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Full text of "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofindv82indi 



PROCEEDINGS 

of the 



Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 



Volume 82 
1972 



Marion T. Jackson, Editor 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 



Spring Meeting 

April 28-29, 1972 

Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame 

Fall Meeting 

November 2-4, 1972 

Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 
1973 



1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana State Library, 140 N. 
Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Contributors appear at the end of this volume, p. 474-475. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and correspondence con- 
cerning exchange arrangements should be addressed : 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana Academy of Science 
c/o Indiana State Library 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the State Library at $7.00 per volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers can often be secured from the authors. They cannot 
be supplied by the State Library nor by the officers of the Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from Vol. 74 are available to members 
upon application to the Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the various volumes can 
be supplied to relatives and friends of deceased members by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspondents may be 
addressed care of the State Library. Papers published in the Proceedings of the Academy 
of Science are abstracted or indexed in appropriate services listed here: 

Annotated Bibliography of Economic Geology 

Bibliography of North American Geology 

Biological Abstracts 

Chemical Abstracts 

Chemischer Informationsdienst 

Current Geographical Publications 

Geological Abstracts 

Metals Abstracts 

Pesticides Documentation Bulletin 

Review of Applied Entomology 

The Torrey Bulletin 

Zoological Becord 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Part 1 

THE WORK OF THE ACADEMY 

Page 

Officers and Committees for 1972 3 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (Executive Committee) 6 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (General Session) 9 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) 10 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Session) 14 

Annual Financial Report 16 

Annual Report, Indiana Junior Academy of Science 20 

Necrology 21 

Membership List 30 

Part 2 

ADDRESSES AND CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 

Presidential Address 57 

"Pharmaceutical Research: Its Contributions to Science and 
Medicine," Otto K. Behrens 

"The P's and Q's of Modern Astronomy," Frank E. Edmondson . 67 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

T. P. Myers, G. L. Brouillard and S. Hunter — The Fourth Indiana 

University Archaeological Expedition to Columbia* 71 

E. M. Dolan and R. E. Pace — The Cataract Lake Furnaces: 

Historic Archaeology in Owen County, Indiana 72 

S. K. Cupp and G. W. Kline — Continued Excavations at the 

Daughtery-Monroe Site 78 

G. Apfelstadt — Preliminary Investigations at Kuester Site 86 

S. L. Lucas — Round Lake: Remnants of a Late Woodland Site in 

Starke County, Indiana 91 

BOTANY AND PLANT TAXONOMY 

A. A. Susalla — Green Tissue in a Genetic Albino Strain of Tobacco 

— An Ultrastructural Study of its Plastics* 97 



: Abstract or Note only 

iii 



iv Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 

T. J. Crovello — The Use of Computers to Help to Teach 

Plant Biology* 97 

K. Krawczyk and D. M. Huber — Standardization of Amino- 
peptidase Profiles for the Identification of Plant Pathogenic 
Bacteria* 98 

R. H. L. Howe — Oxygen Production by Algae and a New Interpre- 
tation of its Mechanism* 98 

R. J. Stroz and J. A. Gross — Identification of Phytoene in 

Euglena gracilis* 98 

W. N. Doemel and A. E. Brooks — A new Algal Assay to Determine 
the Growth Potential of Phosphorus Containing Natural 
Waters* 98 

A. E. Brooks and W. N. Doemel — The Effect of Sewage Phos- 
phorus Reduction on Algal Growth Potential of Lake Waters* . 99 

T. R. Mertens — Student Investigations of Speciation in 

Tragopogon* 99 

S. K. Satterfield and T. R. Mertens — Rhoeo spathacea: A Tool 

for Teaching Meiosis and Mitosis* 100 

S. C. Wolf— Plant Diseases in Indiana in 1972 101 

W. W. Bloom and K. E. Nichols — Rhizoid Initiation in Relation 
to Gravitation Presentation Time in Marsilea Megaga- 
metrophytes 109 

A. R. Mergen — The Flora of Spencer County, Indiana. 1 113 

C. Keller and T. J. Crovello — Procedures and Problems in the 
Incorporation of Data from Floras into a Computerized 
Data Bank 116 

W. H. Welch— Studies in Indiana Bryophytes XV 123 

CELL BIOLOGY 

J. D. Larsen and A. R. Schulz — Bovine Thyroid Glutamate 

Dehydrogenase* 129 

R. Shellenbarger and A. Bennett — Elongation and Desaturation 

of Fatty Acids in Aspergillus niger* 129 

T. W. Keenan and D. J. Moore — Distribution and Characteri- 
zation of Ganglioisdes in Mammary Gland and Milk* 130 

T. W. Keenan — Relationship of Long Chain Fatty Acids in 

Sphingolipids to Membrane Stability* 130 

W. D. Klohs, C. W. Goff, and E. Beiser — Characterization of 

Nucleoside Diphosphatase Relative to Cytochemical Studies* . 131 

G. DeVillez and C. W. Goff — A Cytochemical Survey of Nucleoside 

Diphosphatase in Certain Plant and Animal Cells* 131 



*Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents v 

Page 
C. T. Hammond and P. G. Mahlberg — Morphogenesis of Glandular 
Hairs of Cannabis sativa L. from Scanning Electron 
Microscopy* 132 

L. P. Mahlberg — Histochemistry and Scanning Electron Micro- 
scopy of Starch Grains from Latex of Euphorbia terracina L. 
and Euphorbia tirucalli L.* 132 

J. J. McGlVERN and K. S. Rai — A Radiation-Induced Paracentric 
Inversion in Aedes aegypti (L.) I. Cytogenetics and Inter- 
chromosomal Effects* 133 

J. M. Schaeffer, J. H. Clark and E. J. Peck, Jr. — An Assay 

for GABA Receptors of the Rat Cerebellum* 133 

W. N. Yunghans and D. J. Moore — Separation of Plant Membrane 

Proteins by Ion Exchange Chromatography 134 

W. D. Merritt and D. J. Morre — Two Types of Lipoprotein 

Particles in Golgi Apparatus of Rat Liver 137 

F. A. Williamson and D. J. Morre — Differential Effects of 

Divalent Cations on Plant Membranes 142 

CHEMISTRY 

B. N. Storhoff and H. C. Lewis, Jr. — Thallium *I) Cyclopenta- 

dienide: A Useful Reagent for the Preparation of Thallium 
Derivatives* 149 

P. A. Wiseman and C. L. Renner — The Li-NH 3 Reduction of 
Trans-4-t-butylcyclohexyl Methanesulfonate and of 1-Deutero- 
trans-4-t-butylcyclohexyl Methanesulfonate* 149 

S. West, W. Nesbitt, and T. L. Kruger — Synthesis of -Ene Nitriles 
as a First Step in the Synthesis of Bicylo Alkanes with a 
Bridgehead Nitrile* 149 

J. W. Kress, G. Sherwood and T. L. Kruger — The Mechanism of 

the Cope Elimination* 150 

E. S. Wagoner — Determination of Dose-Related Excretion of 
Ascorbic Acid* 150 

C. L. Huang and A. R. Schulz — The Effect of Hydrogen Ion 

Concentration on the Kinetic Parameters of Thyroid Monoa- 
mine Oxidase* 150 

K. L. Bridges — Synthesis of Oxygen-18 from Enriched Water for 

Use in Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry* 151 

F. K. Ault and B. N. Storhoff — Techniques for Preparing Video 

Tapes for the Chemistry Classroom* 151 

M. L. Druelinger — Oxaziranes: Synthesis and Chemistry* 151 

D. J. Dyman and R. E. Van Atta — The Isolation and Charac- 

terization of Tissue Extracts of Erythronium americanum and 
Erythronium albidum 152 



*Abstract or Note only 



vi Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 

E. Boschmann and W. A. Althaus — Thermal Decomposition of 

Sodium Acetylacetonate 156 

G. M. Huitink — Coumarins as Fluorescent Indicators of 

Metal Ions 161 

S. L. Burden and D. E. Euler — Titration Errors Associated with the 

Use of Gran Plots in Selected Potentiometric Titrations 167 

D. G. Lesniak, M. C. Tavenner and J. R. Siefker — Quantitative 
Chemical Analysis of Specific Components of the Waters of 
Lost Creek and the Wabash River, Vigo County, Indiana .... 176 



ECOLOGY 

A. A. Lindsey — Toronado Tracks in the Presettlement Forests 

of Indiana* 181 

R. H. L. Howe — A Sample Hydrologic Environmental Inventory of 

Tippecanoe County* 181 

R. L. Helms and M. T. Jackson — Effects of Ground Fire on 

Spring Wildflower Populations of Oak-hickory Forests* 181 

C. N. von Ende — The Distribution of Chaoborus species in Four 

Bog Lakes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan* 182 

H. H. Hobbs, III — The Distribution and Ecology of Cave Crayfishes 

in Indiana* 182 

T. C. Kane— Study of Predation Strategy in a Cave Beetle* 183 

J. R. Karr — Conservation vs. Management in Resource Preser- 
vation* 183 

M. W. Coe and D. V. Schmelz — A Preliminary Description of the 
Physcio-Chemical Characteristics and Biota of Three Strip Mine 
Lakes, Spencer County, Indiana 184 

H. J. Von Culin and A. A. Lindsey — Two Decades of Vegetational 

Change in the Ross Biological Reserve 189 

J. D. Webster and D. L. Adams — Breeding Bird Censuses in Old- 
Growth Deciduous Forests 198 



ENGINEERING 

R. H. L. Howe — The Physical Factors for Considering an Agitator 

for Liquid-Gas Transfer* 207 

T. B. Cunningham and R. L. Swaim — The Solution and Applica- 
tions of Optimal Limited State Feedback Control* 207 

J. W. Delleur and I. T. Kisisel — Generation Models for Synthetic 

Annual and Monthly Flows for Some Indiana Watersheds . . . 208 

R. L. Swaim— Control Considerations for V/STOL Aircraft 214 



: Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents vii 

Page 
J. W. Delleur, M. T. Lee and D. Blank — A Computer Atlas of 
Hydrologic and Geomorphologic Data for Small Watersheds 
in Indiana 222 

ENTOMOLOGY 

R. E. Siverly — Distribution of Aedes stimulans (Walker) in east 

central United States* 227 

D. A. Shroyer and R. E. Siverly — Observations on Overwintering 
of the Northern House Mosquito, Cullex pipiens pipiens L., 
in Eastern Indiana* 227 

R. J. Russo— Effects of Different Densities on Life Table Charac- 
teristics of Aedes aegypti (L.) * 228 

T. J. Crovello— MODABUND: The Computerized MOSQUITO 

DATA BANK at the UNIVERSITY of NOTRE DAME- .... 229 

M. E. Jacobs — Beta-alanine use by "ebony" and "black" 

Drosophilct* 229 

G. R. Finni — The Winter Stonefly Genus Allocapnia in Indiana 

(Plecoptera : Capniidae) * 229 

J. J. Favinger and C. F. Wade — Telephone Cable Penetration by 

Xylobiops basilaris (Say) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) * 230 

J. W. Hart — New Records of Indiana Collembola* 231 

G. L. Ward — Growth of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom in 

Captivity (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) * 241 

G. L. Ward — Melittobia chalybii Ashmead Hymenoptera: Eulo- 
phidae) as a Parasite of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom 
(Hymenoptera: Specidae) * 233 

B. E. Montgomery — Why Snakefeeder? W T hy Dragonfly? Some 

Random Observations on Etymological Entomology 235 

V. R. Knapp — Preliminary Annotated List of Indiana Aphididae . 242 

GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY 

J. V. Gardner — Origins of Wedge-like Soil Structures: Marion 

County, Indiana* 265 

M. C. Mocre and N. K. Bleuer — An Exposv a of Pre-Wisconsinan 

Drift rr^ar Fort Wayne, Indiana* , . > . .' 265 

L. V. Miller and C. F. Foley — Major Constituents of Ash from 

Five Indiana Coals* 266 

M. C. Carpenter and G. S. Austin — The Stratigraphy of the Clays 

and Shales of Spencer County, Indiana* 266 

N. V. Weber — Drainage Patterns and Stream Classification in a 

Neotectonic Region* 266 



'Abstract or Note only 



viii Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 

D. H. Burner — The Influence of Cap Rock on the Development 

of Slopes* 267 

R. N. Pheifer and D. L. Dilcher — A Study of the Floras in the 
Alleghenian and Conemaughian Series in Sullivan County, 
Indiana* 268 

W. D. Brooks — Symbolization and Computer Mapping* 268 

T. Stevens — A Macro and Meso Scale Analysis of Sunshine 

Climates in Central Indiana 270 

C. F. Foley, N. K. Bleuer, R. K. Leininger and W. C. Herring 
— Strontium and Other Notable Chemical Constituents of Well- 
water of Allen County, Indiana 274 

G. S. Austin — Clay and Shale Resources of Spencer County, 

Indiana 281 

V. P. Wiram — An Evaluation of Acid-Producing Sandstones in 

Warrick County, Indiana 290 

C. E. Wier, C. R. Glore and A. F. Agnew — Sandstone Aquifers in 

Eastern Sullivan County, Indiana 297 

J. B. Patton and H. H. Gray — Statewide Geologic Maps of 

Indiana 303 

A. Mirsky — The Geology of Water: The Limiting Factor in 

Urban Development 310 

P. Nelson — Stratigraphy of the Blue River Group (Mississippian) 

in Putnam County, Indiana 318 

R. William Orr and W. H. Pierce — The Type Section of the 

Pendleton Sandstone 326 

M. M. Varma and R. F. Blakely — Microseism Activity in 

Indiana 335 

J. L. Sexton, J. Mead and A. J. Rudman — Feasibility of Midwest 
Crustal Studies Based on Earthquake Surface Wave Ellipti- 
cities 341 

A. J. Rudman and M. M. Varma — A New Application of Down- 

ward Continuation of Gravity Fields 347 

B. Gray — Stratigraphic, Floral and Faunal History of a Wisconsinan 

Silt Deposit 354 

D. W. Ash, M. Rurk and W. N. Melhorn — Karst Development 

in Calcareous Tufa Deposits Along Flint Creek, Tippecanoe 
County, Indiana 361 

MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

K. Seibert and M. Pollard — Some Aspects of Humoral Immunity 
in Germfree and Conventional SJL/J Mice in Relationship 
to Age* 369 



*Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents ix 

Page 
R. H. L. Howe — Oxygen Demand of a Fermenter Medium and 

its Determination* 369 

J. R. Kirkpatrick, L. E. Dolin and 0. W. Godfrey — The 
Role of Lysine in Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces 
lipmanii* 370 

J. K. Ashley and A. S. Bennett — The Elongation of Palmitic Acid 

in Penicillium chrysogenum* 370 

K. Krawczyk and D. M. Huber — Standardization of Aminopepti- 
dase Profiles for the Identification of Plant Pathogenic 
Bacteria* 370 

M. R. Tansey — Ecology of Thermophilic Fungi in Natural Habitats, 

with Emphasis on Pathogenic Species* 371 

K. Schell — Aspects of the Control of Virus Diseases* 371 

K. Bitzinger and R. F. Ramaley — Partial Characterization of 
Fumarase from an Extreme Thermophilic Bacterium Isolated 
in Indiana 373 



PHYSICS 

R. H. L. Howe — Comparison of the Newit-Dombrowski-Knelman 
Equation and the Modified Howe's Equation for the Determi- 
nation of the Rising Velocity of Gas Bubble in a 
Static Fluid* 379 

A. M. Guima and G. P. Thomas — A Study of the Angular 
Distribution of Scattered Muons in Muon-Nucleon Interactions 
at 15.8 GeV/c* 379 

G. C. Huant and R. M. Cosby — Lithium Precipitation in Elemental 

Semiconductors Containing Disordered Regions* 379 

C. C. Sartain — Electronic Conduction in Amorphous Silicon 
Dioxide* 380 

P. C. Norisez — The Use of Electrostatic Quadrupoles in Scanning 

Electron Microscopy* 380 

J. Swez and J. B. Westgard — A Novel Video Sweep Circuit for a 

Scanning Electron Microscope 380 

J. P. Collins, R. L. Place and D. R. Ober — A Design for a 
Plastic Scintillator — Ge(Li) Spectrometer for Obtaining Sup- 
pressed Spectra* 380 

D. A. Mitchell, D. W. Warn, G. E. Tomlinson and M. E. 

Hults— Photographing the 10 July 1972 Total Solar Eclipse in 

Nova Scotia* 381 

D. W. Warn, D. A. Mitchell and M. E. Hults — Photoelectric 
Detection of Shadow Bands at the 10 July 1972 Solar 
Eclipse* 381 



*Abstract or Note only 



x Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 

A. Barbee, C. Bibo, P. DiLavore, D. Emmons, C. R. Hanger, J. 
Kelly, M. McCandless, D. Pitts, M. Pokorny and D. 
Robinson — The I.S.U. Expedition to the Solar Eclipse of 
July 10, 1972* 382 

T. Alvager and W. Frost — Cosmic Rays and Faster-than-light 

Particles* 382 

SCIENCE EDUCATION 

M. D. Malcolm — Earth Science for Elementary Teachers* 385 

F. L. Bernhardt and R. L. Wright — An Evaluation of the ISCS 

Program* 385 

A. DeVito — An Integrated Science Program for Preservice Elemen- 
tary School Teachers* 385 

D. W. Ball — Cognitive Development and Success in Science* .... 386 

N. G. Sprague — Charts Globes and Planetarium — Descriptive 

Astronomy Instruction* 386 

T. E. Smith and F. K. Ault — Preparation and Evaluation of Pro- 
grammed Instruction Materials on Acid-Base Theory* 386 

J. Frees, J. Boyle, S. Shimer and C. Boner — University- 
Public School Cooperative Science Enrichment Program: A 
Project Report* 387 

F. K. Ault and S. Ratcliff — Cassette Tapes as Tutors in Fresh- 

man Chemistry* 388 

L. Bruce — Are Indiana State University Freshman Students Operat- 
ing at a Formal Level in Thought Processes?* 388 

H. M. Bratt, II — The Development, Instruction and Assessment of 
Affective Domain Objectives in Elementary Science 
Education* 389 

G. H. Krockover — Developing School Administrators as Agents of 

Change for Science Curriculum Implementation 391 

D. E. Van Meter — Attitudinal Changes in Selected 6th Grade Stu- 
dents Participating in the Indianapolis Public Schools Resi- 
dential Outdoor Education Program, Spring, 1972 395 

G. C. Marks and W. W. Bloom — The Laboratory Culture of Dia- 
toms for Class Use 400 

SOIL SCIENCE 

R. H. L. Howe — Comparison of the Newit-Dombrowski-Knelman 

Soils by Controlled Denitrification* 403 

L. B. Owens and D. W. Nelson — Relationship of Various Indices 

of Water Quality to Denitrification in Surface Waters 404 



*Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents xi 

Page 
L. A. Schaal, W. L. Stirm and J. E. Newman — Soil Temperatures 

in Indiana 414 

R. K. Stivers — The Influence of Temperature and Moisture 

Variation in Storage Upon Soil Test Values for Potassium . . . 421 

L. E. Sommers, D. W. Nelson, J. E. Yahner and J. V. 
Mannering — Chemical Composition of Sewage Sludge from 
Selected Indiana Cities 424 

ZOOLOGY 

V. S. Beeson and H. A. Bender — Genetic Suppression and Enhance- 
ment of the Lozenge-eye Mutant of Drosophila melanogaster* . 433 

J. L. Albright, J. R. Elkins and M. D. Cunningham — The Use 
of Sound to Disrupt a Winter Roost of Starlings (Sturnis 
vulgaris) in Livestock Barns* 433 

W. J. Brett — Long Term Rhythmicity in the Turtle Heart and 

the Effects of Changes in Light-Dark Cycles* 434 

R. E. Schaffer — Seasonal Weight Changes of Tamias striatus in 

Captivity* 434 

P. S. Ray — The Effect of Taurine on Ouabain-induced Hypo- 
glycemia* 434 

D. C. Rubin — Notes on the Reproductive Habits of the Slimy 

Salamander, Plethodon glutinosus, in West-Central Indiana* . 435 

D. S. Guinn and G. W. Welker — Psittacidae — A Monograph of the 

Parrot Family* 435 

R. S. Benda — Heated Effluents and the Occurrence of Lernaea 

cyp?'inacea* 435 

T. Joseph — Observations on the Gross Morphology of the Oocyst 

Walls in Some Coccidia* 436 

E. E. Exley and T. R. Mertens— The Prevelence of the 47, XYZ 

Chromosome Abnormality in Selected Human Populations . . . 438 
S. J. Eggleston and T. S. McComish — Experiments on Standard 

Metabolism of Bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus 443 

J. 0. Whitaker, Jr., and D. C. Wallace — Fishes of Vigo County, 

Indiana 448 

D. C. Rubin — Distributional Summary of the Amphibians and 

Reptiles of Vigo County, Indiana 465 

W. J. Eversole — Effects of Sex and Route of Administration on 

Water Diuresis in Elipten-Treated Rats 469 

Instructions for Contributors 474 

Index 477 



'Abstract or Note only 



PART 1 

THE WORK 

OF THE 
ACADEMY 

1972 



Otto K. Behrens, President 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES FOR 1972 
OFFICERS 



President Otto K. Behrens, Eli Lilly and Company 

President-elect William B. Hopp, Indiana State University 

Secretary J. Dan Webster, Hanover College 

Treasurer Clyde R. Metz, Indiana University — Purdue University 

Editor Marion T. Jackson, Indiana State University 

Director of Public Relations Paul E. Klinge, Indiana University 

Program Chairman Clarence F. Dineen, Saint Mary's College 

DIVISIONAL CHAIRMEN 

Anthropology Edward Dolan, DePauw University 

Botany Willard F. Yates, Jr., Butler University 

Cell Biology Charles W. Goff, Indiana State University 

Chemistry Richard C. Pilger, Saint Mary's College 

Ecology Alton A. Lindsey, Purdue University 

Engineering Robert L. Swaim, Purdue University 

Entomology Claude F. Wade, Department of Natural Resources 

Geography and Geology Richard L. Powell, Purdue University 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Morris Pollard 

University of Notre Dame 

Physics Torsten AlvAger, Indiana State University 

Plant Taxonomy Gerald J. Gastony, Indiana University 

Soil Science Keith Huffman, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Science Education Frederick K. Ault, Ball State University 

Zoology Dorothy Adalis, Ball State University 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

(Past Presidents*, Current Officers, Division Chairmen, 
Committee Chairmen) 



Adalis, Dorothy 

Alvager, Torsten 

Ault, F. K. 

Behrens, 0. K. 

Brooker, R. M. 

Burton, Lois 

Chandler, L. 
♦Christy, 0. B. 

Daily, Faye K. 
♦Daily, W. A. 
♦Day, H. G. 

Dhonau, C. A. 

Dineen, C. F. 

Dolan, E. 
*Edington, W. E. 
♦Edwards, P. D. 

Gastony, G. J. 



♦Girton, R. E. 
Goff, C. W. 

* Guard, A. T. 
*Guthrie, F. A. 
*Haenisch, E. L. 

Hopp, W. B. 
Huffman, K. 
Jackson, M. T. 
*Johnson, W. H. 
Kaufman, K. L. 
Klinge, P. E. 

* Lilly, Eli 
♦Lindsey, A. A. 
♦Markle, Carrolle A. 

McBurney, W. F. 
*Mellon, M. G. 
Metz, C. R. 



*Meyer, A. H. 
*Michaud, H. H. 
♦Morgan, W. P. 

Moulton, B. 

Newman, J. E. 

Nisbet, J. J. 

Petty, R. 0. 

Pilger, R. 

Pollard, M. 

Poorman, L. 
*Postlethwait, S. M. 
♦Powell, H. M. 

Powell, R. L. 

Quinney, P. R. 

SCHMELZ, D. 

Swaim, R. L. 
Wade, C. F. 



4 Indiana Academy of Science 

*Wayne, W. J. *Welch, Winona H. Yates, W. S. 

*Weatherwax, P. *Welcher, F. J. *Youse, H. R. 

Webster, J. D. Winslow, D. R. 

BUDGET COMMITTEE 

President, 0. K. Behrens; President-elect, W. B. Hopp; Secretary, 
J. D. Webster; Treasurer, C. R. Metz; Editor, M. T. Jackson; Director 
of Public Relations, P. E. Klinge; Retiring President, S. N. Postle- 
thwait; Program Chairman, C. F. Dineen; Director of Junior Academy, 
L. Poorman; Library Committee, Lois Burton; Director of Youth 
Activities, D. R. Winslow; Relation of Academy to State, W. H. 
Johnson; and Retiring Treasurer, D. Schmelz. 

COMMITTEES ELECTED BY THE ACADEMY 

Academy Foundation: William A. Daily, 1972, Chairman; Damian 
Schmelz, 1973. 

Bonding: Robert M. Brooker, 1972. 

Research Grants: James E. Newman, 1973, Chairman; John B. 
Patton, 1972; Nelson R. Easton, 1974; Winona H. Welch, 1975; 
Kenneth E. Nichols, 1976. 

COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 

(President an ex-officio member of all committees.) 

Academy Representative on the Council of the A.A.A.S.: Willis H. 
Johnson. 

Auditing Committee : C. A. Dhonau, Chairman; R. E. Dolphin. 

Youth Activities Committee: D. R. Winslow, Chairman; R. M. 
Brooker; Neal Carmichael; Jerry Colglazier; Floyd Conrad; 
John V. Davis; Keith Hunnings; Jane Kahle; Karl L. Kauf- 
man; W. F. McBurney; Lawrence Poorman; James D. 

SCHWENGEL. 

Indiana Science Talent Search: W. F. McBurney, Chairman; Mark 
Bambenek; Robert L. Henry; Alfred R. Schmidt; Howard 
R. Youse; Harold L. Zimmack. 

Indiana Science Fairs, State Coordinator: Karl L. Kaufman. 

Indiana Science Fairs, Regional Fair Directors: P. V. Flannery, 
Calumet; A. C. Koester, Northwestern; Kenneth Esau, Northern; 
A. W. Friedel, Northeastern; C. A. Pinkham, N.E. Tri-State; 
T. R. West, Lafayette; G. N. Butter, West Central; G. G. 
Welker, East Central; Howard Swartz and Robert Hessong, 
Central; W. F. McBurney, South Central; Richard L. Conklin, 
Southeastern ; Warren Hankins, Tri-State. 

Indiana Junior Academy of Science Council: LAWRENCE POORMAN, 
1974, Chairman; Sr. Mary Alexander, 1972; Mary J. Petersen, 
1973; D. R. Winslow, 1975; Stephen J. Thompson, 1976. 



Officers and Committee 5 

Library Committee: Lois Burton, Chairman; Nellie Coats; W. R. 
Eberly; J. W. Klotz; Eli Lilly. 

Program Committee: C. F. Dineen, Chairman. 

Publications Committee: M. T. Jackson, Chairman; M. F. Baumgartner; 
Lois Burton; H. G. Day; W. R. Eberly; W. N. Melhorn; J. F. 
Pelton; B. K. Swartz, Jr. 

Newsletter: Damian Schmelz. 

Relation of the Academy to the State of Indiana: Willis H. Johnson, 
1973, Chairman; P. E. Klinge, 1972; R. D. Miles, 1972; Robert 
Menke, 1972; A. W. Fergusson, 1972; D. J. Cook, 1973; John 
Patton, 1973; D. James Morre, 1973; H. G. Day, 1974; R. L. Mann, 
1974; H. R. Youse, 1974; R. E. Henderson, 1974; Herman B. 
Wells, Honorary; Helmut Kohnke, Executive Secretary. 

Membership Committee: William B. Hopp, Chairman. 

Fellows Committee: Ben Moulton, 1973, Chairman; Sears Crowell, 
1972; R. E. Gordon, 1972; B. E. Montgomery, 1972; John 
Pelton, 1972; J. L. Ahlrichs, 1973; C. E. Brambel, 1973; W. 
W. Davis, 1973, P. D. Edwards, 1974; Paul H. Gebhard, 1974; 
W. H. Headlee, 1974; G. F. Hennion, 1974. 

Resolutions Committee: Arthur T. Guard, Chairman; H. R. Youse; 
R. 0. Petty. 

Invitations Committee: P. R. Quinney, Chairman; W. K. Stephen- 
son; James C. List; A. A. Lindsey. 

Necrologist: Fay K. Daily. 

Parliamentarian-. Paul Weatherwax. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 

Biological Survey Committee: Leland Chandler, Chairman. 

Emeritus Member Selection Committee: Winona H. Welch, Chair- 
man; Robert H. Cooper; P. D. Edwards; Edward L. Haenisch; 
Howard Michaud. 

Preservation of Scientific Areas Committee: R. 0. Petty, Chairman; 
Ray Gutschick; Carl Krekeler; Carrolle Markle; Ben 
Moulton; Damian Schmelz; Robert Weber; Winona H. 
Welch. 

"Speaker of the Year" Selection Committee: Willis H. Johnson, 
1972, Chairman; A. J. Ullstrup, 1973; H. G. Day, 1974. 

Executive Secretary Committee: Jerry J. Nisbet, Chairman; W. H. 
Johnson; W. K. Stephenson. 

Science and Society Committee: W. H. Johnson, 1973, Chairman 
P. E. Klinge, 1972; R. D. Miles, 1972; Robert Menke, 1972 
A. W. Fergusson, 1972; D. J. Cook, 1973; John Patton, 1973 
D. James Morre, 1973; Harry G. Day, 1974; R. L. Mann, 1974 
H. R. Youse, 1974; R. E. Henderson, 1974; Herman B. Wells 
Honorary; Helmut Kohnke (Executive Secretary). 

Member, Indiana Natural Resources Commission: 0. K. Behrens. 



SPRING MEETING 

Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame Indiana 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

April 28, 1972 

The meeting was called to order in Carroll Lecture Hall, St. Mary's 
College, Notre Dame, Indiana, by President Otto Behrens at 4:35 pm. 
Twenty members were present. Minutes of the general session meeting 
of October 29, 1971, and of the executive committee meeting of October 
28, 1971, had been duplicated and distributed. The secretary moved that 
they be approved ; it was seconded and carried. 

Treasurer: Clyde Metz presented his report for the period 
January 1 to April 26, 1972. It was accepted on motion by William 
Daily, seconded and carried. 

(All of the following committee reports were accepted by general 
consent, unless a motion is recorded.) 

Trustees of the Academy Foundation: A brief oral report was 
given by William Daily. 

Research Grants Committee: James Newman, Chairman, reported 
that five grants had been awarded in 1972 and three others were under 
consideration. The committee is trying to initiate a system of giving 
the annual A.A.A.S. grant to a high school teacher and one of his 
students, as recommended by the donor. 

Academy Representative on the AA.A.S. Council: Willis Johnson, 
Delegate, reported on the December meeting. That organization is in 
the process of changing its constitution to eliminate representatives 
from each State Academy. However, the change is not yet final. 

Auditing Committee: C. A. Dhonau submitted a written as well 
as a telephoned report. The treasurer's books for 1971 were accurate 
and in order. The committee recommended: 1) A certified public ac- 
countant be hired for future audits; 2) The treasurer's bond be increased 
to $100,000; 3) The constitution be clarified as to the handling of 
academy funds. The recommendations were discussed; no action was 
taken, but the matter of a C.P.A. audit was referred to the treasurer. 

Youth Activities Committee: Donald Winslow, Chairman, wrote 
in a long, careful report, including one by Wendell McBurney on the 
1972 Indiana Science Talent Search. A great deal of educational work 
has been done by this committee among the high school students of 
Indiana, in 1972 as in preceding years. There are two problems: 1) Rais- 
ing adequate finances; 2) Increasing the identity of the Academy with 
its youth activities. 

Library Committee: Lois Burton, Chairwoman, reported that 1104 
copies of Volume 80 had been mailed to members, plus many copies on 
exchange. Work continues on expansion of the exchange list and re- 
cataloging the collection. 

6 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 7 

Program Committee: Clarence Dineen, Chairman, reported that 
all was in order (except the weather) for the spring and for the fall 
programs for 1972. 

Publications Committee: Marion Jackson, Chairman, reported that 
William Eberly had resigned (because of illness) as caretaker and sales- 
man of Monographs. This work will be taken over by Mrs. Lois Burton. 

Newsletter: Damian Schmelz sent in a written report. Cost of 
the April newsletter was $96; cost of each additional number this year 
will be $50; the budget allotted $150 for the year. There was general 
discussion of the newsletter. The April number was approved; most 
members present felt that of the other two 1972 numbers planned 
(September and December) that the December number was more 
important. 

Relation of the Academy to the State: Willis Johnson, Chairman, 
reported that he had appeared before the Legislative Council in March 
and will appear before the State Budget Committee. 

Membership Committee: William Hopp, Chairman, reported that a 
new membership brochure had been printed and was ready for distribution. 

Invitations Committee: Paul Quinney, Chairman, had reported by 
telephone to the president. We are tentatively invited to meet at Butler 
University in 1975. It was moved by Willis Johnson, seconded, and car- 
ried that we accept the invitation from Butler University. 

Parliamentarian: Paul Weatherwax moved an amendment to Sec- 
tion 8 of Article V of the constitution of the Indiana Academy of 
Sciences. The present Section 8 of Article V is abolished. The following 
is substituted therefor : 

(8) Science and Society: The Committee on Science and 
Society shall consist of 9 to 12 members of the Academy, 
including representatives of industry, serving staggered three- 
year terms. This Committee may maintain a permanent 
office with a Director and supporting personnel, and it is au- 
thorized to solicit financial support for its work from 
foundations or other sources. 

The duties of this Committee shall be : 

(1) To bring to the attention of the Governor and 
General Assembly of Indiana the nature and activities of The 
Academy, indicating that its State Charter and its continued 
support from the State place upon it the obligation to serve 
the State in every way possible ; 

(2) To develop procedures for disseminating scientific in- 
formation and offering scientific information and scientific 
advice to citizens of the State through the establishment of a 
Speaker's Bureau and the use of the various news media; and 

(3) To mobilize the membership of the Academy in support 
of these efforts. 



8 Indiana Academy of Science 

Emeritus Member Selection Committee: Winona Welch, Chair- 
woman, recommended the election of the following as emeritus 
members : 

Dr. G. B. Bachman Dr. J. M. McGuire 

Dr. T. L. Engle Dr. Elmer Curry Payne 

Dr. George E. Gould Dr. Henry S. Rothrock 
Dr. John W. Kroeger 

It was moved by Paul Weatherwax, seconded, and carried that all seven 
be so elected. 

Natural Areas Committee: A written report was received from 
Robert Petty, Chairman. The conservation organization ACRES had 
requested the Academy to appoint a member to their board of directors, 
and the request had been referred to this committee. The committee 
made no recommendation, but the chairman recommended that we not 
accede, but offer ACRES all possible assistance in the way of 
scientific advice or knowledge, yet without formal commitment to their 
directorship. It was moved by Willis Johnson, seconded, and carried that 
we deny the request of ACRES, and approve the committee report. 

Speaker of the Year Committee: Willis Johnson, Chairman, re- 
ported that the recent series of lectures at various colleges by 
A. A. Lindsey had been quite successful. The second "speaker of the 
year," for 1972-73, will be chosen shortly. 

Science and Society Committee: Willis Johnson, Chairman, 
reported that they were working with the State Legislative Council for 
the establishment of an Indiana Science and Technology Advisory 
Council. An application for funds for the operation of seminars on 
environmental problems is pending. Dr. Helmut Kohnke has resigned 
as executive director as of May 6. 

Executive Secretary Committee: Jerry Nisbet, Chairman, reported 
a thorough study of the need and cost of an executive secretary, and 
of his work in those other states where state academies have such an 
officer. The committee recommended the establishment of such an office, 
but only after the necessary financial resources were in sight, specific 
responsibilities were delineated, and housing (office space) was 
available. After general discussion, the president did not discharge the 
committee, but charged it to investigate the possible sources of sup- 
portive funds and to report again at the fall meeting. 

The president reported an investigation of possible actions regard- 
ing the National Science Talent Search ban on live vertebrate 
experimentation. There was no time left for discussion or action. 
Therefore, Clarence Dineen moved that the matter be tabled to the fall 
meeting. Seconded and carried. 



The meeting adjourned at 6:17 pm. 
Approved November 2, 1972 



Respectfully submitted, 
J. Dan Webster, Secretary 



MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 

April 28, 1972 

The meeting was called to order in Carroll Lecture Hall, St. 
Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana, by President Otto Behrens at 
7:52 PM. Twenty-five (25) members were present. The secretary moved 
approval of the following amendment to the constitution which had been 
approved by the executive committee last October and read to the gen- 
eral session in October. 

Article V, Section 1. The following named committees shall be 
appointed by the President, to serve for one year, except as 
noted otherwise below and except as rotation is provided, 
[and] Except as otherwise provided they shall be an- 
nounced . . . 

(1) The academy representative on the council of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science. This 
person shall serve for a three-year term beginning 1 Janu- 
ary 1972 and every 3 years thereafter. 

(2) Auditing . . . 

(Added words italicized; words in brackets deleted.) 
Seconded and carried. 

The program chairman, Clarence Dineen, then took the chair. He 
announced meals and field trips for the next day, and introduced the 
speaker. Thomas F. Poulson of Notre Dame University gave an interest- 
ing lecture on cave fauna and its evolution. 

Approved November 2, 1972. 

Respectfully submitted, 
J. Dan Webster, Secretary 



FALL MEETING 

r < Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

November 2, 1972 

The meeting was called to order by President Otto K. Behrens at 
7:35 pm in Carroll Hall, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana. The 
minutes of the general session and of the executive committee meeting 
of April 28 had been duplicated and distributed. The secretary moved 
that they be approved as duplicated, with minor corrections; it was 
seconded and carried. 

Treasurer: Clyde Metz reported financial details for the period 
January 1 to October 25, 1972. In summary it was: 





Academy 


Administered 






Accounts 


Accounts 


Total 


Balance January 1, 1972 


$7,206.11 


$30,136.52 


$37,342.63 


1972 Income 


$6,799.39 


$18,339.49 


$25,138.88 


1972 Expenditures 


$6,489.17 


$29,313.60 


$35,802.13 


Balance October 25, 1972 


$7,516.33 


$19,162.41 


$26,678.74 



Damian Schmelz moved that we recommend to the trustees of the 
Academy Foundation and to the Research Committee that the fee for 
the tax lawyers ($4,666.00 to Ice, Miller, Donadio and Ryan) be paid 
from the trust funds. It was seconded and carried. It was moved by 
Howard Youse, seconded and carried that the Treasurer's report be 
received. 

(All of the following committee reports were accepted by general 
consent, unless a motion is recorded.) 

Trustees of the Academy Foundation: William Daily listed the 
various securities held; their total current market value is $752,033.00. 
Total disbursements for the year were $8,865.00. 

Bonding Committee: Robert Brooker stated that there was no 
report. 

Research Committee: James Newman, Chairman, reported that 
$6,600.00 had been granted to 12 members to support individual 
research projects this year. A revised "Statement of policy on research 
grants" had been published. A new program, support of high school 
science club activity, was announced; proposals were invited. Prof. 
Newman moved acceptance of his report; it was seconded and carried. 

Academy Representative on the A.A.A.S. Council: Willis Johnson 
reported no action except the change in the A.A.A.S. constitution which 
will disenfranchise us (abolish our representative). 

Auditing: C. A. Dhonau requested the Treasurer's Report 
(As directed at the spring meeting — see minutes) on the matter of a 

10 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 11 

C.P.A. audit. Clyde Metz reported that the cost of a C.P.A. audit would 
be $1,200 to $1,500 the first year and about $1,000 a year thereafter. 
About $500 a year would pay for C.P.A. preparation of tax forms only. 
The matter was referred to the budget committee for decision. 

Youth Activities Committee: Donald Winslow, Chairman, reported 
participation by three high school students in Hammond in the national 
Junior Academy of Science meeting. The proposed science club activity 
grants were welcomed. (See Research Committee Report, above) The 
committee unanimously endorsed a draft of guidelines concerning the 
use of live animals in the classroom which had been prepared by 
President Behrens and distributed. Mr. Winslow moved that this state- 
ment be adopted : 

The Indiana Academy of Science continues to encourage 
student investigations in the sciences. Any investigations in- 
volving the use of living organisms should follow reasonable 
guidelines such as those prepared by the National Association 
of Biology Teachers, the National Society of Medical Re- 
search, and the National Science Teachers Association. 

Seconded and carried. 

Indiana Science Talent Search: Wendell McBurney, Director, re- 
ported an excellent continuing program. Seventeen high school students 
entered in 1972; eleven received state awards and four national 
awards. Kappa Kappa Kappa sorority continues its generous financial 
support. 

Indiana Junior Academy of Science: Lawrence Poorman, Director, 
wrote in, reporting an effective program in 1971 and 1972. 

Library Committee: Lois Burton, Chairwoman, reported that work 
continues (under support from the Lilly Endowment, Inc.) on expanding 
the list of exchanges and on re-cataloging the library collection. Use 
of the library's materials has increased greatly. Additional shelving 
was provided by the State Library. 

Publications Committee: Marion Jackson, Chairman, reported that 
delay of publication of Volume 81 of the Proceedings (which are not 
out yet) was partly caused by the inclusion of the 10-year index, but 
mainly caused by the printer's lack of experience with technical and 
scientific printing. The question of possible publication in the Proceed- 
ings of papers in years subsequent to their original reading was dis- 
cussed, but then referred to the publications committee for decision. 

Newsletter: Damian Schmelz, Editor, reported that one issue had 
been mailed in January and that a second one would be mailed in late 
November. He recommended that the same editor continue for several 
years, or at least an editor from the same town, in order to benefit from 
a single bulk mailing permit. 

Director of Public Relations: Paul Klinge wrote that he should 
be relieved of this position at the end of the current year. Publicity for 
recent fall meetings has been good. 



12 Indiana Academy of Science 

Program Committee: Clarence Dineen, Chairman, reported no 
problems. 

Relation of the Academy to the State and Science and Society 
Committees: Willis Johnson, Chairman, has requested from the state 
budget an increase in our state support from $4,000.00 to $8,000.00. He 
reported working for the passage of a bill at the forthcoming legislature 
establishing an Indiana science and technology advisory council. A grant 
was received from the federal department of Health, Education, and Wel- 
fare for the operation of four seminars on the environment for public 
education. Some of these seminars are in operation; the others soon 
will be. 

Membership Committee: William Hopp, Chairman, reported a 
modest increase — to 1,111 current members. Hopefully, the increase will 
increase. 

Fellows Committee: Benjamin Moulton, Chairman, moved the elec- 
tion of George B. Craig, Jr. (Entomology) and James E. Newman 
(Soil Science) to the class of fellows. Seconded and carried. 

Emeritus Members Committee: Winona Welch, Chairwoman, 
moved the election of Stanley E. Hartsell and Eiffel G. Plasterer to the 
class of emeritus members. Seconded and carried. 

Speaker of the Year Committee: Willis Johnson, Chairman, re- 
ported that Dr. Frank Edmonson had been chosen speaker of the 
year for 1972-73. His address is, "The P's and Q's of Modern 

Astronomy." 

Executive Secretary Committee: Jerry Nisbet, Chairman, re- 
ported as follows : 

The Executive Secretary Committee was appointed in the 
Summer of 1971 and charged with the responsibility of exploring the 
need for, and making recommendations concerning the establishment 
of, the office of Executive Secretary for the Academy. The Committee 
made its first report in October 1971, suggesting possible courses of 
action. 

The Committee continued its work by investigating the ways in 
which the office of Executive Secretary operates and is funded in other 
State Academies. A report of these findings was presented to the Exe- 
cutive Committee in April 1972. 

Based upon its findings and deliberations, the Committee is con- 
vinced that the Indiana Academy of Science must establish the office 
of Executive Secretary if the Academy is to meet its ever more pressing 
responsibilities to the State of Indiana and to scientists. The Committee 
is also convinced that the Academy will ultimately recognize the neces- 
sity of this action. The sooner the office is established, the sooner the 
Academy can assume a more viable role in serving its constituency. 

The Committee recommends that the Executive Committee endorse 
this report and convey the recommendation to employ an Executive 
Secretary to the Academy at the earliest possible time. The Committee 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 13 

further recommends that the Academy seek to establish the position 
of Executive Secretary as a half-time position initially, with the ob- 
jective of making the position full-time as soon as funding can be ob- 
tained. 

Dr. Nisbet moved the approval of the report; it was seconded. A 
move to table was defeated. Clyde Metz moved that the motion be 
amended to read "accept" rather than "approve" and that "the president 
would appoint committees to investigate possible duties, budget, and 
housing of the executive secretariat, and, especially, possible funding 
of the program." The motion to amend was seconded and carried. The 
motion as amended was seconded and carried. 

It was suggested by several persons that chairmen-elect of divisions 
be specifically invited to attend future meetings of the executive com- 
mittee. 

The meeting was declared adjourned at 9:50 pm. 

Approved May 11, 1973. 

Respectfully submitted, 
J. Dan Webster, Secretary 



MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 

November 3, 1972 

The meeting was called to order in the Little Theatre, St. Mary's 
College, Notre Dame, Indiana, at 2:09 PM by President Otto Behrens. 

President Edward L. Henry of St. Mary's College briefly welcomed 
us to the campus, especially welcoming the female members of the 
academy. 

The secretary read a brief summary of the actions taken at the 
November 2 meeting of the Executive Committee. The secretary had 
duplicated and distributed copies of the following amendment to the 
constitution. He now read the amendment and moved that it be 
adopted : 

The present Section 8 of Article V of the constitution is substituted 
therefor — 

(8) Science and Society: The Committee on Science and 
Society shall consist of 9 to 12 members of The Academy 
including representatives of industry, serving staggered 
three-year terms. This Committee may maintain a permanent 
office with a Director and supporting personnel, and it is 
authorized to solicit financial support for its work from 
foundations or other sources. 

The duties of this Committee shall be : 

(1) To bring to the attention of the Governor and 
General Assembly of Indiana the nature and activities of The 
Academy, indicating that its State Charter and its continued 
support from the State place upon it the obligation to serve 
the State in every possible way; 

(2) To develop procedures for disseminating scientific in- 
formation and offering scientific advice to citizens of the 
State through the establishment of a Speaker's Bureau and 
the use of the various news media; and 

(3) To mobilize the membership of The Academy in sup- 
port of these efforts. 

Seconded and carried. 

Fay Daily, Necrologist, reported the deaths of these members of 
the Academy: Floyd E. Bethel, Harry E. Crull, L. B. Howell, 
Zygmunt Karpinski, Percy L. Knight, Jr., G. David Koch, John J. 
Moore. A moment of silence was observed in their honor. 

Willis Johnson introduced the speaker of the year, Frank K. 
Edmondson, who gave a stimulating address on "The P's and Q's of 
Modern Astronomy." 

Afterward, the meeting was temporarily adjourned; but it recon- 
convened at 7:43 PM, with President-elect William Hopp presiding in 

14 



Minutes of the General Session 



15 



the Dining Hall of St. Mary's College. The secretary read the list of 
newly-elected sectional chairmen, as follows : 



Section 

Anthropology 

Botany 

Cell Biology 

Chemistry 

Ecology 

Engineering 

Entomology 

Geography 

Micro-Molecular Biology 

Physics 

Plant Taxonomy 

Science Education 

Soil Science 

Zoology 



1973 Chairman 

John M. Hartman 
Charles L. Gehring 
Carl Godzeski 
William A. Nevill 
Marion T. Jackson 
Thomas J. Herrick 
Walter J. Weber 
Arthur Mirsky 
Morris Pollard 
Malcolm E. Hultz 
Theodore J. Crovello 
William R. Gommel 
Gerald H. Krockover 
Paul S. Ray 



1974 Chairman-elect 

Leland L. Hardman 

Stanley L. Burden 

Jacques H. Delleur 
Darrell Sanders 
Robert D. Miles 



Thomas R. Mertens 
Darrell W. Nelson 



Howard Youse, Acting Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, 
moved this resolution : 

The Academy members here assembled wish to express their ap- 
preciation to Saint Mary's College for all the courtesies which have been 
extended to the membership during this meeting. We are indebted 
especially to Dr. Clarence F. Dineen, Chairman of the Program 
Committee, and his committee members for their efficient handling of 
all meeting arrangements; and to Dr. Frank A. Edmondson for his 
stimulating address at the general meeting. Seconded and carried. 

Carrolle Markle, for the nominating committee, read the following 
slate of nominees for office for 1973 : 

President — William B. Hopp 

President-elect — Damian Schmelz 

Secretary (1973-75)— Jerry J. Nisbet 

Director of Public Relations — Clarence F. Dineen 

Trustee of Academy Foundation (1973-74) — William A. Daily 

Member of Bonding Committee — Robert M. Brooker 

Member of Research Committee (1973-77) — Ansel M. Gooding 

Mrs. Markle moved acceptance of the slate and unanimous election 
of the candidates. Seconded and carried. 

Otto Behrens gave a thoughtful address: "Pharmaceutical Re- 
search: its Contributions to Science and Medicine." The meeting was 
declared adjourned at 8:50 PM. 



Approved May 11, 1973. 



Respectfully submitted, 
J. Dan Webster, Secretary 



FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE 

INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

JANUARY 1-DECEMBER 31, 1972 



Expenditure Budgeted 

($5,800.00) 

(125.00) 

(1,200.00) 



696.87 



171.34 



500.00 



225.00 



206.05 


175.00 


177.84 


180.00 


40.00 


150.00 


,025.00 


3,025.00 



I. ACADEMY ACCOUNTS 

Income 

Dues $ 5,575.00 

Reprints : Vol. 80 1,182.40 

Interest 1,411.72 

Miscellaneous 1.66 

Secretary 

Clerical 650.50 

Postage 46.37 

Treasurer 

Clerical 0.00 

Postage 171.34 

Office 

Travel, A.A.A.S. Dues, etc 

Membership Committee 

Transfer to Administered Accounts . . 

Junior Academy 200.00 

Science and Society 600.00 

Natural Areas 575.00 

Library Binding 1,000.00 

Proceedings : Publications 500.00 

Proceedings : Mailing 150.00 

President's Fund 

Newsletter 

Speaker of the Year 

Honorarium 

Administrative Expenses 

Program Committee 

Chairman 25.00 

Printing 423.23 

Mailing 151.64 

Publications Editor 

Youth Activities 

Public Relations 

C.P.A. Fees 

Miscellaneous 

Attorney Fees 706.38 

$ 8,170.78 

II. ADMINISTERED ACCOUNTS 

January 1 1972 

Balance Income 

Junior Academy $ 0.00 $ 200.00 

Science Talent 1,846.64 1,759.95 

Science Fairs 2,730.29 12,640.00 

Science and Society 1,411.82 600.00 

Research 3,037.77 4,011.43 

Natural Areas 251.50 575.00 

J. S. Wright 134.28 0.00 

Lilly III Library 2,740.73 0.00 

Lilly IV Library 11,033.25 0.00 

Library Binding 0.40 1,000.00 

Publications 1,497.01 1,011.33 

NSF Grant 5,452.83 0.00 

HEW Grant 0-00 5,350.00 

$30,136.52 $27,147.71 



0.00 


100.00 


150.29 


150.00 


500.00 


500.00 


0.00 


50.00 


599.90 


600.00 



500.00 


500.00 


5.20 


50.00 


59.50 


50.00 


400.00 


500.00 


706.38 





$ 7,238.37 $ 6,755.00 



1972 


Balance 


Expenditures 


December 31 


$ 0.00 


$ 200.00 


1,778.30 


1,828.29 


11,036.23 


4,334.06 


136.25 


1,875.57 


6,646.73 


402.47 


0.00 


826.50 


0.00 


134.28 


107.97 


2,632.76 


8,339.30 


2,693.95 


999.50 


0.90 


10.68 


2,497.66 


5,452.83 


0.00 


1,863.11 


3,486.89 


$36,370.90 


$20,913.33 



16 



Financial Report 



17 



III. SUMMARY 

Academy Administered 

Accounts Accounts 

Balance: January 1, 1972 $7,206.11 $30,136.52 

1972 Income 8,170.78 27,147.71 

1972 Expenditures 7,238.37 30,370.90 

Balance: December 31, 1972 8,138.52 20,913.33 



Total 



$37,342.63 
35,318.49 
43,609.27 
29,051.85 



IV. BANK BALANCES 

Terre Haute First National Bank, Terre Haute, Indiana $ 0.00 

First Bank and Trust Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 11,531.06 

Great Western Savings and Loan, Los Angeles, California 12,307.16 

First Western Savings and Loan, Las Vegas, Nevada 5,213.63 

$29,051.85 

Clyde Metz, Treasurer 

February 10, 1973 December 31, 1972 

We, the undersigned, have audited the Treasurer's records for the Indiana Academy of Science 

for the year 1972 and have found them to be accurate and in order. 

Curtis A. Dhonan 
Robert E. Dolphin 
February 10, 1973 



V. TRUST FUND STATUS AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1972 

Income Principal 





Disburse- 






Disburse- 








ments 


Receipts Total 
(market value = $21,! 


ments 


Receipts 
3-00-0) 


Total 


Account 11043000 


580.59) (00431 




Indiana Academy 






$ 517.04 






$879.05 


January 


$ 0.00 


$ 68.15 


585.19 


$ 0.00 


$ 0.00 


879.05 


February 


0.88 


45.43 


629.74 


10,300.84 


10,000.00 


596.21 


March 


0.00 


82.84 


712.58 


0.00 


0.00 


596.21 


April 


0.00 


12.02 


724.60 


0.00 


0.00 


596.21 


May 


0.00 


38.87 


763.47 


0.00 


0.00 


596.21 


June 


0.00 


93.12 


856.59 


0.00 


0.00 


596.21 


July 


0.00 


12.63 


869.22 


0.00 


0.00 


596.21 


August 


0.00 


30.27 


899.49 


0.00 


0.00 


596.21 


September 


0.00 


95.03 


994.52 


0.00 


0.00 


596.21 


Oct., Nov., Dec. 


300.00 


139.86 


834.38 


0.00 


0.00 


596.21 


Account 11043001 


(market value = $800,633.10) (00430-01-9) 




J. S. Wright 






518.18 






—6.83 


January 


1,000.00 


1,490.07 


1,008.25 


17,158.00 


17,979.57 


814.65 


February 


1,000.88 


169.22 


176.59 


10,300.84 


10,000.00 


513.81 


March 


2,067.26 


1,264.33 


—626.34 


0.00 


0.00 


513.81 


April 


0.00 


917.51 


291.17 


0.00 


0.00 


513.81 


May 


0.00 


149.15 


440.32 


0.00 


0.00 


513.81 


June 


1,000.00 


1,204.51 


644.83 


0.00 


0.00 


513.81 


July 


2,000.00 


1,686.19 


331.02 


0.00 


0.00 


513.81 


August 


66.55 


146.99 


411.46 


23,000.00 


22,848.54 


362.35 


September 


2,159.15 


1,402.32 


—345.37 


0.00 


10.78 


373.13 


Oct., Nov., Dec. 


0.00 


2,611.84 


2,266.47 


0.00 


0.00 


373.13 


Account 11043002 


(market 


value = $24,570.82) (00430-02-8) 




IAS Investment 






983.12 






230.15 


January 


1,001.40 


74.91 


56.63 


2,000.00 


2,000.00 


230.15 


February 


0.88 


54.76 


110.51 


1,000.00 


1,000.00 


230.15 


March 


0.25 


95.54 


205.80 


1,000.00 


1,000.00 


230.15 


April 


0.00 


34.54 


240.34 


0.00 


0.00 


230.15 


May 


0.00 


111.77 


352.11 


0.00 


0.00 


230.15 


June 


1.15 


128.56 


479.52 


2,000.00 


2,000.00 


230.15 


July 


5.68 


36.30 


510.14 


2,000.00 


2,000.00 


230.15 


August 


0.00 


94.61 


604.75 


0.00 


0.00 


230.15 


September 


0.88 


146.67 


750.54 


1,000.00 


1,000.00 


230.15 


Oct., Nov., Dec. 


800.00 


290.13 


240.67 


2,700.00 


2.800.00 


330.15 



18 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Membership Dues: 



VI. NOTES 

According to the Treasurer's records, the current status may be summar- 
ized as follows: 

990 paid, emeritus, life, honorary, and club members 
149 on file from 1971, but not yet paid for 1972 
122 new members for 1972 (included in above totals) 
12 previous members reinstated during 1972 (included above) 
80 members and clubs dropped for nonpayment of 1971 dues 



Dues Structure for 1972 : 



Savings : 



$6.00 for regular and club memberships 
3.00 for student memberships 
8.00 for family memberships 

1.00 initiation fee for regular, club or student memberships 
2.00 initiation fee for family memberships 

The Treasurer, from the total assests of both Academy and Administered ac- 
counts, has maintained sufficient funds in the checking account to pay current 
bills throughout the year ; the remainder has been invested in savings certificates. 
Certificates redeemed during 1972 

1. $10,000.00 invested at 6.00% April 1970 ; 
April 1972 redemption value $11,275.14 

2. $5,000.00 invested at 5.75% April 1971 ; 
April 1972 redemption value $5,295.30 

3. $5,000.00 invested at 5.75% October 1971 ; 
October 1972 redemption value $5,297.80 

Certificates current 

1. $4,465.07 invested at 5.75% April 1970 ; 
current value $5,230.33 ; maturity at March 1973 

2. $6,000.00 invested at 6.00% April 1970 ; 
current value $7,076.83 ; maturity at March 1973 

3. $5,000.00 invested at 6.00% April 1972 ; 
current value $5,213.63 ; maturity at April 1974 

Reprint charges to authors for Vol. 80 have been completely collected. A total 
of $1,730.70 was collected in 1971 and $1,182.40 was collected in 1972 giving a 
net profit to the Academy of $122.40 over the $2,790.70 paid in 1971 to the 
printer. 

Attorney Fees : 

Ice, Miller, Donadio & Ryan of Indianapolis have been representing the 
Academy in clarification of our tax-exemption status. The Academy has 
been informed by the Internal Revenue Service and by the State of Indiana 
of favorable classifications. 

Research: Major expenditures have been $6,600.00 in grants to 12 members. 



Reprints : 



Publications: 



Sales include $52.08 for Natural Features, $10.50 for Proceedings, and $298.75 
for Monographs. Charges for 13 Monographs are still outstanding. 



HEW Grant (OEG-0-72-5014), Environmental Education Program: 

Total Budget Expenditures 



Supplies 


$1,500.00 


$ 524.61 


Travel 


1,400.00 


323.50 


Honoraria 


3.200.00 


1.015.00 




$6,100.00 


$1,863.11 


Funds Received 


$5,360.00 




Funds Expended 


1,863.11 




Balance 


3,486.89 





Financial Report 



19 



NSF Grant (9/620-2826), Taking Science to the People: 



Direct Costs 

Exec. Dir. 
Secretary 
Office 
Travel 
Office Rental 


1969-71 
Total Budget Expenditures 

$20,000.00 $20,624.88 
9,000.00 5,095.80 
5,800.00 4,292.26 
4,000.00 3,947.53 

1,200.00 600.00 
$40,000.00 $34,560.47 

$40,013.30 ($13.30 remained from 
39,763.77 
249.53 
0.00 


1972 
Expenditures 

$3,542.32 

79.50 

852.79 

728.69 

0.00 


Total 
Expenditures 

$24,167.20 
5,175.30 
5,145.05 
4,676.22 

600.00 


Funds Received 
Funds Expended 
Refunded to NSF 
Balance 


$5,203.30 
earlier grant for 


$39,763.77 
use) 



VII. BUDGET FOR 1973 

The following budget was approved by the Budget Committee at their meeting at the Indiana 

State Library, Indianapolis, on December 2, 1972 : 
Anticipated Income for 1973 

Dues, Initiation and Reinstatement Fees $5,600.00 

Interest on Savings 1,000.00 

Reprints : Net Profit on Sales to Authors 100.0 





$6,700.00 


udgeted Expenditures for 1973 




Secretary 


$ 600.00 


Treasurer 


225.00 


Office 


250.00 


Officer Travel, AAAS Dues, Misc. 


200.00 


President's Fund 


100.00 


Membership Committee 


75.00 


Program Committee 


600.00 


Proceedings Editor (Travel and Office) 


500.00 


Youth Activities : Chairman 


50.00 


Public Relations : Director 


50.00 


Speaker of the Year 




Honorarium 


500.00 


Administrative 


50.00 


Newsletter 


225.00 


CPA Firm for Filing of Tax Forms 


500.00 


Transfer to Administered Accounts 




Publications : Printing of Proceedings 


750.00 


Publications : Mailing of Proceedings 


200.00 


Library Binding 


1,000.00 


Science and Society 


300.00 


Natural Area 


200.00 


Junior Academy 


100.00 



$6,475.00 

Respectfully submitted: 



Clyde Metz, Treasurer 
December 31, 1972 



THE INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

OFFICERS 

President: Ray Lichtenhan, Hammond 
Vice-President: Eric Valainis, Indianapolis 
Secretary: Laura Fisher, Gary 

JUNIOR ACADEMY COUNCIL 
Mary J. Petterson, Morton High School, Hammond 
Stephanie J. Thompson, Crawf ordsville High School, Crawfordsville 
Don Mains, Brebeuf High School, Indianapolis 
Keith Hunnings, New Haven High School, New Haven 
Lee Moss, Lew Wallace High School, Gary 

STATE DIRECTOR 
Dr. L. E. Poorman, Department of Physics, Indiana State University, 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

PROGRAM 

Fortieth Annual Meeting 

Saint Mary's College Campus, Notre Dame, Indiana 

Saturday, November 4, 1972 

Thirty-four Junior Academy of Science members and five sponsor- 
ing teachers representing seven schools attended the 40th Annual 
Meeting of the Indiana Junior Academy of Science. 

PAPERS GIVEN 
Papers were given by two students in the morning session : 

1) Analysis of Aldehydes in Pyrdegnious Acids. Mike Pelletier, 
New Haven High School, New Haven, Indiana. 

2) Factors Controlling Preservation of Diatoms in Lake Sediments. 
Karen Wilson, Morton Senior High School, Gary, Indiana. 

Both papers were well received by the audience. Discussion follow- 
ing the papers was most enlightening. 

The afternoon session was used to do a self-evaluation of the Junior 
Academy and future roles and functions it may use to serve the state 
secondary science students in the next few years. 

AWARDS 
The Best Boy Scientist for 1972 was : 

Mr. Mike Pelletier — New Haven 
The Best Girl Scientist for 1972 was: 

Miss Laura Fisher — Gary Lew Wallace 
The officers for the Junior Academy for 1973 elected were : 

President: Miss Laura Fisher, Gary 

Vice-President : Mike Westerfield, Crawfordsville 

Secretary: Ken Berg, Hammond 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. E. Poorman, Director 
20 



NECROLOGY 



Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 



F(loyd) E(ldon) Beghtel 

Huntington County, Indiana Evansville, Indiana 

December 22, 1886 April 3, 1972 



Dr. Floyd E. Beghtel was a retired businessman when he died April 
3, 1972, in Evansville, Indiana. However, the major part of his profes- 
sional life had been spent as a teacher in the natural sciences. 

Dr. Beghtel was born December 22, 1886, in Huntington County, 
Indiana. His education was obtained in that county through his early 
years and he graduated from the Clear Creek High School in 1906. He 
obtained an A.B. degree at Indiana Central College in 1912 where his 
major subjects were history and political science. An M.A. degree was 
obtained at Indiana University at Bloomington, Indiana, in 1917. He 
had a great interest in botany, zoology and chemistry. His admiration 
for Dr. Paul Weatherwax, botanist at Indiana University, was probably 
responsible for Dr. Beghtel's interest in that field and was the inspira- 
tion for future graduate work. Also, teaching was and still is a very 
popular career in his family. He majored in botany, then, at University 
of Cincinnati where he received a Ph.D. degree in 1924. He was elected 
to Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Gamma Mu, and Sigma Xi. 

His teaching career began with teaching in a Huntington County 
Grade School for 2 years and Clear Creek High School for 4 years. The 
next year aftre receiving the Ph.D. degree in 1925, he became a pro- 
fessor at Indiana Central College where he taught until 1931. He then 
taught at the University of Cincinnati for 6 years, and he was Professor 
and Head of the Science Department at the University of Evansville 
for 13 years. 

In 1943, Dr. Beghtel became a Process Engineer at Servel, In- 
corporated. The company handled war contracts during World War II. 
In 1950, he became a residential building contractor. Since carpentry 
was a favorite hobby, this influenced his decision to go into the building 
business. A stroke forced him into retirement about 1960. He made a 
good recovery and spent his remaining years in gardening, reading and 
travel. 

Dr. Beghtel's hobbies centered about his love of nature and 
botanical pursuits. He and his wife frequently took botanical forays. 
He was also active in the Men's Garden Club and raised dahlias as a 
specialty. He also belonged to the Evansville Municipal Hiking Club 
of which he was president. He served as guide to members of the club 
for trees and plants of the areas covered. 

21 



22 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Beghtel joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1925 and was 
honored by election to Fellow in 1938. He reported to the society on his 
studies of the rye grass, Elymus, with attention to the economic value. 
He was also a member of the American Society of Bacteriologists and 
American Association of University Professors. He is listed in Indiana 
Scientists. 

Another stroke finally brought death to Dr. Floyd E. Beghtel after 
a long and fruitful life of 85 years. 



Harry E (dward) Crull 

Chicago, Illinois Albany, New York 

February 7, 1909 April 25, 1972 



Dr. Harry E. Crull died April 25, 1972, in Albany, New York, where 
he had been Professor of Astronomy and Space Science and Director 
of the Henry Hudson Planetarium at the State University of New York 
since 1965. He was a pioneer in planetarium education and in the use 
of television for education in astronomy. An elementary astronomy 
course called Eye on the Universe was given on the New York educa- 
tional television network and closed circuit television on the campus. 
At times, the enrollment reached between 500 and 600 students. The 
program was carried by several schools. 

Born in Chicago, Illinois, February 7, 1909, Dr. Crull was educated 
in that state. He attended grade and high school in Maywood, Illinois. 
In 1930 he received an A.B. degree from the University of Illinois, was 
a University Fellow from 1930 to 1933, received an A.M. degree in 1931 
and a Ph.D. degree in mathematics in 1933. He was one of the original 
lecturers at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago which was the first 
planetarium to open in this country. He was there during the Century 
of Progress Exposition in 1933 to 1934. In 1934, he went to Parkville, 
Missouri, to teach mathematics and astronomy at Park College. From 
1935 to 1936, he was Assistant Professor of Astronomy at the University 
of Southern California and Assistant Director of the Griffith Plane- 
tarium at Los Angeles. He then returned to Park College at Parkville, 
Missouri, in 1936 where he was Professor of Mathematics and 
Astronomy and Director of the Charles S. Scott Observatory until 1947. 
He served as dean of men from 1937 to 1938 and dean of the college 
from 1946 to 1947. 

Dr. Crull came to Indiana in 1947 to teach at Butler University 
and stayed until 1965. There, he was Professor of Astronomy and 
Mathematics and Head of the department. He also became the first di- 
rector of a beautiful new observatory and planetarium on the Butler 
campus, the J.I. Holcomb Observatory, in 1954. He became well-known 
by many school children and the general public for the popular 
planetarium talks and tours of the observatory given by him and his 
aides. He was also Director of the University College at Butler from 
1948 to 1954. This is a general educational program for freshmen and 



Necrology 23 

sophomores. He taught the first astronomy courses by television in 
Indiana. 

Dr. Crull joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1947, the year 
he came to Butler University. He was elected to Fellow in 1954 and 
served as secretary in 1957, 1958 and 1959. His research interest in- 
cluded geometric surfaces of the fourth order and double stars. He was 
also a member of the American Astronomical Society, Mathematical 
Association of America, Society of Sigma Xi, Phi Beta Kappa, Royal 
Astronomical Society of Canada, Great Lakes Planetarium Society (of 
which he was the second Armand Spitz Lecturer at the 1968 Rochester 
convention), and Middle Atlantic Planetarium Society. He is listed in 
American Men of Science and Who's Who in the Midwest. 

Dr. Crull was a close friend and associate of Armand Spitz at the 
Fels Planetarium in Philadelphia and enjoyed recalling incidents which 
happened there. One of Dr. Crull's daughters became a mathematician 
and his son, Harry, Jr., is an astronomer at the Naval Observatory in 
Washington, D.C. 

Dr. Crull served the United States of America on a coast and 
geodetic survey in 1941. He joined the U.S. Navy in 1942 serving during 
World War II. He was a ship's navigation officer and was a navigation 
instructor at the Midshipman School at Chicago and later in Washing- 
ton, D.C, until the end of the war. He wrote a teaching manual for this 
course which is now in use at the State University of New York. Active 
in the Naval Reserve in Indianapolis, Indiana, he retired in 1969 with 
the rank of Captain. 

Death at 63 years of age took Harry E. Crull unexpectedly from 
an innovative, productive life. An astronomy textbook was left un- 
finished, the manuscript of which was in the hands of Harper and Row 
publishers. In anticipation of retirement the following May, he had pur- 
chased a house trailer for travel with his wife, Edna. They had enjoyed 
such travel for about 10 years and looked forward to more of it after 
retirement. Of such were the unfulfilled dreams when death took this 
active man. 

L(loyd) B(relsford) Howell 

Miami County, Ohio Indianapolis, Indiana 

August 29, 1887 October 9, 1970 



Dr. L. B. Howell, retired Professor of Chemistry at Wabash 
College, died October 9, 1970. 

Dr. Howell was born in the agricultural area between Piqua and 
Fletcher in Miami County, Ohio, August 29, 1887. His mother died of 
typhoid when he was young. After his father remarried, they moved 
to Cleveland, Ohio, where he attended grade school. He then moved to 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, where he graduated from high school. Early 
influences on his career in science came from his grandfather, a civil 



24 Indiana Academy of Science 

engineer, and Dr. Sigmund, a bone specialist in Indianapolis, for whom 
Dr. Howell worked to help pay for his education at Wabash College. 
He also worked as a candy maker to supplement funds. He received an 
A.B. degree in 1909. While at Wabash, he came under the influence of 
J. B. Garner, Chemistry Professor, and decided upon this field for his 
profession. 

His career began as a principal of the public school at Remington, 
Indiana, from 1909 to 1910. From 1910 to 1912, he was a teacher at 
Wauseon, Ohio, in physics, chemistry, German and he coached baseball. 
His proficiency in German was attained by learning it from his mother 
who was German. While in Ohio, studies were begun at Ohio State Uni- 
versity toward an advanced degree in chemistry. In 1912 to 1913, he was 
an instructor of chemistry at Wabash College. He taught in a high 
school at Urbana, Illinois, from 1913 to 1916 and built his own home 
there. He began work at the University of Illinois toward an M.S. 
degree. He won an assistantship in organic chemistry from 1916 to 1918 
when he received the M.S. degree. He was a fellow at the same 
university from 1918 to 1919 and received a Ph.D. degree in organic 
chemistry in 1919. While there, he started the first chemistry class for 
women at that university. 

Dr. Howell's profession continued at Rice Institute from 1919 to 
1924. In 1924, he became Chemistry Professor and Head of the Depart- 
ment at Wabash College. He became Peck Professor of Chemistry in 
1949. He was very popular with the students and very sympathetic with 
their needs ; quietly assisting them in his modest way whenever he could. 
He was given an Honorary Doctor of Science degree at Wabash College 
in 1970 and received a standing ovation from the students when it was 
presented. Other honors included election to Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma 
Xi. His research covered a number of subjects: halogens, acetylenes, 
sweet taste and structure of organic compounds, inhibition of pi-bond 
properties, a cure for athlete's foot, use of potassium permanganate 
to sterilize jars for canning and 14 projects related to the atomic bomb. 
He also worked for the United States government on dyes which we 
were unable to get from Germany during the first and second world 
wars. He was the author of a number of publications. 

Dr. Howell joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1924 upon 
coming to Wabash College and Indiana. He was honored by election to 
Fellow in 1935. He was interested, primarily, in the Bacteriology and 
Chemistry Sections. He also belonged to the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, American Chemical Society and was active 
in the Masonic Lodge. He is listed in American Men of Science. 

Dr. Howell enjoyed fishing and went to Michigan for this sport 
every summer for about 17 years. He also experimented with the cultiva- 
tion of unusual vegetables and flowers for a hobby. By using various 
chemical fertilizers, he was able to obtain remarkably good results. 

At age 72, Dr. L. B. Howell retired from Wabash College as Pro- 
fessor Emeritus after teaching 50 years. After an extended illness, he 
passed away in Saint Vincent's Hospital in Indianapolis at 83 years of 
age. 



Necrology 25 

Zygmunt Karpinski 

Warsaw, Poland South Bend, Indiana 

October 31, 1914 September 25, 1971 



Professor Zygmunt Karpinski apparently died of a heart attack 
September 25, 1971, at his home in South Bend, Indiana. He was a Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry and Physics at Saint Mary's College. 

Professor Karpinski was born in Warsaw, Poland, October 31, 1914. 
He completed secondary education in 1926. The next year, he enrolled 
at the University of Grenoble, France, obtaining a diploma for a two 
year course in 1929. In that year, he returned to Warsaw to work on 
a Bachelor of Science Degree which he obtained from the University 
of Warsaw in 1934. His professional career began by teaching chemistry 
in a School of Mechanics and Electricity in Poland from 1934 to 1935. 
He continued his education and received a Master of Science Degree 
from the University of London King's College in 1950 and registered 
for a Ph.D. at London University. His academic specialization was in 
chemistry and chemical engineering with graduate emphasis on physical 
chemistry, mechanics and aeronautics. His thesis subject was on photo- 
chemical oxidation of formaldehyde. His publications included a book 
on the problem of engine deposits published by the Journal of the In- 
stitution of Petroleum in London, England, and articles on vulcaniza- 
tion, deterioration and strength of rubber (in Polish). Besides these 
languages, he could read and speak French, Spanish and Russian and 
could read German. Other research achievements in eliminating engine 
deposits were accomplished at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at 
Farnborough, England. He also did research on exploration of the 
stratosphere and constructed a stratosphaeric balloon for ascension to 
90,000 feet in altitude. 

From 1949 to 1951, he taught chemistry and physics at a secondary 
school in England. From 1952 to 1953, he taught quantative analysis 
at the University of Illinois at Chicago. During this period, research 
in biochemistry was carried on at the University of Chicago and Uni- 
versity of Loyola. He went to Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, 
Indiana, in 1954 as an instructor. He became assistant professor in 1957 
and associate professor in 1959. He also obtained American citizenship 
in 1957. 

His education continued with summer course work, particularly 
with the National Science Foundation Summer Institute. In 1962, the 
director wrote an enthusiastic letter about Prof. Karpinski's energetic 
participation in the program and the pleasure of having his attendance. 
Prof. Karpinski went to Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge in 
the summer of 1966 to study quantum mechanics (time independent, 
time dependent) and scattering. In the summer of 1967, he attended 
a series of lectures, seminars and laboratory sessions on electromag- 
netic theory at a summer institute at Trinity University, San Antonio, 
Texas. Again in 1969, he visited Trinity University for a month-long 



26 Indiana Academy of Science 

conference on modern physics and special relativity. He also did research 
on mathematics related to molecular symmetry at Notre Dame Uni- 
versity. 

Prof. Karpinski joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1961 and 
was interested in the Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics Sections. 
He was also a member of the American Chemical Society and Associa- 
tion of University Professors. He was a Roman Catholic and member 
of St. Patrick's Church. 

Prof. Karpinski's death at 57 years of age was the close of a short 
life span but one rich in experience. 



Percy L(eonard) Knight, Jr. 

South Portland, Maine Granger, Indiana 

June 10, 1921 July 16, 1972 

Dr. Percy L. Knight, Jr., was a Professor of Biology at Saint 
Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana, for 18 years before his death July 
16, 1972, after a brief illness. 

Born in South Portland, Maine, June 10, 1921, Dr. Knight developed 
an early interest in marine life and spent many hours along the ocean 
shore. This interest led him into a study of biology. His early education 
was obtained in the public schools of South Portland, Maine. A Bachelor 
of Science degree was obtained from Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, 
in 1942. He then took a position as Chemist with E. I. du Pont de 
Nemours and Company from 1942 to 1944, where he developed a further 
interest in physiology. From 1944 to 1946, Dr. Knight served in the 
United States Naval Reserve in which he obtained the rank of 
Lieutenant j.g. From 1946 to 1949, he was Senior Technician with the 
Lobund Institute at the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 
Indiana. He returned, too, for graduate study at the University of Notre 
Dame obtaining an M.S. degree in 1951 and a Ph.D. degree in 1954. 
While at Notre Dame, he had a teaching fellowship from 1949 to 1954. 
He was also an instructor at the Holy Cross Central School of Nursing 
in South Bend from 1951 to 1954, and he was an instructor at the 
Indiana University Extension at South Bend from 1953 to 1954. Dr. 
Knight became Professor of Biology at Saint Mary's College, Notre 
Dame, Indiana, in 1954 where he taught until his death. He also served 
as Visiting Professor of Biology at the University of Notre Dame 
during the summer from 1958 to 1966. 

Dr. Knight joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1952 and was 
interested in the Zoology Section. He was a member of the Program 
Committee in 1965 and served as judge at science fairs. He reported 
on his research on lungworms in swine at annual meetings. He wrote 
a number of papers for various journals primarily on the subjects: 
biochemistry of vitamins and physiology of parasites. He also belonged 
to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American 



Necrology 27 

Association of University Professors and Sigma Xi. He is listed in 
American Men of Science. 

Dr. Knight served on a number of college committees: admissions 
and scholarships, counseling, revision of statutes and by-laws and aca- 
demic affairs council. He was chairman of the Faculty Forum in 1966 
and chairman of the Teaching Faculty Association from 1966 to 1967. 
He was particularly effective in the counsel of undergraduate students 
who often sought his help in preference to others. He received the special 
Unica award in 1961 "for accomplishments as a research scholar and 
dedicated teacher". 

Dr. Knight was also active in community service and fraternal 
organizations such as Boy Scouts of America, South Bend Moose Lodge 
of which he was a former Governor and Prelate and the American 
Legion Post 357. Death at 51 years of age took Dr. Knight prematurely 
from an active, useful life. 



G(eorge) D(avid) Koch 

Winside, Nebraska West Terre Haute, Indiana 

December 2, 1902 September 20, 1972 



Dr. G. D. Koch was an expert on weather, a retired geography pro- 
fessor from Indiana State University and champion of soil conservation 
in Indiana. 

Born on a farm near Winside, Nebraska, December 2, 1902, Dr. Koch 
received his education in that state. He graduated from Wayne State 
Teacher's College in Wayne, Nebraska, with an A.B. in 1929. He received 
an M.S. degree in 1934 and a Ph. D. degree in 1938 from the University 
of Nebraska at Lincoln. He also took graduate work at the University 
of Colorado. 

Meteorology was one of his graduate majors for a Master's degree 
and his thesis was on the hailstones of Nebraska. His doctorate study 
concerned geography and conservation of resources. 

He taught at Kearney State Teacher's College, Kearney, Nebraska; 
for three summers at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio; and Eastern 
Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois, for a year. He became an asso- 
ciate professor at Indiana State Teacher's College at Terre Haute, 
Indiana in 1939. He was made Chairman of the Science Division in 1954 
and continued in that capacity until 1961 when he relinquished the posi- 
tion to devote more time to teaching. He retired in 1968 with the rank 
of Professor Emeritus. 

Dr. Koch joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1939, the year 
he came to teach at Indiana State University, and was honored with the 
rank of Fellow in 1950. He served as Chairman of the Geology and 
Geography Section in 1946 and on the Program Committee. He presented 
a number of papers before the Academy on hail storms in Nebraska; 



28 Indiana Academy of Science 

growing season in Vigo County, Indiana; geography in secondary educa- 
tion; daily weather map function; soil conservation; and a giant earth 
mover. Dr. Koch was also a member of the Scottish Rite and active in 
the Community Theatre Sycamore Players. He was a member of Theta 
Alpha Phi (National Theatre Honorary), Society of Sigma Xi, and was 
a fellow in the American Geographical Society. He was a member and 
former clerk of the First Congregational Church of Terre Haute. He 
was instrumental in setting up an educational program at the Federal 
Penitentiary at Terre Haute and was active in civil defense work. 

Dr. Koch was well known in the Terre Haute community for supply- 
ing weather information to the news media and climatological data to 
the Terre Haute waterworks. He was a volunteer weather observer for 
the Terre Haute area for many years and continued to maintain a 
weather station at his rural West Terre Haute home after retiring from 
teaching. He was honored for this service by the Terre Haute Exchange 
Club in 1970 when he was given the annual Book of Golden Deeds 
award. He was a former president of the club. After the award, a local 
television station presented an editorial about him and he was named 
citizen of the day by a local radio station Feb. 4, 1970. 

Dr. G. D. Koch had suffered a heart attack in August, 1972. How- 
ever, he had shown improvement and had just been home from the hos- 
pital about a week when he suffered another and fatal attack. He was 
69 years old. 



John I(rwin) Moore 

Gibson County, Indiana San Angelo, Texas 

October 4, 1897 April 4, 1972 

Mr. John I. Moore, a native of Indiana, died in San Angelo, Texas, 
April 4, 1972. He was the sole owner, geologist, president and Chairman 
of the Board of the Moore Petroleum Corporation of San Angelo, 
Texas. 

Born October 4, 1897, on a farm near Owensville, Gibson County, 
Indiana, Mr. Moore attended public school in that county and graduated 
from the Owensville High School in 1915. He received an A.B. degree 
from Indiana University in 1921 and an M.S. degree from the University 
of Chicago in 1922. 

His career began as Field Geologist for the Roxana Petroleum 
Corporation (now Shell Oil Company) in 1922. In 1928, he left their 
employ, where he was then District Geologist, to engage in independent 
oil work. He was joined by his brother, P. D. Moore, in 1932 to form 
the Moore Petroleum Corporation of which he was president and chair- 
man of the board. He was also director of many oil-oriented corpora- 
tions in which he held the major stock. At his brother's death in 1955, 
he became sole owner of the Moore Petroleum Corporation in which 
he was an active geologist until his death. 



Necrology 29 

Mr. Moore joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1922, after 
attending Indiana University. He presented a paper at an annual 
meeting on fossil scorpions from the Pottsville formation of Clay 
County, Indiana. He was a member of a number of honorary and 
scientific societies: Geological Society of America, Fellow; Society of 
Sigma Xi; American Meteorological Society, charter member; Kappa 
Epsilon Pi; American Association of Petroleum Geologists; American 
Geophysical Union; American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, Fellow; West Texas Geological Society; San Angelo Geological 
Society (Past President); Oklahoma Academy of Science; Texas 
Academy of Science, Life Member; American Geographical Society, 
Fellow; American Polar Society; Arctic Institute of North America; 
The American Museum of Natural History; National Audubon Society; 
Royal Geographical Society of London, Fellow; New York Zoological 
Society; Zoological Society of London, Fellow; The Explorers Club of 
New York. He was also a member of four oil organizations : Independent 
Petroleum Association of America, Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Associa- 
tion, Texas Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association, Texas Independent 
Producers and Royalty Owners Association. He was also active and had 
been an officer in some of the 24 gun clubs and social clubs to which 
he belonged. He is listed in American Men of Science, Leaders in 
American Science, International Yearbook of Statesman's Who's Who, 
Who's Who in Commerce and Industry, Who's Who in the South and 
Southwest, Who's Who in Finance and Industry, Who's Who in Texas 
Today, and Outstanding Personalities of the South. 

Mr. John I. Moore was a sportsman and conservationist and was 
widely known here and abroad for his love of nature. He traveled exten- 
sively to Europe, Asia, Africa as well as the United States, Canada, 
Alaska and South America. He made two trips around the world. Once, 
he traveled 2500 miles on horseback across Canada in the interest of 
a geological survey. He had great intellectual curiosity, and was a 
philanthropist, patriot and avid collector of art objects, living his 75 
years to the fullest. 



MEMBERSHIP LIST 

The following list contains the names and addresses of all members 
of the Indiana Academy of Science, as of March 1, 1973. New members 
who joined during 1972 are indicated by an asterisk. The letter (s) 
following the address indicates the Section (s) of the Academy in which 
the member has indicated major interest, according to the following 
code: 

A — Anthropology N — Engineering 

B— Botany O— Cell Biology 

C — Chemistry P — Physics 

D — Science Education R — Microbiology & 

E — Entomology Molecular Biology 

G — Geology & Geography S — Soil Science 

H — History of Science T — Plant Taxonomy 

L — Ecology Y — Psychology 

M — Mathematics Z— Zoology 

The date of joining the Academy is listed following the Sectional 
interest. Members who have been elected to Fellow or who have served 
as President or other elected officers are also recognized. 

Dr. Dorothy Adalis, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, ZRL, 1968 

*Miss Diana L. Adams, 7045 Buick Drive, Indianapolis, Ind. 46224, LZG, 1972 

Mr. William H. Adams, Box 1309, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 1964 

Mr. William B. Adams, R.R. 7, Box 18, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, A 

Mr. William B. Adams, Box 1309, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, B, 1919 

Prof. A. R. Addington, 1353 N. Calaveras St., Fresno, Cal. 93728, G, 1921, Fellow 1954 

Dr. Ernest M. Agee, Dept. Geosciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, PSG, 1968 

Dr. James L. Ahlrichs, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, S, 1966 

Dr. Jack L. Albright, Animal Sciences Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

ZYO, 1965 
MR. Edwin F. Alder, 10140 E. Troy Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46239, B, 1962 
Dr. Jacob Wm. H. Aldred, R. 9, Box 264, Florence, Ala. 35630, C, 1929 
Prof. Gerald L. Alexander, 701 Alden Road, Muncie, Ind. 47304, C, 1947 
Dr. Ralph W. Alexander Jr., Dept. Anthropology, Univ. Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Mil- 
waukee, Wise. 53201, ALR, 1971 
Dr. Durward L. Allen, Dept. Forestry & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, ZL, 1970 
Mr. & Mrs. Phillip R. Allen, 11250 S. W. 176th St., Miami, Fla. 33157, LBZ, 1970 
Dr. Torsten Alvager, Dept. Physics, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, POH, 

1970 
Mr. Robert M. Alverson, Sperry Rand Corp., New Holland, Pa. 17557, LSH, 1971 
Dr. E. D. Alyea, Jr., Physics Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, P, 1967 
Miss Judith A. Anderson, 5510 Winston Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46226, 1968 
MR. James F. Annis, 321 W. South College, Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387, A, 1962 
*Mr. Gdlbert C. Apfelstadt, 5917 Plainview Dr., Evansville, Ind. 47712, AGL, 1972 
*Mr. Donald W. Ash, 236 Tracy Creek Rd., Vestal, N.Y. 13850, GAL, 1972. 
Dr. George Asteriadis, Jr., Biology Dept., Purdue Univ. — North Central, Westville, 

Ind. 46391, ROD, 1971 
Dr. Frederick K. Ault, 207 Meeks Ave., Muncie, Ind. 47304, DC, 1971 
Dr. George S. Austin, Indiana Geological Surv., 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401, G, 1971 
Mr. John Avila, P. O. Box 391, Ashland, Ky. 41101, G, 1967 

Dr. Robert F. Babcock, American Oil Co., P. O. Box 710, Whiting, Ind. 46394, C, 1957 
DR. G. B. Bachman, Chemistry Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, C, 1939, 

Fellow 1952 
♦Mr. George B. Bader, R. R. 8, Box 34, Martinsville, Ind. 46151, ORL, 1972 

30 



Members 31 



Dk. Gerald R. Barker, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374, C, 1964 

Dr. Walter L. Balcavage, Medical Education — Holmstedt Hall, Indiana State Univ., 

Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, RCO, 1973 
Mr. Gregory K. Baldwin, 2001 N. Walnut, Apt. 7-H, Muncie, Ind. 47303, ALG, 1970 
Dr. Ira L. Baldwin, Dept. Bacteriology, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 53706, CBR, 

1919, Fellow 1953 
MR. James B. Banks, Jr., Christ School, Tennessee Ave., Sewanee, Tenn. 37375, 

TBE, 1970 
Miss Edna Banta, R. R. 1, Nashville, Ind. BZ, 1931 

Mr. William B. Barnes, 6149 Primrose Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, Z, 1969 
Dr. Paul E. Baronowsky, Dept. Biochemistry, Mead Johnson Research Center, Evansville, 

Ind. 47721, OCR, 1969 
Dr. Rita Barr, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

ORB, 1971 
Dr. Gary W. Barrett, Dept. Zoology, Miami Univ., Oxford, O. 45056, ZBL, 1961 
Mr. John P. Barrett, Armour & Co., Patent Law Office, P. O. Box 9222, Chicago, 111. 

60611, E, 1952 
Dr. Glenn G. Bartle, Harpur College, Vestal Parkway E., Binghamton, N. Y. 13901, G, 

1923, Fellow 1931 
Dr.. Bryon K. Barton, Dept. Geography and Geology, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, G, 1970 
Dr. James D. Barton, Jr., Box 1106, Provost, Alfred Univ., Alfred, N. Y. 14802, G, 1953, 

1947 
Dr. Thomas F. Barton, Dept. Geography, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, G, 1947, 

Fellow 1953 
*Mr. John Bassett, Dept. Geology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, GCL, 1972 
Dr. Marion F. Baumgardner, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, S, 

1966 
Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd Beesley, R. R. 1, Box 106, Cedar Grove, Ind. 47016, B, 1965 
Dr. Otto K. Behrens, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, C, 1941, Fellow 

1955, Past President 
*Dr. Walter F. Beineke, Dept. of Forestry & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907, LTB, 1972 
Dr. F. J. Belinfate, Physics Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, P, 1949, Fellow 

1959 
Prof. Harvey A. Bender, Biology Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, Z, 

1961 
Prof. Paul Bender, 1804 Mayflower Place, Goshen, Ind. 46526, P, 1936 
Mrs. Alice S. Bennett, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, C, 1964 
Mr. Escal S. Bennett, 438 S. High School Rd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46241, G, 1964 
Dr. William S. Benninghoff, Botany Dept., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48104, 

BGL, 1930 
Mr. Byron G. Bernard, Biology Dept., LaPorte High School, LaPorte, Ind. 46350, BZD, 

1950 
Sr. Marie Bernard OSF, Marian College, 3200 Cold Springs Rd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46222, 

BZ, 1934 
Dr. F. Leon Bernhardt, R. R. 8, Box 481, Muncie, Ind. 47302, D, 1966 
Dr. Wm. H. Bessey, Physics Dept., Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, P, 1956 
Mr. Howard T. Betz, Mounted Rt., Box 260, Chesterton, Ind. 46304, P, 1938 
Mr. James E. Bianchetta, 9135 Erie St., Highland, Ind. 46322, CDL, 1970 
Dr. George H. Bick, Biology Dept., St. Marys College, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, Z, 1961 
*Mr. Maurice E. Biggs, Indiana Geological Surv., 611 N. Walnut Grove, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401, GCP, 1972 
Dr. Byron O. Blair, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, BL, 1962 
Dr. Paul V. Blair, Dept. Biochemistry, Indiana School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46202, OCL, 1970 
Dr. Robert P. Blair, 3728 Berneway Dr., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46808, C, 1966 
Mr. Robert F. Blakely, Indiana Geological Surv., 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, G, 1967 
Mr. Robert L. Blakely, Anthropology Dept., Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, Ga. 30303, 

A, 1966 
Dr. Ned K. Bleuer, Indiana Geological Surv., 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, GSA, 1968 
Mrs. Anna G. Bloom, 755 Dove St., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, B, 1960 



32 Indiana Academy of Science 



Dr. William W. Bloom, Biology Dept., Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, 

BZ, 1943, Fellow 1957, Former Officer 
*Dr. Patricia Boaz, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ. — Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46205, CDG, 1972 
Dr. Jesse L. Bobbitt, 8101 Rosemead Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46240, COR, 1971 
Dr. Lester Bockstahler, 2440 Prospect Ave., Evanston, 111. 60201, CGP, 1920 
Dr. Charlotte Boener, Science Teaching Center, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, CBZ, 1966 
*Dr. John L. Bogdanoff, Dept. Aeronautical-Astronautical Engineering, Purdue Univ., La- 
fayette, Ind. 47907, N, 1972 
Mr. Harold L. Boisen, 5744 Brockton Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, BH, 1946 
Dr. Roger F. Boneham, Indiana Univ. Regional Campus, 2300 S. Washington, Kokomo, 

Ind. 46901, BG, 1967 
Dr. Erwin Boschmann, Indiana Univ. — Purdue Univ., 925 W. Michigan, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46202, CGH, 1970 
Miss Esther Bower, 108 W. Ohio St., Fortville, Ind. 46040, B, 1948 
Mr. Elmer J. Bowers, 309 E. Kercher Rd., Goshen, Ind., 46526, CPD, 1961 
DR. Charles E. Bracker, Dept. Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, B, 1966 
Mr. Arthur Branham, 201 Morningside, Gary, Ind. 46408, DZT, 1971 
Prof. Charles E. Brambel, Chemistry Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556, C, 1959 
Dr. William C. Bramble, Dept. Forestry and Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907, BL, 1970 
Dr. Malcolm D. Bray, Eli Lilly & Co., 740 S. Alabama St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

46206, C, 1967 
*Mr. Marvin Bratt, 203 Education Bldg., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, DRG, 1972 
Mr. Melvin L. Brashear, 1324 N. Seventh St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47807, AGS, 1971 
Dr. W. B. Breneman, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, Z, 1939, 

Fellow 1952 
Dr. William J. Brett, Dept. of Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, Z, 1956 
*Mr. John C. Brier, Apt. 2, 103 W. Washington, Thorntown, Ind. 46071, ZTB, 1972 
Mr. Joe N. Brittingham, 14539 Genesee Ave., Rosemount, Minn. 55068, B, 1961 
Dr. Thomas D. Brock, Microbiology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, R, 

1960 
Dr. Robert M. Brooker, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46227, C, 1951 
Mr. Arthur C. Brookley, Jr., 6056 Fremont St., Ventura, Cal. 93003, G, 1954 
Dr. Austin Brooks, Jr., Dept. Biology, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, B, 1960 
Mr. C. Reid Brooks, 5336 W. 36th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46224, GZ, 1953 
Dr. William D. Brooks, Geography Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

GDL, 1970 
Mr. Earle Brown, 301 Caleb St., Salem, Ind. 47167, B, 1959 
Dr. Herbert C. Brown, Chemistry Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, C, 1949, 

Fellow 1958 
Mr. Larry C. Brown, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, BGO, 1971 
Dr. Ralph E. Broyles, 5701 Fairfield Ave., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46807, CHG, 1955 
Mr. Ralph Brubaker, Box 241, Leesburg, Ind. 46538, SGE, 1932 
Mr. Walter I. Brumbaugh, 736 N. Howard St., Union City, Ind. 47390, CP, 1941 
Mr. Walter Bubelis, 11741 36th Ave., NE, Seattle, Wash., 98125, BL, 1963 
Mr. Henry W. Bullamore, Dept. Geography, Univ. Illinois, Urbana, 111. 61801, GAS, 1971 
Dr. William B. Bunger, Dept. Chemistry, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, C, 1966 
*Dr. Stanley L. Burden, Box 528, Taylor Univ., Upland, Ind. 46989, CPD, 1972 
Mrs. Margaret Ann Bures, S. Maish Rd., R. R. 3, Box 18, Frankfort, Ind. 46041, CDO, 

1971 
PROF. Howard B. Burkett, 700 Shadowlawn, Greencastle, Ind. 46135, C, 1945, Fellow 1961 
Dr. Timothy J. Burkholder, Biology Dept., Taylor Univ., Upland, Ind. 46989, ZOL, 

1971 
Mr. N. Franklin Burnett, 11610 Crestwood Ct., Indianapolis, Ind. 46239, DLZ, 1968 
Dr. Duane R. Burnor, 1948 Camelot Rd., Ann Arbor, Mich. 48104, A, 1966 
Dr. Irving W. Burr, 1141 Glenway, Lafayette, Ind. 47907, M, 1947, Fellow 1953 
♦Mr. Stanton C. Burt, 815 N. Jordan, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, LRO, 1972 



Members 33 



*Mr. Donald L. Burton, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, TBL, 1972 
Mrs. Lois Burton, Indiana State Library, 140 N. Senate, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46204, C, 1958 
Mr. Thomas M. Bushnell, 430 Russell St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, CS, 1922, Fellow 

1935 
MR. James C. Byse, Box 315, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374, AG, 1971 
Mr. A. Lee Caldwell, 1049 W. 141st St., R. R. 2, Box 432A, Carmel, Ind. 46032, 

C, 1947 
Dr. Lynton K. Caldwell, Indiana Univ. Woodburn 213, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, L, 1967 
Dr. Ernest E. Campaigne, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

CH, 1946, Fellow 1954 
Dr. Edward J. Campau, 114 Willow Rd., Greenfield, Ind. 46140, E, 1959 
*Mr. Gregory R. Campbell, 431 S. Chauncey, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, ELZ, 1972 
Dr. Kenneth N. Campbell, Mead Johnson Research Labs. Evansville, Ind. 47721, 

C, 1938, Fellow 1953 
Miss Marilyn F. Campbell, McKendree Twp., Westville, 111. 61883, BLZ 
Miss Mildred F. Campbell, 29 N. Hawthorne Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46219, AZB, 1931 
Mr. Harvey L. Candler, 1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, Ind. 47591, E, 1969 
*Mr. Randall A. Candler, R. R. 3, Vincennes, Ind. 47591, EZB, 1972 
Dr. Irving J. Cantrall, Museum of Zoology, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48104, 

E, 1955 
*Mrs. Winifred Caponigri. Holy Cross Jr. College, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, GCH, 1972 
*Mr. Rudy A. Carandang, 745 Leisure Lane, Greenwood, Ind. 46142, E, 1972 
Dr. Kermit H. Carlson, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, M, 1957, Fellow 1961, 

Former Officer 
Dr. Robert L. Carmin, Dean, Coll. Science Humanities, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 

47306, G, 1968 
Dr. Donald F. Carmony, 532 Pleasant Ridge Rd., R.R. 12, Box 9, Hoosier Ac, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47401, S, 1966 
Mr. Paul E. Carmony, R.R. 3, Box 102, Alexandria, Ind. 46001, Z, 1963 
*Dr. Donald D. Carr, Indiana Geological Surv., 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401, GCS, 1972 
Mr. Gordon Carter, R.R. 1, Gaston, Ind. 47342, BLH, 1952 
Dr. James E. Carter, Indiana Univ. Medical School, 1100 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46202, O, 1969 
Dr. R. Vincent Cash, 70 Pendleton Rd., New Britain, Conn. 06053, C, 1951 
Dr. Harold D. Caylor, 303 S. Main St., Bluffton, Ind. 46714, ZCR, 1931 
Miss Mary E. Cedars, R.R. 6, Box 1094, Kokomo, Ind. 46901, G, 1948 
Dr. Leland Chandler, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, ELZ, 1948, 

Fellow 1961 
Dr. William R. Chaney, Dept. Forestry and Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, LBS, 1971 
Dr. Florence E. Chapman, 2087 Delaware St., Apt. 3, Berkeley, Cal. 94709, ALZ, 1961 
Mr. Chesteen Chapple, Silver Lake, Ind. 46982, PCG, 1951 
Dr. John E. Christian, Bionucleonics Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

C, 1945, Fellow 1957 
Dr. O. B. Christy, Westminster Village, Greenwood, Ind. 46142, B, 1919, Fellow 1926, 

Past President 
Dr. Dennis E. Clark, Indiana State Board of Health, Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, ZLE, 1969 
Mr. Donald L. Clark, R. R. 1, West Baden, Ind. 47469, MP, 1965 
Mr. James A. Clark, 5519 E. 21st St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46218, E, 1945, Fellow 1956, 

Former Officer 
Dr. William C. Clark, 2030 N. Moreland Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46222, Z, 1951 
Dr. Herbert M. Clarke, Birge Hall, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 53706, B, 1929 
Dr. John H. Cleveland, Dept. Geography & Geology, Indiana State Univ., Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809, GH, 1962 
Dr. Sarah Clevenger, 717 S. Henderson St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, BOT, 1948 
Miss Nellie M. Coats, 559 E. Dr. Woodruff PI., Indianapolis, Ind. 42601, EG, 1937, 

Fellow 1948 
Dr. Stephen P. Coburn, Fort Wayne State School, 801 E. State Blvd., Fort Wayne, Ind. 

46805, C, 1962 
Mr. Michual Coe, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577, L, 1971 
Dr. Thomas A. Cole, Biology Dept., Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, Z, 1964 



34 Indiana Academy of Science 



Mr. Jerry M. Colglazier, 925 S. Pasadena St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46219, 

DP, 1966 
Mr. Richard L. Conklin, Physics Dept., Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. 47243, 

P, 1957, Fellow 1963, Former Officer 
Dr. A. Gilbert Cook, Dept. Chemistry, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, C, 1960 
Dr. Donald J. Cook, 625 E. Washington St., Greencastle, Ind. 46135, C, 1945, 

Fellow 1958, Former Officer 
Dr. Kenneth E. Cook, Chemistry Dept., Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 46011, C, 1957 
Miss Mary Patricia Coons, Eureka College, Eureka, 111. 61530, TBL, 1970 
Dr. Robert H. Cooper, R. R. 9, Box 242, Muncie, Ind. 47302, RBZ, 1934, Fellow 1955 
Mr. James B. Cope, J. Moore Museum, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374, LZ, 1949, 

Fellow 1963 
Mrs. E. C. Coppess, R. R. 2, Sheridan, Ind. 46069, GD, 1969 

Miss Audrey E. Corne, 1116 Woodlawn Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46203, OBD, 1966 
Dr. John J. Corrigan, Arts and Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

ORD, 1970 
Mr. Walter A. Cory, Jr., Dept. Zoology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

ZD, 1966 
*Dr. Ronald M. Cosby, Dept. Physics, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, PNC, 

1972 
*Miss Cathy Coyle, Box 306, Sharpsville, Ind. 46068, EZS, 1972 
Dr. Edwin C. Craig, Physics Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, P, 1962 
Mr. Michael J. Crafton, 2021 A Amerherst Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46260, C, 1967 
Dr. George B. Craig, Biology Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, 

E, 1959, Fellow 1972 
MR. Alfred G. Craske, Jr., Dept. Botany, Duke Univ., Durham, N.C. 27706, BLT, 1967 
Dr. William A. Cramer, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, R, 1970 
Dr. Frederick L. Crane, Dept. Biol. Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, O, 

1967 
Dr. Wm. B. Crankshaw, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, L, 1964 
Mr. Thomas L. Crisman, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, ZLG, 

1971 
Dr. T. J. Crovello, Biology Dept., Notre Dame Univ., Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, BLT, 1968 
Dr. Harold W. Crowder, 1024 Olympia Dr., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46819, EZL, 1952 
Dr. Sears Crowell, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

Z, 1950, Fellow 1957 
*Mr. Larry T. Crump, R. R. 1, Box 3H, Summitville, Ind. 46070, ZTL, 1972 
Dr. Clyde G. Culbertson, Lilly Laboratory of Clinical Research, 960 Locke St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46202, ZR, 1941, Fellow 1948 
Dr. William J. Culley, Muscatatuck State Hospital, Butlerville, Ind. 47223, C, 1966 
Mr. R. Bruce Cummings, 123 Ursal Lane, Greenwood, Ind. 46142, ELZ, 1967 
Miss Sharon K. Cupp, 3506 E. Wabash Ave., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803, AL, 1971 
Dr. T. W. Cutshall, 4221 E. Kessler Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, C, 1966 
Mr. Tom Daggy, Biology Dept., Davidson College, Davidson, N.C. 28036, EZ, 1931 
Mr. Charles P. Daghlian, Dept. Botany, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

BLR, 1971 
Mr. William A. Daily, 5884 Compton St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, BTL, 1938, Fellow 

1949, Past President 
Fay Kenoyer Daily, 5884 Compton St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, BTH, 1935, Fellow 1953 
Dr. Robert F. Dale, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SEP, 1967 
Dr. G. F. Dalelio, Chemistry Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, 

C, 1961 
Mr. Herschel G. Dassel, 1310 N. Boeke Rd., Evansville, Ind. 47711, P, 1963 
Prof. Carol R. Davidson, Oakland City College, Oakland City, Ind. 47560, Z, 1966 
*Dr. William Davies, Biology Dept., Purdue Univ., 2101 Coliseum Blvd. E., Fort 

Wayne, Ind. 46805, BLD, 1972 
Mr. Danny J. Davis, 98 E. 12th Ave., Apt. Y, Columbus, O. 43201, CRG, 1970 
Mr. J. Maxwell Davis, 818 S. Rotherwood Ave., Evansville, Ind. 47714, 1960 
Mr. George B. Davis, Dept. G265, Eli Lilly & Co., 445 W. 46th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

46208, AGH, 1971 
Mr. John V. Davis, 53242 Crestview Dr., South Bend, Ind. 46635, BZ, 1965 
Dr. William W. Davis, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, CP, 1969 



Members 35 



Dr. Harry G. Day, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

C, 1946, Fellow 1953, Past President 
Dr. H. Dekay, 715 Meridian St., Lafayette, Ind. 47906, ACG, 1929 
Dr. Eliseo D. Dolfin, Dept. Biology, Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, Ind. 46227, 

ELZ, 1967 
*Dr. Jacques M. Delleur, School of Civil Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

NGS, 1972 
Dr. Melvin W. Denner, Dept. Life Science, Indiana State Univ., Evansville, Ind. 

47712, ZLE, 1969 
Dr. John F. Deters, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, C, 1956 

Dr. Alfred De Vito, Dept. Education, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, DGH, 1971 
Dr. Don B. Deyoung, Physical Science, Grace College, Winona Lake, Ind. 46590, 

PGN, 1973 
Dr. H. A. Dettwiler, 404 Hawthorne Lane, Greenfield, Ind. 46140, RO, 1940 
Dr. Thomas Devries, 112 Meridian St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, C, 1926 
Mr. C. A. Dhonau, Vincennes Univ., Vincennes, Ind. 47591, C, 1965 
Dr. Norman A. Dial, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

Z, 1961 
Mr. Raymond I. Diderikson, 829 Alwyne Rd., Carmel, Ind. 46032, SG, 1970 
Dr. David L. Dilcher, Dept. Botany, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, B, 1966 
Mr. William T. Dill, B15Y College View, College Station, Tex. 77840, Z, 1966 
Dr. Lowell I. Dillon, Dept. Geography and Geology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, 

G, 1954 
Dr. Clarence F. Dineen, Biology Dept., St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, 

Z, 1954 
Dr. Ruth V. Dippell, 218 Jordan Hall, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

O, 1967 
Dr. H. Marshall Dixon, Physics Dept., Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, 

P, 1957 
Mrs. Martha C. Dobbs, 3953 Guerneville Rd., Santa Rosa, Cal. 95124, R, 1950 
Dr. Richard C. Dobson, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, E, 1959 
Dr. Gerald E. Doeden, 3111 Torquay Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47304, C, 1953 
*Mr. Edward M. Dolan, Sociology Dept., DePauw Univ., Greencastle, Ind. 46135, 

AGL, 1972 
Mr. Gary E. Dolph, Dept. Botany, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

BGL, 1970 
Dr. Robert E. Dolphin, Entomology Research Div., 1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, Ind. 

47591, E, 1966 
*Dr. Richard J. Douthart, 235 E. Stop 13 Rd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46227, RCO, 1972 
Dr. N. M. Downie, 505 Lingle Terrace, Lafayette, Ind. 47901, Y, 1952 
Dr. John J. Doyle, St. John Church, 126 W. Georgia St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

46225, YA, 1936 
Dr. Donald W. Dragoo, Carnegie Museum, Anthropology Center, P. O. Box 28, 

Meridian, Butler, Pa. 16001, A, 1947 
Mrs. Judith B. Droessler, Dept. Anthropology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

A, 1970 
Dr. Melvin Druelinger, Chemistry Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, C, 1970 
Dr. Robert R. Drummond, Dept. Geography & Geology, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, G, 1967 
Dr. R. T. Dufford, 512 S. Weinbach Ave., Evansville, Ind. 47714, P, 1952 

Mr. Robert F. Duncan, 3113 Idle Days, North Highlands, Shreveport, La. 71107, CP, 1938 
Dr. David H. Dunham, 230 Connolly St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, RBZ, 1920, Fellow 1935 
Mrs. Esther Dunham, R. R. 1, Jonesboro, Ind. 46938, RB 
Dr. John H. Dustman, Indiana Univ. N W Campus, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Ind. 

46408, Z, 1967. 
Mr. Daniel J. Dyman, #83 Anthony Apts., Muncie, Ind. 47304, OLA, 1970 
Mr. Edward J. Eames, 7131 Constantine Ave., Springfield, Va. 22150, G, 1946 
Dr. Nelson R. Easton, Director, Chemical Research Div., Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46206, C, 1967 
Dr. William R. Eberly, Manchester College, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962, BZL, 1950, 

Fellow 1966, Former Officer 
Dr. John E. Ebinger, Dept. Botany, Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, 111. 61920, 

TLB, 1973 



36 Indiana Academy of Science 



Mrs. Pauline V. Eck, 5844-A Central Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, ZBA, 1937 

Dr. Wm. Edmund Edington, 703 E. Franklin St., Greencastle, Ind. 46135, MH, 1924, Fellow 

1927, Past President 
Dr. Frank K. Edmondson, Goethe Link Observatory, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, MP, 1944, Fellow 1953 
Dr. Joshua L. Edwards, Pathology Dept., Indiana Univ. Med. Center, 1100 W. Michigan, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46202, O, 1967 
Dr. P. D. Edwards, 301 Greenbriar Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47304, MP, 1927, Fellow 1939, Past 

President 
Dr. Arthur L. Eiser, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, TBL, 1964 
Mr. Stephen A. Elbert, Dept. Biology, Univ. Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 40208, Z, 1970 
Mr. Ernest L. Eliel, Chemistry Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, C, 

1965 
Mr. Jay R. Elkins, 17416 McErlain St., South Bend, Ind. 46635, LZA, 1973 
Dr. R. C. Ellingson, Research Center, Mead Johnson and Co., Evansville, Ind. 47721, C, 

1965 
*Mr. Ronald G. Elliott, R. R. 1, Aurora, Ind. 47001, ESG, 1972 
Dr. Nathan K. Ellis, Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, B, 1953 
Mr. Robert G. Ellis, Box 344, Park Ridge, 111. 60068, P, 1955 

Dr. Guy Emery, Physics Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, P, 1967 
*Mrs. Marcia A. Engle, Hepburn C-118, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, GLD, 1972 
Dr. T. L. Engle, 1025 Northlawn Dr., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805, Y, 1946 
Dr. Lee Engstrom, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, 

OZE, 1971 
Dr. Michael Eoff, Dept. Biology, Marian College, E. 3200 Cold Spring, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46222, ZLE, 1971 
Dr. Warren W. Epinette, Dept. Dermatology, Indiana Univ. Medical Center, 1100 W. 

