. Kaufman; 
Ralph W. Lefler; Wendell F. McBurney; James D. Schwengel; 
Donald R. Winslow. 

Indiana Science Talent Search: Mark Bambenek; Robert L. Henry; 
Wendell F. McBurney ; Alfred R. Schmidt; Howard R. 
Youse; Harold L. Zimmack. 

Indiana Science Fairs, State Coordinator: Karl L. Kaufman. 

Indiana Science Fairs, Regional Fair Directors: P. V. Flannery, 
Calumet; A. C. Koester, Northwestern; Harry Weimer, Northern; 
A. W. Friedel, Northeastern; William W. Hill, Jr., N.E. Tri- 
State; William J. Fischang, Lafayette; William F. Phillips, 
West Central; George W. Welker, East Central; William 
Gommel, Central; W. F. McBurney, South Central; Richard 
L. Conklin, Southeastern; H. A. Schleter, Tri-State. 

Indiana Junior Academy of Science Council: Donald R. Winslow, 
1975, Chairman; Sr. Mary Alexandra, 1972; Mary J. Pettersen, 
1973; Lawrence Poorman, 1974; Helen Reed, 1971. 

Officers and Committees 5 

Library Committee: Lois Burton, Chairman; Nellie Coats; William 
R. Eberly; John W. Klotz; Eli Lilly. 

Program Committee: Carrolle Markle and William Stephenson, 

Publications Committee: Marion T. Jackson, Chairman; Marion F. 
Baumgardner; Harry G. Day; William R. Eberly ; Wilton N. 
Melhorn; John F. Pelton; B. K. Swartz, Jr. 

Newsletter: Frank A. Guthrie. 

Relation of the Academy to the State of Indiana: William A. Daily, 

Chairman; James A. Clark; William R. Eberly; Helmut 

Membership Committee: Marvin Schreiber, Chairman; Eliot C 

Fellows Committee: Ben Moulton, 1973, Chairman; James A. 

Ahlrichs, 1973; Charles E. Brambel, 1973; Richard L. 

Conklin, 1971; Sears Crowell, 1972; Fay K. Daily, 1971; 

William W. Davis, 1973; Robert E. Gordon, 1972; Charles B. 

Heiser, 1971; Donald E. Miller, 1971; B. E. Montgomery, 1972; 

Georg K. Neumann, 1972; John Pelton, 1972. 

Resolutions Committee: Arthur T. Guard, Chairman; Howard R. 
Youse, Robert 0. Petty. 

Invitations Committee: James R. Gammon, Chairman; Alton A. 
Lindsey; James C. List; Paul R. Quinney; William K. 

Parliamentarian: Paul Weatherwax. 


Biological Survey Committee: Leland Chandler, Chairman; Jack 
E. Humbles; Gayton C. Marks; Russell E. Mumford; Jack R. 
Munsee; Winona H. Welch; Frank N. Young. 

Emeritus Member Selection Committee: Ralph E. Cleland, Chair- 
man; Robert H. Cooper, Edward L. Haenisch; Howard Michaud; 
Winona H. Welch ; J. Dan Webster. 

Preservation of Scientific Areas Committee: Robert 0. Petty, 
Chairman; Ray Gutschick; Carl H. Krekeler; Carrolle 
Markle; Ben Moulton; Damian V. Schmelz; Robert Weber; 
Winona H. Welch. 

"Speaker of the Year" Selection Committee: Ralph E. Cleland, 
Chairman; Willis H. Johnson; A. J. Ullstrup. 

Science and Society Committee: Willis H. Johnson, Chairman; 
Ralph E. Cleland; Harry G. Day; William R. Eberly; Alton 
A. Lindsey; Paul E. Klinge; Robert D. Miles; Robert Menke; 
Robert E. Gordon; Milton Burton; John B. Patton; D. James 
Morre; Herman B. Wells, Honorary; Helmut Kohnke, 
Executive Secretary. 

Member, Indiana Natural Resources Commission: Samuel N. 


Mary Gray Bird Sanctuary, Fayette County, Indiana 


April 23, 1971 

The meeting was called to order at 4:39 pm by President 
Samuel Posthlethwait in Earl Brooks Hall, Mary Gray Bird Sanctuary, 
near Connersville. Nineteen members were present. The president re- 
ported briefly, chiefly noting- points of the agenda which were 
considered later in the meeting. The secretary moved the approval of 
the minutes of the November 5, 1970, meeting, which had been 
duplicated and distributed. Seconded and carried. 

Treasurer: Rev. Damian V. Schmelz distributed duplicated copies 
of his report for the period January 1 to April 23, 1971. It was moved, 
seconded, and carried that it be accepted. 

Academy Foundation Committee: William A. Daily, Chairman, 
reported that legal counsel had been retained to clarify the tax status 
of the academy with the United States Internal Revenue Service. He 
moved that attorney Donald G. Sutherland be granted Power of 
Attorney to act for the academy in tax matters. Seconded and 
carried. (This action had previously been taken by the Council.) 

Bonding Committee: Robert M. Brooker, Chairman, recommended 
no change in our program. 

Academy Representative on the A.A.A.S. Council: Willis H. Johnson, 
Representative, reported the following interesting actions at the 
December, 1970, meeting of the council: 1) Passed resolution recom- 
mending phaseout of the use of herbicides in Southeast Asia; 2) Passed 
resolution recommending that all scientists start using the metric 
system in their publications and also recommending that the government 
establish a national policy on its use; 3) Passed resolution reaffirming 
its commitment to equal opportunity for all scientists regardless 
of sex, race, creed or national origin. 

A new rule of the A.A.A.S. requires representatives from affiliated 
organizations (such as ours) to serve 2-or-more-year terms. It was 
moved that the constitution of the academy be amended as follows: 
(italicized words added) 

"Article V, Section 1. The following named committees shall be ap- 
pointed by the President, to serve for one year, except as noted other- 
wise below and except as rotation is provided, and except as otherwise 
provided they shall be announced . . . 

"(1) The Academy Representative on the Council of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. This person 
shall serve for a three-year term beginning January 1, 1972, 
and every 3 years thereafter. 

"(2) Auditing. . ." Seconded and carried. 


Minutes of the Executive Committee 7 

Auditing Committee: Robert Dolphin, Chairman, stated that no 
report was necessary at this time of year. 

Library Committee: Mrs. Lois Burton, Chairwoman, reported that 
in December the Academy received a grant of $15,000 from Lilly 
Endowment, Inc., to be expended in general support of the John 
Shepard Wright Memorial Library. The amount is on the Treasurer's 
books as Lilly Fund IV. We plan to begin carrying out provisions under 
this grant during the coming summer. 

A second mailing of Volume 79 of the Proceedings has been com- 
pleted, courtesy of the Indiana State Library. The total number mailed 
to members to date is 1,127. 

Monograph Number 2 has been received and is ready for mailing 
under our Exchange program to libraries, universities, and scientific 

Some sales of Natural Features of Indiana were made. Sixty-five 
copies remain in stock. 

Program Committee: Mrs. Carroll A. Markle reported no prob- 

Publications Committee: Marion T. Jackson, Editor, reported that 
Monograph 2 has been published and will be distributed free to members 
who request it, pending investigation of costs and past actions of this 
committee. Volume 80 of the Proceedings will be published about 
September and will be larger than the last volume. The possibility of 
page charges or of a limitation of allowable published papers per year 
per member should be considered for future volumes. 

Relation of Academy to State of Indiana: William A. Daily, Chair- 
man, reported that no change had been made in the State's budget 
allowance for publication of the Proceedings. 

Membership Committee: Eliot C. Williams, Chairman, reported 
no radical changes. 

Invitations Committee: The secretary reported official approval 
from Indiana Central College of that school as our meeting site for 1973. 

Emeritus Members Committee: The secretary read a report from 
Chairman Ralph Cleland which recommended that Ralph W. Lefler be 
elected to emeritus status. It was moved, seconded, and carried that Dr. 
Lefler be so elected. 

Natural Areas Committee: Rev. Damian V. Schmelz reported that 
the registry of natural areas in the state has been extended, intensified, 
and more effectively computerized. 

Speaker of the Year Committee: The committee consisted of Ralph 
F. Cleland (chairman), Willis H. Johnson (reporting), and Arnold 
Ullstrup. Willis Johnson moved that, 

8 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Special Lecturer should be paid an honorarium of $500.00 by 
the Academy. 

A committee should select the Special Lecturer each year. While 
the Executive Committee might do this and the contacting of the 
colleges, you may prefer to appoint a special committee for this purpose. 
If you decide on a special committee of three, each should serve three 
years except in the beginning when one should serve for three years, 
one for two, and one for one. Thus, after the first year one new member 
would be appointed by the President each year. 

The job of the committee would be two-fold: 1) to select the 
speaker, and 2) to contact the colleges. 

The speaker should be a member of the Academy (preferably). He 
should be a forceful speaker, able to communicate with young 
people. His subject should be relevant. It might be on his research, but 
it should be related to social problems. On the other hand, it might be 
on a social problem or problems not directly related to his research. The 
committee should know the subject of a prospective speaker before he 
is selected. It is understood that the speaker will give his lecture before 
the fall meeting of the Academy, preferably in a session immediately 
following the lunch period. This lecture will be printed in the Proceed- 
ings of the Indiana Academy. In addition to the lecture before the 
Academy, the speaker will give his lecture at four or five colleges in 
the state. It is understood that this is a program for the colleges of the 
state. The second job of the committee each year will be to contact the 
colleges where the speaker will give his lecture. Once a college has been 
served it should not be contacted again for a special lecturer until all 
of the colleges of the state have had an opportunity to have a special 
lecturer. It may be that the committee will want to select colleges in 
a particular region of the state for a given year. It is understood that 
the colleges will pay for any meals and lodging involved in the visit; 
the colleges will not pay an honorarium. 

Seconded and carried. 

Willis H. Johnson moved that the speaker of the year for 1971 be 
Alton A. Lindsey, with first alternate William R. Breneman and the 
second alternate Charles B. Heiser, Jr. Seconded and carried. 

Science and Society Committee: Willis H. Johnson, Chairman, 
reported that the committee and its Executive Director, Helmut 
Kohnke, had been able to advise several branches of the state and city 
governments concerning environmental and other scientific problems. 

The President reported that a group of engineers at Purdue Uni- 
versity had requested the formation of an Engineering Section of the 
Academy. It was moved by Rev. Damian V. Schmelz, seconded, and 
carried, that an Engineering Section be organized at the 1971 fall meet- 
ing; that the section follow all appropriate procedures and restrictions 
consistent with the constitution and by-laws of the Academy. The 
President appointed Robert L. Swaim Chairman for 1971. 

Minutes of the Executive Committee 9 

Marion T. Jackson reported the recent death of Georg K. Neumann, 
who was the elected 1971 chairman of the Anthropology Section. The 
President appointed William R. Adams Chairman for the remainder of 
the year. 

There was an extended discussion of some recent attributions by 
news media of "official Indiana Academy of Science" positions to public 
statements by certain members. Mrs. Fay K. Daily moved that the 
Parliamentarian draft a disavowal statement for publication by the 
Academy, disassociating the academy officially from all public 
statements by its members. The motion was seconded; a vote by show 
of hands was tied. It was moved by Willis H. Johnson, seconded, and 
carried that the motion be tabled until next meeting. 

The President requested an investigation of the possibility of hiring 
an Executive Secretary. No objection being raised, consent was 

The President stated : 

"The President of the Academy by law is the official appointee 
to the Natural Resources Commission. It is believed that it would 
serve the best interests of the Academy and the Natural Resources 
Commission if the law were changed to permit the appointee to 
be the president or his representative." 

It was moved by Willis H. Johnson, seconded, and carried that the 
Academy petition the Indiana State Natural Resources Commission and 
the legislature of the State of Indiana to change the law so that the 
member of the Natural Resources Commission not be "The President 
of the Indiana Academy of Science", but, rather, "The President of the 
Indiana Academy of Science or his designated representative." 

On motion the meeting adjourned at 6:32 PM. 

Approved October 28, 1971. 

Respectfully submitted, 
J. Dan Webster, Secretary 


April 23, 1971 

The meeting was called to order by President Samuel N. Postleth- 
wait at 7:49 PM in Earl Brooks Hall, Mary Gray Bird Sanctuary, near 
Connersville. Thirty members were present. 

The secretary moved the following proposed amendment to the by- 
laws of the Academy — 

Article III, Section 1. Delete the last clause, reading, "provided 
that any bill for fifty dollars or more shall be approved by the presi- 
dent." As a result, Article III, Section 1, would read: "The treasurer 
is authorized to issue checks in payment of bills submitted by 
officers or committees for which provision has been made in the 
budget for that year." 

Seconded and carried. (This was the second passage; the amend- 
ment is now effective.) 

A. T. Guard moved the following resolution — 

The Indiana Academy of Science members and friends here 
assembled express their most sincere appreciation to Dr. Carrolle 
A. Markle and Dr. W. K. Stephenson for the fine program which 
they have arranged. Our sincere thanks are extended to the officials 
of the Indiana Audubon Society and especially to Mr. and Mrs. 
Denzil Barricklow, Resident Naturalists of the Mary Gray Bird 
Sanctuary, for making their facilities available to us. 

Our thanks also go to Dr. Gary Barrett of Miami University 
for his timely, instructive and interesting address on "The New 

We also wish to express our appreciation to those ladies who 
served us such excellent meals. 

Our appreciation is extended to the leaders of the various field 
trips which are always such an integral part of the spring meeting 
of the Academy. 

Seconded and carried. 

Dr. Carrolle A. Markle announced details of field trips and meals. 
The evening feature was an illustrated lecture by Gary Barrett entitled 
"The New Ecology". 

The meeting adjourned at 9:15 pm. 

Approved October 28, 1971. 

Respectfully submitted, 
J. Dan Webster, Secretary 



Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 

October 28, 1971 

The meeting- was called to order at 7:47 pm by President Samuel 
N. Postlethwait in the Orchard Room of Runyan Center, Earlham 
College. Twenty-two members were present at the start; ten more came 
in later. The secretary moved the approval of the minutes of the 
executive committee and general session meetings of April 23, 1971, as 
duplicated and distributed. Seconded and carried. 

Treasurer: Rev. Damian V. Schmelz presented his report for the 
period January 1 through October 28, 1971, as follows: 

Academy accounts 

Income $ 5,759.03 

Expenditure 5,865.49 

Net loss 106.46 

Balance December 31, 1970 10,296.09 

Balance October 28, 1971 10,189.63 

Administered accounts 

Income 39,586.79 

Expenditure 47,005.93 

Net loss 7,419.14 

Balance December 31, 1970 43,920.55 

Balance October 28, 1970 36,501.41 

It was moved by the Treasurer, seconded, and carried that the report 
be accepted. (On all following committee reports, action, unless noted 
otherwise, was accepted by general consent.) 

Bonding Committee: Robert M. Brooker, Chairman, wrote in, 
recommending- no change in our program. 

Director of Public Relations: Paul Klinge wrote in, reporting* ex- 
cellent press coverage during the past year. 

Research Committee: James E. Newman, Chairman, reported the 
following grants in 1971 : 

J. Dan Webster (Hanover College). Breeding bird censuses in 

Indiana old growth forests $ 378. 

Robert E. Pace (Indiana State University). Aerial survey of 

archeological sites in the Lower Wabash Valley $ 505. 

Paul T. McKelvey (Tippewa Tech. Institute). Study of water 

quality of the Tippecanoe River $ 530. 

D. James Morre (Purdue University). Chlorinated hydrocarbons 

and egg shell changes $ 500. 


12 Indiana Academy of Science 

Winona H. Welch (DePauw University). Hookeriaceae in the 

West Indies $ 200. 

Damian V. Schmelz (St. Meinrad College). A comparative study 
of the physical environment and biotic elements of three 
strip-mine lakes $ 299. 

Charles E. Mays (DePauw University). To continue a study of 
salamander and turtle populations on the North Fork River 

in Ozark County, Missouri, $ 450. 

Total grants approved $2,862. 

Also, one more proposal is under consideration and another from 
last year has been extended. A manuscript by Sherman Minton, "Rep- 
tiles and Amphibians of Indiana," has been approved by the Publications 
Committee as Monograph No. 3; the research committee will consider 
underwriting the publication cost. 

Academy Representative to the A.A.A.S. Council: Willis H. John- 
son reported no actions by the council relevant to our Academy, 

Youth Activities Committee: A written report by Paul E. Klinge, 
Chairman, was presented by Donald R. Winslow. The anti-animal- 
experimentation rule set up by the National Science Talent Search still 
hampers Indiana student biologists. Reorganization of the entire youth 
program is under discussion, but no proposals are ready. 

Science Talent Search Committee: A report was written in by 
Wendell F. McBurney, Director. The report was accepted, but no action 
was taken on the request to support the position of the Indiana 
Science Talent Search Committee regarding experimentation on 
vertebrate animals. 

Science Fairs: A report was written in by Karl Kaufman, 

Indiana Junior Academy of Science: Donald R. Winslow presented 
his report and distributed copies of the program for the forthcoming 
Saturday meeting. It appears that a valuable and interesting meeting 
for high school students is scheduled. It will include a report on a 
successful high school applied ecology program, six invited research 
reports by high school students, an address by Lawrence E. Poorman, 
and a tour of the Earlham College research facilities. 

Library Committee: Mrs. Lois Burton, Chairwoman, reported that 
600 square feet of additional floor space have been obtained, but without 
the needed shelving. Four hundred volumes have been bound. Sixty- 
six additional journals have been received as exchange; more are being 

Trustees of the Academy Foundation: William A. Daily gave this 
annual report, as of September 30, 1971 — 

I. Foundation fund 

Last year's balance $ 979.96 

Receipts 897.05 

Minutes of the Executive Committee 13 

Disbursements .............. ........... 300.00 

Balance 536.57 

Market value of securities held $ 19,472.00 

II. John S. Wright fund 

Last year's balance ..........................$ 16,627.99 

Receipts ... 16,917.19 

Disbursements ................................. 14,590.11 

Balance ....................................... 18,955.07 

Market value of securities held .............. ,$596,440.00 

Program Committee: Mrs. Carrolle A. Markle, Co-chairman, re- 
ported that no serious problems were handicapping her committee, 

Publications Committee: Marion T. Jackson, Editor and Chair- 
man, reported. The cost of the current Volume 80 of the Proceedings 
now being distributed, has risen sharply over preceding years, but no 
final figure is yet available. The size increase was 9% in the divisional 
reports section; had there not been a more careful review system ini- 
tiated, this increase would doubtless have been much greater. The 
10-year index is due in Volume 81. 

Frank A. Guthrie moved that Monograph No. 2 and all subsequent 
monographs be sold to members at one-half price; it was seconded and 
carried. (The vague action on the same subject taken April 23, 1971— 
see minutes — is herewith rescinded.) 

Newsletter: Frank Guthrie, Editor, reported that the last issue 
came out in December, and that the next will be published in November 

Relation of Academy to the State of Indiana: As it has for many 
years, the legislature in 1971 appropriated $4,000 per year for the next 
two fiscal years to aid printing of the Proceedings. 

Fellows Committee: Benjamin Moulton, Chairman, moved the elec- 
tion of these 7 members to the rank of Fellow of the Academy — 

Robert E. Dolphin Holm W. Neumann 

John D. Favinger B. K. Swartz, Jr. 

John W. Hart Gertrude L. Ward 
Edward V. McMichael 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

Invitations Committee: A report was written in by James R. 
Gammon, Chairman. We will meet at St. Mary's College in 1972, at 
Indiana Central College in 1973, and at DePauw University in 1974. 

Preservation of Scientific and Natural Areas Committee: Robert 
O. Petty, Chairman, reported that a current listing of 429 areas and 
their outstanding features is on magnetic computer tape and available 
on request. 

Speaker of the Year Committee: Willis H. Johnson, Chairman 
pro tern, reported that the list of colleges where speaker of the year 
Alton A. Lindsey would appear was under consideration. 

14 Indiana Academy of Science 

Science and Society Committee: The death of Ralph F. Cleland 
has been acutely felt by the committee. 

A booth which was operated with much effort at the recent state 
fair resulted in some publicity. 

Special Committee on Executive Secretary: Jerry Nisbet, Chair- 
man, reported that his committee had decided that the idea of having 
an Executive Secretary was valid, but expensive. At present, it is beyond 
our means unless we can find a considerable new source of funds. 

When the President called for old business, Mrs. Fay K. Daily 
called for her tabled motion from the April 23, 1971 meeting. (See page 
9.) Mrs. Daily stated that her motion should read: "The 
Indiana Academy of Science shall not be responsible for public 
statements of opinion of its members concerning governmental or 
political matters." After further discussion, the motion was put to a 
vote by show of hands; it was defeated. In discussion, all were agreed 
that the Academy must be chary of expressing opinions on political or 
governmental matters officially. However, public expressions by 
members, or even officers, not based on official actions may be reported 
in the public news media as the news media prefer. Alton A. Lindsey 
moved that any statements made by him, as Speaker of the Year, in 
1971-72 be considered individual opinions and not official positions of 
the Academy. Seconded and carried. 

New business was called for. William J. Brett suggested the estab- 
lishment of an animal behavior section, or at least the investigation 
of such a possibility for next year. Rev. Damian V. Schmelz moved that 
the annual dues schedule be increased to: Regular $6, Family $8, Student 
$3, with no change in the initiation fee; the motion was seconded. Frank 
A. Guthrie moved to amend so that the action was merely a recommen- 
dation to the budget committee and council at their forthcoming 
December 4, 1971 meeting; the amendment was seconded and 
carried. Helmut Kohnke moved to amend to increase the recommended 
dues schedule to $8, $10, and $4 but abolishing the initiation fee; 
this amendment was seconded, but defeated. The original motion was 
carried as amended. 

A showing of his pictures from the Galapagos Islands by Robert 
Cooper after the close of the meeting was announced. 

The meeting adjourned on motion at 10:39 pm. 

Approved April 28, 1972. 

Respectfully submitted, 
J. Dan Webster, Secretary 


President Postlethwait called the meeting to order at 2:07 pm in 
Wilkinson Theater of Runyan Center, Earlham College. Provost Helen 
Hole welcomed us to Earlham College in a few gracious words. The sec- 
retary read a brief summary of the actions of the executive committee 
at its meeting last night, and moved its acceptance. Seconded and 
carried. The secretary moved approval of the following amendment to 
the constitution; which had been passed by the executive committee 
on April 23, 1971 : 

Article V, Section 1. The following named committees shall 
be appointed by the President, to serve for one year, except as noted 
otherwise below and except as rotation is provided, and except as 
otherwise provided they shall be announced . . . 

(1) The academy representative on the council of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. This person shall serve 
for a three-year term beginning 1 January 1972 and every 3 years 

(2) Auditing . . , 

(added words italicized) 

Seconded and carried. 

Mrs. Fay K. Daily named the members of the Academy who had 
died during the past year. (See Necrology Report, page 27.) A 
moment of silence was observed in their honor. 

As speaker of the year, Dr. Alton A. Lindsey gave an outstanding 
lecture, "The Role of Scientists in the Preparation and Evaluation of 
the New Environmental Impact Statement Requirement." Recent history 
of the federal government shows encouraging new laws for protecting 
the environment, much lip service to conservation by many politicans, 
but little real protection of the environment. 

The meeting was temporarily adjourned at 3:15 PM. 

The meeting was recalled to order at 8:08 pm, after dinner in the 
Friend's Room of Earlham Hall by President-elect Behrens. The secre- 
tary read these results of the elections of chairman in the various 
sections : 

Section 1972 Chairman 1973 Chairman-elect 

Anthropology Edward Dolan 

Botany Willard F. Yates C. L. Gehring 

Cell Biology Charles W. Goff 

Chemistry Richard Pilger William Nevill 

Ecology Alton A. Lindsey 

Engineering Robert Swaim 

Entomology Claude F. Wade Walter J. Weber 


16 Indiana Academy of Science 

Section 1972 Chairman 1973 Chairman-elect 

Geography-Geology Richard L. Powell Arther Mirsky 

Molecular Biology Morris Pollard 

Physics Torsten Alvager Peter Skadron 

Plant Taxonomy Gerald Gastony Ted Crovello 

Science Education Frederick K. Ault Jack Brewer 

Soil Science Christian Johannsen William R. Gommel 

Zoology Dorothy Adalis 

Dr. Arthur T. Guard moved the following resolution — — 

Members of the Indiana Academy of Science, here assembled, 
wish to express our sincere thanks to Earlham College for opening 
their facilities to us for our meetings. We are also grateful to 
Provost Helen Hole for her warm words of welcome. Our thanks 
also go to Dr. A. A. Lindsey for his timely, instructive and 
interesting address. We extend our appreciation to Carrolle A. 
Markle axid William K. Stephenson, co-chairmen of the program 
committee, for their careful planning of the many details associated 
with o ir meeting and also to the chairmen of the various 
divisions: meetings that make the fall meeting both stimulating 
and instructive. 

It was seconded and carried. The resolutions committee consisted 
of Robert O. Petty, Howard R. Youse, and A. T. Guard, Chairman. 

The nominating committee (Harry G. Day, Chairman, A. T. Guard, 
and Frank A. Guthrie) presented the following slate of candidates for 
office — For President-elect, William B. Hopp. For Treasurer 
(1972-75), Clyde R. Metz. For Trustee of the Academy Foundation, 
Damian Schmelz. For Bonding Committee, Robert Brooker and John A. 
Ricketts. For Research Grants Committee (1972-76), Kenneth E. 
Nichols. A. T. Guard moved that these men be nominated and that we 
cast a unanimous ballot for their election. Seconded and carried. 

Samuel Postlethwait presented a study of his methods of teaching 
botany, entitled, "Individualized Study for Today's Student." It was 
thought-provoking for all teachers, and well illustrated by movies and 
still photographs. 

The meeting adjourned, on motion, at 9:15 PM. 

Approved April 28, 1972. 

Respectfully submitted, 
J. Dan Webster, Secretary 





Dues $ 3,866.00 

Interest 2,227.39 


Clerical .......................... 

Postage, etc. ..................... $ 421.3© 

Treasurer ............................ 

Clerical 29.00 

Postage, etc. 204.16 


Travel, AAAS Dues 

Transfer to Adm. Accts. 

Proceedings: Pub. ................ 500.00 

Proceedings : Mailing 100.00 

Library Binding ................. 1,000.00 

Science & Society 600.00 

Natural Areas 575.00 

President's Fund ..................... 

Membership Comm. .................. 

Junior Academy 

Program Committee 

1970 Meetings ................... 

Chairman 20.00 

Printing . 214.00 

1971 Meetings ................... 

Chairman ....................... 174.29 

Printing .... 239.79 

Mailing ......................... 59.10 

Publications : Editor .................. 

Speaker of the Year ................ 


Administrative ................... 


$ 6,093.39 

Reprints : Vol. 78 270.00 

Vol. 79 . 706.55 

Vol. 80 .......................... 1,730.70 


Attorney Fees 3,460.49 

Bonding Fee 63.00 

Public Relations ................. 15.00 

$ 8,800.64 

Expenditure Budgeted 

$ 421.30 










.-,(!«.. 110 

















$ 5,561.43 

$ 5,880.00 






Indiana Academy of Science 

II. administered accounts 

January 1 

Science Talent .9 1,834.37 

Science Fairs ............ ........ 2,310.98 

Science & Society .................... 811.82 

Research ............................ 6,118.57 

Natural Areas ....................... — 13.50 

J. S. Wright Library 134.28 

Lilly III Library 2,922.82 

Lilly IV Library .................... 15,000.00 

Library Binding ..................... 1,033.55 

Publications 997.01 

NSF Grant .......................... 12,770.65 


$ 1,600.00 






$43,920.55 $49,238. 


$ 1,587.73 









$ 1 







1971 Income .................................. $ 8,800.64 

1971 Expenditure ................ ......... 11,890.62 

Net Loss 1971 ................................ —3,089.98 

1970 Balance ................................. 10,296.09 

December 31, 1971 Balance ................... 7,206.11 











Terre Haute First National Bank, Terre Haute, Indiana ......$ 4,365.32 

Great Western Savings & Loan, Los Angeles, California .................. 11,602.80 

First Western Savings & Loan, Las Vegas, Nevada 21,374.51 


Rev. Damian V. Schmelz, Treasurer 
December 31, 1971 

January 19, 1972 

We, the undersigned, have audited the Treasurer's records for the Indiana Academy 
of Science for the year 1971 and have found them to be accurate and in order. 

Curtis A. Dhonan 

Robert E. Dolphin 

January 19, 1972 

Financial Report 19 

budget for 1972 

Anticipated Income 

Dues, Initiation and Reinstatement Fees $ 5,800.00 

Interest on Savings 1,200.00 

Reprints : Net Profit on Sale to Authors 125.00 

$ 7,125.00 

Budgeted Expenditures : 

Secretary . $ 500.00 

Treasurer . 225.00 

Office ........ . . 175.00 

Officer Travel Allowance, AAAS Conference Dues, etc. 180.00 

President's Fund 100.00 

Membership Committee 150.00 

Program Committee . 600.00 

Proceedings : Editor's Travel and Office Expenses . 500.00 

Youth Activities : Chairman 50.00 

Public Relations : Director 50.00 

Speaker of the Year 

Honorarium 500.00 

Administrative 50.00 

Newsletter ........ 150.00 

CPA Fees : Tax Forms and Auditing 500.00 

Transfers to Administrative Accounts 3,025.00 

Publications : Publication of Proceedings ..............$ 500.00 

Publications : Mailing of Proceedings 150.00 

Library Binding 1,000.00 

Science & Society 600.00 

Natural Areas 575.00 

Junior Academy . 200.00 

$ 6,755.00 

Approved by the Budget Committee at the meeting held at the Indiana State Library, 
Indianapolis, on December 4, 1971. 

20 Indiana Academy of Science 


Membership Dues — According to the Treasurer's records, the current status may be 
summarized as follows : 892 paid, emeritus, life, and honorary members and clubs ; 
105 on file from 1970 but not yet paid for 1971 ; 15 resigned or lost by 
reason of no current address ; 5 deceased during this year ; 103 new members 
(last ones to begin during 1972) ; 6 previous members reinstated during the year. 

Our attorney has confirmed that we may increase dues during 1972 according to 
Phase II legislation. Accordingly : $6.00 regular and high school club memberships ; 

$3.00 student membership ; $8.00 family membership ; $1.00 initiation fee for regular, 
club, and student ; $2.00 initiation fee for family. 

Interest — The Treasurer, from the total assets of both Academy and Administered 
Accounts, has maintained sufficient funds in the checking account to pay current 

bills throughout the year ; the remainder has been invested in savings certificates : 
Certificates redeemed during 1971. 1) $10,000.00 invested at 5.25% February 1971; 
September 1971 redeemption value $10,324.81. 2) $5,000.00 invested at 5.25% April 
1971; September 1971 redeemption value $5,139.09. 3) $5,000.00 invested at 5.75% 
February 1971; December 1971 redeemption value $5,185.29. 

Certificates current: 1) $10,000.00 invested at 6.00% April 1970; current value 
$10,941.86; maturity April 1972. 2) $5,000.00 invested at 5.75% April 1971; current 
value $5,205.39; maturity April 1972. 3) $4,465.07 invested at 5.75% April 1970; 
current value $4,938.07; maturity March 1973. 4) $6,000.00 invested at 6.00% April 
1970; current value $6,664.73; maturity March 1973. 5) $5,000.00 invested at 5.75% 
October 1971 ; current value $5,061.87 ; maturity October 1972. 

Treasurer — Expenditure exceeded budget mainly due to considerable amount of xeroxing 
materials and telephone calls relative to work with the attorney on tax status 

Program Committee — Expenditure exceeded budget due to some 1970 bills which arrived 
months late. 

Newsletter — Expenditure exceeded budget this first year for the newsletter. Next 
year's budget has been increased. 

Reprints — Volumes 78 & 79 appeared in 1970. Payments by authors were not 
completed until this year; this account showed a deficit in 1970; net profit to 
the Academy = $572.54. 

Volume 80 appeared this year. Currently more than one third still owe for reprints. 
Anticipated profit = $125.00. 

The profit to the Academy pays for office expenses in billing and the expense for 
President's address, necrology report, and instructions for contributors. 

Attorney Fees — ICE, MILLER, DONADIO & RYAN of Indianapolis have been repre- 
senting us in clarifying our tax-exemption status. One additional quarterly 
billing can be expected in 1972. Although IRS has not completed study of 
documents and has not sent formal ruling, the attorney has instructed us to continue 
operating under the assumption of a final favorable determination. 

The 1972 budget allows for contracting a CPA firm to prepare the Indiana and 
Federal Non-Profit Organization Tax Forms and to perform an informal audit of 
the Treasurer's records. 

Science Talent— Refunds of $67.50 from the director and $16.00 from Scientific 
American have not been entered in this report as either income or expenditure. 

Science Fairs — A refund of $2,866.32 has been entered in this report as both income 
and expenditure. 

The unusually large expenditure is explained by $13,500.00 having been 
transferred to the Indiana Science Education Fund, Inc. 

Financial Report 21 

Research — $5,870.00 was transferred from the Indiana Academy of Science Invested 
Income Account 11-430-2 (income) to pay for Monograph 2 (expenditure). 

Other income includes $384.00 from A.A.A.S. and $300.00 annual transfer from the 
Indiana Academy of Science Foundation Fund 11-430 for research grants. 

Other expenditure was $3,764.80 in grants to nine Academy members. 

NSF Grant — Request for extension on use of funds, originally scheduled for August 
31, 1971, was granted first until December 31, 1971, and most recently until June 

30, 1972. 

Publications — Income includes $7,565.89 transferred from the J. S. Wright Fund 
11-430-1 and $500.00 from Academy Accounts to pay for publishing Volume 80 
of the Proceedings. 

The State of Indiana contributes $4,000.00 towards the publication of each volume 
of the Proceedings, provided we contract with the state-approved publisher; this 
amount is subtracted from our bill by the publisher; the state pays the publisher 
directly so that this amount never appears on the Treasurer's records. 

Additional income includes: $65.00 for sale of Proceedings; $285.50 for sale of 
Natural Features; $152.00 for sale of Monographs; $100.00 transferred from 
Academy Accounts for mailing Volume 80. 

Additional expenditure includes $102.50 for mailing Volume 80. 

Budget for 1972 — Increase from 1971 budget: Membership Committee from $75.00 to 
$150.00. Proceedings: Editor from $400.00 to $500.00. Newsletter from $100.00 to 
$150.00. Proceedings: Mailing from $100.00 to $150.00. 

New items: Youth Activities: Chairman. Public Relations: Director. CPA Fees. 

Change from Academy Accounts to Administered Accounts: Junior Academy. 



President: John Joseph Farrell, Brebeuf Preparatory School, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 

Vice-President: Dennis DeRosa, Morton High School, Hammond, 

Secretary: Barbara Konkle, Madison High School, Madison, Indiana 


Helen Reed, (1971), Manual High School, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Sister Mary Alexandra, (1972), Roncalli High School, Indianapolis, 

Mary J. Pettersen, (1973), Morton High School, Hammond, Indiana 

Lawrence E. Poorman, (1974), Physics Department, Indiana State 
University, Terre Haute, Indiana 


Donald R. Winslow, Owen Hall 205, Indiana University, Bloomington, 
Indiana 47401 


All members, sponsors, and guests were requested to register (no 
charge) in Dennis Science Hall, Lobby, 8:00 AM to 11:00 AM. 


Thirty-Ninth Annual Meeting 

Earlham College Campus Richmond, Indiana 

Saturday, October 30, 1971 

8:00 AM 

Junior Academy Council Meeting. Dennis Science Hall, 2nd Floor 
Conference Room 

8:30-10 :00am 

Junior Academy Council Interviews for "Best-Boy" — ''Best-Girl" 
Scientists Awards. Dennis Science Hall, 2nd Floor Conference Room. 

8:30-10 :00am 

Tours and Demonstrations of Research Facilities, Faculty-Student 
Research Projects. Arranged by Ansel M. Gooding, Earlham 

10:00-11:30 am 

General Session I, John Farrell, presiding. Dennis Science Hall, 
Room 110. 


Indiana Junior Academy of Science 23 


"The School Ecology Club — An Active or Passive Role", University 
School Ecology Club, Bloomington, George Luginbill, sponsor. 

Invitational Papers 

1) The Symptoms of Anxiety Neurosis that Result from Injections of 
Lactic Acid. Kevin Poelhuis, Harrison High School, Evansville. 

2) The Effect of Time on the Transfer of Information for Cell Division 
in Escherichia coli B/r. Dale Purdy, Student, Indiana University, 
Bloomington. (High school research funded by T. A. Kleckner Science 
Grant Award, Indiana Heart Association Grant) 

3) Variance in Visual Latency on the Human Retina. Mark Criswell, 
Morton Senior High School, Hammond. 

4) The Effects of Acetylstrofludin on Conduction and Automaticity 
of a Mammalian Heart. Deborah Rajski, Ladywood-St. Agnes 
School, Indianapolis. 

5) Design and Construction of a Laser for Research Purposes. Ray 
Lichtenhan, Morton Senior High School, Hammond. 

6) The Effects of Adrenal Demedullation on the Urinary Catechola- 
mine Concentration as Related to Pheochromocytoma. Milton J. 
Miller II, Harrison High School, Evansville. 

11 :30 am-1 :00 pm Lunch 

1:30 pm 

General Session II, John Farrell, presiding. Dennis Science Hall, 
Room 110. 


Election of Officers 

Address: "Synthesis from Divergence: The Coming Revolution in 
Science" Lawrence E. Poorman, Associate Professor of 
Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute. 

3:00 pm 

General Announcements, Presentation of Awards, Adjournment. 
Don Winslow, State Director. 


Awards will be presented to the "Best Boy" and "Best Girl" 
scientists by the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. Nominations may be sent by teachers to the Director (October 
22 deadline) at the following address: 

Donald R. Winslow, Director 
Indiana Junior Academy of Science 
Owen Hall 205 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

24 Indiana Academy of Science 




The thirty-ninth annual meeting of the Indiana Junior Academy 
of Science was held Saturday, October 30, 1971, on the campus of Earl- 
ham College in Richmond, Indiana. One hundred twenty-two members 
representing 14 high school clubs attended. 

President John Farrell called to order the morning session at 10:00 
am in Room 110 of Dennis Science Hall. Prior to the meeting members 
and their sponsors were given tours and demonstrations of research 
facilities and faculty-student research projects. These were arranged 
by Ansel M. Gooding, Earlham College. 

A panel discussion on "The School Ecology Club — An Active or 
Passive Role" was presented by members of The University School 
Ecology Club. Mr. George Luginbill, sponsor, moderated the presenta- 

Vice-President Dennis DeRosa presided over the presentation of 
papers. Those presenting papers were Kevin Poelhuis, Milton J. Miller 
II, Harrison High School, Evansville; Dale Purdy, Indiana University, 
Bloomington; Mark Criswell, Ray Lichtenhan, Morton Senior High 
School, Hammond; and Deborah Rajski, Ladywood-St. Agnes School, 

The afternoon session was called to order at 1:30 pm by President 
John Farrell. The election of officers followed; nominations were re- 
ceived from the floor. The results were as follows : 

President — Ray Lichtenhan, Hammond Morton, Indianapolis 

Vice President — Eric Valainis, Brebeuf Preparatory School 

Secretary — Laura Fisher, Lew Wallace Senior High 

A presentation by Lawrence E. Poorman, Associate Professor of 
Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, followed. It was entitled 
"Synthesis from Divergence: The Coming Revolution in Science." 

Next, the AAAS award for the "Best Boy Scientist" was presented 
to Mark Criswell of Hammond Morton. The "Best Girl Scientist" award 
was presented to Laura Fisher, Lew Wallace Senior High School, Gary. 

President John Farrell adjourned the meeting at 3:00 PM. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Barbara Konkle, Secretary 

Indiana Junior Academy of Science 


Figure 1. Front row: Miss Laura Fisher, Freshman, Lew Wallace High School, 
Gary — "best girl" and Mr. Mark Crisivell, Senior, Morton Senior High School, Hammond 
— "best boy". Back Row: Mr. Lee E. Moss, Lew Wallace High School, Gary, sponsor of 
Miss Fisher; Donald R. Winslow, State Director, Indiana Junior Academy of Science, 
Indiana University; and Dr. Mary J. Pettersen, Hammond, sponsor of Mr. Criswell. 
Photo taken at Earlham College, October 30, 1971, by Richard Rodgers, Photographer, 
Richmond, Indiana. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Griffith Science Club 

NEW CLUBS For 1971 


Griffith Senior High Lynn Oroutt 

Science and Math Club Lowell High School 

Omer Beeching and 
Lawrence Ouwenga 

East Washington 
Science Club 

Physics Club 

Indian Creek 

Beech Groye High 
School Science Club 

E. Washington 
High School, Pekin 

St. Joseph Academy, 

Indian Creek Senior 
High, Trafalgar 

Beech Grove High 

J. E. Evensole 

Sister Mary Ann, C.S.J. 

Harold Heckman 

Ben Chapin 


Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 

(Samuel) Clifford Adams 

Rockville, Indiana Hanover, Indiana 

February 12, 1912 August 13, 1971 

Dr. (Samuel) Clifford Adams, a geology professor, was at his desk 
at Hanover College when he died August 13, 1971, of a heart 

Born on a farm near Rockville, Indiana, February 12, 1912, Dr. 
Adams was of English descent. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts 
Degree cum laude at Hanover College in 1935; obtained a Master of 
Science Degree (1940) and a Doctor of Philosophy Degree (1942) from 
the University of Iowa. He was an instructor of geology at Hanover 
College from 1935 to 1937, and clerk of mapping for the Agricultural 
Adjustment Agency, United States Department of Agriculture in 
Indiana from 1936 to 1937. He was an assistant at the University of 
Iowa from 1938 to 1942. He also served as Junior Geologist with the 
Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture 
from 1939 to 1941, and field assistant for the Iowa Geological Survey 
in 1940. 

In 1942, he entered the United States Army and served until 1945. 
He was a combat intelligence officer and was permanently blinded by 
enemy mortar fire during the invasion of the Leyte Islands, the Philip- 
pines. For his heroism, he received the Combat Infantryman Medal, the 
Bronze Star and the Purple Heart. Posthumously, his wife received a 
certificate signed by President Nixon which states: "The United States 
honors the memory of Samuel C. Adams. This certificate is accorded 
by a grateful nation in recognition of devoted and selfless consecration 
to the service of our country." 

In September, 1945, Dr. Adams returned to Indiana to teach 
geology as an associate professor at Hanover College. Familiar with 
the campus from student days, he had little difficulty finding his way 
around, which he accomplished unassisted. An article in the magazine 
section of the Indianapolis Star (February 2, 1947) commended his 
classes. With the use of models, blackboard illustrations and free 
discussions, his classes maintained a high degree of interest. It was 
stated that he was the only professor in a Hoosier College, blinded in 
World War II actively engaged in teaching at that time. His wife, Mrs. 
Blanche Adams, also taught at Hanover College. They were both 
alumni of Hanover and she was a student at the University of Iowa at 
the same time as Dr. Adams. Clifford Adams was especially interested 
in soil erosion, recent stream and valley sedimentation, accelerated 


28 Indiana Academy of Science 

sedimentation of the Galena River Valley, soil conservation, strati- 
graphy and sedimentation, general, surficial and structural geology 
and ground water. He became a full professor in 1951 serving the college 
with great distinction. 

Dr. Adams joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1945 and was 
a Divisional Chairman of the Geology and Geography Section in 1953. 
He delivered a paper at that meeting on Modern Floodplain Deposits. 
In 1962, he gave a talk before the History of Science Section of the 
Indiana Academy of Science on A Century and a Quarter of Geology 
at Hanover College. The study of Hanover history was a hobby for Dr. 
Adams. He was also very interested in sports, particularly football and 

In addition to belonging to the Indiana Academy of Science, Dr. 
Adams was a Fellow of the Geological Society of America and belonged 
to the Geochemical Society, American Geophysical Union, Iowa 
Academy of Science, Sigma Xi, Delta Epsilon, Pi Gamma Mu, and was 
a charter member of the Indiana Section of the American Institute of 
Professional Geologists. He was awarded an alumni achievement award 
from Hanover College in 1967. 

Poised and sure, Dr. Clifford Adams faced a dark world with con- 
fidence and without self pity. He leaves with us the inspiration of an 
exemplary life. 

Herbert Faust Call 

Madison County, Florida Indianapolis, Indiana 

October 2, 1904 September 1, 1969 

Few practicing physicians have been a member of the Indiana 
Academy of Science, but Dr. Herbert Faust Call, a pediatrician, joined 
in 1935 because of a life long interest in natural science and because 
of his interest in archeology. These interests stemmed from early boys 
camp experiences and the collection of Indian relics and butterflies. He 
became a world traveler and a sportsman. On a "camera safari", Dr. 
Call and Katharine, his wife, visited eight national game preserves in 
East Africa in 1966. Then, they took their daughter Karen (now a 
pediatrician) and their son, William H. (an otolaryngologist) with 
them to the Fiji Islands, Australia and New Zealand in 1968. 

Born in Madison County, Florida, October 2, 1904, Dr. Call came 
to Indiana as a boy and attended grade and high school in Anderson, 
Indiana. He then attended Indiana University Medical School. He took 
his internship there and a residency at the James Whitcomb Riley 
Hospital for Children, receiving an M.D. Degree and his license to 
practice in Indiana in 1929. Post graduate work was done at Washington 
University at St. Louis, Missouri, and at the Children's Memorial 
Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. He opened his first office in Indianapolis 
in 1932 and developed one of the largest practices in pediatrics in 



Dr. Call was also a member of Sigma Chi Fraternity, Phi Rho 
Sigma, medical fraternity, Marion County Medical Society, the 
American Medical Association and the Woodstock Club. A good 
biographical account of Dr. Call appeared in the Indianapolis Star, 
September 2, 1969. 

Cancer was the cause of Dr. Call's death, September 1, 1969, 
bringing a busy, successful career to a close at only 65 years of age 
(lacking about a month). 

Dr. Ralph E. Cleland 

Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Botany 

Indiana University 

Le Claire, Iowa 
October 20, 1892 

Ralph Erskine Cleland 

Bloomington, Indiana 
June 11, 1971 

Dr. Ralph Erskine Cleland was a Distinguished Service Professor 
Emeritus at Indiana University when he suddenly died of a heart attack 

30 Indiana Academy of Science 

in his office June 11, 1971. He had gained international recognition for 
his study of the heredity and evolution of the evening primrose, 

Born in Le Claire, Iowa, October 20, 1892, Dr. Cleland was reared 
in Philadelphia. He attended the University of Philadelphia where he 
received an A.B. degree in 1915 with a major in the classics and 
history. During his junior year, a friend suggested that he take a course 
in botany. He was so interested that he became a botany major receiving 
an M.S. in 1916 and a Ph.D. in 1919. Reprints of his Ph.D. thesis on 
the red alga, Nemalion, were lost at sea. He received honorary degrees 
from the University of Pennsylvania, Hanover College and Indiana 
University. He served the United States in Italy during World War I 
from 1917 to 1918. 

He began his teaching career as Instructor of Biology at 
Gaucher College, Baltimore, Maryland, in 1919, and had become 
chairman of the department before leaving in 1938. He was an instructor 
at the Woods Hole Marine Laboratory in 1924, and a Guggenheim 
Fellow from 1927 to 1928 when he traveled to Germany to study. He 
had begun research on Oenothera while at Gaucher and had published 
a joint paper with A.F. Blakeslee in 1931 on analytical procedure in the 
study of genetic behavior in this genus and had begun to work out the 
probable evolutionary pathways in speciation. 

In 1938, he moved to Indiana University to become professor of 
botany and head of the department. In 1946, Dr. Cleland's research 
received further recognition and financial support as one of several 
participants in a 6-year program in the field of genetics financed by 
the Rockefeller Foundation and Indiana University. He became Dean 
of the Graduate School from 1950 to 1958 and Distinguished Service 
Professor in 1958. He retired in 1963 becoming Distinguished Service 
Professor Emeritus. He was co-director of the Indiana University 
Aerospace Research Applications Center from 1963 to 1967. 

Dr. Cleland joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1938, the year 
he began teaching at Indiana University and was honored as a Fellow 
in 1940. Even though he was active in many other organizations both 
national and international, he devoted considerable time to our society 
and contributed many papers on Oenothera at the sectional meetings. 
He was a divisional chairman of the Botany Section in 1941, president 
in 1959 and served on many committees. Recently, he was active in 
planning the establishment and program of the Science and Society 

Dr. Cleland was a member of many other societies and received 
many honors and positions of responsibility from them. He served 
as editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Botany from 1940 to 1946 
and was president of the Botanical Society of America in 1947. He was 
awarded a certificate of merit as a distinguished botanist by that 
society "for his extensive researches into the species relationships and 
segmental interchange problems in Oenothera and also for his states- 
manship in representing plant science at the national level" (Golden 

Necrology 31 

Jubilee Volume of the Botanical Society of America, William Steere, 
Ed., McGraw-Hill Co., N.Y., 1958). 

He was a member of a group instrumental in forming the American 
Institute for Biological Sciences. While the Institute was still under 
the aegis of the National Academy of Science and National 
Research Council (1948 to 1949), he was a chairman in the society. He 
was chairman of the Division of Biology and Agriculture of the 
National Research Council from 1949 to 1952, editor of the section on 
plant cytology of Biological Abstracts 1925-. He was elected to the 
National Academy of Sciences in 1942; the Philosophical Society, which 
presented him with the Lewis Award in 1937, and he was Fellow of the 
American Academy. He was secretary of the Society of Naturalists from 
1938 to 1940 and president in 1942. He was president of the Genetics 
Society in 1956 and vice-president in 1954. He was a member of the 
Society of Study of Evolution and was vice-president (1953 to 1958) 
of the International Union of Biological Science. Dr. Cleland was 
starred in the American Men of Science and was the subject of 
numerous articles in newspapers, scientific journals and biographical 

In 1960, Dr. Cleland and Dr. Farrington Daniels, vice-president of 
the National Academy of Science were "academic ambassadors of 
Science" on a visit to 11 Asian countries to meet with Asian leaders, 
both scientific and governmental, to discuss the possibilities of the 
development of these countries by science and technology. They 
planned to give a number of lectures to lay and professional groups 
on solar energy and plant genetics. 

In 1948, at a Paris meeting, the Committee of Science and 
Social Relations of the International Council of Scientific Unions dis- 
cussed science and the maintenance of peace. Questions were directed 
to the National Research Council Committee on UNESCO and Dr. 
Cleland was one of the persons replying to the request. He said 
{Science and the Maintenance of Peace by Bart J. Bok, 1949. 
Science 109:131-137): "Most modern wars have been brought about as 
a result of economic pressures, based on the Malthusian principle. Only 
science can relieve the basis of these pressures. Scientific control of 
population, the production of more efficient crop plants and domestic 
animals, the proper exploitation of vast areas of potentially usable land, 
control of soil erosion, development of irrigation and other projects 
designed to increase arable land, the discovery of new sources of 
energy — these are activities which will remove the chief cause of war. 
Without such activities, no amount of talk or education will achieve 
lasting peace." 

While chairman of the botany department and dean of the graduate 
school at Indiana University, Dr. Cleland and his wife were guests at 
the first state dinner to which leading scientists were invited by 
President and Mrs. Eisenhower. 

Dr. Cleland was the subject of an interesting article in The 
Indianapolis Star Magazine (May 13, 1962). After describing Dr. 

32 Indiana Academy of Science 

Cleland's scientific achievements, the author wrote: "One gets the im- 
pression in talking with this great scientist that primroses must have 
a tranquilizing influence, for Professor Cleland's calm and gentle 
manner gives no hint of his abilities as a dynamic, efficient 
administrator." Then later he wrote: "Professor Cleland is a deeply 
religious man. He holds that there is no true conflict between science 
and religion. 'Both science and religion', he says, 'have the same goal; 
that is the finding of truth.' " 

Dr. Cleland was quite active until death. One would invariably find 
him in attendance and often in a place of honor at national and 
international botanical meetings. He had just sent the manuscript to 
the publisher for his new book, Oenothera Cytogenetics and Evolution, 
dedicated to his wife, Elizabeth. Three sons are also scientists. They 
are William W. Cleland, professor of biochemistry at the University 
of Wisconsin, Robert Erskine Cleland, professor of botany at the 
University of Wisconsin and Charles F. Cleland, assistant professor 
of biology at Harvard University. A brother, Dr. James W. Cleland, 
is a Philadelphia pediatrician. 

The Indiana Academy of Science lost a great friend and valuable 
member with the death of Dr. Ralph E. Cleland. 

C(lare) F(rancis) Cox 

Hudson, Illinois Indianapolis, Indiana 

March 9, 1888 February 24, 1971 

Dr. Clare Francis Cox considered secondary education as the most 
stimulating professional field, because of the opportunity to encourage 
young people to develop an interest in science and specifically, 
ecology. He taught at Arsenal Technical High School in Indianapolis, 
Indiana, from 1917 to 1958, becoming head of the botany department 
in 1931. After he retired, an annual science award was established in 
his name in appreciation of his services. 

With Milo H. Stuart, he was influential in establishing a nature 
preserve at Tech (part of the campus later replaced by a school) and 
he sponsored a nature study group there for many years. He was active 
in the Indiana Nature Study Club. He also taught Microbiology at the 
Indiana College of Mortuary Science 1958 and 1959. 

Dr. Cox was born in Hudson, Illinois, March 9, 1888, and attended 
a country elementary school. He rode horseback to high school in 
Vandalia, Illinois. His teaching career began in a country elementary 
school the year after graduating from high school. He attributed his 
knowledge of birds, wildflowers and trees to his country boyhood 
rambles and curiosity. He also taught high school and was a basketball 
coach from 1913 to 1916 teaching at Herrin, Illinois, and Marion, 

Necrology 33 

He began his college education during this period, too, receiving 
a Bachelor of Arts Degree from Illinois State University in 1917. 
Immediately afterwards, he started teaching at Arsenal Technical High 
School and also served in the United States of America Air Force 
Reserve from 1917 to 1919. 

A Doctor of Philosophy Degree was obtained at Chicago University 
in 1931. The influence of John Merle Coulter, while he was there, 
further stimulated his interest in science. Also, summer field trips in 
Utah and Colorado taught by Dr. Henry Cowles and Dr. George D. 
Fuller influenced Dr. Cox to study ecology and alpine vegetation. He 
became known here and abroad as an authority in this field. For three 
summers he and his wife established headquarters at 12,000 ft 
elevation near James Park, Colorado, in an abandoned gold miner's 
shack and explored the surrounding peaks for alpine plants. Tolland, 
14 miles away, was their supply base to which they hiked every week 
climbing 3,000 feet to reach it. 

Dr. Cox joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1922 and was 
honored by being elected to Fellow in 1935. He served on the Junior 
Academy of Science Committee in 1939, 1940 and 1941. He also wrote 
a memorial to Emerson Blane Wright for the Necrology Report for 1928 
(Proceedings, V. 38, 1929). 

Dr. Cox was also a member of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, Ecological Society of America and was elected 
to Sigma Xi at Chicago University where he held a Coulter Fellowship 
for one year. He was life deacon at the Woodruff Place Baptist Church. 
Dr. Cox is listed in American Men of Science and Indiana Scientists. 
He has a son, Dr. Milton D. Cox, teaching at Miami University. 

Dr. Clare F. Cox died February 24, 1971, at 82 years of age. He had 
lived a full life, but considered his personal influence on his pupils and 
their enthusiastic response to his teaching as his greatest satisfaction. 
This is the ultimate reward for the dedicated teacher. 

G(eorg) K(arl) Neumann 

Hamburg, Germany Bloomington, Indiana 

June 6, 1907 April 13, 1971 

The practical application of many academic scientific research 
activities is obscure, but this was not so with the work of Dr. Georg 
K. Neumann. Widely known for his knowledge of the physical character- 
istics of human skeletons, Dr. Neumann was a consultant to the 
Indiana and Illinois state police departments in identification of 
unknown persons. In an Indianapolis News story (April 2, 1952) some 
of the more famous murder trials in which he had testified were dis- 
cussed. It was astonishing that a bit of bone, even a charred bone, could 
reveal the sex, age, size and region of ancestry of the deceased. Dr. 

34 Indiana Academy of Science 

Neumann was an associate professor of anthropology at Indiana Uni- 
versity and an archeologist. He had written two books and a book 
chapter relative to these subjects. He had participated in many Indian 
site excavations and was an authority on American Indians, their 
physical types, racial differentials and racial history. 

Born in Hamburg, Germany, June 6, 1907, Dr. Neumann received 
his higher education in America obtaining a Ph.B. degree in 1930, an 
A.M. in 1936 and a Ph.D. in 1943 from the University of 
Chicago. He taught at the University of Chicago, Western Reserve 
University and was assistant director of the University of Tennessee 
archeological projects. He left the museum of anthropology at the 
University of Michigan to become an assistant professor of 
anthropology at Indiana University in 1942. 

Dr. Neumann also became a member of the Indiana Academy of 
Science that same year, 1942, and was honored as a Fellow in 1957. He 
was a popular chairman of the Anthropology Section having served in 
1943, 1944, 1949, 1956 and 1959. He was to have served again in 1971. 
He presented numerous papers at Academy meetings concerning Indian 
physical types, racial affiliations, migrations and culture. He had served 
a number of years on the Fellows Committee and was a member at his 
death. Dr. Neumann also belonged to the Central States Anthropological 
Association, of which he had been president; to Phi Beta Kappa, honor 
society; and to the Mexican and German Societies of Anthropology. 

Not only were the macabre details of the murder trials in which 
Dr. Neumann testified newsworthy to reporters, but also the mysteries 
of aboriginal life determined by Dr. Neumann from the bones excavated 
from Indian mounds. Thus, several articles about his work in this field 
appeared also in Indianapolis newspapers. Some of these appeared in 
the Indianapolis Times (December 26, 1948), the Indianapolis Star 
(August 4, 1956) and Indianapolis News (April 2, 1952), and upon 
moving to Indiana University, his professional qualifications were dis- 
cussed in an article in the Indianapolis Star, February 7, 1942. 

Dr. Georg Karl Neumann died April 13, 1971, at only 63 years of 
age, when his unusual talent was lost to us prematurely. 

Claude E(dgar) O'Neal 

Coatesville, Indiana Delaware, Ohio 

January 29, 1884 February 8, 1971 

Dr. Claude Edgar O'Neal, botanist, died February 8, 1971. He had 
been a member of the Indiana Academy of Science since 1912, joining 
when a student working on a graduate degree at Indiana University. 
He gave a paper in 1914 on the species of Nummularia common in 
Indiana. Later, he became interested in the cytology of Datura and the 
embryologic development in Oenothera. 

Necrology 35 

Dr. O'Neal was a native of Coatesville, Indiana, born January 29, 
1884. He attended Indiana State Teacher's College in Terre Haute for 
4 years where he received a certificate. He then attended Indiana Uni- 
versity where he received an A.B. in 1911, was a teaching fellow 1912 
to 1913, obtained an A.M. in 1913 and a Ph.D. in botany in 1922. He was 
head of the Department of Science at Brazil (Indiana) High School; 
principal of the Coatesville (Indiana) High School and Hadley 
(Indiana) High School; and taught at Reno, Indiana. He became an in- 
structor at Ohio Wesleyan University in 1913 and served as head of 
the botany program until retirement. In 1920, he was named 
Professor of Botany on the Allen Trimble Foundation. He taught there 
until his retirement in 1954 when he became Professor Emeritus. He 
also taught one term after that from 1957 to 1958. In recognition of 
his service to Ohio Wesleyan University, the greenhouse adjacent to 
Bigelow-Rice Science Hall was dedicated as the Claude E. O'Neal Green- 
house in 1964. Former students and colleagues joined in this 
tribute. A memorial statement said, "The building housing the beauty 
and vitality of growing plants and, in its utilitarian function, serving 
his driving interest in botanical education, shall always stand as a 
fitting memorial." 

Besides his membership in the Indiana Academy of Science, Dr. 
O'Neal was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi and Omicron Delta 
Kappa, honor socieites. He had been vice-president of the Botanical 
Section of the Ohio Academy of Science twice, and president of the Ohio 
Academy of Science from 1938 to 1939. He also belonged to the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science and Botanical 
Society of America. 

Although Dr. O'Neal had been in Ohio for many years, he kept in 
touch with former teachers, students and friends in Indiana. The high 
regard which they held for him was quite evident. His former students 
are too numerous to be mentioned, but hold many positions of honor 
and distinction as professors, department chairman, directors of 
research or heads of national botanical laboratories. Letters of love and 
gratitude from them to Claude and Mabel O'Neal were a great 

Milo Bostwick Sampson 

Erie, North Dakota Bloomington, Indiana 

June 18, 1908 April 10, 1971 

Dr. Milo B. Sampson was a professor of physics at Indiana Uni- 
versity and a leading authority on cyclotron design and operation. He 
was in charge of the development of a large cyclotron at Indiana Uni- 
versity when he died, April 10, 1971, at his home. He had received a 
grant from the National Science Foundation for this work. 

Born at Erie, North Dakota, June 18, 1908, Dr. Sampson went to 
the State College of Washington, where he received a Bachelor of 

36 Indiana Academy of Science 

Science Degree in 1931 and a Master of Science Degree in 1933. He was 
a Queen scholar and obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree in physics 
at Princeton in 1937. 

Dr. Sampson was a physicist at the Biochemical Research Founda- 
tion of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, from 1937 to 1942. From 1942 
to 1943, he was research associate in the Office of Scientific Research 
and Development and the National Defense Research Committee at 
Princeton. From 1943 to 1944, he was physicist and section chief of the 
metallurgical laboratory, University of Chicago Laboratory, where the 
first nuclear reaction had been achieved in 1942. In 1944 to 1946, he was 
physicist at the Los Alamos Science Laboratory in New Mexico. In the 
atomic energy laboratories there, the atomic bomb was made. It was 
tested July 16, 1946, in the desert region just west of Sierra Oscura, 
about 50 miles northwest of Alamogordo. 

Dr. Sampson came to Indiana in 1946 as an assistant professor at 
Indiana University. He became associate professor in 1952 and professor 
in 1958. He was in charge of cyclotron research from 1946 on. The old 
cyclotron at Indiana University, which has been dismantled, was one 
of the first to be built in the country. 

Dr. Sampson joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1967, and 
was author or co-author of a number of papers presented at sectional 
meetings before and after that date. These dealt, primarily, with the 
results from use of the cyclotron and the measurement of energy levels 
with a spectrometer. He was also a member of the American 
Physical Society, a member of Sigma Xi, scientific honorary society, 
Phi Kappa Phi and Pi Mu Epsilon. Biographical sketches can be found 
in American Men of Science, Indiana Scientists, and the Indiana 
University Alumni Magazine (1971, V. 33, No. 9, p. 40). 

Awesome nuclear power under the control of man, although 
devastating and controversial as an instrument of war, has undoubtedly 
saved more lives than it has taken because of these qualities. It is thus 
a deterrant to war between nations possessing it. Furthermore, with 
wise management, it is sure to find a prominent place as a peacetime 
power source. Radio isotopes have improved man's lot remarkably in 
the field of medicine. These accomplishments will stand as a tribute 
to physicists like Milo B. Sampson who were intelligent and resourceful 
enough to seek the truth about nuclear energy and how to control it. 


The following list contains the names and addresses of all new 
members who joined during 1971. The letter (s) following the address 
indicates the Section of the Academy in which the member has indi- 
cated his major interest, according to the following code : 

A — Anthropology N— Engineering 

B — Botany O— Cell Biology 

C — Chemistry P— Physics 

D — Science Education R — Microbiology & 

E — Entomology Molecular Biology 

G — Geology and Geography S — Soil Science 

H — History of Science T — Plant Taxonomy 

L — Ecology Y — Psychology 

M — Mathematics Z — Zoology 

Dr. A. Hasan Al-Abbas, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907 SB 

Dr. Ralph W. Alexander Jr., Dept. Anthropology, 736 Bolton Hall, Univ. of 
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wise. 53201 ALR 

Mr. Robert M. Alverson, Sperry Rand Corp, New Holland, Pa. 17557 LSH 

Dr. George T. Asteriadis Jr., Purdue Univ.-North Central, Westville, Ind. 
46391 ROD 

Dr. Frederick K. Ault, 207 Meeks Ave., Muncie, Ind. 47304 DC 

Mr. George S. Austin, Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Ind. 47401 ORB 

Dr. Rita Barr, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907 ORB 

Mr. Steven Batras, Entomology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306 ECR 

Dr. Jessie L. Bobbitt, 8101 Rosemead Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46240 COR 

Mr. Arthur Branham, 201 Morningside, Gary, Ind. 46408 DZT 

Mr. Melvin L. Brashear, 5428 South Woodlawn, Apt. C-l, Chicago, 111. 60615 AGS 

Mr. Larry C. Brown, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306 BGO 

Mr. Henry W. Bullamore, Dept. Geography, 220 Davenport Hall, Univ. Illinois, 
Urbana, 111. 61801 GAS 

Mrs. Margaret Ann Bures, S. Maish Rd., R. 3 Box 18, Frankfort, Ind. 46041 CDO 

Dr. Timothy J. Burkholder, Dept. Biology, Taylor Univ., Upland, Ind. 46989 ZOL 

Mr. James C. Byse, Box 315, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374 AG 

Dr. William R. Chaney, Dept. Forestry & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 
Ind. 47907 LBS 

Dr. James H. Clark, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907 

Mr. Michual Coe, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577 L 


38 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mr. Thomas L. Crisman, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 ZLG 

Miss Sharon K. Cupp, 3606 East Wabash Ave., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803 AL 

Mr. Charles P. Daghlian, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 
47401 BLR 

Mr. George B. Davis, Eli Lilly & Co., Dept. G265, 445 W. 46th St., Indianapolis, 
Ind. 46208 AGH 

Dr. Alfred Devite, Dept. Education, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907 DGH 

Dr. Lee Engstrom, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306 OZE 

Dr. Michael Eoff, Biology Dept., Marian College, E 3220 Cold Spring, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 46222 ZLE 

Dr. Warren W. Epinette, Dept. Dermatology, IU Medical Center, 1100 W. Michigan 
St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46202 O 

Dr. & Mrs. Austin W. Fergusson, P.O. Box 263, Wolf Lake, Ind. 46796 LOD 

Dr. Lawrence L. Garber, Indiana Univ., South Bend, Ind. 46615 C 

Mr. George A. Genz, Dept. Anthropology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306 A 

Dr. John D. Goodman, Biology Dept., Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 46011 ZL 

Dr. Richard W. Greene, Biology Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556 Z 

Mr. Walter R. Gregg, Jr., 2428 South 5th St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47802 AGS 

Mr. & Mrs. David A. Griggs, 7612 Wohama Dr., Ft. Wayne, Ind. 46809 LBD 

Miss Elizabeth Gunn, Dept. Anthropology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306 A 

Mr. William J. Hahn, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907 SGL 

Dr. Judy Dale Hall, Dow Chemical Co., P.O. Box 10, Zionsville, Ind. 46077 O 

Dr. Donald A. Hendrickson, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306 RL 

Mr. Thomas J. Herrick, 329 Grissom Hall, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47906 NDP 

Mr. Horton H. Hobbs, III, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 ZLG 

Dr. Randall Keith Horine, Biology Dept., Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374 

Mr. Wayne C. Houtcooper, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 
Ind. 47809 LZ 

Mr. Gary Huffman, 2585 E. 91st St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46240 DZ 

Dr. Merle E. Jacobs, Zoology Dept., Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 46526 ZLE 

Mrs. Mary Lu Johnson, P.O. Box 333, Princeton, Ind. 47670 LTB 

Dr. Thomas Joseph, Biology Dept., Indiana Univ., South Bend, Ind. 46615 ZLO 

Mr. Glenn P. Juday, 134-3 Nimitz Dr., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906 LGA 

Dr. Clark Judy, Dept. Geography, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306 LGD 

Dr. Ferencz P. Kallay, Geology Dept., Valpai-aiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 
46383 G 

Mrs. Marsha Kimmerling, Country Park Estates, RR. 5, Kokomo, Ind. 46901 DGL 

Dr. Gerald H. Krockover, Education Bldg., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907 DGC 

New Members 39 

Mr. Doyal R. Lank, Jr., 147 Woodland Terrace, Mobile Home Park, W. Lafayette, 
Ind. 47906 ZER 

Dr. Carole A. Lembi, Dept. Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 
Ind. 47907 OLB 

Mr. Edmund C. Lewis, 5939 N. College Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220 A 

Mr. Dale E. Linvill, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907 SLG 

Dr. Paul S. Lykoudis, Aeronautics, Astro-Engineering, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 
Ind. 47907 NPH 

Mrs. Dorila A. Marting, 413 E. Prince Rd. 41, Tucson, Ariz. 85705 G 

Mr. Jon Dorsey Marting, 413 E. Prince Rd. 41, Tucson, Ariz. 85705 CPZ 

Mr. Kenneth Miller, Biology Dept., Purdue Univ-North Central, Westville, Ind. 
46391 LEZ 

Mr. Herbert S. Millstein, 2090 Suffolk Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46260 NM 

Mr. William S. Miska, Federal Bldg., 7th & College Sts., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401 GLA 

Mr. F. H. Montague, Jr., Dept. Forestry & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette 
Ind. 47907 ZL 

Mr. Lupo A. Montecillo, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907 SGC 

Mr. John N. Montgomery, 101 Hurricane St., Franklin, Ind. 46131 DOG 

Mr. Michael C. Moore, Indiana Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401 GZ 

Mrs. Joanne Mueller, Biology Dept., Univ. Evansville, P. O. Box 329, Evansville, 
Ind. 47701 D 

Dr. James Norwine, Dept. Geography, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 
47809 GLH 

Dr. Ernest J. Peck, Jr., Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 
47907 ROC 

Mr. David L. Peterson, R.R. 1, Monterey, Ind. 46960 ORG 

Mr. Robert A. Pettijohn, 1819 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46202 LSG 

Mr. Raymond N. Pheifer, Redbud Hill Apts. #304, Bloomington, Ind. 47401 GBL 

Mr. Ronald A. Piepe, Dept. Geology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 GB 

Mr. Steven K. Pontius, Geography Dept., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. GLH 

Mr. Frank Potter, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 BLG 

Dr. Michael C. Roberts, Dept. Geography, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 


Mr. Terry A. Rogers, 129 W. Green, Montpelier, Ind. 47359 ELZ 

Dr. Albert Ruesink, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 BOL 

Mr. Raymond A. Schuttler, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre 
Haute, Ind. ZL 

Mr. Wayne M. Schuttler, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907 SPH 

Mr. H. Douglas Shock, R.R. 3, Box 387, Muncie, Ind. 47302 DBL 

Dr. Shirley Siew, Pathology Dept., Indiana Univ. School Medicine, 1100 West 
Michigan St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46202 ORZ 

40 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mr. Walter L. Stirm, National Weather Service, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 
47907 S 

Dr. Wilmer J. Stratton, Chemistry Dept., Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374 C 

Dr. John E. Stump, Dept. Veterinary Anatomy, Lynn Hall, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 
Ind. 47907 OZ 

Mr. Robert L. Suddith, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 ZO 

Miss Anne A. Susalla, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 BOR 

Dr. Robert L. Swaim, Aeronautics-Eng., Grissom Hall, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 
47807 NPL 

Dr. Michael R. Tansey, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 BRL 

Dr. Robert K. Toqasaki, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 BOC 

Mrs. Jessie M. Turner, Box 267, R.R. 3, Richmond, Ind. 47374 LDA 

Mr. Harley J. Vanculin, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 
Ind. 47907 LTS 

Mr. William J. Van Der Woode, Dept. Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., 
Lafayette, Ind. 47907 BOR 

Mr. Claude F. Wade, 113 State Office Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204 E 

Mr. Charles Wallace, Dept. Anthropology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind, 47306 

Sister Donna R. Whipple, Ladywood-St. Agnes School, 5355 Emerson Way, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 46226 CZO 

Miss Camille M. Wiggs, 419 E. 48th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205 RGD 

Mr. Richard E. Wilkey, 118 W. Cherry St., Bluffton, Ind. 46714 E 

Mr. Clay A. Wilkinson, 309 N. 14% St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47808 LEA 

Blackford Science Club, Blackford High School, R.R. 2, Hartford City, Ind. 47348 

East Washington Science Club, East Washington High School, Pekin, Ind. 47165 

Griffith Science Club, Griffith Senior High School, Griffith, Ind. 46319 

Indian Creek Science Club, Indian Creek Senior High School, P.O. Box 6, Trafalgar, 
Ind. 46181 

Lowell Science and Math. Club, Lowell High School, Lowell, Ind. 46356 

St. Joseph Physics Club, St. Joseph Academy, Tipton, Ind. 46072 

Madison High School Science Club, Madison High School, Madison, Ind. 47250 






Richmond, Indiana 
October 29, 1971 


The address, "Minicourses and the Audio-Tutorial 
System,'* was presented by retiring president, Dr. Samuel 
N. Postlethwait, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue 
University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, at the annual 
Fall Meeting dinner at the Runyan Center, Earlham College, 
Richmond, Indiana, on Friday, October 29, 1971. 


The address, "The Role of Scientists in the Preparation 
and Evaluation of Environmental Impact Statements", was 
presented by the Speaker of the Year for 1971-72, Dr. Alton 
A. Lindsey, Professor of Plant Ecology, Department of 
Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 
Indiana 47907, at the annual Fall Meeting luncheon at the 
Runyan Center, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, on 
Friday, October 29, 1971. 



Minicourses and the Audio-Tutorial System 


Department of Biological Sciences 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

A student can select four variations of coffee from an ordinary 
vending machine, but when he enters the classroom he may receive in- 
struction identical to that of several hundred other students. It is an 
obvious fact of life that people exhibit great diversity, interests 
and capacities, yet our educational system is made up of large 
blocks of content (courses) with little or no provision to break the lock- 
step of time, content or instructional procedure. There is some justifica- 
tion for the classroom approach however, since education is not just 
a dispensing procedure and the teacher is vital to the learning process. 
Many people can trace their excitement about a specific subject to the 
special way the subject was presented by a great teacher. Unfortu- 
nately these "great teachers'' are rather rare and physical limitations 
permit only a few students to "sit at their feet." While it is true that 
the talent of these teachers has been made available to some degree 
through their writings, many good teachers never write for publication^ 
and even so, the limitation imposed by the printed word negates the 
potential of the teacher for the clever use of tangible objects and sound. 

Hopkins has suggested that the best learning situation is the 
"teacher on one end of the log and the student on the other." Hopkins 
assumed the teacher was a "good" teacher and, if one can assume the 
log was figurative, the concept serves as a proper model for the 
Audio-Tutorial (AT) system. The AT system used in conjunction with 
minicourses, while retaining compatability with the conventional edu- 
cational system, has great potential for providing students with im- 
proved access to "good" teachers and with some other important 
features such as greater individualization. This paper attempts to 
describe a pilot study currently being conducted at Purdue University. 

History of the AT System 

At Purdue University the author began an attempt to provide a 
remedial program in a freshman botany course in 1961. The initial effort 
involved the production of a weekly lecture on audio tape. This was soon 
expanded to include: 1) tangible objects (specimens, experimental 
equipment, models) ; 2) printed materials (texts, study guides, 
journal articles) ; and 3) projected images (slides and movies). Ultimately 
the program was produced by assembling the appropriate items ("logs") 
and, while sitting among these items, recording on audio tape the conver- 
sation one would expect to use with one student while tutoring the student 
through a sequence of learning activities. The product, i.e. the tape and 


46 Indiana Academy of Science 

other materials, was then duplicated as many times as necessary to accom- 
modate all students. Because of student enthusiasm for the program the 
procedure was expanded to cover the content for the entire botany course. 
The course was then restructured to include three major study sessions: 

1) Independent Study Session (ISS) 

The audio tutorial program was placed in a learning center 
which was open from 7:30 am to 10:30 pm Monday through Fri- 
day. The student could come in at his convenience and check into a 
booth. On his way to the booth he would pick up a mimeographed 
sheet of objectives written in behavioral terms. Other components 
needed to complete the program (except for the student's own copy 
of the textbook and study guide) were housed in the booth. 
Materials too bulky or too expensive to include in each booth 
were placed on a central table for common use by all 
students.; The student placed the headphones in position and 
by listening to the tape, he experienced a simulated one- 
to-one tutoring by the instructor. The student could pace his study 
as he desired, stopping at any point in the program to use additional 
resources such as supplemental texts and discussions with the 
instructor on duty or with peers. Each student proceeded independ- 
ently of other students and was free to omit any part of the study 
unnecessary to help him achieve the stated objectives for the week. 
The prep room was equipped with a table, chairs and a coffee urn to 
encourage students to take frequent breaks and to enter into discus- 
sions with peers over a cup of coffee. When the student was satisfied 
with his progress he was free to leave without regard to scheduled 
class time. 

2) General Assembly Session (GAS) 

This session was scheduled on a weekly basis and included 300 
or more students. Activities in this assembly involved an occasional 
lecture, special films, major exams and other activities that could be 
done most effectively in a large group. Attendance was required only 
for certain special events. 

3) Integrated Quiz Session (IQS) 

This session involved eight students and an instructor scheduled 
to meet weekly for one-half hour. The primary purpose of the session 
was to exploit the principle that "one really learns a subject when 
one is required to teach it". For this session each student was expected 
to prepare a little lecture about each of the items (logs) used in the 
ISS. The instructor presented the items in the sequence programmed 
earlier and selected the student to lecture on a random basis. Thus 
all students were forced to organize the subject matter in their own 
minds and could not rely on superficial responses to instructor ques- 
tions. In addition, this session provided : 

Presidential Address 47 

1) direct feedback on the effectiveness of the components of the 
AT program; 

2) an opportunity for each student to know at least one instructor 
very well ; 

3 ) each student to be well known by at least one instructor ; and 

4) an opportunity to take care of certain administrative details. 

The AT system in this form has been adopted in a great many schools 
and in a broad spectrum of disciplines (one-third of the papers presented 
at the Second Annual Audio-Tutorial Conference held at Purdue in No- 
vember 1970 dealt with subject matter areas outside the field of biology 
and several were concerned with programs below the college level). 
Obviously, its effectiveness corresponds directly to the ability of the 
"good" teacher to prepare the AT programs and to originate the necessary 
supplementary sessions. Many teachers report highly successful systems 

Minicourses and Mastery 

In 1969 when Dr. Robert N. Hurst joined the staff at Purdue Univer- 
sity with the assignment to convert a zoology course (Biology 109) to the 
Audio-Tutorial approach, it was decided to reorganize the content of both 
the zoology and botany courses into smaller units of information called 
minicourses. Each minicourse would cover a reasonably coherent segment 
of subject matter (topic) and each minicourse would have a written set 
of specific objects suitable for testing the student's mastery of the concepts 
included. No rigid guide lines were established as to length or teaching 
strategy. Primarily, the limits of a minicourse were determined by good 
judgment much as one decides on how to divide a book into chapters. 
Approximately 30 minicourses were identified for each course and several 
of these minicourses covered subjects common to both zoology and botany. 
It was clear that if students were required to master the objectives in their 
first study of the common minicourses it would be redundant to involve 
them with the same subject matter a second time in the subsequent course. 

As each student mastered the objectives for a particular common 
minicourse, it was recorded on his individual card and he was not required 
to repeat the minicourse study again. Thus, students entering the two 
course sequence through either botany or zoology and taking the common 
minicourse during their first enrollment accumulated some time which 
could be devoted to the exploration of their own interests through the study 
of optional minicourses during the second semester of their enrollment. 
The botany and zoology courses which had previously been two distinct 
four credit hour courses now became a "pool" of minicourses divided into 
four categories, i.e., 

1) Plant minicourses 3) Common minicourses 

2) Animal minicourses 4) Optional minicourses 

48 Indiana Academy of Science 

Students entering the botany-zoology complex by the way of botany were 
required to take the plant minicourses and common minicourses and those 
students entering the complex by way of zoology were required to take 
the animal minicourses and common minicourses. Optional minicourses 
were selected by the student during the second semester of enrollment 
as needed to complete the requirement for the full four credit hours in 
botany and four credit hours in zoology. 

Most of the objectives for each minicourse were written at the 
knowledge and comprehension level, and when a student achieved mastery 
for a given minicourse he had a C entered on his record for that minicourse. 
After completing the required number of minicourses at this level, the 
student was awarded a grade of C in the course for which he was enrolled, 
A student who had not completed the number of minicourses required for 
the course for which he was enrolled was given a grade of incomplete with 
the opportunity to complete the uncompleted minicourses during the subse- 
quent semester. At that time, the incomplete would be removed and a 
permanent grade would be assigned by the Registrar's office. 

Students who wished to earn grades of A or B could do so by 
completing additional activities requiring a greater knowledge and "under- 
standing" of science, a greater time imput and more creative ability. The 
A-B activities were administered on a point basis. Students receiving an 
A were expected to acquire 110 points, while those working for a B had 
to acquire 85 points. These points were earned by participating in a variety 
of activities including special examinations, outside readings, research 
projects, peer tutoring activities, library projects, and other ways agreed 
upon between the student and instructor. 

After two years experience it is clear that it is possible to combine 
the Audio-Tutorial system with the concepts of minicourses and mastery 
to develop a learning system which provides a great deal more individual- 
ization and flexibility than the conventional lecture-laboratory approach. 

Some advantages and disadvantages 

A partial list of advantages is as follows : 

1) The primary learning program (AT) can be prepared by a "good" 
teacher and all his skill in selecting and sequencing learning 
activities can be made available to each student on a simulated 
tutorial basis. 

2) The rate and emphasis of study is directly under the student's 
control. He can stop at any point in the program to obtain outside 
assistance (instructor, peer, book or other resources) and can 
repeat or skip any segment of the program appropriate to his 

3) The system is designed for success. The expectation is that all 
students will achieve the objectives of each minicourse. The 
relatively small units of subject matter are less forboding than 

Presidential Address 49 

a complete course and a sense of accomplishment is achieved with 
the mastery of each minicourse. 

4) There is great flexibility for individualizing course content to 
the specific needs of students. Minicourses can be selected and 
combined in a variety of ways to accommodate major goals, inter- 
ests, capacities and backgrounds. 

5) Redundancy can be reduced and efficient use of facilities, staff 
and student time can be achieved. 

6) Selection of media and instructional strategy is limited only by 
the creativity of the instructor and his facilities. The nature of 
the subject matter and objectives dictate the procedure and 
materials to be used. 

7) Programs that only involve portable tangible items could be made 
available outside the Learning Center. Perhaps several mini- 
courses constituting a relatively high proportion of a regular 
course could be studied at home and thus reduce the cost to both 
the student and the school. 

8) The transfer of materials between courses and between schools 
could be accomplished more readily since each minicourse is 
essentially an independent learning system and could be easily 
combined with others to adapt to the local situation. 

A partial list of disadvantages is as follows : 

1) The development and testing of an AT minicourse program Is 
time consuming and requires considerable skill and talent. 

2) The system requires some psychological adjustment for both 
student and teacher. The student must assume a greater degree 
of responsibility for his own progress and make some decisions 
for himself. The teacher must become committed to "helping 
students learn" and accept less focus on himself and his role in 
the learning process. The teacher further must adjust to having 
all his efforts and objectives exposed to students and colleagues 
for review and criticism. 

3) Many factors only tangentially related to the system may be 
frustrating and create unexpected difficulties which have undue 
influence on the success of the program. A change from the 
routine within routine surroundings is never easy. 


Although the pilot study using the AT system with minicourses and 
mastery concepts has been underway only two years, it is apparent that 
it is feasible and practical even in a conventional university setting. Its 
potential for individualization is well received by students, and the admin- 

50 Indiana Academy of Science 

istration of the program can be accomplished by re-deploying about the 
same number of staff as required for conventional teaching. 

The author's hopes for the botany and zoology students have nearly 
all been realized. Perhaps more important, however, is the potential the 
minicourse concept has for providing new ways of "going to college" and 
for assisting with equal opportunity education and continuing education. 
Alternatives to the existing educational system are necessary to accommo- 
date the needs of a substantial portion of our population. Many of these 
people are unable to fit into the regime of "going to school" for a variety 
of reasons, but they still have a need and desire of expanding their educa- 
tion. Self-instructional minicourses in the format described in this paper 
can provide the necessary flexibility and portability with no compromise 
in the quality of instruction. The compatibility of the system with 
conventional procedures makes it feasible to intermix the two ap- 
proaches with no loss or problem to the student. The major task now is 
to produce the quantity and quality minicourses necessary to accommo- 
date the current needs and to devise the additional administrative pro- 
cedures required to make such programs available on a broad scale. 

Literature Cited 

1. Brewer, I. M. 1970. An audio-visual method of teaching and learning in 
biology. The Gazette, Nov.: 309-312. 

2. Meleca, C. B. 1970. The use of multivariate analysis in the evaluation of 
audio-tutorial programs I and II. BioScience 20:23-30. 

3. Sparks, P. D., and L. M. Unbehaun. 1971. Achievement of audio-tutorial and 
conventional biology students: A comparative study. BioScience 21:574-576. 

The Role of Scientists in the Preparation and Evaluation of 
Environmental Impact Statements 1 

Alton A. Lindsey 2 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Pressure from private citizens including many environmental 
scientists has prompted Congress, the Administration and the Courts to 
improve our national policies toward the environment during 1969-1971. 
The Congressional Research Service identified as "environment oriented" 
121 of the 695 bills signed into law during the 91st Congress. Signing of 
the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on January 1, 1970, was 
President Nixon's first official action in the "environmental decade of the 
'70 's." The Act set up a 3-man Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) 
with a small staff. It deals with environment broadly, whereas the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency (EPA), born on December 2, 1970, is concerned 
only with air and water pollution, environmental impact of pesticides, solid 
waste and radiation hazards in the general environment. As an operating 
agency, EPA received nearly $2.5 billion for F.Y. 1972. 

NEPA requires for major federal projects that the lead agency 
prepare a "draft" environmental impact statement, stating the effect the 
proposed action would have on the environment, including unavoidable 
adverse effects, possible alternatives, the long-term as well as immediate 
impact and any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources. 
The draft statement must be available to the public for 90 days before 
action is taken. Public hearings are to be provided "when appropriate" 
which presumably means in controversial cases. Draft statements are 
reviewed in the 10 regional offices of EPA, and by other involved federal 
agencies. The public (including outside scientists) is invited to make 
significant inputs into revision of draft statements, and thus into federal 
decision-making. This concedes that the public has some expertise as to 
what is in the public interest. As a panel of 3 federal judges ruled, "The 
very purpose of NEPA was to tell federal agencies that environmental 
protection is as much a part of their responsibility as is protection and 
promotion of the industries they regulate". 

1 The Indiana Academy of Science established in 1971 a Science Communication 
Award of $500., funded through the Science and Society Committee from its National 
Science Foundation grant. The award is presented at the general session of the fall 
meeting, when the recipient is called upon to give an address. He is also scheduled for 
visits to Indiana college campuses, to bring somewhat similar material to students, 
faculties and townspeople. Printed here is Dr. Lindsey's brief summary of his address 
given at the Earlham College meeting of the Academy on October 29, 1971. A more 
popularized version entitled "People, science and federal environmental policy" was 
given later at 5 colleges. 

2 The speaker wishes it recorded that the views expressed herein are his 
own; he is not speaking as a representative of Purdue University, the Indiana 
Academy of Science or any other institution. 


52 Indiana Academy of Science 

States should license the ecological consulting firms which are spring- 
ing up, so as to insure at least minimum qualifications. So far, these firms 
have had little business involving impact statements. There is much 
scientific and technical content in the areas under CEQ jurisdiction: air 
quality, weather modification, energy, hazardous substances including 
pesticides and herbicides, land use and management, noise, physiological 
health and human well-being (including food purity and waste systems), 
transportation, urban environments, water and wildlife. The Washington 
office of CEQ evaluates the final statements, chiefly by attorneys with 
some ad hoc reference to scientists. The Chicago regional office of EPA, 
one of the best, employs many technical experts, but has twice as many 
people trained in law and social science as in chemistry and chemical 
engineering. (Although EPA is often thought of as an enforcement agency, 
it is not empowered to take cases to court, but recommends action by 
prosecutors up to the Department of Justice.) A maxim in Washington 
says that scientists should not be on top, only on tap. But we think the tap 
should be turned on more often. This would make it less necessary for 
scientists' groups like Environmental Defense Fund to engage in litigation. 
Students being trained in the new environmental law specialty should take 
more courses in science. 

The federal projects that have been pushed through without compli- 
ance with NEPA have mostly been military procurement projects. Several 
large public works projects have been postponed by citizen action in federal 
courts for lack of environmental impact statements. However, no projects 
have yet been finally vetoed or terminated, without court action by private 
groups, because an impact statement projected environmental harm. 
Nationally, about 1,800 impact statements have been received, for Indi- 
ana only four. Apparently, only one public hearing on an impact state- 
ment has been held in the nation. Scientists Institute for Public Infor- 
mation is asking the courts to require AEC to prepare, for comment and 
discussion of alternatives, a detailed statement on the environmental 
effects of, not one reactor at a time, but a nation full of liquid metal fast 
breeder reactors. 

Since even the best impact statements prepared by the promoting 
agency are slanted toward advocacy, such statements for potentially 
controversial projects, at least, should be done by multidisciplinary teams 
independent of the agency, and using a broad systems analysis approach. 

The provisions of NEPA have greatly enlarged the opportunity of 
scientists, as well as the so-called ordinary citizen, to participate directly 
in the operative processes of government. For this unprecedented and 
superb mechanism of environmental democracy to start operating as 
Congress intended, it will require more understanding and activism by 
outside scientists and other private citizens. 

Address 53 

Selected References 

Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries (91st Congress, House) 1970. Hearings 
before the subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation ... on 
Federal agency compliances with Section 102(2) (C) and Section 103 of NEPA. 
Serial No. 91-41, Part, 1279 pp.; Part 2, 822 p. U.S. Gov't Printing Office. 
Washington, D.C. $5 and $3.50. 

Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. 1971. Administration of the 
National Environmental Policy Act. 92nd Congress, House Report 92-316. U.S. 
Gov't Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 107 p. 

Council on Environmental Quality. 1970. First annual report. U.S. Gov't Printing 
Office. Washington, D.C. (out of print). 

. . _. 1971. Second annual report. Executive Office of the President. U.S. Gov't 

Printing Office. Washington. 360 p. $2. 

Institute of Ecology. 1971. Optimum pathway matrix analysis approach to the 
environmental decision making process. Testcase: relative impact of proposed 
highway alternatives. University of Georgia. Athens. (Mimeo). 

Ruckelshaus, W. D. 1971. The beginning of the new American revolution. Ann. 
Amer. Acad. Political and Soc. Sci. 396:13-24. 

Sax, J. L. 1971. Defending the environment, the challenge of citizen action. 
Knopf Publishing Co., New York, N.Y. $6.95. 

U. S. Congress (91st). Public Law 91-190. National Environmental Policy Act of 
1969. 83 Stat. 852. 

U. S. Congress (92nd). 1971. The Cannikin test. Congressional Record-Senate. 

U. S. Congress (92nd). 1971. Military procurement authorizations, 1972. Congressional 
Record— Senate. S14181-S14210. 


Chairman: William R. Adams, Department of Anthropology, 
Indiana University, Bloomington 47401 

Edward Dolan, Department of Anthropology, 
DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135, was elected 
Chairman for 1972 


A Brief Synthesis of Indiana Prehistory. B. K. Swartz, Jr., Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. — — 
Indiana was subdivided into three physiographic zones, Moraine and Lake, 
Tipton Till Plain, and Valley and Upland, and its prehistory was examined 
on this backdrop through six developmental stages, Lithic (usually termed 
Paleo-Indian in North American archaeology), Archaic, "Intermediate" 
(a provisional stage specifically formulated from an Indiana point of 
view), Woodland, Mississippian, and Woodland-Mississippian (a fusion of 
the two preceding, rather than a stage in itself.) 

A Second Report on Earthwork Seven, the New Castle Site, a Portion of 
the Southeast Quadrant— 1971. Gary M. Heathcote, Yasuo Toyoda, and 
B. K. Swartz, Jr., Department of Anthropology, Ball State University, 
Muncie, Indiana 47306.— — Earthwork 7, Hn-1 (IAS-BSU), is a small 
"sacred enclosure" located on the southern periphery of the New Castle 
Site complex. Descriptively, the earthwork is a low-lying natural knoll, 
measuring 67 feet by 81 feet, surrounded by an aboriginally excavated 
interior ditch. Excavations in the southeast quadrant this year revealed 
the presence of plain Woodland Ware sherds within the disturbed fill strata 
of the interior ditch. No diagnostic features, such as post molds, were 
discovered, and only one lithic artifact, a pecked stone ball, was found 
in situ within the earthwork. 

Continued Excavation of Earthwork Four, New Castle Site, Indiana. 

Harold G. Stacy and B. K. Swartz, Jr., Department of Anthro- 
pology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. For the past 

6 years excavation has been carried on a panduriform mound known as 
Earthwork Four. This year the major portion of the northeast quadrant 
of the east mound was excavated. A total of 15 features were uncovered 
in the 39 5x5 foot excavation units excavated during the 1971 Summer 
Field School. These included three human cremations, one probable post 
hole, one unique soil formation, a bird burial, four ash and charcoal lenses, 
one group of rocks surrounding a piece of red ocher, two fire hearths (one 
with post holes), and two features of fire cracked rocks. During the excava- 
tion six scrapers, five pieces of nondescript pottery, two cores, three points, 
and a post hole filler from Feature 2 were unearthed. A rusted piece of 
metal and a square nail were found 48 inches below the surface in units 
N1-E3 and N2-E3, and another piece of rusted metal was found at the base 
of the mound in unit S1-E3. Also in unit S1-E3 the unexcavated portion 
of a cremation was uncovered. A portion of this earthwork had been exca- 
vated, possibly Redding's work in 1890. 


56 Indiana Academy of Science 

Aerial Photography in Archaeological Survey. Robert E. Pace, Department 
of Anthropology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. 

Where extensive areas are to be searched for archaeological sites, 

carefully planned and executed aerial photography lends invaluable assist- 
ance. While aerial film will record a few obvious sites, its greatest value 
lies in identifying relationships of surface natural features, land-use pat- 
terns, and back-road networks. With this information and topographic 
maps, surface survey can proceed more rapidly and efficiently. At specific 
sites, aerial film may record evidence of archaeological features not 
apparent to the surface observer. 

Archeology of Tell Hesban, Jordan. Robert Little, Department of 

Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47401. Tell Hesban, 

or ancient Heshbon, is a city mound at the edge of the plain of Moab in 
the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It has an elevation of 895 meters above 
sea level and is 26 road kilometers southwest of the capital city of Amman. 
It is 30 kilometers east of the north end of the Dead Sea. 

The first time it is mentioned in history, it was a Moabite city, then 
a capital city of the Amorites of the Late Bronze Age. 

It was continuously occupied from that point by Isralies, Greeks, 
Romans, Christians, and Arabs. It was last mentioned by Arab writers 
in the 14 century a.d. 

The first expedition to Heshbon, sponsored by American Schools of 
Oriental Research and staffed by 45 technicians and 165 native workers 
was scheduled in 1967 but had to be canceled. There was 8 successful 
weeks in 1968, then canceled again in 1970, and another successful 8 
weeks in 1971. 

Much material has been recovered and analyzed, but since the second 
season has only reached Iron III and possibly II and in only some of the 
areas, it is too early for final conclusions. About 5 more seasons will be 
needed to develop a clear picture of 4,000 or more years of continuous 
history at one location. 

The Commissary Site: A Woodland Cemetery. Glory K. Houck and B. 
K. Swartz, Jr., Department of Anthropology, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. Concentrated effort was made to discover 

a burial left in 1968 that would allow the reconstruction of the grid system 
established in 1966. Stakes from the original grid and a burial correspond- 
ing to the 1968 provenience were exposed; but, the missing lower limbs 
of the burial and its closeness to the edge of the site cause doubt that it 
is the 1968 burial. 

A total of 13 individuals in 9 designated burials were exposed and 
removed. Five individuals were removed from one unit alone. The possible 
1968 burial was associated with a great number of artifacts, including 
beaver incisors, worked chert objects, bear canines, antler tines, a tortoise 
shell rattle, and the remains of what may have been a "medicine bag/' In 

Anthropology 57 

association with another individual in the same excavation unit were an 
expanded stem elbow pipe of steatite and two shouldered knives. 

The Henry County district soil scientist identified the dark brown 
soil surrounding burials as gravelly silt loam, identical in texture to the 
soil found in the valleys of the Big Blue and Little Blue Rivers. In his 
opinion, the normal subsoil of the site had been removed and replaced with 
the soil transported from the valley beds. 

Special emphasis was placed on stratigraphy and outlining of burial 

Bone Growth in Two Prehistoric Indian Populations 

Anthony J. Perzigian 

Department of Anthropology 
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 


The diameter of the adult radius was compared in two prehistoric Indian popu- 
lations which differed markedly in diet. The Indian Knoll population of the Archaic 
Period was a hunting and gathering group. The Pete Klunk Mound Group population 
of the Middle Woodland or Hopewell Period supplemented its hunting and gathering 
with part-time agriculture. Therefore, the diet of the Hopewell population was larger 
and more varied than that of the Indian Knoll population. Statistically significant 
differences in radius diameter were shown to exist both inter- and intrapopulationally. 
Males of both populations were larger than females. Males and females of the Hopewell 
group were larger, respectively, than males and females of the Indian Knoll group. 
These population differences in bone diameter are attributed to differences in the 
aboriginal diets. 

The effect of nutrition on circumferential growth of the radius bone 
was examined in two prehistoric Indian populations, the Indian Knoll of 
Kentucky and the Pete Klunk-Hopewell of Illinois. The Indian Knoll pop- 
ulation (dated between 2500 and 2000 B.C.) represents the Archaic Period 
of Eastern United States prehistory. The subsistence activities of this 
group were centered exclusively around hunting and gathering in the 
vicinity of the Green River. The Hopewell, a more recent population (dated 
between 50 B.C. and 250 a.d.) represents the Middle Woodland Period. This 
group also relied on hunting and gathering but supplemented these 
activities with part-time agriculture in the Illinois River Valley. The 
hypothesis tested is that due to agriculture and, as a consequence, a larger 
and more varied diet, the amount of bone growth in the Hopewell popula- 
tion would be greater than that of the Indian Knoll population. 

Materials and Methods 

Only well-preserved, intact radii from adult males and females were 
studied. The sampled radii represented individuals ranging in age from 
20 to 70 years. The sample was made up of 121 males and 54 females from 
Indian Knoll and 45 males and 46 females from Hopewell. Those radii 
which evidenced obvious pathology such as periostitis or arthritis were not 
used. The width or diameter of each radius was measured at two sites: a 
cortical or compact bone site at a point one third the shaft length as meas- 
ured from the styloid process and a trabecular or spongy bone site, at a 
point one tenth the distance from the styloid process. A photon absorptio- 
metric technique developed by Cameron (1) was employed to measure both 
width and bone mineral content of each radius. A monoenergetic photon 
beam from a low energy radionuclide, iodine-125, was passed across the 
width of the bone. Changes of transmittance, which are directly propor- 
tional to the bone mineral mass in the scan path, were measured with a 
scintillation detector-pulse height analyzer system (3). Data from each 
scan or measurement were transferred to paper tape by means of an eight 
channel Tally Paper Tape Punch. An IBM Tape to Card Converter trans- 




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Indiana Academy of Science 

ferred the data to the standard 80-column cards. A computer program for 
calculation of radius width was written by Dr. David M. Smith of the 
Indiana University Medical Center and was made available for this study. 


Table 1 presents data on the width of the radii used in this study. In 
all cases the average width of the Hopewell radius exceeds that of the 
Indian Knoll radius. This relationship is especially evident in the 14.5% 

Table 2. Comparison of mean cortical and trabecular widths by sex and culture using 
Student's t. Indian Knoll (IK) and Hopewell (H). 







Males vs. H. Males 




Females vs. H. Females 





Males vs. H. Males 




Females vs. H. Females 





Males vs. IK Females 




Males vs. H. Females 





Males vs. IK Femalet 




Males vs. H. Females 





Males vs. H. Females 




IK Males vs. H. Females 




**Highly Significant 

difference in average cortical width between the two female samples. In 
Table 2, Student's t-tests show that when Indian Knoll males are compared 
to Hopewell males or when Indian Knoll females are compared to Hope- 
well females, the differences in average radius width are very highly 
significant at the 0.001 level of confidence. Size differences are further 
indicated when the Hopewell females are compared to Indian Knoll males. 
No statistically significant difference between their respective cortical 
widths could be found despite a statistically significant sexual dimorphism 
within each population with males being larger than females (Table 2). 


In the earlier stated hypothesis, bone growth was predicted to be 
greater in the Hopewell population than in the Indian Knoll population. 
The data on radius width show this to be true. However, to fully test the 
hypothesis it must be shown that bone width and diet are related and that 
significant nutritional differences exist between the two populations. Garn 

Anthropology 61 

(2) has shown that bone width is related to caloric sufficiency to the extent 
that average bone diameter or width may be 15% narrower among the mal- 
nourished of a population. The data in Tables 1 and 2 are taken to indicate 
significant nutritional differences. 

The archaeological data also suggest nutritional differences. Excava- 
tion of the Indian Knoll site has categorically demonstrated that this popu- 
lation was pre-agricultural (8). Farming implements such as shell hoes 
and floral remains of domesticated species are absent. The remains of shell- 
fish and mollusca were found interspersed throughout the refuse or 
cultural debris of the site. The heavily forested area around the Green 
River provided the Indian Knoll people with a variety of foodstuffs. 
Remains of hickory nuts, walnuts, and acorns are reported by Webb (8) 
along with hammerstones which were employed to process the nuts. An 
abundance of deer, Odocoileus virginianus, indicates its importance as a 
meat source. In fact, of 27,756 animal fragments identified, 23,177 were 
from O. virginianus. Atlatls or spear throwers were found in association 
with burials and probably were used to kill both deer and wild turkey, 
Melaegris gallopavo. 

The Green River provided staples other than just mollusca, for fish 
were also a significant component of the diet. Webb (8) describes the deer 
ulnae and tibiae which were fashioned into fish hooks. Skeletal remains 
of the drumfish, Aplodinotus grunniens, were scattered throughout the 
debris of the midden. Migratory waterfowl such as the Canada goose, 
Branta canadensis, were also found. 

The Middle Woodland Period of North American prehistory emerged 
at least 2,000 years after occupation at Indian Knoll was terminated. The 
former Period, then, is represented by cultures which benefited from a 
longer experience adapting to the New World environments. The hunting 
and gathering society of Indian Knoll did not alter the normal habitats 
of the natural flora and fauna. As stated above, shellfish were merely 
gathered, nuts collected, and deer hunted. In contrast, the later Early 
Woodland cultures which antedate the Middle Woodland cultures actually 
modified the floral environment to their own advantage. Various excava- 
tions of Early Woodland sites have shown remains of plants not naturally 
indigenous to those areas. Archaeologists infer that the Indians intention- 
ally introduced species whose existence depended upon human manage- 
ment. This took the form of cultivation and selective removal of other 
plants which might have been competitors. These plants used by man are 
cultigens, the earliest of which were: Helianthus annuus, sunflower; Iva 
sp., marsh elder; Cucurbita pepo, squash; Lagenaria siceraia, gourd; and 
Chenopodium album, goosefoot or lamb's quarters. 

An Early Woodland Kentucky site near Indian Knoll has yielded 
human fecal material which reflects subsistence activities. Watson (7) 
reports that the feces at Salts Cave contained hickory, acorn, sunflower 
seeds, Chenopodium, and Iva. The latter three probably represent the 
earliest cultigens in this eastern woodlands area. Significant too were 
remains of two tropical exotic plants, squash and gourd. Cultivated plants 
made up 45% of the bulk of the Salts Cave feces. The intermediacy of 

62 Indiana Academy of Science 

this site relative to the Indian Knoll and Hopewell cultures has been 
shown by radiocarbon dates of 710 ± 200 B.C. 

The original stimulus to cultivate was probably a product of cultural 
diffusion from Mesoamerica where, for example, squash, gourd, and corn 
are indigenous. The adoption of incipient agriculture in the Early Woodland 
Period provided the Hopewellians of the Middle Woodland a tested, success- 
ful behavioral adaptation. The evidence is impressive that by Middle Wood- 
land times, horticulture had become widely practiced in both the Ohio and 
Mississippi River Valleys where it was to persist until contact times. 

The village site that adjoined the mounds which contained the 
Hopewell skeletons is today covered by a town and highway and therefore 
beyond archaeological recovery. Examination of other Middle Woodland 
sites can, however, provide a picture of Klunk-Hopewell subsistence 
activity. The McGraw site of Ross County, Ohio, is situated in the flat 
bottomland or flood plain of the Scioto River. Such riverine locations, even 
today, are the best areas for agriculture. Prufer (4) reports the discovery 
of a medium-sized ear of corn in the middle stratum of the site. One may 
posit, therefore, that, following in the tradition of the Early Woodland, 
Hopewellians were introducing and propagating alien plants. Prufer maxi- 
mizes the significance of the corn and believes that this community's 
primary economic activity was farming based on a shell hoe technology. 
Secondary activities in order of decreasing importance were shellfish 
collecting, hunting, and wild plant collecting. Prufer reasons that the 
nearby burial mounds, which are large in size and rich in material content, 
could have been built only with the support of a stable agricultural 

Middle Woodland sites in Illinois have also yielded corn. Vickery (6) 
reports finds from the Jasper Newman site of Moultrie County (50 ± 140 
B.C.) and the Macoupin site of Jersey County. In Calhoun County where 
the Klunk-Hopewell site is located, the Peisker site (180 ± 130, 70 ± 120, 
250 ± 20 a.d.) and Ansell site (250 ± 150 A.D.) also contained 
corn. Both Illinois and Ohio Hopewell climates were capable of supporting 
the corn plant. 

Judging from the above village or occupation sites, one can cate- 
gorically state that Hopewellian Indians of the lower Illinois River Valley 
had expanded the exploitative potential of their environment through 
farming activities. This is not to say, though, that the Valley itself was 
not already naturally endowed with a diversity of food resources. Struever 
(5) has shown the easy availability and abundance of hickory nuts and 
acorns; Iva and Chenopodium; deer; geese and ducks; and fish. Both 
population density and residential stability increased during Hopewellian 
times. The number and size of burial mounds attest to the population 
increase while numerous storage pits and earth ovens in close association 
with a house at the Apple Creek site in Madison County, Illinois, attest 
to the residential stability. This increase in population density and resi- 
dential stability is taken to indicate the larger and more varied diet of the 
Hopewell people over that of their forebearers, the Archaic Indians of 
Indian Knoll. 