Michigan St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46202, O, 1971 
Mrs. Mary F. Ericksen, 4740 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, D. C. 20008, A, 1945 
*Mr. Frederick F. Ernst, 3309 Life Science, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SLG, 

1972 
Mr. Ray T. Everly, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, EB, 1943, Fel- 
low 1955 
Dr. Wilburn J. Eversole, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, Z, 1961 
Mr. Adolph Faller, Inst, for Urban Studies, Cleveland State Univ., Cleveland, O. 44115, 

LBT, 1967 
Dr. L. Dwight Farringer, R. R. 4, Orchard Dr., N. Manchester, Ind. 46962, P, 1966 
Mr. John J. Favinger, 640 Parkway, Whiteland, Ind. 46184, E, 1942 
Mr. Harrison L. Feldman, 4622 Evanston Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205, RBZ, 1940 
Dr. & Mrs. A. W. Fergusson, Box 263, Wolf Lake, Ind. 46796, LOD, 1971 
Dr. John M. Ferris, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, ZSL, 1958 
Dr. Virginia R. Ferris, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, LZS, 1970 
Dr. Marion M. Fidlar, Mountain Fuel Supply Co., P. O. Box 11368, Salt Lake City, 

Utah 84111, CG, 1931 
Mr. John C. Finney, 2515 W. 25th St., Anderson, Ind. 46011, G, 1946 
*Dr. Gary R. Finni, Biology Dept., Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa. 16335, 

EZL, 1972 
*Mr. David M. Finton, 1414 N. Fremont, South Bend, Ind. 46628, LGN, 1972 
Mr. Gordon F. Fix, 6035 Winnpeny Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, G, 1966 
Mr. Wm. Lloyd Fix, 3929 Pippin Lane, Lafayette, Ind. 47905, BLT, 1948 
Mr. C. T. Fletcher, Dept. Anatomy & Physiology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, ZCL, 1969 
Mr. Robert I. Fletcher, DePauw Univ., 104HH, Dept. Bot. & Bact., Greencastle, Ind. 46135, 

BR, 1950, Fellow 1969 
Mrs. Arlene F. Foley, 1357 Hempstead Rd., Kettering, O. 45429, Z, 1960 
*Miss Carrie F. Foley, Indiana Geological Surv., 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, CGA, 1972 
Dr. Robert B. Forney, 5312 Woodside Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, C, 1950 
Dr. Donald P. Franzmeier, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

S, 1967 
Dr. Dean Fraser, Microbiology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, R, 1956, 

Fellow 1959 



Members 37 



Mr. Edward L. Frazier, Speedway High School, 5357 W. 25th St., Speedway, Ind. 46224, 

DZB, 1970 
♦Miss Jane A. Frees, Science Teaching Center, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, DLZ, 1972 
Dr. David G. Frey, Jordan Hall, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, Z, 1950 
Mr. Charles H. Frick, Box 1104, College Station, Fredericksburg, Va. 22401, M, 1935 
Mrs. Gladys Friesner, R. R. 1, Pascal Ave., Rockport, Me. 04856, E 
Dr. Cleota G. Fry, 1100 Hillcrest Rd., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, M, 1949 
Dr. Margaret Fulford, Botany Dept., Univ. Cincinnati, Cincinnati, O. 45221, B, 1929, 

Fellow 1955 
Dr. Forst D. Fuller, Dept. Zoology, DePauw Univ., Greencastle, Ind. 46135, ZO, 1967 
Miss Marjorie Fuller, Mead Johnson Co., Evansville, Ind. 47721, HC, 1969 
Mr. John J. Furlow, Dept. Botany and Plant Pathology, Michigan State Univ., East 

Lansing, Mich. 48823, BLT, 1963 
Mr. Harry M. Galloway, 3-414 Life Science Bldg., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

SGL, 1958 
Dr. James R. Gammon, Zoology Dept., DePauw Univ., Greencastle, Ind. 46135, LZ, 1964, 

Fellow 1968, Former Officer 
Dr. Lawrence L. Garber, Indiana Univ. South Bend, South Bend, Ind. 46615, C, 1971 
*Mr. Joseph V. Gardner, Dept. Geography & Geology, Indiana State Univ., Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809, GSD, 1972 
Mrs. Marilyn Gardner, 1360 W. Touhy Ave. 308, Chicago, 111. 60626, GM, 1966 
Dr. Max W. Gardner, 1441 Hawthorne Terrace, Berkeley, Cal. 94708, B, 1919, Fellow 1923 
Dr. Murvel R. Garner, 450 College Ave., Richmond, Ind. 47374, ZLH, 1925, Fellow 1935. 
Mr. Randal A. Gaseor, 5735 W. Fullerton Ave., Chicago, 111. 60639, LOZ, 1970 
Dr. Gerald J. Gastony, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, TBL, 1970 
*Dr. Peter A. Gebauer, 6225 Parliament Dr., Apt. C, Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, 

CLH, 1972 
Dr. Paul H. Gebhard, 416 Morrison Hall, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, A, 1952 
Dr. Charles L. Gehring, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, B, 1964 
Miss Florence E. Geisler, 3717 N. Riley, Indianapolis, Ind. 46218, BG, 1925 
Dr. George A. Genz, Dept. Anthropology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, A, 

1971 
*Dr. Peter F. Gerity, Biology Dept., Purdue Univ., 2101 Coliseum Blvd. E., Fort 

Wayne, Ind. 46805, OZD, 1972 
Dr. Ernest H. Gerkin, 918 Bowman St., South Bend, Ind. 46613, CP, 1951 
Dr. A. N. Gerritsen, 100 Wheeler Lane, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, PH, 1956 
Dr. W. C. Gettelfinger, 2814 Newburg Rd., Louisville, Ky. 40205, BP, 1928 
*Mk. Robert E. Geyer, Jr., 8750 Johnston, Highland, Ind. 46322, 1971 
Dr. H. William Gillen, Marion County General Hospital, 960 Locke St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46202, CHZ, 1967 
Dr. Ronald L. Giese, Entomology Dept. Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, EL, 1964 
Mr. Walter G. Gingery, R. R. 11, Box 238, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, CM, 1918, Fellow 

1946 
Mr. William F. Ginn, 1536 Carroll White Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46219, Z, 1966 
Dr. Carl W. Godzeski, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, ORC, 1973 
Dr. Raymond E. Girton, 908 Shevlin Dr., El Cerrito, Cal. 94530, BOH, 1928, Fellow 1935, 

Past President 
Dr. Charles W. Goff, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

O, 1970 
Mr. Daniel R. Goins, Daleville High School, Daleville, Ind. 47334, ZLB, 1969 
Mr. William R. Gommell, Dept. Earth Sciences, Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46227, GMS, 1967 
Dr. Ansel M. Gooding, Dept. Geology, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374, G, 1966 
Dr. John D. Goodman, Biology Dept., Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 46011, ZL, 1971 
Dr. Robert E. Gordon, Office Advanced Studies, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556, LZ, 1966 
Mr. William O. Gotschall, 2004 N. Anthony Blvd., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805, P, 1970 
Dr. George E. Gould, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, EZ, 1934, 

Fellow 1950 
Miss Frances M. Gourley, 2409 Monroe St., LaPorte, Ind. 46350, BZ, 1948 
♦Miss Bonnie Gray, Arctic Alpine Research Institute, Univ. Colorado, Boulder, 

Colo. 80302, GL, 1972 



38 Indiana Academy of Science 



*Dr. Henry H. Gray, Indiana Geological Surv., 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401, GSN, 1972 
Dr. Nina E. Gray, 405 W. Vernon Ave., Apt. 3, Normal, 111. 61761, BZ, 1928 
Dr. Ralph J. Green, Jr., 680 Vine St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, BO, 1958 
Dr. Richard W. Greene, Dept. Biology, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, 

Z, 1971 
Mr. Leon Greenwalt, 911 S. Seventh St., Goshen, Ind. 46526, BZD, 1946 
Mr. Walter R. Gregg, Jr., 2428 S. 5th St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47802, AGS, 1971 
Dr. W. J. Griffing, Toxicology Div., Eli Lilly and Co., Greenfield, Ind. 46140, O, 1970 
Mr. & Mrs David A. Griggs, 6411 Reserve Line Rd., Ft. Wayne, Ind. 46819, LBD, 1971 
Rev. Frances X. Grollig SJ, Loyola Univ., 6525 Sheridan Rd., Chicago, 111. 60626, A, 1956 
*Dr. J. A. Gross, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

ROB, 1972 
Dr. Ray A. Gsell, Dept. Chemistry, Grace College, Winona Lake, Ind. 46580, CPD, 1973 
Dr. Arthur T. Guard, 1845 Woodland Ave., West Lafayette, Ind. 47906, BTL, 1929, Fellow 

1946, Past President 
Dr. Frank T. Gucker, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

C, 1948, Fellow 1954 
Dr. Lee Guernsey, Dept. Geography & Geology, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind., 47809, G, 1948 
*Dr. David S. Guinn, R. R. 1, Box 329A, Yorktown, Ind. 47396, ZD, 1972 
Prof. Edward P. Guindon, 3303 Blackfoot Ct., Ft. Wayne, Ind. 46805, C, 1966 
Miss Elizabeth Gunn, Dept. Anthropology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, A, 

1971 
Dr. W. C. Gunther, Valparaiso, Univ, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, ZYA, 1954 
Dr. Frank A. Guthrie, Rose-Hulman Inst., 5500 Wabash Ave., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803, 

CHG, 1953, Fellow 1970, Past President 
Dr. Flora A. Haas, R. R. 2, Box 571, Apopka, Fla. 32703, BT, 1914, Fellow 1923, Former 

Officer 
Dr. Edward L. Haenisch, P. O. Box 366, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, C, 1949, 

Fellow 1954, Past President 
Dr. Charles W. Hagen, Jr., Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

47405, BO, 1946, Fellow 1955 
Mr. Larry M. Hagerman, 1912 E. Mulberry St., Evansville, Ind. 47714 

Mr. William J. Hahn, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SGL, 1971 
Prof. Robert E. Hale, 926 Poplar St., Huntington, Ind. 46750, P, 1961 
*Mr. B. Frank Hall, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

LZB, 1972 
Mr. Charles B. Hall, 410 Southwood Ct., Indianapolis, Ind. 46217, B, 1959 
Dr. Judy Dale Hall, Boston Biomedical Research Inst., 20 Staniford St., Boston, Mass. 

02144, O, 1971 
Prof. A. E. Hallerberg, Mathematics Dept., Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, 

MHD, 1961 
Mr. Donald W. Hamilton, Vincennes Univ., Vincennes, Ind. 47591, E, 1969 
Mr. Charles T. Hammond, Dept. Botany, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, BOL, 

1970 
*Dr. John C. Hancock, School Electrical Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

NDH, 1972 
Dr. George D. Hanks, Dept. Biological Sciences, Indiana Univ., NW, Gary, Ind. 46408, 

ZOL, 1969 
*Mr. Randall R. Hansen, 3715 Conlin Ave., Evansville, Ind. 47715, Z, 1972 
Dr. Robert J. Hanson, Biology Dept., Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, R, 1956 
Dr. Robert W. Hanson, Iowa Academy Science, Univ. N. Iowa, Cedar Falls, la. 50613 
*DR. Leland L. Hardman, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47302, 

BOT, 1972 
Mr. Robert R. Hare, Jr., 2832 Longfellow Rd., Fargo, N. Dak. 58102, M, 1948 
Dr. Rolla N. Harger, 346 Medical Science Bldg., Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 46202, C, 1923, Fellow 1935 
*Mr. G. Edward Haring, Physics Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, PLH, 1972 
Dr. Paul N. Harris, 4114 E. 65th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, O, 1967 
Mr. Edward F. Harrison, 2256 E. Walnut St., Evansville, Ind. 47714, R, 1962 
Mr. George W. Harrison, Biology Dept., Taylor Univ., Upland; Ind. 46989, ZEB, 1968 
Mr. & Mrs. Wade J. Hart, 1005 E. Sherman St., Marion Ind. 46952, ZPC, 1966 



Members 39 



Mr. John W. Hart, R. R. 1, Milton, Ind. 47357, E, 1967 

Miss Mary Ann Hart, R. R. 1, Milton, Ind. 47357, DTL, 1970 

Mr. John M. Hartman, Indiana State Museum, 202 N. Alabama, Indianapolis, Ind. 46204, 

AGL, 1973 
Dr. Stanley E. Hartsell, 447 Vine St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, BA, 1936, Fellow 1953 
Mr. James G. Hartsock, U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2336 

Northwestern Ave., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, E, 1959 
Mr. Jerry E. Hasch, 1930 Sims, Columbus, Ind. 47201, GDL, 1970 
Dr. Felix Haurowitz, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

C, 1949, Fellow 1958 
Mr. Donald C. Hazlett, Russellville, Ind. 46175, G, 1930 

Dr. Wm. Hugh Headlee, Indiana Univ. Medical Center, 1100 W. Michigan St., Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 46202, BEZ, 1926, Fellow 1954 
Mr. George E. Heap, 414 W. Thompson, St., Sullivan, Ind. 47882, G, 1939 
Mr. Maurice E. Heath, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SL, 1968 
Dr. William B. Hebard, 3402 Deerwood Dr., New Albany, Ind. 47150, ZOB, 1969 
Dr. Charles B. Heiser, Jr., Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

47405, B, 1947, Fellow 1954 
*Dr. Robert E. Henderson, Detroit Diesel, Allison Div. General Motors Corp., 

Box 894, Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, P, 1972 
Mr. Donald R. Hendricks, 120 Arboretum Rd., Richmond, Ind. 74374, ZLA, 1969 
Miss Nancy Hendricks, Radio & TV, Dept. Public Schools, 931 Fletcher Ave., Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 46203, AGL, 1973 
Dr. Donald A. Hendrickson, Dept. Biology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, RL, 

1971 
Mr. Jon R. Hendrix, 705 Neely Ave., Muncie, Ind. 47303, RDZ, 1961 
Mr. Robert E. Henn, 4121 Gail Dr., Evansville, Ind. 47712, AGL, 1970 
Dr. Joe F. Hennen, Dept. Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

BT, 1958, Fellow 1964 
Dr. George F. Hennion, Chemistry Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556, C, 1928, Fellow 1939 
Dr. Robert L. Henry, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, P, 1958, Fellow 1963 
Dr. Raymond E. Henzlik, Physiology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, ZL, 1964 
Mr. Eugene L. Herbst, 40 S. 21st St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803, C, 1954 
Mr. Thomas J. Herrick, 329 Grissom, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, NDP, 1971 
Mr. William C. Herring, Div. Water, Indiana Dept. Natural Resources, State Office 

Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204, GNL, 1973 
Mr. & Mrs. H. Daniel Hiatt, 8315 Zona Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46227, GDL, 1970 
Dr. Clyde W. Hibbs, 1508 Riley Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47304, SEG, 1966, Fellow 1970 
*Mr. & Mrs. E. Thomas Hibbs, Biology Dept., Indiana Univ. S. Bend, 1825 

Northside Blvd., South Bend, Ind. 46615, BTD, 1972 
Mr. Calvin E. Higgens, Lilly Research Laboratories, 740 Alabama St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46206, BR, 1955 
Dr. Ralph Hile, P. O. Box 640, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48107, EZ, 1926 
Rev. Richard Hindel OSB, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577, ZBT, 1959 
Dr. Maynard K. Hine, 4530 N. Meridian, Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, 1945, Fellow 1961 
Dr. William J. Hinze, Dept. Geosciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, G, 1973 
Mr. Horton H. Hobbs, III, Dept. Zoology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

ZLG, 1971 
Dr. M. E. Hodes, Indiana Univ. Medical Center, 1100 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46202, COR, 1966 
Dr. Harry Hodges, 1259 N. 325 W., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, BS, 1961 
Mr. Thomas W. Hodler, 321 E. 14th St., Bldg. H, Apt. 10, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, GDL, 

1970 
Miss Margaret E. Hodson, 4202 S. Carey St., Marion, Ind. 46952, BZ, 1944 
Dr. Roger M. Hoffer, 1220 Potter Dr., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, LS, 1966 
Dr. Warren E. Hoffman, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Inst. Tech., Ft. Wayne, 

Ind. 46803, C, 1962 
Prof. Henry W. Hofstetter, Div. Optometry, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

YPH, 1964 
Mr. Paul A. Holdaway, Div. Life & Health Science, Wr. Harper College, 

Palatine, 111. 60067, Z, 1967 
Dr. Eldon L. Hood, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SCG, 1969 
Dr. Eberhard Hope, 512 S. Swain Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, M, 1951 



40 Indiana Academy of Science 



Dr. William B. Hopp, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, Z, 1955, Former Officer, President 
Dr. Lothar E. Hornuff, Jr., Biology Dept., Central State Univ., Edmond, Okla. 73034, 

EL, 1966 
Dr. Alan S. Horowitz, Geology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

G, 1965 
*Dr. Robert N. Horst, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, ZDL, 1972 
Mr. Emil H. Horvath, Laboratory for Applications Remote Sensing, Purdue Univ., 

Lafayette, Ind. 47906, B, 1970 
Dr. Robert J. Hosley, 5001 N. Illinois St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, G, 1969 
Dr. Naomi M. Hougham, 300 N. Water St., Franklin, Ind. 46131, BZG, 1922, 

Fellow 1935 
Mr. J. C. Householder, 5043 Primrose Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205, ZA, 1940 
Mr. Wayne C. Houtcooper, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, LZ, 1971 
Dr. Robert Howe, 106 Drury Lane, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, C, 1964 
Mr. Hillis L. Howie, R. R. 6, Box 85, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, ALZ, 1935 
*Dr. Don M. Huber, Dept. Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907, BRS, 1972 
Mr. John J. Huber, R. R. 6, Portland, Ind. 47371, C, 1963 
*Mr. Bernard L. Huff, Jr., Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, ELZ, 1972 
MR. Gary E. Huffman, 2585 E. 91st St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46240, DZ, 1971 
Mr. Kelso K. Huffman, 9580 E. 192nd, Noblesville, Ind. 46060, SGN, 1972 
Mr. Lloyd D. Huffman, Southside Jr. High School, Columbus, Ind., ZBL, 1970 
Dr. L. F. Huggins, Agricultural Engineering Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

S, 1967 
*Dr. George W. Hughes, School Electrical Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, NZH, 1972 
Col. N. R. Hughes, 1659 25th Ave., Vero Beach, Fla. 32960, M, 1947 
*Dr. Geraldine M. Huitink, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., South Bend, Ind. 46615, 

CHU, 1972 
Dr. Malcolm E. Hults, Physics Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, P, 1966 
Mr. Jack E. Humbles, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

BZ, 1956 
Mr. Keith Hunnings, 815 Park Ave., New Haven, Ind. 46774, C, 1954 
Dr. Joseph S. Ingraham, Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46202, RCO, 1958 
Dr. William D. Inlow, Spring Hill Rd., Shelbyville, Ind. 46176, HA, 1950 
Dr. Paul M. Inlow, 103 W. Washington, Shelbyville, Ind. 46176, Z, 1950 
Mrs. May S. Iske, 818 E. 79th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46240, Z, 1941 
Dr. Marion T. Jackson, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, LBT, 1963, Present Officer 
Dr. Hubert M. James, 316 Forest Hills Dr., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, P, 1936, Fellow 1961 
Mr. D. P. Jerrett, 123 Vista Del Cerro Dr., Tempe, Ariz., 85281, OZE, 1969 
Dr. Ralph Jersild, Jr., Dept. Anatomy, Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46202, O, 1967 
Dr. Christian J. Johannsen, Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing, Purdue 

Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SG, 1966 
Mr. Gerald H. Johnson, 105 Caran Rd., Williamsburg, Va. 23185, G, 1965 
Dr. Hollis R. Johnson, 2535 Stephens Rd., Boulder, Colo. 80303, PHL, 1969 
Dr. John I. Johnson, Jr., Biophysics Dept., Michigan State Univ., E. Lansing, 

Mich. 48823, YZ, 1956 
Mrs. Mary Lu Johnson, Box 333, Princeton, Ind. 47670, LTB, 1971 
Dr. Vivian A. Johnson, Physics Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

P, 1949 
Dr. Willis H. Johnson, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, Z, 1928, Fellow 

1950, Past President 
Dr. David T. Jones, P. O. Box 284, Vinton, la. 52349, ZEO, 1931 
Mr. Gwilym S. Jones, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, ZL, 1968 
Sr. Jean G. Jones, Marian College, 3200 Cold Springs Rd., Indianapolis, Ind. 

46222, CP, 1968 



Members 41 



Mrs. Esther K. Jordan, P. O. Drawer 1049, Deming, N. M. 88030, ZY, 1931 

Dr. Thomas Joseph, Dept. Biology, Indiana Univ., So. Bend, South Bend, Ind. 

46615, ZLO, 1971 
Miss Irene K. Joyce, 246 N. Rensselaer Ave., Griffith, Ind. 46319, D, 1968 
Mr. James W. Joyner, R. R. 1, Box 183, Centerville, Ind. 47330, D, 1957 
Dr. Ralph D. Joyner, Chemistry Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, C, 1968 
Mr. Glenn P. Juday, Dept. Botany, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Ore. 97331, LGA, 1971 
Dr. Clark Judy, Dept. Geography, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, LGD, 1971 
Dr. Gerald M. Jurica, Geosciences Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, PGL, 1970 
Mr. Theodore Kallas, P. O. Box 257, Marshall, 111. 62441, PCD, 1946 
Dr. Ferencz P. Kallay, Geology Dept., Valparaiso Univ. Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, G, 1971 
Dr. Christian E. Kaslow, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

C, 1944, Fellow 1959 
Dr. Karl L. Kaufman, College of Pharmacy, Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 

46208, CH, 1963 
Dr. Virgene W. Kavanagh, 231 Blue Ridge Rd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, ZR, 1952 
Dr. Wayne F. Keim, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

BT, 1967 
*Mr. James H. Keith, 4540 Gifford Rd., 22E, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

LZG, 1972 
Mr. Robert I. Kent, Biology Dept., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46227, B, 1946 
Dr. Frank D. Kern, 140 W. Fairmount Ave., State College, Pa. 16801, B, 1905, 

Fellow 1912 
Dr. William G. Kessel, Chemistry Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, C, 1946 
*Dr. David P. Kessler, School Chemical Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, NSL, 1972 
Dr. Wayne E. Kieffer, Dept. Geography-Geology, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 

46383, G, 1966 
Dr. Sidney A. Kilsheimer, Chemistry Dept., Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, C, 1959 
Dr. Philip A. Kinsey, Evansville College, Evansville, Ind. 47704, C, 1958 
Mr. Edward Kintner, Peabody Home, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962, EBZ, 1926, 

Fellow 1932 
Dr. Robert V. Kirch, 151 E. Hampton Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205, G, 1958 
Mr. Dale R. Kirkham, Biology Dept., Oakland City College, Oakland City, Ind. 

47560, L, 1970 
Dr. Charles M. Kirkpatrick, Dept. Forestry & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, ZL, 1966 
Dr, Ralph D. Kirkpatrick, R. R. 1, Osage Farm, Jonesboro, Ind. 46938, ZLB, 1959 
Mr. Fran Kirschner, R. R. 1, Kimmels So. Shore, Kendallville, Ind. 46755, SG, 

1970 
Rev. James E. Kline, CSC, Kings College, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 18702, PM, 1927 
Dr. Richard M. Kline, Eli Lilly & Co., Research Labs, Greenfield, Ind. 46140, 

R, 1965 
Mr. Paul E. Klinge, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, CBZ, 1938 
Dr. John W. Klotz, Concordia Senior College, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805, BL, 1966 
Dr. William S. Klug, Dept. Biology, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, 

OZ, 1969 
Mr. Virgil R. Knapp, R. R. 3, Box 6, Zionsville, Ind. 46077, E, 1968 
Dr. C. Barry Knisley, Biology Dept., Franklin College, Franklin, Ind. 46131, EZI, 

1970 
Mr. Roderic M. Koch, 10 S. Eleventh Ave., CPO Box 358, Evansville, Ind. 47704, 

CG, 1949 
Dr. Henry Koffler, Biological Sciences Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

RBZ, 1947, Fellow 1953 
Dr. K. G. Kohlstaedt, Vice President, Med. Res., Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

46206, 1962 
Dr. Helmut Kohnke, 208 Forest Hill Drive, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, SCR, 1946, 

Fellow 1968 
Dr. David E. Koltenbah, Dept. Physics, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, P, 1967 
Mr. Robert Konrath, 822 25th St., South Bend, Ind. 46615, B, 1966 
*Mr. Robert L. Kowalski, Toxicology Dept., Miles Lab, 1127 Myrtle, Elkhart, Ind. 

46514, ZDH, 1972 



42 Indiana Academy of Science 



Dr. Carl H. Krekeler, 360 Mclntyre Ct., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, LEZ, 1947 

Dr. Stevan J. Kristof, Laboratory for Application of Remote Sensing, Purdue Univ., 

Lafayette, Ind. 47906, SB, 1970 
Dr. Gerald H. Krockover, Education Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

DGC, 1971 
Dr. John W. Kroeger, 6770 Rollymeade Rd., Cincinnati, Ohio 45243, C, 1934 
*Mr. Michael K. Kroeger, 801 Hoosier Ave., Evansville, Ind. 47715, C, 1972 
Dr. Louis Krumholz, Biology Dept., Univ. Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 40208, LZ, 

1969 
Dr. Joseph Kuc, Dept. Biochemistry, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, RBC, 

1967 
Dr. Gunnar Kullerud, Geosciences Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

GND, 1973 
Mrs. Clemie E. Kuykendall, 2202 N. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, B, 1927 
*Mr. George M. Labanick, Life Sciences Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, ZLA, 1972 
Mr. Robert K. Landes, 2002 O St., Bedford, Ind. 47421, LBZ, 1969 
Mr. Thomas W. Landrum, P. O. Box 631, Muscatatuck Wildlife Refuge, Seymour, 

Ind. 47274, ZLB, 1970 
Miss Maud O. Lang, R. R. 1, Richmond, Ind. 47634, RB, 1933 
Mr. Doyal R. Lank, Jr., 147 Woodland Terrace, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, 

ZER, 1971 
Dr. Aubrey A. Larsen, Bristol-Myers Co. International Division, 345 Park Ave., New- 
York, N.Y. 10022, C, 1962 
Mr. Edward R. Lavagnino, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, C, 1968 
Dr. Richard M. Lawrence, Chemistry Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, 

CP, 1970 
Mr. Henry R. Lawson, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

ELZ, 1969 
Prof. Ralph W. Lefler, 121 Hideaway Lane, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, P, 1943, 

Fellow 1949 
Dr. John A. Leighty, R. R. 9, Harrison Lake, Columbus, Ind. 47201, 1967, 

Fellow 1969 
Mr. Richard K. Leininger, Indiana Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut Grove, 

Bloomington, Ind. 47405, G, 1961 
Mr. Samuel E. Leman, 114 N. Center St., Bremen, Ind. 46506, C, 1965 
Dr. Carole A. Lembi, Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, OLB, 1971 
Miss Lola M. Lemon, Box 113, Larwill, Ind. 46764, B, 1929 
Dr. W. Leroy Leoschke, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, C, 1959 
MR. James E. Leslie, P. O. Box 172, Miamiville, Ohio 45147, R, 1950 
*Mr. James B. Levenson, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, LBG, 1972 
Mr. Edmund C. Lewis, 5939 N. College Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, A, 1971 
Dr. Jon E. Lewis, Human Health, Research Development Labs, Dow Chemical Co., 

Zionsville, Ind. 46077, Z, 1966 
Dr. Eli Lilly, 5807 Sunset Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, A, 1930, Fellow 1937, Past 

President 
Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, B, 1947, Fellow 1950, Past Officer, Past President 
Dr. Goethe Link, Hill Rd., Brooklyn, Ind. 46111, MPZ, 1941, Fellow 1958 
Mr. Dale E. Linvill, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SLG, 1971 
Mr. Robert G. Lipscomb, 101 Morewood Dr., Manchester, Mo. 63011, B, 1952 
DR. James C. List, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, Z, 1957 
Mr. Robert M. Little, 711 Cherry Dr., Berrien Springs, Mich. 49103, AGZ, 1966 
*Dr. David H. Lively, Microbiology Research, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, 

ROC, 1972 
Dr. Ralph A. Llewellyn, Dept. Physics, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

P, 1968 
♦Mr. Michael J. Lodato, 1221 Akin Dr., Evansville, Ind. 47714, LGZ, 1972 
Sr. Mary Longtine, Convent of the Immaculate Conception, Ferdinand, Ind. 47532, 

LBZ, 1970 
MR. Richard Lopez, R. R. 3, Box 351, Muncie, Ind. 47302, ERL, 1969 



Members 43 



Dr. Keith E. Lorentzen, Indiana Univ. N. W. Campus, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Ind. 46408, 

C, 1965 
Mr. Robert D. Loring, Dept. Earth Sciences, DePauw Univ., Greencastle, Ind. 

46135, G, 1947 
*Mr. Douglas L. Love, Cave Information Service, Box 643, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

GPL, 1972 
Mr. George D. Lovell, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, Y, 1958, Fellow 1962 
Dr. Murrill M. Lowry, Zoology Dept., Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46207, Z, 1956 
Mr. Frederick Luther, 4515 Marcy Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46205, GH, 1966 
*Dr. Wilson B. Lutz, Chemistry Dept., Manchester College, N. Manchester, 

Ind. 46962, CLO, 1972 
Miss Blanche McAvoy, 3701 N. Cincinnati Ave., Tulsa, Okla. 74106, LBT, 1928 
Dr. Paul C. MacMillan, Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. 47243, BOL, 1970 
Dr. Wendell F. McBurney, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, D, 1968 
*Dr. Wilm. P. McCafferty, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, ELZ, 

1972 
Mr. Manson L. McClain, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, LBT, 1970 
Mr. Charles E. McClary, 1019 E. Powell Ave., Evansville, Ind. 47714, C, 1962 
Dr. L. S. McClung, Dept. Microbiology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

RBZ, 1940, Fellow 1946 
Dr. Thomas S. McComish, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, L, 1969 
Dr. Jack McCormick, 860 Waterloo Rd., Devon, Pa. 19333, L, 1950 
Mr. Robert N. McCormick, Biology Dept., Southwood College, Salemburg, N. C. 28385, 

ZCR, 1931, Fellow 1935 
Mr. Scott McCoy, 8609 Manderley Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46240, ZB, 1928, Fellow 1947 
*Dr. Alan I. McDonald, Mechanical Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, NDH, 

1972 
Dr. Margaret McElhinney, 3816 Brook Dr., Muncie, Ind. 47304, B, 1962 
Dr. William W. McFee, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

S. 1966 
*Mr. James McGivern, Biology Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, EO, 

1972 
Mr. Preston McGrain, Kentucky Geological Survey, Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. 

40506, G, 1940, Fellow 1949 
Rev. James J. McGrath, CSC, Dept. Biology, Box 369, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, B, 1966 
Mr. Charles F. McGraw, Hayes Regional Arboretum, 801 Elks Rd., Richmond, Ind. 

47374, LBZ, 1969 
Dr. J. M. McGuire, Research Laboratory, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, 

' B, 1941 
Mr. Paul T. McKelvey, R. R. 3, Monticello, Ind. 47960, CLD, 1968 
*Mr. Bruce A. McKenzie, Agricultural Eng., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, NGD, 

1972 
Dr. Donald L. McMasters, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

C, 1957 
Dr. Pang Fai Ma, Chemistry Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, C, 1970 
Dr. Joan M. Mahoney, Medical Education, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, ROC, 1973 
Dr. Robert L. Mann, Research Laboratory, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

46206, C, 1962 
MR. Jerry V. Mannering, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

S, 1962 
Prof. Armin W. Manning, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, P, 1956 
Dr. C. Markle, 528 National Road W., Richmond, Ind. 47374, BZ, 1950, Fellow 1956, Past 

President 
Mr. Gayton C. Marks, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, B, 1960 
Mr. Max M. Marsh, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, C, 1967 
Mrs. George E. Martin, R. R. 3, Box 778, Newburgh, Ind. 47630, AG, 1951 
Mrs. Amy Mason, R. R. 1, Box 279, W. Terre Haute, Ind. 47885, BTZ, 1967 
Dr. Loren G. Martin, Physiology Dept., Medical School, Temple Univ., Philadelphia, 

Pa. 19140, 1968 
Mr. Dorsey P. Marting, 413 E. Prince Rd., Tucson, Ariz. 85705, GBP, 1926 
Mrs. Dorila A. Marting, 413 E. Prince Rd., Tucson, Ariz. 85705, G, 1971 
Mr. Jon Dorsey Marting, 413 E. Prince Rd., Tucson, Ariz. 85705, CPZ, 1971 



44 Indiana Academy of Science 



♦Dr. Joseph D. Mason, Aero-Astron. Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, NLP, 1972 
Mr. Harry R. Mathias, 123 E. Evers Ave., Bowling Green, Ohio 43402, M, 1925 
Dr. Milton Matter, Jr., Box 51, Nashville, Ind. 47448, Z, 1941 
*Dr. Richard H. Maxwell, Biology Dept., Indiana Univ. S.E., Warder Park, Jefferson- 

ville, Ind. 47130, TBL, 1972 
Mrs. M^rie J. Mayo, Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 46011, OZ, 1950 
Dr. Charles E. Mays, Dept. Zoology, DePauw Univ., Greencastle, Ind. 46135, OZC, 1968 
Dr. Karl S. Means, 133 W. 46th St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208 
*Dr. Andrew G. Mehall, Biology Dept., St. Joseph's College, Rensselaer, Ind. 

47978, ORL, 1972 
Dr. Warren G. Meinschein, Dept. Geology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

GCL, 1967 
Mrs. Melva Meisberger, 2219 Rome Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, RBC, 1967 
Dr. John H. Meiser, Chemistry Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, C, 1970 
Mr. Robert Menke, St. Henry Rd., Huntingburg, Ind. 47542, B, 1966 

Dr. Wilton N. Melhorn, Dept. Geosciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, G, 1955 
Dr. Melvin G. Mellon, 338 Overlook Dr., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, C, 1921, Fellow 1928, 

Past President 
Br. Arthur Mergen, St. Meinrad Archabbey, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577, TBL, 1970 
Dr. Clair Merritt, Dept. Forestry & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, B, 

1961 
Dr. Lynne L. Merritt, Jr., Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, C, 1946, Fellow 1959 
Dr. Thomas R. Mertens, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, 

BT, 1957, Fellow 1968 
Sr. Alma L. Mescher, St. Mary-Of-The-Woods, Ind. 47876, OZE, 1962 
Dr. Clyde R. Metz, Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205, C, 1968, Present 

Officer 
Dr. A. H. Meyer, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, G, 1926, Fellow 1945, Past 

President 
Dr. Frederick R. Meyer, Biology Dept., Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, ZOL, 

1965 
Mr. Robert W. Meyer, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, E, 1966 
Prof. Harold L. Michael, 1227 N. Salisbury St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, S, 1966 
Prof. Howard H. Michaud, 301 E. Stadium Ave., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, BZ, 1929, 

Fellow 1947, Past President 
Prof. Robert D. Miles, 1724 Sheridan Rd., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, NG, 1966 
Mr. Charles W. Miller, Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 46011, PGD, 1970 
Dr. Donald E. Miller, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, LEZ, 

1937, Fellow 1948, Past Officer 
Mr. Forrest T. Miller, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 46135, BL, 1967 
Mr. Kenneth Miller, Biology Dept., Purdue Univ., North Central, Westville, Ind. 46391, 

LEZ, 1971 
Mr. Louis V. Miller, Indiana Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401, GC, 1966 
*Mr. Milton J. Miller, III, 8201 Newburgh Rd., Evansville, Ind. 47715, C, 1972 
Mr. Paul A. Miller, 1615 S. H Street, Elwood, Ind. 46036, SGL, 1966 
Mr. Samuel C. Millis, 201 Wallace Ave., Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, E, 1955 
Mr. Herbert S. Millstein, 2090 Suffolk Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46260, NM, 1971 
Mr. Wallace B. Miner, Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, 111. 60115, P, 1928 
Dr. Sherman A. Minton, Jr., Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46202, Z, 1950, Fellow 1967 
Dr. Arthur Mirsky, Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46202, GLH, 1968 
Mr. William S. Miska, Federal Bldg., 7th & College Sts., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, GLA, 

1971 
Dr. Philip B. Mislivec, 4831 W. Braddock Rd., #201, Alexandria, Va. 22311, B, 1963 
Dr. Edwin J. Monke, Dept. Agricultural Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, S, 

1964 
Mr. E. H. Montague, Jr., Forestry & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, ZL, 1971 
Mr. Lupo A. Montecillo, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SGC, 1971 
Dr. B. Elwood Montgomery, 906 N. Chauncey Ave., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, EHL, 1922, 
Fellow 1929 



Members 45 



*Dr. John C. Moody, Education Dept., Indiana Univ. S.E., Warder Pk., Jeffersonville, 

Ind. 47130, DL, 1972 
Mr. Michael C. Moore, Indiana Geological Survey, 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401, GZ, 1971 
Dr. Fred D. Morgan, 1032 Wildwood Dr., Huntington, Ind. 46750, ZER, 1966 
Dr. W. P. Morgan, 8501 S. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46217, BZ, 1920, Fellow 

1930, Past President 
Dr. D. James MorrS, Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, OB, 

1965 
Dr. Charles S. Morris, 2725 A St., Laverne, Calif., 91750, PM, 1935, Fellow 1961 
Dr. Harry Morrison, Chemistry Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, C, 1967 
Dr. Benjamin Moulton, Geography & Geology Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, G, 1943, Fellow 1953, Past Officer 
Mr. Thomas E. Mouzin, 1118 Chestnut St., Vincennes, Ind. 47591, E, 1966 
Dr. Charles R. Mueller, Chemistry Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, C, 1967 
Mrs. Joanne Mueller, Box 329, Biology Dept., Univ. Evansville, Evansville, Ind. 47701, 

D, 1971 
Dr. W. P. Mueller, Biology Dept., Univ. Evansville, Evansville, Ind. 47701, Z, 1962 
Dr. Russell E. Mumford, Foresty & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

ZL, 1953 
Dr. Jack R. Munsee, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

EL, 1959 
Mr. Turhon A. Murad, Dept. Anthropology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

A, 1969 
Mr. Stanley H. Murdock, U. S. Soil Conservation Service, Washington, Ind. 47501, 

G, 1967 
Mr. Francis L. Murphy, 155 E. N. Albany Ave., Vincennes, Ind. 47591, B, 1958 
Rev. M. J. Murphy, CSC, Geology Dept., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556, G, 1955 
Dr. Haydn H. Murray, GA Kaolin Co., 433 N. Broad St., Elizabeth, N. J. 07208, G, 1953 
Mr. Merritt J. Murray, 2718 Oakland Or., Kalamazoo, Mich. 49008, BZT, 1929 
Dr. Raymond G. Murray, Anatomy & Physiology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, O, 1950 
Dr. Thomas P. Myers, Indiana Univ. Museum, Student Bldg., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, AGL, 1970 
*Dr. Darrell W. Nelson, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, S, 1972 
*Miss Priscilla Nelson, Dept. Geology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, GCS, 

1972 
Mr. David H. Nesbitt, 1022 E. Sherman, Marion, Ind. 46952, ED, 1967 
Dr, Holm W. Neumann, 704 S. Rose Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, A, 1957 
Dr. William A. Nevill, Indiana Univ. — Purdue Univ., 1201 E. 38th St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46205, C, 1968 
Prof. James E. Newman, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

S, 1964, Fellow 1972 
Dr. Kenneth E. Nichols, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, BZO, 1949 
Mr. K. W. Nightenhelser, R. R. 1, Arcadia, Ind. 46030, P, 1940 

Dr. Jerry J. Nisbet, 51 Warwick Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47304, OZ, 1969, Present Officer 
Dr. R. Emerson Niswander, Manchester College, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962, E, 1950, 

Fellow 1963 
Mr. Victor E. Nixon, 406 W. 9th St., Jasper, Ind. 47546, PC, 1941 
Dr. Dennis O'Brian, Medical Research Division, E.R. Squibb & Sons, Box 4000, Princeton, 

N.J. 08540, Z, 1955 
Mrs. Gladys O'Brien, 3801 Madison Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46227, G, 1953 
Dr. Alvin J. Ohlrogge, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

SCB, 1951, Fellow 1962 
*Mr. Anthony D. Oldham, Carl Zeiss, Inc., 1120 Morse Rd., Columbus, Ohio 43229, ORL, 

1972 
Dr. Montague M. Oliver, 1111 E. 19th Ave., Gary, Ind. 46407, Z, 1963 
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick F. Oliver, 1218 Alden Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47303, BZ, 1960 
Dr. Richard Olsen, Dept. Biology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, RBZ, 1967 
Dr. J. Bennet Olson, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

H, 1965 
Mr. John E. Organ, 301 W. Washington St., Sullivan, Ind. 47882, G, 1967 



46 Indiana Academy of Science 



Dr. Philip A. Orpurt, Biology Dept., Manchester College, N. Manchester, Ind. 

46962, B, 1954 
Dr. R. William Orr, Dept. Geography & Geology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 

47306, G, 1967 
*Dr. David W. Osgood, Zoology Dept., Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, 

LZB, 1972 
Prop. John V. Osmun, 2533 Newman Rd„ Lafayette, Ind. 47906, ZE, 1948, Fellow 1957 
Rev. Thomas Ostdick, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577, CM, 1960 
Dr. Donald E. Owen, Dept. Geography & Geology, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, G, 1966 
Mr. Robert E. Pace, Dept. Anthropology, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

A, 1968 
Mr. Frank Padgett, Dept. Microbiology, Indiana School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46207, 1967 
Dr. C. M. Palmer, 334 Lindale Pike, Amelia, Ohio 45102, RB, 1925, Fellow 1929, Former 

Officer 
Dr. Dorothy Parker, 30 Greenridge Ave., Apt. 3C, White Plains, N. Y. 10605, B, 1931, 

Fellow 1944 
*Dr. George R. Parker, Forestry & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, L, 1972 
Dr. Thomas A. Parker, 68 Maples Park, West Lafayette, Ind. 47906, ELZ, 1968 
Mr. Francis Parks, 3820 Pinehurst Dr., Richmond, Ind. 47374, B, 1966 
Dr. Homer D. Paschall, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, BZ, 1956 
Dr. Fred L. Patterson, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, B, 1963 
Dr. John B. Patton, Geology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, G, 1947, Fel- 
low 1961 
Dr. Elmer C. Payne, 440 River Rd., Chatham, N.J. 07928, C, 1933 

Dr. Fernandus Payne, 620 Ballentine Rd., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, Z, 1913, Fellow 1916 
Mr. Philip Peak, 2000 E. Second St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, M, 1945, Fellow 1957 
*Dr. Nathan E. Pearson, 599 W. Westfield Blvd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, Z, 1922, Fellow 

1931 
*Dr. Robert M. Peart, Agricultural Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, NLD, 1972 
Mr. James L. Pease, 799 E. Jefferson St., Franklin, Ind. 46131, ZCL, 1969 
Dr. Ernest J. Peck, Jr., Dept. Biological Science, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, ROC, 1971 
*Dr. Robert Peloquin, Biology Dept., Purdue Univ. Calumet, Hammond, Ind. 46323, BTL, 

1972 
Dr. John F. Pelton, Botany Dept., Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, BLT, 1953, 

Fellow 1962 
Dr. Barbara M. Peri, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, R, 1958 
Mr. Joseph I. Perrey, 7825 Pfeiffer Rd., Cincinnati, Ohio 45242, G, 1949 
Mrs. Joan V. Persell, 60 Venoy Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46227, BT, 1964 
Dr. Dennis G. Peters, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, C, 1963 
Dr. David L. Peterson, 103 Wren Rd., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803, ORC, 1971 
Dr. Mary J. Pettersen, 7317 McCook Ave., Hammond, Ind. 46323, B, 1966 
Mr. Robert A. Pettuohn, 1819 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46202, LSG, 1971 
Dr. Joseph T. Pearson, Mechanical Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, NDL, 

1972 
Dr. Robert Petty, Biology Dept., Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, LBT, 1959, 

Fellow 1967 
Dr. Richard G. Pflanzer, Dept. Biol., Ind. Univ. — Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46202, 

ZPC, 1970 
MR. Raymond N. Pheifer, Redbud Hill, Apt. 304, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, GBL, 1971 
Mr. Richard N. Phillips, Indianapolis Med. Lab, 10455 N. College Ave., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46280, C, 1967 
Mr. William E. Phillips, Research & Development Div., Commercial Solvents Corp., 

Terre Haute, Ind. 47803, CR, 1945 
Mr. Dale E. Phinney, 8304 McCullough, #201, Gaithersburg, Md. 20760, LCP, 1970 
Mrs. Barbara L. Pickard, Hudson Valley Comm. College, Vandenburg Ave., Troy, 

N. Y. 12180, Z, 1966 
Mr. Walter H. Pierce, Dept. Geology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Indiana 47306, G, 1973 
*Dr. Richard C. Pilger, Jr., St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, CP, 1972 
Dr. Robert C. Pittenger, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, R, 1950 
Dr. Robert W. Piwonka, P. O. Box 472, Kinderhook, N. Y. 12106, Z, 1965 



Members 47 



Mr. Eiffel G. Plasterer, R. R. 5, Huntington, Ind. 46750, PC, 1929 

Dr. Julian R. Pleasants, Lobund Lab., Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, 

R, 1963 
Dr. Gayther L. Plummer, Botany Dept., Univ. Georgia, Athens, Ga. 30601, BLS, 1953 
Miss Elisabeth Poe, Taylor Univ., Upland, Ind. 46989, BZ, 1947 
*Mr. Kevin J. Poelhuis, 6011 Newburgh Rd., Evansville, Ind. 47715, C, 1972 
Mr. Joe M. Poland, 5210 Kessler Blvd. N., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, ZOR, 1972 
*Dr. Morris Pollard, Dept. Microbiology, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556, R, 1972 
Dr. Lawrence Poorman, Physics Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

P, 1964 
Dr. S. N. Postlethwait, Biological Science Dept., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, B, 1951, Fellow 1961, Past President 
Mr. Frank Potter, Dept. Botany, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, BLG, 1971 
Dr. Horace M. Powell, 8341 Stafford Lane, Indianapolis, Ind. 46260, R, 1926, Fellow 

1935, Past President 
Mr. Richard L. Powell, Dept. Geosciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, G, 1962 
*Dr. Philip N. Powers, Engr. Admin. Bldg., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, N, 

1972 
Dr. Paul S. Prickett, R. R. 8, Browning Rd., Evansville, Ind. 47711, R, 1962 
*Mr. Alan O. Priebe, Plant Sciences, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, LBC, 1972 
*Mr. A. Alan B. Pritsker, Large Scale Systems, Duncan Annex, Purdue Univ., 

Lafayette, Ind. 47907, N, 1972 
Dr. Max A. Proffitt, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

L, 1956 
*Mr. Arwin V. Provonsha, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

ELZ, 1972 
*Dr. M. William Pullen, Geosciences Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

GND, 1972 
Mr. Nicholas Purichia, Apt. 209, Sawyer Res. Hall, Univ. Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

45219, Z, 1967 
Dr. Paul R. Quinney, Chemistry Dept., Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46207, C, 1966 
Mr. Robert A. Ragains, 4210 Woodberry St., University Park, Hyattsville, Mo. 20782, 

BZE, 1931 
Dr. Barth H. Ragatz, Medical Educ, Indiana Univ., N.W., Gary, Ind. 46408, COR, 1973 
Drs. R. F. & J. A. Ramaley, Dept. Microbiology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

RZ, 1967 
Mr. Rogers E. Randall, Sr., 2395 W. 20th PL, Gary, Ind. 46404, CP, 1964 
Dr. A. R. Rao, Civil Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, NLG, 1973 
Mr. Reevan Dee Rarick, 611 N. Walnut Grove, Ind. Geol. Sur., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, G, 1966 
Mr. James Ray, Clinton High School, Clinton, Ind. 47842, CBZ, 1970 
Mr. Walter R. Rathkamp, Box 33, 224 Jordan Hall, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, Z, 1970 
*Mr. Paul Ray, Biology Dept., Manchester College, N. Manchester, Ind. 46962, OZD, 1972 
*Dr. Arunachalam Ravindran, Industrial Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

NLD, 1972 
Mrs. Marion A. Rector, 104 Riley Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47304, BT, 1946 
Miss Helen E. Reed, 1070 W. Maple St., Greenwood, Ind. 46142, BZD, 1952 
Mr. James R. Rees, Dept. Biology, Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 46011, B, 1967 
Dr. Charles W. Reimer, 856 Cricket Rd., Secane, Pa. 19018, B, 1947 
Dr. Mark Reshkin, Indiana Univ., N.W. Campus, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Ind. 46408, 

G, 1965 
Dr. H. W. Reuszer, Dept. Agronomy, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, RS, 1968 
*Mr. William U. Reybold, Soil Cons. Serv., 5610 Crawfordsville Rd., Indianapolis, Ind. 

46224, SGL, 1972 
Dr. Leon M. Reynolds, Dept. Physics, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, P, 1957 
Mr. Pyrl L. Rhinesmith, 300 Oak St., Angola, Ind. 46703, C, 1967 

Dr. Marcus M. Rhoades, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, B, 1966 
Dr. Charles L. Rhykerd, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SLB, 

1964 
Dr. Francis O. Rice, 1704 Baden Ave., South Bend, Ind. 46617, C, 1963 
Dr. Marion M. Rice, Chemistry Dept., Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. 53511, BR, 1946 
Dr. Arthur Richter, 720 Hume Mansur Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204, 1926 
Dr. John A. Ricketts, 702 Highridge, Greencastle, Ind. 46135, CD, 1953, Fellow 1967 



48 Indiana Academy of Science 



Mr. Ronald A. Riepe, Dept. Geology, College of Lake Co., Grayslake, 111. 60030, BG, 1971 

Mrs. Virginia Riggle, 8005 Westover Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46268, BLZ, 1967 

*Dr. Victor Riemenschneider, Biology Dept., Ind. Univ. South Bend, 1825 Northside Blvd., 

South Bend, Ind. 46615, L, 1972 
Mr. John Robbins, Jr., 324 Dogwood Lane, Greencastle, Ind. 46135, S, 1961 
Mr. Allan Roberts, Walnut Hills Farm, R. R. 3, Box 71, Richmond, Ind. 47374, Z, 1966 
Dr. Carleton W. Roberts, Textile Dept., Clemson Univ., So. Car. 29631, C, 1954 
Dr. Michael C. Roberts, Dept. Geography, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, GSN, 

1971 
Mr. Gordon Robison, R.R. 1, Box 876, Michigan City, Ind. 46360, DPL, 1970 
Mr. Terry A. Rogers, 129 W. Green, Montpelier, Ind. 47359, ELZ, 1971 
Mr. John C. Roehm, 102 Harold Dr., Hot Springs, Ark. 71901, GY, 1924 
Dr. Fred W. Roeth, Botany & Plant Path., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

BOL, 1970 
Dr. Mary Avery Root, Eli Lilly & Co., 740 S. Alabama, Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, 

RHZ, 1967 
Mrs. Victoria C. Rosenblum, c/o Borghorst, 3085 Totem Dr., Fairbanks, Alaska 99701, A, 

1964 
*Drs. Joseph & Alberta Ross, Chemistry Dept., Ind. Univ. South Bend, 1825 Northside 

Blvd., South Bend, Ind. 46615, CHD, 1972 
Dr. Paul L. Roth, Dept. Forestry, S. Illinois Univ., Carbondale, 111. 62901, BL, 1955 
Dr. Henry S. Rothrock, 3 Red Oak Rd., Wilmington, Del. 19806, C, 1926 
*Mr. Rudolf Rottenfusser, Carl Zeiss, Inc., 1120 Morse Rd., Columbus, Ohio 43229, OLZ, 

1972 
*Mr. Michael Ruark, Geosciences Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

GNL, 1972 
Dr. David Rubin, Dept. Biology, Central State Univ., Wilberforce, Ohio 45384, 

Z, 1963 
*Dr. Albert J. Rudman, Geology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, G, 1972 
Dr. Albert Ruesink, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

BOL, 1971 
Mr. Charles E. Russell, 10602 Jordan Rd., Carmel, Indiana 46032, ZD, 1958 
Dr. Philip A. St. John, Zoology Dept., Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, 

ZO, 1967 
Dr. Darryl Sanders, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, E, 1973 
*Mr. Frank W. Sanders, Soil Cons. Serv., Suite 2200, 5610 Crawfordsville Rd., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46224, SGL, 1972 
Dr. Carl C. Sartain, Dept. Physics, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

PHC, 1970 
Dr. Earl J. Savage, Dept. Biological Science, Ind. Univ. South Bend, South Bend, Ind. 

46610, B, 1965 
Mr. Lawrence A. Schaal, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, GSL, 

1957 
Mr. John F. Schafer, Dept. Plant Pathology, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, Kansas 

66502, BT, 1959, Fellow 1967 
Mr. Richard E. Schaffer, R. R. 5, 206 Ruth Dr., Richmond, Ky. 40475, ZLO, 1968 
Mr. Raymond A. Schleuter, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, ZL, 1971 
Dr. John F. Schmedtje, Dept. Anatomy, Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46207, O, 1967 
Dr. Damain Schmelz, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Ind. 47577, BL, 1959, President- 

Elect 
Dr. Frederic C. Schmidt, 209 S. Union St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, C, 1948 
Dr. Allan F. Schneider, Div. Science, Univ. of Wis., Parkside, Kenosha, Wis. 53140, GS, 

1963, Fellow 1967 
Miss Myrtle V. Schneller, Zoology Dept., Ind. Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

Z, 1949 
Prof. Bernard H. Schockel, 101 Woodlawn Ave., Aurora, Ind. 47001, G, 1913, Fellow 

1917 
Dr. J. R. Schramm, Apt. 3, Kingston Manor, 3200 Longview Dr., Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401, B, 1956 
Dr. Marvin M. Schreiber, Dept. Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907, B, 1966 



Members 49 



Mr. Donald L. Schuder, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, ZE, 1949, 

Fellow 1961 
Dr. Arthur R. Schulz, Dept. Biochemistry, Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46202, CHM, 

1968 
Dr. Eugene P. Schwartz, Dept. Chemistry, DePauw Univ., Greencastle, Ind. 46135, C, 

1969 
Mr. James D. Schwengel, 1557 S. Plaza Dr., Evansville, Ind. 47715, LZD, 1968 
Mr. Karl Schwenk, Anthony Apt. 32, Muncie, Ind. 47304, ORB, 1969 
Mr. Robert E. Scofield, 6630 Old Porter Rd., Portage, Ind. 46368, BZ, 1948 
*Sr. Katherine Seibert, Dept. Microbiology, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, 

ROC, 1972 
Dr. R. L. Seifert, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, C, 1949 
Dr. Frank M. Setzler, 950 E. Shore Rd., Culver, Ind. 46511, A, 1929 
Mr. Stephan G. Sever, R. R. 1, Box 146B, Waldron, Ind. 46182, B, 1961 
Mr. Richard E. Shade, R. R. 1, Battle Ground, Ind. 47920, E, 1963 
*Mr. D. Keith Shafer, Lawrence Central H.S., 7300 E. 56th, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46226, DLN, 1972 
Dr. William G. Shafer, Dept. Oral Pathology, Indiana Univ. School Dentistry, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46207, P. 1967 
Dr. Barbara Shalucha, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401 

B, 1948 
*Mr. Marion B. Scott, Engr. Admin. Bldg., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

NHD, 1972 
Dr. Henry L. Shands, 100 Thornbush Dr., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, B, 1963 
Miss Elizabeth L. Shaner, 6316 S. Harrison, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46807, D, 1954 
Dr. Gregory E. Shaner, Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, BLT, 1968 
Dr. Merrill E. Shanks, 1107 Hillcrest, W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, M, 1960 
*Mr. Ronald E. Shannon, 9 Robin Ct., New Albany, Ind. 47150, ELA, 1972 
*Dr. Robert H. Shaver, Indiana Geol. Sur., 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401, GDL, 1972 
*Dr. Roger H. Shaw, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

LSP, 1972 
Mr. Gerald J. Shea, 1105 Spring Hill Rd., Terre Haute, Ind. 47802, G, 1958 
*MR. Rex Shellenbarger, 114 N. Washington, Harrison, Ohio 45030, OCD, 1972 
*Mr. John L. Shepherd, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, 

LZD, 1972 
Dr. James E. Shields, 7229 Wynter Way, Indianapolis, Ind. 46250, C, 1968 
Mr. Stanley S. Shimer, Science Teaching Center, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, GBP, 1967 
Mr. H. Douglas Shock, R. R. 3, Box 387, Muncie, Ind. 47302, DBL, 1971 
Dr. Nathan W. Shock, US Pub. Health Serv., Baltimore City Hospital, Baltimore, 

Md. 21224, OY, 1927 
Dr. Edward W. Shrigley, Microbiology Dept., Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46202, ZRO, 1950, Fellow 1960 
Mr. Donald A. Shroyer, 1623 N. Tillotson Ave., Muncie, Ind. 47304, EZO, 1970 
Prof. Ernest M. Shull, 402 N. Wayne St., N. Manchester, Ind. 46962, EA, 1970 
Dr. Harrison Shull, Chemistry Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, C, 1967 
Dr. Akhtar H. Siddiqi, Dept. Geography and Geology, Indiana State Univ. Terre Haute, 

Ind. 47809, G, 1966 
Dr. Joseph R. Siefker, Chemistry Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, C, 1959 
Mr. Robert Simpers, R. R. 3, Glenfruin, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, BL, 1959 
Dr. Russell E. Siverly, Pub. Health Entomology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 

47306, E, 1956, Fellow 1961 
Mr. Olind Skinner, 111 E. 73rd Ave., Merrillville, Ind. 46410, P, 1925 
Dr. Kenneth H. Slagle, Dept. Chem. Engr., Tri-State College, Angola, Ind. 46703, 

C, 1967 
Mr. Mack W. Slusser, Box 186, Lebanon, Ind. 46052, C, 1930 
Mrs. Shirley F. Smalley, 119 N. 5th, Spiceland, Ind. 47385, DOC, 1968 
Dr. Aubrey H. Smith, Mathematics Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

M, 1947 
Dr. Charles E. Smith, Jr., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, B, 1963 



50 Indiana Academy of Science 



Dr. Dale Metz Smith, Biol. Sciences Dept., Univ. California, Santa Barbara, 

Cal. 93106, B, 1950 
Dr. Earl C. Smith, 35 S. 24th St., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803, C, 1959 
Mr. James M. Smith, Box 23, Liberty, Ind. 47353, GS, 1964 
Mr. L. O. Smith, Jr., Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, C, 1952 
Dr. Ned M. Smith, 2717 Covington St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, G, 1950 
Mr. Orrin H. Smith, 5825 88th St., S.W., Everett, Wash. 98201, P, 1925, Fellow 1935 
Dr. Phillip J. Smith, Dept. Geosciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

GPS, 1968 
Mr. Robert C. Smith, 62767 Orange Rd., South Bend, Ind. 46614, D, 1964 
Dr. Samuel W. Smith, 1714 Poplar, Terre Haute, lid. 47807, G, 1963 

Mr. Andrew T. Smithberger, 53085 Oakmont Park E. Dr., South Bend, Ind. 46637, 1927 
Dr. Arthur A. Smucker, Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 46526, C, 1961 
Mr. S. J. Smucker, R. R. 2, Box 229, Rensselaer, Ind. 47978, B, 1947 
Dr. Herbert H. Snyder, Mathematics Dept., Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, 

111. 62901, MP, 1967 
Dr. Tracy M. Sonneborn, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, Z, 1940, 

Fellow 1953 
Mr. Charles V. Souers, 2552 E. 8th St., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, R, 1965 
Mr. Ted M. Sowders, 1511 N. Fenton, Indianapolis, Ind. 46219, P, 1950 
Miss Iva Spangler, 303 Rexford Dr., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46806, BZ, 1937 
Mr. Harley O. Spencer, Mishawaka Public Library, 209 Lincoln Way East, 

Mishawaka, Ind. 46544, 1966 
Dr. Theodore M. Sperry, Biology Dept., Kansas State College, Pittsburg, Kan. 66762, 

BLT, 1928 
*Mr. Edward G. Spinks, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, NCP, 1972 
Dr. Newton G. Sprague, 1212 Ridge Rd., Muncie, Ind. 47304, PC, 1959 
Mrs. Helene Starcs, 4250 Crittenden Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46205, B, 1949 
Mr. Ralph W. Stark, R. R. 2, Box 4, Lebanon, Ind. 46205, BTL, 1953 
Dr. W. Max Stark, Fermentation Prod. Res. Div., Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, 

RCB, 1949 
Dr. Richard C. Starr, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

B, 1953, Fellow 1958 
Mr. & Mrs. A. Logan Steele, Ind. Bell Telephone Co., 240 N. Meridian St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 46204, YAL, 1964 
*Miss Janet Stein, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

ELZ, 1972 
Charles H. Steinmetz, M.D., Life Extension Inst., 11 E. 44th St., New York, N.Y. 10017, 

Z, 1950 
Dr. William K. Stephenson, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374, Z, 1954 
Mr. Frank S. Sterrett, Moses Brown School, 250 Lloyd Ave., Providence, R. I. 

02906, ZL, 1969 
*Dr. Thomas J. Stevens, Geography Dept., State Univ. College, Brockport, 

N.Y. 14420, G, 1972 
Dr. Forrest F. Stephenson, 3529 Peach Tree Lane, Muncie, Ind. 47304, B, 1956 
Mr. Walter L. Stirm, Nat. Weather Service, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

S, 1971 
Dr. Russell K. Stivers, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, S, 1960, 

Fellow 1970 
Sr. M. Rose Stockton, 3200 Cold Springs Rd., Marian College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46222, C, 1948 
Dr. William L. Stoller, 1901 Spark Rd., Apt. F 213, Kokomo, Ind. 46901, ZY, 1969 
Dr. Robert L. Stone, Biological Research Div., Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

46206, R, 1955 
Dr. Bruce N. Storhoff, Dept. Chemistry, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, C, 1968 
Mr. William E. Stovall, 6144 Winthrop Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, RE, 1969 
Mr. James F. Stratton, Dept. Geology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

G, 1963 
Miss Sarah C. Strawn, 306 Lincoln, Crawfordsville, Ind. 47933, Z, 1970 
Mr. James T. Streator, 474 Maple St., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, C, 1966 
MR. Frank Streightoff, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, R, 1954 
*Dr. Jerald W. Strickland, Div. Optometry, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

ORH, 1972 
Dr. Alvin Strickler, 312 Michigan Ave., Frankfort, Mich. 49635, C, 1920 



Members 51 



*MRS. Ruth S. Strother, Sellersburg Elem. School, Sellersburg, Ind. 47142, AGL, 

1972 
Mr. Billie W. Stucky, 4032 Morningside Drive, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, BZ, 1965 
Dr. Ruthann P. Sturtevant, Center for Med. Educ, Box 3284, Evansville, Ind. 47701, 

RO, 1967 
Dr. John E. Stump, Dept. Veterinary Anatomy, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

OZ, 1971 
Mr. Gerald Sullivan, Box 253, R. R. 3, Elwood, Ind. 46036, BC, 1947 
Mr. Elmer G. Sulzer, 5582 Cape Aqua Dr., Sarasota, Fla. 33579, 1918 
Mr. Ronald E. Surdzial, 436 N. Indiana St., Griffith, Ind. 46319, CDM, 1969 
Miss Anne A. Susalla, Biology Dept., St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, 

BOR, 1971 
Dr. Roderick A. Suthers, Dept. Anat. & Physiology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401, Z, 1967 
Dr. Robert L. Swaim, Aeronautical Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

NPL, 1971 
Dr. N. K. Swartz, Jr., Dept. of Soc. & Anthropology, Ball State Univ., 

Muncie, Ind. 47306, A, 1965 
Dr. Jack Swelstad, 2617 Girard St., Apt. 3C, Evanston, 111. 60201, ZAG, 1966 
Dr. Mary K. Swenson, Dept. Chemistry, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York 14850, 

C, 1966 
Dr. James C. Swihart, Dept. Physics, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

P, 1967 
Mr. John C. Tacoma, 1101 N. Layman Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46219, BT, 1959 
Mr. Matt E. Taggart, 1212 S.E. Second Ave., Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., C, 1927 
Mr. Max W. Talbott, Physiology & Health Sci., Ball State Univ., Muncie, 

Indiana 47306, RZD, 1973 
Dr. Arthur W. Tallman, 207 Appledore Ave., Hendersonville, N. C. 28739, RC, 1928 
Dr. Michael R. Tansley, Dept. Botany, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, BRL, 

1971 
Dr. J. C. Tan, Dept. Biology, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 46383, MBO, 1967 
Mr. Irvin E. Taylor, 5116 Laurel Hall Dr., Indianapolis, Ind. 46226, C, 1959 
Dr. D. J. Tendam, Physics Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, P, 1966 
Mr. George E. Tempel, Anatomy and Physiology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

47401, ZOC, 1970 
Mr. Harold B. Thompson, 8501 Wicklow, Cincinnati, Ohio 45236, P, 1934 
Dr. James Thorp, 606 S.W. A St., Richmond, Ind. 47374, G, 1953, Fellow 1960 
Mr. Al J. Tieken, R. R. 1, Box 28, Elberfeld, Ind. 47613, Z, 1965 

Dr. Joseph A. Tihen, Dept. Biology, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, Z, 1961 
Dr. Wm. J. Tinkle, 118 W. South St., Eaton, Ind. 47338, ZHB, 1936 
*Dr. James J. Tobolski, Biology Dept., Purdue Univ., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46805, 

BTO, 1972 
MR. Curtis H. Tomak, 1030 Briarcliff Dr., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, A, 1964 
Dr. Theodore W. Torrey, Dept. Zoology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

Z, 1935 
Dr. Yeram S. Touloukian, 2595 Yeager Rd., Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, Ind. 

47906, P, 1951 

Dr. James W. Townsend, 1221 Meadow Brook Dr., Evansville, Ind. 47712, OZR, 1970 

Dr. Robert J. Trankle, Dept. Biology, Franklin College, Franklin, Ind. 46131, 

B, 1963 
Dr. W. A. Trinler, Chemistry Dept., Indiana State Univ. Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, C, 1961 
Dr. Lee C. Truman, 1208 Oakwood Trail, Indianapolis, Ind. 46260, EL, 1947 
Mr. Rolla M. Tryon, Gray Herbarium, Harvard Univ., 22 Divinity Ave., Cambridge, 

Mass. 02138, B, 1937 
Dr. Franklin R. Turner, 1965 Heidleman Rd., Los Angeles, Cal. 90032 
Dr. Kenyon S. Tweedell, Dept. Biology, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556, ZO, 1962 
Dr. Kenneth W. Uhlhorn, Science Teaching Center, Indiana State Univ., Terre 

Haute, Ind. 47809, Z, 1964 
Dr. Arnold J. Ullstrup, Dept. Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, B, 1946 

Mr. P. T. Ulman, R. R. 2, Noblesville, Ind. 46060, BAE, 1931 

Miss Betty Vanderbilt, R. R. 3, Box 201, Nashville, Ind. 47448, GBZ, 1952 



52 Indiana Academy of Science 



Dr. Robert E. Vanatta, Dept. Chemistry, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, 

CH, 1970 
Mr. William J. Vanderwoode, Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 

Ind. 47907, BOR, 1971 
Dr. Robert Van Etten, Dept. Chemistry, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, C, 1969 
*Dr. Donald E. Van meter, Natural Resources, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Indiana 

47306, DSG, 1972 
MR. John Van Sickle, 1136A Canterbury Ct., Indianapolis, Ind. 46260, DLG, 1970 
Mr. Dante Ventresca, 4460 Broadway, Indianapolis, Ind. 46205, RB, 1961 
Mr. Kent D. Vickery, 5755 Sprucewood Dr., Cincinnati, Ohio 45239, ALB, 1969 
Dr. Dayton G. Vincent, Geosciences Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

GSD, 1973 
Sr. Helen Vinton, Ladywood H.S., 5355 Emerson Way, Indianapolis, Ind. 46226, D, 

1972 
Mr. Harvey J. Von Culin, Biology Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

LTS, 1971 
Dr. Edward A. Vondrak, Dept. Physics, Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46227, PM, 1967 
Mr. Claude F. Wade, 113 State Office Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204, E, 1971 
Miss Lucille C. Wahl, 941 Hervey St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46203, BM, 1953 
*Dr. Joseph L. Waling, Grad. School Office, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

NDH, 1972 
Mr. George W. Walton, R. R. 1, Farmersburg, Ind. 47850, P, 1965 
Mr. Lloyd C. Wampler, 400 S. Michigan St., Plymouth, Ind. 46563, AE, 1950 
Dr. Daniel B. Ward, 733 S.W. 27th St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601, T, 1950 
Dr. Gertrude L. Ward, Biology Dept., Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 47374, BZ, 1949 
Prof. C. P. Walren, Dept. Anthropology, Univ. Illinois at Chicago Cir., Chicago, 111. 60680, 

A, 1949 
Dr. Wm. John Wayne, Dept. Geology, Univ. Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 68508, GL, 1948, 

Fellow 1967, Past President 
MR. Ray Weatherholt, Jr., R. R. 2, Box 445A, New Albany, Ind. 47150, TLB, 1970 
Dr. Paul Weatherwax, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, AB, 

1913, Fellow 1922, Past President, Past Officer 
Mr. Henry D. Weaver, Jr., Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 46526, C, 1958 
Dr. George W. Webb, Geography & Geology Dept., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, G, 1966 
Dr. Harold D. Webb, 812 W. Delaware St., Urbana, 111. 61801, P, 1930 
Mr. Glenn C. Weber, 147 S. Spencer Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46219, RC, 1957 
Mr. Neil V. Weber, Dept. Earth Sciences, Indiana Univ., South Bend, Ind. 46615, 

GH, 1969 
Mr. Robert C. Weber, 3649 Algonquin Pass, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46807, BOL, 1951 
Mr. Walter J. Weber, 36 W. Roberts Rd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46217, CBE, 1954 
Dr. J. Dan Webster, Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. 47243, Z, 1949, Fellow 1967, 

Past Officer 
Dr. Rex N. Webster, 4721 N. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, RBT, 1951 
Mrs. Virginia Weddle, Dunwerkin, R. 4, Nashville, Ind. 47448, BZ, 1940 
Mr. Harmon P. Weeks, Jr., Forestry & Conservation, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, LZ, 1969 
Dr. Eugene D. Weinberg, Dept. Microbiology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

R, 1950, Fellow 1959 
Dr. Paul P. Weinstein, Dept. Biology, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 46556, 

Z, 1969 
Dr. Winona H. Welch, P. O. Box 283, Greencastle, Ind. 46135, BR, 1924, Fellow 1935, 

Past President 
Zara D. Welch, Chemistry Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, C, 1946 
Dr. Frank Welcher, 7340 Indian Lake Rd., Indianapolis, Ind. 46236, C, 1934, Fellow 

1950, Past President 
Dr. Lowell E. Weller, Dept. Chemistry, Univ. Evansville, Evansville, Ind. 47701, 

C, 1958 
Dr. H. B. Wells, Indiana Univ. Fdn. Inc., Owen Hall, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 1940 
Mr. Rex Wells, R. R. 6, Columbia City, Ind. 46723, ZLE, 1969 
Dr. Hans W. Wendt, Psychology Dept., Macalester College, St. Paul, Minn. 55101, 

YH, 1968 



Members 53 



Mr. Kenneth A. Wenner, 4912 Hawthorne Ridge Dr., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, 

S, 1964 
Prof. William G. Wert, 406 S. Brown Ave., Terre Haute, Ind. 47803, DBZ, 1961 
Dr. Robert J. Werth, Biology Dept., Purdue Univ. Calumet, Hammond, Ind. 46323, ZL, 

1970 
Dr. Terry R. West, Dept. Geosciences, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, G, 1964 
Dr. John O. Whitaker, Jr., Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 

47809, LZ, 1962 
Lt. Charles N. Whitaker, Atten' C3411 NOAA, Nat. Ocean Survey, Rockville, Md. 20852, 

GCL, 1970 
Mr. Charles E. White, 2441 E. Northview Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46220, E. 1966 
Dr. Joe L. White, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, GS, 1956, 

Fellow !<9i60 
Dr. Jack M. Whitehead, Dept. Sociology & Anthropology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, 

Ind. 47306, A, 1969 
Prop. Grant I. Wickwire, 43 Fenwood Grove Rd., Saybrook, Conn. G, 1928, 

Fellow 1935 
Mr. Charles E. Wier, 611 N. Walnut Grove, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, GH, 1947, 

Fellow 1967 
Prof. Dan Wiersma, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, S, 1961 
MR. H. G. Wilhelm, Jr., 2300 S. Washington, Kokomo, Ind. 46901, R, 1964 
Dr. Frank H. Wilcox, Dept. Life Sciences, Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, Ind. 47809, 

ZOR, 1970 
Mr. Richard F. Wilkey, 118 W. Cherry St., Bluffton, Ind. 46714, E, 1971 
Mr. Wm. Arnold Willer, 5849 Goshen Rd., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46808, BZA, 1929 
Dr. Eliot C. Williams, Jr., Biology Dept., Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 

47933, ZLE, 1948 
Mr. Robert D. Williams, U. S. Forest Service, Bedford, Ind. 47421, BET, 1961 
MR. Leslie A. Willig, 503 Fort Wayne Bank Bldg., Fort Wayne, Ind. 46802, Y, 1960 
*Mr. Hugh D. Wilson, Botany Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, TBA, 1972 
Dr. Kenneth S. Wilson, 1344 N. Jay Circle, Griffith, Ind. 46319, B, 1953 
Miss Ruth M. Wimmer, 2222 Hoagland Ave., Apt. 2, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46804, 

C, 1937 
*Miss Heather Windsor, 313 Royal Ave., Evansville, Ind. 47715, Z, 1972 
Mr. Robert C. Wingard, Jr., P. O. Box 173, Paoli, Ind. 47454, S, 1969 
Mr. Theodore A. Winkel, 607 N. East St., Madison, Ind. 47250, CD, 1948 
*Dr. Sandra Winicur, Biology Dept., Indiana Univ., South Bend, Ind. 46615, 

ODZ, 1972 
Mr. & Mrs D. R. Winslow, Regional Campus Admin., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, 

Ind. 47401, ZD, 1959 
Mr. Woodrow W. Winstead, R. R. 3, Box 358, Newburgh, Ind. 47630, ODL, 1968 
MR. John L. Winters, Jr., 406 Conduitt Dr., Mooresville, Ind. 46158 TLZ, 1956 
*Mr. Vance P. Wiram, R. R. 1, Box 75, Cory, Ind. 47846, GCL, 1972 
Dr. Charles D. Wise, Dept. Biology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, ZLH, 1963 
Mr. Robert E. Wise, Purdue Univ., 2101 Coliseum Blvd. East, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

46815, MP, 1939 
Dr. P. A. Wiseman, 3804 University Ave., Muncie, Ind. 47304, C, 1947 
Dr. Samuel W. Witmer, 1608 S. 8th St., Goshen, Ind. 46526, BZ, 1921 
*Mr. Steven C. Wolf, Dept. Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 

47907, B, 1972 
Dr. Harold E. Wolfe, 812 S. Fess Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, M, 1920 
Dr. Joseph Wolinsky, Chemistry Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, C, 1967 
Mr. Gerhard N. Wollan, 325 Hollowood Dr., W. Lafayette, Ind. 47906, M, 1957 
Prof. Daniel E. Wonderly, Grace College, Winona Lake, Ind. 46590, Z, 1967 
Mr. Darl F. Wood, 201 Miami Club Dr., Mishawaka, Ind. 46544, RCB, 1934 
Mr. Richard C. Worden, 1301 Lincoln St., Anderson, Ind. 46016, LDO, 1969 
Dr. Bernard S. Wostmann, Lobund Laboratory, Univ. Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

46556, CR, 1961 
Dr. Walter E. Wright, Eli Lilly & Co., P. O. Box 618, Indianapolis, Ind. 46206, O, 1969 
*Dr. James T. P. Yao, Civil Engr., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, NDP, 1972 
Dr. Willard F. Yates, Jr., Dept. Botany, Butler Univ., Indianapolis, Ind. 46208, TOB, 1967 
Mr. & Mrs. Larry R. Yoder, Ohio State Univ., Marion, Ohio 43302, BOD, 1966 
Dr. & Mrs F. N. Young, Jr., Dept. Zoology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 
E, 1949, Fellow 1955, Past President 



54 Indiana Academy of Science 



Dr. Joseph W. Young, 801 Morningside Dr., Norman, Okla. 73069, A, 1958 

Dr. Howard R. Youse, P. O. Box 253, Greencastle, Ind. 46135, B, 1940, Fellow 1963, Past 

President 
Dr. A. L. Zachary, Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, SB, 1967 
Mrs. Patricia A. Zeck, 1404 Cherry Hill Lane, Kokomo, Ind. 46901, ZDL, 1968 
Mr. Frank J. Zeller, Zoology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, Z, 1956 
Dr. Leon G. Zerfas, Box 96, R. R. 1, Camby, Ind. 46113, OC, 1921, Fellow 1934 
Dr. Paul L. Ziemer, Bionucleonics Dept., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 47907, 

P, 1964 
Dr. Melvin Zilz, Biology Dept., Concordia Sr. College, Ft. Wayne, Indiana 

46825, ZO, 1968 
Dr. Harold L. Zimmack, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 47306, EZ, 1964 
Mr. Chas. J. Zimmerman, Jr., 1207^ N. Grant, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, Z, 1968 
Dr. Walter A. Zygmunt, Research Labs, Mead Johnson, Evansville, Ind. 47721, R, 1958 
*Mr. Thomas E. Zinneman, Physics Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 47401, 

NP, 1972 
*Beech Grove Science Club, Beech Grove High School, 5330 Pacific St., Beech Grove, Ind. 

46107, 1972 
Biology Club, Lew Wallace High School, 45th & Madison, Gary, Ind. 46408 
Chemistry Club, Oliver P. Morton High School, 6915 Grand Ave., Hammond, Ind. 46323, 

1965 
Science Club, Highland High School, 9135 Erie St., Highland, Ind. 46322, 1962 
♦Arlington Science Club, Arlington High School, 4825 N. Arlington, Indianapolis, Ind. 

46226, 1972 
Brebeuf Science Club, Brebeuf Preparatory School, R. R. 19, Box 750, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 46268 
Science Club, Howe High School, 4900 Julian Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46201, 1964 
Phi Chi Science Club, New Haven High School, 900 Prospect Ave., New Haven, Ind. 

46774, 1954 
Hobart Sr. High Sc. Club, 36 E. Eighth St., Hobart, Ind. 46342, 1967 
E. Washington Science Club, East Washington H. S., Pekin, Ind. 47165, 1971 
Kokomo Public Library, 220 N. Union, Kokomo, Ind. 46901, 1966 
Madison Science Club, Madison Consolidated H. S., 743 Clifty Dr., Madison, Ind. 47250, 

1971 
*Vigo Science Club, c/o William H. James, 3434 Maple Ave., Terre Haute, Ind. 47807, 1972 
Indian Creek Science Club, Indian Creek Sen. H. S., P.O. Box 6, Trafalgar, Ind. 46181 



PART 2 

ADDRESSES 

AND 

CONTRIBUTED 

PAPERS 



Notre Dame, Indiana 
November 3, 1972 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

The address, "Pharmaceutical Research: Its Contribu- 
tions to Science and Medicine," was presented by retiring 
president, Dr. Otto K. Behrens, Eli Lilly and Company, Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana 46206, at the annual Fall Meeting dinner 
at the Saint Mary's College Dining Hall, Saint Mary's 
College, Notre Dame, Indiana, on Friday, November 3, 1972. 



SPEAKER-OF-THE-YEAR ADDRESS 

The address, "The P's and Q's of Modern Astronomy," 
was presented by the Speaker of the Year for 1972-73, Dr. 
Frank K. Edmondson, Department of Astronomy, Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401, at the annual Fall 
Meeting luncheon at the Saint Mary's College Dining Hall, 
Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana, on Friday, 
November 3, 1972. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



Pharmaceutical Research: Its Contributions to Science and Medicine 

Otto K. Behrens, Ph.D. 

Eli Lilly and Company- 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 

The attitude and understanding of the nature of industrial research 
is obviously of importance in the organizations in which it is being 
conducted. Perhaps less obviously, industrial research also should be 
understood in the academic community, and indeed by our society. If 
it isn't, our society will be denied the optimal contributions that can 
be forthcoming from industry, and solutions to many of our problems 
will be delayed or may be made impossible. As I have been a part of 
the research establishment of one of the major pharmaceutical 
companies for more than 30 years, let me make some observations 
intended to be informative and that may, at the same time, be 
interesting. 

Over the years, I have been intrigued with the variety of viewpoints 
toward pharmaceutical research encountered among my academic 
friends. These have ranged the gamut from the condescending or some- 
times distrustful, through attitudes of mystery or ignorance, and 
extending to appreciation and even glamour. Perhaps the most common 
is one of some condescension, implying that pure research is the only 
career worthy of the superior mind and that making science useful is 
a less worthy objective. At the same time, we all recognize that the 
tremendous support of science during recent decades developed because 
science and technology supplied products that people wanted and needed. 
As stated by Dr. Robert B. Carlin, Professor of Chemistry, Carnegie- 
Mellon University (2) : 

"Chemistry has attained its eminent position among the 
sciences by being useful. A large, stable chemical industry con- 
tinues to produce the myriad of useful items that chemical 
science and technology have provided. Had chemistry failed to 
supply materials that people want and need, professors of 
chemistry would now be as numerous and influential as pro- 
fessors of Greek, and there would be no chemical engineering. 

"In the face of these obvious facts, too many college and 
university chemistry faculty members teach chemistry to their 
students as though it were Greek. The subject is presented as 
a fascinating intellectual exercise (which it is), to be pur- 
sued for the stimulation it affords the intellect, like chess. 
Implicitly or explicitly the student is given the impression 
that making chemistry useful is somehow degrading. By ex- 
ample, if not by word, he is taught that pure research is the 
only career in chemistry worthy of the superior mind. 

57 



58 



Indiana Academy of Science 



"College and university programs in chemistry have re- 
flected this point of view. Undergraduate training now is 
designed to prepare the student for graduate school; graduate 
education prepares him for an academic career. We behave as 
though there are no alternatives. A graduate who accepts a 
position in any professional endeavor other than pure research 
is likely to feel that he has demeaned himself." 

Dr. Carlin was speaking to chemists. Otherwise he might have ex- 
pressed the same viewpoint about a number of other sciences, e.g., 
endocrinology, pharmacology, microbiology, etc. 

Now, permit me to recount some of the experiences that I have seen 
or in which I have participated. Perhaps we should start by taking 
cognizance of terms such as basic and applied research or academic and 
industrial research. These terms imply a definite difference and may 
well underlie the condescending viewpoint. One differentiation between 
the two has been based on a definition of basic research as directed 
toward seeking knowledge in order to understand the basic nature of 
the universe. In contrast, applied research has been defined in terms 
of solving a problem, of making a contribution to human welfare. 
Gradually, the realization has grown that the definitions are not 
mutually exclusive and indeed may be inadequate and misleading. 
Repeatedly through the years, new knowledge concerning the laws of 
nature has opened doors to new practical applications. The importance 
of basic research in this respect is so well recognized that I need not 




Figure 1. Glucagon Crystals. 



Presidential Address 59 

document the statement. However, inadequate emphasis has been placed 
on the converse, that research aimed toward solution of problems leads 
to new insights into the nature of the universe. Much of my discussion 
will be directed toward this latter point. 

During the early 1950's, I was a part of a research project that is 
still having ramifications in basic as well as applied research. When 
Scott discovered a new practical procedure for crystallization of insulin 
in 1934, the crystals were found to possess the usual hypoglycemic 
properties useful in the treatment of diabetic patients. However, for 
a few minutes after administration, a hyperglycemic response was 
observed. Was this opposite type of response due to insulin? Or did it 
indicate the presence of an impurity, and if so, was its presence unde- 
sirable? As a leading supplier of insulin, we felt a responsibility to 
understand the situation. 

About 25 years before we started our work, Murlin (5) in 1924 had 
published evidence for the presence of a hyperglycemic factor in the 
pancreas and had named it glucagon. Working with side fractions of 
the insulin purification, we were successful in concentrating and purify- 
ing the hyperglycemic principle and, in 1953, we announced the isola- 
tion of the new hormone in crystalline form (8) (Fig. 1). We retained 
the name, glucagon, suggested by Murlin. With the pure material in 
hand, work was possible to determine its physical characteristics and 
to explore its biological significance. Very quickly, we determined that 
glucagon represented a large polypeptide or small protein containing 
29 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of insulin had just been 
determined by Sanger, and we recognized that similar work should be 
done with glucagon as a contribution to the understanding of protein 
structure. Within a short time, we determined and published the amino 
acid sequence (1) (Fig. 2). 

AMINO ACID SEQUENCE OF PORCINE (BOVINE) GLUCAGON 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp 



16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

Ser-Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu-Met-Asn-Thr 

Figure 2. Amino Acid Sequence of Porcine (Bovine) Glucagon. 

At the same time, our clinicians determined the usefulness of 
glucagon injection in the diabetic who had overdosed himself with 
insulin and was experiencing an insulin-reaction. Samples of glucagon 



60 Indiana Academy of Science 

also were made available upon request to scientists interested in the 
significance of the hormone in the general economy of the body. Such 
work still continues. As a result of such studies by our colleagues at 
Lilly as well as by scientists in other laboratories, the clinical useful- 
ness of glucagon is presently being explored in treatment of certain 
heart conditions and as a diagnostic agent for some gastrointestinal 
conditions. 

Although we had concluded that the small glucagon impurity in 
insulin was unlikely to be of significance in the treatment of diabetes, 
newer methods of purificiation have now led to commercial insulin 
substantially free of glucagon. 

On the basis of this brief summary, you may agree with me that 
our research on glucagon, contributed to basic knowledge as well as to 
clinical applications. 

Turning from glucagon, I'm confident that you are fully aware of 
the practical importance of making medicines available in an economical 
way. Numerous examples may be cited of exorbitant early costs that 
were brought under control by so-called developmental research. Indeed, 
such work is often considered a classic example of applied research. 
Let me cite an example to indicate the difficulties in classification. 

The story of the discovery and development of the important 
cephalosporin antibiotics is one of the adventure stories of modern 
medicine. It started in 1945 with the isolation of a fungus that produced 
antibiotic activity by an Italian professor, Giuseppe Brotzu. He reported 
a number of interesting characteristics but concluded that the isolation 
of the active principle would be beyond his resources. In 1948, an active 
investigation was undertaken by the brilliant group at Oxford Uni- 
versity, which included Lord Florey (then Sir Howard), Professor 
E. P. Abraham, and the late Dr. G. G. F. Newton. After careful work 
they isolated an antibiotic, cephalosporin N, which proved to be a true 
penicillin and was renamed penicillin N. In 1954 they detected the 
presence of small amounts of another antibiotic. Within a year they 
had reported the isolation and characteristics of this compound which 
they called cephalosporin C. Although the specific activity of the anti- 
biotic was quite low, it had several characteristics that were a powerful 
stimulus to further investigation. It had a broad range of antibacterial 
activity, it killed bacteria quickly, its toxicity to mice was negligible, 
and it was resistant to hydrolysis by penicillinase, the enzyme that 
destroyed classical penicillins. Furthermore, none of the strains of 
antibiotic-resistant organisms against which it was tested were resistant 
to cephalosporin C. 

By 1960 two groups of investigators, Professor Abraham and Pro- 
fessor Newton and Professor Dorothy C. Hodgkin and Dr. E. N. Maslen, 
were able to publish the complete structure. The molecule may be con- 
sidered as a nucleus bearing some resemblance to the penicillin 
nucleus, and two side chains, an acetyl group, and an amino-adipyl 
group (Fig. 3). The Oxford group set out to study the replacement of 
side chains to determine their effects on activity. Efforts to remove 



Presidential Address 61 

or displace the amino adipic side chain were seriously hampered by the 
relative instability of the remaining nucleus, called 7-aminocephalos- 
poranic acid, or 7-ACA. Nevertheless, using extremely fine methods 
of detection and isolation, the Oxford group demonstrated the presence 
of small amounts (<1%) of 7-ACA following hydrolysis of cephalosporin 
C in dilute acid. Reacylation with various side groups led to new sub- 
stances, some of which had markedly enhanced antibacterial properties. 
For example, the phenylacetyl derivative had an activity against 
staphylococci that was several hundred times that of cephalosporin C. 
Quite obviously, major problems needed to be solved if these interesting 
cephalosporin antibiotics were to play a role in human medicine. 

hJ_L k 

CO,HCHCH,CH,CH,CON— 5— ^ ^S 



r 



'^A, 



C0 2 H 

E.P. Abraham and G.G.F. Newton, Biochem. I 7J, 377 (1961) 
D.Hodgkin and E.N.Maslen, Biochem. L 7J, 393 (1961) 

H 2 J 
C0 2 HCHCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CON— f — f "TiTin 



y-* — t* 



NH 2 '" I**C0 2 R 

H 

Figure 3. Cephalosporin C (upper structure) and Penicillin N 
(lower structure). 



One of these problems consisted in the removal of the amino- 
adipyl group in good yield. Work in several laboratories, including our 
own, to find a solution by various hydrolytic procedures or by 
microbiological conversion came to naught. Fortunately, some papers 
had appeared on facile cleavage of amide bonds by reactions that involve 
neighboring group participation. Whether such cleavage reaction would 
be applicable to the cephalosporin molecule and the reagents needed 
to bring it about were quite uncertain. Nevertheless, members of our 
organic staff decided to attempt such a cleavage (7). When cephalo- 
sporin C was treated with aqueous nitrous acid, two molar equivalents 
of nitrogen were produced, but very little nucleus was recovered. Dr. 
Robert B. Morin deduced that in aqueous solution the intermediate 
iminolactone was being hydrolyzed. Use of nonaqueous solvents might 
avoid this destructive reaction. Indeed, when acetic acid was used with 



62 



Indiana Academy of Science 



nitrosyl chloride and the nitrosating agent was removed before contact 
with water, a 7% yield of 7-ACA resulted (Fig. 4). A study of reaction 
conditions led to replacement of acetic acid by formic acid and increased 
the yield to 25-40%. Thus, a significant extension of new chemistry was 
an essential element in solving a problem in drug preparation, and in 
recent years, the cephalosporin antibiotics have become a major addition 
in the continuing fight against infections. 



HOOCCH(NHo) (CH 2 ) 3 CONH- 






NOCl 
_ Nn i ci 1 'COCII HCOOH 

COOH 



HOOC 




_ N>> ^-CHoOCOCHj 
COOH 



HOOCCH (OH) (CH 2 ) 3COOH 



NH2I 



f 




CH2OCOCH3 



COOH 
Figure 4. Cleavage of Cephalosporin C to 7-ACA. 



The discovery and development of new medicinal agents also serves 
basic science in another manner. These substances frequently serve as 
new tools for the study and elucidation of the essential metabolic 
processes of life. Many of you are aware of the elegant studies by 
Strominger and collaborators in which he used penicillin as a tool to 
elucidate basic processes involved in the formation of some constituents 
of cell walls. With the development of the cephalosporins, which are 
substances with significant similarities as well as marked differences 
from the penicillins, a new related tool became available. The cephalos- 
porins have served to confirm and refine the studies on mechanism of 
synthesis of cell wall constituents. They are also serving an important 
role in comparative studies with penicillins on the mechanism of anti- 
bacterial action. 

Appropriately, we should examine another type of activity that 
is considered by many as characteristic of the search for new drugs, 
the screening of candidate compounds for desirable types of 
biological activities. Perhaps a great many scientists would characterize 
such research as dull and comparatively unrewarding. Indeed, if a given 
screening test system is set up and is used for a prolonged period of 
time, it does become routine. However, a prolonged reliance on a given 
screening test imposes certain limitations that may not be apparent 
to many individuals. A given simple test system that is suitable for 
screening large numbers of drugs may be characterized through its 



Presidential Address 63 

potential to detect compounds that possess a desired activity. In most 
instances this activity will be manifested through one or at most a very 
few mechanisms {e.g., estrogenic, anticholinesterase, etc). After a com- 
pound is found that possesses the desired activity and that is relatively 
non-toxic, further use of the screen will most likely lead to "me-too" 
drugs of diminishing return for the medical profession as well as for 
the pharmaceutical company. Obviously then, excessive routine screen- 
ing is not good pharmaceutical research. Then how should we proceed? 
Perhaps the following example will afford some insights. 

Several years ago we became interested in a problem that afflicts 
a sizeable proportion of our population, obesity. Other investigators 
had demonstrated that the hypothalamus plays a role in affecting food 
consumption. Within our research function, the question was posed 
whether characterization of this role might lead to new approaches for 
the control of appetite. Dr. Paul Stark and associates have shown that 
a cholinergic system in the hypothalamus decreases the threshold for 
electrical stimulation of appetite (9). He has proposed "stop" and 
"start" systems for eating that are adrenergic and cholinergic, re- 
spectively (10). Activation of the "stop" system by the use of adrenergic 
agents such as amphetamine has been used clinically for many years 
to suppress appetite. Dr. Stark suggested that the possibility of using 
specific anticholinergic drugs to suppress the cholinergic "start" system 
is an equally logical approach to appetite suppression. 

Quite obviously, this work has led to a new approach to the screen- 
ing and selection of candidate compounds. It illustrates that good 
science is needed in the process of developing screening procedures. 
Furthermore, the above example is but one of a number that might have 
been selected. It illustrates the interrelationship of new knowledge of 
life processes to the efforts to contribute to solution of medical 
problems. 

A number of other kinds of scientific endeavor are found among 
the research and development activities at Lilly, such as toxicology, 
analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, medical research, fermentation 
research, microbiology, virology, plant physiology and pathology, animal 
nutrition, etc. In all of these fields, the pursuit of the application of 
knowledge to the solution of problems and the development of products 
is accompanied by contributions to the basic understanding of the 
universe. 

As one additional example, I will cite some research in drug 
metabolism. Studies in drug metabolism have come to be considered 
essential as a part of the understanding of drug action. How a drug 
is absorbed, its concentration in body fluids and tissues, its effect on 
enzyme systems, its metabolic transformation in the body, and the 
manner and extent of its elimination are all important elements that 
permit pertinent comparison of the effect of drugs in animals and man. 
Such studies are of importance in understanding the manner and dura- 
tion of drug action, both with respect to desired activities and with 
respect to undesirable or toxic manifestations. 



64 Indiana Academy of Science 

In early studies on the metabolism of the hypoglycemic agent, 
acetohexamide, Welles, Rost and Anderson (11) found that the major 
route of metabolism is to hydroxyhexamide (Fig. 5). Subsequent syn- 
thesis and testing of dl-hydroxyhexamide showed that it is as active 
as acetohexamide. Studies on the blood levels following administration 
of acetohexamide or hydroxyhexamide to diabetic patients indicated 
that the half-life of acetohexamide is 1.6 hours, whereas the comparable 
figure for the hydroxy compound is 4 to 6 hours. Thus, the conversion 
of approximately 80% of acetohexamide to hydroxyhexamide, an active 
compound, and the slower excretion of the latter compound represent 
major factors in understanding the extent and persistence of the blood 
sugar lowering activity. 



C\( jVS0 2 NHC0NH 



^=\ 



ACETOHEXAMIDE 

PHARMOL. ACTIVITY = 1 

TJ4 1.6 HOURS 




)^Q- 



SCNHCONH 
HO 



,~^ 



L(-)-HYDROXYHEXAMIDE 

PHARMOL. ACTIVITY = 2.4 

TJ4 4-6 HOURS 



HUMAN URINE 

Figure 5. Metabolism of Acetohexamide. 



This is not the end of the story. McMahon and associates deter- 
mined that the hydroxyhexamide produced in the body has the L- 
configuration and that this isomer is about 2.4 times as active as 
acetohexamide (6). As a consequence of these findings, Culp and 
McMahon (3) undertook a study of the enzyme responsible for this 
reduction. They partially purified an enzyme, aromatic aldehyde- 
ketone reductase, from kidney cortex, and found that it is capable of 
reducing a variety of aromatic aldehydes and ketones and that it 
utilizes the /3-hydrogen atom of C-4 of TPNH. Subsequently, R. B. 
Hermann and associates published a study on the substituent effects 
among substituted phenacyl derivatives employed as substrates for this 
enzyme (4). The physiological significance of this enzyme has not been 
established. However, investigators in other laboratories have prepared 
the "Culp enzyme", and undoubtedly its role in the metabolic economy 
of the body will be determined. 



Presidential Address 65 

Before drawing some conclusions, I should emphasize that many 
more examples are available within our laboratories of contributions 
to basic understanding of matter and of life that were made during the 
pursuit of practical goals. If, then, the boundaries between applied and 
basic research are not sharp and well-differentiated, how else should 
we characterize the research performed in our laboratories? In a recent 
conversation with one of my colleagues, he suggested that he had de- 
cided simply to rate all research, industrial or academic, on a scale 
ranging from excellent research to poor research. Then he said that he 
has realized that good or excellent research is found in both industrial 
and academic settings, and, unfortunately, the same is true for poor 
research. 

Perhaps the most significant difference between academic and 
applied research is that of motive. Applied research seeks to make 
available products that are needed by man. Indeed, one of the major 
attractions of industrial research for many scientists is the desire to 
bring good science to bear on the solutions of problems. The opportunity 
to make a direct contribution to the welfare of man through the dis- 
covery and development of useful products, in my opinion, provides 
a worthy challenge. 

At the same time, imaginative applied research offers major op- 
portunities for obtaining knowledge and understanding of the basic 
phenomena of our world. These opportunities often arise as a direct 
necessity of the research itself, and might not have arisen out of 
academic or basic research. Applied research, then, constitutes a sig- 
nificant and separate approach to the more adequate understanding 
of our world. Furthermore, the findings and products of applied research 
frequently supply new tools and approaches to the academic scientist. 

In my viewpoint, these challenges and opportunities of industrial 
research need no apology. To meet them adequately will require greater 
understanding, and a change in the teacher's or professor's viewpoint 
of the occupations that are worthy of our best minds. By word and 
example, students need to be shown science being used for the welfare 
of mankind. For me, this occurred outstandingly during a freshman 
course in chemistry at DePauw University. Repeatedly, Professor 
W. M. Blanchard cited examples of practical applications of chemistry 
as well as challenges for the future. These insights were of major im- 
portance to me. As I sought employment, I looked for opportunities to 
pursue sound scientific endeavor, irrespective of the sponsoring organi- 
zation. In my opinion, the continuing challenges through the years have 
fully justified this approach! 



Literature Cited 

1. Bromer, W. W., L. G. Sinn, A. Staub, and Otto K. Behrens. 1956. The 
amino acid sequence of glucagon. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78:3858-3859. 

2. Carlin, Robert B. 1972. Chemical education and chemistry in use. Chem. & Eng. 
News 50:1. 



66 Indiana Academy of Science 



3. Culp, H. W., and R. E. McMahon. 1968. Reductase for aromatic aldehydes and 
ketones. J. Biol. Chem. 243:848-852. 

4. Hermann, R. B., H. W. Culp, R. E. McMahon, and M. M. Marsh. 1969. Structure- 
activity relationships among substrates for a rabbit kidney reductase. Quantum 
chemical calculation of substituent parameters. J. Med. Chem. 12 :749-754. 

5. Kimball, C. P., and J. R. Murlin. 1923-24. Aqueous extracts of pancreas. III. 
Some precipitation reactions of insulin. J. Biol. Chem. 58:337-346. 

6. McMahon, R. E., F. J. Marshall, and H. W. Culp. 1965. The nature of the 
metabolites of acetohexamide in the rat and in the human. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 
149:272-279. 

7. Morin, Robert B., B. G. Jackson, E. H. Flynn, and R. W. Roeske. 1962. Chemistry 
of cephalosporin antibiotics. I. 7-Aminocephalosporanic acid from cephalosporin C. 
J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 84:3400-3401. 

8. Staub, A., L. Sinn, and O. K. Behrens. 1953. Purification and crystallization of 
hyperglycemic glycogenolytic factor (HGF). Science 117:628-629. 

9. Stark, Paul, C. W. Totty, J. A. Tubk, and J. K. Henderson. 1968. A possible role 
of a cholinergic system affecting hypothalamic-elicited eating. Amer. J. Physiol. 
214:463-468. 

10. Stark, Paul, J. A. Turk, and C. W. Totty. 1971. Reciprocal adrenergic and 
cholinergic control of hypothalamic elicited eating and satiety. Amer. J. Physiol. 
220:1516-1521. 

11. Welles, J. S., M. A. Root, and R. C. Anderson. 1961. Metabolic reduction of 
l-(p-acetylbenzenesulfonyl)-3-cyclohexylurea (acetohexamide) in different species. 
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 107:585-587. 






The P's and Q's of Modern Astronomy 1 

Frank K. Edmondson 

Department of Astronomy 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

You have all heard the expression: MIND YOUR P's and Q's. 
Well, the P's and Q's of modern astronomy are the PULSARS and the 
QUASARS. The other P's and Q's in the well known expression are 
left as an exercise for the listener (or the reader) because I don't know 
what they are. One of my friends suggested "Pints and Quarts". A 
punster suggested "Pros and Quons". If any of you should know the 
answer, please enlighten me. 

The pulsars and the quasars are both discoveries of a relatively 
new field of astronomy, namely RADIO ASTRONOMY, so I would like 
to start by giving you a brief history of radio astronomy so that you 
can see how it fits in with modern astronomical research. 

A century ago (1872) Maxwell proposed the concept of the 
electromagnetic spectrum, and in 1887 Hertz detected radio waves. In 
1890 Thomas A. Edison suggested an attempt to detect solar 
electromagnetic disturbances, and Sir Oliver Lodge tried in 1894. There 
was too much interference from the city of Liverpool, and he failed. 

Karl Jansky was an engineer employed by the Bell Telephone 
Laboratories. In the early 30's the first transatlantic ratio-telephone 
communications were attempted, and static not of a random character 
was troublesome. Jansky was given the job to "find the source of the 
static and do something about it". He built a directional antenna 
mounted on a turntable (using Model T Ford wheels), and started to 
work. He soon discovered that the source of the static reached the same 
direction 4 minutes earlier each day. Then came a day when it was an 
hour and 4 minutes early. The puzzle was resolved when someone told 
Jansky that the local area had gone on daylight saving time and the 
clocks had been set ahead during the night. At any rate, the 4 minutes 
per day meant that the origin of the static was not on the earth, but 
was in the universe outside the solar system. The motion of the earth 
around the sun causes the stars to rise and set 4 minutes earlier each 
day compared with the sun. Jansky concluded that the static was coming 
from the constallation of Sagittarius, the direction of the center of our 
galaxy, the Milky Way. Jansky's bosses at Bell Labs concluded that 
Bell Labs couldn't do anything about the Milky Way, and they assigned 
Jansky to other work. And so the "Galileo of Radio Astronomy" was 
not able to follow up his important discovery, made in 1931. 



1 The Indiana Academy of Science established in 1971 a Science Communication 
Award of $500., funded through the Science and Society Committee from its National 
Science Foundation grant. The award is presented at the general session of the fall meet- 
ing, when the recipient is called upon to give an address. The recipient is also scheduled 
for visits to Indiana college campuses, to bring somewhat similar material to students, 
faculties and townspeople. Printed here is Dr. Edmondson's summary of his address given 
at the Saint Mary's College meeting of the Academy on November 3, 1972. His complete 
address was later given at five Indiana colleges. 

67 



68 Indiana Academy of Science 

The next important worker was Grote Reber of Wheaton, Illinois 
(1932-46). He earned a living in the daytime as an electronics 
engineer, and stayed up all night (when man-made interference, such 
as automobile ignitions, was a minimum) working with a 31 foot para- 
boloid that he built himself. He produced the first radio map of the sky. 
In 1944 he published a map with 12° resolution at 1.85 meters. Then 
he was with the National Bureau of Standards for a while, and later 
worked in Hawaii and Tasmania supported by grants from the Research 
Corporation. He is now a Senior Research Associate at Ohio State. 

During World War II radar workers in England detected the Sun 
and many other celestial radio sources, but this information was all 
classified until the war ended. Following the war great progress was 
made in Australia, England and Holland, but very little in the United 
States. A great step forward was made in 1956 when Congress 
appropriated $4,000,000 in the budget of the National Science Founda- 
tion to construct the National Radio Astronomy Observatory near Green 
Bank, West Virginia. I was a temporary bureaucrat in 1956-57, and my 
initials on November 19, 1956 started the Grant and Contract Record 
through the NSF channels. The major NRAO instruments now are the 
140-foot precision steerable telescope and the 300-foot meridian transit. 
There is also a 36-foot microwave dish on Kitt Peak in Arizona. Work 
in radio astronomy has developed in a number of universities, in the 
midwest notably at Ohio State, Michigan, and Illinois. 

Mention should also be made of the first detection of the 21 cm 
Hydrogen line by Ewen at Harvard. However, it was the Dutch and the 
Australians who cashed in on this discovery in the 5 years after it was 
made, because adequate radio telescopes did not exist in the United 

States. 

A radio telescope is an antenna to collect the radiation, plus a 
receiver-amplifier and a recorder to record the data. Resolving power 
has been a serious problem in radio astronomy, and various techniques 
have been developed to improve resolving power. Brute force, that is 
very large dishes, is one way. Interferometry is another. The Green 
Bank Interferometer is a good example. The Very Large Array, the 
start of which has been authorized in the NSF budget will be a major 
step forward. Global interferometry using tape recorders has been 
successful, but does not eliminate the need for the VLA and other high 
resolution facilities. 

The largest dish in the world, which is not steerable, is the 
1000-foot dish at Arecibo in Puerto Rico. I have saved mention of this 
until the end of my radio astronomy survey because it is the 
principal U.S. instrument for studying the pulsars, the p's of modern 
astronomy. (16 slides were used to illustrate the lecture up to this 
point.) 

The pulsars were discovered by radio astronomers in England just 
after the Prague meeting of the International Astronomical Union in 
1967. The first 2 or 3 were facetiously called the LGM's (for little green 
men), but it soon became clear we were dealing with a natural 



Address 69 

phenomenon. The radio astronomers detected radio sources emitting 
flashes, or pulses, of radiation in periods of a few seconds down to 
1/30 of a second. The one with the very short period has been identi- 
fied as a star in the "Crab Nebula" and its variation has been 
detected optically by very sophisticated electronic and optical techniques. 
The "Crab Nebula" is the remnant of a supernova recorded by the 
Chinese in 1054, and the pulsar is believed to be the supernova itself. 
It is now generally believed that the pulsars are rapidly rotating 
NEUTRON STARS which send out a beam of radiation. The pulses 
would be analogous to the flashes of a lighthouse or an airport beacon, (10 
slides were used to illustrate these comments on the pulsars). 

The first quasar (meaning quasi stellar object) was discovered in 
1960. It was a strong radio source, and the optical counterpart looked 
like a stellar object on plates taken with the 200-inch telescope. How- 
ever, ordinary stars (except for the nearby Sun) do not send out de- 
tectable radio frequency radiation. Moreover, the spectra of quasars 
did not look like any known stellar spectrum. The mystery was solved 
when Maarten Schmidt suggested that the quasar spectra might be the 
result of large red shifts, with familiar features shifted to the 
infra-red, and unfamiliar features shifted from the ultra-violet to the 
visible. This suggestion paid off, and led to the discovery that some 
quasars have red shifts corresponding to about 90% of the speed of 
light. 

It had been known for many years that galaxies have red shifts 
corresponding to speeds up to about 20% of the speed of light, and that 
these velocities are directly proportional to the distances of the 
galaxies. This is the observational basis for the theory of the expand- 
ing universe. If the quasar red shifts are "cosmological", meaning that 
they result from the expansion of the universe, then the quasars are 
the most distant objects known. If they are this far away, the 
intrinsic luminosities are at least 1000 times as bright as our galaxy, 
and we have the problem of explaining how so much energy can be pro- 
duced. If we assume they have normal luminosities, they must be rela- 
tively nearby, and then we have to find a way to explain the large red 
shifts. The quasars are probably the major unsolved problem of present- 
day astronomy. (36 slides were used to illustrate these comments on 
the quasars). 

We must also keep in mind that as the astronomer looks out to large 
distances in space, he is also looking backward in time. We see the 
Andromeda galaxy not as it is now, but as it was 2 million years ago. 
The light that is leaving it today will not reach the earth until 2 
million years from now. If the quasar red shifts are cosmological, then 
we are seeing the quasars as they were 10 billion years ago, a time very 
close to the origin of the universe itself. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman : Edward Dolan, Department of Sociology, 
DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

John M. Hartman, Curator of Geology and Anthropology, 

Indiana State Museum, 202 N. Alabama Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACT 

The Fourth Indiana University Archaeological Expedition to Columbia. 

Thomas P. Myers, Gary L. Brouillard, and Sara Hunter, Department 

of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. 

Since 1968 the Indiana University Museum has conducted archaeological 
research in Columbia with two broad objectives: 1) the illumination of 
the Paleo-Indian Period in northern South America; and 2) the under- 
standing of the relationship between highland Colombia and lowland 
South America. 

The objective of the fourth field season was to develop a 
chronology for the upper Cabrera Valley in the drainage of the 
Magdalena River and to begin work on the Orteguaza River, a tributary 
of the Caqueta which eventually empties into the Amazon. 

The survey of the upper Cabrera identified 48 sites which fall into 
three groups: habitation sites; burial sites and petroglyph sites. In 
addition there was a large rockshelter which, we hoped, would provide 
the chronological key to the area. 

An important result of our work in the upper Cabrera was the 
recognition that the recent and modern pottery had been traded into 
the area from three locations on the Magdalena River. These locations 
were visted by Miss Hunter who learned that pot making was still con- 
sidered an "Indian" craft. Comparison with historic site material 
suggests that the industry is of some antiquity and may extend into 
the prehistoric period. 

Mr. Brouillard's survey of the Orteguaza River revealed five sites, 
apparently late, at least some of which may be attributed to the 
Andaki tribe which penetrated the upper Magdalena Valley in the early 
Historic Period. 



OTHER PAPER READ 

The Commissary Site: An Early Woodland Cemetery. Joel M. Greene, 
Kenneth R. Williams, and B. K. Swartz, Jr., Department of 
Anthropology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 



71 



The Cataract Lake Furnaces: 
Historic Archaeology in Owen County, Indiana 

Edward M. Dolan 

Department of Sociology and Anthropology 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

and 

Robert E. Pace 

Department of Anthropology 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstract 

Two unusual structures, normally submerged beneath the waters of Cataract Lake 
in Owen County, Indiana, were reported to be "ancient Indian iron furnaces". Investiga- 
tion was made possible when the waters of the lake were drained in an experimental fish 
control program. The furnaces were found to be lime kilns of a type discontinued in 
Indiana around 1878. A segment of rail recovered from the rubble of one kiln suggests 
they were in use after 1852, when the first railroad was constructed in Owen County. 

Introduction 

In the late fall of 1970 the authors heard reports that "two Indian 
iron furnaces" had been discovered on a point along the west shore of 
Cataract Lake. The structures, normally under 6 feet of water, were 
exposed when the lake was lowered to repair a boat ramp. With the 
assistance of Grafton Longden, an amateur archaeologist of Greencastle, 
Indiana, and the supervisory personnel of the lake, a preliminary 
examination suggested the furnaces were of historic origin. There was 
evidence of prehistoric Indian encampments within the area, but nothing 
suggested they were related to the furnaces. Two dome-shaped circular 
structures were observed, whose interior walls had been heated to a 
degree sufficient to glaze their clay lining. Eroded soil from an over- 
hanging bank, and silt from the lake, covered all but the disturbed tops 
of the structures. 

During the following year the senior author made necessary ar- 
rangements with federal and state agencies to excavate the two struc- 
tures. An opportunity to do so came in the fall of 1971, when the 
Indiana Department of Natural Resources decided to drain the lake to 
remove rough fish. 

Prior to excavation, there was considerable speculation about the 
furnaces. Some rumors suggested that prehistoric Indians had used them 
to extract silver from local sources. Unknown to the authors at the time, 
a virtually identical situation had been explored in Fayette County, 
Ohio. In a highly speculative report appearing in a popular publication, 
the Ohio structures were said to be "natural draft [iron] furnaces of 
a type invented by the Hittites before 2,000 B.C. . . . Such furnace 
mounds . . . [are] scattered all over the southern half of Ohio" (3). 
An 1837 geological survey (4) mentioned discovery of iron ore in the 
present Cataract Lake area and, indeed, some low grade ore was found 
near the furnace site. Iron was in short supply among the pioneers, and 

72 



Anthropology 73 

since coal supplies are also near, it seemed possible that the two struc- 
tures were the remains of early efforts to make iron. The belief by some 
that they were "ancient Indian iron furnaces" was less tenable, since 
there is no evidence that prehistoric Indians had ever produced or used 
smeltered iron. 

Methods 

Excavations that began on October 19, 1971, were continued 
intermittently, as time and crews from DePauw and Indiana State 
Universities were available. The weather and a rising lake terminated 
the field work some 5 weeks later. A permanent datum point was estab- 
lished on high ground, 380 feet N15°E of the northwest corner of the 
furnaces. Procedural plans anticipated systematically removing 
sedimentary and erosional fill, isolating and leaving the furnaces as 
intact as their condition would allow. However, the heavy, watersoaked 
and sticky clay proved most difficult to remove by standard field 
techniques. Rather than risk damage to the structures, the plans were 
altered to run test trenches through the surrounding fill, and the 
structures. Although the revised plan would provide only a sample view 
of the structures, it was believed that cross-sections to be seen in the 
test trench walls would serve to identify the necessary features of the 
structures. 

Before snow and the rising waters of the lake stopped the field 
work, the mantle of fill over the upper third of the structures was 
removed. A 30-inch wide trench through the north structure was com- 
pleted, along with a 48-inch trench into the east side of the south 
structure (Fig. 1). These trenches reached the original floor at a 
maximum of 6 feet and 5 inches below the original surface. Some 
features of the furnace structures were undoubtedly missed, due to 
incomplete excavation. However, they do remain largely intact, and the 
several feet of water and silting will preserve them into a distant future. 

Results 

From the beginning of the excavations the iron furnace theory 
began to look doubtful. A few random bits of iron ore were found, but 
there was no slag, and no indication that temperatures high enough to 
reduce ore had been reached. Within a week the iron furnace theory 
was abandoned. When fragments of heat-softened limestone, wood ash, 
and eventually a lime bearing stratum of rubble appeared near the north 
structure, it became obvious that the furnaces were lime kilns. 

Archer, recording the history of Owen County, comments on the 
oolitic or white quarry limestone near Mill Creek, the major feeder 
stream for Cataract Lake. "This stone is overlaid with a shelly lime- 
stone which is easily burned and makes a very excellent lime" (1). 
Abundant outcroppings of the shelly limestone occur within a short 
hauling distance of the kilns. Fragments ranging from pea size to 
60-pound slabs were found in and around the kilns, most showing some 
amount of heating. 



74 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Eo»t Side of Old Wagon Rood 




Figure 1. Map of surface area cleared from around the tops of the kilns, and of 
two trenches entering from the east side, dug to the original floor. 



The kilns were nested in a bank over a small springfed stream, some 
200 yards south of the original Mill Creek stream bed. In preparing for 
their construction, a vertical cut approximately 20 feet wide and 6 feet 

5 inches deep, was removed from the bank. The two kilns were nestled 
into the vertical wall, and the floor that extended some 15 feet into the 
bank. Walls of the kilns were constructed of local clay, and approached 

6 inches in thickness around the middle of the 6-foot high structure. 
Reinforcing limestone slabs, daubed with clay, were placed around the 
lower two-thirds of the kilns. From the reinforced wall to the top, 
3-4 inch clay walls sloped inward, leaving a 3-foot opening, in contrast 
to the base which measured 5 feet. The opening in the top served as 
the access for loading the kilns, and as a chimney in the firing of the 
load. Fragmented limestone was passed directly from a wagon into the 
top. These kilns, with their firing flues, must have looked much like 
the Eskimo igloo (Fig. 1). 

Since the test trenches revealed cross-sections only of the kilns, 
some questions remain about the methods of firing and removal of lime. 



Anthropology 



75 



"*%* 




Figure 2. A brick-lined temporary lime kiln, of the type commonly used before the 

1860's, charged for firing. 



The trenches entered the sides of the kilns at different points, and thus 
revealed different features. A limestone flue, with inside measurements 
of 19 inches wide, 44 inches high, and 51 inches long was revealed by 
the trench into the south kiln (Fig. 1). The flue, which extended in a 
southeast direction from the kiln wall, sloped inward to a 15-inch top, 
originally capped with limestone slabs. A hard mortar floor in the flue 
was covered with a layer of loose ashes and lime. The mortar floor con- 
tinued into the kiln, as did loose lime, but there was very little ash and 
charcoal in the kiln proper. This suggests that the firing was largely 
restricted to the flue area, with the heat being drawn into and through 
the limestone loading. 

The trench into the other kiln failed to uncover its firing flue. It 
did, however, trace a trough of hard mortar to an 8-inch opening in the 
base of the kiln wall. There was little evidence of charcoal or ash in the 
15 to 18-inch wide trough. The trough appears to have been constructed 



76 Indiana Academy of Science 

to remove lime, perhaps to avoid a mixture with ash that would occur 
around the entrance of the firing flue. Assuming that the two kilns were 
of similar structure, the firing flue should have entered the north kiln 
within 2 or 3 feet of the trough. We are, however, without conclusive 
evidence of the north kiln flue. 

In 1903, W. S. Blatchley, Indiana State Geologist, wrote (2) that 
kilns of somewhat similar structure were among the first to be used 
in Indiana (Fig. 2). The Cataract Lake kilns differ in that they were 
constructed of clay walls, used a flue for firing, and probably used a 
separate lime removal trough. Blatchley described the process of making 
lime as follows : 

These cheaper, temporary or "ground hog" kilns were rudely con- 
structed . . . and were located on the side of a hill, so that the top 
was easily accessible for charging the kiln with stone, and the 
bottom for supplying fuel and drawing out the lime. In charging, 
the largest pieces of limestone were selected first and formed 
into a rough, dome-like arch with large open joints springing 
from the bottom of the kiln to a height of five or six feet. Above 
this arch the kiln was filled with fragments of limestone from 
the top. ... A fire of wood was then started under the dome, the 
heat being raised gradually to the required degree in order to 
prevent a sudden expansion and consequent rupture of the stone 
forming the dome. . . . After a bright heat was once reached 
through the mass of stone, it was maintained for three or four 
days to the end of the burning. . . . The fire was then allowed to 
die out and the lime was gradually removed from the bottom. It 
was in this manner that all the lime used in Indiana for many 
years was burned. . . . Possibly but one or two kilns were neces- 
sary to supply a neighborhood for a year. These were burned in 
a week or two when required, the kiln remaining idle for the 
remainder of the time. 

Normally, lime kilns in central Indiana are somewhat less than 
newsworthy. However, the extremely crude nature of Cataract kilns 
deserves recording. They also suggested a pioneer industry of 
significant historical interest. Questioning of some of the older local 
people in the area led to the belief that the kilns must date to the Civil 
War, or before. No local knowledge was found of the structures; resi- 
dents of the area were puzzled and curious, and county records failed 
to reveal additional information. 

Although specific historical details of the kilns are elusive, 
Blatchley reported that the so-called "ground-hog" kilns were for the 
most part abandoned by 1878 (1). In the process of excavating the 
rubble near the opening of the south kiln flue, two pieces of cast iron 
plate and a section of light-gauge rail was retrieved. These pieces were 
most likely used as supports or draft controls in the flue. Thirty-six 
years after the first pioneers came to Owen County, an extension of 
the New Albany and Salem Railroad was constructed in 1852 (1). The 
short section of rail has not been tied specifically to these first tracks, 
but it is reasonable to believe that these kilns do not pre-date the first 



Anthropology 77 

railroad in the county. It seems likely then that the Cataract Lake lime 
kilns were in use sometime between 1852 and 1878, when Blatchley 
reported most of these type kilns had been abandoned. 



Literature Cited 

1. Blanchard, Charles (ed.) 1884. Counties of Clay and Owen, Indiana. F. A. Battey 
and Co., Chicago. 966 p. 

2. Blatchley, W. S. 1903. The lime industry of Indiana. Twenty-Eighth Annu. Rep., 
Dep. Geol. Natur. Res. Wm. B. Burford, Indianapolis, Ind. 565 p. 

3. Keeler, Clyde. 1972. New light on Ohio's Iron Age. Fate 25:89-93. 

4. Owen, David Dale. 1853. Report of a Geological Reconnoisance [sic] of the 
State of Indiana, Made in the Year 1837. J. B. Chapman, Indianapolis, Ind. 37 p. 



Continued Excavations at the Daughtery-Monroe Site 

Sharon K. Cupp and Gerald W. Kline 

Department of Anthropology 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstract 

The excavation of the Daughtery-Monroe Site, designated 12-Su-13, was carried out 
for the third consecutive year by the 1972 Indiana State University summer field school. 
The site is located just east of the Wabash River in northern Sullivan County, opposite 
Hutsonville, Illinois. 

At this site, there appears to be two cultural components, one being LaMotte, with 
cultural assemblages of Lowe-Flared Base points, and predominately simple stamped 
pottery, and the other being Allison, with the cultural assemblages of Lowe-Flared Base 
points and Stoner Cordmarked pottery. Cultural affiliations to the Southeastern United 
States are suggested by the material found at this and previous excavation seasons. 

Introduction 

The field work on which this report is based was conducted by the 
Indiana State University Field School between June 15 and July 18, 
1972. The field work completed at this site in previous years was super- 
vised by the late Dr. Edward V. McMichael. This work was supervised 
by Mr. Robert E. Pace. The crew consisted of five students and two 
student assistants. 

The 1972 field school gave special attention to three problem areas 
that have arisen as a result of prior excavations at this site. The first 
was that the site had previously been defined as a circular village 
around a centralized plaza area. However, excavations disproved this, 
as based on several pits and house patterns found in the general location 
where the plaza was presumed to be. Second, the Carbon-14 dates taken 
from both Allison and LaMotte features reveal a date of 500 A.D. There- 
fore, clarification of the distinctions between the two cultures is needed. 
If the Carbon-14 dates prove correct, in that both cultures appear at 
the same time, then a third problem arises. If the Allison and the 
LaMotte cultures are different, then they are emerging as either 
co-existent or as a trasitional stage at Su-13. Another question that 
can be raised is that of whether this was a permanent occupation over 
a short period of time or a seasonal occupation over a relatively long 
period of time. 

Methods 

A grid was first established to mark locations for soil sampling. 
Soil core samples were taken at each stake with an open sleeve corer. 
The samples were taken in four sections: 1) 0-9 inches (on the basis of 
a plow zone of approximately 9 inches) ; 2) 9-15 inches; 3) 15-21 inches; 
and 4) 21-27 inches. Soil samples were analyzed for pH and the 
presence of charcoal, bone, shell, sherds, etc., to indicate the vertical 
and horizontal distribution of cultural debris within the site. 

Six 10-foot x 10-foot units were opened. Two 5-foot x 10-foot 
extensions were also opened. All units were excavated by clearing and 

78 



Anthropology 



79 



leveling at approximately 12 inches with a shovel. At this depth a 
number of features became noticeable. Since all material was to be saved 
for later quantitative measurements and studies, all fill was sifted 
through ^-inch mesh screens. Features and soil disturbances were 
recorded, including post molds. Features were then excavated by trowel- 
ing. The method employed was to cross-section features before removing 
them entirely When possible, carbon samples were collected for 
Carbon-14 dating. Soil samples were also taken from each feature for 
floral and faunal recovery through flotation. 

Site Description 

The Daughtery-Monroe Site is located in the N 1 /^, Sec. 21, 
T8N, R11W in the Fairbanks Quadrangle. It is situated on the second 
terrace of the Wabash River in northern Sullivan County, Indiana, just 
northeast of Hutsonville, Illinois. The center of the site is approximately 




Aerial View I2-Su-I3 

S£ trees 

■ 1972 excavations 

Figure 1. Overall view of the Daughtery-Monroe Site, 12-Su-13. 



80 



Indiana Academy of Science 



about 800-1,000 feet North-South and 700-800 feet East-West (Fig. 1). 

Present land usage divides the site into two areas ... a 
village area and a mound area. Overall, the site is a raised, oval sand 
ridge. It is bisected by a drainage pattern that fans out to form a 
depression about one-fourth the size of the site in the southwest 
section. This depressed section was previously thought to be a plaza 
area. There is also a man-made flood control levee that extends along 
the western edge of the site. There are 13 low sand mounds on the edge 
of the ridge to the east. Most of this area is wooded and has much 
undergrowth. 





: ■ "• r 


A 17 


A o x ~ / 

fl o; \ o °° 

o-* • ' 

. ^7 


SMxilE 



\ ; f io / 

~X — 7, Ju \^»^ « 

f 15 \ / '■ " 4 \ o 



SHI 131 ■ 41 51 w 



I2-Su-I3 1972 

FEATURES 



f 7 

-V / f 8 

9 \ [ 



^= 



,J/brtk 



Figure 2. Location of features at the Daughtery-Monroe Site, 12-Su-lS. 



Anthropology 



81 



Cultural Features 

Only those features of particular interest are described 
(Fig. 2). 

Feature 1 first appeared as a general midden area comprising the 
north one third of the unit which has a single row of post molds con- 
forming to the outer limits, indicating a possible house pattern. An- 
other smaller circular feature (designated Feature 1-A) was found 
within Feature 1. Feature 1A was identified as a fire hearth with very- 
steep sides and a round, flat bottom. Later work on Feature 1 indi- 
cated that it was a circular semi-subterranean type house, possibly that 
of a "Keyhole" type, as described at the Hatchery West Site (1). Ap- 
proximately half of the feature was within the excavated unit. The 
house was estimated to be 14 % feet in diameter. The depth from the 
center of the house to the present surface was 3 feet. For material re- 
covered, see Table 1. 

Feature 2 was a deep earth oven with steep walls and a flat circular 
bottom. The abundance of firecracked rock and charcoal indicate that 
it was last used as a refuse pit, possibly by the inhabitants of 
Feature 1. 

Features 7 and 8 were very productive refuse pits that yielded more 
material than all of the other features together. The presence of large 



Table 1. Cultured debris recovered by feature. 1 



Feature 


Sherd 


Flint 


Shell 


Bone 


Charred 2 


Stone 


1 


9 


4.5 




1.5 


1.5 


148 


2 


11 


Trace 


Trace 


4 


2 


65 


3 


2 






.5 




3 


4 


7 


Trace 




Trace 


Trace 


3 


5 


13 


2 




Trace 


Trace 


90 


6 


48 


Trace 




1 


1.5 


95 


7 


46 


1 


89 


56 


3 


421 


8 


141 


Trace 


183 


36 


5 


822 


9 


8 


Trace 


1 


2 




74 


10 


44 


Trace 


1.5 


3 


Trace 


1567 3 


11 












33 


12 


20 


Trace 




6 


5 


33 


13 


19 


Trace 




6 


Trace 


114 


14 


22 


1 


6 


21 


Trace 


442 


15 


20 


Trace 




2.5 


Trace 


441 


16 


1 






.75 


Trace 


23 


17 


13 


1 




2 


Trace 


23 


18 


3.5 


Trace 


1 


2 


Trace 


25 



1 Reported in ounces 

2 Charred includes all that is carbonized: charcoal, nuts, etc. 

3 Sample only 



82 Indiana Academy of Science 

quantities of shell greatly aided in preservation of the bond 
material in both pits. Feature 7 yielded a larger proportion of simple 
stamped pottery than Feature 8 which yielded predominantely cord- 
marked pottery. Since these pits are adjacent, similar in form, and open 
at the same depth, the difference in contents raises some interesting 
questions with regard to seasonality of use and/or of social status. 

On the basis of the presence of a large quantity of fire- 
cracked rock and an area of burned sand, Feature 9 was probably a 
cooking pit. 

Feature 10 was a sandstone-clay floor, the true dimensions of which 
are unknown due to considerable disturbance by plowing. Estimated 
floor size was 12 by 14 feet. An elongated fire hearth, filled with 
ashes, extended 6 feet into the south side of the floor. The floor was 
composed of sandstone slabs with clay in and around each slab. The 
presence of nails in the hearth area and pieces of metal underneath the 
sandstone indicated the feature to be historic. This feature delayed ex- 
cavation due to time spent speculating about its origin. It was first 
thought to be prehistoric because sandstone floors are fairly common 
in Middle and Late Woodland burials. 

Features 3, 4, 11, and 12 were all shallow, bowl-shaped refuse pits 
with moderately sloping sides and rounded bottoms. 

Features 5, 6, 13, 14, 15, and 18 were deep refuse pits with 
rounded bottoms. Features 13 and 18 were very steep sided while the 
others had moderately sloping sides. 

The dimensions of Features 16 and 17 are not known because they 
both run into walls of units not yet excavated. 

Cultural Debris 

Cultural material recovered from the 1972 excavation was 
abundant, with sherds and bone refuse being especially common (Tables 
2 and 3). Recovered flint varied from unit to unit, but was less common 
than for other sites along the Central Wabash. Only seven features con- 
tained shell, two having especially great amounts. An appreciable 
amount of stone was recovered and weighed. Only a sample of stone 
recovered from Feature 10 was returned to the laboratory for weigh- 
ing. The floral analysis at Su-13 showed few signs of specific plant pro- 
curement practices by the inhabitants. Evidence suggesting dispersal 
of seeds by the gathering habits of man, as opposed to dispersion by 
natural means was poorly represented. However, the presence of large 
amounts of carbonized nuts, with some Chenopodium seeds, and 
Polygonum seeds suggest at least a fall habitation of the site. There 
were no floral remains found that could not have been supported by 
the plant communities of the area near the site. 

Discussion of Artifacts 

The ceramics recovered were readily classified as Cordmarked, 
Embarrass Simple Stamped, and Check Stamped, with only a few plain 



Anthropology 



83 



Table 2. Catalog of archeological materials recovered, 1972. 



CERAMIC 



,889 cordmarked (88.34%) 
375 simple stamped (3.73%) 
21 check stamped (0.21%) 



763 unidentified (7.58%) 
14 "other" (0.14%) 



CHIPPED STONE 
9 Lowe-Flared projectiles 
1 Capena-like projectile fragment 
1 trianguloid projectile 

1 "crude" projectile 
11 projectile fragments 

2 drills 



5 blades 

8 lamellar flake knives 
24 scrapers 
31 lamellar flakes 
915 chips and spalls 



BONE 



1 bi-pointed awl 

2 awls 

2 bone punches 
1 bone plug 



2 used antler tines 
1 bone pin or needle 
1 worked bone "tool" 





STONE 






6 milling stone 




11 abraders 




1 slate gorget 




8 polishing stones 






OTHER 






1 pearl bead 




1 clay pipe (bowl) 




1 crinoid stem 




1 copper pin inserted 


in bone 



sherds present. As in previous years at this site, trace amounts of 
pottery from toy or miniature vessels were recovered. In general, the 
sherds recovered conform to the description of the Embarrass series, 
as defined by McMichael and Winters (2). 

Tempering of the sherds consisted of sand and/ or grit, with sand 
predominating. Most of the sherds have a sandpaper texture. The pre- 
dominant surface treatment of sherds recovered this season was cord- 
marking, which almost always ran vertical to the rim and varied from 
loosely spaced to very closely spaced. The simple stamping on sherds, 
on the other hand, always ran horizontally to the rim. In general, 
decoration of all sherds found was confined to the lip of vessels. 



Table 3. Surface treatment compared to lip/rim treatment. 



'Piecrust" Squared Rounded Notched 



Other 



Totals 



Cordmarked 


36 


40 


22 


18 


5 1 


121 


Simple Stamped 


10 


6 


3 


18 


l 2 


38 


Plain 




2 


4 


3 


2 3 


11 


Totals 


46 


48 


29 


39 


8 


170 



1 1 squared castlelated, 2 castlelated, 1 cordmarked, and 1 reed punctate 

- Stick punctate angular 

3 1 outer beveled and 1 inner beveled 



84 Indiana Academy of Science 

Projectile points found were predominantly of the Lowe-Flared 
variety. A single trianguloid point found resembles those earlier identi- 
fied with LaMotte assemblages. A Copena-like point fragment was also 
recovered. This may indicate southern influence, in that the Copena 
point is usually associated with upper Alabama and lower Tennessee 
in late Hopewellian times (3). The flint material used was usually 
Harrison County Flint, even though chert was locally available, and 
sometimes used. 

Bone artifacts included three awls, one being bi-pointed, two 
punches, and a plug. Other bone objects found included one pin or 
needle, two antler tines which had been used and a worked piece of bone 
for which the function is unknown. A perforated bone piece in which 
a copper pin was inserted was also found. Traces of fiber were preserved 
on the copper pin itself, indicating the fiber was used to securely wedge 
the metal in the bone handle. 

Worked stone included milling stones, abraders, polishing stones, 
and a fragmented slate gorget. 

Two other artifacts of significance included the bowl of a clay pipe 
and a perforated pearl bead. 

Conclusions 

From the results of excavation : 

1) We can rule out the possibility of the plaza as being located 
in the depressed area at this site. The features found here are 
that of a heavy occupational type, whereas plaza areas typify- 
ing other Allison-LaMotte sites are generally devoid of cultural 
material. 

2 ) Evidence suggests a seasonal occupation at this site. 

3) More extensive examination of pottery types is needed to deter- 
mine whether they can be defined as chronological, seasonal, 
and/or showing status. 

4) Affiliations with Southeastern United States was based on 
simple and check stamped pottery. A site which shows the most 
likely connection is the Mann Site in Posey County, Indiana, 
where Southeastern pottery types occur. It seems most likely 
that some manner of southern intrusion took place in late 
Hopewellian times and the influence and/or people responsible 
continued up the Wabash Valley to create this culture (4). 



Anthropology 85 



Literature Cited 

1. Binford, Lewis R. 1970. Archaeology at Hatchery West. Mem. No. 24, Soc. Amer. 
Archaeol. Ann Arbor, Mich. 91 p. 

2. Winters, Howard D. 1967. An archeological survey of the Wabash Valley in 
Illinois. Rep. Invest. No. 10. Illinois State Mus., Springfield. 118 p. 

3. Bell, Robert E. 1960. Guide (to the identification of certain) American Indian 
Projectile Points. Spec. Bull. No. 2, Okla. Anthropol. Soc, Oklahoma City. 103 p. 

4. McMichael, Edward V., and Stephan Coffing. 1970. Test excavations at the 
Daughtery-Monroe Site (12-Su-13). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79:57-58. 



Preliminary Investigations at Kuester Site 

Gary Apfelstadt 
Department of Anthropology- 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstract 

The Kuester Site is located in Vanderburgh County, Indiana, within 600 feet of the 
Ohio River. The site has revealed two separate levels of habitation, with the lower level 
suggesting affiliations with the Mann Site in Posey County, Indiana (1), and with 
Allison sites throughout the Wabash River Valley (7). These affiliations are suggested 
by the prevalence of the Lowe Flared Base projectile point, and general inventory of 
archaeological materials present. Overlying this component is a Late Woodland- 
Mississippian transitional habitation level. The diagnostic artifacts for this level are small 
triangular points, plain buff colored pottery with clay tempering, and shell tempered 
pottery. 

Introduction 

This report describes the archaeological excavations conducted 
during the summer of 1971 at the Kuester Site, 12-Vg-71, in Vander- 
burgh County, Indiana. A previous survey by Robert Henn (personal 
communication, 1970) revealed that the site was rapidly eroding away 
due to seasonal flooding so the problem was one of salvage. 
There has been limited prior archaeological study reported for prehis- 
toric sites of similar culture components in this area. Thanks are due 
to Paul A. Kuester, tenant owner of the land excavated. 

Site Description 

The site is located on the first terrace of the Ohio River in 
Vanderburgh County, about 10 miles southwest of Evansville, and 
directly across the river from Henderson, Kentucky. To the north, south, 
and east of the site there is a wide cut that is formed by seasonal high 
waters from two drainage plains that empty into the Ohio River. The 
site area is located within a small woods containing hickory, locust and 
sycamore trees, grape vines, and briars. 

Field Techniques 

After the site grid was staked off in 2-meter squares, arbitrary 
levels of 5 cm were used during excavation of the first test unit to be- 
come familiar with the natural stratigraphy. When study of the exposed 
stratigraphy indicated that the original site was located on indistinct 
rolling terrain, excavation was continued at arbitrary levels rather than 
following the indistinct stratigraphy. 

Excavations 

Forty square meters of excavation surface were opened, revealing 
three features. Feature 1, a pit, was located in the upper level in 
SO-W12. The cultural debris present in this feature included 47 pottery 
sherds, all of which are shell or cell tempered, and pieces of identifiable 
deer bone. There was a scattering of charcoal throughout the pit. 

86 



Anthropology 87 

Feature 2 was located in Unit N10-W16 on the lower level. It con- 
tained 152 split long bones and 23 cracked stones. Nearby were 
parts of occiptal bones from four deer skulls. Feature 3, a shallow fire 
basin, located in the opposite corner of the same unit, was slightly 
deeper. It contained large amounts of fish bone, fish scales, and 
charred plant material. 

The upper level began to 8 cm below the surface and continued 
to 32 to 40 cm deep; the second level ranged from 38-54 cm to 93-131 
cm deep. Between the two levels, a layer of silty clay ranging in thick- 
ness from 5 to 13 cm was evident. Highly concentrated floral remains 
on the second level provided samples for a carbon dating. The sample 
(RL-144, Radiocarbon, Ltd.) was taken from a depth of 90 cm in unit 
SO-W8, and revealed a date of 1480 ± 120 years B.P. or 470 
A.D. (G). 

Discussion of Catalogued Artifacts 
The First Level 

Artifacts recovered on this level were of two general types: 
chipped stone (54 pieces) and ceramics (528 sherds and two clay 
objects). The bulk of the stone pieces were crude scrapers and shredders 
made from local river gravels (Table 1). There were 10 triangular pro- 
jectile points, and 2 perforators of an expanded base form. Many of 
the stone tools were made of the Caolin flint from Illinois 
(G. Perino, personal communication). 

The most common type of surface treatment for the ceramics was 
plain, and the most common type of rim treatment was rounded, with 
the majority of the sherds having a sandy paste with clay tempering, 
which compares closely to the Duffy Ceramic Series in the Wabash 
River Valley. Also, there appears to be a possible relationship between 
this ceramic style and the type defined as Baytown below the Ohio 
River. Approximately 8% of the pottery recovered was shell 
tempered. There were 27 sherds that have a similar type of incising 
to a group collected at the Yankeetown Site in Warrick County, 
Indiana (3). Other ceramic decorations included are stick punctate, 
applique, bar stamp, textile marked, and node design. Other midden 
material found on this level included a half of a crinoid bead, and one 
identifiable deer mandible (Odocoileus virginianus) . 

The Second Level 

The ceramics for this earlier level are predominately clay 
tempered and less frequently occur with sandy paste. In general the 
sherds have a smooth chalky texture. Cordmarking, the predominant 
surface treatment, usually runs vertical to the rims of vessels. Cord 
impressions vary from loosely to tightly twisted strands and range from 
closely spaced to 3 mm apart. 

Of the simple stamped sherds found, most contained clay temper, 
a few have clay tempering in a sandy paste, or clay and grit tempering 
mixed. The rim form of this ceramic style is rounded with an exterior 
notch, with the simple stamping parallel to the rim. 



88 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. Catalog of archaeological materials recovered, 1971. 



First Level 



Second Level 



326 plain 
152 cordmarked 
27 "Yankeetown" 

7 bar stamped 

6 applique 

5 stick punctate 

4 incised 

3 other 



CERAMICS 

698 cordmarked 
122 plain 

20 simple stamped 

12 other 



10 triangular projectile points 
21 scrapers 
10 shredders 

3 gravers 

2 flake knives 

2 expanded base perforators 

1 leaf-shaped blade 

1 burin 



CHIPPED STONE 

146 lamellar blades 

6 Lowe Flare Projectile Points 

6 projectile point fragments 

2 triangular blades 

1 stemmed projectile point 

1 lamellar perforator 

1 Lowe Flare perforator 

1 thumb scraper 

1 backed blade 



STONE 



1 sandstone abrader 

1 sandstone hammerstone 



BONE 



fragments 



6 awls 

3 fish bone needles 

1 modified deer phalanx bone fragments 



2 clay objects 
1 crinoid bead 



OTHER 

147 carbonized nut hulls 
9 carbonized seeds 
5 mica pieces 
3 miniature vessel sherds 
2 clay objects 
2 clay elbow pipes 
1 clay ball 

1 copper piece 

2 galena cubes 



Other sherds, although few in number, exhibit some degree of 
affinity to the Hopewellian culture. A type of surface decoration 
reminescent of Marksville Incised and the Marksville Zoned by the deep 
U-shaped incisions in a curving pattern with "pseudo-dentate rocker 
stamped" (4) was found associated with some sherds similar to those 
described by Phillips (4) as Evansville Punctate. Adams (1) identifies 
Marksville ware at the Mann Site in Posey County, Indiana. There were 
also three miniature vessels found that were clay tempered in a sandy 
paste with rounded rims. 



Anthropology 89 

The Lowe Flared Base projectile point described by Winters (7) 
was the most common type recovered from this component. Of the 6 
found, 5 are of the typical blue-gray Harrison County Flint commonly 
used during this culture period (2). Also two triangular blades, one 
stemmed projectile point and 6 point fragments were found. One 
perforator was a reworked Lowe Flared Base projectile point. 

Bone artifacts included a cut and perforated deer phalanx. The 
proximal end was cut off and ground smooth, while the distal end of 
the bone had a groove worn into it deep enough to reach the hollow 
center. This object may have been worn or it could have been used in 
the "cup and pin game." Six bone awls and three fish bone needles were 
found on this level. Preliminary identification of the animal bone asso- 
ciated with the lower level includes deer (Odocoileus virginianus) , bob 
cat (Lynx rufus), raccoon (Procyon lotor) , catfish (Ameihrus nabu- 
losus), drum fish (Aplodinotus grunniens), and several remains from 
other small mammals, reptiles, fish, and birds. An initial analysis of 
carbonized flora specimens includes hickory shells, walnut shells, acorns, 
persimmon, and Chenopodium. 

Discussion 

Two separate levels of habitation were exposed during the excava- 
tion of 1971 at the Kuester Site. The earlier component suggests a dif- 
fusion of cultural elements from areas to the south and north of this 
site. From the south comes Marksville-like zoned and the 
Evansville-like punctated pottery sherds with such commonly 
associated minerals as mica, copper and galena, all of which are noted 
from the Hopewellian culture. From the north the material as- 
semblages for the Allison culture described by Winters (7) and by 
Clouse (2), match closely the overall assemblage of artifacts recovered 
from this excavation. The location and the flora material suggest a late 
summer or early fall camp site. 

The upper level was likely a late Woodland-Mississippian transi- 
tional site, retaining clay material as a source for ceramic temper. The 
pottery type compares more closely to the Duffy Ceramic Series as 
described by Winters (7), although a relationship occurs with the Bay- 
town ceramics, as described by Thorne (5). Further excavations are 
needed to determine definite affinities and whether this is a seasonal 
camp or a permanent village site. 



Literature Cited 

Adams, William R. 1949. Archaeological notes on Posey County, Indiana. Indiana 
Hist. Bur. Pub., Indianapolis. 3 p. 

Clouse, Robert A., John W. Richardson, and E. V. McMichael. 1971. Interim 
report of the Daughtery-Monroe Site: An Allison-LaMotte Village. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 80:74-83. 

Curry, Hilda J. 1954. Archaeological notes on Warrick County, Indiana. Indiana 
Hist. Bur. Pub., Indianapolis. 1 p. 



90 Indiana Academy of Science 



4. Phillips, Philip. 1970. Archaeological survey in the Lower Yazoo Basin, 
Mississippi, 1949-1955. Pub. 60, Peabody Mus., Cambridge, Mass. 3 p. 

5. Thorne, Robert M., and Bettye J. Broyles. 1968. Handbook of Mississippi Pottery 
Types. Southeastern Archaeol. Congr. Bull. 7. Morgantown, W. Va. 1 p. 

6 Laboratory Sample No RL-144, A.D. 470 ± 120, Radiocarbon Ltd., Spring Valley, 
N.Y. 

7. Winters, Howard D. 1967. An archaeological survey of the Wabash Valley in 
Illinois. Rep. Invest. No. 10. Illinois State Mus. Pub., Springfield. 3 p. 



Round Lake: Remnants of a Late Woodland Site 
in Starke County, Indiana 

Stephen L. Lucas 

R. #1, Box 77E 

North Judson, Indiana 46366 

Abstract 

In 1931 amateur archeologists excavated two mounds on the periphery of Round Lake 
in the Kankakee River Valley. A recent interview with one of the participants and news- 
paper accounts are the only descripitions available. These are not sufficient for cultural 
indentification. A recent surface survey of the general area suggests that the major 
cultural component was early Late Woodland. 

Introduction 

Personal communications with A. L. Jonas, an amateur archeologist 
who participated in the initial phase of the 1931 excavations, combined 
with newspaper accounts contemporary to the diggings, provide the 
foundation for a discussion of the Round Lake site. These descriptions 
have been supplemented by a surface survey conducted since 1969. More 
than 400 artifacts were recovered from what have been designated 
Areas 1, 2 and Rest of Site (Fig. 1). 

Site Description 

The Round Lake site is located in the E 1/2, Sec. 8 and the W 
edge, Sec. 9, T32N, R2W in Starke County, Indiana. In a 1959 survey 
of the county, De Paepe (4) recorded the mound group as St-50 and 
observed the most prominent earthwork "is called by local people the 
'moon' or crescent mound because of its distinctive shape. It is probable 
that the mound was originally circular, but due to natural causes or 
human activities it has become crescent shaped". Measurements made 
of the mound have supported the De Paepe argument. Surrounding 
Mound A (Fig. 1) and particularly on its south side was a halo of earth, 
possibly formed as refuse from holes dug by late 19th century curio 
hunters 1 . Excavations were also suggested by the presence of a 
depression located midway between the points of the crescent. There 
was a slight rise farther outward from the center of the mound. The 
rise could have been the edge of a circular structure 5 feet high and 30 
feet in diameter. De Paepe (4) reported several pits in the top of the 
mound but these have since been filled. 

One of the mounds was damaged during the construction of a gravel 
road. One account indicated that not far from Mound A and "across 
the road to the northwest is a sun mound" (1). Along the north side 
of the road and about 90 feet northwest of Mound A, there is a semi- 
circular ridge which has been designated Mound B. If the ridge is what 



1 After viewing the site, James Bellis of the University of Notre Dame suggested curio 
hunters may have dug into the mound and placed the earth from their diggings in a 
wheelbarrow. The earth might then have been moved a few feet and dumped. 

91 



92 



Indiana Academy of Science 



/ 



C 



x 



J 
( 

\\ 

^ X 



\ 

J 



/ 



/ I 

/ v, 



/ 

SECTION 8 
/ 



/ 



/ 



/ 



AREA 




r 










600 FEE! 

SECTION 8 



/ 



9 / 
/ 



Figure 1. Round Lake Site. 



remains of the "sun" mound, then at least 60% of the structure has been 
destroyed. 

A third mound was located southeast of Mound A and "nearer the 
edge of the lake" (2). Two roughly circular structures are still present 
at that location. One was 32 feet in diameter and slightly less than 2 
feet high. 2 The structure was subject to neither wind nor water 



2 Bellis suggested the mound might have been flattened by the Dalbey excavation. 



Anthropology 93 

erosion and has been termed Mound C. The other was barely per- 
ceptible and may well have been a natural hill or refuse from the 
excavation of Mound C. It tentatively has been designated Mound D. 
No other mounds were located, although in 1931 there were reportedly 
5 present at the site (2). 

One newspaper account described a series of "long narrow mounds 
of earth" which were positioned "along the shore of the lake in shallow 
water" (2). Since the partial draining of the lake several years ago, 
organic debris has accumulated on the structure so that they are now 
barely discernible. The structures are similar to a series of parallel 
ridges located by McAllister at St-33 in Porter County (8). 

The surface survey was focused upon cultivated fields on either 
side of Round Lake. Area 1 is north of the lake and corresponds to 
De Paepe's St-49 (4) (Fig. 1). South of the lake is Area 2. Other 
artifacts located at the site, most notably those from regions northeast 
and immediately west of the lake, were included within the category 
Rest of Site. 

Excavations 

In the autumn of 1931, A. L. Jonas and another amateur arche- 
ologist located and dug into a small circular mound. A geographical 
description made of the structure indicated that it was probably Mound 
C. After encountering a skull "three or four feet" below the surface, 
Dalbey was notified of the discovery (A. L. Jonas, personal communi- 
cation, 1972). Several days later the three men unearthed the 
"articulated, flexed skeleton" of a single individual (2). The burial was 
"wrapped in White Oak bark, lay on left side facing north". The skull 
was "pillowed on firestone" and had a "flint amulet on top". In the base 
of the skull was imbedded a "poorly made" projectile point (2) with 
its tip broken (1). A 6-inch pottery pipe was encountered slightly below 
the skull level (2). 

The Dalbey group later excavated Mound A. "A conglomerate 
burial" consisting of "three adult skeletons" was discovered 
"1 1/2 feet below the surface just to the north of the center." 
Recovered in association with the burial were "picked stones, a stone 
hammer and anvil" and several pieces of charcoal (1). "[A]t a depth 
of 3 1/2 feet under baked clay," the skeleton of a single individual was 
encountered. Found with the burial were "a spud or stone spade, some 
hammerstones," a 16-pound "stone anvil," and the "upper half of a 
tortoise shell" (2). 

Cache blades were accidently discovered near the mounds earlier in 
the century. A local resident uncovered "67 from 4 to 6 inches long" 
while digging the hole for a fence-post (1). 

Discussion of Surface Collection 

The ceramics (Table 1) recovered from the site are grit tempered 
and generally thick. Six of seven sherds discovered were in Area 2. Two 
rim sherds are cord-marked and collared with lip indentations. Similar 



94 



Indiana Academy of Science 



varieties, such as Starved Rock Collared and Albee Cord-marked, have 
been located by Faulkner at other sites in the Kankakee Valley (5). 
Cord-marked collared ceramics are associated with a fairly widespread 
horizon in the early Late Woodland period. One of the other rims 
exhibits what appears to be a finger indentation and another is plain 
with a large punctuation 25 mm below the lip. 

Table 1. Archeological materials from surface survey, 1969-1972. 



Area 1 


Area 2 


Rest of Site 




CERAMIC 




12 cordmarked 


43 cordmarked 
31 plain 






CHIPPED STONE 




54 scrapers and blades 


47 scrapers and blades 


3 scrapers and blades 


7 stemmed points 


11 stemmed points 


1 stemmed points 


30 notched points 


25 notched points 


2 notched points 


3 triangular points 


6 triangular points 


2 triangular points 


3 lanceolate points 


4 lanceolate points 




3 drills 


4 drills 




56 broken and other 


26 broken and other 






GROUND STONE 




2 hammer stones 


2 hammer stones 


1 gorget 1 


3 gorgets 




2 axes 1 


1 shaft straightener 






1 bannerstone 








OTHER 




2 kaolin pipes 


1 red ochre ball 




1 copper fragment 







Recovered several years earlier by Theodore Drews 



Substantial variations in the sizes and shapes of points have 
suggested multiple cultural affiliations (Fig. 2). Faulkner indicated 
that although the typical Late Woodland projectile point in the 
Kankakee Valley had not been established, "a small equilateral tri- 
angular type might be common in this period" (5). Triangular points 
were encountered infrequently at the site and most were isosceles 
rather than equilateral (Fig. 2, #11-13). Many of the Round Lake points 
were reminiscent of those pictured by McAllister at Weise, a Late 
Woodland site in Porter County (8). Snyders Corner Notched points, 
like those found at Havana sites in the Kankakee Valley, were 
absent (3). A statistical analysis of point lengths indicated no 
significant difference between those found in Area 1 and those found 
in Area 2. Other chipped stone artifacts located at the site included both 
plain and expanding stem drills, several blanks and one blank or cache 
blade covered with red ochre (Fig. 2, #21). 

Three slate gorget fragments were recovered from Area 2 
(Table 1). Two exhibit single perforations drilled from both sides and 



Anthropology 



95 




Figure 2. Chipped stone from surface survey. 



the third is imperforated. A fourth broken gorget was discovered north- 
east of the lake by an amateur collector, Theodore Drews. It also 
exhibits a single perforation and is decorated with parallel grooves 
along the perimeter. Single-holed slate gorgets have been found with 
Late Woodland burials at other sites in the Kankakee River 
Valley (5). 

Located in Area 1 was a broken geniculate bannerstone con- 
structed of banded slate. Bannerstones are believed to have been 
atlatl weights and are associated with the Late Archaic period. The 
geniculate variety is fairly common from Ohio to Missouri and is most 
frequently constructed of banded slate (7). 



96 Indiana Academy op Science 

Two kaolin pipes were recovered from Area 1. One is glazed and 
has been molded into the form of a human head. The other is 
unglazed and fragmentary but appears to be identical to forms found 
at Fort Ridgely in Minnesota and at Riviere au Vase in Michigan. The 
type bears the initials T. D. enclosed by 13 stars and was popular from 
the War of 1812 until the 1870s (6) . 

Conclusions 

Accounts of the Dalbey excavations were not sufficient to permit 
the placement of the Round Lake burials within any cultural context, 
although a broad Woodland affiliation was indicated by the unearthing 
of a pottery pipe. The surface survey resulted in the recovery of a 
bannerstone indicating occupation at least as early as Late Archaic 
times. Grit-tempered collared rim sherds located at the site have indi- 
cated a Late Woodland occupation. Many of the points were reminiscent 
of those found at Weise, a Late Woodland site in the Kankakee 
Valley. The apparent absence of equilateral triangular points and the 
inadequacy of accounts of the excavations must temper any conclusion 
as to the origin of the mounds. Still the most obvious hypothesis is that 
they were constructed during Late Woodland times and share a cultural 
affinity with the Weise site. 



Literature Cited 

1. Anonymous. 1931. Indian mounds are discovered in Starke County — Are excavated. 
Plymouth Daily Pilot, Nov. 28, 1931, Plymouth, Ind. p. 1. 

2. Anonymous. 1931. Round Lake excavation reveals burial of Indian Chief. Starke 
County Repub., Dec. 2, 1931, Knox, Ind. p. 1. 

3. Brown, James A. 1964. The northeastern extension of the Havana Tradition, p. 102. 
In J. R. Caldwell, and R. L. Hall [eds.] Hopewellian Studies. Illinois State Mus. 
Sci. Pap., Vol. 12, No. 4., Springfield. 156 p. 

4. De Paepe, Duane. 1959. An archaeological survey of Starke County, Indiana. 
Indiana Hist. Bur., Indianapolis. 44 p. 

5. Faulkner, Charles H. 1972. The Late Prehistoric Occupation of Northwestern 
Indiana: A study of the Upper Mississippi Cultures of the Kankakee Valley. 
Indiana Hist. Soc. Res. Ser., Vol. V, No. 1., Indianapolis. 222 p. 

6. Fitting, James E. 1965. Late Woodland Cultures of Southeastern Michigan. 
Mus. Anthropol., Univ. Michigan, Anthropol. Pap. No. 24. Ann Arbor. 165 p. 

7. Knoblock, Byron W. 1939. Bannerstones of the North American Indian. Privately 
published. LaGrange, 111. 485 p. 

8. McAllister, J. Gilbert. 1932. The archaeology of Porter County. Indiana Hist. 
Bull. 10:1-96. 



BOTANY AND PLANT TAXONOMY 

Co-Chairmen : Willard F. Yates, Jr., Department of Botany, 
Butler University, Indiana 46208 

and 

Gerald J. Gastony, Botany Department, 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Charles L. Gehring, Department of Life Sciences, 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809, 

was elected Chairman for Botany for 1973 

and 

Theodore J. Crovello, Biology Department, 
Notre Dame University, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, 
was elected Chairman for Plant Taxonomy for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

Green Tissue in a Genetic Albino Strain of Tobacco — An Ultrastruc- 
tural Study of its Plastids. Anne A. Susalla, Department of 

Biology, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. A 

genetic albino strain of tobacco forms green tissue when cultured on 
nutrient medium supplemented with kinetin and indoleacetic acid. 
Ultrastructural observations of the phenotypically green, genetic albino 
tissue reveal plastids with and without thylakoids. Plastids with 
thylakoids exhibit various degrees of thylakoid organization. Some 
plastids have thylakoids scattered in the stroma with no organization 
into grana. Others have thylakoids organized into several spindle- 
shaped grana per plastid. Still others have a single granum with 
one or two deep marginal indentations. Some plastids are capable of 
synthesizing starch and accumulating it as a storage product. A 
granular stroma, DNA-like fibrils and clusters of osmiophilic globules 
are present in these plastid types. Plastids without thylakoids are 
vesiculated and resemble albino plastids found in white tissue. 

The Use of Computers To Help To Teach Plant Biology. Theodore J. 
Crovello, Biology Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Indiana 46556. Digital Computers are becoming increasingly 

available for use by students in botanical coursework. Two modes are 
available: batch processing, whereby students input a deck of punched 
cards to the computer and at some later time return to pick up their 
completed output; and time-sharing, whereby the student sits at a tele- 
type or other such device that may be in a biological laboratory or in 
the professor's office. In time-sharing the student interacts with the 
computer in a "printed dialog." Computers have great potential to 
enhance the teaching and learning of plant biology. But problems also 
exist and we plant biologists are sometimes in the best position to solve 
them as well as to determine whether computers are really enhancing 
learning or hindering it. Examples of the use of computers for teaching 
biology at Notre Dame were presented. 

97 



98 Indiana Academy of Science 

Standardization of Amino-peptidase Profiles for the Identification of 
Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. K. Krawczyk and D. M. Huber, Depart- 
ment of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Indiana 47907. Factors influencing the amino-peptidase activity of 

three plant pathogenic and one saprophytic bacteria were studied to 
determine and thereby minimize sources of variation when identifying 
bacteria. Amino-peptidase profiles were determined fluoremetrically 
using betanaphthylamides (1(Hm in pH 8.0 Tris buffer) as substrates. 
Erwinia amylovora, Xanthomonas campestris, and Pseudomonas tobaci 
(plant pathogens) and a saprophytic Pseudomonad were used through- 
out this study. The effects of temperature, incubation time, growth 
media, inoculum density, salt solution (cof actors), halides, and buffer 
were evaluated. Peptidase profiles of the four bacteria studied were 
very different and provided a rapid, specific means of identification. 
Prior growth media, inoculum density, and incubation time had the 
greatest influence on peptidase hydrolysis of the beta-naphthylamides. 
Temperature, additional cof actor elements, halides, and buffer appeared 
to have little, if any, general effect on peptidase activity in this study. 
There appeared to be sufficient latitude in all these conditions for this 
technique to be easily adapted for routine microbial identification. 

Oxygen Production by Algae and a New Interpretation of its 
Mechanism. Robert H. L. Howe, Eli Lilly and Company, Tippecanoe 

Laboratories, Lafayette, Indiana 47902. The production of oxygen 

by photo effect on algae in water was reviewed and a new interpreta- 
tion of its chemical mechanism was presented. H 2 2 was detected. 

Identification of Phytoene in Euglena gracilis. Richard J. Stroz and 
J. A. Gross, Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. An examination of the hydrocarbon 

carotene fraction extracted from Euglena gracilis Z and pressure- 
bleached Euglena mutants PR-1, PR-2, PR-3, and PR-4 by tic and 
spectrophotometric methods revealed phytoene in mutants PR-1, 
PR-2, and PR-3. Photo synthetic Euglena gracillis Z cultured in the dark 
or at different light intensities showed no detectable phytoene, nor was 
phytoene identifiable in mutant PR-4. It was hypothesized from the 
results on the presence or absence of phytoene and the more un- 
saturated carotenoids and their relative concentrations that each 
mutant is blocked at a different step in the pathway of carotenoid 
biosynthesis. 

A new Algal Assay to Determine the Growth Potential of Phosphorus 
Containing Natural Waters. William N. Doemel and Austin E. 
Brooks, Department of Biology, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, 

Indiana 47933. Since its development the algal assay procedure or 

bottle test has become an important technique to assess the growth po- 
tential of natural water samples with reference to phosphorus. The 
major disadvantages of the bottle assay are: 1) it is relatively slow 
often requiring several weeks; 2) it is tedious to perform since growth 
is assessed by microscopic cell counts; and 3) since pure cultures of 
algae are not used, the phosphorus-alga interaction may be obscured 
by bacterial action. 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 99 

A new growth potential bioassay procedure was devised using 
axenic cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (I.U. 1230). Inoculum of 1 
milliliter of phosphorus starved log phase (OD 580nm of 0.500) was 
added to 29 milliliters of membrane filter sterilized test water. Cultures 
were incubated at 35° Centigrade in constant light (1400 foot candles) 
and bubbled with air. Only acid washed distilled water-rinsed Pyrex 
glassware was used. When cultures had reached stationary phase as 
determined spectrophotometrically at 580 nanometers, the cells were 
harvested by centrifugation and the total biomass was measured by 
the Lowry method. 

Data were presented showing that total biomass of Chlorella was 
proportional to the phosphorus concentration in the water sample. Re- 
sults indicate the assay is sensitive and reproducible. The new assay 
has the advantages of being rapid, usually results are available in less 
than 5 days; it is easy to perform; it utilized an algal that is well 
understood in terms of its physiology; and lastly, the new procedure 
reflects only algal responses to nutrients since bacteria are absent. 

The Effect of Sewage Phosphorus Reduction on Algal Growth Potential 
of Lake Waters. Austin E. Brooks and William N. Doemel, Depart- 
ment of Biology, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933. 

Previously reported laboratory data suggested that sewage phosphorus 
reduction of 50 per cent would not reduce the algal growth potential 
of several Indiana lake waters to which the sewage had been added in 
various dilutions. To demonstrate that the high temperature strain of 
Chlorella pyrenoidosa (I.U. 1230) used in the original studies did not 
have a unique phosphorus requirement, the experiments were repeated 
using Chlorella pyrenoidosa (I.U. 395), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 
(I.U. 90), Euglena gracilis (I.U. 753), Plectonema boryanum (I.U. 594) 
and Anabana flos-aquae (I.U. 1444) as test organisms. 

Filter sterilized Indiana lake waters (Sylvan, Pleasant and 
Pidgeon) were supplemented with 10 per cent (volume/ volume) sewage 
from the Crawfordsville Municipal Treatment Plant. The sewage was 
a 12-hour composite sample that was collected after secondary treat- 
ment but before final chlorination. Sewage phosphorus was reduced 
from 4.76 milligrams Phosphorus per liter to 0.76 milligrams 
Phosphorus per liter by alkali precipitation. Phosphorus was reintro- 
duced as an equal molar mixture of K 2 HP0 4 and KH 2 P0 4 (0.5 Molar) 
to levels of 0, 50 and 100 per cent of the phosphorus concentration in 
the original sewage. Total biomass was measured by the Lowry method 
when cells had reached stationary growth. The results agree with those 
obtained using Chlorella pyrenoidosa 1230 and thus substantiate the 
validity of the Chlorella bioassay procedures. These results also indicate 
that a 50 per cent reduction of sewage phosphorus would not reduce 
the algal growth potential of the eutrophic (Sylvan), oligotrophic 
(Pleasant) and mesotrophic (Pidgeon) lake waters tested. 

Student Investigations of Speciation in Tragopogon. Thomas R. 
Mertens, Department of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306. Genetic, cytological, and ecological investigations of 

speciation in genus Tragopogon, the goat's beards, were described. These 



100 Indiana Academy of Science 

experimental studies may be used in teaching the evolution of plants 
by interspecific hybridization followed by amphiploidy. Data on pollen 
viability in Tragopogon pratensis, Tragopogon porrifolius, and their 
hybrid were presented. 

Rhoeo spathacea: A Tool for Teaching Meiosis and Mitosis. Sandra K. 
Satterfield and Thomas R. Mertens, Department of Biology, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The monocot Rhoeo spathacea 

is an ideal organism for teaching meiosis and mitosis because of its low 
diploid chromosome number of 12 and large chromosome size. All of 
its chromosomes are involved in translocations that result in an ex- 
tremely atypical meiotic process with all chromosomes frequently joined 
in a single ring or chain. Rhoeo flower buds fixed in Carnoy's solution 
were dissected and pollen mother cells were stained in acetocarmine 
and examined and photographed using a phase contract microscope. 
Meiotic cells reveal that non-disjunction or failure of proper chromo- 
some separation at anaphase I of meiosis is not uncommon. The presence 
of lagging chromosomes is one evidence of atypical disjunction. As a 
consequence of the presence of multiple translocations and abnormal 
disjunction, many of the pollen grains formed in meiosis are defective 
and nonviable. Using cotton blue stain, pollen viability was determined 
for five plants in the experimental population and found to range from 
22 to 42 per cent. The fact that meiosis in Rhoeo is atypical because 
of the presence of multiple translocations makes it a valuable aid for 
the teaching of meiosis, mitosis, and chromosome aberrations to genetics 
and cytology students. 



Plant Diseases In Indiana In 1972 

Steven C. Wolf 
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 
Purdue University, Lafyette, Indiana 49707 

Abstract 

Some diseases that appeared in 1972 were new or have been non-economic problems 
until this year. Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus of corn was more prevalent and occurred over 
a wider area of the state than ever before. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) 
which resulted in crop failure in three separate locations in Benton County, was observed 
on sweet corn for the first time. A canker disease of Siberian (Chinese) Elm appeared 
in epidemic proportions in the Gary, Indiana, area. Downy Mildew (Peronospora 
manshurica) and Brown Spot (Septoria glycinea) were found in 86 and 89 per cent, 
repsectively, of all soybean fields recently surveyed. Non-infectious diseases represented 
over 50 per cent of the problems observed in shade trees. Low temperatures and high 
winds in early and mid-June, respectively, caused considerable damage to corn and other 
crops. 

Introduction 

The Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic was initiated in 1962 by ex- 
tension personnel in the Botany and Plant Pathology Department of 
Purdue University. The purpose of the clinic is to provide accurate plant 
disease identification and control prescriptions to Area Extension 
Agents. It is a productive service used consistently by extension per- 
sonnel and other interested clientele. 

Over 2,000 disease specimens were received in the clinic from 
January 1 to August 31, 1972. Over 400 people visited the extension 
plant pathologists and over 1,000 telephone calls were received concern- 
ing the diagnosis of plant disease. 

Methods 

This paper is not a complete survey of all diseases in the state 
during 1972, but a listing of diseases observed at the clinic and in the 
field by extension personnel. Data presented in this paper were obtained 
from specimens received in the Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic, office 
visits, and field visitations. Over 90% of specimens received were from 
area agents, with approximately 10% coming from homeowners and 
growers. 

Shade Trees 

More shade tree disease specimens were received than any other 

group (Table 1). Over 50% of these specimens were affected by a 

non-infectious disease. Unfavorable environmental conditions were 
responsible for the majority of these non-infectious diseases. 

Much of this injury was related to unfavorable environmental condi- 
tions during the winter of 1971. Additional leaf scorch injury appeared 
during drought periods in the summer of 1972. Sugar and Norway 

101 



102 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. 


Diseases c 


f shade trees received at Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic. 






Causal Agent 


Specimen 


Infectious Non-Infectious 



Acer spp. 
(Maples) 

Aesculus hippocastanum 

(Horse Chestnut) 
Catalpa speciosa 

(Catalpa) 
Cercis canadensis 

(Redbud) 
Cornus sp. 

(Dogwood) 

Crataegus sp. 

( Hawthorn ) 
Fraxinus spp. 

(Ash) 
Ginkgo biloba 

(Ginkgo) 
Juglans cinerea 

(Butternut) 
Juglans regia 

(English Walnut) 
Liquidambar styraciflua 

(Sweetgum) 
Liriodendron tulipifera 

(Tuliptree) 

Malus sp. 

( Crabapple) 
Ficea spp. 

(Spruces) 
Pinus spp. 

(Pines) 

Platanus occidentalis 

(Sycamore) 
Quercus spp. 

(Oaks) 

Robinia spp. 

(Locust) 
Salix spp. 

(Willow) 
Sorbus sp. 

(Mt. Ash) 

Taxodium distichum 

(Bald Cypress) 
Tsuga canadensis 

(Hemlock) 
Ulmus pumila 

(Chinese Elm) 



Gloeosporium apocryptum 
Phyllosticta minima 
Verticillium albo-atrum 



Verticillum sp. 

Ascochyta cornicola 
Gnomonia ulmea 

Gymnosporangium globosum 

Gloeosporium aridum 



Gnomonia leptostyla 
Xanthomonas juglandis 



Venturia inaequalis 

Cytospora kunzei 
Lophodermium sp. 
Diplodia pinea 
Dothistrome pint 
Lophodermium pinastri 
Gnomonia veneta 

Gnomonia veneta 
Taphrina caerulescens 



Erwinia amylovora 

Cytospora sp. 
Cytospora spp. 



Iron Chlorosis 
Leaf Scorch 
Winter Injury 
Leaf Scorch 

Leaf Scorch 

Leaf Scorch 
Winter Injury 
High pH 
Leaf Scorch 
Winter Injury 



Leaf Scorch 

Winter Injury 

Leaf Scorch 

Leaf Scorch 

Leaf Scorch 

Leaf Scorch 
Nitrate Deficiency 
Winter Injury 
Winter Injury 

Winter Injury 

Poor Vigor 
Winter Injury 

Leaf Scorch 

Iron Chlorosis 
Leaf Scorch 
Winter Injury 
Leaf Scorch 
Winter Injury 
Winter Injury 

Leaf Scorch 
Winter Injury 

Leaf Scorch 
Winter Injury 

Winter Injury 



Maples were most severely affected by these non-infectious agents 
(Table 1). 

Most infectious shade tree diseases in the state were found in 

similar numbers to those observed in past years (Dr. D. H. Scott, 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 



103 



personal communication). However, a fungus disease caused con- 
siderable damage to Chinese Elm (Ulmus pumila) in the Gary area. The 
causal agent has not been identified, but is thought to be a Cytospora 



Table 2. 


Diseases 


of ornamental plants received at the Plant Disease Diagnostic 


Clinic. 








Causal Agent 




Specimen 


Infectious 


Non-Infectious 





Bambusene spp. 

(Bamboo bush) 
Begonia spp. 
Berberis sp. 

( Barberry ) 
Cornus spp. 

(Dogwood Hedge) 
Cotoneaster spp. 
Delphinium sp. 

(Larkspur) 
Dianthus caryophyllus 

(Carnation) 
Ilex opaca 

(Holly) 
Iris spp. 

Ligustrum vulgare 
(Privet Hedge) 

Myrica caroliniensis 
(Bay berry) 

Pachysandra spp. 

Paeonio sp. 

(Peony) 
Parthenocissus 

tricuspidata 
Poa pratensis 

( Bluegrass ) 



Pyrancantha spp. 

( Firethorn ) 
Rhododendron spp. 

(Azalea) 
Rosa spp. 

(Rose) 



Spiraea spp. 
Syringa sp. 

(Lilac) 
Tagetes sp. 

(Marigold) 
Taxus spp. 

(Yew) 
Thuja occidentalis 

(Arborvitae) 
Tulip gesneriana 
Viburnum spp. 
Vinca spp. 

(Mrytle) 



Botrytis cinerea 



Erwinia amylovora 
Pseudonomas delphinii 

Oidium spp. 

Unidentified Leaf Spot 

Didymellina macrospora 
Erwinia caratovora 



Septoria pachysandrae 
Volutella pachysandrae 
Botrytis cinerea 

Guignardia bidwettii 

Fairy Ring 
Fusarium roseum 
H elminthosporium spp. 
Sclerotinia homeocarpa 
Septoria macropoda 
Ustilago striiformis 
Erwinia amylovora 

Phytophthora sp. 

Agrobacterium tumefaciens 
Botrytis cinerea 
Diplocarpon rosae 
Sphaerotheca pannosa 

Microsphaera alni 
Pseudonomas syringae 
Botrytis cinerea 

Phomopsis occulta 

Exobasidium vaccinii 
Phomopsis sp. 
Botrytis tulipae 
Pseudomonas viburni 
Phomopsis lirella 
Phyllosticta sp. 



Leaf Scorch 

Winter Injury 
Winter Injury 



Winter Injury 
Winter Injury 



Thatch Build-up 



Winter Injury 

Winter Injury 
Winter Desiccation 
Winter Injury 



104 



Indiana Academy of Science 



sp.. The disease is characterized by cankers varying in length from 3 
inches to 3 feet on limbs which are 1 to 3 inches in diameter. This 
disease caused severe dieback of involved trees. 



Ornamentals 

Table 2 lists the herbaceous, woody ornamentals and Kentucky blue- 
grass specimens received and observed. Gray mold, caused by 
Botrytis cinerea, was the most common disease encountered on herba- 
ceous ornamentals. 

The largest number of ornamentals received were of the woody 
type. Several non-infectious diseases resulting in winter injury were 
observed on woody ornamentals. 

While few turf specimens were received in the clinic, many diseased 
turf areas were visited by the extension staff. The Helminthosporium 
leaf spot (Helminthosporium spp.) and dollar spot (Sclerotinia 
homeocarpa) diseases of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) were wide- 
spread throughout the state. Observations indicated that Helmintho- 
sporium leaf spot was considerably more widespread and severe in 1972 
than in 1971 (D. H. Scott, personal communication). 



Table 3. 


Diseases 


of 


Vegetable Crops received 


at 


the Plant 


Disease Diagnostic 


Clinic. 












Causal Agent 




Specimen 


Infectious 






Non-Infectious 





Brassica oleracea 
(Cabbage) 

Citrullus vulgaris 
(Watermelon) 

Cucumis melo 
(Muskmelon) 



Ipomoea batatas 
(Sweet Potato) 

Lycopersicon esculentum 
(Tomato) 



Phaseolus vulgaris 
(Green Bean) 



Fusarium oxysporum 

Colletotrichum lagenarium 

Alternaria cucumerina 
Fusarium solani 
f. sp. cucurbitae 

Diaporthe batatatis 
Fusarium oxysporum 
Monilochaetes infuscans 

Fusarium oxysporum 
Gloeosporium phomoides 
Pseudomonas tomato 
Verticillium albo-atrum 
Xanthomonas vesicatoria 

Unidentified Root Rot 



Leaf Scorch 



Blossom-End Rot 



Russetting 
Scorch 



Rheum spp. 
(Rhubarb) 

Solanum melongena 
(Eggplant) 

Zea mays var. saceharata 
(Sweet Corn) 



Ascochyta rhei 
Pythium ultimum 

Verticillium albo-atrum 

Colletotrichum graminicola 
Helminthosporium turcicum 
Xanthomonas stewartii 



Heat Scorch 
Heat Scorch 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 



105 



Vegetable Crops 

The majority of vegetable crop diseases were caused by soil- 
borne organisms (Table 3). Verticillium albo-atrum on eggplant 
(Solanum melongena) is becoming a serious problem in Lake County. 
Growers have been using Verticillium-susjyectible crops in their rota- 
tions which has led to increased soil inoculum. 

Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum graminicolcu was found on 
sweet corn in Indiana for the first time (4). Damage was extremely 
severe in three commercial sweet corn fields in Benton County. The 
disease was not observed in any other Inaiana location. 

Fusarium wilt (Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae) was observed 
in several muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fields in southern Indiana. This 
disease was more widespread and severe in 1972 than in 1971 
(E. G. Sharvelle, personal communication). 

Fruits 

Strawberry accounted for almost half of the relatively few small 
fruit disease specimens received (Table 4). The major problem on straw- 
berry was cortical root rot, a disease caused by a combination of fungi. 
This disease is a root rot complex with no single organism consistently 



Table 4 Diseases of fruit crops received at the Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic. 





Causal Agent 




Specimen 


Infectious 


Non-Infectious 




Fragaria grandiflora 


Cortical Root Rot 






(Strawberry) 








Malus sylvestris 


Botryosphaeria ribis 


Hail Damage 




(Apple) 


Erwinia amylovora 


Leaf Scorch 






Physalospora obstusa 


Winter Injury 






Venturia inaequalis 






Prunus americana 


Coryneum carpophilium 


Leaf Scorch 




(Plum) 


Dibotryon morbosum 
Unidentified Leaf Spot 


Winter Injury 




Prunus avium 


Dibotryon morbosum 


Leaf Scorch 






Unidentified Leaf Spot 


Winter Injury 




Prunus persica 


Monilinia fructicola 


Leaf Scorch 




(Nectarine & Peach) 


Taphrina deformans 
Xanthomonas pruni 


Winter Injury 




Pyrus communis 


Erwinia amylovora 






(Pear) 


Unidentified Leaf Spot 
Venturia inaequalis 






Ribes sp. 


Currant Mosaic 






(Gooseberry) 


Pseudopezia ribis 






Rubus sp. 


Elsinoe veneta 






(Raspberries) 


Gymnoconia pechianna 
Verticillium albo-atrum 






Vitia sp. 


Guignardia bidwellii 






(Grape) 









106 



Indiana Academy of Science 



isolated from diseased plants. A few of the organisms associated with 
the cortical root rot complex are Ramularia sp., Leptosphaeria 
coniothyrium, Fusarium orthoceras, and Rhizoctonia sp. 

Problems of winter injury and leaf scorch in tree fruits were similar 
to those observed on shade trees and ornamentals. Winter injury to 
peach (Prunus persien) were severe. When temperatures fell below 
— 20 °F this past winter, flower buds were killed and the trees did not 
produce fruit. Economic losses were high from this non-infectious 
disease. 



Table 5. 


Diseases of field crops received at the Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic. 




Casal Agent 


Specimen 


Infectious Non-Infectious 



Glycine max 
(Soybean) 



Bud Blight 

Cephalosporium gregatum 
Diaporthe phaseolorum 
f. sp. caulivora 
D. phaseolorum 
f. sp. sojae 
Dodder 

Phyllosticta glycinea 
Phytophthora sojae 
Pseudomonas glycinea 
Rhizoctonia solani 
Septoria glycinea 



Medicago sativa 
(Alfalfa) 



Triticum aestivum var. 
vulgar e (Wheat) 



Cereospora medicaginis 
Phytophthora megasperma 
Pseudopeziza medicaginis 
Sclerotinia trifoliorum 

Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus 
Cephalosporium spp. 
Erysiphe graminis 
Ophiobolus graminis 
Puccinia graminis 
Puccinia recondita 
Septoria tritici 
Snow Mold 



Boron Deficiency 



Heaving-Frost 



Zea mays var. indentata 
(Corn) 



Colletotrichum graminicola 

Diplodia zeae 

H elminthosporium carbonum 

H. maydis 

H. turcicum 

Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus 

Pseudonomas syringae 

Puccinia sorghi 

Sclerophthora macrospora 

Ustilago maydis 

Xanthomonas stewartii 



Cold Injury 
Wind Injury 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 107 

Fireblight (Erwinia amylovora) and scab (Venturia inaequalis) 
continued to cause damage in Indiana. Problems were less severe in com- 
mercial orchards than in home orchards. 

Field Crops 

More than 75% of the corn specimens received were of the non- 
infectious type (Table 5). During the first 2 weeks of June, record low 
temperatures resulted in cold weather injury on corn in northern 
Indiana. During the next 3 weeks 24 specimens were received with cold 
and frost injury symptoms. 

Another non-infectious disease on corn was wind damage. During 
three days, June 20-23, winds of 35-45 mph were recorded throughout 
the state causing a tattering at the terminal end of the leaves. Lesions 
were found on surfaces of leaves which were similar to lesions of 
Northern Corn Leaf Blight (Helminthosporium turcicum). However, 
these necrotic areas were caused by the tips of other leaves whipping 
against the leaf. 

Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus, was found over a wider area of the state 
since its discovery in Indiana in 1963 (E. G. Sharvelle, personal 
communication). This disease has been found in 25 counties since 1963. 
A survey ran this past summer found MDMV in seven additional 
counties. MDMV caused economic losses in a few fields, but total losses 
were minimal. 

According to a survey (3), brown spot (Septoria glycines) and 
downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica) were the most prevalent soy- 
bean diseases found. There were 9% more fields infected with downy 
mildew and 13% more fields infected with brown spot than in 1971. The 
percentage of fields infected with downy mildew was the highest ever 
observed. Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas glycinea) was recorded in 
63% of the fields surveyed, a 20% increase over 1971. 

Previous research indicates that it is necessary to remove a mini- 
mum of 20% of the leaf area before yield reductions occur (3). 
Although bacterial blight, downy mildew, and brown spot were present 
in a large percentage of fields surveyed, infection was never severe 
enough to cause a 20% reduction in leaf area. 

Only a few wheat specimens were received. Take-all (Ophiobolus 
graminis) represented over 50% of the problems observed. Take-all is 
a root or culm rot disease which is more prevalent when soils are de- 
ficient in nitrogen (2). During the fall of 1971, when most of the wheat 
crop was seeded, growing conditions were excellent. Warm tempera- 
tures and adequate moisture stimulated wheat growth until December. 
This growth utilized soil nutrients and provided for ideal conditions 
for Take-all the following spring. 

Very few alfalfa specimens were received. Boron deficiency 
appeared to be a problem in alfalfa production. Boron, a micronutrient, 
is needed in very small amounts for good alfalfa growth. Stress during 
the growing season, because of poor weather conditions, may cause 



108 Indiana Academy of Science 

boron deficiency to show up (1). Common leaf spot (Pseudopeziza 
medicaginis) was the alfalfa disease seen the most. 



Literature Cited 

1. Barber, S. A. 1971. Boron deficiency in Indiana soils. Purdue Univ. Ext. Serv. Bull. 
AY-165. 2 p. 

2. Huber, D. M, and R. D. Watson. 1972. Nitrogen form and plant disease. Down to 
Earth 27:14-15. 

3. Lavioette, F. A., T. S. Abney, J. R. Wilcox, E. H. Paschall II, and 
K. L. Athow. 1972. Indiana soybean disease and crop survey, Purdue Univ. Res. 
Prog. Rep. 410. 5 p. 

4. Warren, H. L., R. L. Nicholson, A. J. Ullstrup, and E. G. Sharvelle. 1973. 
Observations of Colletotrichum graminicola on sweet corn in Indiana. Plant Dis. Dep. 
57:143-144. 



Rhizoid Initiation in Relation to Gravitation Presentation Time 
in Marsilea Megagametophytes 

William W. Bloom and Kenneth E. Nichols 

Department of Biology 
Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 46383 

Abstract 

The initiation of rhizoid formation in unfertilized megametophytes of Marsilea spp. 
is a response to gravity. Once initiated, rhizoids will grow radially from the plant re- 
gardless of the orientation of the plant. The time required for graviperception appears 
to fall within expected ranges observed in the study of geotropic responses in sporophytes 
of higher plants. Megagametophytes of Marsilea would appear to be excellent material 
for the study of graviperception in plants. 

Introduction 

The study of graviperception in plants was reviewed in 1962 by 
Audus (1). Subsequently, a number of studies have appeared, especially 
from the Argonne National Laboratory (4, 6, 7). While the earlier 
studies dealt with presentation time and responses in shoots and roots, 
more recent studies have concentrated on the mechanisms by which 
plants are thought to perceive gravitational stimuli. Results from space 
flight studies with weightlessness have also stimulated many of the 
recent studies. Audus (1) points out that most studies dealing with 
graviperception have been concerned with geotropism of the root and 
shoot. 

We have been studying rhizoid formation in unfertilized mega- 
gametophytes of the Marsileaceae for some time, and numerous observa- 
tions lead us to believe that rhizoid formation is auxin-controlled and 
a response to the force of gravity (2, 3). Once initiated, rhizoids de- 
velop and extend more or less radially from the surface of the 
gametophyte. In our most recent studies we have attempted to deter- 
mine the age at which the gametophytes are able to perceive the force 
of gravity, the presentation time required, and the time lapse between 
perception of the stimuli and the visible response, that is, rhizoid 
formation. 

Methods 

Sporocarps of Marsilea mucronata were scarified and then hydrated 
in half -strength Hoagland's No. 2 Solution (5). When sufficient mega- 
spores were free they were transferred with a dropping pipette to agar 
plates containing half-strength Hoagland's No. 2 Solution with appro- 
priate micronutrients. Following transfer to the agar surface the excess 
water was drained from the plates. The megaspores adhere firmly to 
the surface, permitting inversion of the plates as required in the ex- 
perimental procedures to be followed. Early transfer of the megaspores 
to the agar surface usually prevents fertilization. The experiments re- 
ported here were conducted in an air-conditioned laboratory at 
23 °C ± 1°. Except for the time during manipulative procedures the 

109 



110 



Indiana Academy of Science 



plants were maintained in the dark, as previous studies had shown that 
rhizoid formation occurred equally well under light or dark conditions. 

To determine the age at which the megagametophytes are able to 
perceive the force of gravity and initiate rhizoid formation, a series 
of plates was prepared and inverted until the plants reached the follow- 
ing ages: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 hours. At the end of each period the 
appropriately marked plates were turned over so that the original 
ventral cells were now in a dorsal position. 

To determine the presentation time required for rhizoid initiation 
a second series of plates was prepared as described and held in a hori- 
zontal position with gametophytes on the upper surface for 12 hours. 
These plates were then inverted so that the former dorsally located cells 
could be subjected to the stimulus for rhizoid initiation in the new posi- 
tion. After exposure for the desired presentation time, the plates were 
returned to their former position. Presentation times of 5, 10, 15, 20, 
25, 30, 35 and 40 min were used. Plants were kept under observation 
until rhizoids had time to develop on the dorsal surface in response to 
the gravitational stimuli during the presentation time. All mega- 
gametophytes were then examined to determine how many had 
developed median-dorsal rhizoids and how many lacked such rhizoids. 

Results 

Plants inverted for 12 hours were definitely sensitive to gravita- 
tional stimuli. Those inverted for shorter periods showed little or no 
graviperception. The age at which the megagemetophytes could perceive 
gravitational stimuli are shown in Table 1. 

Table 1. Dorsal rhizoid formation on megamametophytes of Marsilea 
mucronata inverted until plants reached different ages. 



Age at time 

of turning 

in hrs. 


Plants lacking 
dorsal rhizoids 


Plants with 
dorsal rhizoids 


Total 
plants 


Per cent 

with dorsal 

rhizoids 





13 







13 


0.0 


7 


19 







19 


0.0 


8 


32 







32 


0.0 


9 


20 







20 


0.0 


10 


19 







19 


0.0 


11 


24 




1 


25 


4.0 


12 


14 




12 


26 


46.2 



Plants grown to determine the presentation time were examined 
after the appearance of rhizoids. No attempt was made to determine 
the number of dorsal rhizoids formed on each plant. While the shortest 
presentation time was adequate in a few cases, presentation times of 
10 min or longer were adequate to elicit the rhizoid-initiation response 
in a significant number of cases. The results of this experiment are 
shown in Table 2. 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 111 



Table 2. Rhizoid formation on megagametophytes of Marsilea 
mucronata in response to different presentation times. 



Presentation 


Plants lacking 


Plants with 


Total 


Per cent with 


time in min 


dorsal rhizoids 


dorsal rhizoids 


plants 


dorsal rhizoids 





27 


2 


29 


6.9 


5 


25 


6 


31 


19.4 


10 


23 


10 


33 


30.3 


15 


17 


11 


28 


42.9 


20 


21 


17 


38 


44.7 


25 


15 


6 


21 


28.6 


30 


12 


11 


23 


42.8 


35 


13 


8 


21 


38.1 


40 


11 


12 


23 


52.2 



The first visible signs of rhizoid formation were observed about 
24 hours after the presentation of the gravitational stimuli. An addi- 
tional 24 hours was required for rhizoid growth before accurate de- 
terminations could be made, 

Discussion 

Presentation times have been reported of 5-10 min at 20 °C for 
Heilanthus annuus hyocotyl; 10-15 min for Beta vulgaris hypocotyl; 
and 22-23 min for Picea pungens hypocotyl (1). In these experiments 
the cells were turned at a 90° angle for the presentation of the 
stimulus whereas our plants were turned 180°. The presentation times 
in Marsilea gametophytes appear to agree with those of sporophytic 
tissues of higher plants. 

Under the conditions of these experiments the sperm appeared 10 
hours after hydration. This would indicate that some plants perceived 
the gravitational stimulus at about the time the egg cell had been 
formed and while the gametophyte still consisted of a single layer of 
cells surrounding the central egg cell. By the time the rhizoids were 
formed the original perceptive cells would have undergone several cell 
divisions. 



Literature Cited 

1. Audus, L. J. 1962. The mechanism of the perception of gravity by plants. Symp. Soc. 
Exp. Bio. XVI: 197-226. 

2. Bloom, W. W. 1962. Some factors influencing rhizoid formation in femalegameto- 
phytes of the Marcileaceae. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 72:118-119. 

3. Bloom, W. W., and K. E. Nichols. 1972. Rhizoid formation in megagametophytes 
of Marsilea in response to growth substances, Amer. Fern J. 62:23-26. 

4. Dedolph, R. R., and M. H. Dipert. 1971. The physical basis of gravity stimulus 
nulification by clinostat rotation. Plant Physoil. 47:756-764. 



112 Indiana Academy of Science 



5. Hoagland, D. R., and D. I. Arnon. 1938. The water-culture method for growing 
plants without soil. Univ. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. 347:1-39. 

6. Shen-Miller, J., and C. Miller. 1972. Intracellular distribution of mitochondria 
after geotropic stimulation of the oat coleoptile. Plant Physiol. 50:51-54. 

7. Shen-Miller, J., and C. Miller. 1972. Distribution and activation of the Golgi 
apparatus in geotropism. Plant Physiol. 50:634-689. 



The Flora of Spencer County, Indiana. I. 

Arthur N. Mergen 

Department of Biology 

St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Indiana 47577 

Abstract 

One hundred nineteen herbaceous angiosperms and ferns were collected during 1971 
in Spencer County, Section 12, Township 4 South, Range 4 West, St. Meinrad Quadrangle. 
No grasses or sedges were included in the study. The 119 specimens represent 41 families, 
93 genera, and 119 species. A total of 34 new Spencer County records were verified by 
the Curator of the Indiana University Herbarium. 

A collection of herbaceous angiosperms and ferns was made on a 
weekly basis between January 1, 1971, and December 31, 1971, in Sec. 
12 T4S, R4W, located in Spencer County, Indiana. In addition, 

Table 1. Additional species recorded for Spencer County. 1 



BORAGINACEAE 

Lithospermum arvense L. 

Caryophyllaceae 

Stellaria pubera Michx. 
Cerastium vulgatum L. 
Dianthus Armeria L. 

Compositae 

Antennaria neglecta Greene. 

Aster pilosus Willd. 

Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walt.) DC. 

Coreopsis lanceolata L. 

Krigia biflora (Walt.) Blake. 

Solidago juncea Ait. 

Taraxacum officinale Weber. 

Matricaria Chamomilla L. 

CONVOLULACEAE 

Convolvulus sepium L. 

Cruciferae 

Brassica campestris L. 

Thlaspi arvense L. 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. 

Draba verna L. 

Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. 

Arabidopsis Thaliana (L.) Heyn. 

Fabaceae 

Vicia villosa Roth. 
Hydrophyllaceae 

Hydrophyllum macrophyllum Nutt. 



Labiatae 

Glecoma hederaceae L. 

Synandra hispidula (Michx.) Britt. 

LlLIACEAE 

Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. 
Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. 

Lycopodiaceae 

Lycopodium camplanatum L. 
var. flabelliforme Fern. 

Orchidaceae 

Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl.) Torr. 
Orobanchaceae 

Conopholis americana (L.) Wallr. 
Ranunculacae 

Actaea alba (L.) Mill. 
Rosaceae 

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne. 
Umbelliferae 

Erigenia bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt. 
Valerianaceae 

Valerianella olitoria (L.) Poll. 
Violaceae 

Viola sororia Willd. 

Viola missouriensis Greene. 



Nomenclature according to Gleason and Cronquist (9). 

113 



114 Indiana Academy of Science 

Lycopodium complanatum L. var. f lab elli forme, which was collected 
in Sec. 1, T4S, R4W, is included in this report because of its rarity. No 
grasses or sedges were collected. The 119 specimens represent 41 
families, 93 genera, and 119 species. 

Sec. 12, T4S, R4W, is representative of Spencer County as a whole 
and is located at the western margin of the Crawford Upland with an 
elevational range of 440 to 580 feet above sea level. The Anderson river 
bisects the section, and provides a small floodplain habitat. Ap- 
proximately half the section is comprised of farmland and the remaining 
half of secondary stands of oak-hickory and beech-maple along the hill- 
sides. Highway U.S. 460, Ind. 62 and a number of county roads are also 
located within the section. It was along the roadsides and the edges of 
the farmland that the vast majority of the plants within the composite 
family were found. 

Deam's Flora of Indiana (1) lists a total of 576 ferns, fern allies, 
and flowering plants identified in Spencer County. Subsequent "Indiana 
Plant Distribution Records" published in the Proceedings of the Indiana 
Academy of Science (2 thru 8) have recorded another 50 species for 
Spencer County. With the addition of the 34 new Spencer County records 
(Table 1) as of December 31, 1971, a total of 660 species have been 
identified in Spencer County. 

All specimens were deposited in the Henrietta Herbarium at St. 
Meinrad College. A voucher specimen of each new Spencer County 
record was also deposited in the Deam Herbarium at Indiana Univer- 
sity, Bloomington, Indiana. 

Acknowledgment 

The writer is indebted to Mr. Jack Humbles, former curator of the 
Deam Herbarium, for his many suggestions and for his help in verifying 
determinations of new county records. 



Literature Cited 

1. Deam, Charles C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indiana Dep. Conserv., Indianapolis. 1236 p. 

2. 1941. Indiana plant distribution records, I. 1940. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

50:72-78. 

3. 1942. Indiana plant distribution records, II. 1941. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

. 1945. Indiana plant distribution records, V. 1944. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
. 1946. Indiana plant distribution records, VI. 1945. Proc. Indiana Acad. 



51:120-129. 



54:91-99. 



Sci. 55:50-58. 

1947. Indiana plant distribution records, VII. 1946. Proc. Indiana Acad. 

Sci. 56:106-114. 

1950. Indiana plant distribution records, X. 1949. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

59:48-52. 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 115 



8. Ellis, Zoe. 1962. Indiana plant distribution records, XVIII. 1959-1961. Proc. 

Indiana Acad. Sci. 71:88-90. 

9. Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern 
United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Co., Ind., Princeton, New 
Jersey. 810 p. 



Procedures and Problems in the Incorporation of Data 
from Floras into a Computerized Data Bank 1 

Clifton Keller and Theodore J. Crovello 

Department of Biology 

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Abstract 

In a very real way, the published floras of various regions of the world are a summary 
of much of the work of past plant taxonomists. The purpose of our current research was 
to demonstrate that the value of this storehouse of data can be enhanced and serve addi- 
tional uses if it is put into a form that can be searched and rearranged easily. The pro- 
cedures that we developed to incorporate these data into a computerized data bank were 
described. This was not a simple process and we encountered problems such as missing 
data and the use of different terms in different floras to describe the same character 
state. 

Regional floras and manuals summarize the work of previous tax- 
onomists. They have been used to distinguish taxa and to identify un- 
known plant specimens. These publications may be mere checklists or 
they may be thorough and exhaustive compendiums of biological infor- 
mation that also include ecological, biogeographical and other types 
of data. Nevertheless, they are static and have missing data. 

In taxonomy, computers have been used mainly for numerical 
taxonomic studies (NT), for information retrieval (IR), for specimen 
identification and for automatic key construction. Crovello (4) provided 
a recent review. 

We feel that computerization of floras will integrate these uses, 
producing both a computerized data bank and a basic data matrix for 
detailed analysis of taxa. Transformation of data in floras to a form 
acceptable by computer should have the following advantages: 1) data 
on each taxon will be easier to retrieve and to update; 2) collation of 
data from several floras or with data from specialists, or herbarium 
specimens will be easier and more reliable; 3) elimination of 
synonymized phraseology and other editing processes should be 
easier; and most important 4) data in floras will become more 
valuable since they can be used for ecological, phenological and numeri- 
cal taxonomic studies. 

The purposes of this paper are: to describe the procedures that 
we have developed to capture information on genera of the family 
Brassicaceae from three floras, to indicate the problems that we have 
encountered, and to suggest some possible solutions. 

Materials and Methods 

The data were obtained from the descriptions of genera found in 
three recent floras. Those of Fernald (6) and of Gleason (7) cover the 



1 This project was supported partially by National Science Foundation, Office of 
Science Information Services, Grant GN-878, to Theodore J. Crovello. 

116 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 117 

northeastern United States, while the third reports on the European 
continent (9). Information was taken from both the prose descriptions 
of each taxon and from the keys to genera. 

In overview, a coding chart for characters, and character states 
was devised. Data from prose descriptions and keys found in floras were 
encoded onto punched cards. Additional codes were added to the coding 
chart as they were needed. By use of the computer, the data then were 
checked for errors, systematized, reorganized, and transferred from 
punched cards to printed lists and magnetic tape. Printed lists were 
invaluable proofreading aids and the magnetic tape was necessary for 
efficient sorting and collation with similar data sets, as well as for prep- 
aration of basic data matrices useful in taximetric comparisons, evalua- 
tion of characters, key construction, and dissemination of information 
among workers. Relevance tables (3) and scatter diagrams of the basic 
data matrices were constructed to provide additional insights regard- 
ing characters and taxa. The following paragraphs outline this pro- 
cedure in more detail. The methods are presented in a stepwise fashion. 

Data Accumulation 

1) Develop a list of characters — This is done by a preliminary, par- 
tial study of which characters have been used in the floras. For 
example, stem habit. 

2) Develop a list of character states — Again this is done by a 
perusal of parts of several floras. For example, for the character, stem 
habit, three of its character states are: a) erect; b) suberect; 3) 
procumbent. 

3) Develop an abbreviated code for each character — For simplicity 
we organized characters first by organ or type and then by a serial 
number. Thus A means it is a stem character and Al is the 
character, Stem Habit. 

4) Develop an abbreviated code for each type of character state — 

We found that many characters had the same kinds of character state. 
For example, the characters number of basal leaves and number of 
cauline leaves both use the actual number of leaves present as the state 
of the character in each taxon. This fact permits us to reduce the 
number of different character state types and codes considerably. Table 

1 gives an example of part of our coding charts. 

5) Transform each piece of data in a flora, both in keys and in 
prose descriptions, to the code that describes the state of each 
character in each genus — For example, procumbent stems in a genus 
would be transformed as Al 3. That is, referring to Table 1, it has in- 
formation on a stem character (Type A), in particular, stem habit 
(Character Al). This information is that it is procumbent 
(Character State Type 1 and Character State 3). Thus Al 3 is 
equivalent to the prose statement, "stem habit is procumbent." Table 

2 gives examples of how coded data from prose descriptions and from 
keys appear. 

6) Punch the coded data onto 80-column computer cards. 



118 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. Part of the coding charts used to extract data from floras. 



Organ Codes 


Organs 


A 
B 
C 

Character Codes 


Stems 

Rhizomes and Roots 

Basal Leaves 

Characters and Character State Type 


Al 
A2 
A3 

Character State 
Type 


Habit /I/ 
Longevity /2/ 
Stem Simple /3/ 

Character State Character States 
Codes 


1 
1 
1 


1 Erect, Scapiform, Scapose 

2 Suberect 

3 Procumbent 



Table 2. Part of the raw data from one flora, in coded form. 

Raw Data From Description (the $ indicates the beginning of a new genus). 

$1 DRABA /L15 2/L17 14 6 /LIO 1 /L17 3/M2 1/ 

$2 BERTEROA /L15 3 /L7 5 /L18 10 /H7 2 /H9 2 /RI 2/Al 1/ 

$3 LOBULARIA /L15 3/L7 11 7 /M17 1 2 /H7 2 /H10 1 /M13 1/ 

Raw Data From Keys (the first and last number on each line are couplet numbers) 

I/D3 2 /D10 43 25 / 2 

2/L4 128/L15 3 3 

3/L19 3 9 1 /L168 3 /L17 1 /M9 1 4 



8/A27 3/A60 3 /L7 36 27 4/M19 1 TAXON (1 Draba) 
8/A29 3/A62 1 /L7 6 /M19 92 9 



Data Processing 

Because of the number of calculations and rearrangements of data 
required, the following Data Processing steps would not be practical 
without a digital computer. All of the necessary programs were written 
by the authors in the PLI computer language. All data processing was 
done on The University of Notre Dame's IBM 370/155 computing 
system. In the following paragraphs the terms given in parentheses 
in capital letters refer to individual computer programs. This permits 
easy reference to them and also should indicate to the reader that this 
is not a simple, one-step process. 

7) Transform the coded data from keys into the same format as 
used in prose descriptions — This program also automatically checks 
for certain coding and key punching errors (KEY-CONVERT). 

8) Rearrange data from both prose descriptions and keys into card 
image format — This program also checks for certain coding and key 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 



119 



punching errors. Arrange data by taxon using information from one 
or more floras. Print these results and also write them on magnetic tape 
for later use ( CARD-IMAGE ) . 

9) Integrate data from different floras into one data set but this 
time sorted by character and character state codes — (COLLATE). 

10) Search the above files to produce one integrated description — 

This may be of a particular genus based on several floras. Conversely, 
produce an efficient, non-dichotomous key by asking for data from all 
genera but only for those characters that an unidentified specimen has 
(RETRIEVE). 

11) Create a character by taxon Basic Data Matrix from the 
above files — This table is the first step in further evaluation and com- 
parison of data using the methods of numerical taxonomy (CREATE 
BDM). 

12) Edit the Basic Data Matrix — This is done with the help of two 
programs (RELVNT, UNIQUE). They calculate the three types of 
relevance suggested by Crovello (3). The taxonomist then could delete 
those characters or genera for which there is little information. This 
would give more reliable numerical taxonomic results, but the results 
would be for fewer genera. Alternately, the taxonomist could retain 
all characters and attempt to increase character relevance by collecting 
data from preserved specimens, field studies or other data sources. 

Results 

The procedures that we developed allow us to capture floristic data 
both from descriptive phrases and keys. This is the first step in the for- 
mation of a computer data bank for genera and species of the Bras- 
sicaceae. Our procedure not only provided an unexpectedly large 
number of characters displayed in an integrated and understandable 
form, but now allows us to coordinate our knowledge, using methods 
of numerical taxonomy. 

Another use of the computerization of floristic data is the 
characterization of the contents of each publication. Table 3 contains 
some of the summaries that are possible. From Table 3 we note that 
Flora Europaea has more than twice as many genera as the American 



Table 3. Summary of data from three floras for genera of the Brassicaceae. 











Summary 








Flora 


of Three 




Gray (6) 


Gleason (7) 


Europaea ( 9 ) 


Floras 


Number of Genera 


43 


48 


104 


127 


Total Pieces of Data 


820 


1315 


1846 


3981 


Average Number 


10.9 


20.7 


17.7 


— 


of Data Per Genus 










Total number of 


127 


162 


144 


263 


Different Characters, 










Each Used at Least Once 











120 Indiana Academy of Science 

floras and has the most total data. But it is intermediate between the 
two American floras in the average amount of data per genus and in 
the total number of different characters used. Such information can 
help taxonomists to decide which treatments to consult the first time 
as well as to estimate the degree of overlapping information in different 
floras. 

Finally, the actual extraction and coding of data from floras was 
done by an undergraduate student working in the herbarium. While 
quite intelligent, his primary interest was not botany. This suggests 
that much of the labor need not be performed by the already over- 
worked professional plant taxonomist. 

Problems 

Mechanical problems such as key-punching errors are readily found 
and corrected either by computer or by careful proofreading. But others 
are more difficult to detect. Characters or character states, particularly 
those from keys, may represent only a small sample of the taxon under 
investigation. Another problem is synonymized phrases. This occurs 
when different words are used to describe the same character state, 
e.g. y leaves hairy versus leaves pubescent. Observation of the outputs 
from COLLATE and UNIQUE should serve as guides to detect such 
errors. Since COLLATE sorts the data by the characters and character 
state codes, data regarding a given character and character states are 
in close proximity. This simplifies recognition of codes which differ. 
UNIQUE tells how many times a character and character state is used 
by each of the sources. Thus when several sources recognize a par- 
ticular character as important and another author fails to do so, 
chances are good that he has not overlooked this character but has used 
a synonymized phrase. RELVNT may be helpful in location of such 
phrases. Particular attention to those characters with low relevance 
may be rewarding since low character relevance frequently is a result 
of one of the above types of error, or it is a character that should be 
noted because of its particular diagnostic importance. Missing data and 
relative reliability of data within and among floras are two other recog- 
nized problems which may be solved in part by our methods, since it 
is able to encompass data from many sources. Such reinforcement of 
the state of a character in a genus by combining estimates of its value 
from several floras should increase accuracy. Additional problems recog- 
nized by us but not yet dealt with adequately include: a) modified 
character states, e.g., usually long, or moderately long; b) measure- 
ments given as ranges rather than as more meaningful statistics; c) 
vague statements, e.g. south to Georgia and Mississippi; d) "not" 
phrases in keys, e.g., without combination of characters described 
above; and e) different author's concepts of what each taxon encom- 
passes. This is not too serious for genera, but it may prove frustrating 
at the species level. 

Discussion 

A major reason for undertaking this project was to demonstrate 
that the huge amounts of information currently present in our published 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 121 

floras has an even greater value than currently thought. We believe 
that, as for herbaria (5), intelligent use of the computer can help us 
to realize this increased value of floristic work. A second reason for 
pursuing this project is our belief that such easily obtainable data, when 
coupled with simple numerical taxonomy, can be an efficient way for 
new workers to gain insights into relationships among all of the taxa 
of a group. Although inaccuracies doubtless exist in the data we cap- 
tured, most of the information should be reliable. As workers new to the 
study of the Brassicaceae, we feel that the preliminary taximetric 
analysis that we shall perform will give us sufficient insights into 
simultaneous generic relationships to justify the effort expended in the 
extraction of these data from the floras. 

Baker (1) stressed the need for a flexible key to be used for larger 
and incompletely known genera. He adopted an edge-punched card 
system that was both rapid and effective. But computers provide even 
greater flexibility and efficiency since: a) they are not limited by the 
168 numbered holes of his punched card; b) they are not limited to sort- 
ing on key characters, since their format yields readily to statistical 
approaches; and c) their files are easier to update and to reproduce so 
that information can be shared with other workers. 

The Morse (8) program package for computer-assisted identifica- 
tion requires a Basic Data Matrix and the storage of keys which ap- 
pears to be more of an end product of a specialist's research rather than 
the flexible tool needed as the Basic Data Matrix is being created. We 
feel that capture of data from floras is an important first step which 
should increase efficiency in construction of final keys by Morse's 
program. 

Character and character state selection is of greatest importance 
especially when information is to be shared by several workers. Selec- 
tion of single word descriptions (e.g., leaves mostly entire) allows us 
to reduce the probability of errors, but arrangement and comparison 
of all the various ways in which a statement may be given make 
standardization extremely difficult. 

Except for an unpublished pilot study in Carex by the Flora North 
America Prograin and for data from several species of northeastern 
United States genera used by Morse (8) in his computer-generated keys, 
we know of no other computer assisted studies of this kind by others. 
Crovello (2) earlier extracted data on Salix species from a California 
flora. Because he also had extensive data on these species collected by 
himself, he could estimate the reliability of that floristic data. It proved 
less reliable, but still useful. 

Our next step is to build a reliable data base of taxa of the 
Brassicaceae to use as a standard against which we can compare the 
floristic data discussed in this paper. If data from several floras does 
prove reliable, we hope that our methods may be of use in the Flora 
North America Program, where perhaps 50% of the genera will not be 
treated by specialists in those particular taxa. Our procedures may 
prove to be an efficient way to generate a "first draft" of the character 



122 Indiana Academy of Science 



by species Basic Data Matrix necessary in the production of a sound 
Flora North America. 



Literature Cited 

1. Baker, H. A. 1970. A key for the genus Erica L. using edge-punched cards. 
J. So. African Bot. 36:151-156. 

2. Crovello, T. J. 1968. The effect of missing data and of two sources of character 
values on a phenetic study of the willows of California. Madrono 19:301-315. 

3. 1968. The different concepts of relevance in a numerical taxonomic 



study. Nature 218:492. 



1970. Analysis of character variation in ecology and systematics. Annu. 



Rev. Ecol. and Systm. 1:55-98. 

5. 1972. Computerization of specimen data from the Edward Lee Greene 

Herbarium (ND-G) at Notre Dame. Brittonia 24:131-141. 

6. Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co., New York, 
N. Y. 1632 p. 

7. Gleason, H. A. 1963. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora. Hafner Publish- 
ing Co., New York, N. Y. 655 p. 

8. Morse, L. E. 1971. Specimen identification and key construction with time-sharing 
computers. Taxon 20:269-282. 

9. Tutin, T. D. (ed.). 1964. Flora Europaea. Volume 1. Cambridge University Press, 
Cambridge, England. 464 p. 



Studies in Indiana Bryophytes XV 

Winona H. Welch 

Department of Botany and Bacteriology 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

Abstract 

Aulacomnium androgynum (Hedw.) Schwaegr. and Fissidens exilis Hedw., new to 
the flora of Indiana, were described and illustrated. These two species increase the number 
of mosses known to be present in Indiana to 230 species, 39 varieties, and 9 forms, repre- 
senting 97 genera and 27 families, with a total of 278 kinds. 

Two species of mosses, determined by Howard Crum, University 
of Michigan, were forwarded to me for examination because they were 
new records for Indiana: Aulacomnium androgynum (Hedw.) Schwaegr. 
and Fissidens exilis Hedw. They were discovered among numerous 
species, collected by Mrs. Patricia Armstrong (Mrs. Charles), in Porter 
County, and sent to Dr. Crum for determination in 1971. These mosses 
increase the Indiana list of known species to 230, varieties 39, and forms 
9, representing 97 genera and 27 families, with a total of 278 kinds. 
Fragments of these collections are deposited in the DePauw University 
Herbarium. 

Aulacomniaceae 

Aulacomnium androgynum (Hedw.) Schwaegr. Plants erect, in 
tufts, 1.5-3 cm high, occasionally to 7 cm., yellowish-green to green 
above. Leaves (dry) ± crispate, lanceolate or narrowly ovate- 
lanceolate, 1.25-2.5 X 0.45 - 0.68 mm, 2.5-4:1, occasionally to 5 mm long. 
Costa single, strong, narrowing upward and extending to apex, nearly 
to point, occasionally percurrent, often meandering above, 60-175^ wide 
at base, to 22.5-50^, wide at apex. Apices acute, ending in a sharp point 
or a single cell. Margins often narrowly revolute, here and there or 
throughout, the apical margins entire, serrate, or denticulate. Cells of 
leaves mostly quadrate, sometimes rectangular, the upper ones often 
rounded, usually unipapillose, sometimes minutely so to smooth, incras- 
sate throughout, or upper walls incrassate and the lower ones thinner. 
The basal cells scarcely differentiated or not at all enlarged. Upper cells 
12 X 7.5,*, 1.5:1, the median 8.5-13.5 X 6.5-12^, 1-2:1. Papillae 
blunt, commonly to 3.4^ long, occasionally to 6^. Pseudopodia fre- 
quently present, to 5 mm long, bearing at end a spherical head of small 
fusiform, stalked brood-bodies, 60-67.5 X 30-37.5,*, 1.5-2.5:1. The stalks 
hyaline or color of brood-body, 15-30,* long, the brood-bodies of 5-6 cells. 
Dioecious. Calyptra split on one side, cucullate, smooth, 3.25 X 0.48 mm, 
6.5-7:1, fugacious. Seta smooth, to 2 cm long. Capsule suberect, erect, 
or horizontal. Operculum conic, 0.55-0.63 X 0.5-0.8 mm, longer than 
wide, 0.575 X 0.5 mm, ± 1:1, or wider than long, 0.55-0.63 mm 
long X 0.58-0.8 mm in diameter, ± 1:1. Urn oblong or cylindric, 
longitudinally ribbed [6-8], 1.5-2 X 0.5-0.75 mm, 2-3.5:1, occasionally 
ca. 3 X 1 mm. Peristome teeth linear-lanceolate, subulate acuminate; 
segments lanceolate-subulate; basal membrane ca. 1/2 height of teeth, 

123 



124 Indiana Academy of Science 

cilia 2-3, between segments. Spores 7-10^, in diameter, pale, smooth, 
mature in early summer. 

Habitat: In damp, very moist, or wet and swampy woods or 
forests, in shaded areas, along rivers and creeks, near lakes and 
harbors, in ravines or gulches, or along roadsides; at base of tree 
trunks, on decaying trees or logs, on stumps, soil, sand, charred wood, 
occasionally in medium dry sites, on dry logs, and on cliffs; to at least 
1500 m altitude. 

Indiana distribution: Porter County, swampy woods, Indiana Sand 
Dunes, April 1968, collected by Patricia Armstrong, No. 92. 

Aulacomnium androgynum differs from A. heterostichum and A. 
palustre, the other species known in Indiana, in the following ways: A 
heterostichum leaves elongate-ovate, apices obtuse and apiculate to 
subulate, margins strongly and coarsely toothed in upper 1/2-2/3; 
A. palustre leaves lanceolate or oblong, apices acute to slenderly 
acuminate, margins ± denticulate near apex, basal cells swollen, and 
leaf -like brood-bodies in a cluster at upper end of pseudopodium ; and 
A. androgynum leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, apices acute, 
margins entire below, often serrulate in apex, basal cells scarcely or 
not at all differentiated, and brood-bodies fusiform in sphere at upper 
end of pseudo-podium. (Fig. 1). 

Fissidentaceae 

Fissidens exilis Hedw. Plants minute, rather closely gregarious 
or scattered, dark green. According to Steere, "Protonema abundant, 
persistent." Stems simple, erect, or somewhat prostrate or inclined 
below and ascending above, to about 2 mm long X 0.5 mm wide with 
leaves. The leaves erect-spreading, slightly contorted (dry), in 2-4 pairs, 
the lower ones very small, the upper blades larger, obliquely lanceolate- 
oblong, lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate, all near apex of stem, some 
slightly curved, the upper ones 0.45-2 X 0.15-0.5 mm, 1.5-6:1, the lower 
ones about 0.35 X 0.12 mm, ± 3:1. Border none. Costa strong, extend- 
ing almost into apex, subpercurrent, or rarely percurrent, 22.5-37.5^ 
wide at base, narrowing upward, 15-22.5^ wide near apex. Apices acute, 
sharply so, obtusely acuminate, or obtuse and apiculate. Margins suben- 
tire to irregularly crenate above with projecting transverse walls of the 
cells, the margins of the vaginant or sheathing lamina conspicuously, 
strongly, and rather regularly crenate-dentate. Vaginant or sheathing 
lamina ± 1/2 length of leaf, narrowing above to costa. The dorsal or 
inferior lamina narrowing downward and ending above leaf attachment 
to axis. Cells smooth, those of margins especially, and often other cells, 
incrassate. The marginal cells commonly ± quadrate. In basal portion 
of leaf, the interior cells often rectangular. The quadrate cells 
10-18.5 X 6-12/x, 1-2:1; the rectangular ones 22-25.5 X 8.5-10^, 
2.5-3:1. Upper leaf cells irregular, polygonal to ± regularly hexagonal, 
10-15^ in diameter. The basal cells elongate, 40-60 X 5-10/x, 
4-12:1. Dioecious or autoecious. Calyptra not seen. According to Steere, 
"Very small, covering beak of operculum only, shed very early." 
Sporophyte terminal. Seta smooth throughout, to 6 mm long, often 






Botany and Plant Taxonomy 



125 




Figures 1-17. 1-9. Aulacomnium androgynum. 1. Upper portion of plant with naked 
pseudopodium. 2. Head of pseudopodium showing outlines of brood-bodies. 3. Outline of 
portion of spherical head of pseudopodium, with fusiform brood-bodies. 4. Cluster of 
stalked, fusiform brood-bodies. 5 & 6. Cauline leaves in outline. 7. Apical margin of leaf. 
8. Calyptra. 9. Operculum, urn, and upper seta. Figures 1-7 from Armstrong 92, 
Indiana (DPU); 8-9 from Eyerdam 2231, California (DPU). Figures 10-17. Fissid- 
exilis, 10. Plant, with sporophyte, one pair of upper leaves, and one lower leaf. 11. Plant 
with urn, seta, and pair of upper leaves. 12. Seta, urn, and remnant of peristome. 13. Sub- 
stratum, seta, and urn. 14-16. Upper leaves. 17. Portion of crenate-denticulate margin of 
vaginant or sheathing lamina (enlarged, free-hand). Figures 10-17 from Patricia 
Armstrong 77, Indiana (DPU). 



126 Indiana Academy of Science 

shorter, 2-4 mm, reddish with age. Capsule erect, minute, symmetric. 
Operculum conic-rostrate, beak usually small, 0.2-0.4 X 0.12-0.25 mm, 
1.5-2:1. Urn elliptric to cylindric, 0.4-0.8 X 0.2-0.35 mm, 1.5-3.5:1. 
Neck ± 0.12 mm long. Annulus present, 2-3 rows of cells. Peristome 
teeth not seen. According to Steere, "Red when mature, ca. 0.33 mm 
long." Spores not seen. Steere states, "Smooth, 10-12^ in diameter, 
mature in winter." 

Habitat: On bare clay soil, on a soil hummock in a marshy area, and 
on heavy clay in wet spot of a woods. 

Indiana distribution: Porter County, on heavy clay, in wet spot, 
in the Bowers Woods, across from an orchard. Collected by Patricia 
Armstrong, No. 77 1 . 

This moss is not collected often in the United States, it seems. An 
excellent description of the first plants of this species found in North 
America was described by Dr. W. C. Steere (4). This description was 
based, primarily, on two collections, fruiting, made by M. B. Walters, 
March 24, 1947 and March 24, 1948, on bare clay soil near mouth of a 
ravine, North Chagrin Reservation of the Cleveland Metropolitan Park 
System, Cleveland, Ohio. It was sent to Steere by the late H. S. Conard. 
Dr. Conard later shared this collection with me, also, for the DePauw 
University Herbarium. 

In my herbarium, too, I have a fruiting collection made by Dr. Paul 
Biebel, No. 210, April 4, 1967, on a soil hummock in a marshy area near 
a saw mill, elevation ca. 215 m, in Florence Jones Reineman Wildlife 
Sanctuary, Blue Mountain, Perry County, Pennsylvania. This collection 
was verified by Dr. Harold Robinson, May 1967, and was regarded at that 
time as the third report in the United States. 

This paper describes and illustrates in the Indiana Moss Series, 
the first known report of the species in Indiana, also with fruit. 

Acknowledgements 

The author is indebted to the Graduate Council of DePauw Univer- 
sity and to the Indiana Academy of Science for aid in research; to Mrs. 
Armstrong for the fragments of the species for study and drawings; 
and to Dr. Howard Crum for the original determinations and referring 
the collections to me as new Indiana records for the series of Studies 
in Indiana Bryophytes. 



1 Mrs. Armstrong has written me that the Bowers Woods property, in which she 
collected the Fissidens, is immediately south of U. S. Highway Route 6, near old Suman 
Road and is owned by the University of Chicago. She is Assistant in Education, The 
Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois 60532. 



Botany and Plant Taxonomy 127 



Literature Cited 

1. Conard, H. S. 1956. How to know the mosses and liverworts. Wm. C. Brown 
Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 226 p. 

2. Dixon, H. N. 1924. The student's handbook of British mosses. Weldon & Wesley 
Publ. Co., London, Eng. 582 p. 

3. Sayre, G. 1935. Aulacomniaceae, p. 149-152. In A. J. Grout, Moss flora of North 
America north of Mexico. Published by the author, Newfane, Vt. 285 p. 

4. Steere, W. C. 1950. Notes on Fissidens. II. The discovery of Fissidens exilis in 
North America. The Bryologist 53:131-136. 

5. Welch, W. H. 1957. Mosses of Indiana. Indiana Dep. Conserv., Indianapolis. 478 p. 



CELL BIOLOGY 

Chairman : Charles W. Goff, Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47907 

Carl Godzeski, Eli Lilly Research Wing, 

Marion County General Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana 46200, 

was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

Bovine Thyroid Glutamate Dehydrogenase, John D. Larson and 
Arthur R. Schulz, Department of Biochemistry, Indiana University 
School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202. Glutamate de- 
hydrogenase is located in the mitochondrial matrix of liver, brain and 
kidney. In contrast, we have identified glutamate dehydrogenase activity 
in both the cytosol and mitochondrial fractions of the thyroid gland. 
The cytosol fraction of bovine thyroid tissue contains 20 to 30 times 
as much glutamate dehydrogenase as the mitochondria fraction. The 
presence of glutamate dehydrogenase activity in the cytosol of thyroid 
tissue does not appear to be due to rupture of mitochondria during iso- 
lation because NAD-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase and pyruvate 
dehydrogenase activities are found almost entirely in the mitochondrial 
fraction. Thyroid cytosol glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduc- 
tion of a-keto-glutarate in the presence of ammonia with either 
NADH or NADPH as the electron donor, and the oxidation of glutamate 
with either NAD+ or NADP+ as the electron acceptor. The reaction 
in either direction is activated by ADP and inhibited by GTP. This 
enzyme has been partially purified. The possible physiological sig- 
nificance of thyroid cytosol glutamate dehydrogenase was discussed. 

Elongation and Desaturation of Fatty Acids in Aspergillus niger. 

Rex Shellenbarger and Alice Bennett, Department of Biology, Ball 
State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The elongation and de- 
saturation of fatty acids was investigated by studying the fate of 
1- 14 C labeled lauric, myristic, and stearic acids added to submerged 
cultures of Aspergillus niger. The mycelium produced oleic and lin oleic 
acids from l- 14 C-lauric and l- 14 C-stearic acids and to only a slight 
extent from myristic acid. Stearic acid was the principal labeled 
saturated fatty acid produced when lauric acid was the substrate, but 
both palmitic and stearic acids were produced in reduced amounts from 
myristic acid. Myristic acid has been reported to be a poor precursor 
for long chain fatty acids in Penicillium chrysogenum as well. A time 
study revealed that oleic acid was the initial C 18 unsaturated fatty acid 
formed from all three precursors. The absence of label in fatty acids 
shorter than the added substrates indicated the oxidation followed by 
de novo synthesis did not occur. Periodate-permanganate oxidation data 
verified that de novo synthesis did not occur. When l- 14 C-lauric acid 
was the substrate, Schmidt decarboxylation data indicated that one- 
half of the label was in the 1 -position of stearic acid, suggesting that 
direct elongation was not the predominant pathway. The results of these 
experiments suggest that the elongation of fatty acids is preceded by 

129 



130 Indiana Academy of Science 

removal of acetate groups which are used preferentially for chain 
elongation and not de novo synthesis. 

Distribution and Characterization of Ganglioisdes in Mammary Gland 
and Milk. T. W. Keenan and D. James Morre, Departments of 
Animal Sciences and Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Gangliosides, which are sialic acid contain- 
ing glycosphingolipids, were identified as constituents of bovine 
mammary gland and of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), a 
membrane which is derived directly from the apical plasma membrane 
of mammary secretory cells. Although gangliosides were enriched in 
MFGM, contrary to expectations, they were not specifically localized 
in the surface membrane. Gangliosides were found in all subcellular 
membrane fractions examined and in particulate free supernatant frac- 
tions. Milk contained approximately 5.6 nanomoles of ganglioside sialic 
acid per milliliter. About 90 per cent of the milk gangliosides were found 
in the MFGM; most of the remainder were in milk serum. Gangliosides 
from both mammary gland and the MFGM were predominantely of the 
monosialo-type. Both N-acetyl- and N-glycoyl-neuraminic acids were 
present in ganglioside fractions. Glucose, galactose and galactosamine 
were also present in ganglioside fractions. Major fatty acyl residues 
in gangliosides were 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 22:0, 23:0 and 24:0. At least six 
chromatographically distinguishable gangliosides were present in both 
mammary gland and MFGM. In vivo experiments with 14 C-glucosamine 
revealed that mammary gland is the site of synthesis of gangliosides 
secreted with milk. Rat mammary carcinomas contained nearly twice 
as much ganglioside sialic acid as control tissue as well as elevated 
protein-bound sialic acid. The results support a role for gangliosides 
in tumorigenesis. 

Relationship of Long Chain Fatty Acids in Sphingolipids to Membrane 
Stability. T. W. Keenan, Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Subnormal levels of fatty acids 

with 20 to 26 carbons in sphingolipids are associated with defective 
myelination. This has led to the postulation that long chain fatty 
acids contribute to membrane stability and cohesiveness. To test this 
hypothesis various organs (rat heart, spleen, lung and liver and 
bovine mammary gland) were homogenized in isotonic sucrose and the 
homogenates were fractionated into total membrane and particulate- 
free supernatant fractions by centrifugation at 150,000 gravity for 90 
minutes. It was reasoned that unstable membrane material would 
fragment during processing and would be present in supernatant frac- 
tions. Supernatant fractions contained from one-eighth (lung) to one- 
half (liver) of the total phospholipid of the organs. Sphigomyelin 
accounted for 3.6 to 13.4 per cent of the total phospholipid in mem- 
brane fractions and 3 to 7.3 per cent of the total phospholipids of 
supernatant fractions. The percentage of long chain (20 to 24 carbons) 
fatty acids in total membrane and supernatant sphingomyelin fractions, 
respectively, were: 63 and 60 per cent (spleen); 86 and 80 per cent 
(liver) ; 67 and 59 per cent (heart) ; 77 and 26 per cent (lung) ; and 69 
and 53 per cent (mammary gland). Incubation of tissue for extended 
periods before fractionation increased the proportion of sphingomyelin 



Cell Biology 131 

in supernatant fractions. After overnight incubation sphingomyelin from 
supernatant fractions contained only 9 per cent long chain acids whereas 
membrane fractions contained 44 to 60 per cent long chain acids. This 
suggests that lipoproteins containing sphingolipids with shorter chain 
fatty acids are released more readily from membranes. 

Characterization of Nucleoside Diphosphatase Relative to Cytochemical 
Studies. Wayne D. Klohs, Charles W. Goff, and Erna Beiser, 
Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

Indiana 47809. The influence of the conditions and constituents of 

the cytochemical assay medium for nucleoside diphosphatase (NDPase) 
on the activity of this enzyme in Golgi apparatus enriched fractions 
was determined. The enzyme was normally assayed as inosine diphos- 
phatase. Two millimoles of manganese chloride activated nucleoside 
diphosphatase maximally, although both calcium chloride and mag- 
nesium chloride also effectively supported enzyme activity. The 
greatest nucleoside diphosphatase activity occurred at pH 4.8 and 7.0, 
with considerable activity remaining between these peaks. Uridine 
diphosphate, guanosine diphosphate, and inosine diphosphate were 
hydrolyzed more rapidly than other substrates tested. Storage at 4° 
Centigrade for 4 days resulted in a doubling of the neutral pH 
nucleoside diphosphatase activity while the activity at pH 4.8 showed 
no such increase. Treatment with deoxycholate or Triton X-100 acti- 
vates the pH 7.0 activity, and also appears to at least partially 
solubilize the enzyme from the membrane. Nucleoside diphosphatase 
can be partially inhibited by treatment with potassium chloride, 
sodium fluoride or uranyl nitrate, and enzyme activity is almost totally 
eliminated after exposure of the enzyme preparation to 60° Centigrade 
for 30 minutes. Glutaraldehyde and lead nitrate, two reagents to which 
nucleoside diphosphatase is exposed when studied cytochemically, 
greatly reduced enzyme activity. However, nucleoside diphosphatase 
activity of the Golgi enriched fraction was inhibited to a greater 
degree by glutaraldehyde fixation than was the activity of intact 
tissue fixed in glutaraldehyde. 

A Cytochemical Survey of Nucleoside Diphosphatase in Certain Plant 
and Animal Cells. Gary DeVillez and Charles W. Goff, Department 
of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. The ultrastructural localization of nucleoside diphosphatase 

activity was compared in radish root hairs (Burpee white radish) and 
in ductus epididymidis and duodenum of the adult white mouse. The 
cytochemical medium used was essentially that of Novikoff and Gold- 
fischeri (1961) except that the final concentration of both 
manganese and lead ions was two millimolar. Inosine diphosphate was 
utilized as substrate in all cases. In root hair cells reaction product was 
localized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus 
while reaction product was found in the Golgi apparatus, but not in 
endoplasmic reticulum, of epididymal secretory cells and duodenal 
absorptive cells. Reaction product was also found on the nuclear en- 
velope of certain duodenal absorptive cells, the intensity of which often 
varied from one nucleus to another. The rough endoplasmic reticulum 
reaction product occurred consistently and uniformly along the entire 



132 Indiana Academy of Science 

length of the root hair cell. Rough endoplasmic reticulum activity was 
also observed in the epidermal cell from which the root hair 
originated. 

These localizations are consistent with those reported by other 
workers to contain nucleoside dephosphatase in either plant or animal 
cells. At this time it is not possible to suggest the significance of 
nucleoside dephosphatase localization, in terms of extent and distribu- 
tion of reaction product, in the different cell types studied. 