Anthropology 63 

The larger and more varied diet of the Hopewell people is considered 
to be the primary variable which accounts for their bone growth being 
greater than that of the Indian Knoll people who did not supplement their 
hunting and gathering with part-time agriculture. There is the possibility, 
though, that genetics is partly involved. The effective breeding size of the 
two populations was small. Inbreeding was therefore probably operating 
in both and contributing to an increase in homozygosity and decrease in 
overall genetic variability. Since Hopewell populations were larger and 
since they participated in an extensive trade network, outbreeding was 
probably more characteristic than in earlier Archaic times. If outbreeding 
were more common among Hopewellians, their larger bone diameter could 
be partly explained. For example, hybrid vigor in the form of increased 
stature has been observed among the offspring of outcrosses between 
European sailors and Polynesian women. This is not taken, however, to 
detract from the significant nutritional differences between the two 


1) The diet of a Middle Woodland-Hopewell population from the 
lower Illinois River Valley has been shown to differ from that of an 
Archaic population from the Green River in Kentucky. The latter popula- 
tion relied exclusively on hunting and gathering while the former enjoyed 
a larger and more varied diet due to the adoption of part-time agriculture 
to supplement hunting and gathering. 

2) Statistically significant differences in radius diameter or width 
were shown to exist both inter- and intrapopulationally. Males of both 
populations were larger than females. Males and females of the Hopewell 
group were larger, respectively, than males and females of the Indian 
Knoll-Archaic group. These population differences in bone diameter are 
attributed to differences in the aboriginal diets. 


I would like to thank the late Dr. G. K. Neumann of Indiana Uni- 
versity, who provided some of the skeletal materials used in this study, 
and Dr. C. Conrad Johnston of the Indiana University Medical Center, who 
provided me access to the photon absorptiometric apparatus. Also, I am 
especially in debt to Dr. David M. Smith of the Medical Center and Dr. 
Robert J. Meier of Indiana University who helped me with technical aspects 
of this study. 

Literature Cited 

1. Cameron, J. R., and J. Sorenson. 1963. Measurement of bone mineral in vivo: 
An improved method. Science 142 :230. 

2. Garn, S. M. 1970. The earlier gain and the later loss of cortical bone. C. 
C. Thomas Press, Springfield, Illinois. 146 p. 

64 Indiana Academy of Science 

3. Johnston, C. C, D. M. Smith, Pao-Lo Yu, and W. P. Deiss. 1968. In vivo 
measurement of bone mass in the radius. Metabolism 17:1140-1153. 

4. Prufer, O. H. 1965. The McGraw Site: A study in Hopewellian dynamics. Vol. IV. 
Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Cleveland, Ohio. 144 p. 

5. Struever, S. 1968. Woodland subsistence-settlement systems in the lower Illinois 
Valley, p. 285-312. In S. R. Binford and L. R. Binford (eds.) New Perspectives 
in Archaeology. Aldine Press, Chicago, Illinois. 373 p. 

6. Vickery, K. D. 1970. Evidence supporting the theory of climatic change and 
the decline of Hopewell. Wis. Archeol. 51 : 57-76. 

7. Watson, P. J. 1969. The Prehistory of Salts Cave, Kentucky. Rep. Invest. No. 16. 
Illinois State Museum. Springfield, Illinois. 86 p. 

8. Webb, W. S. 1946. Indian Knoll. The University of Kentucky Reports in 
Anthropology. IV (3), Part I. University of Kentucky Press. Lexington, Kentucky. 
254 p. 

The McKinley Site 

Robert M. Little 

Andrews University 

Berrien Springs, Michigan 49103 


The McKinley Site is located just south of Noblesville, Hamilton County, Indiana. 
It was first discovered in 1937 when a road was widened. It was excavated by Downey 
Raibourn and Jack Householder, as a salvage operation, starting in 1953 under the 
direction of the late Glenn Black. 

The site had three periods of occupation from Late Archaic to Early Woodland 
and finally during the contact period of 200 years ago. In the Late Archaic there was 
evidence for hot-rock cooking plus an emphasis on small animal hunting and gathering. 
The tool inventory was more sophisticated than for later occupations. The Early Wood- 
land period emphasized larger animal hunting and there was evidence for pole structures. 
The surface and near-surface occupation included stone artifacts and tools as well as 
historical objects. Eighteen burials recovered showed associations with Indian Knoll. 


The McKinley Site, located just south of Noblesville in southeast 
Hamilton County, was a salvage operation, excavated as a result of Indiana 
State Highway operations. 

In 1937 the road leading to Noblesville from the south was a very 
narrow, paved highway. When the highway was widened, the road scrapers 
cut into the east bank of the river terrace just south of a house owned by 
Mr. and Mrs. McKinley. Bone fragments and flint chips were noticed by 
the highway crew, and Dr. Glenn A. Black, Indiana University, was noti- 
fied. He and Jack Householder examined the site and noted the situation. 
Householder visited the site a number of times as the years passed and 
collected samples from the surface. 

Downey Raibourn and Jack Householder began excavation of the 
McKinley Site on June 7, 1953. Of the total area dug, approximately half 
of the work (750 square feet) was finished in the first season to sterile 
soil, which in some cases went over 3 feet deep. In the next 2 seasons 
approximately 775 square feet of surface was excavated to sterile soil. 

The author wrote up the McKinley Site excavation as a thesis at the 
suggestion of Dr. James Kellar, as part of the program to finish the work 
of the late Dr. Glenn Black. 

Site Description 

The McKinley Site overlooks to the west, what is known as Horse 
Shoe Prairie which is a fertile, flat land formed by several sharp bends 
in the west fork of White River. In all probability during Late 
Archaic-Early Woodland times, the river bank came up to the terrace that 
is contiguous to the site. It has apparently been an ideal location for 
occupation since post-glacial times. 


66 Indiana Academy of Science 

The area of the site had, in the immediate past, been in garden, but 
at the time excavation began, it was covered with broom grass, wild lettuce 
and weeds. The plow zone penetrated to at least the 0.4 foot level, but there 
was still much material on and near the surface. In this level were found 
bones of domesticated animals such as sheep and hog, glass and other arti- 
facts of both modern man and of early settlers. 

The area of occupation extended for 60 feet along a northeast- 
southwest line and roughly paralleled what had been the original bank 
of the river as it made its sharp bend forming the prairie. The road cut 
doubtless destroyed much of the site, but there is no estimate of how much. 
Unsuccessful attempts were made to locate material west of the right- 
of-way. The 60 lineal feet previously mentioned applied to the surface and 
to the layer down to the 1.6 foot level. The third occupational area was 
primarily limited to a more circular area of about 30 feet in diameter at 
the north end of the 60-foot line. 


The site was laid out in 40 squares, each 10 feet by 10 feet. During 
the first season, excavation was continued to sterile soil on a 
10 foot block plan as originally intended. In addition, two 5-foot blocks 
were opened 50 feet north and 30 feet east of the center lines to establish 
the perimeter of the site. However, at the start of the second season the 
expedition was constantly hampered by after-hour pot hunters. For this 
reason, 5-foot squares were excavated and every effort was made to com- 
plete a square before opening another. This was not an ideal technique, 
and has led to many problems in studying the field notes, but was 
necessary procedure under the circumstances. 

In the laboratory, the author analyzed the projectile points for their 
discrete attributes under a formula worked out at the University of 
Michigan (1), as follows: outline of the blade, outline of the base, junc- 
tures of the haft element, presence or absence of a shoulder or a barb, 
outline of the shoulder element, tang form, tang outline-proximal 

Of the 157 total selected points, 69 were complete enough for metric 


The stratigraphy of the site was not apparent at the time of the 
excavation, but analysis clearly indicated three occupations. On the 
surface, along with the modern debris, a few sherds of grit tempered cord 
marked pottery of Late Woodland variety were found. However, many 
of the projectile points in the same context were Archiac. Under this 
modern debris area which can be classified with the surface as Zone C, 



a continuous black layer was noted over the entire site and was variously 
referred to in the field notes as black soil, black debris, black disturbed 
and mottled. It varied in thickness from several inches to 2 feet, and 
averaged about 1 foot. This fact seems to correlate well with the second 
occupation, or what was called Zone B. The extreme blackness of the second 
layer indicated an intense occupation. 

Under Zone B in discontinuous patches of about the same thickness 
was a lighter-colored occupation that was called yellow-disturbed by the 
excavators. This first occupation of the site was called Zone A. It is not 
as wide-spread as Zone B and was similar except for the presence of many 
shell fragments and a change in the style of the projectile points. Other 
artifacts of stone and bone also indicate a change of style. Below Zone A 
was a sterile yellow Miami silt loam soil. 

The chipped stone projectile points recovered at the McKinley Site 
were well distributed over the area. In all, some 363 points and fragments 
of points were recovered, but only 149 were complete enough for the 
discrete attribute analysis. The raw material was for the most part chert. 
Eight bone points were added to this analysis for a total under considera- 
tion of 157. Of this total, 64% were found on the surface, 24% in Zone B 
and 16% in Zone A, including the bone points. 

Table 1, Stone and bone implement inventory. 





Stone Tools 










% grooved 


full grooved 


Net Sinkers 


Pestles : 




bell shaped 






Scrapers (4 types) 







Smoothing stone 


Bone Tools 












Atlatl hook 



Fish hook 


Ornaments and Problem Forms 

Banner stone fragments 


Stone tube 


Stone beads 


Shell beads 


Perforated turtle shell rattle 


Bone tubes 



Indiana Academy of Science 

My analysis revealed at least one new type of projectile point for each 
Zone. In Zone A, two distinct types were noted. All bone projectile points 
were found in this lowest zone, and were similar to those found at Indian 
Knoll (4). In the classification, they were described as having an ovate 
blade and a lateral-lateral haft element (also known as side-notched). A 
type originating (3) in Zone B was described as having an excurvate 
blade and straight shoulders. Only Zone C revealed triangle points with 
subconcave bases. 

The tool inventory was very extensive and was divided into two 
general categories, stone and bone (Table 1). Of special interest was the 
fragment of an atlatal hook, which was found at the lowest level. 
Atlatal hooks were known to have been used in the area during Late 
Archaic times (2). The bone material recovered was, for the most part, 
in good condition and quite extensive (Table 2). The bones and bone 
fragments from animals used for food. Included were disarticulated dog 
bone fragments found scattered throughout the site. 

Table 2. Subsistence patterns. 

Number of pieces 


Zone A 

Zone B 

Deer — Odocoileus virginianus 1 
Turtle — Amyda spinifers, 

Chelydra serpentine and 
Terrepene carolinensis 

Ground Hog — Marmota monax 


Fox — Sciurus niger 

Gray — Sciurus carolinensis 
Raccoon — Procyon lotor 
Beaver — Castor canadensis 
Rabbit — Sylvilagus floridanus 
Opossum — Didelphis virginianus 
Muskrat — Ondatra zihethica 
Rodent misc. 


Dog — Canis familiaris 

Unidentified (28 burned fragments) 






60 + 









1 Representing an animal count of 84, using the Dick Adams method, Indians 

Of the 18 burials recovered, 8 were probably related to the Zone B 
occupation and the remaining 10 were from the deepest level of occupation. 
All heads were oriented facing south except one which faced north and 



showed evidence for red ocher 
female double burial. 

the pelvic region. There was one male- 

Most of the burials were on their back with flexed lower limbs. Excep- 
tions included two fully extended burials, and one unusual burial which 
was on its back, fully extended to the knees, then with the lower legs flexed 
back under the body. Probably the most important burial was a male, found 
at the lowest level, tightly flexed and buried face down. Associated with 
it was a perforated carapace rattle very similar to those found at Indian 
Knoll in Kentucky (4). 

Table 3. Age comparisons between McKinley and Indian Knoll. 




Indian Knoll 

















Newborn to one year 
1 to 3 years 
Children 4-12 years 
Youths 13-17 
Near Adults 18-20 years 
Young Adults 21-35 year: 
Middle Age 36-55 years 
Old Adults 55 + years 

Of the 18 burials, there were 10 males, 5 females, and 3 infants. The 
age at time of death ranged from 13 to 51 for the males and from 30 to 
68 for the females. The final skull measurements were made by the late 
Dr. Georg Neumann, and are very similar to Indian Knoll. However, the 
McKinley population lived longer on an average than the Indian Knoll 
population and were 1 to 4 inches taller. (Tables 3 and 4). 

Table 4. Comparison of stature between Indian Knoll and McKinley. 


Burial No. 





















12H1- 7 














12H1- 9 





















12H1- 6 







12H1- 3 







12H1- 5 






















noil Average 







noil Average 





70 Indiana Academy of Science 


Other interesting features, in addition to burials, included pits and 
post holes. There appeared to be no consistency in the size and shape of 
the pits. There was no evidence for bark or rock lining for storage purposes 
although several small pits were found containing charred nuts. Other 
small pits contained charcoal and red burned clay. 

One special pattern found in the lowest level of occupation was noted 
by the excavators. At least six pits were uncovered with concentrations 
of rocks in the center. These pits ranged from 1 to 2 feet in diameter, and 
averaged a foot deep. In many instances these pits showed a possible 
flanged rim. The excavators indicated that this was evidence for "hot rock" 
cooking by the earliest occupants of the site. 

Because of the density of the occupation it was difficult to identify 
all of the post holes that were present. Some organization was present, 
e.g., a suggestion of a straight line in the southwest quadrant of the ex- 
cavation. The most intensive occupation appeared to be in the lowest strata 
of Zone B. The organization that was present in the post holes can probably 
be associated with the housing used primarily by the Zone B occupation. 


It is obvious that hunting and gathering was the life style throughout 
the occupations of the site, and that the availability of the fauna was 
reasonably constant. However, there seemed to be an emphasis on small 
animals at the lowest level, and a corresponding emphasis on larger animal 
hunting in the middle occupational level. 

There seems little doubt that the earliest village in Hamilton County, 
Indiana, may well have been a small band of people, who left their home 
at Indian Knoll, Kentucky, and worked their way up the White River to 
settle at Horse Shoe Prairie sometime before 1000 B.C. 

Literature Cited 

1. Binford, Lewis R. 1963. A proposed attributes list for the description and 
classification of projectile points. Anthropol. Paper No. 19. Mus. Anthropol. U. Mich., 
Ann Arbor 99:193-221. 

2. Kellar, James H. 1955. The atlatl in North America. Vol. Ill, No. 3. Ind. Hist. 
Soc, Indianapolis, Ind. 

3. Munson, Patrick J. 1966. An archaeological survey of the Wood River 
terrace and adjacent bottoms and bluffs in Madison County, 111. 111. State Mus. Prelim. 
Rep. No. 8. Springfield, 111. 

4. Webb, Wm. S. 1946. Indian Knoll: Part I. U. Ky. Rep. Anthropol. Arch. 

The Hybrid Origin of the Arikara Indians 

Ralph W. Alexander, Jr. 

Department of Anthropology 

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 


The hypothesis of a hybrid origin of the historic Arikara of the Great Plains was 
examined by multivariate-discriminant computer analysis applied to samples of Arikara 
and related skeletal material. The ethnohistorical and archeological evidence bear- 
ing on the Arikara was summarized, and the skeletal material utilized was described. 
Three putative ancestral groupings were examined by F and t significance tests for 
cranial measurements and indices, and were subjected to multivariate analysis with 
Arikara sample series to determine their relationships. The initial hypothesis of the 
Arikara being closely related to the protohistoric and historic Pawnee, and less closely 
related to Siouan groups such as the Mandan and the Ponca and Omaha, was supported. 

The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis of a di- or 
tri-hybrid origin of some of the populations of the Great Plains, as initially 
advanced by the late G. K. Neumann in 1942 (5). This hypothesis was 
tested through the application of multivariate computer analysis. The 
Caddoan-speaking Arikara of South Dakota were utilized as an example. 
In their migration up the Missouri River, the Arikara came into contact 
with the Siouan-speaking peoples of the Middle Missouri Tradition. Despite 
the occasional war-like nature of the contacts, considerable mixture did 
occur, especially in the northernmost Arikara villages. Contacts of lesser 
importance may have been made with the Siouan bison hunters of the 
Dakota and Dhegiha divisions. Physically, the analysis primarily involved 
populations of the Muskogid and Dakotid varieties, following the termi- 
nology of Neumann (6). These groups include: 1) historic and protohistoric 
Pawnee represented by samples of the Upper Republican and Nebraska 
Culture aspects and historic Pawnee (Muskogid Ancestral Group) ; 2) a 
Plains Woodland and Mandan-like Siouan population (Dakotid A Ancestral 
Group) ; and 3) the possibility of significant contribution of a second type 
of the latter (Dakotid B Ancestral Group), represented by the Ponca and 
Omaha. It is to be understood that the term "putative ancestral group", 
particularly in the case of the Dakotid B Ancestral Group, does not infer 
direct descent, but rather the possibility of mixture through contact. It 
has long been suggested that the Arikara are descendants of the Pawnee 
(3, 9, 10, 11, 14). Most of the evidence for this is linguistic in nature. The 
history of the Arikara prior to the close of the 18th century is not perfectly 
known, and can only briefly be summarized here. Northernmost of the 
Caddoan-speaking people, the Arikara were the last of that linguistic stock 
to come in direct contact with white chroniclers. Archeologically, some 
time after circa a.d. 100, but still several centuries before the arrival of 
the first white men in the Central Plains region, the Middle Woodland- 
Hopewellian complexes were succeeded by a group of semi-horticultural 
pottery-making cultures implying a much more stable pattern of settle- 
ment. Included in these semi-sedentary complexes were several prehistoric 
manifestations featuring small loosely arranged unfortified settlements — 


72 Indiana Academy of Science 

the Nebraska Aspect of northeastern Kansas and eastern Nebraska, and 
the Upper Republican Aspect of western Kansas and Nebraska (16). There 
is archeological evidence that the Arikara were established in present 
central South Dakota by the 15th century, as represented by the Initial 
Coalescent Variant (4). The Initial Coalescent sites appear to represent 
the first stage of an amalgamation of the Central Plains and Middle 
Missouri into the Coalescent Tradition. There is a considerable gap in the 
archeological record between the Upper Republican and Nebraska Cultures 
and the Pawnee, perhaps due to the dry years of the 1400's in the Central 
Plains. The close similarity in houses, pottery, and other artifacts between 
the Initial Coalescent and the Central Plains Tradition however leaves little 
doubt that the Initial Coalescent groups were immigrants from the Central 
Plains. Few studies in physical anthropology have been done on the remains 
from the Great Plains. Wedel (15) says of this area: "For various reasons 
it has remained one of the last major geographical provinces to attract 
the interest of trained students of prehistory — strange to say, despite the 
demonstrable richness of this upper Missouri region for the study of human 
prehistory, no comparable body of data correlating cultural and soma- 
tological materials on the Arikara — or for that matter on any of their 
neighbors — has yet been published". 

Crania of 169 nondeformed adult males comprise the 9 series used 
for the study. All of the crania were measured and examined by Georg 
K. Neumann, and the data placed in the files of the Laboratory of Bio- 
anthropology, Indiana University, prior to his death. The original data 
is now in the possession of his surviving family. The samples used are well- 
documented temporally, and are based on specimens whose cultural affili- 
ations are known either from archeological materials or historic records. 
Identical measurements and observations were employed in assessing each 
series ; error on the part of non-comparable data from different observers 
was eliminated. The samples represent the totality of available materials 
which adhere to the above criteria, and are considered adequate for estima- 
tions of the parameters of the actual populations involved. The question 
of the particular characteristics which are similar and different between 
the groups should hopefully be examined in light of what is known of the 
heritability of anthropometric traits. However, estimates which have been 
made show a considerable variability in results, depending on the methods 
used. Twin studies appear to show a fairly high agreement (12) in that 
certain traits such as stature, limb lengths, facial height, and the cephalic 
index appear to be highly heritable, having little within-pair variability 
among dizygous twins (1, 2, 7, 8, 13). Despite the claim that such studies 
show agreement among themselves (12), discrepancies do exist. Osborne 
and DeGeorge (7) find the cephalic index to have the highest heritability, 
while the same trait is listed as "unstable", inferring a low heritability, 
in Ostertag's study (8). In a study mentioned above (13), twins were com- 
pared in terms of 64 anthropometric traits, of which only 3 were not 
significant at or beyond the 0.05 level of probability. Of the remaining 
61 variables, all but 6 were significant at or beyond the 0.01 level. This 
implies that nearly all anthropometric traits have very significant herita- 
bility factors, while being little influenced by environment. However, the 
length of the left ear is significant at the 0.05 level, while the right ear 

Anthropology 73 

shows considerably more significance (p=0.01) between mono- and 
dizygous twins! Given such difficulties and inexplicable results, it would 
seem that heritability studies point to very different conclusions. Given 
also the questionable nature of mandibular traits due to developmental 
influences, these problems make it unwise, in the opinion of the author, 
to base any interpretation of the traits which emerge from the analysis 
on these grounds. 

The ancestral groupings were initially arrived at by an examination 
of the temporal, spatial, and apparent biological similarities of the series 
involved. Three statistical methods were used to substantiate this consoli- 
dation of the material, including analysis of similarities of qualitative 
variables, F tests of homogeneity of variance, and t tests for significant 
differences in means. Eighteen multivariate-discriminant functions were 
calculated, using all possible combinations of the ancestral groups with 
the two initial Arikara series and the pooled "tribal" Arikara series, for 
both measurements and indices. The initial separation of the total Arikara 
sample into two series, the Muskogid Arikara, and the Dakotid A Arikara 
(after the terminology of G. K. Neumann) was made for two reasons. The 
available information indicated that the skulls grouped as the Muskogid 
Arikara originated in earlier, more southerly sites where the population 
would be more likely to resemble the proposed original parental (Muskogid 
Ancestral Group) population, and that the Dakotid A Arikara skulls origi- 
nated in sites later in date and more northerly in the territory occupied 
by the Arikara, and would be more likely to resemble the groups contacted 
later in Arikara history (the Dakotid A Ancestral Group). Also an exami- 
nation of the material by the author and G. K. Neumann indicated that the 
samples were slightly different in morphological characteristics. The 
results of the initial multivariate functions appeared to bear out this con- 
tention. However, the differences between the Arikara samples was slight, 
and in the opinion of the author the total Arikara sample, or pooled "tribal" 
Arikara series was the best indicator of overall relationships. The final 
multivariate-discriminant functions which deal with this grouping are 
therefore considered to be the most applicable to the examination of the 
hypothesis, and are summarized here. 

The analysis indicated that the Arikara were most closely related to 
the Muskogid Ancestral Group, and that this similarity was greatest in 
the region of the cranial vault, both by size and by proportion. The overall 
conformation of the facial area was also very similar, including the facial 
length, and nasal and orbital breadths. The Dakotid A Ancestral Group 
was the next most closely related grouping, with the similarity greatest 
in the nasal region as expressed by the nasal height, nasal root height 
index, and the nasal index. There was some similarity in the facial breadth 
and the flatness of the face. The Dakotid B Ancestral Group was the least 
similar to the Arikara. No particular region of the cranium was related 
as a unit to the Arikara. The greatest similarity between the Arikara and 
the Dakotid B Ancestral Group was in the high nasal bones, and in a 
moderate amount of the flattening of the cranial base; the cranial vaults 
were quite different. This general picture was in agreement with that 
proposed by the original hypothesis. The relationships between the 

74 Indiana Academy of Science 

ancestral groupings and the Arikara may be summarized by the use of 
a generalized multivariate D 2 value, considering all variables^ which indi- 
cates general biological distance between populations. To place these values 
in perspective, if the statistic were applied between the Arikara and a 
remotely related American prehistoric population such as the Indian Knoll 
Archaic series from Kentucky, a value of D 2 = 24.00 would obtain. The 
close relationship between the Arikara and the Muskogid Ancestral Group 
was reflected in a D 2 value of 4.65. The Dakotid A Ancestral Group was 
not far behind, with a D 2 value of 4.90, and appeared to have contributed 
significantly to the historic Arikara. The Dakotid B Ancestral Group was 
the least related of all the putative ancestral populations tested, but the 
dissimilarity was not great; D 2 = 5.13. In this regard, the Dakotid B 
Ancestral Group appeared to be close enough to retain it as a viable puta- 
tive ancestor, a question which was left open in the initial formulation 
of the hypothesis. 

The available evidence, as summarized here, appears to lend consider- 
able credibility to the hypothesis of a hybrid origin of the Arikara. Certain 
sets of characters which serve to identify the samples employed have been 
identified, and may serve as a guide to workers planning further cranio- 

metrie studies on similar material 

Literature Cited 

1. Clark, P. J. 1956. The heritabslity of certain anthropometric characters as 
ascertained from measurements of twins. Amer. J. Human Genet. 8:49-54. 

2. Hiernaux, J. 1963. Heredity and environment: their influence on human 
morphology. A comparison of two independent lines of study. Amer. J. Phys. 
Anthropol. 21:575-590. 

3. Hodge, F. W. 1907. Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico. Bur. 
Amer. Ethnol. Bull. No. S0: 83-86. 

4. Lehmer, D. J. 1971. Introduction to middle Missouri archeology. Anthropol. 
Pap. No. 1, Nat. Park Service, U. S. Dep. Interior, Washington D. C. 206 p. 

5. Neumann, G. K. 1942. The origin of the prairid physical type of American 
Indian. Papers Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts and Lett. 27:539-542. 

6. ___________ 1952. Archeology and race in the American Indian, p. 13-34. In J. B. 

Griffin, (ed.) Archeology of Eastern United States. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 

III. 392 p. 

7. Osborne, R. H., and F. V. DeGeorge, 1959. Genetic basis of morphological 
variation. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 204 p. 

8. Ostertag, W. 1959. Genetic and environmental factors influencing certain 
anthropometric traits. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 68:59-64. 

9. Powell, J. W. 1891. Indiana linguistic families of America North of Mexico. 
Seventh Pep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 1885-1886: 58-62. 

10. Strong, W. D. 1935. An introduction to Nebraska archeology. Smithsonian 
Misc. Coll. 93, No. 10. 323. p. 

11. Swanton, J. R. 1952. The Indian tribes of North America. Smithsonian Inst., Bur. 
Amer. Ethnol. Bull. No. 145. 726 p. 

Anthropology 75 

12. Vandbnburg, S. G. 1962. How "stable" are hereditary estimates? A com- 
parison of faeritability estimates from six anthropometric studies. Amer. J. 
Phys. AnthropoL 20:331-338. 

13. ., and H. H. Stranbskov, 1964. A comparison of identical and fraternal 

twins on some anthropometric measures. Human Biol. 36:45-52. 

14. Wedel, W. R. 1936. An introduction to Pawnee archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 
Bull. No. 112. 122 p. 

15. — — 1955, Archeological materials from the vicinity of Mobridge. South 

Dakota. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. AnthropoL Papers No. 45, Bull. 157, 188 p. 

16. _________ 1959. An introduction to Kansas archeology,. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 

174. 174 p. 

Excavations at the Daughtery-Monroe Site, 1971 

Melvin L. Brashear and Sharon K. Cupp 
Department of Anthropology 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 


Debora Mackie 

Department of Anthropology 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 


The 1971 Indiana State University Field School excavated, for the second season, 
the Daugherty-Monroe site (12-Su-13) in northern Sullivan County, Indiana. The site 
contains both Allison and LaMotte cultures. Results of tests made in two mounds were 
largely negative. Excavations in the more southern village area turned out to be pure 
Allison. Distinctive traits typical of the Allison culture included house patterns, 
storage/refuse pits and projectile points — a variant of the Lowe Flared Base type. 
Bone artifacts and refuse were rare compared to LaMotte deposits to the north, but 
this can probably be attributed to an acid soil in the area excavated. 


The purpose of the excavations at the Daughtery-Monroe site was 
to gather additional information on the LaMotte and Allison cultures (1). 
Excavations were carried out by the Archeological Field School directed 
by the late Dr. Edward V. McMichael. 

The site is located some 30 miles south of Terre Haute, Indiana, on 
the second terrace of the Wabash River in Sullivan County, east of Hutson- 
ville, Illinois. Before the 1970 summer excavations, it was believed that 
the site had been occupied only by people of the LaMotte culture (2). It 
was not until the last few days of the field school that an Allison component 
was discovered (1). Initial attention was diverted to a group of mounds 
in a wooded area near the LaMotte-Allison village. Approximately 13 
mounds exist in the wooded area 50 yards to the northeast of the main 
site. Mounds C and H were selected to be tested. 

A trench was opened across the center of Mound C (Fig. 1). It was 
found that a primary clay mound, approximately 15 feet diameter and 
26 inches deep, had been built, then a later secondary sand mound added. 
The clay, according to personal communications with Mr. Cantin of the 
Indiana State University Georgraphy and Geology Department, was from 
a fluvial deposit. A skelton of a horse, buried about 50 years ago, was 
found in the center of Mound C. Three Allison potsherds, numerous fire- 
cracked rocks and flint chips were found in the burial fill. No other 
features were found in Mound C. 

Mound H rose some 27 inches over its base and proved to be a single 
structure, with loading of sandy soil. Artifacts recovered consisted of a 
number of Allison Cordmarked sherds and one Baumer Fabric-marked 
rim. These were apparently carried in with the fill. There were no post 
molds or other features to indicate the function of the structure. While 






I2-SU-I3 1971 

S308EIO S3I8EI0 
S328EIO S498EI0 

Figure 1. Horizontal plot of features at 12-Su-13 (1971) 

the excavation did demonstrate that Mounds C and H were man-made, 
no conclusion can be drawn as to their use. 

The Village 

Excavation of the southern edge of the village demonstrated that only 
Allison occupation was there. Four 10 x 10 foot units were opened, some 
300 feet south of the 1970 excavations. Altogether, 10 basin-shaped pits, 
averaging about 30 inches deep and 36 inches in diameter were found. All 
the pits, except Features 5 and 13, had a single row of post molds around 
them. The postmolds averaged about 6 inches apart and 3 inches in 

78 Indiana Academy of Science 

diameter. These posts may have supported a superstructure used as protec- 
tion. All of these were storage and/or refuse pits. 

One large refuse pit deserves special attention. This pit, Feature 13, 
was found in a 10 x 10 foot test unit, 200 feet south of the other 1971 
excavations, while searching for the village perimeter. The pit contained 
numerous Allison sherds. Apparently this was a refuse dump located on 
the edge of the village away from the main house areas. 

Portions of possibly six house patterns were also found in the village. 
Each pattern consisted of a double row of post molds approximately 12 
inches apart and with posts measuring 3 to 4 inches in diameter. At the 
present time it is unknown whether or not the pits were used in or outside 
these house structures (Fig. 1). 

Artifacts Analysis 

Artifacts from Mound C consists of three Allison Cordmarked sherds. 

The artifacts from Mound H consist of the following sherds: 195 Alli- 
son Cordmarked; 6 Embarras Simple Stamped; 1 Baumer type sherd with 
interior and exterior fabric marks and a squared rim ; and 1 piece of deer 
leg bone. This material all seems to be Allison (except for the Baumer 
rim sherd) (Table 1), 

Table 1. Archeological materials recovered, 1971. 


2,190 Cordmarked (53.2%) 44 Simple Stamped (1.1%) 

1,038 Smoothed Over Cord (25.2%) 716 Unclassifiable (17.4%) 

93 Cross Cord (2.3%) 33 Other (0.8%) 


6 Lowe Flared base projectiles 1 Trianguloid knife 

4 Scrapers 1 Guilford-like projectile 

4 Lamellar flake knives (Harrison County flint) 1 Trianguloid projectile 
2 knife fragments, 1 parallel sided 


1 Nutting stone 1 Celt 

1 Abrader 2 Crinoid stems used as beads 


1 Fired Clay object (resembling a claw or beak) 1 Copper pin (2.5mm) 

The ceramics found in the village during the 1971 excavations are 
predominantly Stoner Cordmarked along with a few simple stamped sherds 
of the LaMotte "Embarras" type (3). There were a few aberrant sherds 

Anthropology 79 

present, including: 3 cordmarked zoned, 5 simple and check stamped zoned, 
1 sherd with interior and exterior cordmarking with the interior marking 
perpendicular to the exterior, and 6 temperless "toy Pot" sherds. 

A study of the rim sherds has shown that 80.7% of the cordmarking 
is vertical to the rim (Table 2). The cordage ranges from loosely to 
tightly twisted, and from close spiced to slightly over 5 mm apart. Coil 
fractures were found on many sherds. Firing was uneven, resulting in 
both oxidation and reduction on the same vessels. The tempering of the 
sherds is fine to medium sand and grit. 

Table 2. Rim treatment compared to surface treatment. 

Cordmarked Zoned Unclassifiable 

Reed punctate 21 — — 

Smoothed 23 — 2 

Oblique notching 7 — — 

Scalloped 5 2 — — 

Notched 8 — — 

Scalloped & notched 3 — — 

Interior notching 1 5 2 

Other 1 4 — — 

1 Includes one tapered, three interior and exterior notched. 

2Probably part of vessel both notched and scalloped from Feature No. 13. 


Although the authors regard the LaMotte culture as a direct 
descendent of the Allison culture, some variations were noted during the 
1971 field work. 

No house post mold patterns have been observed in the LaMotte 
section of the village, even though a great number of random post molds 
were found. The only house pattern found associated with Allison was a 
"D-shaped" pit house. From work on the Illinois side of the Wabash, Denzil 
Stephens suspects large circular house patterns for LaMotte. There were 
no post molds associated with the LaMotte pits, unlike what proved to be 
characteristic of Allison. 

LaMotte pits were generally much deeper, more straight-walled and 
oval to circular, although their diameters were about the same as Allison. 
Allison pits were semi-conical, while the LaMotte pits were usually basin- 
shaped. The deeper LaMotte pits may suggest an increase in population 
and consequently an increase in storage problems. 

A diagnostic trait of the Allison culture is Stoner Cordmarked pottery 
and for LaMotte, Embarras Simple Stamped pottery. A large quantity 
of bone tools were found this summer in the Allison excavation. A 
difference has also been noted between the Allison and LaMotte point 
types. Both used Lowe flared base point made of Harrison County flint, 
but LaMotte points appear to have been reworked. 

80 Indiana Academy of Science 

Recent results of Carbon-14 dating has yielded dates of A.D. 570 and 
a.d. 540. 

Literature Cited 

1. Clouse, Robert A., John W. Richardson, and Edward V. McMichael, 
1971. Interim Report of the Daughtery-Monroe Site: An Allison-LaMotte Village. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:74-83. 

2. McMichael, Edward V., and Stephen Coffing, 1970. Test excavations at the 
Daughtery-Monroe Site (12-Su-13). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79:57-58. 

3. Winters, Howard D. 1967. An archeological survey of the Wabash Valley in 
Illinois.. Rep. of Invest. No. 10. Illinois State Museum, Springfield, 111. p. 47-48. 

A Provisional Taxonomy of Prufer's Scioto Tradition 

B. K. Swartz, Jr. 
Department of Anthropology 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 


Indiana and Ohio archaeologists have been reluctant to classify and culturally 
affiliate archaeological remains. A sympton of this unwillingness to classify is the 
forced definition of large, vague and invalidly-defined units such as Hopewell, Adena 
and Fort Ancient. The purpose of this paper is to abolish these terms as culture taxons 
by proposing a classification of Scioto Tradition phases. 

For various reasons of historic, scholastic, and idiosyncratic nature, 
Indiana and Ohio archaeologists have been loathe to define cultural affilia- 
tions from archaeological remains, that is, do archaeological taxonomy. 
It should be noted that McKern's (9) Midwestern Taxonomic System was 
developed on the basis of materials in the northern Mississippi Valley area, 
and was only nominally applied in Indiana and Ohio. Western Indiana is 
outside the range of problems discussed in this article, but terms used there 
are mostly borrowed from Illinois archaeology. Prufer's recent work in 
Ohio, however, has radically altered established views of conventional 
classification schemes there. 

A symptom of this unwillingness to label is the forced definition of 
large, vague, and invalidly defined units. Such terms as Hopewell, Adena, 
and Fort Ancient hang on to plague contemporary comparative archaeo- 
logical study. The purpose of this article is to rectify past sins, and, at least, 
to abolish two of these terms as taxa {Hopewell might be maintained in 
a ceremonial complex status, with its "Interaction Sphere," and/or a 
pottery type designator — but not as a cultural unit). For an up-to-date 
treatment of Fort Ancient see Prufer and Shane (15). Part of the 
reluctance to classify Midwestern Woodland materials is that so little data 
are available from living areas. Ceremonial remains do not seem to be sensi- 
tive spatial indicators, probably due to the rapid diffusion of associated 
religious concepts, as materials related to subsistence technologies. 

Using the classification precepts of Willey (19) Prufer has proposed 
a "Scioto Tradition" (12). This concept is based on the belief that there 
is a continuity of development in the Ohio Valley of basic Woodland 
character which is largely unknown due to absence of detectable living 
sites. This assumption is not accepted by all workers in the field. The term 
Scioto is unfortunate in that it includes southeastern Indiana, southern 
and central Ohio, north central and eastern Kentucky, and western West 
Virginia besides the focal Scioto River drainage of south central Ohio 
(16, p. 212 and Fig. 3, p. 218; 17, p. 137). A specific site name or, per- 
haps, an appropriate descriptive geographical term should have been chosen. 
The term Scioto Hopewell, rather than Ohio Hopewell, does have some geo- 
graphic plausibility though, in that the Scioto basin is the climax area, 
and manifestations of this development, though largely restricted to Ohio, 
do occur in some adjoining states. 


82 Indiana Academy of Science 

It is very dangerous to place time limits on archaeological units, but 
the beginnings of the Scioto Tradition appear around 2000 B.C. The tradi- 
tion is completely prehistoric, being displaced by Late Woodland and 
Mississippian populations, such as those of the Fort Ancient Tradition. 

Along with Scioto, there are a number of Woodland traditions in the 
eastern United States which in some stage of development manifest a 
strong cast of Hopewell ceremonialism (5, Fig. 3, p. 181). It is believed 
that Hopewell ceremonialism evolved within the Havana Tradition of 

Although Prufer has described "Scioto Hopewell" in various publica- 
tions, a set of traits defining the Scioto Tradition as a whole has yet to 
be put forth. In fact the literature suggests that Scioto Hopewell is 
confused with Scioto Tradition. Struever's map (16), for example, should 
read Scioto Hopewell for Scioto Tradition, and his definition of Scioto 
Tradition refers to Scioto Hopewell. It must be realized that Prufer's 
approach to this material has been from his initial interest in "Classic 
Hopewell" (11). The integrating feature of the tradition as perceived by 
Prufer appears to be cordmarked utilitarian pottery. Scioto can be con- 
trasted to the Havana Tradition by the presence of extensive ceremonial 
cremation and a deciduous forest setting. 

Table 1 represents a taxonomy of the Scioto Tradition, with units 
comparable to what Prufer calls phases, following procedures character- 
istically applied to the Southwest United States. These are essentially 
"generations of pottery makers" (6, p. 98), in river valleys. Local variants 
of what Prufer (13, p. 49), calls Early Middle, Late, and Latest 
[Scioto] "Hopewell" are, therefore, assumed to be components, though 
generic terms are not given. The table is not complete as regional phase 
sequences can probably also be established for the Miami and Muskingum 
drainages in Ohio. Selective explanation of phase terms proposed seems 
required. The most striking feature is the complete absence of the term 
Adena. Early Adena is replaced by Fayette, from Fayette Thick pottery 
(4). Robbins, from Dragoo's Robbins Complex (3, p. 269), has become the 
term for Middle and Late Adena. Fayette is too generalized to divide into 
phase units at this time. It differs from Munson's (7) Marion Culture of 
the Havana Tradition in that pottery is typically decorated by cordmark- 
ing, rather than by fabric impressing. Fayette and Marion pottery is quite 
thick. Michael J. Rodeffer (personal communication, 1972) is of the opinion 
that, on the basis of burial evidence, the dichotomy between Fayette and 
Robbins is not apparent in the Licking basin, and proposes a general Early 
Scioto Hartman Phase. The writer believes, though, that ceramic evidence 
will eventually indicate a division of this unit. Westenhaver, following 
Black's thinking (2, p. 301), is called Adena by Prufer (14, p. 130), and 
Charleston is called Adena by McMichael (10, p. 37-8). This writer is term- 
ing Prufer's Hopewell Phase McGraw (after Prufer's McGraw site) (14). 
New Castle, rather than Mounds or Anderson, is used for Indiana Middle 
Scioto because of the recorded presence of Hopewell pottery (18). Prufer's 
term Peters (14) seems preferable to Baby's Cole (1), since it is defined 
on the basis of pottery. An intrusive infant burial (8) was extracted from 
Earthwork Four, West Mound, at the New Castle site, indicating possible 



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84 Indiana Academy of Science 

evidence of Late Scioto occupation in east central Indiana. The term "Little 
Blue," from the nearby Little Blue River, is tentatively coined here to 
represent this manifestation and the phase it represents. Excluding the 
term Charleston, McMichael (10) is followed for Kanawha valley phases. 
McMichael's phrase Kanawha "Tradition" should be replaced with 
Kanawha Regional Sequence. 

Literature Cited 

1. Baby, Raymond S., and Martha A. Potter. 1965. The Cole Complex. 
Papers in Archeol., Ohio Hist. Soc, No. 2. Columbus, O. 7 p. 

2. Black, Glenn A. 1936. Excavation of the Nowlin Mound. Indiana Hist. 
Bull. 13:197-342. 

3. Dragoo, Don W. 1963. Mounds for the dead. Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 315 p. 

4. Griffin, James B. 1943. Adena "Village Site Pottery from Fayette County, 
Kentucky, p. 167-170. In W. S. Webb (ed.) The Riley Mound, Site Be-15 and the 
Landing Mound, Site Be-17, Boone County, Kentucky. Univ. Ky. Rep. Anthropol. 
Archaeoi. 5:580-672. 

5. 1967. Eastern North American archaeology: A summary. Science 


6. . 1971. Discussion of Edward V. McMichael, Adena-East, and appraisal 

of the more easterly extensions of the spread of the Adena Phenomenon, p. 97-99. 
In B. K. Swartz, Jr. (ed). The seeking of an identity. Ball State Univ., Muncie 
Ind. 182 p. 

7. Munson, Patrick J. 1966. The Sheets Site: A Late Archaic-Early Woodland 
occupation in West Central Illinois. Mich. Archaeoi. 12:109-20. 

8. McCrumb, Eleanor. 1966. Mound four intrusive burial, 9-10. In B. K. 
SwartZ, Jr. (ed.) Archaeolgical Report, No. 1. Ball State Univ. Muncie, Indiana. 
26 p. 

9. McKern, W. C. 1939. The midwestern taxonomic method as an aid to archaeological 
culture study. Amer. Antiq. 4:310-313. 

10. McMichael, Edward V., and Oscar Mairs. 1969. Excavation of the Murad 
Mound, Kanawha County, West Virginia. Rep. of Archaeoi. Invest., No. 1. West 
Va. Geol. and Econ. Surv., Morgantown, W. Va. 41 p. 

11. Prufer, Olaf H. 1961. The Hopewell Complex of Ohio. Unpublished Ph.D. 
Dissertation, Peabody Museum of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 2 Vols. 784 p. 

12. 1964a. The Hopewell cult. Sci. Amer. 211:90-102. 

13. 1964b. The Hopewell Complex of Ohio. In Joseph R. Caldwell and 

Robert L. Hall (eds.) Hopewellian Studies. 111. State Mus. Sci. Papers 12:35-83. 

14. 1965. The McGraw Site. A study in Hopewellian dynamics. Sci. Pub. 

Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist. 4:1-144. 

15. , and Orrin C. Shane, III. 1970. Blain Village and the Fort Ancient 

tradition in Ohio. Kent State Univ. Press, Kent, O. 280 p. 

16. Struever, Stuart, 1965. Middle Woodland culture history in the Great Lakes, 
riverine area. Amer. Antiq. 31:211-225. 

Anthropology 83 

17. Swartz, B. K., Jr. (ed). 1971. Adena: The seeking of an identity. Ball State 
Univ., Muncie, Ind. 182 p. 

18. 1971. Comments on the incomplete pottery vessel from east mound, 

earthwork four, New Castle Site, 8. In B. K. Swartz, Jr. (ed.) Archaeological 
Report No. 4, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 50 p. 

19. Willey, Gordon R., and Phillip Phillips. 1958. Method and theory in 
American archaeology. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 111. 270 p. 

Multivariate Analysis and Human Skeletal Populations 

Ralph W. Alexander, Jr. 

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 

Department of Anthropology 


The problems of determining the relationships of archeologically-derived human 
skeletal populations are discussed. Multivariate analysis is examined in terms of its 
statistical basis, its value as a tool in studies of human skeletal populations, and its 
development and history of application in anthropology. The specific technique of 
multiple-discriminant analysis and its application to problems of microevolutionary 
change is discusssed. 

One problem in studies of populations based on archeological sites 
is delimiting the population's boundaries. This may be done on the basis 
of grouping skeletal materials according to association with particular 
assemblages of artifactual materials. If different populations resemble 
one another in a number of diagnostic characteristics, they may be com- 
bined into larger groupings. Temporal boundaries are established with 
the aid of analysis of differences found in cultural materials at different 
stratigraphic levels, and from the dating of specific periods in the overall 
complex. Both temporal and spatial delimitation provide the framework 
for the establishment of relationships of the population. The remains of 
a specific culture are assumed to constitute an intrabreeding population 
which may be characterized by a cluster of characteristics and form a 
recognizeable stabilized entity, whose pattern of variation is known. Only 
after analyzing the physical characteristics of the available remains and 
comparing the results with other delimitable populations can particular 
samples be identified as having a certain likelihood of relationship with 
a particular archeological population or well-defined tribal grouping. Since 
one purpose of many studies is the selection, identification, and evaluation 
of traits having diagnostic phyletic significance for the samples involved, 
attention must be given to the selection of traits that have historic mean- 
ing at a particular level of differentiation. The premise is that these traits, 
and functional combinations of them, will best reflect the genetic con- 
tinuity of the populations in accord with other evidence. Once traits have 
been identified, the populations may be compared to a number of other 
series. It should be emphasized that combinations of traits rather than 
individual traits, whether continuous or discontinuous in nature, serve 
to delimit and identify a group. 

Of the characteristics which can be studied in prehistoric bone 
material, little is known of the specific genetic factors involved. Despite 
this limitation, in almost every case nothing else remains of the biology 
of early man, and as much reliable and useful information as possible must 
be obtained. It is apparent from the nature of the patterns of distribution 
of the values of the measurements and observations that these traits are 
polygenic in nature. Although the genetic and environmental components 


Anthropology 87 

are not presently quantifiable, this variation is in no way detrimental 
to the use of these traits for comparative purposes; it is rather the nature 
of varietal groupings to exhibit a degree of overlapping in their character- 
istics, and the statistical methods employed in descriptive and inductive 
presentations in general make use of, assess, and in fact require this varia- 
tion for their proper application. Indicial traits, demonstrating an absolute 
relationship of proportion between two measurements, may be employed 
along with measurements and observations. Change on a varietal level 
may occur in the form of an overall reduction or increase in gross size, 
with the form of the cranial proportions remaining constant. This has 
been demonstrated for Amerind varietal groups (1), and may reveal 
relationships that are not obvious from measurements alone. 

In an analysis that deals with relationships and similarities of human 
skeletal populations it is appropriate to use a tool such as multivariate 
analysis, which considers the total physical variation present, and assesses 
the relative contributions of each variable in distinguishing between 
groups. A condition which must be met for such an analysis is that the 
same kinds of data be collected for all individuals of all groups under 
consideration. Assumptions which must be made are that the various 
samples have a multivariate-normal distribution, a common dispersion 
matrix, and a linear correlation between variables. A multivariate analysis 
is characterized by its consideration of a number of characteristics simul- 
taneously in assessing the relationships or discriminating traits between 
two-or-more groups or sample series. The important distinction of this 
statistical approach is that the totality of biological variables are con- 
sidered in combination, as systems. The interrelationship of all the 
morphological characteristics of the individual and the relative signifi- 
cance of each variable is considered. The significance for evolutionary 
change of individual traits can only be assessed in terms of their relation- 
ships to other traits. All biological characteristics interact. A bone or a 
tooth or a skull is a unit, and should be dealt with as such rather than 
as an assembly of individual traits. Bronowski and Long (4) said that 
the correct statistical method for the study of discrimination in anthro- 
pology must treat the set of variables as a single coherent matrix, a 
capsule summary of the multiple-discriminant technique. The individual 
is preserved as a vector of all his characteristics, taken together with all 
they convey as to size and shape by both absolute magnitude and by 
covariation. The relative contribution of each variable in discriminating 
between groups is assessed, and "weights" are assigned accordingly. 
Therefore, only what is really significant in the particular comparison 
is utilized, and exactly which variables are important and in what magni- 
tude is brought out by the technique. The technique deals with the possi- 
bility of a particular variable, which in itself is not a good discriminator 
between groups, emerging as highly valuable when taken in combination 
with other variables. 

The amount of calculation involved in this type of analysis has severely 
limited its use of anthropology until recently; a computer is a necessity. 
Pearson's "coefficient of racial likeness" or C 2 was one of the earliest 
statistics to utilize multiple measurements, and was a test of the statistical 

88 Indiana Academy of Science 

significance of difference between populations rather than a true measure 
of biological distance. This statistic was later revised to be a measure of 
biological distance, and to handle intercorrelations. Mahalanobis (9) 
developed a still useful statistic referred to as D 2 , or the generalized 
distance statistic. The D 2 procedure measures the extent and direction 
of morphological separation between groups, and makes possible an 
analysis of relationships between continuous variables, discounting the 
correlation existing between them. Fisher (7) considered D 2 as the best 
available statistic for estimating biological similarities and differences 
between groups. In 1936, the concept of discriminant function analysis 
was introduced by Fisher, a new method of testing significance for 
multiple measurements. A procedure was devised for estimating test 
weights in such a way that a linear combination of the weighted scores 
(called discriminant function coefficients) would provide a maximum 
discrimination between groups of individuals. The compounded measure- 
ments maximize the variation between groups, relative to the variation 
within groups. The use of multiple-discriminant analysis in anthropo- 
logical research is only now becoming common, and is not as yet 
widespread. With the increasing availability of computer facilities the 
calculation necessary for its application will become less of a problem. 
A number of investigators have employed it in research of an anthropo- 
logical nature (3,8,10). Fortran computer programs for multiple- 
discriminant analysis are available (5,6). Dixon's BMD 04M program 
computes means of the variables for each group and the mean difference, 
variance-covariance matrix, inverse of the variance-covariance matrix, 
discriminant function coefficients, Mahalanobis' D 2 and associated F sta- 
tistics, and the discriminant scores for the groups with their means, vari- 
ances, and standard deviations. Scaled vector values to show the relative 
contributions of the variables to each function may be obtained from 
the Fortran V program Multivariate Discriminant Analysis (2). Scaled 
vector values are discriminant function coefficients computed after 
standardization of variables, and give an accurate picture of the relative 
contributions of the particular measurements or indices contributing to 
discrimination. In applications of the method to hybridization or classifica- 
tory studies, a high scaled vector value indicates a major contribution 
to group separation, or a low relative similarity between groups for the 
particular variable. A low scaled vector value indicates that the variable 
does not contribute greatly to group separation, and is a biological feature 
which has not changed between, for example, a hypothetical ancestral 
population and a hybridized descendant group. A "morphological score" 
is computed for each individual hybrid skull on the basis of the discrimi- 
nant function coefficients obtained from the comparison with potential 
ancestral or contributor series. The biological position of each individual 
is assessed, in addition to the relationships between the series considered 
as units. The relative contributions of each series, with respect to each 
variable used, is obtained. In classificatory studies, the position of each 
individual may be assessed and the specific factors accounting for this 
position identified. An initial set of variables may be reduced to a smaller 
number of variables for further studies, and the overall direction of 
morphological trends in the samples obtained. 

Anthropology 89 

Since in a multivariate analysis it is possible to treat a skull as a unit, 
rather than as a series of single traits, and to compare these traits in 
population terms, inter-related measurements likely to bring out aspects 
of size and shape characterizing populations should perhaps be the goal 
in mind. Characteristics which would be useful in characterizing popula- 
tions may be identified which are not at all those which have been 
traditionally used in univariate skeletal comparisons. In this regard, 
there is much need for continued experimentation. 

Literature Cited 

1. Alexander, R. W. Jr., and G. K. Nemuann. 1969. On the origin of the 
Tutelo-an Eastern Siouan tribe. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 78:88-92. 

2. Alexander, R. W. Jr. 1971. Multi-t-test and multiple discriminant analysis, p. 
69-70. In S. A. West (ed.) Directory of computer programs for anthropologists. 
W. Mich. Univ., Kalamazoo, Mich. 71 p. 

3. 1971. The hybrid origin of the Arikara Indian of the Great Plains. Un- 
published Ph.D. Dissertation. Indiana University. 233 p. 

4. Bronowski, J., and W. M. Long. 1952. Statistics of discrimination in 
anthropology. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 10:385-394. 

5. Cooley, W. W., and P. R. Lohnes. 1962. Multivariate procedures for the 
behavioral sciences. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N. Y. 211 p. 

6. Dixon, W. J. 1964. Biomedical computer programs. Health Sciences Computing 
Facility, Univ. Cal. Press, Los Angeles, Cal. 620 p. 

7. Fisher, R. A. 1936. The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems. 
Annu. Eugen. 7:179-188. 

8. Howells, W. W., and J. M. Crichton. 1966. Craniometry and multivariate 
analysis. Papers, Peabody Mus. Cambridge, Mass. 67 p. 

9. Mahalanobis, P. C. 1930. On tests and measures of group divergence, 
theoretical formulae. J. Asian Soc. Bengal. 26:541-588. 

10. Rightmire, G. P. 1970. Iron age skulls from southern Africa re-assessed by 
multiple discriminant analysis. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 33:147-167. 


Chairman: James R. Rees, Anderson College, Anderson, Indiana 46011 

Willard F. Yates, Jr., Department of Botany, Butler University 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46208, was elected Chairman for 1972 


Inorganic Arsenate as a Tool for Genetic and Biochemical Analysis of 
Photosynthetic Metabolism in Algae. Robert K. Togasaki and 
Margaret 0. Hudock, Department of Botany, Indiana University, Bloom- 

ington 47401.- Wild type cells of C hlamydomonas reinhardi were grown 

on acetate supplemented agar plates, containing varied concentrations 
of inorganic arsenate, and the number of surviving colonies were scored. 
The concentration of arsenate required to inhibit growth was lower in 
the light than in the dark. Addition of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) 1-1,1- 
dimethylurea, or DCMU, to the solid medium decreased the cell's sensi- 
tivity towards arsenate in the light, but did not affect sensitivity in the 
dark. Several mutant strains, each carrying a specific defect in its photo- 
synthetic apparatus, were tested for their response towards arsenate, 
and all were found to be more resistant in the light than wild type cells. 
The potential application of this system to genetic analysis of 
photosynthesis, and also some possible explanations for the observed 
phenomena was discussed. 

The "Liquid" Endosperm of Grasses. Paul Weatherwax, Department 
of Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington 47401.— A few species 
of Gramineae have an endosperm which remains soft and plastic even 
after the seeds have been stored dry for many years. The cell walls are 
thin and fragile, and the stored food consists of what seems to be a fatty 
matrix surrounding the nucleus and numerous minute starch grains. This 
type of endosperm is distributed in such an erratic way in the grass family 
that thus far it seems to have very little taxonomic significance. 

The Dichotomous Dilemma. Arthur T. Guard, Department of Biological 
Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907.— — -Very early in 
the history of plant morphology, the growing apex of multicellular plants 
became recognized as a focal point of interest. The final form of the plant 
is very largely determined by the development of this apex and the 
appendages which it produces. The biochemical compounds which so 
profoundly affect the plant's development often originate in this area. 

In view of these facts, it is indeed surprising that one finds such 
confusing and conflicting usage of the term, "dichotomous branching", 
in the descriptions of apical growth and development. This paper presented 
some of the observable forms of apical branching and how the term has 
been used in reference to these forms. 

A Comparison of Modern and Cretaceous Sassafras Leaves. Ronald A. 
Riepe and David L. Dilcher, Department of Botany, Indiana Uni- 
versity, Bloomington 47401. A study was undertaken to reevaluate 

the fossil record of Sassafras using a comparison of leaf form and fine 


92 Indiana Academy of Science 

venation of modern and fossil material. Sassafras, a monotypic genus 
which has been identified early in the fossil record of angiosperms, has 
leaves that are entire, asymmetrically bilobed, or trilobed, but may possess 
up to six lobes (Berry, 1902). The form of the lobes and sinuses may be 
extremely variable. Berry stated that the venation of the basal portion 
of the blade was a constant character which could be used to differentiate 
Sassafras from Aralia, Cissites, and Platanus. The distinctive marginal 
vein pattern of Sassafras may also be used in classification, however this 
character could be obliterated easily or overlooked in fossil forms. Ward 
(1887) pointed out the remarkable character of the marginal veins of 
the sinuses in modern leaves. Lesquereaux (1892) wrote of many of his 
identifications of leaf remains from the Dakota Group with some uncer- 
tainty. By 1902, twenty-eight American forms of Sassafras had been 
published. Berry retained only six forms in the genus Sassafras, referring 
others to Aralia, Cissites and Platanus. The leaf form and venation 
characters of Sassafras have been reevaluated and applied to the fossil 

Structure of Glandular Hairs of Marihuana. Charles T. Hammond and 
Paul G. Mahlberg, Department of Botany, Indiana University, Bloom- 

ington 47401. Glandular hairs on the bracts of pistillate flowers of 

marihuana (Cannabis sativa L.) were viewed with the aid of light, 
electron tramission, and electron scanning microscopy. Three morpho- 
logically distinct types of glandular hairs occur on bracts: bulbous, 
capitate-stalked, and capitate-sessile. Bulbous glandular hairs, which are 
small and composed of only a few cells, consist of a globular head of one 
to several cells positioned on a basal cell or cells. Capitate glandular hairs, 
whether stalked or sessile, have a flattened multicellular cap composed 
of 8 to 13 cells which are covered by an abundant secretory product. The 
secretory product accumulates beneath a membranous sheath which is 
derived from the outer surface of the cap cells. Maturing cap cells have 
a large central vacuole with a very dense peripheral cytoplasm. The cyto- 
plasm contains dictyosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and plastids with 
crystaline inclusions. Large pores in the walls between neighboring cells 
contribute to the formation of a continuous protoplast in the cap. The 
possible association of capitate glandular hairs with production and/or 
localization of the hallucinogen tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was discussed. 

Chromic Acid as a Selective Stain for Laticifers in Vinca rosea. LARRY 
R. Yoder and Paul G. Mahlberg, Department of Botany, Indiana Uni- 
versity, Bloomington 47401. A mixture of equal parts of 10% chromic 

acid and 10% nitric acid added to living tissues of Vinca rosea causes some 
cells to turn bright red within a few minutes. Acidified chromate and 
dichromate salts produce the same effect indicating the dichromate anion 
as the reactant. Reacting cells included occasional parenchyma cells in 
the pith, stem cortex and root cortex along with laticifers in all parts 
of the plant. Use of this staining procedure permitted delineation of 
Vinca's entire non-articulated, unbranched laticifer system with a mini- 
mum of preparation. Some coloration appears if latex exudes directly into 
the reagent, but no reaction occurs if latex stands 30 to 60 seconds. 
Staining only occurs when living cells are treated and the coloration fades 
after 10 to 15 minutes and cannot be restored. Tissues which have been 

Botany 93 

frozen, fried, heated above 55 degrees Centrigrade, or treated with an fix- 
ative are unreactive. The same cells vitally stain with neutral red and 
toluidine blue indicating a low pH and possible lysosomal activity. Al- 
though the reaction is not common to all latex-bearing plants, coloration 
does appear in laticifers of Vinco minor, Plumeria, Asclepias and some 
euphorbias. The reaction is postulated to be dependent upon a lower pH 
in these specialized cells, and any treatment which interferes with main- 
tenance of this acid condition also blocks the reaction with chromic acid. 
The precise nature of this reaction is yet to be determined. 

The Terminal Inflorescence of the Maize Mutant Tassel seed-2. C. L. 

Gehring, Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre 
Haute, Indiana 47809, and S. N. Postlethwait, Department of Biological 
Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. — —A morpho- 
logical and histological examination of developmental changes in the 
terminal inflorescence of the maize mutant, Tassel seed-2 was conducted. 
Plants were grown in environmental control chambers under the 
conditions: 80 degrees Fahrenheit during 16 hours of artificial light 
(flourescent and incandescent) and 65 degrees during an 8-hour dark 

Two plants a day were removed from the growth chamber starting 
19 days after planting and terminating 67 days after planting. Examina- 
tion of these plants revealed that the sequence of development and 
arrangement of floral structures are similar to comparable structures 
in normal maize. Primordia for both pistillate and staminate flowers are 
initiated in all flowers. However, in tassels which develop functional 
pistaillate flowers, the staminate primordia abort. Pistillate primordia 
abort in the tassels which develop functional staminate flowers. 

One hundred and nine days after planting, 28 plants were harvested; 
16 plants had 100% pistillate tassels and they averaged 560.6 silks per 
tassel and 12 plants had completely staminate tassels which averaged 
281.3 stamens per tassel. 

A Review of the Fossil Apocynaceae from the Eocene of Western Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky. Gary E. Dolph, Department of Botany, Bloom- 

ington 47401. Fossil leaves similar to those described by Berry in 

the form genus Apocynophyllwn were collected from the Claiborne Forma- 
tion (Middle Eocene) of western Tennessee and Kentucky. Fossil material 
representing three of Berry's original eleven species of Apocynophyllum 
— A mississippiense, A. crassum, and A. wilcoxense — was found. Fossil 
leaves of A. mississippiense, a species characterized megascopically by 
closely spaced major lateral veins and a broadly alate petiole, were divided 
into two groups based on the presence or absence of cuticular flanges on 
the abaxial cuticle. In addition, two previously undescribed leaf types 
which also possessed alate petioles were distinguished from A. mississip- 
piense. The first showed a much greater spacing between the major lateral 
veins than A. mississippiense but yielded no cuticle. The second, whose 
gross morphological features (except for the alate petiole) were totally 
distorted, yielded a cuticle which lacked the trichome bases characteristic 
of A. mississippiense. Apocynophyllum crassum has a broad petiole that 

94 Indiana Academy of Science 

is woody throughout and not alate as in A. mississippiense. In the preced- 
ing four leaf types where cuticle has been isolated, the paracytic accessory 
cell arrangement common to some extant members of the Apocynaceae 
was found. Although a superficial resemblence exists with regard to acces- 
sory cell arrangement, differences between the morphological character- 
istics of the fossil leaf types and that of the extant members of the 
Apocynaceae precludes the assignment of the fossil material to any extant 
genus of the Apocynaceae. Fossil leaves, whose closely spaced, subparallel 
major lateral veins terminate in a distinct marginal vein, were divided 
by Berry among A. wilcoxense and select fossil species of Ficus and 
Myrcia. Upon examination, only one leaf type characterized by internal 
mucilaginous cavities was discerned. Internal mucilaginous cavities are 
not characteristic of the Apocynaceae or Moraceae but are found in the 

Revaluation of Engelhardia of the Eocene of Southeastern United States. 

Frank W. Potter, Jr., and David L. Dilcher, Department of Botany, 

Indiana University, Bloomington 47401. Several species of fossil 

fruits, leaves and pollen from the Eocene of southeastern United States 
have been assigned to the genus Engelhardia. Recent examination of 
modern representatives of Old and New World sections indicates sufficient 
diversity to warrant segregating the New World members into the genus 
Oreomunnea. Two fruits of E. puryearensis Berry were obtained from 
the Puryear clay pit, Puryear, Tennessee; both specimens are impressions 
of the three anterior lobes. No fourth posterior lobe is present. The an- 
terior wings of the fossil show venation patterns similar to the New World 
group, particularly O. mexicana. Based on the fruits, E. puryearensis is 
more closely aligned to Central American populations than Asiatic taxa. 
Other Engelhardia fruits reported by Berry suggest the presence of both 
genera in the southeastern United States during the Eocene. Modern 
pollen is not sufficiently distinctive to conclusively separate New and Old 
world sections. To date, no fossil leaves have been obtained that can be 
assigned to either the genus Engelhardia or Oreomunnea, although the 
two extant genera show distinct morphological and cuticular differences. 
The presence of leaves could be important foi determining the relation- 
ship of the fruits to Engelhardia and/or Oreomunnea. 

Middle Eocene Sabaloid Palms. C. P. Daghlian and D. L. Dilcher, 

Department of Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington 47401. E. 

W. Berry reported three palm types from the middle Eocene clay deposits 
of western Kentucky and Tennessee. Two of these were pinnately com- 
pound types. The third being palmately compound. The palmate palm 
fossils in the Indiana Paleobotanical collection from the same sediments 
suggest that there are more than one genus and species of palmately 
compound palm leaf fossils. Berry's specimens of Sabalites grayanus, were 
identified primarily on the basis of gross features, leaflet distribution 
and venation. A detailed study of the palm material from the Indiana 
University collection is in progress and a thorough examination of fine 
features, particularly cuticular characteristics, as well as gross features 
has indicated that there are clearly two and perhaps three kinds of 
pramately compound palm leaf fossils rather than the one that Berry 

Botany 95 

reported. The first group has been identified as a member of the genus 
Sabal indicating that it was a clearly defined group as early as the middle 
Eocene. These palms are large, costa-palmate leaf fragments similar to 
modern sabals such as S. texana. The second group is comprised of palmate 
leaf fragments of Sabalites grayanus but contains two subgroups. Those 
show differences in venation and the pattern of their stomatal apparatus. 
These findings are important because they show a greater diversity of 
palms in the flora of these middle Eocene sediments. 

Cell Wall Regeneration Around Protoplasts Isolated from Convolvulus 
arvensis Tissue Culture. Randall K. Horine, Department of Biology, 
Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 47374, and Albert W. Ruesink, 

Department of Botany, Indiana, University, Bloomington 47401. 

Protoplasts of Convolvulus arvensis L. tissue culture regenerated a wall- 
like structure within 3 days in culture. Although unusually electron dense 
and atypically amorphous in the electron microscope, this structure could 
be digested with cellulase but was resistant to protease, pectinase, and 
/3-1,3-glucanase just like the original wall. A cytochemical test for callose 
was negative. Wall regeneration required a readily metabolized external 
carbon source and was not inhibited by a high concentration of cyclo- 
heximide, puromycin, or actinomycin D, suggesting that stable, long-lived 
protein or messenger RNA is involved in its synthesis. Protoplast budding 
was correlated with the wall regeneration and the latter was related 
quantitatively to the sucrose concentration in the medium. Auxin (2,4- 
D) neither promoted nor inhibited wall regeneration at any concentration. 
Culturing protoplasts in the presence of proteolytic enzymes decreased 
their ability to undergo cell wall regeneration, although the concentration 
required was so high as to suggest that the proteins involved must be 
at least partially buried in the plasma membrane. 

Initiation of Callus Tissue of Abies concolor (White Fir) by 
Tissue Culture Techniques 

Richard W. Olsen and Arthur L. Eiser 
Department of Biology 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 


Callus tissue of Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl. was initiated from 
inocula prepared from terminal stem tissue on a modified Winton medium containing 
basis salts, organic nutrients, growth regulators and a stem extract of Abies concolor. 
Under controlled environmental conditions, the callus has grown and has been main- 
tained through subsequent subculture for ten months. 


Culturing of gymnosperm tissues under aseptic conditions has been 
difficult to achieve. Approximately 27 gymnosperm species have been 
successfully cultured, however (1-13). Among these 27 is grand fir (Abies 
grandis) the only representative of the genus Abies to have been success- 
fully cultured to date (6). 

We now report the initiation of callus tissue from stem tissue of 
mature Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl. trees. 

Materials and Methods 

The inocula used in this study were obtained from branches (which 
were less than 3 m above the ground level) of mature Abies concolor 
trees. Terminal stem sections approximately 10 cm long and consisting 
of the current year's growth were used; before taking, each stem section 
was sprayed with 70% ethyl alcohol. Cuts were made with sterile scalpels. 
After making the cut, the basal end of each stem section was sprayed with 
70% ethyl alcohol and placed in a separate, unused, plastic bag and the 
opening of the bag was fastened securely. 

In the laboratory, one stem section at a time was removed from its 
plastic bag and immersed in a shallow container of 70% ethyl alcohol. 
While immersed in the alcohol, all the needles were removed with a scalpel 
at their junction with the stem. Each de-needled stem section was trans- 
ferred to a dry, sterlized, 500 ml Ehrlenmeyer flask equipped with a screw 
cap. After the stem sections were de-needled and placed in the flask, 250 
ml of fresh, household bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) were added, 
along with 2 drops of Tween 20 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate) , 
a wetting agent used as a surfacant. The flask was agitated frequently 
during the 10-minute interval that the stem sections were sterilized. The 
bleach was decanted, and the stem sections were rinsed 3 times with 
sterile, distilled water. The sterilized portions of stems were cut into sec- 
tions approximately 8-10 mm in length. The end sections were discarded, 
while the others were inserted, basal end up, in 25 ml of an agar nutrient 
medium in 20 x 100 mm petri dishes. 


Results and Conclusions 


Callus was successfully initiated and maintained on a modification 
of Winton's medium for triploid quaking aspen (14-17). Winton's medium 
was modified by the addition of gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, naphtha- 
leneacetic acid, ascorbic acid, L-glutamine, myostatin (a fungicide), and 
a stem extract of Abies coneolor. On this undefined medium (Table 1), 
cell proliferation occurred within 14 days while the plates were being 
maintained in the dark in an incubator at 27.5 ± 2° C under satur- 

Table 1. Undefined medium for initiating and maintaining Abies coneolor callus. 







MgS0 4 .7H 2 




Na 2 S0 4 




Ca(NO s ) 2 


2 5 4D 


KN0 3 








NaH 2 P0 4 .H 2 






gibberellic acid 


MnS0 4 


Indoleacetic acid 

ZnSO r 7H a O 


naphthaleneacetic acid 


H 3 B0 3 


ascorbic acid 






nicotinic acid 






Abies coneolor 
stem extract 

85.0 1 ' 2 - 8 


2 The stem extract was prepared by adding 150 g of terminal stem sections of the 
current year's growth of Abies coneolor to 50 ml of distilled water; pulverizing for 15 
min at high speed in a Waring Blender; and suction filtering and collecting the liquid 


3 pH of medium was adjusted to 5.7 with 0.1N NH.OH. 

ated humidity conditions. Figure 1 shows the small mound of callus which 
formed on representative inocula after 42 days of growth. At 42 days the 
callus tissue was transferred to fresh medium where it continued to grow 
and, thereafter, was subcultured every 21 days. Figure 2 shows a repre- 
sentative mound of callus tissue after 90 days. Cells on the surface of 
tissue this age are still near white, but basal cells are reddish-brown. The 
pigmentation in the older cells did not appear to hinder the proliferation 
of Abies coneolor callus since the callus has been subcultured and main- 
tained for 10 months. Harvey and Grasham (6) also reported pigmentation 

Indiana Academy of Science 


12 3 4 

Figure 1. Abies concolor callus at 42 days (top). 
Figure 2. Abies concolor callus at 90 days, (bottom) 

in the callus of Abies grandis, but it lost its vigor by the end of 90 days. 
Further study with the established Abies concolor callus is now in 
progress; parameters being investigated are growth rate, minimal 
nutrient medium, effects of varying photoperiod, and callus differentia- 
tion and maturation. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ball, E. 1950. Differentiation in a callus culture of Sequoia sempervirens. 
Growtb 14:295-325. 

2. Barnes, R. L., and A. W. Naylor. 1958. Culture of pine root callus and the 
use of Pinus clausa callus in preliminary metabolic studies. Bot. Gaz. 120 :63-66. 

3. Brown, C. L., and R. H. Lawrence. 1968. Culture of pine callus on a 
defined medium. Forest Sci. 14 :62-64. 

4. Gautheret, R. J. 1959. La Culture des Tissus Vegetaux. Mason et Cie, Paris. 863 

5. Harvey, A. E. 1967. Tissue culture of Pinus monticola on a chemically defined 
medium. Can. J. Bot. 45:1783-1787. 

6. , and J. L. Grasham. 1969. Procedures and media for obtaining 

tissue cultures of 12 conifer species. Can. J. Bot. 47 :547-549. 

Botany 99 

7. Hotson, H., and V. Cutter. 1951. The isolation and culture of Gymnosporangium 
juniperi-virginianae upon artificial media. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U. S. 

8. Konar, R. N. 1963. Studies on submerged callus culture of Pinus gerardiana Wall. 
Phytomorphology 13 :165-169. 

9. Loewenberg, J., and F. Skoog. 1952. Pine tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 


10. Reinert, J., and P. White. 1956. The cultivation in vitro of tumor tissues and 
normal tissues of Picea glauca. Physiol. Plant. 9:177-189. 

11. Tulecke, W. 1959. Arginine-requiring strains of tissue obtained from Ginkgo 
pollen. Plant Physiol. 35:19-24. 

12. Walkinshaw, C. H., F. F. Jewell, and N. M. Walker. 1965. Callus culture 
of fusiform rust-infested slash pine. Plant Dis. Rep. 49 :616-618. 

13. White, P. R. 1943. Handbook of plant tissue culture. Cattel and Company, 
Lancaster, Pa. 277 p. 

14. Winton, L. L. 1968. Initiation of friable aspen callus under different light 
environments. Phyton 25 :23-28. 

15. . 1968. Plantlets from aspen tissue culture. Science 160:1234-1235. 

16. 1968. The initiation of friable aspen callus. Phyton 25:15-21. 

17. — . 1968. The rooting of liquid-growth aspen callus. Amer. J. Bot. 55:159-167. 


Chairman : William J. Griffin, Eli Lilly and Company^ 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Charles W. Goff, Life Sciences Department^ Indiana State 
University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809, was elected Chairman 

for 1972 


Electron Microscopic Study of Anaplasma marginal by Negative Staining. 
F. Padgett and W. A. Summers, Department of Microbiology, Indiana 
University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46207. — —Studies of the 
morphologic features and reproduction of the initial bodies of Anaplasma 
marginale were done by the negative contrast (phosphotungstic acid) 
technique of unfixed, dehemoglobinized, infected bovine erythrocytes. The 
internal structure appeared to be organized as a coiled, tubular, or ribbon- 
like structure. The reproduction process, reconstructed from observation 
of static preparations, began with the formation of a "budlike" structure 
in the initial body. 

Growth Cycle of Penicillium chrysogenum Virus. L. F. Ellis and 
R. J. Douthart, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46206.— 
Pennicillium chrysogenum was grown in stainless steel fermenters with 
continuous agitation and aeration. During the fermentation aliquots were 
withdrawn and were centrifuged to harvest the cells. Either the virus 
particles of the double stranded RNA (dsRNA) was isolated from these 
cells. The amount of dsRNA per gram of mycelia increases until approxi- 
mately 60 hours incubation and then declines. Physical and biological 
properties suggest this dsRNA is of viral origin. Other aspects of this 
virus were discussed. 

Toxic Response of Mice to a DDT Diet, Its Supression by Feeding and 
the Effect of Estrogen. Dorothy A. Werderitsh, D. Shelton, C. 
Swan, C.-M. Haun, W. Yunghans and D. J. Morre, Department of 
Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 
——Mice, 4 to 5 weeks old, of the C3H/HeJ strain or from the Purdue 
University colony received ad libitum water and laboratory chow to which 
corn oil (1:10, weight/ weight) was added. For those animals receiving 
DDT, technical grade DDT (1, 1, l-trichloro-2 2-his (p-chlorophenyl) 
ethane) was added to the corn oil to give a final concentration of 900 
parts per million DDT in the total diet. Overt signs of DDT toxicity ap- 
peared as early as the 5th day after DDT feed was offered. Most of the 
animals died within 3 days after the onset of severe symptom development. 
If the animals were withdrawn from the DDT feed and presented with 
control feed in the initial stages of tremor development, they recovered 
within 8 to 12 hours and exhibited normal behavior. Yet, if animals 
previously receiving DDT feed were fasted to starvation levels several 
weeks later, symptoms of DDT toxicity reappeared. Control animals fasted 
to the same weight levels did not develop tremors or other overt signs of 
DDT toxicity. It was not possible to prevent, reverse or significantly delay 


102 Indiana Academy of Science 

the toxic response to DDT by administration of estrogen (subcutaneous 
injection of 5 micrograms estradiol cyclopentylpropionate in 100 micro- 
liters corn oil per animal). Apparently, a significant factor in effecting 
recovery of the animals from DDT toxicity is the removal of the source 
of the DDT and offering of a normal diet to reestablish a pattern of 
weight gain and caloric balance. 

NADH Dehydrogenase Activity of Golgi Apparatus from Rat Liver. 

C. M. Huang, D. J. Morre, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 
and T. W. Keenan, Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Highly purified rat liver Golgi apparatus 

(GA) fractions exhibited NADH dehydrogenase of specific activity 
approximately one-fourth that observed with endoplasmic reticulum (ER). 
With exogenous cytochrome c as electron acceptor, apparent Km's for 
NADH were 6.17 and 6.09 ^M for GA and ER, respectively. The activity 
in both membrane fractions was insensitive to rotenone and Pieridine 
A, potent inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase. With ferri- 
cyanide as acceptor, the apparent Km for ferricyanide was 26.7 ^M for 
both ER and GA and excess of substrate inhibited activity with both 
membrane fractions. Maximal velocities for the NADH-ferricyanide reduc- 
tase were 3.44 and 1.44 ^M NADH oxidized/min/mg protein for ER and 
GA, respectively. 

The high degree of similarity of these activities comparing ER and 
GA suggest that they are catalyzed by the same enzyme present in both 
membrane fractions. The results support the hypothesis that membrane 
material derived directly from ER is utilized for formation of GA cisterna. 

Golgi Apparatus-Medicated Cytomembrane Differentiation in Rat and 
Bovine Mammary Gland. T. W. Keenan, Department of Animal Sciences, 
and C. M. Huang and D. J. Morre, Department of Botany and Plant 

Pathology, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Golgi 

apparatus (GA), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane 
(PM) fractions were isolated in highly purified form from both rat and 
bovine mammary glands and subjected to compositional analysis. Included 
in the analysis was the milk fat globule membrane (GM), a membrane 
which is derived directly from the secretory cell plasma membrane. With 
regard to lipid composition, GA was intermediate between ER at one 
extreme and the PM and GM at the other with regard to levels of total 
lipid phosphorus, phosphatidyl choline, sphingomyelin, cerebiosides and 
cholestrol. Fatty acid composition of GA polar lipids was intermediate 
between ER and PM. Polar lipids of ER contained higher levels of unsatur- 
ated fatty acids whereas PM and GM contained higher levels of saturated 
fatty acids. 

Levels of membrane protein-bound sialic acid were lowest in ER, 
intermediate in GA and highest in PM and GM. Salt-washed ER, GA, PM 
and GM membranes displayed several protein bands with identical electro- 
phoretic mobilities. Golgi apparatus was also intermediate between ER 
and the PM and GM with respect to specific activities of the enzymes 
NADH dehydrogenase, 5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine triphosphatase. 

Cell Biology 103 

These results are compatible with the hypothesis of GA-mediated 
cytomembrane differentiation. Further, they confirm previous results 
obtained with rat liver cytomembranes and extend them to another cell 
type with different secretory functions, 

Ultrastructure of Green Plastids in Leaves of Genetic Albino Tobacco. 

Anne A. Susalla and Paul G. Mahlberg, Department of Botany, Indi- 
ana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401.— Genetic green and albino 
tobacco seedlings were grown on agar with defined nutrients, growth sub- 
stances and light conditions. Albino plants developed patches of green 
on the first and succeeding leaves even though the cotyledons were always 
white. In later stages of growth, these plants became highly variegated 
with some approaching the phenotype of normal green plants. In ultra- 
structural studies, some mutant-green plastids of the albino plants have 
grana that are massive in size with many appressed thylakoids and 
irregular margins. Other plastids are large with tapered margins to give 
a spindle effect while a few have only scattered thylakoids. Osmiophilic 
globules and DNA-like fibrils are present in the stroma. Starch is evident 
but photosynthetic activity is yet to be determined. 

Use of the Scanning Electron Microscope in the Investigation of Cardiac 
and Pulmonary Tissue. Shirley Siew, Indiana University School of 

Medicine, Indianapolis 46202. -Scanning electron microscopic studies 

were performed on both fresh biopsy and autopsy specimens of cardiac 
and pulmonary tissue. The fresh material was obtained at open heart 
surgery and was fixed in Muir's paraformaldehyde electron microscopy 
fixative. After fixation, it was processed by three different methods for 
scanning electron microscopy : 

1) placed in glycerine overnight 

2) post-fixed in osmic acid and then placed in propylene glycol 

3) treated with acetone 

The specimens were then coated with gold under vacuum and were 
examined in a Cambridge Stereoscan Microscope. Chronic rheumatic aortic 
and mitral valves, papillary muscle and a biopsy of the left lingula were 
examined. The autopsy material comprised cardiac valves and lung. The 
latter was fixed under inflation. The best results were obtained in studies 
of valvular and pulmonary tissue by means of the second method. It was 
concluded that the scanning electron microscope will prove of value in 
the investigation of valvular and pulmonary disease. 

Ultrastructure of Mouse Heart Cell Culture. G. B. Boder and L. F. Ellis, 
The Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, 

Indiana 46206. Newborn mouse ventricles were dispersed by short 

treatment with collagenase. Cultures derived by this method have a high 
proportion of beating cells which attach to collagen, glass or plastic within 
a few hours of isolation. Beating cells have been maintained in sterile 
culture in the absence of antibiotics for as long as 6 months and remain 
responsive to hormones. A photoelectric recording system was developed 
which is capable of measuring the rate and amplitude of contractions of 
a single myocardial cell or a colony of myocardial cells. The effects of 

104 Indiana Academy of Science 

drugs on these cells was reported in 1971 by Boder et al. (Nature 231: 
531-532). We have been studying the ultrastructure of the cultured cells. 

This report compared the cultured cells to those of the intact myo- 
cardial tissue. Myofibrial filaments were observed in the cell cultures. 

Ultrastructures of Neuronal Lipofuscin and Ceroid. Itaru Watanabe, 
Vimal Patel, and Wolfgang Zeman 1 , Department of Pathology, 

Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202. Lipofuscin, 

an autofluorescent yellow pigment in the residual body, is considered to 
be indigestible by lysosomal acid hydrolases. This pigment is stained 
positively by conventional fat staining technique and hence the term 
"lipid pigment". The pigment is also called "wear and tear" or "age" pig- 
ment because it is found most abundantly in the cells of aged individuals. 
Actually, in the senile brain, the material occupies a large area of the 
nerve cell body by displacing the nucleus and other cytoplasmic organelles. 
Electron microscopy revealed that the lipofuscin bodies are surrounded 
by trilaminar limiting membrane and contain fine granular osmiophilic 
material. Using histochemical techniques for electron microscopy, we 
observed acid phosphatase activity in the granular matrix but not in the 
lipid portion. Our findings agree with observations by others. Recently, 
we also demonstrated some evidence of peroxidation in the lipid portion 
of this organelle, supporting the view that lipopigment is derived by 
peroxidation of fatty acids and proteins. 

Another pigment called "ceroid" is found to accumulate in brain cells 
of patients with Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Ultrastructural aspects 
of these two types of pigments, lipofuscin and ceroid, in the human brain 
were presented. 

x The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of Vera Kolar, Janice Herring 

and Connie Aryea. 

Effect of Beta-alanine on Glucose Catabolism and Growth of 
Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells. M. E. Jacobs, Department of Biology, 

Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana 46526. Intraperitoneal injection 

of 0.1 ml 5 M beta-alanine at the time of infection, and daily thereafter, 
inhibits tumor-weight gain of Carworth female CF1 mice by 19% by the 
end of 14 days, as compared with infected mice injected with 0.1 ml 2.5 
M NaCl. Incubation of the tumor cells at 37.5 °C in 25 mM 
beta-alanine in Krebs-Ringers bicarbonate solution at pH 7.4 inhibits 
14 C0 2 excretion from the cells using l- 14 C-D-glucose as substrate. 
The inhibition is 18-25%, as compared with control samples containing 
no beta-alanine, or 25 mM of beta-aminoisobutyric or gamma- 
aminobutyric acids. 


Inhibition of Succinate Oxidation in Beef Heart Mitochondria by 
Derivatives of Pyridine Adenine Dinucleotide. P. V. Blair and L. Y. 

Chao, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, 46202. 

Succinate oxidation is inhibited by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 
(NAD + ) in damaged or sonicated mitochondria. Two mechanisms to 
account for this NAD+-inhibition have been suggested. In 1948, Pardee 
and Potter (1) postulated that inhibition occurred because NAD-f 

Cell Biology 105 

stimulated the production of oxaloacetate an inhibitor of succinate 
oxidase, from succinate via fumarate and L-malate. In 1963 an 
alternative hypothesis was proposed by Neubert et ah (2) in which 
binding of NAD+ or one of its analogues to a site on succinate 
dehydrogenase would cause direct inhibition of succinate oxidation. 
Experiments to determine the most likely explanation for NAD+- 
inhibition of succinate oxidation were carried out on preparations of 
beef heart mitochondria. 

All dinucleotide tested, NAD+, 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinu- 
cleotide (3-AcPAD + ), 3-acetylpyridine deaminoadenine dinucleotide 
(3-AcPDeAD+), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), 
NADH and NADPH with the exception of NADPH inhibited succinate 
oxidation. The inhibition had a lag period and increased with time in 
the presence of all inhibitory dinucleotides except NADP+. The 
increase in inhibition with time by NADP+ comes to an early steady 
(per cent inhibition does not change), probably because it is not 
a good coenzyme for malate dehydrogenase and because the reduced 
form (NADPH) can not be oxidized by the electron transfer chain. 
L-malate, which stimulates the production of oxaloacetate in the 
presence of NAD+ and its analogues, enhanced inhibition and com- 
pounds (glutamate, rotenone, NADH plus rotenone, and meso-tartrate) 
which remove oxaloacetate or stop its formation prevent or reverse 
NAD -{--inhibition of succinate oxidation. The oxidized dinucleotides 
do not inhibit succinate oxidation in purified electron transfer 
particles. A supernatant fraction containing fumarase and malate 
dehydrogenase restores the inhibitory ability of NAD+ to these 
purified electron transfer particles. The addition of oxaloacetate 
to these purified particles inhibits succinate oxidation with apparent 
competitive kinetics. 

Differential spectra and oxidation-reduction of the dinucleo- 
tides at absorption maxima were recorded in the presence of suc- 
cinate and L-malate. The appearance of the reduced form of the 
NAD + -analogues was positively correlated with the per cent inhibition 
of succinate oxidation. The reduced analogues accumulated from 
malate dehydrogenation because they are not rapidly oxidized by 
the respiratory chain, whereas NADH does not accumulate because it 
is rapidly reoxidized by electron transfer. Our results are con- 
sistent with the postulate that oxaloacetate is the inhibitor of 
succinate oxidation and NAD+ only stimulates the accumulation of 
oxaloacetate. None of our evilence would indicate that NAD + 
directly inhibits succinate dehydrogenation or the succinate de- 
hydrogenase enzyme. 

Literature Cited 

1. Pardee Arthur B., and Van R. Potter. 1948. Inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase 
by oxalacetate. J. Biol. Chem 176 : 1085-1094. 

2. Neubert, D., R. A. Chaplin, and Helmut Cooper. 1963. Inhibition of succinate 
oxidation by DPN and DPN analogs in sub-mitochondrial systems. Biochem. and 
Biophys. Res. Coram. 12:236-241. 

Scale Calcification In A Chrysophycean Alga: A Test System For 
The Effects of DDT On Biological Calcification! 

J. EL Elder 2 , C. A. Lembi, L. Anderson and D. J. Morre' 

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


The chrysophycean alga, Coccolithus huxleyi, responds to the chlorinated hydrocarbon, 
DDT, by reduced calcification of surface scales. Cytological and biochemical findings 
show reduced calcium carbonate deposition on the scales and reduced calcium utilization 
by the organism. 

Chlorinated hydrocarbons [particularly certain types of pesticides 
such as dieldrin, DDT, DDE (a stable metabolite of DDT) and the poly- 
chlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) used as plasticizers] 3 at high levels in 
the diet, result in changes in calcium metabolism which may lead to 
eggshell thinning and reproductive failure in predators and raptorial 
birds near the top of the food chain (2, 5-13, 15, 16, 17, 19-21, 24). The 
mechanism by which these compounds reduce calcium carbonate deposi- 
tion has not been established. One possibility is that carbonic 
anhydrase is inhibited (1, 16). This enzyme catalyzes the conversion 
of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate which then reacts with calcium to form 
calcium carbonate. Another possibility, frequently mentioned, is 
hormonal imbalance (1, 10-13, 15-17). Estrogen, for example influences 
calcium mobilization to the shell gland during eggshell formation. 
Because of the hormonal complexity of the avian calcification system, 
simpler systems were sought which might serve as models for the study 
of DDT effects on eggshell calcification. 

The marine alga, Coccolithus huxleyi, secretes cell wall scales, 
certain of which are layered with calcium carbonate (14). The scales 
are produced within cisternae of the Golgi apparatus and transported 
to the cell surface via secretory vesicles (14). Calcification occurs 
during secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 
DDT influenced calcification in the algal system. 

Materials and Methods 

Cultures of Coccolithus huxleyi (Lohm.) Kamptner were obtained 
from the Indiana University culture collection. Cells were grown on 

Supported in part by EP 00872-01 and GB 23183. Journal Paper Number 
4603. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 

-Recipient of a summer research fellowship sponsored by an award from the 
Research Grants Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science. 

3 DDT - l,l,l-trichloro-2,2-fo's(p-chlorophenyl) ethane 
DDE - l,l-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane 

Dieldrin - 1,2,3,4, 10, 10-hexachloro-6,7,-epoxy-l,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-<>:ro-l,4-endo- 


Cell Biology 


Erdschreiber Enrichment Medium (18), with and without technical 
grade DDT in a saturated solution, using acetone at a final concentra- 
tion of 1% as a carrier. Control cells were grown in the presence of 1% 
acetone. Cultures were maintained under 100 ft-c at 23° C with a 16- 
hour photoperiod. 

Cells were prepared for electron microscopy by fixation in 2% gluta- 
raldehyde in 0.1 M potassum phosphate, pH 7.2, for 1 hour, post-fixa- 
tion in 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.2, for 
1 hour and dehydration through an acetone series. The tissue was em- 
bedded in Epon (23), sectioned and then observed with a Philips EM 300. 

Carbonic anhydrase assays followed the procedure of Roughton 
and Booth (22). Calcium utilization was determined by adding 
100 iU C 45 Ca to 3 ml aliquots of cell suspensions grown in the presence and 
absence of DDT. After 2 hours, the cells were transferred to a solution 
containing unlabeled calcium for 30 min to remove exchangably bound 




Figure 1. Schematic diagram illustrating the process of scale formation in a 
chrysophycean alga. The scales are formed within cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. 
The cisternae of the Golgi apparatus separate from the stack and the cisternal 
membranes fuse with the plasma membrane during discharge of individual scales. 
Calcification occurs at the scale margin (solid black projections) prior to discharge 
of the scale to the cell surface. Adapted from Brown et al. (4). 


Indiana Academy of Science 

radioactivity. Radioactivity was measured with a Nuclear Chicago gas- 
flow monitoring system. 

Results and Discussion 

Coccolithus huxleyi secretes cellulosic scales into the cell wall (14). 
As with other Chrysophycean algae (3, 4), these scales are formed in 
the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus and are transported to the 
plasma membrane in secretory vesicles (14, Fig. 1). The scales are of 
two types that are secreted in alternating waves. Type I scales are small 
and non-calcified (Fig. 2A). Type II scales are larger and have a min- 
eralized rim around their edges (Fig. 2B). Calcification takes place 
while the Type II scales are en route to the cell wall in the secretory 

Figure 2. Electron micrographs of isolated scales of Coccolithus huxleyi after 

negative staining ivith 1% potassium phosphotung state, pH. 6.5 A. Noncalcified 

(Type I) scale. B. Calcified (Type II) scale. The calcified rim appears in B as a 

wide electron dense margin at the periphery of the scale. X 33,000. 

A typical control cell is shown in Figure 3. The alternating waves 
of Type I and Type II scales are apparent within the cell. Where 
calcification is heavy on the Type II scales (scales normally calcified), 
the mineralized deposit is lost during specimen preparation and only 
a hole is left. Loss of the deposits from the section is a criterion for 
heavy calcification that was previously reported by Manton and 
Leedale (14). 

When cells were grown in the presence of DDT, calcification in the 
wave of Type II scales being formed was markedly reduced (Fig. 4), 

Cell Biology 


whereas the previous wave of Type II scales was normally calcified. 
Figure 5 shows that the scale and the matrix upon which the 


Figure 3. Thin section of a control cell of Coccolithus huxleyi. Glutaraldehyde-osmium 
tetroxide fixation. Section post-stained with lead citrate. The outer wave of Type II 
scales (double arrows) emanating from the Golgi apparatus (GA) is heavily calcified 
as evidenced by the holes (double arrows) where the heavily mineralized deposits have 
dropped out during specimen preparation. The inner wave is of the Type I, non- 
calcified scales (single arrows). PM — plasma membrane. V — vacuole. N — nucleus, 

X 26,000. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

calcium carbonate is layered are formed normally in the DDT-treated 
cells, but the amount of calcium carbonate deposited is less than that 
for control cells. 

KS^ /spa Jfcw*<*). 


Figure 4. Thin section of a DDT-grotvn cell of Coccolithus huxleyi prepared for 
electron microscopy as in Figure 3. The outer layer of calcified, Type II scales (double 
arrows) shows evidence of reduced calcification (compare with Figure 3), but the 
reduction in calcification is most marked in the inner tvave of Type II scales (those 
still associated with Golgi apparatus cisternae within the cytoplasm; arrows with 
asterisks). Noncalcified, Type I scales (single arrows) appear normal. PM = plasma 
membrane. N = nucleus. X 16,000. 

Cell Biology 


Figure 5. Comparison of scales from control (A) and DDT-treatcd (B) cells 
of Coccolithus huxleyi as seen in thin section. The scale from the DDT-treated cell(B) 
has developed normally but calcification is reduced (arrows) as evidenced by the ab- 
sence of the hole-forming mineralized deposits (see Fig. 3 and text) characteristic of 
control scales (A; arrows). X U0,000. 

Further evidence for a DDT effect on algal calcification was sought 
from determinations of carbonic anhydrase activity. Results summarized 
in Table 1 show inhibition of carbonic anhydrase from the alga by DDT, 
although the effect was much less dramatic than expected. The levels of 
DDT required to inhibit carbonic anhydrase seem high but concentrations 
of 2,500 ppm of DDT have been reported from thin-shelled eggs of fish- 
eating birds (16). In experiments with 45 Ca, calcium utilization was in- 
hibited by 10 to 15% in the DDT-grown cells. 

Table 1. Effect of DDT on carbonic anhydrase from Coccolithus huxleyi 1 . 


Carbonic Anhydrase 

Extract From 

in Assay 


Specific Activity) 

Experiment I 

Control Cells 



1000 /xg 


Experiment II 

Control Cells 



DDT-Grown Cells 



iBased on time required to lower the pH of veronal buffer from pH 8.15 to 
pH 6.30 (22). 

The results show that DDT retards the calcification of scales in 
the alga C. huxleyi and that the organism merits further study as a test 

112 Indiana Academy of Science 

system for DDT effects on biological calcification. The alga offers the 
advantage of a reproducible and inexpensive laboratory system that 
is free from the complicating hormonal influences found in birds. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bitman, J., H. C. Cecil and G. F. Fries. 1970. DDT-induced inhibition of 
avian shell gland carbonic anhydrase: A mechanism for thin eggshells. Science 

2. Bitman, J., H. C. Cecil, S. J. Harris, and G. F. Fries. 1969. DDT induces a 
decrease in eggshell calcium. Nature 224:44-46. 

3. Brown, R. M., W. W. Franke, H. Kleinig, H. Falk, and P. Sitte. 1969. 
Cellulosic wall component produced by the Golgi apparatus of Pleurochrysis 
Scherffelii. Science 166:894-896. 

4. 1970. Scale formation in Chrysopycean algae. J. Cell Biol. 45:246-271. 

5. Cooke, A. S. 1970. The effect of o.p-DDT on Japanese quail. Bull. Environ. Cont. 
Toxicol. 5:152-157. 

6. Heath, R. G., J. W. Spann, and J. F. Kreitzer. 1969. Marked DDE impairment 
of mallard reproduction in controlled studies. Nature 224:47-48. 

7. Hickey, J. J. 1969. Peregrine falcon populations: Their biology and decline. 
Univ. Wis. Press, Madison, Wis. 567 p. 

8. , and D. W. Anderson. 1968. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and eggshell 

changes in raptorial and fish-eating birds. Science 162:271-273. 

9. Hilton, B. D., and R. D. O'Brien. 1970. Antagonism by DDT of the effect of 
valinomycin on a synthetic membrane. Science 168:841-843. 

10. Jeffries, D. J. 1967. The delay in ovulation produced by p,p'-DDT and its 
possible significance in the field. Nature 109:266-272. 

11. 1969. Induction of apparent hyperthroidism in birds fed DDT. 

Nature 224:578-579. 

12. . , and M. C. French. 1969. Avian thyroid: Effect of o,p'-DDT 

on size and activity. Science 166:1278-1280. 

13. Kagan, Y S., S. I. Fudel-Ossipova, B. J. Khaikina, U. A. Kuzminskaya, 
and S. S. Kouton. 1969. On the problem of the harmful effect of DDT and its 
mechanism of action. Residue Rev. 27:43-138. 

14. Manton, I., and G. F. Leedale. 1969. Observations on the microanatomy of 
Coccolithus pelagicus and Criscosjihaera carterae, wiith special reference to 
the origin and nature of coccoliths and scales. J. Marine Biol. Assn. U. K. 49:1-16. 

15. Peakall, D. B. 1967. Pesticide-induced enzyme breakdown of steroids in birds. 
Nature 216:505-506. 

16. 1970. Pesticides and the reproduction of birds. Sci. Amer. 222:73-78. 

17. 1970. pp'-DDT. Effect on calcium metabolism and concentration of 

estradiol in the blood. Science 168:592-594. 

18. Provasoli, L. 1968. Media and prospects for the cultivation of marine algae, 
p. 63-75. In A. Watanabe and A. Hattori (eds.). Cultures and collections of Algae. 
Proc. U.S.-Japan Conf. September 1966. Jap. Soc. Plant Physiol. Nakone, Japan. 

19. Ratcliffe, D. A. 1967. Decrease in eggshell weight in certain birds of prey. 

Nature 215:208-210. 

Cell Biology 113 

20. 1970. Changes attributable to pesticides in egg breakage frequency 

and eggshell thickness in some British birds. J. Appl. Ecol. 7:67-116. 

21. Risebrough, R. W., P. Rieche, S. G. Herman, D. B. Peakall, and M. N. 
Kirven. 1968. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the global ecosystem. Nature 220: 

22. Roughton, F. J. W., and V. H. Booth. 1946. The effect of substrate concentration, 
pH and other factors upon the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Biochem. J. 

23. Spurr, A. R. 1969. A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron 
microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26:31-43. 

24. Wiemeyer, S. N. e and N. G. Anderson. 1970. DDE thins eggshells of captive 
American kestrels. Nature 227:737-738. 

The Effect of Mineral Deficiency on the Photosynthetic Apparatus 
in Maize. I. The Role of Chloroplast Sulfolipidi 

R. Barr, J. D. Hall, T. Baszynski, 

J. Brand and F. L. Crane 
Department of Biological Sciences 


D. W. Krogmann 
Department of Biochemistry 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Galacto- and sulfolipid content has been determined in sulfur and nitrogen- 
deficient maize leaves. Only slight variations in monogalactosyl diglyceride and 
digalactosyl diglyceride levels were detected in S-deficient plants compared to 
normal maize leaves but there was a 50% decrease of both these lipids in N-deficient 
plants. The greatest difference was found in the sulfolipid content in either S- or N- 
deficiencies — the sulfolipid was reduced by 30 to 50%. Since decreased sulfolipid 
content seemed to be associated with increased Photosystem II activity and the 
occurrence of larger chloroplast grana stacks, it is proposed that sulfolipid may play a 
role in grana stacking along with other structural chloroplast lipids. At least a 
correlation between decreased sulfolipid and galactolipid content is associated with the 
occurrence of larger chloroplast grana stacks and increased Photosystem II activity. 


In our studies of photosynthetic activity of chloroplasts from 
nitrogen-, potassium-, phosphorus-, sulfur-, magnesium-, and calcium- 
deficient plants we found an increased Photosystem II activity in the 
chloroplasts from S- and N-deficient plants (3). Since increased rates 
for PS II activity were observed in 2 separate assay systems (water 
-> indophenol dye and diphenylcarbazide ->■ indophenol dye) and were 
correlated with increased grana stacking in studies of the fine structure 
of mineral-deficient chloroplasts by electron microscopy (9), it became 
important to investigate the role of sulfolipids in S- and N-deficient 
chloroplasts in relation to normal maize sulfolipid content. 

Nichols and James (13) have reviewed the literature on chloroplast 
lipid composition while Haines has surveyed the chemical information 
on sulfolipids (8). Plant sulfolipids have been localized in the 
chloroplast and assayed in several species of plants (1, 2, 6, 14, 16). 
Previous studies on the composition of chloroplast lipids consider 
sulfolipid a minor constitutent (<10% present) and assign a structural 
role to it. Our discovery of reduced sulfolipid content in S- and 
N-deficient plants both of which exhibit higher than normal PS II 
activity points to the importance of sulfolipid not only as a passive 
structural element but also as something critical for proper enzymatic 
activity of chloroplast grana stacks. 

•Supported by N.S.F. Grant #GB-27501. 


Cell Biology 115 

Materials and Methods 

Methods for nutrient culture of various mineral-deficient maize 
plants have been described (5). The galacto- and sulfolipid content of 
S- and N-deficient plants was determined as follows: 5-g quantities of 
fresh or frozen maize leaves were homogenized in 90% acetone in a 
Waring blender and strained through a sintered glass filter. The residue 
was rewashed with several aliquots of acetone. Then the total acetone 
extract was transferred to a separatory funnel containing an equal 
amount of petroleum ether (B.P. 40-60°C). Water-soluble components 
were removed by water washes and discarded. The green epiphase con- 
taining pigments and lipids was washed several times with increasing 
concentrations of methanol-water (50:50; 75:25; 90:10). The combined 
methanol-water extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary 
evaporator at 30° C to yield a total lipid fraction. Evaporation was slow 
and required the addition of several portions of acetone. The final dry 
lipid mixture was suspended in diethyl ether and used for thin layer 
chromatography. Silica gel G plates were developed in water, glacial 
acetic acid, methanol and chloroform (4:10:15:75) according to Nichols 
(12) or in water, benzene, acetone (8:30:91) by Pohl, Glasl and 
Wagner's method (15). Monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl 
diglyceride and sulfolipid were identified by spraying with 0.0035% 
rhodamine G in 0.5% KOH solution and observing fluorescent bands 
under U.V. light. After scraping the desired bands the various lipids 
were eluted from the silica gel with diethyl ether and evaporated to 
dryness under vacuum from an aspirator. If plates were developed in 
mixtures containing glacial acetic acid as in (12), the lipid bands were 
located by spraying one side of the chromatogram with reduced 
methylene blue spray according to Barr and Crane (4). 

Monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride and sulfolipid 
were assayed quantitatively by the phenol-sulfuric acid method as 
described by Roughan and Batt (16). Sulfolipid was also determined 
as inorganic sulfate after charring and acid hydrolysis in sealed glass 
tubes. The spectrophotometric analysis of sulfate with barium 
chloranilate reagent was performed according to Dittmer and 
Wells (7). 


The visible symptoms of sulfur- and notrogen-deficient maize leaves 
compared to normal maize are shown in Figure 1 (A). This figure 
also shows a thin layer chromatrogram (B) where the sulfolipid spot 
is visible as a light charred area in the control but not at all in 
S-deficient plants in which the sulfolipid content is reduced by about 
half. Figure 1 (C) shows the results of the phenol-sulfuric acid test 
for sugars by which monogalactosyl diglyceride and digalactosyl 
diglyceride can be identified by their galactose moiety and sulfolipid 
by its quinovose moiety. By using spectrophotometric comparisons to 
galactose standards, the sulfolipid content of normal maize leaves is 
higher than that of S-deficient leaves. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

C 1 2 3 4 

5 6 7 8 

Figure 1. A. Control, S-deficient and N-deficient maize leaves from left to right in 
the order indicated. B. Tlmn-layer chromatography of sulfolipid, (arroic) from 1) 
control and 2) S-deficient maize leaves (level below limit of detection by TLC). 
C. Results of phenol-sulfuric acid test with control and S-deficient maize leaves: 
1-k, control; 1-MGD, 2-plate blank, 3-DGD, ^-sulfolipid; 5-8, S-deficient; 5-MGD, 
6 -plate bland. 7-DGD, 8-sulfolipid. 

Table 1. 



of galactolipid and sulfolipid levels in normal versus 
S-deficient maize leaves. 1 

n ill 

By Sugar Analysis 



^moles/g Fresh Weight 


2.95 1.11 0.85 
2.23 1.41 0.35 
0.96 0.30 0.48 

By Sulfur Analysis 



— — 0.84 
— 0.50 

Plants grown in nutrient culture in the greenhouse during July and August at 
high temperatures (25-30°C). 

Cell Biology 117 

Table 1 summarizes the results of chloroplast lipid analysis. In 
S- and N-deficient leaves the sulfolipid content is reported from either 
of 2 separate assays: 1) by analysis of the sugar moiety using the 
phenol-sulfuric acid test and 2) by sulfur analysis with the barium 
chloranilate test for inorganic sulfur. The results of both tests 
indicate a reduced sulfolipid content of S- and N-deficient leaves in 
contrast to normal maize while differences in galactolipid — mono- 
galactosyl diglyceride and digalactosyl diglyceride — levels are not 
marked for S-deficient plants but are sharply reduced in N-deficient 
plants in relation to the control. 

Figures 2 and 3 show electron micrographs of normal and S- or 
N-deficient chloroplasts at the age of 8 weeks. It can be seen that both 
deficiencies result in larger grana stacks and less stroma lamellae than 
normal maize plants. The size of osmiophilic globules is increased in 
chloroplasts from N-deficient plants (Fig. 3, B). 


From our studies of PS I and II activities in six types of mineral 
deficiencies (N, P, K, S, Mg, Ca) in maize, we find increased PS II 
activity in S- and N-deficiencies. Sulphur- and N-deficient plants con- 
tain chloroplasts with larger grana stacks and a proportionally larger 
amount of grana lamelle in relation to stroma lamellae (3, 9). This led 
us to investigate the lipid composition of S- and N-deficient plants re- 
ported here (Table 1), since chloroplast lipids have been implicated as 
structural components of chloroplast membrane systems. As this table 
shows we found only slight differences in the two major chloroplast 
lipids, monogalactosyl diglyceride and digalactosyl diglyceride, in S- 
deficient versus normal maize leaves but a striking reduction in the 
amount of galactolipids present in N-deficient plants. The sulfolipid 
content was also reduced up to 50% in the leaves from S- and N- 
deficient plants. Thus sulfolipid, although present in lesser amounts 
than chloroplast galactolipids, may function in the control of grana 
stacking. Since only about a third to a half of the normal amount of 
sulfolipid is present in S- and N-deficient plants while the proportion 
of grana to stroma lamellae is increased, it may be inferred that in the 
absence of the normal amount of sulfolipid stroma lamellae stick 
together more easily to form abnormally large grana stacks. Thus 
sulfolipid appears to control grana stacking in S- and N-deficient 
maize chloroplasts. 