Morphogenesis of Glandular Hairs of Cannabis sativa L. from Scanning 
Electron Microscopy. Charles T. Hammond and Paul G. Mahlberg, 
Department of Plant Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 
47401. Three distinct types of glandular hairs of increasing mor- 
phological complexity which occur on flowering tops of Cannabis sativa 
(marihuana) are described from scanning electron microscopy. These 
gland types termed bulbous, capitate-sessile, and capitate-stalked, occur 
on pistillate plants in greatest abundance on the outer surface of bracts 
ensheathing the ovary. Bulbous and capitate-sessile glands which arise 
at an early stage in bract development are scattered over the bract 
surface. Mature bulbous glands have a small swollen head on a short 
stalk whereas capitate-sessile glands have a large globular head 
attached directly to the bract surface. Because of their numbers and 
large size, capitate-sessile glands are the most conspicuous gland type 
during the early phase of bract development. Capitate-stalked glands 
which have a large globular head on a tall, angled stalk arise during 
subsequent bract development. These stalked glands first differentiate 
along the bracteal veins and then over the entire bract surface. A 
voluminous, fluid secretory product accumulates in the glandular head 
of all three gland types. These glands are believed to be a primary site 
of localization of the marihuana hallucinogen, tetrahydrocannabinol. 

Histochemistry and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Starch Grains 
from Latex of Euphorbia terracina L. and Euphorbia tirucalli L. 

Paul Mahlberg, Department of Plant Sciences, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana 47401. The morphology and distribution of 

starch grains in the various tissues of the embryo and the morphology 
of the starch grains isolated from the latex of two species of Euphorbia 
was compared by histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. In 
Euphorbia terracina they are elongated and greater in diameter at the 
midregion than at the tips while in Euphorbia tirucalli they are osteoid. 
Small accessory grains may be fused to the elongated grain in 
Euphorbia terracina. Starch grains varied in size in both species al- 
though in Euphorbia tirucalli the largest grains which measured 49u 
were approximately twice the length of those in Euphorbia terracina 
(27u). The enlarged ends on the osteoid grain may vary in shape or size 
on individual grains. The morphology of starch grains in adjacent 
parenchyma cells in both species is round and dissimilar from that in 
laticifers. Plastid specialization suggests that the morphology of the 
starch grain is species specific in laticifers and as a character may be 
useful for taxonomic analyses or for interpreting plastid phylogeny 
in laticifers in different species and possibly genera within a family. 






Cell Biology 133 

A Radiation-Induced Paracentric Inversion in Aedes aegypti (L.) I. 
Cytogenetics and Interchromosomal Effects. James J. McGivern and 
Karamjit S. Rai, Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. A paracentric inversion in one of the 

autosomes (Linkage Group 2) in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes 
aegypti, was induced by gamma irradiation. This inversion was 
originally detected through suppression of recombination in a certain 
segment of Linkage Group 2 and confirmed by cytological analysis. 
Female inversion heterozygotes showed normal fertility (approx. 85 
per cent) while the fertility of the male heterozygous for the inversion 
was approximately 45 per cent. Attempts to isolate inversion 
homozygotes were unsuccessful. Backcrosses involving females 
heterozygous for the inversion and certain markers on Linkage Groups 
1 and 3 and karyotypically normal multiple marker stocks, showed a 
significant increase in crossing over indicating interchromosomal effects 
of this inversion on recombination. 

An Assay for GABA Receptors of the Rat Cerebellum. J. M. 

Schaeffer, J. H. Clark, and E. J. Peck, Jr., Department of 
Biological Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. — — 
Autoradiographic studies have revealed that y-aminobutyric acid 
(GABA) is accumulated and stored in the nerve-endings of two cell 
types in the rat cerebellar cortex, the basket and stellate cells. In the 
present investigation techniques analogous to those used in studies of 
bacterial transport have been employed to examine the capacity of iso- 
lated nerve-ending particles or synaptosomes of the cerebellar cortex 
to bind 3 H-GABA. Synaptosomes were isolated from rat cerebellar 
cortical tissue by standard techniques. After incubation with varying 
concentrations of 3 H-GABA at 0-4° Centigrade in the presence or 
absence of the phthalide isoquinoline, bicuculline (BIC), the synapto- 
somes were filtered and washed using Millipore filters (0.8 micron pore 
size). The filters were solubilized and bound 3 H-GABA was measured 
using a scintillation counter. A rectangular hyperbolic relationship is 
observed for GABA binding as a function of the concentration of 
GABA in the media. Double reciprocal analyses indicate that the bind- 
ing of BIC is strictly competitive with GABA binding. Estimates of the 
K d for the receptor* GABA and receptor* BIC complexes are 
0.9-2.5xl0- 5 molar and ~2xl0- 5 molar respectively. 



Separation of Plant Membrane Proteins by Ion Exchange 
Chromatography 1 

Wayne N. Yunghans and D. James Morre 
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 

and 

J. H. Cherry 

Department of Horticulture 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

A fraction enriched in plasma membranes from onion stem was fractionated on a 
DEAE-cellulose column using a linear gradient of KC1 from 0.0 to 0.4 molar in 1 per cent 
Triton X-100. Qualitative resolution by gel electrophoresis showed that a major protein 
component was separated from the other membrane proteins. The procedure provides a 
purified fraction in sufficient quantity to permit biochemical characterization. 

Progress toward an understanding of the nature and function of 
membrane proteins has been hampered by the lack of methods for pre- 
paring a single species of membrane protein in sufficient quantity for 
biochemical analysis. This note describes a technique suitable for sep- 
arating plant membrane proteins. 

Membrane fractions were isolated from stems of green onions as 
previously described (2, 3, 6). A fraction rich in "heavy" plasma 



100 




FRACTION NUMBER 
3 ml/fraction 

Figure 1. Elution profile on DEAE-cellulose showing the distribution of protein as 

measured by the Lowry procedure. Solid line represents /j,g protein per ml and the dashed 

line represents the linear elution gradient of KCl from 0.0 to 0.U M. 



1 Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Paper No. 4971. Work 
supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health (1 ROl CA 
13145-01), the National Science Foundation (GB 23183) and the Indiana Heart 
Association. 



134 



Cell Biology 135 

membrane (8) was chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose (diethylamino- 
ethyl cellulose) (1). Membranes (10 mg protein) solubilized in 
Triton X-100 (1%) were placed on the column and the proteins were 
eluted from the column using a linear gradient of KC1 from 0.0 to 
0.4 m (containing 1% Triton X-100). Fractions were collected and 
protein was precipitated in 5% trichloroacetic acid and 50% acetone 
(final concentration). The insoluble material was analyzed qualitatively 
using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (5, 7) and quantitively by 
measuring total protein (4). 

The protein elution profile from the DEAE-cellulose column as 
determined by the Lowry method (Fig. 1) showed high amounts of 
protein in Fractions 9 through 30. When resolved by electrophoresis 
on polyacrylamide gels, a sample from pooled Fractions 28-29 showed 
a single major protein having an electrophoretic mobility corresponding 
to protein band A of the total membrane fraction (Fig. 2). In contrast, 
a sample from pooled Fractions 17-22 gave a mixture of proteins with 
band B being predominant. Other fractions from the column contained 
varying amounts of these major bands and smaller amounts of minor 
bands. The results show that a specific protein fraction (band A) from 
plant membranes can be prepared using DEAE-cellulose chromatog- 
raphy. By expanding the procedure, sufficient quantities of a protein 
fraction can be obtained to permit a biochemical characterization. 

FRACTIONS 

TOTAL 17-22 28-29 



n ^|j|^^^^ an^nMH^ JMBWjIIMfc 

B — 
C — 





Figure 2. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins. Total = total 
membrane. R = ribonuclease. O = origin. 



136 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Literature Cited 

1. Arias, I. M., D. Doyle, and R. T. Schimke, 1969. Studies on the synthesis and 
degradation of proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum of rat liver. J. Biol. Chem. 

244:3303-3315. 

2. Hardin, J., J. H. Cherry, D. J. Morre, and C. A. Lembi. 1972. Enhancement 
of RNA polymerase activity by a factor released by auxin from plasma membrane 
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69:3146-3150. 

3. Lembi, C. A., D. J. Morre, K. St.-Thomson, and R. Hertel. 1971. N-1-Napthyl- 
phthalamic-acid-binding activity of a plasma membrane-rich fraction from maize 
coleoptiles. Planta 99:37-45. 

4. Lowry, O. H., N. J Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein 
measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265-275. 

5. Ray, T. K., and G. V. Marinetti. 1971. The separation of membrane proteins by 
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 233:787-791. 

6. Roland, J.-C, C. A. Lembi, and D. J. Morre. 1972. Phosphotungstic acid- 
chromic acid as a selective electron-dense stain for plasma membranes of plant cells. 
Stain Tech. 47:195-200. 



7. Takayama, K., D. H. MacLennan, A. Tzagoloff, and C. D. Stoner. 1966. Studies 
on the electron transfer system LXVII. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 114:223-230. 

8. Williamson, F. A., and D. J. Morre. 1973. Differential effects of divalent cations 
on plant membranes. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 82 : 142-147. 



Two Types of Lipoprotein Particles in Golgi Apparatus 
of Rat Liver 1 

William D. Merritt and D. James Morre 

Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Botany 

and Plant Pathology 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Lipoprotein particles were examined in thin sections of rat liver. Particles within 
cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and in vesicles at one face of the Golgi apparatus were 
larger than those in free secretory vesicles and in vesicles at the opposite face of the Golgi 
apparatus. On this basis, the Golgi apparatus face containing large particles was identified 
as the forming face, whereas that face associated with vesicles containing the smaller 
particles was identified as the maturing face. 

Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) of serum transport 
triglycerides (8, 16) and serve as precurse molecules to lipoprotein of 
other classes (1). Of the two sites of VLDL synthesis, liver and 
intestine, the liver is quantitatively the most important (18, 23). 

In electron micrographs of liver cells, lipoprotein appears as 
osmiophilic particles within smooth endoplasmic reticulum and in 
vesicles of Golgi apparatus (3, 5, 7). The particles isolated from frac- 
tions rich in Golgi apparatus have the electron microscopic appearance 
and immunological and chemical properties of serum VLDL (2, 9, 10). 
The lipoprotein enters Golgi apparatus vesicles from smooth endoplas- 
mic reticulum via tubular connections (2, 12, 13, 22). Yet, vesicles and 
tubules which contain lipoprotein particles are observed at both faces 
of individual dictyosomes (3, 7). Released secretory vesicles migrate 
through the cytoplasm to the cell border at the sinusoidal space 
(5, 7). Vesicle membranes and plasma membrane then fuse to release 
lipoproteins to the circulatory system (5, 7). We report observations 
on relationships between vesicles at each of the two dictyosome faces, 
especially as they regard distinguishing between vesicles of the forming 
face and those of the secreting face. 

Materials and Methods 

Male rats (Holtzman Co., Madison, Wise), 200 to 300 g were given 
a standard diet (Purina Laboratory Chow) and drinking water ad 
libitum. The rats were killed by cervical dislocation, and the livers were 
drained of blood and excised. Pieces of liver (1 mm 3 ) were fixed for 
16 hours in osmium tetroxide (1% in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, 
pH 7.2) at 4° C, rinsed in buffer, dehydrated through an acetone series 
and embedded in Spurr's (19) epoxy resin mixture. Thin sections were 
mounted on formvar-covered, carbon-coated grids, stained with lead 



1 Journal Paper No. 4974. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Work supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health (1 
ROl CA 13145-01), the National Science Foundation (GB 23183) and the Indiana Heart 
Association. 

137 



138 



Indiana Academy of Science 



citrate (17) and viewed with a Philips EM-200 at 60 KV. A 54,864 
line-per-inch diffraction grating replica (Ladd Research Industries, 
U.S.A.) was used as the magnification standard. Diameters of 
lipoprotein particles were measured from the projected images of elec- 
tron image plates at a magnification of 76,200. 




Figure 1. Electron micrograph of a rat liver Golgi apparatus (GA) and neighboring 
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Vesicles at one face (SV.,) have a light 
matrix and the larger, disperse lipoprotein particles. Vesicles at the opposite face 
(SV 2 ) have a dark matrix and are densely packed with smaller lipoprotein particles. 
At the arrow, a smooth endoplasmic reticulum tubule is continuous with a light 
matrix vesicle. X 27,000. 

Figure 2. Two free secretory vesicles (double arrows) with a dark matrix and contain- 
ing small lipoprotein particles. The vesicles will eventually fuse with the plasma 
membrane (PM) to release lipoprotein secretory product into the space of Disse 

(sd) X 27,000. 



Results 



In whole tissue, vesicles containing osmiophilic lipoprotein particles 
occurred at both faces of the dictyosome (Fig. 1). At one face the 



Cell Biology 139 

vesicles were dilated and the particles were dispersed within a light 
matrix (SV X ). At the opposite face, the particles were densely packed 
in undilated vesicles containing an osmiophilic matrix (SV 2 ). Vesicles 
located between the two dictyosome faces were intermediate between 
these two extremes. Vesicles free in the cytoplasm (Fig. 2) were 
morphologically similar to the dictyosome vesicles containing the 
densely packed particles (SV 2 ). 

Size of lipoprotein particles also differed across the dictyosome. 
Particles in the dilated vesicles at one face averaged only slightly 
smaller than particles within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (Table 
1). Particles in vesicles at the opposite face were considerably 
smaller and corresponded most closely to the particles in vesicles free 
in the cytoplasm. Not only does lipoprotein particle diameter decrease 
across the stack of dictyosome cisternae, but the particles in vesicles 
released from the dictyosomes appear smaller than those in vesicles 
still attached to the mature face (Table 1). 

Table 1. Lipoprotein particle diameters in rat liver cell components. 

Mean Particle Standard 

Cell Component Diameter a) — Deviation 

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 590 ± 70 

Golgi app. light matrix vesicles 550 ± 70 

Golgi app. dark matrix vesicles 465 ± 70 

Secretory vesicles (free) 420 ± 60 



Discussion 

In the process of membrane transformation and product compart- 
mentalization at the Golgi apparatus, input of membrane and product 
occurs at or near the forming (proximal) face; maturation of membrane 
and compartmentalization of product occurs across the stack to the 
secreting (distal) face (12, 14, 15). Thus the proximal and distal faces 
of dictyosomes can be identified by recognizing either product com- 
partmentalization (functional polarity) or changes in cisternal 
morphology (morphological polarity) from the proximal to the distal 
face. In cells in which an electron-dense secretory product appears in 
large secretory vesicles at only one face of the dictyosome, the faces 
are identified easily. In systems which secrete mucopolysaccharides, 
like the Brunner's gland of the duodenum (20), the dictyosome is ob- 
viously polar. In other cell types (4, 6, 12, 14, 15), changes in mem- 
brane thickness and/or staining intensity have been used to distinguish 
one face from the other. 

In the liver, secretory product is visible in vesicles associated with 
both faces of the dictyosome (Fig. 1). A complex and hitherto not 
reported functional polarity is described which provides both a qualita- 
tive and quantitative basis for the indentification of the forming and 
secreting faces of the liver dictyosome. 

Comparisons of lipoprotein particle concentration and dimensions 
and vesicle matrix density reveal a clear polarity across the stacked 



140 Indiana Academy of Science 

cisternae (Fig. 1, Table 1). The dictyosome vesicles with small 
particles and a dark matrix are similar to the free secretory vesicles 
with respect to particle size and morphology. Thus the secreting face 
of the dictysome is that face associated with densely packed vesicles 
with small lipoprotein particles and a dark matrix. The forming face 
has dilated vesicles with a light matrix and the larger, more disperse 
particles, similar to those in smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 

To ascribe different functions to the forming face vs. mature face 
vesicle, it will be important to isolate each vesicle type. Morphological 
differences between vesicles not only distinguish the forming face from 
the mature face in whole tissue, but may help to identify the origin of 
secretory vesicles observed after cell fractionation (11). 

We reported previously a potential role of secretory vesicles in 
product glycosylation in rat liver (11) and in pollen tubes (21). 
Secretory vesicles associated with the dictyosome not only compart- 
mentalize secretory product, but also may take part in the modification 
of secretory product. Even though all lipoprotein particles in the liver 
are within the size range of the very low density lipoprotein of serum 
(280-800 A, 8) there is an overall reduction of 24% in particle 
diameter, comparing particles in vesicles from the forming face of the 
Golgi apparatus and in free secretory vesicles. Lipoprotein particle sizes 
differ across the stack of dictyosome cisternae, and a small additional 
decrease appears to occur after the vesicles have been released from 
the dictysome. This suggests that lipoprotein particles are trimmed 
and/or condensed within vesicles at the dictyosome as well as within 
vesicles free in the cytoplasm. 



Literature Cited 

1. Biheimer, D. W., S. Eisenberg, and R. I. Levy. 1972. The metabolism of very low 
density lipoprotein proteins. I. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo observations. 
Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 260:212-221. 

2. Chapman, M. J., G. L. Mills, and C. E. Taylaur. 1972. Lipoprotein particles from 
the Golgi apparatus of guinea pig liver. Biochem. J. 128:779-787. 

3. Claude, A. 1970. Growth and differentiation of cytoplasmic membranes in the course 
of lipoprotein granule synthesis in the hepatic cell. J. Cell Biol. 47:745-766. 

4. Grove, S. N., C. E. Bracker, and D. J. Morre. 1968. Cytomembrane differentiation 
in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus-vesicle complex. Science 161:171-173. 

5. Hamilton, R. L., D. M. Regen, M. E. Gray, and V. S. LeQuire. 1967. Lipid transport 
in liver. I. Electron microscopic identification of very low density lipoproteins in per- 
fused rat liver. Lab. Invest. 16:305-319. 

6. Hicks, R. M. 1966. The function of the Golgi complex in transitional epithelium. 
Synthesis of the thick cell membrane. J. Cell Biol. 30:623-643. 

7. Jones, A. L., N. B. Ruderman, and M. G. Herrera. 1967. Electron microscopic and 
biochemical study of lipoprotein synthesis in the isolated perfused rat liver. J. Lipid 
Res. 8:429-446. 



Cell Biology 141 



8. Levy, R. I., D. "W. Bilheimer, and S. Eisenberg. 1971. The structure and 
metabolism of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). p. 3-17. In 
R. M. S. Smellie (ed.) Plasma Lipoproteins. Biochemical Society Symposia. Vol. 
33. Academic Press, New York, N.Y. 165 p. 

9. Mahley, R. W., T. P. Bersot, V. S. LeQuire, R. I. Levy, H. G. Windmuellar, and 
W. V. Brown. 1970. Identity of very low density lipoprotein apoproteins of plasma 
and liver Golgi apparatus. Science 168:380-382. 

10. Mahley, R. W., R. L. Hamilton, and V. S. LeQuire. 1969. Characterization of lipo- 
protein particles isolated from Golgi apparatus of rat liver. J. Lipid Res. 10:433-439. 

11. Merritt, W. D., and D. J. Morre. 1973. A glycosyl transferase of high specific 
activity in secretory vesicles from isolated Golgi apparatus of rat liver. Biochim. 
Biophys. Acta. 304:397-407. 

12. Morre, D. J., T. W. Keenan, and H. H. Mollenhauer. 1971. Golgi apparatus 
function in membrane transformations and product compartmentalization: studies 
with cell fractions isolated from rat liver, p. 159-182. In F. Clementi, and B. 
Ceccearelli (eds. ) Advances in Cytopharmacology, First International Symposium 
on Cell Biology and Cytopharmacology. Vol. 1. Raven Press, New York, N.Y. 475 p. 

13. Morre, D. J., R. W. Mahley, B. D. Benett, and V. S. LeQuire. 1971. 
Continuites between endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles and Golgi apparatus 
in rat liver and intestine. Abstr. of Pap. Eleventh Annu. Meet., The Amer. Soc. Cell 
Biol. New Orleans, La. p. 199. 

14. Morre, D. J., and H. H. Mollenhauer. 1973. The endomembrane concept: a 
functional integration of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. In A. W. 
Robards (ed.) Dynamics of Plant Ultrastructure. McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y. 

15. Morre, D. J., H. H. Mollenhauer, and C. E. Bracker. 1970. Origin and continuity 
of Golgi apparatus, p. 82-126. In J. Reinert, and H. Ursprung (eds) Results 
and Problems in Cell Differentiation. Vol. 2. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 342 p. 

16. Nikkila, E. A. 1969. Control of plasma and liver triglyceride kinetics by 
carbohydrate metabolism and insulin, p. 63-134. In R. Paoletti, and D. Krit- 
chevsky (eds.) Adv. Lipid Res. Vol. 7. Academic Press, New York, N.Y. 363 p. 

17. Reynolds, E. S. 1963. The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque 
stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17:208-212. 

18. Roheim, P. S., L. I. Gidez, and H. A. Eder. 1966. Extrahepatic synthesis of 
lipoproteins of plasma and chyle: role of the intestine. J. Clin. Invest. 45:297-300. 

19. Spurr, A. R. 1969. A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron 
microscopy. J. Ultrastruc. Res. 26:31-43. 

20. Thiery, J. P. 1969. Role de l'appareil de Golgi dans la synthese des mucopoly- 
saccharides etude cytochimique. I. Mise an evidence de mucopolysaccharides dans les 
vesicules de transition entre l'ergastroplasme et l'appareil de Golgi. J. Microscop. 
8:689-708. 

21. VanDerWoude, W. J., D. J. Morre, and C. E. Bracker. 1971. Isolation and 
characterization of secretory vesicles in germinated pollen of Ldlium longiflorum. J. 
Cell Sci. 8:331-351. 

22. Wilkinson, F. E., S. E. Nyquist, W. D. Merritt, D. J. Morre. 1972. Aryl sul- 
fatases: Properties and subcellular distribution in rat liver. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
81:121-132. 

23. Windermueller, H. G., and R. I. Levy. 1969. Total inhibition of hepatic jS- 
lipoprotein production in the l'at by orotic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 242:2246-2254. 



Differential Effects of Divalent Cations on Plant Membranes 1 

Francis A. Williamson and D. James Morre 
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology- 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Membrane fractions, including two plasma membrane fractions of differing density, 
were isolated from onion stem and treated in suspension with varying concentrations of 
calcium. At calcium concentrations above 1 millimolar, heavy plasma membranes showed 
an increase in optical density followed by precipitation. Other fractions, including the light 
plasma membrane prepared in a similar manner, responded by an increase in optical 
density but did not precipitate. The optical density change, but not the precipitation, was 
elicited by magnesium ions. The results show a direct interaction of calcium ions with 
plant membranes. The precipitation of heavy but not light plasma membranes at calcium 
concentrations which normally inhibit growth provides evidence for heterogeneity of plant 
plasma membranes and suggests a growth regulatory role for the "heavy" fraction. 

Calcium, an essential element for plant growth (23), stimulates 
or inhibits a variety of cell processes depending on its concentration 
(9). In the absence of toxic metals, many plants thrive in the presence 
of only micromolar levels of the ion. When calcium is absent (9) or at 
supraoptimal (1 to 10 mM) concentrations of calcium (1), growth 
ceases. 

Concentrations of calcium up to 1 mM appear to be necessary to 
maintain the selectivity for potassium of the low K m system of 
monovalent ion uptake (4). At concentrations above 1 mM, calcium 
begins to inhibit uptake of both sodium and potassium by the high K m 
system (6, 18). Above 10 mM, calcium ions exert even more pro- 
nounced inhibition of monovalent ion uptake. The effect of calcium on 
uptake of monovalent ions clearly implicates the plasma membrane as 
a primary site of calcium interaction. This view is encouraged by the 
electron-microscopic observations of Marinos (14) on calcium-deficient 
barley tissue which showed extensive disintegration of cellular mem- 
branes. Similarly, animal plasma membranes require calcium for their 
integrity. Punctured cells do not reseal in the absence of calcium 
(20) ; blastula cells disperse when calcium is removed (3) ; and a protein 
component of rat liver plasma membrane is solubilized when calcium 
is removed with ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) (15). 

Although calcium is clearly implicated as a functional constituent 
of plasma membranes, the nature of the calcium-membrane interaction 
has received little attention. Changes of membrane conformation and 
swelling or shrinking of membrane vesicles give rise to changes in light 
absorbance by suspensions (5, 8, 21). By measuring absorbance changes 
and specific precipitation when calcium ions are added, we show a direct 
interaction between plant membranes and calcium. 



1 Journal Paper No. 4982. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Work supported in part by a grant from the Environmental Protection Agency 
(EP 00872-02). 

142 



Cell Biology 



143 



Materials and Methods 

Stems of green onions (11) were homogenized for 2 min with a 
Polytron 20ST homogenizer (Kinematica, Lucerne, Switzerland), operat- 
ing at approximately 9,000 rpm. The homogenizing medium consisted 
of 0.1 M K 2 HP0 4 (pH 7.4), 20 mM Na 2 EDTA, and 0.5 M sucrose in 
coconut milk (centrifuged at 100,000 x g for 90 min to remove 
particles) (11). The resulting homogenate was filtered through 
Miracloth (Chicopee Mills, New York), and centrifuged at 6,000 x g 
for 10 min. The supernatant was layered on the gradient shown in 
Figure 1, and centrifuged at 100,000 x g for 1 hour. Fractions were col- 
lected from the interfaces of the layers, resuspended in homogenization 
medium and pelleted for 45 min at 100,00 x g. 

Protein was determined by the method of Lowry et at. (12). Suc- 
cinate dehydrogenase (16) was used as a mitochondrial marker. 







Sucrose added 
to coconut milk 
medium 

Molar 
0.65 

0.8 

1.0 

1.2 

1.3 


Equivalent 






concentration 


A 


XiWmWwd 




B 




0.8 




1.0 


c 










1.2 


D 










1.4 




\^ J 


1.5 



Figure 1. Procedure for sucrose-coconut milk gradient centrifugation. 



For comparative spectrophotometric assays among fractions, sus- 
pensions, adjusted to the same protein concentration, were prepared 
in 0.25 M sucrose, 80 mM Tris, 25 mM MES, and 14 mM mer- 
captoethanol, adjusted to pH 6.0 with acetic acid. The diluted suspension 
(1.5 or 3.0 ml) was placed in a cuvette, and absorbance at 450 nm was 
monitored continuously (Fig. 2) using a Beckman DB spectrophotometer 
with chart recorder. Calcium was added as a concentrated solution in 
a sufficiently small volume (50 /A) to give a negligible dilution effect 
on absorbance. To quantitate precipitation, suspensions at the same pro- 
tein concentration were treated with 10 mM calcium, and after standing 
for 2 hours at 25 °C were centrifuged in a clinical centrifuge. 
Precipitate and supernatant were then assayed for protein, and the per- 
centage of the total protein accounted for by the precipitate was com- 
pared with that of controls treated similarly in the absence of calcium. 

Results 



Addition of calcium to plant membrane suspensions resulted in a 
characteristic pattern of absorbance change: an initial rapid increase, 
essentially complete within 2 min, and a slower, almost linear rise which 



144 



Indiana Academy of Science 




40 



50 



20 30 

Time (Min) 

Figure 2. Time course of absorbance increase upon addition of calcium (C fraction). 



60 



continued for at least an hour (Fig. 2). All the fractions described in 
Figure 1 gave a similar response to calcium concentrations up to 1 mM 
(Fig. 3). Above 1 mM, the A, B and C fractions increased in 
absorbance with increased calcium concentration, whereas the D fraction 
showed a decrease in absorbance due to a clumping of the membranes. 
The degree of clumping of the D fraction increased with time or in- 
creased calcium concentrations. The threshold concentration for precipi- 
tation and extent of precipitate formation varied. Fresh preparations 
precipitated at 1 to 5 mM calcium, whereas membranes stored at 4°C 
overnight required 5 to 10 mM calcium to precipitate. Only the D frac- 
tion was specifically precipitated by calcium (Table 1, Exp. I). Mag- 
nesium and monovalent ions were ineffective (Fig. 4). The absorbance 
rise, however, was elicited by magnesium, but required higher concentra- 
tions than with calcium (Fig. 4). 



Table 1. 


Precipitation of 


men 


brane fractions by calcium (lOmM). 


Experiment 


Fraction 


% 


Total Membrane 
Precipitated 


Succinate INT 
Reductase Activity 




A 
B 
C 
D 




6 

1 

8 

68 


--- 


II 


D top 
D bottom 




23 
6 


4.4 / u,M/mg/hr. 
7.4/xM/mg/hr. 



Electron microscopy, using the specific staining reaction of 
Roland et al. (19), showed plasma membrane and mitochondria in the 
D fraction. When a suspension of this fraction was centrifuged at 
100,000 x g for 45 min, the pellet consisted of two layers. The lower 
layer was light brown and opaque, whereas the upper layer was pale 



Cell Biology 



145 




4 6 8 10 

CaCI 2 Concentration (mM) 

Figure 3. Effect of calcium concentration on initial (2 rain) absorbance increase. 



12 



and translucent. Table 1 (Exp. II) shows that the upper layer had a 
lower mitochondrial activity, but showed a greater precipitation with 
calcium. 




Divalent Ion Concentration (mM) 

Figure 4. Initial (2 min) absorbance increase comparing varying concentrations of 
calcium and magnesium ions (D fraction). 



146 Indiana Academy of Science 

Discussion 

The biphasic increase of absorbance by plant membranes with time 
after adding calcium (Fig. 2) indicates two separate interactions. The 
initial rapid phase may represent a binding on the divalent ions to the 
membranes with a concomitant conformational change. It has been 
suggested that calcium causes a condensation of membranes with a sub- 
sequently reduced permeability (4, 13). The slow extended rise in ab- 
sorbance may represent uptake of calcium into the vesicle lumen 
(5, 21). Both phases of the rise in absorbance may result from ion 
influx, with a change in rate occurring as the membrane assumes a more 
condensed configuration. Regardless of the nature of the absorbance 
change, a direct interaction between plant membranes and divalent 
cations is shown. 

The precipitation effect is more easily explained. Membranous 
vesicles carry a negative surface charge (2, 17) which causes mutual 
repulsion. When the charge is neutralized by positive ions, the vesicles 
approach each other, and the divalent ions form bridges between 
adjacent vesicles (22). Such bridging is probably a normal occurrence 
in animal tissues where adjacent cells juxtapose without the interven- 
tion of cell walls. Calcium is essential for cell to cell adhesion in rat 
liver (10). 

In pea epicotyls, auxin stimulated growth is virtually eliminated 
as the calcium concentration in the external medium is raised from 1 
to 10 raM. The results presented here show that a portion of the plant 
plasma membrane (the D or heavy plasma membrane fraction) is 
specifically precipitated by calcium concentrations similar to those 
which inhibit growth. Precipitation occurs only in the "heavy" or D frac- 
tion whereas a similar amount of plasma membrane occurs in the 
"light" or C fraction. Such heterogeneity of plant plasma membrane 
has been noted for other parameters associated with growth regulation. 
The regulatory plant pigment phytochrome has been identified only in 
heavy plasma membrane (F. A. Williamson, M. J. Jaffe, and D. J. Merre, 
unpublished data), and heavy plasma membranes specifically bind 
auxins (F. A. Williamson, D. J. Morre, and A. C. Leopold, unpublished 
data). Hertel, Thomson, and Russo (7) have shown that IAA binds only 
to fractions of density approximating that of our D fraction. In contrast, 
the auxin transport antagonist, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), 
shows a positive correlation of its binding with plasma membrane 
content, independent of membrane density (11). We conclude that plant 
plasma membranes are heterogeneous, and that this heteorogeneity is 
expressed by a number of parameters, including precipitation by calcium 



Literature Cited 

1. Coartney, J. S. 1967. Physical and chemical analysis of auxin-induced cellwall loosen- 
ing. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 72 p. 

2. Curtis, A. S. G. 1962. Cell contact and adhesion. Biol. Rev. 37:82-129. 



Cell Biology 147 

3. Dan, K. 1960. Cyto-embroyology of echinoderms and amphibia. Int. Rev. Cytol. 
9:321-367. 

4. Epstein, E. 1961. The essential role of calcium in selective cation transport by plant 
cells. Plant Physiol. 36:437-444. 

5. Fairhurst, A. S., and D. J. Jenden. 1966. Spectrophotometric monitoring of 
calcium uptake by skeletal muscle particles. Anal. Biochem. 16:294-301. 

6. Handley, R., A. Metwally, and R. Overstreet. 1965. Effects of Ca upon metabolic 
and non-metabolic uptake of Na and Rb by root segments of Zea mays. Plant 
Physiol. 40:513-520. 

7. Hertel, R., K. St.-Thomson, and V. E. A. Russo. 1972. In vitro auxin binding to 
particulate cell fractions from corn coleoptiles. Planta 107:325-340. 

8. Inesi, G., S. Ebashi, and S. Watanabe. 1964. Preparation of vesicular relaxing 
factor from bovine heart tissue. Amer. J. Physiol. 207:1339-1344. 

9. Jones, R. G. W., and O. R. Lunt. 1967. The function of calcium in plants. 
Bot. Rev. 33:407-426. 

10. Leeson, T. S., and H. Kalant. 1961. Effects of in vivo decalcification on ultra- 
structure of adult rat liver. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 10:95-104. 

11. Lembi, C. A., D. J. Morre, K. St.-Thomson, and R. Hertel. 1971. N-l- 
naphthylphthalamic-acid-binding activity of a plasma membrane-rich fraction from 
maize coleoptiles. Planta 99:37-45. 

12. Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein 
measurement with the Folin-phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265-275. 

13. Manery, J. F. 1966. Effects of Ca ions on membranes. Fed. Proc. 25:1804-1810. 

14. Marinos, N. G. 1962. Studies on submicroscopic aspects of mineral deficiencies. I. 
Calcium deficiency in the shoot apex of barley. Amer. J. Bot. 49:834-841. 

15. Neville, D. M., Jr. 1968. Isolation of an organ specific protein antigen from cell- 
surface membrane of rat liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 154:540-552. 

16. Pennigton, R. 1961. Biochemistry of dystrophic muscle. Mitochondrial succinate- 
tetrazolium reductase and adenosine triphosphatase. Biochem. J. 80:649-654. 

17. Poste, G., and A. C. Allison. 1971. Membrane fusion reaction: A Theory. J.Theor. 
Biol. 32:165-184. 

18. Rains, D. W., and E. Epstein. 1967. Sodium absorption by barley roots: Its mediation 
by mechanism 2 of alkali cation transport. Plant Physiol. 42:319-323. 

19. Roland, J.-C, C. A. Lembi, and D. J. Morre. 1972. Phosphotungstic acid-chromic 
acid as a selective stain for plasma membranes of plant cells. Stain 
Tech. 47:195-200. 

20. Sichel, M., and A. C. Burton. 1936. A kinetic method of studying surface forces 
in the egg of Arbacia. Biol. Bull. 71:397-398. 

21. Stein, W. D. 1962. Spontaneous and enzyme-induced dimer formation and its role 
in membrane permeability. III. The mechanism of movement Of glucose across the 
human erythrocyte membrane. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 59:66-77. 

22. Steinberg, M. S. 1958. On the chemical bonds between animal cells. A mechanism for 
type-specific adhesion. Amer. Natur. 92:65-81. 

23. True, R. H. 1922. The significance of calcium for higher green plants. 
Science 55:1-6. 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: Richard C. Pilger, Jr., Department of Chemistry 
Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

William A. Nevill, Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University — Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46205 

was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

Thallium (I) Cyclopentadienide: A Useful Reagent for the Preparation 
of Thallium Derivatives. B. N. Storhoff, Ball State University, Muncie, 
Indiana 47306, and H. C. Lewis, Jr., University of Wisconsin, Fox 

Valley Campus, Menasha, Wisconsin 54952. Thallium reagents have 

recently proved to be useful in synthetic organic and organometallic 
chemistry. A convenient starting material for the preparation of certain 
thallium reagents is thallium (I) cyclopentadienide. Thus organothallium 
derivatives result from the reaction of thallium cyclopentadienide with 
organic molecules containing an acidic hydrogen. The synthetic 
method is particularly useful for the preparation of T1(I) 
^-dikentonates. 

The Li-NH 3 Reduction of Trans-4-t-butylcyclohexyl Methanesulfonate 
and of l-Deutero-trans-4-t-butylcyclohexyl Methanesulfonate. P. A. 

Wiseman and C. L. Renner, Department of Chemistry, Ball State 
University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Trans-4-t-butylcyclohexyl me- 
thanesulfonate was reacted with lithium in liquid ammonia to give a 
mixture of t-butylcyclohexane and trans-4-t-butylcyclohexanol. The 
nature of the product was dependent on the Li concentration. Low Li 
concentrations favored hydrocarbon production; high Li concentrations 
gave predominantely alcohol. 

l-Deutero-trans-4-t-butylcyclohexyl methanesulfonate was reduced 
with Li-NH 3 and the resulting hydrocarbon examined using a Varian 
nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with deuterium probe. The 
nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum was compared to those of cis 
and £rcms-4-deutero-t-butylcyclohexane. The deuterium n.m.r. spectra 
indicate that the hydrocarbon from the Li-NH 3 reduction consists of a 
20-80 mixture of cis and trans-4-deutero-t-butylcyclohexane. 

Synthesis of -Ene Nitriles as a First Step in the Synthesis of 
Bicylo Alkanes with a Bridgehead Nitrile. Stanley West, William 
Nesbitt, and Terry L. Kruger, Department of Chemistry, Ball State 
University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Cope eliminations from bridge- 
head positions were examined by a series of reactions leading up to 
synthesis of a bridgehead nitrile. Synthesis of an -ene nitrile followed 
by a Diels-Alder reaction was used to prepare the bridgehead 
nitrile. The -ene nitrile was prepared by making a cyano-hydrin 
followed by reaction with dimethylamine to give an amino nitrile. The 
amine function was then oxidized so that the compound will Cope 
eliminate to the -ene nitrile. This series of reactions was carried out 
in a yield of over 90 per cent and was very convenient. The -ene 

149 



150 Indiana Academy of Science 

nitrile was then reacted with cyclopentadiene in a Diels-Alder reaction 
which produced the desired bridgehead nitrile. 

The Mechanism of the Cope Elimination. James W. Kress, Glenn 
Sherwood and Terry L. Kruger, Department of Chemistry, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The mechanism of the Cope 

elimination has been established as involving a concerted, five- 
membered, cyclic transition state. New data from kinetic studies of sub- 
stituted N, N-diethyl-aniline oxides and from CNDO/INDO calculations 
of possible configurations of the transition state contribute to a further 
understanding of the extent of carbon-nitrogen bond cleavage and extent 
of proton transfer at the transition state. Present data suggest that 
transfer of proton precedes carbon-nitrogen bond clevage; that is, the 
transition state occurs before much disruption of the carbon-nitrogen 
bond. Interpretations of substituent effects, isotope effects, and molecu- 
lar orbital results were presented along with suggestions of practical 
synthetic tests of the fine details of the mechanism. 

Determination of Dose-Related Excretion of Ascorbic Acid. Eugene 
S. Wagner, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306. The proposal that, when properly used, ascorbic acid 

(Vitamin C) is effective in both the prevention and alleviation of the 
common cold suggested a pedagogically significant and theoretically 
interesting experiment for a Medical Biochemistry laboratory. The re- 
ported optimum daily intake of vitamin C varies somewhere between 
250 mg and 10 g. Ten medical students measured the excretion of 
L-ascorbic acid in the urine as a function of increased dosage of the 
vitamin. No attempt was made to correlate increased dosage to pre- 
vention or alleviation of cold symptoms. In addition to demonstrating 
to the students the difficulty in determining optimum dosage of 
pharmaceutic agents because of individual variabilities, the experiment 
showed an unusual dose-related correlation of excreted ascorbic acid. 

The Effect of Hydrogen Ion Concentration on the Kinetic 
Parameters of Thyroid Monoamine Oxidase. Cleo L. Huang and 
Arthur R. Schulz, Department of Biochemistry, Indiana University 

School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202. A reaction sequence 

was proposed for the reaction catalyzed by thyroid monamine oxidase 
based on analysis of initial velocity measurements, product inhibition 
studies, substrate inhibition studies, and studies of inhibition of the 
reaction by 3-iodotyramine. These studies suggest that iodotyramine 
interacts with a regulatory site on the enzyme which is distinct from 
the active site. An investigation was conducted on the effect of hydrogen 
ion on the kinetic parameters to obtain additional information concern- 
ing the interaction of substrate with the active site and the interaction 
of iodotyramine with the regulatory site of the enzyme. The data from 
this investigation suggest that the substrate for thyroid monamine 
oxidase is the protonated amine, and the ammonium ion is one of the 
products of the reaction. The ionic species of iodotyramine which inter- 
acts with the enzyme is the zwitterion, i.e., the phenoxy ion with a pro- 
tonated amine. The free enzyme contains an acidic group with a pKa 
of 8.4 which is not detectable in the enzyme-substrate complex while 






Chemistry 151 

the enzyme-substrate complex contains an acidic group with a pKa of 
7.7. A reaction mechanism was presented which is consistent with the 
experimental evidence. 

Synthesis of Oxygen-18 from Enriched Water for Use in Isotopic 
Analysis by Mass Spectrometry. Kenneth L. Bridges, Department 

of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. In the 

course of research on the rate of vanadium (VI) yl-oxygen exchange 
with water, it was necessary to analyze the oxygen-18 content of reac- 
tion water. Except in cases where the mass spectrometer has been 
especially designed for such use, water, because of its considerable 
memory effect, cannot be analyzed directly. Therefore, the oxygen 
isotopic composition of water is determined indirectly after conversion 
into molecular oxygen which is more suitable for mass spectroscopic 
analysis. A method for preparing oxygen-18 enriched molecular oxygen 
from water of low enrichment was given. An electric discharge tube 
was used which provided molecular oxygen with the same isotopic com- 
position as that of the starting water. 

Techniques for Preparing Video Tapes for the Chemistry Classroom. 

Frederick K. Ault and Bruce N. Storhoff, Department of Chemistry, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. One of the problems 

associated with video tape projection in chemistry classes has been the 
display of scientific equations and written materials. Overhead projec- 
tion techniques and certain studio techniques were used to solve the 
problem and improve the quality of presentations. 

Oxaziranes: Synthesis and Chemistry. M. L. Druelinger, Department 
of Chemistry, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. 

In continued studies on the synthesis and chemistry of oxaziranes 

and similar small polyheterocycles, I prepared several new nitrones and 
examined their behavior when exposed to ultraviolet light. The 
nitrones were prepared by the condensation of hydroxylamines with 
carbonyl compounds or by the addition of diazo compounds to nitroso 
compounds. All new compounds were fully characterized by spectral 
analysis. The resulting nitrones were photochemically closed to oxa- 
ziranes. These highly strained compounds were themselves photolabile 
and underwent rearrangement and/or fragmentation. These latter pro- 
cesses were dependent on both wave-length and substituents. 



The Isolation and Characterization of Tissue Extracts 
of Erythronium americanum and Erythronium albidum 

D. J. Dyman 1 
Department of Biology 

and 

R. E. Van Atta 

Department of Chemistry 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Abstract 

Comparative thin layer silica gel chromatographic analysis of plant tissue extracts 
of Erythronium americanum Ker. and Erythronium albidum Nutt. revealed the presence 
of differentiating secondary compounds whose characterization through infrared spectro- 
photometry seems possible. 

Introduction 

Biochemical analysis of plant tissue extracts can provide a valuable 
basis for the confirmation or refutation of established classification 
schemes which attempt to represent the natural relationships among 
organisms (1, 12). Biochemical synthesis of organisms are determined 
by their DNA complement (14, 15) and the detection of chemical 
similarities among various taxonomic groups can be directly related 
to resemblances in DNA structure which may indicate a common 
ancestry. The plant products which are most useful for the establish- 
ment of DNA homology and organismic relatedness are the secondary 
compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids (3, 11, 16). 

Erythronium americanum Ker. (yellow dog-tooth violet) and 
Erythronium albidum Nutt. (white dog-tooth violet) have been classified 
as two distinct species on the basis of flower color differences and 
morphological differences in the stigma (9). The purpose of this study 
was to gather evidence which would verify the classification of 
Erythronium americanum and Erythronium albidum as distinct species. 
Thus, plant extracts were analyzed to determine whether or not any 
biochemical difference exists between the two species and to attempt 
characterization of one or more differentiating secondary compounds. 

Materials and Methods 

Erythronium americanum and Erythronium albidum were collected 
while in flower from a wooded area near Muncie, Indiana. No roots were 
taken. The plant specimens which were collected were washed free of 
adhering soil and debris, dried in air, and placed between sheets of news- 
paper until the plant tissue became brittle from dehydration. The time 
required for drying was approximately 1 month. With no regard for 
size or age of the plant specimens, samples of Erythronium americanum 



Current address: Southwestern Michigan College, Dowagiac, Michigan 49047. 

152 



Chemistry 153 

and Erythronium albidum were placed in a desiccator charged with 
anhydrous calcium chloride for 48 hours. 

To prepare the plant tissue extract for analysis, 0.08g of desiccated 
plant tissue, stem, leaves and flower parts of Erythronium americanum 
and Erythronium albidum, respectively, were placed into separate small 
vials (11). According to Fahselt and Ownby (8) no diagnostic 
compounds are found in roots or rhizomes and Brehm and Alston (7) 
have found general uniformity of compounds using different aerial plant 
parts taken from several different species. After pulverizing the plant 
tissue with a glass rod, 0.5 ml of extracting agent, methanol- 
concentrated hydrochloric acid (99:1 v/v) was added and the vial was 
sealed and placed in the dark at 20° C for 12 hours to extract secondary 
compounds (4, 7, 10, 11). 

Silica gel plates, 9 cm x 40 cm, were prepared according to the 
method of Grant and Whetter (10). As a band, 50 ^1 of the respective 
plant tissue extracts of Erythronium americanum and Erythronium 
albidum were applied to the silica gel plates using a Hamilton 
microliter syringe, # 720 N. The extract spotted silica gel plates were 
developed by an ascending single pass using a methanol-chloroform 
(3:7 v/v) solvent (10, 13). The chromatographic tank was kept in a 
dark chamber at 20° C during the development of the chromatogram. 
To maintain consistency in the chromatogram development, silica gel 
chromatographic plates of Erythronium americanum and Erythronium 
albidum were developed simultaneously in the same tank. Only re- 
spective chromatogram pairs were compared for similarities and evalua- 
tion of R f values. 

After development, the chromatogram bands were visualized using 
a short wave length ultraviolet lamp (2, 10). R f values were determined 
and Ektachrome 35 mm slides were made according to Grant and 
Whetter (10). Although the color slides clearly showed the differentiat- 
ing bands, the low contrast attainable in black and white reproductions 
precludes their illustration here. A pale blue differentiating band, 
R f = 0.36, on the chromatogram of Erythronium americanum was re- 
moved, extracted in ether, and isolated by flash evaporation of 

100 



5 60 




2 4 8 12 15 

WAVE LENGTH IN MICRONS 
Figure 1. IR-8 Spectrum of the Chromatographic band isolated from Erythronium 



americanum. 



154 Indiana Academy of Science 

the ether under a nitrogen atmosphere. The isolated chromatogram band 
was prepared as a KBr-pressed-disk for analysis with a Beckman model 
IR-8 infrared spectrophotometer (5, 6). 

Results 

Comparison of the IR-8 spectrum of the isolated chromatogram 
band with Sadtler standard spectra did not reveal the identity of the 
isolated material. However, the spectrum (Fig. 1) indicates the possible 
presence of an amide or amine group, phospho group, and a ring con- 
figuration which may be similar to dimethyl phosphoramidic acid; the 
spectrum may also be that of a mixture of substances characteristic 
of the isolated band. 

As revealed by R f value calculations and visual chromatogram com- 
parisons, several of the ultraviolet chromatogram bands of Erythronium 
americanum and Erythronium albidum are similar; however, various 
bands appear to be distinctive for each species (Table 1). 



species of Erythronium. 
Erythronium americanum Erythronium albidum 



0.89 


(red) 


0.83 


(blue) 


0.49 


(pink) 


0.36 


(pale blue) 1 


0.30 


(pale red) 


0.25 


(yellow) 


0.22 


(yellow) 


0.19 


( orange-yellow ) 


0.17 


(pale violet) 


0.14 


(blue) 


0.06 


(pale blue) 



0.89 


(red) 


0.83 


(blue) 


0.54 


(faint pink) 


0.47 


(pink) 


0.26 


(brown-red) 


0.18 


(yellow) 


0.14 


(blue) 


0.04 


(violet) 



Chromatographic band isolated for IR-8 spectrophotometric analysis 



Discussion 

The separation and detection procedure which was used to study 
the secondary compounds of Erythronium americanum and Erythronium 
albidum is useful as a method for the comparative study of taxonomic 
groups and the characterization of differentiating metabolic products. 
The results of this preliminary study indicate that Erythronium 
americanum and Erythronium albidum differ considerably in their syn- 
thesis of secondary compounds. The findings based upon the analysis 
of the diagnostic compounds supports the classification of Erythronium 
americanum and Erythronium albidum as distinct species. Continued 
research in the separation and detection of secondary compounds is 
necessary to permit their absolute identification. Continued studies 
should focus on the blue bands common to both species, R f values of 
0.83 and 0.14; the yellow bands characterizing Erythronium americanum, 
0.22, and 0.25; and the brown-red band peculiar to 



Chemistry 155 

Erythronium albidum, R f value of 0.26. The application of nuclear mag- 
netic resonance spectroscopy and or mass spectrometry may be helpful 
as a method to achieve greater plant product characterization. 



Literature Cited 

1. Alston, R. 1967. Biochemical systematics, p. 197-305. In T. Dobzhansky, M. 
Hecht, and W. Steeve (eds.). Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 1. Appleton-Crofts, New 
York, N.Y. 444 p. 

2. Alston, R., and H. Irwin. 1961. The comparative extent of variation of free amino 
acids and certain "secondary" substances among Cassia species. Amer. J. Bot. 
142:35-39. 

3. Alston, R., T. Mabry, and B. Turner. 1963. Perspectives in chemotaxonomy. Science 
48:545-552. 

4. Alston, R., and B. Turner. 1963. Natural hybridization among four species of 
Baptisia (Leguminosae) . Amer. J. Bot. 50:159-173. 

5. Arditti, J. 1969. Floral anthocyanins in species and hybrids of Broughtonia, 
Brassavola, and Catteyopsis (Orchidaceae) . Amer. J. Bot. 56:59-68. 

6. Bell, E. 1962. The isolation of L-homoarquinine from seeds of Lathyrus cecera. 
Biochem. J. 85:91-93. 

7. Brehm, B., and R. Alston. 1964. A chemotaxonomic study of Baptisia leucophaea 
var. laevicaulis (Leguminosae). Amer. J. Bot. 51:644-650. 

8. Fahselt, D., and M. Ownby. 1968. Chromotographic comparison of Dicentra 
species and hybrids. Amer. J. Bot. 55:334-345. 

9. Gleason, H., and A. Cronquist. 1968. Manual of vascular plants of Northeastern 
United States and Adjacent Canada. D. VanNostrand Co., Inc., Princeton, N.J. 810 p. 

10. Grant, W., and J. Whetter. 1966. The cytogenetics of Lotus. XI. The use of thin 
layer chromatography in the separation of secondary phenolic compounds in Lotus 
(Leguminosae). J. Chromatog. 21:247-256. 

11. Grant, W., and I. Zandstra. 1968. The biosystematics of the genus Lotus 
(Leguminosae) in Canada. II. Numerical chemotaxonomy. Can. J. Bot. 46:585-589. 

12. Hall, R. 1969. Molecular approaches to taxonomy of fungi. Bot. Rev. 35:285-304. 

13. Harborne, J., and J. Mendez. 1969. Flavonoids of Beilschmieda miersil. Phyto- 
chemistry 8:763-764. 

14. Hartman, P., and S. Suskind. 1969. Gene Action. 2d ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 
Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 260 p. 

15. Hoyer, B. f B. McCarthy, and E. Bolton. 1964. A molecular approach in the 
systematics of higher organisms. Science 144:959-967. 

16. Mabry, T., R. Alston, and B. Turner. 1965. The biochemical basis of taxonomy. 
Sci. Teach. 32:19-22. 



Thermal Decomposition of Sodium Acetylacetonate 1 

Erwin Boschmann and William A. Althaus 2 

Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 

Abstract 

The thermal behavior of sodium acteylacetonate, C 5 H 7 C>2Na+, and its dihydrate, 
C 5 H 7 2 Na+-2H 2 0, are described and interpreted for the range between room tempera- 
ture and 1000° Centrigrade. Thermogravimetric analyses showed that decomposition of 
the dehydrated salt proceeds in two steps. The first yielded sodium carbonate at about 
400° as a result of the reaction of sodium acetylacetonate with atmospheric oxygen. The 
second plateau at about 700° corresponded to sodium monoxide. Differential thermal 
analyses and differential scanning calorimetry data substantiated and extended these in- 
terpretations. 

In our work on the acetylacetonates of active metals (1), it became 
of interest to study the stability of these salts. Since no such data ap- 
peared to be available, we undertook to study the thermal behavior of 
one of these salts and its hydrated form. The theory and advances of 
thermal analysis have been treated elsewhere (2, 3, 5, 8), and will not 
be dealt with here. 

Experimental 
Preparations 

Sodium acetylacetonate, C 5 H 7 02Na + , was prepared according to 
published procedures (9), recrystallized several times from dry 
ethanol and then dried at 110 °C. Sodium acetylacetonate dihydrate 
crystals, C 5 H 7 02Na+ -2H 2 0, were obtained by recrystallizing the an- 
hydrous salt from 95% ethanol/water solution. 

Thermo Gravimetric Analyses 

Accurately weighed samples containing between 0.2 and 0.4 g of 
the salt were placed in a Thermolyne furnace at a fixed temperature 
for about 30 min. The samples were then removed, allowed to cool in 
a desiccator, weighed and then subjected to higher temperatures by in- 
crements of between 20-50 °C until the maximum temperature of 1000°C 
was reached. This procedure was repeated several times, each time using 
two simultaneous samples to insure reproducibility of the results. 

The data were checked using an automatic DuPont 950 Thermo- 
gravimetric Analyzer in both air and nitrogen atmospheres (40 cc per 
min) up to 350°C at a heating rate of 5°C per min. 

Differential Thermal Analyses 

DTA data were obtained for both samples up to 400°C on a DuPont 
900 Differential Thermal Analyzer in both air and nitrogen atmospheres 
(2 feet 3 per hour) at a programmed heating rate of 20°C per min using 
glass beads as reference. 



1 This research was carried out in part at the Department of Chemistry at Univer- 
sidad Nacional Agraria, Lima, Peru, South America. 

2 Current address: Eli Lilly & Co., Dept. G 308, Greenfield, Indiana 46140. 

156 



Chemistry 



157 



Differential Scanning Calorimetry 

DSC curves were run for both samples up to 450°C on a Perkin- 
Elmer Differential Scanning Calorimeter DSC-1B in air and a 20°C per 
min heating rate. 

Titrations 

The decomposition products obtained at the two plateaus were 
titrated against 0.0624 N HC1 according to published procedures for 
sodium carbonate and sodium monoxide (4). Due to the high decomposi- 
tion temperatures, the product of the last plateau is fused very com- 
pactly into the crucible resulting in incomplete titrations. 

Results and Discussion 

The typical TGA plot for sodium acetylacetonate shows a two-step 
decomposition (Fig. 1). The weight loss in the first step between the 
starting material at room temperature (0.946 g) and the second plateau 
at about 400°C (0.410 g) corresponds to 56.7%. It is proposed that this 
decomposition takes place according to the reaction 



ction Remaining 

> o o 

Os Oo 








*" N 


\-^ -in No 

i 
i 

i 
\ 

i 
\ 

VNa 2 C0 3 


VNa 2 






\ 


Ul. 




X 


V 

T 


A 


f2. 

1 LU 

\l§: 


\ 

t- 
<J 


.E* 0.2 



















200 4-00 

Degrees 



600 800 

C entigra de 



Figure 1. TGA and DTA plots of sodium acteylacetonate, C 5 H 7 2 ~Na + , in air. 



2 C 5 H 7 2 Na+ (s) + 12 2(g) = Na 2 C0 3(s) + 9 C0 2(g) + 7 H 2 (g) 
which requires a theoretical weight loss of 100 - [106/(2 x 122)]100 
= 56.6%. The product from this plateau was identified by titration with 
HC1. Three typical titration data are given in Table 1. Note that the 
weights calculated for Na 2 C0 3 based on titration results correspond 
very well to the actual weights of the decomposition samples. The role 
of oxygen in the decomposition was observed in two ways. First it was 



158 



Indiana Academy of Science 



found that rapid heating resulted in decomposition accompanied by the 
formation of considerable dark matter which could be eliminated by 
a slower heating rate and a good supply of air. Secondly, when run in 
nitrogen atmosphere, the decomposition sets in at a higher temperature, 
takes place faster, and levels off at a higher fraction of remaining 
weight (see dotted plot in Fig. 1), and yields more black matter than 
is the case with oxygen, presumably forming large amounts of ele- 
mental carbon. 



Table 1. Typical 


titrations of TGA 


product from 5000° C 


plateau with 0.162U N HCl. 


Sample Weight 
in grams 


Volume of 
HC1 in ml 


Equivalents 
of HC1 


Calculated Weight 
for Na 2 C0 3 in grams 


0.1749 
0.1711 
0.1748 


53.88 
53.22 
53.56 


3.36 x 10-3 
3.32 x 10-3 
3.34 x 10-3 


0.1745 
0.1740 
0.1770 



While the above data all point to the correctness of the proposed 
decomposition, the expected exotherm for oxygenation does not appear 
on the DTA plot (see the insert in Fig. 1 which, on the same 
temperature scale, shows endothermic but no exothermic decomposition). 
The reason for this is the method by which the DTA is run using a 2 
mm microtube sample holder thereby virtually eliminating air access. 
The DSC instrument, on the other hand, exposes the sample to the at- 
mosphere and consequently shows the expected exothermic peak 
(Fig. 2). 







100 



200 



300 



400 



Figure 2. 



Degrees Centigrade 

DSC curve for sodium acetylacetonate dihydrate, C 6 ff 7 O f -No + *^H 2 0, in air. 



Chemistry 159 

The weight loss during the second step between the second plateau 
at about 400°C (0.410 g) and the third one at about 800°C (0.235 g) 
corresponds to 42.7%. It is proposed that this decomposition takes place 
according to the reaction 

Na 2 C0 3(9) = Na 2 (9) + C0 2(g) 

which requires a 41.5% theoretical loss of weight. Titration results 
(Table 2) indicate only fair agreement due to practical complications 
(see Experimental Section). It is noteworthy that thermodynamic calcu- 
lations at 1000°K (7) show the above decomposition to be less favor- 
able (AG° f = +42.323 kcal/mole) than the reaction 

Na 2 C0 3(8) + J0 2(g) = Na 2 2(s) + C0 2(g) 

for which AG£ = +38.183 kcal/mole. It appears then that kinetic 
factors favor the formation of Na 2 rather than that of Na 2 2 . This 
is substantiated by the fact that Na 2 2 decomposes well below (460°C) 
the temperatures for the plateau in question, and that the decomposi- 
tion was found to be independent of oxygen. At least one independent 
study (6) verifies these conclusions. The overall weight loss of 75.2% 
compares well with the predicted loss of 74.6%. 

Table 2. Typical titrations of TGA products from 1000°C plateau with 0.062U n HCl. 

Sample Weight Volume of Equivalents Calculated Weight 

in grams HCl in ml of HCl for Na„0 in grama 



0.1097 


48.24 


3.01 x lO" 3 


0.0933 


0.1054 


45.35 


2.83 x lO' 3 


0.0877 


0.0963 


41.12 


2.57 x lO" 3 


0.0796 









The hydrated salt loses its expected amount of water (22.8% by 
weight) in two equal and well-defined steps. The losses are detected 
by DTA and DSC plots as endothermic peaks. 

Acknowledgments 

The authors wish to thank the Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Indiana, 
for financial support of this research. DTA and DSC analyses were run 
by Thomas E. Cole of Eli Lilly, whose willing assistance is gratefully 
acknowledged. Gary A. Leet prepared the compounds used in this work. 



Literature Cited 

1. Boschmann, Erwin. 1970. A reinvestigation of some alkali chelates. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 80:151-154. 

2. Coats, A. W., and J. P. Redfern. 1963. Thermogravimetric analysis — A review. 
Analyst 88:906-924. 

3. Duval, C. 1963. Inorganic thermogravimetric analysis. Second ed. Elsevier Publ. Co., 
New York, N.Y. 722 p. 



160 Indiana Academy of Science 



4. Fischer, R. B., and D. G. Peters. 1968. Quantitative chemical analysis. Third ed. 
W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 883 p. 

5. Garn, P. D. 1961. Thermal analysis— A critique. Anal. Chem. 33:1247-1251. 

6. Ladenburg, Rudolf. 1923. Uber das Leuchten der Flammen. Naturwissenschaften 
11:1013-1014. 

7. Stull, D. R., and H. Prophet. 1971. JANAF thermochemical tables. Second ed. Nat. 
Stand. Ref. Data Ser. NRS 37. National Bureau of Standards. Washington, D.C. 
1141 p. 

8. Wendlandt, W. W. 1964. Thermal methods of analysis. Interscience, New York, 
N.Y. 424 p. 

9. West, R., and R. Riley. 1958. The infra-red spectra of metal acetylacetonates in the 
sodium chloride region. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 5:295-303. 






4, , 



Coumarins as Fluorescent Indicators of Metal Ions 

Geraldine M. Huitink 

Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University at South Bend, Indiana 46615 

Abstract 

Methyleneiminodiacetic acid derivatives of 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-carbethoxycoumarin 
and 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl coumarin were synthesized and isolated in pure form. 
Variations in fluorescence and absorbance as a function of pH and the effects of selected 
metal ions on the fluorescence of the compounds were studied. These highly fluorescent 
materials find use as fluorescent indicators in EDTA titrations of calcium in the 
presence of magnesrdnK 

Introduction 

Many methods employed to locate the end-point in titrimetric deter- 
minations of water hardness when EDTA is used as the titrant are not 
entirely satisfactory. Included are the appearance of permanent suds 
caused by the presence of soap and the disappearance of calcium oxalate 
turbidity. When Eriochrome Black T was introduced by Biedermann 
and Schwarzenbach (3) it was adopted immediately for determining 
the endpoint in EDTA titrations of calcium plus magnesium. At pH 10 
the magnesium-indicator compound is red. It is converted to blue, the 
color of the free indicator, at the end-point. 

Determinations of calcium alone in mixtures of calcium and magne- 
sium must be performed at pH 13 or higher where magnesium exists 
as non-dissociated magnesium hydroxide. Indicators used to mark this 
end-point were introduced by Schwarzenbach (1) and consist of an acid- 
base colorimetric indicator to which half of an EDTA molecule, a methyl - 
eneiminodiacetic acid group, has been added. Upon combination with 
metal ions the indicators undergo a color change. Fluorescent indicators 
of metal ions are obtained if half of an EDTA molecule is added to a 
fluorescent acid-base indicator. Metallofluorescent indicators are ex- 
tremely sensitive to the presence of very small quantities of metal ions. 
Examples of this type of indicator include Calcein, introduced by Diehl 
and Ellinboe (4), and Calcein Blue, introduced by Wilkins (7). Unfortu- 
nately, these indicators experience ring opening in alkaline solution and 
loss of indicator function results. 

This research was undertaken with the aim of developing indicators 
more highly fluorescent and more resistant to ring opening than those 
presently used. 

Experimental Work 

Apparatus and Reagents 

Measurements of pH were made with a Corning Model 10 pH 
meter standardized against standard buffers. Fluorescence spectra were 
obtained using an Aminco-Keirs Spectro-phosphorimeter that had been 
converted to a spectrofluorometer. Absorption spectra were obtained 
on a Cary Model 15 recording spectrophotometer. Additions of small 
volumes of reagents were made with a Micro Metric Model SB 2 

161 



162 Indiana Academy of Science 

microburet and a Model S5Y syringe. 7-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl- 
coumarin was prepared according to the method of Balaiah et al. (2). 
Melting point: 235.5-237.5°C, reported 233°C. 7-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3- 
carbethoxycoumarin was prepared according to the method of Rao and 
Seshardi (5). Melting point: 199-202°C, reported 193-194°C. 

Synthesis of Methyleneiminodiacetic Acid Derivatives of 7-Hydroxy- 
5-methyl-3-Carbethoxycoumarin and of 7-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-3-Phenyl- 
coumarin 

To 370 ml of glacial acetic acid was added 0.03 mole of the coumarin 
of choice, 0.045 mole of disodium iminodiacetate monohydrate and 0.045 
mole of 37% formaldehyde solution. The reaction was allowed to proceed 
at 70°C for 18 hours with constant stirring. The reaction mixture was 
then allowed to cool and the yellow crystalline material was filtered 
and washed with deionized water. The material was recrystallized by 
dissolving it in the minimum amount of KOH and filtered to remove 
insoluble impurities. The pH of the filtrate was adjusted to 4 by drop- 
wise addition of dilute HC1. The precipitate was filtered, washed with 
deionized water and acetone and recrystallized two more times in the 
same manner. The derivative of the carbethoxy compound decomposes 
at 248°C. Analysis (Spang Microanalytical Laboratory) : found C 53.73, 
H 4.77, N 3.29; C 18 H 19 N0 9 -1/2H 2 requires C 53.73, H 5.01, N 3.48. 
The derivative of the phenyl compound decomposes at 243°C. Analysis 
(Spang Microanalytical Laboratory): C 62.09, H 4.73, N 3.34; 
C 21 H 19 N0 7 -1/2H 2 requires C 62.12, H 4.96, N 3.45. 

Potentiometric Titration 

Neutralization equivalents were obtained by adding known 
amounts of the desired indicator to 75 ml of 0.1 M KN0 3 and titrating 
with NaOH. 

Fluorescence Study 

Excitation and emission spectra of the parent and indicator 
molecules were obtained at one half pH unit intervals ranging from 
pH 1.5 to 13.0. Solutions on which the spectra were obtained were pre- 
pared by mixing 0.25 ml of 0.01 M EDTA to sequester any metal ions 
present, 5 ml of buffer solution, the appropriate volume of 
1.55 x 10" 3 M stock solution of fluorescent material, and diluting to 
25 ml with 0.1 M KN0 3 . 

Effect of Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium and Barium of Fluorescence 

The effect of magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium on the 
fluorescence of the indicator molecules in 0.8 M KOH was studied by 
measuring relative fluorescence of solutions prepared by mixing 
amounts of indicator that were used in the preceeding work, adding 15 
ul of 1.47 x 10" 2 M EDTA, 125 ul of the appropriate 3.11 x 10"3 M 
metal nitrate stock solution, and diluting to 25 ml with 0.8 M KOH. 

Absorbance Study 

The absorbance spectra of the compounds were obtained at one half 
pH unit intervals ranging from 1.5 to 13. Solutions on which spectra 
were run were prepared by mixing appropriate volumes of 



Chemistry 



163 



3.11 x 10" 3 M indicator stock solution, 5 ml of buffer solution, and 
diluting to 25 ml with 0.1 M KN0 3 . The pH of each of the solutions was 
checked after the spectra were run. 

Results and Discussion 

In the potentiometric titration of the products obtained from the 
Mannich condensation of iminodiacetic acid and formaldehyde with 
7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-carbethoxycoumarin and 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3- 
phenylcoumarin one end-point was observed. This break corresponds 
to the neutralization of the second replaceable proton, an hydroxyl pro- 
ton. The molecular weights of the compounds calculated from the volume 
of alkali required to reach the end-point are 403.2 and 405.0, re- 
spectively. These experimental values agree well with theoretical values 
for one coumarin molecule containing one methyleneiminodiacetic acid 
group and one half molecule of water: 402.3 and 406.4, respectively. 

The fluorescence excitation spectra of the parent coumarin mole- 
cules and of the methyleneiminodiacetic acid derivatives show one band, 
the wavelength of maximum excitation shifting from shorter wave- 
length in acid solution to longer wavelength in alkaline solution. The 
emission spectra of all of the compounds exhibit one band. In the case 
of the compounds containing the carbethoxy group this band does not 
shift with changes in pH. A shift in the wavelength of fluorescence 
emission is noted in the case of the phenyl derivatives. The wave- 
lengths of maximum fluorescence excitation in acid and alkaline solu- 
tion and the wavelengths of maximum fluorescence emission in acid 
and alkaline solution are listed in Table 1. 



Table 1. Wavelengths of maximum absorbance and of maximum fluorescence excita- 
tion and emission in acid and alkaline solution for 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-carbethoxy- 
coumarin 'H 2 0, 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenylcoumarin 'H 2 O t 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-carbeth- 
oxycoumarinmethyleneiminodiacetic acid 'l/2H 2 O f and 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenylcoumar- 
inmethyleneiminodiacetic acid m l/2H 2 0. 







Maxima 






Fluorescense Excitation 










(Absorbance) 


Fluorescence 


Emission 




Acid 


Alkaline 


Acid 


Alkaline 




Solution 


Solution 


Solution 


Solution 


Compound 


nm 


nm 


nm 


nm 


7-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3-carbethoxy- 










coumarin-H 2 


360 
(356) 


402 
(407) 


449 


449 


7-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl- 










coumarin-H 2 


349 


392 

(265,387) 


469 


479 


7-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3-carbethoxy- 










coumarinmethyleneiminodiacetic 










acidl/2H 2 


360 
(355) 


409 
(404) 


447 


447 


7-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl- 










coumarinmethyleneiminodiactic 










acidl/2H 2 


348 
(255,344) 


392 

(267,387) 


472 


475 



164 



Indiana Academy of Science 



The intensity of the emitted light varies with pH, the intensity of 
fluorescence at the emission maxima and at the excitation maxima in 
acid and alkaline solutions was measured (Figs. 1 thru 4). A plateau 
is observed for all of the compounds at acidic pH values extending over 
a range of approximately three pH units. The parent molecules of the 
compounds under study exhibit another plateau in alkaline solutions. 
In the case of the methyleneiminodiacetic acid derivatives a maximum 
is observed. The shift in the fluorescence excitation wavelength for all 
of the compounds is attributed to the ionization of the phenolic proton. 
The maxima are attributed to the neutralization of the ammonium ion 
which is accompanied by a decrease in fluorescence. 




Figure 3 



Figure 1, Variation in intensity of fluorescence of 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-carbethoxycoumarin 

•H e O with pH. 

— £ — — Excitation monochromator set at 360 nm 
— ^ — ^ — Excitation monochromator set at 402 nm 

Figure 2. Variation in intensity of fluorescence of 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenylcoumarin» 

Hfi with pH. 

— £ — A — Excitation monochromator set at 349 nm 
— ^ — ^ — Excitation monochromator set at 392 nm 

Figure 3. Variation in intensity of fluorescence of 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-carbethoxycouma- 
rinmethyleneiminodiacetic acid»l/2H t O with pH. 

— A — A — Excitation monochromator set at 360 nm 
— ^ — ^ — Excitation monochromator set at 409 nm 

Figure 4. Variation in intensity of fluorescence of 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenylcourmarin- 
methyleneiminodiacetic acid»l/2H g O with pH. 

— A — Q — Excitation monochromator set at 348 nm 
— A — A — Excitation monochromator set at 392 nm 



Chemistry 165 

In 0.8 M KOH the indicators are non-fluorescent. The addition of 
calcium restores fluorescence. Addition of strontium restores less than 
half of the fluorescence restored by calcium. Addition of barium re- 
stores less than one sixth the fluorescence restored by calcium. Addition 
of magnesium does not restore fluorescence because at pH 13 mag- 
nesium is present as non-dissociated magnesium hydroxide. 

The fluorescence of the calcium-indicator compounds decreases on 
standing in 0.8 M KOH. This is attributed to opening of the lactone ring. 
The presence of phenyl and carbethoxy substituents at position 3 slows 
down the rate of ring opening which is very rapid for 7-hydroxy- 
coumarin; nevertheless, the steady drop in fluorescence renders these 
compounds unsuitable for use in spectrofluorometric analyses. The com- 
pounds serve as excellent indicators in titrimetric determinations of 
calcium, when barium and strontium are absent, because only dramatic 
quenching of fluorescence at the end-point is required. 

Both of the synthesized indicators are more fluorescent than Calcein 
Blue. The phenyl coumarin is approximately twice as fluorescent as 
Calcein Blue. The carbethoxy coumarin is approximately four times 
as fluorescent as Calcein Blue. These values correlate well with those 
established for the parent fluorescent molecules (6). 

The absorption spectra of the carbethoxy compounds show one 
strong band, the wavelength of maximum absorbance shifting from 
shorter wavelength in acid solution to longer wavelength in alkaline 
solution. Below pH 7.5 and at the concentrations used in the 
absorbance study 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenylcoumarin precipitates. 
The absorption spectrum of this compound in alkaline solution exhibits 
two bands. As expected the absorbance of its methyleneiminodiacetic 
acid derivative also exhibits two bands. Inspection of the spectra of the 
acid and base forms of this compound shows a shift in the wavelength 
of the two bands to longer wave lengths in going from acid to alkaline 
solution. These shifts correspond to similar ones in the fluorescence 
excitation spectra of the compounds. The wavelengths of absorbance 
maxima in acid and maxima in acid and alkaline solution for each of 
the compounds are given in Table 1. 

Absorbance changes with pH, the absorbance at the wavelength of 
maximum absorbance in acid solution decreases with increasing pH and 
the absorbance at the wavelength of maximum absorbance in alkaline 
solution increases with increasing pH. This change in the absorption 
spectra corresponds to the change observed in the fluorescence spectra 
and is attributed to neutralization of the phenolic proton. Only one in- 
flection point is observed in each curve. 

In conclusion, two compounds that can serve as indicators to signal 
the end-point in titrimetric determinations of calcium when EDTA is 
used as the titrant have been isolated in pure form and studied. Both 
compounds are more fluorescent than Calcein Blue and both are able 
to function as indicators for longer periods of time in alkaline solution 
than Calcein Blue. At pH 13 the calcium-indicator compounds are bril- 
liantly fluorescent. Upon removal of calcium fluorescence disappears. 



166 Indiana Academy of Science 

Acknowledgements 

The author acknowledges the support received from the Indiana 
University Foundation in the form of Summer Faculty Fellowships and 
Grant-In-Aid of Research funds. She also acknowledges the Ames Com- 
pany Division of Miles Laboratories for the use of instruments neces- 
sary for the completion of this research. 



Literature Cited 

1. Anderegg, G., H. Flashka, R. Sallmann, and G. Schwarzenbach. 1954. 
Metallindikatoren VII. Ein auf Erdalkaliionen ansprechendes Phthalein und seine 
analytische Verwendung. Helv. Chim. Acts. 37:113-120. 

2. Balaiah, V., T. R. Seshardi, and V. Venkateswarlu. 1942. Visible fluorescence 
and chemical constitution of the benzo-pyrone group. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 
16A: 68-82. 

3. Biedermann, W., and G. Schwarzenbach. 1948. The complexometric titration of 
alkaline earths and some other metals with Eriochromschwarz T. Chimia (Swiss) 
2:56-59. 

4. Diehl, H., and J. L. Ellingboe. 1956. Indicator for titration of calcium in presence 
of magnesium using disodium dihydrogen ethylenediamine tetraacetate. Anal. Chem. 
28:882-884. 

5. Rao, K. R., and T. R. Seshadri. 1941. Synthesis of 7-hydroxy-5-methylcoumarin. 
Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 13 A: 255-258. 

6. Sherman, W. R., and E. Robins. 1968. Fluorescence of substituted 7-hydroxy- 
coumarins. Anal. Chem. 40:803-805. 

7. Wilkins, D. H. 1960. Calcein blue a new metalfluorechromic indicator for 
chelatometric titrations. Talanta 4:182-184. 






Titration Errors Associated with the Use of 
Gran Plots in Selected Potentiometric Titrations 

Stanley L. Burden and David E. Euler 

Chemistry Department 
Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989 

Abstract 

Uncertainties introduced into endpoint determinations when Gran plots are used to 
analyze data from selected types of potentiometric titrations were investigated. Two ap- 
proaches were employed to evaluate these errors. First, errors arising from the precision 
of pH measurements and the number and spacing of the data points were evaluated for 
a strong acid-strong base titration. Second, contributions to the titration error due to 
variation in activity coefficients during the course of the titration, constancy of the 
parameter 2.303RT/nF, and scatter in volume and potential measurements were evaluated 
for a 1:1 potentiometric precipitation titration. Inconstancy of the parameter 2.303RT/nF, 
or inaccuracy in its determination, was shown to be the most significant error investi- 
gated when the effect of dilution was minimized. 

A procedure for transforming conventional titration data into a 
form which when plotted gives rise to straight lines intersecting at the 
equivalence point was introduced in 1952 by Gran (2). Fundamentally, 
this technique consists of plotting a quantity related to the antilo- 
garithm of the pH or potential as ordinate versus volume of titrant 
added as abscissa. In many instances only points preceding the endpoint 
need to be plotted; in other instances, only points following the end- 
point are plotted. In either of these cases, a single straight line is ob- 
tained which intersects the abscissa at the endpoint volume. Little use 
of this method is found in the literature, but, because it has potential 
utility in conjunction with ion-selective electrodes, interest in the method 
has been revived (5, 6). 

Plots resulting from the application of Gran's technique are called 
"Gran plots" or "Gran's plots" (5). Volume-corrected semi-antilog- 
arithmic paper has recently been made commercially available to 
facilitate making Gran plots directly from potential-volume data (5). 

Advantages favoring the use of this technique have been suggested 
(5) as including the following: 1) fewer titration points need to be taken 
than with conventional methods; and 2) measurements need not be made 
close to the equivalence point since this point may be obtained by 
extrapolation. 

Even though one recent study reported an evaluation of errors en- 
countered when ion-selective electrodes are used in conventional 
titrations (7), no evaluation of errors peculiar to the Gran procedure 
is available. 

Theory 

Two approaches were used in this study to evaluate the titration 
errors incurred with the use of Gran plots. First, titration errors arising 
from scatter in pH measurements and the number and spacing of data 
points used in the analysis were evaluated for a strong acid-strong base 

167 



168 Indiana Academy of Science 

titration. Second, the individual and combined contributions to the 
titration error arising from uncertainties in several specific experi- 
mental variables were examined. Random scatter was introduced into 
the potential and/or volume measurements in 10 sets of theoretical 
titration data for a 1:1 precipitation titration and the precision and ac- 
curacy of the resulting endpoints were evaluated. 

To avoid limitations in accuracy involved in plotting on and read- 
ing from commercially available, volume-corrected, semi-antilogarithmic 
paper, the Gran plots in this study were made by performing a least- 
squares fit on points generated from pH-volume or potential-volume 
data and appropriate mathematical expressions (2). This procedure, 
when used as part of a linear regression analysis, lends itself readily 
to computing the confidence limits of the end-point. All calculations 
were performed on a PDP-8/L minicomputer. Since the expression used 
to compute the quantity plotted versus volume is different for different 
types of titrations, this study considered only the two types of titrations 
mentioned previously. 

For a strong acid-strong base titration the pertinent Gran expres- 
sion for points prior to the equivalence point is (2, 5) : 

Z«_LZ. io(ph-k) = Kl v + [S] [i] 

v s 
where V g is the initial volume of sample, (liters), V is the volume of 
titrant added, (liters), pH is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion 
activity, (moles/liter), [S] is the initial concentration of sample, 
(moles/liter), K is an arbitrary scaling constant (taken to be zero in 
this study), and K x is a constant which includes the activity coefficients. 
Plotting the left-hand side of equation [1] as ordinate versus V as ab- 
scissa results in a straight line. The value of V when the left-hand 
member of equation [1] is zero is the endpoint volume. Since this value 
is normally obtained by extrapolation, the uncertainty associated with 
it is dependent upon the uncertainties associated with the slope and 
intercept of the line. The statistical uncertainty of the endpoint may 
be estimated at any desired level of confidence by means of parameters 
computed from a linear regression analysis of the data and appropriate 
statistical equations (5). 

The data of Table 1 were used to evaluate the effect on the titra- 
tion error of scatter in pH measurements, of the number of data points 
used in the analysis, and of the location of and spacing between the 
points on the titration curve. The activity coefficients were assumed 
to remain constant during the titration since dilution was minimized 
by utilizing a titrant 10 times more concentrated than the titrate. The 
antilogarithm term shown in the right-hand column corresponds to the 
left side of equation [1]. These data were chosen since they correspond 
to the same titration used by Gran to illustrate the use of his equations 
in a discussion subsequent to the presentation of his original work (2). 
The antilogarithm values used in all subsequent computer calculations 
were six-digit, floating-point values rather than the rounded values 
shown in Table 2. 



Chemistry 169 



Table 1. 


Theoretical titration data for the titration of 100.00 ml of 0.0100 n strong 
acid with 0.1000 N strong base. 




(4.00-pH) 100.00 + V 


V, ml 


pH 10 x 100.00 



0.00 2.00 100 

1.00 2.05 90 

2.00 2.105 80 

3.00 2.17 70 

4.00 2.24 60 

5.00 2.32 50 

6.00 2.425 40 

7.00 2.55 30 

8.00 2.73 20 

9.00 3.04 10 

10.00 7.00 



To evaluate the effect on the titration error created by scatter in 
pH measurements, computer-generated random scatter was introduced 
into the first 10 pH values listed in Table 1. Random errors between 
zero and an arbitrarily chosen maximum value were generated using 
a pseudo-random number generator; these errors were added to or sub- 
tracted from the pH values in Table 1. A separate random number was 
used to determine whether the scatter was to be added to or sub- 
tracted from the tabulated pH value. The maximum values of scatter 
are listed in Table 2 in the ApH column. For each maximum value, 10 
sets of titration data containing scatter were generated. The left-hand 
member of equation [1] was computed for each pH value in a set of 
points using the associated volume, V, from Table 1. A least-squares 
fit was made to each of these sets of data. 

The constants K x and [S] were assigned values corresponding 
to the slope and intercept, respectively, and the resulting equation 
was solved for the endpoint volume. The statistical uncertainty at the 
95% confidence level was estimated for the endpoint volume using the 
method and formulae given by Bauer (1). This procedure was repeated 
for all 10 sets of data and for each of the 3 ApH values listed. 
The average titration error, average per cent deviation from the mean 
error, and average uncertainty in the endpoint volume at the 95% con- 
fidence level were computed for each series of 10 sets of data. The 
results are shown in the last three columns of Table 2. 

To demonstrate the effect on the titration error caused by decreas- 
ing the number of data points, the above procedures were repeated 
using three sets of five data points and three sets of three data points. 
The results of these computations are also shown in Table 2. 

When fewer than 10 data points were used in the analysis, the 
points were chosen to cover various regions of the titration curve prior 
to the endpoint. This was done to demonstrate how the location of the 
points on the titration curve and the spacing between these points 
affected the titration error. For example, one of the sets of three points 
represented 90% of the titration curve prior to the endpoint, the second 



170 



Indiana Academy of Science 



set represented 60% of the curve, and the third set only the first 20% 
of the titration prior to the endpoint. It is evident that the titration 
error is less when a larger portion of the titration curve is represented. 

Table 2. Titration errors arising from the precision of pH measurements as a 
function of the number and spacing of data points. 





Titration of 100.00 ml of 0.0100 n strong acid with 0.1000 N 


strong base. 






Average Titration 




Average 






Error 7 


Average 


Uncertainty 


No. of 




Random Scatter 


Deviation 7 


at 95% C.L. 7 


Points 


ApH 


<%) 


(%) 


(%> 


10 


0.005 


+ 0.02 


0.08 


1.40 


10 


0.01 


—0.07 


0.28 


2.66 


10 


0.1 


+ 0.68 


1.71 


25.98 


5 


0.005 


— 0.04 1 (+0.16) 2 


0.02 1 (O.IO) 2 


1.42 1 ( 1.35)2 


5 


0.01 


— 0.21 1 (+0.13)2 


0.40 1 (0.23)2 


2.91 1 ( 2.22) 2 


5 


0.1 


1.09 1 (—0.34)2 


4.89 1 (3.01)2 


30.91 1 (21.75)2 


53 


0.005 


—1.05 


0.73 


1.95 


58 


0.01 


—0.05 


1.39 


3.73 


5 3 


0.1 


+ 11.34 


21.74 


34.39 


3 


0.005 


—0.06* (— 0.23 ) 5 


0.14* (0.23) 5 


1.42* ( 2.75) B 


3 


0.01 


+ 0.06* (— 0.27) 5 


0.34* (1.09) 5 


3.56* ( 4.04 ) 5 


3 


0.1 


+ 0.05* (+2.24) 5 


3.44* (7.31) 5 


24.43* ( 50.19 ) 5 


3° 


0.005 


—0.30 


2.23 


2.39 


3« 


0.01 


+ 1.12 


3.29 


5.78 


3 a 


0.1 


—11.49 


15.90 


44.03 


1 Point at 0,2,4,6,8 ml 




5 Points at 0,2,6 ml 




2 Points at 1,3,5,7,9 ml 




8 Points at 0,1,2 ml 




3 Points at 0,1,2,3,4 ml 




7 Average of ten trials 




* Points at 2,5,9 ml 









To evaluate the individual and combined contributions to the titra- 
tion error incurred in a Gran analysis due to variation in activity 
coefficients, inaccuracy in the value of 2.303 RT/nF, and scatter in the 
potential and volume measurements, a 1:1 potentiometric precipitation 
titration was considered. The reaction considered was of the form: 

XjS + TX 2 -> TS (S) + X X X 2 

where X 2 S, TX 2 and X X X 2 are soluble. If XjS is titrated with 
TX 2 , the expression necessary for a Gran analysis using points prior 
to the equivalence point is identical to equation [1] except that the term 
10(ph-k) i s replaced by 10 17n ( KE ) (2). In this modified equation, 
17 is a constant (2.303RT/nF, rounded to two significant figures), n 
is the number of electrons transferred per mole, E is the potential of 
the indicating electrode (millivolts) versus a suitable reference elec- 
trode, and K is an arbitrary scaling constant (taken to be zero in this 
study). To reduce the error introduced by the inaccuracy of the volume 
measurements, the titrant and titrate were taken to be equal in concen- 
tration. This choice, however, increases the error resulting from the 
effect of dilution upon the activity coefficients. 



Chemistry 



171 



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172 Indiana Academy of Science 

The effect of an ionic strength adjustor (ISA), used to minimize 
the error due to changing activity coefficients during the course of the 
titration, is shown in Table 3. For each of the three ISA concentrations 
shown, activity coefficients were computed at 2.50 ml increments of 
titrant added using the extended Debye-Huckel equation (EDHE) 

Az2y~ 

-logf= L- [2] 

1 + BaZ^ 

where f is the activity coefficient, ^ is the ionic strength, A and B are 
0.509 and 0.328, respectively, at 25° C in water, and a is an adjustable 
parameter characteristic of a particular ion. For illustrative purposes, 
the ion being sensed by the electrode was taken to be fluoride for which 
a = 3A (3). For each 2.50-ml increment of titrant added, the activity 
of the species being monitored, F", was calculated. A corresponding 
potential was computed by substituting this activity into the Nernst 
equation. These potential values, along with the corresponding titrant 
volumes, were submitted to a linear regression analysis as described 
previously and the average normality of the sample, the titration error 
and endpoint uncertainty at the 95% confidence level were calculated. 
The results are shown in Table 3. Only one such series of calculations 
was made for each ISA concentration shown, since the error introduced 
by the changing activity coefficients was systematic. 

The effect on the titration error of scatter in the potential measure- 
ments was evaluated by introducing random scatter ranging from zero 
to ±0.5 mv into 10 sets of theoretical titration data. The theoretical 
potential values were calculated from the Nernst equation taking 
2.303RT/nF = 59.16 mv (n was taken to be unity) ; activity effects 
were neglected. Potential values were computed at 2.50-ml increments 
of titrant added. A linear regression analysis was carried out on each 
of the 10 sets of scattered data as described previously and the average 
normality of the sample, the relative average deviation, the titration 
error, and the endpoint uncertainty at the 95% confidence level were 
calculated. The results are shown in Table 3. To demonstrate the effect 
of an inaccurate value of 2.303RT/nF, this same procedure was repeated 
using values of 58.16 mv and 60.16 mv in the Nernst equation to gen- 
erate the theoretical potential values. 

The effects on the titration error due to scatter in the volume read- 
ings were evaluated by introducing scatter from zero to ± 0.05 ml into 
10 sets of theoretical titration data. At each 2.50-ml increment of titrant 
added, a random number between zero and ± 0.05 was added to the 
titrant volume expressed in milliliters. This modified titrant volume 
was used to compute a concentration of titrate remaining which 
was subsequently substituted into the Nernst equation to compute a 
modified potential. These modified potential values, along with the 
original volume increments, provided titration data influenced by scatter 
in the volume measurements. Each of the 10 sets of data was analyzed 
as described previously and the results are shown in Table 3. This pro- 
cedure was repeated for three different values of 2.303RT/nF. 






Chemistry 173 

The last three rows of Table 3 display the titration errors incurred 
when scatter in potential, scatter in volume and variation in activity 
coefficients all occur simultaneously. The results shown are the averages 
of the values obtained for 10 sets of titration data at each of the indi- 
cated values of 2.303RT/nF. 

Discussion 

For the strong acid-strong base titration upon which the results 
of Table 2 were based, a typical experimental titration error would not 
be expected to exceed 0.1-0.3% if conventional endpoint detecting 
techniques were employed (4). The magnitudes of the average titration 
errors and average deviations shown in Table 3 indicate that a maximum 
scatter of 0.01 pH unit or less would be necessary to keep the titration 
errors less than this if a Gran-type analysis were employed. 

The results in Table 2 show that if the number of data points used 
in the analysis is decreased, the points must be chosen to represent as 
large a range of added titrant as possible For example, nearly identi- 
cal average titration errors and average deviations were obtained when 
3 points, taken at 2.00, 5.00, and 9.00 ml and containing a scatter of 
zero to ± 0.01 pH unit, were utilized as when 10 points containing the 
same amount of scatter were utilized. The average uncertainty of the 
endpoint at the 95% confidence level was slightly higher in the case of 
the three data points due to the statistical uncertainty associated with 
the use of fewer points. When the three data points represented only 
the first 20% of the titration curve prior to the endpoint, i.e., at 0.00, 
1.00, and 2.00 ml, the error and uncertainty were significantly larger. 
In general, the average titration errors and average deviations in Table 
2 indicate that for a scatter of zero to ± 0.01 pH unit, the points used 
in the analysis should represent a range of titrant delivered which is 
greater than 60% of the endpoint volume if the titration error is to be 
kept in the range ±0.1-0.3% or lower. 

From Table 2 the average uncertainty at the 95% confidence level 
is a considerably more conservative estimate than the average deviation 
encountered with the 10 trials made for any set of conditions shown. 
This is due to the statistical uncertainty associated with the relatively 
few number of data points used in the analyses and the relatively few 
(10) trials employed to obtain the average titration errors. 

Table 3 shows the effects of several experimental parameters upon 
the titration error when a Gran analysis is used to determine the end- 
point of a potentiometric precipitation titration. If the titrate and 
titrant are taken to be of equal concentration, the error caused by varia- 
tion in activity coefficients due to dilution is enhanced. Assuming that 
a maximum titration error of approximately ±0.3% is acceptable for this 
titration, Table 3 shows that a 1 F ISA is required to reduce the 
titration error caused by variation in activity coefficients to less than 
this value. 

A comparison of the three average titration errors listed for either 
the potential measurements, volume measurements or combined effects 



174 Indiana Academy of Science 

shows the effect of a ±1 mv error in the value of 2.303RT/nF. If a 1 
F ISA is used to minimize the activity effects, the titration errors shown 
indicate that the most significant error studied is inaccuracy in the value 
used for 2.303FT/nF. 

The magnitude of scatter introduced into the volume measurements 
is probably somewhat pessimistic whereas that introduced into the 
potential measurements is somewhat optimistic in terms of typical ex- 
perimental uncertainties. Nevertheless, the scatter in volume introduces 
the least amount of titration error under the conditions evaluated. This 
is evident even though the average titration errors are identical since 
the relative average deviation and endpoint uncertainty at the 95% 
confidence level are both considerably greater for the 10 trials into 
which scatter in potential was introduced. 

In summary, the results of this study support the following conclu- 
sions regarding the use of Gran plots for the titrations considered: 1) 
Although the number of data points used in the Gran plot may be re- 
duced, in comparison to conventional techniques, the points must repre- 
sent a large (>60%) region of the titration curve prior to the endpoint; 
2) Proper attention must be given to the use of a suitably concentrated 
ISA or the use of a sufficiently concentrated titrant to minimize the 
error due to variation in activity coefficients caused by dilution; 3) The 
value of 2.303RT/nF must be known and/or kept constant to consider- 
ably better than ±1 to prevent it from being the most important source 
of titration error; and 4) Since the titrations considered represent 
optimal titration conditions and since the values of scatter 
introduced represent rather optimistic estimates of typical experimental 
errors, considerable caution is warranted when Gran plots are used, 
rather than conventional techniques, to determine the endpoints of 
potentiometric titrations. 

The conclusions in this work are rigorously applicable only to the 
specific titration conditions studied. However, the procedures for 
evaluating titration errors in Gran plots and the computer programs 
for implementing these procedures may conveniently be used for any 
other titration conditions. Minor modifications in the program will per- 
mit the simulation and error analysis of other types of titrations which 
require different mathematical expressions for the antilogarithm term 
in the Gran analysis. Work in this area is currently in progress. In addi- 
tion, efforts are underway to develop explicit analytical expressions 
from which titration errors may be computed for Gran plots of various 
types of titrations. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bauer, E. L. 1960. A statistical manual for chemists. Academic Press, Inc., New 
York, N.Y. 156 p. 

2. Gran, G. 1952. Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations. 
Part II. The Analyst 11:661-671. 

3. Butler, J. N. 1964 Ionic equilibrium Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Inc., Reading, 

Mass. 547 p. 



Chemistry 175 

4. Lingane, J. J. 1958. Electroanalytical chemistry. (2nd ed.) Interscience Publ. 
New York, N.Y. 669 p. 

5. 1970. Gran's plots and other schemes Newsletter of Orion Res. Inc. 2:11, 12. 

6. 1970. More schemes (plot two). Newsletter of Orion Res. Inc. 3:1, 2. 

7. Shultz, F. A. 1971. Titration errors and curve shapes in potentiometric titrations. 
Anal. Chem. 43:502-508. 






Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Specific Components of the 
Waters of Lost Creek and the Wabash River, Vigo County, Indiana 

David G. Lesniak, Michael C. Tavenner 

and 

Joseph R. Siefker 

Department of Chemistry 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstract 

The surface waters of Lost Creek and the Wabash River were sampled February- 
May 1972 at several sites in Vigo County. Dissolved and total concentrations of iron, lead, 
sodium, and zinc were measured. The river stage, water temperature, specific conductance, 
pH, and concentrations of chloride and fluoride ions and dissolved oxygen were de- 
termined. Fluoride, iron, lead and zinc concentrations were found to be higher in the 
Wabash River than in Lost Creek. The pH and sodium concentration were higher in Lost 
Creek than in the Wabash River. 

Introduction 

Lost Creek is contained entirely within Vigo County. It originates 
south of Seelyville at the eastern edge of Vigo County and flows 14 
miles northwesterly to its confluence with the Wabash River near the 
northwest boundary of the Terre Haute city limits. Sampling sites were 
chosen at the North 13th Street bridge and at the north side of U.S. 
40 where the highway crosses Lost Creek about 8 miles east of the 
Wabash River. The distance between sampling sites was about 6 miles. 
The North 13th Street site is less than 2 miles from the confluence of 
Lost Creek and the Wabash River. 

The Wabash River flows from north to south through Vigo 
County. U.S. Highway 40 crosses the Wabash River at Terre Haute near 
the geographical center of Vigo County. The U.S. 40 bridge served as 
the principal sampling site for the present study. The Fort Harrison 
Road boat dock, located about 4 miles upstream from the U.S. 40 bridge, 
served as the northernmost sampling site. Samples were taken during 
February from the Indiana Highway 63 bridge, located about 3.5 miles 
north of the U.S. 40 bridge, and from the Interstate Highway 70 
bridge, located about 2 miles south of the U.S. 40 bridge. The southern- 
most sampling site was about 100 yards north of the Public Service 
Company Dresser Station, located about 8 miles south of the U.S. 40 
bridge., 

The drainage area of the Wabash River at Terre Haute is 12,200 
square miles. The instantaneous flow averages about 15,000 feetVsec. 

Experimental 

In situ analyses were performed for dissolved oxygen concentration, 
specific conductance, and temperature measurement. Dissolved oxygen 
concentration was determined with a Model 54 Yellow Springs Oxygen 
Meter; specific conductance was measured with a Beckman Enviro- 

176 



Chemistry 177 

meter Model EV6. As each of the instruments has a temperature scale, 
the temperature of the water was checked with both meters. The total 
concentration of ions (ppm or mg/1) was estimated from the specific 
conductance and the temperature of the water. 

An Orion Model 801 Analyzer was used for chloride, fluoride, and 
pH determinations. All three determinations were made immediately 
on return to the laboratory with original, unfiltered stream water. 
Chloride ion concentrations were determined by a selective ion electrode 
and double junction reference electrode; fluoride ion concentrations were 
determined by a selective ion electrode and single junction reference 
electrode. 

Metal ion concentrations were determined with an atomic absorp- 
tion spectrophotometer (1). Analyses were performed on both filtered 
and unfiltered samples. Samples used in the determination of dissolved 
metals were obtained by filtration of the original samples through a 
0.45^ filter. These filtrates were acidified and concentrated ten-fold by 
evaporation. To determine the total metal concentrations, the unfiltered 
samples were acidified and digested at a temperature near the boiling 
point for several days. Samples were aspirated into the flame of the 
atomic absorption instrument and quantitative analyses were made by 
comparison to calibration standards. 

Results and Discussion 

A summary of data taken from Lost Creek and the Wabash River 
is shown in Table 1. The Lost Creek samples were more basic and con- 
tained more sodium than Wabash River samples. The average pH was 
about 0.5 unit higher and the range was greater for Lost Creek, indi- 
cating that the Wabash River is more highly buffered. For Lost Creek, 
the concentration of dissolved ionic species was about 10 % higher up- 
stream at U.S. 40 than at 13th Street. The average for the two sites 
was about the same as the average for Wabash River samples. There 
were generally negligible differences in the results from the two Lost 
Creek sites, as is evident upon inspection of the data in Table 1. 
Further, there was general agreement between concentrations of the 
analyzed substances in Lost Creek and the Wabash River, except for 
the total concentration of iron, which was more than twice as high in 
the Wabash River. This is probably due to acid mine drainage which the 
Wabash River receives from streams such as Coal Creek and Sugar Creek 
in the western part of Vigo County. These waters of low pH contain high 
concentrations of suspended iron, and thus increase the concentration 
of total iron in the Wabash River. With regard to the substances an- 
alyzed, Lost Creek appears to be a stream of fairly high purity. 

For many of the elements analyzed quantitatively, the data indi- 
cated an inverse relationship between concentration and river stage. 
This was the behavior of chloride, fluoride, lead, and sodium. The river 
stage is an indication of the volume of the river and the rate of flow. 
When the river stage is high after considerable precipitation, these 
chemical species seem to be diluted by the rain water. On the other hand, 
the concentrations of iron and zinc were directly proportional to the 



178 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. 



Maximum, minimum and average values for selected Lost Creek and Wabash 
River collection stations, February through May, 1972. 







Lost Creek 




Wabash River 




Variable 










Dresser 


Determined 


13th 


U.S. 40 


Ft. Harrison 


U.S. 40 


Station 


River Stage (ft) 












Max 








20.2 




Min 








2.5 




Ave 








7.3 




Lab pH 












Max 


9.26 


9.41 


8.24 


8.24 


8.25 


Min 


8.04 


7.86 


7.90 


7.89 


7.90 


Ave 


8.76 


8.48 


8.12 


8.10 


8.12 


Cond Ions (mg/1) 










Max 420 


600 


470 


470 


470 


Min 


BOO 


320 


280 


265 


298 


Ave 


370 


408 


388 


380 


395 


Diss O2 (mg/1) 












Max 


11.0 


11.2 


11.8 


12.5 


11.8 


Min 


7.9 


7.7 


7.5 


7.4 


7.3 


Ave 


9.4 


9.6 


9.8 


10.5 


10.2 


Diss CI" (mg/1) 












Max 


31 


27 


35 


34 


33 


Min 


19 


18 


18 


18 


17 


AV6 


27 


22 


26 


27 


26 


Diss F- (mg/1) 












Max 


0.25 


0.25 


0.29 


0.32 


0.27 


Min 


0.16 


0.16 


0.19 


0.19 


0.19 


Ave 


0.18 


0.20 


0.23 


0.25 


0.23 


Diss Fe (mg/1) 












Max 


0.22 


0.31 


0.67 


0.56 


0.51 


Min 


0.11 


0.11 


0.14 


0.12 


0.18 


Ave 


0.14 


0.25 


0.38 


0.30 


0.31 


Total Fe (mg/1) 












Max 


2.1 


1.4 


7.3 


7.7 


7.3 


Min 


0.5 


0.5 


0.7 


0.6 


0.5 


Ave 


0.9 


0.8 


3.2 


2.2 


3.1 


Diss Pb (mg/1) 












Max 


0.05 


0.04 


0.06 


0.06 


0.U5 


Min 


0.02 


0.02 


0.03 


0.02 


0.02 


Ave 


0.03 


0.03 


0.05 


0.04 


0.04 


Total Pb (mg/1) 












Max 


0.06 


0.04 


0.10 


0.10 


0.11 


Min 


0.02 


0.03 


0.03 


0.02 


0.03 


Ave 


0.04 


0.03 


0.05 


0.05 


0.05 


Diss Na (mg/1) 












Max 


10.5 


12.0 


11.0 


6.8 


7.1 


Min 


4.7 


4.2 


3.0 


3.1 


3.4 


Ave 


8.1 


7.3 


5.4 


5.2 


5.2 


Total Na (mg/1) 












Max 


33.5 


31.4 


15.2 


18.8 


15.7 


Min 


8.9 


11.5 


5.8 


5.0 


5.7 


Ave 


22.5 


20.6 


10.2 


12.0 


11.2 


Diss Zn (mg/1) 












Max 


0.07 


0.07 


0.10 


0.14 


0.13 


Min 


0.02 


0.03 


0.04 


0.05 


0.06 


Ave 


0.05 


0.04 


0.08 


0.08 


0.08 


Total Zn (mg/1) 












Max 


0.08 


0.08 


0.15 


0.26 


0.43 


Min 


0.04 


0.04 


0.05 


0.06 


0.05 


Ave 


0.05 


0.05 


0.08 


0.11 


0.11 



Chemistry 179 

river stage. The rain apparently washes iron and zinc into the river and 
increases the concentrations of these elements. The dissolved oxygen 
concentrations generally were about 85% of the values expected for 
water saturated with air at the experimental temperature. The various 
Wabash River sampling stations always gave practically identical 
results for samples taken on the same day. The concentrations of dis- 
solved chloride, iron, and sodium can be compared to results given by 
Harmeson and Larson (2) for the Wabash River at Riverton, Indiana, 
about 40 miles south of Terre Haute. Table 1 shows the average 
chloride ion concentration to be about 27 ppm. This agrees with 
Harmeson's value, within experimental error. Their average for dis- 
solved iron and sodium is about 0.1 and 18 mg/1, respectively, com- 
pared to our average of about 0.2 and 6 mg/1. 

Kopp and Kroner (4) give results of analyses for iron, lead, and 
zinc concentrations in the Wabash River at New Harmony, Indiana. 
For iron they give an average of 0.027 compared to our value of 0.2 ppm. 
For lead and zinc they report an average of 0.035 and 0.051, re- 
spectively, compared to our average of 0.045 and 0.08 ppm. There seems 
to be a significant difference only in the results for the iron analyses, 
with the concentration of iron apparently higher in the Wabash River 
at Terre Haute than at New Harmony. 

A comparison can be made between the results of some of our an- 
alyses and the records published by the Indiana State Board of Health 
(3) for the Wabash River at Terre Haute. Our average laboratory pH 
of 8.1 was higher than their average values of 7.3 for laboratory pH 
and 7.8 for in situ pH. Our value of 27 for average chloride 
ion concentration was considerably higher than their average 
of 17 ppm recorded for 1969. Their values for specific conductance seem 
to indicate a total concentration of ions approximately 100 ppm higher 
than our average of about 390. 



Literature Cited 

Environmental Protection Agency. 1971. Methods for chemical analysis of water and 
wastes. Water Quality Office, Analytical Quality Control Lab., Cincinnati, O. 312 p. 

Harmeson, R. H., and T. E. Larson. 1969. Quality of surface water in Illinois, 
1956-1966. 111. State Water Sur. Bull. 54:175-180. 

Indiana State Board of Health and Stream Pollution Control Board. 1969. Indiana 
water quality: monitor station records — rivers and streams. 139 p. 

Kopp, J. F., and R. C. Kroner. 1968. Trace metals in waters of the United 
States, 1962-1967. Fed. Water Pollution Cont. Adm., Cincinnati, O. 28 p. 
+ 16 appendices. 



ECOLOGY 

Chairman: Alton A. Lindsey, Department of Biological Sciences, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Marion T. Jackson, Department of Life Sciences, 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809, 

was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

i p 9 ' 

Tornado Tracks in the Presettlement Forests of Indiana. Alton A. 
Lindsey, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907. In our presettlement forests, many areas 

of windfall provided shelter and edges for wildlife, and habitat for early 
successional plant species. Some Indian villages and trails were located 
with reference to this fuel resource. One cluster of wigwams mapped 
during the General Land Office survey (1795-1847) was located imme- 
diately between a stream and a windthrow swath. White settlers placed 
their village of Windfall, Tipton County, near two areas of down 
timber on Wildcat Creek. Not long before 1838, a tornado occurred with 
the same location and course as the Palm Sunday tornado, 1965, that 
devastated Russiaville. 

The deputy surveyors mapped 99 tornado tracks in Indiana; 44 were 
large tornadoes, more than one-fourth mile wide. Forty-six tornadoes 
had moved from west to east, 22 toward the southeast, 22 toward the 
northeast, and 9 toward the north. The average tornado mapped before 
1847 bore nearly 20° farther east of north than the average of 211 
tornadoes mapped by Schaal for the period 1916-1965. The early 
surveyors missed many windfalls because they traversed only the ex- 
terior lines of sections, and because the first work started in southern 
Indiana before surveyors were specifically required to record fallen 
timber. Hence, few were shown for the southwest corner of the state, 
where Agee noted greater numbers for 1916-1968 than the average for 
the state. Schaal considers the mean annual number for Indiana was 
the same then as now, or 23 tornadoes. If all deputy surveyors had 
found and mapped all tracks existing at the time of their survey, we 
could now determine how long the average windfall remained recog- 
nizable under serai development. Assuming that the average recog- 
nizable life of a track was 20 years, the 99 tracks mapped were 21.5 
per cent of the number then existing. 

A Sample Hydrologic Environmental Inventory of Tippecanoe 
County. Robert H. L. Howe, Eli Lilly and Company Tippecanoe Labora- 
tories, Lafayette, Indiana 47902. A series of hydrological environ- 
mental surveys was conducted and data were used for the mathe- 
matical formulation for the inventory purpose, using the Tippecanoe 
County aquatic structures. Interpretation was presented as based on 
long term samples and assays. 

Effects of Ground Fire on Spring Wildflower Populations of Oak- 
hickory Forests. Ronald L. Helms and M. T. Jackson, Department 

181 



182 Indiana Academy of Science 

of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 
47809. Two forested areas, located in east-central Illinois and west- 
central Indiana, sustained ground fire in the spring and fall of 1971, 
respectively. The herbaceous stratum was sampled during the spring 
of 1972 by 32 square meter plots in the burned and unburned sections 
of each study site. Significant changes in density were recorded for 8 
of 11 wildf lower species in the spring-burned tract; 8 of 10 wildflower 
species had significant density differences due to fall burning. Fre- 
quency changes were significant for 7 and 6 species, respectively. 
Species characteristic of undisturbed forest conditions decreased sub- 
stantially in density and frequency; whereas, species commonly found 
on disturbance forest sites increased markedly. 

The Distribution of Chaoborus species in Four Bog Lakes in the Upper 
Peninsula of Michigan. Carl N. von Ende, Department of Biology, Uni- 
versity of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. Four bog lakes 

being studied in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan have different com- 
binations of Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae, phantom midge) species. 
It was proposed that the distribution of Chaoborus can be explained 
by considering the influence of fish predation, zooplankton competition, 
and refuges for zooplankton. Fish can have a direct effect by preying 
on the Chaoborus, and an indirect effect by preying on the zoo- 
plankton, which in turn are preyed upon by the Chaoborus. It was 
hypothesized that the number and size of species of zooplankton 
present also is important in determining which Chaoborus species are 
present. The assumptions and hypotheses being tested by field data and 
laboratory experiments were outlined. The relevance of this investiga- 
tion to present theories of the structure of aquatic animal communities 
was suggested. 

The Distribution and Ecology of Cave Crayfishes in Indiana. 
H. H. Hobbs III, Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, Indiana 47401. Approximately 1500 caverns are known to be 

developed in the central Mississippian and eastern Silurian limestones 
of the southern one-sixth of Indiana. Two species, representing two 
genera of crayfishes, occur within the subterranean waters of many 
of these caves. Cambarus (Erebicambarus) laevis Faxon, a troglophile, 
is found in epigean and hypogean streams of both the Mississippian 
and Silurian cave areas. The troglobitic Orconectes inermis is repre- 
sented by two subspecies and intergrade populations and is restricted 
to caves of the south-central Mississippian limestones. Orconectes 
inermis testii (Hay) has been observed only in caves of Monroe 
County and Orconectes inermis inermis Cope has been found within the 
cave systems of southern Indiana and northern Kentucky (between 
Monroe County, Indiana, and Hart County, Kentucky). Cambarus laevis 
is known from 46 caves in nine counties, Orconectes inermis testii has 
been observed in 14 caves in Monroe County and Orconectes inermis 
inermis is reported from 38 caves in six Indiana counties. 
Cambarus laevis is the most widely distributed of the cave crayfishes 
and is found not only in the slow moving, silt-bottomed streams com- 
monly inhabited by Orconectes inermis, but also in the more swiftly 
flowing streams with gravel and bedrock substrates. 






Ecology 183 

Study of Predation Strategy in a Cave Beetle. Thomas C. Kane, 
Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 
Indiana 46556. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight concern- 
ing the predation strategy of the cave beetle, Neaphaenops tellkampfil 
(Coleoptera:Carabidae), which is the most abundant beetle in the caves 
of Central Kentucky. Neaphaenops tellkampfii apparently monopolizes 
the eggs of the common cave cricket, Hadeniecus subterraneus (Orthop- 
tera: Gryllacrididae) , which oviposits mainly in cave passages contain- 
ing sandy substrate. Pitfall trap data showed that this beetle selects 
sandy substrate over muddy or rocky substrate when given a choice. 
It was also demonstrated that hole digging behavior occurs to a much 
greater extent in sand than in mud when a beetle is presented with equal 
amounts of both substrates. Finally, bait trapping data indicated that 
Neaphaenops tellkampfii may depend solely on cricket eggs in sandy 
areas since it comes to bait only on muddy substrate. This type of study 
lends itself to testing theoretical models of strategies for solitary 
predators. 

Conservation vs. Management in Resource Preservation. James R. Karr, 
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Indiana 47907. Declaring an area a national park has classically 

meant the assumption of a passive policy of park management in the 
name of conservation. In the United States we found that this resulted 
in overpopulation of certain large species {e.g., elk in Yellowstone) 
which required culling the herd to avoid overpopulation and eventual 
habitat destruction. 

The same lessons were learned as early as 1956 by management 
personnel in Africa. However, during a recent visit to Tsavo National 
Park in Kenya I was appalled by the condition of the habitat in the drier 
eastern portion of the park due to a complex of factors including over- 
population by elephants. The situation was exacerbated by an unusually 
dry period last year. 

I discussed the situation with several local biologists and learned 
that one of several factors responsible for the hesitancy of Government 
officials to selectively remove individual and/or families of elephants 
was the expected outcry from the American and European conservation 
movements. If this is true, and I feel that it is, it is our obligation to 
educate our citizens to the responsibilities of conservation through en- 
lightened management. Only through enlightened management can we 
expect to preserve our natural resources. 

A common approach is to appeal to the public to have "faith" in 
the knowledge of professional wildlife conservationists. Rather, I feel 
that we should educate our citizens in the principles of environmental 
biology and ecology so they can recognize the reason for management 
decisions rather than take those decisions on faith. 



A Preliminary Description 

of the Physcio-Chemical Characteristics and Biota 

of Three Strip Mine Lakes, Spencer County, Indiana. 

Michual W. Coe and Damian V. Schmelz 

Department of Biology 

St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Indiana 47577 

Abstract 

Physico-chemical characteristics and biota of three Spencer County strip mine lakes, 
all within the same immediate area and all about 30 years old, were studied. 
Physico-chemical values were significantly higher for Lakes II and III than for Lake I; 
values for Lake III were slightly higher than for Lake II. Lake I was by far the most 
fertile, both as to number of genera and density of organisms; Lakes II and III were com- 
paratively sterile. Differences might be explained by variations among the area/volume 
ratios, slopes of basins, and watersheds. These lakes appeared to be similar to strip mine 
lakes studied in Missouri and Illinois and can be considered to be in the alkaline stage of 
recovery. All results reinforced the theory that each strip mine lake is modified 
chemically, physically, and biotically at its own rate. 