Other agents which alter the control of grana stacking include 
light and the concentration of cations. In bright light grana stacks 
are dissociated in Amaranthus chloroplasts while in plants grown in 
dim light abundant grana stacking is present (10). In isolated 
chloroplasts grana can be dissociated into single lamellae but with the 
addition of cations reassociation occurs (11). Both of these factors may 
operate in conjunction with the lipid composition in controlling grana 
stack formation. 

Indiana Academy op Science 



'- i 

Figure 2 

Normal maize chloroplast at the age of 8 weeks. Glutaraldehyde and Os0 4 
fixation with uranyl acetate and lead citrate stains. X 25,000 

Cell Biology 



....... .^., A. v i iV> „ .»* 

. . b 

Figure 3. A. Sulfur-deficient ehloroplast at the age of 8 weeks. Fixation and staining 

as for Fig. 2. X 25,000. B. Nitrogen-deficient ehloroplast at the age of 8 weeks. 
Fixation and staining as above. X 35,000 

120 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Allen, C. F., P. Good, H. F, Davis, P. Chisum, and S. D. Fowler. 
1966. Methodology for the separation of plant lipids and application to spinach 
leaf and chloroplast lamellae. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 43:223-231. 

2. Allen, C. F., O. Hiramaya, and P. Good. 1966. Lipid composition of 
photosynthetic systems, p. 195-200. In T. W. Goodwin, (ed.) Biochemistry of 
Chloroplasts, Vol. I. Academic Press. London and New York. 476 p. 

3. Baszynski, T., J. Brand, R. Barr, D. W. Krogmann, and F. L. Crane. 

1972. Photosystem I and II activity in mineral-deficient maize. Plant Physiol. 49: 
(in press). 

4. Barr, R., and F. L. Crane. 1971. Quinones in algae and higher plants, p. 
372-408. In A. San Pietro (ed.) Methods in Enzymology, Vol. XXIII, Part A. 
Academic Press. New York and London. 743 p. 

5. , J. D. Hall, F. L. Crane, and H. Al-Abbas. 1971. Lipophilic 

quinones in mineral-deficient maize leaves. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:130-139. 

6. Bishop, D. G., K. S. Andersen, and R. M. Smillie. 1971. The distribution of 
galactolipids in mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts of maize and sorghum. 
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 231:412-414. 

7. Dittmer, J. C, and M. A. Wells. 1969. Quantitative and qualititave analysis of 
lipids and lipid components, p. 482-530. In J. M. Lowenstein (ed.) Methods in 
Enzymology, Vol. XIV, Lipids. Academic Press. New York, N. Y. 771 p. 

8. Haines, T. H. 1971. The chemistry of the sulfolipids, p. 299-345. In R. T. 
Holman (ed.) Progress in the Chemistry of Fats and other Lipids, Vol. XI, Part 3. 
Pergamon Press. New York, N. Y. 47 p. 

9. Hall, J. D., R. Barr, A. H. Al-Abbas, and F. L. Crane. 1972. Chloroplasts 
in mineral-deficient maize. Plant Physiol. 49: (in press). 

10. Lyttleton, J. W., J. E. M. Ballantine, and B. J. Ford. 1971. Development and 
environmental studies on chloroplasts of Amaranthus lividus, p. 447-452. In 
N. K. Boardman, A. W. Linnane, and R. M. Smilie (eds.) A taxonomy and bio- 
genesis of mitochondria and chloroplasts. North-Holland. 522 p. 

11. Murakami, S., and L. P. Auker. 1971. The role of cations in the organization of 
chloroplast membranes. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 146:337-347. 

]>2. Nichols, B. W. 1964. Separation of plant phospholipids and glycolipids, p. 322-377. 
In A. T. James and L. J. MORRIS (eds.) New biochemical separations. D. van 
Nostrand Co., London, England. 424 p. 

13. . . _, and A. T. James. 1968. Acyl lipids and fatty acids of photosynthetic 

tissue, p. 1-47. In L. Reinhold and Y. Liwschitz (eds.) Progress in Phyto- 
chemistry, Vol. I. Interscience Publishers, New York, N. Y. 48 p. 

14. Ongun, A., W. W. Thomson, and J. B. Mudd. 1968. Lipid composition of 
chloroplasts isolated by aqueous and monaqueous techniques. J. Lipid Res. 

15. Pohl, P., H. Glasl, and H. Wagner. 1970. Zur Analytik pflanzlicher Glyko- 
und Phospholipoide und ihrer Fettsauren. I. Eine neue diinn-schichtchro- 
matographische Methode zur Trennung pflanzlicher Lipoide und quantitativen 
Bestimmung ihrer Fettsaure-Zusammensetzung. J. Chromatogr. 49:488-492. 

16. Roughan, P. G., and R. D. Batt. 1968. Quantitative analysis of sulfolipid 
(sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride) and galactolipids (mono-galactosyl and diglactosyl 
diglycerides) in plant tissues. Anal. Biochem. 22:74-88. 

Aryl Sulphatases: Properties and Subcellular Distribution in 

Rat Liver 1 

Francis E. Wilkinson, Sally E. Nyquist, 2 
William D. Merritt and D. James Morre's 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Enzymes of the arylsulphatase complex (Arylsulphatases A, B and C) were shown 
to be widely distributed throughout the endomembrane system of rat liver. 
Arylsulphatase C, a microsomal enzyme, was localized primarily in rough endoplasmic 
reticulum. Arylsulphatases A and B were more widely distributed. Electron 
microscope localization combined with cell fractionation studies showed the activity to 
be most concentrated in focal specializations of the bulk smooth endoplasmic reticulum 
or in lysosomes. Less concentrated enzyme activity was associated with rough 
endoplasmic reticulum, bulk smooth endoplasmic reticulum, the nuclear envelope and 
the Golgi apparatus (especially in secretory vesicles of the Golgi apparatus). 
Arylsulphatase A-B activity was not detected in mitochondria, microbodies, the plasma 
membrane and the ground cytoplasm and was low or absent from smooth 
endoplasmic reticulum of the Golgi apparatus zone. The results indicate a difference 
between Golgi apparatus-associated and the bulk of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum 
and raise the possibility of direct transfer of arylsulphatase A-B from rough endo- 
plasmic reticulum to forming secretory vesicles of the Golgi apparatus. 

The enzymes of the arylsulphatase group (aryl-sulphate sulpho- 
hydrolases, E.C. are widely distributed among animals (1, 3, 
4, 7, 8, 10-13, 15, 17, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34), microbial (16) and plant (29) 
tissues. The importance of sulphuric acid esters in many metabolic 
processes and disorders in animals (2-5, 8, 9, 17, 27, 28) adds consider- 
able significance to the widespread distribution of the arylsulphatases. 
At least in animal tissues, the activity is largely confined to substrates 
in which sulphuric acid is conjugated with hydroxyl groups of 
phenols (Fig. 1). The inorganic sulfate released during the reaction 
can be precipitated with lead to form an electron dense reaction product. 
The latter provides a means for localizing the enzyme activity at the 
electron microscope level (1, 15, 18, 29, 34). 

At least three arylsulphatases have been distinguished on the basis 
of their kinetic properties. In rat liver, two of the enzymes, Arylsul- 
phatase A and Arylsulphatase B are considered to be localized primarily 
in the lysosome fraction (7, 8, 34). The third, Arylsulphatase C, is found 
in the microsome fraction (10, 13, 18). Yet, the precise subcellular dis- 
tribution of these enzymes in liver has never been established. The 
purpose of this study was to investigate the subcellular distribution 
of Arylsulphatases A, B and C in rat liver with particular emphasis 
on components of the endomembrane system (25). 

Supported in part by NSF GB 23183. Journal Paper No. 4604. Purdue University 
Agricultural Experiment Station. 

2 Present address: Dept of Biology, Bucknell Univ., Leesburg, Pa. 17837. 

3 Appointed jointly between the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology and 
Department of Biological Sciences. 


122 Indiana Academy of Science 

Materials and Methods 

Male rats, 200 to 250 g, 50 days old of the Holtzman strain, 
provided with laboratory chow and drinking water ad libitum, were 
sacrificed and the livers drained of blood. The livers were removed, 
minced at room temperature and used either for determination of 
arylsulphatase activity, cell fractionation studies or enzyme cyto- 

Golgi apparatus (20) and endoplasmic reticulum (6) were prepared 
as described previously. The heavy particulate fraction of Table 1 was 
obtained by collection of the band at the 1.5/1.6 M interface on a dis- 
continuous sucrose gradient used for preparation of Golgi apparatus 
fractions (22). The band was removed, resuspended in homogenization 
medium and pelleted at 3,000 g for 30 min. This fraction is largely a 
mixture of mitochondria and rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum. 

Table 1. Arylsulphatase activities of isolated cell components of rat liver. 

Enzyme Activity 
Arylsulphatase C Arylsulphatases A and B 

(mumoles p-hydroxyacetophenone/ (mumoles p-nitrocatechol/ 
Fraction mg protein/hr) mg protein/hr) 

Total Homogenate 59 ± 6 

Rough Endoplasmic 385 ± 88 


Golgi Apparatus 87 ± 6 

Heavy Particulate — — 

The substrate for Arylsulphatase A-B was p-nitrocatechol sulphate 
(Fig. 1) purchased from Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri. 
The reaction was carried out as described by Roy (31, 32) using a sub- 
strate concentration of 30 mM and a pH of 6.0 with a reaction time of 
30 min unless indicated otherwise. 

For determination of Arylsulphatase C activity, the substrate was 
potassium p-acetylphenylsulphate synthesized from p-hydroxyacetophe- 
none and chlorosulfonic acid by an adaptation of the simplified method 
of Figenbaum and Neubert (14) for preparation of aromatic sulphuric 
acid esters. This substrate was chosen in preference to some readily 
available substances due to its relative stability toward metabolism by 
rat liver homogenates (11). Arylsulphatase C was assayed as described 
by Dogson et al. (12) with the exception that reactions were stopped 
after 30 min rather than after 1 hour. Proteins were determined by the 
biuret method. 

Tissues and cell fractions subjected to cytochemical assay for 
arylsulphatases A-B were processed according to the method of Gold- 
fischer (15), except that they were fixed overnight in 2% glutaraldehyde 
instead of being perfused as with the whole tissue experiments of Gold- 
fischer (15). The tissues and fractions were then embedded in Epon 













Cell Biology 


2 N 

- + Enzyme 


+ Quinol Reagent 

Red Color 
520 nM 



+ SO. 

+ Pb 

Electron -dense 

Figure 1. Summary of the detection methods employed for Arylsulphatase A-B. 
In the presence of the enzymes, the substrate \>-nitrocatecholsulphate is cleaved to 
V-nitrocatechol plus sulphate. In the presence of quinol reagent, the p-nitrocatechol 
produces a red color absorbing at 520 nM. For cytochemical detection, the sulphate 
ivas complexed with lead to yield an electron-dense precipitate observable in the 

electron microscope. 

(33) and thin sections were examined and photographed with a 
Philips EM 200. 


Whole homogenates of rat liver were used in establishing assay 
conditions for arylsulphatase A-B in rat liver. The activity was ex- 
tremely stable and extracts could be stored for several months without 
loss of enzyme activity. Controls containing the enzyme solution with 
the substrate added immediately after incubation followed immediately 
by ethanol, and controls in which the substrate was incubated with 
buffer alone, were run simultaneously with experimental determinations. 

Effect of time and enzyme concentration 

Figure 2 shows the effect of incubating rat liver homogenates with 
the substrate in the presence of varying quantities of protein (Fig. 2A) 
and for varying times (Fig. 2B) under conditions of optimum pH 
(Fig. 2C) and a substrate concentration of 30mM. This substrate con- 
centration was near optimal for Arylsulphatase C (12), supraoptimal 
(inhibitory) for Arylsulphatase A (31) and yielded first order 
kinetics for Arylsulphatase B (31, Fig. 2D). There was an ap- 
proximately linear relationship between protein concentration and the 
reaction velocity over the range to 4 mg of protein in the assay (Fig. 
2A) and in subsequent studies a protein concentration of 1 mg or less 
was employed. In agreement with a previous observation (31), there 
was a decrease in reaction velocity during the first 10 min of incubation 


Indiana Academy of Science 

after which the degree of hydrolysis was proportional to the time of 
incubation (Fig. 2B). 

I 2 3 

SULFATE (nig) 

Figure 2. Properties of rat liver Arylsulhatase A-B assayed under standard conditions 
(31, 32) except for conditions varied showing increased absorbance due to release of 
p-nitrocatechol from p-nitrocatecholsulphate as a function of (A) protein concentra- 
tion, (B) time, (C) pH, and (D) substrate concentration. The enzyme source was 
total rat liver homogenate (Table 1) frozen and thawed to release structure-linked 

latent enzyme activity. 

Effect of pH 

The effect of pH was determined over the range of 3 to 7. The pH 
optimum is that of Arylsulphtase B and was determined to be 5.7 in 
0.15 M acetate buffer with nitrocatechol sulphate as substrate (31). 
The pH optimum for arylsulphatase A is 4.7 (31). The optimum for 
Arylsulphatase C is about pH 7.2 (10, 12) 

Effect of substrate concenration 

The effect of varying substrate on reaction velocity (Fig. 2D) 
shows a hump in the curve between and 0.5 mg p~ n itrocatechol 
sulphate which is due to the presence of Arylsulphatase A (12) which 
is saturated at a substrate concentration of approximately 3 mM. As 
shown previously (12), there is no obvious substrate optimum for 
arylsulphatase B within the limits studied (Fig. 2D). 

Intracellular location 

In tissue fractionation studies, the activities of Arylsulphatases 
A and B as compared to Arylsulphatase C showed distinctly different 
distribution patterns. Arylsulphatase C appeared to be specifically 
localized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (Table 1). Arylsulphatases 
A-B, however, showed approximately equal distribution in the rough 
endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus (Table 1). 

Cell Biology 


FIGURE 3. Electron micrograph of rat liver incubated for a ryl sulphatase activity at 
pH 5.5 for 30 min at 37°C (15). Thin sections were stained with lead citrate (30). 
Reaction product is found in specific bodies (L) adjacent to or continuous with (arrows) 
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Lighter, granular deposits of reaction product 
are seen over the lumens and membranes of both rough (RER) and smooth endoplasmic 
reticulum. The plasma membrane (PM) at the cell border, mitochondria (M), micro- 
bodies (MB) and the cytoplasmic matrix are free of reaction product. Magnifications 

are approximate. A' 30,000. 

126 Indiana Academy of Science 

This distribution was confirmed and extended by the results from 
cytochemical localization of Arylsulphatases A-B. The heaviest deposits 
of lead were found over the membranes and contents of bodies attached 
to and interspersed with fields of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (Fig. 
3). These bodies may represent lysosomes but their consistent associa- 
tion with smooth endoplasmic reticulum was unexpected. More impor- 
tant in the context of the present study, lead deposits of a more diffuse 
nature were found equally distributed over the lumens of both rough 
and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (Figs. 3 and 4), the nuclear envelope 
(Fig. 4) and cisternae and vesicles of the Golgi apparatus (Fig. 4). In 
isolated fractions of rough endoplasmic reticulum, dense reaction prod- 
ucts were still present and uniformly distributed but more so over the 
membranes than within cisternal lumens (Fig. 5). With isolated Golgi 
apparatus fractions, reaction products were found over secretory 
vesicles containing lipoprotein secretory products as well as secretory 
vesicles lacking lipoprotein secretory products and presumed to repre- 
sent primary lysosomes (Figs. 6 and 7). Only small amounts of reac- 
tion product were found over Golgi apparatus cisternae and the smooth 
system of peripheral tubules (23, 24, 26). Both the isolated endoplasmic 
reticulum and Golgi apparatus fractions were free of the lysosome-like 
bodies containing dense lead deposits observed in situ (Fig. 3). 


In the animal tissues investigated by Goldfisher (15) and others 
(1, 34), Arylsulphatase A-B activity was largely localized in cytoplas- 
mic bodies identified as lysosomes. In contrast, Arylsulphatase C has 
been generally considered to be a microsomal enzyme (10, 18), but 
microsomes are a heterogeneous cell fraction containing membrane 
fragments of many different types of cell components. The analysis 
of arylsulphatase activity is complicated to some extent by 
anomalous kinetic properties. These anomalies have been noted 
previously (31, 32) and no clarification is provided by the present study. 

Our studies, however, do show that much of the Arylsulphatase 
A-B activity of rat liver is localized in cytoplasmic structures not 
readily identified as conventional lysosomes. Arylsulphatase A-B 
activity was about equal in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus 
fractions. Both fractions were considerably enriched over that of the 
homogenate but the specific activity was only 0.1 that reported for lyso- 
some fractions (7, 8). Its presence in the endoplasmic reticulum and 
Golgi apparatus fractions was not due to lysosomal contamination of 
the fractions as shown by the cytochemical analyses of the isolated 
fractions (Figs. 6 and 7). 

In contrast, Arylsulphatase C activity of the Golgi apparatus frac- 
tion was only 22% that of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (Table 1). 
This value is higher than that observed with glucose-6-phosphatase and 
other endoplasmic reticulum enzymes (13 to 15%, ref. 21). One explana- 
tion for this discrepancy lies in the observation that potassium 

Cell Biology 


f ER ! ■ * - 

,* jr^i^^'v^ 

| 4 

t>, . 

\*^ % 



'flpf ■■. 

>- Sister w 

Figure 4. As in Figure 3 shoiving a portion of the Golgi apparatus (GA) adjacent 
to the nucleus (N). Granular reaction product is seen within the lumen of the nuclear 
envelope, tvithin plate-like portions (P) of Golgi apparatus cisternae, within secretory 
vesicles (SV) of the Golgi apparatus and within the lumens of rough endoplasmic 
reticulum ( RER ) . One densely staining body next to the Golgi apparatus may rep- 
resent a primary lysosome (L) . Note the connections between lipoprotein-containing, 
smooth endoplasmic reticulum tubules and the large secretory vesicles of the Golgi 
apparatus {single arrows), between these tubules and a portion of a Golgi apparatus 
plate (ivhite P) seen in face view (double arrow) and between a secretory vesicle 
and rough endoplasmic reticulum (arrow with asterisk). Arylsulphatase reaction pro- 
duct is reduced somewhat in amount from the SER tubulues near their point of con- 
tinuity with Golgi apparatus cisternae. M mitochondrion. X 54,000. 

128 Indiana Academy of Science 

p-acetylphenylsulphate is not a completely specific substrate for 
Arylsulphatase C under the conditions used, so that the arylsulphatase 
A and B, shown to be present in the Golgi apparatus, could account for 
the additional 7 to 10% of the activity. F. A. Rose (personal communica- 
tion) suggested that phosphate ions increase the specificity of 
p-acetylphenylsulphate for Arylsulphatase C. However, phosphate ions 
were not added to our reaction mixture. 

In the cytochemical analyses, the activity detected may be largely 
ascribed to Arylsulphatase B. Arylsulphatase A-B show a high degree 
of substrate specificity hydrolyzing p-nitrocatechol sulphate while 
splitting p-acetylphenylsulphate very slowly (31, 32). The pH optima 
of these two activities also differ. Type C Arylsulphatase has a pH 
optimum slightly over neutrality and would not be expected to con- 
tribute to the cytochemical results. At the acid pH employed, both 
Arylsulphatases A and B are active although data of Figure 2D 
suggest that, in future studies, Arylsulphatases A and B could be dif- 
ferentiated cytochemically by varying substrate concentration. 

In addition to the focal specializations of smooth endoplasmic 
reticulum (Fig. 3) and other lysosome-like bodies, we find arylsul- 
phatase activity distributed throughout the endomembrane system 
(Figs. 3 to 7). It is less evident in the smooth tubules of the Golgi 
apparatus (Figs. 4, 6 and 7) and is absent from plasma membrane, 
microbodies, mitochondria and ground cytoplasm. It is present in the 
nuclear envelope, bulk rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and 
cisternae and vesicles of the Golgi apparatus. This distribution is 
similar to that observed in plants where acid arylsulphatase activity 
was found in the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum with the 
lead deposits located in the lumen lying next to the membrane 
(29). Poux (29) noted lead deposits in a type of cytoplasmic body found 
in root tips of Cucumis sativus which closely resemble the structures 
illustrated in Figure 3 but which she tentatively identifies as 
phragmosomes (= microbodies, ref. 19). We found no arylsulphatase 
activity associated with microbodies in rat liver. Nor did we find 
arylsulphatases concentrated in pericanalicular dense bodies of liver 
in contrast to the report by Abraham (1). Arylsulphatase A-B was not 
found cytochemically in mitochondria. The activity present in crude 
mitochondrial fractions isolated from liver (31, 32, Table 1) may be due 
to contamination of the fraction by lysosomes and/or endoplasmic 

The widespread localization of Arylsulphatase A-B in the endomem- 
brane system of rat liver raises the possibility of an active protein being 
synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and/or nuclear envelope and 
being transported to the bulk smooth endoplasmic reticulum or to the 
Golgi apparatus where it then becomes incorporated into lysosomes and 
other types of vesicles. Of specific interest in terms of the present study 

Cell Biology 




'^A**'^ 5 

0M. * ^ 



• /;'* 





1 / 






Figures 5 and 6. Isolated cell fractions from rat liver incubated for Arylsulphatase 
A-B activity as described in Figure 3. The only lysosome-like bodies observed in the 
preparations were those attached to Golgi apparatus cisternae. Figure 5. Endoplasmic 
reticulum fraction shotving finely granular reaction product located principally over the 
membranes or tvithin the cisternal lumens against the membranes. X 40,000. Figure 6. 
Golgi apparatus fraction.showing finely granular reaction product primarily restricted 
to secretory vesicles containing lipiprotein particles (SV) and vesicles lacking the 
particles and presumed to represent primary lysosomes (L) still attached to the Golgi 
apparatus. In this preparation, both the plate-like portions of cisternae (P) and the 
lipoprotein-containing SER tubules (ST) lacked reaction product. X 38,000. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

& F 



Figure 7. As in Figure 6 showing an intact stack of Golgi apparatus cisternac - 
dictyosome (D) with finely granular reaction product being restricted to the secretory 
vesicles (SV) and a fragment of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). A region of 
close association between the RER fragment and a portion of a secretory vesicle is in- 
dicated by the arrows. Rather than being represented by a continuous tubule, the region 
of association lias a beaded or vesicular character. X 47,000. 

is the absence of arylsulphatase activity from smooth tubules (= 
smooth endoplasmic reticulum, refs. 23, 24, 26) of the Golgi apparatus 
zone. The results show a difference between Golgi apparatus- 
associated and bulk smooth endoplasmic reticulum and raise the pos- 
sibility of direct transfer of arylsulphatase A-B from rough endoplasmic 
reticulum to forming secretory vesicles of the Golgi apparatus. 

Literature Cited 

1. Abraham, 

R. 1967. Lysosomal ai 

sulphatase in the liver. Histochemie 

2. Austin, J. 1960. Metachromatic form of diffuse cerebral sclerosis. III. 
significance of sulfatide and other lipid abnormalities in white matter and 
kidney. Neurology 10:470-483. 

, D. Armstrong, and L. Shearer. 1965. Metachromatic form of 

diffuse cerebral sclerosis. V. The nature and significance of low sulfatase 

activity: A controlled study of brain, liver, and kidney in four patients 
with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). Arch. Neurol. 13:593-614. 

Cell Biology 131 

4. , D. McAfee, and L. Shearer. 1965. Metachromatic form of diffuse 

cerebral sclerosis. IV. Low sulfatase activity in the urine of nine living 
patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). Arch. Neurol. 12:447-455. 

5. Brady, R. O. 1969. Tay-Sachs disease. New England J. Med. 281:1243-1244. 

6. Cheetham, R. D., D. J. Morre, and W. N. Yunghans. 1970. Isolation of a 
Golgi apparatus-rich fraction from rat liver. II. Enzymatic characterization and 
comparison with other cell fractions. J. Cell Biol. 44:492-500. 

7. DeDuve, C. 1959. The function of intracellular hydrolases. Expt. Cell Res. 
Suppl. 7:168-182. 

8. , and R. Wattiaux. 1966. Functions of lysosomes. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 


9. Dickens, F., P. J. Randle, and W. J. Whelan. 1968. Carbohydrate metabolism 
and its disorders. Academic Press, New York. 456 p. 

10. Dodgson, K. S., F. A. Rose, and B. Spencer. 1957. Studies on sulphatases. 
16. A soluble preparation of arylsulphatase C of rat liver microsomes. Biochem. J. 

11. , and B. Spencer. 1963. Studies on sulphatases. I. The choice of sub- 
strate for the assay of rat-liver arylsulphatase. Biochem. J. 53:444-452. 

12. , and J. Thomas. 1953. Studies on sulphatases. II. The assay of the 

arylsulphatase activity of rat tissues. Biochem. J. 53:452-457. 

13. 1954. Studies on sulphatases. VI. The localization of arylsulphatase 

in the rat-liver cell. Biochem. J. 56:177-181. 

14. Fiegenbaum, J., and C. A. Neuberg. 1941. Simplified method for the preparation 
of aromatic sulfuric acid testers. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 63 :3529-3530. 

15. Goldfischer, S. 1965. The cytochemical demonstration of lysosomal aryl sulfatase 
activity by light and electron microscopy. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 12 :659-669. 

16. Gregory, J. D., and P. W. Robbins. 1960. Metabolism of sulfur compounds 
(sulfate metabolism). Ann. Rev. Biochem. 29:347-364. 

17. Jatzkewitz, H. 1960. Die Leukodystrophie, Typ Scholz (metachromatische 
Form der diffusen Sklerose) als Sphingolipoidose ( Cerebrosid-schwef elsavreester- 
speicherkrakheit). Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 318:265-277. 

18. Milson, D. W., F. A. Rose, and K. S. Dodgson. 1968. Assay of a microsomal 
marker enzyme: rat liver arylsulphatase C. Biochem. J. 109 :40P. 

19. Mollenhauer, H. H., D. J. Moore, and A. G. Kelley. 1966. The widespread 
occurrence of plant cytosomes resembling animal microbodies. Protoplasma 
62 :44-52. 

20. MoRRE, D. J. 1971. Isolation of Golgi apparatus. Methods Enzymol. 22 :130-148. 

21. , W. W. Franke, B. Deumling, S. E. Nyquist, and L. Ovtracht. 

1971. Golgi apparatus function in membrane flow and differentiation: Origin of 
plasma membrane from endoplasmic reticulum. Biomembranes 2:95-104. 

22. , R. L. Hamilton, H. H. Mollenhauer, R. W. Mahley, W. P. 

Cunningham, R. D. Cheetam, and V. S. Lequire. 1970. Isolation of a Golgi 
apparatus-rich fraction from rat liver. I. Method and morphology. J. Cell Biol. 

23. — , T. W. Keenan, and H. H. Mollenhauer. 1971. Golgi apparatus 

function in membrane transformations and product compartmentalization: Studies 
with cell fractions isolated from rat liver. Adv. Cytopharmacol. 1:159-182. 

132 Indiana Academy of Science 

24. , R. W. Mahley, B. D. Bennett, and V. S. Lequire. 1971. Continuities 

between endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles and Golgi apparatus in rat liver 
and intestine. Abstracts of Papers, 11th Annual Meeting. The Amer. Soc. Cell Biol. 
199 p. 

25. , H. H. Mollenhaueb, and C. E. Brackek. 1971. Origin and continuity 

of Golgi apparatus, p. 82-126. In J. Reinert and H. Ursprung (eds.). Results and 
Problems in Cell Differentiation. Vol. 2. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 

26. Ovtracht, L., D. J. Morre, and S. E. Nyquist. 1970. A Golgi apparatus- 
en doplasmic reticulum-vesicle (lysosome) complex isolated from rat liver. Microscopie 
Electronique 1970 3:81-82. 

27. Porter, M. T., A. L. Fluharty, S. E. Harris, and H. Kihara. 1970. The 
accumulation of cerebroside sulfates by fibroblasts in culture from patients with 
late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 138:646-652. 

28. Porter, M. T., A. L. Fluharty, and H. Kihara. 1969. Metachromatic 
leukodystrophy. Arylsulphatase-A deficiency in skin fibroblast cultures. Proc. Nat. 
Acad. Sci. U.S. 62:887-891. 

29. Poux, N. 1967. Ultrastructural localization of aryl sulphatase activity in 
plant meristematic cells. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 14:932-933. 

30. Reynolds, E. S. 1963. The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron- 
opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17:208-212. 

31. Roy, A. B. 1953. The sulphatase of ox liver. The complex nature of the enzyme. 
Biochem. J. 53:12-15. 

32. 1958. Comparative studies on the liver sulfatases. Biochem. J. 


33. Spurr, A. R. 1969. a low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron 
microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26:31-43. 

34. Viala, R., and R. Gianetto. 1955. The binding of sulphatase by rat-liver 
particles as compared to that of acid phosphatase. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 

Constancy of Unsaturation in Molecular Species of 
Cardiolipin and Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine 
from Beef Heart Mitochondria 1 

T. W. Keenan 
Department of Animal Sciences 


F. L. Crane 

Department of Biological Sciences 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


The diglyceride acetate products of the acetolysis of beef heart mitochondrial 
cardiolipin were separated into three fractions, trienes, tetraenes and pentaenes, by 
argentation chromatography. Tetraenes accounted for 64 per cent of the total diglyceride 
acetates and linoleic acid accounted for 93 per cent of the total acyl residues of this frac- 
tion. There was an inverse linear relationship between the oleic and linoleic acid 
contents of cardiolipin preparations. Six diglyceride acetate fractions were obtained 
from beef heart mitochondrial phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The major fraction, tetraenes, 
accounted for 54 per cent of the total diglyceride acetates. Stearic and arachidonic acids 
accounted for 89 per cent of the acyl groupings in this fraction. There was a high 
degree of consistency in the total unsaturated fatty acid content of cardiolipin prepara- 
tions and in all diglyceride acetate fractions derived from cardiolipin. This consistency 
was also evident in phosphatidyl ethanolamine preparations. 

In a preliminary communication we reported that the fatty acids 
were nearly randomly distributed between the a - and ^-positions of 
beef heart cardiolipin (8). Argentation chromatography of the 
diglyceride acetates prepared by acetolysis of cardiolipin revealed the 
presence of three molecular species. The major species, tetraenes, 
contained more than 90% linoleic acid (8). Wood and Harlow (19), by 
gas chromatographic separation, similarly found one predominant 
diglyceride in the Phospholipase C digestion products of rat liver 
cardiolipin. In continuing our earlier studies, analyses of multiple 
cardiolipin preparations revealed a great deal of constancy in molecular 
species distribution. Further, this constancy was also observed in the 
total unsaturated fatty acid content of both native cardiolipin and the 
molecular species derived therefrom. These results are reported herein 
along with those obtained from parallel analyses of beef heart 
mitochondrial phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE). Next to cardiolipin, 
PE contains a higher proportion of unsaturated acyl residues than do 
other beef heart mitochondrial phospholipids and contains high levels 
of arachidonic acid (1,2,6). Analysis of PE was thus of particular in- 
terest in view of the hypothesis of De Pury and Collins (4) that 
arachidonyl species are more firmly bound to mitochondrial structural 
protein than are other species. This hypothesis is correlated in part with 

technical assistance by Diane E. Olson. Supported in part by research grant 
AMo4663 from the National Institute for Arthritic and Metabolic Diseases. F. L. C. 
is supported by career grant K6-2 1,839 from the National Institute of General Medical 
Science. Journal Paper No. 4385. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 


134 Indiana Academy of Science 

our recent observation that the highly unsaturated cardiolipin is tightly 
bound to cytochrome oxidase and is essential for function of the 
enzyme (1, 2). 

Materials and Methods 

Beef heart mitochondria were isolated by the method of 
Low and Vallin (10). Cardiolipin and PE were isolated from washed 
total lipid extracts (1) by preparative thin-layer chromatography (8). 
Analysis by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (12) revealed 
these lipids to be free of other polar lipid contaminants. To minimize 
autotoxidation, samples were stored in a nitrogen atmosphere at —20° 
C and a small amount of butylated hydroxyanisole was added to all 
solvents used. Diglyceride acetates were prepared by acetolysis at 
145° C for 40 hours in a nitrogen atmosphere according to 
Renkonen (14). In certain cases, PE was mixed with sphingomyelin 
(chromatographically pure, Sigma Chemical Company), digested with 
Phospholipase C from Clostridium welchii, and the diglycerides thus 
obtained were acetylated (14). The diglyceride acetates were first puri- 
fied by thin-layer chromatography (8) and then separated by argenta- 
tion chromatography on thin layers of Silica gel G containing silver 
nitrate (10:3 by weight). Plates were developed in chloroform contain- 
ing from 0.75 to 1.25% methanol (9, 13). Lipid bands were localized, re- 
covered (8), methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography (7). 
Relative concentrations of various diglyceride acetates was determined 
by ester analysis of the material eluted from silver nitrate plates (18). 

Acetolysis was chosen for the preparation of diglyceride acetates 
as a matter of convenience. It is known that intramolecular migration 
of fatty acids occurs under these conditions (11, 15). However, inter- 
molecular migration does not occur during this reaction (14) and, since 
positional distribution of fatty acids was not determined, the 
diglyceride acetates were suitable for analysis of molecular species 
distribution. As a check on the method, diglyceride acetates prepared 
by acetylation of the products of Phospholipase C digestion of PE (in 
the presence of sphingomyelin) gave results nearly identical to those 
obtained with the acetolysis product of the same PE sample in all 
analyses reported herein. Cardiolpin was not digested by the enzyme 
under these conditions. Although there was oxidative degradation on 
acetolysis, as evidenced by darkening of the reaction mixture, the 
colorless diglyceride acetates isolated had a fatty acid composition 
identical to that of the starting lipid. 

Results and Discussion 

Only three fractions were obtained on separation of the cardiolipin 
diglyceride acetates. The predominant molecular species in each fraction 
were trienes, tetraenes, and pentaenes, respectively (Table 1). A 
remarkably constant amount of each species was present in the seven 
mitochondrial preparations analyzed. Tetraenes were the major species 
encountered, representing 64% of the total (range 60 to 67%). In con- 
trast, a total of six fractions were obtained on argentation chromato- 

Cell Biology 135 

graphy of PE (Table 1). Saturates (minor) plus monoenes plus dienes to- 
gether accounted for approximately 28% of the total. As with cardiolipin, 
tetraenes were the major molecular species, accounting for 54% of the 
total. There was a reasonable consistency in distribution of molecular 
species among the four separate preparations analyzed. 

Table 1. Distribution of molecular species of diglyceride acetates derived from 
cardiolipin and phosphatidyl ethanolamine of beef heart mitochondria. 

% of Total 1 


Cardiolipin (7) 3 


species 2 

ethanolamine (4) 

Saturates — dienes 


27.6 ± 4.25 


20.5 ± 1.86 

6.9 ± 1.72 


63.8 ± 2.66 

54.4 ± 2.97 


15.7 ± 1.71 

11.1 ± 2.28 

1 Results, expressed as % of total ester groups recovered, are reported as the aver- 
age ± standard deviation. 

2 Fractions are designated as the total number of double bonds. 

^Number of separate mitochondrial preparations analyzed. 

In all cardiolipin preparations, at least 91% of the total fatty acyl 
groupings were unsaturated (average 95%, range 91 to 99%) (Table 2). 
There was, however, appreciable variation in individual fatty acids 
comparing different samples, particularly with regard to the major 
fatty acid, linoleate. There was also appreciable variation among the 
individual fatty acids of each diglyceride acetate species from 
cardiolipin comparing separate preparations (Table 2). As with the 
parent lipid, there was a reasonable consistency in the total 
percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, which on the average accounted 
for over 90% of the total acyl residues in all molecular species. Linoleic 
acid was the major fatty acid in all fractions. In the tetraene fraction 
linoleate accounted for, on the average, 93% of the total fatty acids. 

Table 2 contains data on the fatty acid composition of PE and the 
more highly unsaturated diglyceride acetate fractions derived therefrom. 
As with cardiolipin, although there was variation in individual fatty 
acids, the total unsaturated acid content was nearly constant comparing 
different preparations and averaged 64% (range 61 to 68%). The major 
acids were stearate and arachidonate. This constancy in unsaturated 
acid content was also evident in the major subfractions analyzed. In 
the major species, tetraenes, stearate and arachidonate together 
accounted for approximately 89% of the total acyl residues. We had 
previously demonstrated that arachidonate is contained nearly entirely 
in the /^-position of beef heart mitochondrial PE (8). Thus it can be con- 
cluded that l-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine is a 
major species of beef heart mitochondria. 

The diphosphatidyl glycerol structure of cardiolipin precludes 
conclusions on the molecular species distribution of the parent 


Indiana Academy of Science 

phosphatide based on results obtained with diglyceride acetates. How- 
ever, the results contained herein suggest that the majority of the 
molecular species contain three linoleate molecules and further imply 
the occurrence of a molecular species containing solely linoleic acid. 

Table 2. Fatty acid composition of cardiolipin, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and their 

diglyceride acetates 1 . 

Cardiolipin (7) 2 








± 0.2 


± 2.23 

0.4 ± 0.6 


± 0.66 



± 1.40 


± 1.68 

1.8 ± 0.95 


± 1.86 



± 0.17 


± 1.15 

1.0 ± 0.68 


± 1.16 



± 1.47 


± 1.23 

0.9 ± 0.51 


± 1.37 



± 3.14 


± 1.77 

1.5 ± 0.94 


± 7.05 



± 5.72 


± 6.58 

93.2 ± 4.32 


± 3.86 



± 1.42 


± 0.63 

1.1 ± 1.85 


± 6.61 



± 1.41 


± 1.39 



± 0.97 


± 1.38 




± 0.46 







± 2.93 


± 6.78 

96.7 ± 1.72 


± 3.56 

Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine (5) 







Total % 

0.9 ± 1.34 

1.3 ± 1.48 

0.2 ± 0.24 

3.5 ± 2.03 

16.4 ± 9.56 

1.9 ± 0.65 

1.0 ± 0.86 

7.0 ± 2.40 

0.6 ± 0.47 

32.5± 5.81 

15.1 ± 6.36 

40.3 ± 2.48 

4.1 ± 0.89 

24.6 ± 4.18 

1.8 ± 2.14 

11.5 ± 4.32 

31.9 ± 9.45 

4.7 ± 4.38 

2.5 ± 3.29 

0.6 ± 1.25 

0.5 ± 0.58 

2.5 ± 1.55 

3.1 ± 3.78 

1.7 ± 0.40 

35.6 ± 2.31 

48.5 ± 5.60 

4.8 ± 0.42 

0.9 ± 0.80 

0.5 ± 1.07 









































57.8 ± 2.48 


2 Weight % of fatty acids reported as the avearge ± standard deviation. 
^Number of separate mitochondrial preparations analyzed. 

The observations on the constancy in total percentage of un- 
saturated acyl residues in both PE and cardiolipin and the 
molecular species derived from them render feasible the conclusion that 
the physiological function of these lipids requires a closely controlled 
content of unsaturated fatty acids. This conclusion is substantiated by 
the observation that alterations in fatty acid composition can influence 
the properties of membranes by affecting both the attractive forces 
between lipids and proteins and the molecular packing of membrane 
lipids (4, 16). 

Cell Biology 


Eichberg (5) has recently reported that nearly 50% of the cardioli- 
pin of beef heart can be isolated as a protein complex. The high degree of 
unsaturation in all diglyceride acetate species from cardiolipin may 
explain the tenaceous binding of cardiolipin to protein as being due to 
extensive interaction between the double bonds of the fatty acids and 
hydrophobic groups within the proteins. (3, 4, 17). 


_l 70 

66 - 



10 12 14 

Figure 1. Relationship between the contents of linoleic acid and oleic acid in beef 
heart mitochondrial cordiolipin. Data are weight percentages calculated by peak area 
analysis of gas chromato grams. 

We wish to call attention to one further observation made in the 
course of these studies. Although there was appreciable variation in 
the contents of oleic and linoleic acids comparing different preparations 
of cardiolipin, there was a nearly linear inverse relationship between 
the contents of these two acids (Fig. 1). This appears to indicate that 
at least a portion of one acid may be replaced by the other in 
cardiolipin without impairment of the psychochemical properties of the 
mitochondrial membrane. 

Literature Cited 

1. Awasthi, Y. C, T. F. Chuang, T. W. Keenan, and F. L. Crane. 1970. Associa- 
tion of cardiolipin and cytochrome oxidase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 

1971. Tightly bound cardiolipin in cytochrome oxidase. Biochim. 

Biophys. Acta 226:42-52. 

138 Indiana Academy of Science 

3. Benson, A. A. 1966. On the orientation of lipids in chloroplasts and cell 
membranes. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 43:265-270. 

4. De Pury, G. G., and F. D. Collins. 1966. The influence of fatty acid composition 
on the rate of binding of lecithin by extracted mitochondria. Chem. Phys. Lipids 

5. Eichberg, J. 1969. Isolation and partial characterization of beef heart pro- 
teolipid. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 187:533-545. 

6. Fleischer, S., and G. Rouser. 1965. Lipids of subcellular particles. J. Amer. 
Oil Chem. Soc. 42:588-607. 

7. Keenan, T. W., and D. J. Morr:e. 1970. Phospholipid class and fatty acid 
composition of Golgi apparatus from rat liver and comparison with other cell frac- 
tions. Biochemistry 9:19-25. 

8. Keenan, T. W., Y. C. Awasthi, and F. L. Crane. 1970. Cardiolipin from beef 
heart mitochondria: Fatty acid positioning and molecular species distribution. 
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 40:1102-1109. 

9. Kuksis, A., L. Marai, W. C. Breckenridge, D. A. Gornall, and O. 
Stachnyk. 1968. Molecular species of lecithins of some functionally distinct 
rat tissues. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 46:511-524. 

10. Low, H., and I. Vallin. 1963. Succinate-linked diphosphopyridine nucleotid- 
reduction in submitochondrial particles. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 69:361-374. 

11. Nutter, L. J., and O. S. Privett. 1966. Acyl migration in the conversion of 
lecithin to 1, 2-diglyceride acetates by acetolysis. Lipids 1:234-235. 

12. Parsons, J. G., and S. Patton. 1967. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography of 
polar lipids from milk and mammary tissue. J. Lipid Res. 8:696-698. 

13. Privett, O. S., M. L. Blank, D. W. Codding, and E. C. Nickell. 1965. 
Lipid analysis by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 

14. Renkonen, O. 1965. Individual molecular species of different phospholipid 
classes II. A method of analysis. J. Amer. Oil. Chem. Soc. 42:298-304. 

15. 1966. Altered fatty acid distribution of glycero-phosphatides induced 

by acetolysis. Lipids 1:160-161. 

16. Richardson, T., and A. L. Tappel. 1962. Swelling of fish mitochondria. J. Cell 
Biol. 13:43-53. 

17. Rosenberg, A. 1967. Galactosyl diglycerides: Their possible function in euglena 
chloroplasts. Science 157:1191-1196. 

18. Snyder, F., and N. Stephens 1959. A simplified spectrophotometric deter- 
mination of ester groups in lipids. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 34:244-245. 

19. Wood, R., and R. D. Harlow. 1969. Structural analyses of rat liver phos- 
phoglycerides. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 135:272-281. 


Chairman : Wilmer J. Stratton, Department of Chemistry, 
Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 47374 

Richard Pilger, Department of Chemistry, St. Mary's College, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, was elected Chairman for 1972 


The Synthesis and Decomposition of Some Interesting 1-Pyrazolines. LEO 

Mullins, Terry L. Kruger, Theresa Cheng, and John Sharp, 
Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

The synthesis of several bicyclo-1-pyrazolines through 3 + 2 cycloaddi- 

tion has been studied. The kinetics of the decomposition of a few of these 
compounds has been carried out with the identification of the decomposi- 
tion products. These studies have shown that the decompositions may 
occur by processes allowed by orbital symmetry considerations. Future 
work includes product analysis, kinetics, mass spectra, and comparison 
of photodecomposition products with thermal-decomposition products. 

Properties and Reactions of Some N, N-Diethylaniline Oxides. Terry L. 
Kruger, Nancy E. Tharp and James W. Kress, Department of Chem- 
istry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306.— — The title com- 
pounds with a variety of ring substituents have been synthesized. The 
basicities of these water soluble compounds have been correlated in the 
Hammett Equation. These compounds undergo facile Cope elimination 
to the corresponding N-ethylphenylhydroylamines. An analysis of some 
aspects of the mechanism of this reaction and an explanation of the 
effect of substituent on both this reaction and basicity was presented. 

Synthesis and Identification of p-Benzoquinones Occurring in Arthropod 
Defensive Secretions. Joseph E. Rogers, Jr., Benjamin Fieselmann 
and James Jose, Department of Chemistry, Earlham College, Richmond, 

Indiana 47374. Eight substituted p-benzoquinones known to occur in 

arthropod defensive secretions have been prepared. Chromatographic 
methods have been explored which facilitate identification of these 
quinones in complex naturally-occurring secretions. The eight quinones 
(p-benzoquinone, methyl-p-benzoquinone, ethyl-p-benzoquinone, 2,3-di- 
methyl-p-benzoquinone, 2,5-dimethyl-p-benzoquinone, 2,3,5-trimethyl-p- 
benzoquinone, 2-methoxy-p-benzoquinone, and 2-methyl-3-methoxy-p- 
benzoquinone) were either purchased or in most cases were synthesized 
by oxidation of suitably substituted amines or phenols. The gas chromato- 
graphic behavior of these quinones has been investigated on several 
stationary phases over a range of temperatures. All but two of the 
quinones may be resolved on a five-foot by one-eighth inch copper column 
containing 2 per cent OV-17 on GC Q. Thin-layer and paper 
chromatography of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of the 
quinones reveals that all eight 2,4DNP derivatives may be resolved on 
a silica gel layer (Eastman Chromagram K301R) upon development 
with a 3:1 chloroform :xylene solvent in the presence of aqueous 
ammonia vapors. 


140 Indiana Academy of Science 

A Chemical Study of the White River at Muncie. Charles T. Botkin 
and Robert E. Van Atta, Department of Chemistry, Ball State Uni- 
versity, Muncie, Indiana 47306. — — Analyses for several chemical com- 
ponents of the White River are reported for a 50-day period during the 
summer of 1971. The objective of the study was to determine whether 
or not significant variations in dissolved oxygen, chloride, free and 
albuminoid ammonia, pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, and several other 
factors occurred and could be conveniently monitored in a flowing system 
of considerable volume. Results are presented for sampling points 
upstream and downstream of the city and are compared with climato- 
logical records for the sampling period. Time versus analyzed factor 
profiles are presented and, where feasible, correlated with each other and 
with other variables in the stream's composition. 

A New Experiment for Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. B. N. Storhoff 
and D. F. Storhoff, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, 
Muncie, Indiana 47306. The utility of simple group-theoretical consid- 
erations in inorganic chemistry is well documented. The appreciation for 
such considerations has prompted the design of an experiment which illus- 
trates their utility in vibrational spectroscopy. The experiment focuses 
on the infrared active CO stretching vibrations of several manganese 
carbonyl complexes. Probable structures are assigned to the complexes 
by comparing the observed and predicted spectra. 

Rhenium(I) Complexes of 2-Cyanoethyldiphenylphosphine. B. N. Stor- 
hoff, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 
47306. — Halopentacarbonylrhenium (I) (CI or Br) reacts with 2- 
eyanoethyldiphenylphosphine(L) to yield novel complexes of the stoi- 
chiometry [Re(CO) 3 LX] n . Infrared data and molecular weight data 
suggest that these complexes are dimeric and utilize L as a bridging 
ligand. The complexes react with a variety of donor solvents and ligands 
(L/) to yield complexes of stoichiometry Re(CO) 3 LL'X. 

Chelating Behavior of Some New Sterically Hindered Tetrafunctional 
Azine Ligands. John A. Scarlett and Wilmer J. Stratton, Depart- 
ment of Chemistry, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 47374. Two 

new unsymmetric azine ligands and their iron (II) complexes have been 
synthesized and characterized. Pyridinalpyridylphenylketazine was found 
to form two complexes as expected: [Fe 2 L 3 ]I 4 , with each ligand 
bridging two metals in a bis-bidentate fashion, and [FeL 2 ]I 2 , with trident- 
ate bonding of each ligand. Elemental analysis, infrared spectra, and elec- 
tronic spectra were used to confirm these structures. Pyridylmethylpy- 
ridylphenylketazine also forms a bridged complex, [Fe 2 L ;? ]I 4 , but ap- 
parently does not form a 2:1 tridentate complex. Attempts to produce 
the latter complex resulted only in formation of a hydrazone complex. 
A ligand hydrolysis mechanism is proposed, in which the steric effects 
of the phenyl and methyl groups cause the ligands to "squeeze" out a 
metal ion, thus allowing proton attack on the uncoordinated C=N group. 

Conductivity Studies in Acetonitrile for a Novel Series of Metal Chelates 
with 2-Pyridylmethylketazine. David J. Harris and Wilmer J. 
Stratton, Department of Chemistry, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 

Chemistry 141 

47374. Complexes of NiCl 2 , CoCl 2 , ZnCl 2 with 2-pyridylmethylketa- 

zine, each of which had analyses indicating 4/5 or 5/6 of a ligand per 
metal, were studied in acetonitrile solution. The data obtained showed 
that the conductances of the three compounds are distinctly different. 
Empirical equivalent weights were established from the conductivity data 
for each complex. Comparison of the slopes of plots of equivalent conduct- 
ance versus square root of concentration with similar plots for two ref- 
erence compounds was used to establish the charge types of the com- 
plexes. Results for the nickel complex are consistent with a formula 
[Ni 2 L 2 Cl 3 (H 2 0) 2 ][NiCl 4 ]. Data for the cobalt and zinc complexes do 
not fit this formulation and are indicative of a more highly polymeric 

A Counterdiffusion Study of Ferric and Silicate Ions in Agar Media. 

Jon D. Naylor and John H. Meiser, Department of Chemistry, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The development of new 

techniques for obtaining quantitative data used in the investigation of 
the counterdiffusion of ferric and silicate ions in an agar gelatin is pre- 
sented. A treatment is given of the equations used for predicting the 
location of the band precipitates at given time intervals based on the 
supersaturation theory. The authors also presented a brief historical 
account of the Liesegang Phenomenon and a review of several 
theories providing explanations of this occurence of band precipitates. 

Liquid X-Ray Diffraction Studies of the Structures of Aqueous Metal 
Nitrate, Acetate, and Perchlorate Solutions Using Overviewing Tech- 
niques. Richard M. Lawrence and Jan R. Relford, Department of 

Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. -Overviewing 

techniques were developed to examine the structures of liquids by x-ray 
diffraction. Viewing the entire scattering volume of a sample yields agree- 
ment between the forms of the observed and calculated scattering curves 
and permits routine calculation of a radial distribution function for the 
system. In these studies radial distribution functions were calculated for 
almost twenty aqueous solutions of silver, lead, thallium (III), mercury 
(I), and cerium (III) nitrates, acetates, and perchlorates. These radial 
distribution functions are interpreted in terms of the numbers and dis- 
tances of metal-metal and metal-oxygen interactions among closest neigh- 
bors. The mercury (I) solutions are the only solutions studied in which 
there are significant metal-metal contacts, and the results are consistent 
with the presence of Hg 2 2 + . In the other solutions studied the metal 
ions appear to be in contact with from four to nine oxygens of water 
molecules or oxy anions. The number of metal-oxygen contacts is found 
to vary in a consistent manner with the concentration of the solution and 
the nature of the cation and the anion. The metal-oxygen distances agree 
with the sums of the van der Waals radius of oxygen and the crystal 
ionic radii of the metal ions. 

Molecular Orbital Calculations on Some Nitrogen Heterocycles. T. L. 

Kruger and James W. Kress, Department of Chemistry, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A CNDO/2-INDO calculation of 

the quantum-mechanical properties of diazomethane and some substituted 
pyrazoles and 1-pyrazolines was presented. Calculated and experimental 


Indiana Academy of Science 

bond orders, bond lengths, ultraviolet spectra and their relationship to 
the physical properties of the compounds were compared. Specific 
emphasis was placed on comparison of HMO and CNDO/2-INDO prer 
diction for pyrazole and substituted pyrazoles. 

An Anticholinesterase Agent and Myasthenia Gravis. Robert M. 
Brooker, Department of Chemistry, Indiana Central College, Indianap- 
olis, Indiana 46227, and T. Lamar Kerley, Dow Human Health R and D 

Laboratories. Large doses of impure para-xylene-bis (pyridinium) 

chloride when given to unanesthitized dogs produced a muscle weakness 
that progressed to complete paralysis. Small doses of the drug reversed 
the paralytic effects of d-tubocurarine. It was found that this latter effect 
was caused by an impurity present in the original salt. Attempts were 
made to isolate and identify this compound that exhibited this anticholine- 
sterase activity. 

The Biosynthesis of Steroidal Sapogenins. Paul Andermatt, University 
of Basel, Switzerland, and Department of Chemistry, Earlham College, 

Richmond, Indiana 47374. The biosynthesis of steroids in human and 

animal organisms is known: acetic acid ~>~ mevalonic acid -*" squalene 
-> cholesterol, or a similar C 27 -steroid. 

From Digitalis lanata, an European plant, tigogenin(2) was isolated. 
After the incorporation of (2- 14 C) -mevalonic acid(l) the molecule showed 
the expected distribution of radioactivity : 



CH 2 CH 2 


The distribution of radioactivity was determined by chemical degradation 
of the molecule. 

The cyclisation and ring closure are strictly stereospecific. One fifth 
of the radioactivity was located at C-27, while C-26 showed no radio- 
activity. To explain this stereospecific ring closure, a A 24 -steroid as 
desmosterol or cycloartenol(3) may be a possible precursor of tigogenin. 
To clarify this problem, radioactive cycloartenol(S) and cholesterol (4) 
were fed to the plants. Whereas cholesterol was incorporated, tigogenin 
showed no radioactivity after the application of cycloartenol. 


Chemistry 143 

These results show, that the biosynthesis of tigogenin involves the 
following steps : mevalonic acid -> squalene -> cholesterol -> tigogenin. 

Thin-Layer Gel Filtration Studies of Adenosine Deaminases from Beef 
and Beef Fetus Livers 1 . Bruce A Thornburgh and Pang Fai Ma, 

Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

The chromatographic patterns of adenosine deaminase in beef liver 

and beef fetus liver showed that the enzyme exists in two forms in these 
tissues. The high molecular weight enzyme (Type A) was the predominant 
form in the beef liver and the low molecular weight enzyme (Type C) was 
the predominant form in the beef fetus liver. The Type-A enzyme was 
found to partially dissociate to the Type-C enzyme when it was rechro- 
matographed on a Sephadex column. 

A rapid method for detecting the presence of the Type-A and Type- 
C enzymes was needed to study the dissociation of the Type-A enzyme 
under various conditions. This led to the development of a thin layer gel 
filtration chromatographic technique which was applicable to adenosine 
deaminase. The technique involved the detection of the ammonia that 
is given off in the deamination reaction with Nessler's Reagent. 

1 This study was supported by a Student-Faculty Research Grant from Ball State 

A Comparative Study of Adenosine Deaminase in Human Tissues. 1 
Thomas A. Magers and Pang Fai Ma, Department of Chemistry, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Multiple forms of adenosine 
deaminase were first observed and studied in many species of lower 
animals by Ma and Fisher. Three relative molecular sizes were observed: 
200,000 100,000, 30,000, and designated as enzyme forms A, B, and C, 
respectively. Evidence by Ma has shown the smallest multiple form to 
be a monomeric unit of the largest. 

Akedo, Nishihara, Shinkai, and Komatsu, have since studied similar 
multiple forms corresponding to the A and C forms in certain human 
tissues. They have reported that while normal human lung tissue con- 
tains only the A form adenosine deaminase, cancerous lung tissue 
contains both A and C forms. 

The present study enlarges the survey of multiple forms in both 
normal and cancerous human tissues. Kinetic, physical, and immunological 
parameters are presented by way of comparison of the multiple enzyme 
forms extracted from various tissues. Thin-layer gel filtration and electro- 
phoretic techniques have been applied to the study and characteristic pat- 
terns were discussed. Partial purification of the monomeric adenosine 
deaminase from the cerebrum has been achieved and pertinent data were 

Supported by the Little Red Door, The Delaware County Cancer Society. 

Photochemical Synthesis and Destruction of Oxaziranes. M. L. Druel- 
inger and S. R. Lammert, Department of Chemistry, Indiana State 
University, Terre Haute, Indiana, 47809.— -The irradiation of a series 

144 Indiana Academy of Science 

of nitrones was studied. The compounds selected for this study possessed 
N-aryl or N-t-alkyl groups, while the nitrone carbon was either unsubsti- 
tuted (methylene) or carried a single phenyl group. The reactions were 
carried out in a nuclear magnetic resonance tube using a medium 
pressure mercury arc. In all cases the initially formed product was the 
oxazirane whose photochemical stability was dependent upon its substi- 
tuents and the irradiation wavelength. Subsequent reaction occurred via 
rearrangement to give amides or fragmentation to give nitrenes and 
carbonyl compounds. Mechanistic studies indicate a singlet excited state 
for the former and a triplet excited state for the later reaction. 


Some New Approaches to Teaching Chemistry for Non-Science Majors. 

Lawrence L. Garber, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University at 

South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46615. If today's college student 

is to deal constructively with present and future social and technical prob- 
lems, he must have a basic understanding of the fundamentals of science. 
The course described here is designed to enable the non-science oriented 
student to learn some of the fundamentals of chemistry but in a stimulat- 
ing manner. To meet this objective, topics such as environmental pollu- 
tion, polymer chemistry, chemical processes important to life, and certain 
aspects of drug chemistry are used to exemplify chemical phenomena. 
The course meets for 4 hours of lecture-discussion and 2 hours of labora- 
tory work per week for 15 weeks. 

Part I of the course emphasizes properties of atoms, electronic 
structure, periodic trends, oxidation numbers, simple theories of chemical 
bonding and the rationale behind why chemical changes take place as they 
do. Part I is designed to provide sufficient background for the discus- 
sion of subsequent topics. To illustrate why Part I is necessary, consider 
the production of sulfur dioxide which is a basic air pollutant. If the 
student understands electronic sturcture and periodic trends, the student 
can very easily predict that sulfur, when combined with oxygen, can have 
an oxidation number of plus four and thus a combustion product of sulfur 
will be sulfur dioxide. This type of logic can be applied to many simple, 
yet important, reactions that occur in pollution production and abate- 

Part II of the course emphasizes the topic of air and water pollu- 
tion which obviously cannot be extremely detailed. Five main classes of 
air pollution; sulfur oxides and related compounds, nitrogen oxides and 
related compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate 
matter, are included in the discussion. The student is exposed to some 
of the important chemical reactions that are instrumental in the produc- 
tion of air pollutants; chemical reactions that can be potentially harmful 
to life and matter; and chemical processes that might render solutions 
to the problems. The greenhouse effect is discussed. The factors and condi- 
tions necessary for the production of smog are emphasized. 

The discussion of smog production and composition provides an excel- 
lent mechanism for the introduction of organic chemistry. The topic of 

Chemistry 145 

air pollution can be used to illustrate acid-base neutralization, chemical 
properties of acidic and basic anhydrides, pH, oxidation-reduction, colloids 
and colloidal properties. The discussion of water pollution very easily 
permits the illustration of such phenomena as ionization, electrolytes, 
solubility, hydrogen bonding and concentration units. 

Water pollution topics include a discussion of eutrophication by 
phosphates and nitrates, the chemical and physical properties and biode- 
gradability of detergents, and the essential chemical characteristics of 
phosphorous, nitrogen and sulfur cycles. A discussion of water hardness 
and the use, characteristics and effects of water softners are easily 
incorporated in Part II. The topic of mercury pollution and associated 
controversies demonstrates readily the interrelationships of inorganic and 
organic chemistry. 

Part III emphasizes organic and biochemistry. A discussion of poly- 
mers illustrates successfully some additional characteristics of organic 
compounds. A discussion of pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls and selected 
aspects of drug chemistry are also included. The characteristics and roles 
of DNA and RNA in life processes are emphasized as well as the char- 
acteristics of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. 

The laboratory is designed to supplement the lecture. For 5 weeks 
the student investigates air and water pollution. Examples of some of 
the determinations are pH, color, temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved 
carbon dioxide, hardness, detergent content (ABS and LAS) and 
concentrations of sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, copper, and chloride 
ions in local water systems. Except for temperature, color and pH 
measurements, Hach chemical kits, which are specifically designed for 
each determination, are used. The advantage of using these chemical 
kits, or other commercial chemical kits, is that the reagents are pre- 
measured, the glassware is calibrated, and the detection is simple. The 
amount of substance present is indicated quanitatively by either a color 
change or a color comparison. The detection scheme is calibrated so as 
to permit direct determination of concentration without the need for 
mathematics. Hence, the result is not masked by mathematical diffi- 
culties that the student might have. All results are collected on a data 
sheet. The laboratory results help to promote considerable discussion 
and illustrate the quality of water in the South Bend area. 

In conclusion, by presenting the topics of environment pollution, 
aspects of drug and polymer chemistry and some of the essentials of the 
chemistry of life processes, important topics and concepts of chemistry 
can be discussed and learned by the student but in a more interesting 


Chairman: Carl H. Krekeler, Department of Biology, 
Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

Alton A. Lindsey, Department of Biological Sciences, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907, was elected 

Chairman for 1972 


A Water Quality Study of the Tippecanoe River. Paul T. McKelvey, 

Tippewa Technical Institute (IVTC), Lafayette, Indiana 47905. A 

field study of water quality of the Tippecanoe River in north-central 
Indiana was conducted during June-September 1971. Surface samples 
were collected at 18 sites covering the 168-mile length of the Tippecanoe 
River from North Webster to Delphi, Indiana. Quantitative determina- 
tions were made for temperature, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, 
ortho-phosphate, nitrate-nitrogen, pH, and total coliform bacteria. 
Results indicated a high potential productivity due to more than adequate 
quantities of dissolved nutrient material. Total coliform bacteria counts 
were typical of small river systems flowing through both rural and urban 

The Howe's Rapid Biochemical Oxygen Demand Index and its Technique. 

Robert H. L. Howe, Eli Lilly and Company Tippecanoe Laboratories, 

Lafayette, Indiana 47902. The meaning of a rapid biochemical oxygen 

demand index and its usefulness was described. The development of a 
technique for the determination of this index was presented. 

Stimulation of Branch Abscission in Quercus alba by 2-Chloroethyl- 
phosphonic Acid. William R. Chaney, Department of Forestry and 
Conservation, and A. Carl Leopold, Department of Horticulture, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Abscission of young branches 

of a mature white oak (Quercus alba) was stimulated by 1 per cent and 2 
per cent 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid in lanolin applied to the base of the 
branches. Treatments were applied 4 times at approximately 2-week 
intervals in the fall. The greatest stimulation of branch abscission re- 
sulted from treatment on September 11. Thirty-six per cent of control 
branches were shed, whereas 80 per cent of branches treated with 
2-chloroethylphosponic acid abscised. The current shoot of abscised 
branches was significantly shorter than the current shoot of branches 
retained on the tree, suggesting that the less vigorous branches were 
shed. Branches of juvenile trees of white oak did not abscise 
naturally and were not induced to abscise by treatment with 
2-chloroethylphosponic acid. 

Basin Leakage Considerations in Ecological and Hydrological Studies of 
Experimental Watersheds. H. E. McReyonlds, U. S. Forest Service, 633 

Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53203. In the last two 

decades, there has been an increase in the number of ecological or hydro- 
logical watershed studies. More often, these experiments have concerned 


148 Indiana Academy of Science 

nutrient cycling, water-yield, and measurements of vegetative manipula- 
tions. Basically, these studies have considered the watershed to be a 
collecting basin with a single output point. 

Too often, these watershed studies have not considered hydrologic 
"basin leakage" (i.e., interbasin imports and exports of ground water 
flow). This paper explored a number of processes by which interbasin 
transfer can occur (non-coincidental topographic and phreatic divides; 
interbasin solution tubes; intercepting pre-glacial channels; seasonal 
variations in flow direction). It appears that the basic assumptions con- 
cerning precipitation input area and piezometric flow patterns are seldom 
validated in the experimental design. 


A New System for Ecological Education — SEE. John W. Hart, Hayes 
Research Foundation, Inc., and Jessie M. Turner, Finley School; Rich- 
mond, Indiana 47374. Man's activities are shaping his environment; 

in turn, the environment he creates surreptitiously molds him. The indus- 
trial revolation initiated a speed up in man's ability to modify his 
surroundings. The pressures of a steadily increasing number of people, 
each demanding more and more goods and services are dictating the 
direction of movement of environmental change. That these forces are 
carrying us on a tidal wave in the wrong direction is particularly 
apparent in the developed nations of the world. We are surrounded on 
all sides by activities which degrade our environment — and hence our 
lives. Our senses are constantly insulted by noise, visual blight, dirty 
water, and stinking air, but man is a sensitive creature, and it is this 
very sensitivity which separates him from the other animals. The 
problem is not that man will not be able to adapt to this hostile 
environment. The problem is that he is doing so already, and in so doing, 
he is becoming a less sensitive organism. When man has finally lost his 
sensitivity, man has been lost. Nature may add a noble name to the list 
of animal failures. 

Education is the last hope for creating citizens who are environmental 
assets, members of a citizenry atuned to its responsibility to all living 
things on Earth. 

The system which provides the American education has for the most 
part given only lip service to the need for environmental training. An 
equally serious indictment of the system is that it Las not recognized the 
life-centered approach to learning as an exciting way to escape today's 
educational doldrums. A few innovative teachers have found that students 
can be turned on by involving them in the study of their surroundings 
and the interrelationships therein. Unfortunately the efforts of these 
teachers, while not wasted entirely, are greatly diluted by the absence of 
any continuity of environmental learning. The one shot environmental/ 
ecological learning experience may come at any level from kindergarten 
thru college, or even in that limited education after college or high school 
which we call "continuing". 

SEE, the System for Ecological Education, was created to fill the 
need for an orderly, planned, life-centered approach to education which 

Ecology 149 

will encompass the entire educational experience of an individual from 
kindergarten throughout life. SEE introduces a systematic way of 
developing in each child an understanding of environmental problems, 
their causes, solutions, and man's moral reasponsibility to solve them. 
It introduces and progressively develops concepts. At each grade level 
the student attains a more comprehensive understanding of each com- 
ponent of the environment and of the interrelationships among its 
physical and biological components. 

SEE is envisioned as a unifying framework within which the environ- 
mental inputs of all educators may become cumulative. The system, while 
designed primarily for use as a K-12 instrument, can be used to develop 
college courses for teachers, resource majors, and students of other 
disciplines. It is equally adaptable for use in adult education. 


Natural Areas and the Indianapolis Parks Department. Glenn Patrick 
Juday, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, 
Indiana 47907. 

Response of Eyeless Cave Beetles to Light. Carl H. Krekeler, Neal 
Brandt, and Bruce Rutland, Department of Biology, Valparaiso Uni- 
versity, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383. 

Calibration Techniques for Remote Sensing Measurements of 
Water Temperatures 1 

R. M. Hoffer and L. A. Bartolucci 2 

Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Remote sensing techniques, involving optical-mechanical scanners mounted in aircraft, 
offer great potential for meeting some of the needs for more quantitative information 
on our water (and other) resources. One technique used in remote sensing allows the 
absolute temperature of water surfaces to be determined from several thousand feet of 
altitude to within 0.5 degree Centigrade. Two methods for calibration of thermal infrared 
scanner data were described. The accuracy of these techniques was shown. The limitations 
of the calibration procedures and use of airborne scanner systems were discussed. 


One recently-developed remote sensing tool is a "thermal infrared 
optical-mechanical scanner" or "thermal IR scanner." This instrument 
can be mounted in an aircraft and flown over an area of interest, thereby 
allowing one to obtain a temperature map of the area below the aircraft. 

Calibration Techniques 

To make thermal IR scanner data meaningful, the relative radiance 
values (as measured by the scanner) must be related to the true tempera- 
ture of the area being sensed, or target area. Two quite different tech- 
niques are possible. These are 1) the correlation method, and 2) the 
internal calibration techniques. 

The correlation method is relatively simple, but does have some 
serious drawbacks. Variations in tone on the thermal IR imagery corres- 
pond to relative differences in the radiant temperatures of the scene 
imaged. Therefore, if the actual temperature of the various objects on 
the earth's surface can be determined, it is possible to correlate these 
measurements with density values of the imagery to those points on the 
ground. To use this technique for water studies, temperature measure- 
ments must be obtained for a number of locations on the river or lake at 
the time the aircraft passes overhead. Later, these measurement points 
are located on the thermal IR imagery and the density of the film at these 
points is measured. In this way, correlation is possible between actual 
temperature of the water at a few points and the film density at these 
same points. Intermediate film density values can then be interpolated. 

The major drawbacks to this technique are that, 1) it takes only a 
few minutes to obtain the scanner data via airplane, but it may take 

1 The work described in this paper was supported by the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, under Grant #NGR 16-005-112. 

2 Associate Professor, Department of Forestry and Conservation, and Graduate 
Student, Geosciences Department, respectively. 


Ecology 151 

several hours to obtain surface temperature measurements, during which 
time the water temperature may have changed significantly, and 2) 
development of the film on which the data are recorded is subject to many 
possible variations in chemical processing which can sometimes cause 
tonal differences to not have a linear relationship. 

For several years, the correlation method was the only technique 
available, due to limitations in the thermal IR scanning equipment. 
Relatively recent developments in scanning equipment have allowed 
researchers to devise an "internal calibration" technique, which, with 
two assumptions, allows the actual water temperature to be determined 
directly from the scanner data, and no surface observations of tempera- 
ture are necessary (other than to verify the reliability of the technique). 
One assumption is that the radiation characteristics of water in the 
thermal IR region approximate those of a black-body radiator (which 
is defined as an object that will completely absorb all frequencies of 
radiation incident upon it). Water departs only 2-3% from being a perfect 
black-body radiator in these thermal IR wavelengths (1). The second 
assumption is that atmospheric attenuation has relatively little effect 
on the amplitude of the signal received at the scanner. This assumption 
is based on the fact that the 8.0-13.5^m region of the electromagnetic 
spectrum is in an atmospheric window (where absorption by the various 
components of the atmosphere is minimal), and also that most of the small 
amounts of energy absorbed by water vapor or other atmospheric constit- 
uents would be reradiated by the water vapor since water acts as a black- 
body in this portion of the spectrum, thereby allowing only extremely 
small net losses of radiated energy between the water surface and the 
aircraft scanner. Previous work has indicated that these assumptions 
appear to be reasonable (3). 

The data used by LARS in this work was obtained by a multispectral 
scanner, owned and operated by the University of Michigan, and mounted 
in a C-47 aircraft (4). This scanner has been modified to accommodate 
two reference black-bodies which are viewed by the scanning mirror 
during each revolution. These reference sources are referred to as calibra- 
tion plates, and are temperature controlled, one plate being cooler than 
the other, in approximately the same range of temperatures of the earth 
surface features over which the aircraft is flying (2). 


The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of the 
temperature calibration procedures using data collected over the Wabash 
River at two different times of the year, and under somewhat different 
weather conditions. On June 30, 1970, data were collected from an alti- 
tude of 3,000 feet at 10:45 am, with good clear weather conditions, while 
on August 13, the altitude was 2,000 feet, with somewhat hazy weather 
conditions and at 3:47 PM. 

Using the data logs on the calibration plate temperatures, the data 
were calibrated for radiant temperature and gray scale maps were 
produced. The different temperature ranges were depicted by different 


Indiana Academy of Science 


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Figure 1. An aerial photograph and computer printouts of calibrated thermal IR 
scanner data, collected June 30 from 3,000 feet (center) and August 13 from 
2,006 feet altitude (bottom). The function of the Tippecanoe River (from top) and 
Wabash River (from right) is shown. Note that the June 30 data shows that the water 
in the Tippecanoe is cooler than the Wabash, while the opposite is true for the August 
13 data. The August data also shows much of the land area at the same apparent 
temperature range as the water. 

Symbol Key. Temperature in °C. 

June 30. (blank): 24.0 or lower, (M) : 24.0-24.9, ( = ): 24.9-25.2, ( — ) : 25.2-25.5, (.): 
25.5-26.0, (blank) : 26.0 or higher. 

August 13. (blank): 25.4 or lower, (M): 25.4-25.9, ( = ): 25-9-26.2, (— ) : 26.2-26.5, 
(blank) : 26.5 or higher. 

Ecology W4 

computer symbols. Only those temperature ranges that corresponded 
to the river were displayed. A blank, or no symbol, was used for all other 


The junction of the Tippecanoe River (from left) with the Wabash 
river (from top) is illustrated in Figure 1. On June 30, the actual water 
temperatures, as measured from the boat, showed very good correlation 
with the temperatures indicated by the calibrated scanner data. Note that 
the Tippecanoe River was approximately 1.2°C cooler than the Wabash, 
and that this temperature difference persisted for a considerable distance 
downstream. On August 13, the Tippecanoe was relatively warmer than 
the Wabash, but the calibrated scanner data indicates about 0.8°C lower 
temperatures than were actually measured. Since the August data were 
obtained under hazy conditions, this could be the cause of the calibration 
error, and would indicate that additional work is required to obtain a fully 
reliable calibration technique. 

Note that on the June 30 data only the river areas are shown on the 
printouts, indicating that only the water occupied the temperature ranges 
indicated, but on August 13, considerable land areas were emitting the 
same amounts of energy as the water. This indicates that if one is to 
produce temperature maps showing only the water areas, a layered classi- 
fication scheme will need to be developed whereby one first identifies all 
water areas, and then maps the temperature characteristics of the water 

Literature Cited 

1. Hood, P., and S. H. Ward. 1969. Airborne geophysical methods. In Advances in 
Geophysics, Vol. 13, Academic Press, New York, N.Y. 112 p. 

2. Atwell, B. H. 1971. Calibration of thermal channels of the university of 
Michigan Scanner. LARS Information Note 022571, Purdue University. 

3. Atwell, B. H., R. B. Macdonald, and L. A. Bartolucci. 1971. Thermal 
mapping of stream from airborne radiometric scanning. Water Resources Bull. 


4. Lars Staff. 1968. Remote multispectral sensing in agriculture. Annu. Rep., Laboratory 
for Agricultural Remote Sensing, Volume 3. Purdue Univ. Agri. Expt. Stat., Res. 
Bull. #844, Lafayette, Ind. 175 p. 

Natural Areas in the Beech-maple and Maple-basswood 
Forest Regions of Nine States 

Linda K. Escobar* and Alton A. Lindsey 

Department of Biological Sciences 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Four hundred and eighty-two natural areas of biological or geological interest are 
now reported within the Beech — maple and Maple — basswood Regions of the 9 states which 
include these forest regions. 

In Indiana, 8 forested natural areas and 17 tracts of other types were previously 
unpublished. Of the former, the Womer Tract, Bryan Memorial Preserve and Burgdorf 
Woods are described briefly. 

In 1969-70 the National Park Service commissioned 5 theme-studies 
at as many ecological laboratories in the eastern and central United 
States, to obtain data from secondary sources for later use in designating 
many new National Natural Landmarks. The basis for organizing this 
overall survey was the forest region map inside the back cover of Braun 
(1950). Our contribution (3, 7) was a study based largely on correspond- 
ence, interviews and published sources, of the two forest regions domi- 
nated by sugar maple. The Maple-basswood region is confined to parts 
of Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, whereas Beech-maple occurs in 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Indiana. 
The literature cited consists of 204 titles. 

The concept of natural areas and the rationale and techniques of their 
description and preservation were presented in references 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
8 and 9. W. B. Barnes has written popular descriptions in "Outdoor 
Indiana" magazine of most of the 17 areas in the state system of nature 
preserves, of which he is the Director. 

We acknowledge with thanks the information about "new" Indiana 
stands received from William B. Barnes, Mrs. Thomas E. Dustin and 
Floyd Swink. Among the multitude who helped provide data for other 
states condensed into Table 1 we are especially indebted to Drs. Grant 
Cottam, J. Arthur Herrick, Kenneth S. Erdman and William Tans. 

Summary for the Two Entire Regions 

A table of data giving only one line for each of 482 tracts of land was 
prepared, but proved too voluminous for publication. A more generalized 
summary, given in Table 1, categorizes areas by the single natural 
feature of special interest, usually the one constituting the chief reason 
for considering the site worth preserving. Those of the 9 states for which 
Table 1 shows few tracts are not deficient in natural areas if the whole 

Present address: Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, 




state were considered, but, rather, are states having little acreage of the 
two of Braun's vegetational Regions that we studied for this project. The 
larger tracts are often state parks, wildlife areas or metropolitan parks, 
that possess a great diversity of natural interest in addition to recrea- 
tional facilities. These are listed as "large, varied" areas. Since our bias 
as ecologists is toward communities, there is much more of geological 
interest encompassed in the sites than is reflected by the table. (Prac- 
tically all the Beech-maple stands occupy land that has been glaciated, 
for example). The line for "Other geology" includes mostly waterfalls. 
The tracts considered under "Gorges, bluffs" very often contain relict 
hemlock colonies. Caves and archaeological sites were omitted. Even 
though several or many natural features were present, a site is listed only 
once; therefore, the numbers and totals are significant. 

Table 1. Number of natural areas, classed by their chief feature and by state, in 
only the portions of the state inside the Beech-maple and M&ple-basswood Regions 
of Braun (1). Indiana data, are based on Lindsey, Schmelz and Nichols (6) and the 

present study. 






























Mixed Woods 





























Oak savanna 









Flood Plain 










Swamp Forest 










Bog or Fen 




















Varied Wetlands 










Lake, pond 










Sand dunes 




















Glacial geology 










Gorge; bluff 










Other geology 










Large,, varied 










Wildlife refuge 






























Nearly all the good natural areas and nature preserves in Indiana 
had been described in Lindsey, Schmelz and Nichols (6). Additional Indi- 
ana tracts reported to the NPS by the present authors are also 
included in Table 1. 

156 Indiana Academy of Science 

Indiana Areas Previously Unpublished 

Further details on "new" Indiana natural areas are given in Table 
2 for forests and Table 3 for tracts where the principal feature is not the 
tree community, if any. 

The largest and most diversified of the new Indiana nature preserves 
is that donated to the State System of Nature Preserves in 1970 by Mr. 
and Mrs. John Womer of Chicago. It is 4 miles south of Chesterton and 
1 mile east of Rt. 49 on Rd. 750 N. It is in two parts lying a quarter-mile 
apart on rough land of the Valparaiso moraine. The upland supports a 
disturbed oak woods, and, in much of the north 80, early lumbering left 
open conditions now showing early successional stages with scattered 
small trees and shrubs. About one-third of shallow Carlson Pond lies 
within the southern 80. There are also 2 small kettle ponds, and a former 
pond nearly as large as Carlson Pond is now a large depression supporting 
buttonbush and willows. In the southern part of the south 40, about 10 
acres of a mixed forest appear to be essentially undisturbed except for 
an o!d woods road. 

The Eunice Hamilton Bryan Memorial Nature Preserve is also within 
the state system under Director William B. Barnes. It was bequeathed 
by the late Henry R. Smith of Rossville, and named in honor of the mother 
of Mrs. Smith. The tract was previously known as Smith Woods. The area 
is notable for many large old trees and includes several permanent ponds 
which, in April, occupy about 6 of the 29 acres. The soils are Crosby and 
Brookston. Table 4 gives data on vegetational attributes of the oak- 
hickory stand on high ground away from the pond edges, and indicates 
that the major dominant, white oak, had more than double the import- 
ance value of shagbark hickory. Irrespective of species, the average acre 
of the 4 acres (contained within the 0.2 acre sampling strips) showed 101 
individual trees over 4 inches diameter at breast height. These trees on 
the average acre had 117 feet basal area, which is high for Indiana 
forests. In the 4 acres within the sampling strips, species that had one 
or more individuals in the 30-inch or larger size class were white oak, red 
oak, swamp white oak, beech and bur oak. There were 29 such trees 
sampled, including 18 white oaks, ranging up to the 46-inch size class 
which had two individuals. The largest red oak was 38 inches and the only 
swamp white oak measured 42 inches. 

Burgdorf Woods, in the extreme southwest corner of Vanderburgh 
County, has only 10 acres of large, old-growth timber, which is surrounded 
by woods of lesser quality. It represents the Oak-hickory type, with 
stratum ranks as follows for trees exceeding 4 inches dbh — red oak 
(including Shumard's) 7, black oak 6, tulip tree 6, white oak 5 and white 
ash 5. The species with some stems exceeding 30 inches dbh were Shu- 
mard's red oak with 13 such stems, black oak had 10, tulip tree 7, white 
oak 5, white ash 3, and sugar maple, sycamore and bitternut hickory 
with one each. In all reproduction strata, sugar maple dominated 
substantially. Twenty-three species had stems exceeding 22 inches dbh. 
Of the 142 larger trees measured in the 10 acres, 95 exceeded 22 inches. 






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158 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 4. Vegetational Attributes 1 in the high ground, old growth stand at Bryan Woods, 

Clinton County, Indiana. 


D 2 

D 3 

B 2 

B 3 

F 3 

v 3 

White oak 







Shagbark hickory 







White ash 














Bassw <! 














Sugar maple 







Red oak 







American elm 







Pignut hickory 







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Wild cherry 


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Red maple 


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Pin oak 







Red elm 








D =101 

B B =117 

1 Based on trees 4 inches or more dbh. Twenty sampling strips (each 400 feet long 
and one-fifth acre area) were laid out, totalling 4 acres in area. D2 symbolizes density 
per mean acre, D 3 is relative density, B 2 is basal area per acre, B 3 relative basal area, 
F 3 is relative frequency and V 3 importance value. 

Literature Cited 

1. Braun, E. Lucy. 1950. Deciduous forests of Eastern North America. The Blaki- 
ston Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 597 p. 

2. Dustin, T. E. 1966. Perspective, p. 582-591. In A. A. Lindsey (ed.) Natural 
Features of Indiana. Indiana Acad. Sci., Indianapolis. 600 p. 

3. Escobar, Linda K. 1971. Beech-maple and Maple-basswood Regions of the de- 
ciduous forest formation. 2 vols. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Purdue University, 
536 p. 

4. Lindsey, A. A. 1968. Indiana's new system of scientific areas and nature preserves. 
Pi-oc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 77:75-83. 

Ecology 159 

1969. Nature preserves and recreational areas. Purdue Centennial Sym- 
posium, Agronomy Dept, Lafayette, Indiana, p. 34-37. 

__, D. V. Schmelz, and S. A. Nichols. 1969. (reprint Ed. '70) Natural 

areas in Indiana and their preservation. Araer. Midland Naturalist, Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Ind. 606 p. 

7. Lindsey, A. A., and Linda K. Escobar. 1970. Beech-maple and maple-basswood 
regions of the deciduous forest formation. Unpublished report to National Park 
Service, Washington. 3 Vols. 575 p. 

8. Lindsey, A. A., and D. V. Schmelz. 1970. The forest types of Indiana and a 
new method of classifying midwestern hardwood forests. Proc. Indiana Acad. Set. 

Importance Per Cent Values of a Browsed Southeastern Indiana Forest 1 

Christine O. Hopkins and William E. Hopkins 
Department of Botany 


Gary W. Barrett 

Department of Zoology 

Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056 


White ash (Fraxinus americana) , hop hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) , red oak 
(Quercus rtibra) , yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and beech (Fagus grandifolia) 
exhibited importance per cent values of 49.4, 37.4, 28.6, 26.5 and 20.3 respectively, for 
a 10-acre forest located on the Brookville Ecology Research Center in southeastern 
Indiana. These values represented 54 per cent of the total tree species 
sampled within an area which had recently been released from browsing. White ash, 
hophornbeam, sugar maple (Acer saccharum) , redbud (Cercis canadensis) and honey 
locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) were represented by a high density of seedlings (< 1 inch 
Diameter Breast Height), while canopy species of yellow poplar, red oak, beech and 
bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) were poorly represented in smaller size classes. 


Systematic sampling of a forest area following removal of cattle 
reveals much quantitative information regarding secondary succession. 
Cattle prefer tender grasses, forbs and herbs, in addition to shoots and 
tree seedlings (6). Effects of browsing also include such physical changes 
as compaction of soil, promotion of erosion, damage to root systems, litter 
removal, and general degradation of the natural seedbed conditions (6). 
Although several recent studies have been concerned with deciduous 
forests in this region of the midwest (2, 7, 8, 11), only limited information 
is available regarding the effects of browsing on the composition of for- 
est communities. Thus far, only the study by Day and DenUyl (3) has 
provided specific information on browsing pressures by cattle in Indiana 
forests. We attempted to better measure and evaluate the effects of 
browsing on the composition of a mature deciduous forest community 
located in southeastern Indiana. 

Study Area 

The study area is located in Union County, south of Liberty, Indiana, 
specifically in the NW 1/4, Sec. 22, TUN, R2W on the Fairfield, Indiana, 
Quadrangle. The site is included within the Brookville Ecology Research 
Center, administered by Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, and Earlham 
College, Richmond, Indiana. The actual study area was comprised of 10 
acres of forest located on the 140-acre research station leased in 1969 from 
the Army Corps of Engineers. The remaining 130 acres had been used 
annually for agricultural crops (e.g., corn, soybeans, etc.) until the spring 

Contribution No. 2 from the Brookville Ecology Research Center, Miami Univei'sity, 
Oxford, Ohio 45056. 


Ecology 161 

of 1970. The total area had since been left undisturbed to proceed through 
secondary succession. The 10-acre forest area had been periodically grazed 
by a herd of cattle for at least the past 8-10 years. This herd ranged in 
size from 6-15 cattle and was permitted to graze this area periodically 
during the spring and summer months out of each year. Cattle were 
permanently removed from the study site approximately 3 months before 
sampling was initiated. 

The forest is located on a gradual-moderate slope with a total relief 
of 140 feet from the highest to lowest points and lies just north of the 
Wisconsin glacial boundary. The physiography is defined as Dearborn 
Upland, a dissected plateau north and west of the Ohio River with 
streams in deeply incised valleys (12). Soils for this area have been 
reported by Alfred, Ulrich and Zachary (1). Climatic conditions for this 
area have also been previously described by Schaal (10). 

Methods and Materials 

The nested quadrat method was used for sampling the vegetation 
(9). This method provides adequate sampling within a community of vary- 
ing plant sizes. Ten nested quadrats, each 66 feet by 66 feet (0.1 acre 
each), were placed randomly within the 10-acre forest area. Thus, 10 per 
cent of the total forest area was sampled. Each 0.1-acre quadrat 
contained one 6.6 feet by 66.0 feet plot (0.01 acre) and two 6.6 feet by 
6.6 feet square plots (0.001 acre or 1 milacre). 

During October, 1970, all trees greater than 3 inches in diameter 
breast height (dbh) were tallied in the 0.1-acre plots. All saplings over 
12 inches in height and less than 3 inches dbh were tallied in the 
0.01-acre plot and all seedlings less than 12 inches in height were tallied 
in each milacre plot. The number of trees per acre, relative density, 
frequency of occurrence, relative frequency, total basal area, relative 
cover, and importance per cent values were computed (9). Frequency 
distribution of all species was computed by size classes. Diameter 
measurements of all trees were rounded to the nearest inch. Basal area 
for each species was calculated using a conversion table (9). 

Results and Discussion 

White ash (Fraximus americana) , hop hornbeam (Ostrya virgini- 
ana), red oak (Quercus rubra), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipfera) , 
and beech (Fagus grandifolia) were clearly dominant, having impor- 
tance per cent values of 49.4, 37.4, 28.6, 26.5, and 20.3, respectively. 
These species constituted 54% of all tree species sampled. (Table 1). Hop 
hornbeam, usually a mid-canopy species in white ash-yellow poplar-red 
oak associations (5) was the most frequently encountered species. White 
ash, red oak, yellow poplar, and beech, the major canopy species, had 
relative cover values of 20.7, 18.9, 13.6, and 12.8%, respectively, repre- 
senting approximately 66% of the total cover (see Table 1). 

The above-mentioned dominant trees (i.e., white ash, hop hornbeam, 
red oak, yellow poplar, and beech) exhibited maximum dbh measure- 
ments of 18, 9, 34, 31, and 23 inches, respectively. Other large trees in- 


Indiana Academy of Science 

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Ecology 163 

eluded black cherry (Prunus serotina) , sugar maple (Acer saccharum), 
sassafras (Sassafras albidum), shagbark hickory (Gary a ovata) , and 
bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) , with maximum dbh measure- 
ments of 18, 17, 16, 15, and 12, respectively. Such major canopy species 
as red oak, beech, bitternut hickory, yellow poplar, and black cherry were 
not well represented in the small size classes (< 5.0 inches dbh), nor in 
the seedling class. The paucity of reproduction of the major canopy species 
may be due to the influence of livestock. Species dominating the mid- 
canopy were redbud (Cercis canadensis), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), 
sugar maple, hawthorn (Crataegus crux-gallii) , paw-paw (Asimina tri- 
loba) and wafer ash (Ptelea trifoliata) . 

Seedlings present were mainly white ash (78,500/A), hop hornbeam 
(54,000/A), redbud (9,500/A), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) 
(8,500/a) and sugar maple (6,000/A). Slippery elm and blue ash 
(Fraxinus quadrangulata) exhibited a seedling density of 1,500/A each. 
Five taxa with 500/A seedlings each were sassafras, blue beech (Carpinus 
caroliniana) , osage orange (Madura pomifera) , chinkapin oak (Quercus 
muehlenbergii) , and sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) . 

In an earlier study concerned with browsed Indiana forests Day and 
DenUyl (3) reported that seedlings of white ash, sugar maple, and 
slippery elm were selected by cattle under all browsing intensities, 
whereas, under light to moderate browsing (i.e., 10 or more acres per 
cow), red oak, beech, sassafras, bitternut hickory, sycamore, honey locust, 
and black cherry were selected. They also reported that seedlings utilized 
under heavy to very heavy browsing conditions (i.e., less than 4 acres 
per cow) included shagbark hickory, hawthorn, blue beech, hophornbeam 
and paw-paw. Comparing the results of Day and DenUyl (3) to those of 
this study, it would appear that this forest had been under moderate 
browsing stress due to the paucity of red oak, beech, bitternut hickory, 
and black cherry seedlings. 

DenUyl, Dillen and Day (4) reported that white ash, slippery elm, 
and sugar maple were found to be prolific seed producers. This, perhaps, 
helps to explain much of the data in the present study, in which white 
ash, slippery elm, and sugar maple were represented by 27, 9, and 6 mature 
trees per acre, respectively, as well as each exhibiting an abundance of 
small seedlings. 

In summary, the disturbance (browsing) of this forest community 
was clearly reflected by an absence of reproduction (seedlings) of over 
50% of the dominant canopy species. It appears that certain dominant 
species based on importance per cent values (e.g., red oak, yellow poplar, 
and beech) were adversely affected by browsing. It also appears that 
white ash and hop hornbeam are able to maintain their dominance even 
under moderate browsing stress. The reason for this browsing selection 
factor awaits further investigation. 

164 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Alfred, S. D., H. P. Ulrich, and A. L. Zachary. 1960. Soil Survey of 
Fayette and Union Counties, Indiana. USDA Series 1952, No. 8. 91 p. 

2. Ashby, W. C, and G. T. Weaver. 1970. Forest regeneration on two old fields in 
southwestern Illinois. Amer. Midland Natur. 84:90-104. 

3. Day, R. K., and D. DenUyl. 1932. The natural regeneration of farm woods 
following the exclusion of livestock. Indiana Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 368. 48 p. 

4. DenUyl, D., O. D. Dillen, and R. K. Day. 1938. The development of natural 
reproduction in previously grazed farm woods. Purdue Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
431 p. 

5. Fowells, H. A. (ed.). 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. 
Handbook 271. USDA. 762 p. 

6. Hawley, R. C. 1929. The practice of silviculture. 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons, 
New York. 335 p. 

7. Lindsey, A. A., and D. V. Schmelz. 1970. The forest types of Indiana and a new 
method of classifying midwestern hardwood forests. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79:198- 

8. Loucks, O. L. 1970. Evolution of diversity, efficiency, and community stability. Amer. 
Zool. 10:17-25. 

9. Phillips, E. A. 1959. Methods of vegetation study. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 
New York. 107 p. 

10. Schaal, L. A. 1966. Climate, p. 156-170. In A. A. Lindsey (ed.) Natural features of 
Indiana, Indiana Sesquicentennial Volume. Indiana Acad. Sci., Indianapolis. 600 p. 

11. Schmelz, D. V., and A. A. Lindsey. 1970. Relationships among the forest types of 
Indiana. Ecology 51:620-629. 

12. Schneider, A. F. 1966. Physiography, p. 40-56. In A. A. Lindsey (ed.) Natural 
features of Indiana, Indiana Sesquicentennial Volume. Indiana Acad. Sci., Indian- 
apolis. 600 p. 

Contents of Southern Indiana Wild Turkey Droppings 

Ralph D. Kirkpatrick, Marsha R. Roy 1 , Gerald A. Wise 2 , 
and Leland L. Hardman, 

Department of Biology, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 


Food item volume percentages were determined of the contents of 207 adult and 84 
juvenile wild turkey droppings collected over 4 seasons. 

Material found in order of decreasing volume percentages was Gramineae seeds; soil 
and organic debris (including grit); unidentified plant material (leaves and stems); insect 
parts; various seeds of Quercus sp., Cornus sp. and Smilax sp. 

The Gramineae constitutes a large portion of the diet over all seasons with the large 
seeds from small woody species being important only in the fall and winter. 

Insects probably are not a large part of the diet of either adult or juvenile wild 


The eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) dis- 
appeared from northern Indiana by 1870 and from southern Indiana by 
1900 (2, 4, 7). The regrowth of forests and the increased protection due 
to hunting laws and management programs has allowed the successful 
re-establishment of this species in Indiana. In 1956, wild turkeys from 
Arkansas were released on the Crane Naval Ammunition Depot in Martin 
County and later releases of wild turkeys from Missouri were made in 
other parts of southern Indiana between 1962 and 1966. Wild turkey 
populations are now established at Brown County State Park, Clark State 
Forest (Clark, Scott and Washington Counties), Harrison County Turkey 
Management Area in the Harrison-Crawford State Forest, Lost River 
Area of Hoosier National Forest (Martin and Orange Counties), Mogan 
Ridge Turkey Management Area of the Hoosier National Forest (Perry 
County), Owen-Putnam State Forest (Owen and Putnam Counties), and 
Pike State Forest (Pike County). 

Indiana wild turkey management programs may extend the present 
range. Markley (8) and Webb (11) have noted that the shortage of food 
may be a factor limiting wild turkey populations. Food habits of the 
re-introduced wild turkey in Indiana have not been studied. These data 
may be used by game biologists in future management programs. 

This study concerned the food habits of the wild turkey in southern 
Indiana. Dropping analysis was used to determine the food habits because 
an adequate sample of crop and gizzard contents was unavailable for 
analysis due to the low populations and minimal hunting take. 

Present address: 178 Washington St., Winthrop, Mass. 02152 

-Game Research Biologist. Indiana Depai'tment of Natui'al Resources, Indianapolis. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Methods and Materials 

Wild turkey droppings were collected by Indiana game biologists in 
unglaciated portions of Clark, Harrison, Perry, and Monroe Counties. 
Sex and age of the wild turkeys producing the droppings were determined 
according to dropping size and shape (1, 6). Contents of droppings were 
separated and identified following procedures outlined by Korschgen (5) 
and Eaton, Moore, and Saylor (3). All remains from a given season and 
age class were pooled to obtain total volume. Food item volume percent- 
ages were then based on the total sample volume (6, 9). 


A total of 291 wild turkey droppings (collected between January 1968 
and January 1971) was examined in this study. Food item volume per- 
centages of the dropping contents are listed by season for adults in Table 
1 and for juveniles in Table 2. 

Plant seeds from the Family Gramineae constitute a major portion 
of the diet throughout the year for both juvenile and adult birds. Plant 

Table 1. Food items in 207 droppings of adult wild turkeys listed by seasonal volume 
percentages and dates collected. 

Volume Percentages 

Food Items 


n = 28 


( June-Aug. ) 

n = 6 


n = 64 

(Dec. -Feb.) 

n = 109 

Soil & Debris 





Gramineae (several genera) 





Undetermined Plants 






Insect Parts 










Quercus sp. 





Cornus sp. 





Pinus sp. 





Fraxinus sp. 





Cercis canadensis 





Rosa sp. 





Smilax sp. 





Rhus radicans 





Misc. materials each 
less than 0.01 per 

cent volume 

0.1 1 

0.4 2 

0.2 3 


^Cyperus sp., Labiatae. 

"Lonicera sp., Car ex sp. 

^Physalis sp., Solanum sp., Raminctdus sp., Loniccra sp., Sida sp., reptile 
and bird feathers. 

i Vitis sp., Lespedeza sp., Lonicera sp., Rumex sp., Sida sp., reptile scales, 
feathers and mammal hair. 




material of undetermined origin was second in volume percentage over 
all seasons for both age classes, with soil and organic debris present in 
large quantities as well. This organic material is probably partially 
digested plant seeds, undigested cellulose and insect exoskeletons. 

Table 2. Food items in 

droppings of juvenile wild turkey listed by seasonal volume 
percentages and dates collected. 

Volume Percentages 

Food Items 


( Mar.-May ) 

n = 3 


(June- Aug. ) 

n = l 






Soil & Debris 





Gramineae (several genera) 





Undetermined Plant parts 





Insect Parts 










Quercus sp. 





Cornus sp. 





Pinus sp. 





Fraxinus sp. 





Smilax sp. 





Rhus radicans 





Lonicera sp. 





Lespedeza sp. 





Misc. materials each 
less than 0.01 per 

cent volume 



0.04 1 

0.04 2 

Wesmodium sp., reptile scales. 

2 Desmodium sp., beetle feeces, and reptile scales. 

Seeds from Cornus sp., Quercus sp. and Smilax sp. are most 
abundant in the droppings collected during the fall and winter, and 
appear to constitute a large part of the diet during those months. 

Insects are not a significant part of the annual diet of adult Indiana 
wild turkeys, but appear to be slightly more important to juvenile birds. 
Schorger (10) reports that insects form the most important food of young 
wild turkeys, but this study indicated that few insects are ingested by 

Literature Cited 

1. Bailey, R. W. 1956. Sex determination of adult wild turkeys by means of dropping 
configuration. J. Wildl. Manage. 20:220. 

2. Butler, Amos W. 1898. The birds of Indiana, p. 515-1197 In W. S. Blatchley. 
Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources Twenty-Second Annual Report, 
1897. Indianapolis, Ind. 1, 197 p. 

168 Indiana Academy of Science 

3. Eaton, S. W., T. L. Moore, and E. N. Saylor. 1970. A ten year study of the food 
habits of a northern population of wild turkeys. Sci. Stud. 26:43-64. 

4. Holbrook, H. L., and J. C. Lewis. 1967. Management of the eastern turkey in the 
southern Appalachian and Cumberland Plateau region, p. 343-370. In O. H. Hewitt 
(ed.) The wild turkey and its management. The Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C. 

589 p. 

5. Korschgen, L. J. 1962. Food habits of greater prairie chickens in Missouri. Amer. 
Midland Natu. 68:307-318. 

6. . 1969. Procedures for food-habits analysis, p. 135-174. In R. H. Giles 

(ed. ) Wildlife management techniques (Revised ed.). Edward Brothers, Inc., Ann 
Arbor, Mich. 623 p. 

7. Leopold, A. 1931. Game survey of the north central states. Democrat Printing Com- 
pany, Madison, Wis. 299 p. 

8. Markley, M. H. 1967. Limiting factors, p. 199-244. In O. H. Hewitt (ed.) The wild 
turkey and its management. The Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C. 589 p. 

9. Martin, A. C, R. H. Gensch, and C. P. Brown. 1946. Alternative methods in upland 
game bird food analysis. J. Wildl. Manage. 10:8-12. 

10. Schroger, A. W. 1966. The wild turkey. Univ. Okla. Press, Norman. 625 p. 

11. Webb, L. C. 1941. Acorns a favorite food of wild turkey in winter. Ala. Conserv. 

13:5, 14-15. 


Chairman: Robert L. Swaim, Department of Aeronautieal- 

Astronautical Engineering, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Robert L. Swaim, Purdue University, was re-elected 
Chairman for 1972 


Chairman: Robert E. Dolphin, U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Entomology Research Division, Vincennes, Indiana 47591 

Claude F. Wade, Department of Natural Resources, 
113 State Office Building*, Indianapolis, Indiana 46203 
was elected Chairman for 1972 


Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance in Indiana 
During 1971. R. W. Meyer and J. V. Osmun, Department of 

Entomology, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. -The 

abundance and activity of insects and other arthropods that were im- 
portant to growers of foods, fibers, or animal products, or were 
destructive of stored products, or were annoying to man in the state 
of Indiana during 1971 were reviewed, together with notes on 
non-economic arthropods that were of interest. 

Survival of Odonata Naiads Through Drought and Freezing. B. Elwood 
Montgomery, Department of Biology, Frostburg State College, 

Frostburg, Maryland. Living Odonata naiads were found in a "dry" 

pond in late October (October 28, 1968). They were in damp situations 
— masses of fine roots or accumulations of debris on the exposed bottom 
surface. The natural environment was restored within a few days of 
the initial observations by fall rains. 

During the following winter an examination of the pond 
revealed that all water was frozen, but the bottom surface immediately 
beneath the ice was not. 

No naiads could be recovered from the pond following the fall rains 
which resulted in extensive marshy margins so that the central area 
of the pond could not be approached. Sampling was difficult in the 
spring for the same reason. However, naiads of Zygoptera (none of 
which had been found the previous fall), Aeshnidae and Libellulidae 
were collected. These were of such age that development from the egg 
during the spring appeared extremely improbable. Thus, the naiads must 
have survived the elimination of all water from their habitat twice — 
once through drought and, then, by freezing. 

Myiasis in Delaware County, Indiana, 1971, with a Confirmed Case of 
Infestation by Wohlfahrtia vigil (Walker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). 

R. E. Siverly, Department of Physiology and Health Science, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Two fly larvae were removed 

from the leg of a rabbit on July 25. One of these larvae was reared to 
the adult stage. The pupal period required 12 days. The adult was 
identified by the U. S. National Museum as Wohlfahrtia vigil (Walker). 

Wohlfahrtia is known as a specific myiasis producer, and the larvae 
are reported to invade unbroken skin in children, as well as in young 
animals. Death has occurred in animals as a result of secondary 


172 Indiana Academy of Science 

bacterial infection. This species evidently has extended its range into 
Indiana from the north. 

Another case of dermal myiasis occurred in a very old and feeble 
dog. Larvae of Phaenicia sericata (Mg.) and Phormia regina (Mg.) 
were recovered from the frontal head region on August 26. 
Identification of these flies was confirmed in the adult stage. 

It is doubtful if primary screwworm occurs in this area; however, 
a survey is planned in 1972 which will solicit the cooperation of 
veterinarians in Indiana for early reporting of all myiasis cases, so 
that accurate species determinations can be made, and follow-up studies 
conducted at sites where actual infestations occur. 

Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Three Hormonomimetic 
Compounds on Larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens (L.) (Northern House 
Mosquito). Steve Betras and R. E. Siverly, Department of 
Physiology and Health Science, Ball State University, Muncie, 
Indiana 47306. The effects and lethal dosages of three hor- 
monomimetic agents were investigated during the summer of 1971. Tests 
with Stauffer (R-20458), Monsanto (Mon-0585), and Zoecon (ZR-0515) 
were conducted, using late instar larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens ob- 
tained from waste lagoons in Delaware and Henry Counties. All three 
compounds were juvenile type hormones. 

Larvae were exposed to the chemicals by dissolving the compounds 
in acetone and mixing these solutions with lagoon water in which larvae 
were collected. Each sample consisted of 20 larvae in 100 milliliters of 
filtered lagoon water. Control samples were set up with filtered 
lagoon water alone. From three to five levels of concentrations were 
used on each trial, with from three to five replicates for each level of 

Effective dosages were much higher than the manufacturer's recom- 
mendations for each compound. This was believed due to rapid 
biodegradation of the chemicals in lagoon water. 

R-20458 and Mon-0585 produced a total kill during a 48-hour 
exposure at 40 and 30.5 parts per million, respectively. ZR-0515 
produced complete kill at 15.5 parts per million with a 24-hour exposure. 
Most of the tests were difficult to evaluate because of the high 
mortality in the controls. The Zoecon product appeared more active, 
but less stable than either the Stauffer or Monsanto compounds. Further 
laboratory investigations should be conducted before actual field testing 
of these compounds is attempted. 

A Preliminary Study of Autogeny and Host Preference of Culex pipiens 
pipiens L. (Northern House Mosquito) in East-Central Indiana. Donald 
A. Shroyer and R. E. Siverly, Department of Physiology and 

Health Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

Several colonies of Culex pipiens pipiens L. were established from 
immature stages collected at two food processing waste lagoons to 
evaluate the effects of photoperiod on the expression of autogeny and 
on host preference. 

Entomology 173 

Three cages were maintained under a 15L 9D photoperiod, at 80° 
Fahrenheit ± 2°. One cage was provided no blood host and produced no 
egg rafts after several weeks. All dissected females from this cage were 

A second cage was provided only avian hosts, while a third was 
offered mammals. Although Culex pipiens pipiens is regarded as pri- 
marily an avian feeder, samples from both cages contained 
equivalent proportions of engorged females. However, females fed on 
birds produced more eggs than those fed on mammals. 

Two colonies were maintained under a 13L 11D photoperiod. One 
cage was provided a bird host and the other a mammal. There was no 
evidence to support the shorter day length as conducive to mammal 
feeding, since samples from both cages contained equivalent proportions 
of engorged females. 

Further studies to clarify the effects of photoperiod on host 
preference and autogeny will be conducted by: 1) observations of lab- 
oratory colonies under simulated natural light conditions but constant 
temperatures, 2) observations of laboratory colonies under simulated 
hibernating conditions, and 3) studies of natural overwintering popula- 
tions in the field. 

Genetic Studies on Melanic Forms of Tropisternus collaris (Fabricius) 
from North and South America. Frank N. Young, Department of 

Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47401. Laboratory studies 

of the results of crossing melanic Tropisternus collaris from South 
America with the melanic subspecies from Florida and South Carolina 
indicate higher levels of interfertility than shown in crosses with the 
lightly pigmented North American forms. Rearing of larvae from wild 
caught females from South Carolina show that interbreedings of light 
and melanic forms occur in nature. Further evidence for the discreteness 
of the genes producing the melanic condition was presented. 

The Planipennia (Neuroptera) in Indiana. H. Randolph Lawson, 
Department of Entomology, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 
47907. — — Representatives of nine families (Coniopterygidae, Mantis- 
pidae, Berothidae, Hemerobiidae, Polysteochotidae, Sisyridae, Chry- 
sopidae, Ascalaphidae, and Myrmeleontidae) were recorded in this study. 
Representatives of the eighteen species previously recorded in litera- 
ture as occurring in Indiana were collected during the summer of 
1969. Twenty species were reported as being new records from 
Indiana. Due to inadequate taxonomic work on the species of the 
family Coniopterygidae, specimens of this family were identified only 
to genus. Five genera of coniopterygids were recorded. 

The possible occurrence of 17 more species which have been re- 
corded from adjacent areas is reported. Included in these possible 
species is Nallochius americanus (McLachlan) which represents a 
10th family, Dilaridae. Therefore, a total of 55 species is included in 
the keys constructed for adult identification. 

174 Indiana Academy of Science 

Important range extensions include Micromus variolosus Hagen, 
a western species of Hemerobiidae, and Brachynemurus longicaudus 
(Burmeister), an eastern, south-eastern coastal species of Myrmeleon- 

The only recorded species of the family Polysteochotidae in the 
eastern U. S., Polysteochotes punctatus (Fabricius), appears to have 
had a drastic population decline since the early 1900's. Although 
collected quite often in the Chicago area around the turn of the 
century, no specimens have been seen that were collected after 1940. 


Fruit Insect Research Programs of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

M. L. Cleveland, USDA, ARA, Beltsville, Maryland (by invitation). 

Indiana State Records and Notes on Some Rare 
Butterflies and Skippers in the State 

Ernest M. Shull 

402 N. Wayne Street 

North Manchester, Indiana 


As the result of collecting butterflies in the state from 1964 to 1971, six species, 
Thymelicus lineola (Ochsenheimer) , Polites mystic (Scudder), Autochton cellus 
(Boisduval & LeConte), Erynnis baptisiae (Forbes), Euristrymon Ontario (Edwards), 
and Polygonia satyrus (Edwards), have been added to the butterfly fauna of Indiana. 
In addition to the new state records, the following rare species were collected: Euphyes 
dukesi (Lindsey), Satyrium caryaevorus (McDunnough) , and Pieris napi oleracea. 

Family Hesperiidae 

Thymelicus lineola (Ochsenheimer) European Skipper 

I collected one male June 22 and one female July 1, 1967, in a grassy 
pasture, North Manchester, Wabash County. In recent years I have 
collected lineola in LaGrange, Elkhart, Kosciusko, and Wabash 
Counties (3). Pairs in copula have been taken in June, suggesting that 
this species has become well established in Indiana. 

Polites mystic (Scudder) Long Dash 

I collected the first Polites mystic in the state on June 6, 1969, 
Mongo Bog, Mongo, LaGrange County, only seven miles from the 
Michigan border (6). It is now fairly common in Wabash and 
Kosciusko Counties. June 10, 1970, I found a colony of this species in 
a bog by Lake Waubee, Milford, where Iris versicolor was its favorite 
food flower. 

Autochton cellus (Boisduval & LeConte)— — Golden Banded Skipper 

Single specimen was collected by my son, James D. Shull, June 7, 
1970, in Brown County State Park, near Nashville, Indiana (7). 

Erynnis baptisiae (Forbes) — Wild Indigo Dusky Wing 

August 27, 1970, I collected a female near its food plant 
(Baptisia tinctoria) in a field near North Manchester but in 
Kosciusko County (7). 

Euphyes dukesi (Lindsey) Dukes' Skipper 

Mr. Homer F. Price, Payne, Ohio, collected one male July 24, 1962, 
in Steuben County (2). I collected one more June 27, 1970, North 
Manchester, Wabash County (7). 

Family Lycaenidae 

Satyrium caryaevorius (McDunnough) Hickory Hairstreak 

I collected a pair June 22, 1968, on a hickory tree leaf in 
Kosciusko County (5). Caryaevorus is uncommon in Wabash and 
Kosciusko Counties in June and July. 


176 Indiana Academy of Science 

Euristrymon Ontario (Edwards) Northern Hairstreak 

Collected the first specimen July 12, 1967, on dogbane flowers, 
North Manchester, Wabash County (4). Each year a few have been 
collected in Wabash County from late June to about mid-July. 

Family Nymphalidae 

Polygonia satyrus (Edwards) — — Satyr Angle Wing 

June 25, 1969, I collected this essentially western species in 
Kosciusko County, Indiana (6). It is uncommon, rare, or absent from 
late May through July in Wabash and Kosciusko Counties. 

Family Pieridae 

Pieris napi oleracea Harris — Mustard White 

Blatchley (1891) reported this species from Kosciusko County, in 
the summer of 1890 (1). Old records are unreliable as napi was often 
confused with virginiensis. 

July 12, 1971, John Campbell, a high school student in my collecting 
party, collected one in Mongo, LaGrange County. On August 24 John 
Campbell and I returned to Mongo, where we collected 23 more napi. 
It should be looked for elsewhere in the state. 

No doubt other rare Indiana species could be added to this report, 
but Mr. S. Sidney Badger, Jr., of Woodland Hills, California, and I have 
just completed a comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies of 
Indiana, 1971, therefore I have limited this paper primarily to a listing 
of my own state records. 

Literature Cited 

1. Blatchley, W. S., 1891. A catalogue of butterflies known to occur in Indiana. 
Ann. Rept. Indiana State Geol. 12:356-408. 

2. Price, Homer F., and Ernest M. Shull. 1969. Uncommon butterflies of North- 
eastern Indiana. J. Lepid Soc. 23:186-188. 

3. Shull, Ernest M., 1968. Thymelicus lineola (Hesperiidae) in Indiana. J. Lepid. 
Soc. 22:20. 

4. Annual Summary of Lepidoptera 1967. News Lepid. Soc. 3:13. 

5. Annual Summary of Lepidoptera 1968. News Lepid. Soc. 3:14. 

6. North American Annual Summary for 1969. News Lepid. Soc. 5:9. 

7. Annual Field Season Summary for 1970. News Lepid. Soc. 3:3. 

Aggregations of Chalybion calif ornicum (Saussure) (Hymenoptera : 
Sphecidae) near Centerville, Wayne County, Indiana 

Gertrude L. Ward 

Joseph Moore Museum 

Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 47374 


Observations over a 5-year period of aggregations of Chalybion californicum 
(Saussure) near Centerville, Indiana, indicate a preference by this wasp for a western 
exposure on wooden buildings. The wasps were found at the nighttime roost sites, in 
varying numbers from about June 1 to September 30. A peak in numbers was reached 
between June 14 and June 28, with a second, but much lower peak coming from 6 to 
22 days later. The highest number counted was 260 on June 26, 1971. 


Clusters of animals are of interest to biologists for several reasons. 
Sleeping aggregations permit easy population censusing. Aggregation 
is of interest as a precursor of social development, of particular sig- 
nificance when occurring in an otherwise solitary species. Finally, there 
is little understanding of the stimuli which initiate grouping and which 
hold groups together. 

Aggregations of the blue wasp, Chalybion californicum (Saussure), 
were observed over the 5-year period from 1967 through 1971 near 
Centerville, Wayne County, Indiana. Observations extended from June 
1 to October 1. 

Over the years, several explanations have been offered for clusters 
of animals. In 1916, Fabre (5) thought that the cluster of several 
hundred wasps, Podalonia hirsuta (Scopoli), which he found sheltering 
under a stone might be resting migrants. After studying the sleeping 
habits of a Florida butterfly, Heliconius charitonius L. (=//. chari- 
thonia L.), Jones (7) argued the pros and cons of group protection. 
He observed that when one insect was disturbed the whole group was 
warned, but also found that a predator could gorge on the collected 
insects if they were unwary or slow to move. He saw no sexual 
significance in grouping. Evans and Linsley (4), observing bees and 
wasps of several species, found no clear adaptive value in sleeping 
aggregations. However, in clusters of the digger wasp, Steniolia 
obliqua (Cresson), which Evans and Gillaspy (3) observed for 5 years, 
mating behavior was evident. Evans believed that the clustering served 
a social function leading to mating. 

Allee's (1) interest in aggregations is well known. After referring 
to some accidental animal groupings such as New England corals and 
the animals on a wharf piling he said, "Other close aggregations occur 
as a result of the less spectacular trial and error reactions, in which 
the animals wander here and there, more or less vaguely stimulated 
by internal physiological states or external conditions, and so come to 
collect in favorable locations." The effect of one external condition, 


178 Indiana Academy of Science 

temperature, on the choice of an aggregation site was described by El 
Rayah (2) for 2 tenebrionid beetles, Adesmia antiqua Klug and 
Pimelia grandis Fabricius. He found that A. antiqua aggregated in a 
zone of 34-38 °C and P. grandis gathered in a zone of 28-34° C. 
Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom which P. Rau (10) saw in Mexico may 
have been responding to temperature. Rau found about 20 of these blue 
wasps clustered on a piece of rope in a shed where a 75-watt 
incandescent lamp burned until midnight. 

Hamilton et al. (6), after studying an aggregation of starlings 
(Sturnus vulgaris L.), devised a model of a refuge with a core at the 
center representing the nighttime roost, and two dispersal areas around 
it. They believed that the expenditure of time and energy required to 
fly from the core to the outer range was balanced by the lack of 
competition in that area. Applying this model to C. californicum, the 
nighttime roost is the core, the nest area lies in the inner dispersal area, 
and the feeding area is the outermost range. 

An aggregation pheromone was isolated from the southern pine 
beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, by Payne (8). He found 
that the chemical was emitted in the frass by female beetles and was 
attractive to both males and females of the same species. 

Variations in the numbers of Chalybion californicum at nighttime 
roosts were reported by Rau and Rau (11) and by P. Rau (9) from 
Missouri and Kansas. For example, 30 wasps were found on the under- 
side of an overhanging rock near the Meramec River in the vicinity of 
St. Louis, and 100 or more wasps were found in an open cow shed in 
the middle of July at Lake View, Kansas (11). Near Wickes, Missouri, a 
group of more than a thousand were in the eaves of an abandoned 
house. Another group slept in a niche of a pillar and a third group 
entered a hollow tile on top of a brick chimney (9). 

In New Jersey, Weiss (12) found a group of C. californicum 
clustered at night on the same inside corner of a cloth awning for 5 
summers. These were on the southwest side of a dwelling (personal 
communication). Leland Chandler (personal communication) reported 
that a group of C. californicum roosted on the west-facing side of a shed 
near Otterbein, Indiana. 

It seems possible that the initial choice of a roost or refuge by C. 
californicum may be based on temperature. The continued use of a roost 
then may be reinforced by a pheromone or some other odor-producing 

Results of Observations 

The wasps started gathering at the main roost site in east-central 
Indiana about June 1 and several could be found there until the middle 
of September. Roosting began about 2 hours before sunset, and the last 
wasps had settled by about an hour after sunset. During the period of 
settling they would fly off if an observer approached within 3 feet. 
Counts were made after dark when the wasps were not disturbed by 



the beam of a flashlight. In the morning the wasps were often still in 
place until 2 or 3 hours after sunrise. They were active earlier on warm, 
sunny days than on cool, cloudy days. 

At one favorite roost site, an old privy, a Fahrenheit ther- 
mometer was fastened close to where the wasps spent the night. 
Temperature was recorded each time a count was made. When tempera- 
ture at the roost site was compared with that on the north side of a 
nearby building, the roost site was warmer by 4°F. 

Over the 5-year period several roost sites were used. The main site 
favored by most of the wasps changed from the west side of the privy 
to the west side of a tool shed (Fig. 1). The tool shed was about 7 feet 
east of the privy and the roost site under the eaves was about 4 feet 
higher than the former site. Sunlight reached the new site for several 
minutes longer each day. 

Figure 1. Aggregation of Chalybion calif ornicum (Saussure) on west side of tool shed 
near Centerville, Indiana, on night of June 15, 1970. 

Early in June 1971 a few wasps were found on the north side of 
the tool shed just under the peak of the roof, and a few were on the 
southeast corner of the shed. As the summer progressed wasps disap- 
peared from these sites and more accumulated on the west side. A few 
also appeared around a seldom-used light socket on a porch ceiling and 
also under a loose shingle on the south side of a building about 5 feet 
north of the tool shed. The shingle gave some protection from the 
weather and, at the end of the summer, wasps were found here in small 


Indiana Academy of Science 

numbers after they had disappeared from the main site. For example, 
the last wasps were seen on the west side of the tool shed on September 
9, 1971, but one was found under the shingle as late as October 1, 1971. 

Two peaks in numbers of wasps occurred in each of the 5 years. 
Except in 1969, the first appeared in June and the second in July. In 
1969, both peaks were in June. During the study, time between peaks 
varied from 6 to 22 days (Table 1). During 3 summers, counts were 
made of female C. calif or nicum working on nests in the tool shed and 
other buildings, but there was no correlation of these counts with counts 
of the roosting wasps. The number of nesting wasps was always low, 
about 5 to 10. 

Table 1. Numbers of roosting Chalybion calif ornicum (Saussure) near Centerville, 

Indiana, 1967-1971. 




First peak 


Second peak 





June 28 


July 4 




June 21 


July 8 




June 7, 8, 9 


June 25 




June 14 


July 2 




June 26 


July 18 


No predation on the wasps by birds was observed at the roost sites 
over the 5-year period, although birds which are known to eat wasps 
were in the vicinity. The extent of predation away from the roost site 
was not investigated. 

Aggregations were made up of both males and females. No mating 
behavior was observed at the roost sites. 

Small deposits of fecal matter were found at the roost sites. These 
were not tested for presence of a pheromone because techniques for the 
analysis of such small amounts of material were not accessible. 


1) It is believed that the warmer temperature at the main roost 
sites on the west sides of 2 wooden buildings was the initial stimulus 
for choice of sites. 

2) Peaks in numbers of wasps at the roost sites occurred from 7 
to 28 June, over a 5-year period. 

3) Peak numbers of wasps varied from 16 to 260. Second but lower 
peaks varied from 13 to 16 and followed from 6 to 22 days later. Some 
of the second peaks were higher than some of the first peaks of other 

Entomology 181 

4) Neither mating behavior nor predation by birds was observed 

ho rnnet cifoc 

at the roost sites. 


The author is grateful to Jay A. Myers, Lee J. Reynolds, Sarah 
C. Strawn and Carl H. Luckhardt for their assistance during the obser- 

Literature Cited 

Allee, W. C. 1938 (1958). The social life of animals. Beacon Press, Boston, 
Mass. 233 p. 

El Rayah, E. A. 1970. Some reactions of two desert beetles, Adesmia antiqua and 
Pimelia grandis (Tenebrionidae) to temperature. Entomol. Ext. Appl. 13:286-292. 

Evans, H. E., and J. E. Gillaspy. 1964. Observations on tbe ethology of digger 
wasps of the genus Steniolia. Amer. Midland Natur. 72:257-280. 

, and E. G. Linsley. 1960. Notes on a sleeping aggregation of solitary 

bees and wasps. Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 59:30-37. 

5. Fabre, J. H. 1916. The hunting wasps. Dodd, Mead and Co., New York, N.Y. 427 p. 

6. Hamilton, W. J. Ill, W. M. Gilbert, F. H. Hoppner, and R. J. Planck. 1967. 
Starling roost dispersal and a hypothetical mechanism regulating the rhythmical 
animal movement to and from dispersal centers. Ecology 48:825-833. 

7. Jones, F. M. 1931. The gregarious sleeping habits of Heliconius charithonia L. Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. London 6:4-10. In W. C. Allee, 1938 (1958). The social life of animals. 
Beacon Press, Boston, Mass. 233 p. 

8. Payne, T. L. 1971. Bark beetle olfaction. 1. Electroantennogram responses of the 
southern pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to its aggregation pheromone frontalin. 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 64:266-268. 

9. Rau, P. 1938. Additional observations on the sleep of insects. Ann. Entomol. Soc. 
Amer. 31:540-556. 

10. 1942. The sleep of Chalybion zimmermanni. Can. Entomol. 74:196. 

11. , and N. Rau. 1916. The sleep of insects: an ecological study. Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Amer. 9:227-274. 

12. Weiss, H. 1944. Permanent "sleeping" quarters of Chalybion caeruleum (Linn.). 
Entomol. News 55:270-271. 

Observations of Halictus confusus Smith (Hymenoptera: 
Halictidae) on Woodland and Field Flowers 1 

Robert E. Dolphin 2 - 3 

Department of Entomology 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


The native bee {Halictus confusus) has been recorded from at least 165 host plant 
species. Observations were made of a local nest population for 4 years. These indicated 
that the flowers visited by bees during the warm months of the year reflected availability 
and, possibly, selectivity. Events of 1964 were typical and are reported. 

Spring beauty {Claytonia virginica L.), toothwort (Dentaria laciniata Muhl.), dande- 
lion {Taraxacum officinale I.), and winter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.) were visited 
most frequently during April and May. Nectar and pollen were obtained principally from 
white clover (Trifolium repens L. ) and red clover ( T. pratense (Mill.) Schreb. ) during 
the summer period of nest expansion. 

The native bee, Halictus confusus, is a polylectic species with a 
wide range of floral hosts throughout the growing season in the eastern 
United States (3). While studying the ecological life history of this 
species at the Purdue University Entomological Research Area near 
West Lafayette, Indiana, in 1964, observations were made of the 
interrelationship of a nesting population of H. confusus and plants 
having conspicuous flowers within 200 yards of the nesting site from 
April to October. 

Although H. confusus has been recorded on at least 165 species of 
plants (1, 2, 3), this extensive floral record does not reflect the utiliza- 
tion of regional flora by a local nesting population. In the results re- 
ported here, only 22 plant species were frequented in the forage area 
by the bee colony investigated, and only 6 species were considered 
important to colony nutrition (Table 1). 

During April, the newly-emerged queen bees showed a marked 
preference for spring beauty (Claytonia virginica L.) in the woodland 
areas adjacent to the colony site on a field hilltop. At this time, the trees 
were still without foliage and the forage area of the woodlands was 
well lighted in favorable weather. Most of the floral visits to spring 
beauty were for nectar to be used in personal nutrition, although several 
observations of pollen feeding and one sighting of pollen collection on 
the scopae were recorded on this plant. Pollen collection was indicative 

Journal Paper No. 4690, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. Based 
on a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. 

^Present address: USDA, Entomology Research Division, Vincennes, Ind. 47591. 

Acknowledgment: Especial appreciation is acknowledged for the advice and guidance 
of Dr. Leland Chandler during the course of this study, which is a phase of the research 
for a doctoral thesis. 




of early nest provisioning for the next brood generation. Toothwort 
(Dentaria laciniata Muhl.), which bloomed at the same time and in the 
same areas, was also visited by the females but to a lesser extent. 

Table 1. Plants visited 

by Halictus confusus Smith 

in the Purdue 

Universii y 

Entomological Research Area, 



Range of observation 

No. days bees 


Host plant 



CfilWttMj 1 

Spring beauty 2 

April 8-26 



Toothwort 2 

April 23-26 



Dandelion 2 

April 23-May 20 




May 3 



Winter cress 2 

May 4-18 



Shepherd's purse 

May 6 



Mouse-ear chickweed 

May 18 




May 22 



White clover 2 

May 22-July 30 




June 5 



Hop clover 

June 9 



Red clover 2 

June 10-July 29 



White sweet clover 

June 19 



Crown vetch 

June 27 



Wild rose 

June 29 



Yellow sweet clover 

July 3 



Wild carrot 

July 13-16 



Daisy fleabane 

July 16 



Horse nettle 

July 19 



Japanese lespedeza 3 

September 5 



White heath aster 3 

September 18 




Symbol (P) denotes pollen and nectar being collected, while (N) represents nectar 

2 Multiple observations on date of observations. 
3 Only male(s) observed on host plant. 

As these woodland flowers waned in late April, the bees shifted 
suddenly to dandelion (Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber) as this flower 
attained a conspicuous bloom in the fields near the nesting site during 
the last week of April and the first few days of May. The visits to 
dandelion blossoms were primarily for personal nutrition. About the 
first week of May, winter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.) began to 
bloom in large conspicuous stands in nearby orchards and fields. As 
it became common, H. confusus females deserted the dandelions and 
for the next several weeks were found on the blossoms of this plant 
during favorable weather. Coincidentally, provisioning of brood cells 
in the nests became commonplace as this floral species began to bloom. 
The pollen and nectar collected from winter cress probably provided 

184 Indiana Academy of Science 

more than 95% of the material from which the pollen balls of the first 
brood were fashioned by the overwintered females. By the end of the 
third week in May, the last utilization of this plant was witnessed as 
it entered a fruiting stage. 

During late May, flowers in the nearby fields and orchards were 
scarce and the bees were observed spending more time than usual in 
the field, presumably searching for the few winter cress blossoms still 
left or looking for alternate sources of nutrients. At this time, the long- 
est flights of 1964 took place with 10 flights for pollen, taking from 
60 to 138 minutes, whereas the seasonal average was about 30 minutes. 
At this time, single observations were recorded for mouse-ear 
chickweed (Cerastium vulgatum L.) and blackberry (Rubus sp.), 
suggesting that a search for a preferred floral host was in progress. 

At the conclusion of this period of flower scarcity, the females 
became inactive and the nests became sealed as the adults remained 
in the nests with their developing broods. This period extended from 
May 26 to June 6, 1964. As the first brood-worker females emerged, 
conspicuous flowers were in bloom in the forage areas, such as yarrow 
(Achillea millefolium L)., daisy fleabane (Erigeron strigosus Muhl.), 
and white daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.). Although a few 
visits were recorded to these composites (white daisy visited by H. 
confusus on June 5, 1965), the summer workers favored white clover 
(Tri folium repens L.) and red clover (T. pratense (Mill.) Schreb.) as 
the major sources for nectar and pollen during the June and July nest 
expansion and provisioning period. During this time, Halictus ligatus 
Say, a related species coexisted with H. confusus by nesting in the same 
nesting site. However, interspecific competition was apparently avoided 
in part by preference of floral hosts since H. ligatus was common on 
the flowers of yarrow, daisy fleabane, and white daisy and uncommon 
on white clover and red clover, just the opposite of H. confusus. 

Halictus confusus adults were observed 1 to 3 times only on redbud 
(Cercis canadensis L.), shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) 
Medic), hop clover (T. agarium L.), white sweet clover (Melilotus alba 
Desa.), wild rose (Rosa sp.), yellow sweet clover (M. officianalis 
(L.) Lam.), horse nettle (Solanum carolinense L.), wild carrot 
(Daucus carota L.) in the order first observed in the field. 

In late summer and fall as clovers became scarce, the newly- 
emerged males and females fed on the available flowers, such as 
Japanese clover (Lespedeza lineata (Thumb.) H. and A.) and white 
heath aster (Aster ericoides villosus (Mich.) Voss). Since these females 
were destined to be the overwintering brood, they did not construct cells 
and collect pollen provisions. 

The only other nutrient observed to be collected by H. confusus 
was perspiration, presumably for the salt content. Although Stevens 
(4) reported this species to be a common "sweat bee" in North 
Dakota, the behavior of "sweat bees" in feeding on the perspiration of 
one's bare skin was not observed in H. confusus, nor could it be induced. 
In the nesting site, Dialictus imitatus (Smith) and a larger species, 

Entomology 185 

probably D. zephyrus (Sm.), were common "sweat bees" on hot and 
humid days but were not joined by H. confusus individuals. The manner 
in which this species fed upon perspiration was to land on artificial 
objects that had been handled such as stakes, paper bags, etc., and feed 
upon the perspiration residue. There was one record of a female 
H. confusus hovering about the eyes of the observer for several 
minutes in the manner of an eye gnat. 

Some species of flowers seemed to be visited for nectar only. In 
central Indiana, five species of milkweed were observed to have 
male and female bee visitors for nectar only. Whorled milkweed 
(Asclepias verticillata) was quite attractive to H. confusus during 
midsummer in the general Lafayette, Indiana, area. Both sexes trans- 
ported pollinia in interblossom transfer, but these were never found 
in pollen balls within a nest. 

Literature Cited 

1. Dolphin, R. E. 1966. The ecological life history of Halictus (seladonia) 
confusus Smith (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Purdue 
University, Lafayette, Ind. 311 p. 

2. Mitchell, T. B. 1960. Bees of the eastern United States. Vol. 1. North Carolina 
Agric. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 141: 1-538. 

3. Robertson, C. 1928. Flowers and insects. List of visitors of 453 flowers. Carlinville, 
Illinois. Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. 221 p. 

4. Stevens, O. A. 1951. Native bees: furrow bees — Halictus. North Dakota, Agric. Expt. 
Sta. Bimonth. Bull. 14:59-64. 


Chairman: Charles E. Wier, Indiana Geological Survey, 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 

611 N. Walnut Grove, 

Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Richard L. Powell, Indiana Geological Survey, 
Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 611 N. Walnut 
Grove, Bloomington, Indiana 47401, was elected 
Chairman for 1972 


Glacial Geology of St. Joseph County, Indiana (Map, 1:62,500). 

Rev. Michael J. Murphy, C.S.C., and John P. Szabo, Department 

of Geology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556.- 

Northern Indiana was rejuvenated in the Pliocene producing a gently 
rolling landscape with moderate relief. The La Porte Valley and 
Elkhart Valley, two buried valleys, reflect this. Two of three ice lobes 
which penetrated Indiana produced the presently visible glacial features 
during the Wisconsin's Cary substage. Some features' depositional his- 
tories have multiple explanations while those of others are more 
evident. One interpretation of the St. Joseph River's present course in- 
volves piracy of the headwaters of the ancient Kankakee River. The 
pebble lithologies of various deposits show the underlying bedrock type; 
there are differences between outwash and till pebble analyses. Some 
percentages may possibly serve as indicators in distinguishing a lobe's 
deposits in this area. 

Age and Correlation of Middle Devonian Strata of Jasper County, 
Indiana. R. William Orr and William D. Rebuck, Department of 
Geography and Geology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

—Outcrops of Middle Devonian strata in south-central Jasper County, 

near Rensselaer, were examined and collected for eonodonts as part of 
a continuing study of conodont biostratigraphy of Middle Devonian 
rocks of Indiana. Jasper County exposures consist of mostly fine-to- 
medium grained, dark gray, vuggy dolomite, which lithology is also ex- 
hibited by correlative subsurface strata to the south in White, Tippe- 
canoe, and Warren Counties. Conodont faunas of the studied outcrops 
are dominated by specimens of the important platform genera 
Icriodus and Polygnathus and contain as late Middle Devonian zonal 
indicators I. latericrescens latericrescens and P. varcus s. I. Middle 
Devonian strata of Jasper County represent a southwestern dolomitic 
facies of the Traverse Formation of the Michigan Basin and lie within 
the P. varcus Zone high in the Middle Devonian. These beds correlate 
with the upper (sub-Squaw Bay) part of the Traverse Group of 
Michigan, the upper part of the Traverse Formation of northern 
Indiana, and the Beechwood Member of the North Vernon Limestone 
of southern Indiana and the Illinois Basin. 


188 Indiana Academy of Science 

Structural Control of Cavern Development in Northwestern Washington 
County, Indiana. Richard L. Powell, Department of Geosciences, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Most caverns in the 

outcrops area of limestones of Mississippian age in south-central 
Indiana consist of passages that trend down the local dip of the bed- 
rock. Generally, the regional structure is reflected by numerous 
caverns or subterranean drainage routes which divert surface karst 
drainage westward or southwestward to outlets or springs along en- 
trenched surface streams. The gradient of the subterranean passages 
is generally compatible with the local rate of dip of the bedrock, some- 
times dissecting progressively lower strata if the cave stream gradient 
exceeds the rate of dip. A few cavern passages parallel the strike of 
the strata, usually owing to a steeper hydraulic gradient to a surface 
outlet. Examples of subterranean drainage in an updip direction are 
rare, if not nonexistent, in Indiana. 

Several caverns have been surveyed in the drainage basin of Clifty 
Creek, in northwestern Washington County, Indiana, which exhibit sub- 
terranean drainage contrary to the southwestward regional trend. These 
caverns have commonly developed eastward in a down-dip direction on 
the east flank of the southernmost nose of the Leesville Anticline. They 
are tributary to Clifty Creek, a partially strike-oriented, deeply en- 
trenched stream. River (Wet Clifty) Cave is mostly a strike- 
oriented, northward flowing cavern, a subterranean headward exten- 
sion of Clift Creek. This example of cavern development in adjustment 
to local structure is proof of the importance of structural control to the 
initiation and development of subterranean drainage. 

To Harmonize a County A Proposed Integrated Study of Vigo 

County, Indiana. John H. Cleveland, Department of Geography- 
Geology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. The 

finite nature of a region's natural resources, combined with ever in- 
creasing demands upon them, produces a conflict between man and his 
environment that may lead to extinction, or at best, radical change for 
both. Challenged by the writings of Indiana "geoecologists" Guernsey, 
Wayne, and Patton, a comprehensive pilot study of Vigo County is 
underway to form the orderly framework of information necessary for 
viable courses of action now to avert future tragedy. The project will: 
1) compile and catalogue the extensive data and sources represented 
by federal, state and local governmental agencies, educational and 
research institutions, and business enterprises; 2) outline and undertake 
research projects of both short and long term duration to fill in the in- 
formation gaps; 3) develop "dynamic equilibrium equations" for the 
local ecosystem; and 4) disseminate this information to the public and 
to the decision makers. As an illustration, coal resources are examined. 

It is believed that this continuing study will aid in justifying our 
existence, enhance teaching and research capabilities, and of most im- 
portance, aid in rational progress towards a dynamic equilibrium with 
his environment of man's choosing, permitting a quality survival of both 
for a significant fraction of geologic time. 

Geography and Geology 189 

Geography's Inherent Role in Environment Control. Alfred H. Meyer, 
Department of Geography, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 

46383. Regional populations and their optimally related natural and 

human resource patterns considered in their total environmental 
perspectives — social, economic, political and spiritual — may be said 
to be the basic geographic principle of evaluation of human behavior 
and life's motivations. 

Ethnic and economic concerns of man are necessarily space-related 
and resource-oriented, whatever the stage of cultural development may 
be. Hence, the study of human ecology of the environment in sequent 
occupance form has been traditionally considered a comprehensive chal- 
lenge to the geographer. 

Despite historic antecedents and present-day research and teaching 
concerned with the basic qualities of the environment, the field of 
geography today occupies a comparably inferior professional position 
in the area of Environment Management. 

This paper explored the reasons for this condition and suggested 
some remedial measures establishing professional and public recognition 
of geography as a distinctly environmental behavior science. 

Factors Associated with the Decline of Central Place Functions On the 
Rural Poor of Monroe County, Indiana. Steven K. Pontius, Geography 
Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455. 

Between 1910 and 1970 the number of small towns and villages in 

Monroe County, Indiana, providing the essential retail and service 
activities has declined from 31 to 2. The result of this decline has 
spatially isolated many rural residents who previously were within 2 
miles of such a village anywhere in the county. To those individuals 
who have transportation this is of little or no concern. 

However, to over 100 of the 294 low-income households inter- 
viewed, which represents a 20% sample of all low-income rural residents 
in Monroe county in 1965, the ramifications are great. They represent 
people who have no means of transportation. Characteristically these 
people are 65 or older, have lower incomes, fewer jobs, poorer housing 
conditions, and who are spatially more isolated from the remaining 
central places than the low-income people interviewed who had trans- 

The consequences associated with their isolation, due to their lack 
of transportation and their household location in relation to the 
remaining central places are: the inability to supplement their income, 
and thus the inability to maintain their homes, buy nutritious food, 
and acquire preventive medical care. And, saddest of all is that because of 
this spatial isolation, some of these people give up in despair, stay 
home, and become more isolated from the world. In reality they exist 
in a sort of solitary confinement. 

The Relationship of Expensive Residential Dwellings to Hilly Terrain. 

Henry W. Bullamore, Department of Geography, University of Illinois, 

190 Indiana Academy of Science 

Urbana, Illinois 61801. A field study indicated no statistically signif- 
icant relationship between expensive residential dwellings and hilly 
terrain in the City of Valparaiso, Indiana. The concept of "hilliness" was 
quantified through the use of the local relief within designated study 
sectors. The mean true value according to the Assessor of randomly 
selected homes within each sector was used to quantify "expensiveness". 
Analysis using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient r, the Chi Square test, 
and other tests, all failed to substantiate the hypothesis that expensive 
homes would be found in hilly areas. 

Fulmendosa River: A Multipurpose Irrigation Project in Sardinia. F. P. 

Kallay, Geography Department, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, 

Indiana 46383. One of the great engineering triumphs of modern man 

has been his ability to transform acres of barren land into arable areas of 
large scale productivity. Such a transformation is occurring in the south- 
west portion of Sardinia, known as the Campidano, an area which is 
already an intensively cultivated portion of the island, but possessive of 
much greater agricultural potential. This potential will be realized in the 
form of a vast project known as the ENTE AUTONOMO DEL 

The major purpose of the EAF is the utilization of the hydro-electric 
basin of the Flumendosa River and its tributaries. In addition to provid- 
ing water for irrigation purposes, the EAF project will supply water for 
the capital city of Cagliari and several surrounding communities. Fur- 
thermore, it will provide hydroelectric power at an annual average of 80 
million kilowatt hours. 

The effects of the entire EAF project will not be known in their 
totality for several more years, but it is safe to say that the effects will 
be far-reaching for the island of Sardinia and will have numerous bene- 
fits on the Italian economy as a whole as well. 

Coal Age Tree Stumps in Indiana. D. L. Dilcher, Botany Department, 

Indiana University, Bloomington 47401. During the spring of 1971 

the Paleobotany class of Indiana University located three casts of Sigil- 
larian trunks apparently standing in place where the trees once grew. 
These were found exposed in the No. 5 pit at the Hawthorne strip mine 
of Peabody Coal Company. Several more trunks were located during the 
summer and one was collected by the Indiana State Natural History 
Museum before mining was stopped in the area. The nature of the trunks, 
positions, size and relationships were discussed and a photographic record 
of them was used to illustrate the talk. 


A Study of the Floras in the Allegheny Series in Green County Indiana. 

R. N. Pheifer and David L. Dilcher, Indiana University. 

Earth Dam Problems — and the Geological Site Investigation 

Stanley H. Murdock 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Soil Conservation Service 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46224 


There are many small man-made lakes in Indiana and a few large reservoirs with 
dams over 100 feet in height. The major problems encountered in the construction and 
operation of these structures are seepage around or through their fills, permeability or 
weakness of foundation bedrock, unsuitable construction materials, instability of 
natural slopes, subsidence of dam or pool into caverns or mine voids, and tectonic activity. 
Faulty construction is not within the scope of this paper. To minimize structural 
inadequacies or failures caused by these problems, the design engineer must be forewarned. 
An adequate detailed design investigation must be conducted by a capable geologist. The 
geologist must review all available data relative to the site, study, test and sample the 
features of the site, submit samples, test data and his interpretations to the soil mechanics 
laboratory, and present all this information and the laboratory report to the design 


Multi-purpose use of stored surface water has increased greatly in 
recent years. Problems in dam construction, operation and maintenance 
have kept pace. 

In Indiana most dams for water storage have been constructed with 
earth. The type of earth material is dictated by the type of dam, the site 
features and the available material. 

Problems are encountered during construction and while the reservoir 
is in operation. The purpose of the geological dam site investigation is 
to discover the problems so that they may be offset by adequate design. 

Simply expressed, a dam must be strong enough to hold back a given 
volume of water. The permeability and strength of the dam and its abut- 
ments are important factors in the successful operation and maintenance 
of the reservoir. 

Pre-design investigations of dam sites vary in intensity. The larger 
and more elaborate the structure, the more detailed must be the investiga- 
tion. The compilation and review of data on dam failures or deficiencies 
has largely determined the steps taken in current dam site investigations. 

The causes of inadequacies in all earth fills reported prior to 1952 
have been placed in the following order (5) : 




5) Slope paving 





6) Miscellaneous 





7) Unknown 



Conduit leakage 



192 Indiana Academy of Science 

Most of the dams referred to in this study are large structures. The 
writer believes that most of the problems could have been foreseen had 
an adequate pre-design been employed. 

Overtopping usually occurs when the dam has insufficient height 
or when the outlet structure is inadequate. This design deficiency usually 
results from inaccurate hydrologic data. In recent years the science of 
hydrology has become much more reliable and overtopping is no longer 
a common event. 

Based upon the writer's experience and study of recently constructed 
earth dams in Indiana, the following order for problems encountered is 
listed as follows : 

1) Seepage in overburden or fill 3) Bedrock incompatibility 

2) Foundation weakness 4) Miscellaneous. 

Seepage occurs through permeable fills, abutments and/or founda- 
tions. This leakage results in water loss and, frequently, piping of fine 
soil materials in fill or adjacent natural ground. Poorly graded (well 
sorted) sands and gravels are common offenders. Abutment or foundation 
seepage may occur through layers or lenses of sands and gravels in 
glacial drift or in alluvial sediments. Fills constructed chiefly with 
coarse-grained earth materials are subject to seepage. Conditions con- 
ducive to either of these possibilities must be recognized in the 
pre-design investigation. Permeable materials are important components 
of a good fill, but must be used with silts and clays. 

Soft and compressible foundations will consolidate during or after 
construction. Weak soils located at the base of the dam must be found, 
sampled and tested. Such weak materials must be either treated or 
removed. Standard penetration tests, conducted during the site investiga- 
tion, pin-point weak foundations. Undisturbed samples of the weak 
material, as indicated by standard penetration tests, are collected and 
submitted to a soil mechanics laboratory for test data. These data 
determine the proper solution for the design engineer. 

Shale, sandstone and limestone are the bedrock possible to encounter 
during the construction of dams in Indiana. 

Shale is generally impermeable and of adequate strength. Slides and 
creep occur on hillsides where shale is near the surface. Some shales swell 
when wet and shrink when dry. Propensity to cause slides or to swell or 
shrink must be noted in the investigation report. 

Sandstone is generally strong and relatively impermeable. Some sand- 
stones are weakly cemented and are therefore permeable, weather 
rapidly and are often weak. When permeability or strength is in question, 
adequate testing must be done. 

Limestone, when massive and not jointed, provides a good foundation 
and basin for dams. Cavernous, open and jointed limestone presents prob- 
lems in maintaining water levels in the reservoir and in making secure 
the embankment and structural works. When limestone is suspected of 

Geography and Geology 193 

being permeable, the bedrock is usually pressure-tested in place. Core 
samples may be subjected to testing to determine stability. 

There are numerous miscellaneous problems that may result in the 
inadequacy or eventual failure of a reservoir if not discovered in the 
investigation and allowed for in the design. 

Lack of and/or insufficient suitable embankment material may 
present a serious problem. Sands and gravels, to the exclusion of fine 
grained soil, or vice versa, are unsatisfactory fill materials. 

Haul distance is an important factor in determining the economics 
of borrow operations. In the construction of the moderate size dams of 
from 20 to 50 feet of fill height, borrow must be available within 1/4 

Proper placement of fill, proper compaction and satisfactory moisture 
control are necessary to avoid construction and operation problems (6). 

Steep slopes and shallow soils combine to present slope stability 
problems. During construction, care must be exercised to prevent distrub- 
ing slope equilibrium. Unloading the toe of a natural slope may be inviting 
disaster. Saturation of an otherwise stable slope can also cause a slide. 
The disaster at the Vaiont reservoir in Italy is an example (3). 

Subsurface mining and subsequent subsidence can ruin a dam or its 
impounded pool. Underground voids resulting from the pumping of oil 
is believed to be a major contributor to the failure of the Baldwin Hills 
Reservoir in California (4). Subsidence from coal mining or from oil 
pumping are not known to have caused damage to dams in Indiana 
although there is ample reason for concern. 

Problems related to tectonic activity have not yet been reported in 
Indiana. One study of the location of earthquake probabilities indicates 
that southwestern Indiana is an area of concern (1). There are known 
and suspected fault areas in the state, many of which appear to be related 
to the Mt. Carmel fault. 

To minimize the hazards related to site problems a pre-design geo- 
logical investigation of the site is mandatory. This should be planned by 
and carried out under the direction of a qualified geologist. Minimum 
requirements for this investigation appear below. 

First, all available published or unpublished data relative to the site 
should be assembled and reviewed. One source of these data is the Indiana 
Geological Survey. 

Second, an adequate subsurface investigation must be carried out 
in conjunction with a study of all surface features of the site. Field test- 
ing, sample collection, and complete and accurate reporting of the site 
conditions are necessary parts of this requirement (2). 

Third, the samples collected must be submitted to a soil mechanics 
laboratory for testing, analyzing and reporting. 

194 Indiana Academy of Science 

Fourth, the geologists report and the laboratory report must be 
delivered to and interpreted for the design engineer. An important part 
of these reports is a recommendation for further study, if necessary. 

Fifth, the geologist should make periodic visits to the site after 
construction has begun to compare conditions actually encountered with 
those anticipated as a result of the pre-design investigation. 

It is my opinion that a well-conceived and an economical site 
investigation will uncover virtually all adverse site conditions likely to 
result in dam inadequacies and possible failures. 

Literature Cited 

1. Algermissen, S. T. 1969. Seismic map shows areas of U. S. vulnerable to earth- 
quakes. Eng. Geol. 26:5. 

2. U. S. Dep. Interior, Bur. Reclamation, 1960. Design of small dams. Washington, 
D.C. 611 p. 

3. Flawn, P. T. 1970. Environmental geology. Harper and Row, New York, N.Y. 313 p. 

4. James, L. B. 1966. Failure of Baldwin Hills Reservoir, Los Angeles, Cal. Eng. Geol. 
Case Histories No. 6, Los Angeles, Cal. 

5. Middlebrooks, T. A. 1952. Progress in earth dam design and construction in the 
U. S. Civil Eng. 124:708-715. 

6. Murdock, S. H. 1966. A pond or a puddle? J. Soil and Water Conserv. 21:180-182. 

Glacial Stratigraphy of the Fort Wayne Area and the Draining 
of Glacial Lake Maumee 1 

N. K. Bleuer and M. C. Moore 

Indiana Geological Survey, Blooming-ton, Indiana 47401 


Two major glacial till sequences are present in the Fort Wayne area. The upper 
sequence consists of the clayey tills of the Lagro Formation and the lower consists of 
extremely hard loam tills that are correlated with the Trafalgar Formation. Both are 
Wisconsinan in age. 

The morphology and development of the Fort Wayne Outlet, the Six Mile Creek 
channel, and the Wabash-Erie Channel were controlled by a combination of bedrock topog- 
raphy, early glacial discharge routes, the lithology and thickness of glacial materials, and 
the most recent ice-controlled drainage. 

The morphology of the lake floor and the morphology and postglacial stratigraphy 
of the outlets of glacial Lake Maumee suggest that all three of the classic lake levels could 
have discharged at Fort Wayne and that the classical 800-foot, 760-foot, and 780-foot 
sequential order is without foundation. The lower hard tills could have slowed 
temporarily the downcutting of the Fort Wayne Outlet and stabilized the intermediate 
lake level. 


An ongoing study of the environmental geology of the Fort Wayne 
area, Allen County, Indiana, has required that we develop much more 
detailed knowledge of the glacial stratigraphy than has been known here- 
tofore. Therefore, we have accumulated a considerable amount of data 
in the form of water well records, engineering boring logs, shallow refrac- 
tion seismic records, measured sections of natural and artifical exposures, 
and logs of our own power augering. Our synthesis of these data is just 
beginning, but we wish here to outline some of the new information by 
giving a basic stratigraphic framework for the area and a more detailed 
description of the outlets of glacial Lake Maumee and then to point out 
some of the ramifications regarding accepted concepts of glacial and 
glacial lacustrine history. 

Past Work 

Until the present study, the most recent geologic work in the Fort 
Wayne area was done as a part of the Indiana Geological Survey's regional 
geologic mapping program. The surficial geology shown on the "Geologic 
Map of the 1° x 2° Fort Wayne Quadrangle . . ." (G. H. Johnson and 
S. J. Keller, in preparation) does not differ significantly from that mapped 
by earlier workers (Fig. 1). 

The first comprehensive work in this area, the "Report upon the 
Geology of Allen County," by C. R. Dryer, M.D. (3), has gone virtually 
unchallenged to this day. And even it, in part, summarized work by 

Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Department of Natural Resources, 
Geological Survey. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

32 N 

31 N 

30 N 

29 N 







Figure 1. Primary geologic features, Allen County, Indiana. Unlabeled areas are till 
plain. City of Fort Wayne is outlined. Generalized from Johnson and Keller (in 

preparation) . 

N. H. Winchell and G. K. Gilbert on "the moraines of the Maumee Valley 
[that] were among the first to be recognized upon this continent" (4). 
A report on "The Roads and Road Materials of Allen County," by J. A. 
Price (10), included a colored l:250,000-scale surficial geologic map, which 
is still a valuable tool. The synthesis of this geology into the regional 
interpretation of glacial history was done by Leverett (8) and Leverett 
and Taylor (9). There are very few areas in the Midwest whose glacial 
geology was better known before 1915 than was the glacial geology of 
this area. And as is true for so many other areas, virtually no 
morphologic or stratigraphic work has been done since the time of 
Leverett and Taylor. 

Bedrock Topography and Preglacial Drainage 

Situated on the northeast flank of the Cincinnati Arch, just within 
the Michigan Basin, the bedrock surface in Allen County is one of physio- 
graphic transition. The dolomite, limestone, and shale bedrock of Silurian 
to Mississippian age dips very slightly to the north and east. To the north 
the average bedrock elevation becomes less where valleys are cut into the 
softer shales. A carbonate rock plateau occupies the south half of the 
county, and a persistent escarpment separates it from the lowlands in 
the northern two tiers of townships (Fig. 2) (2). Glaciers from the Erie 
basin entered Indiana by riding obliquely up the slope of this escarpment. 

Geography and Geology 


32 N 

31 N 

30 N 

29 N 

12 E 


Figure 2. Generalized drainage pattern on the bedrock surface, Allen County, Indiana. 

Generalized from large-scale bedrock topograpivic map (M. C. Moore, unpublished) 

compiled from more than 1,000 well, boring, and seismic records. 

All bedrock valleys in Allen County are tributary to the Teays Valley, 
about 50 miles to the southwest (2). The headwaters of the Valley F-C 
(Fig. 2), which are much steeper than those of Valley E-A, perhaps were 
deepened by proglacial waters of one of the pre-Wisconsinan ice advances 
that undoubtedly covered the area. 

Glacial Stratigraphy 

Two major drift sequences are present in the Fort Wayne area (Fig. 
3). A dense sand is commonly present at the base of the lower sequence, 
and its distribution appears to be partly controlled by topography on the 
bedrock surface, the thicker deposits commonly occupying lows. The lower 
drift sequence is composed of loam-textured glacial tills (C and D, Fig. 
3), having in places abundant interstratified sand, silt, and flowtill-type 
deposits, particularly near the top of the unit, and a persistent sand at 
about mid-depth. The tills typically contain 35 to 45% sand and 15 to 20% 
clay (grain-size analysis by American Association of State Highway 
Officials Designation T-88; Wentworth size grades). They are overconsoli- 
dated and are hard in the engineering sense of the word, having 
unconfined compressive strengths far in excess of 4 tons/ft 2 . Moisture 
contents are typically well below 10% and, correspondingly, dry densities 
commonly exceed 140 lb/ft 3 . The top of the lower till sequence rises from 
an elevation of about 735 feet in the axis of the Maumee Lake basin 
in easternmost Allen County to an elevation of more than 800 feet be- 
neath the moraines in western Allen County. Between the upper and 


Indiana Academy of Science 

820 - 










(&) Sand, silt, cloy, muck, peat, lake and swamp deposits (b) Sand and/or gravel, 
medium dense (4) Glacial till, silty clay loam to clay loam, stiff (3) Glacial till, loam, 
very hard, common interstratified sand in upper part, stone lines common locally 
(2) Sand, fine, silty, some gravel, very dense (T) Sand and gravel, dense, rich in chert 
and weathered material 

Figure 3. Generalized geologic section, Allen County, Indiana, showing unconsolidated 


lower till sequences there is usually a dense fine silty sand, which helps 
separate the drift sequences in water well and engineering* boring 
records throughout the county. 

Geography and Geology 199 

The upper drift sequence is the series of clayey tills of the Erie Lobe 
(Fig. 3, A and B) that make up the concentric moraines of northeastern 
Indiana and northern Ohio. The upper tills are silty clay-loam to clay- 
loam textured, containing roughly 10% sand and 40 to 50% clay. They 
are stiff to very stiff in the engineering sense, having unconfined com- 
pressive strengths of 2 to 4 tons /ft 2 . Their moisture content is typically 
between 15 and 20% with dry densities ranging from 115 to 125 lb/ft 3 . 

A. M. Gooding ("Characteristics of late Wisconsinan tills in eastern 
Indiana," in preparation) gives evidence for the glacial retreat and subse- 
quent readvance of ice to the Wabash Moraine on the basis of a marked 
increase in clay content of surface tills within the Wabash Moraine. 
Although we have not as yet confirmed this in vertical section, numerous 
engineering boring and water well records and some measured sections 
indicate a distinct break marked by sand, gravel, or laminated clays with- 
in the upper till, which may represent the interval described by 

The sequential relationship is quite straightforward in most places, 
but in the Fort Wayne Outlet and the Wabash-Erie Channel areas, as 
discussed below, the lower drift sequence generally becomes much more 
complex and the basal sand, the intermediate sand of the lower sequence, 
and the intersequence sand in places increase greatly in thickness. 

There is no evidence of any weathering interval between or within 
the till sequences, and thus we assume that both sequences record Wiscon- 
sinan glaciation. We believe that the lower sequence belongs to the 
Trafalgar Formation and the upper sequence to the Lagro Formation of 
Wayne (11). Wayne's plate 3 depicts a superposition of tills similar to 
that found in Allen County. Similar tills have also been described by 
Forsyth (5) near Defiance, Ohio. 

The stratigraphically lowest and possibly the oldest unconsolidated 
materials yet examined in Allen County are exposed in the May Stone 
and Sand Company Ardmore Road quarry (NE*4, Sec. 29, T30N, R12E). 
This unit (Fig 3, Unit 1) consists of about 7 feet of medium to fine loamy 
sand to cobbly gravel, which, when moist, is dark gray, olive gray, and 
olive (5Y hue). Distinguishing characteristics of these lowest gravels are 
their high content of pebbles of angular chert and of igneous and meta- 
morphic rocks, low content of shale, and lack of any carbonate except in 
a basal rubble layer. Clay mineral analyses show a significantly greater 
amount of mixed layered material than is present in samples of the area's 
oldest tills. The deposit rests upon Devonian limestone, possibly within 
a small bedrock valley, and is overlain by a generally clayey but variably 
textured till (correlation uncertain). It has the appearance of a weathered, 
reworked cherty lag deposit on an old erosion surface, but igneous and 
metamorphic pebbles indicate a previous or contemporaneous glaciation. 

The Classic Glacial Lake Maumee Sequence 

It has been supposed since 1915 that a lake level at about 800 feet 
was formed in the upper Maumee basin soon after the ice front re- 
treated from the Fort Wayne Moraine (9). This lake was succeeded by 


Indiana Academy of Science 

another lake at 760 feet, after which the water rose again to 780 feet (790 
feet according to some sources). The Maumee stages of the pro-Erie Lobe 
lakes ended once lower outlets were free to discharge into the Saginaw 
Bay area and into the Grand River valley. 

For the sake of argument we will assume that three lakes existed 
at roughly these elevations. However, examination of 7% -minute topo- 
graphic maps not available to earlier workers shows that gross miscor- 
relations of beaches were made and that many of the supposed beaches 
are probably near-shore features other than beaches. Thus, we feel that 
the nature and origin of these features and their correlation and sequential 
order should be restudied. 

Knowledge of the basic glacial stratigraphy and of this classic lake 
sequence now provides the basis for a discussion of the morphology, 
stratigraphy, and developmental history of the outlets of the Maumee 
glacial lakes. 

Morphologic and Stratigraphic Relationships in the Wabash-Erie 
Channel and the Fort Wayne Outlet 

The entire valley through which glacial Lake Maumee drained, 
extending from just east of Fort Wayne to the Wabash Valley below 
Huntington, was called the Wabash-Erie Channel by Dryer (3). Leverett 
(8) preferred the term Fort Wayne Outlet for the same channel. Because 

Line of cross section 
Well or being location 

Figure 4. Topography of the Wabash-Erie Channel floor, showing 10-foot contours 
and lines of cross section referred to in text. Maximum scoured elevation of Wabash- 
Erie Channel in Cross Section H, 7U2 feet; G, 71+0 feet; F, 7U3 feet; E, 739 feet; D, 
735 feet; C, 735 feet; B, 7/,5 feet; A, 735 feet (limestone bedrock). Cross sections 
H, E, D, and B show 10 to 25 feet of soft clay and/or loose sand below the uppermost 

unit of fine-grained fill. 

Geography and Geology 


Line of cross section 
Well or boring location 

Figure 5. Topography of the floor of westernmost glacial Lake Maumee and the 
Fort Wayne and Six Mile Creek outlets, showing 10-foot contours and lines of cross 

section referred to in text. Maximum scoured elevations of lake floor and Fort Wayne 

Outlet shown in Cross Section K, 750 feet; J, 750 feet. 

of their different although related origins we find it desirable to 
distinguish the mile-wide trough below Fort Wayne from that part of 
the valley that was cut through the Fort Wayne Moraine in Fort Wayne 
(Fig. 1). Therefore, we will use Dryer's term Wabash-Erie Channel for 
that single broad valley that is southwest of the city of Fort Wayne and 
that extends to Huntington. The head of this valley is the area of merging 
drainageways in the west half of T30N, R12E (Fig. 4). We will restrict 
the term Fort Wayne Outlet to that narrow valley extending from Sec. 
4, T30N, R13E, the western point of the Maumee lake basin, westward 
through Fort Wayne to the point where the St. Mary's River turns east 
in Sec. 2, T30N, R12E to join the St. Joseph River (Fig. 5). 

Morphology of the Outlet and Channel Floors 

The general course of the channel between Fort Wayne and Hunt- 
ington is of particular interest because of the possible indirect effect of 
bedrock topography upon the east-west segments (compare Valley D, 
Fig. 2, with Wabash-Erie Channel, Fig. 1) and because of the obvious 
effect of ice-controlled drainage upon the northeast-southwest segments 
of its course. As noted by Dryer (3), west of the outlet through the Fort 
Wayne Moraine "the channel turns to the southwest in a line which is 
a direct continuation of the valley of the St. Joseph River." Similarly, 
the valley also turns abruptly southwestward near the west Allen County 
line just west of where it bisects the Wabash Moraine and joins the contin- 
uation of Aboite Creek, which parallels the distal margin of the north 


Indiana Academy of Science 

limb of the moraine. The St. Joseph and Aboite Creek drainageways, 
like the nearby Mississinewa, Salamonie, upper Wabash, and St. Mary's 
Rivers, clearly have ice-marginal or otherwise ice-controlled trends. 

Dryer (3) stated that "the present level of its bottom [the Wabash- 
Erie Channel] rises from 737 feet at the mouth of the St. Joseph to 756 
feet at the summit 4 miles west, then falls to 744 feet at the margin of 
the Niagara outcrop, and to 699 feet at its junction with the Wabash/' 
although Dryer recognized that those elevations did not record the scour 
depth of glacial lake outflow. He recorded about 4 feet of peat overlying 
blue clay underlying the Wabash-Erie Channel and 40 feet of silt over 
limestone at the outlet summit (discussed further below). Leverett (8), 
however, recorded the bed of the outlet in Fort Wayne as 755 feet (mis- 
quoted as 757 feet by Hough (7)) and noted that "parts of the bed are 
strewn with boulders and cobblestones, . . . indicating an old scourway. 
The northwest part of the city . . . stands on such a stony part of the bed." 
Leverett apparently considered the present floor at Fort Wayne to be the 
original scour depth, although he did recognize that below Fort Wayne 
"the bed is occupied by an extensive growth of peaty material, beneath 
which there is fine sand" and thus "had apparently been scoured out 
somewhat below its present level during the most vigorous stage of the 
excavation and was then filled in as the strength of the flow declined." 
The surface elevation in the northwest part of Fort Wayne, southwest of 
the confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's Rivers, is, indeed, be- 
tween 755 and 760 feet (Figs. 1 and 4). The configuration of the con- 
tours, of course, has been greatly affected by the building of the city, 
and for that reason they have not been shown on parts of Figures 4 and 

Of special interest, however, is the form of the outlet channel east 
of the city, where it is cut through the moraine. The outlet valley is for 
the most part occupied by the Maumee River floodplain at an elevation 
slightly greater than 740 feet, but in Sees. 3, 4, and 5, T30N, R13E, ter- 



Figure 6. Geologic Cross Section KK', showing geology beneath lake floor 2 
east of New Haven. Bedrock stir face interpreted from regional data. (See Fig. 5 for 
section location, Fig. 8 for explanation.) 

Geography and Geology 


races at about 750 feet (along line of Cross Section J J', Fig. 5) record the 
former scoured lake floor where it merges with the outlet. 

The form of the westernmost lake bottom (along line of Cross Section 
KK', Figs. 5 and 6) clearly shows the constriction but also the continua- 
tion of the 750-foot contours into the outlet valley. It is clear from this 
geomorphic evidence that the original scoured depth in the outlet and 
channel downstream must have been even lower than 750 feet. In fact, 
this is exactly what the channel stratigraphy shows us. 

Postglacial Stratigraphy within the Channel 

Between 10 and 25 feet of silt, clay, and organic deposits (not yet 
radio-carbon dated) fill a scoured trough in the north half of the east- 
west part of the Wabash-Erie Channel (Fig. 7, Cross Section FF', as 
representative of Cross Sections CC through H in Fig. 4). Even across 
the limestone sill at Huntington where Leverett (8) stated the elevation 
of the channel floor, and presumably the limestone surface, to be 744 feet, 
more than 7 feet of fine-grained fill is present over the limestone, which 
is at an elevation of about 735 feet in the center of the channel (along 
Cross Section A A', Fig. 4). Maximum elevations of the floors of the Fort 
Wayne Outlet and the Wabash-Erie Channel before the postlake infilling 
of the channel are given in the captions for Figures 4 and 5. It is clear 
that a significant buried trough, about the width of the valley of the Fort 
Wayne Outlet, occupies part of the larger Wabash-Erie Channel. The floor 
elevation of the buried trough, not the surface elevation, records the depth 
to which glacial Lake Maumee scoured. The buried channel floor appears 
to have broadly spaced highs and lows, whose origins are difficult to 
interpret. However, filling by at least the uppermost fine-grained unit 
must postdate the Lake Maumee discharge, and we interpret this to mean 
that the St. Marys and St. Joseph Rivers continued to flow sluggishly 
westward down the channel prior to the development of the Maumee River. 





Figure 7. Geologic Cross Section FF', showing representative geology of Wabash-Erie 
Channel and surroundings. (See Fig. U for section location, Fig. 3 for explanation.) 

The geology of the channel area is particularly complex. Inter- 
sequence sand and silt or lower sequence sand is present beneath the 
latest channel filling in many sections across the channel, the outlet, and 
the westernmost lake bottom (Fig. 7 and as along Cross Sections J J' and 

204 Indiana Academy of Science 

LL', Fig. 5). Because of this, it is almost impossible to assign position 
and age to many such deposits that occur immediately below the latest 
fine-grained fill. Often, only engineering data can give any clue as to 
whether sediments are exhumed or postglacial. Furthermore, there are 
several very deep holes in the channel filled with as much as 25 feet of 
soft (not overconsolidated) sediments to well below even the elevation 
of the bedrock sill at Huntington (see captions, Figs. 4 and 5). 

Stratigraphic Evidence Bearing upon the Early Development of the 

Preliminary study of subsurface data suggests that the route of the 
present channel in and just west of Fort Wayne is roughly parallel to the 
route of drainage associated with lower sequence ice. Furthermore, two 
upper sequence tills, possibly representing the advance of the Erie Lobe 
to the Wabash Moraine and an earlier Erie Lobe advance, are separated 
in one major exposure on the south wall of the present channel (Midwest 
Aggregates quarry, Sec. 36, T30N, RUE) by a thick gravel that contains 
armored till balls derived from the lower till. This outwash may have been 
concentrated, before formation of the Wabash Moraine, along the present 
trend of the Wabash-Erie Channel, just as earlier meltwaters had been 
concentrated there. 

During later development of the channel, high level outwash was 
deposited west of the confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's valleys 
in continuation of the terraces in those valleys. Outwash as much as 25 
feet thick is present as high as 785 feet in the west half of T30N, R12E 
(Figs. 1 and 4). Thus, a precursor of the present Wabash-Erie Channel 
was also in existence while the Fort Wayne Moraine was forming and 
discharging outwash through the St. Joseph and St. Marys valleys. 

The lows in the channel floor that are filled with soft sediment in 
some way relate to the overall development of the channel. Were they 
cut by waters under considerable head flowing off or through ice? Do 
they represent plunge pools that consecutively developed as the channel 
lengthened? Or is there another explanation? We do not know. 

But as a generalization, we can say that the Wabash-Erie Channel 
had a long, perhaps in part repetitive history of drainage and that most 
of the route as we see it today was an already established drainageway 
before the Fort Wayne Moraine and thus also before the Maumee glacial 
lakes came into existence. As noted above, the course of the main east- 
west segment of the channel may have been indirectly bedrock controlled, 
and the northeast-southwest courses were determined by ice. 

Six Mile Creek Channel 

The only other incised breach in the Fort Wayne Moraine, the Trier 
Ditch, or the Six Mile Creek Channel as it was called by Dryer (Figs. 1 
and 5) (3), connects the St. Marys River at 750 feet elevation with the 
Maumee River 8% miles away at an elevation of 740 feet (Figs. 1 and 5). 
In the northern one-third of its length the channel broadens considerably 
and the 780-foot scarp swings into the embayment. The course of this 

Geography and Geology 



Figure 8. Geologic Cross Section 00\ showing representative geology across Six Mile 
Creek Channel. (See Fig. 5 for section location, Fig. 3 for explanation.) 

channel may have been indirectly determined by a minor bedrock valley 
Fig. 2 E), which was tributary to one of the major north-flowing pre- 
glacial streams. 

Glacial and Postglacial Stratigraphy 

As elsewhere in the Fort Wayne Moraine, the stratigraphy is rela- 
tively simple and is described by the basic sequence shown in Figure 3. 
In the southern part of the channel a thick basal sand is overlain by hard 
sandy till of the lower sequence (Cross Section 00', Fig. 8, as representa- 
tive of Sections NN' through RR'). This in turn is overlain by a thin dense 
fine sand or silt of the intersequence unit. The upper clayey till sequence 
lies above. All glacial stratigraphic units, as shown on Cross Section MM' 
(Fig. 9), drop in elevation northward as they approach the lacustrine 
plain and the axis of the Erie Lobe. The upper part of the lower sequence 
here and near the main Fort Wayne Outlet becomes much more varied 
where it is topographically low, containing abundant intercalated sand 
and silt. Lacustrine and fluvial materials associated with glacial lakes 


.> ) 


08' ' 

Figure 9. Geologic Cross Section MM' along the Six Mile Creek Channel. Bedrock 
surface interpreted from regional data. (See Fig. 5 for section location, Fig. S 

for explanation.) 

206 Indiana Academy of Science 

and recent alluviation rest on both upper and lower sequence units along 
the channel, depending upon the depth of erosion. 

Although there may have been a bedrock-determined initial sag, there 
is no indication that the Six Mile Creek Channel was active prior to 
deposition of the upper clayey till sequence. It appears that the contact 
of the upper and lower sequences may be lower there than it is a few miles 
to either side, but the data are insufficient to tell whether this indicates 
a valley or a local, closed low. The scoured floor of the present channel 
was cut in upper sequence clayey till at an elevation of 755 feet and, as 
would be expected, does seem to drop in elevation at both ends. The slope 
to the St. Mary's is very short and can be attributed to the more recent 
drainage. The slope to the north begins nearly half way along the length 
of the channel, is very gentle, parallels the boundary between the lower 
sequence till and the basal sand, and becomes difficult to trace as the 
stratigraphy becomes complex near the lake border. Leverett (8) pointed 
out that current bedding in gravels exposed southwest of New Haven 
shows a southward transport, which he attributed to drainage from glacial 
Lake Maumee. Cross beds could, of course, be related to storm deposits 
or longshore drift. Furthermore, it is obvious (Cross Section MM', Fig. 
9) that no coarse sediment is found in the base of the channel in its 
southern half and that there is no appreciable buildup of such material 
opposite its south end. Thus, there is no clearcut reflection in morphology 
or general stratigraphy of the lake drainage that must have passed south- 
ward in the Six Mile Creek Channel. 

As suggested by Dryer (3), the St. Mary's River used the channel 
as a flood stage outlet after lake levels had dropped. As recently as 1913, 
a flood of water 5 feet deep flowed through it. Leverett and Taylor (9) 
made reference to this event, and Dryer suggested that it was a frequent 
occurrence before the advent of modern drainage controls. 

Dryer (3) defined a large sandy area in and just east of New Haven 
as the delta of the St. Mary's-Six Mile Creek Channel. However, the topo- 
graphically prominent sand at the east end of the supposed delta appears 
to us to be dunal rather than deltaic, the dune sands lying upon coarse 
sands on the lake floor. The broadest expanse of the so-called "delta" is 
found in the city of New Haven where the elevation is about 760 feet, but 
most of the town is underlain by hard loam till. 

The Six Mile Creek gap, like the Fort Wayne Outlet, was very likely 
an original low in the Fort Wayne Moraine. When the ice of the Erie Lobe 
began to recede, there were surely isolated small lakes ponded in front 
of it which had their own outlets. Six Mile Creek, which is now of a magni- 
tude equal to that of the channel of the Imlay Outlet, may have been one 
of these. Although a large quantity of meltwater may have been spilled 
through Six Mile Creek Channel after integration of the ice marginal lakes 
into Lake Maumee, the prevailing currents and sediment transport from 
the lake bed were through the larger Fort Wayne Outlet. After the lake 
was emptied and present drainage patterns established, the Six Mile Creek 
Channel acted as a floodwater route for the St. Marys River. 

Geography and Geology 207 

Evidences for the Lake Sequence 

Since Leverett's (8) first description in 1902 of the high stand of 
glacial Lake Maumee, it has been assumed that that lake drained primarily 
through the Fort Wayne Outlet and the Six Mile Creek Channel. Although 
Taylor (9, 12) had traced the uplifted continuation of the highest beach 
to a point 6 miles north of Imlay, Michigan, well north along the west 
wall of the present channel at Imlay, neither author, for some reason, 
concluded that the high lake drained at Imlay. It has been always recog- 
nized that the intermediate lake level drained through the Imlay Outlet, 
but Hough (7) pointed out that that level, too, must have drained 
through the Fort Wayne Outlet. Leverett (8) originally accounted for 
the change in level from 800 feet to 780 feet by the opening of the 
Imlay Outlet. If the high lake drained at Imlay, however, the opening of 
the Imlay Outlet alone (at least to the extent of the channel presently 
visible) could not explain the lowering of the lake to the 780-foot level. 

The "third beach" at 760 feet was recognized in 1908 by Leverett 
(11) and was placed last in the sequence, although Leverett suggested 
the possibility that the low level might actually be intermediate in age, 
based upon its "rather washed-down appearance." Leverett further stated 
that the third Maumee beach "appears to have been barely high enough 
to have opened into the Imlay Outlet if its northward rise is as rapid as 
that of the first and second beaches." Taylor (9), however, made no men- 
tion of this observation, and assumed that the floor of the Imlay Outlet 
visible today, like the floor of the Fort Wayne Outlet, was too high to have 
drained the low-level lake. 

We believe that the overriding reason for Taylor's (9) placing the 
760-foot lake level between the two higher levels in the lake sequence was 
not the washed look of the 760-foot beaches, rather it was that the 
presumed lack of an outlet for the lowest lake necessitated the 
postulated burial of the lake's outlet by a subsequent glacial advance that 
also raised the level of the lake. Taylor (9) felt that a "readvance of the 
ice did not [completely] close the [wider and deeper 760-foot] 
outlet [at Imlay] but pushed it [westward] up the slope to the 
place where the Imlay outlet channel is now found." The head of the 
Imlay channel visible today was thought to have drained only the last 
level, the 780-foot lake. 

However, we have shown that the scoured floors of the Fort Wayne 
Outlet, the Wabash-Erie Channel, and the Six Mile Creek Channel are 
deeper than previously assumed. At least 10 feet of water from a 760- 
foot lake could have passed through the Fort Wayne Outlet, and concur- 
rently 5 feet of water could have passed through the Six Mile Creek 
Channel. Furthermore, the important limiting elevation of the limestone 
sill at Huntington is nearly 10 feet less than indicated by Leverett, and 
thus discharge gradients of all lakes were considerably more than 
previously assumed. Preliminary study of modern IVz' topographic maps 
seems to indicate that the two high beaches can indeed be traced into the 
Imlay channel and that taking into consideration about 50 feet of post- 

208 Indiana Academy of Science 

glacial uplift, the 760-foot lake might also have barely discharged through 
the channel, just as Leverett (11) suggested. 

The subdued or washed look of the 760-foot beaches has never been 
quantitatively documented in the literature. Many of the classic 760-foot 
beaches are far above that elevation, others can easily be explained as 
nonbeach features, and any truly subdued beach certainly can be explained 
in other ways than by the washing action of a higher lake. Therefore, 
we feel that there is no evidence for other than the simplest sequence of 
the classic Maumee Lake Levels, 800 feet, 780 feet, 760 feet. 

Cause of Change in Level 

An 800-foot lake level would have been controlled by the initial 
configuration of the surface of the Fort Wayne Moraine. Assuming a 
constant discharge rate, it is possible that the opening of a discharge route 
at Imlay in addition to the Fort Wayne and Six Mile Creek outlets could 
have balanced the lake level at a lower elevation, as Leverett (8) origi- 
nally suggested. But backcutting in the Fort Wayne Outlet eventually 
would have cut through the moraine, perhaps in a "stoping" process of 
headward advance of a rapids or chute similar to that postulated for the 
outlet of glacial Lake Chicago by W. C. Alden (1) and modified by J. W. 
Goldthwait (6) in the early 1900's. 

We suggest the possibility that a significant stratigraphic sill, the 
top of the lower hard till, could have temporarily slowed downcutting at 
Fort Wayne, perhaps causing a stabilization of the lake at the intermedi- 
ate level. The Fort Wayne Outlet is cut into intrasequence sand and 
apparently into the lower hard till, which is encountered at 750 feet in 
borings in Fort Wayne just south of the outlet, and up to 780 feet just 
northwest of the city (Fig. 7). (The Six Mile Creek Channel is cut entire- 
ly in the upper clayey till.) The lowest lake level could have been initiated 
once erosional equilibrium was attained in the outlet and channel, or the 
lake could have been stabilized by a balance between glacial melting and 
lake discharge, perhaps due to partial opening of the drainage route that 
eventually lowered water to the glacial lake Arkona levels. 


Compilation of these data has involved the cooperation of many 
individuals and organizations. Essential information has been provided 
by the Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water; the Indiana 
State Highway Department, Division of Bridges and Division of Materials 
and Tests; Soil Testing and Engineering, Inc., Fort Wayne; the office 
of the Allen County Surveyor; and the Fort Wayne Water Pollution 
Control Department. Stone quarry and gravel pit operators permitted 
repeated access to their excavations. We are grateful to ail of these people 
and to the many Indiana Geological Survey colleagues who aided in 
interpretations, laboratory work, and field investigations. 

Geography and Geology 209 

Literature Cited 

1. Alden, W. C. 1902. Description of the Chicago district. U.S. Geol. Survey GeoL 
Atlas, Chicago Folio 81. 14 p. 

2. Burger, A. M., S. J. Keller, and W. J. Wayne. 1966. Map showing bedrock 
topography of northern Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Misc. Map 12. 

3. Dryer, C. R. 1889. Report upon the geology of Allen County. Indiana Dep. Geol. and 
Natur. Hist., Annu. Rep. 16:105-130. 

4. 1894. The drift of the Wabash-Erie region — a summary of results. Indiana 

Dep. Geol. and Natur. Hist., Annu. Rep. 18:83-90. 

5. Forsyth, J. L. 1960. Correlation of tills exposed in Toledo Edison Dam cut, Ohio. 
Ohio. J. Sci. 60:94-100. 

6. Goldthwait, J. W. 1909. Physical features of the Des Plaines Valley. Illinois GeoL 
Surv. Bull. 11. 103 p. 

7. Hough, J. L. 1958. Geology of the Great Lakes. Univ. 111. Press, Urbana. 313 p. 

8. Leverett, Frank. 1902. Glacial formations and drainage features of the Erie and Ohio 
basins. U.S. Geol. Surv. Monogr. 41. 802 p. 

9. , and F. B. Taylor. 1915. The Pleistocene of Indiana and Michigan and the 

history of the Great Lakes. U.S. Geol. Surv. Monogr. 53. 527 p. 

10. Price, J. A. 1906. The roads and road materials of Allen County. Indiana Dept. GeoL 
and Natur. Resources, Annu. Rep. 30:275-314. 

11. Russell, I. C, and Frank Leverett. 1908. Description of the Ann Arbor Quadrangle. 
U.S. Geol. Surv. Geol. Atlas, Folio 155. 15 p. 

12. Taylor, F. B. 1897. Correlation of Erie-Huron beaches with outlets and moraines in 
southern Michigan. Geol. Soc. America Bull. 8:31-58. 

13. Wayne, W. J. 1963. Pleistocene formations in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 25. 
85 p. 

Engineering Soils Mapping in Indiana by Computer from Remote 
Sensing Data 1 

T. R. West 

Department of Geosciences 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Multispectral imagery of the surface terrain may be obtained from airborne scanning 
devices that measure reflectance in the visible through infrared portion of the electromag- 
netic spectrum. At the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing (LARS), Purdue 
University, multispectral imagery is analyzed using a high-speed digital computer. The 
final result is a detailed map or classification of the surface material. 

Pattern recognition (classification) is accomplished by separating materials accord- 
ing to their spectral response statistics in a known area and then applying these 
criteria to unknown areas. As an example of the LARS mapping technique, a detailed 
analysis of a soils area in north-central Indiana is presented. 

In this study the correct classification of sandy floodplain soils versus till plain 
soils was obtained for 98 + % of the ground area elements (remote sensing units) 
for the training fields. Similarly a 76 + % correct discrimination between the 
two materials was made for the test fields in the flightline. This degree of accuracy indi- 
cates that the analysis of these data using the LARS techniques was successful in 
differentiating the materials sufficiently well to be of considerable use in reconnaissance 


Aerial photography has been used for several decades in reconnais- 
sance mapping of soil, rock, vegetation and man-made features in a variety 
of scientific specialties, including geology, geography, agronomy, forestry, 
hydrology, civil engineering and a number of others. With the development 
of improved instrumentation systems for measuring electromagnetic radi- 
ation of the terrain and with the advent of high-speed computers, it is 
now possible to obtain more precise data which can be analyzed in great 
detail by digital computers. 

Remote sensing involves the identification and classification of 
physical objects through analysis of data obtained from sensing devices 
which do not come in direct contact with those objects. In most cases the 
instruments measure radiation intensities from selected portions of the 
electromagnetic spectrum. For remote sensing studies that incorporate 
analysis by computer, the data-gathering phase is followed by some data 
reduction and reformatting which expedites subsequent data processing. 
The final phase, analysis, involves classification of the target materials 
through the use of pattern recognition techniques. 

This paper presents a discussion of remote sensing of soil and rock 
materials with specific emphasis on the techniques developed at the 
Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing, Purdue University. 

'Research was supported in part by NASA Grant NRG 15-005-112. 


Geography and Geology 211 

Methods: LARS Automatic Classification Technique 

Perhaps the first question to answer is why use an automatic 
classification system at all? Why not rely on the current method of 
mapping soil and rock for geological and other purposes. An obvious 
answer is that computers are faster and more accurate. Computer use 
does not remove the scientist from the operation; it makes him more 
important. As before, accurate field work is necessary; however, the same 
amount of field effort can now be used to map a larger area. Reliable data 
are needed to train the computer for proper classification but this detail 
is not required for the entire mapping area. 

Currently, multispectral imagery of the terrain is obtained for LARS 
by the Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, using 
a multispectral optical-mechanical scanner mounted on their DC-3 aircraft. 
As the plane proceeds along the flight path, the energy radiated by a 
specific ground resolution element passes through the scanner optics, is 
divided according to its spectral wavelength, and is directed to the 
appropriate detector. The output of all such detectors is simultaneously 
recorded by a multiband recorder. The transverse motion provided by 
the rotating mirror and the forward motion of the aircraft cause a contin- 
uous signal to be recorded for each spectral band of the scanner output. 
The information is stored in analog form by the data recording system. 

The multispectral bands recorded on the aircraft storage tapes vary 
according to the needs of the researcher. In this study, 12 channels of 
data were obtained from the visible and reflective infrared portion of the 
spectrum, between 0.4 and 2.6 micrometers 1 (^m). 

Following the multispectral remote sensing flights, the aircraft 
scanner analog data tapes are forwarded to LARS for conversion to digital 
form. Each analog scan is sampled, normally at a sampling rate which 
yields 220 data points for an 80° field of view across the flightline. For 
later reference, each digitized data point (remote sensing unit or RSU) 
is assigned a unique address in a two-dimensional coordinate system based 
on scan line numbers ("line numbers") and samples within the line 
("column numbers"). 

Typically the first step in the analysis is to obtain gray scale print- 
outs of the data for several channels. Gray scale printouts are digital 
displays of the spectral response of the terrain but limited to one band 
or channel of the scanner data per display. They resemble low-resolution 
photographs. Alpha-numeric symbols (letters of the alphabet, typing 
symbols and single digit numbers) are assigned to the radiance levels so 
that high-intensity or light areas receive symbols which cover a low 
percentage of the paper (Example — ), and dark areas receive symbols 
with a high percentage of cover (Example MMM). Because the data are 
not equally distributed between the highest and lowest radiance values, 
the symbols are not simply assigned so that each represents an equal range 
of radiance. Instead, to achieve a maximum contrast display, the data 

'One micrometer (^m) = 10 -6 meters. 

212 Indiana Academy of Science 

are first histogrammed and the symbols are assigned so that each will 
occur with approximately the same frequency. 

Areas of known materials are located on the gray scale printouts by 
the researcher and their addresses are recorded. This information, 
referred to as "ground truth," is used to train the computer to recognize 
similar kinds of material. In agricultural studies, this may consist of fields 
containing corn, wheat, oats, soybeans, etc.; in forestry studies — conifers 
and deciduous trees or individual tree species; in geology and highway 
engineering — specific bedrock and soil types. While some of the ground 
truth areas are used to train the computer to recognize the classes of 
interest, the remaining areas are reserved for testing the accuracy of the 
computer classification after it is completed. Addresses of training areas 
are provided to the computer on punched cards; these addresses are 
boundary corners indicated by column and line number, and the fields 
are limited to rectangular shapes (commonly referred to as "fields"). 

After January 1, 1971, an alternative to using gray scale printouts 
for field selection became available at LARS. This tool, known as the 
digital display unit, provides a television-like image of the scanner data 
with each digital value represented by a different brightness level. This 
yields an image on the television screen having greater detail than is 
possible with gray scale symbols on computer paper. Images for each 
channel can be displayed, and fields of interest can be outlined on the 
screen using a light pen with their addresses automatically punched on 

Another method for obtaining training field sites is sometimes used 
in conjunction with the above procedure of manually selecting these sites. 
Accomplished by using the LARS non-specified classifier routine 
(NSCLAS), this relatively new technique divides the scanner data into 
groups or clusters based on similarity of spectral response within clusters. 
Typically 4 to 6 channels of imagery are analyzed simultaneously and the 
program is requested to obtain 10 clusters. A map of the results is printed 
for each area analyzed in this way and the researcher can observe the 
patterns of spectrally differentiable material occurring in the data. The 
training fields may then be selected from these maps. The resulting 
clusters may not in fact be spectrally distinct, but the researcher must 
decide this to his own satisfaction based on separability information for 
the clusters which is printed by the program. He then has the option of 
repeating the analysis using a different number of clusters to increase 
their separability. An important point is that this method of selecting 
training fields takes into detailed account the multispectral response data 
as well as the ground truth information. 

In the clustering approach, the actual differences in spectral response 
are displayed, but a major problem exists in determining what each of 
the clusters represents. Some may be vegetation types, some water bodies, 
man-made features or tonal aspects of bare soil and rock. Aerial photog- 
raphy is helpful in affixing names to the patterns observed. Despite this 
difficulty, clustering is a powerful tool in obtaining workable training 

Geography and Geology 213 

The next step in the analysis is to obtain histograms of each class 
of material identified in the training fields. An example of classes for 
a geologic study area might be alluvium, limestone soil, shale soil, trees, 
mixed crops, and water. The histograms for each class show the distribu- 
tion of reflectance intensity for each spectral channel. 

Unimodal or single-peaked distributions in the histograms for a class 
suggest that the proposed class is spectrally an individual group. Bimodal 
or trimodal distributions must be subdivided manually into unimodal 
classes by the researcher; histograms for individual fields can be obtained 
to help in locating the multimodal contribution within a class. 

The next operation involves the application of a divergence 
(statistical separability) analysis (known as $DIVERG) to determine 
the best channels to use for classification. Only the best four to six 
channels are used for classification to save computer time; in general, 
the accuracy is not meaningfully increased when more channels are added. 
In addition to indicating the preferred channels, the divergence analysis 
indicates the separability of the designated classes. If separability between 
significant materials is poor, some of the preceding steps are repeated 
in an attempt to improve this separability and hence classification 

Next, training field statistics are used to classify the designated 
portion of the flightline. The computer classifies each data point (RSU) 
based on the maximum likelihood criterion. On request, the computer 
calculates how accurately it classified the areas used for training by 
comparing the classification of each point in the training fields with the 
initial ground truth designation. A high level of agreement means there 
is minimal confusion within the training field statistics for the various 
materials and that the classes are being separated properly. 

The final steps are to print out a computer classification for the whole 
area and to determine how well the test fields were classified. The test 
fields are those areas of known material from ground truth studies that 
were not previously used for training purposes. If test fields and train- 
ing fields show a high degree of accuracy, and the test fields are repre- 
sentative of the entire area, the classification is a good one. If the accuracy 
is low, some reworking of the classes should be done. The researcher may 
also have to conclude that the classes involved are not spectrally separable. 

Results: Tippecanoe County, Indiana, Study Area 

To illustrate the automatic classification technique for engineering 
soils mapping, a flightline in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, was selected 
for study. The test site known as Tippecanoe County Flightline 23 is a 
north-south line running approximately through the center of the county, 
including a central strip through the Lafayette-West Lafayette metro- 
politan area along the Wabash River (Fig. 1). 

Scanner data were obtained for Flightline 23 during various seasons 
of the year in 1969 and 1970 for the on-going LARS program of study 
of the midwest corn belt area. Seasonal changes of soil patterns and crop 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Figure 1. Tippecanoe County, Indiana, flightlines. 

cover were observed by these periodic flights over the established 
flightline. In the current study, the scanner flight dated May 6, 1970, was 
selected for analysis. In general, spring flights are best for soil classifica- 
tion studies as the maximum percentage of bare soil is exposed at this 
time of year. 

Analysis was limited to the northern third of the flightline which 
contains examples of the soil materials of greatest interest in the study. 
The northern 5 miles of the flightline cover a portion of the Tipton Till 
Plain. South of this segment is a 2-mile section which runs across the 
Wabash River floodplain. These two sections comprise contrasting parent 
materials and form the basis for the soils study of the 7-mile area. Flown 
at an elevation of 3,000 feet, the flightline has a width of about 5,000 

The initial step in the analysis technique was to compare a gray scale 
printout of the flightline to black and white photography taken at the 
time of flight. The Wabash River was outlined, as were the floodplain 

Geography and Geology 215 

and till plain areas and several significant man-made features: the By- 
Pass 52 bridge and Interstate 65, which was under construction at the 
time of flight. 

To determine the material types present in the study area, 13 east- 
west strips of data were taken at various points of interest along the 
flightline. An NSCLAS was run on these combined transverse strips which 
collectively comprised nearly the maximum number of data points that 
the routine can handle. 

In the 13 clustered strips, vegetation, water, man-made features and 
bare soil were identified with the aid of the aerial photography. 
Rectangular fields were selected in the bare soil areas and a second 
NSCLAS was run on these combined areas using ten clusters for the 
analysis. This yielded a numerous collection of rectangular fields with 
soil patterns designated in each. 

By selecting those fields (or portions of fields) which had predomi- 
nantly one pattern, a collection of bare soil fields, each of essentially one 
soil type, was assembled. Two distinct groups were maintained, however: 
those fields from the floodplain area and those from the till plain. 

Next, statistics were obtained for each field and the histograms 
examined to insure that each was unimodal. Three divergence analyses 
($DIVERG) were made on the fields to determine how to combine them 
into separable classes. Two runs were required initially because the pro- 
grams accept a maximum of 30 fields in the divergence analysis and the 
50 fields were divided into two groups to accomplish this. Fields deemed 
similar by the divergence analysis were combined, whereas, others were 
left by themselves and a few confusing fields discarded. After this was 
achieved for the two divergence runs, the remaining groups (numbering 
less than 30) were collected in the final divergence analysis and the 
combining technique repeated. The net effect is that 18 classes remained 
after this compilation, 8 from the floodplain area and 10 from the till 

Several classifications were made of the 7-mile segment using the 
training statistics from these classes. Adjustments were made in succes- 
sive classifications to improve the training field performance. In the final 
classification this performance was sandy floodplain 99.1%, and till plain 
98.5%. These values are somewhat misleading as a considerable number 
of floodplain symbols were scattered within the till area although the till 
symbols are rather minimal in the floodplain area. 

To obtain a more meaningful indication of the classification's 
accuracy, a large number of bare soil fields were selected as test fields. 
In the sandy floodplain, 28 test fields containing a total of approximately 
1,900 RSU's and 59 test fields in the till plain (approximately 8,700 
RSU's) were included. Test results showed 92.7% accuracy for the sandy 
floodplain and 76.8% accuracy for the till plain with an overall accuracy 
of 76.8%. 

216 Indiana Academy of Science 

Because of limitations on the size of figures and their number in this 
paper, the computer printout, which is quite large and loses much detail 
in photo reduction, is not included here. 

An intriguing situation was noted during the classification revisions. 
The till plain areas most often confused with floodplain soils were in recent 
road cuts where reflectance of the till was the greatest. This was observed 
near the By-Pass 52 bridge cut on the west side of the Wabash River and 
for borrow and fill areas along Interstate 65. 

An interesting substudy was made on the flightline as a final effort. 
Interstate 65 runs diagonally NW-SE across the flightline. Experience 
at LARS has indicated that straight line, man-made features not oriented 
essentially parallel or perpendicular to the flightline are difficult to map 
in detail. Diagonal features of this sort run both away from the center 
of the flightline yielding changes in viewing angle from the aircraft, and 
up or down the flightline simultaneously. Also, as remote sensing units 
measured on the ground are square, the units along the pavement 
boundary have an averaged value of reflectance for both pavement and 
soil. If training samples are taken from this boundary portion, erroneous 
pavement symbols will appear in soil areas in other locations of the classi- 

To master this problem, we clustered (NSCLAS) rectangular areas 
across the highway from the southeastern edge to the northwestern edge 
of the flightline. Ten cluster groups were designated. The pavement, 
median strip and shoulders were outlined in the clustered map results. 
As might be expected, the same cluster group was not associated with 
the pavement in the center as at the edges of the flightline, but the 
contrast of pavement and soil was apparent at each location. To insure 
proper classification, pavement classes from the middle, quarter point and 
edge of the flightline would be included for accurate designation of the 
highway in an overall classification. 

Status of Inter-agency Erosion and Sediment Studies in Indiana 

Stanley H. Murdock 
Soil Conservation Service 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46224 


Robert A. Petti john 
U. S. Geological Survey- 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46224 


Indiana streams erode, transport, and deposit a variety of sediments. About 
10 years ago an inter-agency committee was formed to accelerate investigations of these 
sediments. This committee consists of representatives from federal and state agencies. 
Recent fluvial sediment studies on selected streams indicate a range in sediment yield of 
from 30 to 880 tons annually per square mile of drainage area. Studies of sediment 
deposited in selected reservoirs indicate that the area draining into these impondments 
is eroded at rates of from 3 to 22 acres annually. The reservoirs studied are losing 
storage capacities at the rate of from 0.1 to 2.9 percent annually. 

Water-transported sediments have been the subject of study in 
Indiana for many years. Observations of fluvial sediments — those in 
transit in flowing streams — date back at least to 1906. Early studies 
consisted of observations only and included no precise measurements, 
however (3). 

Imponded sediments — those relatively stationary in natural lakes and 
reservoirs — have been measured since about 1930. The first such recorded 
measurements were made on Winona Lake and Tippecanoe Lake, both 
natural lakes formed during the Pleistocene Epoch or ice age (3). 

Winona Lake is estimated to have decreased in depth from 127 feet 
to 79 feet from the time it was left by the glacier to 1930. In this period 
of time the surface area and volume of Winona Lake were reduced 37.4 
and 43.6%, respectively. During this period the maximum depth of Tippe- 
canoe Lake decreased from 164 feet to 123 feet, and the original surface 
area and volume were reduced 20.8 and 31.9%, respectively. 

Recent fluvial sediment studies have been carried out cooperatively 
by the Geological Survey of the United States Department of the Interior 
(USGS) and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR). The 
first of these studies began in 1953 on the St. Mary's River near Ft. 
Wayne (1). The location of the suspended sediment sampling stations 
are shown in Figure 1, and Table 1 lists available data obtained from 
these studies. 

The fluival sediment studies show that each square mile contributes 
from 30 to 880 tons of sediment annually. The size of drainage area that 
contributes to the measurement sites varies greatly. The larger the drain- 
age area the smaller the proportion of transported sediment that reaches 
a measuring point. The fluvial sediment studies are of insufficient dura- 
tion, however, to provide more than a general estimate of the average 
annual sediment discharge for the streams. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Figure 1. Indiana sediment surrey statiot 

About 10 years ago several interested agencies and organizations 
banded together to form a rather losely organized inter-agency committee 
to study erosion and sedimentation in Indiana. This committee proposed 
two distinct types of studies, comprehensive studies and limited studies. 

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The comprehensive studies were to interrelate many environmental 
factors related to erosion and sedimentation. Such disciplines as biology, 
geology, meterology, soil conservation, hydrology and sedimentology were 
to be involved in each watershed and lake study. The limited study was 
planned to include the measurement of sediment in a lake and a study 
of the erosion taking place in the area draining to the lake. 

Unfortunately, no comprehensive studies have been made because 
of lack of funds and personnel, but numerous limited studies have been 

The inter-agency committee includes representatives of the U.S. 
Geological Survey, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 
U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U. S. Department of Agriculture's 
Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and Soil Conservation Service 
(SCS), the Water Resource Research Centers at Indiana University 
and Purdue University and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources' 
Geological Survey (IGS). 

The major effort of the committee has been in arranging for and 
conducting reservoir sediment studies. To date studies have been made 
at 15 reservoirs in the state. Locations of these reservoirs are shown in 
Figure 1, and pertinent data obtained from these studies are given in 
Table 2. The procedures employed in these studies have been pre- 
viously reported (2). 

The results of the reservoir surveys indicate soil losses ranging from 
3 to 22 tons annually, and losses of original storage capacity of from less 
than 0.1 to 2.9% per year. As in the case of the suspended-sediment 
studies, data are insufficient to allow complete evaluation. 

Additional reservoir studies are being planned, and resurveys are 
anticipated. It is normal procedure to allow a 10-year period after con- 
struction of a reservoir before the first sediment survey. The Corps of 
Engineers has installed, or is in the process of installing sediment ranges 
on Lakes Huntington, Salamonie, and Mississinewa. Continuing studies 
are being made on Cataract, Mansfield and Monroe Lakes by the Corps. 
The IDNR has installed sediment ranges on Deems Lake in Clark County 
and on the Quick Creek Reservoir in Scott County. The SCS has recently 
completed a sediment survey on Lake Salinda, a water-supply reservoir 
for Salem, Indiana (Table 2). Sediment ranges have been installed by 
SCS on the Elk Creek fish and game reservoir in Washington County and 
on the French Lick Creek fish and game reservoir in Orange County. 

At the time of this writing, two Purdue University students, L. J. 
Lund and Manuel Poulet, are preparing a paper on some pedologic fea- 
tures of reservoir sedimentation. This study involves 14 Indiana and 
Illinois reservoirs and their drainage areas. 

The long-range plan of the committee calls for resurvey of most of 
the reservoirs after ten years of additional sedimentation, or more fre- 
quently if conditions warrant. Ideally, a survey should be made immedi- 
ately before and after a large sediment producing storm. Such storms 
usually occur at ten-year intervals. 

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222 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Indiana Inter-agency Committee on Erosion and Sedimentation 
has provided much useful data, but its work it just beginning. Any and 
all interested groups or agencies, not already involved, are encouraged 
to join the committee's activities. 

Literature Cited 

1. Johnson, Lynn E. 1970. Continuing sediment investigations in Indiana — A 
progress report. U.S. Geol Survey, Indianapolis, Ind. 16 p. 

2. Murdoch, Stanley H. 1964. Reservoir sediment studies, Outdoor Indiana 8: 

3. Perry J. I., and D. M. Corbett. 1956. Hydrology of Indiana Lakes. U. S. Geol. 
Surv. Water-supply Paper 1363. U.S. Geol. Curv., Indianapolis, Ind. 347 p. 

Precambrian Geophysical Provinces in Indiana 

Albert J. Rudman and Judson Mead 

Department of Geology 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 


Robert F. Blakely and Joseph F. Whaley 

Indiana Geological Survey 

611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 


Regional statewide gravity and magnetic surveys in Indiana reveal large areas of 
high and low intensities. The source of these variations are lithologic changes within the 
Precambrian basement. A generalized map of basement provinces, constructed from both 
gravity and magnetic data, identifies regions of basement lithologies as either dense or 
magnetic-rich rocks or combinations thereof. 

Analyses of intense, magnetic anomalies reveal the basement surface to vary from 
2,000 to 11,000 feet below sea level. Many of the anomalies appear to be concentrated 
along the Cincinnati Arch. Detailed studies of two regions suggest that the sources may 
be basaltic pipe-like intrusions into a granitic country rock. Lava flow structures may be 
associated with the individual pipes. 


Geophysical surveys today constitute an important and integral part 
of almost every modern effort at geologic exploration. For many years 
the petroleum industry has routinely utilized seismology, gravity and 
magnetic methods in the search for oil beneath both the land and sea. 
However, the cost of geophysical surveys in the past have limited their 
use to major companies. With advances in technology, the cost of such 
surveys is not necessarily prohibitive. This paper summarizes data that 
are applicable to the study of Precambrian basement in Indiana and 
emphasizes regional interpretation based on the most recent gravity and 
magnetic studies. 

Gravity Data 

The first extensive gravity survey in Indiana (Fig. 1A) was 
conducted by the Indiana Geological Survey during 1951 and 1952 (3). 
Control was based upon a grid density of approximately one station for 
each congressional township. Elevation and locations were determined 
from several sources including U. S. Coast and Geodetic and U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey bench marks, U. S. Geological Survey topographic maps, 
U. S. Engineering maps and Indiana State Highway Commission maps. 

Contours show equal values of Bouguer anomaly relative to an arbi- 
trary datum with an interval of 5 milligals. Bouguer corrections were 
based on an average density of 2.6 gm/cm 3 for the sedimentary rocks 
above sea level. In addition to the statewide gravity survey, the Indiana 
Geological Survey and the Department of Geology at Indiana University 
have conducted detailed surveys over selected anomalous regions in 
Hamilton, Pulaski, Newton, Randolph, Wayne and Fayette Counties. 
These data are available on file with the Department and the Survey. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Figure 1. A) Map of Indiana shoiving gavitational intensity (3). Contour interval 5 
milligals relative to an arbitrary datum. B) Map of Indiana showing average aero- 
magnetic intensity U). Contour interval 50 gammas relative to an arbitrary datum. 

Magnetic Data 

From 1949 to 1952, the United States Geological Survey, in coopera- 
tion with the Indiana Geological Survey, conducted a statewide aero- 
magnetic survey of Indiana. Ninety-two county maps were published on 
a scale of 1"=1 mile (1:63,360) with a contour interval of 10 gammas 
(0.0001 oersteds). In 1958, Henderson and Zietz compiled the county maps 
into a statewide map on a scale of 1"=8 miles (1:500,000) (Fig. 2). Con- 
tours represent equal values of the total magnetic intensity at an eleva- 
tion of approximately 1,000 feet above the surface. Contour interval is 50 
gammas relative to an arbitrary datum. 

Comparison of the aeromagnetic and gravity maps is difficult be- 
cause of the discrepancy in control between the two maps. The gravity 
map, based on few control points, emphasizes broad scale regional 
features; the aeromagnetic map with continuous north-south control at 
1-mile east-west flight line intervals shows great detail and thereby 
obscures broad scale features. 

In 1953, an average magnetic intensity map of the state was com- 
piled from the aeromagnetic data (4) (Fig. IB). Control was based on 
average values obtained for the mid-point of each township by computing 
the arithmetic average of the magnetic intensity at the corners, the mid- 
point of each side, and the center of each township. Average values were 
further reduced by removing a south to north earth dipole gradient of 
6.5 gammas per mile. Contour interval is 50 gammas relative to an arbi- 
trary datum. Station density and contour intervals for the average mag- 

Geography and Geology 


Figure 2. Map of Indiana showing total aeromagnetic intensity (2, Plate h) . Solid 
heavy lines show the approximate position of the Cincinnati Arch. Area A outlines the 
Pulaski County anomaly. Area B outlines the Hamilton County anomaly. 

netic intensity map are comparable to the gravity map and allow 
comparative interpretations to be made. 

In recent years, the Indiana Geological Survey and Department of 
Geology at Indiana have conducted detailed magnetic surveys in Hamilton, 
Pulaski, Newton, Wayne and Fayette Counties. 

Analysis of Gravity and Magnetic Data 


Regional studies of the statewide gravity map (Fig. 1A) and average 
aeromagnetic map (Fig. IB) begin with two simple assumptions: 

1) The source of the anomalous gradients on both maps arise from 
lithologic changes within the basement complex (the top of the basement 
is 2,000 to 11,000 feet below sea level). The anomalies are not an expres- 
sion of topographic relief on the basement surface. Lateral changes in 
density and magnetic susceptibility in the overlying sedimentary section 
are also not sufficient to create the anomalous contour patterns displayed 
on these maps. 

2) Areas of high gravity values are underlain by dense rocks within 
the basement. Areas of high magnetic values are underlain by rocks with 
a relatively high content of magnetite (an iron oxide mineral common 
to certain igneous and metamorphic rocks). 


Indiana Academy of Science 


Map of Indiana showing Precambrian provinces derived from gravity and 
aeromagnetic data. 

Figure 4. Map of Indiana showing structure on top of the Precambrian basement. 
( modified from ( 2 ) , Fig. 11). 

With the above assumptions, we have studied the statewide maps 
(Fig. 1) and generalized areas of extreme high and low values. Figure 
3 identifies areas of basement lithologies associated with either dense 
or magnetic rocks or combinations thereof. For example, the stippled 
pattern throughout the central part of Indiana (and isolated areas on the 
western and southern edges of the state) delineate areas of low density- 
low magnetic rocks. This combination could represent metamorphosed 
sediments, or, perhaps a weathered granitic terrain. Magnetite-rich dense 
basalts (the cross-hatched pattern) could underlie the magnetic and dense 
areas to the northwest and southwest. A magnetite-rich zone of granitic 
rocks would explain the strong magnetic region in southwest Indiana 
(heavy diagonal pattern) and a very basic, but magnetite-poor lithology 
might produce the isolated region in north central Indiana (light diagonal 

Studies of lithologies in the midwest (7) indicate that the average 
Precambrian terrain may be granitic in nature and we suggest that the 
areas labeled as "intermediate" basement rock in Indiana is a granitic 
country rock. 


Studies of individual gravity and magnetic anomalies can yield 
estimates of a minimum depth to the top of the lithologic source of the 
anomaly. Henderson and Zietz (2) used 79 isolated well defined magnetic 
anomalies for depth calculations. Combining their results with seven deep 
wells, they constructed a generalized contour map of the basement surface 
(Fig. 4). Since the original work by Henderson and Zietz, there have been 
12 additional basement wells drilled and extensive seismic reflection 

Geography and Geology 


coverage (5, 6). None of these data have been incorporated into 
Figure 4. 

There are several recent publications which represent the Indiana 
basement surface to be a smooth topographic surface {e.g., 1) ; it is our 
belief that the differences between the Henderson and Zietz interpreta- 
tion and more recent versions are primarily due to lack of control. Recent 
maps use only deep test wells and these are poorly distributed, generally 
confined to the central part of the state along the Cincinnati Arch. The 
basement map based on magnetic analysis depends on numerous, widely 
distributed control. 

Geometry of Basement Intrusives 

We have earlier suggested that the source of many of the gravity 
and magnetic anomalies be within the Precambrian basement. Various 
rock types intruded into the granitic country create a lithologic contrast 
responsible for the observed anomalies. It is a curious observation that 
many of these anomalies are concentrated along the Cincinnati Arch (out- 
lined by the heavy lines in Figure 1). Detailed studies of two of these 
anomalies have been moderately successful in defining the geometric and 
lithologic sources. 

/°o£4SA-/ ca 

/s^/ur/troA' co. 

/ mm 


:1 j! 



Figure 5. Schematic representation of Precambrian bodies interpreted as sources for 
the gravity and magnetic anomalies observed in A) Pulaski and B) Hamilton Counties. 

Area A in Pulaski County (Fig. 1) is an isolated, well-defined anomaly 
approximately circular in form (Fig. 5A). Analysis of seismic, gravity 
and magnetic data (8) suggest that the source is a vertical, prismatic 
body of basaltic material intruded into a country rock of granite. Area B 
in Hamilton County (Fig. 1) is also a well-defined anomaly, but more 
complex in its form (Fig. 5B). In a recent study we suggested that 
the source of this anomaly is a vertical pipe, with a series of overlying 
flow-like sheets of basalt (9). 

Viewing the interpretation of these two anomalies as part of a larger 
geologic picture, the Cincinnati Arch appears to be the site of numerous 
intrusive pipes, now represented by a concentration of magnetic anomalies. 
These intrusions were sources for flow-like basalts that covered the 

228 Indiana Academy of Science 

Precambrian surface in isolated patches. We encountered flow-like basaltic 
rocks in several of our basement tests and this interpretation thus seems 
geologically reasonable. The age of the intrusions and flows is question- 
able, but it is suggested that they may be Keweenawan related. 

Literature Cited 

1. Cram, Ira H. (ed.). 1971. Future petroleum provinces of the United States — 
their geology and potential. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol., Mem. 15 2:1165-1218. 

2. Henderson, J. R., and Isidore Zietz. 1958. Interpretation of an aeromag- 
netic survey of Indiana. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 316B. 37 p. 

3. Mead, Judson, M. E. Biggs, and J. F. Whaley. 1953. Map of Indiana showing 
gravitational intensity. Indiana Geol. Surv. Misc. Map 5. 

4. , M. E. Biggs, and P. G. Holloway. 1953. Map of Indiana showing 

average magnetic intensity. Indiana Geol. Surv. Misc. Map 4. 

Rudman, Albert J. 1960. A seismic reflection survey of the basement complex 
in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Rept. of Prog. No. 18. 26 p. 

1963. A study of seismic reflections from the surface of the base- 

ment complex. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington. 
168 p. 

, C. H. Summerson, and W. J. Hinze. 1965. Geology of basement in 

Midwestern United States. Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol. 49:894-904. 

, and R. F. Blakely. 1965. A geophysical study of a basement 

anomaly in Indiana. Geophysics 30:740-761. 

Mead, J. F. Whaley, and R. F. Blakely. 1971. Geophysical 

analysis in central Indiana using potential field continuation. Geophysics 36:878- 

History of Brick Manufacture in Indiana 1 

George S. Austin and John B. Patton 

Indiana Geological Survey 

Bloomington, Indiana 47401 


In Indiana bricks were commonly burned at the construction site in the first 
decades of the 19th century, but by 1840-1860 centralized brickyards were operating in 
or near most communities. Pennsylvanian shales and underclays, Mississippian and 
Devonian shales, leached glacial drift and alluvium, and residual soils have supplied the 
raw materials for common brick, face brick, paving brick, and firebrick manufactured 
during the 19th and 20th centuries. 

The brick industry has progressively centralized to fewer but larger installations 
concentrated near particularly favorable shale and clay supplies. By 1971 less than 200 
million bricks were manufactured in only 12 plants in Indiana, but the annual value of 
the product had grown to nearly $8 million. This stable industry will continue 
indefinitely to be a significant factor in Indiana's economy. 


Indiana has long had a flourishing ceramics industry that has 
contributed substantially to the economic growth of the State. Plants 
producing building bricks have added aesthetic quality to Indiana towns 
and landscapes (Fig. 1). 

Figure 1. Andrew Wylie house, built in Bloomington in 1835 of brick fired from 

local clay. 

Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Department of Natural Resources, 
Geological Survey. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Little was recorded concerning the early history of the brick industry 
in Indiana. In 1833, the second edition of Scott's The Indiana Gazetteer 
(18) had only one description of brick clay, although brick buildings were 
recorded in nearly every community. Much of the brick for major 
structures, small groups of buildings, and isolated localities was burned 
at the site by itinerant craftsmen who specialized in this skill. The magni- 
tude of brick manufacture may be judged from Scott's description (18) 
of Charlestown, in Clark County: 

"The public buildings are a court house, a jail, an office for the clerk 
and recorder, and a market house, all of brick; in addition to which 
the Episcopal Methodists, the Reformed Methodists, the Baptists, 
and the Presbyterians, have meeting houses, all of brick, and an 
extensive brick building has lately been erected for the purpose of 
a county seminary . . . There are in Charlestown, about sixty-five 
brick dwelling-houses, and about a hundred of wood." 

It is known that by the 1840's and 1850's almost every 
community in the state had a brick yard that manufactured common 
brick (11). Some clay deposits and ceramic plants were briefly identified 
by early authors ranging from David Dale Owen in 1839 (17), through 
Cox (9, 10), and Collett (7, 8), to Maurice Tompson in 1886 (19), and W. 
H. Thompson in 1889 (20), but these reports were short and offered little 
basic information on the extent and geology of the deposits and the 
facilities at the factories. 

In 1895 the newly appointed State Geologist, W. S. Blatchley, began 
to gather information concerning the clay and shale resources of Indiana. 

j ! t Vqlpofo iso L \ 

: #Crown Point" - T 

f ,,897f- 

CSouth Bend 

Figure 2. Brick plants of southeastern Indiana in 1895 (2) and of northeastern Indiana 

in 1897 ($). 

Figure 3. Brick plants of Indiana in 190k U). 

Geography and Geology 


This inquiry led to the 1896 publication of a report (2 and Fig. 2) on the 
clay and related industry of some counties in southwestern Indiana. Two 
years later a report on the clays and the clay industry of northwestern 
Indiana followed (3 and Fig. 2). Blatchley's work on clays culminated 
in the publication, in 1906, of a very extensive report on the clays of the 
entire state (4 and Fig. 3). 

Logan (15) presented some information about the clay industry in 
the Handbook of Indiana Geology, published in 1922, and in 1933 Whit- 
latch (21 and Fig. 4) published a comprehensive study on the clay 
resources of the state. Whitlatch's report, which was his Ph. D. disserta- 
tion, updated Blatchley's information on the clay industry and also 
emphasized the regional geology of the clay deposits. 