During the past 60 years, nearly 100,000 acres of land in Indiana 
have been strip mined, and it is estimated that at least as many acres 
could be profitably stripped in the future. There are about 12,000 acres 
of strip mine lakes now in Indiana, or about 1 acre of water for each 
8 acres of land stripped. 

These lakes represent an extremely harsh physico-chemical environ- 
ment immediately after formation and are typically biologically sterile 
for a number of years. Research on such lakes has been done in Illinois 
(7), Missouri (4), Pennsylvania (5), and Ohio (9). The first detailed 
research on Indiana strip mine lakes, in Pike County, was completed 
in 1971 by Ronald Smith of Indiana University (12). 

This preliminary description of three lakes in Spencer County, a 
B.S. research project, was supported by a grant from the Indiana 
Academy of Science. 

Location and Description of the Lakes 

The three lakes selected were among the 20 of varying sizes in a 
150-acre area strip mined from 1937-1942, 1 1/2 miles east of Mariah 
Hill, Harrison Township, Spencer County, Indiana (SW 1/4 Sec. 7 and 
NW 1/4 Sec. 18, T4S, R4W). The area lies near the eastern margin of 
the Pennsylvanian zone. The stratum of workable coal averages 3 feet 
thick, overlain by 45-70 feet of sandstone, shale, and fire-clay. 

Table 1 presents the estimated physical dimensions of the three 
lakes. The basin of Lake I was gently sloping with a thick layer of 
organic debris; the basins of Lakes II and III were steeply sloping with 
little organic deposit. 

The spoil banks, generally steep, had a variety of native deciduous 
trees scattered among the pines planted shortly after the mining was 
completed, as well as a sparse cover of annuals and perennials, with 
some extensive bare exposures remaining. 

184 







Ecology 




185 




Table 1. 


Dimensions of Lakes I-III. 






Surface Area 


Ave. Depth 


Volume 




Lake 


(acres) 


(feet) 


(acre feet) 


Area/Vol. 


I 


6 


8 


48 


0.12 


II 


1.5 


14 


21 


0.07 


III 


7 


15 


25 


0.08 



Lakes I and III received some drainage from nearby farmland. Only 
Lake II has never successfully been stocked with game fish. Little modi- 
fication of the area has been done, except for an access road for 
fishermen. 

Procedure 

The three lakes were selected because of visible differences: 
abundant aquatic vegetation in Lake I, limited watershed of Lake II, 
the greenish water color of Lake III. 

Field data were collected between September 20 and November 15, 
1971. Water samples for chemical analyses were taken with a Meyer 
sampler at a depth of 5 feet. Dissolved oxygen was determined by Ohle 
procedure (1, 8). Calgon Corporation of Evansville was contracted for 
more accurate and sensitive tests for dissolved ions and compounds. 
Temperature measurements, by standard Centigrade thermometer 
(±0.1°), and measurements of depth of effective light penetration, by 
8-inch Secchi disc, were made on the same day near noon. 

The plankton samples (6 x 16 inches, No. 20 cloth) was towed hori- 
zontally at depths of 1-4 feet and vertically from 1 foot of the bottom 
to the surface. A Carribean-type dredge (12 x 10 x 24 inches) was used 
for benthic samples. Specimens were preserved in 5% formalin. 



Table 2. Chemical and physical characteristics. 



Lake 



PH 

Total hardness (mg/1) 

Calcium (mg/1) 

Magnesium (mg/1) 

Dissolved oxygen, 23 °C (mg/1) 

Total iron (mg/1) 

Sulfates (mg/1) 

Sulfide (mg/1) 

Average depth of effective 

light penetration (ft.) 
Specific conductance, 

23 °C (microhms) 
Dissolved solids (mg/1) 



I 


II 


III 


7.4 


6.4 


7.0 


104.0 


172.0 


260.0 


29.0 


39.0 


50.0 


7.2 


18.0 


32.5 


8.01 


5.98 


6.82 


0.08 


0.35 


0.66 


30.0 


185.0 


275.0 


<0.1 


<0.1 


<0.1 


11.75 


10.25 


2.75 


250.0 


340.0 


490.0 


104.0 


240.0 


410.0 



186 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Results and Discussion 

Young strip mine lakes are generally highly acidic, due to the action 
of air and water on marcasite (FeS 2 ) in the overburden, producing iron 
sulfates and sulfuric acid (3, 9, 13). These compounds leach out in time, 
the iron compounds precipitating as "sulfur mud." The rate of recovery 
from acid pollution depends on the amount of acid-producing 
materials in the spoil and the nature of the watershed. The pH values 
of these three lakes (Table 2) indicated that they could be considered 
in the alkaline stage (pH 6.1-8.2) of recovery (2). 

Oxidation of marcasite is responsible for the low oxygen concentra- 
tion in young strip mine lakes (10, 11). As oxidizable materials decrease 
and phytoplankton appear, oxygen increases. The higher value for dis- 
solved oxygen in Lake I (Table 2) reflected the relatively greater 
abundance of phytoplankton (Table 3) and the higher aquatic plants 
found there. Lemma spp. and Najas minor were abundant, and Ludwigia 
palustris was present in both Lakes I and III. Lake II, with the lowest 
dissolved oxygen, had the least amount of phytoplankton and no higher 
aquatics, had the smallest surface area, and was the most sheltered from 
wind action. 

Table 3. Phytoplankton in limnetic samples. (A — abundant; C = common; R = rare). 



Lake 



Lake 





I 


II 


Ill 




I 


II 


Ill 


Chlorophycophyta 








Chrysophycophyta 








Chroococcus spp. 


A 


— 


— 


Cymbella spp. 


R 


— 


— 


Cosmarium porrectum 


A 


— 


C 


Diatoma spp. 


C 


R 


R 


C. punctulatum 


R 


— 


— 


Navicula spp. 


R 


— 


R 


C. rectangulare 


R 


R 


— 


Nitzchia spp. 


R 


— 


— 


Cosmarium spp. 


A 


R 


C 


Euglenophycophyta 








Dictyosphaerium spp. 


R 


— 


— 


Euglena spp. 


R 


R 


R 


Dimorphococcus spp. 


C 


R 


C 


Trachelomonas spp. 


R 


— 


— 


Gloeocystis spp. 


R 


— 


— 


Cyanophycophyta 








Micrasterias spp. 


— 


R 


— 


Anacystis spp. 


C 


R 


R 


Pandorina spp. 


C 


— 


— 


Lyngbya spp. 


C 


R 


C 


Pleurotaenium spp. 


— 


R 


— 


Merismopedia spp. 


C 


— 


— 


Selenastrum spp. 


R 


— 


— 


Oscillatoria spp. 


R 


— 


— 


Spirogyra spp. 


C 


— 


R 


Phormidium spp. 


R 


— 


R 


Staurastrus alternans 


C 


— 


— 


Phyrrhophycophyta 








S. gracile 


C 


— 


R 


Dinobryon spp. 


R 


— 


— 


Staurastrus spp. 


C 


— 


R 


Ceratium spp. 


A 


— 


C 


Volvox spp. 


C 


— 


— 


Peridium spp. 


R 


— 


— 



The values of the other chemical data were, by far, lowest for Lake 

I (Table 2). This was to be expected from the greater dilution factor 
involved (cf. Area/vol. ratio, Table 1) in a climate where direct pre- 
cipitation on the lake exceeds the evaporation from the surface. Lakes 

II and III, more similar chemically, had approximately the same 
area/volume ratio. The higher values for Lake III probably represent 
differences of input from spoil drainage. Sulfate was the predominate 
anion in each of the lakes. The minute amount of iron indicated that 
most of the iron sulfate had precipitated out. Total hardness and the 



Ecology 



187 



amounts of calcium and magnesium indicated that most of the sulfate 
was present in the form of magnesium, calcium, and a small number 
of other metal sulfate compounds. The amount of arsenic (<10 fxg/1, 
composite sample of all lakes), sometimes associated with shale, prob- 
ably was equivalent to levels found in freshwater lakes generally (1). 
The depth of effective light penetration corresponded to the amount 
of dissolved solids. 

The temperature values did not indicate a clear thermal stratifica- 
tion at the time the data were gathered. Temperatures through the first 
9 feet were slightly higher in Lakes II and III with the higher concen- 
tration of dissolved solids, which can increase heat absorption (6). 

The values for specific conductance fell within the range expected 
from the concentrations of salts found in such alkaline lakes and with- 
in the range exhibited by most freshwater lakes (1, 3). 

Lake I was biologically the most productive of the three. Twenty- 
four genera of phytoplankton were found in Lake I, compared to 8 and 
11 genera in Lakes II and III, respectively (Table 3). The pH of Lake 
II and high turbidity of Lake III might have been limiting factors 
(11,14). 



Table 4. 



Limnetic zooplankton and benethic invertebrates. (A- 
R = rare ) . 



abundant; C — common; 



Lake 



Lake 







I 


II 


III 




I 


II 


Ill 


Protozoa 










Insecta (larvae) 








Paramecium spp. 




C 


— 


R 


Diptera 








Stentor spp. 




R 


— 


— 


Chironomidae 


C 


R 


— 


Difflugia spp. 




R 


— 


R 


Culisidae 


R 


C 


R 


Rotifera 










Other families 


R 


R 


— 


Kertella spp. 




A 


— 


C 


Coleoptera 


— 


R 


— 


Other spp. 




— 


— 


R 


Crustacea : Ostracoda 


A 


R 


C 


Crustacea 










Mollusca: Pelecypoda 


R 


— 


R 


Copedoda 










Nematoda 


R 


— 


— 


Cyclops spp. 


C 


C 


C 












Other spp. 


C 


A 


A 












Nauplii 


— 


R 














Cladocera 


A 


A 


A 













No rotifers of the genus Branchionus, associated with acid waters, 
were found (9). Kertella spp. were abundant in Lake I (Table 4). Cope- 
pods and Cladocera were the common zooplankton in each of the lakes. 
Ostracods were the most abundant benthic form found (Table 4). Shells 
of mollusk Lampsilis radiata siliquoidae were found on the banks of 
Lake I, and shells of Anodonta grandis were found at both Lakes I and 
III. 



188 Indiana Academy of Science 



Literature Cited 

American Public Health Association. 1971. Standard methods for the examination 
of water and wastewater. (13th ed.) New York, N.Y. 874 p. 

Campbell, R. S., and O. T. Lind. 1969. Water quality and aging of strip mine lakes. 
J. Water Pollution Control Fed. 41:1943-1955. 



3. , O. T. Lind, W. T. Geiling, and G. L. Harp. 1964. Recovery from acid 

pollution in shallow strip mine lakes in Missouri. Industrial Waste Conf. Proc. 
19:17-26. 

4. Crawford, W. T. 1942. Ecological succession in a series of strip mine lakes in 
central Missouri. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Univ. Missouri, Columbia. 134 p. 

5. Dinsmore, B. H. 1958. Biological studies of twelve strip mine ponds in Clarion Co., 
Pa. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Pittsburgh. 118 p. 

6. Hutchinson, G. E. 1957. A treatise on limnology, Volume I: Geography, physics 
and chemistry. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y. 1015 p. 

7. Lewis, W. N., and C. Peters. 1954. Physico-chemical characteristics of ponds in the 
Pyatt, DeSoto, and Elkville strip mined areas of southern Illinois. Trans. Amer. 
Fish. Soc. 84:117-124. 

8. Ohle, Waldemar. 1953. Die chemische und die electrochemische bestimmung des 
molekular gelosten sauerstoffs der binnengewasser. Int. Assoc. Theoret. and Appl. 
Limnol., Commun. No. 3, 44 p. 

9. Riley, C. V. 1960. The ecology of water areas associated with coal strip-mined lands 
in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 60:106-121. 

10. Selvig, W. A., and W. C. Ratliff. 1922. Nature of acid water from coal mines and 
the determination of acidity. Ind. Eng. Chem. 14:125-127. 

11. Smith, G. M. 1950. The freshwater algae of the United States. (2nd ed.) 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N.Y. 719 p. 

12. Smith, R. W., and D. G. Frey. 1971. Acid mine pollution effects on lake biology. U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 133 p. 

13. Snyder, R. H. 1947. Effect of coal strip mining upon water supplies. Amer. Water 
Works Assoc. 39:751-769. 

14. Welch, P. S. 1935. Limnology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. N.Y. 471 p. 



Two Decades of Vegetational Change in the Ross 
Biological Reserve 

Harvey J. Von Culin and Alton A. Lindsey 

Department of Biological Sciences 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

The Ross Biological Reserve is a 55-acre riverside tract of forest and old fields owned 
by Purdue University and administered by the Department of Biological Sciences at the 
West Lafayette Campus. The vegetation of the Reserve was first analyzed and mapped 
in 1950, when 13 vegetation types were recognized, and grouped into 5 oldfield wood- 
land, and 3 forest types. The analysis was repeated and expanded in 1960 and success- 
ional trends were described. 

The present study reports and evaluates changes in the vegetation of the Poa- 
Andropogon-Rubus upland and the Quercus-Carya Forest for the period 1950-1971. The 
upland oldfield has shown rapid invasion by woody species from the adjacent forest. Tulip, 
black and red oak, and white ash predominate in this area. The Quercus-Carya 
forest dominates the Reserve, occupying the general south-facing slope. Full tallies were 
made in 1960 and 1970 of trees over 4 inches diameter breast height for a 13.2-acre area. 
White ash, tulip, and other species characteristic of moist sites increased in importance 
during the period, while the importance of species characteristic of more xeric sites, such 
as the hickories and some oaks, decreased or made only small gains. 

Net primary above-ground productivity was measured in the Poa-Andropogon-Rubus 
and Grass-Ambrosia upland oldfields using harvest quadrats. Biomass accumulated during 
the 1971 growing season averaged 1.105 and 0.316 kilograms per square meter, 
respectively. 

Introduction 

The Ross Biological Reserve is a 55-acre tract located in Tippecanoe 
County, Indiana, approximately 8 miles southwest of the main campus 
of Purdue University in West Lafayette. This tract was acquired in 1949 
by the Department of Biological Sciences of Purdue University from 
the Purdue Research Foundation which had administered the area as 
part of "The Hills" farm. 

The Reserve is situated on the slope between the Wisconsin age 
till plain on the north and the Wabash River on the south. The difference 
in elevation is approximately 180 feet from the edge of the upland 
plateau to the river. These slopes are dissected by steep-walled ravines 
cut into the glacial till and outwash by a small stream, Orchis Creek, 
and its two main tributaries in the western half of the Reserve. The 
topography in the eastern half is dominated by broad, more gently 
sloping coves in which the Quercus-Carya Forest is most highly 
developed. Below these slopes are knolls of fine wind-blown sand and 
below them is a narrow strip of floodplain deposits of the Wabash. This 
variety of topographic features is paralleled by a wide diversity of 
ecological habitats and it is this concentration of habitat diversity 
which makes the Reserve so valuable for ecological instruction and 
research. 

Prior to its acquisition and subsequent fencing by the 
Department of Biological Sciences, the land was utilized for crops, 

189 



190 Indiana Academy of Science 

grazing and lumbering. The area is now largely undisturbed except for 
supervised use by ecology classes of the University. Nine master's 
theses have been written, based wholly or in part on research 
performed at the Reserve. 

The present study is the third in a series concerned with the vege- 
tation of the Reserve. The first vegegation study was performed by Ken- 
neth Bush in 1950 (1). Bush mapped the Reserve and described 13 vege- 
gation types as well as establishing the general pattern for further 
surveys to be undertaken at 10-year intervals. Ronald deLanglade (2) 
continued this work and enlarged upon Bush's methods. 

Methods 

The procedures followed in the analysis of the vegetation of the 
old fields and woodlands were essentially those used by Bush and 
deLanglade. A permanent reference grid of steel stakes driven at two 
chain intervals throughout the Reserve in 1948 was used to locate the 
sample quadrats. Two quadrats, a 5-link square (1/4000 acre) 
herbaceous quadrat and a 10 x 50-link (1/200 acre) woody quadrat, were 
used at each sampling point. The metal stake served as the southeast 
corner of the woody quadrat and the southwest corner of the 
herbaceous quadrat. Individuals were counted by species in the 
herbaceous quadrats. All trees under 4 inches dbh were counted and 
classified by species and by height in the woody quadrats and trees 4 
inches dbh and over were recorded by species and diameter. 

A full tally of 13.2 acres of the Quercus-Carya Forest type, first 
carried out in I960, was repeated in this study. All trees over 4 inches 
dbh, from 33 two-chain square (0.4 acres) plots, were measured with 
a diameter tape and recorded by species and size class. Attributes of 
density, basal area, frequency, and importance (6) were calculated and 
results from the two surveys compared. 

To supplement the quantitative analyses, photographs were taken 
from selected stakes in 1950 and repeated from the same position and 
direction in 1960 and 1971. 

An effort was also made to determine the net annual community 
productivity of the two upland oldfield areas in which succession has 
been most rapid. Two 50 x 100 link (1/20 acre) woody harvest 
quadrats, one in each field, were selected. Within each of these, a 
20 x 20 link (1/1000 acre) herbaceous quadrat was located. In the large 
woody quadrats, all above ground production of trees, shrubs and woody 
vines was cut and weighed in the field. To obtain ratios of wet to dry 
weight which could be applied to these data, one 25 foot tree 
(Fraxinus americana) was dried in the laboratory. Leaves and woody 
parts were dried and weighed separately. Using the ratios thus obtained, 
the productivity of biomass on an annual basis could be estimated for 
woody plants. All material from the herbaceous quadrats was weighed 
dry and the productivity of this layer added to that of the woody plants 
to obtain the desired overall productivity figures. 



Ecology 



191 



Results 

Quantitative data were gathered for 7 of Bush's 13 vegetation types. 
However, results will be given and discussed for only the Poa- 
Andropogon-Rubus Upland, the larger of the two upland oldfields on 
which the net productivity study was carried out, and the Quercus-Carya 
Forest type. 




Figure 1. The Poa-Andropogon-Rubus Upland in 1950 (above) and 1971 (beloiv) , 
looking southward from the same marker stake. 



192 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Poa-Andropogon-Rubus Upland includes approximately 7.5 
acres of level upland. The soil type is Russell Silt Loam, 2-6% slope. No 
woody quadrat data are reported from the 1950 analysis, but several 
small trees were present (Fig. 1) indicating that the field had already 
been abandoned for several years. In 1960, data were given from 18 
woody quadrats. In the under 4 inches dbh size class 376 individuals 
were found representing 24 species. Ulmus fulva, Fraxinus americana, 
and Acer saccharum dominated this size class with 24, 15, and 14% of 
the total, respectively. Only 4 trees larger than 4 inches dbh were re- 
ported in the woody quadrats in 1960 (3). 

Ten woody quadrats were used in the present study of this upland 
oldfield. There were 354 individuals under 4 inches dbh of 23 species. 
Dominance was much more evenly shared, however. Only one species, 
Acer saccharum, had more than 8% of the total (17%). Other important 
species in this size class were: Prunus serotina, Rhus glabra, Malus 
coronaria, Fraxinus americana, and Carya glabra. Some of the larger 
individuals found in these quadrats in 1971 were: Liriodendron tulipifera 
11.6 and 11.0 inches dbh, Quercus velutina 11.3 inches and Populus 
grandidentata 10.8 and 8.7 inches. 

Bush reported 9 herbaceous species in the 1950 survey of the 
Poa-Andropogon-Rubus Upland. The three dominants, for which the 
area was named, were Poa compressa, Andropogon virginicus and Rubus 
flagellaris. Poa compressa was too abundant to count but had a 
frequency of 35.1%. Andropogon virginicus had a density of 5,081 stems 
per acre, while that of Rubus flagellaris was 3,289 per acre. Their fre- 
quencies were 88.2 and 82.3%, respectively. 

The number of herbaceous species increased from 9 to 32 in the 
first decade and dropped to 28 from 1960 to 1971. Table 1 compares 
the data on herbaceous species from these last two surveys. Fourteen 
species found in 1960 occurred in the 1971 quadrats. Fifteen species were 
lost during the period and 14 new species were noted. Rubus flagellaris 
declined significantly from 38,333 per acre and 89% frequency to 12,800 
per acre and 50%, and Andropogon virginicus which was a dominant in 
1950 and a minor species in 1960, was not found in the herbaceous 
quadrat in 1971. Monarda fistulosa, Solidago spp., Potentilla simplex 
and Ambrosia elatior also seem to be gradually disappearing from the 
area as shading by the developing tree canopy increases. 

The net aboveground community productivity of the Poa-Andro- 
pogon-Rubus Upland was determined for the 1971 growing season. A 
site was chosen for the woody and herbaceous harvest quadrats which 
was representative of the field as a whole. The woody vegetation was 
dominated by Prunus, Malus, Ulmus and Fraxinus. Thirty-six trees were 
harvested representing 16 species. The live weight of these trees was 
1536.5 kg. This figure, when multiplied by our wet weight to dry weight 
ratio of 0.65 yielded a dry weight estimate of 998.7 kg. Above-ground 
standing biomass of woody plants for the 50 x 100 link, 202.3m 2 
quadrat (0.05 acres) was, therefore, 4.94 kg/m 2 . 






Ecology 



193 



Table 1. Density per acre and frequency for herbaceous species of the 
Poa-Andropogon-Rubus Upland. 





1971 




1960 




Species 


Density/acre 


Freq. 


Density/acre 


Freq. 


Poa compressa 


2,273,200 


80% 


525,769 


100% 


Daucus carota 


21,200 


50 


11,326 


61 


Carex spp. 


16,000 


20 


871 


17 


Rubus flagellaris 


12,800 


50 


38,333 


89 


Dianthus armeria 


5,200 


10 


1,307 


6 


Lespedeza sp. 


4,000 


30 






Desmodium spp. 


3,600 


50 


6,098 


61 


Plantago 


3,600 


40 


871 


6 


Rubus allegheniensis 


3,200 


10 






Fragaria virginiana 


2,400 


20 


871 


11 


Helianthus sp. 


2,400 


10 






Apios americanna 


2,000 


10 






Convolvulus sepium 


2,000 


10 






Euphorbia corollata 


2,000 


10 






Panicum spp. 


2,000 


10 


14,810 


67 


Galium spp. 


2,000 


10 


871 


11 


Botrychium virginianum 


1,600 


20 






Oxalis sp. 


1,600 


20 


218 


6 


Rosa Carolina 


1,600 


10 






Solidago spp. 


1,200 


20 


3,920 


22 


Amphicarpa bracteata 


800 


10 






Monarda fistulosa 


800 


10 


30,828 


50 


Sanicida canadensis 


800 


10 






Hypericum punctatum 


400 


10 






Phyrma leptostachya 


400 


10 






Potentilla simplex 


400 


10 


28,750 


22 


Smilax sp. 


400 


10 






Taraxacum officinale 


400 


10 






Draba repens 






17,860 


22 


Lysimachia lanceolata 






11,326 


6 


Achilles millifolium 






7,841 


33 


Dantlionia spicata 






6,970 


6 


Andropogon virginicus 






4,792 


33 


Cerastium spp. 






2,614 


22 


Ambrosia elatior 






1,307 


17 


Cirsium sp. 






1,307 


17 


Melilotus officinalis 






1,307 


6 


Rumex acetosella 






871 


17 


Solanum sp. 






871 


11 


Potentilla recta 






436 


6 


Erigeron sp. 






218 


6 


Mentha sp. 






218 


6 


Specularia perfoliata 






218 


6 



In the sample tree dried in the laboratory, the dry weight of leaves 
was 16.1% of the total dry weight. This percentage was applied to the 
estimated total dry weight of the woody material harvested, yielding 
a productivity figure of 0.795 kg/m 2 /year for leaves of woody plants. 
The remaining total weight of wood and bark was then divided by 21 
years to obtain an average annual productivity estimate, for this frac- 
tion, or 0.197 kg/m 2 /year. 1950 was used as the base year because it is 
known that very few woody invaders were established in this area at 
that time. The upper photograph of Figure 1 shows this clearly. This 



194 Indiana Academy of Science 

picture was made in 1950 from a stake 66 feet west of our woody 
harvest quadrat in this area. 

It was assumed that, since below-ground plant parts were not 
harvested, all material clipped from the herbaceous quadrat was pro- 
duced during the 1971 growing season. The total live weight of this 
herbaceous material was 5.96 kg. which, upon drying, reduced to 2.95 
kg. Our 20 x 20 link plot had an area of 40.47m 2 (0.001 acre). Thus, the 
net productivity of the herbaceous layer was computed to be 0.073 
kg/m 2 /year. 

Summing the productivity figures from both the woody and the 
herbaceous quadrats, we obtained as estimate of net annual community 
productivity for all aboveground plant parts of 1.065 kg/m 2 /year. Lieth 
gives a range of net primary productivity for warm temperate mixed 
forests of 0.6 to 2.5 kg/m 2 /year (5). Allowing for the omission of root 
biomass from this study, it appears that this young woodland com- 
munity has been very productive during the early stages of its develop- 
ment. A similar upland oldfield in the Reserve, the Grass- Ambrosia Up- 
land, was also sampled in 1971 using the same size quadrats and iden- 
tical methods. The net aboveground community productivity of this area 
was, however, much lower than that of the Poa-Andropogon-Rubus 
Upland at 0.316 kg/m 2 /year. This difference is probably due, in part, 
to a fire which occurred in the area at least 10 years before our pro- 
ductivity study. Another possibility is more intensive grazing prior to 
the fencing of the Reserve in 1949. 

The Quercus-Carya Forest is the most extensive vegetation type 
in the Reserve. The soil is largely Hennepin Sandy Loam and the slope 
ranges from 2 to 35% (4). The 1950 analysis of the woody overstory of 
the forest was based on 36 woody (1/200 acre) quadrats. The 
dominant species in order of importance were : Quercus borealis, Quercus 
alba, Carya glabra, and Juglans nigra. Since grazing had been permitted 
in the area prior to acquisition by the Department of Biological Sciences, 
there was little woody reproduction present. In 1960, a similar survey 
of 56 quadrats recorded 1,937 woody individuals under 4 inches dbh. Four 
species, Ulmus fulva, Acer saccharum, Cercis canadensis f and Fraxinus 
americana, accounted for more than half of all woody reproduction 
in these quadrats. 

To obtain more reliable results, a full tally of the best-developed 
part of the Quercus-Carya Forest was added in 1960. This census was 
repeated in the late 1970 on the same area. The results of these surveys 
are compared in Figure 2 for the moderate slopes and draws which make 
up over half of the full tally area and are considered most typical of 
this vegetation type. In this graph, density per acre is plotted against 
average basal area per tree for each of the major species. The area en- 
closed by each of the bars is therefore equal to the product of these two 
variables, average basal area per acre. It can readily be seen from this 
figure that significant gains in basal area per acre were made by 
Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Juglans nigra 
( + 57.5, +32.3, and +18.0%, respectively) during the period 1960 to 
1970. The largest losses were sustained by Carya glabra, Fraxinus 



Ecology 



195 



lanceolata, and Ulmus fulva (—27.0, —36.2, and —36.3%, respectively). 
The loss of red elms is due mainly to Dutch elm disease. 




Oo 



Cg Fa 



Fl Uf As So Ceo 



Qv Jn Qb Lt Co 

MEAN BASAL AREA PER TREE 

Figure 2. Diagram comparing tree species of the moderate slopes and draws in the 
oak-hickory forest in 1960 and 1970. Abbreviations of species names from left to right 
are: Qa — Quercus alba, Cg — Carya glabra, Fa — Fraxinus americana, Qv — Quercus 
velutina, Jn — Juglans nigra, Qb — Quercus borealis, Lt — Liriodendron tulipifera, Co — 
Carya ovata, Fl — Fraxinus lanceolata, Uf — Ulmus fulva, As — Acer saccharum, Sa — 
Sassafras albidum, and Ceo — Carya cordiformis. 



Figure 3 is a semilog plot of density per acre as related to size class 
for all trees over 4 inches dbh tallied in 1960 and 1970. The ideal curve 
for an all age stand would approach a straight line or a flat sigmoid 
shape (7). The loss of density per acre in the lower size classes may 
be a reflection of the damage done by grazing animals before the area 
was fenced in 1949. 

Discussion 

The Poa-Andropogon-Rubus Upland, in the first decade of this 
series, progressed from a perennial grass and forb stage to a young 
woodland in which Ulmus, Fraxinus, and Acer were predominant. 
During the period 1960 to 1971, Poa compressa remained dominant in 
the herbaceous layer while Rubus flagellaris declined significantly 
and Andropogon virginicus disappeared from the permanent quadrats 
altogether. Other species, such as Solidago ssp. and Monarda fistulosa, 
evidently flourished earlier in the decade but are now declining also 
as the woody invaders begin to form a fairly dense canopy over much 
of the area. As this shading progresses, other more tolerant species 
such as Phyrma leptostachya, Sanicula canadensis, and Botrychium 
virginianum are moving into the under story from the adjacent forest. 
Liriodendron tulipifera, which represented only 2% of the total number 
in the woody quadrats in 1960, has been more successful in invading 



196 



Indiana Academy of Science 



this area since that time. In a census of the central part of the field 
(2.4 acres) in 1971, Liriodendron was the major dominant, with 42.2% 
density. 




6 10 14 18 22 26 30 

MIDPOINTS OF FOUR- INCH SIZE CLASSES 

Figure 3. Semilog plot of density per acre of all species, by size class, for all trees 
over U inches dbh in the moderate slopes and draws of the oak-hickory forest. 



The net above-ground community productivity of the Poa- 
Andropogon-Rubus Upland, as measured by the harvest method, shows 
the area to be very productive. Productivity will probably increase as 
community structure continues to develop and the young forest stage 
is approached. 

The Quercus-Carya Forest is also in a state of transition but the 
changes are less pronounced and more difficult to assess. There has 
been an increase in the importance of several of the more mesophytic 
species. Among these are Liriodendron tulipifera, Fraxinus americana, 
and Juglans nigra. Conversely, the more xerophytic species, such as the 
oaks and hickories, have either declined (e.g., Carya glabra) or remained 
essentially static in relation to other species. 

The area seems to be recovering from two forms of disturbance. 
The small but steady increase in numbers of large trees (Fig. 2) indi- 
cates recovery from logging operations at some unknown time. The de- 
cline in numbers of smaller trees, on the other hand, indicates recovery 
from a disturbance affecting only young trees in the not too distant 
past. The most likely cause would be the grazing and browsing by 
domestic animals before the Reserve was fenced in 1949. 

Sugar maple has not shown many indications of future importance 
in the Quercus-Carya Forest and beech is confined largely to the moist 
ravine slopes. However, if the trend favoring the more mesophytic 
species continues, it may be assumed that, in all but the very sandy, 
xeric sites, the forest will gradually move toward a Beech-Maple climax 
association. 



Ecology 197 



Literature Cited 

1. Bush, K. H. 1951. A vegetational analysis of the Ross Biological Reserve. 
Unpublished M. S. Thesis, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 54 p. 

2. deLanglade, R. A. 1961. The vegetation and flora of the Ross Biological Reserve — 
1960. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 188 p. 

3. , and A. A. Lindsey 1961. A decade of oldfield succession in an Indiana 



biological reserve. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 71:285-291. 

4. Faulkner, C. R. 1951. Soil types of the Ross Biological Reserve. Unpublished 
M.S. Thesis, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 48 p. 

5. LlETH, H. 1972. Modelling the primary productivity of the world. Nature and 
Resources, Unesco 8:5-10. 

6. Lindsey, A. A. 1956. Sampling methods and community attributes in forest 
ecology. Forest Sci. 2:287-296. 

7. Schmelz, D. V., and A. A. Lindsey 1965. Size-class structure of old-growth forests 
in Indiana. Forest Sci. 11:258-264. 



Breeding Bird Censuses in Old-Growth Deciduous Forests 

J. Dan Webster and Diana L. Adams 
Department of Biology- 
Hanover College, Hanover, Indiana 47243 

Abstract 

Thirty-nine bird censuses from climax or near-climax forest stands in the central part 
of the Eastern North American deciduous forests are compared, including six by the 
authors in Indiana. Thirty-eight forest-interior bird species are tabulated by area and 
forest type. Total densities are greater in lowland forest than in other forest types. 
Species number and bird species diversity are significantly highest in western lowland 
and lowest in oak-chestnut. 

Introduction 

Censuses of North American breeding birds made on measured plots 
and published chiefly in American Birds (including its predecessors, 
Bird Lore, Audubon Magazine, and Audubon Field Notes) have been 
analyzed by several ecologists. Kendeigh (19) compared the results on 
the eight best deciduous forest plots studied up to that time. Udvardy 
(49) analyzed 300 censuses, including 130 in temperate deciduous 
forests. Tramer (48), Ricklefs (41), and others have compared many 
of these published censuses by means of various mathematical measures 
of species diversity. 

Our results of five censuses during 1971 (1, 2, 51, 52, 53), made 
in some of the finest old-growth forests of the Midwest, invited com- 
parison. In this analysis, we have been very selective, reducing the 300 
available from deciduous forest to 39 on the following basis : 

1) Only censuses from the Oak-pine, Oak-chestnut, Mixed meso- 
phytic, Western mesophytic, and Beech-maple forest regions of Braun 
(7) of the eastern deciduous forest were used. The Northern hardwoods 
forest type of the high Appalachians was also excluded. 

2) Only censuses from old-growth forests were used. Most were 
described as "Virgin," "Climax," or "Mature." All included many trees 
over 2 feet dbh; most included many trees over 3 feet dbh. In the 21 
census areas in which tree height was stated, the trees ranged up to 
more than 80 feet in every case and to 150 feet in 3 cases; the average 
height of canopy trees was over 90 feet in nearly all areas. 

3) Censuses accompanied by a good description of the plants, or 
at least of the trees, were preferred. This criterion could not be held 
to in every case, and some of the tree "analyses" were absurdly over- 
simplified. In fact, only 12 censuses included reasonably thorough 
quantitative tree studies; 9 more gave the relative density of tree 
species; 18 gave the commonest kinds of trees, or the species of trees 
in order of density, or relative densities with unfortunate lumpings such 
as "maples." 

4) Censuses of areas including two or more major types of forest, 
for instance oak-hickory and beech-maple, were omitted, as were those 

198 



Ecology 199 

including considerable amounts of "edge." Every forest is more or less 
patchy, of course, and so this criterion is difficult to assess from written 
reports. Notice that three of the eight areas utilized by Kendeigh (19) 
were omitted here, because of more exacting standards of edge and type. 

5) Censuses of areas including more than 5% of coniferous trees 
were usually omitted. Exceptions were census #18, which included 
10% hemlock, and #5, which included 20% hemlock. 

Methods 

The method of making a breeding bird census is well described by 
Hall (12). Bird censuses published in early years — before 1944 — were 
not very uniform, but those utilized here were of high quality except, 
in some cases, for the plant descriptions. Names of trees follow Little 
(26), where their scientific names are listed. Nomenclature of birds 
follows the A. 0. U. checklist (4). 

Results 

Table 1 summarizes the data from the 39 census areas, classified 
into 5 forest types on the basis of their trees, and some geographic sub- 
divisions. Each entry gives the density in males per 100 acres, followed 
by the percentage of censuses recording that species. The first 38 species 
are those which are most typical of middle-latitude deciduous forest 
interiors. The lowest 5 species are simply examples from the 65 other 
species which were counted as breeding on one or more censuses. Of 
these latter, some are rather generally distributed, but rare, and the 
sharp-shinned hawk is an example. Some are localized; the black- 
throated blue warbler is an example. Some are clearly forest-edge 
species whose presence betrays the "edgy" impurity of some of the 
forest areas; the catbird is an example. A few of these other species, 
such as the flicker and the parula warbler, are difficult to classify. 

The main list of 38 forest-interior species deserves further 
comment. It was derived from a similar list of 34 species by Kendeigh 
(19). Two species were removed from the Kendeigh list due to their 
rarity. (Woodcock and saw-whet owl; one occurrence each in 39 
censuses.) The cowbird was added on the basis of clearer data since 
1944. The chuckwill's widow was added as a result of the more 
southern censuses. The hummingbird, cardinal, indigo bunting, and 
towhee were transferred from edge to interior species in disagreement 
with Kendeigh. Each of these species is rather consistent in these 
old-growth censuses; in fact, the cardinal occurred in 32 of the 39 
censuses, making it the fifth most consistent of all species. We found 
all four of these species far in the interior of Kramer Woods, for 
instance, in what is probably the largest, least disturbed natural forest 
stand in the Midwest (cf. 24). Of course, Kendeigh is correct in that 
they require a single windfallen tree or a patch of brush. But every 
natural forest has such "wounds" if it is natural. 



200 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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202 Indiana Academy of Science 

The names which we have used for forest types and areas follow 
Braun (7). Braun's description of the eastern mesophytic type is diffuse 
(7, p. 244-256). Notice that the eastern mesophytic stands are in the 
Oak-chestnut region; the western lowland stands are in the Western 
mesophytic region; the eastern lowland stands are in the Oak-chestnut 
and Oak-pine regions; one of the beech-maple stands (#30) is in 
the Western mesophytic region and two (#'s 27 and 28) are in the 
Mixed mesophytic region; the oak-hickory stands are variously in the 
Oak-pine, Oak-chestnut, and Mixed mesophytic regions. Several of the 
titles under which the censuses were published are at variance with this 
terminology. Where tree data were adequate, we calculated the stand 
type by the criteria of Lindsey and Schmelz (23) and Schmelz and 
Lindsey (43). Fortunately, in most of the 18 censuses with inadequate 
tree data, placement was obvious. The census areas are all listed in 
Table 2. In calculating the data for Tables 1 and 3, all census areas were 
treated uniformly, regardless of how many annual censuses had been 
taken, by first averaging the data for all census years at that place. 

The average number of species per census area per year was: 
Western mesophytic 32, mixed mesophytic 23; eastern mesophytic 29; 
oak-chestnut 18, western lowland 44, eastern lowland 25; beech-maple 
30; oak-hickory 25. Bird species diversities (H 2 ), calculated by the 
Shannon-Wiener formula (H~ 2 =— ^Pi log 2 Pi where Pi=density of 
males of species i/total density of males), are given in Table 3. 

Table 3. Bird species diversity in forest types of the Eastern Deciduous Forest. 
(The numbers of census areas by type appear in parenthesis.) 







Bird Species Diversity 




Forest Type 


Highest 


Lowest 


Mean 


Western Lowland (2) 


5.14 


4.71 


4.92 


Western Mesophytic (3) 


4.64 


4.43 


4.51 


Beech-maple (9) 


4.93 


3.88 


4 30 


Eastern Mesophytic (3) 


4.45 


4.09 


4.26 


Eastern Lowland (3) 


4.37 


4.06 


4.18 


Oak Hickory (7) 


4.60 


3.46 


3.95 


Mixed Mesophytic (9) 


4.25 


3.39 


3.87 


Oak-chestnut (3) 


4.00 


3.12 


3.55 



Discussion 

The species of birds present and their densities are not the same 
throughout the middle part of the eastern deciduous forest. However, 
the data in Table 1 are too coarse to show much detail. Some species 
are consistent in every kind of forest; for instance the red-eyed vireo 
is found in every census (the only species so reported) and in moderate 
to high densities throughout. Some species are inconstant for what 
appear to be geographical reasons; for instance the cerulean warbler 
is in high density in the west, moderate in West Virginia, low in the 
east, and absent in the Southern Appalachians. Density of other species 
appears clearly to depend on forest type; for instance the Carolina wren 



Ecology 203 

is in low density in every kind of forest but lowland, where it is in mod- 
erate numbers from Indiana to New Jersey. 

It is difficult to see a pattern in total densities. Mesophytic census 
areas totaled 160 to 601 males per 100 acres, with a mean of 304. Oak- 
chestnut censuses ranged from 160 to 500, with a mean of 327. Lowland 
censuses ranged from 376 to 633, with a mean of 533. Beech-maple 
censuses ranged from 140 to 471, with a mean of 292. Oak-hickory 
censuses ranged from 210 to 450, with a mean of 321. From these fig- 
ures we may conclude only that bottomland forests support 
significantly higher breeding bird populations than other deciduous 
forests — a point made years ago by Udvardy (49). According to Oelke 
(36) and Linehan (25) total densities in similar habitat decrease as 
the size of the census area increases. In the present study, the data from 
beech-maple forests do show this tendency. The data from mesophytic 
forests (all three regions combined, or two of the three separately) show 
the opposite trend — the larger the census area the denser the bird popu- 
lation. (The largest area was only 35 acres, however.) Data from other 
forest types are equivocal. Another possibility is that the individuality 
of the census-taker determines the density, but the data do not support 
this. Censuses taken by E. O. Mellinger have densities from 226 to 500, 
for instance. 

We had anticipated that bird species number and bird species 
diversity would be highest in the mixed mesophytic forest, correspond- 
ing to high number of tree species (7) and high tree species diversity 
(31), and the demonstration that this was the ancestral deciduous forest 
type. Our data do not support this assumption. Bird species diversity 
and number of species are highest in western lowland and lowest in oak- 
chestnut forest types. Probably the recent extirpation of the chestnut 
has reduced the diversity of birds of oak-chestnut forests. When classi- 
fied by forest region rather than by forest type, no significant trends 
appear. Future comparisons with census data on old growth forests in 
eastern Kentucky, in the heart of the mixed mesophytic region, and with 
more outlying parts of the deciduous forest will be needed. No thorough 
breeding bird censuses in old growth forests in Kentucky have been 
made (cf. 30:25); those from outlying regions are few, except from 
mixed deciduous-coniferous forest. Perhaps the rate of range expansion 
and of species evolution in birds is so much faster than in trees that 
no distinct trends in geographical distribution of bird species diversity 
exist within climax eastern deciduous forest. 

Acknowledgements 

Our field work in 1971 was supported by a grant from the Research 
Committee of the Indiana Academy of Sciences. Jackson R. Webster 
calculated the species diversities. 



204 Indiana Academy of Science 



Literature Cited 



1. Adams, Diana L., and J. D. Webster. 1971a. Beech-maple forest. Breeding bird 
census #23. Amer. Birds 25 :978-979. 



2. 1971b. Old growth white oak-beech-sugar maple forest. Breeding bird 

census #26, Amer. Birds 5:982-983. 

3. Aldrich, J. W., and P. Goodrum. 1946. Virgin hardwood forest. Breeding bird 
census #26. Aud. Mag. 48 :144-145. 

4. American Ornithologists' Union. 1957. Check-list of North American birds. 5th ed. 
Amer. Ornithol. Union. Baltimore, Md. 691 p. 

5. Baldwin, E., et al. 1947. Mature deciduous flood plain forest. Breeding bird 
census #23. Aud. Field Notes 1:212-213. (Also nine more censuses on the same 
area published by the same group in the same journal, 1948-60. Reports since 1960 
not used because of habitat disturbance.) 

6. Black, J. H., and G. M. Seeley. 1953. Wet deciduous forest. Breeding bird census 
#12. Aud. Field Notes 7:340-341. (Also four more censuses on the same area 
published by the second author in the same journal, 1954-57.) 

7. Braun, E. Lucy. 1950. Deciduous forests of Eastern North America. Blakiston 
Publ. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 596 p. 

8. Buckelew, A. R., Jr., G. Phillips, and L. Youngren. Mature northern hardwoods. 
Breeding bird census #12. Amer. Birds 25:972-973. 

9. Clisby, R. E., and Belle L. Clisby. 1939. Climax forest of beech and sugar 
maple. Breeding bird census #28. Bird Lore 41:28-29. (Also three more censuses on 
the same area by the same authors in the same journal, 1940-42.) 

10. DeGarmo, W. R. 1950. Virgin cove hardwood forest. Breeding bird census #5. Aud. 
Field Notes 4:296-297. 

11. , et al. 1963. Northern hardwoods. Breeding bird census #5. Aud. Field 

Notes 17:495. 

12. Hall, G. A. 1964. Breeding bird censuses — why and how. Aud. Field Notes 18:413-416. 

13. , et al. 1957. Mature oak-hickory forest. Breeding bird census #6. Aud. 

Field Notes 11:438-439. 

14. Harrison, G. H., et al. 1961. Oak-hickory forest. Breeding bird census #6. Aud. 
Field Notes 15:503. 

15. Hellman, P. X. 1950. Climax deciduous forest and edge. Breeding bird census 
#8. Aud. Field Notes 4:298-299. (Also two more censuses on the same area, by the 
same author in the same journal, 1951-52.) 

16. Hurley, G. 1966. Upland oak-hickory forest. Breeding bird census #12. 
Aud. Field Notes 20:613. 

17. , and C. Miller. 1961. Mixed mature hardwoods. Breeding bird census 

#7. Aud. Field Notes 15:504. 

18. , et al. 1968. Mixed mesophytic forest. Breeding bird census #8. Aud. 

Field Notes 22:662. 

19. Kendeigh, S. C. 1944. Measurement of bird populations. Ecol. Monogr. 14:67-106. 

20. Koch, G. C, et al. 1968. Deciduous hillside forest. Breeding bird census #4. Aud. 
Field Notes 22:659-660. 

21. 1969. Mature mesophytic forest. Breeding bird census #13. Aud. Field 

Notes 23:708-709. 

22. Lafer, N. G. 1968. Tree composition of Dysart Woods, Belmont Co., Ohio. Unpub- 
lished M. S. Thesis, Ohio Univ. Athens 41 p. 






Ecology 205 



23. Lindsey, A. A., and D. V. SchMelz. 1970. The forest types of Indiana and a new 
method of classifying midwestern hardwood forests. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
79:198-204. 

24. , , and S.A. Nichols. 1968. Natural areas in Indiana and their 

preservation. Indiana Natural Areas Survey, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 594 p. 

25. Linehan, J. T. 1968. Introduction to thirty-second breeding bird census. Aud. Field 
Notes 22:655-658. 

26. Little, E. L. 1953. Check list of native and naturalized trees of the United 
States. Agric. Handbook No. 41. U.S. Dep. Agr., Washington, D.C. 472 p. 

27. Marshall, M., Jr. 1942. Upland oak and poplar (tulip tree) forest. Breeding 
bird census #23. Aud. Mag. 44:27-29. (Also two more censuses of same area by same 
author in same journal, 1943-1944.) 

28. Mellinger, E. O. 1940. Dense lowland beech-maple forest. Breeding bird census 
#22. Aud. Mag. 42:484-485. (Also seven more censuses of same area by same author 
in same journal, 1941-47.) 

29. 1969. Mountain ravine mixed forest. Breeding bird census #15. Aud. 

Field Notes 23:711. (Also another census of same area by same author in 
same journal, 1971.) 

30. Mengel. R. M. 1968. The birds of Kentucky. Ornithol. Monogr. 3:1-580. 

31. Monk, C. D. 1967. Tree species diversity in the eastern deciduous forest with par- 
ticular reference to North Central Florida. Amer. Natur. 101:173-187. 

32. Morse, Margarette F., and Vera Carrothers. 1940. Beech-maple woods. Breeding 
bird census #21. Bird Lore 42:484. (Also two more censuses on the same area by the 
same authors in the same journal, 1941-42.) 

33. Odum, E. P. 1947. Climax southern oak-hickory forest. Breeding bird census 
#24. Aud. Field Notes 1:213-214. 

34. , 1950. Bird populations of the highlands (North Carolina) plateau in 






relation to plant succession and avian invasion. Ecology 3:587-605. 

35. Oelke, H. 1966a. Oak-hickory hardwoods of the southern piedmont plateau. Breed- 
ing bird census #15. Aud. Field Notes 20:614-615. 

36. 1966b. 35 years of breeding bird census work in Europe. Aud. 

Field Notes 20:635-642. 

37. Olsen, Virginia, and Nevada Laitsch. 1970. Mature second growth hardwood forest. 
Breeding bird census #11. Aud. Field Notes 24:746. 

38. Peters, H. S. 1961. Upland beech-maple forest. Breeding bird census #8. Aud. Field 
Notes 15:504. (Also another census of same area by Palmer, G. E., W. B. Cook, and 
P. C. Spofford, 1971. #9. Amer. Birds 25:970-71.) 

39. Phillips, G., et al. 1969. Primeval mixed mesophytic or mature oak forest. 
Breeding bird census #16. Aud. Field Notes 23:711-712. 

40. 1970. Mature northern hardwoods. Breeding bird census #15. Aud. Field 



Notes 24:748-749. 

41. Ricklefs, R. E. 1972. Dominance and the niche in bird communities. Amer. Natur. 
106:538-545. 

42. Robbins, C. S., et al. 1971. Upland tulip-tree-maple-oak forest. Breeding bird census 
#10. Amer. Birds 25:1971. 

43. Schmelz, D. V., and A. A. Lindsey. 1970. Relationships among the forest types 
of Indiana. Ecology 51:620-629. 

44. Scott, F. R. 1959. Dedicuous floodplain forest. Breeding bird census #2. Aud. Field 
Notes 13:460-461. 



206 Indiana Academy of Science 



45. Smith, J. L., et al. 1968. Mixed mesophytic hardwoods. Breeding birds census 
#9. Aud. Field Notes 22:662-663. 

46. Speirs, J. M., and J. Frank. 1970. Beech forest. Breeding bird census #4. Aud. 
Field Notes 24:741-742. 

47. Stewart, R. E., and C. S. Robbins. 1947. Virgin central hardwood deciduous forest. 
Breeding bird census #22. Aud. Field Notes 1:211-212. 

48. Tramer, E. J. 1968. An analysis of species diversity in breeding bird populations. 
Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Georgia, Athens, 100 p. 

49. Udvardy, N. 1957. An evaluation of quantitative studies in birds. Cold Spring Harbor 
Symp. Quant. Biol. 22:301-311. 

50. Webster, J. D. 1959. Beech-maple forest. Breeding bird census #5. Aud. Field 
Notes 13:462. (Also two more censuses of the same area by the same author in 
the same journal, 1960-61. Reports since 1961 not used because of habitat dis- 
turbance.) 

51. , and Diana L. Adams. 1971a. Old growth beech-tulip tree-black gum 

forest. Breeding bird census #24. Amer. Birds 25:979-980. 

52. 1971b. Old Growth oak-hickory forest. Breeding bird census #25. Amer. 

Birds 25:981-982. 

53. 1971c. Old growth bottomland forest. Breeding bird census #4. 

Amer. Birds 25:965-966. 

54. West, R. L., et al. 1966. Mature tulip poplar forest (suburban woodlot). Breeding bird 
census #42. Aud. Field Notes 20:645-646. (Also another census of the same area by 
the same authors in the same journal, 1967.) 

55. Williams, R. B. 1937. Climax beech-maple forest. Breeding bird census. Bird Lore 
39: 382. (Also 12 more censuses, 1938-1950 in same area by same author, in same 
journal and its successors. 1932-36 data in later summaries.) 

56. 1936. The composition and dynamics of a beech-maple climax community. 

Ecol. Monogr. 6:317-408. 






ENGINEERING 

Chairman : Robert L. Swaim, 

Department of Aeronautical-Astronautical Engineering, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Thomas J. Harrick, Department of 

Aeronautical-Astronautical Engineering, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

The Physical Factors for Considering an Agitator for Liquid-Gas 
Transfer. Robert H. L. Howe, Eli Lilly and Company Tippecanoe 

Laboratory, Lafayette, Indiana 47906. In considering an agitator 

for its capability of achieving the maximum liquid-gas transfer, a 
number of physical factors must be understood and determined. The 
relationship of the fine gas bubbles and the shearing stress provided 
by the agitator must be investigated because the smaller the size of 
the gas bubble, the better is the transfer according to the law of 
diffusion. The small bubble size can be achieved by a large shear stress 
produced by an impeller of sufficient diameter rotating at a high speed. 
Also, maximum turbulence improves the interfacial absorption and 
transfer of a liquid-gas system. The physical conditions of the vessel 
are important to the transfer. It is desired to have maximum gas flow 
at maximum partial pressure in a reasonably small fluid volume and 
the optimally low temperature, yet at a relatively high superficial 
velocity through a minimum liquid depth in order to achieve the 
maximum transfer. 

The Solution and Applications of Optimal Limited State Feedback 
Control. Thomas B. Cunningham and Robert L. Swaim, School 
of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Indiana 47907. The application of optimization theory to linear 

feedback control systems design is easily developed and has 
useful application in regulator problems. The major drawback has been 
the requirement that all the states of the dynamic mathematical model 
of the system under investigation be measured for feedback. This prob- 
lem can be eliminated by using a Kalman filter or by applying a 
Luenberger observer of lower order. These ideas, however, still limit 
the designer's option to fully represent the physical plant, i.e., higher 
order model, because of his desire to minimize the filtering necessary. 

Use of limited state feedback enables one to use the full state model 
order while designing the feedback grains based upon prescribed number 
of output measurements. Artificial generation of unmeasured states 
is not necessary, therefore allowing an unconstrained model size. 

This paper demonstrated the use of the necessary conditions for 
limited state feedback in a solution scheme for the optimal feedback 
gain matrix. Applications were stressed which included colored noise 
inputs, how to eliminate states from the measurement vector, and inclu- 
sion of filter dynamics with associated measurement noise. 

207 



Generation Models for Synthetic Annual and Monthly 
Flows for Some Indiana Watersheds 

J. W. Delleur and I. T. Kisisel 1 

School of Civil Engineering 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

A first order autoregressive process can be used to generate annual flows. The mean 
annual flow and the rank one serial correlation coefficient were related to watershed and 
climatological properties. A first order Markov process of the Fiering type adequately 
simulates the sequence of normalized logarithms of monthly flows. The means and 
standard deviations of the logarithms of the monthly flows and the autoregressive 
constant were related to climatological and basin characteristics. 

Introduction 

Among many possible methods of modeling watershed behavior 
for prediction and forecasting purposes, stochastic methods have the 
advantage of taking into account the chance dependent nature of 
hydrologic events. Using the methodology of time series analysis, two 
models for generating synthetic sequences of yearly and monthly flows 
were developed. For full details the reader is directed to reference (4). 

Data Collection Procedures 

The watersheds examined have areas ranging from 100 to 3,750 
square miles, and had continuous runoff records varying from 21 to 44 
years; all are free of regulation by reservoirs during the period of 
record. 

The runoff data for the watersheds were annual, monthly and daily 
average discharges. Daily average discharges were obtained from a 
magnetic tape prepared by the National Weather Records Center. 
Monthly and annual series were constructed from the daily average 
discharge information. 

Annual Average Discharges Model 

The annual runoff data sequences obeyed a Gaussian probability 
distribution. An example is shown in Figure 1. A first-order autoregres- 
sive scheme was found to model satisfactorily the annual average flow 
sequences of the selected Indiana watersheds. The model was formulated 
as follows : 

A i+1 = A + a(A i - A) + r i+1 S(l - a2)l/2 [1] 

where Aj = annual average discharge 
A = mean of A { sequence 
aj = autoregressive constant (rank one serial correlation 

coefficient of A x sequence) 
r t = random variable, zero mean and unit variance 
S = standard deviation of Aj sequence 



Current Address: Dept. of Civil Eng., Middle East Tech. Univ., Ankara, Turkey. 

208 



Engineering 209 

If "a, S and a are known a priori, Equation 1 can be used to 
generate annual average flow sequences. The values of A, S and « 
can be estimated by using regression equations that relate these prop- 
erties to some other available information. 

A regression equation relating A to some physical watershed 
characteristics was developed by Marie and Swisshelm (5), using all 
the available information for Indiana watersheds; and it is a reliable 
estimator of A. The equations for S and <* were developed by 
using the historic records of 11 of the watersheds used in this study. 
These three equations are of the form, 

a i a 2 a 3 a n 

y = a o • X l • X 2 ' X 3 ' * ' X n [2] 

and are given in tabular form in Table 1 in which basin characteristics 
used as dependent variables are the following: (see reference (5) for 
full definitions) 

Ar, Drainage area in square miles. 

Le, Main-channel length in miles. 

SI, Main-channel slope in feet per mile, as described by Benson (1, 2). 

Fr, Forest cover expressed as the percent of the drainage area. 

Pr, Mean annual precipitation in inches. 

St, Area of lakes and ponds, expressed as percentage of the drainage 
area plus 1%. 

124,2, The maximum 24-hour rainfall having a recurrence interval of 
2 years expressed in inches. 

Tj, The average minimum daily January temperature expressed in 
degrees Fahrenheit. 

Sn, The mean annual snowfall expressed in inches. 

Gi, A geologic index expressed as a dimensionless number. 

Per, A soil permeability index expressed as a dimensionless number. 

The regeneration performance of the model suggested (Equation 
1) was checked by computing the probability distribution, the autocor- 
relation function and the power spectrum for the generated series for 
all the watersheds and by comparing the results with those of the his- 
toric records. The comparison indicated that there were no substantial 
differences between these pairs of functions for each watershed. An 
example of the comparison of the probability distributions is given in 
Figure 1. 

Monthly Runoff Sequences Model 

The monthly runoff data possess a strong cyclic component which 
is exhibited by the sinusoidal appearance of the correlation function 
and by the strong peak in the spectrum at the annual frequency. 

A logarithmic transformation was used to bring the probability 
distribution closer to normal. The removal of the annual cyclic com- 



210 



Indiana Academy of Science 




1 



99 90 TO 40 10 I 0.1 « 

CUMULATIVE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION 

Figure 1. Probability distributions of historic and generated annual flow sequences for 
the Kankakee River at Davis, Indiana, and Probability Distribution of Transformed, 
Standardized historic and generated Monthly flow sequences for Young's Creek near 

Edinburg, Indiana. 



ponent from the log-transformed monthly flow sequences was performed 
by introducing; the standardized variate : 



log Qi 



M, 



Z< = 



[3] 



where Q i = monthly flow 

where Mj = mean of log-transformed monthly flows for the month of j 

Sj = standard deviation of log-transformed monthly flows for the 
month of j 

i = index running from 1, N (N Total number of months in the 
series) 

j = index for months, running 1 to 12 

The standardized runoff sequences obeyed approximately a Gaus- 
sian probability distribution. An example is shown in Figure 1. 

The autocorrelation functions of the log-transformed and normal- 
ized monthly runoff sequences exhibited positive values for lags less 
than about 20 months and the power spectra gradually decayed from 
low to high frequencies as shown in Figure 2. These results suggest 
that an autoregressive scheme can be used to model the runoff 
sequences. A Fiering (3) type first order autoregressive model was 
chosen to represent the sequences of the logarithm transformed and 
standardized monthly flows. Recalling Equation 3 for the normal 
variate Z i? the model can be written as follows : 



Z I + 1 



oZ; + r r 



(1 



a2)l/2 



[4] 



In this model the seasonal variation of the autoregressive constant 
a. is omitted and one value for a watershed is assumed to be 
representative. 



Engineering 



211 



•THEORETICAL SPECTRUM 
• ESTIMATED SPECTRUM 
•90% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL 




FREQUENCY ( CYCLES/MONTH ) 

Figure 2. Power spectra of transformed standardized monthly runoffs and of the fitted 
model for the White Water River, near Alpine, Indiana. 



The autoregressive constant <* was related to the basin characteris- 
tics by a regression equation. For each watershed, the 12 mean 
logarithms of the monthly flows (Mj) and the 12 standard deviations 
of the logarithms of the monthly flows (Sj) were also related to the 
basin characteristics by regression equations. These 25 equations are 
similar to those in Table 1 and are presented in Ref. 4. Therefore, to 
generate a sequence of monthly flows the following steps can be taken: 

1) Using basin characteristics and regression equation for a, 
determine a, 

2) Using equation 4 generate sequences of Z A , 

3) Using Zj = (log Qi — Mp/Sj and regression equations for 



M, 



and Sj generate sequences of Q 4 . 



Table 1. Regression equations for A, S, and a. (Annual Flows). 







A 


S 


a 




a o 


0.0033 


0.1120 


0.1330 


a l 


(Ar) 


0.993 


1.33 


— 


a 2 


(Le) 


— 


— 


— 


a 3 


(SI) 


— 


0.489 


0.579 


a 4 


(Fr) 


0.034 


— ' 


— 


a 5 


(Pr) 


1.130 


— 


6.837 


a « 


(St) 


— 


— 


— 


a 7 


(124,2) 


— 


— 


2.818 


a 8 


(Tj) 


0.496 


— 


9.720 


a o 


(Sn) 


— 


— 


— 


a io 


(Gi) 


0.018 


— 


— 


a ll 


(Per) 


— 


— 


0.552 


R 2 




* 


0.975 


0.745 



'After Reference (5), standard error of estimate 8%. 



212 Indiana Academy of Science 

The regeneration performance of the suggested model was tested 
by comparing the probability distributions and the power spectra of 
the historic and generated records. An example of the probability dis- 
tributions of the variate Z v for monthly historic flow sequences, and 
for the generated sequences is shown in Figure 1. 

Another application of time series analysis distinct of generation 
is that of forecasting. Models for forecasting monthly flows have been 
developed by McKerchar and Delleur (6, 7) in an extension of this work. 

Conclusions 

Since only a small number of watersheds are considered in this pre- 
liminary study, definitive statements should be avoided as far as the 
particular details are concerned. The following general points can be 
used as guidelines for more detailed research based on more comprehen- 
sive chronological data. 

1) The annual flow sequences for Indiana watersheds can be 
modeled by means of a first order autoregressive scheme. No 
particular transformation of the data sequences is needed. The 
model parameters were correlated to measurable climatological 
and geomorphological quantities. 

2) The logarithm transformation for the monthly average flows 
is suggested in order to improve the normality of these se- 
quences for the watersheds considered in this study. 

3) The removal of the annual cycle from the sequences of 
monthly runoff yields residual sequences for which simple 
stochastic models can be formulated. Once the residual series 
is synthetically generated, means and standard deviations can 
be used to construct synthetic sequences with the same sta- 
tistical properties (to the second order) as the historical 
sequences. 

4) A first order autoregressive model was found satisfactory to 
generate the monthly runoff sequences. The model parameters 
were correlated to measurable climatological and geomor- 
phological quantities. 

Acknowledgments 

The authors are grateful to Drs. R. Prasad, T. P. Chang, L. A. 
Schaal, J. Travis, and Dan Wiersma for assistance with various aspects 
of the project. 

This work was supported by the Office of Water Resources Re- 
search, U.S.D.I., through Purdue University Water Resources Research 
Center under project number OWRR-A-020-IND. 



Engineering 213 



Literature Cited 

1. Benson, M. A. 1962. Factors influencing the occurrence of floods in a humid region 
of diverse terrain. U.S.G.S. Water Supply Pap. 1580-B. Bl-62 p. 

2. 1964. Factors affecting the occurrence of floods in the southwest. U.S.G.S. 

Water Supply Paper 1580-D. D1-D69 p. 

3. Fiering, M. B. 1967. Streamflow synthesis. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
135 p. 

4. Kisisel, I. T., and J. W. Delleur. 1971. An analysis of hydrologic time series and 
generation models of synthetic flows for some Indiana watersheds. Purdue Univ. 
Water Resources Center, Tech. Rep. No. 19, 60 p. 

5. Marie, J. R., and R. V. Swisshelm, Jr. 1970. Evaluation of and recommendations 
for the surface-water data program in Indiana. U.S.G.S. Water Resources Div., Open 
File Rep., Indianapolis, Ind. 47 p. 

6. McKerchar, A. L., and J. W. Delleur. 1972. Stochastic analysis of monthly flow data. 
Application to Lower Ohio River Tributaries. Purdue Univ. Water Resources Res. 
Center, Tech. Rep. No. 26, 92 p. 

7. 1972. Evaluation of seasonal time series models: application to Midwest 

river flow data, Int. Symp. on Uncertainties in Hydrologic and Water Resources 
Systems, Univ. Ariz. Proc. 1:31-47. 



Control Considerations for V/STOL Aircraft 

Robert L. Swaim 

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

The nature of the flight path control (guidance and maneuvering) problem and the 
attitude control (stability augmentation) problem for V/STOL aircraft was described. 
The minimum level of control power needed for stabilization is strongly dependent on the 
open-loop aircraft dynamics, aircraft size, the type and amount of stability augmentation 
provided, and the turbulence environment. An analytical approach and design methodology, 
based on the state variable methods of modern control theory, was developed which struc- 
tures the stability augmentation system required for satisfactory handling qualities, while 
simultaneously yielding minimum required values of stabilization control power. 

Introduction 

The growth of the sprawling megalopolitan areas and the choking 
ground congestion around present metropolitan airports make it manda- 
tory for the airline industry to find a far better method of transporting 
short-haul traffic (less than 500 miles). As a solution to this problem, 
many air transportation authorities in industry and government agree 
that short take off and landing (STOL) and vertical take off and land- 
ing (VTOL) aircraft will be important modes of transportation in the 
1980's. 

The United States Civil Aeronautics Board has concluded that 
V/STOL service from appropriate landing sites between Boston, Mass.; 
Hartford, Conn.; New York, N.Y.-Newark, N.J.; Trenton, N.J.; Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Wilmington, Del.; and Washington, D.C., is technically 
and economically feasible and that the public convenience and necessity 
require the institution of this service to reduce congestion and delay 
and improve the quality of air transportation in these markets (12). 
The United States Federal Aviation Administration has also recognized 
the importance of V/STOL transportation by preparing airworthiness 
standards for such aircraft (16). 

In view of these and other developments, it is apparent to this 
writer that commercial and general aviation V/STOL operations will 
be a considerable percentage of the total domestic air traffic within 
the continental United States in the not too distant future. Although 
the design criteria and methods for V/STOL aircraft are in many ways 
the same as for conventional take off and landing (CTOL) aircraft, 
they are considerably different in other areas — most evident of which 
is the flight control system design (both airborne and ground based 
elements) for the low speed regions of operation unique to the 
V/STOL mode. 

A considerable number of prototype VTOL airplanes have crashed 
due to deficiencies in their control systems. Many of these were due 
to inadequate appreciation and consideration of the effects of atmos- 
pheric turbulence on the control system design. This paper is directed 

214 



Engineering 215 

to this problem and discusses some of the work which has been done 
toward accounting for turbulence effects on control system design. 

An airplane has six rigid-body degrees of freedom — vertical, for- 
ward, and sideways translation of the center of gravity and yaw, pitch, 
and roll rotations. These are usually referenced to an orthogonal axis 
system fixed at the center of gravity. The overall control problem is 
conveniently divided into the guidance function, concerned with control 
of linear position and velocity of the airplane to cause it to follow a 
desired flight path time history, and the attitude control or stability 
augmentation function. When flying IFR (Instrument Flight Rules), 
the guidance system obtains position and velocity information from the 
navigation system and uses this data to generate velocity commands, 
which in turn are implemented by maneuvering the aircraft through 
displacement of appropriate aircraft controls (such as ailerons, elevator, 
rudder, and throttles). For the guidance function to be carried out, the 
airplane must be stable along its flight path. In other words, it must 
not exhibit divergent oscillations which would cause it to depart from 
the desired flight path. All VTOL and most CTOL high performance 
airplanes require such stability augmentation, provided by either an 
automatic system, or by the pilot working harder to stabilize by control 
inputs as well as maneuver (guide) the vehicle with additional inputs 
from the same controls. 

The quality of the attitude stability is referred to as the "handling 
qualities" or "flying qualities" of the airplane, and there has been much 
research devoted to determination of what these should be for various 
classes of airplanes in various flight conditions. The handling qualities 
specifications for CTOL airplanes are given in (1) and for V/STOL 
airplanes in (2). Pilot opinion ratings, obtained in simulations or from 
actual flight test, are nearly always used in assessing whether the air- 
plane, in fact, does have satisfactory handling qualities (3). 

Although considerable research has been done on the effects of 
atmospheric turbulence on V/STOL aircraft handling qualities (most 
of this has been ground-based simulations), very little usable results 
have appeared in the form of concrete specifications or design criteria. 
It is generally true that pilot rating deteriorates as turbulence is added 
in increasing intensity to a handling qualities simulation. But just how 
this effect should be reflected in the specification is not clear 
(8, 9). Also, ratings for a given airplane in turbulence and IFR 
flight are likely to be worse than the same situation in VFR (Visual 
Flight Rules) conditions. Designers do not know how to translate this 
into design specifications either. The type, arrangement, and dynamics 
of the flight instrument displays are obviously an important factor in 
IFR handling qualities in turbulence. But the way these factors should 
be properly accounted for in the design criteria is an elusive question. 

For V/STOL aircraft to take full advantage of the new terminal 
area air traffic control systems based on the scanning beam microwave 
instrument landing systems (MLS), these airplanes must be capable 
of precise following of the three-dimensional curved approaches at glide 
slope angles up to 20 degrees (10). This will require excellent IFR 



216 Indiana Academy of Science 

handling qualities in turbulent air. The DOT Air Traffic Control Ad- 
visory Committee has recommended rapid implementation of this new 
system (11). 

In what follows, discussion will center on some of the ways 
turbulence is considered in the analysis of V/STOL aircraft dynamic 
response and stability augmentation system design, which are funda- 
mental considerations in providing good handling qualities. 

Dynamic Response 

The design of control systems for V/STOL aircraft is still very 
much an art rather than a well defined and documented procedure. At- 
tempts to apply analytical methods which were developed for CTOL 
airplanes have had only limited success in many cases. One such area 
of limited success is in analytically modeling and analyzing the 
dynamic response to atmospheric turbulence during hover and transition 
flight. A fundamental difficulty in this case involves providing a valid 
analytical representation of the turbulence-generated disturbance forces 
and moments acting on the vehicle. 

The sources of aerodynamic forces and moments are the three 
components of wind relative velocity U, V, and W referenced to an 
orthogonal body axes coordinate system fixed in the airplane, where, 
in general, each can contain a mean component U , V , and W 
and turbulence or gust components u g) v g , and w g . The coordinate 
is usually chosen so that the vertical component W is zero. The mag- 
nitudes of u g , v g , and w g vary with time and spatial position and create 
forces and moments on the airplane by primarily two mechanisms: 
1) circulation lift due to Bernoulli's theorem and the Kutta- 
Joukowsky law of circulation, and 2) momentum transfer between 
the gust components and the airframe. 

For aircraft in conventional flight, circulation lift is predominant. 
However, as a VTOL aircraft transitions to hovering flight, the con- 
tribution due to circulation decreases to the point where it may well 
be of the same order of magnitude as that due to momentum transfer, 
when turbulence is severe. Therefore, a valid aerodynamic theory in 
the hovering mode must account for both types of inputs. 

Circulation lift theories are well-developed for conventional flight 
and express the results in Taylor series expansions involving coefficients 
and stability derivatives. Such theories are not nearly as accurate for 
VTOL hover due to violation of the small angle assumption on gust 
inputs; that is, inputs in the nonlinear range of the lift curve slope. 
There are no good aerodynamic theories which adequately describe the 
gust input forces and moments due to either circulation or momentum 
transfer, let alone both simultaneously, for VTOL vehicles in or near 
hover. Consequently, VTOL designers continue to use the stability 
derivative approach for describing vehicle gust input forces in hover, 
even though the applicability is questionable in many cases. It should 
be pointed out, however, that it is still probably accurate enough to use 
a Taylor series expansion of the aerodynamic forces and moments re- 



Engineering 217 

suiting from the motions of the aircraft. These motions are likely to 
be within the small perturbation assumption on the dependent variables 
such as pitch angle $, angle of attack a , etc. — particularly where 
the VTOL aircraft has a stability augmentation system (as most do), 
which tends to maintain small angle responses to gusts and other 
disturbances. 

There are two classes of atmospheric turbulence which act to dis- 
turb the flight of V/STOL aircraft: homogeneous and what I choose 
to call heterogeneous. Homogeneous turbulence refers to that which 
can be described in a statistical sense through use of power spectral 
density techniques. Heterogeneous refers to discrete turbulence such 
as vortex patterns and shears generated by obstacles, trees, hills, build- 
ings, etc. Methods of analysis of the dynamic response of aircraft 
subjected to homogeneous turbulence are fairly well established 
(4, 5, 7, 13, 14). However, very little has been done in the way of 
dynamic response analysis under heterogeneous turbulence inputs. 

Reference (6) is the only work of which this writer is aware that 
analyzes the response of V/STOL aircraft to such discrete turbulence. 
The XC-142A airplane was analytically subjected to vortex turbulence 
in the hover flight mode. The velocity discontinuity at the center of the 
vortex causes a rapid reversal in the moment applied to the airplane 
as the vortex passes over. The vortex tangential velocity is given by 

v t = b + |r [ sgn < r ) ^ 

where A and B are adjustable parameters of the vortex and r the radial 
distance. The XC-142A was idealized to flat plate planform geometry 
and momentum transfer theory applied to compute the forces and 
moments on the aircraft due to vortex patterns traversing over the air- 
craft from various directions. A nose-to-tail traverse would cause rapid 
pitch and yaw reversals, depending on the orientation of the vortex axis 
relative to the airplane. Likewise, a wing tip — to wing tip traverse 
would result in rapid roll and yaw reversals. Severe disturbances of this 
type put extreme demands on the pilot and stability augmentation sys- 
tem and quite possibly will represent the critical design conditions for 
V/STOL aircraft control systems. Much more work is needed to ef- 
fectively relate vortex and wind shear turbulence to control system 
design requirements in a quantitative manner. 

Control Power 

A number of VTOL crashes have been attributed to a lack of suf- 
ficient control power to stabilize the aircraft in turbulence. Control 
power is most often defined as the angular acceleration produced by 
a control input. For example, instantaneous yaw control power is given 
by 

CP(t) = N 5 8 r (t) [2] 

r 

where 8 r (t) is the yaw control, usually rudder deflection or its 
equivalent in terms of reaction jet thrusting, and N8 r is the control 
sensitivity (change in yawing moment due to unit <$ r divided by air- 



218 



Indiana Academy of Science 



craft yaw mass moment of inertia). Similar expressions give control 
power in roll and pitch. This definition applies to the control power 
needed for maneuvering and that needed for stability augmentation 
about a trimmed flight condition. 

There is a critical need for better methods of determining the 
minimum levels of control power necessary to provide adequate stabili- 
zation and maneuverability for VTOL aircraft. An insufficient amount 
is unsafe and an excess reduces the available lift engine thrust, as 
control power is obtained by bleeding air or modulating thrust from 
the propulsion system. The amount needed for maneuvering is generally 
independent of aircraft size and dynamic characteristics. However, that 
needed for stabilization is strongly dependent on aircraft size, open- 
loop dynamics, the type and amount of stability augmentation provided, 
and the turbulence environment. Analytical design methods are needed 
which structure the stability augmentation system required for satis- 
factory aircraft handling qualities, while simultaneously yielding the 
minimum required values of stabilization control power. One such ap- 
proach (15) is described next. 



Stability Augmentation 

The published research literature and the VTOL aircraft built to 
date give no indication that designers have recognized the importance 
of the type of feedback control system used on the resulting control 
power requirements. Most three-axis stability augmentation systems 
have employed conventional attitude and rate feedback loops with no 
regard for what this control law structure means in terms of stabiliza- 
tion control power levels. For example, most vehicles in a hovering mode 
have nonminimum phase transfer functions and require unnecessarily 
high control power levels when stabilized by conventional servoanalysis 
design techniques. It has been shown that modern linear state variable 
control synthesis methods can be used for direct synthesis of stability 
augmentation systems yielding prescribed handling qualities and 
minimum stabilization control power (15). These methods are applied 
to the task of synthesizing a lateral-directional stability augmentation 
system for the Doak VZ-4 tilt-duct VTOL aircraft. The chosen flight 
condition was hover at 100 feet over a fixed ground point in turbulent 
air with a 35 knot mean headwind. The equations of motion were put 
in the so-called "phase variable canonical form" of [3], where 
d , d a , d 2 , and d 3 are the coefficients of the open-loop characteristic 
equation. 



t 












x l 







1 








x 2 


= 


o 





1 





X 3 













1 


. X 4 




. "do 


-di 


-d 2 


-d 





x i 









X 2 


+ 







X 8 









l X 4 . 




. 8 r 



[3] 






Engineering 



219 



It is well known in modern linear control theory that a single 
control input variable (rudder control in this case) can achieve any de- 
sired set of closed-loop poles if all state variables are fed back, and the 
resulting closed-loop characteristic equation will be the same order as 
that for the open-loop (fourth-order in this case). Furthermore, the 
control law is of the form in [4] and is optimal in that the weighted 
time integral of 8| i s a minimum, which means minimum control 
power. 

8 r == — ^l X l ^2 X 2 ^3 X 3 ^4 X 4 [4-1 



Combining [3] and [4] gives [5] 



*2 



(do+kj) -(di+kjj) 





1 



(d 2 +k 3 ) 







1 

(d 3 +k 4 ) 



[5] 



The last row elements in [5] are now the coefficients of the closed-loop 
characteristic equation, and the k values can be chosen to give desired 
handling qualities in terms of closed-loop roots. 

The next question is what does the control law of [4] mean in terms 
of control power requirements? Disregarding gust velocity spatial dis- 
tribution effects, which are important when making an accurate analysis 
(13, 14) only the lateral component of gust velocity v g excites lateral- 
directional responses. The closed-loop transfer function G(s) relating 
8 r to v g can easily be obtained and gives 

8 r (s) = G(s)v g (s) [6] 

where s is the Laplace complex variable. The power spectral density of 3 r 
(assuming homogeneous turbulence) is 



• a (.) 



I G(s) | $ (s) 



[7] 



where <£ (s) is the PSD of v g , frequently represented in the form of [8] 



and [9]. 



<£ 



v g U c 



[8] 



(*) 



.2 = 



2ttJ 



f 



<£ (s)ds 

v„ 



[9] 



o- is the rms value of v g , L the integral scale of low altitude turbu- 



lence, and U the mean wind speed. 



22© Indiana Academy of Science 

The rms value of § r is then 



u J J 



i = ~^r * s (s)ds 



[10] 



-J 00 

From [2], the rms value of control power is 

CP rm , = N „ [11] 

r r 

If one were to specify that the installed available control power be the 
"three-sigma" value given by [12], this would mean that the probability 
of the instantaneous required control power exceeding that available 
is 0.0027. In other words, 99.73% of the time the amount installed would 
be sufficient for stabilization purposes. 

CPavailable = 3N <r [12] 

r r 

The above outlined approach takes into account the aircraft open-loop 
dynamics, the stability augmentation which yields desired handling 
qualities, and the homogeneous turbulence. The amount of control power 
needed for stabilization in heterogeneous turbulence and that needed 
for maneuvering capability would be additional requirements. However, 
the minimum total requirement would be less than the sum of the three 
components, since the probability of needing instantaneously the 
maximum of each component is negligibly small. 

Concluding Remarks 

To provide safe, efficient control for V/STOL aircraft of the future, 
more research must be done on determining what constitutes desired 
VFR and IFR handling qualities in turbulence and casting such require- 
ments into a useable design specification. 

To make full use of the coming scanning beam microwave instru- 
ment landing systems for V/STOL, much better flight control systems 
will be needed than past aircraft have had. Precise control of the flight 
path in turbulence will be essential, and this likely means high levels 
of stability augmentation. 



Literature Cited 

1. Chalk, C. R., T. P. Neal, T. M. Harris, F. E. Pritchard, and R. J. 
Woodcock. 1969. Background information and user guide for MIL-F-8785B (ASG), 
military specification-flying qualities of piloted airplanes. AFFDL-TR-67-72. Wright- 
Patterson AFB, Ohio 690 p. 

2. Chalk, C. R., D. L. Key, J. Kroll, Jr., R. Wasserman, and R. C. Radsford. 
1971. Background information and user guide for MIL-F-83300, military specification- 
flying qualities of piloted V/STOT, aircraft. AFFDL-TR-70-88. Wright-Patterson 
AFB, Ohio. 499 p. 



Engineering 221 



3. Cooper, G. E. ( and R. P. Harper, Jr. 1969. The use of pilot rating in the evaluation 
of aircraft handling qualities. NASA TN D-5153. Ames Res. Cent. Moffett Field, 
Calif. 52 p. 

4. Eggleston, J. M., and W. H. Phillips. 1960. The lateral response of airplanes to 
random atmospheric turbulence. NASA TR R-74. Langley Res. Cent. Hampton, Va. 
59 p. 

5. Etkin, B. 1959. A theory of the response of airplanes to random atmospheric 
turbulence, J. Aero/Space Sci. 26:409-420. 

6. Gogosha, O. R., and T. E. Moriarty. 1967. The response of a hovering V/STOL 
aircraft to discrete turbulence. GGC/EE/67-7. AF Inst, of Tech. Wright-Patterson 
AFB, Ohio. 103 p. 

7. Houbolt, J. C, R. Steiner, and K. G. Pratt. 1964. Dynamic response of airplanes 
to atmospheric turbulence including flight data on input and response. NASA TR 
R-199. Langley Res. Cent. Hampton, Va. 115 p. 

8. Innis, R. C, C. A. Holzhauser, and H. C. Quigley. 1970. Airworthiness consider- 
ation for STOL aircraft. NASA TN D-5594. Ames Res. Cent. Moffett Field, Calif. 
65 p. 

9. Kroll, J., Jr. 1968. Initial VTOL flight control design criteria development- 
discussion of selected handling qualities topics. AFFDL-TR-67-151. Wright-Patterson 
AFB, Ohio. 162 p. 

10. Federal Aviation Admin. 1971. National plan for development of the microwave 
instrument landing system. Wash., D.C. 93 p. 

11. Dep. of Transportation 1969. Report of department of transportation air traffic 
control advisory committee, Vol. 1. Wash., D.C. 105 p. 

12. Seaver, E. R. 1970. Northeast corridor VTOL investigation. Docket 19078. U.S. 
Civil Aero. Bd. Wash., D.C. 119 p. 

13. Skelton, G. B. 1968. Investigation of the effects of gusts on V/STOL aircraft in 
transition and hover. AFFDL-TR-68-85. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. 150 p. 

14. Swaim, R. L., and A. L. Connors. 1968. Gust velocity spatial distribution effects 
on lateral-directional response of VTOL aircraft. J. Aircraft. 5:53-59. 

15. Swaim, R. L. 1970. Minimum control power for VTOL aircraft stability augmenta- 
tion. J. Aircraft. 7:231-235. 

16. Federal Aviation Admin. 1970. Tentative airworthiness standards for powered lift 
transport category aircraft. Wash., D.C. 229 p. 



A Computer Atlas of Hydrologic and Geomorphologic 
Data for Small Watersheds in Indiana 

J. W. Delleur, M. T. Lee 1 , D. Blanks 

School of Civil Engineering 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Banks of hydrologic and geomorphologic data for Indiana small watersheds were pre- 
pared for computer use. Four major types of data were collected: rainfall, and runoff data 
for 55 watersheds; and drainage networks and topographic data for 34 of these water- 
sheds. The data were loaded on four magnetic tapes. The first tape contains the single 
storm rainfalls and runoffs; the second, the single storm rainfall excesses and direct run- 
off hydrographs; the third, the planforms of stream networks; and the fourth, the ele- 
vation contours of the watersheds. Such data are useful in hydrograph analysis, estima- 
tion of instantaneous hydrographs, identification and calibration of hydrologic models 
for runoff estimation. They have applications in drainage design, development and 
management of water resources. 

Introduction 

The following hydrologic and geomorphologic information for sev- 
eral Indiana watersheds is stored on magnetic tape : 

1) Single storm rainfalls 

2) Single storm rainfall excesses 

3) Single storm runoff hydrographs 

4) Single storm direct runoff hydrographs 

5) Planform of stream networks 

6) Contour maps of watersheds 

For complete details the reader is directed to Ref. 6. 

Data Acquisition 

The selection of the watersheds was determined by: 1) the desire 
to cover most of the regions of the state of Indiana, and 2) the condition 
that man-made disturbances were not predominant factors controlling 
the behavior of the watershed. The rainfall data were obtained from 
the U.S. Dep. of Comm., Environ. Sci. Serv. Admin. (11). Stage hydro- 
graphs and stage-discharge tables were obtained from the U.S. Geol. 
Surv. (10). The drainage network was compiled from the Indiana 
County Drainage Atlas prepared by Purdue University (8). 

All the Indiana watersheds under 300 miles 2 for which the 
U.S.G.S. has records were considered and those having at least 7 to 10 
well-defined, single peak stage hydrographs were selected. The stage 
hydrographs were digitized at 30 min intervals and were read to the 
nearest 0.05 foot. The rating curves used to convert stages into flows 



1 Current address: Dept. Agr. Econ., Univ. Illinois, Urbana, 111. 61801 

2 Current address: Tahal, Consulting Engineers, Tel Aviv, Israel 

222 



Engineering 223 

were digitized at 0.1 foot stage increment. An average of 200 data points 
(time-stage) were recorded for each hydrograph. 

Precipitation records from over 150 recording stations in Indiana 
were assembled (11). For the majority of the watersheds, it was not 
possible to find several stations inside the watershed boundaries. In 
such cases, stations were selected in the close vicinity of the watershed 
boundaries. The arithmetic average of the records from those stations 
was taken to obtain the mass precipitation curve for the storm which 
was recorded at one hour intervals to the nearest 0.01 inch. Topographic 
data were digitized from U.S. Geological Survey 1/24,000 quadrangle 
and 1/125,000 topographic maps. All these sets of data were digitized 
and recorded on computer cards. The CALCOMP plotter was used to 
display the data for checking purposes. Then the data were loaded on 
magnetic tapes. 

Total Rainfall and Total Runoff 

This section of the hydrologic library contains 1,059 single peak 
hydrographs over 55 watersheds. The hydrograph ordinates are digitized 
at 30 min intervals. The corresponding average hourly precipitations 
over the watersheds were loaded on the same tape. 

Effective Rainfall and Direct Runoff 

This section of the library is on a separate magnetic tape and con- 
tains the direct runoff hydrograph ordinates and the corresponding ex- 
cess precipitations for the same 1,059 hydrologic events. The direct run- 
off was obtained by subtracting the base flow from the observed run- 
off. The base flow separation assumed that the majority of Indiana 
streams are sustained by unconfined aquifers. The excess precipitation 
was obtained by multiplying the ordinates of the total rainfall hyeto- 
graph by the ratio of the total amount of rainfall during the storm to 
the total precipitation excess. 

Drainage Network 

The third part of the data bank consists of 34 drainage networks. 
The computer programming procedures for the definition of stream 
networks were reported by Coffman et ail. (3). A drainage network was 
defined by a sequence of three quantities: an X-Y coordinate pair which 
represents the longitude and latitude of the stream sources, junctions 
and basin outlet and a code identifying the type of point. Small basins 
requiring less than 3,000 sampling points, (usually smaller than 20 to 
30 miles 2 ) are treated as a single unit; those requiring more sampling 
points are divided into sub-basins. 

Topography 

The fourth part of the data bank contains the contours and 
boundaries of 38 watersheds. The X and Y coordinates of points located 
along the contours were digitized from USGS topographic maps, 31 at 
the 1/24,000 scale and 7 at the 1/125,000 scale. 



224 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Tapes, Formats, Coding Details and Availability 

The details of the tapes, formats and the programs necessary to 
read the tapes or to write similar data on a tape have been given by 
Lee, Blank and Delleur (6). Copies of the tapes are available at cost 
and inquiries should be addressed to J. W. Delleur. 

Hydrologic Applications 

The principal hydrologic applications of the data bank are the esti- 
mation of instantaneous unit hydrographs, unit hydrographs and runoff 
hydrographs. Blank and Delleur (1) have discussed in detail the calcula- 
tions associated with the hydrograph estimation using the data bank 
and have given several examples and the associated computer programs. 
The mathematical and computational techniques used in the estimation 
of the instantaneous unit hydrograph by the transform method have 
been reported in detail by Rao and Delleur (9). These reports have been 
summarized in three papers published in the open literature and are 
listed under references (2, 4, 5). 

Geomorphologic Application 

Recent developments in quantitative fluvial geomorphology are 
closely related with the classification of stream networks which requires 
a considerable amount of data to support its fundamental principles. 
The availability of this data bank leads to a possible way of handling 
complex stream networks by computer. Quantitative geomorphologic 
relationships governing the hydrologic behavior of watersheds can also 
be studied. An example of Calcomp plotter restitution of stream net- 
work data is shown in Figure 1. 




Figure 1. Calcomp restitution of stream network data on magnetic tape for Bean Blossom 
Creek at Bean Blossom, Indiana. 



Engineering 225 

There are two phases of runoff estimation in Indiana small water- 
sheds which have been completed at the Water Resources Research 
Center at Purdue University. They are: 1) the utilization of 
WATER system (3) for stream network analysis of a number of 
Indiana watersheds; 2) the application of geomorphologic data for 
hydrologic modeling in some Indiana watersheds. The results of these 
applications were reported by Lee and Delleur (7). 

Acknowledgments 

Thanks are extended to Drs. W. N. Melhorn, and D. M. Coffman 
for permission to use the W.A.T.E.R. computer programs, and to Mr. 
M. Hale and Mr. McCollam for assistance in assembling hydrologic 
data. 

This study was supported by the Office of Water Resources Re- 
search under projects OWRR-A-001-IND, and OWRR-B-008-IND; the 
Purdue Research Foundation under grant XR5869; and by Purdue 
University. 



Literature Cited 

1. Blank, D., and J. W. Delleur. 1968. A program for estimation runoff from 
Indiana watersheds. Part 1. Linear system analysis in surface hydrology and its 
application to Indiana watersheds. Purdue Univ., Water Resources Res. Cent., Tech. 
Rep. No. 4. 179 p. 

2. Blank, D., J. W. Delleur, and A. Giorgini. 1971. Oscillatory kernel functions in 
linear hydrologic models. Water Resources Res. 7:1102-1117. 

3. Coffman, D. M., A. K. Turner, and W. N. Melhorn. 1971. The W.A.T.E.R. 
system computer programs for stream network analysis. Purdue University, Water 
Resources Res. Cent. Tech. Rep. No. 16. 218 p. 

4. Delleur, J. W., and R. A. Rao. 1971. Characteristics and filtering of noise in 
linear hydrologic systems. Int. Symp. Math. Models in Hydr., Warsaw, Poland. Proc. 
Vol. 2, Part 1, Topic 4, Paper 4/13, 18 p. 

5. , 1971. Linear system analysis in hydrology — The transform 

approach, the kernel oscillations and effect of noise. U.S. -Japan Bi-lateral 
Sem. Hydr., Honolulu, Hawaii, Water Res. Public. Fort Collins, Colo., 116-138 p. 



6. Lee, M. T., D. Blank, and J. W. Delleur. 1972. A program for estimating runoff 
from Indiana watersheds — Part II. Assembly of hydrologic and geomorphologic data for 
small watersheds in Indiana. Purdue Univ. Water Resources Res. Cent., Tech. Rep. 
No. 23, 52 p. 

7. , and J. W. Delleur. 1972. A program for estimating the runoff from 






Indiana watersheds — Part III. Analysis of geomorphologic data and a dynamic con- 
tributing area model for runoff estimation. Purdue Univ. Water Resources Res. 
Cent., Tech. Rep. No. 24. 142 p. 

8. Purdue University Atlas of County Drainage Maps. 1959. Indiana Joint High Res. 
Proj., Eng. Bull., Ext. Serv. No. 37, 189 p. 

9. Rao, R. A., and J. W. Delleur. 1971. The instantaneous unit hydrograph: Its 
calculation by transform method and noise control by digital filtering. Purdue 
Univ. Water Resources Res. Cent., Tech. Rep. No. 20, 59 p. 



226 Indiana Academy of Science 



10. U.S. Dep. Interior. Geol. Surv. (Published yearly). Water Resources Div. Water re- 
sources data for Indiana. 

11. U.S. Dep. Comm., Environ. Sci. Serv. Admin. 1967. Hourly precipitation data, 
Indiana Section. Precipitation records 1950 through 1967. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman : Claude F. Wade, 
Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Walter J. Weber, 

36 West Roberts Road, Indianapolis, Indiana 46217, 

was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

Distribution of Aedes stimulans (Walker) in east central United 
States. R. E. Siverly, Department of Physiology and Health Science, 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Aedes stimulans oc- 
curred most frequently within the study area on Wisconsinan drift. This 
species probably was displaced southward during Wisconsinan glaciation 
and, during the recent postglacial period, may have occupied forested 
tracts in continuous distribution from central Indiana and central 
Ohio to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Shifts from mesic forests to grasslands and/or oak-hickory forest, 
changes in drainage patterns, and more recently agriculture and urbani- 
zation are believed contributive to disjunction in its distribution and 
to curtailment of the southern limit of its range. Aedes stimulans was 
found on Illinoian drift in relict colonies in three counties in southeast- 
ern Indiana and in one county in southwestern Ohio. Relicts also were 
found in driftless areas in south central Indiana and in northern Ken- 
tucky. No specimens were collected south of Oldham County, Kentucky. 

Aedes stimulans was associated with Clermont soil on Illinoian 
drift, and with Lawrence and Guthrie soils in driftless areas. Regardless 
of parent soil material, this species was found most frequently on wet, 
depressional terraces and uplands and in beech-maple forests, and less 
frequently in upland mesic forests. It was absent in oak-hickory tracts 
regardless of elevation, and absent from beech-maple tracts on first 
bottoms. 

Observations in this study suggest that the pattern of continuous 
to disjunct distribution followed by extinction occurred in Kentucky 
and Tennessee, and that extinction will be the next phase of this pattern 
with respect to the relict colonies of A. stimulans south of the Wis- 
consinan glacial boundary. These observations also raise doubts regard- 
ing the validity of the 1920 record of A. stimulans in Mississippi. 

Soil types, in addition to climate and vegetation, were useful in 
predicting occurrence of A. stimulans within its present range in the 
study area. 

Observations on Overwintering of the Northern House Mosquito, 
Culex pipiens pipiens L., in Eastern Indiana. Donald A. Shroyer, 
Department of Entomology, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, 
47907, and R. E. Siverly, Department of Physiology and Health 
Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Overwinter- 

227 



228 Indiana Academy of Science 

ing local populations of Culex pipiens pipiens L. in Delaware, Henry, 
and Jennings counties, Indiana, were studied November through April 
1971-72. Hibernacula included house crawlspaces, basements, road cul- 
verts, a cave, a coal bin, a pumphouse, and a canning factory. Maxi- 
mum adult counts ranged from 41 to an estimated 6,000; large over- 
wintering local populations at two sites were attributable to extensive 
production areas (waste lagoons) in the vicinity. Relative humidity in 
hibernacula ranged from 57-97 per cent, and temperatures of 23-70° 
Fahrenheit were recorded. At two sites living mosquitoes were observed 
at 23° and 25° Fahrenheit. 

No males were observed at any overwintering site. Dissection of 
173 female Culex pipiens pipiens did not reveal a single virgin 
mosquito. Spermatozoa were usually active and presumably viable, even 
in females collected in April. Examination of ovarian tracheation of 
169 females taken from the hibernacula revealed that 13 were parous, 
a parity rate of 7.69 per cent. All nulliparous females had ova in 
Christophers' Stage I. Two parous females possessed a few advanced, 
yolk-laden ova from the previous gonotrophic cycle, in addition to Stage 
I ova. 

While there was no evidence that blood-feeding occurred in nature 
during the overwintering period, live females transferred indoors fed 
both on avian and mammalian hosts after being maintained from 1 to 
9 days at 70-80° Fahrenheit, a 15-hour light, 9-hour dark photoperiod, 
and 70-80 per cent relative humidity. 

At one hibernaculum the surviving overwintering population left 
the site between April 3 and April 17. Overwintering local populations 
had left two other hibernacula by March 30 and April 10. 

Effects of Different Densities on Life Table Characteristics of Aedes 
aegypti (L.) Raymond J. Russo, Department of Biology, University 

of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. In the area of mosquito 

biology, few articles have been published on the effects of adult 
density on population growth parameters. This study assays the effects 
of different population densities by increasing the number of mosquitoes 
in a given environment (a gallon container). Four population 
parameters were studied ; net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase 
and mean male and female adult life spans. 

Two strains were compared over six densities ranging from 2 to 
200 individuals per gallon container. Although densities in nature seldom 
reach the maximum used in this study, high densities are necessary to 
exaggerate the effects produced. The sex ratio in each cage was estab- 
lished at one to one. Sufficient food source was supplied both in terms of 
carbohydrate (sugared apple slices) and protein (blood meals taken 
by female mosquitoes from anesthetized mice). Populations were raised 
in the insectaries of the Vector Biology Laboratory at the University 
of Notre Dame at 26° Centigrade and 80 per cent relative humidity. 
Every two days the number of each sex that had died was determined 
and the deposited eggs were removed and counted. In addition to testing 
for strain and density effects, a third major variable affecting the re- 



Entomology 229 

sponse characters was examined by regulating the space available for 
oviposition. A second set of cages had four ovicups per cage instead 
of the usual one per cage. 

The results were discussed in terms of significant differences be- 
tween the strains of mosquitoes used, among the six densities covered 
and the number of oviposition sites. 

MODABUND: The Computerized MOSQUITO DATA BANK at the 
UNIVERSITY of NOTRE DAME. Theodore J. Crovello, Biology 
Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. 

Making use of the bibliographic work of Doctor Helen Sollers- 

Riedel, we have created a computerized data bank of 25,000 mosquito 
references from the past two decades. For each reference we have cap- 
tured the author, date, title, citation and one subject field (as decided 
by Doctor Sollers-Riedel). While the data bank is still growing, even 
now we can carry out high speed searches for any key word, et cetera, 
in any of the above categories. For example, the request, find all 
references categorized as genetics over the last two decades. Print these 
out alphabetically by author. This would require a search of the 25,000 
references and would produce an alphabetical listing of 213 genetics 
references. This search service is available on a cost basis. We did 
not undertake this project to make money, but to enhance mosquito 
biology. 

Cereal Leaf Beetle Parasitoid Release Program. Robert Bruce Cum- 
mings, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 

46204. The Cereal Leaf Beetle is native to Europe, therefore, some 

natural enemies from that area have been collected and colonized. The 
egg parasitoid, Anaphes flavipes (Foerster), and three larval para- 
sitoids, Tetrasticus julis (Walker), Diaparsis carinifer (Thompson) and 
Lemophagus curtus (Townes), have been released in eight states. Many 
recoveries of these parasitoids have been made, usually at the release 
site during the following year. It was shown that extensive 
defoliation by the cereal leaf beetle was required to effect yield loss in 
oats. It is hoped that with the establishment of these parasitoids, 
economic control of the Cereal Leaf Beetle may be achieved. 

Beta -alanine use by "ebony" and "black" Drosophila. M. E. Jacobs, 
Biology Department, Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana 46526. 



"Ebony" Drosophila melanogaster fail to incorporate beta-alamine into 
cuticular proteins, although this amino acid occurs in the hemocoel. 
Ebony flies are less desiccation resistant and less successful in mating 
than normal. "Black" D. melanogaster incorporate beta-alanine into the 
cuticular proteins when it is injected, but synthesis of this amino acid 
is inhibited in this mutant, the block occurring between aspartic acid 
and uracil. Normal tan phenocopies are readily produced by injection 
of black flies with beta-alanine. The injection increases desiccation 
resistance and mating success of the phenocopies. 

The Winter Stonefly Genus Allocapnia in Indiana (Plecoptera: Capni- 
idae). Gary R. Finni, Department of Biology, Allegheny College, 
Meadville, Pa. 16335. Eleven species of the genus Allocapnia have 



230 Indiana Academy of Science 

been collected from Indiana. Those collected include A. forbesi Frison, 
A. granulata (Claassen), A. illinoensis Frison, A. indianae Ricker, 
A. mystica Frison, A. nivicola (Fitch), A. ohioensis Ross and Ricker, 
A. pygmaea (Burmeister), A. recta (Claassen) f A. rickeri Frison, and 
A. vivipara (Claassen). A key was provided to separate the adults of 
these species. A key was also provided to separate the naiads of seven 
known species. 

NOTES 

Telephone Cable Penetration by Xylobiops basilaris (Say) (Coleoptera: 
Bostrichidae). John J. Favinger and Claude F. Wade, Indiana Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. The lead 

cable borer, Scobicia declivis (Le Conte), has long been a problem in Cali- 
fornia and other areas. Under certain conditions this bostrichid beetle 
bores through the lead sheathing of telephone cables causing short 
circuiting when moisture enters the cables. Similar damage was called 
to the attention of the Division of Entomology early in January 1972, 
by Mr. Ray Tannis of the Indiana Testing Laboratories. A section of 
damaged cable had been submitted to the laboratory by Indiana Bell 
Telephone Company. Shorts had occurred in the Beech Grove area where 
an underground 400-pair lead-cased cable emerged from the ground 
and became an aerial cable. The lead sheathing was protected by a metal 
U-guard at the base of the first pole. A large poison-ivy vine, Rhus 
radicans L., grew at the base of the pole and entered the U-guard, 
sharing the available space with the cable. The vine was apparently 
undisturbed for several years because it filled most of the space inside 
the U-guard not occupied by the cable which was about 30 millimeters 
in diameter. The vine was eventually cut off at ground level leaving 
the severed section inside the guard. The vine apparently became 
infested with at least two species of wood-boring beetles, the larger 
of which caused the shorting of the telephone circuits by penetrating 
the lead sheath of the cable. Tenetative identification of fragmentary 
adult specimens remaining in the sheath was determined as 
Xylobiops basilaris, the red-shouldered, shot-hole borer, a native insect 
first described by Thomas Say (1). Larval specimens in the vine seg- 
ment were reared to adults and identified as Xylobiops basilaris. At- 
tempts to simulate the conditions of penetration in the laboratory were 
not completely successful, but some shaving of lead by later emerging 
adults was noted. Another much smaller species also emerged from the 
dead vine and was sent to specialists at the U.S. National Museum for 
identification. This second species was a scolytid and identified by Dr. 
Donald Anderson as Pityophthorus crinilis Blackman (J. M. King- 
solver, personal communication April 13, 1972). No lead boring was 
noted for this smaller beetle. This is a new state record for this species. 
The holes made by the larger beetle were about 2.5 millimeters in 
diameter and very similar in size and appearance to those made by 
Scobicia declivis. As near as could be determined all penetrations of the 
lead sheath were extensions of the exit hole made by the adult bostrichid 
in emerging from the dead vine. A number of insects will occasionally 
attack lead or other metals when it is in the way of emerging 



Entomology 231 

adults or burrowing- larvae, but to the authors' knowledge, this is the 
first case of this type of insect damage to lead telephone cables in 
Indiana. 

Literature Cited 

1. Say, Thomas. 1823. J. Philadelphia Acad. Sci. III. p. 121. 

New Records of Indiana Collembola. John W. Hart, Hayes Research 

Foundation, Inc., Richmond, Indiana 47374. Sixty-nine species and 

forms of Collembola were reported from Indiana by the author (2) in 
1969. An additional 15 were reported in 1970 (3). This paper lists 32 
previously unreported and removes from the previous lists Pseudosinella 
petterseni Borner from the 1969 paper and Folsomia quadrioculata 
(Tullberg) from the second. In all, 114 species and forms of Collembola 
are known to occur in Indiana. New records follow : 

Xenylla grisea Axelson, 1900; Hypogastrura nivicola (Fitch), 1847 (1); Willemia 
similis Mills, 1934; Friesea sublimis MacNamara, 1926; Pseudachorutes lunatus 
Folsom, 1916; P. subcrassoides Mills, 1934; Paranura caeca Folsom, 1916; P. 
colorata Mills, 1934; Neanura persimilis Mills, 1934; Agrenia bidenticulata (Tull- 
berg), 1876; Spinisotoma dispersa Wray, 1952; Metisotoma capitona Maynard, 1951 
[?=Cephalotoma grandiceps (Reuter), 1891]; Isotoma tigrina olivacea (Tullberg), 
1871; Vertagopus arborea nigra (MacGillivray) , 1896; Sinella coeca (Schott), 1896; 
Entomobrya clitellaria Guthrie, 1903; E. gisini Christiansen, 1958; Lepidocyrtus uni- 
fasciatus James, 1933; Neelides minutus (Folsom), 1901; Megalothorax incertoides 
Mills, 1936; Sminthurides aquaticus (Bourlet), 1841; S. globocerus Folsom and Mills, 
1938; S. occultus Mills, 1936; Arrhopalites caecus (Tullberg), 1871; Smintkurinus 
elegans cancellus Maynard, 1951; S. minutus (MacGillivray), 1894; S. niger 
(Lubbock), 1868; Sminthurus facialis Banks; 1903; Sphyrotheca curvisetis (Guthrie), 
1903; Deuterosminthurus repandus (Agren), 1903; Dicyrtoma flammea Maynard, 
1951; Ptenothrix oswegatchiensis Maynard, 1951. 

The assistance of Dr. David L. Wray and Dr. Petter F. Bellinger 
is gratefully acknowledged. They have verified many of the records 
included, and their help has made the study most enjoyable. Author's 
voucher specimens are located in the Joseph Moore Museum, Earlham 
College. 

Literature Cited 

1. Barton, Warren E., and H. W. Clark. 1920. Lake Maxinkuckee, physical and 
biological survey. Vol. II. Indiana Dep. Conserv., Indianapolis. 512 p. 

2. Hart, J. W. 1970. A checklist of Indiana Collembola. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
79:249-252. 

3. Hart, J. W. 1971. New Records of Indiana Collembola. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
80:246. 

Growth of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom in Captivity (Hymenop- 
tera: Sphecidae). Gertrude L. Ward, Joseph Moore Museum, Earlham 

College, Richmond, Indiana 47374. In the summer of 1969 the larval 

growth of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom was observed. Search of 
the literature failed to reveal reports of measured growth by this 
species. An adult female Chalybion zimmermanni had completed several 
nests in a structural wooden plate on the second floor of a shed near 
Centerville, Wayne County, Indiana. She had utilized existing holes in 



232 



Indiana Academy of Science 



the wood. On August 3 she was seen putting spiders in a cell. Because 
the cell was not closed and no new spiders had been added by August 
7, the 17 spiders in the cell were removed. The first spider placed in 
the cell had a young larva clinging to the dorsum of the abdomen on 
which it was feeding. 

The larva and spiders were placed in a Syracuse-type watch glass 
and covered with another watch glass to prevent dehydration. This was 
kept at about 72° Fahrenheit. Observations were made with a 
stereozoom microscope. Measurements are reported in Table 1. The 17 
spiders were identified as follows (1, 2); 13 Theridion (Theridion) 
frondeum Hentz (females), 3 Araneus spp. (2 males, 1 female), 1 
Cyclosa conica (Pallas) (sex undetermined). 

Table 1. Development of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom in Wayne County, Indiana. 







Condition 


Length of 




Date 




of egg 


larva, mm 


Adult 


Aug. 3, 


1969 


laid 






6 




hatched 






7 






3 




8 






5 




10 






8 




11 






10.5 




12 






molted 




13 






16 




14 






16.5 




16 






17 




17 






started to 
spin cocoon 




June 27, 


1970 






male emerged 



The larva fed continually throughout the day as long as it was at- 
tached to a spider. When a spider was drained of fluids, the larva 
loosened its hold and made searching movements by curving and undu- 
lating its body. These movements were often ineffective in the watch 
glass and a spider had to be placed close to the larva for it to be found. 
No doubt these movements would have been suitable for locating spiders 
within the confines of a cell. 

In the early days of its growth, the larva seemed to have difficulty 
piercing the abdominal walls of the spiders. A drop of clear fluid, pos- 
sibly from a salivary gland, was usually seen on the spider's abdomen 
just prior to the first incision. 

Molting occurred August 12. The exuviae split in the mid-dorsal 
line and the larve squirmed and wriggled until the old cuticle was moved 
down to the posterior third of the body. Then the larve started feeding 
on a spider. It eventually freed itself from the exuviae. No other cast- 
off cuticles were seen. A few extra spiders were fed to the larva 
because there had been space in the original nest cell for more spiders. 

On August 13, the larva was seen using its new mandibles on its 
own venter. This might have been a cleaning activity. When it was given 
another Theridion frondeum it resumed feeding. The new mandibles 
were distinctly darker than the earlier ones. On August 14 the larva 



Entomology 233 

was placed in an empty mud cell made by Sceliphron caementarium 
(Drury) so that its cocoon would take a suitable shape. It fed for 2 more 
days and at 11 am on August 17 it started to spin the thin white outer 
threads which are characteristic of the cocoon of this species. Spinning 
continued for at least 36 hours. At 10:30 pm on August 18 the cocoon 
appeared brown and the larva could still be seen moving inside it. The 
pupal case was 12 mm by 5 mm on August 20. It was placed in a small 
box, returned to the shed on November 23 and allowed to remain for 
the next several months. An adult male Chalybion zimmermanni was 
released when it emerged from the cell on June 27, 1972. The wasp 
measured 17mm in length. 

Literature Cited 

1. Kaston, B. J. 1948. Spiders of Connecticut. Conn. Geol. Natur. Hist. Surv. Bull. 
70. 874 p. 

2. Kaston, B. J., and E. Kaston. 1953. How to know spiders. W. C. Brown Co., 
Dubuque, Iowa. 220 p. 

Melittobia chalybii Ashmead (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) as a Parasite 
of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). 

Gertrude L. Ward, Joseph Moore Museum, Earlham College, Richmond, 

Indiana 47374. The eulophid wasp, Melittobia chalybii Ashmead, 

has been regarded as a parasite of many insects (2), including three 
wasps which nest in mud cases and occur in Indiana. These are 
Sceliphron caementarium (Drury), Trypargilum politum (Say) and 
Chalybion calif ornicum (Saussure). It is of economic importance in 
Canada where it has been found as a parasite of Megachile 
rotundata (Fabricius), a pollinator of alfalfa (3). This report adds 
Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom as a host insect. The presence of 
Chalybion zimmermanni in Indiana was reported in 1969 (5). 

Schmieder(4) described the life history of Melittobia chalybii from 
Trypargilum politum, stating that a fertilized female leaves the host 
cell in which she has matured and walks or hops to another cell. 
Although these females bear long wings, they rarely use them. A female 
enters a cell either before the final closure is made or through a small 
opening between lumps of dry mud. She is less than 1 mm in length. 
After about 12 days of feeding she lays eggs which develop rapidly. 
They hatch and mature in about 2 weeks. All of the parasites feed on 
the host larva or on the spiders which were placed in the cell as food 
for the larva. As successive generations develop the total population 
of parasites may reach 500 (1). The female which originally entered 
the cell usually lives from 60 to 75 days and continues to lay eggs during 
this time. Most of the first generation females live no longer than 3 
days although some may live for 30 days. Finally, long-winged females 
are produced which bore out of the cell after copulation and seek new 
hosts. 

Polymorphism is evident and two forms of each sex have been de- 
scribed by Schmieder (4). These are designated as the type-form and 
the second-form. Type-form females bear long wings. Type-form males, 
second-form females and second-form males have short wings. Type- 
form males have slightly larger wings than second-form males. 



234 Indiana Academy of Science 

The specimens upon which this report is based were found in Union 
County, Indiana, 4 miles southwest of the village of Liberty. The nest 
of Chalybion zimmermanni was located in the loft of a small barn at 
the Brookville Ecological Research Center operated by Earlham College 
and Miami University. The nest had been made in 1970 and was opened 
by the author on 14 July 1972. No live specimens were found, but there 
were parts identifiable as one type-form female, one type-form male 
and one second-form male. These are on deposit in the collection of the 
Joseph Moore Museum, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana. 

Literature Cited 

1. Evans, H. E., and M. J. W. Eberhard. 1970. The Wasps. Univ. Mich. Press, 
Ann Arbor. 265 p. 

2. Musebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. K. Townes. 1951. Hymenoptera 
of America north of Mexico. Synop. Cat. U.S.D.A. Agr. Monogr. 2. Washington, 
D.C. 1490 p. 

3. Peck, O. 1969. Chalcidoid (Hymenoptera) parasites of the alfalfa leaf -cutter bee, 
Megachile rotundata, in Canada. Can. Entomol. 101:418-422. 

4. Schmieder, R. G. 1933. The polymorphic forms of Melittobia chalybii Ashmead 
and the determining factors involved in their production. Biol. Bull. 65:338-354. 

5. Ward, G. L. 1970. The occurrence of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom (Sphecidae) 
in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79:231-233. 



Why Snakefeeder? Why Dragonfly? Some Random Observations 
on Etymological Entomology 

B. Elwood Montgomery 

906 North Chauncey Avenue, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 

Abstract 

This paper lists 95 English and 23 Celtic names for the Odonata. Almost all of these 
ai-e associative and/or descriptive. Although the names may be grouped into 13 categories 
from their connections or associations (some of which are fanciful or false) with familiar 
objects or ideas, the most numerous group are "associated" with snakes (or dragons); 
another large group includes names connected with the devil. The origin of such names 
is attributed to the reputation of the insect and the folklore that anything bad is of the 
devil combined with the identity of the devil and a snake in the Judeo-Christian myth from 
the Garden of Eden. The origin of the idea that dragonflies are harmful is questioned as 
"almost any textbook of Entomology will furnish the information that they are entirely 
harmless to man and cannot bite or sting". However, this is not literally true, and 
examples of biting and "stinging" by individuals of some of the larger dragonfly 
species are given. 

I have been compiling lists of names of the Odonata for a number 
of years. A few papers on both technical (7) and common (5, 6) names 
have been published. Names are being compiled from all languages. As 
far as possible the meaning and significance of each name are traced. 
Particular attention has been given to those names with malevolent 
implications, as Augenschiessen, has drucha, mule stingers, and 
pakharaille, and those with reptilian overtones, as aspis dimonis, cap 
de ser, Drachenfliegen and snake doctor. Attempts have been made to 
identify, or hunt out, facts, beliefs, legends, myths and traditions which 
may have inspired the names. 

In this paper the 95 English and 23 Celtic names for dragonflies 
which have been found to date are listed and some speculations concern- 
ing their origins are offered. A few names of similar meaning or import 
in other languages are cited for each set (type) of English names. 