Middle Mississippion 




New Albany 


Devonian, Silurian, 
and Ordovician 



\ Wisconsman 
] \ __ l \ boundary _.■ 

50 Miles 

Figure 4. Brick plants of Indiana in 1933 (21). 

Figure 5. Map shoiving the distribution of clay materials in Indiana. 

Since 1933, publications on the development of the clay industry have 
been limited to five directories (1, 6, 12, 14, 16) of the producers and users 
of clay and shale. Geological aspects of the clays have been explored in 
one publication (13), and numerous reports have been issued on special 
aspects of clay mineral research. 

Regional Geology of Indiana Clay and Shale Deposits 

The clays of Indiana can be divided for discussion into eight types 
or regions (Fig. 5) : 1) Pennsylvanian shales and underclays are near the 
surface and readily accessible in southwestern Indiana; 2) lying just east 
of these exposures are shales of the late Mississippian Chesterian Series; 
3) in the south-central part of the state, clays lying above the middle 

232 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mississippian limestones comprise a central residual belt, and 4) east of 
this belt are the shales of the early Mississippian Borden Group; 5) to 
the east of the Borden outcrops are exposures of the New Albany Shale, 
and 6) in extreme southeastern Indiana residual clays lie above limestones 
of Devonian and Silurian age and limestone-shale sequences of Ordovician 
age. A seventh type of clay material is obtainable at numerous places in 
northern Indiana, where glacial drift that includes both till and glacial 
lake sediments can be used as raw material for a ceramic industry. An 
eighth type of ceramic raw material consists of alluvial clays which are 
related to present-day streams at various localities throughout the state, 
and of leached loess found in the southwestern part of Indiana. 

In the 19th century and the early part of the 20th, all of these eight 
types of materials were used by plants producing brick from local raw 
material. As the 20th century progressed, the brick industry consolidated, 
not only because of the greater efficiency of larger plants but also because 
of the superior product that could be manufactured from proper materials. 
In addition, modern rail and truck transportation provided enlarged 
market areas. Smaller and less efficient plants were abandoned. Small 
kilns were replaced by larger ones. Wood as fuel was displaced by coal, 
which in turn is being replaced by natural gas. Round periodic kilns are 
giving way to continuously fired tunnel kilns. With growth and automa- 
tion, very accurate control is necessary over all parts of the brick- 
making process to produce modern bricks with their wide range of 
predetermined colors and textures. Clay or shale units that vary greatly 
in composition or are thin or interbedded with other types of rocks gen- 
erally have been eliminated as a source of raw material. Unusual rocks 
or minerals are tolerated only if they can be removed by screening or their 
deleterious effects minimized by grinding and dispersion. Residual clays 
overlying various carbonate rocks in southeastern and south-central Indi- 
ana and leached alluvial clays throughout the state are not adequate. The 
thin shales of the Chesterian Series, the carbonaceous New Albany shale, 
and the commonly variable glacial till have generally been eliminated. 

Only shales and siltstones from the Borden Group, a thick sequence 
of fine-grained Mississippian rocks in south-central and west-central 
Indiana, and several of the thick shales of Pennsylvanian age found in 
southwestern Indiana are commonly used in the production of brick. Some 
brickyards using these materials also consume a lesser amount of the 
kaolin-rich clay that underlies certain coalbeds in the western part of the 
state. Kaolin clays increase the firing temperature, widen the firing range, 
and decrease the firing shrinkage of bricks made from rocks of the Borden 
Group. For the few firebrick still made in Indiana, underclays are used. 

Only one plant, at Munster in northwestern Indiana, now produces 
brick from glacial materials, but it does have the sizable production 
capacity of 260,000 bricks per day. The raw material comes from a very 
clayey, homogeneous till about 22 feet thick. 

Types of Bricks 

Structural clay products, including common, pressed, and face brick, 
structural tile, and drain tile, have consumed most of the clay industry's 

Geography and Geology 233 

output. Paving brick was an important product near the turn of the cen- 
tury, but this phase of the brick industry has been almost entirely 
abandoned. Firebrick for high-temperature ovens, furnaces, and kilns has 
been made in Indiana for many years. Indiana's fire clays are still well 
known and marketed in other states, but now only one Indiana company 
produces firebrick. 

The methods used to produce common brick early in the state's 
history were some of the most simple processes in the manufacture of 
ceramic ware, and they have been entirely replaced by other techniques. 
Until the latter part of the 19th century, most building brick in Indiana 
was made by the soft-mud process. Sandy clays were mixed in a pug mill 
and either hand molded or forced into sanded molds. The resulting shapes 
were sun dried or air dried and then burned in kilns, which in their most 
primitive form were built around the stacked unfired bricks. Sandy clays 
of the alluvial or loessial types were used for the soft-mud process. The 
annual production of common brick by most companies operating in 1904 
was small, commonly only a few hundred thousand. 

In the late 1800's, dry-pressed brick replaced some of the soft-mud 
variety, but the process was primarily used in the construction of terra 
cotta and hollow building blocks. Moisture content was kept to the mini- 
mum that would allow shaping by compression into molds, and the result- 
ing products were denser and underwent less shrinkage. The raw ware 
contained only 7 to 10% moisture, but moisture content was 20 to 25% 
in the soft-mud process. 

The use of brick for bearing walls in building construction decreased 
progressively from shortly after the turn of the century, and pleasing 
texture and color became relatively more important as brick came to be 
used mainly for facing. Face brick is produced more satisfactorily by the 
dry-press and stiff-mud methods than by the soft-mud process. 

Since about 1920, face brick produced by the stiff-mud process has 
been the principal product of the brick industry. A plastic clay mixture 
is dewatered by vacuum to 12 to 15% moisture content and this is extruded 
continuously through a die by auger or plunger pressure. Length and 
width of the brick are controlled by the die, and thickness is established 
by cutting the extruded bar at desired intervals. 

Changes in the Brick Industry 

From the 1840's and 1850's, when nearly every community had a brick 
yard, to the 1890's and early 1900's, when brick as a construction material 
was at its zenith, the quantity of brick produced grew steadily. At the 
turn of the century most brick companies were still small, and therefore 
their number was great. When W. S. Blatchley visited Evansville in 1895, 
he recorded (2) that 21 brick yards were operating within 2 miles of the 
county courthouse. In 1905, more than 200 companies in Indiana were 
producing brick. Of this total, eight used the dry-press process and the 
rest used the stiff-mud, soft-mud, or hand processes to produce common 
brick. In 1904, almost 300 million common bricks were produced by these 
plants, although a high of 315 million had been reached earlier in 1901. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

In addition, about 30 million pressed bricks, 50 million vitrified or paving 
bricks, and lesser amounts of firebrick and ornamental material, such 
as terra cotta, were produced. The total value of these products for that 
year was $2,640,313. Only 34 companies were listed in 1922 in the Hand- 
book of Indiana Geology (15), and even though the list is incomplete, the 
great change in the number of companies involved in brick making, as 
expressed by the numbers of companies in 1905 and in 1919 when data 
for the Handbook were collected, reflected the change in the building 
industry in Indiana. The use of common brick was reduced, and wood con- 
struction replaced much of the former brick construction. By 1933, when 
a more complete record of brick plants was made (21), 47 plants produced 
brick, and most used the stiff-mud process. According to Whitlatch's 
figures, in 1929 about 112 million common bricks, 130 million face bricks, 
and 3% million paving bricks were produced. Fire clay refactories, com- 
posed mostly of firebrick, totaled almost 6 million bricks or the equivalent. 
The total number of bricks was 252 million, valued at $3,565,823. In 1970 
only 12 brick plants remained in the state (Fig. 6), and they produced 
about 186 million bricks. The value of these bricks was nearly $8 million. 
The value of face brick amounted to more than 80% of that total, and the 
remainder came from sales of common brick. 

The brick industry has responded to the modern trend toward the 
construction of modular homes by the building trades by producing pre- 








L | oFort j 

"W— i Woynel 

Indionopolis 7 I \ 

I I. JJL.r-rf 7l '1 

50 Miles 

Figure 6. Brick plants of Indiana in 1970. 

Geography and Geology 


formed brick panels. These panels, which are made with normal or thin 
brick, are fabricated at the plant, moved by truck to the construction site, 
and hoisted into place by cranes. 

Distribution of Brick 

The many small companies that operated in Indiana near the turn 
of the century probably did not ship their products more than a few miles ; 
however, some larger companies were able to transport their products 
to destinations many states away. In 1904 the Hoosier Brick Company 
of New Albany shipped common bricks by rail throughout southern Indi- 
ana and Kentucky. During the same year the Cayuga Brick and Coal 
Company of Vermillion County shipped most of its common brick to 
Chicago. Dry-pressed brick made at Hobart in Lake County were sold in 
Philadelphia, Milwaukee, St. Paul, St. Louis, and other cities. The Indi- 
ana Paving Brick Company of Brazil began operations in 1891, and by 
1904 it was using local shale blended with sand from the shores of Lake 
Michigan. Paving bricks were shipped from the plant to the larger cities 
in Indiana and to Cincinnati, Louisville, and many towns in Illinois. Indi- 
ana refactory bricks were well known in 1904, and the Burns and Hancock 
Company of Vermillion County had supplied firebrick to states as far away 
as Montana, Georgia, and Alabama. 

At present most companies find their market within a 200-mile 
radius of their manufacturing facilities. 


In summary (Fig. 7), by 1900 Indiana's brick industry consisted of 
more than 200 plants that were distributed broadly throughout the state, 
that used virtually all types of suitable clay materials, and that produced 




47 Plants 

21 Plants 

12 Plants 

Figure 7. Production and value of brick in Indiana for 1900 (.', ), 1929 (21) 1960 (5) 

and 1970. 

236 Indiana Academy of Science 

more than 300 million brick a year with an annual value of nearly $2 
million, predominantly for common brick. Progressively through the sub- 
sequent 70 years the number of plants has decreased to the present 12, 
the raw materials have been restricted largely to Pennsylvanian shales 
and underclays and lower Mississippian shales and siltstones, the annual 
volume has decreased by one-third to slightly less than 200 million brick, 
and the annual value of the product has grown to nearly $8 million, partly 
because of inflation and partly because most of the product is face brick 
with higher unit value. This is a portrait of a stable industry — one that 
has lost more ground in relation to the gross state product than is readily 
apparent from the production figures, but one that is continuing to change 
with advances in the construction industry and seems likely to continue 
indefinitely as a significant element in the Indiana economy. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ault, C. H., and W. M. Webb. 1968. Directory of clay and shale producers 
and ceramic plants in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv., Bloomington, Ind. 25 p. 

2. Blatchley, W. S. 1896. A preliminary report on the clays and clay industries 
of the coal-bearing counties of Indiana. Indiana Dept. Geol. and Natur. Resources 
Ann. Rept. 20:23-185. 

3. 1898. The clays and clay industries of northwestern Indiana. 

Indiana Dept. Geol. and Natur. Resources Ann. Rept. 22:105-154. 

4. 1905. The clays and clay industries of Indiana. Indiana Dept. Geol. and 

Natur. Resources Ann. Rept. 29:13-658. 

5. Bureau of the Census, Industry Division. 1961. Current industrial reports. U.S. 
Dept. Commerce, Washington, D. C. 6 p. 

6. Callaghan, Eugene, and Jean Ecker. 1948. Directory of producers of mineral 
raw materials, exclusive of oil and gas, in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Directory 1. 
88 p. 

7. Collett, John. 1883. General economic geology. Indiana Dept. Geol. and Natur. 
Hist. Ann. Rept. 12:17-25. 

8. . 1884. Economic geology of the state. Indiana Dept. Geol. and 

Natur. Hist. Ann. Rept. 13:38-44. 
9. Cox, E. T. 1875. Geological report. Geol. Surv. Indiana Ann. Rept. 6:5-23. 

10. . 1879. Porcelain, tile, and potters' clays. Geol. Surv. Indiana Ann. 

Repts. 8, 9, 10:154-164. 

11. Esarey, Logan. 1924 Clays, p. 904-907. In Logan Esarey. A history of 
Indiana. 3d ed. Vol. 2. The Hoosier Press, Fort Wayne, Ind. p. 573-1151. 

12. Harrison, J. L. 1960. Directory of producers and consumers of clay and shale in 
Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Directory 7. 38 p. 

13. , and H. H. Murray. 1964. Clays and shales of Indiana. Indiana Geol. 

Surv. Bull. 31. 40 p. 

14. Indiana Geological Survey. 1966. Directory of clay and shale producers and 
ceramic plants in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. 32 p. 

15. Logan, W. N. 1922. Economic geology of Indiana. In W. N. Logan, et al. Hand- 
book of Indiana geology. Indiana Dept. Conserv. Pub. 21:571-1058. 

Geography and Geology 237 

16. Murray, H. H. 1955. Directory of producers and consumers of clay and shale in 
Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Dir. 3, 42 p. 

17. Owen, D. D. 1839. Report of a geological reconnoissance of the State of 
Indiana made in the year 1837. Osborn and Willetts, Indianapolis, Ind. 34 p. 

18. Scott, John. 1833. The Indiana gazetteer. 2d ed. Douglass and Maguire 
Indianapolis, Ind. 200 p. 

19. Thompson, Maurice. 1886. The clays of Indiana. Indiana Dept. GeoL and 
Natur. Hist. Ann. Kept. 15:34-40. 

20. Thompson, W. H. 1889. Outline sketch of the most valuable minerals of Indiana. 
Indiana Dept. Geol. and Natur. Hist. Ann. Rept. 16:77-86. 

21. Whitlach, G. I. 1933. The clay resources of Indiana. Indiana Dept. Conserv. 
Pub. 123, 298 p. 

A Comparison of Public Utility and Governmental Rates and 
Services Provided Mobile Home Park Residents and Other 
Residents: A Case Study of Tippecanoe County, Indiana 

Alan C. Freeman and George W. Webb 

Department of Geography and Geology 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 


This study involved a determination of whether services and rates received by 
mobile home park residents differed from those received by other residents of the 
county. Differences between these two classes of residents in public utility rates and 
services were not found in the study area. With the exception of fire protection, 
mobile home park residents receive governmental services comparable to those received 
by other residents of the area. The principal variation in rates and services are those be- 
tween locations inside and outside the municipal boundaries rather than those between 
residents of mobile home parks and other residents. 


Mobile homes now account for about 94% of ail housing units sold 
in the U. S. for under $15,000 and for 2/3 of all housing units costing 
less than $25,000. The mobile home business is one of the fastest grow- 
ing industries in the country today. Because of this growth the number 
of mobile home parks has increased at a rapid rate. 

A literature search revealed no prior investigations comparing 
quality and costs of public utilities and government services received 
by mobile home park residents with those received by other residents. 
Tippecanoe County, Indiana, situated in the west-central part of the 
state, was selected for such study. 

In 1970 a total of 109,378 persons resided in Tippecanoe County, 
according to the United States Census of Population. This was an in- 
crease of 20,256 persons over the 1960 census figures. Lafayette, 
located in the north-central part of the county, is approximately 60 miles 
northwest of Indianapolis and 120 miles southeast of Chicago. Lafayette 
had 44,955 persons while West Lafayette contained 19,157 persons, in 
1970. Purdue University, with about 25,000 students on the home campus 
is located at Lafayette. A large number of the university students reside 
in mobile homes. The size and growth of the population, the presence 
of Purdue University, and the locational advantages for industrial 
development, along with the number of mobile home parks, were the 
reasons for selecting Tippecanoe County, Indiana, for the study. The 
purpose of the study was to determine whether or not the residents of 
mobile home parks were subjected to differences in governmental serv- 
ices and public utility rates from the rates and services received by other 
residents of the study area. 


The data were obtained by holding personal interviews with the 
proprietors and/or managers of the mobile home parks and with the 


Geography and Geology 239 

public utility companies and municipal departments which supply serv- 
ices to the area. 

The public utilities were the Public Service Company of Indiana; 
Tipmont Rural Electric Membership Corporation; General Telephone 
Company of Indiana; Indiana Gas Company, Incorporated; The City 
of Lafayette Water Works and Sewage Treatment Department; The 
West Lafayette Water Company; The City of West Lafayette Sewage 
Treatment Department; and the Greater Lafayette T.V. Cable Service. 

Governmental services included the following: maintenance of 
streets, curbs, and street lights, police protection, fire protection, and 
mail delivery. 


It was found that a difference in rates for electrical service exists 
in Tippecanoe County only in that Public Service, Indiana, In- 
corporated, has two rate schedules, one for the urban areas and another 
for rural areas. No rate differentiation is made between mobile home 
park residents and other residents in the same rate schedule area. 

Electrical service is made available to the mobile home park as 
freely as to any other residential development in the county. Public 
Service Indiana has encountered no major problems other than that of 
congestion of lines with the other public utilities during the period of 

Indiana Gas Company, Incorporated, sets no rate differences among 
its various types of customers. One distinction is made in that mobile 
home park residents are placed in the same class as customers who rent, 
buy on contract, or live in an apartment. All of these residents are re- 
quired to pay an $13.00 deposit before the gas company will provide 
service to the unit. 

Gas service is made available to any developer who wishes to make 
a deposit equal to the cost of construction in case the gas company does 
not feel it is economically sound for it to pay the initial cost. The 
Indiana Gas Company does not face any major problems in bringing 
service to the mobile home park resident other than that faced by other 
utilities, the congestion of lines during the construction period. 

A comparison of rates for water service in the mobile home parks 
with other residents of the county revealed no difference between the 
two; however, service was not as freely available to the mobile home 
parks, primarily because it is not economically sound for the mobile 
home park developer to pay for the construction of water lines when 
he can drill his own well at a much lower cost. When service is extended 
beyond the city limits of Lafayette the Board of Works decides who 
will absorb the cost of construction for the water and sewage lines. 
In West Lafayette the water company will not provide service to a 
mobile home park unless the developer makes a deposit equal to the 
cost of construction which is estimated by the West Lafayette Water 
Company prior to the construction. It should be noted that the majority 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Bottle Ground 



© / (25 1 


5 2 W t-ft. 



• - Mobile Home Park 

3 4 Miles 
■ i 1 

Clarks Hill 


Figure 1. Mobile home park locations in Tippecanoe County, Indiana 

of the mobile home parks are located just outside the municipal 
boundaries (Fig. 1). 

A developer may construct his own sewage lines and connect them 
to the city's lines without having city water service if he is able to 
obtain a permit by the city. However, it is more economical for the 
developer to install septic tanks than to pay the cost of construction 
of city sewage lines. No park in the study had city sewage without city 
water service. 

General Telephone Company of Indiana assigns its rates by zones 
with Lafayette as the base area. No distinction is made between 
mobile home park residents and other residents. A mobile home park 
resident will, as will any other resident, pay a rate dependent on the 
zone within which he is located. 

Geography and Geology 241 

Telephone service is available to all of the mobile home parks in- 
cluded in the study. The major problem faced by General Telephone is 
the strain placed on the central office as service is extended to a new 

The Greater Lafayette TV Cable Service Company does not dis- 
tinguish between mobile home park residents and other residents when 
establishing rates. However, the parks are treated as apartment 
dwellings in installation and rate determination. This classification 
often produces a rate which is lower than that for other residents. Only 
six mobile home parks have cable T.V. service. The major problem is 
again the congestion of lines. 

In the area of fire protection the mobile home parks, because of 
being located mostly outside the municipal boundaries, generally do 
not receive the same level of service as do the residents of Lafayette 
and West Lafayette. Parks located outside the municipal boundaries 
must rely upon volunteer departments. Such units require an average 
of approximately 25 min. to respond to calls, too long a time for the 
department to be effective in extinguishing a mobile home fire. As a 
result of being located relatively close to fire stations, municipality resi- 
dents can be reached more quickly by the full-time fire fighting units. 

Police protection of mobile home parks is comparable to that of 
the other residents of the county. The mobile home parks located cut- 
side the municipal boundaries are protected by the Sheriff's Office and 
the Indiana State Police. The parks within the municipal boundaries 
are protected by the municipal police departments. 

Maintenance of streets, curbs, and street lights alongside the mobile 
home park is also at the same level of service as that of any other area 
within the county. The streets, curbs, and street lights within the parks 
are the responsibility of the park owner. 

The United States Post Office Department furnishes the same 
service to the residents of the mobile home parks as to the other resi- 
dents, the postman going to each unit in the park. 

In summary, it can be stated that there are no differences between 
the mobile home park residents and other residents in rates of the public 
utilities, and that service is available to any park if the developer wishes 
to make the investment when the public utility does not feel it is 
economically sound for it to do so. 

With the exception of fire protection, in the area of governmental 
services the mobile home park resident receives comparable service to 
that received by other residents who are similarly located. In general 
it can be concluded that the principal variations in rates and service 
are those between locations inside and outside the municipal boundaries 
rather than those between residents of mobile home parks and other 

Heavy Water A Natural Tracer 

Clark H. Judy 

Department of Geography 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 


All naturally occurring water contains a small percentage of isotopically heavy 
water molecules. The processes of vaporization and condensation affect the 
concentration of the heavier water molecules. The changes in concentration of heavy 
water molecules have been used to study the origin of winter storms, to determine 
evaporation rates from lakes, and in studies of water movement. 


Three common heavy water molecules occurring in nature are HDO, 
HTO, and H 2 Ois. HDO and H 2 Oi® are stable (non-radioactive) 
isotopic forms of water and comprise 0.015% and 0.20%, respectively, of 
naturally occurring water. HTO is radioactive and emits low energy 
beta radiation. A small amount of HTO occurs naturally, but the use 
of nuclear devices has increased the amount of HTO in the hydrologic 

The "heavy water" associated with nuclear projects, D 2 0, is not 
important in natural water supplies as it tends to break down and cause 
the formation of HDO. 

Scientists usually work with the natural or bomb-introduced 
concentrations of heavy water. But, sometimes it is possible to 
utilize small amounts of artificially concentrated heavy water for a 
specific study. The concentrations of HDO or H 2 18 in a water sample 
are usually measured with a mass spectrometer. A liquid scintillation 
counter must be used to measure HTO. 

The use of isotopically heavy water as a tracer of water movement 
is best explained through a series of examples. First, two concepts must 
be explained. 

The vapor pressure of heavy water is slightly less than the vapor 
pressure of H 2 16 at the same temperature. This will cause a slight 
fractionation to occur whenever the processes of evaporation or conden- 
sation takes place. During evaporation the heavy molecules tend to 
become concentrated in the liquid phase while the vapor phase has a 
higher percentage of light molecules. During condensation the heavy 
molecules will tend to condense out more rapidly causing the first 
condensate to be enriched with heavy molecules and the remaining 
vapor to have a greater percentage of light molecules. 

The heavy water content of a sample is often given as the per cent 
deviation of the heavy isotope content of the sample relative to the 
heavy isotope content of average ocean water. A sample of precipitation 
with a HDO content reported as —7% contains 7% less HDO 


Geography and Geology 


molecules than ocean water, namely a reference water (SMOW, 
standard mean ocean water, as recommended by Craig- ( 1 ) ) . Precipitation 
is usually isotopically lighter than ocean water. 


The change in the heavy isotope content of a body of water can 
be used to determine the evaporative loss from that body of water. The 
water entering a large lake has an average HDO content of —8.3% 
and the discharge from the lake has a HDO content of —7.6% 
(Fig. 1). These measurements indicate that fractionation during 
evaporation caused an enrichment of the heavy isotope content of the 
lake water. A knowledge of the amount of increase of HDO in the lake 
and the vapor pressures of H 2 and HDO allows one to calculate that 
15% of the original volume of water has evaporated. 


Outgoing water = -7.5$ 

Evaporation based on heavy water content = 15% 

Figure 1. Diagram of heavy water — evaporation relationships of a lake. The amount 
of evaporation from a lake can be determined by comparing the HDO content of the 
incoming water with the HDO content of the outgoing water. Diagram after Friedman 

et al (1964). 

On a larger scale, we can follow the changes in the HDO content 
of the moisture in a storm system (Fig. 2). The HDO (and 
H 2 18 content of precipitation is controlled by the amount of condensa- 
tion and the temperatures at which this condensation takes 
place. The moisture evaporating from the ocean will be isotopically 
lighter than the ocean water. As the processes of evaporation and con- 
densation are opposite, the first condensate from the air mass will have 
about the same heavy isotope content as the original ocean water. As 
the air mass moves farther inland it will become depleted in heavy 
molecules and the resulting precipitation will be isotopically lighter. 
Snow is usually isotopically lighter than rain and high altitude precipi- 
tation is usually lighter than low altitude precipitation. 

In California, isotope measurements have been used as an indication 
that during a winter of heavy snowfall there may have been a change 
in circulation patterns not detected by the conventional meteorologist. 
An extensive series of HDO or H 2 18 measurements should help the 
meteorologists obtain some quantitative information on the processes 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Air mass has become 
depleted in heavy molecules. 

Air mass = -2% 


Ocean water 

Snow in^coastal mountains = 

Early^condensate = 
" " -1 to -5% 

0% deviation 

Snow in inland mountains = 
14 to -20 % 

Figure 2. Diagram of the variations in the HDO content of the precipitation as an air 
mass moves inland. Preferential condensation of the heavier molecules causes the 
moisture in the air mass to become isotopically lighter as it travels farther 


occurring in the atmosphere. The main problem is a lack of sufficient 
available data on the heavy isotope content of precipitation. 

The variation in the heavy isotope content of precipitation may 
be used in some hydrologic studies. Perhaps a city near a mountain 
range is dependent upon ground water for a public water supply and 
the city would like to determine the recharge area of the aquifer they 
are using (Fig. 3). Basic information could be obtained by measuring 
the heavy isotope content of the ground water and comparing it to the 
heavy isotope content of precipitation in various areas. If the well water 
was isotopically light, it could be assumed that the recharge area was 
high in the mountains. 

The uses of the isotopically heavy forms of water are not limited 
to those just mentioned. HDO has been used in snowmelt studies, to 


High altitude precipitation = -15% 

Low altitude precipitation = -% 

Well water = -14% 

The low isotope content of the well 

water indicates a high altitude recharge area. 

Figure 3. Diagram of how the HDO content of water of unknown origin can be used 
to indicate which of several areas is the actual source of the water. 

Geography and Geology 245 

help date layers of ice in glaciers, to trace the movement of soil mois- 
ture, and in biological studies. The list of references that follows 
expands on several of the applications. Friedman et al. reviewed 
much of the work done with HDO (3). Dansgaard reviewed some of the 
work done with H 2 ls (2). 

There are several advantages to using heavy water as a tracer of 
water movement. Water is actually being used to trace water, so there 
is little problem with the selective absorption of an introduced tracer. 
HDO and H 2 18 are naturally occurring and are not radioactive so 
people will not be upset by their use. The slight fractionation upon 
evaporation and condensation allows a quantitative measurement of 
many hydrological and meteorological processes. 

There is one disadvantage. The cost of sample analysis (currently 
about $50 per sample) is high. This has restricted the accumulation of 
large amounts of data and background knowledge about HDO and 
H 2 18 in the hydrologic cycle. 

Literature Cited 

1. Craig, H. 1961. Standards for reporting concentrations of deuterium and oxygen 

—18 in natural waters. Science 133:1833-34. 

2. Dansgaard, W. 1964. Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16:436-68. 

3. Friedman, I., A. Redfield, B. Schoen, and J. Harris. 1964. The variation of the 
deuterium content of natural waters in the hydrologic cycle. Rev. Geophys. 

A Preliminary Investigation of Sludge 
Refuse from Indiana Coal Mines 1 

Louis V. Miller 

Indiana Geological Survey 

Bloomington, Indiana 47401 


Seven samples of fine refuse (sludge) were collected from two coal mine refuse pits 
located in Greene and Sullivan Counties. Particle size distribution was determined. 
Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge refuse were determined and compared to 
a "whole coal." The data indicated that the British Thermal Unit content of sludge refuse 
was about 75 per cent of that of the "whole coal" on the moisture-free basis, but was 
almost similar on the moisture-ash free basis. Based on chemical parameters, sludge 
refuse should be considered a natural resource for future fuel use and should be reclaimed. 

Before coal can be used by industry, it must undergo a preparation 
process at the mine site. This process consists of crushing, washing, 
de-watering, and sizing of the coal. During the washing cycle, refuse 
(pyrite, shale, clay, calcite, rock, high-gravity coal, etc.) is separated 
from the coal. 

Coal preparation produces two kinds of refuse: 1) a coarse particle 
refuse ("gob") that may be several inches in diameter; and 2) a fine 
particle refuse ("sludge" or "tailings") that may be 1/8 inch or less 
in diameter. For brevity the terms "gob" and sludge are used in this 
paper. Sludge contains larger percentages of coal than does "gob." Total 
refuse can, periodically, account for as much as 45% of the total daily 
raw coal (unprepared coal) production. Generally, the average 
percentage for sludge is 3-7% and for gob 9-15% of total daily raw coal 

Within the 22 years preceding 1970, Indiana mines produced 
370,022,689 tons of salable coal (M. B. Fox, personal communication). 
Because almost all of this coal underwent the preparation process, the 
average percentages (sludge — 5% and "gob" 12%) may be used to 
calculate the amount of refuse produced. Calculations indicate that 
during the 22-year period 136,857,706 tons of refuse were produced of 
which 40,326,165 tons were sludge. 

Sludge produced from the preparation of the following coal mem- 
bers is considered in this paper: 1) Survant Coal (IV), 2) Springfield 
Coal (V), 3) Hymera Coal (VI), and 4) Danville Coal (VII) (2). 

Greene County 

The Greene County sludge pit covered an area of 80-90 acres from 
which Samples #4, 6 and 5 were taken (in that order). The interval be- 
tween samples was 3,000 feet. Sample #4 was 1,000 feet from the point 
of sludge entry into the pit. For observational purposes, additional 

Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Department of Natural Resources, 
Indiana Geological Survey. 


Geography and Geology 247 

samples were taken at 100 feet intervals between Sample Sites #5 and 
6. Between these sites there was an apparent change to smaller 
particle size and to a "dirty gray" color. 

Sullivan County 

The Sullivan County sludge pit covered a 70-acre area from which 
Samples #13, 14, 11, and 12 were collected (in that order). Sample 
#13 was the nearest to the point of sludge entry (about 400 feet). The 
interval between samples was about 425 feet. 


Seven sludge samples were collected from two sludge storage areas 
(pits) of mines located in Greene and Sullivan Counties. Before 
sampling, about 10 inches of sludge surface was removed and then the 
sample was taken with the use of a post hole digger to a depth of 4 feet. 
The sample filled a 5 gallon can. 

Sample preparation and subsequent chemical analysis followed the 
procedures and specifications of ASTM-D-271-58 (1). After collection, 
the samples of sludge refuse were air dried so that their moisture con- 
tent was in equilibrium with that in the atmosphere. Each sample 
was thoroughly mixed and then split into four equal parts. Two of the 
parts (making up 50% of the original sample) were mixed back 
together to form the sample for the particle size determination. Of the 
remaining two quarters, one was put into storage for future work and 
the other was used for chemical analysis. 

The chemical analysis consisted of determining moisture, ash, 
volatile, fixed carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur along 
with the BTU and the C0 2 . These data for sludge are compared with 
the data from "raw coal." The Greene County sludge is compared with 
Coal V while the Sullivan County sludge is compared with Coal VI. 

The screening of the air-dried sample was accomplished with the 
use of U.S. Standard sieves and a Tyler Ro-Tap sieve shaker. The sieves 
had square opening sizes of 8, 16, 32, 100, and 200 mesh. 

Results and Discussion 

On the moisture-free basis the data indicate that sludge from the 
Greene and Sullivan County pits is inferior to their respective compara- 
tive coals (Tables 1 and 2). However, if data on the moisture-ash free 
basis are considered, it is found that the differences are reduced and 
that similarity of the materials is emphasized (Tables 1 and 2). 
Samples #13, 14, and 11 of the Sullivan County pit exhibit the 
idealistic pattern ; that is, higher ash and lower BTU nearer the point of 
sludge entry into the pit progressing to lower ash and higher BTU 
farther away (Table 2). Sample #12 appears to be the maverick in the 
group with its high ash and low BTU; but the data in the particle size 
histogram of Figure 1 indicates that Sample #12 had a high percentage of 
fine particles (other data determined on particle size but not presented 
in this paper indicated that higher ash is located in the finer size). 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Sample 4 

Sample 6 

o> 30 

Sample 13 



Sample 14 Sample 11 

|«>^oggg ro ^og88 «SS88§§ «2SS8§§ 

•^ V V V v 

Figure 1. Histogram showing particle size percentages. 

Sample #6, of the Greene County pit, exhibited the same tendencies as 
Sample #12 except that its (Sample #6) sulfur and C0 2 
were very high. These high values were brought about by a secondary 
washing from run off water of a nearby 100-160 acre farm. The run 

Table 1. Proximate and ultimate analysis, Greene County Pit. 



















Fixed Carbon 



















.1 .07 












1.33 1 

Moisture and 

Ash Free 







Fixed Carbon 

















1 .20 

















Sample only 

Geography and Geology 


off water entered the pit just above Sample #6 site resulting with the 

separation of the lighter particles of coal from the heavier particles 
of pyrite and calcite. 

Because moisture is an erratic variable (on a daily basis) the data 
for it were not included in the tables; but the moisture percentage 

ranged from 18.8 to 37% with an average of 25.6% on the "as 
received" basis. 

Table 2. Proximate and Ultimate Analysis, Sullivan County Pit. 








Moisture Free 













Fixed Carbon 





































0.16 1 





Moisture and Ash 








Fixed Carbon 





































0.18 1 





'Sample only 


The data bore out some of the visual observations. When consider- 
ing the BTU on the moisture-free basis, sludge refuse contains about 
75% of that of the compared coal (Table 2). If the ash can be eliminated 
then sludge refuse and coal are very similar, as indicated by the 
moisture-ash free basis data. Because of the similarity of the chemical 
parameters, and because of the great quantities available (over 40 
million tons), sludge refuse should not be wasted. It should be considered 
a fuel and should be reclaimed for fuel purposes. 

250 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. American Society for Testing Materials 1970. Annual book of standards, laboratory 
sampling and analysis of coal and coke. ASTB-D-271-68. p. 16-40. 

2. Wier, C. E. 1959. Coal stratigraphy and resources studies, 1949-1957. Econ. Geol. 

3. Miller, Louis V. 1967. An investigative study of six Indiana coals. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 77:299-304. 

The Distribution of Slopes in Indiana 

David B. Waldrip and Michael C. Roberts 

Department of Geography 

Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana, 47401 


Slope maps of Indiana have been prepared from the 2 percent sample of the United 
States Department of Agriculture Conservation Needs Inventory. The Syngraphic Mapping 
Technique (a form of computer cartography) was used to generate maps of average 
slope, slopes between and 2 per cent, and slopes 35 per cent and greater. 


The objective of this study was to develop a quantified slope map 
which would supplement and extend the work of Malott (2) on the 
regional geomorphology of Indiana. A subsidiary objective of the 
research was to provide a slope map, sufficiently detailed, to aid in the 
development of more precise morphometric measures to be used in 
studies of watersheds in Indiana. 

The classical study classifying and describing the physiographic 
regions of Indiana was published by Mallott in 1922 (2). More re- 
cent summaries of the State's physiography are to be found in papers by 
Schneider (4) and Wayne (6). A quantitative approach to the 
physiography of the state is taken by Lewis (1) who used principal com- 
ponents analysis as a method of regionalizing 13 morphometric 
variables. His data were collected from a random sample of 60 fourth 
order drainage basins. The writers believe that Lewis is justified in con- 
cluding that his approach provides a more objective view of Indiana 
physiography. However, any examination of the benefits of objectivity 
as yielded by principal components analysis must be balanced by the 
fact that the physiographic regions, so produced, are rudimentary and 
not particularly informative. 

In the geographic literature there are many reports of research 
dealing with state and regional maps of slope, though none of these 
studies use the mapping techniques and data sources of this paper. Good 
summaries of slope research are to be found in Miller and Summerson 
(3), and Zakrzewska (7). 

Conservation Needs Inventory 

It was recognized in the mid-1950's that changes in land-use 
patterns with their associated problems were taking place rapidly 
enough to necessitate the development of a data bank which could be 
used to monitor these changes. The response to the situation was the 
establishment, in 1957, of the Conservation Needs Inventory (referred 
to hereafter as the C.N.I.) . The major objective of this Inventory was 
to provide the U.S. Government with up-to-date and detailed information 


252 Indiana Academy of Science 

on the rural landscape. The scope of the data is indicated by the follow- 
ing variables which are included in the inventory: land ownership, soil 
type, slope, erosion, land use and treatment needs. The U.S. Department 
of Agriculture wanted the inventory, for the entire country, to be com- 
pleted within 3 years of the starting date in 1957. To achieve these ob- 
jectives, Taylor (5) designed a startified random sample, which used 
the quarter section (160 acres) as its standard sampling unit; a 
sampling rate of 2% was established that required the selection of 3 
quarter sections per township. The Statistical Laboratory of Iowa State 
University in Ames, Iowa, is responsible for maintaining and period- 
ically updating the Inventory which is stored on magnetic tape. 

Analysis of the Data 

The first task of this research was to change the order of the 
C.N.I, variables from a sequence based on soil types to one based on 
counties and townships. This strategy put the data into a locational form 
eminently suitable for computer mapping. 

With the data in the new sequence it was possible to compute the 
average slope value for a township by using the following formula: 

1 N 

Yi = 5 Pj (S q k ) X 100 
3=1 k=l 

S ~ " 

where, Y i = average slope for the i th township 

N = number of soil mapping units in the i th township contain- 
ing at least one acre of slope class j 
Pj = midpoint value of slope class j (%) 
q k = acreage of the k th soil mapping unit 
S = sample acreage of the i Ul township. 

The outer summation refers to the seven slope classes adopted by the 
C.N.I, for Indiana; these are 0-2; 2-6; 6-12; 12-18; 18-25; 25-35, and 
greater than 35% slope. 

Computerized maps of the slope classes were then generated by 
using the Synagraphic Mapping Technique (SYMAP). The geographic 
center of the 1,270 townships used in the Inventory of Indiana served 
as the data points for the maps. 

Slope Maps of Indiana 

Four maps were selected for illustrating the variation of slope in 
Indiana. Included were two average slope maps, and maps of 0-2% slope 
and 35% and greater slope. 

Average Slope Map 1 

This map (Fig. 1) uses the slope class intervals adopted by the Con- 
servation Needs Inventory for Indiana (these values vary from state 
to state). The feature that clearly emerges from the map is the division 

Geography and Geology 


of the state into two parts about a line drawn approximately east- 
west through Indianapolis. The slopes of the southern half of the state 
clearly reflect the physiographic divisions established by Malott (2). 
The Wabash and Scottsburg Lowlands are readily identified as are the 
higher average slopes of the Crawford, Norman, and Dearborn Uplands. 
The Mitchell Plain between the Crawford and Norman Uplands can be 
distinguished even though the pattern of low slope is broken into dis- 
continuous units. The northern half of the map is dominated by 1-6% 
slopes reflecting the glacial modification of the landscape north of Indi- 

Figure 1. The average slope map 1. 

The 0-2% Slope Map 

The value of this map (Fig. 2) to the interpretation of Indiana 
physiography is the emphasis it gives to the occurrence of low slopes, 
which are indicated by the darker shadings on the map. For example, 


Indiana Academy of Science 

the Calumet and Maumee Lacustrine Lowlands are clearly differentiated 
as well as the more extensive Tipton Till Plain to the south. The low- 
lands and floodplains associated with the Kankakee, Wabash and White 
Rivers are well defined areas of low slope. Other features that can be 
identified are the Valparaiso Moraine and the Steuben Morainal Lake 

% Township wtth 
- 2% Slope 

3 9 

- 207 


- 405 

"40 5 

- 60 4 

1H 604 

- 80.2 

5K\i mi ■ 

- 1000 

Figure 2. The map of slope in Indiana based on the percentage of a toivnship with 

0-2% slopes. 

Average Slope Map 2 

The class intervals for this map (Fig. 3) are changed from Figure 
1 in that each interval represents an equal range of slope. It is apparent 
that the lowest class interval does not discriminate, very effectively, 
the slope variation in the northern half of the state. The concentration 
of high slopes in the southern uplands of Indiana is more clearly em- 

Geography and Geology 


Figure 3. The average slope map 2. 

phasized than on the previous map and, again, the Malott physiographic 
divisions are reaffirmed in this area. 

The 35% and Greater Slope Map 

The high slopes, on this map (Pig. 4), are spatially clustered into 
two groups. One group is associated with the bluffs of the Ohio River, 
while the other is a cluster extending NW-SE across the southwestern 
quadrant of the state. This trend line appears to reflect the occurrence 
of particularly high slopes in both the Norman and Crawford Uplands. 
An area of high slope in the central portion of the map reveals a prob- 
lem of widely scattered data points in relation to the SYMAP 
algorithm. The data of one township with a high slope value located 
on the bluffs of the White River are expanded to influence a much larger 
area on the map than exists in reality. This difficulty can be overcome 
when the sample is areally dense enough to prevent the present situation 
of an isolated anomaly from arising. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Figure 4. 

The map of slope in Indiana based on the percentage of a township with 
> 35% slopes. 


The value of the C.N.I, to the physical geographer who is concerned 
with slope research has been demonstrated. The maps produced here 
give insight into the variation of landforms of Indiana for they show 
that physiographic regions are not uniform spatial units but, in fact, 
units possessing internal variations. 


We thank Mr. J. M. Hollingsworth, Staff Cartographer, Department 
of Geography, for his contributions in the preparation of the maps. 

Geography and Geology 257 

Literature Cited 

1. Lewis, L. 1968. Analysis of surficial landform properties: the regionalization 
of Indiana into units of morphometric similarity. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 78: 

2. Malott, C. A. 1922. The physiography of Indiana, p. 59-256. In W. B. 
Burford (ed.) Handbook of Indiana Geology. Indiana Dep. Conserv., Publ. 21, Pt. 2. 
1120 p. 

3. Miller, O. M., and C. H. Summerson. 1960. Slope-zone maps. Geog. Rev. 

4. Schneider, A. F. 1966. Physiography, p. 40-56. In A. A. Lindsey (ed.) 
Natural Features of Indiana, Indiana Acad. Sci. Sesquicentennial "Vol., Indianapolis, 
Ind. 600 p. 

5. Taylor, H. L. 1958. Statistical sampling for soil mapping surveys. Statistical 
Lab., Iowa State Univ., Ames (reprinted 1962). 75 p. 

6. Wayne, W. J. 1966. Ice and land, p. 21-39. In A. A. Lindsey (ed.) Natural 
Features of Indiana, Indiana Acad. Sci. Sesquicentennial Vol. Indianapolis, Ind. 
600 p. 

7. Zakrzewska, B. 1967. Trends and methods in landform geography. Ann. Assoc. 
Amer. Geog. 57:128-165. 


Chairman: Robert F. Ramaley, Department of Microbiology, 
Indiana University, Bloomington 47401 

Morris Pollard, Department of Microbiology, University of 
Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, was elected chairman 

for 1972 


Comparative Growth Kinetics of Microbial Bio-Oxidation. Robert 

H. L. Howe, Eli Lilly and Company Tippecanoe Laboratories, Lafayette, 
Indiana 47902. The comparative growth kinetics of microbial bio- 
oxidation was discussed. A number of mathematical explanations were 
devised and compared. For a substrate of high concentration, the 
kinetics of both batch and continuous systems were presented. Illustra- 
tions were given for signifying the difference of the first order 
kinetics and those of higher orders. 

A Survey of Pollution Levels in the Bean Blossom Watershed (Lake 
Lemon) and in the Salt Creek Watershed (Lake Monroe)— Brown and 
Monroe Counties, Indiana. James Butler, David Docauer, Mark 
Downing, Michael Dulin, Kent Fischvogt, William Gardiner, 
James Holloway, John Jacoby, Jerry Neff and Linda Schell. 
Indiana University Undergraduate Honors Program and Department 

of Microbiology, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. One hundred and 

twenty-two samples were taken from various areas within the Lake 
Monroe watershed by the H-300 Environmental Protection and Planning 
class during the spring of 1971 and analyzed for presumptive coliform 
numbers by the most probable number tube dilution method. Selected 
samples were also analyzed by the confirmed and completed tests. One 
hundred and thirty samples were similarly analyzed from the Lake 
Lemon and Bean Blossom Creek watershed. The detailed maps and 
results of the study are on file at the Indiana State Board of Health. 
Areas within the Lake Monroe area that showed unusually high coliform 
levels were: 1) downstream from the City of Nashville sewage treat- 
ment plant on the north fork of Salt Creek; 2) areas adjacent to boat 
launching ramps; 3) Moore's Creek and Ramp Creek; 4) bottom 
samples from the Fairfax marina; and 5) a number of isolated areas 
in the upper watershed. The swimming beaches and the center of the 
lake showed a negligible coliform level. In contrast to the low levels 
of coliform in the relatively undeveloped Lake Monroe watershed, the 
Lake Lemon and Bean Blossom watershed showed 100 presumptive 
coliform or greater per milliliter in more than 20 of the samples taken. 
These high coliform levels in a similar and adjacent unprotected water- 
shed point out the necessity for continued environmental protection of 
Lake Monroe watershed by the Indiana State Board of Health. 

The Use of Pollution Surveys as Aids in Environmental Protection and 
Planning. Robert F. Ramaley, Department of Microbiology, Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. During the past 3 years 


260 Indiana Academy of Science 

a large number of students both in courses and during independent study 
have conducted pollution surveys from this laboratory (e.g., the 
H-300 survey of Lake Monroe) upon the request of conservation and 
environmental groups and city and county planners. In these surveys 
we have tried a number of different procedures and survey methods, 
some of which may have utility especially to biology classes in 
Indiana's primary and secondary schools. It is to be anticipated that 
there will be an increasing number of public pollution surveys conducted 
by classes in Indiana schools and universities, and, in order for these 
surveys to have their desired effect, the following suggestions are 
offered: 1) The use of Difco Endo LES agar rather than the presump- 
tive coliform tube test. It is a better teaching aid and is much more 
selective than other liquid or solid media. It is so highly selective for 
coliform that schools without sterilizing equipment for sterilizing media 
will be able to use it without any problem provided they make it up fresh 
before each use and protect it from light. We have found that 0.1 
milliliter of water sample spread over the surface of the agar is usually 
sufficient for the determination of the number of coliform in most 
samples. However, a series of samples should be prepared if millipore 
filters are used to sample larger volumes since high bacterial growth 
may obscure the identification of coliform colonies, giving a false 
negative test. 2) Coordination with local and state regulatory agencies 
both in the planning and in the interpretation of the results. There is 
increasing evidence that the number of fecal coliforms is more closely 
related to the level of sewage pollution, and, although this test is not 
unusually difficult, it is best that some duplicate samples be done by 
experienced bacteriological laboratories such as the Indiana State Board 
of Health. 3) Cooperation with local city and county planners so that 
survey information will be as useful as possible in deciding the future 
extent and location of development as well as simply pointing out present 


The Impact of Water Pollution on Recreational Areas in Delaware County. 

Stanton C. Burt, Department of Microbiology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana 47401. The contamination of lakes, rivers, and 

their tributaries with fecal material often results in the conversion of 
recreational areas into health hazards. This is an extensive problem 
which can be combated most easily by the application of state laws 
through local agencies. 

Methods and Materials 

The procedures followed for the determination of coliform group 
are those in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and 
Wastewater published by the American Public Health Association. The 
"presumptive" and "confirmed" tests were performed before the applica- 
tion of the MPN chart. 


During the summer of 1971, Muncie Creek, which empties into White 
River within McCulloch Park, had an average coliform count of 130,000 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 261 

organisms per 100 milliliters as it flowed through the park. The Muncie 
Mall and Marhoefer Packing Company outflows were investigated as 
possible contributers to this situation. Two-thirds of the Muncie Mall 
samples exceeded the million organisms per 100 ml. The Marhoefer 
samples varied from a low of 240,000 to a high of 1,100,000 
organisms per 100 ml depending upon the time of day they were 
taken. The Regulation SPC 1R-2, Water Quality Standards For Waters 
of Indiana, states that "Coliform group (is) not to exceed 5,000 per 100 
ml as a monthly-average value (either MPN or MF count)." This places 
the Muncie Mall and Marhoefer Packing Company as much as 220 times 
the violation figure at times. 

The Prairie Creek Reservoir swimming facility was found to have 
an MPN of 15,000 per 100 ml. A creek, which drains a feedlot 1% miles 
upstream, empties approximately one block from the swimming site. 
This sloping feedlot is located near the corner of 700E and 500S and 
multiplies the coliform group level of the stream 30 times. 

Data cannot relay the offensiveness of the Nebo Bridge outflow 
which dribbles toilet paper down the bank and into White River. Al- 
though residential outflows such as this one are small they are often 
the most potent as all samples having an MPN of greater than 
1,100,000 per 100 ml would indicate. 

The local Stream Pollution Control Board held hearings for the 
Muncie Mall and Marhoefer Packing Company reaching solutions agreed 
to by both parties. The Nebo Bridge outflow and the feedlot were outside 
the sanitary district's jurisdiction but will fall under county health laws. 
There are 123 outflows remaining to be investigated. 

The Effects of Glucose, Acetate, and Malonate Upon Fatty 
Acid Distribution in Aspergillus niger. 

David L. Peterson and Alice S. Bennett, 

Department of Biology, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 


Submerged cultures of Aspergillus niger were grown In media containing 

different concentrations of glucose, sodium acetate, or sodium malonate. Varying 

concentrations of glucose with or without added acetate did not alter the distribution of 
fatty acids produced by 120 hour cultures. 

Increasing the concentrations of sodium acetate in the 5 per cent glucose medium 
caused the percentage of saturated fatty acids to increase from 20 per cent to 68 per cent. 
However, aerated stir cultures containing 2.5 per cent acetate produced the normal 
amount of unsaturated fatty acids with linolenic acid representing the largest com- 
ponent. In the control cultures linoleic is the major unsaturated fatty acid. 

The high acetate cultures also differed from the control in that their growth was 
markedly inhibited, and the sharp decrease in pH which is characteristic of 
Aspergillus cultures was not observed. 

Similar but not as pronounced effects were observed when sodium malonate was added 
to the 5 per cent glucose medium. 


Research in recent years has indicated that there are at least two 
pathways for the biosynthesis of fatty acids. The acetyl-coenzyme A 
pathway has been observed in intact mitochondria isolated from plants 
(1, 2, 3, 8, 13, 19, 21) and mammals (6, 7, 18). The malonyl-coenzyme A 
pathway, which occurs outside of the mitochondria, has been identified in 
many plant and animal tissues (20, 21). In soybeans (9), isolated plant 
leaves (10), and yeast (5) the long chain fatty saturated fatty acids 
are subsequently converted to unsaturated fatty acids by an oxygen 
dependent enzyme system. 

Members of the Class Ascomycetes, with fatty acid compositions 
similar to those found in higher plants (15), have been used to study 
the biosynthesis of fatty acids in plants and plant-like organisms 
(4, 11, 17). Matto (12) reported that fatty acid synthesis in 
Aspergillus niger was reduced but not completely inhibited when 
avidin, a biotin inhibitor, was added to the medium, suggesting that 
fatty acids are synthesized by a pathway other than that using 
malonyl-coenzyme A. If the alternate pathway utilizes acetate, it should 
be possible to stimulate fatty acid synthesis by this pathway by in- 
creasing the amounts of acetate in the presence of a carbohydrate source 
in the medium. However, Romano and Romberg (14) have reported 
that cultures of Aspergillus nidulans grown in a medium containing 
100 mM of sodium acetate and 100 mM of glucose were markedly 
inhibited in growth and their ability to incorporate hexoses. The fatty 
acid distribution of the inhibited cultures was not reported. 


Microbiology and Molecular Biology 263 

In this study the effects of adding increasing amounts of sodium 
acetate and sodium malonate to the culture medium of Aspergillus 
niger were investigated. 

Experimental Procedure 

Aspergillus niger (LBa 376) was maintained on potato dextrose 
agar slants. Spores were lightly scraped and washed from the slants 
with sterile medium. One ml of the spore suspension was used to 
inoculate 100 ml of sterile culture medium. One set of experiments used 
a medium containing from to 5 g glucose and 0.2 g 
KH 2 P0 4 ; 0.2 g MgS0 4 .7H 2 0; 0.2 g NH 4 N0 3 ; 5 g NaC 2 H 3 2 ; and 
100 ml H 2 0. In another, the medium contained 5 g glucose, 0.2 g NH 4 N0 3 ; 
0.2 g KH 2 P0 4 ; 0.05 g MgS0 4 ; 100 ml H 2 and from to 15 g of 
acetate or malonate. Control cultures contained no acetate or malonate. 
Cultures were incubated for 120 hours on a reciprocating shaker (180 
revolutions per minute). Stir cultures were aerated and stirred for 120 
hours. Cultures used for time studies were stirred and aerated in 600 ml 
of medium in a 11 flask. 

At the end of the incubation period or at selected time points the 
mycelium was harvested by filtration through glass wool, resuspended 
in 15 ml absolute methanol, and sonified for 3 min (J-17A Sonifier, 
Branson Sonic Co.). The sonicate was diluted with an equal volume of 
15% methanoic KOH, refluxed for 2 hours, and acidifed with concentrat- 
ed HC1. The fatty acids were extracted with hexane, washed with distilled 
water, and filtered through anhydrous sodium sulfate. After removing 
the solvent on a rotary evaporator, the fatty acids were methylated with 
diazomethane (14). The methyl esters were isolated on silica gel G thin 
layer chromotography plates, and separated, identified, and quantified by 
gas liquid chromatography using a 10-foot glass column packed with 
5% DEGA on 60/80 mesh chrom GA/W; column temperature, 190°C; 
gas flow, 70 ml/min (Varian Aerograph 90-P). 

Results and Discussion 

Although Woodbine et al. (21) reported that the addition of increas- 
ing amounts of carbohydrates to the medium stimulated total fatty acid 
synthesis in Aspergillus niger, our results indicated that increasing the 
amount of glucose in the presence of 5% acetate did not affect fatty acid 
distribution in 120-hour cultures (Fig. 1). 

The normal decrease in pH observed in cultures grown without 
acetate did not occur in cultures grown in a medium containing 
5% glucose and 2.5% or 5% sodium acetate. Growth of the 
mycelium was markedly inhibited at these concentrations and completely 
inhibited at 15%. Romano and Kornberg (14) reported that the uptake 
of glucose in cultures grown in a medium with 100 mM acetate 
decreases as much as 80%. They suggested that acetyl-coenzyme A was 
responsible for the inhibition of hexose uptake. Apparently the acetate 
also inhibits the secretion of citric and gluconic acids which is 
characteristic of normal cultures. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

4 - 


""""^•sT* ***■ 








5% Aceiaie + Glucose 
2.5% Aceiaie + Glucose 






» • 

i 1 




Time (Hours) 

Figure 1. Changes in pH during growth of Aspergillus niger on different substrates. 



lftat4fa i PliinnCO 


Maionaie + Glucose 
























1 1 

i I 




Percent substrate 

Figure 2. Per cent saturated fatty acids recovered from Aspergillus niger grown in 
the presence of acetate and malonate. 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 265 

Table 1. The effects of growing cultures two different ways 1 . 










Control, Shake 

2.5% Acetate, Shake 

2.5% Acetate, Stir and Aerate 

'Harvested after 120 hours growth at 28°C. 

The per cent saturated fatty acids produced by shake cultures grown 
in a medium containing 2.5% sodium acetate was 48% higher than that 
produced by control cultures (Fig. 2). A similar, but smaller (16%) 
increase was effected by the addition of sodium malonate. This effect 
could be reversed by stirring and aerating high acetate cultures 
(Table 1). Upon aeration the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in 
the acetate culture was similar to the control. 

However, when acetate was included in the medium, linolenic acid 
represented the largest component while linoleic acid was highest in 
the control (Table 2). Whether this difference in the distribution of un- 
saturated fatty acids was due to the increased availability of the 
acetate or the decreased availability of the glucose is not clear. 

Table 2. Per cent distribution of the major Fatty acids recovered from Aspergillus 
niger in a submerged medium containing varying concentrations of acetate 1 . 

Per cent 

Per cent 









































































No Growth 

'Grown at 28°C for five days in aerated stir cultures. 

Literature Cited 

1. Barron, E. J. 1966. The mitochondrial fatty acid synthesizing system: General 
properties and acetate incorporation into monoenoic acids. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 

2. Barron, E. J., C. Squires, and P. K. Stumpf. 1961. Fat metabolism in higher 
plants: Enzymatic synthesis of fatty acids by an extract of avocado mesocarp. J. 
Biol. Chem. 236:2610-2614. 

266 Indiana Academy of Science 

3. Barron, E. J., and P. K. Stumpf. 1962. Evidence for separate pathways for the 
biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids by an avocado enzyme system. 
J. Biol. Chem. 237:613-614. 

4. Bennett,, A. S., and F. W. Quackenbush. 1969. Synthesis of unsaturated fatty 
acids by PenciUium chrysogenum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 130 :567-572. 

5. Bloomfield, D. K., and K. Block. 1960. The formation of -9 unsaturated fatty 
acids. J. Biol. Chem. 235:337-344. 

6. Del Boca, J., and J. P. Flatt. 1969. Fatty acid synthesis from glucose and 
acetate and the control of lipogenesis in adipose tissue. European J. Biochem. 


7. Dituri, F., W. N. Shaw, J. V. B. Warms, and S. Curin. 1957. Lipogenesis in 
particle-free extracts of rat liver: Substrates and cofactor requirements. J. Biol. 
Chem. 226:407-416. 

8. Harlan, W. R., and S. J. Wakil. 1936. Synthesis of fatty acids in animal 
tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 238:3216-3223. 

9. Inkpen, J., and F. Quackenbush. 1966. Desaturation of fatty acids by 

supernatant fractions from the soybean. Fed. Proc. 25:340. 

10. James, A. T. 1963. The biosynthesis of long-chain saturated and unsaturated 
fatty acids in isolated plant leaves. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 70:9-19. 

11. Kamback, D. O., and A. S. Eennett. 1971. Effect of environmental conditions 
on fatty acid composition of Aspei gillus niger. Bacterid. Proc. 1971:144. 

12. Matto, A. K., V. V. Modi, and R. N. PATEL. 1966. Biotin and fatty acid 
biogenesis in Aspergillus flavus. Experientia 22:436-437. 

13. Mudd, J. B., and P. K. Stumpf. 1961. Fat metabolism in higher plants: Factors af- 
fecting the synthesis of oleic acid by particulate preparations from avocado 
mesocarp. J. Biol. Chem. 236 :2602-2609. 

14. Roman, A. H., and H. L. Kornberg. 1969. Regulation of sugar uptake by 
Aspergillus nidulans. Proc. Roy. Soc. Brig. 173:475-490. 

15. Shaw, R. 1965. Occurrence of linolenic acid in fungi. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 

16. Sciilenk, H., and J. L. Gellerman. 1960. Esterification of fatty acids with 
diazomethane on a small scale. Anal. Chem. 32:1412-1413. 

17. Schwenk, K., and A. S. Bennett. 1970. The effect of avidin in Aspergillus niger 
and Aspergillus flavus. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79:351-355. 

18. Smith, S., D. J. Easter, and R. Dils. 1966. Fatty acid biosynthesis intracellular- 
site of enzymes in lactating i-abbit mammary gland. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 

19. Stumpf, P. K., and G. A. Barber. 1957. Fat metabolism in higher plants: 
Enzymatic synthesis of long chain fatty acids by avocado particles. J. Biol. 
Chem. 227:407. 

20. Wakil, S. J. 1958. A malonic acid derivative as an intermediate in fatty acid 
synthesis. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80:6465. 

21. Woodbine, M., M. E. Gregory, and T. K. Walker. 1951. Microbiological 
synthesis of fat. J. Exp. Bot. 2:204-211. 


Chairman : Malcolm E. Hults, Physics Department, 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Torsten Alvager, Department of Physics, 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

was elected Chairman for 1972 


Effects of Pressure on Electronic Properties of Bismuth. Uwe J. Hansen 
Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 
47809, and Elvin M. Compy, US Naval Research Lab, Washington, D.C. 

20390. Experiments which study changes of electronic properties with 

variation in interatomic spacing are critical in their support of energy 
band calculations. The research reported here involves the first observa- 
tion of cyclotron resonance and Alfven wave propagation in Bismuth under 
pressures to 3 kilobars (Rev. Sci. Instr. 42:1215). The experiments are 
carried out at a temperature of 4°Kelvin using a standard 35 GHz bridge 
circuit. Effective mass decreases of the order of 6 per cent per kilobar are 

Photoelectric Photometry of an Eclipsing Binary Star System. Ronald 
Kaitchuck and Newton G. Sprague, Department of Physics, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Many of the stars comprising our 

galaxy are members of a system of two stars in orbit about each other. 
The vast majority of these systems are far enough from the earth so as 
to appear only as a single point of light even in the largest of telescopes. 
However, if the orbital plane is seen edge-wise by an observer on the earth, 
during some portion of the orbital period an eclipse of one component will 
cause a drop in the observed light output. 

The eclipsing binary system V566 Ophiuchi was studied in detail dur- 
ing the summer of 1971. Data were collected with a photoelectric photo- 
meter and the 12-inch Cassegrain telescope of the Ball State University 
Observatory. A complete light curve was obtained in two different spectral 
regions. The observations indicate that some event during the last 5 years 
has caused a change in the orbital period. There is also some indication 
that the color of the system is not as stable as was previously observed. 
It is hoped that the light curve will yield information as to the orbital 
elements. Standardization of the photometer system should yield the 
surface temperatures of the two stars. 

Neutron Activation Cross Sections Using 2.8 MeV Neutrons. DwiGHT 

E. Michael and Leon M. Reynolds, Department of Physics, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A low-voltage type neutron 

generator-accelerator producing 2.8 MeV neutrons has been used to study 
neutron activation cross sections in a number of elements. There is a 
scarcity of good data in the literature because of the generally small values 
of these cross sections and special methods are required to increase the 
number of reactions occurring. 


268 Indiana Academy of Science 

A relative measure of the neutron flux was made using indium 
standards. The efficiency of the detection system was experimentally 
measured by the use of standardized radioisotopes. 

The product isotopes, produced by (n,y) or (n,n'y) reactions, and 
their measured activation cross section were: H6mi n _ iQ4 ± 5mb; 137m Ba 
- 459 ± 45 mb; 139 Ba - 5.48 ± 0.47 mb; 128 I - 38.5 ± 3.0 mb; 56 Mn - 4.28 
± 0.34 mb; and 87m Sr - 219 ± 26 mb. Errors from 4.8 per cent for H6mi n 
to 12 per cent for 8"mg r wer e determined. 

The Numerical Lathe Fabrication and Theoretical Evaluation of an 
Electron Lens. John Swez and James Westgard, Department of 
Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809, and Larry 
Plew, Quality Evaluation Section, Crane Naval Ammunition Depot, 

Crane, Indiana. The construction of an electron lens similar to that 

reported by A. V. Crewe (Quart. Rev. Biophys. 3:145) was 
attempted utilizing a numerical lathe. A computer program (APTURN) 
developed by the Cincinnati Research Corporation and used to 
generate control tapes for numerical lathes was modified to accept the 
equation used to generate the nonspherical surface of the lens. Although 
the optical properties of such a lens have been evaluated by A. N. Butler 
(Proc. 6th Int. Congr. for E. M., 1966), a partial evaluation of the optical 
properties was reported here. Computer calculated parameters were dis- 
played on an oscilloscope interfaced to a PDP 8/1 Computer. 

Tayex: A Taylor Expansion Equation Solver. James B. Westgard and 
David G. Pitts, Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Indiana 47809. A digital computer program was written to 

implement a method of solving nonlinear simultaneous differential equa- 
tions. The method was based on the Taylor expansion with an algorithm 
for finding the coefficients. It is extremely easy to use so that it should 
be useful in giving students confidence in being able to handle differential 
equations as they appear in course work. It will be especially useful for 
Lagrangian mechanics. 

D-17B Minuteman Missile Computer Interfacing. C. T. Wunker and 
P. R. Errington, Department of Physics, Ball State University, Muncie, 
Indiana 47306. Ball State University has recently acquired via govern- 
ment excess property a type D-17B Minuteman missile guidance control 
computer. Hundreds of these mini-computers are being made available 
to colleges and universities throughout the United States. These com- 
puters, as received from the government, do not have usable input and 
output interfacing. To be useful as a teaching or research computer, inter- 
facing must be designed and constructed. The computers and the inter- 
facing now in use at Ball State University were described. 

Growth of Single Crystals of Alkali Niobates. D. L. DeMoss and C. C. 
Sartain, Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

Indiana 47809. Single Crystals of lithium niobate and potassium nio- 

bate were grown from compounds made by solid state diffraction of the 
alkali carbonate with Nb 2 f) . The compounds were melted and single 
crystals were pulled from the melt. Many experimental problems such 

Physics 269 

as phase separation of the melt and cracking of the crystal on cooling 
through its Curie temperature arose in our study. Our solution to these 
problems was discussed. 

A Critical Study of the Various Factors Limiting Resolution in Solid 
State Detectors. K. E. Wright and C. C. Sartain, Department of 
Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. — — A 
measurement of the intrinsic Fano factor for a particular Si (Li) detector 
was necessary to compare with theory. The Fano factor is defined as 
< (N-N) 2 > = F N, where N, (N) is the (average) number of produced 
ionized pairs; N =E/ C , where E is the initial energy of the ionizing 
particle. The value of the intrinsic Fano factor was determined from the 
relation y 2 = y 2 + y 2 « + y 2 : and by linear extrapolation of 

' ' ion ' col noise 

y 2 for the infinite field strength from the dependence of y 2 on the re- 
ciprocal detector voltage. This measured value of the intrinsic Fano 
factor will ultimately determine whether or not carbon x-rays (277 ev) 
can be detected. The Si (Li) detector will provide chemical analysis 
composition when coupled to an scanning electron microscope. 

Calculus Without Differentials. Phillip S. Marcus, Department of 
Mathematics, Indiana University at South Bend, South Bend, Indiana. 
The differential notation of Leibniz has recently been superceded in popu- 
larity among mathematicians by the dot-prime notation of Newton and 
LaGrange, and the abstract operator D notation of Cauchy. Leibniz differ- 
entials are still used in integral calculus. Karl Menger showed that 
differentials can be replaced by the unbelievably simple device of giving 
an explicit symbol — j — to the identity function. Examples were given of 
definite and indefinite integrals and seperable differentiate equations 
which were usually integrated by manipulation of differentials, but the 
usual manipulation of differentials was replaced by Menger's improved 
notation for substitution of functions. 


Neutron Activation Analysis of a Metal Button from the Site of Fort 
Harrison. Torsten K. E. Alvager and Ralph A. Llewellyn, Depart- 
ment of Physics, and Robert E. Pace, Department of Anthropology, 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Among the 

artifacts recovered by the archeologists from the apparent site of the 
Fort Harrison Cemetery were 7 metal buttons. Severe corrosion had 
destroyed those features that might otherwise reveal unit, rank, and date 
of manufacture. With the view of searching old metal specification 
records, the metallic composition of the best preserved of the buttons was 
examined by the non-destructive technique of neutron activation analysis. 
Preliminary analysis using the ISU 2-curie Pu-Be neutron source indicated 
that more complete examination would be of interest. The detailed analysis 
was performed by irradiating the button for 48 hours in the General 
Atomics 10-curie Pu-Be neutron source in San Diego, California. Follow- 
ing irradiation, the gamma-ray activity produced was analyzed using a 
36 cc Ge (Li) detector and a 4096 channel analyzer. 

270 Indiana Academy of Science 

On the basis of the observed gamma-ray energies, the elements posi- 
tively identified as being present in the button are: Cu, Zn, Au, and As. 
It is estimated that copper makes up 89 per cent of the button, zinc and 
arsenic a few per cent each, and gold less than 1 per cent. What appear 
to be gold flecks are visible on the surface of the button, indicating that 
the gold may have been used as a plating or gilting. The button seems 
to be constructed in layers with zinc overlying a copper base. This observa- 
tion together with the relatively higher copper content indicates the 
button was probably not made of alloyed copper and zinc (brass). Tests 
are currently underway using an electron microprobe to "map" the distri- 
bution of metals in the button in order to obtain additional composition 

The presence of arsenic is not particularly surprising, but the rela- 
tively large amount, perhaps as much as 5-7 per cent, is. Arsenic occurs 
with copper in some ores, and it may be that the high arsenic percentage 
could serve to identify either the source of the ore or the refining 
process. While no investigation along these lines has as yet been started, 
a preliminary search of old metal specification records has been con- 
ducted. Unfortunately, no satisfactorily close match has been found; 
thus, at this writing we are not able to positively identify the button an- 
alyzed as being associated with Fort Harrison. However, the examina- 
tion is continuing and may lead to additional results later. 


The Decay of 71As. A. E. Rainis and J. R. Van Hise, Department of 
Physics, Tri-State College, Angola, Indiana. 

A Study of the Rate of Absorption of Methylated Mercury by 
Carassius auratus 

G. E. Haring and E. B. Nemanic 

Department of Physics 

Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 


Radioactive tracer techniques were used in determination of the rate of 
absorption of a methyl mercury compound by goldfish. Goldfish were retained for 
specified times in test concentrations of CH 3 HgCl containing commercially- 
prepared 7-active Hg 203 . It was found that the fish concentrated the mercury by a 
factor of 2 x 10 2 in the 36-48 hours required for saturation. 


The problem of mercury poisoning has recently been one of intense 
interest in the United States and other countries (1, 2). The degree of 
contamination, the biological effects, the allowable safe amounts in our 
waters, the methods of contamination, and many other questions per- 
taining to mercury and its compounds remain, at best, only partially 
answered. This paper is primarily concerned with the rate at which a 
particular mercury compound is absorbed by goldfish at various concen- 

Monomethyl mercury was used because of its solubility in water and 
because it is the generally accepted compound produced by anaerobic 
bacteria in river and lake bottoms (4). 


Known concentrations of the CH 3 HgCl with y-active Hg 203 was 
used as a radioisotope tracer. This isotope was chosen because the y- 
emitted could be easily detected without destroying the fish. To keep the 
fish alive during the time required to measure the y-activity (a few min- 
utes), the fish were placed in a container of fresh running water. 

The detector arrangement was calibrated and adjusted using a pulse 
height analyzer. The initial adjustments were made with gamma rays 
from a Cs 137 source to obtain a suitable energy calibration. The intensity 
calibration was accomplished using a known quantity of Cs 137 and Na 22 
and a scaler counter. Several different levels of contamination were 
investigated. These were 5 ppb, 50 ppb and 500 ppb. Six fish were placed 
in each container. 


The curves shown in Figure 1 is of the form C = C M (l-e~Xt), where 
C is the concentration, C M is the maximum concentration achieved and 
A is a factor related to the rate of absorption. For the 5 ppb sample 



Indiana Academy of Science 

C M = 0.73 ppm and A — 0.96 hi- 1 and for the 50 ppb sample C M = 6.9 ppm 
and A = 0.108 hr- 1 . With these fits, one half of the final concentration 
is reached in only 7.2 hours and 6.4 hours for the 5 ppb and 50 ppb con- 
centrations, respectively. In addition to the absorption rate found, it was 
discovered that on two different occasions a concentration of 500 ppb 
produced 100% fatality in that particular group of fish within 24 hours. 

A study of the rate of de-absorption was also attempted but was not 
completed. The reason we did not complete this study was that our Hg 203 
with a 47-day half -life decayed so rapidly that meaningful numbers could 
not be obtained. A reasonable assumption for the biological half-life in 
fish is 500 days during normal activity (3). The only conclusion we could 
draw was that the rate of de-absorption was much greater than the rate 
of decay of Hg203. 





G ^--- ** — 

© A 






/ o 

/ © 

f . , . _j ^ 



in hours 

Figure. 1. Result for aquatic concentration of 5 ppb. (© represents the concentration 
in the individual fiish; X represents the fish weight averaged concentration.) 


The authors wish to thank Mike Berry and Carl Hanger for their 
assistance during this experiment. 

Physics 273 

Literature Cited 

1. Goldberg, E. D., and D. H. Klein. 1970. Mercury in the marine environment. 
Environ. Sci. Techno!. 4:765-768. 

2. Goldwater, L. 1971. Mercury in the environment. Sci. Amer. 224 :15-21. 

3. Jervis, R. E. 1971. Trace mercury in environmental material. Summary of 
Progress, Canadian Health Grant Project No. 605-7-510. 

4. Wood, J. M., E. S. Kennedy, and C. G. Rosen. 1968. Synthesis of methyl mercury 
compounds by extracts of mathanogenic bacterium. Nature 220:173-174. 


Chairman: Fay Kenoyer Daily, Botany Department, Butler 

University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 

Gerald Gastony, Department of Botany, Indiana University, 
Bloomington 47401, was elected Chairman for 1972 


The Computerization of the Edward Lee Greene Herbarium (NDG) at 
Notre Dame. Theodore J. Crovello, Department of Biology, University 
of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. — Edward Lee Greene 
(1843-1915) is a fascinating and important figure in American botany. 
Throughout his career he was an active field botanist and named over 
4,400 genera, species and subspecies new to science. The University of 
Notre Dame possesses his herbarium of 70,000 specimens. Label and other 
data are being captured on punched paper tape and input into a computer. 
The procedures, biological value and types of output being produced were 
discussed. Because Greene left no collection notebooks, it is only from a 
computerized rearrangement of his specimen label data that his itinerary 
can be obtained. Also, he often did not indicate which specimens were type 
specimens. The specimen data and the data on what species he named can 
be used to pinpoint some type specimens and to generate a list of missing 
type specimens. The computer is seen as a valuable tool in assisting the 
taxonomist in his information retrieval problems and as a means to 
enhance the value of this Indiana resource. 

The Origin of Seed Planting. Charles B. Heiser, Jr., Department of 

Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington 47401. Recent archaeological 

investigations have revealed a great deal about the origin of agriculture, 
but the question as to why man ever changed his mode of subsistence 
remains unanswered. A religious motive has been suggested for the origin 
of animal domestication, and in a little known paper published in 1897 
Grant Allen postulated that the sowing of seeds for crops began as an 
adjunct to the primitive burial system. While Allen's proposal has some 
merit, I am more inclined to look for the origin of seed planting as a con- 
sequence of the "first fruits" or "last sheaf" ceremonies of primitive seed 
collectors. Primitive man believed that spirits existed in plants and as 
a propitiation to the spirit the first fruits were returned to the fields. This 
magico-religious act would make the seeds safe for mortals to eat and 
at the same time assure a beautiful harvest in future seasons. Such a 
hypothesis would also offer a possible explanation for the rapid improve- 
ment of the early cultivated plants, in that man would return some of the 
best seeds to the field instead of eating them. Thus one might postulate 
that artificial selection began to operate with the offering of seeds to the 
spirits of the plants. 

Wild Flowers of Franklin County and Indiana. Lloyd and Adele Beesley, 
Cedar Grove, Indiana. In the Flora of Indiana by Charles C. Deam, 


276 Indiana Academy of Science 

two species of Chelone, Turtlehead, are listed with variants. We have 
found and photographed the following : 

1) Chelone oblique var. speciosa Pennell and Wherry. Rose Turtle- 
head. Grows in wet woods and less frequently in springy places in wood- 

2) Chelone glabra var. typica Pennell. White Turtlehead. Five 
varieties of this species are cited for Indiana which grow in wet woods, 
springy places about lakes, along streams and in marshes. However, we 
do not have all of them at this time. 

A Biosystematic Study of Polygonum ramosissimum and 
Polygonum tenue 1 

George M. Brooks and Thomas R. Mertens 

Department of Biology 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 


Plants collected in Wisconsin during September 1970 were identified as 
Polygonum ramosissimum and P. tenue according to the taxonomic character established 
by Styles for European species of genus Polygonum and adapted for North 
American species of this genus by Mertens and Raven. The somatic chromosome numbers 
for these two species were determined to be 60 for P. ramosissimum and 30 or 32 for P. 
tenue. These counts were compared with chromosome numbers of species of section 
Polygonum, all of which have a somatic number of either 40 or 60. Chromatographic 
analysis of free amino acids and secondary substances further suggests that 
P. ramosissimum has amino acids similar to those of other species in section 
Polygonum. Chromatographic data for P. tenue is somewhat less conclusive in assigning 
this species to a section of genus Polygonum. 

Genus Polygonum, section Polygonum (Avicularia) consists of a 
number of morphologically similar plant species. Individuals within each 
species vary morphologically according to local edaphic and climatological 
conditions. This has led to a general confusion among taxonomists who 
have been attempting to identify field and herbarium specimens, on the 
one hand, and to systematists, on the other, who have been attempting 
to assign natural rank to the various species of Polygonum. This study 
reports on an attempt to establish the natural relationships of two Poly- 
gonum species to section Polygonum by using cytological and chemical 

Research in the 1960's brought taxonomic clarification to some 
species within section Polygonum. Styles (9) defined the four species of 
the Polygonum aviculare aggregate found in Britain (P. aviculare, P. 
arenastrum, P. rurivagum,, and P. boreale) , and three other species found 
elsewhere in Europe (P. maritimum, P. rati, and P. oxyspermum) in terms 
of fruit and perianth characteristics and chromosome number. He found 
achene texture, color, shape and size, and inflorescence position to be 
stable and conservative traits. Mertens and Raven (5), using the bio- 
systematic approach of Styles (9), studied the P. aviculare complex in 
North America and were able to devise a workable key for eight species 
of section Polygonum. Savage and Mertens (7) studied six species of 
Polygonum found in Indiana and Wisconsin by using the parameters 
established by Styles. Moore, Mertens, and Highwood (6) summarized 
cytotaxonomic data on various species within this same section. These 
workers compared chromosome number with the taxonomic characters 
decided upon by Styles and later researchers, to determine if indeed a 
plant with a certain combination of fruit and perianth characteristics 
consistently displayed the same chromosome count. 

1 This study was supported by a grant to Dr. Mertens from the Society of the 
Sigma Xi. 


278 Indiana Academy of Science 

The present investigation is concerned with examining Polygonum 
ramosissimum and P. tenue to determine if they are to be included in 
section Polygonum. The two species, collected in Wisconsin, were keyed 
according to the following taxonomic couplet established by Savage and 

Mertens (7) : 

Achene surface predominantly smooth and shiny but may have stip- 
pled or striated edges; inflorescences appear to be terminal, the 
flowers being more-or-less clustered at the ends of stems among 
reduced leaves or bracts; perianth tightly oppressed to the achene, 
which has three equal concave sides. 

Achene surface completely smooth, achenes dark reddish brown, 
sharp angled; calyx yellowish green, plant large [3-10 dm], 
much branched P. ramossissimiim 

Each face of black, trigonous achene smooth and shiny but 
bordered with striated or stippled margin; plant slender 
[1-4 dm], stiff or wiry; leaves linear ..... F. tenue 

Materials and Methods 

All plant material was collected in Wisconsin at two sites along the 
Wisconsin River on September 27, 1970. Both species were collected In 
a sandy beach habitat. Polygonum ramosissimum was found 2M miles 
due west of Lone Rock in Richland Co., Wisconsin. Polygonum tenue was 
gathered in Upham Woods in Juneau Co., Wisconsin. 

Viable achenes were removed from the plants and germinated on 
moist filter paper in petri dishes. Chromosome coonts were made of root 
tip and apical meristem cells treated with the mitotic poison, oxyquinoline, 
and stained with aceto-orcein. 

Chromatographic patterns of the two plants under study were com- 
pared with patterns made by other species of Polygonum, section Poly- 
gonum. Single dimensional paper chromatograms testing for the qualita- 
tive distribution of free amino acids and secondary substances among 
the compared plants were run to see if a related pattern developed. It was 
assumed that related species would have similar,, but not necessarily 
identical, chromatographic patterns, and that different plants of the same 
species would consistently display the same patterns. 

A mixture of 0.3 g of plant root, steam, and leaves was pulverized in 
a motar and then transferred to a vial with 2 ml of 80% methanol. 
After a drop of 1 N hydrochloric acid was added, the vial was corked and 
allowed to stand at room temperature for 24-48 hours before the extract 
was used to streak the chromatography paper. 

Single dimensional chromatograms were developed by the descending 
method using 46 X 57 cm Whatman No. 1 chromatographic paper. The 
plant extracts were applied to the paper with a 10-^1 pipet. Generally 100 
fil of plant extract were needed to get readable results. The chromatograms 
were developed for 24 hours, using a solvent mixture, described by Smith 
(8), consisting of 12 parts n-butyl alcohol, 3 parts glacial acetic acid, and 
5 parts distilled water. 

Plant Taxonomy 


The chromatograms in which the free amino acids were to be detected 
were sprayed with a ninhydrin aerosol bomb. The chromatograms were 
dried in the dark for 24 hours before observations were made. Secondary 
substances were detected by placing unsprayed chromatograms under 
long-wave ultraviolet light in the presence of ammonia vapors. 


Definite chromosome counts were obtained for Polygonum ramosissi- 
mum from these plants: 

P. ramosissimum Michx., Richland Co., Wisconsin, Sept. 27, 1970, 
G. M. Brooks No. 89 (BSU). Somatic count of 60. 

P. ramosissimum Michx., Richland Co., Wisconsin, Sept. 27, 1970, 
G.M. Brooks No. 75 (BSU). Somatic count of 60. 

Photographs of the chromosomes found in cells of these two plants were 
taken (Fig. 1). Diagramatic line drawings of the cells counted were made 
because all chromosomes do not appear equally well at the focal level from 
which the photomicrographs were taken (Fig. 2). 

H^t^iy^iMM^. 2*11 

Figure 1. Photograph of chromosomes from Polygonum ramosissimum, G. M. Brooks 
No. 89. Chromosome number 2n=60 (1000 X Magnification) . 

Tentative counts were obtained from the following specimens of 
Polygonum tenue: 

P. tenue Michx., Juneau Co., Wisconsin, Sept. 27, 1970, 
G.M. Brooks No. 209 (BSU). Somatic count of ea. 30. 

P. tenue Michx., Juneau Co., Wisconsin, Sept. 27, 1970, 
G.M. Brooks No. 216 (BSU). Somatic count of 30 or 32. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Figure 2. Diagramatic line drawing of cell of Polygonum ramosissimum shotvn 
Figure 1. Chromosome number 2n=60. 

The chromatographic procedure described previously was repeated 
with at least five different specimens of each species studied. The speci- 
mens of each species were found to display consistent chromatographic 
patterns. The following specimens were used as representative samples 
in preparing the chromatograms from which the data in Tables 1 and 2 
were determined : 

P. aviculare L., Great Bras d'Or, Nova Scotia, August 17, 1969, 

D. Jones No. NSJ 15 (BSU). 

P. erectum L., Porter Co., Indiana, August 29, 1966, A.D. 
Savage No. 58-30 (BSU). 

P. ramossissimum Michx., Richland Co., Wisconsin, Sept. 27, 1970, 
G. M. Brooks No. 89 (BSU). 

P. tenue Michx., Fulton Co., Indiana, August 20, 1966, A.D. 
Savage No. 50-1 (BSU). 

Table 1. R t values of the qualitative distribution of free amino acids for four species 

of Polygonum. 


P. aviculare 


P .ramosissimum 






























































Plant Taxonomy 


A single dimensional paper chromatogram was developed for P. avicu- 
lare, P. erectum, P. ramosissimum, and P. tenue. It was sprayed with nin- 
hydrin to develop the free amino acids which had migrated down the paper 
from the sites of origin. A second single dimensional chromatogram was 
developed with the same four plants and was placed under long-wave ultra- 
violet light in the presence of ammonia vapors to highlight the secondary 
substances. Table 1 gives the R f values of the qualitative distribution 
of the free amino acids for the four plants; Table 2 shows the same for 
the secondary substances. 

Table 2. 

' t values of the qualitative distribution of secondary substances for four 
species of Polygonum. 

P. aviculare 

P. erectum 

P. ramosissimum 

P. tenue 

R f Color 

R f Color 

R t Color 

R f Color 

.37 yellow 

.47 blue 

.53 green 

.45 yellow 

.46 blue 

.58 yellow 

.60 yellow 

.55 yellow 

.55 yellow 

.69 yellow 

.70 yellow 

.62 blue 

.68 yellow 

.82 blue 

.85 blue 

.69 yellow 

.77 yellow 

.80 blue 


Species of genus Polygonum section Polygonum generally give 
somatic chromosome counts of 40 or 60. Styles (9) determined the somatic 
number 40 for P. arenastrum and 60 for P. aviculare, while Mertens 
and Raven (5) determined the somatic number of 60 for P. marinense. 
Love and Love (4) reported that P. erectum and P. fowleri each has a 
somatic number of 40, and these counts have been confirmed by Moore, 
Mertens, and Highwood (6). It may be that the basic chromosome number 
in this group of plants is #=10, and that those species with 40 chromosomes 
are of tetraploid origin, while those with 60 are hexaploids. This suggests 
that P. ramosissimum might also have a somatic chromosome count of 
40 or 60 if it is to be included in section Polygonum. The determination 
that P. ramosissimum indeed does have a somatic count of 60 agrees with 
this cytotaxonomic requirement. Love and Love (4) published a somatic 
chromosome number of 20 for this species collected in Manitoba. However, 
voucher specimens were not kept for cross-checking purposes, thus calling 
their finding to question. 

Polygonum tenue collected for this study had a somatic chromosome 
count of 30 or 32. This departure from a count of 40 or 60 (which numbers 
seem to be generally characteristic of plants in genus Polygonum, section 
Polygonum) may suggest that P. tenue belongs to another section of the 
genus. This would be especially true if the count proves to be 32 rather 
than 30. Love and Love (4) reported this plant to have a somatic count 
of 20. Again, no voucher specimens were kept to verify their findings for 
P. tenue collected in Minnesota. Mertens and Raven (5) commented that 
P. tenue was morphologically similar, from the standpoint of its fruit and 

282 Indiana Academy of Science 

perianth characteristics, to other species of section Polygonum, but that 
this plant had pollen of the type found in section Duravia. 
(2). Thus ? palynological data tend to support the contention that P. tenue 
should be assigned to a section of the genus other than section Polygonum. 

Alston and Irwin (1) were able to separate closely related species 
of the genus Cassia (Caesalpinia Family) by using paper chromatographic 
techniques. Jones and Mertens (3), by using the same technique, were 
able to qualitatively distinguish among a number of species of Polygonum 
section Polygonum. The data in the present investigation (Tables 1 and 
2) show that P. ramosissimum has basically the same qualitative distribu- 
tion ©f amino acids as do the two established species of section Polygonum, 
P. aviculare and P. erectum. 

Although the chromatogram of amino acids for P. tenue indicated 
that this species has many spots in common with the other three species 
studied, certain repeatable differences in the chromatograms were noted: 

1) To obtain a readable chromatogram for P. tenue speci- 
mens, the extract had to be four times as concentrated at the site of origin 
as for any of the other species investigated. 

2) The color intensity of the various chromatogram spots for P. 
tenue was always less than for comparable spots of the other species. 

3) Although the size of the streak of origin of the P. tenue chroma- 
tigram was comparable to that used for the other species, the size of the 
spots in the chromatogram were consistently smaller than comparable 
Poots for the other species. 

It may be argued that the chromatogram of P. tenue differs from 
those of the other three species only in lacking certain spots and that this 
CDuld be due to less diversity in its genome in response to a more restricted 
habitat. However, the three points cited above would seem to argue for 
the uniqueness of the chromatogram of P. tenue. 

Secondary substances are so termed since thay are not involved in 
basic energy transfer or catabolic activity of plant tissues. These com- 
pounds (alkaloids, terpenoids, and polyphenols) are stable by-products 
and so can be used as chemical taxonomic parameters. 

Although certain spots in the chromatograms of secondary substances 
of the different species seem to be identical (e.g., .68 yellow in P. avicu- 
lare and .69 yellow in P. erectum), the overall qualitative distribution of 
secondary substances was unique for each species. This suggests that sec- 
ondary substance analysis may be used to establish speciation, since each 
of the four species studied had a different overall chromatographic 
pattern and various plants within a species displayed a consistent 


1) Polygonum ramosissimum, with a somatic chromosome count 
of 60, seems to be similar to established species of section Polygonum all 
of which have either 40 or 60 as their somatic chromosome number. 

Plant Taxonomy 283 

2) Since the tentative somatic chromosome counts of 30 or 32 for 
P. tenne were made from collections at one site, and since they do not 
agree with counts reported in the literature, fresh specimens of P. tenue 
containing viable achenes should be collected and a definite chromosome 
number determined. 

3) Chromatographic studies indicate that the overall qualitative 
free amino acid distribution for P. ramosissimum is similar to the distri- 
butions shown by species of Polygonum in section Polygonum. 

4) Polygonum tenue has quite a different overall qualitative amino 
acid distribution due to: a) the greater concentration of extract required 
in order to get readable chromatograms, b) the much weaker color 
intensities for the various spots, and c) the smallness of the spots in 
comparison to comparably colored spots of the three other species at the 
same R f locus on the chromatogram. 

5) The overall quantitative distribution of secondary substances 
is unique for each species with various specimens of the same species 
giving the same pattern. 

Literature Cited 

1. Alston, R. E. 8 and H. S. Irwin. 1961. The comparative extent of free aroloo 
acids and certain "secondary" substances among Cassia species. Amer. J. Bot. 
48s 35-89. 

2. Hedberg, O. 1946. Pollen morphology in the genus Polygonum L. s. lat. and Its 

taxonomie significance. Sv. Bot. Tidskr. 40:371-404. 

3. Jones, D. M., and T. R. Mertens. 1971. A taxonomie study of genus Polygonum 
employing chromatographic methods. Proc. Indiana Acad, SeL 80; 422-430. 

4. Love, A., and D. Love. 1956. Chromosomes and taxonomy of eastern North 
American Polygonum. Can. J. Bot. 34:501-521. 

5. Mertens, T. R., and P., H. Raven. 1965. Taxonomy ©£ Polygonum, section 
Polygonum (Avicularia) in North America. Madrono 18:85-92. 

6. Moore, D. N., T. R. Mertens, and J. E. Highwood. 1970. Cytotaxonomle 
notes on genus Polygonum, section Polygonum. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

1. Savage, A. D.„ and T. R. Mertens. 1968. A taxonomie study of genus 
Polygonum, section Polygonum {Avicularia} in Indiana and Wisconsin. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 77:357-369. 

8. Smith, I. 1958. Chromatographic techniques: Clinical and biochemical applications. 

Heinemann Medical Books, Ltd. London. 419 p. 

9. Styles, B. T. 1962. The taxonomy of Polygonum avieulare and its allies in 
Britain. Watsonia 5:177-214. 

Studies in Indiana Bryophytes XIV 

Winona H. Welch, 

Department of Botany 

DePauw University, 

Greencastle, Indiana 46135 


Two additional species and two additional varieties have been found to occur in 
Indiana since the publication of Studies in Indiana Bryophytes XIII (15): 
Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv. var. oerstedianum (C. Mull.) Crum; Grimmia 
pulvinata (Hedw.) Smith; Isopterygium distichaceum (Mitt.) Jaeg. & Sauerb.; and 
Pohlia annotina (Hedw.) Lindb. var. loeskei Crum, Steere and Andrews. Specimens of 
each have been deposited in the Herbarium of DePauw University. One species, 
Grimmia indianensis (Sayre) Crum (3), originally G. trichophylla Grev. var- 
indianensis Sayre (12), has now become a synonym of G. pulvinata (Hedw.) Smith. The 
total number of known species of mosses in Indiana is presently 228, varieties 39, and 
forms 9, a total of 276 kinds. 

The American Bryological and Lichenological Society 1970 foray 
was held in West Central Indiana, including- habitats in Putnam and 
Parke Counties. One species, Isopterygium distichaceum (Mitt.) Jaeg. 
& Sauerb., and one variety, Pohlia annotina (Hedw.) Lindb. var. 
loeskei Crum, Steere and Anderson, were collected by two foray 
members, which are first records for Indiana. Another collection is that 
of a species (9) or a variety (4) which has been present in eastern 
United States indefinitely, within the species Atrichum undulatum 
(Hedw.) P. Beauv. A. oerstedianum (C. Mull.) Mitt, was not known 
to occur in the United States until the research on Atrichum published 
by Ireland (9). 

On July 22, 1971, Keith Hoss, an Army Corps Engineer, and I 
visited Rocky Ford, on Big Pine Creek, in Warren Co., Indiana, search- 
ing for Grimmia indianensis (Sayre) Crum, in the area in which I 
collected the type, Nov. 27, 1937. The search was in vain. All of our 
collections were G. alpicola Hedw. The next day Mr. Hoss returned to 
Rocky Ford, crossed Big Pine Creek, on to Mud Pine Creek, a tributary 
to Big Pine, and climbed Table Rock in the creek bed. Table Rock has 
a flat top and steep sides. Mr. Hoss estimated this block of sandstone, 
a remnant of erosion (11) to be ca. 8 feet high, 50 feet long, and 30 feet 
wide, and exposed 6-7 feet above the water in the stream. On the flat top 
surface, there is a pothole, 2 feet deep and 10 feet in diameter. On this 
rock Hoss made several collections of G. pulvinata (Hedw.) Smith, 1 a 

'From a letter from H. A. Crum, Oct. 22, 1971: "I am convinced that Grimmia 
indianensis is a synonym of G. pulvinata. I would perhaps never have thought of it, 
except for the several collections you recently sent from Warren County and the type 
locality. It appears that both typical G. pulvinata and typical G. indianensis grow in 
the same locality, the latter probably no more than a shaded expression with less ob- 
viously contorted leaves and a poor development of hairpoints on the leaves. (I have 
seen a similar development from Scotland.) The specimen which you sent could be 
called G. indianensis, but it merges in its variations almost completely into typical 
G. pidvinata." 


Plant Taxonomy 


first record for Indiana, and G. laevigata (Brid.) Brid. We are indebted 
to Howard Crum, Univ. of Michigan, for making or checking 


Pohlia annotina (Hedw.) Lindb. var. loeskei Crum, Steere, and 
Anderson. [Var. decipiens Loeske, in Grout (8).] (Fig. 1). Plants in 
loose tufts, pale green, yellowish green, or green, not glossy when dry, 

Figure 1. Pohlia annotina loeskei (Conrad, 2, Fig. I07e), gemma. Figures: 2-5. 
Isopterygium distichaceum (Grout, 6, PI. 43C, from Sullivant, 13, PL 67). 2. Portion 
of foliated axis. 3. Leaf. 4. Upper portion of leaf. 5. Base of leaf. Figures 6-11. Grimmia 
pulvinata (Grout, 7, PI. 13C, from Braithwaite, 1, PI. 48C.) 6. Habit. 7. Plant, with 
sporophytes. 8. Leaf. 9. Leaf apex, with base of hair point. 10. Basal portion of leaf. 
11. Upper seta, with capsule. Atrichum undulatum oerstedianum is not illustrated be- 
cause Welch (14), Fig. 21, is sufficient. [Figures by permission, from the late H. S. 
Conrad and the late A. J. Grout.] 

286 Indiana Academy of Science 

to 2 cm high, with some radicles. Stems slender, erect, simple or 
branched from the base, flexuose reddish at base. Leaves erect- 
spreading, frequently decurrent, ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate below, 
narrowly lanceolate above, the upper ones erect or nearly so. Apices 
mostly acute, occasionally acuminate. Margins of leaves plane to slightly 
recurved, expecially near base in dry leaves, entire below, toothed above. 
Costa strong, commonly percurrent, yellowish to reddish at base. Cells 
of leaves narrowly rhomboidal to linear, to 80 X 7^, the walls 
moderately thick. Gemmae in leaf axils, especially the upper ones, 
commonly 2-5 each, hyaline or yellowish to green, elongated, 
twisted-vermiform, generally with 3-4 acute erect leaf-points. Dioecious. 
Usually sterile. Seta red, flexuose, slender, to 2 cm long. Capsule 
reddish brown, inclined, horizontal, or pendulous. Urn long-pyriform 
or broadly oval, to + 3 mm long, with a tapering neck, 
± the length of the urn. Operculum conic, apiculate. Annulus 
removable. Peristome teeth yellowish, slender. Segments hyaline, 
slender, carinate, split along the keel. Cilia in pairs. Spores ± 18^ 
in diameter. 

Habitat : Moist, sandy soil, especially among sandstone rocks 9 

Indiana distribution: Parke Co.: wet faces of Mississipian sand- 
stone gorge wall, in Sword Moss Gorge, ca. 14 miles W of Greencastle, 
Norton G. Miller 5929 (DPU, NCU). 


Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. (Fig. 6-11). Plants in small, round 
tufts, appearing grayish green due to long hyaline hair points. Upper 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, to 2 mm in length, abruptly narrowed into 
a long, hyaline, flexuose, serrate hair point. Both margins revolute 
from base nearly to tip, or plane and bistratose at apex. In upper- 
lanceolate leaves, hair points nearly as long as blades. Upper cells of 
leaves rounded, incrassate, the lower ones thin-walled, quadrate, except 
5-6 rows near costa rectangular. Autoecious. Calyptra mitrate. 
Capsule exserted, pendent, ± ovoid. Operculum rostrate. Seta arcuate, 
2-3 times the length of capsule. 

Habitat: Common on dry rocks, also on walls and roofs, usually 
at lower altitudes. 

Indiana distribution : Warren County. 


Welch (14) considers the genus Plagiothecium B.S.G. in the family 
of Hypnaceae. Crum et al. (5) regard Plagiothecium as a genus in the 
family of Plagiotheciaceae. Ireland (10) in his revision of the genus 
Plagiothecium treated it as a genus in the Hypnaceae. 

According to Ireland (10), the Indiana species in Welch (14) should 
be revised as follows. Plagiothecium denticulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. and 
P. roesanum B.S.G. are correct; P. micans (Sw.) Paris = Isop- 

Plant Taxonomy 287 

terygium tenerum (Sw.) Mitt.; Plagiothecium muellerianum Schimp. 
= Isopterygium muellerianum (Schimp.) Jaeg. & Sauerb. ; Plagiothecium 
deplanatoum (Sull.) Spruce = TaxiphyUum deplanatum (Sull.) 
Fleisch.; Plagiothecium geophilum (Aust.) Fleisch. = TaxiphyUum 
taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleisch.; Plagiothecium sylvaticum (Brid.) B.S.G. 
is a European species and has been excluded from North America. 
"Most of the North American plants named P. sylvaticum are 
depauperate P. roeseanum B.S.G." 

Isopterygium distichaceum (Mitt.) Jaeg. {Plagiothecium, sub- 
falcatum Aust. in Grout (6)] (Fig. 2-5). Plants in thin, soft, 
intertangled mats, bright green to yellowish green, glossy. Stems 
usually prostrate, sometimes ascending to erect, appearing flattened 
because of complanate leaves. The leaves often distant, appearing 
distichous, spreading, obliquely attached to axis, subfalcate, many 
apices pointing toward base of axis or substratum, frequently 
asymmetric, sometimes subcultriform, at times undulate, oblong- 
lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, not decurrent, 0.3-1.8 X 0.2-0.6 mm. 
Apices acute or sometimes broadly short acuminate. Margins plane or 
narrowly recurved below, entire to serrulate below, the apices 
serrate-dentate. Leaf cells usually smooth, sometimes papillose on 
lower surface by projecting cell angles in apices. Median cells 
linear, 48-100 X 4-7^. Propagula commonly in leaf axils of the 
apical portions of the axes, elongated, twisted-vermiform, 2-4 rows of 
cells wide, to 0.5 mm long, with 1-5 acute apical points. 
Calyptrae, antheridia, archegonia, and sporophytes not known in North 

Habitat: In shade, on sandstone cliffs in crevices of rocks, and on 
banks of soil and humus. 

Indiana distribution; Putnam Co., Hoosier Highlands, on Mansfield 
sandstone, ca. 14 mis. S of Greencastle, Nancy G. Slack 851 (DPU). 
Verified by R. Ireland. 


Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv. var. oerstedianum (C, 
Mull.) Crum. Atrichum undulatum in Indiana was described and illus- 
trated by Welch (14), based on collections from 50 counties. Ireland (9) 
states that most of the eastern North American specimens of 
Atrichum in the herbarium of the Museum of Natural Science, 
National Museums of Canada named A. undulatum are A. 
oerstedianum (C. Mull.) Mitt, and that A, undulatum is not as common 
as once believed. 

The following is a brief summary of Ireland's description. Plants 
2-6 cm high. Dry leaves usually undulate, twisted and crispate, 
lingulate to lanceolate, 5-9 X 0.8-1.6 mm, acute, ending in a tooth. 
Margins bordered ± throughout with 2-3 rows of narrow, linear, 
thick-walled cells, the border usually bistratose; upper margins 
toothed, singly or doubly. Costa subpercurrent to percurrent, toothed 
on lower surface from midleaf to apex, lamellae on upper surface. 
Lamellae 4-6, often undulate, 2-4 cells high, occasionally 6. Leaf cells 
smooth or minutely papillose. Median cells rounded or irregularly 

288 Indiana Academy of Science 

angled, 12-31^, in longest dimension, averaging less than 17^ 
in shortest dimension. Calyptra hispid at tip. Dioecious. Seta 1.5-4 cm 
long, 1-3 per perichaetium. Capsule cylindric, usually inclined and 
subarcuate. Urn 4-7 mm long. Operculum obliquely rostrate, 2-3.5 mm 
long. Spores 12-17^ in longest dimension. 

Ireland states that A. oerstedianum is our native species and one 
of the common species in eastern North America and that A. 
undulatum has been introduced, probably from Europe, and rarely 
collected on this continent. Ireland adds that the latter prefers a dry, 
weedy habitat, such as weedy roadside ditches and the former occurs 
in wet habitats, especially on humus and soil along stream banks and 
inundated areas. 

Crum (4) reduces this species to the synonymy of Atrichum 
undulatum and makes the var. oerstedianum (C. Mull.) Crum. He 
states, "Without sex organs or capsules, the var. undulatum and the 
var. oerstedianum are impossible to distinguish (except sometimes by 
size and habitat)." The var. undulatum, at least in some plants, is 
monoecious, and the var. oerstedianum is dioecious. 

Habitat: On soil or humus, mostly in shaded situations; often in 
wet areas along streams or occasionally at margins of swamps. 

Indiana distribution: Putnam Co., Fern Cliff, on bank, ± 9 
mis. W of Greencastle, Nancy G. Slack 763, 778 (DPU). Determined 
by R. Ireland. 

Literature Cited 

1. Braithwaite, R. 1888. The British Moss-Flora 2:17-18. 

2. Conard, H. S. 1944. How to know the mosses and liverworts. H. E. Jacques Co., Mt. 
Pleasant, Iowa. 166 p. 

3. Crum, H. A. 1965. Grimmia trichophylla v, indianensis reviewed. The Bryologist 

4. Crum, H. A. 1971. Nomenclatural changes in the Musci. The Bryologist 74:165-174. 

5. , W. C. Steere, and L. E. Anderson. 1965. A list of the mosses of North 

America. The Bryologist 68:377-432. 

6. Grout, A. J. 1932. Moss Flora of North America North of Mexico 3:166. 

7. 1933. Moss Flora of North America North of Mexico 2:34-35. 

8. 1935. Moss Flora of North America North of Mexico 2:200. 

9. Ireland, R. R. Taxonomic studies on the genus Atrichum in North America. Can. 
J. Bot. 47:353-368. 

10. 1969. A taxonomic revision of the genus Plagiothecium. Nat. Mus. 

Can. Publ. Bot. 1:1-118. 

11. Lindsey, A. A., D. V. Schmelz, and S. A. Nichols. 1969. Natural areas in 
Indiana and their preservation. Indiana Natural Areas Survey, Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Indiana. 594 p. 

Plant Taxonomy 289 

12. Sayre, G. 1954. A new variety of Grimmia trichophylla from Indiana. The 
Bryologist 57:21-25. 

13. Sullivant, W. S. 1874. Mosses peculiar to North America. Icones Muscorum, 
Suppl. Triibner and Co., London, Eng. 109 p. 

14. Welch, W. H. 1957. Mosses of Indiana. Indiana Department of Conservation, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 478 p. 

15. 1962. Studies in Indiana Bryophytes XIII. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

72 :270-278. 

The Effects of Preservation Time on 
Chromatographic Patterns in Equisetum hiemale 

Larry C. Brown 

Department of Biology 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 


A study was made to determine if the age of a herbarium specimen of 
Equisetum hiemale L. had any effect on the chromatographic patterns. Specimens of 
E. hiemale were analyzed employing descending paper chromatography. The amino acid 
and phenolic patterns were of significant value in determining if the chromatographic 
patterns varied as the herbarium specimen aged. The fluorescent phenolic compounds of 
E. hiemale were analyzed by placing the chromatograms under long wave ultraviolet light. 
The free amino acids were detected by spraying the chromatograms with ninhydrin. 

The chromatographic patterns showed that the age of the oldest herbarium specimen 
investigated had no effect on its patterns. 

The purpose of this study was to determine if variations occur in 
the free-amino acid and phenolic chromatographic patterns of 
Equisetum hiemale L. samples taken from herbarium specimens as com- 
pared with those obtained from fresh material. 

Since the technique of paper chromatography appeared, it has 
contributed significantly to systematic studies (3). The works of 
Alston and Irwin, Heywood, Smith and Levin, and others have firmly 
established the study of "secondary constituents" as a valid taxonomic 
method (1,4,7). 

Analyses can be carried out on fresh plants from the field, or 
greenhouse transplants. In the absence of fresh material, the inves- 
tigator may have to resort to using herbarium specimens. Since some 
taxa are exceedingly rare, and some are difficult to grow under 
greenhouse conditions, it is significant to know whether detectable 
differences exist between freshly-dried specimens and ones which have 
been dried for long periods of time. Some workers have stated that no 
significant differences exist (7). Others suggest that analyses are best 
carried out on fresh materials (6). 

Methods and Materials 

Herbarium specimens of Equisetum hiemale were obtained from 
the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium and the Field Museum of 
Natural History. Those materials had been preserved for periods up 
to 144 years. Fresh material was collected in Richmond, Indiana. 

Comparisons of free-amino acid and phenolic composition were 
made by means of 1-dimensional paper chromatography. Extracts were 
prepared by powdering dried internodes and soaking the materials in 
methanol :water:hydrochloric acid (7.9 : 2 :0.1) for 24 hours at room 
temperature. One hundred microliters of each sample were applied to 
23 X 57 cm sheets of Whatman #1 paper using the spot 
method. The chromatograms were run using n-butanol: acetic acid: 
water (12 : 3 : 5) as the solvent. Following air drying at room 


Plant Taxonomy 


temperature, the chromatograms were viewed under long wave ultra- 
violet light in the presence of ammonia vapor. Those spots which 
fluoresced but did not show a ninhydrin reaction were taken to 
represent phenolics (1, 2, 5). Subsequently the chromatograms 
were sprayed with ninhydrin for the detection of free-amino acids and 
related substances (1, 2, 4, 5, 7). 


The chromatographic results of horsetails which had been preserved 
for periods of time ranging from four to 144 years were compared 
chromatographically with freshly collected materials (Table 1). 

Table 1. Equisetum hiemale used in chromatography and their sources. 







Sept. 1970- 


L. C. Brown 

PI, Al 

Feb. 1971 


Jun. 1966 

Cooke City, 

Robert G. 




Nov, 1958 


W. D. Reese 


Jul. 1955 



B. J. Palmer 


June 1946 

Rhode Island 

E. J. Palmer 

P5, A5 

Oct. 1935 

Greenwich Pt. 

John M. 



Fogg, Jr. 

Jul. 1926 


Herman E. 


South Dakota 


Aug. 1911 

Hull, Canada 

John Macoun 

P8„ A8 

Jun. 1902 

Amesbury, Mass. 

Walter Deane 


Oct. 1890 

Flor de Maria, 

State of Mexico 

C. G. Pringle 


May 1880 

Preble, New York 

J. H. Sehueffer 

Pll, All 


Koenigberg, Germany 



Hock Creek, Georgia 

Dr. Arthur 


May 1858 

Easton, Pa. 

T. Green 


April 1847 


G. Gregg 




G. Engelmann 



The ultraviolet patterns viewed in the presence of ammonia vapor 
were consistently characterized by the presence of nine compounds. 
These compounds are designated by number in Figure 1. Compound 2 
was present in all except P13. Compound 1 was detected in all 
samples except Pll, P12, and P16. Compounds 5 and 7 existed in all 
samples except P9 (Fig. 1). 


Indiana Academy op Science 

1 ^3 Lt Y 



9 CO v 

P 3 2J_ 


P 6 P 7 

a o P $ 


P 9 rf 









P 15 


P 16 
<&3 BV 

Figure 1. Patterns of Equisetum hiemale in ultraviolet light (A=avocado, B=blue, 
BV=blue violet, I=ivory, LtB=light blue, htY =-light yellow, T=turquoise, V=violet, 

Y —yellow). 

Chromatograms sprayed with ninhydrin showed remarkable con- 
sistency in free-amino acid composition. All samples revealed nine 
compounds except A4 in which spot # 1 was not observed 
(Fig. 2). 


Figure 2. Amino acid patterns of Equisteum hiemale (LtB=light blue, LtV=light 
violet, 0=orange, P=pink). 

Discussion and Summary 

The results of this study indicate that the place and aging of 
herbarium specimens have little effect on the free-amino acid and 
phenolic composition in Equisetum hiemale. 

Plant Taxonomy 293 

Literature Cited 

1. Alston, R. E., and H. S. Irwin. 1961. The comparative extent of free amino 
acids and certain "secondary" substances among Cassia species. Amer. J. Bot. 

2. Challice, J. S., and A. H. Williams. 1968. Phenolic compounds of the genus 
Pyrus— II. Phytochemistry 7:1781-1801. 

3. Consden, R., A. H. Gordon, and A. J. P. Martin. 1944. Qualitative analysis of 
proteins: A partition chromatographic method using paper. Biochem. J. 38:224-232. 

4. Heywood, V. H. 1968. Modern methods in plant taxonomy. Academic Press, New 
York, N. Y. 

5. Medina Blanco, M. 1968. Vegetal taxonomy: A chromatographic study of genus 
Trifolium. Archivos de Zootecnia 17:1-25. 

6. Reinhold, L., and Y. Liwschitz. 1968. Progress in phytochemistry. Vol. 1. 
Interscience Publishers, London, Eng. 551 p. 

7. Smith, Dale M., and Donald A. Levin. 1963. A chromatographic study of 
reticulate evolution in the Appalachian Asplenium complex. Amer. J. Bot. 

Comments on a Check List of Indiana Algae: Purpose and 

Fay Kenoyer Daily 

Department of Botany 

Butler University, Box 169, Indianapolis, Indiana 


A check list of Indiana algae by county has been compiled from the literature 
appearing from 1929 to 1971. This is the fifth in a series of publications initiated by 
C. M. Palmer who covered the algal reports of 1875 to 1928. A few additions to this 
period have been made. The purpose of the check list and some problems in its use and 
preparation are discussed. 

In 1929, C. M. Palmer (1) provided a check list of Indiana 
algae based upon his own research and publications appearing from 
1875 to 1928. Additions were included in three later papers (2, 3, 
4). Distribution maps for each taxon were filed at Butler University. 
When Dr. Palmer moved to Ohio in 1950, the work was continued by 
the present author and William A. Daily. The first check list since then 
covering the 1929 to 1971 period has been compiled and will be 
distributed by the author upon request. 

In the interest of continuity, algae are listed essentially in the same 
style as that used by Palmer except for literature citations. The 
genus, species and infraspecific names are followed by the county where 
the algae were found and with the literature citation in 
parenthesis (Table 1). 

Table 1. Indiana algae listed by county and bibliographic reference number. 

AGMENELLUM Breb. Agmencllum tkermale (Kiitz.) Dr. & Da.: 

Pulton (43), Grant (43), Kosciusko (43), LaGrange (43), Marion (43), Morgan (43), 
Parke (43), Putnam (50). A. quadruplicatum Breb.: 

The purpose of this work is to inventory the algae occurring in the 
state and to give distribution by county. This information is useful as 
an historical document and may help relocate specimens in herbaria 
or in nature. The latter is possible because some algae may persist in 
the same or nearby habitats for many years. The interest in 
geographical occurrence anticipates possible reflected ecological 
patterns. A. C. Smith (5) summed up the value of systematics as 
follows: "Agriculture, medicine and all phases of human economy 
ultimately depend upon natural living organisms of which no real 
understanding can be had without a basic inventory and knowledge of 
spatial and environmental relationships." 

Nomenclature in the check list is the same as in the literature 
cited. This was necessary because specimens are not available as a 
basis for all reports. This precludes restudy to produce a uniform, 


Plant Taxonomy 295 

modern classification. There is also a lack of agreement on the classifi- 
cation of many algae. Herbarium specimens are not available, in part, 
because of the following differing concepts or methods in taxonomy. 

Specimens preserved by drying and storing in an herbarium are 
sometimes criticized as worthless, so none were kept by the authors. 
Others prepared liquid-preserved specimens which have dried and 
have been discarded. However, some taxonomists have studied the 
effects on algal morphology of varying conditions of the habitat, 
differing methods of collecting, handling and restoring specimens, 
and can recognize most algae from well-preserved dried specimens 
demonstrating the necessary stages for identification. This ability is 
necessary for a monographer employing the type method or in applied 

Various techniques have been applied to algal taxonomy during 
the 1929 to 1971 period. These include the study of cultured algae, 
the use of scanning and electron microscopes and various advances 
in genetics, physiology and biochemistry. Many of these studies have 
made substantial contributions. 

However, some methods require cultured algae free of con- 
taminating organisms, and only cultures are cited. It has been found 
that algal morphology is sometimes different after isolation in 
artificial media. It has been suggested that this may be due to 
genetic changes induced by shock of isolation or unnatural growing 
conditions, undetected contamination by a second alga which may 
become dominant later, the mixed genetic constitution of the original 
isolate or other undetermined factors. If the mechanisms of inheritance 
and genetics have not been compared in cultured algae and 
natural populations, genetic studies based on cultured algae alone may 
result in classification without general application due to the above 

On the other hand, algal morphology may be very uniform under 
the cultural conditions employed. Results from the study of a few of 
these specimens may not reveal the wide range of morphological 
variation that is apparent in a study of a large number of 
specimens from nature under varying habitat conditions. 

It is, therefore, recommended that herbarium specimens of natural 
collections (or soil collections, if applicable) be prepared as a basis for all 
algal reports. Comparison of adult forms can be made with cultured 
material to detect morphological change. Resting forms can be 
recultured from soil for comparison. Classification based on culture 
characteristics should indicate the specimens seen by the code of the 
culture collection. 

296 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Palmer, C. M. 1929. Algae of Indiana: A classified check list of those 
published between 1875 and 1928. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 38:109-121. 

2. „ 1931. Algae of Indiana. Additions to the 1875 to 1928 check list. 

Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 40:107-109. 

. 1933. Algae of Indiana. A second list of additions to the 1875 to 1928 

check list. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 42:90-92. 

1936. Algae of Indiana. Third list of additions to the 1875 to 1928 check 

list. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 45:99-101. 

Smith, A. C. 1969. Systematics and appreciation of reality. Taxon 18:5-12. 


Chairman : Kenneth Uhlhorn, Science Teaching Center 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Frederick K. Ault, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 
47306, was elected Chairman for 1972 

Uses of a Student Responder System. Lloyd L. Bodie, Jr., Plane- 
tarium Director, Vigo County School Corporation, Terre Haute, 

Indiana. Traditionally, educational procedures have required that 

the instructor have a limited maximum number of students within the 
classroom. The Student Response System (SRS) has made it possible 
to bring some of the most important features of the small teaching 
classes to large group instruction. This paper described the use of SRS 
by a qlass of 65 junior and senior students from high schools in Vigo 
County School Corporation, enrolled in Astronomy, at the Allen 
Memorial Planetarium. All students had a science and mathematical 
background. Topics discussed included the strengths and weaknesses 
of this system as used in our program; the description of the 
Responder System— the instructor's console, the student units, and 
the central electronics unit printer; the student's operation of the 
responder system; the value to the student; and some typical questions 

An Audio-tutorial* Independent Study Program for the Elementary 
Teacher. Conrad Carlyle Hinds, Department of Education, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. -The purpose of this study was 

to develop and test an audio-tutorial, independent study program on 
simple machines to meet the individual needs of elementary in-service 

The research was designed to determine how well in-service 
teachers could learn the specific content involved using this particular 
approach. Advantage was taken of the teaching skills and methods 
which teachers employ in their own classes. Pre- and post-tests of the 
Smith Mechanic Test were administered. 

Two samples were drawn from the population of elementary 
teachers in the Science 590 extension and summer classes at Ball State 
University. There was a control group of 29 elementary teachers and 
an experimental group of 48 elementary teachers. The experimental 
group used the audio-tutorial program. The control group received class- 
room instruction over the specific content involved. 

The difference in means between groups was examined for 
significance using a two-tailed t-test. No significant difference was 
found on the pre-test. A significant difference beyond the 0.01 level was 
found on the post-test (t = 2.87, 75 d.f.). Each group was considered 
separately for significance in the mean gain. The control group 
showed significance at the 0.05 level (t = 2.05, 28 d.f.). The 
experimental group showed significance beyond the 0.001 level 
(t = 13.54, 47 d.f.). 


298 Indiana Academy of Science 

It was concluded that the audio-tutorial program afforded a much 
better mode for practice over the specific content involved than did 
classroom instruction. It was recommended that the program be used 
in conjunction with elementary pupils to measure any increase in 
teacher competency more accurately; that the program be used in a 
teaching situation other than the extension class to measure retention; 
that the program be used as one mode of presentation in the Science 
590 classes; and that administrators institute this program into 
schools as part of continuing in-service training. 

Training Supervising Teachers to Evaluate and Counsel Pre-Service 
Teachers on the Basis of Teaching Techniques Derived From Methods 
Courses. Stanley S. Shimer, Linda B. Knight, and Harold H. 
Jaus, Science Teaching Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

47401. The Indiana University, Bloomington Campus, Triple "T" 

Program is a professional year internship for pre-service elementary 
teachers which combines student teaching with basic methods courses. 
This program assumes that the techniques taught in methods classes 
are implemented in the classroom. However, it was found that the 
terminology used in the methods class, indeed, even the teaching 
techniques covered in the course were unfamiliar to many of the class- 
room supervising teachers. Thus, there was very little reinforcement 
of the method topics used by student teachers in the classroom. A 
package of instructions was developed for the supervising teachers to 
acquaint them with the topics dealt with in the methods courses and to 
aid them in reaching competency in evaluating a student teacher's use 
of these techniques. This enabled supervising teachers to evaluate and 
counsel the student teachers. It also provided the student teachers with 
much needed reinforcement and feedback on the use of teaching 

The package consisted of 9 hours of performanced-based-instruction 
on techniques selected from the Science Methods Curriculum, e.g., 
performance objectives, question asking skills, formative evaluation, 
teacher responses, systematic instruction and sequencing. Formative 
Post Tests were designed for each unit and summative evaluation was 
administered at the end of the 9 weeks. Data indicated that supervising 
teachers are more able to accurately evaluate and counsel pre-service 
teachers after receiving this package of instruction. 

An Environmental Science Conservation Course. H. Douglas Shock, 

Cowan High School, RR 4, Muncie, Indiana 47304. An environmental 

science conservation course for the high school level was developed to 
give students a basic understanding of their environment, of the en- 
vironmental problems which are facing each of them and to help each 
student discover his role in making the environment a place worth 
living. The writer taught the course for 2 years before formalizing it 
by writing a creative project for the degree of Master of Science at Ball 
State University. To accomplish this, the following study units were 
planned: Life Designs, Conservation in Perspective, Ecology, Popula- 
tions, Soil Resources, Minerals and Energy, Water Resources, Air 

Science Education 299 

Resources, Plant Resources, Animal Resources, Resource Relationships, 
Recreation, Community Planning, and Careers. 

The course was designed to use a wide variety of learning experi- 
ences rather than from a single source, such as a textbook. Books, 
pamphlets, library materials, films, resource people, and field experi- 
ences relative to the course of study were planned to enhance the 
student's awareness of his environment. Group work was encouraged 
throughout the course to help build a willingness for cooperation. 


Reading Habits of Prospective Secondary Earth Science and Geography 
Teachers. William D. Brooks, Department of Geography and 
Geology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809.— —At 
Indiana State University, within the Department of Geography and 
Geology and in cooperation with the Division of Teaching, all geography 
and earth science teaching majors are required to take a 2-credit hour 
course entitled "The Teaching of Geography in the Secondary Schools" 
(G393). A methods course, G393 meets 4 days each week for 8 conse- 
cutive weeks. This 8-weeks period represents the first half of the profes- 
sional semester while the second half is spent in a student teaching 
experience under local school and university supervision. 

Juniors and seniors prior to the student teaching experience and 
prior to attaining professional status should be in the process of 
organizing in-depth knowledge not only in a chosen content area but 
also in educational theory and practice. It seems obvious that an upper 
semester junior or senior enrolled in a program leading to professional 
status should have developed or be in the process of developing a 
sophisticated reading habit. 

The purpose of this study was to examine the reading habits of pros- 
pective secondary teachers of geography or earth science. 

To test empirically student reading habits, all students enrolled in 
G393 for six consecutive semesters were asked to submit a one page 
report each week on anything they had read that could in any way be 
related to the teaching of geography or earth science. No other direc- 
tions were given nor were restrictions imposed. Each time the course 
was given a number of class periods were spent examining and dis- 
cussing a variety of sources that could be used to acquire knowledge 
in earth science, geography and education. 

First, a total of 258 reports were submitted which represented 113 
different sources. Twenty-six of the 113 sources were considered pro- 
fessional-educational journals. Thirty-eight books were critiqued, thus 
64 of the 113 sources can be considered excellent sources for acquisition 
of knowledge. 

Second, of the 258 reports 188 were from important journals. Add 
39 book reports (one book reported twice) for a total of 157 reports 
gathered from first-rate information. 

300 Indiana Academy of Science 

Third, 88 reports were gathered from newspapers, layman journals 
(Newsweek, Time, etc.) and government agencies. The rest of the 
reports, 13 in number, were placed in that "catchall" category other. 


"ISCS" or Implementing Science in a Confusing Situation. Jack 
Brewer, M.S.D. of Perry Township. 

Our Model for I.S.C.S. Based on Five Years Experience. Charles 
E. Richardson, M.S.D. of Lawrence Township. 

System for Ecological Education 

John W. Hart 
Stanley W. Hayes Research Foundation 
801 Elks Road, Richmond, Indiana 47374 


Jessie M. Turner 

Finley School 

217 South 4th St., Richmond, Indiana 47374 


The System for Ecological Education (SEE) is a new systematic approach to life- 
centered environmental education which employs a scope and sequence format. It includes 
grade level teaching materials for K-6, and for grades 7-12 a scheme of eight topics of 
concern which can be integrated into existing eurriculums. 

SEE provides a unifying framework within which the environmental 
input of all educators may become cumulative. It is ecologically com- 
prehensive and forms the basis for college level teacher training. It es- 
tablishes for K-12 educators minimum ecological understandings for 
each year of study. It suggests a route to take to bring about these 
understandings; yet it allows full latitude for the teacher to exercise 
initiative and imagination. 

Because SEE is a system, it requires teacher direction to assure 
a smooth flow, and this direction may be used to make sure that the 
child becomes a participant in the educational experience. Students are 
expected to learn by doing. The laboratory for learning is their own 
local surrounds. 

Scope and Sequence — Grades 1-6 

The scope and sequence charts, one for each grade, are based on 
environmental concepts developed by Roth (2) ; the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, Forest Service (3) ; and the Indiana Department of 
Public Instruction (1). There has been substantial grouping of 
material for simplification, and most concepts are presented in 
language appropriate to the grade level in which they are used. The 
concepts selected for each grade are those which are comprehensible 
and which contribute to the progressive grade by grade development 
of the horizontal thought threads. The six threads are: 1) Living 
Things, 2) Needs of Living Things, 3) Meeting Needs and Wants, 4) 
Problems from Meeting Needs and Wants, 5) Solving Problems, and 
6) Man's Moral Responsibility. It is important to understand that in 
these threads the material becomes increasingly more complex in each 
successive grade. Across the time span of the child's education, each 
thread remains intact; and at the completion of high school, building 
is still taking place on the understandings introduced in kindergarten 
or in one of the lower grades. 


302 Indiana Academy of Science 

K-12 Grade and Subject Area Teaching Materials 


The system presents 25 pages of material which is divided into 
three subject areas: 1) Using the Senses; 2) Introducing the 
Physical Environment- — Air, Soil, Water, and Sun; and 3) Living 
Things. Included in each area are experiments, outdoor activities, games, 
and a bibliography guiding the teacher to books, films, filmstrips, pic- 
tures, charts, and other visual aids. 

Grades 1-6 

Individual grade level charts have been developed. These expand 
the concepts found on the scope and sequence charts for each 
grade. The expansion sometimes involves more than one sub-concept. 
It employs the same horizontal threads used in the scope and sequence 
chart. Grade level charts are made up of one vertical column for the 
concept or sub-concept and six veritcal columns with the following 
headings: 1) Introducing the Concept; 2) Developing the Concept; 
3) Films, Filmstrips, & Slides; 4) Other Visuals; 5) Publications; 
and 6) Other Resources & Suggestions. 

In many columns of their grade charts, teachers will be guided by 
an asetrisk (*) to refer to a separate guide book. In It 
they will find suggested activities to help develop the concept or written 
material to further their own understanding of the concept. 

Grades 7-12 

The concepts for these grades are presented in four vertical 
columns 1) Title; 2) The Natural Laws (Governing Factors); 3) 
Man Apart from, Nature (Problems Created) ; and 4) Man a Part of 
Nature (Solving Problems) . 

Each of eight topics is treated in every vertical column. The 
study of the first topic, How Many People are Enough?, for 
example, involves consideration of three things in the column entitled 
The Natural Lavjs: 1) Population change is the product of biotic 
potential and environmental resistance. 2) Living things increase in 
number to the level the environment will permit. Man's ability to 
modify the environment does not make him an exception. 3) The 
Earth's carrying capacity is finite for one and all species. 

In the column Man Apart from Nature, students consider the need 
for restrictive laws and regulations which arises as the population in- 
creases. They also find proof that as numbers of people increase, the 
need for food, fiber, and minerals (energy in particular) expands. 

In the column Man a Part of Nature, they give careful 
study to man's obligation to function rationally in a system with his 
culture and the biophysical environment. 

There are seven other subjects covered by this same horizontal 
approach: 1) Consuming the Fruits of Technology; 2) For a 
Beautiful World; 3) Preserving Mail as a Sensitive Creature; 4) 

Science Education 303 

Man Needs Wilderness; 5) Man and Adaptation-, 6) Conserving our 
Natural Resources; and 7) Man and the Environment. 

Examples of Horizontal Developmental Threads 

The K-12 study of living things is an example of the 
systematic development of a child's understanding of increasingly 
complex material by building each year on the base erected the 
previous year. This study is initiated in kindergarten as the children 
use their five senses to learn about life around them. In succeeding 
years, they discover how living things differ and how they are alike, 
They explore the world of living things and learn that there are also 
similarities and differences in the ways living things acquire the things 
they need and want. Continuing to build their understanding, they use 
similarities and differences in form and function to divide plants and 
animals into groupings. Before completion of grade six, they learn to 
construct and use various kinds of taxonomic keys. The depth of 
understanding they achieve either as individuals or as a class depends 
on their interest and ability. The study of living things continues thru 
the upper five grades. Each of the eight topics which are integrated 
into the existing curriculums in these grades is concerned with one or 
more aspects of living things. The K-6 foundation studies of living 
things are prerequisite to a full understanding of the eight topics. 

Another example which demonstrates both the systematic develop- 
ment of a concept thread and student involvement also starts with the 
study of living things in kindergarten. However, this thread branches 
in grade one from the route taken in the previous example to become 
resource rather than biologically oriented. The children develop in class 
their ideas of the difference between needs and wants. In subsequent 
grades, they find out how the natural resources of planet Earth are used 
to satisfy our needs and wants. They then seek local evidence of prob- 
lems which can be traced to the fact that each year we are using 
resources to meet extensive and growing demands of more and more 
people. The students appraise the influence of advertising, particularly 
the creation of desire for more wants, and the resultant increase in 
resource consumption. A field trip to the local solid waste disposal 
facility focuses on the serious problem of disposal of the child's own 
throwaways. This "needs and wants" thread continues into the eight 
topic areas and broadens the base from which they are studied. 

Throughout the whole system, man's moral responsibility to Earth 
and all its living things is stressed. The child is guided to explore ways 
his own behavior influences the quality of his environment. He forms 
his own ideas of what behavioral patterns are required of individuals 
and both small and large groups if there is to be a quality life for all 
living things. 

The System for Ecological Education is designed to be an educa- 
tional tool with which to shape attitudes and values and to construct 
patterns of behavior which will make each citizen an environmental 


304 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Michaud, Howard (Chairman, Cons. Education Advisory Committee). 1959. Teaching 
Conservation in Indiana Schools. Indiana Dep. Public Instr. Bull. 232, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 50 p. 

2. Roth, Robert E., M. O. Pella, and C. A. Schoenfeld. 1970. Environmental 
Management Concepts — A List. Univ. Wis. Tech. Rep. 126, Madison, "Wis. 72 p. 

3. U. S. Dep. Agr., Forest Serv. 1968. Conservation Tools for Educators. Pacific North- 
west Region Publ. Portland, Oregon. 76 p. 


Chairman : Russell K. Stivers, Agronomy Department, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Christian Johannsen, Agronomy Department, Purdue 

University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907, was elected Chairman 

for 1972 


Soil Colloids and Behavior of Pesticides in Soils. 1 Joe L. White 

and Maribel Cruz, 2 Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. ■ 

The interaction of pesticides with soil is largely dependent upon the 
nature and properties of the surfaces of the colloidal components of 
the soil. Interactions of organic molecules with surfaces of aluminosili- 
cate minerals have been studied by infrared and other spectroscopic 
techniques. These studies have provided evidence for the mechanisms 
involved in adsorption, bonding, and degradation of several groups of 
pesticides by inorganic soil components. The role of the higher degree 
of dissociation of water molecules on clay surfaces ("surface acidity") 
in the protonation and hydrolysis of chlorotriazines has been estab- 
lished by this work. These studies also suggest that competition between 
pesticide molecules and water molecules for adsorption sites, together 
with changes in the environment of the pesticide molecules resulting 
from physical adsorption processes, may explain desorption and 
volatilization losses. 

1 Journal Paper No. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 

2 Present address: Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Laboratoire de Physieo-Chimie 
Minerale, Heverlee-Louvain, Belgique. 

The Precision Associated with Sampling Frequences of Total Particulate 
at Indianapolis, Indiana. Dale E. Phinney and James E Newman, 
Agronomy Department, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 
The frequency distribution of total suspended particulate matter for 
Indianapolis, Indiana, was examined to determine the precision associated 
with a given sampling scheme. By assuming a basic log e -normal distribu- 
tion, a theoretical set of confidence intervals about the geometric mean 
was derived for random sampling. Verification of the log e -normal distribu- 
tion was made for particulate matter in Indianapolis. Application of the 
derived confidence intervals revealed that for a 30-day period 20 samples 
must be taken to ensure that the 90 per cent confidence interval will be 
within 10 per cent of the geometric mean. Analysis of the records for 19 
sampling locations showed that only 2 sites possessed sufficient data to 
allow monthly climatological evaluation over the period 1968-1970. 

The Good in Pollution. A. J. Ohlrogge, Purdue University. 


High Rates of Urea Fertilizer for Corn (Zea mays L.) on Two 
Soils, 1969-19711 

Russell K. Stivers 

Agronomy Department 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Five rates of nitrogen from urea with accompanying rates of agricultural limestone 
were compared for continuous corn on Fincastle silt loam soil and on Chalmers silty clay 
loam soil. The effects of the urea were similar in both soils, but they were more pro- 
nounced on the Fincastle soil which was lower in both organic matter and in cation 
exchange capacity. In 1969 on the Fincastle soil, the highest rate of urea furnishing 1344 
kilograms per hectare of nitrogen, when applied the day before planting, reduced stands 
of corn to 32 per cent and yields of corn grain to 37 per cent of those which received 336 
kilograms per hectare of nitrogen. In 1970, there was no stand, vegetative growth or 
meaningful grain yield reductions when the same high rates of fertilizer were plowed 
under on the same plots in November prior to seeding in May. In 1971, soluble salts in the 
Fincastle soil were more than doubled, height of plants was reduced 20 per cent, and soil 
pH was reduced 0.9 unit with the 1344 kilograms per hectare rate of nitrogen as compared 
with the 336 kilograms per hectare rate of nitrogen. 


Powell and Webb (3) found that in the third year of continuous corn, 
yields began to decrease above 336 kg per ha (300 lbs per A) or 448 kg 
per ha (400 lbs per A) of nitrogen. They attributed this reduction to 
accumulation of salts and to decreases in soil pH. The purpose of this 
research, which is similar to that of Powell and Webb, is to compare high 
rates of N for continuous corn. 


Two soil areas approximately 1 km (0.6 mile) apart were selected 
on the Purdue University Agronomy Farm. The Chalmers silty loam, 
classed as a Typic Arguaquoll, had been well fertilized and limed, as well 
as tile drained, and had been cropped to corn and soybeans (Glycine max 
L.) for several years. The plow layer had a cation exchange capacity of 
32.5 meq per 100 g of soil, contained 4.4% organic matter, had 185 parts 
pp 2m of Bray No. 1 phosphorus (P) and had 675 pp 2m of potassium (K) 
as determined by the Purdue Soil Testing Laboratory. Soluble salts were 
low with a specific conductance of 19 x 10~ 5 mhos. This area is depressional. 
The other soil, a Fincastle silt loam, is classed as a Aerie Ochraqualf. It 
had received moderate rates of fertilization, had been well limed, and had 
been cropped to continuous corn for several years. Cation exchange 
capacity of the plow layer was 16.3 meq per 100 g of soil, and the organic 
matter content was 2.3%. It had 100 pp 2m of Bray No. 1 phosphorus (P) 
and 285 pp 2m of available potassium (K). Soluble salts were low with 
a K value of 16 x 10~ 5 mhos. Tile drainage was inferior to that in the 

Journal Paper No. 4593. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 


Soil Science 


Chalmers soil. Land leveling was used on the Fincastle soil prior to the 
initiation of this experiment to make the 2-4% slopes more nearly uniform. 

The plot layout was a randomized complete block design with four 
replications of five treatments on each soil. Treatments were no N and 
four rates of N from fertilizer grade urea (45%) and rates of limestone 
as shown in Table 1. Soil samples from all plots were taken in May before 
applying treatments and in August of 1969, 1970 and 1971. Lime require- 
ment was determined by use of the Shoemaker, McLean and Pratt buffer 
(4). Soil pH was determined using a 1:1 soil to water ratio and a Corning 
glass electrode pH meter. The agricultural limestone from the Delphi 
Limestone Company in 1969 had an average of 36% of the particles passing 
through a 60-mesh sieve and 95% through an 8-mesh sieve. The 1970 lime- 
stone from the Newton County Stone Company had 38% passing through 
a 60-mesh sieve and 95% through an 8-mesh sieve. The urea was broadcast 
one day before planting for the 1969 crop and in the previous 

Table 1. Relation of rates of urea fertilizer and limestone application to soil pH, 
soluble salts, and nitrate nitrogen on two soils, 1969-71. 

of N 

Soil pH 



Soluble Salts 

Specific Conductance 

K(Mhos x 10- 5 ) 


Annually 5-28-69 









Fincastle silt loam 















































LSD 05 

for rates 





yes 1 


A v-e !■«#«-' 







Chalmers silty clay loam 
































LSD 05 
for rates 











LSD 05 

for soils 

Yes 2 

yes 2 



yes 2 

x Yes means averages for the different rates of N are significantly different from 
each other at the stated or greater probability. 

s Yes means averages for the two soil 
at the stated or greater probability. 

are significantly different from each other 

308 Indiana Academy of Science 

November for the 1970 and 1971 crops. In 1969 all fertilizer was broadcast 
after plowing disked, or field cultivated for incorporation. For the 1970 
and 1971 crops broadcast limestone and fertilizers were plowed under in 
the previous November, and field cultivation and spike tooth harrowing 
were used for spring preparation for planting. In all years the urea was 
applied last just prior to disking or plowing. In 1969, 1,190 kg per ha 
(1,065 lbs per A) of 0-11-21 (percentages of total N, available P, and 
available K) were applied to all plots. For the 1970 and 1971 crops 975 kg 
per ha (870 pounds per acre) of 0-11-21 fertilizer were applied each year 
to all plots. 

Broadcast aldrin was incorporated into the soil in 1969 to control soil 
insects. The corn hybrid, DeKalb XL-45, was planted May 29, 1969, and 
Pioneer 3369A was planted May 8, 1970 and May 4, 1971. Average final 
stands were 43,000 plants per ha (17,400 plants per A) in 1969, 54,000 
plants per ha (21,860 per A) in 1970, and 59,000 plants per ha (23,900 
per A) in 1971. In 1970 corn was planted at a high rate and hand thinned 
to an exact population per row. Stand counts were taken in 1970 prior 
to thinning. In 1969 and in 1971 no hand thinning was done. Atrazine 
(Aatrex) and Lasso were used as broadcast pre-emergence herbicides. 
Cultivation was also used for weed control. Corn was planted in 76 cm 
(30 inch) rows in plots 18.3 m (60 feet) long and 4 corn rows wide. Hand 
harvest areas were 7.9 m (26 feet) long and the 2 center rows were used. 
Moisture percentages in the grain and tables for converting ear corn 
weights to shelled corn were used to calculate grain yields. Yields are 
reported on a 15.5% moisture in shelled corn basis. 

Corn ear leaf samples were analyzed for plant nutrients by the 
Growth Sciences Center of the International Mineral Chemical Corpora- 
tion, Libertyville, Illinois. 

Results and Discussion 

The use of the highest rate of urea (1,344 kg per ha or 1,200 lbs per 
A) in 1969, resulted in a decline of 0.7 pH unit in Fincastle soil and 0.5 
pH unit in Chalmers soil (Table 1). In 1971, the soil pH was 5.3 on this 
treatment on the Fincastle soil. According to Barber (1), limestones 
having low percentage of particles passing through a 60-mesh sieve are 
not likely to be efficient in acting rapidly to correct soil acidity. With 36 
to 38% passing a 60-mesh sieve, these limestones were apparently too 
coarse to completely correct acidity in time between application and 
pH measurement. 

Soluble salts in both soils were higher as rates of nitrogen increased. 
This was true in both 1969 and in 1971 (Table 1). Soluble salts were not 
determined in 1970 when no growth irregularities were observed. In 1969 
differences in numbers of plants per plot and yield related to treatment 
were observed (Table 2) even with 4.5 cm of rain in the 10 days following 
planting. In 1969 the stand (number of plants per plot) on the 1,344 kg 
per ha rate of nitrogen from urea was reduced to 33% and yields of corn 
grain were reduced to 37% of those which received 336 kg per ha of nitro- 
gen. This reduction in stand cannot be attributed entirely to salt effect. 

Soil Science 


Hunter and Rosenau (2) found that in closed urea-soil systems, urea-soil 
mixtures out of contact with germinating corn seeds released gaseous 
ammonia into the atmosphere, and the ammonia inhibited germination 
and affected seedling development of corn. Similar effects were noted 
when corn was seeded in soils saturated with ammonium ion to the extent 
of 32% or more. The 1,336 kg per ha rate of N used herein would, if care- 
fully mixed and all the ammonia (from urea) were absorbed on the 
exchange sites, saturate 80% of the cation exchange capacity of Fincastle 
soil and 40% of the exchange capacity of Chalmers soil. Highly significant 
reductions in stand were found at this rate of N on both soils. However, 
at the 672 kg per ha (600 lbs per A) rate of N, stand was reduced signifi- 
cantly only on the Fincastle soil. In all years N deficiency symptoms were 
observed on both soils in the no nitrogen treatment. In 1971, a year of 
high corn yields, these symptoms of N deficiency were severe. The 
significantly lower grain yield on both soils of the 672 kg per ha rate of 
N than the 1,344 kg per ha of N in 1970 was not thought to be meaningful 
because the 336 kg per ha treatment was also higher yielding. The general 

Table 2. 

Relation of rates of urea fertilizer application to plant population, leaf 
height, and yield of corn on two soils, 1969-1971. 





of N 




per Plot 

(7.92 m 

x 1.52 m) 




Leaf Height 
(6-26-70 cm) 




Leaf Height 
(6-23-71 cm) 




Fincastle silt loam 












1 1 r, 























LSD 05 

for rates 





1 8 








7 .,»■>!> n 

Chalmers silty clay loam 



































LSD 05 
for rates 














LSD 05 
for soils 

Not Sig. 

yes 1 

yes 1 

yes 1 

yes 1 


x Yes means averages for the two soils are significantly different from each other 

at the stated or greater probability. 

310 Indiana Academy of Science 

trend in yield was very slightly higher in rates above none. This trend 
was the result of heavier ears with the higher rates of N. 

In 1971, even though grain yields were not reduced significantly, 
maximum leaf heights were reduced significantly at the two highest rates 
of N in the Fincastle soil and at the highest rate on Chalmers soil (Table 
2). Total soluble salts and also nitrates were high in these two highest 
treatment rates of N from urea on Fincastle soil. Soluble salts were not 
as high on the Chalmers as on the Fincastle soil at the highest rate of 
N in 1971. High soluble salts in soil probably contributed to the reduced 
rate of growth of corn in the highest treatments on the Fincastle soil. 
Height of plants was reduced 20% on the Fincastle soil and to only 9% on 
the Chalmers soil in 1971. Germination and stand were not measurably 
affected by high rates of N, and neither were grain yields. 

Plant analysis on corn ear leaves indicated that contents of 
manganese (Mn) increased from 4 to 15 times as rates of nitrogen were 
increased from to 1,344 kg per ha (Table 3). This increased uptake of 
Mn was associated with a lower soil pH. Content of Mn in the ear leaves 
was 2 to 3 times as high from the 168 kg per ha rate of N on Fincastle 
soil as from the same rate of Chalmers soil. Soil Mn determinations were 
not made. 

Table 3. Relation of soil types and rates of nitrogen to manganese in corn ear leaves 

on two soils, 1970-71. 

Part per Million of Manganese 

Kg/ha of 
N Applied 

Fincastle silt loam 

Chalmers silty clay loam 






























LSI* »h 




Not possible 

LSD 01 




Not possible 

In conclusion, high rates of urea (672 or more kg per ha of N) 
incorporated into the plow layer of soil just before planting can reduce 
germination and yield of corn. Also, high rates of urea can cause soil pH 
to decline as much as 0.7 of one pH unit in one cropping season. After 
three applications of high rates of urea and two applications of limestone 
in three cropping years, soluble salts can become high enough to contribute 
to reduced maximum leaf height of corn in late June particularly on the 
low exchange capacity and low organic matter Fincastle soil. 

Soil Science 311 

Literature Cited 

1. Barber, S. A. 1967. Liming materials and practices In soil acidity and liming. 
In Pearson, Robert W., and Fred Adams (eds.) Monograph Number 12. Amer. 
Soc. Agron., Madison, Wis. 274 p. 

2. Hunter, Albert S., and William A. Rosenau. 1966. The effects of urea, biuret, 
and ammonia on germination and early growth of corn (Zea mays L. ) Soil Sci. Soc. 
Amer. Proc. 30:77-81. 

3. Powell, Richard D., and J. R. Webb. 1969. How much fertilizer ean corn take? 
Crops and Soils Mag. 21:14-15. 

4. Shoemaker, H. E., E. O. McLean, and P. F. Pratt. 1961. Buffer methods for 
determining lime requirements of soils with appreciable amounts of extractable 

aluminum. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 25:274-277. 

Weekly and Seasonal Changes in Total Suspended 
Particulate Concentrations at Indianapolis, Indiana 1 

James E. Newman 
Departments of Agronomy and Geosciences 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Dale E. Phinney 
NOAA, EDS Laboratory for Environmental Research 
U.S. Department of Commerce, Silver Springs, Maryland 20910 


Daily total suspended particulate concentrations for the period of 1968-1970 at 
Indianapolis, Indiana, were analyzed to illustrate the weekly and seasonal variation in 
urban air pollution. Weekly and seasonal changes in air quality as measured by daily total 
particulate concentrations are identified; comparisons are made between the maximum 
monthly concentrations and the mean monthly frequency of stagnating anti-cyclones. 
Mean annual area concentrations for daily periods as measured by 19 monitoring stations 
in Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana, are illustrated. Some reasons for the recorded 
changes in daily, weekly, and seasonal air quality in Indianapolis are proposed. 


It is generally understood that air pollution concentrations change 
from hour to hour, day to day, and from one season to another during 
the year. These variations have many causes, some of which are well 
understood. Extremely high levels of air pollutants are related primarily 
to very stable stagnating meteorological conditions for several days. 
Likewise, extremely low levels are related to very unstable 
meteorological conditions. But the normal hour to hour and day to day 
meteorological change, coupled with time and space changes in human 
activity in a given urban area, usually produces substantial periodic 
patterns in air pollution concentrations. These pattern changes must 
be properly assessed when planning a sampling procedure for the 
purpose of monitoring air pollution concentrations. Sampling at fixed 
times and places can produce highly biased data. It is for this reason 
that the authors took a rather critical look at periodic changes in air 
pollution concentrations of total suspended particulate over a 3-year 
period at Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Data and Methods 

Data used in this study consisted of 24-hour samples of total sus- 
pended particulate concentrations from 19 locations in Indianapolis, 
Indiana, from January 1, 1968, through December 31, 1970. These daily 
values were in micrograms per cubic meter (^,g/m 3 ). The data 

a Journal Paper No. 4649, Purdue University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 

This research was supported jointly by the U.S. Dept. HEW, Public Health Training 
Grant No. 5TO1AP00072-03, and Purdue University AES Hatch Project 1685, entitled 
"The Climatic Resources of the North Central Region." 


Soil Science 






74/ ' 

FIGURE 1. Mean daily total suspended particulate for Indianapolis, Indiana 1968-1970. 

were recorded by the Environmental Control Division, Department of 
Public Works, City of Indianapolis. 

Daily values representing a 24-hour period from 10 AM one day 
to 10 am the following day from each of the 19 monitoring stations were 
averaged to produce the estimated isolines of mean daily total particu- 
late reported in Figure 1. The total composite of daily values in con- 
secutive 7-day weeks for the 3 years at Site 1 was 777 or 111 weekly 
periods. These daily values were further composited into 7-day period 
values for each day of the week, thus the mean value for each of the 

Table 1. The Analysis of variance for the composite of daily values for total 
particulate at Indianapolis, Indiana, 1968-70. 


D. F. 

Sums of Squares 

Mean Squares 

F Ratio 













F. os = -210 
F 01 = .280 

314 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 2. The analysis of variance for the composite of monthly values for total 
particulate at Indianapolis, Indiana 1968-70. 


D. D. 

Sums of Squares 

Mean Squares 

F Ratio 









F 05 = 1-75 
F 01 =2 2.18 

7 days in a weekly period is an average of 111 values. Similarly, 
all daily values falling within a given month were composited to produce 
monthly mean values. These data were subjected to an analysis of vari- 
ance reported in Tables 1 and 2, and in Figures 2 and 3. Site 1 air 
sampling station is located near the City-County Building in downtown 

Results and Discussion 

The National "Clean Air Act" passed by Congress in 1967 has many 
provisions, regulations, and suggestions as guidelines for achieving its 
goals. This Act clearly states that all areas within the United States 
shall come under the control of a State or Federal designated Air 
Quality Control Region. Further, the Act provides general guidelines 
and timetables for achieving compliance. 

One of the goals as stated in guidelines, under the 1967 Clean Air 
Act, is that all areas in the United States should achieve an air 
quality, as measured by total suspended particulate matter, of 80 /xg/m 3 
per 24 hours for an annual mean value. 

With this in mind, the authors summarized 3 years of daily total 
suspended particulate samples collected within the City of Indianapolis 
and Marion County to produce Figure 1. This figure provides an esti- 
mated geographical picture of that area in Indianapolis where the air 
quality exceeded that annual mean value of 80 /xg/m 3 per day. 

Once an air pollution problem area has been established, further 
monitoring must be continued to establish whether or not a geographical 
area has or has not achieved the goal of compliance for a given air 
pollutant. If one could assume that air pollution levels did not change 
much from hour to hour, day to day, and month to month, then only 
a few sampling days during the year would be adequate for establishing 
compliance within a given Air Quality Control Region. Secondly, if one 
could assume the air pollutants' changes in concentration were strictly 
random in time and space, then only enough samples to estimate the 
statistical error desired would be necessary. Unfortunately, neither of 
these two assumptions is likely to hold. 

It is well known that air pollutants vary both in time and space. 
Over a yearly period or longer, variations in space are closely related 
to sources of pollutants in a given area. On the other hand, variations 
in time are closely related to changes in meteorological conditions and 

Soil Science 


the total activities of the community concerned. Since Figure 1 illus- 
trates the mean estimated variation in space for the City of Indi- 
anapolis, the authors decided to subject the data to an analysis of vari- 
ance in time at a given point. For this study, Site 1 was selected near 
the geographic center of Indianapolis. All daily values that were 
consecutive in 7-day runs over the 3-year period at Site 1 were subjected 
to this time-series analysis. The results of this effort are graphed in 
Figure 2, with the analysis of variance reported in Table 1. 







^ 70 















Figure 2. Mean daily values of total suspended particulate for each day in the week 
at Site 1, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1968-1970. 

Figure 2 illustrates considerable change from day to day during 
the normal 7-day calendar week in mean daily total suspended 
particulate for Indianapolis. These mean changes from day to day 
during a weekly period are very significant as shown in Table 1. This 
analysis strongly suggests that taking air quality samples on one or 
two fixed days during a 7-day week is likely to produce biased data. 
The one day with the least bias in this analysis turns out to be Friday, 
since it is the mean daily value closest to the estimated weekly mean 

A similar analysis was done for monthly periods. These results are 
reported in Figure 3 and Table 2. Here again, considerable variation 
exists in mean daily value of total particulate from one month to an- 
other and particularly between seasonal periods. The highest values 
occur during the summer season, particularly in August. The lowest 
seasonal values occurred in late autumn and early winter with the 
lowest in November. 


Indiana Academy of Science 
















































Figure 3. Mean monthly values of total suspended particulate for each month, at 
Site 1, Indianapolis, 1968-1970. 

Variations in mean monthly values for daily total particulate at 
Site 1 in Indianapolis were subjected to further analysis as graphed 
in Figure 4. This graph reports the number of times per month that 
mean daily values exceeded one standard deviation above the monthly 
mean. Such above-normal values in air pollution concentration are 






(Z H 


1- < 



2 > 






o o: <j> 

. ^ T 


LU q I 


b ^ 00 


<r <r <o 

J hO 


3 V) ~ 


^ ... - 

O \r ^ lu 









4. Hig 







High air pollution occurrences at Site 1, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1968-1970. 

Soil Science 




N D 

A M J J A S 
Figure 5. Monthly number of stagnating anti-cyclones as reported by Korshover (1) 
at Indianapolis, Indiana, 1936-1965. 

usually associated with an extended period of extremely stable 
meteorological conditions. Therefore, it was decided to compare the 
results graphed in Figure 4 with the results reported by Korshover (1) 
on the mean number of cases per month of anti-cyclone stagnations in 
a 30-year period (1936-1965) for Indianapolis. Korshover's results are 
graphed in Figure 5. Note the unusually high number of cases in 
August, September, and October. Since Korshover's results represent 
a climatic norm, one can conclude that high levels of air pollution for 
extended daily periods should be expected during the late summer and 
early autumn at Indianapolis, Indiana. 

This analysis shows that periodic sampling of air pollutants, as 
has often been the practice of air quality control districts, can result 
in seriously biased data. The reason for this possible bias is related to 
the fact that air pollution concentrations are subjected to periodic 
changes caused by the area patterns of total community activities and 
seasonal changes in meteorological conditions. Biased data from an air 
quality sampling network can be reduced by avoiding fixed sampling 
periods, such as one particular day per week or a particular set of days 
per month. Therefore, air quality samples should be taken in a manner 

318 Indiana Academy of Science 

that minimizes the error in estimating the true mean for the period 

It is generally accepted that air pollution concentrations vary from 
hour to hour during a normal 24-hour period. But since no hourly data 
existed at Indianapolis, the diurnal period could not be studied. Nor- 
mally, the highest concentrations occur during the early morning hours 
of 7 to 9 am, with the lowest values occurring between 1 and 
4 PM. 


From air quality data on total suspended particulate at Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana, from January 1, 1968, through December 31, 1970, 
it is concluded that day to day weekly variations and month to month 
seasonal variations are significant. Therefore, periodic sampling of air 
pollutants on fixed days of the week should not be practiced without 
proper correction procedures. Otherwise, seriously biased estimates in 
air quality can result. 


The authors acknowledge Mr. Lewis F. Scott, Manager, and Mr. 
Wallace Benson, Chemist, of the Environmental Control Division, De- 
partment of Public Works, City of Indianapolis, for their many helpful 
discussions and suggestions concerning the data used in this study. The 
data were made available by the Environmental Control Division, 
Department of Public Works, City of Indianapolis. 

Literature Cited 

1. Korshover, J., 1967, Climatology of stagnating anti-cyclines east of the Rocky 
Mountains, 1936-1965, Pub. Health Serv. Publ. No. 999-AP-34, 15 p. U. S. Dep. 
Health, Educ, and Welfare. 

Temperature and Relative Humidity Inside Corn Canopies 
and in Standard Shelters during July and August, 1970 and 1971 1 

D. E. Linvill and R. F. Dale 

Agronomy Department 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Temperature and relative humidity within the microclimate of corn canopies were 
compared to macroclimate temperature and relative humidity recorded in a standard 
National Weather Service shelter for the period July 17 to August 15, 1970 and 1971. 
Unaspirated wet bulb and dry bulb thermocouples exposed at one meter were used to 
measure corn canopy temperature and relative humidity. A hygrothermograph was 
exposed in a shelter for macroclimate measurements. Corn canopy maximum 
temperatures were higher than shelter maximum temperatures and, conversely, corn 
canopy minimum temperatures were lower than shelter minimums during both years. 
Relative humidity within the corn canopy during this period was similar in both years al- 
though differences occurred in macroclimate relative humidity patterns. 

This study suggests that temperatures obtained from standard National Weather 
Service shelters can be used to approximate temperatures within a corn canopy. 
Relative humidity, however, can be quite different within a corn canopy than within a 
standard shelter. 


Following any unfavorable agricultural situation such as delayed 
corn maturity in 1967 or the unprecedented development of Southern 
Corn Leaf Blight (SCLB) in 1970 and 1971 (3), agriculturists often 
look first to anomalous weather conditions for an explanation. Weather 
data are collected and published by the National Weather Service from 
a network of instruments exposed under standard conditions. These data 
furnish excellent macroclimatic comparisons, but unless relationships 
between these data and microclimatic conditions are known, a correct 
assessment of the effect of macroclimatic anomalies upon biological 
response within a micro-environment can only be hypothesized. 

This paper describes temperature and relative humidity patterns 
observed within a corn canopy and compares them with those from 
standard instrumental exposures for a period from mid-July to mid- 
August in 1970 and 1971. These microenvironmental measurements were 
taken as part of a corn growth and development study conducted at the 
Purdue University Agronomy Farm, West Lafayette, Indiana. 

Description of Experiment 

A summary of published temperature data (4) for the 1970 and 
1971 growing seasons and the 18-year (1953 to 1970) average for the 
Purdue University Agronomy Farm is shown in Table 1. In this study, 
a 30-day period from July 17 to August 15 — a period important in the 
SCLB development — was examined during both years. 

ijournal Paper No. 4632. Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue University. 
Partially supported by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Cooperative 
Agreement E-205-69. 


320 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1. West Lafayette 6NW, Purdue University, Agronomy Farm temperature 

summary °C. 





Max Min 

Max Min 


Max 1 Min 

Max Min 

Max Min 

Max Min 

Normal 2 

16.1 4.6 

21.8 9.7 

27.0 14.7 

29.2 16.7 

28.2 15.4 

25.2 11.2 


16.4 4.7 

23.8 11.4 

26.5 14.8 

29.1 16.8 

28.1 15e3 

25.8 12.3 


16.7 2.4 

20.6 7.8 

29.8 17.3 

27.3 15.6 

27.2 14.2 

26.1 14.2 

Average daily maximum temperature and average daily minimum temperature, 
8 am observation day. 

2 1953-1970 average. 

Environmental temperature and relative humidity data were from 
a hygrothermograph exposed in a medium National Weather Service 
shelter at the Purdue Agronomy Farm Agricultural Weather Station. 
The corn experimental area was located about 200 m north-northeast 
of the weather station. Corn population was about 62,000 plants per 
ha planted in 76 cm-wide rows oriented north to south. The corn 
canopies were approximately 2.7 m tall in both years with an average 
leaf area index during the study period of 3.5 in 1970 and 4.0 in 1971. 
Seventy-five per cent silk dates were August 3, 1970 and July 27, 1971. 

Copper-constantan thermocouples (24-gauge wire) were utilized to 
measure dry and wet bulb temperatures at 1 m within the corn canopy. 
Dry bulb fluctuations were reduced by shielding the thermocouple 
junction with white tape. A wet bulb was formed by tying a muslin wick 
securely around a bare thermocouple junction and extending the muslin 
downward into a water reservoir. Output from the thermocouples was 
recorded on a multi-point recorder. 

Relative humidities measured by wet and dry bulb thermocouples 
were compared with those from a hygrothermograph exposed at the 
same location within the corn canopy during September 1971. The 
hygrothermograph used in the corn canopy was calibrated with the 
shelter hygrothermograph before and after the September study. The 
least squares regression equation for the calibration period was 
Y = 1.718 X — 70.266, where Y is relative humidity taken 
from the hygrothermograph and X is that from the thermo- 
couples. R 2 was 0.83. Since relative humidity in the shelter was 
recorded with a hygrothermograph, corn canopy relative humidities 
calculated from wet and dry bulb thermocouples data were corrected 
by this equation for this study. 

Results and Discussion 

Temperatures in the shelter for the period from July 17 to August 
15, 1970 and 1971 are shown in Figure 1. Daily maximum and 
minimum temperatures during 1970 were close to normal with periods 
both above and below normal. In 1971, daily maximum and minimum 
temperatures were well below normal with only a short period in August 
having above normal temperatures. 

Soil Science 




uj 25 

cc 20 



h- 15 


lj 10 





20 25 30 5 10 15 


Figure 1. Daily maximum and minimum shelter temperatures at West Lafayette 
6NW, Purdue University Agronomy Farm, July 17 to August 15, 1970, 1971, 
and 30-year (1931-1960) normal. 

Hourly shelter temperatures averaged for the 30-day period from 
17 July to 15 August show that 1971 temperatures were 2 to 3°C lower 
than 1970 temperatures (Fig. 2). An average hourly standard deviation 
of 1.3°C was found in 1970 and 0.9°C in 1971. 

Differences between temperatures in the canopy and in the shelter 
for each hour are also shown in Figure 2. Nighttime temperatures 
within the canopy averaged 1.5°C lower than those in the shelter 
during 1970 and 0.5 °C lower in 1971. Midday temperature differences 
reached a maximum of 1.2°C greater in the canopy than in the shelter 
during 1970 and 0.6°C during 1971. This difference between the two 
years can partially be explained by a denser canopy leaf area in 1971 
than in 1970. The 1971 canopy did not permit as great a radiational 
exchange between the 1 m level in the canopy and the macroenviron- 
ment as did the 1970 canopy. Radiational heating and cooling of the 
canopy interior was therefore less during 1971 than during 1970. The 
early evening hours were a time of greatest temperature differentials 
between the macroenvironment (shelter) and the corn canopy. Rahn 
and Brown (2) have also found the corn canopy microenvironment to 
be warmer in daytime and cooler at night than the macroenvironment 
as measured in an instrument shelter. 

Temperature differences in Figure 2 could reflect differences 
between exposures and also differences between types of instruments, 
i.e., thermocouples within the canopy and a hygrothermograph in the 
shelter. The temperature data shown in Table 1 are from a third type 


Indiana Academy of Science 




f v ^ 


I / 




/ / 

\ \ 


/ / 

\ \ 






\ %s -^ 



_ "*■•„ 

y 1 



""* / 










■ 1970 




/ / 


1 / 

w O 

S* v 1/ 


V o 

\ * » 

a> a> 


C k. 



o Q- 



%^ _,»'"' 

c E 

o a, 



1 1 1 

1 1 1 1 

9 12 15 

Time of Day, EST 


Figure 2. Average hourly shelter temperatures and average hourly difference, corn 
canopy minus shelter temperature, for the period 17 July to 15 August, 1970 and 1971. 

of instrumentation, liquid-in-glass maximum and minimum ther- 
mometers. Accuracy in reading both time and temperature from 
hygrothermograms and thermocouple charts defeat quantification of 
any estimate of bias due to instrumental differences 2 . 

If temperature differences shown in Figure 2 are used to estimate 
maximum, minimum, or mean temperatures within a corn canopy from 
published climatological data, bias arising from the time of observation 
must be considered. Mitchell (1) has shown that estimates of mean 
temperature were near the true daily mean if the observational day 
ended at 8:00 am, but the maximum and mean temperatures were 
biased upward if the observational time was 5:00 PM. An 8:00 AM 
observational day was used in this study for summarizing all tempera- 
ture data. 

2 Published (4) maximum temperatures from ]iquid-in-g]ass thermometers averaged 
0.6°C higher and minimum temperatures 0.7°C lower than those from a hygrothermo- 
graph exposed in the same standard shelter. A hygrothermograph and thermocouples 
exposed at 1 m within a corn canopy during September 1971, recorded the same night- 
time minimum temperatures. Daytime maximum temperatures, however, were recorded 
about 1°C higher on the hygrothermograph. The higher daytime temperatures were 
due to sunfleck heating of the hygrothermograph while thermocouples remained in 
shaded locations during both the July-August and September periods. 

Soil Science 


Relative Humidity 

Three basic instruments are used by the National Weather Service 
to measure relative humidity. Hygrothermographs, of the type exposed 
in a shelter for the data in this paper, depend upon absorption of water 
vapor by human hair. Hygrothermometers of the type currently exposed 
at airport weather stations consist of a ventilated dew cell to obtain 
dew point data. Relative humidity measurements with this instrument 
are usually lower than those recorded by a hygrothermograph. A third 
type instrument is the wet and dry bulb psychrometer. Although the 
psychrometer is usually force ventilated, an unaspirated thermocouple 
version of this instrument was used for canopy measurement of relative 
humidity in this study. 

Relative humidity data in the corn canopy were not recorded prior 
to July 26, 1970. Thus hourly relative humidities in the shelter and 
canopy were averaged for the 21-day period from July 26 to August 15 
(Fig. 3). The 1970 hourly relative humidities in the shelter were 
generally higher than those in 1971. The largest differences, 5% to 
10%, occurred during the morning hours. The 1970 and 1971 corn 
canopy relative humidities, however, were similar throughout the day. 


9 12 15 

Time of Day, EST 

Figure 3. Average hourly shelter relative humidity and average hourly difference, 
corn canopy minus shelter relative humidity for the period July 26 to August 15 

1970 and 1971. 

324 Indiana Academy of Science 

Relative humidities in both the shelter and corn canopy were close to 
100% during the nights in both years. 

Hourly relative humidity differences, canopy minus shelter, were 
similar during the night, afternoon, and early evening hours in both 
years (Fig. 3). Morning relative humidities, however, did not show 
similar characteristics in 1970 and 1971. During 1970, relative humidity 
in the corn canopy and shelter changed at about the same rate until 
2:00 PM, but in 1971 the shelter relative humidity decreased more 
rapidly in the morning than did the corn canopy relative humidity. 
Hourly standard deviations of the relative humidity differences were 
about 3% at night and 10% in the afternoon. The large afternoon 
deviations were caused by a few periods of rain and high humidity. 


During the 30-day period, July 17 to August 15, 1970 and 1971, 
temperatures at 1 m within a corn canopy were lower at night and 
higher during the day than temperatures recorded in a standard 
National Weather Service shelter. The shelter relative humidity was 
greater in 1970 than in 1971 with the largest differences occurring 
during the morning hours. Relative humidities within the corn canopy, 
however, showed similar average hourly trends during the morning 
hours in 1970 and 1971. Relative humidity in both the corn canopy and 
shelter averaged close to 100% at night in both years. 

These data suggest that temperatures obtained from standard 
National Weather Service shelters can be used to approximate 
temperatures within a corn canopy. Relative humidity, however, can 
be quite different within a corn canopy than within a standard 

Literature Cited 

Mitchell, J. M., Jr. 1958. Effect of changing observation time on mean 
temperature. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 39:83-89. 

Rahn, J. J., and D. M. Brown. 1971. Estimating corn canopy extreme tempera- 
tures from shelter values. Agr. Meteorol. 8:129-138. 

Stirm, W. L., M. E. Bauer, and O. J. Loewer, Jr. 1971. Predicting southern corn 
leaf blight development in 1971 by computer simulator EPIMAY. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 81:325-329. 

U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Nat. Oceanic and Atmos. Adm., Env. Data Serv. 
1970, 1971. Climatol. Data, Indiana 1970-71, Vols. 75-76. 194 p. and 187 p. 

Predicting Southern Corn Leaf Blight 
Development in 1971 by Computer Simulator EPIMAY 1 

Walter L. Stirm 

National Weather Service, NOAA 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Marvin Bauer 
Laboratory for Application of Remote Sensing 

Otto Loewer, Jr. 

Department of Agricultural Engineering 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


A disease simulator model was used on an experimental basis during 1971 to 
evaluate the effects of weather on the spread and multiplication of Southern Corn Leaf 
Blight. Weather data consisting of hourly temperature, humidity, wind speed, sunshine, 
leaf wetness and precipitation were used in the computer program to provide daily values 
for new infections, lesion accumulations and per cent leaf area affected. Results were then 
compared to observations provided through pathological reports, ground observer data 
and aerial photo-multispectral scanner information.. Weekly EPIMAY predictions 
compared favorably with the observed weekly change in blight. At stations where 
starting dates of EPIMAY and the initial observed infection were close, good comparisons 
resulted for per cent leaf area infected. 


During 1970 southern corn leaf blight, race T of Helminthosporium 
maydis, reduced corn yields in the United States by an estimated 10 
to 15% according to crop reports of the U.S.D.A. Statistical Reporting 
Service. Losses were confined mainly to corn hybrids containing Texas 
male sterile-cytoplasm. The disease started in the Southern United 
States in May and June, then spread rapidly into the midwest corn belt 
during July and August (1). Some fields of corn in Indiana were com- 
pletely destroyed by the epidemic. 

Considerable effort was made during and following the 1970 grow- 
ing season to establish the effect of weather on the development of the 
disease. EPIMAY, a disease simulator model, was developed by Dr. 
Waggoner and associates at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment 
Station (2). The model was based on application of 1970 observed 
weather-disease information and laboratory tests. The results showed 
promise for application as an objective indicator of the favorability of 
weather for the development of southern corn leaf blight. 

Barger (NOAA, EDS, Wash., D.C.) suggested national use of 
EPIMAY for the corn blight problem and in June 1971 a program, under 
the direction of Regional Climatologist, L. A. Joos (Joos, unpublished 
data), was established using computer facilities at the National 

Journal Paper No. 4611. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 


326 Indiana Academy of Science 

Weather Service Central Region in Kansas City. The program was 
conducted over a 12-state area and included about 20 stations. To 
supplement and assist in evaluating the national program, an intensive 
application of the EPIMAY model was conducted at Purdue University 
for 8 stations in Indiana. 

The Indiana program was a joint cooperative effort by research 
and operation groups at Purdue to identify and evaluate southern corn 
leaf blight by aircraft sensing and by collection of field observations, 
and thus testing the predictability of EPIMAY (using weather data). 

In addition to airborne information, the Corn Blight Watch Experi- 
ment conducted by the USDA, NASA and Universities in seven Corn 
Belt States provided an organized collection of ground truth by 
extension agents and pathologists in a specific series of fields along 
the designated flight paths for sensing aircraft (Bauer, M., unpublished 


The disease simulator model estimated the effects of temperature, 
humidity, wind, light and leaf wetness on all stages of the disease 
cycle. Other factors involved were effects of wind and rainfall on wash 
off, dry out and transport of spores. To determine the number of 
lesions formed, the model systematically considered the factors relating 
to spore production, dissemination and infection by the blight fungus. 
This was accomplished by a series of laboratory developed curves relat- 
ing the single and combined effects of weather on the disease. Some 
modifications were made in the model by Purdue researchers to adjust 
for change in leaf area available for infection and to adjust starting 
dates to fit planting and various development stages of the corn crop 
(Peart, R., and O. Loewer, unpublished data). 

Weather input to EPIMAY for the national and Indiana programs 
were provided by the daily reports from the Indiana agriculture weather 
observation network and by hourly teletype reports from the National 
Weather Service and Federal Aviation Agency teletype reporting sta- 
tions. Data for each 3-hour period through the day, beginning at mid- 
night Greenwich time (7 pm EST), were summarized, resulting in 8 
data readings per 24-hour period from June 11 through September 2. 
Dew or leaf wetness were rated in five classes: no dew — zero 
duration, light dew — 3-hour duration, moderate dew — 6-hour duration, 
heavy — 9-hour duration, and very heavy — 12-hour duration. Dura- 
tion of classes was determined through instrument measurements 
and visual checks. When dew was present hygrothermograph traces 
usually indicated 80 to 100% relative humidity. Light or brightness of 
the sky information was based on cloud cover from sunrise to sunset 
using 50% or greater cloudiness as a cloudy day. The data were 
punched on computer cards each Friday for processing by the LARS 
computer facility. 

The computer output consisted of a daily listing of weather data 
including the starting, ending and inches of rainfall for each precipi- 

Soil Science 


tation period, leaf wetness as yes or no, and hourly rate of rainfall 
for each 3-hour period for checking the input data. Next came the 
results, a daily listing of new infections, new lesions, accumulated 
lesions and per cent of leaf area infected by lesions. Map summaries 
showing accumulated lesions, weekly increase and per cent leaf area in- 
fected at each location were then prepared for distribution to all 
Purdue groups and by telecopier to Climatology Research Laboratory, 
NOAA, Silver Springs, Maryland. 


EPIMAY estimated the number of blight lesions formed daily and 
provided accumulative totals for each station. Flat plateau-like portions 
of the curves (Fig. 1) indicate when weather was unfavorable for blight 

,o 10 

Terre Haute/ / 

,o 8 

1 ~~ 

,o 6 
in 4 


/ f Hedrick 




,n 2 


— f~ r 




1 1 1 1 1 i 

16 21 26 




21 26 31 

10 15 20 25 
August 1971 


west Lafayette 



16 21 26 

10 15 20 25 
August 1971 

Figure 1. Accumulated southern corn leaf blight lesions during the 1971 groiving 
season as predicted by EPIMAY for West Lafayette Agronomy Farm, Johnson, 
Hedrick and Terre Haute, Indiana. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

development. During favorable periods sharp increases in the anticipated 
lesion numbers followed 72 hours after the onset of infection. This 
reflects the time interval from when fungus spores land on the corn 
plant until lesions become visible. 

Curves showing accumulated lesions (Fig. 1) reached 10 8 values 
(level corresponding to approximately 20% leaf area coverage of lesions) 
10 days earlier at West Lafayette Agronomy Farm and Terre Haute 
than at Johnson and 15 days earlier than at Hedrick. Accumulated 

Table 1. Comparison of EPIMAY predictions and field observations of per cent leaf 
area infected by southern corn leaf blight. 

Starting Date 
100 Lesions/ha) 


Per cent of Leaf Area Infected 
















(Agron. Farm) 



17, ,3 


(Inoculated 7/1) 











Terre Haute 















lesion curves at all 8 stations showed similar slope but were displaced 
by to 20 days for an equal level of lesions. 

Per cent leaf area infected as predicted by EPIMAY, was compared 
to levels observed in corn fields of susceptible varieties (Table 1). 

Table 2. Weekly increase factors in number of lesions as predicted by EPIMAY. 


in the Increase in 

Numbers of 

Lesion Over 











































































































Soil Science 329 

Reasonable agreement was found at 5 of the 8 locations where 
weather data and sample fields were near and quite poor agreement 

Weekly increases in number of lesions were used to indicate the 
degree of favorability of weather for blight development (Table 2). 
Favorable weather produced 7 day lesion increases up to 39 times the 
number for the previous week. 


A number of limitations prevent conclusive evaluation of EPIMAY. 
In most cases, except at the Purdue Agronomy Farm, West Lafayette, 
and at Wanatah, weather stations were at distances of several miles 
to over 20 miles from the sampled corn fields. Variation from local in- 
fluences of topography, soil moisture and rainfall patterns for these 
distances could account for some of the differences between observed 
and predicted disease levels (Table 1). A starting condition of 100 initial 
lesions per hectare were used for EPIMAY but large variation could 
occur in this level due to local inoculum sources. 

It was also necessary to adjust EPIMAY to account for per cent 
of leaf area remaining available for new infections (Peart, R., and 0. 
Loewer, unpublished data). Further adjustments of leaf area indices 
are needed to account for different planting dates and stages of 
development of corn. 

Other factors contributing to variation in results that should be 
considered are the susceptibility of different corn hybrids and the 
general physical status of the crop from other diseases and insects. In 
1971, early planted susceptible corn varieties matured far enough ahead 
of the late developing southern corn leaf blight to limit damage 
mainly to foliage and stalks. 

The overall effects of the 1971 corn growing season also has some 
bearing on the 1971 southern corn leaf blight situation. Winter and 
early spring dryness and summer coolness were effective in reducing 
spore viability in the 1970 crop residue. No large scale influx of spores 
were noted by pathologists as in the previous year. Early planting plus 
a warm very rapid spring growth period caused corn development earlier 
than usual before blight fungus development. These plus other factors, 
such as reduced acreage of susceptible corn, were among the reasons 
for Indiana's improved blight picture. 

Literature Cited 

1. Moore, W. F., 1970. Origin and spread of southern corn leaf blight in 1970. 
Plant Dis. Rep. 54:1104-1108. 

2. Waggoner, P. E., 1971. EPIMAY. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. New Haven. Conn. 48 p. 

Some Effects of Soil and Ambient Air Temperature 
Differences on Tomato Growth 1 


Department of Agricultural Engineering 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


R. M. Alverson 

New Holland Division, Sperry Rand Corporation 

New Holland, Pennsylvania 17557 


An experimental laboratory study was designed to evaluate the effect of temperature 
difference combinations on the growth response of tomato seedlings. Growth indices were 
changes in stem diameter, root-mass length, and stem height. The stem diameter was con- 
tinuously monitored with a specially designed electronic micrometer. 

An endogenous cyclic pattern of change in stem diameter was noted as a function of 
the light and dark intervals. Increases in root temperatures up to 35 "Centigrade 
(95° Fahrenheit) for periods of approximately four days had at least temporary bene- 
ficial effects on growth. However, further increases in root temperature were deleterious 
to growth, particularly root development. 


One of the most troublesome environmental problems in the 
United States is thermal pollution in water. It is readily apparent, due 
to the importance of temperature on metabolic and respiratory proc- 
esses of living organisms, that release of large volumes of heated water 
to waterways and lakes can be an upsetting influence on natural life 
cycles. Heated waste water, because of its low grade temperature con- 
dition, has little industrial value and controls are both costly and 
complicated. Mechanical cooling towers and cooling ponds are the most 
common methods of controlling waste heat output but both are rather 
inefficient with little capital return accruing to their use. A possible 
alternative would be to find beneficial uses of the heated waste water. 

One proposed solution is to use the heated water for irrigation and 
environmental control of crops. However, depending on the means of 
application of this water to plants, relatively large temperature 
gradients between plant tops and the root systems could exist. 

The purpose of the reported study was to evaluate some of the 
effects of soil and ambient air temperature differences on the growth 
response of tomato seedlings which might occur as a result of using 
thermally polluted water as the source of water for irrigation (1). 

Journal Paper No. 4613, Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station, Lafayette, 
Indiana 47907. Supported in part with an NSF traineeship. 


Soil Science 



Plant growth may be defined as cell multiplication with or without 
an increase in volume or an increase in volume without cell multiplica- 
tion. In the reported study only non-destructive measurements of volume 
were used as indices of plant growth. Measurement of stem diameter 
was after Splinter (5) who reported on the design of an electronic 
micrometer using a linear variable differential transformer to give 
continuous monitoring of plant stem diameter. Using this device, he 
also showed a high correlation coefficient between stem diameter and 
total leaf area for plant species exhibiting apical dominance. 

The effect of temperature gradients between plant tops and their 
root systems has been previously investigated (4) but more so in recent 
years (3, 6) because of the possibility of thermally polluted soil water 
and because of improvements in instrumentation and experimental con- 
trol. Currently, Boersma from Oregon State University is studying the 
effects of heating soil under field conditions by using buried electrical 
cables to simulate irrigating with thermally polluted water (2). 

Equipment and Procedure 

Three-week old tomato seedlings (Heinz 1350) were "transplanted" 
from a gravel to a mist culture. Transplanting was accomplished by 
securing a plant stem in the top side of a root environmental 
chamber with a cork and floral putty so that the root system would 
extend into the chamber. The root environmental chamber was in turn 
contained within a larger growth chamber as shown in Figure 1. 

o 1 


BTU'S— i 

















Figure 1. Experimental 

showing the root environmental chamber witlvin the 
larger growth chamber. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Nine different root-top temperature combinations were used. Ambi- 
ent air temperatures of 20 and 25°C were combined with 5°C 
increments of "soil" temperatures ranging from that of the ambient 
air to 40°C. 

In the root environmental chamber, the plant roots were continu- 
ously sprayed with modified Hoagland's #1 nutrient solution. The 
temperature of the solution was controlled by a temperature probe, a 
proportional temperature controller, and a heater to ±0.25°C 
once equilibrium conditions were established. The root environmental 
chamber, which was transparent, was covered to provide a darkened 
space for root growth. 

In the growth chamber, the air temperature was controlled at either 
20 or 25°C ± 0.3°C, the relative humidity at 70 ± 2%, and the 
light intensity at 1200 ± 100 ft-c. The day was divided into 16-hour 
continuous light and 8-hour continuous dark periods. 

The growth response of the tomato seedlings was evaluated from 
changes in stem diameter which were continuously monitored with an 
electronic micrometer and from changes in root-mass length 
and stem height over the time period for each experiment. Each 
experiment lasted approximately 4 days. For any one experiment only 
the stem diameter of one tomato plant was measured. The equipment 
used to measure stem diameter consisted of an LVDT (linear variable 
differential transformer) head assembly, an oscillator/ demodulator 
(Automatic Timing & Controls, Inc., Series 6101E) and a potentiometric 
strip chart recorder. This equipment is schematically represented in 
Figure 1 and the LVDT head assembly in position for monitoring change 
in stem diameter is shown in Figure 2. 


Figure 2. LVDT head assembly positioned for monitoring change in stem diameter of 

a tomato plant. 

Soil Science 


The LVDT (ATC No. 6233 A) was enclosed in a precisely machined 
central housing. The head assembly was constructed of non-magnetic 
stainless steel and Plexiglas to prevent stray electrical current inter- 
ference with the LVDT. A micrometer head (Starret Co. T263RL) was 
used to provide precise mechanical positioning of the LVDT armature 
in the center or null position of the coil. 

The LVDT head assembly provided a non-destructive means of 
measuring stem diameter. The only back pressure, considered negligible, 
was caused by a small coil spring which was used to keep the 
LVDT in constant contact with the plant stem. When operating, the 
oscillator/demodulator was used to excite the LVDT primary coil, 
amplify the a-c output with phase sensitivity and convert it to a 
d-c signal suitable for direct readout on the strip chart recorder. The 
readout was thus directly proportional to the differential transformer 
armature displacement. Readings of 10~ 3 mm were considered 
accurate without readout interpolation. 

Results and Discussion 

The growth response of a tomato plant with leaf temperatures of 
20 and 25 °C, respectively, and root temperatures ranging from 20 to 
40°C are shown in Figures 3 and 4. These curves were smoothed 
through many data points which also exhibited diurnal fluctuations. 
At a 40 °C root temperature for both leaf temperatures, increases in stem 
diameter did not occur after 72 hours. Prior to this time, the roots of 



Figure 3. Growth response of tomato plants with 20°C leaf temperature and root 
temperatures ranging from 20 to 40°C. 


Indiana Academy of Science 




+<1 30°C 











Figure 4. Growth response of tomato plants with 25°C leaf temperature and root 
temperatures ranging from 25 to JfO°C. 

the tomato plants showed little secondary root growth and were much 
darker in color than had been observed with any of the lower root 
temperatures. However, little visual damage to the leaf and stem por- 
tions of the plants was noted up to 72 hours but by 96 hours severe wilt- 
ing and obvious death had occurred. 

For all root temperatures less than 40°C, the stem diameter in- 
creased throughout the length of the experiment for both leaf 
temperatures. Trends if any between these root temperatures were not 
discernible for a given leaf temperature. However, increases in stem 
diameter were more linear for the 20°C than for the 25°C 
temperature during this stage of plant growth. 

Effects of root temperature on the growth rate of tomato plants 
as measured by stem and root-mass lengths are shown in Figures 5 and 
6. Both the stem and root-mass lengths are the average of three 
tomato plants for any one experiment. The maximum growth rate as 
measured by stem length occurred at a 30° C root temperature for both 
the 20 and 25 °C leaf temperatures. The growth rate for the 
25 °C leaf temperature, however, was about double that of the 
20 °C leaf temperature. The maximum growth rate as measured by 
root-mass length occurred when the root temperature was 5°C 
higher than the leaf temperature. The 25°C leaf temperature condi- 
tion produced about 1.5 times the growth rate of the 20°C 
leaf temperature when root-mass length was used as the growth index. 
The optimum temperatures for obtaining maximum stem and root- 
mass growth in these experiments were 25° C leaf and 30° C 
root temperatures. 

Soil Science 








30 35 



Figure 5. Effect of root temperature on the growth rate of tomato plants as measured 

by stem length. 

In all experiments, the diameter of the plant stem changed with 
respect to the light and dark periods. Figure 7 is an expanded example 
of the diurnal growth response of a tomato plant with 20°C leaf and 
20 °C root temperatures. The growth rate based on change in stem 

20 U C LEAF 

— -A._25°C LEAF 

25 30 


Figure 6. Effect of root temperature on the growth rate of tomato plants as measured 

by root-mass length. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

diameter tended to decrease over the latter portions of both the light 
and dark intervals. This condition may have been caused by 
"fatigue" during the light periods and consumption of photosynthetic 
products during the dark periods. A rapid increase in stem diameter 
always occurred shortly after the climate chamber was darkened. This 
rapid increase in growth was probably caused by a change in the water 
regime within the plant. Turgor pressures tended to increase rapidly 
because of the closing of the stomata in the absence of light and be- 
cause of the probable cooling of the leaves which would cause the energy 
available for transpiration to decrease. 



Figure 7. Diurnal growth response of a tomato plant with 


'C leaf and 20° C root 


Based on this study, the optimum temperatures for this stage of 
tomato plant development appear to be 25°C (77°F) leaf and 
30°C (86°F) root temperatures. At these temperatures, the 
rate of growth as measured by increases in stem length and root-mass 
length was maximum. The rate of growth as measured by increases 
in stem diameter, although not always maximum under these tempera- 
ture conditions, was always high. A continuation of these optimal 
conditions might be expected to result in maximum fruiting but this 
is only conjectural. 

The LVDT head assembly provided a versatile and highly precise 
means of measuring changes in stem diameter in a non-destructive 
manner. Its precision was illustrated in the manner by which it was 
able to measure the small cyclical changes occurring between light and 
dark periods. 

Soil Science 337 

At 40°C (104°F) root temperature, the tomato plants died. The 
deleterious effect of this temperature was quickly noticed by the con- 
dition of the root system but approximately 3 days passed before it 
became noticeable from measurements of stem diameter. For lower 
temperatures, growth trends as measured by changes in stem diameter 
were not discernible. At this particular stage of tomato plant growth, 
measurement of changes in stem diameter should be coordinated with 
other growth indices and visual inspection to give much information con- 
cerning overall plant response. However, each type of measurement can 
yield useful information about certain physiological responses of the 

Heated waste water usually varies anywhere from 25 (77°F) to 
50°C (122°F). Over the first half of this temperature range, direct ap- 
plication of the heated waste water to the soil would probably give 
beneficial growth results. However, over the last half of this tempera- 
ture range, some cooling of the water should be accomplished during 
the application process. Under these conditions, sprinkler irrigation 
should be considered because the spray drops tend toward equilibrium 
with the wet-bulb temperature. The major objection to the use of heated 
waste water by tomato plants or for that matter any plant is not 
whether it can be beneficially used — it can — but the fact that it 
may be largely a consumptive use. Over-irrigation and the collection 
of return flow for reuse could reduce the percentage of applied water 
lost to consumptive use, however. 

Literature Cited 

1. Alverson, R. M. 1970. Some effects of root-leaf temperature differences on 
plant growth response. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. Purdue University. 83 p. 

2. Carter, L. J. 1969. Warm-water irrigation: An answer to thermal pollution. 
Science 165:478-480. 

3. Chen, L. H., B. K. Huang and W. E. Sprinter. 1968. Effect of air and soil 
temperature on growth of small tobacco plants. Tobacco Sci. 12:222-225. 

4. Nelson, C. H. 1944. Growth responses of hemp to differential soil and air 
temperatures. Plant Physiol. 19:294-309. 

5. Splinter, W. E. 1969. Electronic micrometer continuously monitors plant stem 
diameter. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engrs. J. 50:220-221. 

6. Walker, J. M. 1969. One-degree increments in soil temperatures affect maize seedling- 
behavior. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 33:729-736. 


Chairman : William J. Brett, Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Dorothy Adalis, Department of Biology, Ball State University 
Muncie, Indiana 47306, was elected Chairman for 1972 


Perception of the Plane of Polarized Light and Its Use by Orienting 

Salamanders. 1 Kraig Adler, Department of Biology, University of Notre 
Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, and Douglas H. Taylor, Department 
of Zoology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056. — —Tiger sal- 
amanders (Amby stoma tigrinum) were trained to move along a specific 
axis in an indoor tank under a polarized light (produced by a 
polarizing filter, HN-38 Bausch & Lomb). Orientation tests were per- 
formed indoors in a small water-filled arena which was completely en- 
closed in opaque plastic. Animals were placed individually in the 
center of the arena beneath the polarized light source, then released 
and allowed to move to the edge of the arena where they were 
scored. Directional responses of salamanders in the arena were the same 
with respect to the plane of polarization as they had been in 
training. Rotation of the polarization filter by 90° produced cor- 
responding changes in the direction of movement. 

Orientation to the plane of polarization can be demonstrated in 
sighted and blinded animals. However, if opaque plastic is inserted over 
the skull of blinded animals, movement is at random; oriented movement 
is restored, however, when clear plastic is substituted in these 
animals. These studies suggest that the critical receptor for polarized 
light is extraoptic. 

A Population Study of the Ozark Hellbender Salamander, Cryptobran- 
chus alleganiensis bishopL Charles E. Mays, Department of Zoology, 
DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135, and Max A. 
Nickerson, Department of Zoology, Arkansas State University, 

State University, Arkansas. During the summers of 1969 and 1970, 

an extensive mark and recapture study of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis 
bislwpi was made on the North Fork River, a branch of the White River, 
Ozark, Co., Missouri. It was estimated that there are 1,142 salamanders 
in a 1.65 mile study area (N = 439). From length and weight measure- 
ments, it appears that the population consists of at least four age 
groups. According to a biomass estimate, there are 919 pounds of 
C. alleganiensis bishopi in this area. One riffle has a density estimate of 
one hellbender per 182 square feet. 

Supported by an Indiana Academy of Science Grant, NSF GB-30647, and NIH FR 
07033-05 to Adler; NSF Post-doctoral Fellowship GU-2058 to Taylor. 


340 Indiana Academy of Science 

Observation of feeding activities as well as stomach analysis indi- 
cates that crayfish are the principal food source of C, alleganiensis 
bishopi. Cannibalism and egg-eating, which have been observed in the 
laboratory, may be important factors in maintaining population stability. 

Specific Estrogen Binding Sites in the Nuclear Fraction of the Rat 
Uterus. J. H. Clark, J. A. Anderson, and E. J. Peck, Jr., 
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, 
Indiana 47907.— — Numerous investigations have demonstrated that the 
interaction of estradiol -17/3 with the rat uterus is probably a two-step 
process in which the estrogen first binds with a cytoplasmic component 
to form a complex which subsequently moves to the nucleus. A method 
has been developed for the determination of the number of these 
nuclear binding sites in estrogen sensative tissues. The method is based 
on the observation that estradiol, previously complexed with nuclear 
binding sites as a result of hormonal injection or ovarian secre- 
tions, is freely exchangeable with 3 H -estradiol during in vitro incuba- 
tions of the nuclear fraction. This technique has revealed that the 
injection of estradiol -17/? results in an increased number of 
nuclear receptors in the uterus, vagina and anterior pituitary but has 
no effect on kidney or muscle. In addition, the injection of estrogenic 
hormones, but not testosterone or progesterone results in increased 
quantities of nuclear binding sites in the immature uterus. Fluctua- 
tions in the quantities of nuclear binding of the uterus as a function 
of endogenous hormonal levels were also examined. In mature cycling 
rats, uterine nuclear receptor concentrations were: proestrus, 2.44; 
estrus, 0.58; metestrus, 0.42; and diestrus 1.42 pico moles/per 
milligram DNA. These data reveal a cyclic fluctuation of nuclear re- 
ceptor concentration which parallels the ovarian estrogen secreatory 
rate during the estrous cycle. 

Effects of Differentiated Brain on the Development of the Nervous 
System of the Explanted Chick Embryo. Abdulla Lairje and 
Norman A. Dial, Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State Univer- 
sity, Terre Haute, Indiana 42809. One theory of development sug- 
gests that differentiated tissue inhibits in some way the differentiation 
of the same type of tissue in the early embryo. Blastoderms of chick 
embryos incubated for 24 hours were explanted to an agar-albumin- 
glucose medium made up in Howard Ringer solution and further 
incubated in Petri dish moist chambers for a period of 12 to 24 hours. 
Small pieces of brain from 7-10 day incubated embryos were placed on 
the blastoderm near the developing brain of the explant or in small de- 
pressions in the medium under the anterior portion of the explant. 
Homogenized brain mixed in the medium was also used. As a control, 
chick leg muscle from 7-10 day incubated embryos was used in the same 
manner. Untreated controls were also used. Fifty-seven (40.7 per cent) 
of 140 explants treated with differentiated brain showed brain 
abnormalities, while 15 of 74 (20.3 per cent) muscle-treated controls 
showed such abnormalities. Twenty of 112 (17.9 per cent) untreated 
controls had brain abnormalities. The usual kinds of abnormal changes 
observed included rudimentary or absent optic vesicles, reduced size 

Zoology 341 

and rounded or pear-shaped anterior neural structures. These mor- 
phological changes were limited primarily to the forebrain. 

Coccidial Immunity Studies In The Grey Squirrel 1 Thomas 
Joseph, Department of Biology, Indiana University at South Bend, 
South Bend, Indiana 46615. The response of the grey squirrel 
Sciurus carolinensis to infection with Eimeria lancasterensis and 
E. confusa was investigated. All 17 squirrels live-trapped from 
Tippecanoe County, Indiana, were naturally infected with E. lancaster- 
ensis. One of the squirrels carried a mixed infection with both 
parasites, but E. confusa disappeared after a week in captivity. The 
infection with E. lancasterensis persisted throughout captivity in all 
squirrels. This parasite infected the epithelial cells of the distal 
two-thirds of the villi. When experimentally inoculated with 
E. confusa, the squirrels took the infection with a patent period that 
ranged from 7-15 days. The patent period was shortened by repeating 
the infection; however, additional infections proved to be negative. 
Eimeria confusa infected the entire villus and penetrated deeper into 
the epithelial cells. The results of the study lead to the following tenta- 
tive conclusions: 1) Grey squirrels do not develop immunity to 
E. lancasterensis, but will become immune to E. confusa and remain 
so for a period greater than 5 months; 2) Repeated infections with an 
interval of 1 month do not produce immunity; 3) It appears that im- 
munity is more likely to develop against coccidia that penetrate deeper 
into the host tissues and may be a factor responsible for the low 
incidence of E. confusa in nature. 

Supported by a grant from the Office of Research and Advanced Studies, Indiana 

Relationship between Metabolic and Emergency Rhythms in Drosophila 
melanogaster. Karen Belcher, Department of Life Sciences, Indiana 

State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Oxygen consumption 

and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were measured to determine 
a metabolic rhythm and this rhythm was then compared with the 
emergency rhythm and the relationship determined. Oxygen consump- 
tion was determined for Drosophila melanogaster pupae that had been 
exposed to 12:12 or 1:23 light-dark (LD) regime and LDH 
activity was determined for pupae exposed to 12:12 LD regime. 

Bimodal circadian fluctuations of oxygen consumption were found 
to exist in pupae of D. melanogaster exposed to 12:12 or 1:23 LD 
regime. Pupae under both regimes appeared to demonstrate an 
anticipatory change in oxygen consumption associated with the change 
in illumination. Techniques employed in the study did not permit detec- 
tion of any regular fluctuations in LDH activity but a steady decrease in 
LDH activity during pupal development was evidenced. 

The oxygen-consumption trend for the entire pupal stage showed 
a high at the time of emergence, but the diurnal rhythm for oxygen 
consumption showed a low at the time of emergence. These data suggest 
that emergence occurs at a metabolic low in the diurnal cycle. 

342 Indiana Academy of Science 

Emergence data for the population showed an anticipatory change in 
the level of emergence to a change in illumination. A dark to light 
change was accompanied by an increase in number of emergents and 
a decrease in oxygen consumption. Emergence maximum showed a 
3-hour lead over the oxygen-consumption maximum. Changing the LD 
regime from 12:12 to 1:23 and changing the time of the 1 hour of light 
by 12 hours in the 1:23 LD regime produced similar changes in the phas- 
ing of both oxygen-consumption and emergence rhythms. 

Sites of Cell Proliferation in a Colonial Hydroid, Campanularia 
flexuosa. Robert L. Suddith, Department of Zoology, Indiana 

University, Bloomington, 47401. The colonial hydroids exhibit diverse 

and specific patterns which are generated during the normal growth 
of the colony. Analysis of these growth patterns requires an under- 
standing of the mode of growth. Morphological growth is expressed 
in the colonial hydroids as terminal elongation concomittant with an 
increase in colony mass (all hydroids) and pedicels (thecate hydroids). 
The sources of growth — primarily cell proliferation and secondarily 
increase in cell mass— have been thought to reside in the site of 
morphological elongation, the stolon tip, in a situation analogous to an 
apical meristem in plants. 

When bands of cells in an actively growing stolon are marked with 
nile blue sulfate, their movement does not correspond with that to be 
expected if cell proliferation is in the terminal region. We have 
undertaken a series of pulse-chase experiments using 3 H-thymidine 
as a marker to determine the site(s) of cell proliferation in an 
elongating stolon. Colonies were placed in filtered sea water containing 
3 H-thymidine at a concentration of 5 micro Curie per milliliter for 1 
hour and then incubated in filtered sea water containing 10~ 4 molar 
cold thymidine for one hour, before fixation. The tissue was fixed in 
Bouin's, embedded in Paraplast, and sectioned at 6 microns. The slides 
were coated with Kodak NTB-3 liquid nuclear tracking emulsion and ex- 
posed for 29 days. The developed slides were stained with Harris 
hematoxyline and counterstained with eosin. 

Detailed analysis of the position of labeled cells following the 1 
hour pulse with 3 H-thymidine reveals that only a few cells are 
labeled in the terminal 200 microns of the stolon tip. In the region 
0.5-1.0 millimeter behind the tip there is a high density of labeled 
cells; beyond this to a distance 2.4 millimeter behind the tip there are 
few labeled cells. This is in direct contrast to the concept of a restricted 
terminal cell proliferation region. Proliferation of cells elsewhere than 
at the stolon tip is compatible with the results of vital staining experi- 
ments of Hale, Crowell, Syttenbach, and Suddith. In the particular 
stolon studied, the region containing a high density of labeled 
cells is at the level at which a new hydranth would be expected to 

Some Effects of Methylmercury on Early Frog Development. Norman 
A. Dial, Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Indiana 47809. Little is known of the effects of 

methylmercury on early embryonic development. Preliminary investiga- 

Zoology 343 

tions utilizing embryos of the frog (Rana pipiens) have been conducted. 
Embryos in various stages of early development were treated with 
various concentrations of methyl mercuric chloride in Holtfreters grow- 
ing solution. The extremes in concentration ranged from 0.2 to 200 parts 
per billion (ppb). Solutions were changed daily to maintain a relatively 
constant exposure to a given concentration. Duration of exposure ranged 
from 2 days at higher concentrations to 7 days at lower concentrations. 

Results indicated that selective developmental defects (poor tail 
development) may occur at concentrations as low as 1-5 ppb when 
treatment was begun in the late blastula and neural plate stages. Con- 
centrations of 80 ppb or more inhibited development altogether within 
36 to 48 hours when treatment was begun in early cleavage and late 
neural plate stages. A graded response as a result of time and concen- 
tration was evident. For example, midgastrula eggs treated with 
10 ppb methyl mercuric chloride resulted in stunted, irregular tails 
and a slight slowing of body development after 6 days of exposure. On 
the other hand, eggs treated at the 32-cell stage of cleavage with 20, 
40, 60, 80 and 100 ppb methyl mercuric chloride showed the following 
after 24 hours: Controls-late blastula-early gastrula; 20 ppb— same 
as controls; 40 ppb — same as controls; 60 ppb— mid-blastula ; 80 
ppb — mid-blastula ; 700 ppb early blastula. After 48 hours controls 
were in the neural plate stage, while the 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppb 
treated groups showed the following: Complete dorsal lip, early dorsal 
lip, late blastula, mid-blastula and early blastula, respectively. No 
further development occurred in any of the treated groups while con- 
trols continued to develop normally. Further investigation is continuing 
to determine uptake, localization and whether or not stage tolerance 


Fish Populations in the White River near Petersburg, Indiana. 
Robert S. Benda 1 , Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State 

University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. A 6-year study of the fish 

populations in the White River near Petersburg, Indiana, was concluded 
in October 1970. Two hundred and twenty-seven collections were made 
in a total of 237 hours. Fifty-three and one-half hours were used in 63 
seining collections, 44 1/2 hours were used in 111 AC electro- 
fishing collections, and 139 hours were used in 53 DC electro- 
fishing collections. Collections were made in all habitats during the 
months of May through November each year. 

The most frequently captured fish, based upon the per cent of 
collections containing at least one specimen, are as follows : 

Gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum (69%); Carp, Cyprinus carpio 
(44%); River carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio (37%); Spotted bass, 
Micropterus punctulatus (34%); Longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis 
(34%); Emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides (34%); Spotfin shiner 
N. spilopterus (31%); Bullhead minnow, Pimephales vigilax (31%); 
Longnose gar, Lepisosteus osseus (23%) ; Bluegill, Lepomis machrochirus 
(22%) ; Silvery minnow, Hybognathus nuchalis (20%) ; Freshwater drum 

344 Indiana Academy of Science 

Aplodinotus grunniens (18%); Shortnose gar, Lepisosteus platostomus 
(15%); Sand shiner, Notropis stramineus (14%); Steelcolor shiner, 
N. whipplei (13%); river shiner, N. blennius (13%); Green sunfish, 
Lepomis cyanellus (12%); Orange-spotted sunfish, Lepomis humilis 
(11%); Black crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus (11%); and the white 
crappie, Pomoxis annularis (11%). The other 49 species were collected 
less frequently and can be found listed in two other works (1, 2). 

The Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, was captured twice. A single 
specimen was collected in a slough area in 1969 and one specimen was 
collected in the main river in 1970. This is the farthest north this species 
has been collected in Indiana according to published records (3, 4). 

1 Pi*esent address, Natural Science Division, Aquinas College, Grand Rapids, Michigan 

Literature Cited 

1. Proffitt, M. A. 1969. Effects of heated discharge upon aquatic resources of the 
White River near Petersburg, Indiana. Water Resources Research Center. Rep. of 
Invest. No. 3. 101 p. 

2. Benda, R. S. 1971. Effects of thermal effluents upon the growth and distribution of 
fish in the White River near Petersburg, Indiana. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. 
Indiana State Univ. 97 p. 

3. Gerking, S. D. 1945. The distribution of fishes of Indiana. Invest. Indiana 
Lakes and Streams. 3:1-137. 

4. Nelson, J. S., and S. D. Gerking. 1968. Annotated key to the fishes of Indiana. 
Indiana Univ. Indiana Aquatic Res. Unit Proj. No. 342-303-815. 85 p. 

Primary Social Relationships and Cattle Behavior 1 

Susan L. Donaldson 2 and Jack L. Albright 
Department of Animal Sciences 


William C. Black 3 

Department of Psychology 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47906 


Holstein and Holstein-Red Danish dairy calves were removed from their mothers with- 
in 30 minutes after birth and before nursing. Thirty-six calves were raised from birth 
until 18 weeks of age on 1 of 4 treatments: Group SS, fed individually-penned 
individually; Group ST, fed individually-penned in groups of three; Group TS, fed 
in group of three-penned individually; and Group TT, fed in groups of three- 
penned in groups of three. Animals were then maintained in one group on pasture until 
their first parturition. Subjects raised together were more vocal, ignored and did not 
protect their young, partially cleaned them and failed to allow nursing. Raised separately 
cows had few vocalizations, tended to fully clean, protected their calves and allowed 
nursing. At second calving all cows cleaned, nursed and protected their young. Those 
showing poor maternal behavior at first calving remained less efficient at second calving. 
There were no significant differences among the four gi'oups as measured by ease of train- 
ing to enter the milking parlor, frequency of kicking, temperament and milking ease. 

SS Holsteins (P<.05) produced more milk than those fed and raised under other 
conditions. The variance within groups was tripled as early feeding-rearing conditions 
progressed from SS to TT. 


Within the herd, several social hierarchies are known to develop 
which function to define priority rights to food and water and 
leadership for each animal. At least three (dominance, leadership and 
entrance order into milking parlors) and perhaps four (submission) 
are distinct social orders which evolve among cows. The observed social 
order is a function of the test situation. A submissive order which is 
the readiness of an animal to defer to an attacking animal is distinct 
from the dominance order of the provoking cow which wins. 
Donaldson (4) showed both the dominance and submission tendencies 
of dairy calves could be altered by manipulating early feeding and rear- 
ing conditions. Calves that were reared together in groups of three with 
limited feeding space, regardless of whether they were fed separately 
or with other calves, were significantly more dominant than calves 
reared separately. Calves that were fed together, regardless of their 
rearing condition were significantly more submissive than calves fed 
separately. Fed separate-reared separate calves were significantly less 

1 Journal Paper No. 4634. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 

2 Present address: Indiana State University, Evansville. 

s Present address: Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis. 


346 Indiana Academy of Science 

dominant and less submissive than other calves while fed together- 
raised together calves were more dominant than calves from other 
feeding-rearing conditions. 

These same calves were available for later observations as cows 
to ascertain what effects early experience had upon later social and 
maternal behavior as well as milk producing capabilities. 


The subjects in this study (5) were 18 Holstein-Friesian heifer 
calves and 18 Holstein-Friesian X Red Danish crossbred heifer calves. 
On the basis of birth order, the first nine calves born were assigned 
to a group (SS), the second nine were allotted to a second group, etc. 
until all subjects were assigned to one of four treatment conditions. 
The 36 calves were raised from birth until 18 weeks of age on one of 
the following four treatments : 

1) Group SS: fed separately—raised separately 

2) Group ST: fed separately — raised together 

3) Group TS: fed together— raised separately 

4) Group TT: fed together — raised together 

An attempt was made to remove the calves from their dams within 
30 minutes after birth and before they nursed. As a consequence of late 
night births, however, several calves were with their mothers for 4 or 
5 hours and they nursed at least once. Early removal from the dam may 
be an important point in this study, since J. P. Scott predicted 
earlier that if a group of calves were taken from their mothers at birth 
and put together they would form primary social relationships with 
each other (personal correspondence with T. H. Scott, 1956). Primary 
social relationships in some animals are formed within a matter of hours 
after birth (10). 

The calves were placed either individually into a 3 feet 
x 6 feet x 5 feet pen (0.9 m x 1.8 m x 1.5 m) or three 
calves lived together in a 6 feet x 12 feet x 5 feet pen 
(1.9 m x 2.6 m x 1.5 m). The pens provided isolation and were 
constructed of 3/8 inch (9.5 min) plywood within an unheated, lighted 
barn. Four 6 feet x 12 feet (1.8 m x 2.6 m) feeding pens were con- 
structed in the barn. One small 20 inch x 12 inch x 24 
inch (0.50 m x 0.30 m x 0.60 m) feeder was in each feeding 
pen. These feeding and rearing techniques are a departure from 
recommended procedures at Purdue. Individual calves are normally 
reared and fed in a 4 feet x 7 feet pen where they can see one another. 
Following weaning, they are in small groups of 4-8 calves for 
approximately 1-2 months after which they are taken out of doors and 
placed in a large group of 30 heifers. 

The subjects were fed a conventional powdered milk replacer, calf 
starter diet and a mixture of timothy and alfalfa hay. Water was 
available ad libitmn in the pens. After 18 weeks of age the heifers were 
maintained as a group on pasture until their first parturition. 

Zoology 347 

When the heifers were 20 months old agonistic or con- 
flict behavior was observed daily for 6 weeks. A Social Index 

f number of encounters initiated _ . . _ . . _ 1 

\ = Social Index expressed as a % \ 

[total number of encounters J 

was computed for each animal. The parturition sequence was observed 
through two calvings during which aspects of maternal behavior were 
recorded. The cows were rated on milking parlor behavior by two full- 
time milkers. Milk production was recorded daily and 4% fat-corrected, 
305 day lactation milk records were also compared for each group. 

Results and Discussion 

There were wide differences among cows in maternal behavior with 
their first calf. Raised-together cows ignored their young or partially 
cleaned them and failed to allow nursing. Raised-separately cows fully 
cleaned their offspring and allowed nursing. Raised-together cows 
tended not to protect their young and were quite vocal toward them 
while raised-separately cows were protective and did not make many 
vocalizations. A Chi-square test was performed for group differences 
in care and cleaning the calf. Values approached significance 
(P<.10) in that animals raised separately cleaned their calves 
better than those raised together. There were significant group differ- 
ences in nursing allowed within 4 hours after birth (P<.025) as well 
as in protection of the calf (P<.01) and approached significance in 
vocalization toward the calf (P<.10). 

With their second calf, all cows cleaned, nursed and protected their 
young, but there was a difference in the degree to which these be- 
haviors were performed. Cows that had not given proper care to their 
first calf were not nearly as maternal as those that had taken care of 
their first calf. It was concluded that early feeding and rearing 
experiences dramatically affect maternal behavior. 

It is not uncommon for cows to reject their young. Russian workers 
(1) support the claim that high milk-producing dairy cows and produc- 
tive hens are known to lose some degree of maternal instinct. Also, 
Selman and co-workers (11) in Scotland, under continuous observation 
of natural suckling in cattle (10 beef cows, 10 dairy cows and 10 dairy 
heifers) during the first 8 hours postpartum, found that teat sucking 
advances were rejected at some time by 15 of the 30 dams. These 
rejections consisted of either moving away from, or kicking at, their 
calves. However, in 13 of the 15 dams, rejections were seen only 
occasionally and usually occurred only when calves pushed vigorously 
at udders. This mild form of rejection inhibited only the weakest 
calves. When suckling eventually commenced, all 13 dams became very 
quiet. Two primiparous heifers rejected their calves' advances for 
6-8 hours. These two mothers frequently ran away from their calves. 

There was no statistically significant difference among the groups 
in milking parlor behavior as measured by the ease of training to enter 
the milking parlor initially and one month postpartum, as well as 


Indiana Academy of Science 

frequency of kicking, temperament and milking ease. While differences 
existed for other behavioral traits, one might expect milking parlor 
behavioral differences. However, this was not the case. The milking 
parlor quickly becomes a routine where defined behaviors are rewarded 
and all others are disciplined early and oftentimes changed. In 
addition, being milked and having udder pressure reduced is, in itself, 
rewarding and thus conducive to having a cow conform to the 
routine (3). 

The milk production records for each breed in each feeding-rearing 
condition are presented in Table 1, with SS Holsteins producing up to 
3,500 lbs more milk than other groups while, TT crossbreds average 
about 2,000 lbs more milk than other groups. With the exception of TS 
crossbreds, the standard deviation within groups increased as a function 
of increased "together" contact during early calfhood. For each breed 
the standard deviation is more than tripled as early feeding-rearing 
conditions progress from SS to TT. The TS crossbreds show the highest 
variance of all groups. Earlier, Donaldson (4) pointed out that the TS 
group (fed together — raised separately) was characterized by excessive 
amounts of non-nutritive sucking during their early experience, while 
other groups did not exhibit non-nutritive sucking after reaching 4 days 
of age. The only animals lost on this experiment were from group TS, 
one Holstein and one crossbred, who died at the age of 5 weeks. 

Table 1. 

Mean and standard deviation of milk production records of the first lactation 
for each breed in each feeding-rearing condition. 






























Regarding milk production, assuming a fixed model with an 
unweighted mean, an analysis of variance was computed. A summary of 
this analysis in Table 2 shows a significant difference for the breed main 
effect (C) with Holsteins averaging more milk produced (12,061 lbs) 
than crossbreds (10,827 lbs) during the first lactation. This finding was 
not unexpected in that purebred Holsteins have been bred and main- 
tained for their high milk production. The crossbreds gave more milk 
than the smaller Red Danish, but still were not as large or capable of 
producing as much milk as the Holstein. 

Table 2 also reveals a significant interaction of feeding by breed. 
An examination of the data shows that the feeding condition affected 
the breeds differentially. For Holsteins the fed-separate Holsteins av- 
eraged 13,158 lbs of milk while fed-together Holsteins averaged 10,964 
lbs of milk. On the other hand, for crossbreds, the fed-together condi- 



Table 2. Analysis of variance summary for milk production. 






A (feeding) 

L 2060829 


B (rearing) 

L 28231 


C (breed) 

L 9619095 



AB (feeding X rearing) 

L 463923 


AC (feeding X breed) 

L 1662857 



BC (rearing X breed 

L 5680317 



ABC (feeding X rearing X breed) 

L 7031519 



Within cell 


L 2156054 

tion was more conducive to higher milk production. Fed-together cross- 
breds averaged 11,353 lbs of milk while fed-separate crossbreds 
averaged about 1,000 lbs less (10,301 lbs) of milk. By chance, higher- 
quality dams were used to produce the crossbred calves that filled the 
fed-together groups. They averaged 13,177 lbs of milk while the 
fed-separate calves came from dams averaging 10,800 lbs of milk. 

By combining the data (ABC interaction, P<.08) it appears that 
certain conditions maximize milk production for Holsteins as well as 
for crossbreds. 

Cows that experienced competitive raising had a higher average 
Social Index and were more domineering and aggressive within a herd 
and rejected their young at first parturition. Cows that were raised in- 
dividually tended to be low ranking in the herd and accepted their young 
at first parturition. 

The importance of "contact comfort" has been demonstrated for 
dogs (8, 9) and for monkeys (7). Presumably, in the absence of any type 
of species interaction, the SS group developed and maintained a high 
drive for contact which could be most fully expressed when their calves 
were born. If this is true, one would expect cows that have been raised 
individually to actively seek more contact within the herd and to main- 
tain closer physical proximity to other animals than cows raised 
together. Unfortunately, such data are not available. 

On the other hand, three of the groups had enriching, almost to 
the point of stressing, experiences in their competition for food and 
living space. The competitive animals experienced, in effect, an over- 
exaggeration of a learned behavior pattern with the ultimate effect of 
enhancing the frequency and efficiency of that behavior pattern. 

Given that the competitive groups were inclined toward emotional 
disturbances due to maternal deprivation, while at the same time were 
prone to overreact with aggressiveness due to early experience, one can 
readily expect rejection of the young. Later, when other experiences 
had altered the effect of early experience, the second calf was accepted. 
In a similar hypothesis, Bronfenbrenner (2) proposes the "frustration 
of dependency drive" when mother-infant interactions are absent and 

350 Indiana Academy of Science 

specifically predicts "initial fear, rejection of, and aggressiveness 
toward other social objects." 

An alternative theory would be to ignore any deprivation during 
the first 4 months and focus mainly upon the agonistic experience. Cows 
from the competitive groups had been conditioned since the first day 
of their lives to be constantly perceptive of social threat. Not sur- 
prisingly they treated their first calf as another animal and only after 
experiencing the non-threatening aspects of the situation could they 
accept the second. Conversely, the raised-individually group did not 
perceive or respond to threat from other cows and subsequently were 
able to exhibit the full range of maternal behavior correctly the first 

It would be interesting to know how early feeding and rearing 
experiences affect other breeds of cattle and then investigate the 
economic feasibility of rearing each breed in a condition that be- 
haviorally and physiologically promotes milk production. Since twin 
calves are known to stay together (6), an obvious experiment is to rear 
twins apart from each other. They would have to be separated very early 
as the primary social relationships are formed within a matter of hours, 
i.e., sheep and goats (10). It would be very interesting to see if the twins, 
when brought back together, would tend to stay together and imitate 
or mimic their behavior as they ordinarily do. The close behavioral 
link between twins reared together at present tends to increase the re- 
semblance between twins in such items as grazing behavior and milk 

Literature Cited 

1. Bamshnikov, I. A., and E. P„ Kokorina. 1964. Higher nervous activity of 
cattle. Dairy Sci. Abstr. 26:97-115. 

2. Bronfenbrenner, U. 1968. Early deprivation in mammals: a cross species analysis. 
p. 627-764. In G. Newton and S. Levine (eds.) Early experience and behavior. 
Charles C. Thomas, Publ. Springfield, 111. 785 p. 