These lists have been compiled from all possible sources — text- 
books, dictionaries (8, 13), linguistical atlases (4), articles on folklore 
(1, 3), novels and other literature (12), special treatises on dragonfly 
or insect names (2, 6, 9, 10, 11), personal correspondence and replies 
to a questionnaire distributed with an issue of Selysia, A Newsletter 
of Odonatology, in 1965 (5, 6). When he received this questionnaire the 
late Colonel Niall MacNeill of Dublin arranged for the Irish Folklore 
Commission to conduct a survey to obtain Celtic names. This survey 
yielded almost as many Celtic names as I obtained from other sources. 
Some English names in use in Ireland, a few of which have not been 
reported elsewhere, were also furnished. The lists of Celtic (with 
English equivalents and the areas from which reported) and the English 
names are given in Tables 2 and 1, respectively. 

In a paper entitled "Some observations on the nature of insect 
names" awaiting publication I have shown that insect names are of six 
types, which are not at all mutually exclusive — primitive, borrowed, 

235 



236 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. Common names for Odonata (English). 



1 


adderbolt 


26 


penny adder 


49 


mule stinger 


72 


Jacky breezer 


2 


adder-cap 


27 


snake doctor 


50 


eye stinger 


73 


kiteflee 


3 


adderfly 


28 


snake feeder 


51 


ear cutter 


74 


Tom breeze 


4 


adderspear 


29 


snake waiter 


52 


horse long 


75 


Tom breezer 


5 


atherbell 


30 


snake ('s) stang 




cripple 


76 


bee butcher 


6 


atherbill 


31 


stangin ( g ) ether 


53 


mule killer 


77 


mosquito hawk 


7 


athercap 


32 


stangin ( g ) hazzert 


54 


cow killer 


78 


balance fly 


8 


bull adder 


33 


tanging edder 


55 


blue needle 


79 


water dipper 


9 


bull ether 


34 


tanging ether 


56 


darning needle 


80 


locust 


10 


dragonfly 


35 


tanging nadder 


57 


sneeder 


81 


blue beetle 23 


11 


edderbout 


36 


tanging nether 


58 


needle case 


82 


salmon fly 2 - 3 


12 


edther 


37 


bad man's needle 


59 


green darner 


83 


water butterfly 


13 


edther bowt 


38 


devil's needle 2 


60 


granny's needle 


84 


woodwig 


14 


ether's mon 1 


39 


devil's darning 


61 


horse needle 2 - 3 


85 


hobby horse 


15 


ether's nild 1 




needle 2 


62 


silverpin 


86 


coach horse 


16 


fleeing aither 


40 


devil's riding 


63 


spindle 


87 


peacock 


17 


fleeing ask 




horse 


64 


spindler 


88 


king fisher 


18 


fleeing snake 


41 


Dickerson's horse 


65 


spinner 


89 


leather wing 


19 


flying adder 


42 


Dickerson's mare 


66 


spineroo 


90 


water nymph 


20 


flying ask 


43 


bullstang 


67 


spinning Jenny 


91 


damselfly 


21 


flying asp 


44 


bull-tang 


68 


fire flee 


92 


demoiselle 


22 


flying dragon 


45 


bull-ting 


69 


heather-bill 


93 


lady fly 


23 


flying esk 


46 


horse-tang 


70 


heather-flee 


94 


merry may 


24 


horse adder 


47 


horse-sting 


71 


Jacky breeze 


95 


(= May-maid) 


25 


horse snake 


48 


hoss-stinger 











1 Reported as colloquial names in English speaking area (Shropshire), but probably 
of Celtic origin. 

2 Reported as used in Ireland from a survey conducted by the Irish Folklore 
Commission. 

3 Not reported from any other English speaking area. 



extended, associative, descriptive and synthetic. All of the English 
names, except one or two which are probably borrowed (from the 
French), are associative and /or descriptive and, as far as I can deter- 
mine, the Celtic names are of the same types. Although most of the 
names indicate association or connection with familiar objects or ideas, 
many of the linkages are highly imaginative, some are non-existent 
and a few of the implications are false. The names may be grouped into 
13 categories, although some fall into two or more groups. The 
"connections" and the names (indicated by number from Table 1 and 
letter from Table 2) of each group may be identified as follows: 
1) snakes (including dragon and lizard) — 1-36, A-K; 2) the devil — 
37-42, O; 3) sting— 30-36, 43-50; 4) horse— 24-25, 40-42, 46-49, 
52-53, 61; 5) bovine (cow, ox, bull) — 43-45, 54, C, K; 5) instrument or 
agent of damage or harm — 50-54, S-T; 7) needle, pin — 15, 37-39, 
55-62, E-F, L-P; 8) spear, bolt— 1, 4, 11, 13, Q-R; 9) spindle or 
shuttle— 63-67 ; 10) rapid flight— 68-75 ; 11) other animals— 80-89 ; 
U; 12) habits— 76-79 ; 13 personification— 90-95. 

Names for dragonflies in other languages are as varied as those 
in English, and include some types not found in our language. 

The widespread tendency to personification of animals is typified 
by the last six names in Table 1. However, such names appear to be 



Entomology 



237 



Table 2. Celtic common names for Odonata. 



Name 


English equivalent 


Reported from 


A. 


adone er 




Brittany (?) 




B. 


bod-easculachar 1 


clown's lizard 


Clear Island, Co. Cork 


C. 


damhan nathrach 


ox viper 


Scotland 


D. 


ether's mon 


adder's man 


Shropshire 


E. 


ether's nild 


adder's needle 


Shropshire 


F. 


gwaell y neidr 


adder's knitting needle 


Wales 


G. 


gwas y neidr 


adder's servant 


Wales 


H. 


nadermargh 




Cornwall 






nadoz-aer 




Brittany (?) 






J. 


nadoz-ear 




Brittany (?) 




K. 


tarbh-nathrach 


bull viper 


Scotland 


L. 


snathad chogaidh 1 


battle needle 


southwest Co. Donegal 


M. 


snathad mor 1 


big needle 


Co. Mayo 


N. 


snathad mor na 
sciathain 1 


big needle of the wings 


Annadown, Co. Galway 


O. 


snathadan an diabhail 1 


devil's needle 


southwestern Co. Donegal 


P. 


snathadan cogaidh 1 


battle needle 


northwestern Ireland 


Q. 


spiogan mor 1 


big spike 


Co. Mayo 


R. 


spiogoid mor 1 


big spike 


Co. Mayo 


S. 


has drucha 1 


dusky death 


Clear Island, Co. Cork 


T. 


spearadoir 1 


mower 


Killorglin, Co. Kerry 


U. 


cleardhar caoch 1 


blind wasp 


western Co. Galway 


V. 


chwildarw 







1 Reported as used in Ireland from a survey conducted by the Irish Folklore 
Commission. 



somewhat more numerous in other languages than in English: in 
French — dame de Paris, mariee (young married woman), reine (the 
queen), and demoiselle, which has been "borrowed" directly by 
English, and may also be the origin of damselfly. There are exact 
equivalents of the latter name in Portuguese and Spanish — donzelinha 
and dimuzela. Damo de gandola (lady of the gondola) and moungeto 
(little nun) occur in Provencal, and la munga and munego (nun) in 
Italian. In German are found Edeljungfer (genteel maiden), Wasser- 
jungfer (water maiden or nymph) an older form of which was 
Waterjumfer, closely related to the Dutch waterjuffer, Swedish vatten- 
jungfer and Danish Vandernymfer. Some languages have corresponding 
male names, usually applied to the larger species while the feminine 
names may be restricted to the smaller ones, as monsieur, danzello, 
sinoriko and moine (vs. demoisella, donzelinha, dimuzela, and 
moungeto, respectively); also pretre (priest), cure (curate), capelan 
(chaplain) in French, al privostu and e pret (priest) in Italian. The 
latter names may be derived from the color, or color pattern, of certain 
species which suggests the habit of a religious order. 

The names of other insects, and even of other animals are fre- 
quently applied to dragonflies. This transfer of names is not always 
due solely to misidentification. In Walloon-speaking areas a dragonfly 
is called mouron (salamander) or scorpion, coupled with the belief that 
its bite is extremely dangerous. The German Pfaufliege (peacock fly), 
Spanish el parot (butterfly) and Italian farfaya (butterfly), as the 



238 Indiana Academy of Science 

English water butterfly have probably come from the brilliant colors 
or the beautiful apperance of some species of Odonata. 

Water dipper, derived from the habit of libellulids, gomphids and 
some corduliids of washing eggs from the body by striking the 
abdomen against the surface of the water is matched by the Italian 
lavaki (tail washer). 

There are many names referring to the horse; some of these, as 
in English are also liked to the devil: Fandens Ridehest (the devil's 
riding horse — Danish; cavallo d'o demo (devil's horse) — Portuguese; 
calul dracului (horse of the devil) and pitingdul dracului (little horse 
of the devil) — Roumanian; pirum hevoinen (devil's horse) — Finnish' 
caballito del diablo (the devil's little horse) — Spanish; and Teufel- 
spferd (devil's horse) — German. In contrast, we note in some languages 
names with devout inferences, as Himmelspferde (heaven's horse — 
German; su gwaddu endiu (God's horse), su yaddu e usant antoni 
(St. Anthony's horse), cavaleta de la Madonna — Italian; calu al 
Demnedeu (horse of the good God) — Macedonian; kalet de san jaime 
(horse of St. James) — Spanish; and calul Sf. George (St. George's 
steed ) — Roumanian. 

There is a very widespread belief that dragonflies cause harm or 
damage (perhaps, sent by the devil for this purpose). This belief is re- 
flected by a great variety of names relating to stinging, biting, cutting, 
sewing up the mouth or ears, sawing wood, breaking glass, etc. : 
cisette (related to knife), aiquilette and aiquille (needle), aiquille du 
diable (needle of the devil), covo-ue (eye sticker), pakharaille (eye 
piercer) and roumpe veire (glass breaker) — French; saetta (arrow, 
dart) and cavelocchio (eye sticker) — Italian; tira-olhos (eye sticker) — 
Portuguese; lleva dits (finger cutter) and matacaballos (horse 
stinger) — Spanish; martai diable (devil's hammer) — Walloon; Teufels- 
nadel (devil's needle), Satansbolzen (Satan's bolts), Augenstecher eye 
stinger), Augenschiesser (eye shooter), Pferdstecher (horse stinger), 
Bullenbiter (bull biter), Kornbeisser (cornbiter), Speckbeisser (bacon- 
biter) and Brett Schneider (board cutter) — German; Orsnell, Orsnegl, 
Orsnil (ear-snails), Oyenstikker (eye-stinger) and Helvedes-navas 
(Hell's auger) — Norwegian; and sidle (awl) — Czech. 

Names related to snakes are found in a number of European 
languages, although not as numerous in any other as in English and 
Celtic: el kabal de ser(p) (the serpant's horse, or serpant-horse), le 
tieeyre (viper), and serpens (serpent, or snake) — Spanish; pougne 
serp (snake catcher) — French; orm-spy (snake spit) — Norwegian; Orm 
styng (snake sticking) — Danish; hadi hlava (snake head) — Czech; and 
kaoji pastir (snakes' herdsman) — Slovene. 

Few epithets for dragonflies involving dragon have been found: 
Drachenf liege (possibly borrowed from English) and Drachenhura 
(dragon's harlot) occur in German and dragon has been reported as 
a local name at Mons, Belgium (Walloon or French). 

Odonatologists have not neglected snake derivatives as a source 
for generic and specific names. Harris named coluberculus and 



Entomology 239 

Charpentier named serpentina (= Ophiogomphus cecilia) both in the 
genus Aeshna and Racenis has recently described draco in this genus. 
Selys named genera Erpetogomphus and Ophiogomphus, then described 
four "snake" species in them: boa, colubrinus, cophias, and elaps, and 
other authors have added five: crotalinus Hagen, coluber and natrix 
Williamson and Williamson constrictor Ris and ophibolus Calvert. Selys 
also described ophis in Cyclophylla (=Phyllocycla) . 

One of the reasons for this study of dragonfly names was a hope 
of finding the origins of these names and the reasons why such 
associative names were applied to these insects. Some of these reasons 
have been stated or implied in the preceeding discussions and require 
no further comment. The idea that anything bad is the personification 
of the devil, possessed by him, or sent by him to do mischief is so wide- 
spread and well-known in the folklore of all Christian areas that further 
elaboration would be superfluous. 

Whence came this reputation that dragonflies are capable of 
causing injury by biting and stinging? Almost any textbook of 
Entomology will furnish the information that they are entirely harm- 
less to man and cannot bite or sting. Such statements are not 
literally true. I have been bitten many times while collecting Odonata 
as I removed individuals of larger species, especially Erythemis 
simplicicollis, from the net. As far as I remember every 
specimen of the comparatively rare Tachopteryx thoreyi that I have 
ever collected has attempted to bite me as it was removed from the net. 
Such bites have never broken the skin and certainly caused no real injury, 
but they were of sufficient force to be felt and occasionally were briefly 
rather painful. Likewise, Thomas Donnelly has noted that they can 
sting. "Incidently, I can tell you one reason that dragonflies are reputed 
to sting; they really do! A female Coryphaeschna viriditas that I took 
in Trinidad last spring struck me with her ovipositor and it really 
hurt." (In litt, 29 May 1966). 

The reason for the use of horse as a component in so many names 
is not clear to me, but I find the dictionary has one of its longest 
entries under horse because of the number of compounds. Many, per- 
haps most, of these are directly connected, but some, as dark horse, 
horseblock, even the word horse itself, have extended meanings, and 
the direct connection of others, as horse laugh, horse-leech, horseplay 
and horse-sense, is remote if discernible at all. An examination of the 
entries for the word for horse in French, German, Greek (in which the 
number of compounds is particularly numerous), Latin and Portuguese 
reveals the same conditions. 

I have found no adequate explanation for the extensive occurrence 
of names for snake in the names of dragonflies. Sarot (11) quoted 
Cowan as reporting the belief in this country that dragonflies are some- 
times eaten by snakes. It was presumed that the insects which light 
on plant stems and sticks projecting from the surface of water in ponds 
might mistake the head of a snake held in a similar position for a proper 
perch and be instantly caught. While this could possibly explain the 
origin of snake feeder I question from the habits of both snakes and 



240 Indiana Academy of Science 

dragonflies that it occurs frequently enough to give rise to a folk name. 
Furthermore, the name snake doctor in use in some of the same, or ad- 
jacent, areas (the Central and South Central states) with its attendant 
belief that dragonflies serve snakes, even reviving dead ones, indicates 
an entirely different meaning for feeder. I believe the plethora of 
"snake" names in the English glossary of the dragonfly, with an 
abundance of such names in Celtic and a scattering in languages from 
Spanish to Czech, has come from the reputation of the insect and the 
folklore that bad things are of the devil combined with the identity of 
the devil with a snake in the Judeo-Christian myth from the Garden 
of Eden. Such names as snake waiter, gwas y neidr, kaopji pastir, 
adderbolt, T euf elsnadel f aiquille du diable, etc., would be a direct result. 
Other "snake" names arose through variation by folk etymology. 
Almost every form in the evolution of the Anglo-Saxon naeddre to adder 
has survived in the colloquital names for dragonflies. 

Dragonfly appears to be the most widespread and, in fact, the 
"standard" name in all English speaking areas. It probably arose as 
did the "snake" and "devil" names from Christian legend. In fact, all 
of these are identified as one in a verse in Revelations "the great 
dragon, the ancient serpent who is called the devil and Satan." One 
legend of the battle of the angels with which this quotation is 
connected has the mounted forces of the Lord led by St. George on a 
most wonderful horse. Suddenly, this horse started backing, disrupting 
the ranks that were following. When St. George, warned by the voice 
of the Lord, realized that the horse was bewitched by the devil he dis- 
mounted, saying, "Then, be it the devil's own." It was immediately 
changed into a flying insect which is called dragonfly in English, the 
devil's horse in several languages and St. George's steed in 
Roumanian! 

Finally, one name that does not appear in English anywhere de- 
serves discussion. Libella, or some variation of it — libelle, etc. — is found 
in most of the Romance languages and, surprisingly, also in German. 
It might be considered at first thought that this has been adopted from 
Libellula, the Linnean generic name for the Odonata (the name is even 
written Libella in the introductory list of genera in the 10th edition of 
Sy sterna Naturae). However, the exact opposite is true. Libella appears 
to have been the standard Latin name for dragonfly in England (and 
other countries?) in the 17th century. Libella is a derivative of libra 
(not from liber, or its dimunitive libellus, meaning book, although these 
have frequently been cited as the origin of the name). Both libra and 
libella refer to a level, "an instrument to detect any variation from a 
perfectly level surface" although they may have differed somewhat in 
structure and function. Perhaps, a libella, resembled a soaring dragon- 
fly, and its function would certainly call to mind a "balance fly". 



Entomology 241 



Literature Cited 

1. Davies, W. Maldwyn. 1929. Dragonflies in folklore. Nature 124:55. 

2. Forbes, Wm. T. M. 1929. (Note: Names for dragonflies in New England.) Nature 
124:55-56. 

3. Gaster, M. 1915. Rumanian bird and beast stories. Sedgwick & Jackson Publ. Co., 
London, Eng. 381 p. 

4. Kurath, Hans. 1949. Word geography of the eastern United States. Univ. Mich. 
Press, Ann Arbor. 88 p. 

5. Montgomery, B. Elwood. 1965. Common (folk) names for Odonata. Selysia 3:1, 3. 

6. _. 1966. Common (folk) names for Odonata. Selysia 4:1 

7. 1967. The family- and genus-group names of the Odonata. 1 

Calopterygoidea. Dts. Ent. Z. 14:327-337. 

8. Murray, J. A. H., Henry Bradley, William Alexander Craigie, and 
Charles Talbut Onions. 1933. The Oxford English Dictionary. (A reprint in 12 
volumes of a new English Dictionary on historical principles, 1888/1933). Clarendon 
Press, Oxford, Eng. 12 v. 

9. NlTCHE, Georg. 1965. Die Namen der Libelle. Worterbuch der Deutschen Tiernamen, 
Beiheft 3. Institut fur deutsche Sprache and Literature, Deutsche Akademie der 
Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 41 p. 

10. Rolland, Eugene. 1877/1919. Faune populaire de la France. Maisonneuve & Cie., 
Paris. 13 v. 

11. SAROT, E. E. 1958. Folklore of the dragonfly; a linguistic approach. Edizioni di 
Storia e Letterature, Roma. 80 p. 

12. Webb, Mary Gladys. 1928. Precious Bane. Modern Library Press, New York, N.Y. 
356 p. 

13. Wright, Joseph. 1962. The English Dialect Dictionary. Henry Frowde, 
London, Eng. (reprint: Hacker Art Books, New York). 6 v. 



Preliminary Annotated List of Indiana Aphididae 

Virgil R. Knapp 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Abstract 

There are at present 218 species recorded representing 4 subfamilies, 9 tribes and 
64 genera, but this represents only a fraction of the potential number. Further additions 
will be made to the list as time allows. 

Since there is much confusion concerning the taxonomy of the Aphididae, complete 
agreement with the present nomenclature is not possible. Further clarification of this 
matter is called for. 

Preliminary Annotated List of Indiana Ahpididae 

The records of Indiana aphids are scattered widely throughout state 
records and reports of various agencies. The only previous state lists 
were compiled by Morrison (28) in 1911 and Baldwin (1) in 1912. 

Other records were found in the Indiana Academy of Science 
Annual Insect Report of the Year, by Davis from 1925 to 1956 
(4 thru 20), and by Osmun from 1957 to 1966 (29 thru 37). 

Another source was the Annual Reports of the Division of 
Entomology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 

Some records were taken from the Purdue University slide collec- 
tion of aphids where the data was complete and verified by an 
entomological authority. Included was the author's thesis collection (21) 
which was verified by W. P. Mason, U.S.D.A. 

The University of Wisconsin Research Bulletin 277, October 1969, 
was also scanned for Indiana records from the Yellow Pan Trap Survey 
collections in the state. 

The collections referred to as "recent" were made by T. F. Johnson 
or by co-workers in the Division of Entomology, Indiana Department 
of Natural Resources in the course of their nursery inspection work. 
The author is indebted to these several collectors for their efforts, 
especially Mr. Johnson. 

Since the aphid literature is so scattered and fragmentary the 
author makes no claims as to the taxonomic structure of the family 
Aphididae. Basically a combination of "The Plant Lice, or 
Aphididae of Illinois" by Hottes & Frison (25) and "Aphids of the Rocky 
Mountain Region" by M. A. Palmer (38) has been followed 
as a guide for the subfamily, tribe, and generic set-up of the family. 
Some genera are included according to the listing on the slide rather 
than attempting to compare them with more recent taxonomic nomen- 
clature. 

There are 4 subfamilies, 9 tribes, 64 genera, and 218 species re- 
corded to date in Indiana. The author realizes that this is but a small 

242 



Entomology 243 

number of the total species to be found in the state. Any help from other 
interested people within the state in sending in records or specimens 
would be greatly appreciated. 

Following is an annotated list of the aphids reported as occuring 
in Indiana up to the present date. 

Family Aphididae 

Subfamily Aphinae Gillette & Palmer 
Tribe Lachnini Wilson 

Subtribe Anoecina Baker 

Genus Anoecia Koch 
corni Fab. 

(Aphis corni Fab.) 
(Anoecia corni Koch) 

Three subterranean collections reported in conjunction with ants (Lasius 
neoniger Emery and Lasius umbratus Emery). Collections from Boone and Hamil- 
ton Counties during June, 1971 on dandelion roots by T. F. Johnson. 
querci (Fitch) White-banded Dogwood Aphid 
(Eriosoma querci Fitch) 
(Eriosoma cornicola Walsh) 
(Anoecia querci Baker) 

One slide in the Purdue collection from Tippecanoe County on Cornus sp., October 
10, 1911 by J. J. Davis. One collection in Tippecanoe County (21) on trumpet 
vine, October 8, 1938. Collected by Johnson in Marion County on dogwood, June 
3, 1971. Seven slides in the Purdue collection under the name of Schizinuera pani- 
cola Thomas which according to Hottes and Frison (25) is a synonymy to Anoicia 
querci Fitch. All collected by J. J. Davis except one which is initialed W.J.F. The 
host of all collections was the roots of Muhlenburgia (grass) except one found on 
Eleusine indica (Goose grass). Collection dates varied from August 17 to October 31, 
of various years. 
setariae Gillette & Palmer 

Collected in the Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in June and July. 

Subtribe Eulachnina Baker 

Genus Eulachnus Del Guercio 

agilis (Kalt. ) Powdery Scotch Pine Needle Aphid 
(Lachnus agilis Kalt.) 
(Schizolachnus agilis Mordivilko) 
(Eulachnus agilis van der Goot) 

Recorded only on Austrian pine in Marion County on May 20, 1971. Reported from 
other states on other species of pine. 
rileyi (Williams) Powdery Pine Needle Aphid 
(Lachnus rileyi Williams) 
(Eulachnus rileyi Davis) 

Two slides in the Purdue collection from Marion and Tippecanoe Counties on pine 
by J. J. Davis, June and October 1912 and 1916, in Tippecanoe County on Norway 
pine dated November 5, 1938 (21). And by T. F. Johnson on red pine in Hamilton 
County, June 25, 1971. 

Subtribe Cinarina Borner 

Genus Cinara Curtis 

fornacula Hottes Green Spruce Aphid 

One collection reported in Indiana by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton County, June 6, 
1971 from spruce. 
palmerae (Gillette) Spotted Spruce Aphid 
(Lachnus palmerae Gillette) 
(Cinara palmerae Gillette & Palmer) 

Represented by four collections; three by T. F. Johnson on Picea from 
Hamilton County, May and June 1971, the other from a Marion County house (just 
inside from a planting of Picea sp.) dated January 27, 1971. 



244 Indiana Academy of Science 



pinea (Mordivilko) 

(Lachnus pineti Fab.) 

(Lachnus pineus Mordivilko) 

Ten collections by T. F. Johnson from Boone, Hamilton and Marion Counties on 

Austrian pine, and Scotch pine dated from May 20 thru June 31, 1971. One collection 

on Scotch pine in Morgan County by the author. 
pinicola (Kalt.) 

(Lachnus pinicola Kalt.) 

One collection by T. F. Johnson from Marion County on Picea sp., May 20, 1971. 
schwarzii (Wilson) Short-haired Mottled Ponderosa Pine Aphid 

(Lachniella schwarzii Wilson) 

(Lachnus schwarzii Palmer) 

(Cinara schwarzii Gillette & Palmer) 

One record in the Purdue Collection, by J. J. Davis, November 22, 1912 in 

Tippecanoe County on Jersey pine. 
strobi (Fitch) White Pine Aphid 

(Eriosoma strobi Fitch) 

First recorded in 1941 (21). Collected on June 25 and November 17, 1938 in Boone 

County on white pine; taken in Hamilton and Marion Counties on white pine from 

May 20 to June 6, 1971. 
Subtribe Lachnina Borner 
Genus Lachnus Burmeister 
hyalinus 

One slide in the Purdue collection dated April 24, 1916, by H. Morrison from 

Picea excelsa. I did not find this species in the literature. 
salignus (Gmelin) Giant Willow Aphid 

(Aphid salicis Sulzer) 

(Aphid saligna Gmelin) 

(Lachnus punctatas Burmeister) 

(Aphis viminalis Boyer de Fonscolombe) 

(Lachnus dentatus LaBaron) 

(Lachnus viminalis Cockerell) 

(Tuberolachnus viminalis Knowlton) 

(Lachnus salignus Gillette & Palmer) 

One report in the Purdue collection, October 15, 1913, Tippecanoe County on 

Salix sp. 
Genus Longistigma Wilson 

caryae Harris Giant Bark Aphid 

(Aphis caryae Harris) 

This largest of American aphids, was reported by Morrison (28) and Wallace (42) 

as feeding on willows, sycamore and poplars. Davis (15) reported it unusually 

abundant on sycamore. I collected it in both Marion and Madison Counties in 1967 

and 1971, respectively. 
longistigma Wilson Linden Aphid 

Reported as very common every year by Davis (5, 7, 10, 12). Reported on 

several timber trees including oak and linden. One slide in the Purdue collection 

by Davis in Tippecanoe County on sycamore, July 6, 1912. 
Subtribe Tramina Baker 
Genus Trama Heyden 
rara Mordivilko Long-footed Dandelion Aphid 

(Trama oculata Gillette & Palmer) 

Six collections, all feeding on dandelion roots and in association with ant species 

Acanthomyop inter jectus (Mayr) and Lasius neoniger Emery. 
troglodytes Heyden 

First collected by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton County on dandelion, August 1, 1971. 

Tribe Panaphini Palmer 

Subtribe Phyllaphina Palmer 
Genus Stegophylla Oestlund 

quercicola (Monell) Oak Aphid 
(Callipterus quercicola Monell) 
( Phyllaphis querci (Fitch) 
(Phyllaphis quercicola Baker) 



Entomology 245 

(Stegophylla quercicola Gillette & Palmer) 

Two slides in the Purdue collection by J. J. Davis, one a type specimen, from 

Tippecanoe County on white oak, May 31, 1913. I collected one sample from 

Starke County on oak, August 20, 1970. 
Subtribe Panaphina Palmer 
Genus Calaphis Walsh 

betulaecolens (Fitch) Common Birch Aphis 

Collected in flight in Marion County by T. F. Johnson, June 2, 1972. 
betulella Walsh 

Collected by the author, July 17, 1970, and by T. F. Johnson, May 17, 1971 from 

river birch in Marion County. 
Genus Euceraphis Walker 

betulae (Koch) European Birch Aphid 

(CaUipterus betulae Koch) 

(Euceraphis betulae Gillette) 

First collected in Johnson County from white birch by the author, June 15, 1970. 
Genus Monellia Oestlund 

caryae (Monell) American Walnut Aphid 

(CaUipterus caryae Monell) 

(Monellia caryae Davidson) 

Reported from Kosciusko County in mid July by Morrison (28), and July 22, 1939 

from Fountain County on wild grape (21). 
caryella (Fitch) Little Hickory Aphid 

Reported once by Morrison (28). 
costalis (Fitch) 

Collected in Clark County, July 18, 1938 on hickory (21). 
nigropunctata Granovsky 

Collected in the Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in August. 

Genus Myzocallis Passerini 

alhambra Davidson Western Dusky-winged Oak Aphid 

(Myzocallis discolor Monell) 

(Myzocallis discolor var. coloradensis Gillette & Palmer) 

Collected by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County on white oak, October 12, 1963, and 

in Hamilton County on white oak by the author. 
aonidis (Kalt.) 

Collected in Marion County (21) from flowering Nicotiana, July 24, 1938. 
asclepiadis (Monell) 

(CaUipterus asclepiadis Monell) 

This milkweed aphid collected in July and August, 1938 in Boone, Clinton, Hamilton, 

Fulton and Marion Counties. These specimens are in the Purdue collection. 
beUa (Walsh) Cloudy Winged Oak Aphid 

(Aphis bella Walsh) 

Collected by Morrison (28), the author in Marion County, and T. F. Johnson. All 

collections on pin oak, ranging from May 17 to July 15, 1970 and 1971. 
discolor (Monell) Eastern Dusky-winged Oak Aphid 

(CaUipterus discolor Monell) 

(Myzocallis discolor Baker) 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Hamilton and Kosciusko Counties. Also in Clark 

County (21) on white oak June 14, 1938. T. F. Johnson made two collections in 

Hamilton county on milkweed, July 30 and August 1, 1971. 
maureri Swain 

(Myzocallis maureri Swain) 

(Myzocallis kiowanica Hottes) 

(Myzocallis tonkawa Hottes) 

Two collections by T. F. Johnson in June 1971 in Hamilton County on milkweed. 
punctata (Monell) Clear-winged Oak Aphid 

(CaUipterus punctata Monell) 

(Myzocallis punctata Gillette & Palmer) 

First reported in 1911 by Morrison (28) from Hamilton County in June. Two 

records from Marion and Warren Counties (21) on flowering tobacco and red oak, 

May 27 and July 24, 1938. 
tiliae (Linn.) Linden Aphid 

(Aphis tiliae Linn.) 



246 Indiana Academy of Science 

(Callipterus ( Eucallipterus) tiliae Davis) 

Taken in Tippecanoe County, May 28, 1939 and by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton 

County, July 30, 1971. Both collections on basswood. 
walshii (Monell) 
(Callipterus walshii Monell) 

One slide in the Purdue collection by J. J. Davis from red oak in Tippecanoe 

County, September 5, 1962. 

Genus N eosymydobius Baker 
albasiphus (Davis) 

(Symydobius albasiphus Davis) 

Several type specimens in the Purdue collection from white oak in Tippecanoe 

County by J. J. Davis, October 8, 1913. 

Genus Phyllaphis Koch 
fagi (Linn.) 

One slide in the Purdue collection by G. E. Gould from beech, October 3, 1943. 

Genus Callipterus Koch 
asclepiadis (Monell) 

(Aphis asclepiadis Passerini) 

(Aphis asclepiadis Fitch) 

(Aphis lutescens Monell) 

(Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe) 

Reported by Morrison (28) in Marion County. 

Genus Therioaphis Walker 

maculata (Buckton) Spotted Alfalfa Aphid 

(Myzocallis maculata Buckton) 

Reported by Davis (20) in southwestern Indiana in October. Osmun (28 thru 36) 

reported its progress northward through the state. It now occurs in all counties. 
riehmi (Borner) Sweetclover Aphid 

Collected in the Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) May to October. 
trifolii (Monell) Yellow Clover Aphid 

(Myzocallis ononidis (Kalt.) 

(Callipterus trifolii Monell) 

Reported by Morrison (28) as abundant throughout the state. A slide in the 

Purdue collection by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County on red clover in November 

1912. 

Genus Tinocallis Matsumura 

caryaefoliae (Davis) Black Pecan Aphid 

Collected in the Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in June. 
kahawaluokalani Kirkaldy Crapemyrtle Aphid 

Collected in the Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in August. 

Subtribe Drepanosiphina Baker 

Genus Drepanaphis Del Guercio 

acerifoliae (Thomas) Painted Maple Aphid 

( Siphonophora acerifolii Thomas) 

(Drepanaphis acerifolii Baker) 

Reported throughout the state since 1911 (28). Davis (6, 8) reported it as abundant 

in the late summer and fall on silver maple. Recent collections from May 17 through 

September 16 in DeKalb (21), Hamilton, Marion, Shelby and Tippecanoe Counties. 

The common host is soft maple; but also taken feeding on pin oak, hard maple and 

boxelder. 
carolinensis (Smith) 

Collected in the Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) from April thru October. 
monelli (Davis) 

( Phymatosiphum monelli Davis) 

One collection from Tippecanoe County on horsechestnut on May 28, 1939; one 1970 

collection by the author in Wayne County on black maple, July 10; three collections 

by T. F. Johnson in May 1971, two from Norway maple in Marion County, one from 

soft maple in Hamilton County. 

Genus Drepanosiphum Koch 
braggii Gillette 

Collected in flight in Marion County by T. F. Johnson, May 31, 1971. 






Entomology 247 



Subtribe Chaitophorina Baker 
Genus Chaitophorua Koch 

aceris Linn. Maple Chaitophorus 

Reported only by Morrison (28) from Marion County in June. 
flaveolus (Walker) 

Collected by author in St. Joseph County on Elaeagnus sp., September 15, 1970. 
populifoliae Davis Clear-winged Aspen Aphid 

(Chaitophorus populifoliae Fitch) 

(Chaitophorus populifoliae Oestlund) 

Only reported by Morrison (28) from Marion County. 
populifoliae (Fitch) 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Kosciusko County, and from Tippecanoe County 

(21) on weeping willow, October 14, 1938. 
smithiae (Monell) Willow Grove Aphid 

Reported by Morrison (28) in Marion County, and as abundant in the state by 

Davis (8, 10, 15, 17, 20). Two slides in the Purdue collection from Tippecanoe 

County by Davis. The reported host was Populus deltoides, October 10, 1913 and 

November 2, 1915. One collection from Tippecanoe County (21) on linden, October 

8, 1938. 
viminalis (Monell) Little Black & Green Willow Aphid 

(Chaitophorus nigrae Oestlund) 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Marion and Hamilton Counties; two collections 

from Boone County (21) on willow, June 6, 1938, and Marshall County (21) on 

weeping willow, July 31, 1938. 

Genus Periphyllus van der Hoeven 

lyropictus (Kessler) Norway Maple Aphid 

(Chaitophorus lyropictus Kessler) 

(Chaitophorus aceris Linn.) 

(Periphyllus lyropictus Hottes & Frison) 

Recorded by Wallace (39), and as abundant throughout the state (6, 8, 9, 15). 
negundinis (Thomas) Boxelder Aphid 

(Periphyllus negundinis Gillette & Palmer) 

Reported by Davis (4, 6). Two collections from Tippecanoe County (21) on boxelder, 

May 12, 1939 and October 16, 1949. Recent collections by T. F. Johnson on boxelder 

in Boone, Hamilton and Marion Counties, in May and June 1971. 
populicola (Thomas) Cloudy-winged Cottonwood Aphid 

(Chaitophorus populicola Thomas) 

(Periphyllus populicola Gillette & Palmer) 

Reported by Morrison (28); three slides in the Purdue collection from Populus 

deltoides in August of 1914 and 1915; reported from Marion and Pike Counties from 

cottonwood and flowering tobacco (21); and collected recently by the author from 

cottonwood in LaPorte County. 

Genus Sipha Passerini 

flava (Forbes) Yellow Sugarcane Aphid 
(Chaitophorus flavus Forbes) 

All specimens in the Purdue Collection by J. J. Davis and W. J. P. in 1911 and 1912 
from Tippecanoe County except one from Lawrence County. Hosts were millet, 
Muhlenbergia, corn, Agrostis stalinifera, Lolium perenne and wheat. 

Subtribe Pterocommina Baker 

Genus Pterocomma Buckton 

salicis (Linn.) Spotted Willow Aphid 
(Aphis salicis Linn.) 
(Melanoxanthus salicis Buckton) 
(Melanoxantherium salicis Theobald) 
(Clavigerus salicis Gillette & Palmer) 
(Pterocomma salicis Baker) 
Reported once by Morrison (28) from Marion County. 

Tribe Setaphini Palmer 

Genus Setaphis van der Goot 
viridis van der Goot 
One collection from Hamilton County on basswood, July 29, 1971. 



248 Indiana Academy of Science 

Tribe Aphini Gillette & Palmer 

Subtribe Aphina Gillette & Palmer 

Genus Aphis Linn. 

armoraciae Cowen Western Aster Root Aphid 
(Aphis middletonii Thomas) 

Collected in Hamilton County on corn by T. F. Johnson, June 28, 1971. Appeared 
to have a favorable relationship with Lasius (Lasius) neoniger, Emery ants, which 
were present in the same ecological area. 

mvenae Fab. 

( Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae (Fitch) 

(Rhopalosiphum avenae Fab.) 

Heavy population reported by Davis (6, 9) in certain sections of the state. 

Several collections by Davis in Tippecanoe County in the Purdue collection. Hosts 

are wheat or apple, ranging from March through October. 

bakeri Cowen Short-beaked Clover Aphid 
(Aphis cephalicola Cowen) 

Two records in the Purdue collections, one May 28, 1913 from Crataegus, the other 
October 7, 1938 (21) from peanuts. 

brevis Sanderson Long-beaked Clover Aphid 

(Aphis crataegifoliae Fitch) 
This specimen in the Purdue collection taken May 28, 1913 in Tippecanoe County 
on Crataegus sp. 

caliginosa Hottes & Frison 

Collected once by the author in Tippecanoe County on Euonymus europea. 

cephalanthi Thomas Button-bush Aphis 
(Aphis impatientis Thomas) 
Reported only by Morrison (28) from Koscuisko County. 

coreopsidis Thomas 

(Siphonophora coreopsidis Thomas) 

One slide in Purdue collection, August 3, 1911 from Tippecanoe County by 

J. J. Davis. 

cor-nifoliae Fitch 

Collected by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton County from dogwood, June 8, 1971. 

craccivora Koch 

Collected in the Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) from April thru November. 

debilicornis (Gillette & Palmer) 

(Anuraphis debilicornis Gillette & Palmer) 

Two collections by the author, one in Tippecanoe County (21), October 1, 

1938 on wild sunflower, another in Marion County, July 6, 1970, host unknown. 

feminea Hottes Red & Black Cherry Aphid 
(Aphis tuber culata Patch) 
Collected by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton County, July 14, 1971 on wild cherry. 

folsomii Davis 

One slide (type specimen) in the Purdue collection by J. J. Davis, July 18, 1912 in 
Tippecanoe County on Parthenocissus quinquefolia. 

forbesi Weed Strawberry Root Aphid 

Likely still exists, although all records are from past years; i.e. reported by 
Morrison (28) from most parts of Indiana; by Baldwin (1) as common on straw- 
berry; and Marshall (26). 

gladioli Felt Gladiolus Aphid 

Reported in 1931 by Wallace (44) on gladiolus bulbs in storage. 

gossypii Glover Melon or Cotton Aphid 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Marion County on nasturtiums in early summer; 
by Davis (4) on melon and cucumber, abundant July and August from all parts 
of the state; and Davis (6) from Kosciusko County. Reported by Davis as destruc- 
tive to melons during August in Hendricks, Jackson, Miami, Newton and Starke 
Counties; in July and early August in Benton, Fountain, Huntington, Kosciusko, 
Lawrence and Tippecanoe Counties (9); and doing unusually heavy damage 
throughout the state on melons and cucumbers (10). Abundant in Northern 
Indiana in late August (14); reported as a serious pest of cucumbers, cantalopes, 
watermelons and rarely on squash and pumpkin (23). The Purdue collection con- 
tains several slides by J. J. Davis and C. R. C. varying from May to October, from 
soybeans, cotton and potatoes. Reported on rhubarb, grapefruit, quince, cucumbers, 






Entomology 249 



August lilies, milkweed and Callirhoe alcoeoides in Boone and Tippecanoe Counties 
from May 28 to October (21). The author and T. F. Johnson made several collec- 
tions ranging from May to August from Hamilton, LaPorte, Marion and Tippecanoe 
Counties on: gladiolus, forsythia, lamb's quarter, Anthony-water spirea, honey- 
suckle and milkweed. 

hederae Kalt. Ivy Aphid 

Collected September 1, 1939 from English Ivy in Tippecanoe County (21). 

helianthi Monell Sunflower Aphid 
(Aphis oxybaphi Oestlund) 
(Aphis gillettei Cowen) 

Reported by Morrison (28) in 1911 from Marion County; in Tippecanoe County 
(21) from trumpet-vine on October 8, 1938; and by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton 
County from giant ragweed, August 1, 1971. 

illinoisensis Shimer Grapevine Aphid 

Reported abundant in Vigo County 1927 by Davis (6) on June 24; Davis in 1980 
(9) in Tippecanoe and Montgomery Counties in June; and on wild grape in Marion 
County (21), July 24, 1938. 

impatientes Thomas 

Three slides by Davis in the Purdue collection from Impatiens sp. in Tippecanoe 
County, September 4, 10, 23, 1911. 

lutescens Monell Milkweek Aphid 

(Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe) 

One specimen by J. J. Davis in the Purdue collection from Tippecanoe County on 
Apocynum and Romisaefolium, June 10, 1912; four collections by T. F. Johnson in 
Hamilton County, on milkweed in June and July, 1971. 

maidiradicis Forbes Corn Root Aphid 
(Aphis maidis Fitch) 

Reported in 1925 by Davis (4) from most parts of the state on aster roots; and as 
destructive to corn in Clark County (8); and in 1930 (9) and 1932 (10) again re- 
ported as destructive. In 1926, reported as being commonly attended by the ant 
Lasins sp. on the roots of asters, zinnia, sweet sultana, dandelion, sour dock, 
pigweed, smartweed, crabgrass and foxtail. Davis reported this species often found 
with Prodiphilus erigeronensis. Seven slides in the Purdue collection by Davia in 
Tippecanoe County from Plantago sp., and Acalypha virginica, and roots of 
Lepidium Rumex altissima, corn, Capella, and dock. One record in a Yellow Pan 
Trap in Hamilton County, June 5, 1961. Ten recent collections by T. F. Johnson 
from Boone and Hamilton Counties on grass, narrow leaf dock, roots of dandelion, 
roots of corn, plantain and in ant nests with Lasius neoniger Emery. 

medicaginis Koch 

(Aphis laburni Kalt.) 

Reported by Morrison (28); Davis (4, 8) indicated heavy infestation on cowpeas 
in southwestern Indiana. The Purdue collection has four Tippecanoe County records 
by Davis; three on cowpeas and one on black locust, plus a record on lima beans 
in 1940. Knapp (21) has one record from beans, in Tippecanoe County, August, 
1940. T. F. Johnson collected one sample on black locust in Hamilton County, July 
30, 1971. 

middletonii (Thomas) Aster Root Aphid 
(Aphis maidi-radicis Forbes) 

The Purdue collection has three slides from Tippecanoe County by J. J. Davis, July 
18 and August 3, 17, 1911, all from roots of Erigeron canadensis. Recent finds in 
ant colonies require verification. 

neilliae Oestlund 

One slide from Tippecanoe County on Physocarpus sp., June 15, 1912. 

oestlundi Gillette 

One slide in Purdue collection, by C. R. Cleveland from Lake County on Oenothera 
biennis, June 7, 1923. Also collected by T. F. Johnson, July 14, 1971 in Hamilton 
County, on Oenothera sp. 

persicae-niger Smith 

Listed by Morrison (28), and by Baldwin (1) as common on cherry, peach and 
plum; one slide in the Purdue collection, by Davis from Lawrence County on peach, 
May 13, 1924; collected by Johnson on lamb's quarters in Boone County, June 4, 
1971. 

pomi DeGeer Apple Aphid 
(Aphis mali Fab.) 



250 Indiana Academy of Science 



Reported throughout the state by Morrison (28) and Davis (4, 5, 6, 9, 35, 36, 37); 
by Baldwin (1) as common on apple; two collections on pear trees in Tippecanoe 
County (21) June 8, 1938; numerous collections in Hancock and Kosciusko 
Counties (21) on cotoneaster, apple and crabapple, June and July of 1970; and one 
collection by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton County on apple with Lasius sp. and 
Pallidefulva nitidiventris in attendance. 

pseudohederae Theobald False Ivy Aphid 

One collection by author in Wayne County on Hedera helix (variegated), February 
11, 1972 in a greenhouse. 

rociadae Cockerell The Russet-colored Larkspur Aphid 

One record from Tippecanoe County on Delphinium tricorne in Purdue collection, 
May 8, 1913. 

rubicola Oestlund Thimbleberry Aphis 

Reported in 1924 by Wallace (40) as very common on red raspberry. 

rumicis Linn. Dock Aphid 
(Aphis carbocolor Gillette) 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Hamilton County; by Davis (4, 5, 6) on 
nasturtium and poppy scattered over the state; by Davis (10) as destructive 
to cultivated dock at Brookston on June 13; and Davis (13) as abundant on 
nasturtiums at Indianapolis on July 30. Four collections by the author from 
narrow-leaved dock, nasturtium and burdock from Boone, DeKalb and Tippecanoe 
Counties (2); and recently in Marion County on Euonymus europaeus, July 13, 
1970. Six collections by T. F. Johnson in Boone and Hamilton Counties in May and 
June on narrow-leaved dock. 

sambuci Linn. 

One slide in Purdue collection, from Steuben County on elder, June 17, 1931. 

solidaginifoliae Williams 

One slide in Purdue collection by J. J. Davis from Tippecanoe County on 
Solidago sp., October 5, 1911. 

spiraella Schout 

One record by Morrison (28) from Marion County. 

spiraecola Patch Spirea Aphid 
(ApJvis spiraeella Schouteden) 

Reported often as a pest of Spirea sp.; and reported by Davis (6, 7, 8, 9). 
Several collections by the author on varieties of spirea (21). All collections from 
Tippecanoe County except one in DeKalb County. Recent collections from 
Marion County on Spirea sp. in May and June and one from Hamilton County on 
Viburnum opulus, July 4, 1971. 

spiraephila Patch The Brown Spirea Aphid 

One collection by T. F. Johnson on Spirea sp. in Marion County, May 2, 1971. 

vernoniae Thomas Ironweed Aphid 

First reported by Morrison (28) from Hamilton County in mid- June; three slides 
in the Purdue collection by J. J. Davis, from Monroe, Carroll and Tippecanoe 
counties on Vernonia; one collection from Marion County (21) on ironweed, July 
24, 1938. 

viburniphila Patch Viburnum Aphid 

Two collections from Tippecanoe County (21) on Viburnum dentatum, April 18, 
1938, and May 22, 1939; Found by the author on Viburnum dentatum in Marion 
County, June 15, 1970. 

Genus Aspidaphis Gillette 
adjuvans (Walker) 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in May and June. 
polygoni Patch 

(Aphis adjuvans Walker) 

(Aspidaphis adjuvans Laing) 

(Aspidaphis polygoni Gillette) 

(Aphalara polygoni Patch) 

One slide in the Purdue collection by J. J. Davis from Greene County on 

Polygonum, July 14, 1916. 

Genus Brachycolus Buckton 
hold Hardy 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in May and June. 






Entomology 251 



Genus Dysaphis Borner 
apiifolia (Theobald) 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in June and July. 
plantaginea (Passerini) Rosy Apple Aphid 

(Aphis sorbi Kalt.) 

(Aphis pyri Boyer de Fonscolombe) 

(Aphis malifoliae Fitch) 

(Anuraphis rosea Baker) 

(Aphis rosea Gillette & Palmer) 

(Aphis rosea (Baker) ) 

(Myzus rosea ?) 

A pest of long standing; first listed by Morrison (28) in Marion County; reported 

for several years by Davis (4, 5, 6, 7, 11) from numerous counties; reported by 

Osmun (28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36) as a lesser pest; one slide from Tippecanoe 

County in Purdue collection, June 1, 1922; and collected once by the author in Boone 

County on sweet apple, June 12, 1938. 

Genus Neoceruraphis 
viburnicola ( Gillette ) 

(Aphis viburnicola Gillette) 

Reported by Davis (5, 6, 10) as very abundant in central Indiana causing serious 
malformations of viburnums. Two recent collections by T. F. Johnson, July 21, 1971, 
in Boone County from grasses. 

Genus Hysteroneura Davis 

setariae (Thomas) Rusty Plum Aphid 
(Siphonophora setariae Thomas) 
(Aphis setariae Oestlund) 
(Hysteroneura setariae Cutright) 
(Aphis setariae (Thomas) ) 

First reported by Morrison (28) in Marion County, June, 1911; reported by Bald- 
win (1) on cherry, peach and plum; Wallace (39) on plum; and Davis (6) and 
Wallace (42) found it abundant in central Indiana. Purdue collections by J. J. Davis 
include several slides of this species from plum in Tippecanoe County. Collections 
by T. F. Johnson in Boone and Hamilton Counties on foxtail grass, mostly in June 
1971. 

Genus Brevicoryne van der Goot 
brassicae (Linn.) Cabbage Aphis 
(Aphis brassicae Linn.) 

Widely reported throughout the state as follows: Morrison (28); Davis (4), 
abundant on turnip during July in central and northern Indiana; Davis (6), 
abundant on cabbage in Vigo County, July 8; Davis (8), abundant on cabbage in St. 
Joseph County, July 11; Davis (9) abundant on cabbage in St. Joseph, Hamilton, 
Boone and Madison Counties, May 18 to July 21; Davis (10), Boone County, May 18 
to July 21; Davis (12) normally abundant; Davis (13), especially abundant in Har- 
rison and Montgomery Counties in June, and heavy on cabbage and kale in southern 
Indiana, September. Several collections (21) from Boone and Tippecanoe Counties 
(21) on cabbage, brussel sprouts and onions, August 31 to November 6, 1938. 

Genus Cavariella Del Guercio 
aegopodii (Scopoli) 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) from April to October. 

Genus Dactynotus Rafinesque 

nigrotuberculatus Olive 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) from May through August. 

rudbeckiae (Fitch) Goldenglow Aphid 
(Aphis rudbeckiae Fitch) 
(Macrosiphum rudbeckiae Essig) 
(Macrosiphum rudbeckiae (Fitch) ) 

Reported state-wide by H. Morrison (28); destructive to goldenglow, according to 
Wallace (39) and Davis (9); three slides in Purdue collection from Tippecanoe 
County on SUphium perfoliatum and Onchus sp., by J. J. Davis and D. G. 
Tower, September 16, 1911 and May 29, 1914; five specimens from Boone, 
Hamilton and Tippecanoe Counties (21), July and August of 1938 and 1939; eight 
collections by T. F. Johnson and the author from Hamilton and Hendricks Counties 



252 Indiana Academy of Science 



on ragweed, goldenglow, wild lettuce and aster, June through September of 1970 and 
1971. 

Genus Hyalopterus Koch 

atriplicis (Linn.) The Boat Gall Aphid 
(Aphis atriplicis Linn.) 
(Aphis chenopodii Cowen) 
(Hyalopterus atriplicis Hayhurst) 

Four collections, three on Chenopodium (Lamb's Quarters), one on potatoes; two 
collections by Cleveland in Lake County, June 1923; one by T. F. Johnson in Boone 
County, June 3, 1972, and one in Hamilton County, July 11, 1972. 
pruni (Geoffroy) Mealy Plum Aphid 
(Aphis arundinis Fab.) 
(Aphis purni Fab.) 
(Hyalopterus arundinis Davidson) 
(Hyalopterus arundinis (Fab.) ) 
One collection by T. F. Johnson in Boone County on grass, July 11, 1971. 

Genus Rhopalosiphum Koch 

berberidis (Kalt. ) Barberry Plant-louse 
(Aphis berberidis Kalt.) 

(Rhopalosiphum berberidis Gillette & Palmer) 
One collection on Mahonia sp. from Hendricks County by the author. 

fitchii (Sanderson) Apple Grain Aphid 
(Aphis mali Fab.) 
(Aphis fitchii Sanderson) 

(Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae Baker & Turner) 

Reported by Davis (4, 5, 10) as occurring early in season but scarce; three col- 
lections from Tippecanoe County on wheat (21); one collection by author in Johnson 
County on quince, July 14, 1970. 

maidis (Fitch) Corn Leaf Aphid 
(Aphis maidis Fitch) 
(Rhopalosiphum maidis Webster) 

Of great economic importance and reported consistently through the years by 
Morrison (28); Davis (11, 13); and Cleveland (3). Reported as abundant in corn 
and sorghum throughout the state by Osmun (30 thru 37) from 1957 thru 1966. 
The Purdue collections contain many slides of this species from Tippecanoe County 
by J. J. Davis from June to September. Many entries from Boone, Fountain, 
Hamilton, Cass, Fulton and Marion Counties (21) from corn, flowering Nicotiana, 
hen and chickens, snow-on-the-mountain, dahlia, sunflower, wild lettuce, Yucca, 
tomatoes, and blue funkia lily; and several collections in Hamilton County by 
T. F. Johnson on corn, milkweed and grasses, June and July of 1971. 

melliferum (Hottes) 

(Aphis xylostei Schrank) 

(Hyadaphis mellifera Hottes) 

Three collections in Boone County (21) on parsnip, wild carrot and cultivated 

carrot, July and September, 1939. 

nymphaeae (Linn.) Waterlily Aphid 
(Aphis nymphaeae Linn.) 
(Aphis aquatica Jackson) 
(Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Patch) 

One record from Boone County (21) on water-hyacinths, October 30, 1938; and from 
Marion County on waterlily, January 4, 1971. 

poae Gillette 

All specimens in Purdue Collection from Tippecanoe County on blue grass by 
J. J. Davis, October 1911 and November 1912. 

rhois Monell Sumach Aphid 

( Amphorophora howardi Wilson) 
(Rhopalosiphum howardi Davis) 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Tippecanoe County; five slides in Purdue collec- 
tion by J. J. Davis from Carroll, Lawrence and Tippecanoe Counties on Elymus 
canadense and sumach, 1911 and 1912; one collection in Boone County (21) on 
sumach, August 16, 1939. 

rufiabdominalis ( Sasaki ) 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) from May through October. 



Entomology 253 



rufomaculatum (Wilson) Pale Chrysanthemum Aphid 
(Aphis rujomaculata Wilson) 
(Siphocoryne artemisiae Del Guercio) 
(Stephensonia laliorensis Das) 
(Rhopalosiphum lahorensis Takahashi) 
(Rhopalosiphum rufomaculatam Hille Ris Lambers) 

Seven slides in the Purdue collection from Tippecanoe County in greenhouses on 
Chrysanthemum sp., January and April, 1915 to 1936; one record from Tippecanoe 
County (21) on Chrysanthemum sp.; another by the author from Vigo County on 
Chrysanthemum sp. in a greenhouse, February 18, 1971. 

sonchi Oestlund 

Previous records are represented by slide specimens in Purdue collection, all col- 
lected by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County on Sonchus oleraceus, July 3, 1912, 
October 15, 1913, and July 1, 1915. 
Genus Hyadaphis Kirkaldy 

erysimi (Kalt.) 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) from April through November. 

foeniculi ( Passerini ) 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in August. 

pastinacae Linn. 

(Cavariella essige (Gillette & Bragg) ) 
(Rhopalosiphum pastinacae Linn.) 
(Aphis aegopodii Scopoli) 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Marion County; another record in Purdue collec- 
tion by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County on Pastinaca sativa, parsnip, July 3, 1912. 

pseudobrassicae (Davis) Turnip Aphid 
(Aphis pseudobrassicae Davis) 

(Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae Gillette & Palmer) 

Reported by Davis (4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16) on turnip; radish, horseradish and 
cabbage from all parts of the state; ten slides in Purdue collection with type 
specimens; one from Elkhart and rest from Tippecanoe County, July through 
October, with three slides collected in a greenhouse, by J. J. Davis, January 1914, 
on radish, wild mustard, grape, Brassica and turnip; one collection from Boone 
County (21) on white turnip, October 28, 1939. 

siphocoryne Xylaster 

One slide in Purdue collection from Tippecanoe County on Pastinaca sativa, July 
3, 1912. 
Genus Toxoptera Koch 

muhlenbergiae Phillips & Davis Grass Aphid 

Reported by Phillips and Davis in Wayne and Tippecanoe Counties by Morrison 
(28); nine slides in Purdue collection, some are type specimens, all collected on 
Muhlemburgia sp. in Tippecanoe County from July to October. 
Genus Schizaphis Borner 

graminum (Rondani) Greenbug 
(Aphis graminum Rondani) 
(Toxoptera graminum Pergande) 

A pest of grain crops since 1911 (28) when it was reported throughout the state 
as the cause of crop failure of oats by Davis (9); several collections are in Purdue 
collection from Marion, Tippecanoe and Wayne Counties, 1907, 1908 and 1911. 
Subtribe Macrosiphina Baker 
Genus Amphorophora Buckton 

senoriata Mason Raspberry Cane Aphid 

The only record is in the Purdue collection, from Tippecanoe County on wild 
raspberry, July 19, 1914. 

singularis Hottes & Frison 

The only collection was by the author in Hamilton County on crabgrass, June 28, 
1971. 
Genus Cryptomzus van der Goot 

ribis (Linn.) Currant Aphid 
(Aphis ribis Linn.) 
(Myzus ribis Gillette & Bragg) 
(Capitophorus ribis Theobald) 
(Capitophorus ribis Linn.) 



254 Indiana Academy of Science 



First reported by Baldwin (1) on gooseberries and currants; also reported as 

serious and abundant throughout the state by Davis (4, 5, 6, 8, 13); one slide exists 

in Purdue collection from Boone County, April 26, 1966. 
Genus Capitophorus van der Goot 

fragaefolii (Cockerell) Strawberry Aphid 

(Myzus fragaefolii Cockerell) 

(Capitophorus fragaefolii Hottes & Frison) 

(Capitophorus fragariae (Theobald) ) 

One specimen collected by the author in LaPorte County on Rosa rugosa, June 11, 

1970. 
hippophaes (Walker) Polygonum Aphid 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in September and October. 
minor (Forbes) 

(Siphonophora minor Forbes) 

( Capitophorus minor Hottes & Frison ) 

Reported by Marshall (26) feeding on fruits. 

Genus Kakimia Hottes & Frison 

houghtonensis (Troop) Gooseberry Witchbroom Aphid 

(Aphis houghtonensis Troop) 

(Myzus houghtonensis Davis) 

(Myzus (Kakimia) houghtonensis Hottes & Frison) 

(Kakimia houghtonensis Gillette & Palmer) 

First found and named by Prof. J. Troop in Marion County, in 1904-1905; 

reported by Morrison (28); reported by Davis (4, 5, 6, 7, 8) as abundant on 

gooseberries in central to northern Indiana. 

Genus Macrosiphum Passerini 

ambrosiae (Thomas) Brown Ambrosia Aphid 

(Siphonophora ambrosiae Thomas) 

(Tritogenaphis kosacaudis Knowlton) 

(Macrosiphum ambrosiae Hottes & Frison) 

( Macrosiphum solidaginis ( Fab. ) ) 

(Siphonophora solidaginis Williams) 

(Macrosiphum ambrosiae (color variety) Gillette & Palmer) 

Found widespread on wild lettuce, goldenrod and fall aster in Boone, Cass, Hamil- 
ton, Hendricks, Marion, Noble and Tippecanoe Counties (2), June to October 1941. 
avenae (Fab.) English Grain Aphid 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) from April through October. 
begoniae Shout 

Specimens in Purdue collection by H. Morrison (28) on Begonia sp. in greenhouses, 

January 31, 1911. 
coryli Davis 

Cotypes of this species in Purdue University collection, one by J. J. Davis, July 5, 

1912; another by D. G. Tower, July 3, 1915. Both from Tippecanoe County on 

hazel. 
creelii Davis 

Two slides in Purdue collection, from alfalfa in greenhouses, Tippecanoe County, 

November 13, 1913. 
dirhodum (Walker) Rose Grass Aphid 

(Aphis dirhoda Walker) 

(Macrosiphum dirhodum Patch) 

Collected from Hamilton and Marion Counties on various species of rose, June and 

July, 1971. 
erigeronensis (Thomas) White-top Aphid 

(Siphonophora erigeronensis Thomas) 

(Macrosiphum erigeronensis Hottes & Frison) 

First reported by Morrison (28) in early summer in Hamilton and Kosciusko 

Counties; two records in Purdue collection, by J. J. Davis on Erigeron annus and 

Erigeron canadensis, September 12 and 31, 1911. 
euphorbiae (Thomas) Potato Aphid 

(Macrosiphum get (Koch) 

(Macrosiphum solanifolii Ashmead) 

(Siphonophora euphorbiae Thomas) 

(Siphonophora gei Koch) 



Entomology 255 



(Siphonophora solanifolii Ashmead) 
(Nectarophora asclepiadis Cowen) 
(Nectarophora heleniella Cockerel]) 

First reported by Morrison (28) and Davis (4), as abundant in Lake County on 
potatoes; by Gould (23) and Osmun (31) in Boone, Carroll, DeKalb, Marion and 
Tippecanoe Counties (21) from calendula, cannas, cotton, dahlia, eggplant, flowering 
tobacco, poppies, roses, rhubarb, swiss chard and tomato. The Purdue collection con- 
tains slides collected by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County from Euphorbia corollata 
and rose; ten slides by C. R. Cleveland in 1923 and two in 1924 in Tippecanoe County 
from PhysaUis sp., potato, tomato, jimson weed and wild rose; two slides by G. E. 
Gould from egg plant and tomatoes in Tippecanoe County, 1939; three collections by 
the author from cut-leaf philodendron, wild lettuce and potted tulips in greenhouses 
in Vanderburg and Vigo Counties, 1971; and eight collections by T. F. Johnson from 
Hamilton and Marion Counties on red mulberry, Tulipa sp. and wild lettuce, May 
17 through June 8, 1971. 

frigidae (Oestlund) 

(Nectarophora frigidae Oestlund) 

(Macrosiphum frigidae Essig) 

One slide in Purdue collection by H. Morrison (28) on Verbena alternifolii, from 

Hamilton County, June 16, 1912. 

frigidicola (Gillette & Palmer) 

Collected in Boone County (21) on Achillea sp., August 6, 1939. 

granarium (Kirby) Grain Aphid 
(Aphis granaria Kirby) 
(Siphonophora granaria Buckton) 
(Macrosiphum granarium Phillips) 

First reported by Davis (12) as abundant in heads of wheat in early June in 
southern Indiana and again from many places in the state (18); three slides in 
Purdue collection, from Wayne and Knox Counties, June, July and November; 
T. F. Johnson found it feeding on rye in Boone County, June 4, 1971. 

illini Hottes & Frison 

J. J. Davis has one slide in Purdue collection, from Tippecanoe County on sunflower, 
September 19, 1915. 

liriodendri (Monell) Tulip Tree Aphid 
(Siphonophora liriodendri Monell) 

Reported by Morrison (28) in Marion County, late June and July; one report (21) 
from Boone County on tulip trees, dated July 27, 1939; and two collections by 
the author from Shelby County on tulip trees, June 1 and June 10, 1971. 

orthocarpi Davis 

One type specimen in Purdue collection by H. Morrison (28), April 16, 1909. 

pallens Hottes & Frison 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in May and June. 

pseudodirhodum Patch 

Five slide specimens in Purdue collection by C. R. Cleveland in Lake, St. Joseph 
and Tippecanoe Counties on Rosa sp., June and July, 1923 and 1924. 

pseudorosae Patch 

(Nectarophora pallida Oestlund) 

Collected by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton County on Rosa multiflora, June 9, 1971. 

rosae (Linn.) Rose Aphid 
(Apltis rosae Linn.) 
(Siphonophora rosae Buckton) 
(Nectarophora rosae Oestlund) 
(Macrosiphum rosae Essig) 

Reported since 1911 by Morrison (28); Davis (4, 10) reported as common and gen- 
erally destructive; the Purdue collection contains only one slide by C. R. Cleveland 
from Tippecanoe County on rose, June 14, 1923; one record from Marion County 
(21) on hybrid tea rose, August 23, 1939; T. F. Johnson made six collections in 
Hamilton County from Rosa multiflora June 1971. 

sanborni Gillette Chrysanthemum Aphid 
(Macrosiphum chrysanthemi Oestlund) 
(Siphonophora chrysanthemicolens Williams) 
(Macrosiphum sanborni Theobald) 
(Macrosiphoniella sanborni Theobald) 
Reported by Morrison from Marion County (28); Purdue collections contain three 



256 Indiana Academy of Science 



slides of specimens from Tippecanoe County on chrysanthemum in greenhouses; 

the author (21) reported three collections from DeKalb, Marion and Tippecanoe 

Counties on chrysanthemum; and one recent collection by T. F. Johnson from 

Marion County on chrysanthemum, June 8, 1971. 
solidaginis (Fab.) Goldenrod Aphid 

Two records exist in the Purdue collection from Steuben County on goldenrod and 

bull thistle, June 17, 1931. 
sonchellum (Monell) Red Lettuce Aphid 

(Siphonophora sonchella Monell) 

(Macrosiphum williamsi Gillette & Palmer) 

(Macrosiphum sonchellum Gillette & Palmer) 

One collection from wild lettuce in Starke County, September 3, 1970. 
tarapici (Kalt. ) 

Reported in Boone County (21) on dandelion, August 16, 1939. 
taraxaci (Kalt.) Dark Dandelion Aphid 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27), May through October. 
tiliae (Monell) 

(Siphonophora tiliae Monell) 

T. F. Johnson found 3 specimens on basswood in Hamilton and Marion Counties, 

May 17, July 4 and 29, 1971. 
venaefuscae Davis 

Three slides, including type specimens, by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County from 

Rumex crispis and Polygonum cristatum, September, October and November, 1911 

and 1912, one in Purdue collection. A recent collection by T. F. Johnson in Marion 

County was on a late specimen caught in flight, June 2, 1971. 
viticola Thomas 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Marion and Kosciusko Counties in mid July. 

Genus Masonaphis Passerini 
pepperi MacGillivary 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) from April through August. 

Genus Acyrthosiphum Mordivilko 
cryptobium (Hille Ris Lambers) 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in May and June. 
malvae (Mosley) 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in May and June. 
pisum (Harris) Pea Aphid 

(Aphis pisum Harris) 

(Aphis onobrychis Boyer de Fonscolombe) 

(Aphis pisi Kalt.) 

(Macrosiphum pisi Davis) 

(Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) 

(Macrosiphum pisi (Kalt.) 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Marion County; Davis (4, 7, 10, 12) in Adams, 

Elkhart, LaGrange, LaPorte, Fulton, Marshall, Grant and Greene Counties, on 

alfalfa, clover, and peas. Nearly all of 31 slides in Purdue collection were 

collected by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County from the clover family, April 

through November. 
porosum (Sanderson) Yellow Rose Aphid 

One record from Tippecanoe County (21) on climbing rose, June 5, 1938; collected 

by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton County on multi-flora rose, June 7, 1971. 

Genus Myzus Passerini 

cerasi (Fab.) Black Cherry Aphid 

(Aphis cerasi Fab.) 

(Myzus cerasi Gillette & Taylor) 

This important economic pest was first recorded by Morrison (28), later by 
Baldwin (1) on cherry, peach, plum and sweet cherry; also reported as abundant 
and destructive throughout central Indiana (4), northern Indiana and St. Joseph 
County (6) and in north central Indiana (8); recent collections from Tippecanoe 
County (21) in 1941 and Hamilton County by T. F. Johnson June 3 and 8, 1971, on 
black cherry and sour cherries. 

convolvuli (Kalt.) 

(Myzus solani (Kalt.) ) 

Taken April 30, 1939, on Boone County on Verbena sp. (21). 



Entomology 257 



elaeagni Del Guercio 

Two slides in Purdue collection by J. J. Davis from Tippecanoe County on 
Elaeagnus augustifolia, October 23, 1912 and November 10, 1911. 

essigi Gillette & Palmer 
(Myzus aquilegiae Essig) 

The Purdue collection contains two specimens collected on Aquilegia sp. in Tippe- 
canoe County by J. J. Davis, April 30, 1916 and May 20, 1916. 

lactucae (Schrank) 

(Aphis lactucae Schrank) 

The author collected one sample in Fulton County on lettuce, September 3, 1970. 

lycopersici (Clark) 

Two slides in Purdue collection by J. J. Davis from Tippecanoe County on roses, 
October 16, 1915 and November 2, 1915. 

monardae (Davis) Horsemint Aphid 
(Phorodon monardae Williams) 
( Rhopalosiphum monardae Williams) 
(Myzus monardae Williams) 
One collection by author from Wayne County on Water Ivy, February 11, 1972. 

persicae (Sulzer) Green Peach Aphid 
(Aphis persicae Sulzer) 
(Aphis dianthi Schrank) 
( Siphonophora achyr antes Monell) 
(Myzus malvae Oestlund) 

Reported since 1911 by Morrison (28) in Marion County, last of May to the first 
of June; reported as common on peach, cherry and plum by Baldwin (1); reported 
as a pest of tomato in central and northern Indiana by Davis (4, 12, 19); reported 
as a serious pest of tobacco late in the season and of potatoes by Osmun 
(29, 30, 31); 24 slides in Purdue collection by J. J. Davis and C. R. Cleveland from 
April through November; the author (21) made 15 collections in Boone, DeKalb 
and Tippecanoe Counties from apple, Bryophyllum sp., beets, cabbage, Cineraria 
sp., foxglove, green peppers, egg plant, radishes, rhubarb and elm, in 1938, 1939 
and 1940; recent collections by the author in greenhouses on Cineraria sp., Hybiscus 
sp. and snapdragons from Elkhart, Vigo and Wayne Counties, January through 
March 1971 and 1972, and others by T. F. Johnson in Boone, Hamilton and Marion 
Counties, May and June, 1972. 

plantagineus Passerini Plantain Aphid 

One collection by T. F. Johnson from Hamilton County on Plantago sp., July 14, 
1971. 

rosarum Buckton Rose Leaf Aphid 

One record by H. Morrison (28), from Marion County in the summer. 

solani (Kalt.) Foxglove Aphid 
(Aphis solani Kalt.) 
(Macrosiphum solani Theobald) 
(Myzus pseudosolani Theobald) 
(Myzus convolvuli (Kalt.) 

One collection by the author from Cass County on Gladiolus sp., September 1, 
1970. 

Genus Neomyzus van der Goot 

circumflexus (Buckton) Cresent Marked Lily Aphid 

(Siphonophora circumflexa Buckton) 

(Myzus vincae Gillette) 

(Macrosiphum circumflexum Theobald) 

(Myzus circulflexus Theobald) 

Three collections from Tippecanoe County on Anemone cylindria, Rudbeckia 
laciniata (in cold storage) and Polymiria canadensis on February 1, 1913; taken 
in Marion County by H. F. Dietz, on Vinca minor, January 24, 1916; found in Dela- 
ware County by author on lily, January 29, 1970. 

Genus Phorodon Passerini 

humuli (Schrank) Hop Aphid 
(Aphis humuli Schrank) 
(Phorodon humuli Riley) 
Reported by Morrison (28) from Marion County in July on hops. 



258 Indiana Academy of Science 



Genus Rhopalosiphonins Baker 
staphyleae (Koch) 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in June. 

Subfamily Eriosomatinae Kirkaldy 
Tribe Eriosomatini Baker 
Genus Colopha Monell 
graminis (Monell) 

(Tetraneura graminis Monell) 

(Rhizobius spicatus Hart) 

( Colopha ulmicola ( Fitch ) ) 

One slide in the Purdue collection, by J. J. Davis from Spartina michauxiana, 

September 8, 1911; some authors consider this species as a dimorphic form of 

Colopha ulmicola ( Fitch ) . 
ulmicola (Fitch) Elm Cockscombgall Aphid 

(Byrsocrypta ulmicola Fitch) 

(Tetraneura graminis Monell) 

(Colopha graminis Hottes & Frison) 

(Colopha ulmicola Baker) 

Earliest report by Morrison (28) from all parts of state; Baldwin (1) reported a 

cockscomb-like structure on upper surfaces of elm leaves; J. J. Davis reported it 

as abundant (4, 9, 11, 12, 14) from many parts of the state. 
ulmisacculi (Patch) 

(Tetraneura ulmisacculi Patch) 

(Tetraneura ulmifoliae Baker) 

Three collections by T. F. Johnson, two in Hamilton County on the roots of grass, 

in conjunction with ants of an unidentified species, April 25, 1971; and one in Boone 

County from a nest of Lasius neoniger Emery, May 1, 1971. 

Genus Eriosoma (Leach) 

americanum (Riley) Woolly Elm Aphid 
(Schizoneura americana Riley) 
(Eriosoma americanum Patch) 

Reported by H. Morrison (28) and Baldwin (1) as wrinkling and rolling leaves 
of American Elm; also reported by Davis (12) during June; An early collection 
by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County, June 5, 1912, is in Purdue collection. 

crataegi (Oestlund) Woolly Crataegus Aphid 
(Schizoneura crataegi Oestlund) 

Reported by Morrison (28) in Marion County; and by the author in Johnson County, 
July, 1970, and Marion County on hawthorn, September 9, 1971. 

lanigerum (Hausmann) Woolly Apple Aphid 
(on apple) 

(Aphis lanigera Hausmann) 
(Schizoneura lanigera Gillette) 
(Eriosoma lanigerum Becker) 
(on elm) 

(Schizoneura americana Riley) 
(Schizoneura lanigera Patch) 
(Eriosoma lanigerum Gillette & Palmer) 
(Eriosoma rosetti Gillette) 
(Eriosoma crataegi (Oestlund)) 

This serious economic pest was first reported by Morrison (28) as abundant in the 
state; reported by Baldwin (1) on roots of apple; by Davis (4, 6, 8, 9) and Osmun 
(34, 35, 36, 37); two slides in Purdue collection, by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe 
County on elm, May 17, 1913; and by G. E. Gould in Tippecanoe in a greenhouse, 
April 22, 1936; the author collected one series (21) in Hendricks County on 
American Elm, July 29, 1938; recent collections include one by the author in 
Grant County on Mt. Ash, July 22, 1970; two collections by T. F. Johnson, in 
Hamilton County, one feeding on American Elm, July 13, 1971, the other in a pile 
of rotting fence posts in galleries of unidentified ants; and a Boone County 
record was also found by T. F. Johnson in a rotten stump with ants (Lasius 
minutus Emery). 

Genus Gobaishia Matsumura 

ulmifusus (Walsh & Riley) Red Elm Gall Aphid 



Entomology 259 



(Pemphigus ulmi-fusus Walsh & Riley) 

(Gobaishia ulmi-fusus Hottes & Frison) 

First recorded by Morrison (28) in Marion County, June and July; Baldwin (1) 

reported the solitary spindle-shaped galls on upper surfaces of red elm leaves; 

Three slides by J. J. Davis in the Purdue collection from Tippecanoe County on 

elm, June 1911 and 1912. 

Tribe Pemphigini Baker 

Genus Mordivilkoja Del Guercio 

vagabunda (Walsh) Poplar Vagabond Aphid 

(Byrsocrypta vagabunda Walsh) 

(Pemphigus vagabunda Walsh) 

(Pemphigus oestlundi Cockerell) 

(Mordivilkoja vagabunda Gillette) 

Reported by Morrison (28) in Marion County on Carolina poplar; reported by 

Baldwin (1) as causing a folded, convoluted mass of poplar foliage; the Purdue 

collection contains one slide by D. G. Tower in Tippecanoe County on poplar, July 

1, 1915. 

Genus Geoica Hart 

radiciola (Essig) Bean Root Aphid 

(Pemphigus radiciola Essig) 

(Trifidaphis radicieola (Essig) ) 

(Geocia radiciola (Essig)) 

Two collections from Jasper and Boone Counties on Fesque sp. 
squamosa Hart 

(Pemphigus utricularius Passerini) 

(Geoica utricularia Mordivilko) 

(Geoica utricularia (Passerini) ) 

(Geoica squamosa Hart) 

Collected by Frank T. Chapasis in Tipton County on barley, no date given; another 

collection by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton County on blue grass, May 23, 1971. 

Genus N eoprociphilus Patch 
aceris (Monell) 

(Pemphigus aceris Monell) 

Specimens in Purdue collections by F. N. Wallace in Delaware County on Norway 

maple June 17, 1921. 
attenuatus (Osborn & Sirrine) Smilax Aphid 

(Pemphigus attenuatus Osborn & Sirrine) 

Three collections from Austrian pine by T. F. Johnson, Marion County, May 1972. 

Genus Pemphigus Hartig 
lactucae Fitch 

(Pemphigus brevicornis (Hart) ) 

One collection by T. F. Johnson in Hamilton County, feeding on Solidago sp., May 

23, 1971. 
nortonii Maxson 

Collected in Yellow Pan Trap Survey (27) in June and July. 
populitransversus Riley Poplar Petiolgall Aphid 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Marion County, July 8, 1911, and by C. H. 

Baldwin (1) on cottonwood; one slide in the Purdue collection by J. J. Davis in 

Tippecanoe County on Populus sp., October 11, 1912; one collection from Boone 

County (21) on Delphinium sp., September 3, 1939. 
populivenae Fitch Sugarbeet Root Aphid 

(Pemphigus populivenae Fitch) 

One slide in Purdue collection by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County on Poplar sp., 

July 8, 1914. 
tartareus Hottes & Frison 

One slide in Purdue collection by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County on the roots of 

Bidens sp., October 3, 1913. 

Genus Prociphilus Koch 

erigeronensis (Thomas) White Aster Root Aphis 
(Tychea erigeronensis Thomas) 
(Trama erigeronensis Forbes & Hart) 



260 Indiana Academy of Science 



(Forda flavula Rohwer) 
(Prociphilus erigeronensis Patch) 

Reported by Davis (3 thru 8) as infesting the roots of asters, sweet peas, 
zinnia, sweet sultans, dandelion, ragweed, Spanish needle, cocklebur, lettuce, 
salsify, bean and dahlia, likely throughout the state. Three slides in Purdue collec- 
tion; one from Marshall County on Polygonum roots, April 26, 1911; one by 
J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County, September 6, 1911; the third in Delaware 
County on aster roots, October 10, 1923; most recent records by T. F. Johnson in 
Boone County on roots of dandelion, aster and in ant nests of species 
Acanthomyops claviger (Roger) and Lasins neoniger Emery. 

fraxinifolii (Riley) Leaf curl Ash Aphid 
(Pemphigus fraxinifolii Riley) 
(Prociphilus fraxinifolii Jackson) 

Reported by Morrison (28); also by the author in Kosciusko and Marion Counties 
from ash, June 19 and 25, 1970. 

imbricator (Fitch) Beech Blight Aphid 
(Eriosoma imbricator Fitch) 

Reported by Morrison (28) from Elkhart County; and by the author from Marion 
County feeding on beech branches, September 18, 1972. 

tessellatus (Fitch) Woolly Alder Aphid 
(Eriosoma tessellata Fitch) 

One slide in Purdue collection, taken in Madison County on soft maple, June 28, 
1916. 

venafuscus (Patch) Smokey-winged Ash Aphid 
(Pemphigus venafuscus Patch) 
(Prociphilus venafuscus Patch) 

Collected by T. F. Johnson in Boone County, on ash in conjunction with a nest of 
Lasius umbratus (Nylander) ants, May 14, 1971; another collection made in 
Hamilton County, May 23, 1971. 

Tribe Fordini Baker 
Genus Forda Heyden 

formicaria Heyden Grain Root Aphid 
(Forda formicaria Heyden) 
(Forda occidentalis Hart) 

All specimens collected by T. F. Johnson, five in Hamilton County from dandelion 
and grasses and one in Boone County from an ant nest (Lasius (Lasius) alienus 
(Foerester) ). 

occidentalis Hart 

(Forda formicaria Heyden) 

Seven slides in Purdue collection, two by Davis in 1911 on roots of blue grass and 
Lymus sp., both from Tippecanoe County; another by Davis in 1912 in Elkhart 
County from wheat roots; H. Fox collected one from Tippecanoe County in 1912 
on Elymus virginicus; another from Tippecanoe County on rye, May 2, 1914; and 
by Troop in Elkhart County on wheat roots, November 20, 1914. 

olivacea Rohwer 

Six collections by T. F. Johnson in both Boone and Hamilton Counties on Italian 
rye and dandelion roots, March through August; one collection by the 
author in Marion County on dandelion roots in an ant nest, March 19, 1972. 

Genus Trifidaphis Del Guercio 
phaseoli (Passerini) 

(Tychea phaseoli Passerini) 

(Tullgrenia phaseoli van der Goot) 

(Trifidaphis phaseoli Theobald) 

All collections by Johnson in Boone County from Wild lettuce, beans and from an 

ant's nest, Lasius neoniger Emery, May 1, 1971. 

Subfamily Hormaphinae Gillette & Palmer 
Tribe Cerataphini Gillette & Palmer 
Genus Cerataphis Lichtenstein 

lataniae (Boisduval) Latania Aphid 
(Coccus lataniae Boisduval) 
(Cerataphis lataniae Gillette & Palmer) 
One slide in Purdue collection from Marion County on palm. 



Entomology 261 



Tribe Hormaphini Gillette & Palmer 
Genus Hormaphis Osten Sacken 

hamamelidis Fitch Witch-hazel Aphid 
(Brysocrypta iiamamelidis Fitch) 
One collection reported by Morrison (28). 
Genus Hamamelistes Shimer 
spinosus Shimer 

Two collections, one by the author in Kosciusko County on birch, June 25, 1970; 
another by R. B. Cummings in Johnson County on witch-hazel, September 8, 1972. 
Misc. Genera 
Genus Melanoxantherium 
saliet Harr. 

Reported in 1926 by J. J. Davis (5) as common every year. 

Genus Phenacaspis 
spiricola D & M 

The only record is the cotype specimen in Purdue collection, by H. Morrison and 
H. R. Dietz in Knox County on honey locust, August 31, 1915. 
Genus Tinocallis 
ulmifoliae (Monell) 

Davis (6) gives only record. 
Genus Trioza 
maura Patch 

Single slide in Purdue collection, by J. J. Davis in Tippecanoe County on Salix sp., 
November 23, 1918. 



Literature Cited 

1. Baldwin, C. H. 1912. Sixth Annual Report of State Entomologist of Indiana. 
224 p. 

2. Blickenstaff, C. C. 1970. Common name of insects. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 
36 p. 

3. Cleveland, M. L., and D. W. Hamilton. 1959. The insect fauna of apple trees in 
Southern Indiana for 1956 and 1957. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 68:207. 

4. Davis, J. J. 1925. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 35:303-319. 

5. 1926. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 36:293-308. 

6. 1927. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 37:445-460. 

7. 1928. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 38:299-314. 

8. 1929. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 39:291-303. 

9. 1930. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 40:307-320. 

10. 1932. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 42:213-225. 

11. . 1933. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 43:195-201. 

12. . 1934. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 44:198-206. 

13. .. 1935. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 45:257-268. 

14. 1936. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 46:230-239. 

15. 1946. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Adad. Sci. 56:147-153. 

16. 1952. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 62:176-180. 

17. 1953. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 63:152-156. 



262 Indiana Academy of Science 

18. 1954. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 64:121-126. 

19. 1955. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 65:107-110. 

20. 1956. Insect pests of the year. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 66:104-107. 

21. Knapp, V. R. 1941. A preliminary study of the Aphididae of Indiana. Unpublished 
B.S. Thesis, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 88 p. 

22. Everly, Ray T. 1966. Review of factors affecting the abundance of the Corn Leaf 
Aphid. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 76:260. 

23. Gould, George E. 1943. Insect pests of cucurbit crops in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci. 53:170. 

24. Hagey, Geo. L. 1925. A synopsis of the genus Macrosiphum (Family Aphididae) of 
the United States. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Purdue University, Lafayette, 
Ind. 465 p. 

25. Hottes, F. C, and T. Frison. 1931. The plant Lice, or Aphididae of Illinois. 
Natur. Hist. Survy. Bull. Vol. XIX, Art. III. 447 p. 

26. Marshall, G. Edw. 1957. Strawberry virus and insect vectors. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 66:103. 

27. Medler, J. T., and A. K. Ghosh. 1969. Keys to species of alate aphids 
collected by suction, wind, and yellow-pan water traps in the North-Central 
States, Oklahoma and Texas. Res. Div., Coll. Agr. and Life Sci., Univ. Wise. Cen. Reg. 
Publ. No. 192. Res. Bull. 277. 99 p. 

28. Morrison, H. 1911-1912. Fifth annual report of the State Entomologist of Indiana. 
57 p. 

29. Osmun, J. V. 1957. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana 
in 1956. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 67:151. 

30. 1958. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana in 

1957. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 68:58. 

31. 1959. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana in 

1958. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 69:169. 

32. 1960. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana in 

1959. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 70:146. 

33. 1961. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana in 

1960. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 71:131. 

34. 1962. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana in 

1961. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 72:143. 

35. 1963. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana in 

1962. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 73:147. 

36. 1965. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana in 

1964. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 75:119. 

37. 1966. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana in 

1965. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 76:293. 

38. Palmer, Miriama. 1952. Aphids of the Rocky Mountain region. The Thomas Say 
Foundation Vol. 5. Denver, Col. 452 p. 

39. Wallace, F. N. 1922. Annual report of Division of Entomology, Indiana Dep. 
Natur. Resources, Indianapolis. 10 p. 

40. 1924. Annual report of Division of Entomology, Indiana Dep. Natur. 

Resources, Indianapolis. 2 p. 



Entomology 263 



41. 1926. Annual report of Division of Entomology, Indiana Dep. Natur. 

Resources, Indianapolis. 5 p. 

42. 1927. Annual report of Division of Entomology, Indiana Dep. Natur. 

Resources, Indianapolis. 8 p. 

43. 1928. Annual report of Division of Entomology, Indiana Dep. Natur. 

Resources, Indianapolis. 1 p. 

44. 1931. Report on glad bulbs in storage. Annual report of Division of 

Entomology, Indiana Dep. Natur. Resources, Indianapolis. 35 p. 



GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY 

Chairman : Richard L. Powell, Department of Geosciences, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Arthur Mirsky, Department of Geology, 

Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, 

was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

Origins of Wedge-like Soil Structures: Marion County, Indiana. J. V. 

Gardner, Department of Geography and Geology, Indiana State Uni- 
versity, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Outcrops of wedge-like soil 

structures, which may be confused with features originating in frost 
climates, were noted in Marion County, Indiana. These features are soil 
tongues (pendants) which penetrate downward into calcareous outwash. 
They are primarily a product of local solutioning unrelated to Pleisto- 
cene periglacial activity. 

An Exposure of Pre-Wisconsinan Drift near Fort Wayne, Indiana 1 . 

M. C. Moore and N. K. Bleuer, Indiana Geological Survey, Blooming- 
ton, Indiana 47401. The oldest unconsolidated materials yet identified 

in northern Indiana are exposed in the May Stone and Sand, Inc., Ard- 
more Road quarry (NE %, Sec. 29, T 30 N, R 12 E) at Fort Wayne. 
There, 5 feet of cobbly gravel are overlain by 4 feet of fine- to 
medium-grained, loamy sand which, when moist, is a gray to olive (5 
Y hue) color. These units are further distinguished by their high content 
of angular chert and pebbles of other resistant lithologies and by their 
lack of shale or carbonate material (except in a rubble layer imme- 
diately above the limestone bedrock of Devonian age.) Some constituents 
of the heavy mineral suite from these sands and gravels have thick iron- 
oxide coatings, and the suite appears to be depleted in hornblende by 
an amount similar to that found in some Sangamonian soils. The high 
garnet-to-epidote ratio confirms an eastern or northeastern source for 
the allochthonous constituents. The content of mixed-layered clay 
minerals is higher in the old drift than it is in the overyling till. 

This deposit of weathered, unconsolidated materials lies in a small 
upland bedrock valley and is preserved beneath either calcareous out- 
wash or wood and snail-bearing till of the Trafalgar Formation (Wis- 
consinan, Tazewellian Substage). Because of its position directly above 
bedrock and beneath the otherwise oldest material in the area, because 
of its extremely weathered character, and because its composition sug- 
gests incorporation of bedrock residuum, we conclude that the deposit 
is pre-Wisconsinan in age. 



Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Indiana Geological Survey. 



265 



266 Indiana Academy of Science 

Major Constituents of Ash from Five Indiana Coals. 1 Louis V. Miller 
and Carrie F. Foley, Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 

47401. Three channel coal samples from each of five major Indiana 

coal seams were collected, prepared, and ashed according to ASTM des- 
ignation D 271-68 and D 2234-68. The lithium metaborate fusion method 
was chosen for the dissolution of the ash. Iron, silicon, aluminum, 
calcium, and magnesium were determined by atomic absorption spec- 
trophotometry whereas sodium and potassium were determined by flame 
emission spectrophotometry. After calculation of the elements to the 
oxide form, the data indicate that as much as 95 per cent of the weight 
of the ash was composed of silica, alumina, and iron oxide. On the basis 
of the few number of samples analyzed, the various coal seams could 
not be identified by any major ash constituent. Totals for some of the 
samples were too high, which indicated a systematic error. More work 
will be needed to determine the suitability of the atomic absorption- 
lithium metaborate fusion method of analysis for coal ash. 



1 Published with permission of the State Geologist, Indiana Geological Survey. 

The Stratigraphy of the Clays and Shales of Spencer County, 
Indiana 1 . Michael C. Carpenter and George S. Austin, Indiana 

Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. The Pennsylvanian 

Mansfield, Brazil, and Staunton Formations crop out in eastern and 
central Spencer County, Indiana, and dip westerly about 25 feet per 
mile. In the western part of the county they lie beneath younger 
Pennsylvanian formations and an overlying deep residual cover. The 
rocks within these older Pennsylvanian formations consist of shales, 
siltstones, mudstones, underclays, coals, sandstones, and limestones. 
The thicker coals, their subjacent underclays, and the marine lime- 
stones are the most reliable stratigraphic markers for correlation on 
a countywide basis. Most of the shale, mudstone, and sandstone beds, 
however, are discontinuous and can only be traced laterally from 
available surface exposures with great difficulty. About four drill holes 
per mile would be necessary to correlate these detrital rocks with any 
degree of certainty. 

The shales overlying the Perth Limestone Member and underlying 
the underclay of the Buffaloville Coal Member and the Mariah Hill and 
St. Meinrad Coal Beds are the most laterally persistent of the 
argillaceous non-underclay units in the older Pennsylvanian formations. 
In addition, an underclay and thick shale that occur below a thin 
coalbed, roughly 35 feet below the top of the Buffaloville Coal 
Member and at the approximate stratigraphic position of the Upper 
Block Coal Member, can be traced for approximately 5 miles. 



1 Published with permission of the State Geologist, Indiana Geological Survey. 

Drainage Patterns and Stream Classification in a Neotectonic Region. 

Neil V. Weber, Department of Earth Sciences, Indiana University at 

South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46615. Drainage patterns have long 

been used by geomorphologists in their attempts to interpret the 



Geography and Geology 267 

geological structure and the nature of underlying strata. Most previous 
work on the relation between drainage patterns, geologic structure, and 
bedrock lithology pertains to regions which have been quiescent during 
recent geologic history (i.e., regions where weathering and erosion have 
etched out the resultant landforms). 

This report focuses on a region that has been all but quiescent in 
recent geologic time. The southern portion of the Colorado Plateau (San 
Francisco Plateau, Arizona) was a highly active volcanic and tectonic 
region for the past several million years. Volcanic activity has been dated 
as recently as 1065 A.D. (Sunset Crater eruption). The landforms of this 
region are believed to be in their initial stage of development, with much 
of the drainage original upon the surface. 

Specific conclusions were as follows : 

1) The streams within the study area could have developed in a 
number of ways; only through detailed analysis of individual 
streams and stream segments (e.g., their slope and valley pro- 
file characteristics, their gradients, and their relative associa- 
tion with bedrocks outcrops and/or valley alluvium) can origins 
be defined. 

2) Drainage pattern terminology should not be taken to infer the 
genetic history of streams and stream segments. 

3) The problems encountered in the study of the association among 
diastrophism, volcanism, and drainage-line development in neo- 
tectonic areas are different from those of similar associations 
in areas which have been structurally inactive and subjected to 
weathering and erosion over extended periods of geologic time. 

The Influence of Cap Rock on the Development of Slopes. Diane H. 
Burner, Department of Geography and Geology, Indiana State Uni- 
versity, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. This study was an investigation 

of the possible influence of sandstone caprock on the development of 
slopes on two different sequences of flat-lying carbonate strata in south- 
western Kentucky. 

Four slope categories were studied: sandstone-capped Paint Creek 
limestone slopes; uncapped Paint Creek limestone slopes; sandstone- 
capped Renault limestone slopes; and uncapped Renault limestone 
slopes. One hundred randomly selected slopes were measured in each 
slope category. The mean and maximum slope values were established 
for each slope measured. Analysis of Variance and the F test were used 
to determine whether mean slopes in each sandstone-capped limestone 
slope category were significantly different from the mean slopes in the 
corresponding uncapped limestone slope category. The F test was also 
used to determine whether the maximum slopes in each sandstone- 
capped limestone slope category were significantly different from the 
maximum slopes in the corresponding uncapped carbonate slope 
category. 

Analysis of Variance revealed that the mean and maximum 
sandstone-capped carbonate slopes were, respectively, significantly 
greater than the mean and maximum uncapped limestone slopes. The 



268 Indiana Academy of Science 

analysis also showed that the magnitude of the mean and 
maximum slopes developed on sandstone-capped limestones was sig- 
nificantly influenced by the thickness and lithologic characteristics of 
the caprock. Finally, the test results suggested that the magnitude of 
the mean and maximum slopes developed on uncapped limestone was 
at least partly determined by the lithologic characteristic of the 
carbonate sequence. 

A Study of the Floras in the Alleghenian and Conemaughian Series in 
Sullivan County, Indiana. Raymond N. Pheifer and David L. 
Dilcher, Department of Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington 
47401. Compressed remains of plants preserved in the shales over- 
lying Indiana Coal No. 5, in the Dugger Formation, and No. 7, in the 
Shelburn Formation were collected from the Hawthorn and Dugger pits 
of the Peabody Coal Company. In the Hawthorn pit shale above both 
Coals No. 5 and No. 7 were sampled and in the Dugger pit fossils were 
collected only above the No. 7 Coal. Plant fossils were abundant and most 
frequently collected from the shale units 20-25 feet above the No. 5 coal 
and 0-3 feet above the No. 7 Coal. Several hundred specimens were 
collected to provide a sufficient sample to establish both the 
taxonomic affinities and relative abundance of the plant fossils at each 
locality. Sigillaria cumulate/, Weiss, Linopteris muensteri Potonie, and 
Neuropteris rarinervis Bunbury are unique to the shale above Coal No. 
5. Sigillaria cumulata has not been described previously from the Illi- 
nois coal basin. Lycopods were common at all the localities. Above Coal 
No. 5 the Neuropterid ferns and Cordaites were more abundant than 
above Coal No. 7 and only a few Calamitean remains were found. Dis- 
persed seeds of seed ferns were common above Coal No. 5. In a compari- 
son of the two localities for No. 7 Coal it was noticed that Pecopterid 
and Sphenopterid fern foliage are more common at the Dugger pit while 
Mariopterid and Alethopterid seed fern foliage are more common at 
the Hawthorn pit. Neuropterids are conspicuously absent above the No. 
7 Coal at the Dugger pit. As a result of this preliminary work the fossil 
plants common to the shales above Indiana Coals No. 5 and 7 are 
beginning to be characterized and the lateral variation of these fossils 
above Coal No. 7 understood. 



NOTE 

Symbolization and Computer Mapping. William D. Brooks, Depart- 
ment of Geography and Geology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

Indiana 47809. Premap decision making regarding the selection of 

screen tones and patterns is a difficult problem. The influence or per- 
ception of screen tones and patterns for final map appearance is not yet 
well enough understood to make objective decisions regarding line screen 
to increase per cent area inked. Choice of line screen to increase per cent 
area inked is done to enable the cartographer to infer increasing 
magnitude of data. Lighter tonal areas are generally associated with 
lesser magnitudes while darker tonal areas are associated with greater 
magnitudes. 



Geography and Geology 269 

The purpose of this research was to review the effectiveness of 
printer characters to create perceptible tonal changes. Printer characters 
used for area symbolization must function by classifying area and also 
to infer data ranking. 

Computer maps produced by character printers compound the decision 
making for a number of reasons: 1) it is not possible to order objectively 
preferred printer characters according to per cent area inked; 2) if pre- 
ferred characters are ordered subjectively, a problem arises due to 
character shape characteristics; 3) print characters do not fill the 
1/10-inch by 1/6-inch rectangle allowed each print symbol (Because of 
this, excessive white background allows "noise" in the perceptors map 
image) ; and 4) a mechanical problem which arises because symbols are 
not overprinted in a consistent manner. An O and an asterisk do not 
always overprint correctly allowing an apparent reduction in per cent 
area inked. 

In summary, incipient research regarding the effectiveness of 
printer characters to classify area and infer data ranking has isolated 
items needing controlled, rigorous research design. The most important 
is to rank objectively each individual preferred printer character and 
selected overprint assignments. I am presently engaged in assessing per 
cent area inked for each character. Further research is needed on all 
aspects of symbolization for computer maps. Increases in available 
machine-readable data and shortages of fully-trained personnel for 
manual production will result in an increase in the use of computer maps 
acceptable as a final product. 



A Macro and Meso Scale Analysis of 
Sunshine Climates in Central Indiana 

T. Stevens 1 

Department of Geography and Geology 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstract 

The study analyzed variation in the amount of solar radiation received in and near 
the cities of Indianapolis and Terre Haute, Indiana. Four 7-day recording Pyrheliometers 
were used to test the hypothesis that a high degree of correlation exists between the sun- 
shine climates of Indianapolis and Terre Haute, Indiana. The area under the ink tracings 
on the weekly instrument charts was cut and weighed on an analytical balance. The 
resultant weights for each day's chart were recorded and were correlated with each other. 
The resultant correlation Matrix showed that for these four locations, during the 90-day 
test period, there was a high degree of correlation between all of the paired variables. 

Introduction 

The maximum amount of sunshine that can be recorded at a given 
location on a given day is determined by the latitude of the site and the 
date. In mid-latitudes, the actual number of hours of sunshine received 
and the total amount of radiation received is usually somewhat less than 
the maximum clear day amount available. In addition, because of various 
meteorological conditions, several stations situated along the same 
parallel of latitude can record different amounts of solar radiation on 
any given day or series of days. These differences are attributable to 
variations in the amount of cloud cover, water vapor, dust, and other 
solid and gaseous particulate matter present in the atmosphere (1). 

Incoming solar radiation is measured and recorded daily by the 
National Weather Service at 104 locations throughout the continental 
United States (3). In Indiana it is recorded only at the Weir Cook 
International Airport, located southwest of Indianapolis. Indiana 
scientists needing solar radiation information must either use the data 
recorded at Indianapolis and assume that it is similar to the sunshine 
climate at their location or collect data themselves and relate them with 
the officially recorded data. 

This study compared the solar radiation climates of Indianapolis 
and Terre Haute, Indiana, a city located some 70 miles west by south- 
west of Weir Cook Airport (the geographic coordinants are 39° 
44'N, 86°16'W, and 39°28'N, 86°24'W, respectively). 



1 Present address: Department of Geography, State University College, Brockport, 
N.Y. 14420. 



270 



Geography and Geology 271 



Method 



It was hypothesized that the solar radiation climates of Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana, and Terre Haute, Indiana, are similar. Simple correla- 
tion techniques and Students' "t" test were used to test this hypothesis. 
To this end, 7-day recording pyrheliometers (Belfort Instrument Com- 
pany) were installed at the following locations : 

1) Near the sensor for the integrating Eppley pyranometer, used 
by the National Weather Service at the Weir Cook Airport, Indianapolis, 
Indiana; 

2) Four miles east of the Indiana State University Science Build- 
ing, Terre Haute, Indiana; 

3) Three miles west of the Indiana State University campus 
(sites 2 and 3 are 1/10 of the distance separating the two main 
recorders) ; 

4) Seven miles south of the Weir Cook Airport, in the center of 
the Greenhouse Tomato Producing District of that city. 

All four of the instruments were operated and were calibrated with the 
National Weather Service instrument before and after the recording 
period and were found to be accurate to within 0.1 cal/cm 2 min or 0.1 
Langley. All four recorders were located so that the sensors were not 
shaded at any time from sunrise to sunset. The study encompassed a 
12-week period (February 1 through April 30, 1971). The total amount 
of radiation received at each site was represented by the area under 
the curve on the recording graph paper. 

The weekly charts were projected (enlarged) onto high-quality, 
8 1/2" x 11" bond paper; and the area under each curve was 
traced and cut out with a razor blade. Curves for clear days and overcast 
days were easily traced. Curves for partially cloudy days were almost 
impossible to trace and were, therefore, excluded from this analysis. 
Fourteen "cut-outs" representing the total amount of solar radiation 
received on seven clear days and on seven overcast days were then 
weighed on a direct-reading analytical balance. 

Results 

The weight of each day's cut-out for each location is shown in Table 
1. The simple correlation coefficients for each pair of variables, for clear 
days and for overcast days, are shown in Matrix format in Table 2. The 
Students' "t" test indicates that all coefficients were significant at the 
0.05 level on overcast days and at least at the .001 level on clear days. 



272 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. Areal variation in solar radiation receipts during clear and cloudy days. 





Date 




Radiation Equivalent 


(fie) 




Radiation 1 






Indianapolis 


Terre Haute 
East West 


Sky 


Month 


Airport 


South 


Cover 


Feb. 


7 


23 


15 


20 




20 


106 


Cloudy 




12 


9 


6 


7 




6 


41 


Cloudy 




20 


11 


6 


7 




11 


46 


Cloudy 




26 


18 


11 


11 




12 


92 


Cloudy 




27 


63 


64 


59 




59 


417 


Clear 




28 


67 


63 


62 




67 


442 


Clear 


Mar. 


6 


12 


10 


11 




11 


45 


Cloudy 




19 


13 


9 


7 




8 


48 


Cloudy 


Apr. 


3 


87 


87 


84 




86 


595 


Clear 




5 


22 


25 


33 




34 


139 


Cloudy 




7 


87 


85 


82 




83 


572 


Clear 




8 


87 


92 


88 




88 


595 


Clear 




10 


82 


81 


87 




79 


592 


Clear 




11 


91 


90 


86 




84 


613 


Clear 



2 Radiation totals are in Langleys as measured and recorded by the integrating Eppely 
pyranometer. These data were obtained from the daily log book maintained by the National 
Weather Service at the Weir Cook Airport (2). 



Table 2. Cloudy and clear day correlation matrix. 





Indianapolis 


Terre Haute 






Airport 


South 


East 


West 


Langleys 


Airport 


1.00000 


0.83576 


0.82334 


0.81333 


0.94130 




(1.00000 1 ) 


(0.97374) 


(0.95162) 


(0.96826) 


(0.97688) 


South 




1.00000 


0.98402 


0.97003 


0.92720 






(1.00000) 


(0.95310) 


(0.96309) 


(0.95937) 


Terre Haute 






1.00000 


0.98671 


0.92221 








(1.00000) 


(0.94755) 


(0.95587) 


West Terre Haute 








1.00000 
(1.00000) 


0.91747 
(0.95587) 


Langleys 










1.00000 
(1.00000) 



l Data for clear days is in parenthesis below. 



Discussion 



There was a high degree of correlation between all paired variables 
and especially between the weight of the paper representing the amount 
of radiation recorded at the airport by the mechanical pyrheliometer 
and the total amount of radiation (in Langleys), as recorded by the 
National Weather Service's source instrument. There was little variation 
between any of the recorded values, although the derived correlation 
coefficients for the clear days were somewhat larger in value than were 
the derived coefficients for cloudy days. A possible cause for this varia- 
tion exists in the macro and meso scale areal variation in the amount 



Geography and Geology 273 

of radiation received on any cloudy day due to variable cloud thickness 
and density at any given time at any two places. On clear days and on 
overcast days the stated hypothesis is true. On overcast days, however, 
the amount of variation at the macro scale was sometimes greater than 
the variation at the meso scale. 



Literature Cited 

1. Moon, Parry. 1940. Proposed standard solar-radiation curves for engineering use. 
Franklin Inst. 230:483-617. 

2. National Weather Service. 1971. Station Log Book, Indianapolis, Indiana, February, 
March, April. 365 p. 

3. U. S. Dep. Com. 1968. Climatic Atlas of the United States, U.S. Gov. Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C. 87 p. 



Strontium and Other Notable Chemical Constituents 
of Well-Water of Allen County, Indiana 1 

C. F. Foley, N. K. Bleuer, R. K. Leininger 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

and 

W. C. Herring 

Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Abstract 

Fourteen waters from aquifers in glacial deposits and 31 samples from aquifers in 
bedrock were obtained for a water quality study of Allen County, Indiana. 

Analysis of the waters from aquifers in glacial deposits revealed relatively high con- 
centrations of iron, strontium and sulfate. The iron is probably derived from pyrite in 
particles of Antrim Shale in the glacial deposits. The calcium-magnesium ratio decreases 
generally from north to south and may reflect southward increasing dolomite content of 
the glacial deposits. 

Bedrock waters contain considerably less iron than waters from aquifers in glacial 
deposits, but are generally higher in strontium and sulfate. Strontium, sulfate, total 
solids, bicarbonate alkalinity, hardness and the strontium atom/1000 calcium atoms ratio 
increase from northwest to southeast; areal distributions of these constituents reflect 
relationships with bedrock stratigraphy and groundwater flow. 

Introduction 

During the preparation of a report on the environmental geology 
of Allen County, located in northeastern Indiana, N. K. Bleuer and W. 
C. Herring sampled well waters for determination of water quality to 
provide data for use in county planning. The wells were chosen to yield 
as much information as possible with a limited number of samples. The 
logs of these and many other water wells are available in the files of 
the Division of Water, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 
Chemical analysis of the samples revealed that the groundwaters of 
Allen County are sufficiently unusual to warrant attention. The areal 
distribution of some constituents, in particular sulfate and strontium, 
suggests that analyses of well waters can be useful in stratigraphic 
studies. 

Geology 

Most of the land surface in Allen County consists of the rolling 
uplands of the Fort Wayne and Wabash Moraines. In the east-central 
part of the county lies the ancient low flat lakebed of glacial Lake 
Maumee, with its apex centered on the city of Fort Wayne. The 
Maumee River flows down the axis of this lakebed. The glacial deposits 
range in thickness from 40 to over 300 feet. The surficial geology has 
been mapped by Johnson and Keller (6), and the subsurface glacial 
stratigraphy, composed of the clayey till of the Lagro Formation above 



Published with permission of the State Geologist, Indiana Geological Survey. 

274 



Geography and Geology 



275 



and the sandy tills of the Trafalgar Formation below, has been de- 
scribed by Bleuer and Moore (2). 

Most of the county (Fig. 1) is underlain by Devonian carbonate 
rocks of the Traverse and Detroit River Formations; the northeast 
corner of the county is underlain by the Antrim Shale, and the very 
southern part is underlain by the Wabash and Salina. Formations of 
Silurian age. The lithologies of the Devonian rocks include black shale, 
fossiliferous and micritic limestones, laminated dolomite, carbonate 
collapse-breccias, and possibly evaporites. The lithologies of the Silurian 
rocks include massive, dense, argillaceous to silty dolomite and pure, 
vuggy, skeletal dolomite of the Wabash Formation and dense laminated 
dolomite to pure vuggy dolomite of the Saline Formation. The strati- 
graphic relationships of these units are discussed by Pinsak and 
Shaver (9) and by E. J. Doheny, J. B. Droste and R. H. Shaver 
(unpublished data). Within about 100 miles, downdip to the north, the 
Salina Formation includes significant evaporite deposits. 



R.IIE. 



R. 12 E 



R. 13 E. 



R.I4E. R.I5E. 




5 Miles 



Figure 1. Bedrock geology of Allen County, Indiana, with locations of water samples. 
(Dots represent bedrock aquifers and diamonds represent aquifers in glacial deposits.) 



Groundwater flow in the bedrock aquifer is toward the 
Maumee River from both the north and the south. The piezometric sur- 
face for wells completed in the confined (but leaky) bedrock aquifer 
(Fig. 2) reflects the surface topography. The static level of water in 
the aquifer is highest beneath the morainal uplands of the northwest 
and the southwest parts of the county, and lowest in the axis of the 
Maumee River within the glacial Lake Maumee plain. 



276 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 2. Piezometric surface of water in bedrock aquifer, Allen County, Indiana. 



Methods 

Water samples were obtained on June 6, 7, and 8, 1972. All samples 
were clear as sampled. After determination of alkalinity and pH, most 
of the samples were acidified and analyzed by R. K. Leininger and 
C. F. Foley; portions of four samples were analyzed by the Indiana 
State Board of Health, Indianapolis. Procedures from Standard Methods 
for Examination of Water and Wastewater (1) were used by the 
Indiana Geological Survey for determination of bicarbonate alkalinity 
(HC0 3 ), chloride, hardness (Ca, Mg, and Sr as CaC0 3 ), pH, sulfate, 
and total solids. No sample was found to contain carbonate or hydroxide. 
Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for determination of 
calcium, iron, magnesium, silicon, and zinc. Flame emission spectro- 
photometry methods were used for determination of aluminum, po- 
tassium, sodium, and strontium. 

Discussion of Analytical Results 

Thirty-three bedrock wells were sampled (Fig. 1), but two samples 
were eliminated from consideration because they are believed to have 
undergone home water softening treatment. 



Iron values for the bedrock aquifer samples are difficult to assess 
in terms of areal differentiation, but are much lower than values for 
the glacial aquifer waters (Table 1). Bicarbonate alkalinity, hardness 
(Fig. 3) and chloride (not illustrated) show patterns of areal distribu- 
tion. However, the strontium, sulfate and total solids values (Fig. 3) 
show the clearest evidence of the influence of bedrock and direction of 
groundwater flow. High concentrations of these constituents are derived 



Geography and Geology 277 

from the Silurian rocks in southern Allen County, and are modified by 
northward groundwater flow. These trends of increasing sulfate and 
total solids can be extended southeastward into Ohio (8) and southward 
into Adams County, Indiana (5). 

Table 1. Summary of range and median values for chemical constituents of waters 
of aquifers in glacial deposits and in bedrock. (Concentrations given in millgrams /liter.) 







Glacial 






Bedrock 








(14 Samples) 






(31 Samples) 








range 


mean 




range 




Constituents 


low 


high 


low 


high 


mean 


Ca 


58 


207 


108 


31 


132 


81 


Mg 


27 


86 


50 


26 


70 


44 


Fe 


1.1 


25 


5.4* 


0.06 


2.1 


0.9 


Sr 


0.7 


12.7 


5.1 


1.2 


15.4 


8.0 


Na 


8 


43 


25 


16 


50 


38 


K 


5.2 


11 


7.1 


5.4 


10.3 


8.2 


HCO; 


330 


569 


467 


1S2 


438 


303 


Hardness 


326 


874 


480 


237 


935 


405 


Tot. Solids 


274 


1150 


620 


238 


1040 


586 


S07 


4 


510 


151 


6 


630 


214 


cr 


0.9 


23.3 


4.1 


1.1 


37.9 


6.8 



♦The median for 13 iron values, omitting the highest value, is 3.8 mg/1. 



The determination of strontium concentrations (Fig. 3) are the most 
interesting geochemically because they are relatively high for ground- 
water. Skougstad and Horr (10) reported that of 175 groundwaters from 
water supplies in the United States, 60% were found to be less than 
0.2 mg/1 in Sr. Rivers generally contain 0.5 to 1.5 mg/1, with the lower 
values in the midcontinent area. Hem (4) reports that the median Sr 
content of larger municipal water supplies is 0.11 mg/1. 

Feulner and Hubble (3) reported on the occurrence of Sr in water 
in Champaign County, Ohio, where Sr concentrations of several tenths 
to 30 mg/1 were found in well waters from celestite-rich limestones 
of late Silurian age and glacial deposits that contain fragments of these 
limestones. Surface waters fed by springs or groundwater seepage from 
these celestite-rich limestones were reported to contain as much as 
2.1 mg/1 Sr. 

In a study of 100 Wisconsin municipal water supplies by Nichols 
and McNoll (7), all samples containing more than 1.0 mg/1 Sr were 
from the eastern part of the state from the Illinois border to the north- 
eastern boundary with Michigan. The eastern part of the State (for 
which the high Sr values were encountered) is underlain by rock includ- 
ing evaporites of Devonian and Silurian age but rocks to the west are 
older and do not include evaporites. 

Skougstad and Horr (10) reported atomic Sr/Ca ratios (number 
of atoms Sr/1000 Ca atoms) of 396, 285, and 208 calculated from data 
on three Waukesha, Wisconsin, wells. Two additional samples from 



278 



Indiana Academy of Science 




L_l 



Tm 




Thco, 

i 








." 








"1 


r' 




. 






I* m 




• 




• | 


I. 




^°°<d 


250-300 


A 


i^Z^ 


^ 






• 


<250 


• 


_j 



[Total Solids 

r L i . 


^ 


— r-» 


7" 




"1 


r ' 


/ 






• t 


nJ 


) 


/ . 


U 


• | 


! 1 




*> 


& 


(g 


v — 


71 



fso 4 - 

i 








." 








"i 

t ! 


r' 




<250^ 




• | 


. 




^"> 


V 


'A 




~ " 






•" 




_j 


1 . 


>500 


• 



Figure 3. Contour plots of concentrations of some constituents of waters from bedrock 
aquifer, Allen County, Indiana. 



this same area collected for Skougstad and Horr's study gave atomic 
Sr/Ca ratios of 162 and 65.5. 

The waters from Allen County (bedrock wells) gave atomic 
Sr/Ca ratios as high as 134; ratios of 12 of the samples were above 41. 
These ratios, significantly, show an areal distribution when plotted as 
contours from low in the northwest part of the county to high in the 
east-central and southeast parts. The glacial aquifers also reflected 
higher than ordinary Sr/Ca ratios for groundwater, though lower ratios 
than for the bedrock aquifers. 

Waters from glacial materials (Fig. 1) were sampled from one 
near-surface gravel aquifer, seven intersequence aquifers, from within 
the unit separating tills of the Lagro and Trafalgar Formations, five 
aquifers which are probably within the Trafalgar Formation and one 
basal sand aquifer. 

Waters sampled from glacial deposits (Table 1) were generally 
unremarkable, with the exception of iron concentrations. The relatively 



Geography and Geology 279 

high iron values may be the result of pyrite in particles of Antrim Shale 
in the glacial materials. Strontium values are also higher than the re- 
ported median for larger municipal water supplies, but considerably 
lower than for the waters from bedrock aquifers. The zinc content of 
the glacial aquifer waters was generally significant, although the high- 
est values are for samples high in iron. 

Although the number of samples is not large, a decreasing trend 
of Ca/Mg ratios (from 2.5 in the northernmost tier of townships to 1.5 
in the north-central and south-central tiers) is apparent, and may reflect 
increasing dolomite content of the drift. However, there is no obvious 
specific correlation between the results of any analyses and the strati- 
graphic position of the glacial aquifer. 

Conclusion 

What seems stratigraphically significant and enigmatic is that the 
Silurian rocks (not just Salina rocks) of several lithologies in Allen 
County appear to be the source of unusually high strontium and sulfate 
in bedrock water flowing toward the axis of the Maumee River from 
the south and southwest. Evaporites or their residues from which these 
ions would be most expected, of course, are present in the Silurian 
Salina Formation, but they are not known closer than about 100 miles 
to Allen County. The circulation of groundwater may dissolve the more 
soluble evaporites preferentially over carbonates, shales, or sandstones 
in the local strata, to the extent of forming caverns and subsequent 
collapse breccia, with residues of celestite or strontianite left behind. 
Such dissolved matter may reprecipitate farther along the direction 
of groundwater flow, possibly some distance from the original locality 
of supply or in permeable underlying strata. Bedrock waters flowing 
toward the Maumee River axis from the northwest through the 
Devonian dolomites have much lower concentrations of these ions. This 
is so despite the fact that evaporites occur in the Devonian strata just 
a few miles north of Allen County and that solutional collapse 
breccias are known in the Devonian rocks of Allen County itself. The 
authors believe that the high values of strontium and Sr/Ca ratios are 
similar to those anomalies reported in Wisconsin and in Ohio. 

The areal pattern of strontium, sulfate, and other ionic constitu- 
ents in well waters does seem to parallel regional stratigraphic 
boundaries, as modified by groundwater flow, and might well serve as 
a guide to future geochemical-stratigraphic correlation. 



Literature Cited 

1. American Public Health Association. 1965. Standard methods for the examination 
of water and wastewater (12th ed.). New York, N. Y. 769 p. 

2. Bleuer, N. K., and M. C. Moore. 1972. Glacial stratigraphy of the Fort Wayne 
area and the draining of glacial Lake Maumee. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 81:195-209. 

3. Feulner, A. J., and J. H. Hubble. 1960. Occurrence of sti-ontium in the surface 
and ground waters of Champaign County, Ohio. Econ. Geol. 55:176-186. 



280 Indiana Academy of Science 



4. Hem, J. D. 1970. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of 
natural water. U.S.G.S. Water-Supply Paper 1473. 

5. Herring, W. C. 1969. Reconnaissance of the ground-water resources of the 
Maumee River Basin. Rep. No. 17, Dep. Natur. Resources, Div. of Water (open-file 
report) . 

6. Johnson, G. H., and S. J. Keller. 1972. Geologic Map of the 1° x 2° Fort Wayne 
Quadrangle, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio, showing bedrock and unconsolidated de- 
posits. Indiana Geol. Surv. Regional Geologic Map 8. 

7. Nichols, M. S., and D. R. McNoll. 1957. Strontium content of Wisconsin municipal 
waters. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 49:1493-1498. 

8. Ohio Dept. Natur. Resources, Div. of Water. 1970. Groundwater for planning in 
northwest Ohio. 

9. Pinsak, A. P., and R. H. Shaver. 1964. The Silurian formations of northern 
Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 32. 87 p. 

10. Skougstad, M. W., and C. A. Horr. 1963. Occurrence and distribution of strontium 
in natural water. U.S.G.S. Water-Supply Paper 1496-D, p. 55-74. 



Clay and Shale Resources of Spencer County, Indiana 1 

George S. Austin 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Clay mineral analyses of the less-than-2-micron fraction and particle-size analyses 
were run on 128 of the 152 samples collected in the summer and fall of 1972 from rocks 
of Pennsylvanian age in Spencer County. Shales, siltstones, mudstones, underclays, and 
a few sandstones were sampled. The clay mineral suite of these rocks consists 
dominantly of illite, kaolinite, and mixed-layer (mixed-lattice) clay minerals. Chlorite 
is present in minor amounts, principally in shales and mudstones. A minor amount of 
smectite is found in a few samples taken from weathered exposures. 

Thick shales suitable both in clay mineralogy and particle-size for use as raw ma- 
terial for manufacturing structural clay products and expanded shale lightweight 
aggregate are found above and below the Buffaloville Coal Member and its underclay, 
and below the Mariah Hill and St. Meinrad Coal Beds and their underclays. An under- 
clay and subjacent shale below a thin unnamed coal found about 30 feet below the 
Buffaloville Coal Member offer another possible source of raw material. The thick 
underclays contain kaolinite as the dominant clay mineral and can be used for pottery 
manufacture or for raw material additives in structural clay products and cement. In all, 
four thick units of rock should be examined further as possible sources of clay raw 
material. 

Introduction 

A program to study the clay and shale of Spencer County, 
Indiana (Fig. 1), was initiated by the Indiana Geological Survey in the 




40 Miles 



Figure 1. Map showing the location of Spencer County, Pennsylvanian and pre- 
Pensylvanian rocks, and the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity in southern 

Indiana. 



1 Published with permission of the State Geologist, Indiana Geological Survey. 

281 



282 



Indiana Academy of Science 



summer of 1972. Exposures of argillaceous rock in the county were 
described and sampled and the samples were tested to determine their 
possible use as a source of raw material for industry. 

Pennsylvanian clayey formations, more than 600 feet thick, overlie 
the irregular Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity in Spencer 
County and dip to the west-southwest at about 20 to 30 feet per mile. 
Mississippian rocks are found only in the deeply incised valleys in the 
northeastern part of the county and here they are mantled with 
alluvium. 

From the bottom upward the Pennsylvanian formations (Fig. 2) 
cropping out in Spencer County are the Mansfield, Brazil, Staunton, 
Linton, Petersburg, and Dugger. Nearly all of the 152 samples collected 
to date for this study come from the Mansfield, Brazil, and Staunton 
Formations. Because the Lower Block Coal Member, the lowermost unit 
in the Brazil Formation, is poorly developed in this area, rock units are 
related to the major coals in this part of the section rather than to the 
Mansfield-Brazil contact. 



SYSTEM 



FORMATION 



DUGGER 



PETERSBURG 



LINTON 



STAUNTON 




BRAZIL 

AND 

MANSFIELD 



LITHOLOGY 



:_?..' 





THICKER COALS 



Buffaloville 



Mariah Hill 



St. Meinrad 



EXPLANATION 



Coal bed 



Argillaceous rocks 



Sandstone 



Limestone 



Feet 
•0 

•40 

h-80 

20 

1-160 

200 



Figure 2. Generalized columnar section of outcropping rocks in Spencer County. The 

Lower Block Coal Member is poorly developed and thus the Mansfield and Brazil 

Formations are not differentiated. Modified from Hutchison (3, 4). 



Geography and Geology 



283 



The most numerous and extensive exposures of Pennsylvanian for- 
mations are in eastern and central Spencer County, where considerable 
relief and sizeable stripping operations have exposed the argillaceous 
rocks above the St. Meinrad, Mariah Hill, and Buffaloville coals (Fig. 
3). Only a few small exposures are found in the western and southern 
parts of the county and in rocks above Coal III. 



Feet 
Coal V ,-0 




UNCONFORMITY 

Upper Mississippian rocks 



Figure 3. 



Map showing the location of the major coals in Spencer County. Modified 
from Hutchison (3). 



Analytical Procedure 

For the most part, limestones and sulfides, the two most objection- 
able constituents of a ceramic clay, are rare or absent from the argil- 
laceous rock samples in Spencer County. Consequently, many of the 
properties, and therefore the value of these rocks, can be determined 
in general terms by two simple tests, particle-size analysis and clay 
mineral analysis. In this study the samples were dried in an oven at 
105°C for about 24 hours and then crushed and mixed. The percentage 
of clay-, silt-, and sand plus-size (larger than 1/16 mm) particles was 
determined on an approximately 20-gram split by sieving to remove 
the grains greater than 1/16 mm and then pipetting to separate the 
clay and silt particles. Non-clay minerals in argillaceous rocks are dom- 
inated by quartz and are unaffected by the heat in most ceramic proc- 
essing. Non-clay particles in amounts as much as 25 and 60%, re- 
spectively, of sand and silt may be acceptable for some ceramic 
products. The actual upper limit for non-clay particles depends on the 
use and necessary properties of the finished product. In this study the 
clay-size particles in these samples of clay material range from 20 to 
95% by weight. 

For the clay mineral analysis a small amount of each sample (about 
20 g) was placed in distilled water and allowed to disperse. For a few 
samples several drops of NH 4 OH were used as a dispersing agent and 
for a very few stubborn samples Calgon was used. Oriented aggregates 
of the less-than-2-micron fraction obtained by sedimentation were pre- 



284 



Indiana Academy of Science 



pared on glass slides and dried at room temperature. For each 
sample, three X-ray diffractograms were obtained: on the air-dried clay 
slide, on the slide after soaking in an ethylene glycol atmosphere for 
approximately 24 hours, and on the slide after heating at 300°C for 
approximately 1 hour. Nickel-filtered copper radiation was used 
throughout the study. 

The proportion of the major clay mineral groups in the clay 
material is in part directly related to the relative peak heights on the 
diffractogram, and the percentage of each group can be calculated from 
these curves. This method is considered to be fast and simple but semi- 
quantitative, and thus the clay mineral groups are assigned parts in 
10 rather than parts in 100 (per cent). 

Applied Clay Mineralogy 

The rocks sampled consist of shales, siltstones, mudstones, under- 
clays, and a few sandstones. The clay mineral suite, regardless of the 
rock type, consists dominantly of illite, kaolinite, and mixed-layer 
(mixed-lattice) clays. Chlorite is present in small amounts, principally 
in shales and mudstones. A minor amount of smectite (montmoril- 
lonite group) is found in a few samples taken from weathered ex- 
posures and probably is related to modern soil development. 

Clay materials containing a high proportion of kaolinite have high 
refractoriness and water absorption, intermediate drying shrinkage, 
and low firing shrinkage and fired strength (Table 1). Clay materials 
containing a high proportion of illite have high firing shrinkage and 
fired strength, intermediate refractoriness, and low drying shrinkage 
and water absorption. Clay materials with a high proportion of 
mixed-layer clays have high drying shrinkage; intermediate firing 
shrinkage, fired strength, and water absorption; and low refractori- 
ness. Mixed-layer clays also show severe bloating characteristics upon 
heating. High-chlorite sedimentary clays are rare and therefore seldom 
used for ceramic purposes; however, their plasticity is known to be poor 
and their refractoriness is intermediate. Many of the cations in 
chlorites, chiefly iron, impart a brown, red, or black color to the fired 
products. 



Table 1. The influence of clay mineralogy on some ceramic properties. Modified from 
Elberty (1) and Grimshaw (2). 





Kaolinite 


Illite 


Mixed Layer 


Chlorite 


Refractoriness 


High 


Intermed. 


Low 


Intermed. 


(resistance to heat) 










Water Absorption 


High 


Low 


Intermed. 


— 


(after firing) 










Drying Shrinkage 


In termed. 


Low 


High 


— 


(before firing) 










Firing Shrinkage 


Low 


High 


Intermed. 


— 


Fired Strength 


Low 


High 


Intermed. 


— 



Geography and Geology 285 

Raw clay materials suitable for refractory ceramic products, white- 
ware, paper clays, and similar products (Table 2) contain extremely 
small amounts of alkalis, iron, and other fluxes. They must consist es- 
sentially of alumina and silica and be highly refractory. Clay 
materials of this type commonly are composed almost entirely of 
kaolinite and quartz. 



Table 2. Uses of clay containing high proportions of kaolinite, illite, and mixed-layer 

clays. 

High Kaolinite High Illite High Mixed Layer 

Refractories Structural Clay Products Lightweight Aggregate 

Pottery Lightweight Aggregate Structural Clay Products 

Chinaware Pottery 

Chemical Stoneware 

Sanitary Ware 

High-grade Tile 

Porcelain 

Paper clay 

Cement 

Fillers and Extenders 

Structural Clay Products 



Structural clay products, which include bricks, sewer pipe, wall 
coping, and drain tile, generally do not require a high-purity or high- 
kaolinite raw material. For example, it is possible to make a fairly ac- 
ceptable brick from almost any type of argillaceous material. However, 
structural clay products that come in contact with liquids (such as water 
or sewage) must be nearly impermeable. Glazes, which lower permea- 
bility, are now considered too expensive for many of these bulk products. 
Consequently, clay material with large proportions of illite and mixed- 
layer clays is particularly desirable because of its low permeability after 
firing. Another restriction is the amount of allowable shrinkage. This 
is not usually an important factor with brick or drain tile, but it is of 
considerable importance with sewer pipe. For this reason clay materials 
with large amounts of mixed-layer clays are not desirable as a raw 
material used in manufacturing sewer pipe. 

Clays suitable for pottery commonly contain a large proportion 
of kaolinite because of its high plasticity, low drying and firing shrink- 
age, and white or light fired color. 

Expanded shale lightweight aggregate is made by heating the clay 
material until it begins to fuse and bloat, then cooling it to trap gas 
bubbles. High illite, chlorite, and mixed-layer clay materials are most 
suitable for this purpose because of their low to intermediate refrac- 
toriness. 

Clay materials low in alkalis are used to supply alumina in the 
manufacturing cement at some plants. A high-kaolinite clay or shale 
is best for this purpose. 



286 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Results 

The particle-size and clay mineral analyses of the underclays and 
shales below the St. Meinrad and Mariah Hill coals indicate that there 
is a considerable thickness of high-kaolinite argillaceous rock containing 
a wide range in particle sizes (Fig. 4). The argillaceous material below 
the St. Meinrad contains a considerable amount of sand plus-size 
material. A large part of this sand plus-size material, however, is 
siderite concretions which possibly can be dispersed by grinding or 
eliminated by screening. Illite and kaolinite are the dominant clay 
minerals; mixed-layer clays and chlorite are present in smaller 
amounts. This underclay and shale is perhaps most suitable for struc- 
tural clay products. 



SWSESW Sec. 9, 
T6S, R4W 



PARTICLE SIZE 
ANALYSIS 



CLAY MINERALOGY 

OF CLAY-SIZE 

FRACTION 




EXPLANATION 

m 

Sandstone 



Argillaceous rocks 

ED 

Sandy 
Concretions 



Covered 
Q 10 0% 

clay silt sand + 



100% 




kaolinite 
mixed -lattice chlorite 
clays 



Figure 4. Particle-size and clay mineral analyses of s< 
Meinrad and Mariah Hill coals. 



from helow the St. 



The underclay and shale material below the Mariah Hill coal is also 
variable in particle size. The largest proportion of clay-size material 
is in the underclay just below the coal. Clay mineral analyses of the 
rocks below the Mariah Hill coal show them to be high in illite and 
kaolinite. Of special interest is the large proportion of kaolinite in the 
clay-size fraction of the sandier rocks from 9 to 14 feet below the coal. 
Kaolinite, in addition to being a detrital mineral, can also be of 
authigenic origin and commonly is developed in porous rocks, particu- 
larly sandstones. The clayey rocks below the Mariah Hill coal would 
be suitable raw materials for structural clay products but probably are 
less suitable than the rocks below the St. Meinrad coal. The variable 



Geography and Geology 



287 



but high proportion of sand and the low percentage of illite, and the cor- 
responding high percentage of kaolinite, also make these rocks less ap- 
pealing than the clayey rocks underlying the St. Meinrad coal as a source 
of raw materials for a structural clay products industry. However, they 
are promising as a source of alumina for cement raw materials. 

Below the Buffaloville coal the best possibilities for a raw clay 
material in terms of grain size appear to be the 19 feet directly below 
the coal and the 10 feet farther down in the section below the thin coal 
stringers, 35 to 45 feet below the Buffaloville (Fig. 5). On the other 
hand, the best unit of rocks in terms of clay mineralogy appears to be 
the lower 10-foot clayey zone. There may be too much kaolinite in the 
19-foot clayey zone immediately below the Buffaloville for sewer pipe 
manufacture, but it could be considered as a source of alumina for 
cement. 



SW SW NW Sec. 28 
T5S, R5W 

(BORE HOLE) 



CLAY MINERALOGY 

■■■m OF CI AY-^I7F 

BUFFA LOVILL E COAL fraction 



EXPLANATION 

m 

Sandstone 
Argillaceous rocks 




10 0% 

sand + 
100% 



Mite' / \ \aolinite 
mixed-lattice chlorite 
clays 



Figure 5. Particle-size and clay mineral analyses of samples from a bore hole into rocks 
below the Buffaloville coal. 



Figure 6 illustrates the results of the analysis for a series of 
samples taken from above the Buffaloville coal. In this case, the almost 
40 feet of clay material above the thin limestone immediately above 
the coal is fine grained and extremely uniform in size. The less-than- 
2-micron fraction of this unit is more than 5 parts in 10 illite and quite 
uniform in composition. This sequence of rocks offers the greatest prom- 



288 



Indiana Academy of Science 



ise of any of the units examined as a source of raw material for a struc- 
tural clay industry. It may also be suitable for an expanded shale light- 
weight aggregate industry. This material must be stripped to get to 
the Buffaloville coal in any case and therefore offers the coal companies 
a potential additional source of income. 



NE NE NW Sec. Z\ 
T5S, R5W 



PARTICLE SIZE 
ANALYSIS 




Covered 

q 100% 

wma. > vm 

/ » \ 
clay silt sand + 



illite' J \ ^kaolinite 
mixed -lattice chlorite 
clays 

Figure 6. Particle-size and clay mineral analyses of samples from above the 

Buffaloville coal. 



Conclusions 



Because of the lack of high-purity kaolinite clays, it is unlikely that 
any of the clayey rocks in Spencer County could be used as a source 
of refractories, whiteware, paper clays, or similar products. On the basis 
of mineralogy, thickness of clayey units, and grain size, the manufac- 
ture of structural clay products appears to be the best ceramic use for 
these rocks. Some of the clays could be used by a pottery industry, al- 
though their use would be restricted because of their relatively low 
kaolinite proportion. The shales and other non-underclay shaly rocks 
are considered possible sources of raw material for an expanded shale 
lightweight aggregate industry. The underclays and related high- 
kaolinite rocks are distinct possibilities for sources of alumina in the 
manufacturing of cement. 

It would be misleading to give the impression that all units of rock 
discussed in this report are laterally continuous throughout Spencer 
County or of suitable grain size and clay mineralogy to be commercially 
important. This is certainly not the case. The shale units examined in 



Geography and Geology 289 

this report in particular are quite variable laterally. The most sig- 
nificant point advanced by this study is that preliminary tests have 
shown that at least four thick units of argillaceous rock in the county 
should be examined further as possible sources of raw material for 
industry. 

Acknowledgments 

These investigations were aided by a grant to the Geological Survey 
by Can-Tex Industries, Cannelton, Indiana, and by the field assistance 
of Michael Carpenter, a graduate student at Indiana University, 
Bloomington. 



Literature Cited 

Elberty, W. T. 1960. Effect of clay minerals on ceramic properties. Unpublished 
Ph.D. Dissertation. Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. 120 p. 

Grimshaw, R. W. 1971. The chemistry and physics of clays and allied ceramic 
materials, 4th ed. Ernest Benn Ltd., London, Great Britain. 1024 p. 

Hutchinson, H. C. 1959. Distribution, structure, and mined areas of coals in 
Spencer County, Indiana. Prelim. Coal Map No. 8, Indiana Geol. Surv., Bloomington. 

1971. Distribution, structure, and mined areas of coals in Perry County, 



Indiana. Prelim. Coal Map No. 14, Indiana Geol. Surv., Bloomington. 



An Evaluation of Acid-Producing Sandstones in 
Warrick County, Indiana 

Vance P. Wiram 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Two lenticular sand bodies, a neutral and an acid-producing channel-fill sandstone, 
occur in Warrick County, southeast of Lynnville, Indiana. Framework constituents of both 
sandstones consist of quartz, feldspar, and mica. Matrix and cement constituents differ: 
1) The acid-producing sandstone contains greater quantities of kaolinite and carbonaceous 
matter; 2) The neutral sandstone contains a greater quantity of calcium carbonate in 
form of sparry calcite and Fe-rich micrite cement. Both contain equivalent pyrite 
(framboidal-type) content. Total sulfur within the neutral sandstone decreases upward 
from a maximum 0.9 per cent at the base to a minimum 0.1 per cent at the top; mean 
value is 0.4 per cent. The acid sandstone more closely approaches homogenity, with a max- 
imum 0.8 per cent and a mean of 0.6 per cent. Sulfate salt encrustations on weathered 
exposures reflect inherent petrographic and subsequent acid potential differences between 
sandstones, i.e., epsomite on the neutral sandstone, and the more acid aluminum and iron 
sulfates, halotrichite and pickeringite, on the acid-producing sandstone. 

Introduction 

The 1967 Indiana Surface Mining Act required a written "Reclama- 
tion Plan" to be submitted for approval to the Natural Resources Com- 
mission prior to the opening of any coal, clay and/or shale surface mine 
operation. This plan must outline the steps to be taken by the mine op- 
erator to assure successful reclamation and to prevent acid pollution 
of streams draining affected areas (1). Compliance with the law has 
brought about greater reclamation costs. One solution to reduce such 
costs lies in the coal industry's ability to identify toxic overburden ma- 
terials prior to exposure and subsequent planned handling and burial 
during the normal strip-mining process. The purpose of this study was 
to evaluate those inherent factors of a specific overburden material 
which are responsible for the formation of sulfuric acid. 

By studying strip mine areas where toxic materials were exposed 
and acidic problems exist, the present becomes a key to the future with 
respect to future mining of similar overburden materials. A compilation 
of such studies, which identify the various acid-producing formations, 
their areal pattern and stratigraphic relations, physical and chemical 
characteristics, etc., should ultimately lead to the establishment of 
guidelines aiding in the prediction of potential problem areas prior to 
their exposure. This brief investigation adds to such a compilation. 

Statement of Problem 

Two abandoned surface mine areas were visited southeast of Lynn- 
ville, Indiana, in Warrick County (Fig. 1). Both areas were similar in 
that they were confined to the cropline region of the Springfield Coal 
(V) and both contained overburden material consisting predominantly 
of sandstone with minor amounts of shale. The Folsomville surface mine 
area, located approximately 1 mile northwest of Folsomville, Indiana 
(Fig. 1, Location 1), is characterized by iron-red, acid-water impound- 

290 



Geography and Geology 



291 



ments (pH<4.5) essentially void of aquatic plant and animal 
life. Failure of revegetation efforts is evident. Massive sandstone 
boulders, making up a major portion of the cast overburden banks, are 
essentially blanketed with white sulfate salts. The Lynnville (East) 
surface mine area (adjacent to Peabody's active Lynnville (East) Mine 
operation), located 3.5 miles southeast of Lynnville, Indiana (Fig. 1, 
Location 2), is characterized by neutral- to slightly acidic-water im- 
poundments (pH -6.5-7) full of aquatic plant and animal life. Revege- 
tative reclamation efforts have been successful, but still, the 
majority of sandstone boulders as well as the abandoned highwall 
exposure appear to be covered with a white film of sulfate salts. Thus 
the questions: 1) Why such drastic differences in quality of water and 
success of reclamation efforts when both sandstone bodies, presumably 
a source of sulfur, physically and chemically react similarly to 
weathering upon exposure? 2) How do the sandstone bodies differ? 
3) What are the sulfate salts and how do they differ? These were just 
a few of the unanswered questions which led to this brief investigative 
effort. Field observations were combined with laboratory petrographic, 
x-ray, and chemical analytic data in obtaining plausible explanations. 



I 


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Figure 1. Strip-mine map of Warrick County showing general location of sampling 

areas (4). 



Sampling Localities 



Because highwall exposures in the abandoned mine areas are con- 
siderably weathered, it was necessary to sample the fresh sandstone 



292 Indiana Academy of Science 

bodies in adjacent active mine areas. Sulfate salt encrustations and 
water samples were collected in the older mined areas. Exact location 
and kind of samples collected are as follows : 

1) Folsomville Mine area (Fig. 1, Location 1). Sulfate salts ex- 
posed on weathered surfaces of the acid standstone were col- 
lected from abandoned highwall and soil banks. Water sam- 
ples were collected from impoundments within the same quarter 
section (SE %, Sec. 21, T4S, R7W). 

2) Lynnville Mine (East) area (Fig. 1, Location 2). Samples rep- 
resentative of the neutral sandstone were collected from active 
pit highwall exposures in the north end of the Lynnville Mine 
(East) of Peabody Coal Company (NW %, NW V*, NW %, Sec. 
25, T4S, R8W). Sulfate salts exposed on weathered surfaces of 
the neutral sandstone were collected from abandoned highwall 
and spoil bank adjacent to the active Lynnville Mine (East). 
Water samples were collected from the water impoundment at 
the base of the abandoned highwall (NW %, NE %, SW V*, 
Sec. 24, T4S, R8W). 

3) Enos Mine (South) area (Fig. 1, Location 3). Samples repre- 
sentative of the acid sandstone were collected from active pit 
highwall exposures in the west end of the Enos Mine (South) 
of Old Ben Coal Corporation (SW %, SE %, SW %, Sec. 21, 
T3S, R7W). 

Megascopic Field, Petrographic, and Chemical Analytic 
Comparisons Between Sandstones 

Geometry and Stratigraphic Comparisons 

Geometric and stratigraphic comparisons of the sandstone bodies 
were made along abandoned final-cut highwall exposures in both areas 
(Fig. 2). In addition, active mines adjacent to the research areas were 
examined. Both sandstone bodies are lenticular, range in maximum 
thickness from 25-40 feet and extend from % to more than 1 mile wide. 
Stratigraphically, both sandstones are confined to the Lower Dugger 
Formation but they maintain different positions relative to the Spring- 
field Coal (V) Member of the Upper Petersburg Formation. The acid 
(Folsomville) sandstone is stratigraphically bound between Coal (V) 
and its overlying rider seam. For the most part, the neutral 
(Lynnville) sandstone lies above and locally cuts through the Coal V 
rider horizon thus making it stratigraphically younger than the acid 
sandstone. 

Petrographic Comparisons 

Framework constituents (sand-size grain fraction) of both sand- 
stones are essentially equivalent, consisting of quartz, feldspar (ortho- 
clase, microcline, and minor Na-plagioclase) , mica (muscovite and 
chlorite), and minor heavy minerals (zicron, tourmaline, opaques, etc.). 
Table 1 discloses the various mean and range values. Mineral composi- 
tion is based on the study of 12 thin sections (six representative slides 



Geography and Geology 



293 




LYNNVILLE MINE AREA (EAST) 




FOLSOMVILLE MINE AREA 
Figure 2. Generalized geometry and stratigraphy comparisons between sandstone exposed 
in the strip mine areas studied in Warrick County. 



of each sandstone) taken from rock samples collected in vertical profile 
sequence. Composition was determined by 300-point counts per slide. 

Table 1. Petrographic summary of the acid and neutral sandstone bodies in Warrick 
County, Indiana (Data obtained from thin section analyses, 300 point counts per 

slide). 





Lynnville (East) 




Folsomville 




Neutral Sand 




Acid Sand 




Avg (%) 


Range (%) 


Avg (%) Range (%) 


Framework Components 










Quartz 


47 


37-54 


42 


37-45 


Feldspar 


12 


8-16 


14 


13-16 


Mica 


3 


1-4 


4 


2-5 


Heavy Minerals 


1 


tr-1 


1 


tr-1 


Matrix Components 










Clay Minerals 


18 


12-24 


20 


16-25 


Cements (s) 










Sparry Calcite 


9 


8-23 


5 


tr-8 


Fe Micrite 


3 


tr-6 


4 


tr-9 


Silica 


5 


3-8 


5 


4-7 


Pyrite 


2 


1-3 


2 


tr-3 


Carbon Matter 


tr 


tr 


3 


tr-7 



Both sandstones are bonded with varying amounts of illite, 
kaolinite, chlorite, and random mixed (mixed-lattice) layered clays and 
both are at least partially cemented by sparry calcite and iron-rich 
micrite. Major compositional differences, however, are found within 
the fine-silt and clay-size matrix and cementing components. Based upon 
x-ray diffractogram and petrographic observations, the acid sand con- 



294 Indiana Academy of Science 

tains a greater quantity of authigenic kaolinite. Large "books" of 
kaolinite (> 4 ^) can be seen filling original void-space. The neutral 
sand contains essentially twice as much sparry calcite. This difference is 
significant from the standpoint of the sandstone's inherent neutralizing 
potential. The twofold increase in carbonate availability, at the in-situ 
pyritic-oxidation sites, has undoubtedly played a decisive role in com- 
bating the formation of acidic conditions within the Lynnville surface 
mine area. In addition to the differences in amount of clay matrix and 
cement, a significant difference in amount of carbonaceous matter exists 
between sandstones. The acid (Folsomville) sandstone contains a greater 
quantity of fragmented carbonized plant remains and unidentifiable car- 
bonaceous matter. 

Petrographically, the sandstones contain equivalent pyrite content. 
Framboidal textured pyritic grains are disseminated throughout the 
silt-clay and carbonaceous fractions of the matrix. Individual grains 
range in size from 0.005mm to 0.050mm. This variety of pyrite has been 
demonstrated to be the most reactive with respect to rapid chemical 
breakdown resulting in the production of sulfuric acid (2, 3). 

Sulfate Salt Comparisons 

The differences in amount and type of matrix and cement con- 
stituents must account for the observed contrast in oxidation products 
found on weathered surfaces of both sandstones. Although the chemical 
pathways of the oxidation process are not fully understood, mineralogic 
differences noted in the sulfate salt encrustations undoubtedly reflect 
inherent acid potentials. Positive identifications of these minerals were 
obtained through the combined efforts of x-ray and optical emission 
spectrography. Essentially all sulfate salts collected on weathered sand- 
stone in the Lynnville (East) Mine area consist of hydrated magnesium 
sulfate identified as epsomite (MgS0 4 • 7H 2 0). Epsomite is essen- 
tially neutral with respect to acidity. Leachate from dissolved crystals 
yields pH values ranging from 6.5 to 7. In the Folsomville Mine area, 
however, a complex suite of sulfate salts coat weathered exposures of 
sandstone. Although epsomite is present, the majority of sulfates con- 
sist of the more acid aluminum and iron sulfates such as halotrichite 
(FeAl 2 (S0 4 ) 4 ■ 22H 2 0) and pickeringite (MgAl 2 (S0 4 ) 4 • 22H 2 0). 
Leachate from these minerals yields pH values ranging from 3 to 3.5. 

Sulfur Content Comparisons 

Wet chemical analyses of samples collected in vertical profile se- 
quence disclose differences in total sulfur concentrations (Fig. 3). The 
neutral sandstone, exposed in the Lynnville (East) Mine area, displays 
a vertical decrease in sulfur concentration from a maximum 0.9% at 
the base to a minimum 0.1% in the upper sections, with a representative 
mean value of 0.4%. The acid (Folsomville) sandstone displays a 
vertical increase in total sulfur with a maximum concentration of 0.8% 
and representative mean of 0.6%. Although the chemical results show 
an increased concentration of total sulfur within the acid sandstone, 
a greater contrast was anticipated. A greater total sulfur concentration 
was anticipated based on the following preliminary observations: 1) 
concentration of the more acid sulfate salts within the Folsomville 



Geography and Geology 



295 



areas; and 2) extremely high concentration of aluminum (50-60 ppm) 
within the water impoundments sampled. 



20 




10 




.6% 



% Total Sulfur 
LYNNVILLE (EAST) AREA 



FOLSOMVILLE AREA 



Figure 3. Comparison of total sulfur profiles between the neutral and acid sandstone 
exposed in the Lynnville Mine (East) and Folsomville Mine areas, respectively. 



The three varieties of sulfur present within both sandstones are 
pyritic, organic, and sulfate sulfur. Wet chemical analyses disclose 
pyrite to be the major contributing source and sulfates to be the least. 
Since the petrography and chemical analyses show equivalent pyrite 
and pyritic sulfur contents, respectively, the difference in total sulfur 
between the sandstones is undoubtedly related to the difference in 
organic sulfur content. The observed differences in amount of 
carbonaceous matter (Table 1) disclose the source of the organic sulfur. 

Possible interpretations of the contrasting Lynnville and Folsom- 
ville sulfur profiles are: 1) Both curves are accurate representatives 
and differences in their average sulfur concentrations reflect a thresh- 
hold value between the creation of acid versus neutral conditions 
(i.e., mean total sulfur values greater than 0.5% occurring in overburden 
materials will ultimately lead to acid conditions upon exposure); and 
2) Problems associated with obtaining representative samples of the 
Folsomville sandbody have rendered a total sulfur curve which does 
not reflect original sulfur concentrations within the abandoned Folsom- 
ville Mine area. 

Valid arguments against the first interpretation are: 1) The present 
data is too limited; more petrographic and chemical analyses are 
needed; in addition, a number of similar comparative studies between 
other contrasting mine areas are needed prior to the establishment of 
any threshhold value, and 2) The ultimate threshhold value established 
must be representative of both the inherent acid (sulfur availability) 
and neutralizing (carbonate availability) potentials. 



296 Indiana Academy of Science 



Conclusions 

Megascopic, petrographic, x-ray, and chemical comparisons between 
the acid versus neutral sandstones disclose the major inherent factors 
responsible for the formation of acidic water and spoil conditions. 
Those factors contributing to such conditions within the abandoned 
Folsomville Mine area are : 

1) A greater total sulfur concentration within the sandstone over- 
burden. Although pyrite is the major source of sulfur within 
both sandstones, the increased contribution of organic sulfur 
accounts for the increased sulfur content. 

2) A significant deficit in carbonate availability within the sand- 
stone overburden as compared to the neutral sandstone exposed 
in the Lynnville Mine area where a twofold increase in 
carbonate availability is noted. The more acid sulfate salt 
encrustations reflect the low carbonate content. 

In conclusion, this investigation clearly illustrates the necessity 
of examining both sides of the inherent acid-alkalinity balance of the 
overburden material prior to the establishment of any threshhold value 
which will ultimately be utilized in predicting potential (acid) problem 
versus (neutral) productive mine areas. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks are extended to Mr. James A. Deane, Director of Forestry 
and Water Quality, Peabody Coal Company, for introducing the area 
studied, and to the Geochemistry Section of the Indiana Geological Sur- 
vey for doing all chemical analyses. 



Literature Cited 

1. Division of Forestry, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 1972. Guidelines re- 
specting the administration of Chapter 344 Acts of 1967, An act regulating surface 
mining of coal, clay and shale. 3 p. 

2. Caruccio, F. T. 1970. The quantification of reactive pyrite by grain size. Third 
Symp. on Coal Mine Drainage Res., Pittsburgh, Pa. 406 p. 

3. The Ohio State University Research Foundation. 1970. Sulfide to sulfate reaction 
mechanism. Federal Water Pollution Cont. Res. Ser. 115 p. 

4. Powell, R. L. 1972. Map of southwestern Indiana showing areas strip mined for coal. 
Indiana Geol. Surv. Misc. Map 15. 



Sandstone Aquifers in Eastern Sullivan County, Indiana 

Charles E. Wier and Charles R. Glore 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

and 

Allen F. Agnew 

Water Research Center 

Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163 

Abstract 

Surface water is poor in quality and small in quantity in the Busseron Creek 
watershed, eastern Sullivan County, Indiana. Shallow wells in unconsolidated deposits and 
in Pennsylvanian sandstones supply most of the rural domestic water needs, but most 
individual wells produce less than 10 gallons per minute. 

At least 6 potential sandstone aquifers of Pennsylvanian age are present at depths 
ranging from 10 to 600 feet and having individual thickness ranging from 1 to 104 feet. 
Although these sandstone bodies are considered as sheet sands they are lenticular and 
are mostly confined by shale above and below them. Thus, there is minimum recharge of 
the aquifers except in areas where the sandstone body intersects the bedrock surface and 
is recharged by ground water moving downward through the unconsolidated materials. 
These sandstones are fine grained and well cemented. Porosity, as calculated from elec- 
trical logs of oil and gas test holes, ranges from 11 to 50 per cent. The coefficient of 
permeability is extremely low, about 0.04 gallons per day per square foot. Recorded well 
production from sandstone averages less than 4 gallons per minute. Thus, the sandstones 
are poor aquifers and cannot furnish enough water for a small municipality, but may be 
used successfully by individual households. Deeper sandstones should be investigated. 

Introduction 

The surface-water resources of the Busseron Creek watershed, an 
area of 237 square miles in Sullivan County (Fig. 1), were studied as 
part of an investigation of the effects of surface mining for coal by 
Corbett and Agnew (1). The groundwater resources of this area have 
been examined in a reconnaissance fashion by Watkins and Jordan (4) 
and a considerable body of water well data is available in their 
inventory report. 

Surficial Deposits 

Unconsolidated deposits at and near the surface of the Busseron 
Creek watershed area include glacial drift, weathered alluvial material, 
and soil. These glacial deposits in the upland area constitute a relatively 
thin veneer of till beneath the soil of the area, and belong to the 
Illinoian Stage of the Pleistocene. The till is mostly unsorted but 
locally it contains thin lenses of sand. The valleys of Busseron Creek 
and its major tributaries contain stream deposits and lake deposits of 
material washed in from the uplands during the past 100,000 years. 
Terraces are now present along the main valley of Busseron Creek where 
later erosion has dissected lake beds that were deposited during 
Wisconsinan time. All of these deposits except Recent alluvium are over- 
lain by a thin layer of loess deposited by winds in late Winconsinan time 
and now mostly incorporated in the soil. Neither the till nor lake 
deposits are uniformly permeable and thus are not able to supply large 

297 



298 



Indiana Academy of Science 



quantities of water to wells. Nevertheless, the unconsolidated material 
may provide the opportunity for recharge to bedrock aquifers below, 
by slow leakage downward. 



R.IOW. 



R.8W. 




Figure 1. Map of Busseron Creek watershed showing thickness of Coxville Sandstone 
Member. Modified from Glore (2). 



In the Wabash River Valley, to the west of the Busseron, thick and 
permeable deposits of outwash sand and gravel occur. These materials, 
laid down by meltwaters from both the Illinoian and Wisconsinan ice, 
can supply large quantities of water. These deposits also occur in the 
Busseron Creek watershed, but only in the lower 3 miles of Busseron 
Creek valley (southwest corner) where it merges with the Wabash 
River Valley (Fig. 1). 

Sandstone Bodies 

Bedrock underlying the Busseron Creek watershed dips gently to 
the southwest into the Illinois Basin. These rocks consist of alternating 



Geography and Geology 299 

beds of shale, sandstone, limestone, coal and clay (3, 5) and belong to 
the Pennsylvanian System. More than 90 per cent of the beds are inter- 
bedded sandstone and shale. Locally, sandstone beds may be quite thick 
and be a potential aquifer. 

Thicknesses of these sandstone bodies are extremely variable 
(Table 1). If one thinks of the clastic rocks between two coal beds as 
being predominantly shale then sandstone bodies become the disruptive 
units. Because of the different amount of compaction of sand, versus 
mud, where sand bodies are present the interval between the coal below 
and above is thicker than normal. 

Table 1. Thickness, porosity, and water production determinations for each sandstone 

body. 





Thickness 


(ft.) 


Porosity (%) 


Water Prod. 
Min. Ave. 


fgpm) 


Sandstone 


Min. 


Ave. 


Max. 


Min. 


Ave. 


Max. 


Max. 


Busseron 




















Sandstone Mbr. 


18 


32 


50 


12 


21 


31 


0.1 


2.5 


15 


In upper 




















Dugger Fm. 


8 


16 


32 


14 


22 


50 


0.3 


3.6 


25 


In upper 




















Petersburg Fm. 


15 


43 


104 


12 


25 


44 


0.8 


2.5 


10 


In upper 




















Linton Fm. 


12 


29 


60 


11 


34 


44 


3.0 


— 


39 


Coxville 




















Sandstone Mbr. 


5 


17 


37 


13 


32 


35 


8.0 


— 


56 


In upper 




















Staunton Fm. 


12 


38 


90 


11 


23 


40 


2.0 


— 


3 



Preliminary investigations indicated that there are six shallow 
sandstone bodies that might be satisfactory aquifers in some 
localities. They are listed in sequence from top to bottom under the ap- 
propriate formation in which they occur : 

Shelburn Formation 

1) Busseron Sandstone Member overlying Coal VII 

Dugger Formation 

2) Unnamed sandstone between Coals VI and VII in upper 
part of formation 

Petersburg Formation 

3) Unnamed sandstone between Coals IVa and V in upper part 
of formation 

Linton Formation 

4) Unnamed sandstone between Coals Ilia and IV in upper 
part of formation 

5) Coxville Sandstone Member overlying Coal III 

Staunton Formation 

6) Unnamed sandstone below Coal III in upper part of 
formation 

In general, all six sandstones are fine grained and poorly sorted. 
Commonly, clay fills a large part of the area between grains. Although 



300 



Indiana Academy of Science 



such sandstone bodies have been classified as being either a channel- 
fill or a sheet sandstone, they are irregularly lenticular in shape 
(Fig. 1). Water recharge is minimized by the presence of impermeable 
shale surrounding the sandstone lenses. These sandstone beds range 
in depth from a few to 600 feet. The Busseron sandstone and the sand- 
stone in the upper part of the Dugger Formation crop out in the east 
half of the area. The other sandstone beds are deeper and crop out even 
farther to the east. 

Thickness and Porosity 

Thickness of the shallow sandstone bodies may be obtained, in some 
areas, from coal test and water well records. However, only electrical 
logs of oil and gas tests uniformly provide information that is deep 
enough to include all six sandstone bodies. 

About 450 holes were drilled for oil and gas in the area studied. 
Electrical logs are available for nearly 100 of them. Utilizing the self- 
potential and resistivity curves the depth to, thickness of, and porosity 
of each of the six sandstone bodies were interpreted (Table 1). Sand- 
stone bodies show high resistivity on both the short normal and long 
normal resistivity curves, and where the sandstone is more than 10 feet 
thick its depth and thickness are easily measured (Fig. 2). The 
stratigraphic position of the sandstone is identified by its relationship 
to coal beds. 




Figure 2. Part of electrical log of C&EI RR #1 well, SE\NE\NE\ Sec. 6, T8N, R8W, 

showing position of three sandstone bodies (in stippled pattern) in relation to coal 

beds and showing resistivity values for the long normal curve. 



Geography and Geology 301 

Thick sandstone bodies are commonly considered as a potential 
source of water. In order to evaluate their potential as an aquifer the 
areal distribution, thickness, porosity and permeability must be known. 

Approximate porosity but not permeability can readily be deter- 
mined from electrical logs. The relationship of the characteristics of 
a rock unit is shown by the formula : 

R m = _f_ 

R f <b m 

in which R ln is resisitivity of the rock unit as shown on the long normal 
curve, R f is resistivity of the drilling fluid, "a" is an emperically- 
determined rock unit factor that can be obtained from the Schlumberger 
Log Interpretation Charts, <£ is porosity, and "m" is cementation factor 
of the rock. For the Illinois Basin "a" is about 0.81 and "m" is 2. A 
usable formula is <£ 2 = 0.81R f . 

R ln 

Resisitivity of the drilling fluid is given in the data (upper) part of 
the electrical log and resistivity of the long normal curve is read from 
the right side of the log (in ohms m 2 /m) for each sandstone (Fig. 2). 
Most sandstones are in the 30 to 70 range. 

Porosity of the Pennsylvanian sandstones is surprisingly high, 11 
to 50% (Table 1). The larger the grain size, the greater angularity of 
grains and the less amount of clay matrix, the higher is porosity. 

Permeability 

In order to produce significant quantities of water from a sand- 
stone aquifer, the sandstone must have good permeability. Selected 
samples from cores were run for permeability in a permeameter that 
measured the amount of water that flows through the rock sample. The 
highest permeability constant determined was 0.1 gal /day /ft 2 for the 
sandstone between Coals IV and Ilia. Others ranged from to 0.044. 
A good aquifer should produce more than 10 gal /day/ft 2 . Thus all 
eight samples tested are classified as impervious or as poor aquifers. 

Water Production 

Production of water from wells in this area was listed by Watkins 
and Jordan (4). By using their depths to aquifers and collating these 
with depths (or elevations) determined from coal tests or from elec- 
trical log data, the stratigraphic position of the producing sandstone 
was identified in the wells. Water production from the three upper 
sandstones, as recorded in about 50 wells, was extremely low (Table 
1). It averaged less than 4 gallons per minute (gpm). Only four wells 
recorded production from the sandstone in the upper Linton Formation, 
and two each from the lower two. One well in the Coxville listed the 
maximum production noted — 56 gpm. The small production for most 
wells confirmed the findings of low permeability. 

Production from unconsolidated material in the upland area (Table 
2) was only slightly better than that from sandstones, but production 



302 Indiana Academy of Science 

from the sand and gravel in the Wabash River valley (to the west of 
the area) averaged 780 gpm. 



Table 2. 


Water production from unconsolidated sediments. 






Water Production (gpm) 




Material 


Min. Ave. 


Max. 



Upland : till, clay, 0.5 11 50 

sand, and gravel 
Wabash River valley : 325 780 2100 

sand and gravel 



Conclusions 

Although numerous areas were mapped by Glore (2) where one 
or more of the six sandstone bodies were thick and had high porosity, 
all sandstones generally have low permeability. Thus water production 
is usually small. More information should be obtained on permeability, 
especially on samples of the Coxville sandstone and the sandstone in 
the upper part of the Linton Formation. Wells in these two sandstone 
bodies show the greatest production, a fact that must indicate areas 
of higher permeability within the sandstone bodies. 

The small municipalities in the watershed area are abandoning their 
local water wells and are running waterlines from wells that are 10 to 
20 miles to the west in the Wabash River valley. However, sandstone 
bodies in the Brazil and Mansfield Formations that are deeper than the 
six discussed herein should be tested and evaluated as a potential source 
of water. 



Literature Cited 

1. Corbett, D. M., and A. F. Agnew. 1968. Coal mining effect on Busseron Creek 
watershed, Sullivan County, Indiana. Indiana Univ. Water Resources Res. Cent. 
Rep. Invest. 2. 236 p. 

2. Glore, C. R. 1970. A preliminary aquifer study of Pennsylvanian age sandstones. 
Busseron Creek watershed, Sullivan County, Indiana. Unpublished A.M. Thesis, 
Indiana Univ. Bloomington. 47 p. 

3. Kottlowski, F. E. 1954. Geology and Coal deposits of the Dugger Quadrangle, 
Sullivan County, Indiana. U. S. Geol. Surv. Coal Invest. Map. Cll. 

4. Watkins, F. A., and D. G. Jordan. 1962. Ground-water resources of west-central 
Indiana, Preliminary Report: Sullivan County. Indiana Dep. Conserv., Div. Water 
Resources Bull. 14. 345 p. 

5. WlER, C. E. 1954. Geology and coal deposits of the Hymera Quadrangle, Sullivan 
County, Indiana. U. S. Geol. Surv. Coal Invest. Map C16. 



Statewide Geologic Maps of Indiana 1 

John B. Patton and Henry H. Gray 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

The first geologic map to cover the territory that now is the State of Indiana was 
at a very small scale, about an inch to 100 miles. This map shows the state as a single 
geologic unit: Secondary, or, in present terminology, late Paleozoic. Mapping through the 
subsequent 150 years has, of course, been of increasing detail, so that, in the current set 
of Regional Geologic Maps, eight sheets cover the state (and parts of adjacent states) 
on a scale of one-quarter inch to the mile. On these maps, 18 separate bedrock 
units (all Paleozoic in age) and 23 different units of unconsolidated materials 
(mostly Pleistocene in age) are recognized. 

In future statewide mapping, further refinements in detail and changes in classifica- 
tion and nomenclature are likely; it seems, however, that limitations of size and scale vir- 
tually preclude printing statewide maps of significantly greater complexity. 

In August 1972, the Indiana Geological Survey displayed, at the 
International Geological Congress in Montreal, a series of Regional 
Geologic Maps that covers the state at a scale of 1:250,000 and that 
shows both bedrock geology and unconsolidated deposits. We wish here 
to describe the most significant milestones in the 150 years of geologic 
mapping in Indiana that form a background for this most recent 
statewide mapping. 

Indiana geology was first depicted in published form early in the 
19th century by regional maps that covered all or most of the present 
United States. One of the first of these, in 1809, was a map by 
William Maclure (18) that showed all of Indiana as "Secondary" 
rocks. Several later versions of this map were printed. The most widely 
known (19) appeared in the Transactions of the American Philosophical 
Society in 1818. It was copied by many compilers, who, unlike Maclure, 
did no original work. 

The first geologic map of Indiana alone was made in 1838 by David 
Dale Owen (23), but was never published. Owen's report (24), in de- 
scribing this map, lists map units called the Coal formation, Sub- 
carboniferous limestone, Knob-freestone, Black bituminous shale, Coral 
limestone, Magnesian limestones, and Blue limestone. These units are 
approximate equivalents of the present Pennsylvanian System, upper 
Valmeyeran-plus Chesterian Series, Kinderhookian-plus-lower Valmey- 
eran Series, New Albany Shale, Devonian limestones, Silurian System, 
and the exposed part of the Ordovician System. 

In 1843, James Hall's "Geological map of the middle and western 
states" (7) included Indiana and showed approximately the same 
number of units, but with a somewhat different scheme of classifica- 
tion that followed closely Hall's New York usage. Hall was present when 
Owen, in 1843, delivered a paper "On the geology of the western 



Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Indiana Geological Survey. 

303 



304 Indiana Academy of Science 

states" (25), and his mapping of the Midwest has on occasion been 
termed an uncredited copy of Owen's work, but it differs in significant 
details. For example, it showed a clear conception of the Michigan 
Basin. 

Lyell's "Travels in North America," published in 1845, includes an 
excellent geologic map of the United States and Canada (17) which lists 
Owen among "the principal authorities." Lyell was quite familiar with 
Owen's work, and in 1842 he read a paper of Owen's to the 
Geological Society of London. In 1846, these two men, well acquainted 
through correspondence, met when Lyell visited Owen in New Harmony. 

Owen's paper "On the geology of the western states of North 
America," which included a "Geological chart of the Ohio Valley" (26), 
finally was published in 1846. It was among a group of "postponed 
papers" and was issued "in order satisfactorily to establish the claim 
of Doctor Owen to be considered the original discoverer of many im- 
portant points in the geology of the north-western states of North 
America." The units shown for Indiana are essentially those of the un- 
published 1838 Owen map (23). Owen showed the upper boundary of 
the present Ordovician System, presumably before the beginning of 
the Sedgwick-Murchison controversy, and 40 years before the naming 
of the Ordovician. 

In the 1850's, compilations showing the geology of the entire 
United States began to appear. Edward Hitchcock, in 1853, published 
"A geological map of the United States and Canada" (8) that showed, 
for Indiana, the Coal Measures, Carboniferous Limestone, Old Red Sand- 
stone, Upper Silurian System, and Lower Silurian. The distribution of 
these units roughly followed Owen's mapping. Hitchcock's map was 
crude, however, especially by comparison with the two that follow. 

In 1855, Jules Marcou issued his "Carte geologique des Etats-Unis 
et des Provinces Anglaises de l'Amerique du Nord" (21), which was 
the first mapping of Indiana printed in color, although most of those 
mentioned earlier had been hand-colored. The bedrock units, under 
French names, are essentially Owen's. Marcou showed, by a dashed line, 
the "Limite meridionale du terrain erratique du nord," the first recog- 
nition of a glacial boundary. 

Also in 1855, H. D. Rogers compiled a "Geological map of the 
United States and British North America" (28). The six mapped units 
were Paleozoic systems, under a set of names peculiar to Rogers' work. 
He too used Owen's contacts in the Ohio Valley area; Owen was 
specifically mentioned in the long list of references. Rogers' map was 
undoubtedly the finest of its period, both cartographically and geologi- 
cally. It compares favorably with maps that are 30 to 40 years 
younger. 

The first published geologic map of Indiana alone (29) appeared 
in 1865 and was one of a series compiled by Nelson Sayler for 
various middle-western states. The units, under different names, were 
approximately those of Owen, and the map could have been compiled 



Geography and Geology 305 

from any two or three earlier ones. It showed glacial materials, called 
"Post-Tertiary and Modern Diluvium and Alluvium" in the northern 
quarter of the state. The hand-colored map was crude, however, and 
Sayler, a geologic unknown, apparently must be considered a "commer- 
cial" compiler. 

In 1880, John Collett (2) prepared the first geologic map of the 
entire state that was published by the State. This was a page-size map 
that was reprinted with little change in three successive annual reports. 
Only five geologic units were shown. On the later maps, the Silurian- 
Devonian boundary across northern Indiana was scratched off, and the 
words "Drift surface" were added in the northernmost part of the state. 

The first colored geologic map of Indiana published by the State 
was John Collett's 1883 map (3) in the 13th annual report of the 
Indiana Department of Geology and Natural History. Printed at a scale 
of 9 miles to the inch, it was a distinct improvement on any earlier 
effort, as it subdivided the Pennsylvanian System into three units and 
showed closer accord with topography than its predecessors. It was 
lithographed in color that did not fit the black boundary lines in places, 
the discrepancies being not a matter of register, but correction of the 
color plates without correction of the boundaries on the base. In the 
14th annual report, for 1884, a similar map (4), marked "Revised and 
corrected," adjusted these differences and added accuracy and detail 
to the present Ordovician-Silurian boundary at places in southeastern 
Indiana. 

The 11th report of the United States Geological Survey, in 1890, 
contained a small geologic map of Indiana by A. J. Phinney (27), de- 
signed as a geologic base on which to locate gas and oil fields. Phinney 
said that the map was "essentially the same" as Collett's (3, 4), but 
the differences are significant and include subdivision of the Devonian 
rocks beneath the New Albany Shale into two units, and subdivision 
of the present Silurian System into three units. 

The 17th annual report of the Indiana Department of Geology and 
Natural Resources (for 1891) carried a map under Gorby's name en- 
titled "Geological map of Indiana showing location of stone 
quarries and natural gas and oil areas" (5). The geology was sig- 
nificantly altered from Collett's version, and in general it was less 
accurate. Mineral resource locations were shown by overprint. The 18th 
annual report (for 1893) included a virtually identical map (6). Both 
these maps recognized, by omitting the color for bedrock units, the 
deeply drift-covered area of northern Indiana. 

A small-scale map of Indiana was prepared in 1886 by J. C. 
Branner (1), apparently in conformity with a classification and coloring 
scheme devised by an International Geological Congress. No doubt 
Branner's map was intended as a part of some larger compilation — 
which map, however, we have not yet located. An enigmatic letter in 
French accompanied the Branner map, explaining the difficulties in 
applying the international scheme to Indiana geology. This rare and 
elusive item remains somewhat of a mystery. 



306 Indiana Academy of Science 

In 1894, a map of the United States by W. J. McGee (22) gave 
simple but good coverage in Indiana and showed the extent of 
Pleistocene materials by overprint. Subsequent excellent geologic maps 
of the entire United States are numerous and will not be tabulated 
here. 

Hopkins' "Geological map of Indiana" (9) in the 28th annual report 
(for 1903) of the Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources 
was a milestone in Indiana mapping. It showed more units than any 
previous effort and showed them more accurately. Subsurface informa- 
tion was not extensive in most localities, and therefore the detail and 
accuracy were much better in southern Indiana than in the region of 
Wisconsinan drift. Northernmost Indiana was left blank for lack of 
information. 

Another large wall map of Indiana geology was issued in 1932, 
under W. N. Logan (16). It further subdivided the Pennsylvanian 
System, omitted the Chesterian Series as a map unit, and added the 
outer glacial boundary. It also carried bedrock patterns to the 
northern limits of the state. Neither cartographically nor geologically, 
however, did this map mark a significant advance over Hopkins' 
map of 1903 (9). 

The Indiana Geological Survey Atlas Map No. 9, of 1956 (10), was 
at 1:1,000,000 scale but managed to show more detail than the earlier 
maps at 1:250,000 scale. Advancements included subdivision of the 
Chesterian Series into three units and separate mapping of the upper 
Valmeyeran rocks. This is the currently definitive one-sheet map of 
bedrock geology in Indiana. 

We turn now from mapping of bedrock to glacial geology. Toward 
the end of the 19th century, T. C. Chamberlain developed a concept of 
classification of glacial deposits in which multiple glaciation is a funda- 
mental factor. As glacial studies progressed, greater detail in the 
recognition of moraines was paralleled by a more accurate representa- 
tion of the outermost glacial boundary through the work of 
G. F. Wright, and in 1897 these studies were summarized on a map, "The 
Pleistocene deposits of Ohio and Indiana," by Leverett (12). Although 
generally accurate in its geologic representation, and cartographically 
good, this map omitted glacial lake areas in southern Indiana, and a 
vast area of extinct lake was erroneously shown in northwestern 
Indiana. 

As is traditional in the mapping of glacial deposits, the classifica- 
tion was a hybrid of topography, materials, and age. Further work by 
Leverett in Illinois (13) and Ohio (14) and adjacent parts of Indiana 
further refined his understanding of the stratigraphic and morphologic 
succession, and led to a study in which the Pleistocene of Indiana was 
mapped and discussed with a detail and accuracy that was unsurpassed 
for many years. On a scale of 1:1,000,000, this map (15) showed no 
fewer than 17 distinct subdivisions of the Pleistocene deposits. 

The first effort of the State in this field was a small black-and-white 
map by Malott (20). For the most part, however, this was compiled from 



Geography and Geology 307 

Leverett's earlier mapping and it offered nothing new. Wayne's 1958 
map, "Glacial geology of Indiana" (30), was somewhat refined in detail 
over earlier mapping and is today considered the definitive single-sheet 
map of glacial deposits in Indiana, but mainly it was a generally 
crisper cartography that set it apart from earlier mapping. A page- 
size map on which true stratigraphic nomenclature was first applied 
to Indiana's Pleistocene deposits was presented in a later publication 
by Wayne (31). 

In 1958, the Indiana Geological Survey launched a mapping effort, 
cooperatively with other State Geological Surveys, that resulted in the 
eight sheets covering Indiana and parts of adjacent states, at a scale 
of 1:250,000 or one-quarter inch to the mile, in their Regional Geologic 
Map Series of 1° by 2° quadrangles. These maps, which were published 
from 1961 to 1972, showed bedrock in gray patterns and unconsolidated 
materials in color on the same sheet as a composite. For the latter seven 
of the sheets, versions are available that show bedrock and unconsoli- 
dated materials separately. As a by-product of the series, a page-size 
colored "Map of Indiana showing bedrock geology" was issued in 1970 
(11). 

Although the completion of this series marks another milestone 
in the history of geologic mapping in Indiana, it is not, of course, an 
end. Significant changes in classification, particularly among the Pleis- 
tocene deposits, are likely in future years, and refinement in detail, es- 
pecially where dependent on subsurface control, is to be expected. The 
eight regional geologic sheets joined, however, make a genuinely wall- 
size map, and it is apparent that the combination of scale and size 
practically preclude printing of a statewide map done with significantly 
greater complexity. For the future, more detailed mapping on larger 
scales and of smaller areas, a logical development from the Regional 
Geologic Maps, appears to offer promise. 

List of the Regional Geologic Maps 

(unnumbered) Geologic map of the Indianapolis 1° by 2° Quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, 
showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. By C. E. Wier and H. H. Gray, 1961. 

No. 2. Geologic map of the 1° by 2° Danville Quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, showing 
bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. By W. J. Wayne, G. H. Johnson, and S. J. 
Keller, 1966. 

No. 3. Geologic map of the 1° by 2° Vincennes Quadrangle and parts of adjoining quad- 
rangles, Indiana and Illinois, showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. By H. H. 
Gray, W. J. Wayne, and C. E. Wier, 1970. 

No. 4. Geologic map of the 1° by 2° Chicago Quadrangle, Indiana, Illinois, and Michi- 
gan, showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. By A. F. Schneider and S. J. 
Keller, 1970. 

No. 5. Geologic map of the 1° by 2° Muncie Quadrangle, Indiana and Ohio, showing bed- 
rock and unconsolidated deposits. By A. M. Burger, J. L. Forsyth, R. S. Nicoll, and 
W. J. Wayne, 1971. 

No. 6. Geologic map of the 1° by 2° Louisville Quadrangle, Indiana, showing bedrock and 
unconsolidated deposits. By H. H. Gray, 1972. 



308 Indiana Academy of Science 



No. 7. Geologic map of the 1° by 2° Cincinnati Quadrangle, Indiana and Ohio, showing 
bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. By H. H. Gray, J. L. Forsyth, A. F. Schneider, 
and A. M. Gooding, 1972. 

No. 8. Geologic map of the 1° by 2° Fort Wayne Quadrangle, Indiana, Michigan, and 
Ohio, showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. By G. H. Johnson and S. J. 
Keller, 1972. 



Literature Cited 

1. Branner, J. C. 1886. Geology of Indiana. Indiana Univ., Bloomington. 

2. Collett, John. [1880]. Outline geological map of Indiana. In 2nd Annu. 
Rep., Indiana Dep. Stat. Geol. Indianapolis. 544 p. 

3. 1883. Geological map of Indiana. To Accompany 1884, 13th Annu. Rep., 



Indiana Dep. Geol. Natur. Hist., Indianapolis. 264 p. 

1884. Geological map of Indiana. To Accompany 14th Annu. Rep., In- 



diana Dep. Geol. Natur. Hist., Indianapolis. 62 p. 

5. Gorby, S. S. [1891]. Geological map of Indiana, showing location of stone 
quarries and natural gas and oil areas. To Accompany 1892, 17th Annu. Rep., 
Indiana Dep. Geol. Natur. Res., Indianapolis. 705 p. 

6. [1893]. Geological map of Indiana, showing location of stone quarries 



and natural gas and oil areas. To Accompany 1894, 18th Annu. Rep., Indiana Dep. 
Geol. Natur. Res., Indianapolis. 356 p. 

7. Hall, James [1843]. Geological map of the Middle and Western States. In 
1843, Geology of New York, Part IV, Comprising the survey of the Fourth 
Geological District. Albany, N. Y. 683 p. 

8. [Hitchcock, Edward]. 1853. A geological map of the United States and Canada. 
In Outlines of the geology of the globe, and of the United States in particular. 
3rd Ed. Phillips, Sampson, and Co. Boston, Mass. 3 36 p. 

9. Hopkins, T. C, (compiler). 1903. Geological map of Indiana. To Accompany 
1904, 28th Annu. Rep., Indiana Dep. Geol. Natur. Res., Indianapolis. 565 p. 

10. Indiana Geological Survey. 1956. Geologic map of Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Atlas 
Map 9. 

11. 1970. Map of Indiana showing bedrock geology. Indiana Geol. Surv. Misc. 

Map 16. 

12. Leverett, Frank. 1897. The Pleistocene deposits of Ohio and Indiana. PI. 36 In 
The water resources of Indiana and Ohio. p. 419-559. U. S. Geol. Surv. 18th Annu. 
Rep., Part 4. 756 p. 

13. 1899. Glacial map of the Illinois ice lobe. PI. 11 In The Illinois glacial 

lobe. U. S. Geol. Surv. Monogr. 38. 817 p. 

14. 1902. Map of the Maumee-Miami glacial lobe. PI. 11 In Glacial formations 

and drainage features of the Erie and Ohio Basins. U. S. Geol. Surv. Monogr. 41. 
802 p. 

15. 1914. Glacial map of Indiana. PI. 6 In Leverett, Frank, and F. 

B. Taylor. 1915. The Pleistocene of Indiana and Michigan and the history of the Great 
Lakes. U. S. Geol. Surv. Monogr. 53. 529 p. 

16. Logan, W. N. 1932. Geological map of Indiana. Indiana Div. Geol. Pub. 112. 

17. Lyell, C[harles]. 1845. Geological map of the United States, Canada, 
&c, compiled from the state surveys of the U. S. and other sources. In Travels in 
North America. 2 vols. John Murray. London, Eng. 316 and 272 p. 



Geography and Geology 309 



18. Maclure, William. 1809. A map of the United States, colored geologically. In 
Observations on the geology of the United States, explanatory of a geological map. 
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 6:411-428. 

19. [1818]. Map of the United States of America, designed to illustrate the 

geological memoir of Wm. Maclure, Esqr. In Observations on the geology of the 
United States of North America. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. n. s. 1:1-91. 

20. Malott, C. A. [1922]. Glacial map of Indiana. PI. 3. In Handbook of Indiana 
geology, Part 2, Physiography of Indiana, p. 61-256. Indiana Dep. Conserv. Pub. 21. 
1120 p. 

21. Marcou, Jules. 1855. Carte geologique des Etats-Unis et des Provinces Anglais 
de l'Amerique du Nord. In 1858, Geology of North America. (Privately printed). 
Zurich, Switzerland. 144 p. 

22. McGee, W. J. 1893. Reconnoissance map of the United States showing the distribu- 
tion of the geologic system (sic) so far as known. PI. 2 In 1894. Potable waters of 
the eastern United States, p. 1-47. U. S. Geol. Surv. 14th Annu. Rep., Part 2. 597 p. 

23. [Owen, David Dale. 1838. Outline map of the geology of Indiana.] Not published; 
said to have been deposited in the State Library but long lost. 

24. Owen, David Dale. 1839. Second report of a geological survey of the State of 
Indiana, made in the year 1838. Osburn and Willets. Indianapolis, Ind. 54 p. 

25. 1843. On the geology of the western states. Amer. J. Sci. 45:151-152, 

163-165. 

26. Owen, [David] Dale. 1846. Geological chart of the Ohio Valley. In On the 
geology of the western states of North America. Quart. J. Geol. Soc. London, 
Eng. 2:433-447. 

27. Phinney, A. J. 1890. Geologic map of Indiana showing gas and oil fields. PI. 63 
In The natural gas field of Indiana, p. 579-742. U. S. Geol. Surv. 11th Annu. Rep., 
Part 1. 757 p. 

28. Rogers, H. D. 1855. Geological map of the United States and British North 
America. PI. 8 In Johnson, A. K. 1856. The physical atlas of natural phenomena. 
William Blackwood and Sons. Edinburgh, Scot., and London, Eng. 137 p. 

29. Sayler, Nelson. 1865. Geological map of Indiana. E. Mendenhall. Cincinnati, O. 

30. Wayne, W. J. 1958. Glacial geology of Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Atlas Map 10. 

31. 1963. Pleistocene formations in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 25. 

85 p. 



The Geology of Water: The Limiting Factor in Urban Development 

Arthur Mirsky 

Department of Geology 

Indiana University — Purdue University 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 

Abstract 

Of the several factors which bear on the initial establishment and later development 
of an urban center, the availability of an adequate local water supply is most important. 
The amount of available water includes that which is already obtained from both surface 
sources and underground aquifers plus the local reserves of water, which can readily be 
estimated from the geological setting. If any expanding urban area, such as Metropolitan 
Indianapolis, is to avoid major water crises and the certain deterioration of the quality 
of life, consideration must be given to setting a limit on population within the capacity 
of the local water resource, and directing "excess" population elsewhere. 

Introduction 

A number of factors have a bearing on the initial establishment 
and later growth of an urban center. Such factors include an advan- 
tageous geographic setting, the need for a regional supply center, 
favorable climate and vacation facilities, municipal services, employment 
opportunities, and intellectual and cultural exchange. But none is so 
important as the availability of an adequate water supply. As noted 
by Blake (1, p. 2), "Urban life ... is peculiarly dependent upon 
water. Without it, cities simply could not exist." 

Yet, the history of water needs in urban areas is the story of vir- 
tually continual crises. This is demonstrated so clearly by Blake (1) 
as, for city after city, he records an invariable and repetitive cycle of 
events: first, a slow realization that the water supply was inadequate 
in abundance and purity for the needs of the city; followed by a study 
of alternative solutions to the supply problem; followed by a reluctance 
to actually accept any of the alternatives because of the high cost; 
followed by a period of inactivity which ended with a calamity, such 
as fire or disease; followed finally by a burst of activity to construct 
the facilities for the needed additional supply of water; and too soon, 
the cycle began again. 

It would seem proper, therefore, to consider the availability of 
water as a limiting parameter on the continued growth of any city. On 
the contrary, the adequacy of the water supply seems not to have been 
considered until some crisis made it impossible to ignore further. This 
is, partly, because of a tacit understanding by citizens that there is 
plenty of water, and partly, because of a more vocal assurance by 
"experts" that money and technology and careful planning can guaran- 
tee an adequate supply of water when it is needed. 

As a result, considerations of the available water supply rarely 
interfere with the goal of trying to attract more industry, commerce, 
and people to a city, and then to expand the city boundaries to ac- 
commodate these increases. Thus, new sources of water eventually must 

310 



Geography and Geology 311 

be sought farther and farther from the city. In this respect, it is rather 
unsettling to think that southern California is seriously considering 
sources of water as far away as Canada. 

This kind of thinking must, inevitably, lead to a deterioration in 
the quality of life in any major urban area. In the past several 
decades, such loss in quality of city life has been reflected by occa- 
sional water rationing in some cities (1, 4). When such rationing of 
water becomes commonplace and lasts for months or years instead of 
only a few weeks and occasionally, the decline in the quality of city life 
is clear and may even be symptomatic of a critical environmental 
deterioration. 

Metropolitan Indianapolis: A Case In Point 

The area around Indianapolis, which is representative of many 
growing centers of population, can serve to illustrate the premise: 
local available and potential water supplies should limit growth of urban 
areas. From a first-year population of 400-500 in 1821, Indianapolis has 
increased to about 450,000 people in 1970. As the city grew in popula- 
tion, it also grew in area from the original one square mile (2.59 sq. 
km) in 1821 to about half of the 402-square-mile (1372-sq. km) Marion 
County in 1970. The development of Indianapolis has become so inter- 
woven with that of Marion County that in 1969 the city and county gov- 
ernments were combined into a single unit. The population of Metropoli- 
tan Indianapolis (i.e., Marion County) was about 785,000 in 1970. 
Commuters from the adjoining seven counties (Fig. 1) increase the real 
population of the urban center to about 1,100,000 people within an area 
of about 3000 square miles (7770 sq. km). 

Physical Setting of Metropolitan Indianapolis 
Topography 

The present topography of central Indiana reflects the fact that 
this area was covered by continental glaciers for significant intervals 
during the past 2 million years, the last ice withdrawing from the area 
only 18,000 years ago. The Indianapolis area is on the Tipton Till Plain, 
which is a flat to gently rolling terrain at elevations generally between 
650 and 900 feet (200 and 275 m) above sea level in Marion County. 

Drainage 

Most of the Metropolitan Indianapolis area is drained by the (West 
Fork) White River, the principal stream in central Indiana, and its 
tributaries (Fig. 1). Fall Creek, the largest tributary on the east side, 
joins the White River near the center of the city of Indianapolis. In fact, 
the original site selected for Indianapolis in 1820 was on the east bank 
of the White River at the mouth of Fall Creek (2, p. 10). Of the western 
tributaries within Metropolitan Indianapolis, the most important is 
Eagle Creek, which joins White River in the southwestern part of the 
city. 



312 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 1. Surface drainage in central Indiana and the three principal reservoirs for the 
Metropolitan Indianapolis area. 



Surficial Geology 

Perhaps the most important aspect of the physical setting is the 
surficial geology (Fig. 2), because the surficial materials are the raw 
materials on which other factors act or depend. Thus, the surficial 
materials are the parent materials for the soils which have supported 
agriculture from the beginning, as well as being a prime source of sand 
and gravel for the construction industry as central Indiana becomes 
more urban and less rural, and even contain significant amounts of 
potable water. 

Most of the surficial materials in Marion County consist of Pleis- 
tocene glacial deposits, which range in thickness from 15 to about 350 
feet (5-107 m). These deposits are related to the Kansan, Illinoian, and 
Wisconsinan glaciations, though only the Winconsinan deposits occur 
at the surface within Marion County. The chief glacial deposit is a wide- 
spread till which blankets the upland surfaces between major streams. 
The second most widespread glacial material is outwash, consisting of 
sand and sandy gravel, which characteristically occurs along the major 
streams as terraces. The original site of Indianapolis was on such a ter- 



Geography and Geology 



313 



race, as is much of the downtown area of the modern city. Ice-contact 
deposits of sand and gravel are present as generally small and isolated 
kames, occurring mostly in the southern area, with till either within or 
overlying (2). Relatively minor amounts of generally thin alluvial sand, 
silt, and clay, which occur along the major streams, are underlain by 
outwash. 




I. "«'i|. SAND AND GRAVEL OF GLACIAL 
\"' c l •) OUTWASH AND FLUVIAL ORIGIN. 



GLACIAL TILL 



MIRSKY, 1*71 

12 3 4 5 6 MILES 

J I I I LJ 

12 3 4 5 6 KILOMETERS 

1 I I I I I I. 



Figure 2. Generalized Map showing the surficial geology of Marion County (Metropolitan 
Indianapolis) , central Indiana (2). 



Bedrock Geology 

The bedrock geology of Indiana is relatively simple : from a positive 
axis trending across the state from northwest to southeast, Paleozoic 
rocks dip gently westward into the Illinois Basin or northward into the 
Michigan Basin. Nowhere in the Metropolitan Indianapolis area is there 
any bedrock exposed at the surface, because of the glacial cover. 



In Marion County, immediately under the surficial materials, bed- 
rock includes from northeast to southwest Late Ordovician shaly lime- 
stone; Silurian limestone, dolomite, and shale; Middle Devonian 
dolomitic limestone; Late Devonian to Early Mississippian black shale; 
and Early Mississippian shale and sandstone (Fig. 3). 



314 



Indiana Academy of Science 



SOUTHWEST 



fyJH SAND AND GRAVEL OF GLACIAL OUTWASH 

AND FLUVIAL ORIGIN. northeast 



^Downtown 
Eogl. Whitt ( Indionapolli 
Cr««k Rivtr | _ 

LJr 




300- 

Figure 3. Generalized geologic cross-section of Marion County (Metropolitan Indi- 
anapolis), central Indiana (2). (See text for identification of water-bearing units.) 



Water In Metropolitan Indianapolis 



Source of Water 



The water used by Indianapolis is derived from both surface and 
underground sources. The acquisition, treatment, and distribution of 
most of this water is through a private firm, the Indianapolis Water 
Company, which utilizes surface water primarily. Underground water, 
only a minor source for the Water Company, is much more important 
as a source for use by industry and by outlying communities. 

Surface water. Surface water used by Indianapolis is obtained from 
White River (74%) and from Fall Creek (26%) (Fig. 1; Table 1); no 
surface water is derived from Eagle Creek, although the small com- 
munity of Speedway in west-central Marion County does obtain about 
2.4 mgd (9 mid) of water from this stream. None of the other 
streams in Marion County has sufficient flow to be seriously considered 
as a source for surface water. 



Table 1. Source and Average Daily Use of Water in Million Gallons (Liters) per 

Day, in Metropolitan Indianapolis, 1971 (Preliminary Estimates by William C. Herring, 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water). 







Use in Million gallon/day 






Non-industry 


Industry 


Total 


Surface Water 


63.2 (239.4)1 


22.0 (83.3) 


85.2 (322.7) 


White River 






74% 


Fall Creek 






26% 


Eagle Creek 






0% 


Underground Water 


22.8 (86.4) 


37.0 (140.2) 


59.8 (226.6) 


Sand & Gravel 






33.0 (125.0) 


( Outwash, Karnes, 








Fluvial) 








Sand & Gravel 






8.6 (32.6) 


(Lenses in Till) 








Limestone 






18.1 (68.6) 


Bedrock 








Other (SS, Sh) 






0.1 (.38) 


Total 


86.0 (325.8) 


59.0 (223.5) 


145.0 (549.3) 



'Figures in parentheses indicate water use in millions of liters per day. 



Geography and Geology 315 

The availability of the surface water supply is controlled through 
reservoirs on each of the main streams (Fig. 1). In 1942, the 
Indianapolis Water Company completed Geist Reservoir in northeastern 
Marion County, making the water supply from Fall Creek dependable 
at about 25 mgd (94.7 mid). Similarly, Morse Reservoir, about 10 miles 
(18.5 km) north of the Marion County Line, was completed in 1956 with 
a capacity of about 6,900 million gal. (261 billion 1), and has assured 
a dependable water supply from White River at about 75 mgd (284 
mid). Although Indianapolis does not yet use surface water from Eagle 
Creek, the city-owned Eagle Creek Reservoir in northwestern Marion 
County, which was completed in 1971 for recreational and flood-control 
purposes, will be a future source of some surface water. 

Underground water: The principal sources for underground water 
(Table 1) are the sand and gravel deposits of Pleistocene glacial and 
recent fluvial origin and the underlying Middle Devonian Jeffersonville 
Limestone and Geneva Dolomite and the Middle Silurian Niagaran 
Limestone (2, p. 49). 

The sand and gravel deposits occur as a more or less continuous 
tongue which underlies and flanks the principal stream valleys to a 
thickness of up to 100 feet (30 m), or as isolated thin lenticular 
bodies enclosed within the clayey glacial till which blankets the county 
(Fig. 3). The rocks of Silurian age are about 180 feet (55 m) thick and 
consist of interbeds of fine-grained crystalline to silty to argillaceous 
limestone (2, p. 74-75) with the upper half being the main aquifer. The 
Devonian aquifers include the 23-foot (7-m) thick massive to granular 
Geneva Dolomite and the overlying 60-foot (18-m) thick thin- 
bedded chalky to crystalline to locally brecciated and sandy Jefferson- 
ville Limestone. Less than 1% of underground water is obtained from 
sandstone and shale of Mississippian age, which occur directly under 
the glacial till in the southwestern corner of Metropolitan Indianapolis. 

Use of Water 

The average daily use of water in Metropolitan Indianapolis for 
1971 is shown in Table 1. Of 86 mgd (325.8 mid) used by non- 
industry (mostly residential and commercial), 74% is obtained from 
surface water and 26% from underground water. By contrast, industry 
obtains only 37% of the 59 mgd (223.5 mid) it uses from surface 
water but 63% from underground sources. 

The Indianapolis Water Company is the chief supplier for non- 
industrial users, as well as furnishing industry's surface water needs. 
The Water Company obtains only about 7.2 mgd (27.3 mid) from its 
own wells, mostly to supplement the surface water supply in times of 
emergencies (such as during a drought or when a water treatment plant 
or water main is being repaired or to "heat" surface water in winter). 

With 37 mgd (140.2 mid), industry is the main user of underground 
water, and has its own wells for this purpose. The remainder of the 
underground water is used as follows: 9 mgd (34.1 mid) by towns in 
Marion County other than Indianapolis proper, 6 mgd (22.7 mid) by 
commercial businesses, 5 mgd (18.9 mid) by domestic users (that is, 



316 Indiana Academy of Science 

home owners with private wells), 1.8 mgd (6.8 mid) by institutions, and 
1 mgd (3.8 mid) for agricultural-irrigation purposes (W.C. Herring, 
personal communication). 

Discussion 

At the beginning of the 1970's, Indianapolis has sufficient water 
of acceptable quality available for all domestic, commercial, and 
industrial needs. The Indianapolis Water Company, however, recognizes 
that present usage is approaching the existing capacity, so it expects 
by 1975 to have to purchase from the city-owned Eagle Creek Reservoir 
up to 12.4 mgd (47 mid) to meet the anticipated increased demand by 
the continually growing city. Moreover, the Water Company is now 
planning to expand its Geist Reservoir so that an additional 57 mgd 
(216 mid) will become available by 1978. 

Local surface water reserves in the Indianapolise area could be- 
come inadequate within a few years after Geist Reservoir is enlarged. 
Underground reserves are not known, but a reasonable estimate by add- 
ing more wells is 30 to 60 mgd (113-227 mid), perhaps as much as 140 
mgd (530 mid) more with artificial re-charging, giving a potential total 
of 200 mgd (757 mid) (W. G. Herring, personal communication). Thus, 
the total local surface and underground water supply would be about 
330 mgd (1249 mid), an amount sufficient for a maximum popu- 
lation of about 1 S A million people at the 1970 per capita use of 185 
gal (700 1) per day. A report by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 
estimates that water needs in the Indianapolis area will be about 177 
mgd (670 mid) in 1980 and 360 mgd (1364 mid) in 2020 (3). If the ex- 
pected population increase is valid and only local water sources are 
utilized, a water shortage in the year 2000 is a real possibility. In recog- 
nition of this eventuality, and to prevent it, consideration is even now 
being given to sources of surface water outside the Indianapolis area. 

The municipal officials and the citizens should resist all pressures 
to expand beyond the population which can be served by local water 
supplies, thereby ensuring a high quality of city life, at least in those 
aspects involving water. If this optimum population is exceeded, then 
a number of water problems which are now only minor nuisances from 
time to time will assume major proportions and adversely affect the 
quality of life in Indianapolis. These problems include those which touch 
on health, pollution, disagreeable taste and smell, increased treatment 
and re-cycling costs, shortages and consequent rationing. If it seems 
necessary to transport water from more distant sources, then there are 
problems related to the construction and maintenance of the aqueduct, 
and the postponed but nevertheless eventual problem of shortages at 
the distant source. 

Conclusions 

There is a curious optimism in many recent reports which simul- 
taneously warn on the one hand of impending critical water crises re- 
sulting from increased use, tremendous waste, and overtaxed collection- 
storage-distribution systems and, on the other, of resolution of these 



Geography and Geology 317 

problems through proper regional water resources management (e.g., 
5). The emphasis for the cure is misplaced, however: instead of devising 
ways to locate distant sources of water and to bring it to the 
expanding urban center, means should be sought to re-direct population 
in excess of that sufficient for local water supplies to other places where 
new sources of water can be tapped and used locally. Another city, com- 
parable in size to Indianapolis, has recently decided to limit its 
growth (4). Bologna, the seventh largest city in Italy, is planning to 
stabilize its population at about 600,000 people in the city itself, and 
to direct any further influx of people to one of 17 surrounding com- 
munities, each of which will stabilize at 50,000 inhabitants. This 
"blueprint," properly modified to take into account local geologic and 
other physical details, should be applicable to any expanding 
metropolitan area. 

Acknowledgments 

Among those who commented on an early version of this paper are 
William J. Steen, William C. Herring, and Allen Perry of the Division 
of Water, Indiana Department of Natural Resources; Raymond Lee of 
the Marion County Department of Metropolitan Development; and John 
B. Patton, Indiana State Geologist. Drafting funds were from an NSF 
grant to IUPUI. 



Literature Cited 

1. Blake, N. M. 1956. Water for the cities: a history of the urban water supply 
problem in the United States. Syracuse Univ. Press, Syracuse, N.Y. 341 p. 

2. Harrison, W. 1963. Geology of Marion County, Indiana. Indiana Dep. Conserv. Geol. 
Surv. Bull. 28. 78 p. 

3. Anon. 1971. U.S. completes huge Wabash water plan. Indianapolis Star 69, June 16:7. 

4. 1971. Italy's model city. Newsweek LXXVIII, July 5 :27. 

5. Schneider, W. J., and A. M. Spieker. 1969. Water for the cities: the outlook. 
U.S. Geol. Survey, Circ. 601A. 6 p. 



Stratigraphy of the Blue River Group 
(Mississippian) in Putnam County, Indiana 1 

Priscilla Nelson 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

This study substantiated the existence of several marker beds in the Blue River 
Group in Putnam County. This project involved 27 drill cores, totalling 2,400 feet, which 
were taken from south-central Putnam County and examined by binocular microscope. 
Thin sections of the rocks were studied with a polarizing microscope. 

The Paoli-Ste. Genevieve contact is easily chosen where a basal Paoli shale or a 
Bryantsville Breccia bed is present. Within the Ste. Genevieve Limestone, the uppermost 
member (Levias) is characterized by a high percentage of oolitic limestones, whereas the 
lowermost member (Fredonia) is composed dominantly of micritic and skeletal lime- 
stones. The middle member (Spar Mountain), where present, ranges in lithology from 
an argillaceous limestone to a calcareous sandstone. Within each member, no lithology 
is persistent enough to serve as a marker bed, and intra-member correlations are made 
with difficulty. Two persistent units within the St. Louis Limestone are a thinly-bedded 
cherty micritic limestone and a chalky siliceous dolomite. The St. Louis index fossil, 
Lithostrotion proliferum, was found in three cores and served as an additional source of 
stratigraphic control. 

Introduction 

Putnam County is in west-central Indiana, near the northern limit 
of outcrop of limestones of the Blue River Group (Fig. 1). These lime- 
stones show a depositional thinning from south to north across the 
county; in places, mainly in the northern part of the county, they are 
absent because of Pennsylvanian or Pleistocene erosion. 



INDIANA 

PUTNAM 
I COUNTY 




Bainbridge 
o 




^REENCASTLE 



Best McCullough 



IxSutherlin 



Sunset 
Hill 



Cloverdale 



PUTNAM COUNTY 



10 Miles 



Figure 1. Map showing the location of Putnam County and locations of core sites 

involved in this study. 



Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Indiana Geological Survey. 

318 



Geography and Geology 319 

In an effort to locate limestones thick and pure enough for indus- 
trial uses, the Ohio and Indiana Stone Corporation conducted an explora- 
tion program during 1971 and 1972. Fifteen cores were taken from the 
company's Sunset Hill property (Fig. 1). Four cores were taken from 
the Sutherlin farm, two each from the McCullough and Summitt 
farms, and one each from the Best, Cox, Samsel, and Smiley farms. In 
addition to the examination and description of these cores, exposures 
of Blue River limestone at the Harris Stone Service, Inc., quarry near 
Bainbridge and at Cataract Falls in Owen County were visited. The out- 
crop sections at these localities have previously been described by 
Smith et al. (7) and Malott (3). 

Stratigraphy 
St. Louis Limestone 

Because the Ohio and Indiana Stone Corporation was mainly in- 
terested in the Ste. Genevieve Limestone as a source of high-purity lime- 
stone, few cores were drilled very far into the underlying, lower purity, 
St. Louis Limestone. Where it was cored, the upper St. Louis consists 
dominantly of two persistent lithologies. The first, and uppermost, is 
a thinly-bedded cherty micritic limestone. Thin (<1 cm) shale beds and 
mudcracks are common along bedding planes. The micritic limestone 
appears lithographic in hand specimen, but thin section analyses show 
most of the material to be microskeletal, largely foraminiferal tests. 
The chert in this unit is bedded and highly fossiliferous, containing 
mostly fenestrate bryozoan fragments and pieces of brachiopod shells. 
This unit, because of its persistence and lack of variation, makes a use- 
ful marker bed for the top of the St. Louis in Putnam County. 

Ten to 25 feet beneath the top of the St. Louis Limestone is the 
second persistent unit, a dolomite which is very porous, soft, chalky, 
and high in silica. This unit is generally very light gray to light green 
and contains scattered streaks of glauconite. Aiding in stratigraphic 
assignments was Lithostrotion proliferum, a St. Louis marker fossil. 
It was found in 3 cores at a depth of 11 to 13 feet beneath the top of 
the St. Louis Limestone. 

Ste. Genevieve Limestone 

The Ste. Genevieve Limestone consists of three members recognized 
in Indiana, in ascending order, the Fredonia, Spar Mountain (formerly 
called the Rosiclare Member), and Levias Members (D. D. Carr, unpub- 
lished data). In Putnam County, the Fredonia Member is 25 to 35 feet 
thick and consists of complexly interfingering micritic and skeletal lime- 
stones with scattered lenses of pelletal and oolitic limestones (4). Massive 
blocks of the Mississippian coral Syringopora have been identified near the 
base of the member (4). Malott (3) identified the Lost River Chert Bed, 
a lower part of the Fredonia, in only one section described from 
Putnam County. In the cores studied for this paper, chert is present 
in many places, but at any of several stratigraphic levels, and thus the 
Lost River Chert Bed is not easily identified. Pinsak (6) placed the base 
of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone at the base of a dolomite or oolite bed. 
In Putnam County, however, Fredonia oolites are rare and dolomite beds 
vary in number and stratigraphic position, or are absent at some places. 



320 



Indiana Academy of Science 



PERIOD 


SERIES 


GROUP 


FORMATION, MEMBER, AND BED 


CO < 

H 


c 
o 

'> 

o 
Q. 


c 

2 -* 

O o> 
O <l> 
CJ w 

o O 

or 


Mansfield Formation 


-z. 
< 

Q_ 
Q_ 
CO 
CO 
CO 
CO 


c 
o 

q3 

</> 

CD 

sz 
O 


c 
<u 

O 

CD 


Elwren Formation 


Reelsville Limestone 


Sample Formation 


Beaver Bend Limestone 


Bethel Formation 


0> 

> 
<u 

m 


Paoli Limestone 


c 
o 

E 


Ste. 
Genevieve 
Limestone 


Levias 
Member 


Bryantsville Breccia 




Spar Mountain Member 


Fredonia 
Member 




Lost River Chert 




St. Louis Limestone 



Figure 2. Stratigraphic column showing Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks in 

Putnam County. 



The Spar Mountain Member ranges in lithology from an argil- 
laceous limestone to a calcareous sandstone and is generally cross- 
bedded in outcrop. In a few cores, no lithology representing the Spar 
Mountain Member could be identified, but in other cores, more than 
8 feet of quartz sandstone were seen. This sandstone is relatively poorly 
sorted with subrounded to subangular quartz grains, which are medium 
to fine grained. Quartz grains were found in some cores to be inter- 
spersed in a dominantly oolitic limestone. Rarely, quartz serves as the 
nucleus of carbonate oolites, a feature previously noted in Putnam 
County by Bieber (1). 

The Levias Member is 30 to 35 feet thick and is characterized by 
a high percentage of oolitic limestones. Thickest oolite accumulations 
have been noted in southern Putnam County where Kissling (3) 
reported that Ste. Genevieve oolites occur in linear bodies with small 
lateral dimensions. Correlation of individual oolite bodies in widely 
separated areas is difficult. In Putnam County, the Bryantsville 
Breccia Bed, which corresponds to the top of the Ste. Genevieve Lime- 
stone, is commonly not more than 1 foot thick and is composed of a 
basal, often brecciated, oolitic limestone with abundant algal structures, 
some of which have been replaced by chert. The upper part of the 



Geography and Geology 321 

Bryantsville commonly consists of slightly rounded fragments of 
micritic limestone, only slightly rotated from the horizontal, which have 
been cemented with micritic mud. In one core, dark angular argillaceous 
limestone fragments were seen embedded in a coarse-grained white 
calcite cement. In thin section, the framework grains included in the 
Bryantsville breccia are normally rounded, and often are intraclasts, 
composite detrital grains of oolitic limestone. 

Paoli Limestone and Younger Rocks 

The Paoli Limestone is present only in the southernmost cores. It 
has a maximum thickness of 6 feet and is usually composed of one or 
more beds of green calcareous shale, with a middle oolitic and skeletal 
limestone. Overlying rocks of the Elwren Formation, Reelsville Lime- 
stone, Sample Formation, Beaver Bend Limestone, and Bethel Forma- 
tion were present in three cores at the Sunset Hill location. These units 
have a maximum thickness of 40 feet. In one core, 20 feet of the Mans- 
field Formation (Pennsylvanian) was found unconformably overlying 
the Elwren Formation. 

Stratigraphic Relationships 

The first cross section, Figure 3, is roughly parallel to strike of 
the outcrop belt of Mississippian limestones in Putnam County. The 
cores are from the Sunset Hill property of the Ohio and Indiana Stone 
Corp. The following stratigraphic relationships shown on the cross sec- 
tions are noteworthy: 

1) A basal Paoli shale is widespread. 

2) The Levias Member of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone consists 
of a regular sequence of lithologies: in ascending order; 
oolitic, micritic, oolitic. 

3) There are three stratigraphic levels of chert: the upper chert 
represents Spar Mountain time; the middle chert correlates 
perhaps with the Lost River Chert Bed of the Fredonia 
Member; and the lower chert is included in the St. Louis 
Limestone. 

4) Correlation of limestone textures within the Fredonia Member 
is difficult because of an apparently unpredictable interfinger- 
ing of the micritic and skeletal lithologies. 

5) Basal Ste. Genevieve dolomites occur sporadically. None are 
present in Core 19A, but two dolomites are seen in Core 13. 

6) A thinly bedded cherty micritic limestone consistently appears 
as the top of the St. Louis Limestone. 

7) A porous siliceous dolomite is present in every core drilled to 
great enough depth. 



322 



Indiana Academy of Science 



EXPLANATION 

\'.°>l\ Oolitic limestone 
WfX Micritic limestone 
f Skeletal limestone 
HI Dolomite 
ill Shale 
1***1 Breccia 
E3 Chert 



19A 



1000 Feet 

I I I I I 



825 



800 



775" 



750' 



725 



700' 



675 

Figure 3. Stratigraphic cross section of Mississippian rocks at the Sunset Hill 

property of the Ohio and Indiana Stone Corp. Section is almost parallel to regional 

strike of Mississippian limestones in Putnam County. 




The cross section in Figure 4 is drawn approximately perpendicular 
to the strike of the limestones within the Sunset Hill property. The 
following observations are noted: 

1 ) The Paoli Limestone apparently thins to the northeast. 

2) The Levias Member does not exhibit the simple succession of 
oolitic-micritic-oolitic lithologies. 

3) The Spar Mountain Member appears more consistent in 
lithology. It is identifiable primarily as a green calcareous 
sandstone a few inches to 1 foot thick. The limestones below 
this sandstone commonly contain coarse fragments of dark 
chert and quartz. 

4) The lower part of the Fredonia Member contains varying 
number of chert and dolomite beds. 

5) A thinly bedded micritic limestone with fossiliferous chert per- 
sists at the top of the St. Louis Limestone. Lithostrotion 
proliferum, the St. Louis marker fossil, was found in Core 19, 
12 feet below the top of this micritic bed. 

6) A chalky porous dolomite lower in the St. Louis Limestone, 
consistently appears in every core drilled to a great enough 
depth. 



Geography and Geology 



323 



EXPLANATION 
IXo%l Oolitic limestone 
^3 Micritic limestone 

Skeletal limestone 

Dolomite 
HDD Shale 
HI Sandstone 
E*±l Breccia 
E3 Chert 




875 



850 



825' 



800 



775' 



750' 



725' 



700' 



Figure 4. Stratigraphic cross section of Mississippian rocks at the Sunset Hill 

property of the Ohio and Indiana Stone Corp. Section is almost parallel to regional dip 

of Mississippian limestones in Putnam County. 



The cores included in the cross section in Figure 5 were taken from 
a large area of southern Putnam County. The lines of cross section are 
roughly parallel to regional attitudes of beds. The following observa- 
tions are noted : 

1) The Paoli Limestone can be identified only at the Sunset Hill 
location. 

2) The Levias Member does not exhibit the succession of oolitic- 
micritic-oolitic lithologies. Skeletal limestone and calcareous 
shale beds are commonly found. 

3) Brecciation is not confined to the Bryantsville ; other 
breccias are found sporadically in the Levias Member (5). 

4) Eight feet of calcareous sandstone, representing the Spar 
Mountain Member, was found in Cores 2 and 6. Another core 
within 1000 feet of Core 2 showed no evidence of noncarbonate 
deposition other than a few grains scattered in an oolitic 
limestone. 

5) The Lost River Chert Bed is difficult to identify. Chert is found 
at different stratigraphic levels from core to core. 

6) The micritic and skeletal facies within the Fredonia Member 
interfinger randomly, with no obviously persistent marker beds. 



324 



Indiana Academy of Science 



7) The number of lower Ste. Genevieve dolomite beds vary from 
four in Core 7 to none in Core 1. 

8) The upper St. Louis cherty limestone persists as in Cross 
Sections 3 and 4 and displays little noticeable variation within 
the study area. The marker fossil, Lithostrotion proliferum, 
occurs from 11 to 13 feet below the top of this unit in Cores 
1 and 5. 

9) A chalky porous dolomite persists in the St. Louis Limestone 
and occurs at the base of most cores. 




EXPLANATION 
El Oolitic limestone 11 Shale 
im Micritic limestone EH Sandstone 
DM0 Skeletal limestone B Breccia 
Dolomite E3 Chert 



uj v,eM*\° s 



y'Soar Mountain 
' v Mbr. 




15 Miles 



800' 



775' 



750' 



725' 



700' 



675' 



650' 



625' 



600 



Figure 5. Stratigraphic cross section of Mississippian rocks in Putnam County. Cores 

1 through 4 He along regional dip and Cores 5 through 8 lie along regional strike 

of Mississippian limestones in Putnam County. 



Acknowledgments 

The author wishes to thank Mr. Bruce Mason, vice president, The 
France Stone Co., and the staff of the Ohio and Indiana Stone Corpora- 
tion for courtesies extended. This study was made possible by a grant 
from the Nona France Foundation. 



Geography and Geology 325 



Literature Cited 

1. Bibber, C. L. 1954. Clastic rocks near the Chester-Meramec contact in Putnam 
County, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 63:203-207. 

2. Kissling, D. L. 1967. Environmental history of lower Chesterian rocks in south- 
western Indiana. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington. 
367 p. 

3. Malott, C. A. 1952. Stratigraphy of the Ste. Genevieve and Chester formations of 
southern Indiana. Edwards Letter Shop. Ann Arbor, Mich. 105 p. 

4. Patton, J. B. 1953. Limestone resources of southern Indiana. Unpublished Ph.D. 
Dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington. 356 p. 

5. Perry, T. G., and N. M. Smith. 1958. The Meramec-Chester and intra-Chester 
boundaries and associated strata in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 12: 110 p. 

6. Pinsak, A. P. 1957. Subsurface stratigraphy of the Salem Limestone and associated 
formations in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 11: 62 p. 

7. Smith, N. M., J. A. Sunderman, and W. H. Melhorn. 1961. Breccia and 
Pennsylvanian cave filling in Mississippian St. Louis Limestone, Putnam County, 
Indiana. J. Sed. Petrol. 31:275-287. 



The Type Section of the Pendleton Sandstone 

R. William Orr and Walter H. Pierce 

Department of Geography and Geology 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Abstract 

The Pendleton Sandstone (middle Devonian) at its type section at Falls Park, 
Pendleton, Madison County, Indiana, consists of 7 feet 7 inches of very fine-grained, very 
well-sorted, subrounded to subangular, dolomitic quartz sandstone. The sandstone discon- 
formably overlies finely crystalline dolomite of the Wabash Formation (Silurian, 
Niagaran) of which the upper 8 inches contain a conodont fauna of the 
Polygnathoides siluricus Zone. The basal bed of the Pendleton contains rounded clasts of 
finely crystalline dolomite as well as reworked Silurian conodonts. The upper boundary 
of the Pendleton is the contact between sandstone and Jeffersonville Limestone, some beds 
of which are distinctly arenaceous. 

Introduction 

This study of the Pendleton Sandstone in its type area presents 
a detailed description of the only known good exposures of this Devonian 
rock unit. During the 100 years since the sandstone was first examined, 
several geologic reports concerning the exposures at Pendleton have 
been inconsistent regarding thickness, vertical succession, lithologic 
variation within the sandstone, and correlation of the Devonian rocks 
present. This paper summarizes previous investigations of the out- 
crops at Pendleton, interprets the above-mentioned inconsistencies re- 
garding these exposures, presents a measured and described section 
of the Silurian and Devonian rocks present, and describes petrographic 
characteristics of the sandstone beds. 

The best outcrop of the Pendleton Sandstone is located just north 
of C S V 2 SW % Sec. 16, T18N, R7E (Anderson South 7V 2 quadrangle), 
at the falls of Fall Creek in Falls Park at the north edge of Pendleton, 
Madison County, Indiana. The upper part of the sandstone crops out 
near the top of the water-filled quarry several hundred feet south of 
the falls. Small exposures of the sandstone may also be seen along the 
north bank of Fall Creek at water level in C SW 1 ^ SW 1 ^ Sec. 16, 
several hundred yards downstream from the falls. 

The Pendleton Sandstone was named in 1869 by E. T. Cox (3). 

Cox (4) in 1879 first published a measured and described section 
of the Pendleton Sandstone "from the bed of Fall Creek to the top of 
the drift" and reported 15 feet of sandstone. This section, divided into 
4 numbered units, also appeared in 1901 (9) as follows: 

1) Drift ... 50 feet. 

2) Ash colored rough weathering, cherty magnesian limestone, 
alternating with soft sandy, greenish colored, pyritous layers, 
in all about 4 feet. 

3) Buff sandy magnesian limestone, Pleurotomaria and coral bed, 
4 feet. 

326 



Geography and Geology 



327 



4) Heavy bedded and soft, white sandstone, upper part f ossi- 
ferous, 15 feet. 



FALLS SECTION 



QUARRY SECTION 



Coral Bed 



' ' 



I 



I* 
o m 



Water Level 




Water Level 



10- 



9- 



7- 



3- 



r. 



Figure 1. Columnar sections of strata at Falls Park, Pendleton. The falls section is the 
type section of the Pendleton Sandstone. Conodont sample intervals are shown at the 

right. 



Kindle (9) redescribed the section "at the quarry and in the bank 
of the creek" as follows: 10 inches + of "bluish drab calcareous fine- 
grained sandstone" overlain by 6 feet 8 inches of "massive white sand- 
stone with 10 to 12 inch strata" succeeded by 3 feet 6 inches of "hard 
gray limestone." Kindle pointed out that Unit 2 in Cox's "evidently a 
connected section" had not been found anywhere resting directly on Unit 
3 at Pendleton, that Unit 2 is of Niagaran age with a fauna containing 
SphaereoQochus romingeri, and was shown in incorrect stratigraphic 
succession. During our study of the Pendleton exposures we did not see 
any cherty limestone (Cox's Unit 2 lithology). Kindle's section, repre- 
senting 1V 2 feet of sandstone, is essentially the same one measured 
and described by us in 1972 (Fig. 1). Kindle (9) described a chert pebble 
conglomerate of "local development in the upper part of the Pendleton 
sandstone" on the north side of Fall Creek several hundred yards down- 
stream from the falls. When we visited this spot we found numerous 
chunks of concrete containing pebbles of dark-colored chert. We suspect 



328 Indiana Academy of Science 

that these slabs of concrete, which are embedded in alluvium several 
feet above sandstone bedrock at water level, were interpreted as 
conglomerate by Kindle. At the falls only the basal several inches of 
the sandstone contain pebbles, which consist of finely crystalline 
dolomite. No chert is present and the upper part of the sandstone is 
not conglomeratic. 

Stratigraphy of the Type Section 

Although Falls Park on Fall Creek is the type locality of the 
Pendleton Sandstone, a specific type section has not formally been 
designated. In the late 1800's the sandstone was well exposed in the then 
active quarry south of Fall Creek as well as in the banks and bed of 
the creek. In 1972, the quarry was abandoned and full of water and only 
the highest beds of Pendleton Sandstone were present above water level. 
We designated the outcrop at the falls (Fig. 1) as the type section of 
the Pendleton. This is both the largest and thickest exposure of the unit 
in the type area. 

At the type section the Pendleton forms massive ledges in the bed 
and banks of Fall Creek. The lip of the falls is located near the top of 
the sandstone, which is exposed in the bed of Fall Creek immediately 
above the falls, as are several inches of the overlying fossiliferous, 
arenaceous limestone. The bed of Fall Creek below the falls was 
developed on the Wabash Formation (Silurian, Niagaran). Although 
below water level in 1972 (Fig. 1), the upper 8 inches of the Wabash 
are accessible at the base of the falls on the south side and blocks can 
be obtained that indicate the nature of the contact with the Pendleton 
Sandstone. Total thickness of sandstone at the falls is 7 feet 7 inches. 
This is the only outcrop where both lower and upper contacts of the 
sandstone may be observed. 

Type Section of the Pendleton Sandstone 

Jeffersonville Limestone ft in. 

11 Limestone, gray, arenaceous, thin to medium-bedded; wackestone. This unit 
is visible only along south edge of old water-filled quarry about 25 feet 
north of picnic shelter. 2 10 

10 Limestone, gray with limonite surficial straining; tetracoral packstone or 
biosparite. The corals lie horizontally and are tubular, V^A inch in 
diameter. Observable below Unit 11 at the quarry and above the falls 
of Fall Creek; conodont sample 7. 4 

Pendleton Sandstone 

9 Sandstone, white, dolomitic, very fine-grained, very well-sorted, sub- 
angular to subrounded; has manganese oxide concretions, brachiopod »nd 
trilobite fragments near top of unit; conodont sample 6. 16 

8 Sandstone, white, very friable, very fine-grained, very well-sorted, sub- 
angular to subrounded, burrowed. See Figure 2 for grain size analysis; 
conodont sample 5. 1 10 

7 Sandstone, red and white, dolomitic, very fine-grained, very well-sorted, 
subrounded to subangular, thin-bedded, burrowed; has mottled lamination; 
conodont sample 4. 10 

6 Sandstone, red and white, dolomitic, very well-sorted, subrounded to 

subangular; conodont sample 3. 15 



Geography and Geology 329 



5 Sandstone, red and white, dolomitic, very well-sorted; has disrupted laminae, 

vertical fractures filled with ferrugenous oxides; conodont sample 3. 6 

4 Sandstone, red, dolomitic, very fine-grained, very well-sorted, subangular 

to subrounded; has sparse pyrite; conodont sample 3. 4 

3 Sandstone, reddish brown, dolomitic, very fine-grained, very well-sorted, 
subrounded to subangular; displays faint lamination; conodont sample 3; 
base of unit at water level 25 May 1972. 5 

2 Sandstone, gray, dolomitic, very fine-grained, very well-sorted, subrounded 

to subangular; lacks lamination; conodont sample 2. 4 

1 Sandstone, gray, dolomitic, very fine-grained, very well-sorted, subrounded 
to subangular; has undulatory lamination, possible bioturbation, rounded 
pebbles of dolomite CY2-I inch in diameter) at base; conodont sample 2. 3 

Total Thickness of Pendleton Sandstone 7 7 

Disconformity — irregular jagged surface suggests rocks below this unit 
must have been lithified prior to deposition; black to brown coating covers 
molds of unit 1 into the unconformity surface. 

Wabash Formation 

Dolomite, gray, very finely crystalline; crinoidal packstone to wackestone; 

has fissures filled with pyritic quartz sand; conodont sample 1. 3 

Dolomite, gray, very finely crystalline, crinoidal; conodont sample 1. 3 

Dolomite, gray, very finely crystalline; crinoidal packstone to grainstone; has 

moldic porosity (5%) after crinoid plates; conodont sample 1. 2 

In the early reports of Cox (4) and Kindle (9) the top of the 
Pendleton Sandstone as a rock unit was not defined, although the lime- 
stone beds above the sandstone were consistently separated as a distinct 
lithologic unit ("Pleurotomaria and coral bed" of Cox). Sutton (15), 
however, designated both the sandstone and the superjacent limestone 
beds the "Pendleton formation." Since the relation of the limestone beds, 
arenaceous in part, to higher rocks is not evident from the exposures 
at Pendleton, there is no satisfactory top to Sutton's "Pendleton 
formation". We believe that the top of the Pendleton Sandstone as a 
formal rock-stratigraphic unit of formational rank should be placed 
at the base of the lowest carbonate rocks overlying sandstone, whether 
or not these carbonates are arenaceous. This is a contact that can be 
mapped, although admittedly in a small area at Pendleton, and recog- 
nized in the subsurface. We advocate restriction of the Pendleton to 
sandstone at the base of middle Devonian limestones or dolomites. On 
this basis we assign rocks superjacent to the sandstone at Pendleton 
to the Jeffersonville Limestone. W. J. Wayne (unpublished data) regards 
the Pendleton as a member of the Jeffersonville, which alternate interpre- 
tation merits consideration. Regardless of the rank of the unit, we prefer 
using the name Pendleton Sandstone for sub-Jeffersonville or sub-Geneva 
sandstones, which may be discontinuous, in central and southern Indiana. 
If basal middle Devonian rocks overlying Silurian strata in this region 
are arenaceous carbonates, we prefer designation of these beds as 
Geneva Dolomite or Jeffersonville Limestone, respectively. 

Paleontology and Correlation 

The Pendleton Sandstone and the overlying limestone beds contain 
an invertebrate megafauna composed mostly of corals, brachiopods, 
trilobites, stromatoporoids, and gastropods. The fossils were initially 



330 Indiana Academy of Science 

studied by Cox (4) who presented a faunal list and named the coral- 
rich limestone immediately overlying the sandstone the "Pleurotomaria 
and coral bed" and Hall (7) who correlated the beds exposed at Falls 
Park with the Scoharie Formation (upper lower Devonian) of New York 
on the basis of faunal similarity. Kindle (9) identified additional taxa 
from the sandstone and "Pleurotomaria and coral bed" and supported 
Hall's correlation. 

A different correlation was made by Sutton (15) who interpreted 
the Pendleton as equivalent to the lower parts of the Geneva and 
Jeffersonville Formations (lower middle Devonian) and considered the 
sandstone as one of three lithologic facies of this stratigraphic interval. 
Weller (19) similarly interpreted the Pendleton and indicated it is 
"comparable to and may be correlated with the Dutch Creek 
[Sandstone Member of the Grand Tower Limestone] of Illinois." Cooper 
et al. (2) also correlated the Pendleton with the Geneva and Jefferson- 
ville. On the basis of paleontologic, sedimentologic, and paleogeographic 
considerations we support the interpretations of Sutton and Weller 
regarding the stratigraphic position of the Pendleton as low in 
the middle Devonian. 

We systematically channel sampled the beds at Pendleton for 
conodonts. One kilogram of rock was processed from each of the 7 
stratigraphic intervals shown in Figure 1. Sample 1 from the top 8 
inches of the Wabash Formation (Silurian, Niagaran) contained a mod- 
erate conodont fauna assigned to the Polygnathoides siluricus Zone 
(mid-Silurian, Ludlow Stage of Europe) (17). The fauna was dominated 
by panderodids and contained as important elements Ozarkodina media 
and O. simplex identified by Carl B. Rexroad, Indiana Geological Survey. 
Sample 2 from the basal pebbly sandstone of the Pendleton contained 
a few specimens of Silurian panderodids which we interpreted as re- 
worked from older rocks and some of which might be included in the 
pebbles of finely crystalline dolomite that are present immediately above 
the Siluro-Devonian disconformity. Sample 3 from a sandstone interval 
contained only two fragmentary amber-colored conodonts, one possibly 
a hindeodellid, that appeared to be Devonian but were undiagnostic. 
Samples 4-7 were barren of conodonts. 

Although sandstones may yield small numbers of identifiable 
conodonts, diagnostic faunas have been recovered from other 
sandstones by several workers. The Dutch Creek Sandstone Member 
of the Grand Tower Limestone of southern Illinois occupies a similar 
stratigraphic position as the Pendleton (1, 2, 19). The Dutch Creek con- 
tains a sparse conodont fauna containing as diagnostic elements 
several subspecies of Icriodus latericrescens (1). One, /. later icrescens 
robustus Orr, is an index for the lower middle Devonian and is also 
known from the Jeffersonville Limestone of southern Indiana and the 
Onondaga Limestone of New York (10). 

Sandstone or arenaceous carbonate rocks typically occupy a strati- 
graphic position at or near the base of the middle Devonian throughout 
the craton in central and eastern United States (14). In the 



Geography and Geology 



331 



Devonian outcrop belt of southern Indiana, basal middle Devonian 
carbonates are generally only slightly arenaceous. They become in- 
creasingly so westward into the Illinois Basin where beds of sandstone 
are discontinuously present throughout much of the western part of 
the southern half of the state (12, 14). 

According to Summerson and Swann (14), general uplift in the 
Ozarks and Wisconsin highlands following deposition of the Clear Creek 
Chert (upper lower Devonian of southern Illinois) exposed Cambro- 
Ordovician clastic formations. Quartz sand drived from these lower 
Paleozoic units was spread eastward principally by wind under near- 
arid conditions. These authors suggested that the Pendleton sand body 
resulted from obstruction of sand movement by the gentle topography 
of the differentially upwarped Cincinnati Arch. The sand was then 
stabilized by deposition of middle Devonian carbonate rocks (Cox's 
"Pleurotomaria and coral bed" at the type section). 

Petrography 

In the field the Pendleton Sandstone is medium- to thick-bedded 
(8) having 4-inch to 22-inch beds split by partings. Mottled lamination 
and the oblique angle of trilobite and brachiopod tests to bedding planes 
suggest that the lack of internal structures, such as ripple marks and 
cross-bedding, is a result of bioturbation. 