3. Dietrich, J. P., W. W. Snyder, C. E. Meadows, and J. L. Albright. 1966. 
Rank order in dairy cows. Amer. Zool. 5:713. 

4. Donaldson, Susan L. 1967. The effect of early feeding and rearing experiences on 
dominance, aggression and submission behavior in young heifer calves. Unpublished 
M.S. Thesis, Purdue University. 48 p. 

5. 1970. The effects of early feeding and rearing experiences on social, 

maternal and milking parlor behavior in dairy cattle. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, 
Purdue University. 75 p. 

6. Ewbank, R. 1967. Behavior of twin cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 50:1510-1512. 

7. Harlow, H. F„ and R. R. Zimmerman. 1959. Affectional responses in the infant 
monkey. Science 130:421-432. 

8. Igel, G. J., and A. D. Calvin. 1960. The development of affectional responses in 
infant dogs. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 53:302. 

Zoology 351 

9. Melzak, R, and W. R. Thompson. 1956= Effects of early experience on social 
behavior. Canach J. Psychol. 10:82. 

10. Scott, J. P. 1945. Social behavior, organization and leadership in a small flock 
of domestic sheep. Comp. Psychol. Monogr. 18:1-29. 

11. Selman, I. E., A. D. McEwan, and E. W. Fisher. 1970. Studies on natural 
suckling in cattle during the first eight hours postpartum. I. Behavioral studies 
(dams). Animal Behav. 78:276-283. 

Space and Conflict in Cattle 1 

Susan L. Donaldson-, Jack L. Albright and Mary Ann Ross 
Department of Animal Sciences, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Agonistic behavior is more pronounced among cattle when they are closely confined 
in yards or holding areas. Many authors have collected data on social behavior 
(dominance and temperament) under these conditions rather than when little agonistic 
behavior is occuring such as when cows are on pasture (1, 2, 3). Sommer (7) has reviewed 
the literature regarding dominance relationships in which a subject knows where he 
belongs socially, and territorially with his knowledge of a spatial place. Macmillan (5) 
reported that reduced fertility and short estrus cycles in young cows were the result of 
social stress in large herds of 200 or more cows in one group. Kilgour (4) suggested that 
in closely confined areas, the existence of the social order causes stress to the cows low 
in the dominance order in that they must constantly violate the space of higher ranking 
animals and they are attacked. 

The purpose of the present study was to determine the amount of agonistic behavior 
and movement that occurs among animals in relation to rank when the size of available 
space is changed. 


Ten yearling Holstein heifers that weighed between 790 and 1,025 
lbs were chosen randomly from a group of 25 maintained under summer 
pasturing conditions at the Purdue Dairy Center, Cherry Lane, West 
Lafayette, Indiana. The subjects were then confined in a 40 feet x 25 
feet electric fence holding area. Adequate feed bunk space (3 feet x 16 
feet) and a watering trough were at one end of the holding area. 

The heifers were given 3 days to adjust to the holding area and 
then were observed 4 hours per day for the next 3 days to determine 
the social dominance hierarchy within the group, using the technique 
of Schein and Fohrman (6). 

The holding area was lined at 5-foot intervals with a 2-inch strip 
of powdered lime with the result that the holding area was marked off 
into 5-foot squares (approximately the heifer's length of body). 

One end of the fence was movable so that the size of the holding 
area could be adjusted by the experimenters. 

Heifers were observed for 16 one-half hour periods for the next 
2 days. Four observations were made under each of four sizes of the 
holding area: 40 feet x 25 feet, 30 feet x 25 feet, 20 feet x 25 feet 

Journal Paper No. 4634, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 
This research was financed in part from a trust agreement between Purdue University 
and Normandy Farm, New Augusta, Indiana, Mr. and Mrs. Herman C. Krannert, 
owners. We thank Kevin Brown, Purdue Dairy Center, for his help. 

2 Present address: Indiana State University, Evansville 47712. 


Zoology 353 

and 10 feet x 25 feet. These areas were considered to be 100, 75, 50 and 
25%, respectively, of the recommended routine pen size allocation for 
yearling heifers. The order of size changes were reversed with each 
successive observation. 

During the observational periods, all agonistic behavior was 
recorded and the dominance order was redetermined using the technique 
of Schein and Fohrman (6). Also recorded was the number of squares 
that each subject entered. A heifer was required to put both front feet 
in a square to be counted as entering that space. 

The dominance order was compared with the one determined pre- 
viously. Data were then analyzed by means of an analysis of variance. 

Results and Discussion 

Assuming a fixed model, an analysis of variance was computed on 
the obtained scores in Table 1. A summary of this analysis in Table 2 
shows significant differences for both field size and subjects 
(P<.01) in that the three low ranking animals entered the most squares, 
averaging 1,044, and the five middle animals entered the least 
squares (469). As had been predicted by Kilgour (4), low ranking 
animals were observed to be constantly violating the space of other 
animals and were moving to prevent or avoid being attacked. 
Surprisingly though, high ranking heifers entered an average of 215 
more squares than middle ranking animals. In the smallest enclosure 
(10 feet x 25 feet) it appeared that high ranking animals followed the 
escaping low ranking subjects. Subjects in the reduced space showed 
less total activity (P<.01). 

Table 1. Number of squares entered by subject, space allocation and rank order. 


10 X 25 1 

20 X 25 2 

30 X 25 s 

40 X 25* 


Rank Order 






















































J 98 























x 25 ft. 2 per animal, i.e., one 5 feet X 5 feet square per subject. 
2 50 ft. 2 per animal, i.e., two 5 feet X 5 feet squares per subject. 
3 75 ft. 2 per animal, i.e. three 5 feet X 5 feet squares per subject. 
4 100 ft. 2 per animal, i.e., four 5 feet X 5 feet squares per subject. 

354 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 2. Analysis of variance of experimental data. 

df SS MS 

Subjects 9 44781.26 4975.69 

Fields 3 24408.92 8136.30 

S X F 27 8897.27 329.52 

Replicates 3 8845.02 2948.34 

Error 117 58929.73 503.67 

Total 159 145862.20 

F( Subjects) = 9.87** F(S X F) = Non Significant 

F( Fields) = 24.69** ** P<.01 

Movement can be categorized as another indication of dominance. 
The behavior and status of animals moving from one area to another 
area was remarkably similar. 

Considerable movement, conflict, competition and agonistic behavior 
occurred near the feed bunk. This is similar to earlier work with 
heifers (1, 3) and with cows (2). 

Literature Cited 

1. Beilharz R. G., and P. J. Mylrea. 1963. Social position and behavior of dairy 
heifers in yards. Anim. Behav. 11 :522-528. 

2. Dickson, D. P., G. R. Barr, and D. A. Wieckert. 1965. Social relationships of 
dairy cows in a feed lot. J. Dairy Sci. 48:795. 

3. Hook. S. L., S. L. Donaldson, and J. L. Albright. 1965. A study of social 
dominance behavior in young cattle. Amer. Zool. 5:714. 

4. Kilgour, R. 1969. Social behavior in the dairy herd. New Zealand J. Agric. 

5. Macmillan, K. L. 1971. The effect of social stress on the oestrus cycle of cows. 4th 
Asia and Oceania Cong. Endocrinol. Abst. No. 48, Univ. of Auckland, New 
Zealand. 112 p. 

6. Schein, M. W., and M. H. Fohrman. 1955. Social dominance relationships in a herd 
of dairy cattle. Brit. J. Anim. Behav. 3 :45-55. 

7. Sommer, R. 1969. Personal Space. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 177 p. 

A Check List of Freshwater Ostracods of Indiana — 

Including Sixteen New Recordings 

and a Description of Two New Species 

Daniel R. Goins 

Daleville High School, Daleville, Indiana 47334 


The check list of freshwater ostracods of Indiana raises the number of ostracods re- 
ported from Indiana from 6 to 24. The list is a result of a survey taken in the spring of 
1968 in Delaware County. The list includes the descriptions of 2 new species: 
Potamocypris brachychaeta and Candona ginnensis. 


A survey of ostracods (Class Crustacea, Order Ostracoda) was 
taken through Delaware County during May and June, 1968. The survey 
was an attempt to fill a gap in the taxonomy of ostracods from 
Indiana. Comprehensive surveys of ostracod faunas have been made 
in Ohio (1) and Illinois (3), but to date none have been made in 
Indiana. There are scattered reports of ostracods from Indiana; among 
these are 4 cave types; Candona marengoensis, C. jeanneli (5), 
Entocythere donaldsonensis (7), E. barri (2). There are only 2 
ostracod species reported from streams and ponds in Indiana: 
Cyiiridojjsis vidua (4), Cyclocypris laevis (6). The survey of Delaware 
County raises the number of known ostracods from Indiana from 6 to 
24 including 2 new species. 

Methods and Materials 

During May and June 1968, 100 dredge-net samples were taken 
in Delaware County. The samples were taken from rivers, creeks, ponds, 
drainage ditches, and borrow pits. Of the 100 samples 62 contained 
ostracods. The ostracods were preserved in a 95% alcohol solution. 
Permanent reference slides were made and placed on file in the Ball 
State University biology laboratory. 

Description of New Species 

Potamocypris brachychaeta, sp. nov. 

Five specimens were collected from two sample sites. 

Sample number 20 was from a borrow pit along Interstate 69 in Delaware County. 
The pit is about 6 acres in area and the true depth is not known. The bottom is mostly 
mud and silt. There was little vegetation except along the edges of the pit, and this was 
mostly grass and unidentified algae. Cypridopsis vidua was also found in the sample. 

Sample 31 was taken from a small creek with slow movement under normal 
conditions. The bottom was mostly silt and much decaying vegetation. The water was clear. 
Five other species of ostracods were found at this site: Ilyocypris bradyi, Candona 
elliptica, Candona sp., Paracandona sp., and Darwinula stevensoni. Also found in the 
collection were many unidentified insect larvae, copepods, and cladocera. 

Potamocypris brachychaeta is easily identified as genus Potamocypris because of the 
genus characteristics: reniform shape, compressed valves, arched dorsum maximum height 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Figure 1. Potamocypris brachychaeta. Interior view of left valve showing list. 
Scale 0.5 mm. Arrow — anterior. 

Figure 2. P. brachychaeta. Interior view of right valve. Scale 0.5 mm. 

Figure 3- P. brachychaeta. Third leg. Scale 0.1 mm. 

Figure 4. P. brachychaeta. Furca. Scale 0.1 mm. 

Figure 5. P. brachychaeta. Exterior view of right valve. Scale 0.5 mm. G — green, 

H — hair, P — pit. 

Figure 6. P. brachychaeta. Second antenna. Scale 0.1 mm. 

Figure 7. Candona ginnensis. Dorsal view of left valve. Scale 0.5 mm. 

Figure 8. C. ginnensis. Third leg. Scale of 0.1 mm. 

Figure 9. C. ginnensis. Interior view of right valve. Scale 0.5 mm. T — testes. 

Figure 10. C. ginnensis. Second antenna. Scale 0.1 mm. 

Figure 11. C. ginnensis. Genital lobe. Scale 0.1 mm. V — ventral, P — posterior, 

D — dorsal. 

Figure 12. C. ginnensis. Oblique view of left prehensile palp showing the teeth. 

Scale 0.1 mm. 

Figure 13. C. ginnensis. Right palp. Scale 0.1 mm. 

Figure 14. C. ginnensis. Leg 2. Scale 0.1 mm. Dashed line shows normal length of 

terminal seta. 

Figure 15. C. ginnensis. Furca. Scale 0.1 mm. S — S-shaped seta. 

Figure 16. C. ginnensis. Penis. Scale 0.1 mm. 

Zoology 357 

reached at mid-length, broad anterior vestibule, with the left valve slightly overlapping 
the right valve. The valves of P. brachychaeta are punctate with very few hairs and are 
grayish with several areas of green pigment. The pore canals are simple and the hinge 
is adont. This new species differs from the other potamocyprids with abbreviated natatory 
setae in that the setae of P. brachychaeta are very short (Fig. 6). The swimming setae 
are a mere 0.08 mm long and barely reach the proximal 1/3 of the penultimate segment. 
Another distinguishing feature is the appearance of a second posterior list on the left 
valve ( Fig. 1 ) . This list does not appear on any of the other species of 

Dimension of adult female: Right valve 0.56 mm long, 0.29 mm high. Left valve 
0.59 mm long, 0.36 mm high. Width 0.3 mm. 

Candona ginnensis, sp. nov. 

The sample was collected from Ginn's Woods, a preserve of Ball State University in 
Delaware County, Indiana. Five individuals were found in a sample taken in April. The 
sample contained Candona truncata and the eggs of the spring peeper, Hyla 
crucifer, and the chorus frog, Pseudacris nigrita. 

The left valve of Candona ginnensis is slightly longer and higher than the right valve. 
The greatest height is reached in the posterior one-third of the valve. From the rounded 
anterior, the dorsal margin arches gradually to the maximum height. Posteriorly the 
dorsal arch curves gently to the posterior; this downward curve is not sharp as in 
Candona truncata. From the broadly rounded posterior margin the ventral margin forms 
a slight sinuation at the mid-point. The male has a weak point where the ventral margin 
meets the anterior margin. The third leg has an undivided penultimate segment. The 
prehensile palps are both similar with a double row of teeth on the ventral side at the 
curve between the setae (Figs. 12, 13). The furca has a definite "S" shape in the 
female (Fig. 15) and is only slightly less pronounced in the male. 

Dimensions of adult female: Right valve 0.85 mm long, 0.42 mm high. Left valve 0.93 
mm long, 0.45 mm high. Width about 0.5 mm. 

Dimensions of adult male: Right valve 1.1 mm long, 0.5 mm high. Left valve 1.2 mm 
long, 0.6 mm high. Width not determined. 

Candona ginnensis is similar to Candona simpsoni (Sharp, 1897) and C. 
sigmoides (Sharp, 1897) (6) with each having an S-shaped furca. However, the valves 
of Candona ginnensis and C. sigmoides are arching, while the valves of C. 
simpsoni are elliptical in shape. The sizes also differ with Candona ginnensis 
being between C. simpsoni, the smallest, and C. sigmoides, the largest. The penis of C. 
ginnensis (Fig. 16) is longer and somewhat narrower than the penis of C. sigmoides. The 
genital lobe (Fig. 11) of the female of the new species is shorter and less pointed than 
that of C. sigmoides. 

A Check List of Freshwater Ostracods of Indiana 

Class Crustacea 
Order Ostracoda 
Suborder Podocopa 
Family Darwinulidae 

Darwinula stevensoni (Brady and Robertson, 1870) 

Family Cypridae 

Subfamily Uyocyprinae 

Ilyocypris bradyi (Sars, 1890) 

/. gibba (Ramdohr, 1808) 
Subfamily Cyprinae 

Cyprinotus sp. (Brady, 1886) 
Subfamily Cypridopsianae 

Cypridopsis vidua (O. F. Miiller, 1776) 

Potamocypris smaragdina (Vavra, 1891) 

P. brachychaeta, sp. nov. 

358 Indiana Academy of Science 

Subfamily Candocyprinae 
Tribe Cyclocyprini 

Physocypria globula (Furtos, 1933) 

Cypria maculata (Hoff, 1942) 

C. obesa (Sharp, 1897) 

C. turneri (Hoff, 1942) 
Tribe Candonini 

Candona elliptica (Furtos, 1933) 

C. stagnates (Sars, 1890) 

C. marengoensis (Klie, 1931) 

C. jeanneli (Klie, 1931) 

C. ginnensis, sp. nov. 

Subfamily Cyprinae 
Genus Cypris 

Subgenus Eucypris (Vavra, 1891) 
E. af finis hirsuta (Fischer, 1851) 
E. reticulata (Zaddach, 1844) 

Subfamily Candocyprinae 

Cyclocypris laevis (Miiller, 1912; Sharp, 1918) 
C. forbesi (Sharp, 1897) 

Family Cytheridae 

Subfamily Entocytherinae 

Genus Entocythere (Marshall, 1903) 
E. donaldsonensis (Klie, 1931) 
E. barri (Hart and Hobbs, 1961) 
E. sp. 

Literature Cited 

1. Furtos, N. 1933. The Ostracoda of Ohio. Bull. Ohio Biol. Surv. 5:411-524. 

2. Hart, C. W. Jr., and H. H. Hobbs, Jr. 1961. Eight new Troglobetic 
ostracods of the genus Entocythere (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from the Eastern United 
States. Proc. Phila. Acad. Natur. Sci. 113:173-185. 

3. Hoff, C. 1942. The Ostracods of Illinois, Their biology and taxonomy. Univ. 111. 
Biol. Monogr. 19:1-196. 

4. House, J. L. 1910. Crustacea of Winona Lake. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 16:131. 

5. Klie, W. 1931. Campagne speologique de C. Bolivar et R. Jeannel dans 
l'Amerique du Nord (1928) 3. Crustaces Ostracods. Arch. Zool. exp. gen. 

6., Sharp, R. W. 1918. The Ostracoda, p. 790-827. In Ward, H. B., and G. C. 
Whipple. Ward and Whipple's Fresh-water Biology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 
New York, N.Y. 1111 p. 

7. Tressler, W. L. 1947. A check list of known species of North American freshwater 
Ostracoda. Amer. Midland Natur. 38:698-707. 

Parasites of the Bullfrog in Indiana 1 

Doyal R. Lank, Jr. 

Department of Biology 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 


Parasitological examinations were made of 72 bullfrogs from four Indiana areas 
during May through September 1970, of which 91.7 per cent contained parasites. 
Parasites found included: (protozoans) Hexamita intestinalis, Nyctotherus cordiformis, 
Trypanosoma rotatorum, and an unidentified species of Trichomonas; (trematodes) 
Gorgodcra amplicava, Gorgoderina attenuata, Haematoloechus brevij)lexus, Haemato- 
loechus longiplexus, and Glypthelmins quieta; and (nematodes) Cxysomatium longi- 
caudata and one unidentified species. Two species of Hirundinae, Placobdella rugosa 
and Glossiphonia stagnalis, were found apparently as parasites. 


Brandt (2), in a comprehensive study of the parasites of several 
species of North Carolina frogs, has presented the only extensive review 
of the parasites of bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana Shaw. He found the bull- 
frog to harbor a number of helminth and protozoan parasites and one 
arthropod. Reports of parasites of bullfrogs in Indiana are few. Cort 
(5) observed the lung flukes Haematoloechus longiplexus and H. 
breviplexus from a North Judson, Indiana, bullfrog, and Walton (21) 
found cysts of the nematode Physaloptera ranae in the stomach and 
intestinal walls in bullfrogs of northern Indiana. Krull (11) also found 
H. longiplexus in an Indiana bullfrog. More recently, Myer (17) reported 
metacercariae of the fluke Mesostephanus kentuckiensis in Ohio bull- 
frogs. Since Cable (3) reported cercariae of M. kentuckiensis in snails 
from McCormick's Creek and Clifty Creek, Indiana, this trematode may 
occur in Indiana bullfrogs, although none has yet been reported. 

Materials and Methods 

The bullfrogs examined in this study were collected from four 
Indiana Fish and Game Areas: Glendale, in southwestern Indiana 
(Daviess County), Crosley Lake in the southeast (Jennings County), 
Willow Slough in the northwest (Newton County), and Tri-County in 
the northeast (Kosciusko and Noble Counties). Frogs were collected 
at night by hand or by a dip net. 

Five monthly collections were made at each of the four study areas. 
The frogs were taken to the laboratory at Ball State University and 
placed in a refrigerator until examined. Some frogs were dissected and 
searched for parasites within 24 hours after collection, but others were 
held for as long as 10 days before examination. 

Supported by a grant from the Indiana Department of Natural Resources 1969-1970 
Wildlife Research Small Grant Program. 


360 Indiana Academy of Science 

Before examination the bullfrogs were either pithed or beheaded. 
The heart, lungs, stomach, large and small intestines, cloaca, liver, gall 
bladder, kidneys, and urinary bladder were examined. Before removing 
the organs, the host was searched for any coelomic parasites, using a 
dissecting microscope. Upon removal, each organ was placed individually 
in frog Ringer's Solution in a watch glass in order to retain any para- 
sites which might leave the organ. 

Each organ was then opened or teased apart under a binocular 
dissecting microscope. Except for protozoans, all parasites found were 
counted and representatives preserved for permanent mounting. Smears 
were made of the contents of the intestines and of peripheral, renal, 
and cardiac blood for examination under a compound microscope. 

Blood smears were made by using Wright's stain or by fixing in 
95% alcohol and staining with Giemsa's stain. Intestinal smears were 
fixed in Schaudinn's fluid and stained with Heidenhein's iron 

All worms were washed thoroughly in physiological saline before 
fixing. Trematodes were relaxed in distilled water and then fixed in 
either 10% formalin, formol-acetic-alcohol (F.A.A.), or Bouin's solution 
which had been heated to bubbling but not vigorous boiling. 
Nematodes were dropped into warm F.A.A., 10% formalin, or 70% 
acid-alcohol for fixation. Leeches were fixed in 70% alcohol using the 
method described by Mann (14). For permanent storage, all worms 
were transferred to either 70% alcohol plus 5% glycerine or 
5% formalin plus enough glycerin to make a 5% solution, depending upon 
the method of fixation used. 

Stains used for trematodes and nematodes included Grenacher's 
Alcoholic Borax-Carmine, Mayer's MCI Carmine, either with or without 
Fast Green counterstaining, and Harris' or Delafield's Haematoxylin. 
After staining, the specimens were destained, dehydrated, cleared, and 
mounted in Permount. 

Cort (4, 5), Harwood (8), Higgins (9), Kudo (12, 13), Mann (14), 
Miller (16), Miller (15), Najarian (18), and Yamaguti (23) were used 
for making identifications. 


Seventy-two bullfrogs were examined for parasites between May 
and September of 1970, 20 each from Glendale and Crosley Lake and 
16 each from Willow Slough and Tri-County. Those frogs 100 mm or 
more in snout-vent length were classed as adult, and those below 100 
mm were considered juveniles. According to Wright and Wright (22), 
100 mm is approximately the minimum breeding size. The range of 
length of the 49 adult frogs examined was 100 mm to 142 mm, with 
an average length of 115.6 mm. The 23 juveniles ranged from 47 mm 
to 77 mm, the average being 62 mm. 

Of the 72 bullfrogs examined, 91.7% were found to be infested by 
one or more species of parasites (Table 1). Four species of protozoans 



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362 Indiana Academy of Science 

were found: Hexamita intestinalis, Nyctotherus cordiformis, Trypano- 
soma rotatorum, and an unidentified Trichomonas sp. Trematodes in- 
cluded the bladder flukes Gorgodera amplicava (3.817) 2 and 
Gorgoderina attenuata (0.772), the lung flukes Haematoloechus 
breviplexus (0.780) and H. longiplexus (0.793), and the intestinal fluke 
Glypthelmins quieta (1.913). The nematodes found were Oxysomatium 
longicaudata (2.822) and one unidentified species. No cestodes or 
acanthocephalans were encountered. 

Two species of leeches, Placobdella rugosa and Glossiphonia 
stagnalis, were found in the collecting jars, but were never seen 
attached to the frogs. Probably the leeches were on the frogs at the time 
of collection. 


In addition to the primary species-specific limitations, many fac- 
tors influence the kinds and numbers of parasites in a host: age, 
geographic distribution, diet, the presence of suitable intermediate hosts, 
seasonal aspects of the life cycle, etc. The operation of some of these 
factors as they apply to parasitism in the bullfrog has been reported 
by other authors, and data from the present study suggest the operation 
of others. For example, bullfrogs were introduced into the Rocky Moun- 
tain region relatively recently, but their parasites do not yet seem to 
be well established there (20). This may well be due to the absence of 
suitable intermediate hosts. 

Although the samples are small, the data in Table 1 suggest some 
seasonal variation in the abundance of parasites, most species showing 
peaks of occurrence in June, July, or August. Leeches were most 
abundant in June and July, and the recording of trypanosomes only in 
these 2 months may well be related to the abundance of the leeches, their 
possible intermediate hosts. 

Although most parasites were found in all four collecting areas 
(Table 1), there were two possibly significant exceptions. The blood 
protozoan, Trypanosoma rotatorum, was found in only the two northern 
collecting areas. This may again be due to the presence in these areas 
of large numbers of leeches. Leeches have been reported as intermediate 
hosts of trypanosomes in certain other amphibians: Trypanosoma 
diemyctyli in the Red-spotted Newt, Notopthalamus viridescens (1), and 
in various European frogs (6). 

The other exception is the lung fluke Haematoloechus longiplexus, 
which was found only in the two southern areas. 

With respect to adult frogs versus juveniles, only in two species 
of parasites is there a notable difference in the overall amount of in- 
festation. Hexamita intestinalis was found more often in juvenile bull- 
frogs than in adults (86.9% incidence compared to 69.5%). The 

•'Average number of parasites per individual bullfrog. 

Zoology 363 

bladder fluke, Gorgoderina attenuata, was found in over half (53.1%) 
of the adult frogs, but in very few of the smaller frogs (13%). 

Multiple infestation in bullfrogs is a common occurrence and has 
been reported by Cort (5), Miller (15), and Najarian (18). In this study, 
some individual frogs contained six different species of parasites: three 
of the four protozoans and three of the five trematodes, although a 
typical frog would harbor one or two species of protozoans and a 
species of fluke. 

Two species of leeches, Placobdella rugosa and Glossiphonia 
stagnalis, are here reported for the first time as parasites of bullfrogs. 


The writer appreciates the assistance of Dr. James C. List, 
Department of Biology, Ball State University, under whose direction 
this study was made. Thanks are also due to the managers of the state 
fish and game areas: Mr. Dick Hudson, Mr. John Goold, Mr. George 
Seketa, and Mr. Ray Wilson. The writer is especially indebted to Mr. 
Gary Young, Mr. Kenneth Stewart, and my wife, Gracie, for their 
assistance in the field. 

Literature Cited 

1. Barrow, J. H. 1953. The biology of Trypanosoma dicmyctyli (Tobey). I. 
Trypanosoma diemyctyli in the leech Batrachobdella picta (Verrill). Trans. Amer. 
Microbiol. Soc. 72:197-216. 

2. Brandt, B. B. 1936. Parasites of certain North Carolina Salientia. Ecol. Monogr. 

3. Cable, R. M. 1937. Cercaria of Indiana. A preliminary note on larval trematodes from 
McCormick's Creek with a description of three new species. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci. 47:227-228. 

4. Cort, W. W. 1912. North American frog bladder flukes. Trans. Amer. Microbiol. 
Soc. 31:151-166. 

5. . 1915. North American frog lung flukes. Trans. Amer. Microbiol. Soc. 

34 :203-240. 

6. Franca, C. 1908. Le cycle evolutif des trypanosomes de la grenouille (T. costatum, 
T. rotatorium, and T. inopinatum) . Arch, do R. Inst. Bact., Camara Pestana. 


7. Goodchild, C. G. 1950. Establishment and pathology of gorgoderid infections in 
anuran kidneys. J. Parasitol. 36:439-446. 

8. Harwood, P. D. 1932. The helminths parasitic in the Amphibia and Reptilia of 
Houston, Texas, and vicinity. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 81 :1-71. 

9. Higgins, H. 1929. Variations in the Nyctotherus (Protozoa, Ciliata) found in frog 
and toad tadpoles and adults. Trans. Amer. Microbiol. Soc. 48:141-157. 

10. Jahn, T. L., and F. F. Jahn. 1949. How to know the Protozoa. Wm. C. Brown 
Co. Publ. Dubuque, la. 234 p. 

11. Krull, W. H. 1931. Life-history studies on two frog lung flukes, Pneumoneces 
medioplexus and Pneumobites parviplexus. Trans. Amer. Microbiol. Soc. 50:215-277. 

364 Indiana Academy of Science 

12. Kudo, R. R. 1922. On the Protozoa parasitic in frogs. Trans. Amer. Microbiol. Soc. 

13. .. 1966. Protozoology. 5th Ed. Charles C. Thomas. Springfield, 111. 1174 


14. Mann, K. H. 1962. Leeches (Hirudinea). Their structure, physiology, ecology, and 
embryology. Vol. 2. Pergamon Press. New York, N. Y. 201 p. 

15. Miller, E. L. 1930. Studies on Glypthelmins quieta Stafford. J. Parasitol. 

16. Miller, J. A. 1937. A study of the leeches of Michigan with keys to orders, 
suborders, and species. Ohio J. Sci. 37:85-90. 

17. Myer, D. G. 1960. On the life history of Mesostephanus kentuckiensis (Cable, 1935) 
n. comb. (Trematoda: Cyathocotylidae) . J. Parasitol. 46:819-832. 

18. Najarian, H. H. 1955. Trematodes parasitic in the Salientia in the vicinity of 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. Amer. Midland Natur. 53:195-197. 

19. Swezy, O. 1915. Binary and multiple fission in Hexamitus. Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool. 16:71-88. 

20. Waitz, J. A. 1962. Parasitic helminths as aids in studying the distribution of 
species of Rana in Idaho. Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 54:152-156. 

21. Walton, A. C. 1931. Notes on some larval nematodes found in frogs. J Parasitol. 


22. Wright, A. H., and A. A. Wright. 1949. Handbook of frogs and toads of the 
United States and Canada. Comstock Publishing Company, Inc. Ithaca, N. Y. 640 p. 

23. Yamaguti, S. 1961. Systema helminthum. Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 
N. Y. (5 volumes). 4818 p. 

24. Zebrowski, G. 1922. The occurrence of secondary parasitism in the frog. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 32:205-208. 

Distribution of Free-living Soil Nematodes of the 
Belondiroidea in Indiana and the United States 1 

Virginia R. Ferris and John M. Ferris 

Department of Entomology 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47807 


During a 5-year study of distribution of soil and fresh-water nematode species in 
Indiana, four genera of the Belondiroidea have been found widely distributed in natural 
areas of the state. Of these, Dorylaimellus Cobb, Axonchium Cobb, and Oxydirus 
Thorne were found in most biotic units of the state. In subsequent sampling in widely sep- 
arated areas of the U. S., Dorylaimellus and Axonchium were found in natural areas in 
all sections of the country sampled. Species of Oxydirus were found less frequently and 
appeared in only one collection in western U. S., a forest meadow in Sequoia National 
Park, California. Although four species of Belondira Thorne were well-distributed in 
southern Indiana, only two were found as far north as Tippecanoe County. Despite 
extensive sampling throughout the U. S. we have recovered specimens of this genus from 
a very limited geographic area, extending only from eastern Kansas to Tennessee. 


The nematode superfamily Belondiroidea as presently understood 
by most authorities consists of eight families and 13 genera (3). Of 
these, only five genera, one in each of five families, have been reported 
from continental United States : Dorylaimellus Cobb in the Dory- 
laimellidae; Axonchium, Cobb in the Axonchiidae; Oxydirus Thorne in 
the Oxydiridae; Belondira Thorne in the Belondiridae; and Swangeria 
Thorne in the Swangeriidae. All contain stylet-bearing soil species 
whose food habits are largely unknown. Some may be plant parasitic, 
although they are not generally found in large numbers around 
cultivated plants at least in temperate regions. For this reason they 
have been studied very little. 

Dorylaimellus virginianus Cobb was originally found by Cobb (2) 
in Virginia and subsequently also in Utah by Thorne (8). Other species 
of Dorylaimellus were found by Thorne (8) and Cobb (2) in 
Virginia, Idaho, Utah, Texas, and Colorado; and by Orr and 
Dickerson (7) in Kansas. A wide distribution for species of 
Axonchium was recorded by Thorne (8) when he reported their occur- 
rence in Utah, Colorado, Missouri, Washington, D. C, Georgia, South 
Carolina, and Florida. More recent collections were noted by Orr and 
Dickerson (7) in Kansas and by Hechler (5) in Virginia. 
Oxydirus spp. were reported from Utah and Virginia by Thorne (8), 
and Hechler (4) reported finding Oxydirus gangeticus Siddiqi in Mary- 
land. A single species of Belondira (B. apitica Thorne) was found by 
Thorne (8) in Utah, and this species plus another were found by Orr 

Journal Paper No. 4602. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 
This work was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant GZ-416. 


366 Indiana Academy of Science 

and Dickerson (7) in Kansas. Swangeria bisexualis Hopper was 
described (6) from a series of 10 specimens taken in Florida. 

Despite the fact that the occurrence of belondiroid nematodes in 
the U. S. has been infrequently noted by nematologists, we found four 
of the five genera discussed above to be common in Indiana. Subsequent 
sampling over the rest of the country indicated that these four genera 
differ from each other in their biogeography. The present report con- 
cerns the distribution of genera only. Detailed studies of the species 
found within each genus will follow in later papers. 


Intensive sampling of natural sites within the biotic units of Indiana 
(1) was carried out over a 5-year period. Sites were usually wooded 
and often included a stream or river. The number of samples taken at 
any given time from a specified area varied from 6 to 50, but most areas 
were sampled several times at different seasons of the year. Three 
3-liter samples were collected from each site. One sample was collected 
from the edge of the stream or river using a 2.5 cm sampling tube thrust 
15-20 cm into the soil, whenever possible. Approximately 50 such cores 
were collected for a distance of 30 m along the contour of the stream. 
A second such sample was taken from the normal flood plain, but away 
from the stream edge; and a third sample was taken well outside the 
normal flood plain. Additional samples were taken in specialized and 
typical habitats in all areas. Detailed ecological data were recorded at 
the time of sampling including information about flora of the area, soil 
type, soil contour, soil moisture, and other factors. Samples from other 
parts of the United States were collected in a manner similar to that 
used for Indiana samples. 

In the laboratory one 1-liter subsample was processed from each 
sample by a combination of sieves and Baermann funnels. Nematodes 
were relaxed by gentle heat (57°C for 10 min.) and killed and fixed 
in F. A. A. (9). A "profile" of all species present was established for 
each sample and the specimens processed to permanent glycerine mounts 
by the Thorne slow method (9). 

Results and Discussion 

The occurrence of representatives of these four genera in our collec- 
tions is shown on the maps, Figure 1 (Indiana) and Figure 2 (the 
U. S.). Dorylaimellus species are common throughout Indiana and are 
present in all areas of the U. S. we have sampled. The same generali- 
zation may be made about Axonchium, although it should be noted that 
we have recovered fewer species of Axonchium than of Dorylaimellus 
(3). Nematodes belonging to the genus Oxydirus are found in all parts 
of Indiana, although they were less numerous than nematodes of the 
former two genera. Oxydirus specimens appeared in only one collection 
in western U. S., a forest meadow in Sequoia National Park, California. 



V_*fl # 







-C r~ 


Figure 1. Distribution of four genera of the Belondiroidea in Indiana (map is 
divided into biotic units of Chandler (1). A, Dorylaimellus; B, Axonchium; C, Oxydirus; 

D, Belondira. 

Although four species of Belondira are well-distributed in the southern 
part of Indiana, only two species were found as far north as Tippecanoe 
County. Despite a vigorous search for representatives of this genus 
throughout the U. S., we have recovered specimens from a very limited 
geographic area, extending only from eastern Kansas to Tennessee. 

Indiana Academy of Science 

Figure 2. Distribution of four genera of the Belondiroidea in the United States. Open 
circles indicate sites samjAed, and solid circles show where a given genus was found. 


Although members of the Belondiroidea have never been reported 
from many areas of the new world, it appears that the genera 
Dorylaimellus and Axonchium are widely distributed and common 
throughout the U. S. Oxydirus appears to be less widely distributed, 
especially in the western states, and the genus Belondira appears to 
be restricted in distribution. 

Zoology 369 

Literature Cited 

1. Chandler, L. 1966. The origin and composition of the insect fauna, p. 345-361. 
In A. A. Lindsey (ed.) Natural features of Indiana. Indiana Acad. Sci., 
Indianapolis. 600 p. 

2. Cobb, N. A. 1913. New nematode genera found inhabiting fresh-water and non- 
brackish soils. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 3:432-444. 

3. Ferris, V. R. 1971. Taxonomy of the Dorylaimida, p. 163-189. In B. M. 
Zuckerman, W. F. Mai, and R. A. Rohde (eds.) Plant Parasitic Nematodes. Vol. 1. 
Academic Press, New York, N.Y. 345 p. 

4. Hechler, H. C. 1969. Variability of the basal esophageal sheath in belondirid 
nematodes. J. Nematol. 1:160-165. 

5. — 1969. Taxonomy and morphology of Axonchium (Nematoda: 

Belondiroidea), and a description of A. thornei n. sp. J. Nematol. 1:321-348. 

6. Hopper, B. E. 1961. Swangeria bisexualis n. sp. (Belondiridae: Nematoda) from 
Florida. Canad. J. Zool. 39:69-72. 

7. Orr, C. C, and O. J. Dickerson. 1966. Nematodes in true prairie soils of 
Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 69:317-334. 

8. Thorne, G. 1939. A monograph of the nematodes of the superfamily 
Dorylaimoidea. Capita. Zool. 8:1-261. 

9. — _____ — .. 1961. Principles of Nematology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. New 

York, N.Y. 553 p. 

The Woodrat in Indiana: Recent Fossils 

Ronald L. Richards 
48 N. Euclid Avenue 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46201 


Skeletal remains of Neotoma, presumably N. floridana magister, have been recovered 
in relative abundance from caves throughout Indiana's karst area associated with bones 
of such locally extinct fauna as black bear, porcupine, elk, and spotted skunk. Presently 
rare in Indiana, a few woodrats have been historically recorded and recently observed 
marginal to the Ohio River. The ancient depopulation may have been associated with some 
indirect effect of climatic change. 

One species and several races of woodrat are present in the Eastern 
United States (4). Only a few woodrats, Neotoma floridana magister, 
have been recorded in Indiana (7), along and near the bluffs of the Ohio 

Figure 1. Locations of Neotoma observations (circles) and "recent fossil" sites (squares). 
pn Freeman's Pit, Hidden Pit Cave; VT\ Beetree Cave, Brinegar's Cave; HH Anderson Pit 
Cave; Hf! Sullivan's Cave (1); [5] Carcass Crypt Cave; [g] Stroud Cave (6); [7] N. Jim Cave; 
[s] Cave 3 miles S.S.W. of North. Vernon; (1) Wyandotte Cave (2, 8); @ Small bluff -top 
cave (5); (3) Rat Cave (5). 




River (5), and in Wyandotte cave (2, 8). The author has recently noted 
woodrats in the two caves near the Ohio River where Hickie and 
Harrison first recorded them in 1930 (5). 

Kirkpatrick and Conaway found woodrat nests, though no rats, 
in Stroud cave, Orange County (6). Bader and Hall (1) found remains 
of woodrat in Sullivan's cave, Lawrence County, associated with bones 
of Didelphis marsupialis, Blarina brevicauda, Erethizon dorsatum, 
Sylvilagus floridanus, Spilogale putorius, Procyon lotor, Urocyon 
cinereoargenteus, Odocoileus virginianus, Cervus canadensis, and 
Myotis sp., again indicating an ancient distribution father north than 
at present. 

Table 1. Location and occurence of Neotoma remains. 


Quadrangle, County 

Occurance and Important Associations 

Freeman's Pit 

Hidden Pit Cave 
Brinegar's Cave 
Beetree Cave 

Trap Door Cave 

Anderson Pit 

Sullivan's Cave 

Carcass Crypt 

Stroud Cave 
N. Jim Cave 

Cave near 
North Vernon 

Whitehall, Monroe 

Whitehall, Owen 
Stanford, Monroe 
Stanford, Monroe 

Stanford, Monroe 

Clear Creek, 


Bedford West, 

Valeene, Orange 



A dozen Neotoma with Ursus, Spilogale, and 
Erethizon in the explored top 17 inches of 
an osteiferous, laminated silt-clay deposit. 

One Neotoma in the top 4 inches of the silt 
floor of a dome. 

Two Neotoma, one in a small nest with 2 


One Neotoma in a nest, and another in a 
silt with Erethizon near an old entrance. 

A large nest with few bones. 

A large nest with 8 Neotoma and a human 
parietal fragment. Another nest was largely 
of vegetal material. 

A large nest with 7 Neotoma, Ursus, Erethi- 
zon, and Cervus. Possibly the nest of Bader 
and Hall (1). Several other nests in the cave. 

A nest with large Ursus bones and one Neo- 
toma. Five Neotoma were contemporaneously 
associated with Ursus, Spilogale, and Didel- 
phis in a carbon-rich area overlain by a 
sterile silt-clay layer. 

One Neotoma with Erethizon, among several 

One Neotoma in an osteiferous, fissure in- 
washed silt deposit. A Spilogale dentary near- 
by was not necessarily associated. 

Neotoma skull and Ursus tooth on surface 
near the entrance. 

From Indiana's caves have recently come numerous "Recent fossils" 
of Neotoma (Table 1), some as far north as western Monroe county 
(Fig. 1), and many with extensive associated faunas (Tables 2 and 3). 


Neotoma distribution in the past was most likely concurrent with 
the limits of both of Indiana's karst areas, according with its cave and 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 2. Fauna recovered from the various Neotoma nests. 






Cave 1 

Pit Cave 2 

Cave 3 


Myotis sp. 





Pipistrellus subflavus 





Permyscus sp. 





Microtus sp. 





Neotoma. floridana 





Blarina brevicauda 





Sciurus sp. 





Indet. mole 





Bufo sp. 





Indet. frogs 















Indet. bird 





x Also from Beetree Cave were: Indet. large bat, 1; Indet. bat, 13; Synaptomys 
cooperi, 2; Tamias striatus, 3; Marmota monax, 1; Indet. small carnivore, 1; 
Sylvilagus floridanus, 1; Odocoileus virginianus, 1; Amby stoma sp., 1; Crotalidae, 
2; Indet. fish, 1; and snails. 

2 Also from Anderson Pit Cave were: Indet. large bat, 1; Synaptomys cooperi, 3; 
Tamias striatus, 1; Marmota monax, 1; Sorex sp., 3; Procyon lotor, 2; Indet. 
small carnivore, 1; Didelphis marsupialis, 1; Sylvilagus floridanus, 1; Odocoileus vir- 
ginianus, 2; Homo sapiens, 1; Ambystoma sp., 1; Terrepene sp., 1; Crotalidae, 1; 
Indet. fish, l-3(?); snails; crayfish; and small clams. 

3 AIso from Sullivan's Cave were: Eptesicus fuscus, 1; Indet. bats, 6; Synap- 
tomys cooperi, 1(?); Tamias striatus, 1; Marmota monax, 1; Erethizon dorsatum, 
1; Ursus americanus, 1; Procyon lotor, 2; Urocyon cinereoargenteus, 1; Indet. 
small carnivore, 1: Didelphis marsupialis, 1; Sylvilagus floridanus, 1; Odocoileus 
virginianus, 1(?); Cervus canadensis, 1; Ambystoma sp., 2; Crotalidae, 2; Indet. fish, 
3-6(?); aquatic snails; crayfish; small clams; bird eggshell (?). 

4 Also from Stroud Cave were: Indet. large bat, 1; Marmota monax, 2; Erethizon 
dorstaum, 1; Procyon lotor, 1; Didelphis marsupialis, 1; Sylvilagus floridanus, 1; 
Odocoileus virginianus, 1(?); Indet. frog or toad, 3; Terrepene sp., 1; Natricinae, 1; 
Indet. fish, 1; snails; crayfish; small clams. 

bluff crevice habitat. Nests were observed in the wall solution 
anastomoses, in fissures, crevices, on ledges, and in breakdown 
piles; Neotoma bones, however, occurred in many depositional situa- 
tions. Nests seem to have been used over again by successive woodrats. 
With time, the vegetal materials of the nest disintegrate, concentrating 
the bones, rocks, snails, etc., emphasizing the faunal component, where- 
as in all actively inhabited nests observed by the author in Kentucky 
the floral component had hundreds of times more bulk. Thus, the older 
nests usually had the greater bone concentration. The floral contents 
of nests have yet to be studied. Of the faunal contents, only those bones 
actually chewed upon can be attributed to the woodrat's collecting 
behavior, these being most all of the larger than squirrel-sized forms, 
with deer bones often making up the bulk. The extensive microfaunal 
remains were predominantly those animals inhabiting the cave (e.g., 

Zoology 373 

Table 3. Fauna! remains from the various cave deposits. 

Hidden Bvinegar's Beetree Carcass N. Jim Cave, 

Species Pit Cave 1 Cave 2 Cave 3 Crypt Cave 1 Cave"' N. Vernon" 

Myotis sp. 


Pipistrellus subflavus 


Peromyscus sp. 


Microtus sp. 


Neotoma floridana 


Tamias striatus 


Blarina brevicauda 


Sorex sp. 


Bufo sp. 






Indet. bird 











































ca. 17 






iAlso from Hidden Pit Cave were: Indet. bats, 2; Sciurus sp., 1; Marmota 
monax, 1; Ambystoma sp., 1; snails. 

2 Also from Brinegar's Cave were: Sciurus sp., 1; Ondatra zibethicus, 1; Indet. 
mole, 1; Ursus americanus, 2; Mephitis mephitis, 1; Odocoileus virginianus, 1; 
Terrepene sp., 1. 

3 Also from Beetree Cave were: Indet. bats, 9; Sciurus sp., 1(?); Erethizon 
dorsatum, 1; Scalopus aquaticus, 1; Indet. canidae, 1; Indet. small carnivore, 
1; Sylvilagus floridanus, 1; Odocoileus virginianus, 1; Ambystoma sp., 1; Crotalidae, 
2; Indet. lizard, 1; Indet. fish, 1; snails. 

4 Also from Carcass Crypt Cave were: Indet. large bat, 1; Indet. bats, 7; 
Sciurus sp., 2; Erethizon dorsatum, 1(?); Indet. shrew, 3; Indet. mole, 1; Ursus 
americanus, 2; Procyon lotor, 1; Spilogale putorius, 1-2; Mephitis mephitis, 1; 
Didelphis marsupialis, 1; Indet. frog, 4; Ambystoma sp., 1; Terrepene sp., 1; 
Crotalidae, 1; snails. 

5 Also from N. Jim Cave were: Eptesicus fuscus, 5; Indet. bats, 24; Indet. frogs, 
2; Ambystoma S2)., 1; Crotalidae, 2; Indet. lizard, 1; snails. 

°Also from the Cave near North Vernon were: Lasiurus sp(?) 1; Sciurus sp., 

1; Marmota monax, 1; Indet. mole, 1; Ursus americanus, 1; Procyon lotor, 2; 

Didelphis marsupialis, 1; Sylvilagus floridanus, 3; Odocoileus virginianus, 2; Indet. 
frog, 1; Indet. turtle, 2; Indet. snake, 1; Indet, fish, 1; large clams. 

mice, shrews, bats, salamanders) or trapped in it (e.g., toads, frogs, 
snakes) and attracted to the nest, as indicated by the completeness of 
their skeletons, lured by the numerous invertebrates infesting its 
organic contents. Dying bats probably fell into the nests from their 
roosts. The minute clams and crayfish remains seem to be unique to the 
nests, perhaps collected by the woodrats, though along with the fish, 
could also been in the stomachs of raccoons, snakes, etc. Thus, many 
of the forms from the nests probably post-date the Neotoma, 
being only pene-contemporaneous. Animals associated in the sedi- 
mentary deposits, however, were most likely contemporaneous. Except- 
ing Spilogale, Ursus, Erethizon, and Cervus the associated fauna seems 
to be similar to that at present, the latter three exterminated from 
southern Indiana by the mid-1800's, and Spilogale with an ancient 
northerly distribution, much as Neotoma. This Neotoma-Ursus- 

374 Indiana Academy of Science 

Erethizon-Spilogale component commonly occurs together, and can be 
used locally to recognize a Prehistoric fauna. From faunal evidence the 
Neotoma archaeo-range seems to have been presettlement at minimum, 
and post-Pliestocene by the lack of true fossil fauna. The presence of 
Didelphis, known to be a late arrival in the Eastern United 
States (3), sealed in the Carcass Crypt sediments confirms a maximum 
of at least a few thousand years for at least that deposit. 

Illinois and Missouri also have "Recent fossil" finds. Jerry Long 
cave, Ralls County, Missouri, included a large percentage of Neotoma, 
Marmota monax, Ursus americanus, Sylvilagus floridanus, and Spilo- 
gale sp., among others. The bones were thought to have accumulated 
"a few hundred years prior to about 1850". Neotoma may inhabit that 
same area presently, but in less abundance (10). In Meyer cave, Monroe 
County, Illinois, bones of 535 Neotoma were associated with one of the 
most extensive Recent age faunas ever recovered in the United States, 
and included Spilogale and Erethizon where they do not presently occur. 
Neotoma was there 50 miles northwest of its living population (11). 
Spilogale has been recorded from the Modoc Rock Shelter, Randolph 
County, Illinois, where it does not presently occur, from a level radio- 
carbon dated at between 4,500 and 2,500 years B.D. (9). Other than the 
"Recent fossil" finds of Bader and Hall (1) and the author, 
Spilogale has not been definitely recorded in Indiana, paralleling the 
Illinois situation. 

Significantly, by Recent fossil evidence from three Midwest states 
Neotoma has had a distribution much farther north than at present, 
in Indiana almost 70 miles from the historically recorded Wayndotte 
Neotoma. The distance of the range delineation, age of the Illinois 
Spilogale, inferred ages of other Neotoma, and association with 
Didelphis permits a generalized age of a few thousand years, with a 
wide age span between northerly and southerly sites, to be inferred. 

There is a general opinion that following the glaciations climate 
has changed from cool to warmer than present, and now cooler again. 
During this warm phase prairies are thought to have expanded east- 
erly, and southern elements northerly (12). Parmalee (11), on the 
Meyer cave remains, regards Erethizon and several other northern 
forms as belonging to the cool-moist climate of approximately 9,500- 
7,500 B.C., and Spilogale and others as belonging to the warm-dry 
period of approximately 3,500-1,500 B.C. These forms, including the 
woodrat, were regarded as becoming expatriated, being unable to adjust 
to a replacement in vegetation type. 

As Neotoma floridana magister ranges almost abruptly to the 
southern borders of Indiana at the Ohio River, yet also ranges up 
through the cooler Appalachian area, temperature would not seem to 
play a strong role locally in its distribution. South-central Indiana's 
vegetation is similar, if not identical, to that of adjacent Kentucky, 
where Neotoma is common. Except for the Ohio River the karst 
habitat is continuous. Thus, Neotoma could probably inhabit Indiana's 
karst area today. The author holds that there was a widespread, and 

Zoology 375 

effective (i.e., lack of disjunct colonies) depopulation of Neotoma in the 
northerly portion of its range, rather than just an ancient northerly 
extension, and that with time Neotoma would regain its former distribu- 
tion were it not hampered by its slow immigration (e.g., from cave system 
to cave system, the Ohio River crossing). The widespread nature of the 
depopulation would seem to point to climate as the cause; however, with 
the ecological plasticity of Neotoma only an extreme in climate would 
seem to displace it. The associated fauna indicates that climate was not 
then at an extreme. Thus, some other ecological factor, perhaps an 
indirect result of a mild climatic change, would seem to be the cause 
of the Neotoma depopulation. 


I thank Robert Benton for continued effort throughout the project. 
A. Gregory James independently located the Jennings County Neotoma 
skull, and Dr. Robert J. Hosley kindly produced Figure 1. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bader, Robert S., and John S. Hall. 1960. Mammalian remains from an 
Indiana cave. J. Mammal. 41:111-112. 

2. Cope, E. D. 1872. Observations on Wyandotte Cave and its fauna. Amer. Natur. 

3. Guilday, John E. 1958. The prehistoric distribution of the opossum. J. Mammal. 

4. Hall, E. Raymond, and Keith R. Kelson. 1959. The mammals of North America. 
The Ronald Press, New York, N.Y. 819 p. 

5. Hickie, P. F., and Thomas Harrison. 1930. The Alleghany wood rat in Indiana. 
Amer. Midland Natur. 12:169-174. 

6. Kirkpatrick, Charles M., and Clinton H. Conaway. 1948. Some notes on 
Indiana mammals. Amer. Midland Natur. 39:128-136. 

7. Mumford, Russell E. 1969. Distribution of the mammals of Indiana. Monogr. No. 
1, Indiana Acad. Sci., Indianapolis, Ind. 114 p. 

8. Packard, A. S. 1888. The cave fauna of North America, with remarks on the 
anatomy of the brain and origin of the blind species. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. 

9. Parmalee, Paul W., and Donald F. Hoffmeister. 1957. Archaeozoological evidence 
of the spotted skunk in Illinois. J. Mammal. 38:261. 

10. - — . and Karl W. Jacobson. 1959. Vertebrate remains from a 
Missouri cave. J. Mammal. 40:401-405. 

11. - . 1967. A recent bone deposit in southwestern Illinois. Nat. 

Speleol. Soc. Bull. 29:119-147. 

12. Smith, Philip W. 1965. Recent adjustments in animal ranges, p. 633-642. 
In H. E. Wright, Jr., and David G. Frey (eds.), The Quaternary of the United 
States. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J. 922 p. 

Notes on Occurrence and Reproduction of Bats In Indiana 

John O. Whitaker, Jr. 
Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 


Russell E. Mumford 

Department of Forestry and Conservation 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


A total of 1,907 bats from Indiana was examined, of which over half were big brown 
bats, Eptesicus fuscus, a species which was found to be somewhat active all winter. Most 
other species were found primarily during April through October. Some Lasiurtis 
cinereus appear to hibernate in Indiana. Reproductive information for Pipistrellus 
subflavus and Eptesicus fuscus is presented. Most Eptesicus had two embryos. Parturition 
in this species occurs around June 1 in Indiana. Testis size in Eptesicus was 
greatest in August, but at least some individuals appear capable of breeding much of the 
year. Lasiurus borealis produced young about mid-June; juvenile red bats tend to leave 
their mothers when about 80 millimeters total length and they weigh about 4 to 6 
grams. A number of new county distribution records are included in this paper. 


This paper presents information on seasonal occurrence, reproduc- 
tion and growth, and distribution for 10 of the 12 species of bats 
recorded from Indiana (Table 1). These data were collected mostly from 
1963 to 1971 during our investigations of Indiana mammals (11, 12, 14, 
15, 21). The bats examined were obtained from several sources. Some 
were shot about wooded or water areas or collected from buildings and 
caves. Many were collected by citizens of various areas and submitted 

Table 1. Bats taken, by month, in Indiana during present study. 
















Ej)tesicus fuscus 




















Lasiurus borealis 











Lasiurus cinereus 

















Myotis keenii 









Myotis lucifugus 












Myotis sodalis 



































Zoology 377 

to the Indiana Department of Health for rabies examination. We thank 
Jerry D. Brown for some of the Eptesicus fuscus testis measurements. 


A total of 1,907 bats from Indiana was examined during the present 
study (Table 1). More than half (1,126) were big brown bats, Eptesicus 
fuscus, which might indicate this as the most common bat in the state. 
However, since Eptesicus is active during the winter, while 
Lasiurus borealis is not, the months May to September were used for 
comparison. During those months 811 big brown bats and 437 red bats 
were taken. Since Eptesicus is the common bat in buildings, perhaps 
citizens are more apt to encounter it than other species. Also, the total 
for Eptesicus is inflated by a few collections of numbers of bats from 
buildings, 133 from Madison during rabies studies (22) and several other 
smaller collections. Red bats are solitary and cannot be collected by such 
methods. We can conclude that these are the two most common bats 
in Indiana. 

Next in abundance would appear to be Myotis lucifugus and 
Pipistrellus subflavus. It was surprising to take 47 of the relatively 
uncommon hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus, most from April to October, 
but one each in December and January. Perhaps these latter individuals 
were hibernating in Indiana (20), although this species presumably 
migrates south for the winter. There are also isolated reports from 
Indiana and other states that suggest that red bats also may hibernate 
at this latitude (5). 

Except for Eptesicus and the two Lasiurus cinereus, most bats were 
taken during the months April through October, except for a few 
Myotis and Pipistrellus found in hibernation in caves. It is evident 
(Table 1) that there is much winter activity in Eptesicus, a hibernating 
species. Many of those taken were active at the time of capture, or were 
obviously recently active (found in a place where they would have been 
noticed). It is not known where the majority of the big brown bats 
spend the winter. Certainly, the large summer population in Indiana 
cannot be accounted for by the relatively small numbers that hibernate 
in Indiana caves, and banding records do not yet indicate long-range 
fall migrations. A group of 17 big brown bats found March 26, 1969, 
in a barn in Vigo County, was thought to have still been in winter 
quarters since the bats were torpid, there was no food in their 
stomachs or intestines, and they were wedged so tightly into tiny 
crevices that their skins were torn and myobiid mites on their 
abdomens were crushed when the bats were removed. Seven of the bats 
were found singly, but groups of 2, 3, and 5 were present. Six of the 
singles were female; the group of two consisted of two males, and the 
other groups each contained one male. Examination of the crevices on 
January 21, 1972, turned up no bats, hence the bats found earlier likely 
entered the barn after leaving their winter quarters. 

The records of Lasionycteris are of interest. The previous late 
spring record for this migrant was May 28 (14), but we have two 
individuals taken June 1 and June 10 from Lake County. 

378 Indiana Academy of Science 


There is but a single breeding record of Myotis sodalis for 
Indiana (13), but our additional June and July records further substan- 
tiate the conclusion that the species breeds there. There is little informa- 
tion on Pipistrellus breeding in Indiana. Eight gravid females were shot 
over a pond in Vigo County and appear to have been the small colony 
of bats using a nearby barn. The colony disappeared at the time these 
were shot. Embryos ranged from 11 to 21 mm crown-rump length (avg. 
14.3 mm). Six females contained two embryos each; two had one. An 
additional female, shot in Vigo County on June 30, had recently given 
birth, as had a female taken July 10 in Jefferson County. 

Ovulation in Eptesicus occurs about the first week in April in 
Maryland, and sperms are present in the female genital tract at this 
time (1) ; birth occurs about June 1, giving a gestation of about 2 
months. Eastern United States populations have two young per litter 
and western populations one (4, 6, 7). In 1971, three collections of big 
brown bats were made from a breeding colony in Putnamville, 
Putnam County, Indiana. On April 14, 7 of 14 females contained no 
visible embryos; one female appeared to have one tiny embryo; 6 
females appeared to have two tiny embryos each (counts based on 
uterine swellings). Each of 30 females taken May 14 was pregnant. 
Three each had one embryo; 27 each had two embryos. Embryos av- 
eraged 10.7 mm crown-rump length and varied from 4 to 16 mm. Each 
of 15 females taken May 24 was gravid; two had one embryo each and 
13 had two. The average crown-rump length of embryos was 17.3, with 
a range of 13 to 21 mm. In addition, two females from a Vigo County 
barn taken April 3, 1963, contained two tiny embryos. Our latest records 
of embryos in this species are June 1 and 2 (Vigo County) and June 
4 (Allen County). The first young of the year appeared in our sample 
in June. The smallest one, taken June 11, weighed 7.8 g, measured 60 
mm in total length, and had a forearm length of 20 mm. 

Copulation in Eptesicus fuscus occurs primarily in autumn, but 
may occur also during the winter (7, 16). Copulation of big brown bats 
has been reported in Indiana caves on November 23, January 8, 
February 7, and March 12 (10). Phillips (16) found sperm in the repro- 
ductive tracts of four of five females taken October 18, in each of four 
females taken October 29, and in four of five females taken in 
February and March, in northeastern Kansas. We examined five big 
brown bats (2 males; 3 females) taken March 26 in Vigo County. The 
males had living sperm in the epididymus; two of the females had living 
sperm in their uteri. 

Testis size has been found to be greatest in August, but regression 
occurred by the time of autumn copulation (4, 16). Testes size was tabu- 
lated, by month, for Indiana Eptesicus (Table 2). In August and 
September the highest percentage of males in the sample had testes 
more than 5 mm long and testes size averaged greatest in those 
months. This indicates that the largest amount of breeding activity 
takes place in August and September, but judging from testis size males 
may be capable of breeding much of the year. 



Table 2. 

Testes measurements in mm, by month, of male Eptesicus fuscus and 
Lasiurus borealis, Indiana. 



No. w 


% with 






Testis >5 



Eptesicus fuscus 


















v -m 






2.1 J 








•J 4 








































!xir> clis 



































Few red bats were taken that could be classed as adult males. From 
April through June, before young males entered the population, only 
11 of 56 (19.6%) adult red bats were males. A similar sex distribution 
has been found in Kansas (3, 8). 

Of 13 gravid female red bats examined, 2 each had 2 
embryos, 7 had 3, 2 had 4, 1 had 5, and 1 had embryos destroyed by shot. 
An average of 3.2 embryos among 44 pregnant females has been re- 
ported (1). The earliest embryos found by us were in a female collected 
April 30; she contained 4 measuring 1.8 mm in diameter. The latest date 
was June 19 (3 embryos 10 mm crown-rump length). Crown-rump meas- 
urements were made on other embryos as follows: May 9 (10 mm) ; May 
17 (10 mm) ; May 21 (9 mm) ; May 26 (6 mm) ; May 26 (12 mm) ; May 
26 (10 mm) ; May 31 (12 mm) ; June 5 (15 mm) ; June 14 (22 mm). The 
three embryos found June 14 were probably near term; the eyes were 
visible as dark spots and the milk teeth had erupted. Standard 
measurements of these young were total length 44, 44, 41 mm; tail length 
15, 12, 12 mm; hind foot length 6, 6, 6 mm. The one male had testes 1 by 
1.5 mm. Young taken with adult females on June 6, 14 and 17 were of 

380 Indiana Academy of Science 

similar size and were possibly newborn. Hamilton (6) stated that young 
were born about mid-June, while in Kansas and southern Illinois 
(8, 9) parturition occurs in late May and early June. A female taken 
April 19 appeared to have given birth, judging from the expanded and 
flaccid condition of the uterus. This would seem to be an unusually early 
date. Another female taken May 3 had four placental scars. Twenty 
females that had given birth were collected between June 20 and July 
20. It appears that most females give birth about mid-June in Indiana. 

The largest young taken with a female (3 young, July 14) meas- 
ured 79, 79, and 81 mm in total length and weighed 6.4, 7.4 and 7.6 g. 
Young only slightly smaller were taken with four other females on June 
20, June 23 and two on July 1. One young, taken with a female on June 
15, weighed 4.4 g. and was 64 mm total length (Table 3). The stomach 
of this young contained 60 chironomid and 40% Coleoptera remains. Two 
other large young taken with females had traces of vegetation and milk 
in their stomachs. 

Table 3. Size variation in young red bats taken with females in Indiana. 











Date Found 









June 15 







June 20-23 








June 30-July 






3.6-5.0 2 


July 14 








1 Forearm data not available on smallest two litters. 
2 Smallest not weighed. 

The 29 juvenile red bats less than 80 mm in total length and taken 
without accompanying females are of interest. We do not know whether 
some of this sample had been weaned, but suspect that most (or all) 
had merely become separated from their mothers. All of the above 
young were collected in late June and July (July 31 the latest) and all 
that had any food in their stomachs contained milk; two of them (with 
forearms of 31 and 27 mm) contained parts of ants and other insects 
in their intestines. Three large young found on June 30 had milk in their 
stomachs and intestines; the largest of this trio measured 91 mm in 
total length, had a forearm of 38 mm, and weighed 7.5 g. Judging from 
the growth rate of other young examined, this litter must have been 
born in early May. Two lone immatures taken July 28 and August 11 
contained only insect remains, thus were evidently independent of their 
mothers. These bats had total lengths of 85 and 86 and forearms of 36 
and 39 mm, respectively. It would appear that juvenile red bats tend 
to become independent of their mothers when about 80 mm in total 
length and weighing from 4 to 6 gm. 

None of 25 adult female red bats shot in June and July during our 
study were carrying young. Despite various records (6, 7) of females 

Zoology 381 

carrying their young on foraging flights, we do not feel that this occurs 
regularly. Females with attached young may be frightened from their 
roosts, thus fly off carrying the young (if the young are not too large) 
or be forced to the ground by the weight of large, attached young. More 
data are required on this. 

Hamilton (6) collected female red bats with quantities of sperm 
in their uteri the first week in August and stated that the species mates 
in August, while other authors (1, 7) thought mating probably takes 
place in August and September. Males taken in Indiana have the largest 
testes in August and September (Table 2) and although testes size alone 
is not necessarily proof of reproductive ability, it does suggest that this 
is the season of mating. 

Female hoary bats with two young each were taken May 23 (John- 
son County) and June 19 (Vigo County). The May young had total 
lengths of 79 and 80, forearm lengths of 36 and 37, and one weighed 
7.1 g. Comparable data for the young taken June 19 were total lengths 
100, 102; forearm lengths 42, 44; and weights 13.2 and 13.1 g. A 
lactating female captured May 28 gave birth to two young that day. 
Whether this was normal parturition is unknown, but there are 
numerous instances in the literature of births shortly after capture, 
some of which may be cases of induced abortion brought on by condi- 
tions of captivity. Caution should be used in considering such cases 
as parturition dates. Young are probably born in Indiana in late May 
or early June. Two small adult females (total length 105, 107, forearm 
51, 52) taken in late May, but showing no evidence of reproductive 
activity, suggest, on very limited data, that females might not breed 
their first year. 

Three evening bats each with two embryos were examined, one 
taken May 20 in Monroe County, one May 26 from Tippecanoe County, 
and one June 27 from Marshall County. 

Distribution records 

New county distribution records for bats in Indiana follow: 

Myotis lucifugus: Clinton, Gibson, Hancock, Howard, Madison, Tipton, Union and 

M. keenii: Johnson, Vanderburgh. 
M. sodalis: Dubois, Hancock, Hendricks, Jefferson, Johnson, Marion, Morgan, 

Lasionycteris noctivagans: Hendricks, Howard, Lake, Vanderburgh 
Pipistrellus subflavus: Gibson, Johnson, Morgan, Spencer, Vanderburgh, and Wells. 

(The latter represents the most northern locality in Indiana where the 

pipistrelle has been recorded and is some 80 miles north of Wayne County, the 

closest previously known station. This was the only individual taken north of 

Marion County.) 
Eptesicus fuscus: Bartholomew, Clark, Floyd, Hancock, Hendricks, Howard, Jasper, 

Knox, Lake, Martin, Miami, Morgan, Newton, Starke, and Sullivan. 
Lasiurus borealis: Adams, Bartholomew, Brown, Gibson, Greene, Hancock, Hendi'icks, 

Jasper, Johnson, Madison, Noble, Rush, Shelby, Sullivan, Vanderburgh, and White. 
L. cinereus: Clay, Elkhart, Johnson, Morgan. 
Nycticems humeralis: Carroll, Clinton, Gibson, Jefferson, Johnson, Marshall, Monroe, 

and Vanderburgh. 

382 Indiana Academy of Science 


It is apparent that winter bat activity occurs in Indiana during the 
period when we generally assume that bats (especially Eptesicus fuscus, 
various species of Myotis, and Pipistrellus subflavus) are hibernating. 
Whether such activity is usual requires more investigation; it would 
seem that much of it, in the case of Eptesicus particularly, is normal. 
Urine in the bladder may cause bats to wake periodically (19). While 
the need for water may be responsible for winter movements (16), 
Rysgaard (17) felt that some food was necessary in winter, for he found 
chitin in the mouths of some bats; he also found that Eptesicus 
fuscus drank water in winter. Other authors also feel that winter 
activity is for feeding (1, 18). In Indiana, winter movement appears 
not to be related to feeding, based on stomach analyses of winter-taken 
specimens (Whitaker, unpublished data). Big brown bats have been kept 
for six months at 4.5°C without food with no ill effects (2). 

Delayed fertilization is presumably advantageous to bats, allowing 
them to mate in the fall when they are in good condition with plenty 
of food, thus avoiding an excess use of energy during early spring when 
energy may be at a premium. This advantage would seem to be 
negated, at least in part, if bats mate in winter, as appears to be the 
case in Eptesicus fuscus (10) and in Myotis lucifugus (23). Additional 
winter activity would further drain this energy and would seem to be 
strongly selected against, if energy is at a premium. It may well be that 
bats are physiologically adapted so that they can easily survive the 
winter on stored fat with energy to spare. Possibly, winter activity 
facilitates mating, ensuring that a high percentage of females become 
pregnant. This would be an advantage since the reproductive potential 
of bats is low (one litter per year and one to two young per litter in 
most species). Delayed fertilization may have evolved along with winter 
mating, allowing young to be born at the optimum time. Delayed 
fertilization might also be a mechanism by which bats take advantage 
of chance matings over extended periods of time. 

It also appears that Lasiurus cinereus and Lasiurus borealis, both 
considered migrant species that leave the latitude of Indiana in 
winter, may actually remain in winter. Possibly the portion of the total 
population that behave in this fashion is small, but we need further data. 
The fact that Lasiurus borealis will appear and fly about during 
periodic warm periods in mid-winter in Indiana indicates that these 
animals probably were nearby. 

Zoology 383 

Literature Cited 

1. Barbour, R. W., and W. B. Davis. 1969. Bats of America. Univ. Ky. Press, 
Lexington. 286 p. 

2. Beer, J. R., and A. G. Richards. 1956. Hibernation of the big brown bat. J. 
Mammal. 37:31-41. 

3. Birney, E. C., and J. D. Rising. 1967. Notes on distribution and reproduction of 
some bats in Kansas, with remarks on incidence of rabies. Trans. Kans. Acad. 
Sci. 70:519-524. 

4. Christian, J. J. 1956. The natural history of a summer aggregation of the big brown 
bat, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. Amer. Midland Natur. 55:66-95. 

5. Davis, W. H., and W. Z. Lidicker. 1956. Winter range of the red bat, Lasiurus 
borealis, J. Mammal. 37:280-281. 

6. Hamilton, W. J., Jr. 1943. The mammals of eastern United States. Comstock Publ. 
Co., Ithaca, N.Y. 432 p. 

7. Jackson, H. H. T. 1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. Univ. Wise. Press., Madison. 504 p. 

8. Jones, J. K., Jr., E. D. Fleharty, and P. B. Dunnigan. 1967. The distributional 
status of bats in Kansas. Misc. Publ. Mus. Natur. Hist. Univ. Kans. 46:1-33. 

9. Layne, J. N. 1958. Notes on mammals of Southern Illinois. Amer. Midland Natur. 

10. Mumford, R. E. 1958. Population turnover in wintering bats in Indiana. J. 
Mammal. 39:253-261. 

11. . 1967. The hoary bat in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 


12. . , — __. 1969. Distribution of the mammals of Indiana. Indiana Acad, 

Sci. Monogr. 1. 114 p. 

13. , and L. L. Calvert. 1960 Myotis sodalis evidently breeding in Indian? 

J. Mammal 39:586-587. 

14. , and J. B. Cope. 1958 Summer records of Myotis sodalis in Indian? 

J. Mammal 39:586-587. 

15. . . 1964. Distribution and status of the Chiroptera of Indiana, Amer. 

Midland Natur. 72:473-489. 

16. Phillips, G. L. 1966. Ecology of the big brown bat (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) 
in northeastern Kansas. Amer. Midland Natur. 75:168-198. 

17. Rysgaard, G. N. 1942. A study of the cave bats of Minnesota with special 
reference to the large brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus (Beauvois). Amer. Midland 
Natur. 28:245-267. 

18. Swanson, G., and C Evans. 1936. The hibernation of certain bats in southern 
Minnesota. J. Mammal. 17:39-43. 

19. Twente, J. W., JR. 1955. Some aspects of habitat selection and other behavior 
of cavern dwelling bats. Ecology 36:706-732. 

20. Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1967. Hoary bat apparently hibernating in Indiana. 
J. Mammal. 48:663. 

21. . 1967. Habitat and reproduction of some of the small mammals of 

Vigo County, Indiana, with a list of mammals known to occur there. Occas. Papers 
Adams Ctr. Ecol. Stud. 16:1-24. 

22. Whitaker, J. O., Jr., W. A. Miller, and W. L. Boyko. 1969. Rabies in Indiana 
bats. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 78:447-456. 

23. Wimsatt, W. A. 1945. Notes on breeding behavior, pregnancy and parturition in some 
vespertilionid bats of the eastern United States. J. Mammal. 26:23-33. 

Rodent Seed Supply and Burrows of 
Peromyscus in Cultivated Fields 

Wayne C. Houtcqoper 

Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 


Food supply, in the form of seeds, was investigated in corn and soybean fields in 
Vigo County, Indiana, to determine what effect availability of this food had upon the dis- 
tribution and abundance of prairie deermice, Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii, and house 
mice, Mus musculus. Food was abundant in all study areas and did not adversely affect 
the distribution or abundance of either species. 

Twelve burrows constructed by P. m. bairdii were examined and sketches of two of 
these are presented. The burrows averaged 16.0 feet long, 4.1 inches deep, and had 6.0 
branches with only one opening per burrow. The branch nearest the opening commonly 
had a deep V-shaped tunnel which may serve as shelter during periods when the ground 
is being worked. Chambers containing feces, nesting material, or food caches of seeds were 
frequently found. 


Food supply has often been thought of as an important factor 
limiting distribution and abundance of animals (1, 5), but there are con- 
flicting reports (2, 3, 4) which indicate that food is not an important 
factor limiting the distribution of Peromyscus. The present paper is 
an attempt to determine if food, in the form of seeds, is a critical factor 
influencing the distribution and/or abundance of two common rodents, 
Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii and Mus musculus, in cultivated 
habitats of Vigo County, Indiana. 

Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii constructs burrows, but there are ap- 
parently no previous reports describing the burrows. Burrows examined 
during this study are described. 

Study Areas 

Three separate areas totaling approximately 2,800 acres were chosen 
for study, with corn and soybeans being the most prevalent cultivated 
crops. Area (Sees. 21, 22, 27, 28, T13N, R9W), 1,100 acres, 3 miles north 
of Terre Haute, Indiana, was adjacent to the Wabash River and was 
part of the Wabash Floodplain. Area 2 (Sees. 25, 36, T13N, R9W, Sees. 
29, 30, 31, T13N, R8W), 800 acres on the Wabash River terrace, was 
approximately 2 miles northeast of North Terre Haute, and was com- 
posed of 4 separate fields. Area 3 (Sees. 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, T12N, R8W), 900 
acres on an upland site, was 1 mile northwest of Seelyville, Indiana, 
and contained 4 separate fields. 


Maps of each area were constructed using aerial photographs and 
vegetation maps. A scale of 1:4800 was used. Each map was divided 
into sampling plots of 76 by 76 feet numbered in rows from west to east 


Zoology 385 

and with the first row to the north. Ten plots per area per trapping 
period were randomly selected for study. Plots not in cultivated fields 
were omitted. In each plot, 25 traps were set in 5 lines of 5 traps, with 
15 feet between each trap and 7.5 feet between the outer traps and the 
edge of the plot. 

Mammals for this study were collected during four trapping 
periods: July 1970; August 1970; September-October 1970; and 
December-January 1970-71. All specimens were taken by means of 
standard snap-back mousetraps baited with peanut butter. Traps in each 
area were checked each trapping period for 4 consecutive days, resulting 
in 12,000 trap-nights for the entire study. 

A square foot of soil, sampled to a depth of one-half inch, was col- 
lected in each study plot for seed analysis. Seeds were isolated 
according to a technique described by Malone (6). The seeds from each 
sample were placed in marked Petri dishes, dried in an oven, identified 
by comparison to known samples, and counted. 

A Chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to determine sig- 
nificance of differences in the numbers of mice taken per trapping 
period. A completely randomized design of analysis of variance was 
used to determine significance of: 1) differences in the numbers of mice 
per species per study area, 2) differences in the total number of seeds 
per sampling period, 3) differences in the total number of seeds per 
study area. A t-test was used in cases where a significant F value from 
Analysis of Variance was obtained. 

Twelve burrows were examined in Area 2 during February and 
March 1970. Attempts at locating burrows in Areas 1 and 3 were unsuc- 
cessful due to the absence of snow and the onset of cultivation. Traps 
placed near the burrow openings yielded only Peromyscus maniculatus 
bairdii; thus the burrows were presumed to be those of P. m. bairdii. 

Results and Discussion 

Rodent, Population and Seed Supply 

During this study 414 prairie deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus 
bairdii), 252 house mice (Mus musculus) , 22 woodland deermice 
(Peromyscus leucopus) , 3 jumping mice (Zapus hiidsonius) , 2 prairie 
voles (Microtus ochrogaster) , and 1 rat (Rattus norvegicus) were taken. 
The totals for P. m. bairdii and Mus musculus were divided into numbers 
of mice per study area and per trapping period. There were no sig- 
nificant differences between the average number of M. musculus per 
plot in the floodplain (2.0), river terrace (2.4), and upland area 
(2.0) (F = 0.29, 119 df), indicating similar populations in the 3 areas. 
Average numbers of P. m. bairdii per plot in the floodplain (6.0), river 
terrace (2.7), and upland area (1.3) were significantly different 
(F = 28.96, 119df). Study plots in the floodplain area had more P. m. 
bairdii than those in the river terrace area (T = 5.04, 78 df), while those 
in the river terrace area had more P. m. bairdii than those in the up- 
land area (T = 2.44, 78 df). 


Indiana Academy of Science 



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so co e-4 ia •* 


50 OS 00 


<J rH 


M « M 

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s J 
















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Zoology 387 

Avrage numbers of P. m. bairdii per plot in July 1970 (3.0), 
August 1970 (4.4), September-October 1970 (3.1), and December- 
January 1970-71 (3.3), indicated similar populations during all 4 
trapping periods (F = 0.96, 119 df). Average numbers of M. musculus 
per plot in July 1970 (1.9), August 1970 (1.9), September- 
October 1970 (3.5), and December-January 1970-71 (1.1), indicated 
an increase in late autumn followed by a decrease in winter 
(F = 4.29, 119 df). These results agree with those of Whitaker (7), who 
found that P. m. bairdii remained at roughly similar population levels 
throughout the year while Mus moved out of areas when ground cover 

Information on the number of seeds taken was summarized accord- 
ing to sampling period and study area (Table 1). Species which had 
an average number of seeds per sample greater than 5.0 are listed. Other 
species less frequently found were Datura stramonium, Cerastium 
vulgatum, Aster sp., Polygonum sp., P. pensylvanicum, Ambrosia 
trifida, Brassica kaber, Hypericum perforatum, Rumex crispus, Glycine 
max, and Zea mays. 

There were no significant differences in the mean number of seeds 
per sample per sampling period (F = 0.09, 119 df). There were, however, 
significant differences in the mean numbers of seeds per sample per 
study area (F = 51.60, 119 df), with the extremes in Area 1 of 47.7 seeds 
versus Area 2 with 177.4 seeds. Significant differences were also found 
in the mean numbers of seeds per sample between Areas 2 and 3 
(T = 5.88, 78 df). 

If food in the form of seeds is a critical factor, mouse numbers 
should be influenced by seed availability. Since no significant differences 
were found in the mean numbers of seeds per sampling period 
(99.6, 107.2, 107.2, 99.4), while significant differences were found in 
the number of M. musculus per sampling period, seeds as a food source 
apparently did not limit M. musculus numbers. The floodplain area had 
the fewest seeds per sample (47.7), yet this area contained the most 
P. m. bairdii per plot (6.0). No significant differences were found in 
the number of M. musculus per plot per area (F = 0.29, 119 df). 

The number of seeds per sample apparently did not influence the 
abundance of either P. m. bairdii or M. muscidus. 

Burrow Studies 

Burrows were most easily found when snow cover was present. The 
burrows constructed by P. m. bairdii appeared to offer an adequate 
habitat for living, feeding, and nesting. Two burrows are diagrammed 
(Fig. 1). 

The 12 burrows averaged 16.0 feet in length (range, 5 to 35 feet), 
and 4.1 inches in depth (range, 1 to 12 inches). The average burrow had 
6.0 branches (range, 1 to 12), and was 6.3 inches at its deepest point. 
Burrows ranged from 0.75 to 1.50 inches in diameter. Only one opening 
was found for each burrow. All of the burrows had a drop of 2 to 3 
inches from the opening, then a relatively straight tunnel of 4 to 6 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Figure 1. Top view of two Peromyscus maniculaturs bairdii burrows in Vigo 
County, Indiana. Numbers indicate depth of burrows in inches. Linear scale: 

Vz inch — 2 feet. 

inches before the first turn. The deepest point in the burrow was 
frequently found in the branch nearest the opening. This branch com- 
monly had a steep decline of 30 to 40°, then an abrupt incline at the 
same angle which opened into a chamber. Three of the burrows had 
caches of uneaten seeds, mainly Setaria, at this chamber site, indicating 
food storage by this species. The deep, V-shaped tunnel may serve as 
shelter during periods when the ground is being worked. Most of the 
burrow would be destroyed but this area would remain. Many of the 
other tunnels had similar chambers, but without the steep slope or in- 
cline before them. In 6 of the burrows, feces were found in these 
chambers. Eight burrows terminated in a large chamber and three of 
these contained nesting material of finely chewed grass, straw, leaves, 
and paper. In all cases, the main tunnel was free of debris. These find- 
ings indicate a high degree of burrow utilization by P. m. bairdii. 

Zoology 389 

Literature Cited 

1. Bendell, J. F. 1959. Food as a control of a population of white-footed mice, 
Peroymscus leucopus noveboracensis (Fischer). Can J. Zool. 37; 173-209. 

2. Cogshall, A. S. 1929. Food-habits of deer mice of the genus Peromyscus in 
captivity. J. Mammal. 9:217-221. 

3. Dice, L. R. 1922. Some factors affecting the distribution of the prairie vole, 
forest deer mouse, and prairie deer mouse. Ecology 3:29-47. 

4. Grinnell, J., and R. T. Grr. 1934. Systematic review of the ealifornicus 
group of the rodent genus Peromyscus. J. Mammal. 15:210-220. 

5. Lack, D. 1954. The natural regulation of animal numbers. Oxford Univ. Press, London, 
Eng. 250 p. 

6. Malone, C. R. 1967. A rapid method for enumeration of viable seeds in soil. Weed 

Sci. 15:381-382. 

7. Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1967. Habitat relationships of four species of mice in Vigo 
County, Indiana. Ecology 48:867-872. 

Effect of Aging on Ability to Acclimate to Chronic Hypoxia of 
Simulated High Altitude 1 

Loren G. Martin and Thomas F. Myers 

Department of Physiology 

Temple University School of Medicine. Philadelphia, Pa. P.* 140 


Grace E. Wertenberger 

Department of Anatomy and Physiology 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 47401 


Young (1 month old) and old adult (13 months old) rats were subjected to a 
simulated high altitude (23,000 feet for 5 weeks) environment. The anoxic resistance of 
isolated right ventricles, right ventricular weights and hematocrit values were then 
measured in both sea level control and altitude-acclimated animals from both age 
groups. This research demonstrates that the hematocrit cannot be increased in older 
individuals to such an extent as in young individuals and that the right ventricular 
hypertrophic response to hypoxis is markedly decreased in the older animal. Older 
animals were shown to have increased their myocardial anaerobic competency as a result 
of the aging process. Young animals can be forced to increase their anaerobic competency 
by chronic exposure to hypoxia, but the old myocardium cannot be forced to induce 
further anaerobic competency by such hypoxia exposure. 


It has been well established that several parameters of the 
cardiovascular system are modified as a result of chronic exposure to 
the hypoxia of high altitude (9, 11, 16, 17, 29). Increased hematocrit, 
or polycythemia, has been shown to be a meaningful high altitude 
adaptation by several researchers, both on the basis of increasing the 
oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood (8, 11, 29) and of increasing the 
capacity of the animal to perform work under hypoxic conditions 
(7, 21). This enhanced erythropoietic activity has been shown to be 
mediated by a hormonal factor which produces bone marrow 
hyperplasia accompanied by an augmented rate of iron turnover (18, 

Right ventricular hypertrophy has been shown to consistently ac- 
company high altitude exposure, whether one employs laboratory 
animals acclimated to simulated high altitude or natively acclimatized 
high altitude species (9, 10, 31, 32). This right ventricular 
hypertrophy is reflected in the EKG as a right-axis deviation (20), and 
it has been shown to result from the pulmonary hypertension which 
accompanies the hypoxia of high altitude acclimation (1, 9, 20, 27.) 

In addition to these anatomical changes which accompany altitude 
acclimation, several investigators have demonstrated an increased 

Supported by a Grant-In-Aid from the Indiana Academy of Science and by a 
National Institutes of Health General Research Support Grant awarded to Temple Uni- 
versity School of Medicine 5S01RR05417-10. 


Zoology 391 

anaerobic capacity of the brain (2), straited muscle (2, 13, 17) and 
cardiac muscle (14, 15, 16, 17, 22), as well as an increased percentage 
recovery of cardiac muscle after an anoxic stress (23). 

By examining these three parameters— hematocrit, heart weight 
and myocardial anoxic resistance — in sea level rats and in altitude- 
acclimated rats whose ages ranged from young to old adult it would 
be possible to show whether or not the aging process had altered the 
animal's ability to develop these cardiovascular adaptations in response 
to chronic hypoxia. 

Materials and Methods 


Male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley) were purchased from Purina 
Laboratory Animals, Vincentown, N. J. These rats were fed a special 
thyroxine-free synthetic diet (Vitamin B complex test diet, with salt 
mixture USP XIV substituted for Salt Mixture #2, completely vitamin 
and mineral fortified and pelleted for rats) purchased from Nutritional 
Biochemicals and tap water ad libitum. The animals were maintained 
on this test diet for 2 weeks before experimentation was begun, and 
this diet was administered for the duration of the experiment. Animals 
employed in the study were either 1 month or 13 months old. These rep- 
resent respectively young and older mature rats. 

Lighting, Temperature and Altitude 

Animals were maintained in the laboratory at 25±1®C, 
and the fluorescent lighting provided 12 hours of light and 12 hours 
of darkness daily. The altitude-exposed animals were maintained in 
altitude chambers at a simulated 23,000 feet above sea level (14, 15). 
The high-altitude animals were acclimated for 2 days at 7,000 feet, 3 
days at 10,000 feet, 3 days at 17,500 feet, 3 days at 20,000 feet, and for 
the remaining 5 weeks at 23,000 feet. These altitude-exposed animals 
remained at 23,000 feet for 72-hour intervals; they were then returned 
to sea level for 1 hour to allow for cleaning, disinfecting and feeding 
and were then depressurized to 23,000 feet for another 72-hour interval. 
This depressurization was accomplished gradually over an hour period 
so as to avoid aeroembolism. The "sea level controls" were maintained 
in the same laboratory at a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, altitude of 
approximately 150 feet above sea level. 

Hematocrit Determinations 

The animals were anesthetized with ether, guillotined, and 
heparinized micro-hematocrit tubes were filled with blood from the 
severed carotids and were spun down on a clinical centrifuge to deter- 
mine each animal's hematocrit value. 

Right Ventricular Function Test 

After blood was collected for hematocrit determinations, the rat 
was restrained on a dissecting board, an incision was made from the 


Indiana Academy of Science 

ventral mid-line of the neck to the xyphoid process, and the ribs and 
musculature on the left side of the sternum were severed and sep- 
arated with a wound retractor. The pulsating heart was removed and 
placed in a beaker of well-aerated (95% 2 - 5% C0 2 ) 
Krebs-Ringer's bicarbonate solution to remove the excess blood. The 
right ventricle was dissected away (Fig. 1) and was rapidly transferred 
into the Krebs-Ringer's bicarbonate-filled muscle chamber (Fig. 2) 
which was aerated by the 95% 2 - 5% C0 2 mixture. After an initial 
stabilization period of 30 minutes, the aerating mixture was changed to 
95% N 2 - 5% C0 2 as an anoxic test. This anoxic test was applied for 
a 20-min period, and then the 95%0 2 -5% C0 2 mixture was re- 
introduced for a 20-min recovery period. During the entire test the 
isolated right ventricle was kept at 29° C and was driven at a supra- 
maximal stimulus strength (10 volts, 7 msec) at a frequency of one 
stimulus per second. The apical end of the excised ventricle (Fig. 1) was 
pinned and attached to an isometric strain gauge (Stratham Instruments). 
The output signal from the strain gauge was recorded on an Electronics 
for Medicine recording system, and the resting tesion of the excised 
ventricle was set a 1 g. 



Figure 1. Right ventricular procurement and fixation to muscle chamber and strain 







Figure 2. Plexiglass muscle chamber used to conduct anoxic resistance tests. 

Heart Weight 

At the conclusion of each experiment, the excised right ventricle 
was blotted and weighed on a Mettler H 20 T (Fisher Scientific) and 
was analyzed on the basis of 100 g of body weight. 


Hearts were analyzed on the basis of right ventricular weight per 
100 g of body weight. Right ventricular weights were increased in both 
young and old adult rats by altitude exposure (Fig. 3). However, while 
altitude acclimation induces a 171% increase in right ventricular 
weight in the young (2 months of age) group of rats, the same 
hypoxic exposure elicits only a 69% increase of the same parameter in 
the older (14 months of age) group. 

Hematocrit values were determined and compared among both age 
groups at sea level and after altitude exposure (Fig. 4). When compared 
to sea level controls of the same age, altitude acclimation elicits a 
92% increase in the hematocrit value of the young group, but the older 
group shows only a 67% increase following the same chronic hypoxic 
exposure. The maximal hematocrit values achieved by the two groups 


Indiana Academy of Science 








UJ o 

<: 2 


1- a 




^ 3 











uj S? 

> UJ 




or o 








Relationship between ventricular weight and ambient p0 2 in young and older 
mature rats. Vertical line indicates mean zh 1 S. D. 

after altitude acclimation, 

however, are not significantly different 

100 • 



~ 70- 


< 60-j 


t 50-1 
o 40 


5 30-| 

1 0-1 




Figure 4. Hematocrit changes in young and old rats in response to chronic hypoxia. 
Vertical line indicates mean ± 1 S.D. 




1 M 

> s 

~ o 

9 T 

396 Indiana Academy of Science 

To compare both early and late responses to anoxia, contractile 
strengths were measured after both 120 and 480 anoxic contractions 
and were expressed as a percentage of the control preanoxic strength 
(Table 1); after the 20-min anoxic period had elapsed, the gassing 
mixture was switched back to 95% 2 - 5% C0 2 , and the 
recovery was measured after 960 additional contractions in the 
aerobic recovery period. The recovery was then expressed as a per- 
centage of the control preanoxic strength (Table 1). It can be seen that 
whereas altitude acclimation afforded the young animals no increase 
in preanoxic contractility after 2 min (120 anoxic contractions) when 
compared to young sea level controls and a 225% increase in the same 
parameter after 8 min into the anoxic period (480 contractions), the 
old altitude-acclimated animals showed no increase in anoxic resistance 
when compared to old sea level controls after either 2 min or 8 min. On 
the other hand, when compared to young controls, the old controls 
showed a 15% added anoxic resistance after 2 min into anoxia and a 
226% added anoxic resistance after 8 min of anoxia. Thus, while old sea 
level-control rats show a greater anoxic resistance than do young sea 
level-control animals, the anaerobic competency of the young ventricle 
can be increased to the same level as that of the old ventricle by 
chronic altitude acclimation. The older ventricle, however, cannot be 
forced to increase its anaerobic competency by altitude exposure. 

Both age groups were compared after 16 minutes of recovery with 
the 95% 2 - 5% C0 2 mixture (Table 1). While the young and 
old acclimated animals and the young sea level control animals have 
recovered 43%, 39% and, respectively, of their preanoxic contractility 
values, the old sea level control animals have regained only 26% of their 
original control value. 


While our results indicate that older animals do not show as great 
a percentage change in their hematocrit as do young animals in response 
to the same hypoxic stress, both age groups were able to reach the same 
maximal hematocrit value in response to the hypoxic stress. This find- 
ing contrasts with a previous study on humans by Dill (5, 6), in which 
he reports that both the rate and equilibrium value of hema- 
topoiesis during altitude exposure may be depressed by the aging 
process. These studies, however, involved only a few subjects who were 
tested after only a 2-week sojourn at 3,000 m. Our animals, on the other 
hand, remained at 7,012 m for 5 weeks. 

The fact that the older right ventricle does not show the extent 
of hypertrophy as does the young right ventricle in response to the 
hypoxia of chronic altitude exposure may be due to several factors. It 
has been established that the right ventricular hypertrophy of the 
altitude-acclimated animal results from pulmonary hypertension which 
accompanies exposure to hypoxia (1, 9, 20, 27). This implies, however, 
that: 1) the lung vasculature must be reactive to the hypoxia to which 
it is exposed, and 2) the right ventricle is capable of responding to this 
extra work load by increasing its muscle mass. The first of the require- 

Zoology 397 

merits is diminished by the aging process, for active microvascular 
responses are both more limited and slower in older animals (3, 33). 
The second requirement is modified by the facts that in the aging 
muscle there is a decrease in the concentration of DNA and 
RNA, there is a decreased uptake of amino acids by the older muscle 
cell and there is a decrease in essential transaminases required for pro- 
tein synthetic reactions (3). This decreased ability of the aging 
myocardium to respond to greater work loads by hypertrophy has been 
noted in the dialated ventricles of old rats (28). In addition, Poupa 
postulates that while young animals increase their cardiac muscle mass 
in response to increased work loads primarily by increasing the 
number of myocardial cells (hyperplasia), older animals respond to the 
added work load by increasing the size of pre-existing myocardial cells 
(24, 26). Furthermore, according to many researchers, there is an actual 
disappearance of patent vasculature in the myocardium of the old 
animal with aging (24, 25, 26, 30). As Poupa points out, "In young 
animals, overloading of the heart leads to an accelerated growth of both 
structures (cardiac cells and capillaries), while in adult animals growth 
is confined to cardiac cells only" (24). 

Thus, in comparison with the younger myocardium during hypoxic 
exposure, the aging heart may be given less of an increased work load 
as a result of less reactive pulmonary vasculature, the actual protein 
synthetic reactions required to effect an increase in ventricular mass 
are depressed by aging, and the older myocardium cannot increase the 
oxygen-supplying structures to the muscle cells while increasing the 
oxygen-consuming structures as can the young myocardium. All of these 
aging changes may contribute to the fact that the older myocardium 
responds with far less increase in muscle mass than does the young 
myocardium to a given hypoxic stress. 

Finally, this research indicates that while the aging myocardium 
possesses a greater anaerobic competency than does the young 
myocardium, the anoxic resistance of the older myocardium cannot be 
increased by exposure to chronic hypoxia while that of the young 
myocardium is greatly increased. This finding supports a recent obser- 
vation of McGrath et al. (unpublished, personal communication) that 
the older myocardium cannot be forced to increase its anaerobic com- 
petency by chronic hypoxic exposure. What might be responsible for 
the increased anerobic competency in the older sea level-control animal, 
and why could it be increased no further by hypoxic acclimation? It 
has been demonstrated that the oxidative metabolism of the myocardium 
decreases greatly with age with little or no deterioration of the 
glycolytic and dehydrogenating activity (3). Since ATP levels are main- 
tained at the normal level in the myocardium of the aging animal and 
since the ATP-ase activity of the myosin does not change with age (3), 
the demand of ATP for myocardial contraction in senility must remain 
unchanged. Since myocardial aerobic metabolism has decreased with 
aging, some alternative anaerobic metabolic mechanism must be em- 
ployed to a greater degree if energy requirements are to be met — i.e., 

398 Indiana Academy of Science 

if some enzymatic oxidative activities are decreased by the aging proc- 
ess, others must be increased compensatorily if energy requirements 
remain constant and are satisfied (3). Such a mechanism has been 
elucidated in the aging erythrocyte, such that as its aerobic competency 
decreases with age, its anaerobic competency increases so that the con- 
centration of ATP remains constant (3). The search for such a 
mechanism in the aging myocardial cell continues, however, for the 
pentose phosphate pathway appears to remain relatively unchanged 
(3) and the total LDH activity reaches its peak and then begins to de- 
crease at 30 weeks of age as do the H 4 end M 6 isoenzymes (12). 

If the myocardial cell in the older animal is employing its 
anerobic processes to a greater degree than is the young myocardial cell 
in compensation for a decreased aerobic capacity, one should expect 
to see evidence of a heightened anaerobic capacity in the older cell. 
Indeed, our results indicate the presence of such an increased 
anaerobic competency as added anoxic resistence in the older 
myocardium. Also, since the diffusion distance for oxygen from the 
coronary capillaries to the myocardial cell is increased in the aging 
ventricle due to hypertrophy of the myocardial cells and to the disap- 
pearance of patent capillaries (24, 25, 26, 30), local cellular hypoxia 
may also have further induced the development of a greater anaerobic 
competence in the older heart (4). From the results of this experiment, 
it would appear that the young myocardium can be influenced by chronic 
hypoxia to increase its anaerobic competence to the maximal level at 
which the older sea level controls are already operating. Under these 
experimental conditions, the old adult cannot be stimulated to increase 
its anaerobic capacity above this maximal level. 


The authors thank Dr. Peter R. Lynch, Department of 
Physiology, Temple Medical School, for reviewing the manuscript, Mrs. 
Jane Zanes for her assistance in preparing the manuscript, and Miss 
Dorothy Brey for technical assistance. We are also grateful to Dr. Mary 
P. Wiedeman, Chairman, Department of Physiology, Temple Medical 
School, for providing equipment and support for this study. 

Literature Cited 

1.. Alexander, A., D. Will, R. Glover, and J. Reeves. 1960. Pulmonary hyper- 
tension and right ventricular hypertrophy in cattle at high altitudes. Amer. J. Vet. 
Res. 21:199-204. 

2. Barbashova, Z. 1967. Studies on the mechanisms of resistance to hypoxia. Inter. J. 
Biometerol. 11:243-254. 

3. Bektolini, A. M. 1969. Gei'entologie metabolism. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, 
111. 697 p. 

4. Bishop, S. P., and R. A. Altschuld. 1970. Increased glycolytic metabolism in 
cardiac hypertrophy and congestive failure. Amer. J. Physiol. 218:153-159. 

Zoology 399 

5. Dill, D. B., J. W. Terman, and F. G. Hall. 1963. Hemoglobin at high altitude as 
related to age. Clin. Chem. 9:711-716. 

6. Dill, D. B., S. M. Horvath, T. E. Dahms, R. E. Parker, and J. R. 
Lynch. 1969. Hemoconcentration at altitude. J. Appl. Physiol. 27:514-518. 

7. Dorrance, S., G. Thorn, M. Clinton, H. Edmonds, and S. Farber. 1943. Effect 
of cobalt on work performance under conditions of anoxia. Amer. J. Physio. 

8. Houston, C. S., and R. L. Riley. 1947. Respiratory and circulatory changes in 
acclimatization to high altitude. Amer. J. Physiol. 149:565-588. 

9. Hultgren, H. N., E. Martiocorena, and H. Miller. 1963. Right ventricular 
hypertrophy in animals at high altitude. J. Appl. Physiol. 18:913-918. 

10. Hultgren, H. N., and H. Miller. 1965. Right ventricular hypertrophy at high 
altitude. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 127:627-631. 

11. Hurtado, A. 1964. Animals in high altitudes, p. 843-860. In D. B. Dill [ed.] 
Handbook of physiology, Section 4. Amer. Physiol. Soc, Washington, D. C. 1056 p. 

12. Kanungo, M. S., and S. N. Singh. 1965. Effect of age on the isozymes of lactic 
dehydrogenase of the heart and the brain of rat. Biochem. Biophys. Res. 
Commun. 21:454-459. 

13. Komives, G., and R. W. Bullard. 1967. Function of the phrenic nerve — 
diaphragm preparation in acclimation to hypoxia. Amer. J. Physiol. 212:788-792. 

14. Martin L. G. 1969. Thyroidal changes in the rat during acclimation to the 
hypoxia of simulated high altitude environments. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation;, 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 100 p. 

15. , G. E. Wertenberger, and R. W. Bullard. 1971. Thyroidal changes in 

the rat during acclimation to simulated high altitude. Amer. J. Physiol. 

16. McGrath, J. J., and R. W. Bullard. 1968. Altered myocardial performance In 
response to anoxia after high-altitude exposure. J. Appl. Physiol. 25:761-764. 

17. McGrath, J. J., R. W. Bullard, and G. K. Komives. 1969. Functional adaptation 
in cardiac and skeletal muscle after exposure to simulated high altitude. Fed. 
Proc. 28:1307-1311. 

18. Merino, C. F. 1956. The plasma eythropoietie factor in the polycythemia of high 
altitudes. School of Aviation Med., U. S. A. F. Rep. No. 56-103. 

19. . — _, and C. Reynafarje. 1949. Bone marrow studies in the polycythemia 

of high altitude. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 34:637-647. 

20. Monge, C, and C. Monge. 1966. High altitude diseases. Charles C. Thomas, 
Springfield, 111. 97 p. 

21. Pace, N., E. Lozner, W. Consolazio, G. Pitts, and L. Pecora. 1947. 
The increase in hypoxic tolerance of normal men accompanying the polycythemia 
induced by transfusion of erythrocytes. Amer. J. Physiol. 148:152-163. 

22. Poupa, O., K. Krofta, J. Prochazka, and M. Chavpil. 1965. The resistance 
of the myocardium to anoxia in animals acclimated to simulated altitude. 
Physiol. Bohemoslov. 14:233-237. 

23. Poupa, O., K. Krofta, K. Rakusan, J. Procazka, and J. Radl. 1966. 
Myoglobin content of the heart and resistance of the isolated myocardium to anoxia 
in vitro during adaptation to high altitude hypoxia. Physiol. Bohemoslov. 

24. Poupa, O., K. Rakusan, and B. Ostadal. 1970. The effect of physical activity 
upon the heart of vertebrates, p. 202-233. In E. Jokl [ed.] Medicine and sport 
(Vol. 4); Physical activity and aging. Univ. Park Press, Baltimore, Md. 315 p. 

400 Indiana Academy of Science 

25. Rakusan, E., and O. Poupa, 1963. Changes in the diffusion distance in the rat 
heart muscle during development. Physiol. Bohemoslov. 12:220-227. 

26. _________ 1964. Capillaries and muscle fibers in the heart of old rats. 

Gerontologia 9:107-112. 

27. Rotta, A., A. Canepa, A. Hurtado, T. Velasquez, and R. Chavez. 1956. 
Pulmonary circulation at sea level and at high altitudes. J. Appl. Physiol. 

28. Shreiner, D. P., M. L. Weisfeldt, and N. W. Shock. 1969. Effects of age, sex and 
breeding on status on the rat heart. Amer. J. Physiol. 217:176-180. 

29. Stickney, J. C, and E. J. VanLiebe. 1953. Acclimatization to low oxygen 
tension. Physiol. Rev. 33:13-34. 

30. Tomanek, Robert J. 1970. Effects of age and exercise on the extent of the 
myocardial capillary bed. Anat. Rec. 167:55-62. 

31. Ullrick, W. C, W. V. Whitehorn, B. B. Brennan, and J. G. Krone. 1956. 
Tissue respiration of rats acclimatized to low barometric pressure. J. Appl. Physiol. 

32. Valdivia, E. 1957. Right ventricular hypertrophy in guinea pigs exposed to simulated 
high altitude. Circulation Res. 5:612-616. 

33. Weisfeldt, M. L., T. R. Wright, D. Shreiner, E. Lokatta, and N. W. 
Shock. 1971. Coronary flow and oxygen extraction in the perfused heart of 
senescent male rats. J. Appl. Physiol, 30:44-49. 

Preferences for Natural and Artificial Sweeteners in 
Heat- Stressed Chicks of Different Ages 1 

W. C. Gunther and Mahlon W. Wagner 2 

Department of Biology 
Valparaiso University, 
Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 


Chicks are capable of discriminating various taste stimuli and their aversions 
for cyclamate and preferences for glucose are similar to those reported for various 
rodents. The age differences found here deserve further investigation as does the effect 
of heat-stress during incubation on preference behavior. 


Preferences for various sugars are found throughout the animal 
kindgom, particularly among mammals. Until recently, reports of sugar 
preference in chickens had been sporadic and contradictory (4, 5). How- 
ever, Wagner and Gunther (9) have shown that new-born chicks have 
definite preferences for glucose and sucrose over water and gradually 
develop an aversion for lactose. Higher incubation temperatures (heat- 
stress) failed to result in marked sugar preference differences although 
heat-stress has been shown to produce marked differences in other be- 
haviors such as discrimination learning, reversal learning, frequency 
of pecking, and color preferences (1, 2, 3). 

Research on sweeteners other than sugars (sweet as judged by 
humans and accepted as rewards by rodents) as well as the well- 
publicized ban on cyclamates has spurred the study of preferences for 
various substances such as saccharin and cyclamate. Wagner (6, 7) and 
Wagner and Gunther (9) have found several rodent species which prefer 
saccharin and avoid cyclamate. Whether this cyclamate aversion is be- 
cause of its taste (or off -taste) or to the suspected toxicity of 
cyclamates has not been resolved. 

The purpose of the present study was to examine preferences for 
saccharin, cyclamate, glucose, and water in normal and heat-stressed 
chicks at various ages. The chemicals were purchased from a chemical 
supply house and are of reagent grade. 


All control and experimental chicks were hatched from buff White 
Rock eggs in commercial Montgomery Ward incubators, modified for 
electronic control of temperature within ±0.5°C. Humidity was kept con- 

1 This study was supported by a Grass Foundation Grant to the first author. 

2 Present address: Department of Psychology at State University of New York, 
Oswego, New York 13126. 


402 Indiana Academy of Science 

stant. Both temperature and humidity were continuously monitored and 
recorded during incubation by electronic recorders. The eggs were 
turned 3 times each 24-hour period. The sugar, saccharin, and cyclamate 
solutions were made with tap water and the strength of the solution 
determined on a weight/volume basis. The concentration of the sugar 
was standardized at 8% and 16%, sodium cyclamate at 0.91%, 
the calcium cyclamate at 1.81%, and sodium saccharin at 0.23%. 
These concentrations have been noted in the literature and are well 
above threshold for all animals that have been tested. The reasons for 
the choices of values have been discussed elsewhere (9). 

Control chicks were hatched from eggs incubated at the optimal 
temperature of 37.5° C for 21 days. Experimental chicks were placed 
in a nonoptimally high temperature incubator at a temperature of 
41°C for the first 72 hours of incubation, after which they were placed 
in the normal temperature incubator until hatching. After hatching, the 
chicks were banded and placed in heated starting battery brooders, 
eight or nine chicks per group. The solutions were presented in a water- 
ing trough with three removable waterproof sections containing water 
and the various concentrations of sweeteners (see reference 10 for ad- 
ditional details of presenting solutions and measuring solution intake). 
Table 1 shows the experimental paradigm. 

Measurement of daily intake was made in Class A graduated 
cylinders to the nearest milliliter, and the volume recorded was the total 
intake for each group of chicks. The solutions were discarded after 
measurements, and fresh solutions were introduced from the 
refrigerated stock. 

Commercial starting mash was available to the chicks at all times. 
The chicks were completely isolated from other animals and humans, 
except for those periods necessary to rotate the sections and to measure 
and change the solutions. Humidity and temperature were kept constant 
in the battery room since this facility had no windows (zone air- 
conditioning). Light-dark conditions were made to match those of the 
normal day-night at this time of the year. The experiments were con- 
ducted during July and August. 


Since chicks were housed in groups (for practicality as well as the 
necessity of rearing infant chicks in a warm environment) , measurement 
of individual intake and preference was precluded. Because of this, the 
analyses of variance were more limited in scope since the interaction 
variances had to be used as error terms instead of within and between 
subject variability, and all interpretations would, therefore, tend to be 
conservative estimates of actual differences. 

The data for the analyses are per cent intake, and for graphical 
presentation are mean per cent intake with the standard error of the 
mean as a vertical line to indicate variability. Per cent intake was used 
since this method of computation equates for greater bodyweight in 




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Indiana Academy of Science 

older chicks and, hence, greater fluid intake by presenting relative in- 
take instead of absolute intake. 

Replication: Experiment 1 vs. Experiment 2 (30-day-old chicks) 

There were no significant differences in preference upon replica- 
tion (Fig. 1). 




8% .91% H.O 8% 91% 

Glue NaCyc Glue NaCyc 

°- 20 

°- 20- 

16% .91% H.O 

Glue NaCyc 

16% 91% 

Glue NaCyc 

8*. Glue 181%CaCyc 

Hp 8-.Gluc 1.81%CaCyc Hfi 


Figure 1. Experiment 1 (replication 1) vs. Experiment 2 (replication 2); Group I 
for each replication at top of figure, Group II next, and Group III at bottom of figure. 

Zoology 405 

Experiments 1 and 2, Group I (water; 8% glucose; 0.91% 
sodium cyclamate) vs. Group II (water; 16% glucose; 0.91% 
sodium cyclamate) showed no overall difference between the two condi- 
tions of having differing glucose concentrations available. Glu- 
cose was significantly preferred to both water and cyclamate 
(F = 42.089; df =2/2; p<.025) regardless of its relative concentration 
(see Table 1 for distinctions relating to Experiments 1 through 4 and 
Groups I through III). 

In Experiments 1 and 2, Group I (water; 8% glucose; 
0.91% sodium cyclamate) vs. Group III (water; 8% glucose; 
1.81% calcium cyclamate) there were no overall intake differences 
in preferences which could be traced to the two different salts or con- 
centrations of cyclamate. Eight per cent glucose was preferred 
to water or cyclamate regardless of cyclamate salt or concentration 
(F = 21.50; df = 2/2; p<.05). 

Experiment 3 (4-day-old chicks) 

Four-day-old chicks did not discriminate between water, 16% 
glucose and 0.91% sodium cyclamate (Group II), nor were their 
preferences different from those chicks which received water, 
8% glucose and 0.91% sodium cyclamate. However, when the choices were 
different cyclamate salts and concentrations (Group II: water, 
16% glucose; 0.91% sodium cyclamate vs. Group III: water; 
16% glucose; 1.81% calcium cyclamate) overall analysis indicated that 
cyclamate was not preferred (F = 1,350.959; df = 2/2; p<.001), 
heat-stressed chicks preferred glucose to cyclamate F = 66.81; df = 2/2; 
p<.025), and chicks having 1.81% calcium cyclamate as a choice pre- 
ferred glucose and avoided cyclamate to a greater extent than chicks 
having 0.91% sodium cyclamate as an alternative (F = 1,218.143; df 
= 2/2; p<.001) (Fig. 2.) 

Experiment 4 (17-day-old chicks) 

Seventeen-day-old chicks preferred glucose (either 16% or 8%) to 
water or saccharin (Groups I and III) (F = 24.44; df =2/2; p<.05). 
If the choices involved cyclamate or saccharin (Groups II and III re- 
spectively) chicks preferred glucose to either water or the artificial 
sweetener (F = 78.37; df = 2/2; p.<.025) and further, Group III chicks 
drank relatively more saccharin (and less 8% glucose) and Group II 
chicks drank relatively less cyclamate (glucose II vs. glucose III, 
t = 4.373; df = 14; p<.001; saccharin III vs. cyclamate II, 
t = 4.19; df = 14; p<.001) (Fig. 2). 

Age Differences 

Thirty-day-old chicks preferred glucose to either water or sodium 
cyclamate while four-day-old chicks were indiscriminate (water; 
16% glucose; 0.91% sodium cyclamate; F = 36.513; df = 2/2; p<.05). 
Any differences between 30-day-old and 4-day-old chicks when presented 
with choices of water, 8% glucose, and 0.91% sodium cyclamate were not 
due to experimental manipulation, but were the results of excessive 


Indiana Academy of Science 




H 2 

















Figure 2. Experiments 3 {top) and 4- (bottom); only Group III, left and Group II, 
right (Exp. 8) and Group HI, right and Group II left (Exp. 4) compared in each 


Seventeen and 30-day-old chicks were both given choices of water, 
8% glucose, and 1.81% calcium cyclamate. For all chicks glucose intake 
was greatest and cyclamate least (F = 2,403.959; df = 2/2; p<.001). 
Heat-stressed chicks drank relatively more water, less glucose and equal 
small amounts of cyclamate — still preferring glucose, however, 
(F = 35.325; df =2/2; p<.05), and finally, the younger chicks (17 days 
old) showed a more pronounced glucose preference (F = 26.435; 
df = 2/2; p<.05) (Fig. 3). 


Wagner and Gunther (10) previously have shown that chicks can 
discriminate various taste stimuli, preferring some over water, while 
avoiding others. The present studies clearly reinforce this. 

Chicks consistently avoid cyclamates, the sole exception being 
4-day-old chicks which were indiscriminate to a 16% glucose or 0.91% 







.91% H-O 







1.81% H.O 
CaCyc * 



Figure 3. Age differences in intake of water and sweetners. 

sodium cyclamate. Are chicks avoiding cyclamates because of the 
suspected toxicity of cyclamate, or because of some taste-quality 
inhert in cyclamate solutions? Dr. Jacqueline Verrett (unpublished re- 
search progress reports, U.S. Food and Drug Adm.) found that 
cyclamate injected into incubating eggs produced embryonic deformities, 
but it is difficult to generalize from such studies to food preferences 
or aversions (6). Chicks reject toxic lactose, but the aversion develops 
gradually (10). In the present study, the nonintake of cyclamate was 
immediate, suggesting that taste rather than toxicity accounts for the 
aversion. This same phenomenon has been observed in rodents (7, 8, 9). 

A comparison of rodent and chick preferences and aversions for 
sweeteners does not imply that these two species inhabit similar 
sensory worlds in general. However, the universality of the chemical 
sense and its function in food selection might lead one to expect some 

408 Indiana Academy of Science 

similarities in taste preferences for simple sweeteners. Since, in 
nature, sweets are a source of calories basic to the energy requirements 
of all living creatures, especially warm-blooded animals, it is quite 
logical to make comparative analyses of sweet preferences and aversions 
across diverse species with some expectation of finding similarities. 

While chicks never preferred the saccharin to glucose, comparative 
data from rats and mice would suggest that this should not be expected 
since rats and mice prefer 8% glucose to 0.23% sodium saccharin 
(8, 9). 

Perhaps a better test of relative palatability of the two artificial 
sweeteners is the observation that saccharin was drunk to a much 
greater extent than 1.81% cyclamate under similar conditions by 
17-day-old chicks. 

The effects of heat-stress during incubation are overshadowed by 
preference differences because of age and type of choice available. In 
fact, heat related differences might be considered equivocal since heat- 
stressed 4-day-old chicks drank relatively less water and more glucose 
than their normal counterparts, whereas heat-stressed 17-day-old and 
30-day-old chicks drank relatively more water and less glucose than 
their normal counterparts. Previously cited research also found stress 
differences to be less pronounced than preference differences because 
of type of sugar choice available. 


The authors acknowledge the help of Evan Geissler in conducting 
this research. 

Zoology 409 

Literature Cited 

1. Gunther, W. C. 1958. Effect of abnormal incubating temperature on chick 
behavior. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 66:363-366. 

2. , and R. K. Jones. 1961. Effect of nonoptimally high incubation 

temperatures on T-maze learning in the chick. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

3. 1962. Effect of nonoptimally high incubation temperature on frequency 

of pecking and on color preferences in the chick. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 


4. Jacobs, H. L., and M. L. Scott. 1957. Factors mediating food and liquid intake in 
chickens. 1. Studies on the preference for sucrose or saccharin solutions. 
Poultry Sci. 36:8-15. 

5. Kare, M. R., and W. Medway. 1959. Discrimination between carbohydrates by the 
fowl. Poultry Sci. 38:1119-1127. 

6. Wagner, M. W. 1970. Cyclamate acceptance. Science 168:1605. 

7. 1971. Comparative rodent preferences for artificial sweeteners. J. 

Comp. and Physiol. Psych. 75:483-490. 

8. 1971. Species variability and rodent aversions for three sugars. 

Psychol. Rep. 29:799-804. 

9. , and W. C. Gunther. 1969. Preference for toxic and non-toxic 

artificial sweeteners in rodents. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 78:457-465. 

10. 1971. Parameters of sugar preference in normal and heat- 
stressed chicks. J. Gen. Psych. 85:177-185. 



Indiana Academy of Science members in good standing are eligible to submit 
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regardless of the membership status of the author. 

All papers submitted for publication in full will be reviewed by qualified reviewers, 
selected by the Publications Committee. Papers read by the title only at the Fall Meeting 
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following the Fall Meeting. 

Preparation of Manuscripts 

A. Refer to the latest copy of the Proceedings for the accepted style of abstracts and 
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B. Type on 11 x 8%-inch bond paper with a new ribbon, leaving some margin. 
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Literature Cited. List complete literature citations, i.e., author, date, title, 
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7. Doe, J. B., and R. C. Roe. 1949. New light from old radioactive carbon. J. Amer. 
Biol. Sue. 34:273-305. 

8. Milazzo, G. 1963. Electrochemistry. Elsevier Publ. Co., New York, N. Y. 708 p. 

References cited should be numbered consecutively (in the alphabetized list) and 
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Instructions for Contributors 411 

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Revised July 14, 1970. 


Abies concolor cell culturing, 96 

Abscission, of branches, 147 

Acetate, effects on Aspergillus niger, 262 

Acetonitrile in conductivity studies, 140 

Adams, S. C, memorial, 27 

Adena, abolishment of, 81 

Adenosine deaminase, 143 

Adler, K., 339 

Aerial survey for archaeological sites, 56 

Aggregations of Chalybion califorrdcum, 

Aging, myocardium, anoxic resistance, 390 
Air quality at Indianapolis, Indiana, 312 
Air quality sampling frequencies, 312 
Albino tobacco, green plastids, ultrastruc- 

ture, 103 
Albright, J. L., 345, 352 
Alexander, R. W., Jr., 71, 86 
Algae, 106 

Algae, check list for Indiana, 294 
Alkali niobates, growth of crystals, 268 
Allen County, Indiana, glacial geology, 195 
Altitude, hypoxia, myocardial adaptation, 

Alvager, T. K. E., 269 
Alverson, R. M., 330 
Anaplasma marginal, electron microscopy 

of, 101 
Andermatt, P., 142 
Anderson, J. A., 340 
Anderson, L., 106 
Animal behavior, cattle, 345, 352 
Anticholinesterase agent, 142 
Apocynophyllum, fossil leaves, Tennessee 

and Kentucky, 93 
Archaeology, aerial survey, 56 
Archaeology, Sullivan County, 76 
Archaic Period, 58 
Arikara Indians, prehistory and origins, 

Arthropod secretions, identification of 

p-benzoquinones, 139 
Aryl sulphatases, 121 

Aspergillus niger, fatty acid synthesis, 262 
Audio-tutorial program for elementary 

teachers, 297 
Austin, G. S., 229 

Award, science communication, 1971, 51 
Azine complexes of iron (II), 140 

Barr, R., 114 

Bartolucci, L. A., 150 

Baszynski, T., 114 

Bats, occurrence and reproduction, 376 

Bauer, M., 325 

Bean Blossom watershed, pollution survey, 

Bee, native, observations on flowers, 182 
Beech-maple region, nature preserves, 154 
Beesley, Adele, 275 

Beesley, L., 275 

Belcher, Karen, 341 

Benda, R. S., 344 

Bennett, Alice S., 262 

Benzoquinones, synthesis and identifica- 
tion of, 139 

Betras, S., 172 

Biochemical oxygen demand index, 147 

Bio-oxidation, microbial, 259 

Biostratigraphy, Devonian, 187 

Biosynthesis, steroidal sapogenins, 142 

Bismuth, effects of pressure on electronic 
properties, 267 

Black, W. C, 345 

Blair, P. V., 104 

Bleuer, N. K„ 195 

Boder, G. B., 103 

Bodie, L. L., Jr., 297 

Bone growth, radius, 58 

Botkin, C. T., 140 

Brain and development of nervous system 
in chick embryo, 340 

Brand, J., 114 

Brashear, M. L., 76 

Brick, production and value in Indiana, 229 

Brick manufacture, history of, 229 

Brooker, R. M., 142 

Brooks, G. M., 277 

Brooks, W. D., 299 

Brown, L. C, 290 

Browsed forest, Union County, Indiana, 

Bryophytes XIV, studies in Indians, 284 

Bullamore, H. W., 189 

Bullfrog, parasites of, 359 

Burrows of Peromyscus maniculatus bair- 
dii, 384 

Burt, S. C, 260 

Butler, J., 259 

Butterflies and skippers, state records, 175 

Calcification, 106 

Call, H. F., memorial, 28 

Candona ginnensis, new species of ostra- 

cod, 355 
Cannabis sativa, glandular hairs, 92 
Carbon-14 tracer studies, biosynthesis of 

steroidal sapogenins, 142 
Cardiolipin, in beef heart mitochondria, 133 
Cardiolipin, constancy of unsaturation, 133 
Cattle territoriality, 352 
Ceramic industry, Indiana, 229 
Ceroid, neuronal, ultrastructure, 104 
Chalybion calif or ni cum, aggregations of, 

Chaney, W. 71., 147 
Chao, L. Y., 104 
Cheng, T., 139 
Chicks, heat-stressed, sweetner preference, 





Chiroptera, occurrence and reproduction, 

Chloroethyl phosphonic acid, 147 

Chromatography, used in identifying p- 
benzoquinones, 139 

Chromic acid, laticifer stain, 92 

Clark, J. H., 340 

Clay and shale, use for brick, 229 

Cleland, R. E., memorial, 30 

Cleveland, J. H., 188 

Coal refuse (sludge), 246 

Coccolithus, 106 

Commissary site, excavation of, 56 

Computer generated analysis, 210 

Computer mapping, 251 

Computers, used by herbaria, 275 

COMPY, E. M., 267 

Conductivity studies of metal complexes, 

Conodonts, Devonian, 187 

Conservation course, environmental sci- 
ence, 298 

Conservation needs inventory, 251 

Corn, high rates of urea for, 306 

Corn blight, computer disease simulator, 

Corn canopy, temperatures and relative 
humidity, 319 

Corn mutant, sex expression, 93 

Counterdiffusion of ferric and silicate ions, 

Cox, C. F., memorial, 33 

Crane, F. L., 114, 133 

Crovello, T. J., 275 

Crystals, growth of, 268 

Cruz, M., 305 

Cryptobranchus, population study, Mis- 
souri, 339 

Culex pipiens pipiens L., 172 

Cupp, Sharon K., 76 

Cyclotron resonance, in Bismuth, 267 

Donaldson, Susan L., 345, 352 
Douthart, R. J., 101 
Downing, M., 259 
Drosophila, rhythms in, 341 
Druelinger, M. L., 143 
Dulin, M., 259 

Eiser, A. L., 96 

Elder, J. H., 106 

Elderly people, in Monroe County, Indiana, 

Electron microscopy, of marihuana, 92 

Ellis, L. F., 101 

Endosperm, liquid, of grasses, 91 

Environmental curriculum guide, K-12, 301 

Environmental education, K-12, 148 

Environmental impact statements, 51 

Equisetum hiemale, chromatographic pat- 
terns, 290 

Erethizon, bones from Indiana caves, 370 

Erosion and sediment in Indiana, 217 

Errington, P. R., 268 

Escobar, Linda K., 154 

Estrogen receptors, binding by uterine 
nuclear fraction, 340 

Evaluation, large group instruction, 297 

Fatty acids, effects of acetate on, 262 

Ferris, J. M., 365 

Ferris, Virginia R., 365 

Fertilizer, high rates, for corn, 306 

Fieselmann, B., 139 

Fischvogt, K., 259 

Fish, absorption rate for mercury, 271 

Forest composition, effects of browsing, 

Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana, glacial 

geology, 195 
Freeman, A. C, 238 

Daghlian, C. P., 94 

Daily, F. K., 294 

Daily, F. K. (necrology by), 27 

Dale, R. F., 319 

Dam inadequacies, 191 

Daughtery-Monroe site, Allison-LaMotte 
cultures, 76 

DDT, 101, 106 

DeMoss, D. L., 268 

Detectors, solid state, 269 

Deuterium, tracer of water movement, 242 

Devonian, correlation, 187 

Dial, N. A., 340, 343 

Diethylaniline oxides, properties and reac- 
tions, 139 

Diglyceride, monogalactosyl and digalac- 
tosyl, 114 

Dilcher, D. L., 91, 94, 190 

Docauer, D., 259 

Dolph, G. E., 93 

Dolphin, R. E., 182 

Gambusia af finis, extension of range, 344 

Garber, L. L., 144 

Gardiner, W., 259 

Gehring, C. L., 93 

Geography, role in environment control, 

Geography students, reading habits, 299 

Geological dam site investigations, 191 

Geophysical provinces in Indiana, pre- 
cambrian, 223 

Glacial geology, St. Joseph County, Indi- 
ana, 187 

Glacial stratigraphy, Allen County, Indi- 
ana, 195 

Glucose, effect on fatty acid distribution, 

GOINS, D. R., 355 

Golgi apparatus, 102 

Grasses, liquid endosperm of, 91 

Gravity, studies in Indiana, 223 

Grey squirrel, coccidia, immunity, 341 



Growth, in hydroids, 342 
Guard, A. T., 91 

GUNTHER, W. C, 401 

Halictus confusus Smith, observations on 

flowers, 182 
Hall, J. D., 114 
Hammond, C. T., 92 
Hansen, U. J., 267 
Hardman, L. L., 165 
Haring, G. E., 271 
Harris, D. J., 140 
Hart, J. W., 148, 301 
Heathcote, G. M., 55 
Heiser, C. B., Jr., 275 

Hellbender population in Missouri, 339 
Herbaria, use of computers, 275 
Hinds, C. C., 297 
Hoffer, R. M., 150 
Holloway, J., 259 

Hopewell, abolishment as a taxon, 81 
Hopewell-Middle Woodland period, 58 
Hopkins, C. O., 160 
Horine, R. K., 95 

estrogen receptor inter- 

compounds, lab tests, 


Hormone binding, 

actions, 340 

mosquitoes, 172 
Houck, Glory K., 
Houtcooper, W. C 
Howe, R. H. L„, 147, 259 
Huang, C. M., 101, 102 
Hudock, M. O., 91 
Hydroids, cell proliferation, 342 
Hydrology, isotopic tracers, 242 
Hymenoptera (Sphecidae), 177 

Indiana bryophytes XIV, studies 

Indiana prehistory, 55 

Inflorescence development, 93 

Insects, economic, in 1971 

Iron (II), azine complexes of, 140 

Irrigaton, 190 

Isotopes, heavy water molecules, 242 

Jacobs, M. E., 104 

Jacoby, J., 259 

Jasper County, stratigraphy, 187 

Jaus, H. H., 298 

Jose, J., 139 

Joseph, T., 341 

Judy, C. H., 242 

Junior Academy of Science, 22 

Kaitchuck, R., 267 
Kallay, F. P., 190 
Keenan, T. W., 102, 133 
Kerley, T. L., 142 
Kirkpatrick, R. D., 165 
Knight, Linda B., 298 
Kress, J. W., 139, 141 


Krogmann, D. W., 114 
Kruger, T. L., 139, 141 

Lairje, A. A., 340 

Lake Maumee, discharge at Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, 195 

Lammert, S. R., 143 

Lank, D. R., Jr., 359 

Laticifers, identification in Vinca rosea, 92 

Lawrence, R. M., 141 

Lawson, H. R., 173 

Leakage, subsurface basin, 147 

Lembi, C. A., 106 

Leopold, A. C., 147 

Liesegang phenomenon, 141 

Lindsey, A. A., 51, 154 

Linvill, D. E., 319 

Lipofuscin, neuronal, ultrastructure, 104 

Lithium niobate, growth of crystals, 268 

Lithologies, precambrian basement in Indi- 
ana, 223 

Little, R. M., 56, 65 

Liver, 121 

Llewellyn, R. A., 269 

Loewer, O., Jr., 325 

Ma, P. F., 143 

Mackie, Debora, 76 

Magers, T. A., 145 

Magnetics, studies in Indiana, 223 

Malhberg, P. G., 92, 103 

Maize, chloroplast sulfolipid content, 114 

Marcus, P. S., 269 

Marihuana, glandular hairs, 92 

Martin, L. G., 390 

Mays, C. E., 339 

McKelvey, P. T., 147 

McKinley site, central Indiana Late 
Archaic, 65 

McReynolds, H. E., 147 

Meiser, J. H., 141 

Mercury, absorption by fish, 271 

Merritt, W. D., 121 

Mertens, T. R., 277 

Metal chelate compounds, 140 

Meteorology, isotopic tracers, 242 

Methylmercury, effects on early frog em- 
bryos, 343 

Meyer, A. H., 189 

Meyer, R. W., 171 

Michael, D. E., 267 

Miller, L. V., 246 

Mobile home parks, 238 

Monke, E. J., 330 

Mcnroe, Lake, pollution survey of, 259 

Montgomery, B. E., 171 

Moore, M. C., 195 

Morre, D. J., 101, 102, 106, 121 

Mouse heart cell culture, ultrastructure of, 

Mullins, L., 139 

Multivariate analysis, application to ar- 
chaeological skeletal populations, 86 



Mumford, R. E., 376 

Murdock, S. H., 191, 217 

Murphy, Rev. M. J., 187 

Mus musculus, in cultivated fields, 384 

Myasthenia gravis, 142 

Myers, T. F., 390 

Myiasis, 171 

NADH Dehydrogenase, 102 

Natural areas in beech-maple region, 154 

Nature preserves, new, 154 

Naylor, J. D., 141 

Nefp, J., 259 

Nemanic, E. B., 271 

Nematoda, Belondiroidea, 365 

Nematodes, distribution of, 365 

Neotoma, bones from Indiana caves, 370 

Neuroptera, Plainipennia of Indiana, 173 

Neutron activation, 267 

New Castle site, excavation, 55 

Neumann, G. K., memorial, 34 

Newman, J. E., 305, 312 

Nickerson, M. A., 339 

Nitrogen heterocycles, 141 

Nyquist, S. E., 121 

Oak, branch abscission, 147 
Odonata naiads, survival, 171 
Olsen, R. W., 96 
O'Neal, C. E., memorial, 35 
Orientation, by salamanders, 339 
Orr, R. W., 187 
Osmun, J. V., 171 
Ostracods of Indiana, check list, 355 
Oxaziranes, synthesis and destruction of, 

Pontius, S. K., 189 

Postlethwait, S. N., 45, 93 

Potamocypris brachychaeta, new species of 

ostracod, 355 
Potter, F. W., Jr., 94 
Powell, R. L., 188 
Precambrian geophysical provinces in 

Indiana, 223 
Prehistoric Indians, diet, 58 
Preserves, nature, 154 
Presidential address, 45 
Protoplasts, cell wall regeneration, 95 
Pyrazolines, synthesis and decomposition, 


Ramaley, R., 259 

Rana eatesbeiana, parasites of, 359 

Roy, Marsha R., 165 

Rebuck, W. D., 187 

Relative humidity, in corn canopy and 

shelter, 319 
Relford, J. R., 141 
Remote sensing, 150, 210 
Residential location, Valparaiso, Indiana, 

Reynolds, L. M., 267 
Rhenium (I) complexes of 2-cyanoethyl- 

diphenylphosphine, 140 
Rhythms, emergence and metabolic, 341 
Richards, R. L., 370 
Riepe, R. A., 91 
Roberts, M. C, 251 
Rogers, J. E., Jr., 139 
Ross, M. A., 352 
Rudman, A. J., 223 
Ruesink, A. W., 95 

Pace, R. E., 56, 269 

Padgett, F., 101 

Patel, V., 104 

Patton, J. B., 229 

Peck, E. J., Jr., 340 

Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii, in culti- 
vated fields, 384 

Perizigian, A. J., 58 

Pesticides in soils, 305 

Peterson, D. L., 262 

Pettijohn, R. A., 217 

Phinney, D. E., 305, 312 

Phosphatidyl ethanolamine, 133 

Photon absorptionmetry, 58 

Pitts, D. G., 268 

Plastids, green in albino tobacco, ultra- 
structure, 103 

Pollution, particulate, sampling, 305 

Pollution, survey of Lakes Monroe and 
Lemon, 259 

Pollution, use of surveys in environmental 
planning, 259 

Pollution, water in Delaware County, 260 

Pollution study in chemistry, 144 

Polygonum, biosystematic study of, 277 

Salamanders, orientation by, 339 

Sampson, M. B., memorial, 36 

Sardinia, Flumendosa River hydroelectric 
basin, 190 

Sartain, C. C, 268, 269 

Sassafras leaves, Cretaceous versus mod- 
ern, 91 

Scarlett, J. A., 140 

Schell, Linda, 259 

Science policy, federal environmental, 51 

Scioto Hopewell versus Scioto Tradition, 

Scioto Tradition, definition of, 81 

Sediment stations, reservoirs, 217 

Seed planting, origin of, 275 

Sharp, J., 139 

Shelton, D., 101 

Shimer, S. S., 298 

Shock, H. D., 298 

Shroyer, D. A., 172 

Shull, E. M., 175 

Siew, Shirley, 103 

Sigillarian fossils from Greene County, 
Indiana, 190 

Siverly, R. E., 171, 172 



Slopes, distribution of, 251 

Skeletal materials, human archaeological 
populations, 86 

Social behavior of cows, 345 

Soil colloids, effect on pesticides, 305 

Soils, Fincastle and Chalmers, urea fertili- 
zation, 306 

Soil mapping, automatic, 210 

Spilogale, bones from Indiana caves, 370 

Sprague, N. G., 267 

Stacy, H. G., 55 

Stars, eclipsing binary, 267 

Steroidal sapogenins, biosynthesis, 142 

Stirm, W. L., 325 

Stivers, R. K., 306 

Storhoff, B. N., 140 

Storhoff, D. F., 140 

Stratton, W. J., 140 

Student responder system, 297 

Suddith, R. L., 342 

Sulfolipid, chloroplast, 114 

Summers, W. A., 101 

Susalla, Anne A., 103 

Swan, S., 101 

Swartz, B. K., Jr., 55, 56, 81 

Swez, J., 268 

Szabo, J. P., 187 

Taylor, D. H., 389 

Teacher, supervising, training of, 298 

Tell Hesban, archaeology, 56 

Temperature, in corn canopy and shelter, 

Tharp, N. E., 139 

Thin-layer gel filtration studies, adenosine 
deaminase, 143 

Thornburgh, B. A., 143 

Tippecanoe County, Indiana, 210 

Tippecanoe River, water quality, 147 

Tissue culture of Abies concolor, 96 

Tobacco, green plastids in albino, ultra- 
structure, 103 

Togasaki, R. K., 91 

Tomato growth, temperature effects, 330 

Toyoda, Y., 55 

Tropisternus collaris, genetic studies, 173 

Turkey, wild, droppings content, 165 

Turner, J. M., 148, 301 

Ultrastructure, green plastids in albino 

tobacco, 103 
Urea fertilizer for corn, 306 
Ursus, bones from Indiana caves, 370 

Van Atta, R. E., 140 

Vigo County, Indiana, natural resources 

planning, 188 
Vinca rosea, laticifer identification in, 92 
Virus, Penicillium chrysogenum, growth 

cycle, 101 

Wagner, M. W., 401 

Waldrip, D. B., 251 

Ward, G. L., 177 

Watanabe, I., 104 

Water, heavy isotopic forms, 242 

Water, interbasin transfers of, 147 

Water pollution, thermal, use, 330 

Water quality, Tippecanoe River, 147 

Water temperature mapping, 150 

Weatherwax, P., 91 

Webb, G. W., 238 

Welch, Winona H., 284 

Werderitsh, D. A., 101 

Wertenberger, Grace E., 390 

West, T. R., 210 

Westgard, J., 268 

Whitaker, J. O., Jr., 376 

White, J. L., 305 

White River, list of fish species, 344 

Wild flowers, Franklin County, 275 

Wild turkey, food habits, 165 

Wilkinson, F. E., 121 

Wise, G. A., 165 

Wohlfahrtia vigil, in Indiana, 171 

Wright, K. E., 269 

Wunker, C. T., 268 

X-ray diffraction studies, 141 

Yoder, L. R., 92 
Young, F. N., 173 
Yunghans, W., 101 

Zeman, W., 104 


of the 



Volumes 71-80 



Gloria E. Jackson 

Marion T. Jackson 

Indiana Academy of Science 

Indiana State Library 



(Portraits reserved for those who have 
served as presidents) 

Baldinger, Lawrence H. (1907-1970) 80:25 

Cumings, Edgar Roscoe (1874-1967) 77:39 

Davis, John June (1885-1965) 75:31 

Laubengayer, Richard August (1902-1966) 76:51 

Mackell, James Francis (1888-1964) 74:52 

Markle, Millard S. (1883-1968) 78:38 

Porter, Charles Lyman (1889-1966) 77:41 

Visher, Stephen Sargent (1887-1967) 77:44 

Wallace, Frank N. (1878-1968) 78:41 

Yuncker, Truman George (1891-1964) 74:56 

PAST OFFICERS 1961-1970 



Vice President 



L. H. Baldinger 

H. G. Day 

W. W. Bloom 


H. G. Day 

H. H. Michaud 

W. W. Bloom 


H. H. Michaud 

E. L. Haenisch 

W. W. Bloom 


E. L. Haenisch 

F. J. Welcher 


C. F. Dineen 


F. J. Welcher 

C. A. Markle 

C. F. Dineen 


C. A. Markle 
(R. A. Laubengayer, 
Honorary President) 

A. A. Lindsey 

C. F. Dineen 


A. A. Lindsey 

W. J. Wayne 

J. R. Gammon 


W. J. Wayne 

H. R. Youse 

J. R. Gammon 


H. R. Youse 

F. A. Guthrie 

J. R. Gammon 


F. A. Guthrie 

S. N. Postlethwait 

J. D. Webster 




Press Secretary 


K. H. Carlson 

R. A. Laubengayer 

F. N. Young 


K. H. Carlson 

R. A. Laubengayer 

F. N. Young 


K. H. Carlson 

R. A. Laubengayer 

F. N. Young 


J. C. List 

R. A. Laubengayer 

F. N. Young 


J. C. List 

R. A. Laubengayer 

F. N. Young 


F. A. Guthrie 

W. R. Eberly 

J. A. Clark 


F. A. Guthrie 

W. R. Eberly 

J. A. Clark 


F. A. Guthrie 

W. R. Eberly 

J. A. Clark 


D. V. Schmelz 

W. R. Eberly 

P. E. Klinge 


D. V. Schmelz 

M. T. Jackson 

P. E. Klinge 



Volumes 71 (1961) —80 (1970) 

Abnaki Indians, social organization, 

Abrasion resistance of carbonate ag- 
gregates, 75:153-162 
Abscission of bean leaf, 78:146-160 
Academic origins of geneticists, 78: 

Acculturation, Mayan Indians of 

Guatemala, 71:67-68 
Aceria tulipae, 76:259 
Achievement, using instructional aids, 

Acritarchs in New Albany Shale, 

Acrylamide gel, for staining nucleic 

acids, 79:348-350 
Actinomycin D in cell growth, 75:63- 

Actinoplanaceae, 75:230 
Adalis, D., 80:485 (see also Whit- 

aker, J. O., Jr.) 
Adams, S. C, A century and a 

quarter of geology at Hanover 

College, 72:243-245 
Adams, W. H., Some possible causes 

for late-pleistocene faunal ex- 
tinctions, 79:65-68 
Addoh, P. G., 71:84 
Adenomas, islet B-cell, 77:157-158 
Adler, K., 80:486 
Adrenal cortical accessory tissue and 

azo dye carcinogenesis, 71:374- 

Aedes, distribution in Indiana, 79: 

Aedes and soils, 79:238-248 
Aedes aegypti, 75:109 
Aedes excrucians, occurrence in Indi- 
ana, 72:140 
Aedes infirmatus D&K, new Indiana 

record, 78:257-259 
Aeolosoma hemprichi, 77:413 
Aerobic heavy sludge digestion, 74: 


Aerodynamic method for sizing gran- 
ulat material, 77:389-396 

Agee, E. M., The climatology of 
Indiana tornadoes, 79:229-308 

Aggregates, abrasion resistance of 
selected Indiana carbonate 
rocks, 75:153-162 

Aging, skeletal de-mineralization 
during, 80:90-93 

Agricultural labour force of the corn 
belt, 71:219-225 

Ahlrichs, J. L., (see also Meyers, 
N. L.) 

, J. R. Russell, R. D. Harter, 

and R. A. Weismiller, Infra- 
red spectroscopy of clay min- 
eral systems, 75:247-255 

Akalan, L, and J. L. White, 
Natural and fission-produced 
radioactivity in four Indiana 
soils, 72:325-329 

Akhtaruzzaman, M., 75:65-66 

Al-Abbas, H. (see Barr, R.) 

Albright, J. L., 76:397 (see also 
Heitman, H., Jr.) 

Alcohol dehydrogenases in Dro- 
sophila, 76:405-407 

Aldrin, toxicity to fishes, 75:325-329 

Alexander, A. (see Zehring, C. S.) 

Alexander, R. W., Jr., and G. K. 
Neumann, On the origin of 
the Tutelo — An Eastern Si- 
ouan tribe, 78:88-92 

Alfalfa weevil, 74:207-218 

Algae, blue-green, 74:165-168 

Cabin Creek raised bog, Randolph 

County, Indiana, 71:298-301 
extracts inducing miniature cells, 

fossil, 75:206-209 
mitotic poison from, 76:180 
occurrence in Indiana, 72:279-281 
in plastic popcorn ear enclosures, 



Algae — Anthocyanin 

Putnam County, Indiana, 71:293- 

297; 72:256-257 
in sewage ponds, 78:139-145 
in waste stabilization ponds, 76: 

Algal extracts, effects on tissue 
cultured cells, 75:61 

Algonkian Indians, 74:112-113 

Alkali chelates, bonding of, 80:151- 

Alkyldiamine-water systems, den- 
sities and molal volumes, 

Allee Woods, Collembola, 78:231-240; 

Allen County, soil associations of, 

Allen, J. P., J. H. Hamon and 
R. W. McFarlane, Some stud- 
ies of the spermatozoa of 
certain species of the Icteridae 
(blackbirds), 77:434-441 

Allen, P. R. (see Jackson, M. T.) 

Allen, F. J., memorial, 78:32 

Allison culture, 80:74-83 

Allomyces, a new species, 72:258 

Alman, D. H., and H. K. Hughes, 
Fourier synthesizer, 74:294- 

Alpha-1-glycoprotein, role in phago- 
cytosis, 76:181-182 

Alpha particles, scattering by 
carbon, 72:247 

Altitude, acclimatization to, 77: 

Alvager, T., 80:378 

and E. Haring, New upper 

limit of production cross sec- 
tion of faster-than-light par- 
ticles, 80:380-383 

and J. Swez, On the use of 

ion bombardment and implan- 
tation in the study of biologi- 
cal material, 80:384-387 

, R. Darrah, and D. Kawatka, 

On possible nuclear synthesis 
of helium at low densities, 80: 

Alves, L. M. (see Middleton, A. E.) 

, A. E. Middleton, and D. J. 

Morre, Localization of callose 

deposits in pollen tubes of 

Lilium longiflorum Thunb. by 

fluorescence microscopy, 77 : 

Amaranthus caudatus, 80:413 
Amblyomma americanum (L) in 

Indiana, 76:284-285 
American electric power system, 

Americans, southward decline in the 

yield of eminent, 73:202-207 
Amino acids, prebiotic synthesis, 

thermal synthesis, 80:369-373 
Aminoglutethimide, effects, 79:455- 

effects on blood corticosteroids, 

(Elipten), effects on ovulation, 

effect on rats, 77:427-433 
effects on rat ovaries and uteri, 

effects on serum electrolytes, 

Amphibian behavior, biological 

clocks, 80:486 
Amphibian breeding dates, Vigo 

County, 77:442-444 
Amphibians of Vigo County, 75: 

Amstutz, D. W., Apportionment of 

representation in the Indiana 

Legislature, 71:187-191 
Anax Junius (Drury), life history 

notes, 73:154-163 
Anderson, G. J., 77:130-131; 80:414 
Angel Site, unmodified faunal re- 
mains from, 71 : 53-56 
Angomois grain moth, effect on 

germination and vigor of, 

Annis, J. F., The relationship of 

cephalic to cranial measure- 
ments in an unmixed group 

of American Negroes, 73:67- 

Annonaceae, developmental anatomy 

of seedlings, 71:86 
Anthocyanin, use in dialysis, 80:439- 


Anthropology — Artificial 


Anthropology (see also entries under 
following author names, only 
those who submitted manu- 
scripts included: Adams, W. 
H.; Alexander, R. W., Jr.; 
Annis, J. F.; Blakely, R. 
L.; Burnor, D. R.; Chap- 
man, F. H.; Clouse, R. A.; 
Frisch, J. A.; Griffin, E. C; 
Grolling, F. X., S. J.; 
Henn, R. E.; Herrala, E. A.; 
Huelsman, B. R.; Hunter, K. 
B.; Hurt, W. R.; Little, R. 
M.; LlTTO, I. M. F.; MURAD, 
T. A.; Neumann, E. A.; Neu- 
mann, G. K.; Neumann, H. 
W.; Perzigian, A. J.; Rai- 
bourn, D. D.; Robbins, L. M.; 
Saksena, S. S.; Sapaula, C. 
C.; Schwartz, B. K., Jr.; Seg- 
al, E. D.; Skomp, D. C.; 
Smail, J. K.; Urbont, A. L.; 
Vickery, K. D.; Walker, P. 
L.; Weiss, M. S.) 
abstracts, 71:52; 77:95-97; 78:71- 
72; 79:57-59; 80:63-66 

Anti-allergic agents for clinical use, 
application of immunology in 
testing, 73:75 

Antibacterial activity, reversal of 
p-Aminobenzoic acid, 71:78-81 

Antibiotics — past, present and fu- 
ture, 71:248-257 
Thiadiketopiperazine, 78:111-112 

Antibody, formation in germfree 
chickens, 72:97-102 
formation by spleen cells, 77:125 
plaque technique, 78:109 
response in M. pneumoniae, 77:124 
salivary, influence on dental caries 

in gnotobiotic rat, 73:75 
studies, 78:163-164 

Anti-microbial defenses, thiamine 
and, 72:93-96 

Ants, rare species of Indiana, 77: 

Aphid, corn leaf, 75:109; 75:109; 

Apollo botanical studies, 80:437 

Appalachia, culture of, 78:97-103 

Apple pest control, 76:265-269 

Apple trees, relationship of soils and 
fertilizers to the nutrient 
content, 73:232-238 
Araneae of Indiana, an annotated 

list, 78:266-314 
Arbutin, 75:62; 76:199 
Archaeology, climatic change and the 
Northern Plains Archaic, 74: 
Eastern Siouan Tutelo, 78:88-92 
female crania comparisons, 74:72- 

Archaic American Indian, 74:87-89 
Illinois, 74:81-83 
Indiana, 74:90-98 
methods, 75:47-54 
middle Wabash woodland cultures, 

Mounds State Park, 79:75-82 
nomenclatural standardization, 74: 

Oxendine Site, Vigo County, 79:57 
State of Delaware, 79:69-74 
Arginase, induction of by viruses, 

Aristida, Unredinales on, 75:229 
Armington, J. H., memorial, 78: 

Arnett, P. M., A study of Col- 
lembolan populations asso- 
ciated with four serai stages 
leading to the beech-maple 
climax, 78:231-240 

, A taxonomic key to the 

Collembola in four serai stages 
leading to the beech-maple 
climax, 79:234-247 
Arrow-wood or Northern Arrow- 
wood in Porter County, 76: 
Arroyos, 77:229 

Arthritis, incidence, in a prehistoric 
middle Mississippian Indian 
population, 72:59-62 
Arthropods, saprophagous, succes- 
sion, 75:282 
Arthur herbarium at Purdue Univer- 
sity, history, 71:228-232 
Artifact slips, 77:96-97 
Artificial sweeteners, rodents' pref- 
erence for, 78:457-465 


Asellus — Banks 

Asellus jordani, nov. spec, 75: 

Asia, urbanization, 79:253 
Asman, Sister M., 75:109 
Aspergillus niger, biosynthesis of 

fatty acids, 79:351-355 
Asteroids, collisions between, 77: 

Astrephomene, ultrastructure, 71:85 
Astronomy, radio, history, 80:377 
Atmospheric density affecting heat 

exchange, 76:372-376 
Atneosen, R. A., 72:247 
Atomic beam, a gaseous light source, 

Atomic lifetimes, measurement of, 

Augochlora pura (Say), underground 

nests, 80:245 
Avena sativa, 77:127 

stem rust resistance, 75:63; 75: 

Avidin, effect on fatty acid biosyn- 
thesis, 79:351-355 
Awasthi, Y. (see Chuang, T. F., 

and Hall, J. D.) 
Aymara and Uru Indians of the 

Peruvian altiplano, 72:67-68 
Azo dye carcinogenesis, adrenal 

cortical accessory tissue, 71 : 


Bacillus subtilis, growth and sporu- 

lation, 78:111 
Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, field 

tests with, 76:265-269 
Bacteria, inhibitory effects on patho- 
gens, 75:55-56 
succession of, in macerating birds, 

75:282; 76:421-425 
and coal mine stream pollution, 

in farm ponds, 78:417; 79:423-431 
and thermal pollution, 80:183-188 
Bacterial ingestion, European corn 

borer, 79:227 
Bacterial phagocytosis, 75:56 
Bacterial reduction of flow through 

sand column, 76:377-385 
Bacteriology (See also entries under 
following author names, only 

those who submitted manu- 
scripts included : Considine, 
R. G.; Hassler, C. R.; Kel- 
logg, T. F.; Knight, P. L.; 
Makulu, D. R.; Olsen, G. B.; 
Pleasants, J. R. ; Powell, H. 
M.; Smith, P. L.; Wost- 
mann, B. S.; Zygmunt, W. 
abstracts, 71:71-72; 72:86; 73:75- 
77; 74:118-119; 75:55-56; 76: 
179-182; 77:123-126; 78:109- 
history, in Indiana, 76:65-70 

Bacteriophage, inhibition of an RNA, 
by streptomycin, 72:86 
T2 on Iron Oxide, 80:368 

Bagworm, parasitism in a population 
of, 75:148 

Baker, G. R., 79:122 

Baker, J. B., and J. H. Hamon, 
Some intestinal parasites of 
robins from Marion County, 
Indiana, 77:417-419 

Baker, P. C., and J. B. Cope, 
New county records for Fay- 
ette and Franklin Counties, 
Indiana, 71:292 

Baldinger, L. H., The genesis of 
a drug (presidential address), 
, memorial, 80:25-26 

Biological Survey Committee, re- 
ports with chairmen, C. A. 
Markle, 71:12-16; C. A. 
Markle, 72:14-17; C. A. 
Markle, 73:16-17; J. D. Web- 
ster, 74:14-16; J. D. Webster, 
75:16-18; J. D. Webster, 76: 
21-23; J. D. Webster, 77: 
32-34; J. D. Webster, 78:29- 
31; J. D. Webster, 79:23-25; 
Leland Chandler, 80:21-23 

Baldwin, C. L., 76:179-180 

Ball State University, observatory, 
science department, 78:381-386 

Ballistic paths of tektites, 73:209 

Banerjee, M. (see McGrath, J.) 

Banks, J. B., and J. M. Cumo, A 
biosystematic study of the 

Banks — Belt 


narrow - leaved spleenwort, 

Athyrium pycnocarpon, 80: 

Barber, S. A., 79:373 

Barbosa, L. H., 77:124 

Bardin, B. M., 77:347-348 

Barger, S. A. (see Kohnke, H.) 

Barley, resistance to corn leaf aphid, 
resistance to smut, 76:199 

Barr, D. J. (see West, T. R.) 

Barr, R., J. D. Hall, F. L. Crane 
and H. Al-Abbas, Lipophilic 
quinones in mineral-deficient 
maize leaves, 80:130-139 

Barski, G., 78:165-166 

Bartis, F. J., 72:247 

Barton, T. F., Southern Indiana's 
recreational triangle, 71:150- 

, Our recreational needs and 

long-ranged potential plans 
for public outdoor recreation 
in Indiana, 72:218-227 
, Zipf's rank-size theory ap- 
plied to some cities in Indiana 
and the Ohio River Watershed, 

, Notes on a new pattern and 

process of physical city de- 
velopment: The web theory, 

, Lack of planning or failure 

in pre-construction planning of 
the Monroe Reservoir, 77:312- 

, Planning for and utilization 

of the web pattern of physical 
urban development in cities, 
, Population and settlement de- 
cline in southwestern Indiana, 

, The need for and some kinds 

of multi-county regional plan- 
ning in Indiana, 80:337-345 

Barzynski, H. F., 74:180 

Basic data report for archaeologists, 

Bats, incidence of rabies in, 78: 

local movements of some Indiana, 

Bauer, M. E., 80:98 

Baumgardner, M. F., 80:443; 80: 
443; (see also Hoffer, R. M., 
and Johannsen, C. J.) 

, S. Kristof, C. J. Johannsen, 

and A. Zachary, Effects of or- 
ganic matter on the multispec- 
tral properties of soils, 79:413- 

Baxter, J. W., 71:83 

, and F. D. Kern, History of 

the Arthur Herbarium at Pur- 
due University, 71:228-232 

Bayer, M. F., 80:178 

Beall Woods, Keensburg, Illinois, 

Beta-gamma directional correlation 
in EU 151 , 71:275 

Beaty, L. E., 77:123-124 

Bechert, C. H., memorial, 80:27 

Beckville Woods, phytosociology, 77: 

Beech ferns, taxonomy, 79:388-395 

Beech-maple climax, Collembola 
present in, 78:231-240 

Beech-maple complex, Montgomery 
Co., Indiana, Rush Woods, a 
lowland extension of, 73:220- 

Beecher, A. B., memorial, 74:41-42 

Beer's Law with a limited detector, 

Beers, T. W., Rapid estimation of 
forest parameters using mona- 
real and polyareal combination 
sampling, 76:251-255 

Beesley, A., 77:131; 78:118; 79:83 

Beesley, L., 77:131; 78:118; 79:83 

Beetles (Hydrophilidae) , 78:260-265 

Beetles, Dewart Lake, 76:286-290 
records of Indiana species, 76: 

Behavior, damselfly, 75:110-115 

Indiana ruffed grouse, 79:177-186 
orientation of amphibians, 80: 

Behaviorism, biological origins of, 

Belt roads in Terre Haute, 77:230 


Benda — Black 

Benda, R. S., Using injected dyes 
for marking fish, 80:180-182 

, and J. R. Gammon, The fish 

population of Big Walnut 
Creek, 77:193-205 

Bending force constants, 77:171 

Bennett, A. S. (see Marshall, v., 
and SCHWENK, K.) 

Bennett, L. F., memorial, 76:42-43 

Benninghoff, W. S., The prairie 
peninsula as a filter barrier 
to postglacial plant migration, 

Benomyl, systemic fungicide, 80: 

Benzene mixtures, radiolysis, 74:180 

Benzoyl isocyanate, some reactions 
of, 73:125 

Berger, S. M., 72:289 

Bernard, G. R., 71 : 71-72 

Bernhardt, F. L., 80:437; 80: 
437-438; 80:438; 80:438 

Berry, E. W., memorial, 80:27-29 

Bessel functions, and modes of prop- 
agation, 80:388-403 

Beta-alanine, metabolism, Drosophila, 
utilization by Drosophila, 76:399 

Beta decay of carbon 10, cluster 
model of the nucleus, 72:247 

Betta splendens, early development, 

Betula nigra L., phenotypic varia- 
tion, 80:225-229 

Bi-angular coordinates: the N- 
sectrix, 72:246 

Bick, G. H., 75:108 

, and L. E. Hornuff, Behavior 

of the damselfly, Lestes un- 
quiculatus Hagen ( Odonata : 
Lestidae), 75:110-115 

Bidens, comparative biology of East- 
ern North American species, 

Bieber, C. L., Movement of lime- 
stone blocks by floodwaters in 
Southern Putnam County, 
Indiana, 71:163-165 

, The relation of the changing 

facies of the Mansfield For- 
mation to possible park sites in 

Western Indiana, 72:177-181 

, Structural mapping by means 

of Mississippian corals in 
west-central Indiana, 74:268- 

, Fossil algae in the St. Louis 

limestone of western Indiana, 
, memorial, 76:43-44 

Biehn, W. L., 76:203 

Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus) , 
movements, 79:439-440 

Big trefoil and tall fescue, 79 : 

Big trefoil, ecotypes in southern 
Indiana, 79:193-197 

Big Walnut Creek, fish, 77:193-205 
Reservoir, resolution, 78:13 

Biguanide complexes, 75:100-104 

Bile acids, excretion by germfree 
rat, 76:191-192 

Binder, R. A., 71:367 

Bingham, R. L. (see Krumholz, L. 

Bingle, G., 79:92 

Bioassay methods for geotropically 
active growth substances, 72: 

Bioassays, need for tests, 79:148-161 

Bioclimatic formations of the east- 
ern and central United States, 
the Holdridge, 73:105-112 

Biographical sketches of Indiana 
scientists, 71:258-264; 77:37- 
46; 77:336-339 

Biohazards warning symbol, 76: 

Biological control, corn borer, 77:213 

Bird eggs, Gorby collection, 74:348 

Bird Woods, Indiana, 80:215-219 

Birds, ossification of skull, 75:282- 
problems in osteology of Passeri- 

forms, 75:282 
succession of bacteria in macera- 
tion of , 75:282 

Bison, bones from Indiana cave, 

Blab ems discoidalis, fatty acid pro- 
files, 75:284 

Black, G. A., memorial, 74:42-45 

Black — Botany 


Black, H. T., 71:276 

Blackbirds, spermatozoa, 77:434-441 

Black walnut seedling development, 
indole butyric acid failed to 
aid, 72:108-111 

Blair, B. O., 79:83-84; (see also 
Schaal, L. A.) 

Blair, P. V., 79:93 

Blakely, R. L., and P. L. Walker, 
Mortality profile of the Mid- 
dle Mississippian population 
of Dickson Mound, Fulton 
County, Illinois, 77:102-108 

, R. J. Marmouze, and D. D. 

Wynne, The incidence of the 
perforation of the Coronoid- 
olecranon septum in the Middle 
Mississippian population of 
Dickson Mounds, Fulton 
County, Illinois, 78:73-82 

Blanc, T. V., A. G. Danemar, and 
D. E. Koltenbah, The design 
and construction of a system 
for direct measurement of 
atomic lifetimes, 78:389-393 

Blazek, D. (see Sergeant, M.) 

Blephilia ciliata forma albiflora, 

Blind snakes, 74:350-351 

Blome, D. A., A more general ap- 
proach to the concept of 
threshold population, 77:326- 

Blood, Gc system, 78:164-165 

Bloom, W. W., 79:83; (see also 
Kroening, C. J., and Nich- 
ols, K. E.) 

, Some factors influencing 

rhizoid formation in female 
gametophytes of the Marsil- 
eaceae, 72:118-119 
, A simple method for collect- 
ing hydra, 72:351-352 

, and K. E. Nichols, Some 

responses by members of the 
Marsileaceae grown under field 
conditions, 76:215-216 

Bloomington, Indiana, geographic in- 
fluence, changes in, 71:265- 

, industrial labor-shed, 71:196- 


Blue Island, Illinois, 74:232-244 

Blue Spring Cave, 77:245-249 

Bluegill, growth rate, 80:196-200 
population density changes, 80: 

response to predation, 79:139-147 
seasonal growth, 79:135-147 

Bluegill growth, effect of photo- 
period, 79:135 

Bochrath, R., 78:109 

Bone growth, prehistoric Indians, 

Bone loss, prehistoric Indians, 80: 

Boneham, R. F., Earth science 
teaching in the secondary 
schools of Indiana, 78:329-332 

, Acritarchs (Leiosphaeridia) 

in the New Albany Shale of 
Southern Indiana, 79:254-262 

, and W. R. Masters, Silurian 

chitinozoa from Indiana I: The 
Mississinewa shale member of 
north-central Indiana, 80:320- 

Boone County, Indiana, bat colony, 

Borden formation at Highbridge, 
Indiana, 71:148 

Borer, tulip tree, 71:122-123 

Borohydrides, synthesis and infrared 
spectra, 76:236-239 

Borrow pits, ecology of, 80:178 

Boschmann, E., A reinvestigation 
of some alkali chelates, 80: 

Bosmia (Crustacea, Cladocera), re- 
mains in lake sediments, 71 : 

Botany (see also entries under fol- 
lowing author names, only 
those who submitted manu- 
scripts included: Alvers, L. 
M.; Benninghoff, W. S.; 
Bloom, W. W.; Clark, F. B.; 
Cox, R. L.; Dolph, G. E.; 
Eberly, W. R.; Eisenger, 
W. R.; Ellis, J.; Green, 
M. J- Green, R. J., Jr.; 


Botany— Burkhardt 

Grove, S. N.; Judd, R. W.; 
Kroening, C. J.; Leon-Gal- 
legos, H. M.; Lindsey, A. A.; 
Locke, J. C.; Morre, D. J.; 
Nichols, K. E.; Palmer, 

C. M.; Patterson, F. L.; 
Sawyer, J. O., Jr.; Shands, 
H.; von Meyer, W. C; 
Weatherwax, P.; Welch, 
W. H.; Westing, A. H.; 
Williams, R. D.; Zimmer, 

D. E. 

abstracts, 71:82-87; 72:103-104; 

73:88; 74:152-154; 75:61-66; 

76:199-203; 77:127-131; 78: 

115-119; 79:83-84; 80:95-98 

history of, in Indiana, 76:71-80 

Bounty, fox in Indiana, 79:187-192 

Bowers, E. J., and H. D. Weaver, 
Jr., The hydrolysis of iron in 
methanol solutions, 71:101-104 

Boyko, W. L. (see Whitaker, 
J. O., Jr.) 

Bracker, C. E., 77:156; (see also 
Grove, S. N.) 

Brahmi, Z., 78:109 

Brain tumor, experimental, mor- 
phology, 80:112-113 

Bram, R. A., 74:194 

, Insects and other arthropods 

of economic importance in In- 
diana in 1964, 74:207 

Brannon, D. R., 78:111-112 

Brechner, R. E., and R. D. 
Kerkpatrick, Molt in two 
populations of the house 
mouse, Mus musculus, 79: 

Bretscher, M. M., 75:227 

— -, Measurement of the thermal 
neutron diffusion parameters 
of water by the pulsed neutron 
method, 72:249-255 

, and J. F. Meyer, Diffusion 

heating and cooling of thermal 
neutrons in water, 73:210-216 

Brett, W. J., 75:281-282; 75:282; 
78:445; 80:95; (see also HAY- 
den, M. A.) 
, Long term cyclic changes 

in temperature of man, 71 : 

Brett-Hauer, R. K., 76:222 

Bridgeman furnace for growing 
crystals, 80:377 

Brigadier, W., and G. L. Ward, 
Protura of Wayne County, 
Indiana, 74:205-206 

Briscoe, H. T., memorial, 71:36-37 

Brock, J. E., S. Pursley, M. G. 
Dunn and A. Clausen, A 
constant voltage supply for a 
pressure transducer, 71:282- 
, memorial, 74:45-46 

Brock, T. D., 72:86 
, and I. Yoder, Thermal pol- 
lution of a small river by a 
large university : bacteriologi- 
cal studies, 80:183-188 

Brooker, R. M., 72:120 

Brooks, A. E., Zygote germination 
in astrephomene, 74:153-154 

Brooks, W. D., 80:312-313 

Brown, K. M., and C. Merritt, 
Simulated sunlight duration 
maps of forest openings, 80 : 

Brown, O. W., memorial, 77:37-38 

Brown, P. (see Ricketts, J. A.) 

Bryophyta, 78:396-405 

Bryophytes of Cabin Creek Raised 
Bog, 72:105-107 

Bryophytes XIII, studies in Indiana, 

BSCS vs. traditional biology, 
achievement, 80:437 

Buchman, R. L., 77:96 

Buckbee, Sister B., R. E. Surdzial, 
and C. R. Metz, Temperature 
dependence of E° for the 
Daniell Cell, 79:123-128 

Bucko, B., 75:62 

Bullard, R. W. (see McGrath, J., 
and Schaffer, R. E.) 

Bullfrog, open season, 77:414 

BURCK, P. J., 80:111 

Burgess, J., 80:437-438 

Burgess, R. D., 78:387-388 

Burkhardt, R. W., Jr., 74:195 

Burkle — Cell 


Burkle, M. A., 79:357 

Burnham, K. D., 74:349 

Burnor, D. R., and J. E. Harris, 

Racial continuity in Lower 

Nubia: 12,000 B.C. to the 

present, 77:113-121 
Burns, J. M., 78:445-446 
Burns, J. T., 74:348 
Burrows and oscillative behavior 

therein of Lumbricus terres- 

tris, 71:378-384 
Burton, E. T., memorial, 78:33-34 
Burton, M., 74:179; 74:179-180; 

74:180; 74:181-182; 77:173; 

Bushnell, T. M., A history of soil 

science in Indiana, 1816-1966, 

Butcher, J. W., 74:196 
Butler, J. W., 78:165-166 
Butler University, Pharmacy Col- 
lege, 76:216-219 
Butomus umbellatus, a new station 

for, in Indiana, 73:88 
Buttrey, B. W., 80:487 

Cabin Creek raised bog, Randolph 
County, Indiana, diatom flora, 
vascular plants, 71 : 302-304 

Cabomba caroliniana in Indiana, 71 : 

Cadmium (II), complex of, and 
pyrocatechol violet, 73:135-138 

Callen, R. B., 76:221 

Callis, R., 78:387 

Callose deposits, 77:144-147 

Camp, D. C, 72:248 

Campaigne, E. E., 77:174 

, The development of the 

science departments at Indi- 
ana University, 77:340-345 

Campbell, M. F., 75:282-283 

Campbell, W. F., 78:110-111 

Cannibalism in genus Rana, 75 : 

Canon City Embayment, Colorado, 
76:335-338; 77:229 

Cantin, A. J., (see Dinkel, R. M., 
and Hook, J. C.) 

Carbohydrate metabolism, in cock- 
roach, Blaberus cranifer Bur- 
meister, 71 :114 

Carlson, K., 78:109 

Carlton, W. W., 79:91 

Carmack, M., L. M. Weinstock, 
D. Shew, F-H. Marquardt, 
R. Y. Wen, I. W. Stapleton, 
and R. W. Street, The chem- 
istry of 1,2,5-thiadiazoles. I. 
The parent compound, 80:164- 

Carotenoid, mutant of Cyanidium 
cald avium, 79:83 

Carr, M. T., memorial, 79:27 

Cartersburg till, end moraines, 74: 

Carver, D., 77:123 

Castilleja coccinea, yellow form, 

Cat stomach, 74:360-361 

Cathartes, bones from Indiana cave, 

Cave, Thundermug Bone, Monroe 
County, Indiana, 79:472-475 

Cave fauna, 75:286-288 

Cave springs, alluviated, of south- 
central Indiana, 72:182-189 

Cavern development, 77:236-244; 77: 
250-255; 79:281-291 
in Chesterian rocks, 75:210-215 

Caves, Lawrence County, Indiana, 

Cedar Bluffs, leaf physiognomic 
study, 80:99-103 

Cell Biology (see also entries under 
following author names, only 
those who submitted manu- 
scripts included : Barr, R. ; 
Cheetham, R. D.; Chuang, 
T. F.; Hall, J. D.; Middleton, 
A. E.; Morre, D. J.; Sergeant, 
M.; VanDerWoude, W. J. 
abstracts, 77:154-158; 78:161-166; 
79:91-95; 80:111-113 

Cell dispersing enzymes, 76:201-202 
in maize root, 75:65 

Cell expansion, inhibition of, 76: 


Cell — Chemistry 

Cell membrane composition, 78: 

Cell mobility, 78:165 
Cell wall deformability, 75:63-64 
Cells, nuclear changes and mitotic 

anomalies, 75:61 
simulation, 80:439-442 
Centaurium pulchellum, 78:414-416 
Central places, hierarchy of, 79: 

Cephalosporium, genetics, 78:112-113 

sulfatase regulation, 77:123 
Ceratina metallica Smith, mortality 

during hibernation, 72:139-140 
Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopa 

(L), occurrence in Indiana, 

1962, 72:167-168 
Cerebral cortex, neuron structure, 

Ceric ammonium sulfate, alkaloid 

test, 80:97 
Cesium chloride-polyacrylamide gels, 

Chalybion zimmermanni, in Indiana, 

Dahlbom, nest site preference, 

Chandler, A. D., Jr., 74:118 
Chandler, L., 72:139; 72:139-140; 

80:245; 80:245-246 
, Light trap collection of the 

nocturnal bee, Sphecodogastra 

texana (Cresson) (Hymenop- 

tera, Halictidae), 71:124-129 
, The social wasps in Indiana 

(Hymenoptera: Vespidae), 74: 

, Wasps of the Tribes Stizini 

and Bembicini in Indiana 

(Hymenoptera: Sphecidae), 75: 

, The second record of Coeli- 

oxys obtusiventris Crawford 

(Hymenoptera, Megachili- 

dae), 79:228 
, Indiana vs. Indian Terri- 
tory : Misinterpreted locality 

citations, 79:229-230 
Chapman, F. H., Incidence of 

arthritis in a prehistoric mid- 

dle Mississippian Indian popu- 
lation, 72:59-62 
■ , The incidence and age dis- 
tribution of Osteoarthritis in 
an archaic American Indian 
population, 73:64-66 

— , Comparison of osteoarthritis 

in three aboriginal popula- 
tions, 74:84-86 

Chappell, R. G., 72:139 

Chara, fossils, 78:406-412 

Charophytes, fossil, from Ixtapa, 
Chiapas, Mexico, 73:217-218 
Pleistocene, 79:84 

Check list, Indiana Collembola, 79: 

Cheetham, R. D. (see Middleton, 
A. E.) 
— — , and D. J. Morre, Di- and 
tri-nucleotidase activities of 
rat liver cytomembranes, 79 : 

Academy science index from p 28 

Chelates, alkali, bonding of, 80:151- 
cobalt, copper, and nickel, 77:176- 

metal, 75:33-42 

Chemical effects on nuclear transi- 
tions, 77:347 

Chemical research publications by 
alumni of Hanover College, 

Chemistry (see also entries under 
following author names, only 
those who submitted manu- 
scripts included: Boschmann 
E.; Bowers, E. J.; Buckbee 
Sister B.; Carmack, M. 
Cook, A. G.; Cook, D. J. 
Darlage, L. ; Davis, R. E. 
Fischer, R. B.; Heys, J. R. 
Hoffman, W. E.; Huffman 
C. J.; Loeschke, W. L. 
Ludwig, P.; Miranda, T. J. 
Petersen, Q. R.; Pryor, W 
A.; Ricketts, J. A 

Schmidt, F. C; Siefker 
J. R.; Smith, J. A. 

Chemistry — Clark 


abstracts, 71:100; 72:120; 73:125- 
126; 74:178-180; 76:221-222; 
77:171-175; 78:199-200; 79: 
121-122; 80:141-143 
freshman success in, 76:227-235 
history of, in Indiana, 76:81-94 

Chenopodium nuttalliae, 77:349 

Chenopodium quinoa, 77:349 

Cherokee past, evidence for, 79:57 

Cherry trees, oriental, phenology, 

Chi-square, statistical approxima- 
tions, 78:482-490 

Chick, effect of high incubation 
temperature on pecking and 
color preferences, 72:290-299 
effect of temperatures on T-maze 
learning, 71:327-333 

Chicks, heat-stressed, 77:413 
temperature effects and pecking 
frequency and color prefer- 
ence, 74:362-366 

Chick embryos, oxygen uptake in 
heat-stressed, 73:261-266 

Chick weight, effect of environ- 
mental stress on, 71:385-398 

Chicken, blood chemistry, effects of 
high incubation temperatures 
on, 72:353-361 
pituitary glands, assay by radio- 
active phosphorus, 73:257-260 

Chicks' handedness and variability 
affected by temperature 

stress, 76:426-430 

Chinch bug, control with insecticides, 

Chiroptera, incidence of rabies in, 
the Hoary Bat, 78:497-501 

Chitinozoa, Silurian, 80:320-329 

Chlorophyll, fluctuation in Juniperus, 
variation in corn, 78:118-119 

Chloroplast development, ultrastruc- 
ture, 77:158 

Chloroplast quinones, 80:130-139 

Cholesterol catabolism, intestinal 
flora and, 73:83-87 

Christian, J. E. (see Ziemer, 

Chromate - dichromate equilibrium, 

Chromatography, gas, 76:222 
gas-liquid, 80:39-49 
gel permeation, 80:39-49 
study of Polygonum, 80:422-430 

Chromosomal aberrations, 75:65-66 

Chromosome associations, 79:84 

Chromosome numbers in Polygonum, 

Chromosomes and affinities of the 
genus Reverchonia, 72:257 

Chromotography, quantitative appli- 
cation of thin layer: assay of 
tryptamine, 72:120 

Chromotrophism in Mermis suh- 
nigrescens, 80:501-504 

Chuang, I. F., Y. C. Awasthi and 
F. L. Crane, A model mosaic 
membrane : Cytochrome oxi- 
dase, 79:110-120 

Cicada, periodical, 80:247-252 

Cicadas, periodical, in 1963, Brood 
23, 73:167-170 
periodical, in apple orchards, con- 
trol of, 71:114 
periodical, Magicicada spp., as 
pests in apple orchards, 71 : 

Cipra, J. E., 80:443 

Circadian rhythm, sleep movements 
of Marsilea, 77:152-153 

Citellus tridecemlineatus, new dis- 
tribution records, 76:397 

Cities, Indiana, land use of selected, 
near-neighbor analysis, 79:325-332 
population, Indiana and Ohio River 
Watershed, 75:191-196 

City climates, conflicting hypotheses, 

City growth and development, 76: 

City planning and web pattern, 78: 

Cladosporium leaf mold, 80:104-109 

Cladocera remains in Indiana lake 
sediments, 71:368 

Clark, D. E., Parasites of Mus 
mus cuius taken from an in- 


Clark — Cole 

habited building in Terre 
Haute, Vigo County, Indiana, 

Clark, F. B., White ash, hackberry, 
and yellow-poplar seed remain 
viable when stored in the 
forest litter, 72:112-114 

Clark, J. A., 73:144 

Clark, W. C, Vitamin deficiency 
and survival of hepatoma 
BW7756 mice, 74:367-370 

Clark's Grant, land-survey divisions, 

Clausen, A. (see Brock, J. E.) 

Clay, colloidal flow through sand 
column, 76:377-385 
infrared studies, 75:247-255 
soil analysis, 77:405-411 

Cleland, R. E., Science: Boom or 
Bane? special address, 77: 

Cleveland, J. H., 78:315 

, Variation of iron sulfide con- 
tent in sphalerites of Missis- 
sippi Valley deposits, 74:271- 
, Flow diagram for a com- 
puter program designed to 
calculate igneous molecular 
norms, 75:175-190 

Cleveland, M. L., (see also Hamil- 
ton, D. W., and Dolphin, R. 

, Maintenance of fruit insect 

cultures at Vincennes, Indiana, 

Clifford, B. C, 75:63 

Climatic change and the northern 
plains, Archaic, 74:99-106 

Climatic records, a comparison of, 

Climatology, Anderson, Indiana, 80: 
urban, new theories, 80:330-336 

Cline, J. C, 78:112 

Clouse, R. A., J. W. Richardson, 
and E. V. McMichael, Inter- 
im report on the Daughtery- 
Monroe Site: An Allison- 
LaMotte village, 80:74-83 

Coal, analysis of Indiana samples, 
stream pollution from mine waste, 

Coal balls, 78:120-138 

Coal mine reclamation costs, 78 : 

Coal mine reclamation problems, 

Coal mining, 79:263-269 

Coartney, J. S., 75:63-64; 76: 

Cobalt-60, decay of, 76:358-365 

Cobra venom action on virus, 78:110 

Cockroach, metabolism, 75:284 

Codling moth eggs and Tricho- 
gramma minutum, 80:305-309 

Coelioxys obtusiventris Crawford, 

Coffin, S., 78:71 

Coffing, S. J., 79:57-58 

Coffman, D. M., Parameter meas- 
urement in fluvial morphol- 
ogy, 79:333-344 

Cognatic kinship organization, some 
theoretical considerations, 73 : 

Coincidence techniques in measure- 
ment of atomic lifetimes, 78: 

Colchicine-induced cells, tissue-cul- 
tured, 73:76 
virus growth in, 74:118 

Cold exposure, larval amphibian, 

Cole, T. A., and B. W. Kemper, An 
analysis of pupal proteins of 
Drosophila melanogaster by 
Polyacrylamide gel electro- 
phoresis, 75:308-310 

, and J. B. Snodgrass, Alcohol 

dehydrogenases in the pupae 
of Drosophila melanogaster, 
, and W. F. Middendorf, De- 
velopment of a clear, photo- 
polymerizable acrylamide gel 
and its use in immobilizing 
and staining nucleic acids, 

Cole — Copper 


■ , and S. G. O'Neal, The use 

of ethidium bromide in de- 
tecting banded DNA in cesium 
chloride-polyacrylamide gels, 
Coleoptera, aquatic, 76:272-278; 76: 
279-283; 76:286-290 
Dystiscidae, hybridization of, 72: 

Hydrophilidae, 75:137-140 
records of Indiana species, 76:308- 

reproductive behavior, 77:213 
College women, physical and cultural 
basis of personality, 71:69-70 
Collembola, Indiana species, 79:249- 
key to, 79:234-237 
new records in Indiana, 80:246 
in beech-maple climax forest, 78 : 
Collinsia heterophylla, chromosal ab- 
errations, 75:65-66 
Collodian-methacrylate film, 77:154 
Color preference, chick, 74:362-366 
Communication, scientist to non- 
scientist, 78:65-69 
Community development, systems 

approach, 78:104-107 
Complexes, biguanide, 75:100-104 

o-tolyl biguanide, 77:176-181 
Computer, use in terrain analysis, 
in chemistry instruction, 80:141- 

display of soil patterns, 80:443 
Computer mapping, synagraphic, 

Computer program for igneous mo- 
lecular norms, 75:175-190 
Computers in education, 78:200 
Conrad, P. J., 75:62; 76:199 
Conchostraca, first record in Indi- 
ana, 80:175-176 
Conroy, J. J., 80:96 
Conservation, land, 76:267-272 

wildlife, 75:289-292 
Conservation activities of Indiana 

Academy, 77:75-83 
Conservation planning, 77:312-320 
Considine, R. G., 74:118; 76:181 

, Tolerance to the induction 

of interferon by vaccinia virus 
in germfree mice, 76:57-60 

Constitution and By-Laws, 74:21-29 
amendments, 75:10-11; 78:14 

Contributors, instructions for, 80: 

Cook, A. G., 71:100; 73:126; 76:221; 
78:200; 78:200 

, An alternative mechanism to 

the stork ring enlargement, 

Cook, D. J., 79:122 

, and W. E. Schelwalt, The 

preparation of several 3,4- 
dialkylquinolines and inter- 
mediate compounds, 74:183- 

Cooling degree days in Indiana, 

Coons, M. P., 80:413 

Cooper, E. E., 71:85 

Cooper, R. H., The occurrence of the 
whistling swan (Cygnus Co- 
lumbianus L.) in Delaware 
County, Indiana, 72:342-343 
, Further notes on the occur- 
rence of the whistling swan 
(Cygnus Columbianus L.) in 
Delaware County, Indiana, 73: 

, Melanoma in Heloderma 

suspectum Cope, 78:466-467 

, A half century of science at 

Ball State University, 78:381- 

Coordination compounds, infrared 
spectra, 79:121 

Cope, J. B., 71:369; 79:439-440; (see 
also Baker, P. C, and Hum- 
phrey, S. R.) 

, D. R. Hendricks and W. 

B. Telfair, Radiotelemetry 
with the big brown bat (Ep- 
tesicus fuscus) , 79:466-469 

, and D. R. Hendricks, 

Status of My otis lucifugus in 
Indiana, 79:470-471 

Copeland, R. F., 78:200 

Copper (II), dielectric study of, 80: 


Corals — Cucurbit 

Corals, Mississippian, of West- 
Central Indiana, 74:268-270 

Corley, R. C, memorial, 76:44-45 

Corn, 77:128; 77:129 

damage by symphylans, 77:214-221 
diseases in Indiana, 78:117-118 
effect of angomois grain moth on 
germination and vigor, 72:140 
effect of residual nitrogen, 77:373 
response to phosphorus and potas- 
sium fertilization, 78:435-443 
southern leaf blight, 80:96-97; 

Texas male-sterile cytoplasm, 80: 

yield and temperature, 77:389-395 

Corn leaf aphid, 75:108; 75:109 
corn's resistance to, 71:138-141 
ecology, 76:260-264 

Corn leaf moisture variations, 80: 

Corn monoploids, chromosome asso- 
ciations, 79:84 

Corn production and Indiana climate, 

Corn roots, distribution in soils, 

Corn seed, fungi on, 76:217-220 

Correlation coefficients, statistical 
approximations, 78:482-490 

Corthum, K. W., Jr. (see Whit- 
aker, J. O., Jr.) 

Corticosteroids in blood, 77:420-426 

Costa Rica, vegetation types, 71:284 

Cotter, D„ A., 79:345-346 

Cottingham, J. O., memorial, 72: 

Coturnix coturnix japonica, 75:282- 
283; 75:289-292 

County records, plants for Fayette 
and Franklin Counties, Indi- 
ana, 71:292 

Cover type mapping, automatic, 80: 

Cox, R. L., and A. H. Westing, 
The effect of peat-moss ex- 
tracts on seed germination, 

Craig, E., 78:387; 80:378 

Crane, F. L. (see Barr, R., Chuang, 
T. F., and Hall, J. D.) 

Crania, demonstrating racial rela- 
tionships, 74:72-80 
from shell heaps of Brazil and 
from the archaic of eastern 
United States, 73:56-59 

Cranial and cephalic measurements, 
relationship of, in American 
negroes, 73:67-70 

Crankshaw, W. B., 78:201-202; 
79:137; 80:178 

, The effect of ground cover 

on the soil moisture regime 
in a mixed mesophytic woods, 
, J. A. Smith, and R. D. 

KlRKPATRICK, Woodcock 

singing ground descriptions 
for two Indiana sites, 78:241- 

Craske, A. G., Jr., 78:201 

Craspedacusta, new records in Indi- 
ana, 80:178-179 

Crater Lake, Wizard Island, 77:183 

Cravioto, H., 80:112-113 

Creel census, Lake Michigan, 77:184 

Crib Mound, Spencer County, Indi- 
ana, 80:63 

Crocodilian circulation, 80:486 

Crooked Lake, fish and limnology, 

Crop canopy, effect on soil patterns, 

Crop plants on fragipan soils, 78: 

Crop potentials, increasing, through 

water availability, 71:347-352 

of Indiana soil types, 71:335-340 

Crowe, D. R., and J. R. Norwine, 
An example of consumer con- 
trol of location: service sta- 
tions, 76:353-356 

Crown rust in oats, 75:63 

Crushed stone, transportation costs, 

Crustacea, 80:175-176 

Crystals, growth by Bridgeman fur- 
nace, 80:377 

Cucumber beetles, attractiveness to 
cucurbits, 71 :114 

Cucurbit varieties, attractiveness to 
cucumber beetles, 71 :114 

Culaea — Davis 


Culaea inconstans, ecology in Indi- 
ana, 77:185-192 
Culbertson, C. G. (see Powell, 

H. M.) 
Culex pipiens, in waste lagoons, 

Culex territans Walker, occurrence 

in Indiana, 71:115 
Culiseta minnesotae, 75:108 
Culture of planktonic blue-green 

algae, 74:165-168 
Cumings, E. R., memorial, 77:38- 

Cummins, G. B., Records of South 

Texas rust fungi, 72:267-269 
Cumo, J. M. (see Banks, J. B.) 
Curran, T., 78:71 
Currier, W. W., 80:368 
Curtis, K. K., 78:118-119 
Cuticle variability in plants, 78:115 
Cyanamide complex of iron, 78:199 

(II), 80:141 
Cyanidium caldarium, a carotenoid 

mutant, 79:83 
Cyclanthera, a revision of the genus, 

Cyclic changes, in temperature of 

man, 71:370-373 
Cyclohexane, 77:173-174 
Cycloheximide, blockage of Dictyos- 

telium discoideum myxamoeba 

release, 79:345-346 
Cyclotron, Indiana University, 77: 

resonance theory, 79:360 
Cytochemical changes in replicating 

Trachoma virus, 71 :71 
Cytochrome oxidase, membrane 

form, 79:110-120 

D* absolute value, 78:387 

D'Alelio, G. F. (see Miranda, 

D'Allessio, J. (see Ludwig, P.) 
Daghlian, C. P., 80:95-96 
Daily, F. K., 73:217; 79:84 

, necrology by, 75:30-32; 76: 

42-53; 77:37-46; 78:32-42; 79: 

27-38; 80:25-32 
, Some scientific expeditions 

to the southeastern United 

States taken by David Starr 
Jordan, 71:271-274 

, Some late glacial charo- 

phytes compared to modern 
species, 78:406-412 

Daily, W. A., Some algae of the 
Cabin Creek raised bog, Ran- 
dolph County, Indiana, 71:298- 

, Notes on some algae found 

in Indiana, 72:279-281 

, and R. T. Everly, Algae 

found growing in plastic en- 
closures covering ears of pop- 
corn plants, 73:219 

Damiano, M. E., 79:414 

Damping-off, alfalfa and associated 
fungi, 71:84 

Damselfly, reproductive behavior, 
75:108; 75:110-115 

Dancis, B. M., Experimental hybri- 
dization of an insular form of 
Tropisternus collaris (Fabric- 
us) with mainland subspecies 
( Coleopetera : Hydrophilidae ) , 

Daniell cell, temperature dependence 
of voltage, 79:123-128 

Darlage, L., An inexpensive low 
voltage paper strip electro- 
phoresis apparatus, 76:223-226 

Data analysis, life sciences, statis- 
tical shortcuts, 78:482-490 

Daughtery-Monroe site, excavations, 

Davidson, P. G., 79:135 

Davis, R. E., 77:171 
, Steric effects and the second- 
ary isotope effect, 71:105-108 

, The oscillator strength of a 

dipole transition in a Lorentz- 
Lorenz Field, 71 : 109-113 

, A predictive analysis of 

Chemistry 115 at Purdue with 
a single class of 1100 students 
in 1962, 76:227-235 

, and R. E. Kenson, Boron 

hydrides. XII. The synthesis 
and infrared spectra of 
NaBH 3 D and NaBD 3 H. 76: 


Davis — Di-n-butyloxamidine 

Davis, W. D. 80:311 

Day, H. G., The nutritional sig- 
nificance of trace elements 
(presidential address), 72:50- 

Deay, H. 0., 73:145 

, memorial, 79:27-29 

, and J. G. Taylor, Response 

of the house fly, Musca 
domestica L., to electric lamps, 

Decker, R. D., 71:83 

Degree days in Indiana, 73:183-187; 

Dehydration of 3-hexen-2,5-diol, 77: 

deLanglade, R. A., and A. A. 
Lindsey, A decade of oldfield 
succession in an Indiana bi- 
ological reserve, 71:285-291 

Delaware County, Indiana, domestic 
flies, 80:299-304 

Delaware Indian tribe, 79:60-61; 

Delia, A. (see Ricketts, J. A.) 

Dendropanax in the Eocene, 78:115- 

Dennen, D. W., 77:123 

Denner, M. W., Infections of Or- 
thopterans by Mermis sub- 
nigrescens Cobb (Nematoda) 
in Iowa, 80:283-285 

, Some biological aspects of 

Mermis subnigrescens Cobb 
(Nematoda), 80:501-504 

Density curves of alkyldiamine- 
water systems, 75:90-95 

Dental caries, in gnotobiotic rat, 
influence of salivary antibody 
on, 73:75 
in pre-historic and historic Indian 
groups, 71:57-60 

DenUyl, D., memorial, 71 :37-39 

DePauw University, a century of 
botany and botanists at, 71 : 
Herbarium, 71 : 239-241 

Deppa, C. A., memorial, 72:39-40 

Desmognathus ochrophaeus carol- 
inensis, water loss physiology 
in, 78:472-481 

Despommier, D. D., 76:179 

Desrosier, N., The edge of hunger, 

Dessication, response to, in sala- 
manders, 78:472-481 

Developmental levels, effect on 
learning, 75:240-245 

Devonian rocks, 78:333-341 

Dewart Lake, 76:286-290 

Diabrotica, biology and distribution, 
resistance to aldrin, 80:267-274 

Dialkyl quinolines, preparation, 74: 

Dialysis, simulating movement, 80: 

Diatom flora, Cabin Creek raised 
bog, Randolph County, Indi- 
ana, 71 :305-319 

Diaz-Piferrer, M., 75:61 

Dickson Mound, Fulton County, Illi- 
nois, 78:73-82 
prehistoric Indian cemetery, 77:102 

Dictyosomes, in fungal hyphae, 76: 

Dielectric, bis- ( 2'-hydroxyacetophe- 
nonato) copper (II), 80:144- 

Dietary factors in experimental 
liver cancer, 72:362-366 

Differential thermal analysis of 
magnesite and dolomite, 75 : 

Diffusion coefficients, electronalyti- 
cal measurements of, 74:178 

Diffusion heating and cooling of 
thermal neutrons in water, 

Dilantin, effect on rats, 77:427-433 
Dilcher, D. L., 77:130-131; 78:115; 
78:115-116; 79:375; 79:375- 
376; 80:95-96 

Dillon, L. L, 75:151-152 

, Dubois County, an exception 

to the general trend, 72:174- 
, Popcorn production in Indi- 
ana, 78:363-368 
Dillon, M. A., 74:179-180 
Di-n-butyloxamidine complexes, 79 : 

Dimethyl— Duroic 


Dimethyl sulfoxide, effect on seed 
germination, 75:62 

Dineen, C. F., 71:367 

, Changes in the Molluscan 

fauna of the Saint Joseph 
River, Indiana, between 1959 
and 1970,80:189-195 

Dinga, C. F., Analysis of retail site 
locations in Terre Haute, 
Indiana, 77:321-326 

Dinkel, R. M., 78:201 
, and L. Guernsey, An eco- 
nomic appraisal of reclamation 
practices on a strip coal mine 
site in Greene County, Indi- 
ana, 78:355-362 

, and A. J. Cantin, The 

changing location patterns of 
the neighborhood grocers in 
Terre Haute, Indiana: A geo- 
graphic analysis, 79:309-317 

Dinocardium robustum, 74:348 

Dion, T. (see Morre, D. J.) 

Dipole transition in a Lorentz- 
Lorenz field, 71:109-113 

Diptera collected in Indiana walnut 
groves, 72:154-157 

Disaccharidases in rats, 76:180-181 

Disc electrode configurations in elec- 
troanalytical diffusion, 74:178 

Dishner, G. H., and R. T. Everly, 
Greenhouse studies of the 
resistance of corn and barley 
varities to survival of the corn 
leaf aphid, 71:138-141 

Dissociation constant of cadmium ion 
and pyrocatechol violet, 73: 

Division of Nature Preserves, Indi- 
ana Department of Natural 
Resources, 77:75-83 

DNA, detection with ethidium bro- 
mide, 80:374-376 
microspectrophotometric analysis, 

Doehring, D. G., 72:289 

Dolan, E., 79:57 

Doll, J. P., 71:71-72 

Dolomite, 75:163-166 

Dolph, G. E., 78:115-116 

■ — — •, A comparison of local and 

regional leaf characteristics in 
Indiana, 80:99-103 

Dolphin, R. E., M. L. Cleveland, 
and T. E. Mouzin, Field 
tests with Bacillus thuringieu- 
sis Berliner in an apple 
orchard, 76:265-269 
— — , M. L. Cleveland, and T. E. 
Mouzin, Trichogramma min- 
utum relationship to codling 
moth and red-banded leaf 
roller eggs, 80:305-309 

Donahue, S., 77:155; 78:161 

Douglas, C. F. (See Stivers, R. K.) 

Douglas, J. C. (See Siefker, 
J. R.) 

Downey, R. J., 73:77; 76:181-182: 

Downie, N. M., and C. E. White, 
Records of Indiana Coleop- 
tera, III, 76:308-316 

Doyle, J. R., 78:200 

Drainage map, Indiana, 76:323-327 
from topograhic map, 79:333-344 

Drosophila, control on canning to- 
matoes, 73:145 
effects of age of parents, 74: 

periodicity and rhythm, 78:445 

Di'osophila melanog aster, alcohol de- 
hydrogenaces in pupae, 76: 
beta-alanine utilization, 75:283- 

284; 76:399 
pupal protein analysis, 75:308-310 
survival of mated and non-mated 
progeny, 72:344-347 

Druelinger, M. L., 80:142 

Dryophyllum, Eocene fossil leaves, 

Dubois County, an exception to the 
general trend, 72:174-176 

Dudley, R. F. (see Stivers, R. K.) 

Dunn, M. G. (see Brock, J. E.) 

Dunn, R. L., The distribution of 
mobile home park development 
in Vigo County, Indiana, 80: 

Durham, J. W., 73:217-218 

Duroic acid, decarboxylation mechan- 
ism, 79:122 


Dusting— Electron 

Dusting pattern, quail, 75:282 
Dye, fish marking, 80:180-182 

Early woodland, Greene County, 74: 

Earth mound, 78:417 

Earth science, secondary school cur- 
riculum, 75:246 
teaching in Indiana, 78:329-332 

Earthworm resistance in sweet corn, 

East Chicago, Indiana, 71:169-186 

Eaton, S. V., memorial, 73:31-32 

Eberly, W. R., 80:175-176; 80:178- 

, Preliminary results in the 

laboratory culture of plank- 
tonic blue-green algae, 74:165- 

, A new troglobitic isopod 

(Asellidae) from Southern 
Indiana, 75:286-288 

Eble, J. N., 72:120 

Eclipse, solar, 78:387-388 

Ecology (see also entries under 
following author names, only 
those who submitted manu- 
scripts included: Arnett, P 
M.; Beers, T. W.; Benda 
R. S.; Brock, T. D.; Brown 
K. M.; Crankshaw, W. B. 
Dineen, C. F.; Gulish, W 
J.; Heath, M. E.; Hoffer 
R. M.; Jackson, M. T. 
Jones, G. S.; Kirkpatrick 
R. D.; Krumholz, L. A. 


J. P.; Nelson, J. S.; Roth 

P. L.; Schmelz, D. V. 

Weaver, D.; Weeks, H. P. 

Jr., Whitaker, J. O., Jr.) 
abstracts, 76:241-242; 77:183-184 

78:201-203; 79:135-138; 80 

Indiana ruffed grouse, 79:177-186 
Ecuador, cultivated Solanaceae, 79: 

Eddleman, H., Scar: A temperature 

sensitive mutation in Tri- 

bolium castaneaum Herbst, 


Edington, W. E., 72:239 

-, Necrology by, 71:36-45; 

72:38-49; 73:31-37; 74:41-59 
, Biographical sketches of 

Indiana scientists, II, 71:258- 

■ , Mathematics in Indiana, 1816 

to 1966, from the rule of three 

to the electronic computer, 76: 

, Biographical sketches of 

Indiana scientists, IV, 77: 

Education, the non-science major, 

and undergraduate oceonography, 

Educational psychology, comparison 

of graduate and undergradu- 
ate performance in, 72:288-289 
Edwards, C. A. (see Gould, G. E.) 
Edwards, D. M. (see Monke, E. J.) 
Effing, M., 72:246 

Eggs, embryonated duck, experi- 
mental use in rabies vaccine 

preparation, 71:73-77 
Ehrlich, H. G., 76:199-200 
Ehrlich, M. A., 76:199-200 
Eichelkraut, N., 77:413 
Eidson, W.W., 71:276 
Eisinger, W. R., 75:63; 76:200-201 
, and D. J. Morre, The effect 

of sulfhydral inhibitors on 

plant cell elongation, 77:136- 

Elaphe obsoleta, 78:446 
Elder, J. H. (see Sergeant, M.) 
Electric lamps, response of house fly 

to, 72:161-166 
Electrochemical cells, e.m.f. 

Electrokinetic measurements of 

through sand column 

Electrolytes, potassium and 

Electron microscopy, supporting film, 

Electron spin resonance lineshapes, 





Electrophoresis — Esterase 


Electrophoresis, 76:223-226 

of proteins, 75:308-310 
Elipten (aminogluthethimide), ef- 
fects on fertility, 76:398 
Elliott, F. R., memorial, 76:45-46 
Ellis, J., Indiana plant distribution 
records, XVIII, 1959-1961, 71: 
Ellson, D. G., 72:289 
Embryology, 75:283; 75:303-307 

mouse ova, 77:413-414 
Emery, G. T., 77:347 
Enamine synthesis and properties, 

Enamines, reduction of, 76:221 
Endoplasmic reticulum, 77:154-155; 
77:164-170; 78:183-188 
nucleotide phosphatase activities, 
Endothelial cell nuclei, brain, 79:93 
Endrin as a fish toxicant, 79:148-161 
Energy balance, in Dolichonyx ory- 
zivorus during premigratory 
fat deposition, 71:369 
Engineering geology, 74:259-267 
Enteric epithelium, human, 79:92 
Entomology (see also entries under 
following author names, only 
those who submitted manu- 
scripts included: Bick, G. H.; 
Brigadier, W.; Chandler, 
L.; Cleveland, M. L.; Dan- 
cis, B. M.; Deay, H. O.; 
Denner, M. W.; Dishner, 
G. H.; Dolphin, R. E.; 
Downie, N. J.; Everly, R. 
T.; Favinger, J. J.; Gould, 
G. E.; Hall, D.; Hamilton, 
D. W.; Hart, J. W.; Hershey, 
S. C; Huber, R. T.; Mack- 
lin, J. M.; Meyer, R. W.; 
Montgomery, B. E.; Mont- 
gomery, M. E.; Munsee, 
J. R.; Osmun, J. V.; Parker, 
T. A.; Schuder, D. L.; 
Shroyer, D. A.; Siverly, 
R. E.; Walter, E. V.; Wappes, 
J. E.; Ward, G. L.; Young, 
F. N.; Zehring, C. S.) 
abstracts, 71:114-115; 72:139-141; 
73:144-145; 74:196-197; 75: 

108-109; 76:259; 77:213; 78: 

255-256; 79:227; 80:245-246 
Environment, preservation of, 79:49- 

Environmental alteration, inadvert- 
ent human, 80:330-336 
Environmental changes and chloro- 
phyll concentration, 80:95 
Environmental stress effect on chick 

weight, 71:385-398 
Enzyme cof actor, Escherichia coli, 

Enzyme-catalyzed reactions, 79:346 
Enzymes, cell dispersing, 76:201-202 

L-amino acid oxidase, 79:121-122 
Eocene leaf fossils, 77:130-131 
Ephestia kuhniella, 75:311-318 
Epiphyllae, tropical rain forest, 80: 

Epipyropidae, parasitic lepidopteran, 

in Tippecanoe and Warren 

Counties, Indiana, 80:245 
Epithelial tumor, 79:94 
Equilibrium constants of complex 

ions, 77:176-181 
Equilibrium, tautomeric, between the 

azonium and ammonium 

species, 73:139-143 
Erie Lobe drifts in east-central 

Indiana, 77:279-291 
Erman, D. C, 75:279 
Erodibility of Indiana soils, 72: 

Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici, 77: 

Erythrocytes, aminoglutethimide on 

hemolysis, 80:510-516 
Escherichia coli, arginase induction 

in, 77:123-124 
concentrative uptake of a-gluco- 

side by, 72:86 
inhibition of molecular syntheses 

in, by phenethyl alcohol, 73: 

L-serine deaminase, 80:111 
mutant, 78:109 
Esten, M. H., memorial, 78:34-35 
Esten, S. R., memorial, 76:46-47 
Esterase, nonspecific neutral, 77:154- 



Ethidium — Fish 

Ethidium bromide, use in detecting 
banded DNA, 80:374-376 

Ethionine, effects on fat transport, 

Ethnic groups in Siberia, 76:173-177 

Eudorina from Indiana, sexual com- 
patability in, 71:85 

Euphorbiaceous fruits, Eocene, 79: 

European corn borer, biological con- 
trol, 77:213 
control, heartbeat and bacterial 
pathogens, 79:227 

Eurycea bislincata and Eurycea 
luciiuga, histocompatibility, 

Evapotranspiration rates and soil 
moisture levels determined 
from climatological data, 73: 

Everly, M. E., 75:56 

Everly, R. T., 72:140; 75:109; 
(See also Daily, W. A., 
Dishner, G. H., and Her- 
shey, S. C.) 

, Review of factors affecting 

the abundance of the corn leaf 
aphid, 76:260-264 

Eversole, W. J. 75:285; 76:398; 
76:398-399; (see also Zim- 
merman, R. E., and Zwerner, 
R. K.) 

•, Adrenal cortical accessory 

tissue and azo dye carcino- 
genesis, 71:374-377 
, Some dietary factors in ex- 
perimental liver cancer, 72: 

Evolution in plants, 77:349; 77:350 

Excitation transfer, 74:179 

Expeditions, scientific, to southeast- 
ern United States by David 
Starr Jordan, 71 :271-274 

Extinctions, megafauna of late- 
Pleistocene, 79:65-68 

Falconiformes, 75:283 

Fall meetings, Indiana State College, 
71:11-21; Evansville College, 
72:12-22; Goshen College, 73: 
14-21; Indiana Central Col- 

lege, 74:13-20; University of 
Notre Dame, 75:14-21; Indiana 
Institute of Technology, 76: 
18-27; Indiana University, 77: 
18-24; Ball State University, 
78:15-21; Hanover College, 
79:9-15; Indiana State Univer- 
sity, 80:9-17 

Faller, A., Ill, 77:183 

Farm ponds, 79:423-431 

Farrow, B. J. (see Santos, J. F.) 

Faster-than-light particles, search 
for, 80:380-383 

Fascicled ear corn, origin of branches, 

Fat transport, effects of ethionine 
on, 77:156-157 

Fatty acids, avidin effects and bio- 
synthesis, 79:351-355 

Fauna, Maryland Miocene, 79:253 

Faunal remains from the Angel Site, 

Favinger, J. J., and M. A. Moussa, 
The occurrence of the cereal 
leaf beetle, Oulema melanopa 
(L.), in Indiana, 1962, 72: 

Feathers, count of, in falconid birds, 

Feed-back theory (physics), 76:357 

Feeding frequency and bluegill 
growth, 79:136 

Ferguson, R. J., 79:58; 80:65-66 

Ferns, chromatography, 80:431-435 

Ferris, J. M., 74:195 

Fertilization effects on potato 
growth, 73:227-231 

Fertilizer experiments with corn, 

Fehlner, T. P., 74:178 

Fescue, tall, 80:177 

and big trefoil, 79:193-197 

Fischer, R. B., and P. Haffley, The 
hydrolysis of sulfamic acid, 

Fish, 80:114-123; 80:124-129 

Crooked Lake, Indiana, 77:185-192 
distribution, Putnam County, 74 : 

dye marking, 80:180-182 
populations of streams, 77:193-205 

Fish— Fruits 


species new or rare to Indiana, 
Fisher, D. D., 79:346 
Fishes, amphibians, reptiles — Indi- 
ana State University collec- 
tions, 77:415-416 
sensitivity to Aldrin, 75:325-329 
of Tippecanoe County, 75:279 
of Vigo County, 75:279-280 
Fitzgerald, G. R., 74:119 
Fixation, glutaraldehyde, 78:167-182 
Fleas of Vigo County, 76:431-440 
Fletcher, R. I. (see Hassler, 

C. R.) 
Flies, domestic populations, Indiana, 

Fluorescein stream tracing, 77:250- 

Fluorescence techniques, 77:130 
Fluvial morphology, parameter- 
measurement, 79:333-344 
Foley Woods, Edgar County, Illinois, 

Foliar analysis in nutritional survey 
of Indiana apple orchard, 73: 
Follicle stimulating hormone, effect 
on chicken pituitary, 79:462- 
465; 74:351 
Food habits of Rana catesbeiana, 

Foods, Peromyscus leucopus, 79:172- 
white-footed mouse, 79:172-176 
Ford, L., 79:84 

Fordyce, C, Jr. (see Green, R. J.) 
Forest, old-growth oak-hickory rem- 
nant, 80:215-219 
analysis, 78:245-254 
dominance expressions, 79:137-138 
ecology, 77:183-184; 77:184; 78: 

201; 78:204-209 
leaf litter, loss of rubidium 86 and 

phosphorus 32 from, 73:88 
microclimates, computer simula- 
tion, 80:210-224 
opening design, 80:220-224 
sampling methodology, 76:243-250; 

types, Eastern United States, 80: 

succession, 78:203 

types, Indiana, 79:198-204 

Forests, old-growth, 78:210-230 
old-growth, analyses, 74:169-177; 

74:307; 74:308-313 
original, lower Wabash floodplain 
and upland, 72:282-287 

Fort Ancient, archaeological popula- 
tion, 78:93-96 

Fossil leaves of Dyrophyllum, 77: 

Fossil fruits of Eocene age, 79:375 

Fossils, algae, 75:206-209 
charophytes, 78:406-412 
elephantine teeth, 75:293-298 
Philodendron leaves from Tennes- 
see, 80:95-96 

Fox, bounty in Indiana, 79:187-192 

Fourier synthesizers, 74:294-297 

Fragipan soils and suitable crops, 

Francis, Sister M. C, 71 :71 

Franklin County, Indiana, Trillhims 
of, 79:83 
wildf lowers of , 77:131 

Fraser, D., 80:112 

Free energy, standard, of formation 
of MgBr 2 , 75:105-107 

Freeman, L. W., memorial, 79:29- 

Freeze etching, Pseudomonas aeru- 
ginosa, 80:112 

French, R. R., Geology and mining 
of gypsum in southwestern 
Indiana, 76:318-322 
— - — , Transportation of mineral 
aggregates in Indiana, 78:348- 

Frisch, J. A., Cognatic kinship or- 
ganization : some theoretical 
considerations, 73:71-74 

, The social organization of 

the Northeastern Algonkians, 

Frogs, rhythms and photoreception 
in, 80:486 

Froning, H. B., memorial, 71:39-41 

Fruit insect cultures, 74:219-221 

Fruits, Euphorbiaceous of Eocene 
age, 79:375 


Fulk — Geology 

Fulk, F. D., 77:414 

, and J. O. Whitaker, Jr., 

The food of Rana catesbeiana 
in three habitats in Owen 
County, Indiana, 78:491-496 

Fulton County, Illinois, prehistory, 

Functional organization, administra- 
tive structure, 80:312-313 

Fungi, 76:199; 76:202-203; 76:203; 
76:210-214; 76:217-220; 76:222 
wall ultrastructure, 77:156 

Fungicides, systemic, 80:104-109 

Furnace, Bridgeman, for growing 
crystals, 80:377 

Fusarium moniliforme, ultrastruc- 
ture, 76:202-203 

Galileo's telescopes, air thermometer, 
and astrolab, 78:378-380 

Gall specificity in Synchytrium, 71: 

Galloway, H. M., Establishing crop 
potentials for Indiana soil 
types, 71:335-340 

, Soils affecting urban uses — 

a teaching program, 75:273- 

Galloway, J. J., memorial, 72:40-42 

Gamma radiation from Ne 20 , 71:276 

Gamma rays, 73:174 

absorption coefficient of, 76:358- 

Gamma-A globulin, 79:92 

Gammon, J. R., 74:352; 78:203; 
79:136; 80:175; (see also 
Benda, R. S., and Phelps, 
J. M., Jr.) 

, The distribution of fishes in 

Putnam County, Indiana, and 
vicinity, 74:353-359 

Garner, M. R. Notes on the ecology 
of the milliped, Plenroloma 
butleri (McNeill) in migra- 
tion, 72:348-350 
, History of zoology in Indi- 
ana, 76:164-170 

Garnier, B. J., 72:171 

Garter snake, 78:445 

Gas chromatography, 77:175 

Gas storage, underground, in Indi- 
ana, 71:166-168 

Gastrotricha in Indiana, 76:400-404 

Generating plants, location factors, 

Genetics, 75:63; 75:65-66; 75:67-72; 
75:109; 75:137-140; 75:229 
in barley, 76:199 
of Tropisternus, 76:272-278; 76: 

Society of America, academic 
origins of members, 78:370- 

Gentianaceae, 78:414 

Geographic influences, changes in 
Bloomington, 71:265-270 

Geography, history of, in Indiana, 
materials, classification, 80:313- 

physical, Canon City Embayment, 

Colorado, 76:335-338 
physical, a program for, 72:171 

Geologic reports for land-use plan- 
ning studies, 78:49-64 

Geology and Geography (see also 
entries under following author 
names, only those who submit- 
ted manuscripts included : 
Agee, E. M.; Amstutz, D. W.; 
Barton, T. F.; Bieber, C. L.; 
Blome, D. A.; Boneham, 
R. F.; Cleveland, J. H.; 
Coffman, D. M.; Crowe, 
D. R.; Dillon, L. I.; Dinga, 
C. F.; Dinkel, R. M.; Dunn, 
R. L.; French, R. R.; Guern- 
sey, L.; Hart, J. F.; Hasch, 
J. E.; Hess, E. B.; Hook, 
J. C; Johansen, N. I.; 
Kane, H. E.; Kirch, R. V.; 
Knowles, W. W.; Lewis, 
L. A.; Medvick, C. ; Meyer, 
A. H.; Miles, R.; Miller, 
L. V.; Moulton, B.; Mur- 
doch, S. H.; Norwine, J. R.; 
Orr, R. W.; Palmer, A. N.; 
Powell, R. L; Ricketts, J. 
A.; Riley, B. W.; Schaal, 
L. A.; Schneider, A. F.; 
Smith, J. M.; Straw, W. L; 

Geology — Gordon 


Thompson, I. B.; Turner, 
A. K.; Visher, S. S.; Wayne, 
W. J.; Webb, G. W.; Weber, 
N. V.; West, T. R.; Whippo, 
P. D.; Wier, C. E.; Wright, 
R. D.) 
abstracts, 71:148-149; 72:171-173; 
74:222-223; 75:149-152; 77: 
229-230; 78:315-316; 79:253; 

Geology, coal roof rock, 79:263-269 
north-central Indiana, 80:320-329 
at Hanover College, 125 years, 72: 

history of, in Indiana, 76:103-115 
of Sabine Lake and vicinity, Loui- 
siana and Texas, 73:171-176 

Geomorphology of Indiana, 78:317- 

George, J., 79:121 

Geotropism, maize stem, 77:128 

Gerber, D. (see Middleton, A. E.) 

Germanium (III) phthalocyanine, 

Germfree animal research, history 
of, at Lobund Laboratory, 

Germfree animals, lysozyme levels, 

Germfree chickens, antibody forma- 
tion in, 72:97-102 
antigens, 74:120-124 

Germfree mice, 74:125-131; 73:75-76 
serum interferon of, 75:57-60 

Germfree rats, influence of Salmo- 
nella typhimurhim on ileum 
and spleen morphology, 73:78- 
intestinal disaccharidasses, 76:180- 

rearing, on chemically defined, 
antigen low diets, 72:87-92 

Germination, in Dictyostelium dis- 
coideum, 79:345 
teliospores of Puccinia coronata 
var. avenae, 71 : 96-99 

Gerwig, J. L., 78:201-202 

Geyer, R. E., Jr., 78:446 

Ghate, A. V., 72:140-141 

Ghemawat, M. S., 77:127-128 

Gibbs, P. S., 77:156-157 

Giese, R. L. (see Schuder, D. L.) 
Gifford, C. E., 71:369, (see also 

Harper, S. E., Pettee, R. E., 

and Wade, S. E.) 
Gilbert, S. K. (see Patterson, F. 

Gill, J. B., 80:64 

Gilloly, C. (see O'Brian, D. M.) 
Girdley, W. A. (see Wier, C. E.) 
Girton, R. E., 71:85; 78:116-117 

, Three-quarters of a century 

of biology at Purdue Univer- 
sity: 1874-1947, 74:284-288 
Glacial features, linear, in west- 
central Indiana, 72:172-173 
Glacial geology, 75:149-150; 75:167- 

174; 75:202-205 
Lake Maxinkuckee area, 76:328- 

Glacial Lake Chicago, 77:271-278 
Glacial till, effects on strip mined 

lands, 77:305-311 
Glasses, oxide, produced by Ir, Pd, 

Rhand Ru, 79:361-373 
Gleditsia, biosystematics of North 

American species, 75:229 
Glenn, E. J., 80:64 
Glutaraldehyde, reactions with cyto- 

membranes, 78.167-182 
Glycine max, shoot development, 71: 

Glycine sp., resistance to fungi, 76: 

Goebel, H. H., 80:112-113 
Goethe, C. M., memorial, 76:47-49 
Goins, D. R„ 79:137 
Goldfish, maze learning, 75:235-239 
Goldstein, M. E., 71:85 
Golgi apparatus, 77:154; 77:159-163; 

77:164-170; 78:162; 78:183- 

188; 80:124-129 
in fungal hyphae, 76 210-212 
mucleotide phosphatase activities, 

Gonadotropins, effect on chick testes, 

Gooden, Robert, Site, Fulton County, 

Illinois, 80:64 
Goodrich, F. E. (see Hoffer, R. M.) 
Gordon, D., 75:229 


Gordon — Guernsey 

Gordon, R. E., Science, communica- 
tion, and the critical mass, 

Gorham, E. D., 71:276 

Gorman, M., 78:111-112 

Gossett, F. 0. (see Powell, H. M.) 

Gould, G. E„ 71:114-115; 73:145; 
74:196; 76:259 
— — , Chinch bug control with new 
insecticides, 75:130-136 

, The corn rootworm problem 

in Indiana, 80:267-274 

, and C. A. Edwards, Damage 

to field corn by Symphylans, 

Goulden, C. E., 71:368 

Grains, small, response to nitrogen, 

Gramineae, 77:132-135 

stem structure in, 79:85-90 

Grant, K. E., The soil survey in the 
rural urban complex, 75:262- 

Graphical analysis of forests, 74: 
169-177; 74:307 

Grasses, nodal complex in, 77:132- 
stem structure in, 79:85-90 

"Great Mound," excavation of, 79: 

Great Slave Lake area, botanical in- 
vestigations, 71 :82 

Green, M. J., P. D. Sparks, and 
S. N. Postelwait, Studies of 
the ovule and seed develop- 
ment of guar, 73:97-104 

Green, R. J., Jr., 75:62; 80:96; 
(see also Locke, J. C., and 
Smith, P. L.) 

, and C. Fordyce, Jr., Aerial 

survey and control of oak wilt 
in Indiana, 71:91-93 

Green sunfish, growth and effect of 
hierarchy, 79:136 

Greene County, Indiana, 78:355-362 
prehistory, 80:63 

Greene-Nieuwland Herbarium, Uni- 
versity of Notre Dame, 71: 

Gries, G. A. (see Zimmer, D. E.) 

Griffin, E. C, Water and soil con- 
servation by prehistoric Indian