0.5 



0.25 0.125 0.0625 0.0313 0.0156 0.0076 0.0039 0.0020 0.0010 ._. 
i i ■ ■ « ■ ■ ■ ■ MM 



99.98 



MEAN 


0.096 


SORTING 


0.275 


SKEWNESS 


-0.155 


KURTOSIS 


1.250 



GRAPHICAL PARAMETERS OF FOLK AND WARD 




10 X 



SAND SAND SAND SAND 

Figure 2. Cumulative frequency plot and grain size parameters (5) of one representative 
sample from the friable interval of the Pendleton Sandstone 51 to 7S inches above the 

base. 



332 



Indiana Academy of Science 



The basal contact of the Pendleton is abrupt and represents a 
change from the Wabash Formation (Silurian), dolomite, to Pendleton 
Sandstone (middle Devonian), dolomitic sandstone. Fissures filled with 
pyrite, dolomite, and sand extend downward into the Wabash. The 
unconformity surface (Fig. 1) is irregular to jagged, showing the 
lithified nature of the Silurian rock before Devonian sedimentation. A 
black to brown coating covers the surface of Devonian sandstone molds 
of the Silurian unconformity surface. Spherical to well-rounded lithic 
clasts of dolomite up to 1 inch in diameter are enclosed in a sandstone 
matrix above the unconformity. The Silurian conodont fauna previously 
cited indicates that the lithoclasts are reworked Silurian material. 

The upper contact of the Pendleton can be easily mapped at the 
base of a key bed of coralline limestone (Fig. 1) superjacent to the sand- 
stone in the type area. 

Part of the Pendleton Sandstone from 51 to 73 inches above the 
base is friable, contains 20-30% porosity, lacks dolomite, and lends itself 
to sieve analysis (Fig. 2). The statistical parameters and grain 
attributes summarized in Table 1 characterize two samples of the 
friable zone. 

Alizarine Red S (18) stains slabs dark purple indicating ferroan 
dolomite cement as an important constituent. In thin section the 
dolomite cement is euhedral and evenly distributed except for concen- 
trations in clots and plates that probably represent replaced fossils. 
Most dolomite rhombs are 0.08 to 0.04 mm in diameter, but a large 
number of smaller rhombs range down into the silt range. Some thin 
sections are composed of nearly 50% dolomite. In thin section quartz 
appears to have been initially more rounded (0.7-0.9) (11) as over- 
growths, which significantly reduce roundness, are easily recognized. 
Eighty-six percent of the grains have non-undulatory extinction; 
14% have undulatory extinction. 

Table 1. Grain size parameters for two samples of the friable zone. 



Parameters 




Samples 




1 




2 


Mean Grain Size (5) 


0.0981 mm 




0.0960 mm 


Maximum Grain Size of First Percentile 


0.203 mm 




0.203 mm 


Sorting (5) 


0.231 




0.275 


Skewness (5) 


—0.514 




—0.155 


Kurtosis (5) 


0.95 




1.25 


Roundness (11) 


0.1-0.3 




0.1-0.3 


Sphericity (11) 


0.7-0.9 




0.7-0.9 



Minor constituents are pyrite and lithic clasts of dolomite and fer- 
roan dolomite. The pyrite is most often inset into the dolomite cement. 
Lithic clasts have finely disseminated pyrite concentrated in a rim 
around the clasts, which are aggregates of silt size, hypidiomorphic 
dolomite with moldic porosity. 



Geography and Geology 333 

The porosity of the cemented sandstone averages 10% in thin section. 
Porosity is intergranular in areas not filled by dolomite cement. 
Quartz grain contacts are tangential, but secondary overgrowths make 
many contacts appear planar to concavoconvex. Quartz-quartz contacts 
average 1.5 per grain. 

A diagenetic history can be interpreted from thin sections. Compac- 
tion of sand grains to tangential contacts followed deposition. Quartz 
overgrowths formed and lengthened quartz-quartz contacts. Euhedral 
ferroan dolomite then cemented the rock. Pyrite may have been gen- 
erated into the dolomite cement and /or have been transported in with 
dolomite lithic clasts that were since recrystallized. 

Petrology 

The sequence of disconformity, sandstone, fossiliferous limestone 
suggests transgression by a middle Devonian shoreline with subsequent 
deposition in deeper water conditions represented by the Jeffersonville 
Limestone. Lack of appropriate sedimentary structures prohibited any 
study of the direction of transport of sand but directions can be taken 
on numerous corals on the coralline key bed (Fig. 1). A vague 
bimodal trend at N35E to S35W and N75E to S75W (weaker) is evident. 
Statistical parameter plots of Friedman (6) for sedimentary environ- 
ments, CM diagrams of Passega (13), and probability plots of grain 
sizes of Visher (16) do not conflict with the interpretation that the 
Pendleton Sandstone at its type section represents sedimentation in 
a littoral environment. 



Literature Cited 

1. Collinson, Charles, L. E. Becker, G. W. James, J. W. Koenig, and D. H. 
Swann. 1968. Illinois Basin, p. 940-962. In Charles Collinson. Devonian of the 
north-central region, United States. Int. Symp. on the Devonian Sys. Calgary, 
Alberta. Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol. 1:933-971. 

2. Cooper, G. A., Charles Butts, K. E. Caster, G. H. Chadwick, Winifred 
Goldring, E. M. Kindle, Edwin Kirk, C. W. Merriam, F. M. Swartz, P. S. 
Warren, A. S. Warthin, and Bradford Willard. 1942. Correlation of the 
Devonian sedimentary formations of North America. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 
53:1729-1794. 

3. COX, E. T. 1869. First annual report of the Geological Survey of Indiana, made 
during the year 1869. 240 p. 

4. 1879. Eighth, ninth, and tenth annual reports of the Geological Survey of 



Indiana, made during the years 1876-77-78. 541 p. 

5. Folk, R. L., and E. C. Ward. 1957. Brazos River bar: a study in the significance of 
grain size parameters. J. Sed. Petrol. 27:3-27. 

6. Friedman, G. M. 1961. Distinction between dune, beach, and river sand from their 
textural characteristics. J. Sed. Petrol. 1:514-529. 

7. Hall, James. 1879. Footnote [Correlation of the Pendleton Sandstone]. Indiana 
Geol. Survey Annu. Rep. 8, 9, and 10. p. 60. 



334 Indiana Academy of Science 



8. Ingram, R. L. 1954. Terminology for the thickness of stratification and parting units 
in sedimentary rocks. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 65:937-938. 

9. Kindle, E. M. 1901. The Devonian fossils and stratigraphy of Indiana. Indiana Dep. 
Geol. and Natur. Resources Annu. Rep. 25:529-758, 773-775. 

10. Klapper, Gilbert, C. A. Sandberg, Charles Collinson, J. W. Huddle, R. W. 
Orr, L. V. Rickard, Dietmar Schumacher, George Seddon, and T. T. Uyeno. 
1971. North American Devonian conodont biostratigraphy. Geol. Soc. Amer. Memoirs 
127:285-316. 

11. Krumbein, W. C, and L. L. Sloss. 1963. Stratigraphy and sedimentation. W. H. 
Freeman and Co., San Francisco, Cal. 660 p. 

12. Logan, W. L. 1931. The sub-surface strata of Indiana. Indiana Dep. Conserv. Pub. 
108. 790 p. 

13. Passega, R. 1964. Grain size representation by CM patterns as a geological tool. 
J. Sed. Petrol. 34:830-847. 

14. Summerson, C. H., and D. H. Swann. 1970. Patterns of Devonian sand on the North 
American craton and their interpretation. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 81:469-490. 

15. Sutton, A. H. 1944. The Devonian System in Indiana. Illinois Geol. Survey Bull. 
68:162-173. 

16. Visher, G. S. 1969. Grain size distributions and depositional processes. J. Sed. 
Petrol. 39:1074-1106. 

17. Walliser, O. H. 1971. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Silurian of Europe. Geol. Soc. 
Amer. Mem. 127:195-206. 

18. Warne, S. J. 1962. A quick field or laboratory staining scheme for differentiation 
of major carbonate minerals. J. Sed. Petrology 32:29-38. 

19. Weller, J. M. 1944. Devonian correlations in Illinois and surrounding states: a 
summary. Illinois Geol. Surv. Bull. 68:205-213. 



Microseism Activity in Indiana 

Madan M. Varma and Robert F. Blakely 

Geology Department 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

The microseism activity recorded at the Indiana University Seismological Laboratory 
was analyzed for the period from January 1969 to December 1970. In addition to occasions 
of sharp, sporadic activity associated with cyclones over the Atlantic Ocean, a general 
background level of microseisms was detected. The intensity of the background level 
during the northern hemisphere winter was about four times the activity at the summer 
solstice. 

In a separate but related study the track of the October 1971 hurricane Ginger was 
compared with microseism activity in Bloomington. As the hurricane left the open ocean 
for the continental shelf of the Carolinas, microseism activity increased. A sharp decline 
in microseism level correlated with the landfall of the hurricane's eye. 

Introduction 

This is a progress report on the study of midwestern microseism 
activity being conducted at Indiana University. By microseisms we mean 
small bundles of sinusoidal oscillations or pendulum vibrations which 
are quite distinct from an earthquake or a blast record on a seismogram 
(1, 4). Their period generally ranges from 4 to 10 sec. They show the 
phenomenon of beats. A microseism storm may last for a few days and 
is closely related to the weather. Four theories have been proposed for 
their generation (2) : 

1) Theories of local origin, meteorological or geological at or near 
the recording station. 

2) Theories of thermal or barometric gradients travelling over 
continental areas. 

3) Theories connected with storms or storm waves at sea. Also 
called standing sea wave pattern theories. 

4) Theories of surf -pounding or breaking on the rocky coast of 
a continent. 

Our investigations have shown that storms over the sea, especially 
when they are centered on the continental shelf, play a dominant role 
in generating microseisms. 

Observation Techniques 

Our seismological observatory at Bloomington is equipped with 
three component (i.e., vertical, north-south, and east-west) short-period 
(about 1.0 sec) Benioff seismographs and three component long-period 
(about 15.0 sec) Sprengnether seismographs. Minute and hour time- 
marks are controlled by a local crystal clock. The time-marks are cali- 
brated daily against radio-broadcast, standard time. 

335 



336 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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fill! 

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Geography and Geology 337 

The Character of Microseisms 

On a quiet day we have neither a microseism storm nor an earth- 
quake recorded. The appearance of a seismogram on such a day is shown 
in Figure la. The trace amplitudes are small. An earthquake creates 
a seismogram record having a unique character. Figure lb shows such 
a seismogram of a moderately strong earthquake which occurred at 
the Atlantic Ridge. It had an origin time of 18 hours 3 min 19 sec GMT. 
The epicenter was at 15.2° north and 45.8° west. Its magnitude was 6.1 
and the depth of focus was about 30 km. All these facts may be deter- 
mined by analyzing the seismogram in terms of body wave phases P 
and S and their reflections from the surface of the Earth, PP and PPP. 
In addition, the surface wave phases, Love (G) and Rayleigh (R) waves, 
may be analyzed for further confirmation. These phases are marked 
on the Seismogram in Figure lb. 

The seismogram of a microseism storm is markedly different from 
that of an earthquake as shown in Figure lc. Figure Id shows a mag- 
nified portion of the record shown in Figure lc. The character of the 
seismogram is less variable with time, and duration of recorded 
activity is much greater. Microseisms consist of surface waves, Ray- 
leigh and Love waves, with Rayleigh wave amplitudes dominating. A 
storm generally lasts for a day or two and then diminishes to normal 
background level. 

Seismograms of a microseism storm give the impression of sinu- 
soidal oscillations modulated by beats as shown in Figure Id. Oscilla- 
tion periods range from 4 to 10 sec and vary with trace amplitude. In 
general the periods of microseisims have been observed to increase with 
an increase in amplitude. 

Annual Variation in Microseism Level 

We analyzed the microseism data at Bloomington for two consecu- 
tive years, 1969 and 1970. Maximum trace amplitudes (half of the peak 
to peak value) on vertical component, long-period seismograms were 
measured for consecutive six-hour intervals and plotted against time. 
Data for the years 1969 and 1970 are shown in Figure 2. The 
similarity between the activities of the two years is striking. It was 
noted that : 

1) Microseism activity was at its minimum level from about the 
first of May to the end of August. 

2) After August, the average general activity began to increase 
and was about 2 to 3 times that of the activity in the 
summer months. 

3) From November to April, the average general activity was 
at its maximum level — about 4 to 5 times that of the summer 
months. In addition to a general rise in level, the frequency 
of storms increased during the winter. These storms had 
amplitudes of 10 to 30 times those of the average activity 
during the summer months. 



338 



Indiana Academy of Science 



4) The microseism storms developed slowly with amplitude 
gradually tapering off. There were no sudden increases or de- 
creases of a microseism storm; rather, the activity appears 
to develop smoothly in time. 




1969 



ui^J4^w 




iJiFiMiAiMiJiJiAiSiOiNi'd 




1970 



f%^wJULw^w 



jjwmwi 



ink 



v 



Figure 2. Graph showing annual variation of microseism activity for the year 1969 and 

1970. Maximum trace amplitude (half the peak to peak value) is plotted on the vertical 

axis. Sharp peaks are short-lived storms. 



We postulate that the high general activity in winter months, with 
its microseism storms occurring in this period, correlates with 
meteorological phenomena. We further believe that storms occurring 
at lower latitudes in winter months provide coupling of energy to the 
crust through water along the continental shelf. In summer months 
storms are concentrated at higher latitudes and less energy is trans- 
mitted „o the continents (3). 



Geography and Geology 



339 




28 29 30 



Figure 3. Plot of microseism activity during the fall of 1971. Movement of the Hurricane 
Ginger across the continental shelf caused the two peaks. 



Microseisms and Hurricane Ginger, 1971 

In a separate but related study we analyzed a particular storm, 
Ginger, which occurred on the eastern coast of the United States during 
the period of September 28 to October 6, 1971. Microseism activity 
during this period, in terms of trace amplitude vs. time, is plotted in 
Figure 3. In that figure there are two periods of high activity and in 
between, the activity was low. These fluctuations correlate very well 
with the location of the storm center with respect to the continental 
shelf. Surface weather maps for the period September 30 to October 
6, 1971, are presented in Figure 4. 





Figure 4. Surface weather maps for the period Sept. SO to Oct. 6, 1971, showing the 
progress of Hurricane Ginger. 



340 Indiana Academy of Science 

It was observed that : 

1) On September 30, when the hurricane was centered on the con- 
tinental shelf (Fig. 4), the microseism activity was at its 
maximum level (Fig. 3). 

2) On October 2, when the hurricane had moved from the con- 
tinental shelf and was centered on the continent (Fig. 4), the 
microseism activity decreased to its minimum level (Fig. 3). 

3) On October 4, when the hurricane was again centered near the 
continental shelf, the microseism activity increased con- 
siderably. 

4) On October 6, when the hurricane moved farther away from 
the continental shelf toward the sea, the microseism activity 
returned to normal background level. 

Conclusions 

From these two studies we deduce : 

1) That microseism storms in the midwest are caused by 
meterological storms over the eastern continental shelf. 

2) That the general high level of microseisms during the northern 
hemisphere winter months reflects a general high level of 
cyclonic activity for the period. 

Acknowledgment 

We wish to thank Professor Judson Mead for his interest and en- 
couragement during the course of this study. 



Literature Cited 

1. Gutenberg, B. 1958. Microseisms, p. 53-92. In H. E. Landsberg and Van J. 
Mieghem [eds.] Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y. 325 p. 

2. Hjortenberg, E., 1963. Some theories of microseisms in the light of more recent 
findings. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 53:1085-1090. 

3. Oliver, J., and R. Page. 1963. Concurrent storms of long and ultralong period 
microseisms. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 53:15-26. 

4. National Academy of Sciences. 1952. Symposium on Microseisms. Nat. Res. Coun., 
Washington, D. C. 125 p. 



Feasibility of Midwest Crustal Studies Based on 
Earthquake Surface Wave Ellipticities 

John L. Sexton, Judson Mead and Albert J. Rudman 

Geology Department 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Because of the scarcity of seismograph stations in Indiana and surrounding states, 
there is a need for the development of a method for determining crustal structures from 
a single isolated station. A method utilizing Rayleigh wave ellipticity, as developed by 
Boore and Toksoz, was applied to data from the Indiana University seismograph station. 
Ellipticity is based on the spectral ratios of the Rayleigh wave particle motion, and the 
calculations are made using standard Fourier techniques. Preliminary comparisons with 
computer models of the Midwest suggest the feasibility of this method as a useful tool 
in studying the local crustal configuration. 

Introduction 

The development of a technique for determination of crustal struc- 
ture from earthquake seismograms obtained at a single seismograph sta- 
tion is desirable, especially for areas where seismograph stations are 
scarce. One such technique utilizing ellipticity (ratio of radial to vertical 
particle displacement) of Rayleigh waves was proposed by Boore and 
Toksoz (2), but has since received very little attention. The purpose 
of this paper is to briefly review the ellipticity technique, to present 
the results of its first application in the U. S. Midwest and to indicate 
the direction of further research. 

Seismic surface waves and body waves conventionally provide two 
independent sources of information (1) on the structure of the earth's 
crust and upper mantle (Fig. 1). Rayleigh wave velocities and Rayleigh 
wave ellipticity also provide two independent sources of information 
related to the structure of the earth (2). Study of the ellipticity 
method is justified because there has been only one published attempt 
to apply the method to observational data (2), and because resulting 
models represent a local average of crustal properties. 



Indiana 



Appalachians 



Atlantic 




i- 20 



- 40 Km 



Figure 1. Cross section of Eastern and Midwestern U. S. crust showing the Moho (solid 
line) and Conrad (dashed line) discontinuities. Modified from Wyllie (-4) . 

Although the Boore-Toksoz study theoretically demonstrated that 
ellipticity provides information independent of phase velocity, their 



341 



342 



Indiana Academy of Science 



observational ellipticity data (Fig. 2) showed too much scatter to enable 
them to derive a crustal model. Instead, they first used phase velocity 
data to derive several models and then used the ellipticity data as a 
constraint to choose the final model. Scatter in the observational data 
may have been caused by the complex geology in the area studied 
(LAS A seismic array of Eastern Montana). Application of the method 
in a less complex geologic setting may be more successful and further 
establish the feasibility of the ellipticity method. A brief and elementary 
review of the theory follows. 



1.000 



> 

Jr 0.900 



S^ 0.800 

H 
Q_ 



w 0.700- 



0.600 



- 


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i i i i 

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i 


-\ 


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* •: 














• 








••• • 

i i i i 


i i i i 


i 



15 20 25 



30 35 40 
PERIOD (sec) 



45 50 55 



Figure 2. Ellipticity data from Boore-Toksoz study in Eastern Montana. Dots represent 

observed ellipticity. Solid line represents theoretical ellipticity calculated from a model. 

After Boore and Toksoz (2). 



The Ellipticity Technique 

The theory for Rayleigh waves on a semi-infinite elastic solid was 
given by Lord Rayleigh in 1885. He demonstrated the existence of waves 
whose amplitudes decrease exponentially with depth. Particle motion 
is restricted to the vertical plane and is retrograde elliptical with respect 
to the direction of propagation (Fig. 3). For the homogeneous and 
isotropic half -space, the radial particle displacement (horizontal particle 




*\ 



PARTICLE MOTION 
WAVE PROROGATION 




Figure 3. Diagrammatic representation of particle motion of a Rayleigh wave with close 
up of elliptical orbit. V represents vertical particle motion. R represents radial particle 

motion. 



Geography and Geology 



343 



displacement toward or away from wave propagation direction) is about 
0.666 times the vertical particle displacement (R/V = 0.666). This ratio 
is the definition of ellipticity. Radial motion vanishes at 0.192 of a wave- 
length and below this depth the motion becomes elliptical prograde. The 
velocity of Rayleigh waves for the homogeneous isotropic half-space 
is approximately 9/10 of the velocity of shear waves in the medium. 

When a layered earth is introduced, Rayleigh waves exhibit dis- 
person, that is, the phase and group velocities become functions of 
period (or frequency). Thus, particle motion, and hence ellipticity (ratio 
of particle displacements) also become a function of period as defined 
in Equation 1. 

I R(T) | 



[1] 



E(T) = 

T = 
E = 
R = 



V = 



I V(T) | 

period of Rayleigh waves 

ellipticity 

radial Rayleigh wave particle 
displacement 

vertical Rayleigh wave particle 
displacement 



-H — » — I — | — I — «- 

TRANSVERSE 



' ■ I 



4-h 



-•— I- 




0.00 



50.00 



100.00 



150.00 200.00 

TIME (SEC) 



250.00 



300.00 



350 .00 



Figure 4. Digitized portions of the original (NS, EW, Vertical) seismograms and calcu- 
lated radial and transverse seismograms. 



344 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Ellipticity is defined in terms of vertical and radial motion, there- 
fore, it is necessary to combine the north-south and the east-west 
seismograms to produce the radial seismogram. This may be accom- 
plished by computer implementation of a simple two dimensional 
coordinate transformation. Digitized portions of the original records 
along with the calculated radial and transverse seismograms are shown 
in Figure 4. A transverse seismogram represents motion perpendicular 
to radial motion. 

Because the radial Rayleigh wave train R(t) and the vertical 
Rayleigh wave train V(t) are recorded as time series, it is necessary 
to transform the recorded wave motion to displacement as a function 
of frequency or period. Thus the ellipticity (Equation 1) is the ratio 
of two amplitude spectra (Fig. 5). In practice the transformation was 
accomplished by Fourier analysis performed on a CDC 6600 digital com- 
puter and using a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. 



RADIAL 




HO .00 BO .OS 

PERIOD (SEC) 



«*0 .00 B0 .00 

PERIOD (SEC) 



Figure 5. Amplitude spectra of the vertical and radial seismograms. 



It was previously noted that layering introduced frequency 
dependence of ellipticity. Further, the ellipticity values at a particular 
period depend upon the type of layering introduced in the earth model, 
including the elastic parameters within each layer. These properties 
allow comparison of theoretical ellipticity (model) curves to observed 
ellipticity curves. 



A Preliminary Application 

The ellipticity technique was applied to a set of seismograms 
recorded at the Indiana University seismograph station at Bloomington, 
Indiana. The Earthquake studied occurred on February 12, 1972, and 
was located at 15.3 S. Latitude and 173.4 W. Longitude in the Tonga 



Geography and Geology 



345 



Islands. Its origin time was 18 hours, 51 min, and 57 sec and it had a 
magnitude of 5.9 on the Richter Scale. 

A comparison of observed and model ellipticity is given in Figure 
6. Observed ellipticity was obtained (using Equation 1) from smoothed 
spectra of the radial and vertical seismograms. Smoothing was per- 
formed by a five point equal-weight moving average operator. 
Theoretical ellipticity was calculated for two crustal models of Mid- 
western United States. Model 1 was derived from surface wave phase 
velocity (3). Important parameters include density (p), P wave velocity 
( a ), and S wave velocity (^) for each layer of given thickness. 



.88 
.86 
.84 
.82 

.80 

>- 

o .78 

h- 
o_ 

_i 

w .76 
.74 
.72 



70 



.68 



Figure 



MODEL 2 (MODIFIED McEVILLY MODEL) 



I SURFACE < 

o=6.IO 0=3.50 


,.=2.70 


a = 6.40 0=3.68 


V, />=2.90 


o=6.70 /3=3.94 


/.=2.90 


0=8.15 /3=4.75 


• g ,=3.30 



38 Km # 




30 35 40 

PERIOD (SEC! 

. Comparison of observed and model ellipticity. Model 1 represents the crustal 
model of McEvilly (S). Model 2 represents a modified version of Model 1. 



Model 2 was derived from Model 1 by retaining only crustal 
layering and using constant values within the mantle. The second model 
is introduced to show that in the period range studied, the layering 
within the mantle has only a slight effect on the theoretical curve. This 
observation suggests that one need only consider changes in the crustal 
parameters in model calculations. Other models are being examined to 
determine the effect of changes in elastic parameters of the various 
layers. 



346 Indiana Academy of Science 

Conclusions 

This study represents a preliminary investigation. However, gen- 
eral agreement between the theoretical and observed ellipticity (Fig. 
6) is the first data to support this technique as a feasible method for 
determination of crustal structure in the Midwest. 

Further studies using this method have been planned and are the 
object of current research. Future research will include examination 
of additional earthquake data and additional models for the present 
crustal study, examination of shorter period data for earthquakes and 
propagation paths within the Illinois Basin, and the effect of direction 
of approach (azimuth) of the surface waves. Filtering techniques for 
further refinement of the data are now being considered. 

Acknowledgments 

Thanks are extended to Dr. David Boore of Stanford University, 
R. Herrmann of St. Louis University, and to the Indiana University 
Research Computing Center. 



Literature Cited 

1. Anderson, Don L. 1965. Recent evidence concerning the structure and composition 
of the earth's mantle, p. 1-131. In L. H. Ahrens, Frank Press, S. K. 
Runkorn, and H. C. Urey [eds]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 6. 
Pergamon Press, New York, N. Y. 510 p. 

2. Boore, David M., and Nafi Toksoz. 1969. Rayleigh wave particle motion and 
crustal structure. Bull Seismol. Soc. Amer. 59:331-346. 

3. McEvilly, T. V. 1964. Central U.S. crust-upper mantle structure from Love and 
Rayleigh wave phase velocity inversion. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 54:1997-2015. 

4. Wyllie, P. J. 1972. The Dynamic Earth. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 
N. Y. 416 p. 



A New Application of Downward Continuation of Gravity Fields 1 

Albert J. Rudman and Mad an M. Varma 

Geology Department 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Downward continuation of potential fields was successfully applied in 1971 in out- 
lining the shapes of simple geologic models and in outlining the source of real fields ob- 
served in Hamilton County, Indiana. Continuation methods were applied to studies of salt 
domes, and preliminary results from models suggest the usefulness in determining the 
configuration of such economically important bodies. Oscillations which appeared to be 
related to the areal outline of the upper surface were observed as the field was continued 
downward into the body. Continuation of the field to greater depths may be useful in de- 
tecting major changes in outline of the dome below its upper surface. 

Introduction 

Although the seismic reflection method constitutes the most im- 
portant geophysical exploration tool today, gravity and magnetic sur- 
veys continue to play an integral role in the study of subsurface geology. 
Recent developments of air and shipboard gravimeters have focused 
renewed attention on the use of gravity and magnetic data in indus- 
trial exploration for ore and petroleum reserves. 

Instrumental developments have stimulated numerous scientific 
papers on gravity interpretation. Some scientists are investigating how 
classic methods of interpretation can be improved by computer tech- 
nology. Others have considered entirely new interpretation concepts, 
mainly by investigating the behavior of fields in the frequency 
domain. Development of new interpretation methods is well summarized 
in a recent paper by Grant (2). In this report we present some new 
results for a classic method of analysis: downward continuation of 
potential fields (especially gravity fields). 

Downward Continuation 
Standard Applications 

Downward continuation was discussed in several early papers 
(1, 5) and more recently in two fundamental papers by Roy (6, 7). In 
its simplest form, the method of downward continuation allows gravity 
data mapped at the surface of the earth to be analyzed and the values 
that would theoretically occur at various depths beneath the surface 
to be calculated. 

The method and application were clearly illustrated by Henderson 
(4). He computed the theoretical gravity anomalies over two spheres 
buried Z = 10 depth units (Fig. 1). The anomaly at the surface 
(Z = 0) was shown in cross section as a bell-shaped curve. Inspection 



1 This study was funded in part by the Indiana Geological Survey and the 
Schlumberger Foundation. The Indiana University Research Center provided the use of 
a Model C.D.C. 6600 computer. 

347 



348 



Indiana Academy of Science 



of this curve indicated the presence of only one buried source. Downward 
continuation to lower levels (Z = 5) eventually separated the single 
anomaly into two distinct humps, each hump overlying one of the 
spheres. This is the classic application: continue the observed field 
downward toward the source to increase resolution. 



J-h- DEPTH BELOW PLANE 




13 15 17 19 21 X. IN GRID UNITS 



Figure 1. Gravitational anomalies over two spheres buried Z = 10 units. Anomaly at the 
surface (Z = 0) was continued downward to 5 different levels. (After Henderson (4)). 



Theory 

As summarized by Roy (7), downward continuation of a field can 
be developed from a Taylor Series expansion of the data or from decom- 
position of the data into its spectral components. In this study we used 
a computer program following the method of Henderson (4). The ob- 
served field was digitized using a square grid pattern with points 
spaced a distance Z units apart. Downward continuation was calculated 
in units of the grid interval (up to a maximum of Z = 5) 
using sets of coefficients developed by Henderson (4). 

There is both theoretical and empirical justification for not con- 
tinuing an observed anomaly below the top of the source of that 
anomaly. Given an observed gravity (or magnetic) field at a level 
Z = (Fig. 2), the horizontal dimensions of the anomaly will be wider 
than the mass producing it. As it was continued downward, the width 
of the anomaly decreased until it reached a limiting point approximating 
the size of the source (Z = 1.0). Continuation below this level was 
marked by oscillations of the field. Presence of oscillations were then 
used to determine the top of the mass. 

An excellent application of this theory of oscillations was illustrated 
by Roy (6). He showed (Fig. 3) that the magnetic field over an ore body 
buried 60 feet began oscillations somewhere between 2 and 3 depth units 
(50 to 75 feet deep). Analysis of where an anomaly begins to lose its 
regular share and begins to oscillate may be criticized as subjective. 
Therefore, Roy also plotted semi-log values of peak oscillations (insert 
on Fig. 3) and observed a maximum curvature at 2.6 depth units (65 
feet). It should be noted that Roy was not successful when applying 
similar methods to a gravitational field. 



Geography and Geology 



349 




Figure 2. Gravity anomaly over a mass with unit gravity at a level Z = 1.0. Oscillations 
appear only at deeper levels. (After Roy (6)). 



A New Application 

Analyses of a geologic source with vertical sides (i.e., a vertically 
prismatic body) is a simpler task than analyses of an irregular shaped 
body. For example, the shape of a vertical prism is readily outlined by 
the half-maximum values of its anomaly. Depth to the top of such a 
source is also easily calculated from half-maximum values. However, 
when the source has non-vertical sides, the problem becomes more 
complex. 




Z = 0.0 



Z=I.O 



Z = 2.0 



Z = 3.0 



Z = 4.0 




Figure 3. Vertical magnetic anomaly and downward continuations over an ore body at c 
level Z = 2.U. Groi.nd surface anomaly at Z = 0. (After Roy (6) ). 



350 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Downward continued field serves as a basis for a new type of an- 
alyses in the case of non-vertical geometries. We recognize that the 
source of a potential field can never be uniquely determined from the 
measured field. Nevertheless, Rudman et al. (8) showed that given 
certain assumptions a geometric form with sloping sides (Fig. 4) may 
be approximately definable by the presence of oscillations. The half- 
maximum value of the original anomaly outlines the source as long as 
the field is not continued below its top ( Z= 0). If the field is continued 
below the top, oscillations begin to appear at the edges of the 
anomaly (Z = 1). The central part of the anomaly may have large 
values but its shape should retain a smooth form. Instead of half- 
maximum values outlining the source at the continued depth, the 
presence of oscillations outlines the source. If the field is continued 
further into the source (Z = 3), large oscillations can be expected to 
dominate the entire anomaly. 



Z=0.0 




Figure 4. Sketch of theoretical anomaly over a source with non-vertical sides. 



In the study of a magnetic anomaly in Hamilton County, Rudman 
et al. (8) successfully outlined a source by downward continuation of 
a magnetic anomaly. Analyses of the gravitational field was less 
successful and questions remained concerning the validity of the method. 



Gravity Model Study 
Salt Dome Models 

Many case histories have demonstrated the validity of gravity fields 
in detecting the presence of salt domes and in calculating the depth to 
their upper surfaces. Defining the geometric shape of a dome is a more 
difficult problem, especially the determination of the size of the over- 
hang portion. Continuation methods seem to be applicable to this type 
of geologic problem. Halbouty (3) showed a salt dome in cross section 
with overhang (Fig. 5) and illustrated the possible entrapment of oil 
beneath the overhang. 

Simplified salt dome models were created for this study for over- 
hang thicknesses of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 feet (Fig. 6). Three-dimen- 
sional gravity fields were calculated and contoured maps prepared. 
These model maps were then continued downward in steps of 500 feet 
and cross sections constructed along line AA\ 



Geography and Geology 



351 



SEA LEVEL 




10000 



SCALE 



Figure 5. Cross section of Bethel Salt dome in Anderson County, Texas. Note accumula- 
tion of oil beneath the overhang. (After Halbouty (3)). 



Results 

Cross sections over a model with a 500 foot-thick overhang (Fig. 
7) show that the anomaly retains its regular shape until the field has 
been continued downward 2 or 3 units (1,000 to 1,500 feet below the sur- 
face). At these levels of continuation, oscillations begin to appear along 
the edges of the anomaly indicating we have continued below the over- 
hang in that region. 







Figure 6. Salt dome model used to compute three separate gravity maps (for overhang 
thicknesses of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 feet). 



352 



Indiana Academy of Science 










V / 



' y,i / 

y i 
/ j 



t 




• 


" 


Z = 0.0 








Z=1.0 
Z = 2.0 


500' 












1 
















• 




x 


Z = 3.0 








• 




X 


Z = 4.0 








. 




X 


Z = 5.0 




> 


< 


CROSS SECTION OF > 
SALT DOME MODEL 


r 







Figure 7. Gravitational anomaly (Z = 0) calculated over a salt dome buried 500 feet. The 

anomaly was continued downward to five levels each 500 feet apart. A plot of peak values 

at two locations shows variation of gravity with downward continuation. 



A detailed plot (Fig. 7) of two selected points (one over the center 
of the dome, and the other over the overhang) show that (a) values 
over the center increased regularly for all five continuations and (b) 
values over the overhang began to decrease as the field was continued 
through the overhang. 

Only minor differences were observed for models with 1,000 and 
1,500 feet of overhang. The fields of these models show oscillations ap- 
pearing about 1,500-2,000 feet down (again below the overhang). In 
cross section the peak values over the central part of the anomaly con- 
tinued to increase regularly (as predicted) for all values of continua- 
tion. However, the rate of increase diminished when the field was con- 
tinued below the overhang portion. 



Conclusions 

Continuation of gravity fields over non-vertical geometries may 
be able to define gross changes in shape of the source. In the special 
case of a salt dome, sensitivity of the method was less than expected. 
Detection of the overhang was possible, but only minor differences ob- 
served for thicknesses varying from 500 to 1,500 feet. 



Geography and Geology 353 



Literature Cited 

1. Evjen, H. M. 1936. The place of the vertical gradient in gravitational interpretations. 
Geophysics 1:127-136. 

2. Grant, F. S. 1972. Review of data processing and interpretation methods in gravity 
and magnetics, 1964-1971. Geophysics 37:647-661. 

3. Halbouty, M. T. 1967. Salt Domes: Gulf Region, United States and Mexico. Gulf 
Publishing Co., Houston, Texas. 425 p. 

4. Henderson, R. G. 1960. A comprehensive system of automatic computation in mag- 
netic and gravity interpretation. Geophysics 25:569-585. 

5. Peters, L. J. 1949. The direct approach to magnetic interpretation and its practical 
application. Geophysics 14:290-320. 

6. Roy, A. 1966. The method of continuation in mining geophysical interpretation. 
Geoexploration 4:65-83. 

7. 1967. Convergence in downward continuation for some simple geometries. 



Geophysics 32:853-866. 

8. Rudman, Albert J., J. Mead, J. F. Whaley, and R. F. Blakely. 1971. 
Geophysical analysis in central Indiana using potential field continuation. 
Geophysics 36:878-890. 



Stratigraphic, Floral and Faunal History 
of a Wisconsinan Silt Deposit 

Bonnie Gray 1 

Department of Geology 

Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio 44074 

Abstract 
A section of intraglacial sediments of Wisconsinan age from central Indiana was 
sampled and used in reconstructing the periglacial environment during a brief ice-free 
period. Data collected for pollen, plant macrofossils, and land snails indicate colonization 
of the newly deglaciated surface by mosses, ferns, grasses, sedges and several snail 
species. At least one pioneer tree species (Alnus sp., Betulaceae) was present, perhaps 
only in scrubby thickets. The vertical distribution of floras and faunas in the section is 
interpreted as a consequence of migration of species following the retreat of the glacier. 
There is a marked similarity between this sequence and the floral and faunal gradients 
surrounding present continental glaciers. 

Introduction 

During the maximum of the late Wisconsinan (Woodfordian Sub- 
stage) ice advance in central Indiana some 20,000 years ago, the ice 
sheet made two major advances separated by a short period of retreat. 
Sediments deposited during this minor recession are distinguished in 
places by a fossiliferous silt bed containing abundant remains of a land 
snail, Vertigo alpestris oughtoni. This silt is a principal key bed in 
Wayne's (7) classification of Wisconsinan deposits in Indiana and is 
his basis for differentiating the Cartersburg and Center Grove Till 
Members of the Trafalgar Formation. Several exposures of this silt 
were studied by Wayne (6, 7, 8), who used fossil mollusks to reconstruct 
the periglacial environment. The purpose of this report is to describe 
a new but similar section and to interpret its ecological history. 



U.S. Route 40 



a 







Index 

Figure 1. Map and sketch of sample site. Hachures indicate creek bank exposures. 
Crosshatching shows the location of the section sampled and described; P indicates 
angle of photosketch. Point of shovel in the photosketch marks the base of the disturbed 
silt bed, Unit 7. The dotted line on the index map shows the maximum Southern 
extent of the Wisconsinan ice sheet. 



1 Present address: Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, 
Boulder, Colorado, 80302. 

354 



Geography and Geology 



355 



Sample 
number 



a. y< 









s< 




Description 



Carter sburg Till Member. Not 
sampled. 



Thickness 
(inches) 



Silt, pebbly; blocky fracture, 
fine in- lower part to coarse 
in upper part; pebbles are 
gmgii in lower part to coarse 
in upper part. Disturbed, 
probably by frost action. k$ 



Clay, silty, brown, with pockets 

of reddish oxidized sand. 5-6 

Silt, dark, organic; upper l"-3" 
is contorted and is bleached 
to a light gray. 7-8 

Silt, gray, oxidized in streaks 
and spots to reddish brown; 
contains some charcoal and 
organic matter. 5 

Silt, as above; divisions are 

arbitrary. 5 

Silt, as above.. 5 



Gravel, at creek level and 
water-saturated . 

Center Grove Till Member, inferred. 
Exposed in lower creek banks to 
northeast. Not sampled. 



5+ 



Figure 2. Stratigraphic column of the section. 



Description of the Section 

The section studied is along a relocated stream channel a few 
hundred feet south of the junction of U.S. Route 40 and Indiana Route 
267 (Fig. 1), just east of Plainfield, Indiana (NE*4, SW 1 ^, Sec. 25, 
T15N, R1E; Bridgeport IV2' Quad.). At the base of the section, and 
exposed principally on the east bank of Clarks Creek, is the Center Grove 
Till member. This is overlain by about 6 feet of intraglacial sediment, 
predominantly silt. The best exposure of this silt is at the site 



356 Indiana Academy of Science 

sampled, near the southwest end of the exposure (Fig. 1). Here it is 
overlain by only a few feet of the Cartersburg Till Member, but along 
the east bank of the creek about 10 feet of this till is present. 
The stratigraphic sequence of the section is shown in Figure 2. 

Fossils 
Plant Macrofossils 

Standard laboratory techniques were used to separate large organic 
remains from the rest of the samples. The plant remains consist mostly 
of a litter of unidentifiable bark, twig and tendril pieces. Moss frag- 
ments are common and apparently represent some upland form rather 
than sphagnum or other bog moss (George Jones, personal communica- 
tion, April 1972). Also abundant are pale brown, roughly spherical 
capsules, 1 to 2 mm in diameter with trilete sutures. These are mega- 
spores from some species of quillwort, an aquatic or amphibious herb 
with a sedge-like or grass-like habit. Quillworts range widely, from 
Mexico to Labrador (George Jones, personal communication, April 
1972). The clustered leaf bases of sedge are also numerous in the leaf 
litter. At the sample site, some large stumps and roots, identified as 
alder (Alnus sp., Betulaceae) are preserved in growth position. Wood 
specimens from other sites in the Vertigo alpestris oughtoni bed are 
dated at 19,930 to 20,300 B.P. (8, Table 1). 

Plant Microfossils 

The method of pollen extraction used in this study was adapted 
from the method used at the Indiana Geological Survey laboratories. 
Samples are washed in a series of baths of NaOH, HC1 acid and HF 
acid and then are dried in alcohol washes. The samples are then ready 
for mounting. They were scanned under 430X and 800X magnification, 
and each pollen grain and spore in every sample was described and 
sketched. All pollen and spores recovered are small forms in the 10 to 
40 ix size range. The majority are from the moss, fern, sedge and 
grass families (Fig. 3). Arboreal pollen identified as birch (Betulaceae) 
is present in Samples 4, 6, and 7. Although the number of grains re- 
covered is small and firm conclusions cannot be drawn from the pollen 
alone, it is clear that the abundance and diversity of pollen and 
spores increases upward, reaches a maximum in Sample 4, and shows 
no significant decrease in number or diversity from that point to the 
top of the section. Mosses, ferns, sedges and grasses are represented 
in all samples. The birch pollen only appears high in the section strati- 
graphically, but it is persistent throughout the upper four samples. 

Insects 

An interesting surprise was the discovery of several well preserved 
beetle parts. Delicate, iridescent black body plates with pitted surfaces 
were most numerous. Several leg sections and two complete heads were 
also recovered. Coope has made ecological interpretations of sedi- 
mentary sequences based on beetle faunas (2). Some species evidently 
fed exclusively on certain plants and required very specific habitat 
conditions. Although limited resources and time prevented identification 
of the beetle parts found in this study, this is a challenging field for 
future research. 



Geography and Geology 



357 



-Q 

E 
5 

=3 
C 

4 

a> 

~ 3 

Q. 

E 



Moss or fern Grass or sedge Birch 



Unidentified Sum 



9 & % 



1 © 



Q> 



8 O 



2 ®1 



3 » 



3 €> 



17 



15 



25 



Figure 3. Diagram showing frequency (by number) of principal types of pollen and 

spores in the section studied and sketches of some representative specimens. 

Magnifications vary; the bar scales represent 10 p. 



Snails 

The criterion used for separating snails to be identified, counted 
and used for interpretive purposes was the presence of intact apices. 
In this way accidental double counting of broken individuals is avoided. 
Snails were then separated by genus and counted. 

Four genera were recovered, including the bed marker fossil, 
Vertigo. One genus, probably Vallonia, was represented by only one 
individual. Representatives of Succinea appear in the silt immediately 
above the gravel in the lowest stratum of the section and increase in 
number upward to the middle of the section (Fig. 4). Vertigo and 
Pupilla, tabulated together because they are indicative of the same 
habitat, enter somewhat higher in the stratigraphic sequence and out- 
number Succinea in the fourth through seventh stratigraphic units. 

Succinea is adapted to a wide range of habitats. Today this genus 
lives on prairies and grasslands as well as in areas of discontinuous 
woods in the northern United States (1, 3). It is well adapted to life 
in grassy or mossy meadows without the presence of brush or trees. 
Pupilla and Vertigo, however, prefer wooded spots. Both presently occur 
in cool, humid climates in Manitoba and northern Ontario and also in 
the Rocky Mountains at higher elevations as far south as New Mexico 
(1, 3). All three genera require moist humic material in which to live 



358 



Indiana Academy of Science 



and all forage for food in the decaying humus, eating algae and lichens, 
among other things ( 5 ) . 



sample 
number 






3 


2 


Ra 


io 
1 0.8 


06 


0.4 
























7 


« 


1 1 ';\ 












6 


|19 








3,0.1 


















5 


| 39 












il52i 






















4 I 


88 










/ ; 9 o;i 












,/ 












3 


| 57 






^ 








mm 










^' 














2 


| 45 


^ 






m 




1 






1| 









90 60 

Succinea spp. 



30 30 60 90 

Frequency Vertigo spp. -j- Pupilla spp. 






Figure 4. Diagram, showing the abundance of ecologically significant gastropod species. 

Bars designate observed frequencies; dots and connecting line show the trend of species 

dominance on a ratio scale. Compare with pollen and spore sums shown in Figure 3. 



Interpretation 

Most present glaciers are in retreat, and around the margins of 
these bare ground is exposed. The first plant invaders on newly ex- 
posed rock rubble are lichens. Mosses and sedges move in rapidly, 
making possible the advance of pioneer tree species. Alder (Alnus spp., 
Betulaceae) and willow (Salix spp., Salicaceae) are able to establish 
scrubby thickets in moist protected pockets (4). The scene is then set 
for forest development beginning with larch (Larix spp., Pinacae) 
followed by other conifers. 

Under the influence of transgression or regression, lateral facies 
relationships show up as vertical facies relationships in stratigraphic 
section. This principle, sometimes known as Walther's law, after the 
German stratigrapher who first clearly stated it, can also be applied 
to horizontal floral and faunal facies around present glacier margins. 
As the ice transgresses or regresses, the flora and fauna will pre- 
sumably migrate accordingly, and this will result in vertical floral and 
faunal relationships in stratigraphic succession. 

The stratigraphy and fossil assemblages of the deposit studied 
clearly show the successive environments that developed as the ice sheet 



Geography and Geology 359 

retreated following deposition of the Center Grove Till Member and 
then readvanced to deposit the Cartersville Till. During deglaciation, 
material carried by the melting ice began to be deposited immediately. 
The fineness of the silt dominant throughout the section suggests that 
this was an area of overbank deposits, perhaps near a system of braided 
outwash streams or possibly a broad swale where outwash ponded. 
During times of high water, meltwater overflowed its channels and, 
because of its decreased velocity in overbank areas, dropped its load 
of silt. The thickness of the sedimentary units, together with the 
sparseness of pollen, gives the impression that the rate of sedimentation 
was fairly rapid. Floating ice masses could raft and drop larger material 
carried from the nearby glacier — pockets of sand, occasional pebbles, 
cobbles and trapped organic debris. Stratigraphic Unit 5 (Fig. 2) is a 
bed of leached, light gray silt, highly contorted and irregular in thick 
ness. Some degree of soil development is suggested by the leaching, and 
it seems likely that the contortion was caused by intense frost action. 
Such disturbed soils occur today at high altitudes and in arctic regions 
where temperature regimes are severe. Above this unit is a thick bed 
of highly disturbed sediment (Unit 7), probably deposited very near 
the returning glacier's front. The distortion in this sediment may show 
the effect of intense frost action and subsequent contortion by the over- 
riding ice sheet. 

The upward increase in number of pollen grains and spores, along 
with the increase in diversity of pollen types, indicates increasing 
colonization of the area by plants. Stratigraphically first on the scene 
and readying the substrate for alder thickets were mosses, ferns and 
sedges. These groups are all represented by pollen and spores from the 
lowest to the highest stratigraphic units. In addition, mosses and es- 
pecially sedges were significant contributors to the organic litter that 
was reclaimed from the samples. Large fragments of alder (Alnus, 
Betulaceae) also were recovered. The birch pollen (Betulaceae) in the 
upper part of the section is therefore assumed to be alder pollen. 

Snails rapidly moved into areas colonized by plants. Succinea occurs 
in the lowest silt deposit of the section. This indicates that the area was 
colonized by gastropods very shortly after deglaciation. Like the pollen, 
the snails show an increase in number of individuals upward through 
the section. The advent of Pupilla and Vertigo suggests that the 
region was at least partly forested, if only by scrubby clumps of alder 
in damp, protected places. The presence of these two genera also sug- 
gests that the climate remained quite cool and humid throughout the 
ice-free period. 

The fossil data from this section, together with the stratigraphic 
sequence, convey a picture of gradual colonization of the newly opened 
area by plants and animals as the ice retreated. This trend was ar- 
rested by the return of the ice sheet. Walther's law would seem to 
predict a roughly symmetrical advance and retreat of the flora and 
fauna as the ice regressed and transgressed. The data gathered, how- 
ever, are markedly asymmetrical, showing no distinct retreat of living 
things as the ice returned. It is possible that this results from 



360 Indiana Academy of Science 

truncation of the intraglacial deposits by the readvancing glacier, but 
the transitional contact at the base of the Cartersburg Till (Fig. 2) 
argues against any significant amount of truncation. Perhaps, there- 
fore, the asymmetry reflects the slowness with which newly opened 
habitats were colonized and the stability of the communities once they 
had become established. Perhaps irreversible environmental changes, 
such as the development of soils, allowed the well established plant and 
animal communities to persist until they were overridden by the ice itself. 

Acknowledgments 

For location of the site, help in the field and assistance in prepar- 
ing the paper for publication, I thank Drs. Ned Bleuer and Henry Gray 
of the Indiana Geological Survey and Dr. Sidney White, Ohio State Uni- 
versity. Dr. R. Peter Richards, Oberlin College, research advisor, gave 
continual support and encouragement, for which I am also thankful. 



Literature Cited 

1. Baker, F. C. 1936. Quantitative examination of molluskan fossils. J. Paleontol. 
10:72-76. 

2. Coope, G. R. 1968. Insect remains from silts below till at Garfield Heights. Ohio. Geol. 
Soc. Amer. Bull. 79:753-755. 

3. Johnson, G. H. 1965. The stratigraphy, paleontology and paleoecology of the 
Peoria loess (upper Pleistocene) of southwestern Indiana. Unpublished Ph.D. Disser- 
tation, Indiana Univ., Bloomington. 215 p. 

4. Mark, J. W. 1948. Ecology of the forest tundra. Ecol. Monogr. 18:117-144. 

5. Morton, J. E. 1967. Molluscs. Hutchinson Press, London, Eng. 244 p. 

6. Wayne, W. J. 1959. Stratigraphic distribution of Pleistocene land snails in Indiana. 
Sterkiana. 1:9-12. 

7. 1963. Pleistocene formations in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 



25. 85 p. 



1965. The Crawfordsville and Knightstown moraines in Indiana. Indiana 



Geol. Surv. Rep. Prog. 28. 15 



Karst Development in Calcareous Tufa Deposits Along 
Flint Creek, Tippecanoe County, Indiana 

Donald W. Ash, Michael Ruark, and Wilton N. Melhorn 

Department of Geosciences 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Karst landforms are common in Mississippian limestones of the Mitchell Plain in 
southern Indiana, and are not rare in older Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the southeastern 
part of the state. However, they are also well-developed in post-glacial calcareous tufa 
deposits along Flint Creek, in southwestern Tippecanoe County. This karst development 
includes caves, sinkholes, and associated calcite cavern deposits. 

Pop's Cave, the largest cavern studied, is essentially a single large room with an esti- 
mated volume of 1,350 cubic feet, formed by solution and breakdown along a contact be- 
tween tufa and fine-grained, silty shale of the Borden Group that crops out along the 
valley walls of Flint Creek. Cavern development on two, or possibly three levels along the 
valley sides may be related to terrace development on Flint Creek that resulted from 
alternating episodes of stability and stream downcutting. The tufa provides a protective 
"cap" that retards erosion of the shales of the valley walls. The tufa deposits and the 
caves are currently being destroyed by lateral planation and valley wall slumping. 

Introduction 

The study area described in this report is contained within an area 
known locally as Burnett's Reserve. The area is of some historical 
significance in that it was settled by John Burnett before the Land Act 
of 1784 (3). Therefore, it is the only land in Tippecanoe County which 
is not laid out in the rectangular coordinate system of land survey. The 
projected location to the rectangular coordinate system places the 
location as along Flint Creek, 2 miles west of Westpoint, Indiana, in 
Sec. 15, T22N, R6W, Wayne Township, Tippecanoe County (Fig. 1). 

General Geology 

Our interest in the Flint Creek area centers on the presence of 
certain unusual characteristics of karst development and differing 
lithologies as compared to other Indiana karst areas. The Flint Creek 
locality is at least 40 miles north of the terminus of the Mitchell Plain 
physiographic subprovince defined by Malott (1). The Mitchell Plain 
is the predominant karst area in Indiana (2), although karst landforms 
are not rare in Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian carbonate rocks in 
southeastern Indiana, and some small caves occur in Silurian age klintar 
of the upper Wabash Valley. 

Unlike karst developed in the Mitchell Plain Mississippian- 
limestones, Pop's Cave and associated karst features have developed 
in massive, calcareous, post-glacial tufa. These tufa deposits indirectly 
result from glaciation of the area. As the Wisconsinan glacier retreated, 
it deposited a thin veneer of carbonate-bearing glacial till over the silty 
shales of the Borden Group. The shale acted as an aquatard to downward 
percolating ground waters, which were saturated with CaCo :? 
dissolved from the till (Fig. 2A). The ground water thus moved 

361 



362 



Indiana Academy of Science 



laterally toward Flint Creek, where it reissued as numerous seeps and 
springs. Upon reaching the valley wall, a change in the partial pressure 
of C0 2 occurred, and the calcium carbonate was precipitated as tufa. 




Figure 1. Location map showing topography and tufa deposits of 
along Flint Creek, Tippecanoe County. 



Pop's Cave area 



The tufa is light brown to light gray, and lacks true bedding. It 
is an accumulation of calcified leaves, sticks, and moss cemented to 
gastropods and cave material such as broken stalacite straws, etc., form- 
ing a very porous and permeable rock. Some relict bedding is observed, 
but is evidently owing to the bed-like accumulation of leaves, sticks, 
and other debris that was later calcified. 

The shale probably belongs to the upper portion of the Borden 
Group. It is flaggy, silty, light blue shale that weathers to a light gray 
color. Quartz, calcite, and sphalerite-filled geodes occur within the 
shale. 

Flint Creek itself is a small, joint-controlled bedrock valley which 
is probably of pre-Wisconsinan age. After deglaciation, however, it re- 
excavated its old channel. Field examination indicates that the 
channel is cut in bedrock locally thinly veneered by alluvial gravels. 
Flint Creek valley is bounded by rock walls and is 1,000 to 1,500 feet 
wide at a distance of 1 1/2 miles upstream from the point of issuance 



Geography and Geology 



363 



of the creek onto the Wabash River floodplain. Compared to other rock- 
walled streams in the area, for example Grindstone Creek, the drainage 
pattern and valley form of Flint Creek is much more mature, in the clas- 
sic descriptive terminology relating to age of valleys. A stream develop- 
ing during deglaciation would tend to take the path of least resistance, 
which in this area of thin till cover would be excavation of an old 
channel rather than cutting of a new one in bedrock. This process would 
also explain the presence of the deep, wide, well-developed valley of 
Flint Creek in a geologically relatively youthful area. Furthermore, 
had the bedrock valley formed since Wisconsinan time, the tufa prob- 
ably would have been eroded by the stream as fast as it was deposited 
on the valley walls. 





SPRIN6 


''/ //////A/; 


\ /r)» /glacial/till^ 




/I 


~7_ 


J\ 1/ 

/tufa/ 
s\ I /- 


— BORDEN SHALE — — 


i i y 




CHANNEL- 
~FILL'-~ — " 
-ALLyyiiiM- 


5ll_l/ 





SPRING 




GLACIAL TILL 



CHANNEL 
FILL ~ 



BORDEN SHALE 



Figure 2. Schematic cross-section of till, shale, and tufa relationships (A) prior to cave 
development and (B) subsequent to solution of tufa and breakdown of shale. 

Karst Features 



The main karst features of the area are several caves in the tufa. 
The largest of these is Pop's Cave (Fig. 3). This cave is essentially one 



364 



Indiana Academy of Science 



large alcove 30 feet long, ranging from 5 to 15 feet wide, and 5 feet 
high. Assuming an average width of 9 feet, the volume is approximately 
1,350 cubic feet. It was formed on the shale-tufa contact with enlarge- 
ment of the passage resulting from two processes: 1) weathering and 
breakdown of the shale wall and ceiling, and 2) dissolving of calcium 
carbonate from the tufa (Fig. 2B). 



C- CAVE 
FLOWSTONE ©Q POPCORN 



• CAVE 

PEARLS 



RIMSTONE 

^POOL) POOLS i da$hed WherC 
< - w — ' L intermittent 

f STALACTITE 



SHALE 
BREAKDOWN 



CEILING _^/g3 

HEIGHT -ft. fyVL 




Figure 



Plan view of Pop's Cave. Entrance is at same level as the cave floor, and is 
approximately 8 feet above level of adjacent flood plain. 



Other, smaller caves nearby occur on two distinct levels, and a third 
level may exist. Only Pop's Cave was studied in detail, as the other caves 
are too small to allow access and, therefore, only the passage trends 
were noted as being parallel to the valley walls. The multilevel 
structuring suggests that there were distinct pauses in downcutting 
during excavation of the valley in post-glacial time. Three terraces, of 
moderate areal extent but slight vertical separation, are present both 
upstream and downstream on the flood plain of Flint Creek in the 
vicinity of Pop's Cave, and tend to further substantiate this conclusion. 
However, additional study of the terrace-cave level relationship is 
warranted. 

Initial solution apparently began at or near the tufa-shale contact. 
This is especially apparent in the numerous small caves of the area, 



Geography and Geology 365 

where cross-sections suggest that cave development is always nearly 
symmetrical and parallel to this contact (Fig. 2B). As the caves increase 
in size, continued enlargement from the contact into both the tufa and 
shale becomes evident. In all cases, the long dimension of the caves is 
parallel to the valley wall. 

The shale-tufa contact is not clearly defined. It is normally a grada- 
tional change over a width of 1 to 2 feet. The shale has a crumbled, 
flaggy character. Calcium carbonate has filled all open spaces around 
the shale fragments, giving a breccia-like appearance to the rock. The 
percentage of CaC0 3 increases toward the contact as it grades into tufa. 

Cavern deposits in Pop's Cave are breakdown, numerous stalactites 
of the soda-straw type, rimstone, flowstone, popcorn, and an abundance 
of cave pearls. Rimstone and flowstone development is quite prominent 
even in the smaller caves, and covers most of the floor of Pop's Cave, 
including the tufa-shale contact. 

Cave pearls are one of the most unusual features of Pop's cave, 
as they are generally considered to be a rare type of formation. They 
are light gray, spherical in shape, and consist of concentric bands of 
calcite around a core of shale, a glacial pebble, or organic matter. Their 
diameters range from 1/32 to 3/4 of an inch. There are several 
thousand pearls on the floor of the cave. They appear to form by 
calcium-rich water falling from the ceiling onto the central core material 
and coating it with calcite. The agitation of the falling water also seems 
of sufficient force to move the pearls around enough to prevent them 
from becoming cemented to the floor. These pearls are very lustrous 
in their cavern environment, but lose their luster once removed and al- 
lowed to dry. 

The soda-straw stalactites are, by comparative observation, some- 
what larger in diameter than the normal cave soda-straw, but are still 
within a diameter range of being soda-straws as opposed to a normal 
stalactite. They vary in length from a fraction of an inch to 11 inches. 
A few normal sized stalactites and stalagmites were also observed. 

Cave "popcorn" (a cave explorer's term for botryoidal masses of 
calcite formed in a still-water, submerged environment) occurs in the 
rimstone pools where the rimstone dam has attained sufficient height 
to develop a standing pool of water 6 to 12 inches deep. In areas where 
rimstone dams have developed leaks, the popcorn is now above water 
and is no longer being formed. The popcorn is formed on the walls, floor, 
and any object within the rimstone pool. 

Breakdown is the dominant feature of the small caves of the upper 
level. In one cave, glacial till was exposed in the ceiling and is be- 
ginning to slump into the cave. In a few years, a true surface sinkhole 
may develop here. 

Surface karst features that have developed include several slump 
features on the valley wall, and were apparently formed by the collapse 
of cave passages at those points. It may be improper to call these 
features sinkholes or karst windows, as the slumping has carried down- 



366 



Indiana Academy of Science 



ward past the level of the caves. These features may only be the result 
of slippage along the shale-tufa contact owing to the weight of the tufa, 
and thus are not true collapse sinkholes. One slump structure is, how- 
ever, only evident from the top of the valley-top bluff and may in reality 
be a true sinkhole. These slumps are small features (no greater than 
40 feet long), but subdivide the bluff into a series of tufa-shale faces. 
In the tufa faces, two levels of caves can be traced for several 
hundred feet along the bluff, which suggests that on each level of cavern 
development there was once only one cave, which is now divided into 
several segments by slumping. The slumping is, nevertheless, directly 
related to the tufa either by cave collapse or slippage, and as such may 
be considered a karst feature. 

Most investigations in karst geomorphology stress the importance 
of landscape denudation and reduction by the solution and removal of 
carbonates. The tufaceous carbonates in this locale, on the contrary, 
appear to provide a protective "cap" for the shale, and actually retard 
the rate of shale erosion (Fig. 4). This protective relationship is ob- 
served at various points for a distance of one-half mile upstream from 
Pop's Cave. Much of the tufa has been removed by valley wall 
slumping and occurs as large blocks of breakdown on the flood plain 
or in the stream bed, but locally, small patches of the tufa remain in 
place over the shale. Here, the protective relationship is shown by an 
outward protruberance of the shale and tufa cap beyond the general 
alignment of the valley wall. 



FLINT 


CREEK "^^^ 
"TUFA r*\ 






^TUFA 

FLINT 
CRFFK 


_ / ^/i 

SHALE _| ,'] 


SHALE 
BLUFF 


T~^^ — 

/. -SPRING 

j 











Figure 4. 



Schematic plan view (A) and cross-section (B) of protective relation- 
ships between tufa and shale along Flint Creek. 



Although some tufa is currently being deposited, the overall net 
effect is gradual removal of older tufa by undercutting of the steep 
slopes, and by solution and slump on the gentler slopes. The springs 
and seeps that once provided the CaC0 3 for tufa deposition may now 
be generally undersaturated, and have begun to redissolve the tufa. This 
reversal of process is probably owing to the gradual decrease with time 
in the amount of carbonate in the till, but may also be partly owing to 
changes in soil structure, vegetation, or climate. Long-term lowering 
of the local water table, in direct response to reduction of local base 



Geography and Geology 367 

level as provided by downcutting of Flint Creek, was probably a factor 
in originating the tufa deposits and multilevel caves, but is now a factor 
contributing to their destruction. 

Acknowledgments 

The writers are grateful to Mr. R. L. Powell for critical comment 
on the manuscript and illustrations, and to Mr. R. C. Parks for drafting. 



Literature Cited 

1. Malott, C. A. 1922. The physiography of Indiana: In Handbook of Indiana 
Geology. Indiana Dep. Conserv. Pub. 21, 54-256. 

2. Powell, R. L. 1971. Caves of Indiana: Indiana Geol. Surv. Circ. No. 8. 127 p. 

3. Rubey, Harry, G. E. Lommel, and M. W. Todd. 1958. Engineering Surveys: 
Elementary and applied. 2nd Ed. The Macmillan Co., New York, N. Y. 728 p. 



MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Chairman : Morris Pollard, Department of Microbiology, 
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Morris Pollard, University of Notre Dame, 
was re-elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

Some Aspects of Humoral Immunity in Germfree and Conventional 
SJL/J Mice in Relationship to Age. Katherine Seibert and Morris 
Pollard, Lobund Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

Indiana 46556. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that there is 

a close relationship between aging, immunity, and cancerigenesis. Im- 
munological impairment is associated with many neoplasms in man af- 
fecting the lymphoreticular system, including Hodgkins' disease, 
lymphosarcoma, multiple myeloma, and reticulum cell sarcoma. 
Histologic similarities between the tumors that arise in the 
SJL/J mouse strain and Hodgkin's disease in man, have raised the 
question whether this murine tumor is also associated with immune im- 
pairment. 

In this study, the humoral immune competence of 272 germfree 
and conventional SJL/J mice was evaluated with increasing age. The 
spleen cell population of these animals was assayed at 2-month intervals 
until the age of 14 months for the presence of specific antibody forming 
cells on day 4, 5, and 6 after intraperitoneal immunization with sheep 
red cells. Using the direct and indirect hemolytic plaque assay, the 
number of antibody forming cells producing IgM and y 1 against sheep 
red cells was calculated per 10 6 nucleated spleen cells. All animals were 
autopsied, the tissues were fixed for histological observation, and total 
body weight, spleen weight, and leukocyte count were recorded. 

The results show a similar response to sheep red cells between 
germfree and conventional animals at all age levels, the peak response 
for both IgM and y 1 production occurring at 4 months, with a prog- 
ressive marked depression with age. The y 1 response was more severely 
impaired than the IgM response, however, the latter response showed an 
age related shift of peak in the kinetics curve. A direct correlation was 
found between the severely depressed immune response found in most 
older animals and an abnormally high spleen weight, a reduced leukocyte 
count, and severe histological lesions characteristic of an advanced stage 
of SJL/J disease. 

These results, indicating a severe depression of humoral immunity 
with age and progress of the disease in the SJL/J mouse, may be re- 
lated by either cause or effect, and as is true with human lymphoretic- 
ular dyscrasias, many questions regarding the relationship between 
immunity and disease still remain to be answered. 

Oxygen Demand of a Fermenter Medium and its Determination. 

Robert H. L. Howe, Eli Lilly & Company, Tippecanoe Laboratories, 

369 



370 Indiana Academy of Science 

Lafayette, Indiana 47902. The oxygen demand of a fermenter 

medium was explained, the needed mathematical relation derived, and 
the method of determination illustrated. 

The Role of Lysine in Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces 
lipmanii. J. R. Kirkpatrick, L. E. Dolin and 0. W. Godfrey, Eli 
Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Indiana 46206. Streptomyces lipmanii pro- 
duces two /^-lactam antibiotics, penicillin N and 7-(5-amino-5- 
carboxyvaleramido)-u-methoxycephalosporanic acid. Both antibiotics 
contain a-aminoadic acid side chains. In similar antibiotics produced 
by certain fungi, the a-aminoadipoyl moiety is derived from an 
intermediate in lysine biosynthesis. It has been established, however, 
that in Sreptomyces lipmanii, lysine is synthesized via <*, e-dieamino- 
pimelic acid — an entirely different biosynthetic route. This finding sug- 
gests not only a unique mechanism for the derivation of a-aminoadi- 
pate, but also that the system may be particularly amenable to genetic 
manipulation. 

The Elongation of Palmitic Acid in Penicillium chrysogenum. Jill 
K. Ashley and Alice S. Bennett, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306. Results of research on the biosynthesis of long chain 

fatty acids suggest that palmitic acid is elongated to stearic acid by 
the acetyl-CoA pathway as well as by the malonyl-CoA pathway. 

Cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum were incubated with varying 
amounts of avidin and 1- 14 C acetate. Avidin, which inhibits the forma- 
tion of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA, partially inhibited fatty acid syn- 
thesis, however, the percentage of radioactivity recovered as C 18 fatty 
acids remained relatively constant in cultures which contained avidin 
and those that did not. Thus, it appears that although avidin decreased 
the amount of acetate incorporated into fatty acids, it did not inhibit 
the elongation of palmitic acid. The constancy of the specific activities 
of the C 18 fatty acids also lends further evidence that the 
acetyl-CoA pathway is an important mode of elongation of palmitic 
acid in Penicillium chrysogenum. 

Standardization of Amino-peptidase Profiles for the Identification of 
Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. K. Krawczyk and D. M. Huber, Depart- 
ment of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Indiana 47907. Factors influencing the amino-peptidase activity of 

three plant pathogenic and one saprophytic bacteria were studied to 
determine and thereby minimize sources of variation when identifying 
bacteria. Amino-peptidase profiles were determined fluoremetrically 
using beta-naphthylamides (10" 4 M in pH 8.0 Tris buffer) as substrates. 
Erwinia amylovora, Xanthomonas campestris, and Pseudomonas tabaci 
(plant pathogens) and a saprophytic Pseudomonad were used through- 
out this study. The effects of temperature, incubation time, growth 
media, inoculum density, salt solution (cof actors), halides, and buffer 
were evaluated. Peptidase profiles of the four bacteria studied were 
very different and provided a rapid, specific means of identification. 
Prior growth media, inoculum density, and incubation time had the 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 371 

greatest influence on peptidase hydrolysis of the beta-naphthylamides. 
Temperature, additional cofactor elements, halides, and buffer appeared 
to have little, if any, general effect on peptidase activity in this study. 
There appeared to be sufficient latitude in all these conditions for this 
technique to be easily adapted for routine microbial identification. 

Ecology of Thermophilic Fungi in Natural Habitats, with Emphasis 
on Pathogenic Species. Michael R. Tansey, Department of Micro- 
biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. The occur- 
rence, growth, and interrelationships of thermophilic fungi in hot 
springs, geothermal soils, alligator nests, and sun-heated soils has been 
studied. These naturally heated habitats contain a rich flora of heat- 
requiring fungi, including several species which are pathogens of warm- 
blooded animals. 



NOTE 

Aspects of the Control of Virus Diseases. Klaus Schell, Department 
of Infectious Diseases, The Dow Chemical Company, Zionsville, 

Indiana 46077. During the first 5 years of vaccination against 

poliomyelitis and measles in the United States more than 50,000 
human beings were saved from severe disability and death, and medical 
expenditures were reduced by $600,000,000. Incidence and mortality of 
the 20 most important viral and bacterial diseases were analyzed. A 
reduction in disease incidence was found only where immunoprophylaxis 
had been available for some time while antibiotic and chemotherapy 
apparently had little affect on incidence of bacterial diseases. 

Aspects of safety and potency were compared for killed and atten- 
uated live virus vaccines. Killed virus vaccines are considered less de- 
sirable because of the requirement of virus concentration to obtain suf- 
ficiently large antigenic masses to stimulate lasting protective anti- 
body, the need to purify such vaccines to reduce the amount of likewise 
concentrated viral and cellular byproducts often responsible for unde- 
sirable allergenic or pyrogenic side reactions, the large amount of 
genetic information contained in these vaccines, the difficulty of dis- 
covering survivors after "inactivation" of hundreds of millions of infec- 
tive virus doses, the fact that apparently inactivated virus can retain 
oncogenic potential, and, the contention that "oncogenes" may be pres- 
ent in the genetic matter of all somatic cells and that cellular 
genetic information can be transferred by viruses. 

Aside from the production of highly concentrated, highly purified, 
nucleic acid-free antigen vaccines which has not been perfected at this 
time, attenuated, live virus vaccines are regarded as most desirable. 
Virus concentration is not necessary, the amount of genetic matter given 
with the virus is relatively small (10 3 " 5 TCID 50 / dose) and replication 
remains minimal if compared with that of the wild virus. The type of 
antibody stimulated is of relatively broad spectrum and long duration, 
and anamnestic responses are accelerated even after the antibody itself 
has disappeared. 



372 Indiana Academy of Science 

Other vaccine virus related questions were discussed: The source 
and development of avirulent mutants, their potential for reversion, 
development of undesirable tropisms, and the question of under- 
attenuation. The need for the factorial testing of multiple component 
vaccines was elucidated on the example of a Dow produced rubella- 
mumps-measles virus vaccine, where combinations of minimal-maximal 
component ratios resulted in seroconversion rates of about 90% or 
more for each of the components regardless of vaccine dose. 

The importance of the host response was stressed and the complex- 
ity of the body's immune mechanism was discussed in terms of its 
dependence on a variety of intrinsic and environmental influences, and 
its expression in beneficial as well as harmful results in response to 
vaccination. 



Partial Characterization of Fumarase 
from an Extreme Thermophilic Bacterium Isolated in Indiana 

Keith Bitzinger and Robert F. Ramaley 1 

Department of Microbiology 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Fumarase (L-malate hydro-lyase E.C. 4.2.1.2) was partially purified from a gram 
negative, non-spore forming, extreme thermophilic bacterium isolated from a steam 
chamber on the Indiana University Campus at Bloomington, Indiana. This isolate is very 
similar to the Thermus X-l isolate previously reported by Ramaley and Hixson and is 
designated as the Thermus K-l isolate. 

The K-l fumarase has an apparent molecular weight of 170,000, a broad bell shaped 
pH optimum between pH 7.5 and pH 11, with L-malate as a substrate and an apparent 
Michaelis constant (Km) for L-malate of 3.3 ± 0.4 millimolar. The K-l fumarase 
is fully heat stable for 30 minutes at temperatures up to 85° Centigrade. An Arrhenius 
plot of the enzyme catalyzed reaction showed an inflection (critical point) at 70° 
Centigrade with an apparent activation energy of 12,000 calories below 70° Centigrade. 



Introduction 

In 1969 Brock and Freeze (2) reported the isolation of a new 
extreme thermophilic bacterium, Thermus aquaticus, from natural 
thermal areas (Yellowstone National Park). This gram negative non- 
spore-forming organism was also found in water samples from 
thermally polluted areas including areas on the Indiana University 
Campus (3). In 1970 Ramaley and Hixson (14) reported the isolation 
of an apparently different extreme thermophilic bacterium which has 
been designated as Thermus X-l isolate; pending sufficient studies to 
see if it warrants being assigned a new species name. Since that time, 
a number of additional isolates have been obtained confirming the wide- 
spread distribution of these bacteria. 

During the Fall of 1971 one of the authors (K.B.) isolated such a 
bacterium (Isolate K-l) from a steam chamber on the Indiana Uni- 
versity Campus at Bloomington, Indiana. This organism has an optimum 
growth temperature of 70° C and appears to be similar to the X-l 
isolate of Ramaley and Hixson (14). 

To gain further information concerning the comparative physiology 
of these new bacteria, the properties of enzymes from a number of these 
isolates have been investigated. Fumarase from the K-l isolate was 
chosen for the presently reported study because of the extensive studies 
that have been conducted on the kinetic (15) and physical (6) prop- 
erties of the enzyme purified from non-thermophilic sources and because 
in contrast to other hydrolyases no cofactor requirements are needed 
for the fumarase catalyzed reaction (6). 



1 Present Address : Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska Medical 
Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68105 

373 



374 Indiana Academy of Science 

Methods and Materials 
Isolation of a Growth of the K-l Isolate 

K-l was isolated from a pool of water at the bottom of a cement 
chamber containing steam pipes between Ballantine and Morrison Hall 
on the Indiana University campus at Bloomington, Indiana. The method 
of enrichment and isolation were similar to those used for the isolation 
of Thermus X-l. The K-l isolate was grown in a 0.1% yeast extract, 
0.1% tryptone, Catzenholtz salt medium as previously described (14). 
Studies on the growth characteristics of the organism were done in 250 
ml side arm Bellco flasks containing 50 ml of medium and incubated 
at 70 °C in a Fermentation Design shaking water bath (120 strokes/ 
min). Cells for the purification of fumarase were grown in 10 1 of 
medium in a 14-liter Fermentation Design fermenter. 

Partial Purification of the K-l Fumarase 

Approximately 20 g (wet weight) of K-l cells were suspended in 
40 ml of 0.01 M KH 2 P0 4 (pH 7.2), lysozyme was added to a final con- 
centration of 0.1 mg/ml and the cells incubated at 37 °C for 20 min. The 
resulting spheroplasts were disrupted by sonic treatment (Bronwill 
Biosonik sonicator). The cell extract was centrifuged at 76,000 x g for 
90 min (Spinco ultracentrifuge) and the supernatant fraction dialized 
overnight against 4 1 of 0.01 M potassium phosphate (pH 7.2). 

The dialyzed extract was placed on a 75 x 2.5 cm column of 
DEAE cellulose (Whatman DE-32, microgranular) previously recycled 
and equilibrated with the phosphate buffer. One liter of phosphate 
buffer containing 10" 4 M 2-mercaptoethanol was placed through the 
column and the proteins eluted with a linear gradient of potassium 
chloride from to 0.2 M in the phosphate-mercaptoethanol buffer. The 
furmarase eluted as a single peak at 0.05 M KC1. The fumarase was con- 
centrated by Lypogel (Gelmann) and stored at —20° C. 

Fumarase Assay 

Fumarase was assayed by a modification of the method of Racker 
(13). The standard reaction mixture contained 0.15 M L-malate in 0.05 
M (KH 2 P0 4 ) at pH 7.6 and the formation of fumarate determined by 
the increase in absorbancy at 240 nm with the use of a Gilford 2000 re- 
cording spectrophotometer. The temperature of the reaction mixture 
was maintained at 60° C unless otherwise specified. One unit of K-l 
fumarase in the present report is defined as that amount of enzyme 
causing an increase in absorbancy at 240 nm of one absorbancy unit 
in 1 min at 60° C. Protein was determined by the method of Lowry et 
al. (8) with bovine serum albumin as a standard and the specific 
activity is defined in terms of units per milligram of protein. 

Other methods such as the isolation of the DNA (9), determina- 
tion of per cent guanosine plus cytosine content of the DNA (16), 
determination of the K-l fumarase molecular weight by Sephadex 
G-200 gel filtrations (17) and use of Wang computer for Km determina- 
tion (17) have been previously described. 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



375 



Results 
Properties of the K-l Isolate 

The K-l isolate has the same general properties as previously 
reported for the Thermus X-l isolate including optimum growth at 
70° C (48 min doubling time), lack of a pronounced yellow carotenoid 
pigment, morphology, negative gram stain, Actinomycin D sensitive, 
guanosine plus cytosine base ratio of the DNA (65%) and lack of growth 
on nutrient agar (14). 

Properties of the K-l Fumarase 

DEAE cellulose chromatography of K-l cell free extracts gave a 
10-fold purification of the fumarase (to 0.22 units/mg protein) used 
for the present studies. Some studies have also been conducted with en- 
zyme purified more extensively but no significant differences are 
observed over those reported here (R. Ramaley, unpublished 
observations). 

Figure 1 shows the thermostability and effect of temperature on 
the rate of snzymatic reaction catalyzed by the K-l fumarase. The 
enzyme was fully stable for 30 min at temperatures up to 85° C. 
Studies conducted on the rate of loss of enzymatic activity at 90° 
C and 95° C showed a simple first order loss of activity with no ap- 
parent effect by the presence or absence of malate and fumarate. 




40 60 80 100 

Temperature (°C) 

Figure 1. Thermostability and effect of temperature on the initial velocity of the 

K-l fumarase. 



Figure 1 also shows the effect of temperature on the initial 
enzymatic reaction rate of the K-l fumarase. There was an increasing 
rate at temperatures up to 95° C (the highest temperature tested). 
However, there is a discontinuity in the rate as can be seen in an 
Arrhenius plot of the data given in Figure 1. There is an inflection point 
"critical point" near 70° C and calculation of the apparent activation 



376 Indiana Academy of Science 

energy gave a value of 12,000 calories below 70° C and 3,000 
calories above 70° C. 

The K-l fumarase has a broad symmetrical bell shaped pH optimum 
between pH 7.5 and pH 11 and an apparent Michaelis constant 
(Km) for L-malate of 3.3 ± 0.4 millimolar (calculated by the use of 
a Wang 700 computer). The apparent molecular weight of the enzyme 
as determined by Sephadex gel filtration (12) was 170,000 and there 
was no evidence for any additional molecular forms of the enzyme. 

Discussion 

This report confirms and provides an additional example of an en- 
zyme from a thermophilic microorganism that is more thermostable 
and catalyzes its enzymatic reaction at higher temperatures than the 
same enzyme from mesophilic sources (1). Fumarase, especially the 
fumarase from swine heart, has been the subject of some classical 
kinetic studies by Massay (10), Alberty and their co-workers (6). 
Recently, fumarase has been the subject of "a definitive isotope ex- 
change study" (15) by Hansen, Dinova and Boyer (5) and the physical 
properties of the enzyme have received considerable study in Hill's 
laboratory (6). 

The K-l fumarase showed a discontinuity at 70° C in the 
Arrhenius plot at pH 7.3 when L-malate was used as the substrate. 
Similar discontinuities have been observed with fumarate as a substrate 
by Massey (10). However, the explanation of the thermal discontinuity 
is still subject to interpretation (4). The fact that the discontinuity 
occurred at 70° C (the optimum growth temperature of the organism) 
may be of some interest. 

The molecular weight of the K-l fumarase (170,000) is similar to 
the molecular weight of the Pseudomonas putida fumarase (166,000) 
which was purified by Lamartiniere et al. (7). The Km of the 
K-l fumarase for malate (3.3 mM) is similar to the Km for other 
fumarases (6) including bacterial fumarase (7). However, the kinetic 
constants for the enzyme are dependent on pH, ionic strength and 
anions (6). The phosphate buffer employed in the present study is 
slightly inhibitory to the enzyme reaction and actually shifts the pH 
optimum to a slightly more alkaline pH (6). However, since the change 
in pH as a function of temperature for phosphate is much less than that 
observed with other buffer (e.g., Tris), phosphate was used throughout 
the present study. 

The present study shows some of the utility of these new extreme 
thermophilic bacteria for general enzymology and enzyme regulation 
(11) and provides an additional example of the pronounced thermosta- 
bility of their enzyme. 

During these studies one of the authors (K.B.) also isolated an ap- 
parently new "pink", non spore-forming, thermophilic bacterium 
(K-2) with an optimum temperature of 60° C from below a hot water 
discharge into the Jordan River on the Indiana University Campus 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 377 

(downstream from Station 30 shown in Figure 1 of Brock and 
Yoder (3) and this organism is currently being characterized. Thus, 
it has become apparent that we have only just begun to appreciate the 
components and biology associated with "man-made thermal environ- 
ments". 



Literature Cited 

1. Amelunxen, R., and M. LlNS. 1968. Comparative thermostability of enzymes from 
Bacillus cereus. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 125:765-769. 

2. Brock, T. D., and H. Freeze. 1969. Thermus aquaticus, gen. n and sp. n., a 
nonsporulating extreme thermophile. J. Bacteriol. 98:289-297. 

3. Brock, T. D., and I. Yoder. 1971. Thermal pollution of a small river by a large univer- 
sity: bacteriological studies. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:183-188. 

4. Dixon, M., and E. C. Webb. 1964. Effect of temperature, p. 145-166. In Dixon, 
M., and E. C. Webb, Enzymes, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York, N. Y. 950 p. 

5. Hansen, J. N., E. C. Dinovo, and P. D. Boyer. 1969. Initial and equilibrium 
18 0, 14 C, 3 H and 2 H exchange rates as probes of the fumarase reaction 
mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 244:6270-6279. 

6. Hill, R. L., and J. W. Teipel. 1971. Fumarase and crotonase. p. 539-571. In 
Boyer, P. D. (ed.), The Enzymes, V, 3rd ed., Academic Press, New York, 
N. Y. 734 p. 

7. Lamartiniere, C. A., H. D. Braymer, and A. D. Larson. 1970. Purification and 
characterization of fumarase from Pseudomonas putida. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 
141:293-302. 

8. Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosenbrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein 
measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265-275. 

9. Marmur, J. 1961. A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from 
microorganisms. J. Mol. Biol. 3:208-218. 

10. Massey, V. 1953. Studies on fumarase. 3. The effect of temperature. Biochem. 
J. 3:72-79. 

11. Penner, P. E., and L. H. Cohen. 1969. Effect of adenosine triphosphate and 
magnesium ions on the fumarate reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 244:1070-1075. 

12. Penner, P. E., and L. H. Cohen. 1971. Fumarase: demonstration, separation and 
hybridization of different subunit types. J. Biol. Chem. 246:4261-4265. 

13. Racker, E. 1950. Spectrophotometric measurement of the enzymatic formation of 
fumaric and cis-aconitic acid. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 4:211-214. 

14. Ramaley, R. F., and J. Hixson. 1970. Isolation of a nonpigmented thermophilic 
bacterium similar to Thermus aquaticus. J. Bacteriol. 103:527-528. 

15. Rose, I. A. 1970. Enzymology of proton abstraction and transfer reactions, 
p. 281-320. In Boyer, P. D. (ed.) The Enzymes, II, 3rd ed., Academic Press, New 
York, N. Y. 734 p. 

16. Schildkraut, C. L., J. Marmur, and P. Doty. 1962. Determination of the base 
composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from its buoyant density in CsCl. J. Mol. Biol. 
4:430-443. 

17. Sedmak, J., and R. Ramaley. 1971. Purification and properties of Bacillus subtilis 
nucleoside diphosphokinase. J. Biol. Chem. 246:5365-5372. 



PHYSICS 

Chairman : Torsten Alvager, Department of Physics, 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47907 

Malcolm E. Hultz, Department of Physics, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

Comparison of the Newit-Dombrowski-Knelman Equation and the 
Modified Howe's Equation for the Determination of the Rising Velocity 
of Gas Bubble in a Static Fluid. Robert H. L. Howe, Eli Lilly and 
Company, Tippecanoe Laboratories, Lafayette, Indiana 47902, and 

Hakki Dingil, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. A 

modified equation by Howe for the determination of the rising velocity 
of a gas bubble in a static liquid column was presented. Its comparison 
with the Newit-Dombrowski-Knelman equation was discussed. 

A Study of the Angular Distribution of Scattered Muons in Muon- 
Nucleon Interactions at 15.8 GeV/c. Ali M. Guima and Gerald P. 
Thomas, Department of Physics, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306. Inelastic muon-nucleon interactions were studied 

using the nuclear emulsion technique. The momentum of the primary 
muon beam was 15.8 GeV/c. Muons and other leptons of high energy 
make excellent probes to study nucleon structure. Muon beams of small 
contamination, using accelerators, became available in 1965, but data 
are limited. 

In this experiment, we scanned several nuclear emulsion pellicles 
for muon-nucleon inelastic scatters and measured the angular distribu- 
tion of the scattered muon at 15.8 GeV/c. The results were compared 
with previous data and also with the theoretical form factor predictions 
at this momentum. 

Lithium Precipitation in Elemental Semiconductors Containing Dis- 
ordered Regions. George C. Huang and Ronald M. Cosby, Department 

of Physics, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A simple 

model describing the precipitation of lithium on defects in fast-neutron- 
irradiated elemental semiconductors was developed for the case where 
lithium is a minor n-type dopant. The theory of disordered regions in 
irradiated semiconductors is reviewed and the expected sink-like be- 
havior of these defects for the fast-diffusing lithium ion was 
described. A solution of the continuity equation with appropriate 
boundary conditions indicated an exponential decay of lithium concen- 
tration in the volume surrounding a disordered region. The decay time 
constant was related to the size of the space charge region, the con- 
centration of disordered regions, and the diffisivity of lithium. The 
magnitude and variation of this time constant with temperature and 
defect concentration was calculated for fast-neutron-irradiated 
n-type germanium containing lithium. 

379 



380 Indiana Academy of Science 

Electronic Conduction in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide. Carl C. Sartain, 
Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. Electron energy bands in solids are due to the merging and 

spreading of the electronic energy levels in the atoms of which the 
solid is formed. Thus, energy bands are due to the proximity of atoms, 
not to the ordering of atoms into single crystals. The optical absorp- 
tion properties of fused quartz implies that a conduction band exists 
at 6.5 ±0.1 electron volts above a filled band. The conductivity of fused 
quartz at low electronic fields (about 1 volt per centimeter) and at high 
temperature (up to 1800° Kelvin) fits the equation 

<?/** = exp (E/2kT) 

where a is the electrical conductivity, E is the energy gap, k is Boltz- 
mann's constant and T is the absolute temperature. The energy gap 
was 6.6 ± .1 ev in agreement with the optical value. The results of this 
experiment are consistent with the existence of energy bands in amor- 
phous Si0 2 and with electronic conduction, not ionic. 

The Use of Electrostatic Quadrupoles in Scanning Electron 
Microscopy. Phillip C. Norisez, Department of Physics, Indiana State 

University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. A feasibility study of the 

use of electrostatic quadrupole lenses in scanning electron microscopy 
was reported. It relied heavily on computer analysis of the equations 
of motion of an electron in the electric field set up by such a lens. 

A Novel Video Sweep Circuit for a Scanning Electron Microscope. 

John A. Swez and James B. Westgard, Department of Physics, 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Conventional 

Scanning electron microscopes employ beam intensities of 10 A/cm 2 
and can rely on conventional video sweeps because of the low electron 
intensities used. Unorthodox designs such as microscopes with field 
emission electron sources can increase beam intensities over a factor 
of 1000. These recent designs necessitate changes in video sweep which 
minimizes electron damage. The video sweep described employs a tri- 
angular waveform which acts as the horizontal sweep but triggers a 
clock pulse at each high and low output of the waveform. The result- 
ing pulse is fed into a synchronous binary counter which sums the indi- 
vidual horizontal sweeps. The output of the binary counter serves as 
the input to a vertical sweep voltage. An interlacing sweep can be 
easily provided by forcing the binary counter to count two pulses in 
lieu of a single clock pulse and by providing the necessary digital logic 
to change the maximum binary count to an odd number (decimal 
equivalent). The described video sweep can function well at television 
sweep frequencies with a minimum amount of radiation damage. 

A Design for a Plastic Scintillator — Ge(Li) Spectrometer for Obtaining 
Suppressed Spectra. J. P. Collins, R. L. Place and D. R. Ober, Depart- 
ment of Physics, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A 

design for a plastic scintillator — Ge(Li) spectrometer consisting of a 
10-inch diameter, 12-inch long plastic cylinder having provisions for 
inserting a Ge(Li) detector perpendicular to the cylinder axis was 



Physics 381 

described. In the design, light is funneled by reflection to either end 
where detection is accomplished using two 5-inch photomultiplier tubes. 
Two truncated cone light guides are used to couple the scintillator ends 
with the photomultiplier tubes. Compton suppression is accomplished by- 
operating the Ge(L) -plastic scintillator in anticoincidence. 

Photographing the 10 July 1972 Total Solar Eclipse in Nova Scotia. 
Daniel A. Mitchell 1 , Duane W. Warn, Gary E. Tomlinson and 
Malcom E. Hults, Department of Physics, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. In addition to our primary objective of 

shadow band detection, many different types of procedures were used 
to photograph the partial and total phases of the eclipse. Using high 
quality telescopes and cameras, Mitchell obtained superb photographs 
of the totality. Warn used a Mamiya/Sekor 1000 TL camera with a 
Spiratone 400-millimeter f/6.3 telephoto lens mounted on a Criterion 
equatorial clock-driven mount designed for a 6-inch telescope. All photo- 
graphs of the total phase were taken at f/8 and at speeds of 1/2 to 
1/250 second using high speed Ektachrome film (ASA 160). The photo- 
graphs of the partial phases were taken with the same system with a 
dark red aerial camera lens filter hand held over the telephoto lens. The 
settings were f/8, 1/250 second with high speed Ektachrome film. 

A similar system, used by Tomlinson, was set up about 40 miles 
approximately west of Antigonish near Mt. Thorn. This system also 
used a Spiratone 400-millimeter f/6.3 telephoto lens on a Practica 
camera mounted on a tripod (no clock drive). Again, high speed 
Ektachrome film was used. 

Selected photographs of both the partial and total phases of the 
eclipse, showing most of the interesting features that occur, were 
shown. 



1 Present address: Department of Physics, University of Michigan-Flint, Flint, 
Mich. 48503. 

Photoelectric Detection of Shadow Bands at the 10 July 1972 Solar 
Eclipse. Duane W. Warn, Daniel A. Mitchell 1 and Malcom E. 
Hults, Department of Physics, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

47306. Continuing our studies of shadow bands (first in Brazil, 1966, 

second in North Carolina, 1970) a team of 14 persons set up visual, 
photographic and photoelectric equipment at Malignant Cove, Nova 
Scotia. Shadow bands were detected on all six channels of a photoelec- 
tric system using three narrow band and three wide band filters to 
detect the variation of shadow band phenomena with optical wavelength. 
A second system consisted of one photocell connected to a set of elec- 
tronic filters, each tuned to a separate frequency of light intensity fluc- 
tuation. The output of each filter was read on a meter and the set of 
meters was photographed continuously. A third system consisted of 
two photocells each connected to a channel of a two channel strip chart 
recorder, a fourth system monitored rf noise at 3.85 mHz, and a fifth 
system was an electronic thermometer connected to a strip chart re- 
corder. 



382 Indiana Academy of Science 

Shadow bands were strongest in blue, weaker in red and weakest 
in green light. The light intensity frequency composition was quite com- 
plicated consisting of a continuous 6 Hz frequency with an approximate 
22 Hz frequency appearing from approximately 50 seconds to 10 seconds 
before totality. The rf noise began to increase approximately 22 minutes 
before totality and increased by at least a factor of five peaking at ap- 
proximately third contact, i.e., the end of totality. The electronic ther- 
mometer showed a 23° Fahrenheit drop in temperature the minimum 
being at third contact. 



1 Present address: Department of Physics, University of Michigan-Flint, Flint, 
Mich. 48503. 

The I.S.U. Expedition to the Solar Eclipse of July 10, 1972. A. Barbee 1 , 
C. Bibo, P. DiLavore 1 , D. Emmons, C. R. Hanger, J. Kelly, M. 
McCandless, D. Pitts, M. Pokorny and D. Robinson, Department 

of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. 

In the summer of 1972, the Physics Department sent a group of 
students to Prince Edward Island, Canada, to perform experiments in- 
volving the total solar eclipse. The projects attempted included conven- 
tional photography of all phases of the eclipse through Questar 
telescopes, photography of the elusive shadow bands, electronic detec- 
tion and computer analysis of the shadow band structure, 16 
millimeter time-lapse photography of the eclipse, and Fourier-transform 
spectroscopy of the corona. 

The appearance of a cloud which obscured the sun during totality 
negated the shadow band experiments, since there were no shadow bands 
at our location, and the Fourier-transform spectroscopy. However, the 
sun was still somewhat visible through the cloud, and interesting 
photographs were obtained. 



1 Faculty Advisors. 



NOTE 



Cosmic Rays and Faster-than-Light Particles. Torsten Alvager and 
William Frost, Department of Physics, Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. The possible existence of particles 

traveling with a speed always exceeding that of light in a vacuum 
(faster-than-light particles) has been discussed extensively during the 
past decade. A recent review was given by Bilaniuk and Sudarshan (2). 
Experimentally, several investigations to search for the particles have 
been performed, all with negative results so far (1). We discuss here 
a new experiment, now in progress, to search for neutral faster-than- 
light particles in cosmic ray events. 

Energetic primary cosmic ray particles entering the earth's atmos- 
phere give rise to various nuclear reactions, of which the products de- 
velop into a shower-like phenomenon which travel toward the surface 
of the earth at almost the speed of light. If faster-than-light 
particles exist and react with ordinary matter, they may be produced 



Physics 



383 



in connection with cosmic ray showers. A time-of -flight experiment 
could in principle single out possible faster-than-light particles. This 
technique has been used in this investigation. 

The detector arrangement that was used consisted of two plastic 
scintillation detectors, each of dimensions 1 foot x 3 feet x 1/2 inch, 
connected in coincidence. The output from Detector 1 was fed to the 
start input of a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC-unit), while the out- 
put from the coincidence unit was used as a stop pulse for the TAC- 
unit. A multi-channel pulse height analyzer registered signals from the 
TAC-unit. 

The occurrence of a shower was defined as the appearance of a sig- 
nal from the coincidence unit. An event consisting of a particle exciting 
Detector 1 prior to the shower will be registered by the pulse height 
analyzer. However, a particle detected in Detector 1 at a time 




100 200 300 

CHANNEL NUMBER 
« TIME 

Figure 1. Time-of -flight spectrum registered by the multichannel pulse height analyzer. 
Total measuring time 240 hours. The peak corresponds to shower particles not ac- 
companied by particles arriving prior to the shower. Possible faster-than-light particles 
should appear to the right of the peak. Calibration: 1 channel = 1.4 nanoseconds. 



384 Indiana Academy of Science 

delayed relative to a shower will be disregarded by the detector arrange- 
ment. Therefore, besides general background particles, only faster-than- 
light particles could be registered. 

Figure 1 gives an example of a time-of-flight spectrum registered 
by the multichannel analyzer. The total measuring time was 240 hours 
and the sensitive time range of the TAC-unit was about 1 pS. The peak 
corresponds to showers not accompanied by a single particle detected 
in Detector 1. Possible faster-than-light particles should appear to the 
right of the peak in the figure. From the data it can be deduced that 
the ratio of shower intensity to possible faster-than-light particle in- 
tensity was larger than 1.3 x 10 4 . This ratio was not too useful, how- 
ever. What was of interest was to find an upper limit on the production 
cross-section of faster-than-light particles. This can be obtained by 
assuming a particular model for the production and propagation of the 
particles. Such an evaluation is presently in progress as well as an ex- 
tension of the experiment itself. The authors appreciate valuable help 
by Mr. K. Wright and Mr. J. Cunningham. This work was supported 
in part by an Indiana State University Research Grant. 



Literature Cited 

1. Alvagek, T., and E. Haring. 1971. New upper limit of production cross section of 
faster-than-light particles. Proc. Indiana Acad. Science 80:380-383. 

2. Bilaniuk, O. M. P., and E. C. G. Sudarshan. 1969. Particles beyond the light 
barrier. Physics Today 22:43-51. 



SCIENCE EDUCATION 

Chairman : Frederick K. Ault, Department of Education 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 46556 

Gerald H. Krockover, Department of Education, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907, 
was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACTS 

Earth Science for Elementary Teachers. Marshall D. Malcolm, 
Department of Education, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 

In the summer of 1972 a methods course in earth science was held 

for elementary teachers and for graduates who had completed their stu- 
dent teaching. The students did activities and made constructs from 
the following subject areas; rocks and minerals, astronomy, mapping, 
meteorology, oceanography and fossil collecting. On two occasions ele- 
mentary school students were invited to the lab so that some of the con- 
structs could be pre-tested prior to usage in the classroom. Slides were 
shown of the students pre-testing their constructs. 

An Evaluation of the ISCS Program. F. Leon Bernhardt, Biology 
Department, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306, and Richard 

L. Wright, Route 4, Sturgis, Michigan. The science achievement 

and interest of students taught the ISCS program were compared to 
the science achievement and interest of students taught science by 
traditional methods. The correlation of the contributory learning factors 
of sex, time of day class met, reading, and math with interest and 
achievement was also examined. None of these factors were found to 
be statistically significant with achievement as measured by the 
ISCS test; but most correlated with achievement as measured by the 
Iowa and Stanford Tests. The ISCS program does not appear to dis- 
criminate against students who rank low in reading and mathematics 
achievement. 

An Integrated Science Program for Preservice Elementary School 
Teachers. A. De Vito, Department of Elementary Science Education, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. As part of a 3-year 

sequential science preparation program for pre-service elementary 
teachers, Purdue University was awarded a 2-year National Science 
Foundation UPSTEP grant. This is a joint award to the Department 
of Biology and the Department of Education. The project will combine 
the expertise of the faculties of the School of Science and the Depart- 
ment of Education at Purdue University in the development of a pro- 
gram for the improvement of the pre-service science education of 
prospective elementary school teachers. The program will emphasize 
"Man and His Environment" as the major theme. 

The project is a pilot study involving 60 pre-service prospective 
elementary teachers (freshmen). The participants will be involved in 

385 



386 Indiana Academy of Science 

the new national curriculum projects such as Science — A Process Ap- 
proach, Science Curriculum Improvement Study, and Elementary Science 
Study. This will be followed by an integrated science sequence inte- 
grating chemistry, physics, biology, and earth science. Concurrent with 
this instruction emphasis will be placed on early direct and continued 
experiences with children and individualization of instruction. 

Areas of concern such as outdoor education, drug, and sex educa- 
tion will be included in the final semester. These topics as well as prior 
topics will be structured about the theme "Man and His Environ- 
ment" and the problem of survival in the face of change. 

At the conclusion of the 3-year developmental period a model pro- 
gram for the preparation of elementary science teachers will be formu- 
lated for Purdue University and serve as a model for other teacher 
training institutions. 

Cognitive Development and Success in Science. Daniel W. Ball, De- 
partment of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306.- 



This study explored the relationships between formal thinking (ab- 
stract) abilities of students, as explicated by Jean Piaget, and their 
success in science. It appeared from this study that success in science 
is closely related to the ability of students to perform formal opera- 
tional tasks. Students who are able to perform these tasks receive sig- 
nificantly higher grades in science than those students not able to 
perform the same tasks. 

The implications of these findings, in terms of science teacher 
preparation, sequencing science subject matter, and teaching methodol- 
ogy were discussed. 

Charts, Globes and Planetarium — Descriptive Astronomy Instruction. 

Newton G. Sprague, Department of Physics, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. A constallation and major star identification 

semi-programmed learning situation can be based on home study of 
Mercator Projection Charts with and without titles; establishment of 
the relation of the Mercator projection to the planetarium celestial 
equator and coordinate system (10 minutes) ; a 30-minute laboratory 
experience of locating the Right Ascension and Declination of 20 bright 
stars on a 14-inch Farquhar transparent globe; four 50-minute seasonal 
planetarium presentations scattered during a 11-week period; a quick 
review (8 minutes) of the total annual sky pattern just prior to the ex- 
amination; and a 24-item multiple choice Punch-a-Hole-in-the-Correct- 
Square planetarium test and an overhead projector test of identifica- 
tion of the numbered areas. 

Preparation and Evaluation of Programmed Instruction Materials on 
Acid-Base Theory. Tillman E. Smith, Alexandria-Monroe High 
School, Alexandria, Indiana 46001, and Frederick K. Ault, Depart- 
ment of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

The purpose of this project was to generate and evaluate a programmed 
unit on the acid-base theories proposed by Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, 



Science Education 387 

and Lewis. Concepts presented in the unit were: nomenclature for acids, 
bases, and salts; concentration units-molarity and normality; acid-base 
dissociation constants; hydrolysis; pH; and titrimetry. The unit included 
laboratory exercises along with problem solving frames related to the 
above concepts. The rule-example approach was used to develop the unit. 

The following evaluation criteria were used: achievement gain; 
individual attitude toward science; sex of the individual; cognitive 
style; Preliminary Senior Aptitude Test scores, verbal and math; and 
Intelligence Quotient. A pre-test and post-test were administered for 
each criterion. Null hypotheses were generated for each factor and a 
0.05 confidence level was used to test for significance. Several single 
factor analyses of variance and correlation analyses were used to an- 
alyze the data. 

The population consisted of 42 students enrolled in first-year 
chemistry at Alexandria-Monroe High School. 

A highly significant achievement gain (p. 001) was found, but no 
significant differences attributable to Intelligence Quotient, sex of the 
individual, Preliminary Senior Aptitude Test verbal, and educational 
set were found. Significant correlations were found between: attitude 
and achievement, and Preliminary Senior Aptitude Test — math and 
achievement. 

University-Public School Cooperative Science Enrichment Program: A 
Project Report. Jane Frees, Joyce Boyle, Stanley Shimer, and 
Charlotte Boener, Science Teaching Center, Indiana State University, 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. For two consecutive summers, a sci- 
ence enrichment program has been provided to the elementary school 
children in Terre Haute. This program is a cooperative effort between 
the Science Teaching Center at Indiana State University and the Vigo 
County School Corporation. 

The two primary purposes of the project were: 1) the improvement 
of science teaching skills of future elementary school teachers; and 2) 
the supplementation of the science curriculum for the Vigo County 
children with instruction which stresses scientific processes and learning 
by doing. 

The pre-service teachers who participated in the program were en- 
rolled in an elementary school science methods course. They prepared 
and presented 2 hours of instruction 3 days a week for 4 weeks. In ad- 
dition, they accompanied the children on one or more science field trips. 
A 1:1 student-teacher ratio was maintained during most of the class- 
room instruction. 

Each university student worked with a peer group team under close 
supervision of a university staff member as they planned and taught 
the science lessons. Moreover, the Vigo County School Corporation em- 
ployed certified instructional personnel to work with the project. 

An evaluation of the program was made at the end of both sum- 
mers. Questionnaires, specifically designed for each group of 



388 Indiana Academy of Science 

respondents, solicited information from the children, their parents and 
the Vigo County school personnel. The children and parent groups were 
highly enthusiastic and urged continuation of the program. The Vigo 
County people reacted positively towards the program; in addition, they 
offered several valuable, concrete suggestions for modifications in the 
plan. 

The program seems to be a useful part of an elementary school 
science methods course. As a result, a pilot project is currently being 
conducted which will place science methods students in elementary 
school classrooms during the academic year. 

Cassette Tapes as Tutors in Freshman Chemistry. Frederick K. Ault 
and Sandra Ratcliff, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. General chemistry courses usually are 

taught to large groups containing more than 100 students and 
frequently more than 500 students. Since many students enter the 
courses with little experience in quantitative aspects of science, a large 
number of students experience difficulty with mathematical concepts 
and are unable to obtain the necessary assistance to resolve their prob- 
lems. Large group classes have inherent physical limitations both for 
students and faculty. 

This project was a part of a larger project designed to develop and 
evaluate individualized materials for the problem-solving areas in intro- 
ductory chemistry, at the college or secondary level. 

The conceptual areas that involve mathematical operations for 
understanding general chemistry were analyzed. In total, 40 concepts 
involve the use of algebra. Thirty-six audio cassette tapes averaging 
10 minutes in length were prepared. A performance objective for each 
concept was written and the audio tape instruction prepared to accom- 
plish that objective. The taped instruction was supplementary and 
specific to the concepts involved. The tapes will be evaluated quantita- 
tively during winter quarter 1972-73 with a large section of general 
chemistry students. However, qualitative observations were made with 
very positive responses. 

There are numerous pedagogical advantages inherent in this ap- 
proach to individualizing instruction. The software and hardware pro- 
vide portability, flexibility, more time for student-teacher interaction, 
and can be used in any classroom setting. For maximum instructional 
efficiency, the tapes are recommended for use with single concept pro- 
grammed instruction units and appropriate textbooks for introductory 
chemistry. 

Are Indiana State University Freshmen Students Operating at a 
Formal Level in Thought Processes? Larry Bruce, Science Teaching 

Center, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. This 

pilot study was conducted by a team of graduate students and di- 
rected by the author. The problem was to determine the stage of intel- 
lectual development of a random sample of freshmen students. The 



Science Education 389 

model for intellectual development used was that proposed by Jean 
Piaget. Piagetian tasks were formulated on the basis of his reports. 
Scores derived from the tasks were used to determine the level of de- 
velopment. The scores were also correlated with actual and predicted 
grade point averages, SAT scores, and high school rank of the subjects. 

The tasks required problem solving in situations using a pendulum, 
an inclined plane, angles of incidence and reflection, volume, and 
probability. Administration of the tasks was practiced with volunteers 
until reliable techniques were developed. Each practice session and 
actual tests were video taped, and observer reliability was established. 

Our results indicated that none of the 11 subjects were operating 
at the formal level. Seven were in a transition stage between formal 
and concrete operations and four were operating at a concrete stage. 
Using the Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient the correlation 
was computed between the Piaget score and SAT, current and predicted 
grade point average. No significant correlations were found. 

Cause and effect can not be established. The majority of the 
courses offered at the high school and college level are lecture courses. 
If freshmen students do think at a concrete operational level they are 
probably memorizing the material and never really develop a functional 
understanding. Courses probably are not being taught in a manner that 
is consistent with the students' intellectual level. 

NOTE 

The Development, Instruction and Assessment of Affective Domain 
Objectives in Elementary Science Education. H. Marvin Bratt II, 
Department of Education, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 

As improved techniques for the measurement of attitudes are found 

and utilized, more emphasis may be placed on techniques for develop- 
ing affective domain objectives. Methods for development and valida- 
tion of instruments as well as a model for effecting change in attitudes 
towards teaching elementary school science were reported. 

A 60-item attitude inventory was developed containing 12 scales, 
similar to that of Moore and Sutman (3). Each scale contained six posi- 
tive subscales and six negative subscales. The subscales could easily 
be written as objectives in the affective domain. Five items were written 
to assess each subscale. Reliability was assessed by the Winer (4) test- 
retest method and validity was established by factor analysis. 

The model for development of attitudes towards the teaching of 
science in the elementary school was similar to the mastery model of 
learning described by Carroll (1). A pre-test determined the attitudes 
of prospective teachers before instruction. Profiles of the subject's 
attitudes were constructed and discussed. Specific activities were de- 
veloped to strengthen approach tendencies (2) to the six positive 
scales and decrease the approach tendencies towards the six negative 
scales. A post-test was administered following instruction. Profiles were 
again constructed and compared with pre-test profiles. Changes in atti- 
tude were determined as a result of the comparison. 



390 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Carroll, John. 1963. A model of school learning. Teachers Coll. Rec. 64:723-733. 

2. Mager, Robert F. 1968. Developing attitude toward learning. Fearon Publ., Palo 
Alto, Cal. 175 p. 

3. Moore, Richard W., and Frank X. Sutman. 1970. The development, field test, 
and validation of an inventory of scientific attitudes. J. Res. in Sci. Teach. 7:85-90. 

4. Winer, B. J. 1962. Statistical principles in experimental design. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., New York, N. Y. 132 p. 

OTHER PAPER READ 

Design of a Self-instructional Unit Concerning Environmental 
Biology for the ERAT Systems Approach at Ball State University. 

Richard W. Olsen and Terrence G. Lukas, Department of Biology, 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 



Developing School Administrators As Agents of Change 
For Science Curriculum Implementation 

Gerald H. Krockover 

Department of Education 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Each year for the past 4 years, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has 
awarded grants to several colleges and universities to conduct "Conferences for 
Elementary and Middle School Administrators Concerning New Programs in Science." 
Purdue University conducted conferences during the summers of 1971 and 1972. The Ele- 
mentary and Middle School Administrator Conference Evaluation indicates that the con- 
ferences are successful in meeting their stated objectives. The Bratt Attitude Toward 
Teaching and Teaching Science Test was administered on a pre-test and post-test basis 
and indicates a significant increase in positive attitude toward teaching and teaching 
science for the participants in the 1972 Conference. A follow-up study conducted 1 year 
after the 1971 participants had completed the conference indicated that a greater per- 
centage of participants implemented new science curricular programs than a similar group 
of non-participants. 

Introduction 

The last 15 years has witnessed the development of many curricu- 
lum improvement projects in the area of science for the elementary and 
middle school grades such as: Science — A Process Approach (SAPA), 
Elementary Science Study (ESS), Science Curriculum Improvement 
Study (SCIS), Environmental Studies (ES), Intermediate Science Cur- 
riculum Study (ISCS) and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study 
(BSCS) Human Sciences Project for the Middle School; to name a few. 
It is difficult, if not virtually impossible, for an isolated classroom 
teacher to "go it alone" in an innovative endeavor, irrespective of his 
commitment to the innovation. The classroom teacher needs the con- 
tinued philosophical and material support of his superintendent, prin- 
cipal, and supervisor for real and lasting curriculum change. An innova- 
tion will succeed when it proceeds on a broad front and when personnel 
at all levels are actively committed to the same goals (1). It has been 
estimated by the Indiana State Department of Public Instruction (2), 
for example, that less than 25% of the school corporations in Indiana 
are using new laboratory orientated science programs; more than 
75% still rely on a single textbook series for their science program. 

In an attempt to foster real and lasting curriculum change the 
National Science Foundation has awarded grants to several colleges 
and universities to conduct "Conferences for Elementary and Middle 
School Administrators Concerning New Programs in Science." Thus 
far, 106 school administrators from 47 states, including 38 from Indi- 
ana, have participated in the conferences conducted by Purdue Uni- 
versity during the summers of 1971 and 1972. 

Methods 

The Purdue University Administrator Conferences attempted to 
gain the support of key administrators in promoting wider use of the 

391 



392 Indiana Academy of Science 

"new" materials that have been developed in science for the elementary 
and middle school with NSF support. All participants that were selected 
for the conference were elementary and middle school administrators. 
Persons who are science supervisors or those administrators with 
strong science backgrounds were not selected. Every attempt was made 
to involve administrators from throughout the nation. Administrators 
must submit evidence of being directly concerned with the improvement 
of instruction along with the ability to implement those conference pro- 
grams that are of interest to their schools. The administrators re- 
ceived a 2-week subsistence and travel allowance as well as 2 semester 
hours of graduate credit. 

The specific conference objectives were: 

1) To provide instruction, experiences, and examples of the new 
approaches in science for use in elementary and middle school 
science programs. 

2) To instruct elementary and middle school administrators in 
the specific nature of some of the most central of the new 
curriculum programs. This will include exploration of Science — 
A Process Approach (AAAS), Elementary Science Study 
(ESS), Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS), Indi- 
vidualized Science, Environmental Studies, Intermediate 
Science Curriculum Study (ISCS), the BSCS Human Sciences 
for the Middle School Project, as well as BSCS Educable 
Mentally Retarded (Special Education) Projects. 

3) To provide opportunity for exchanges between leaders in the 
various curriculum programs, experienced and enthused 
teachers who have utilized the new materials, and elementary 
and middle school administrators. Presentations by leaders; 
demonstrations, laboratories, and discussions each by represen- 
tative teachers; and observation of laboratories, class sessions, 
and taped sequences from the new programs provided the 
setting for these exchanges, as well as the use of over 200 
children throughout the 2 weeks in micro-teaching situations. 

4) To encourage adoption of some of the specific programs in the 
schools represented by the administrators who participate in 
the conference. 

5) To encourage greater communication between college and uni- 
versity personnel, state educational units, accrediting agencies, 
and the personnel from local schools. 

In general each curriculum project was presented in three 
components : 

1) A curriculum representative from a college or university who 
explained the development of the project, its general 
philosophy, and present status including plans for the future. 
This representative also introduced the participants to the 
specific student and teacher materials. 

2) Two classroom teacher consultants who utilize these materials 
in their classrooms assisted the participants during sample 
laboratory activities from these projects. 



Science Education 393 

3) The use of children in micro-teaching situations by the 
participants to test the materials. 

In addition, keynote speakers were utilized to set the conference 
tone as well as for a concluding theme. 

Results 

A two-part evaluation of the conferences was used to assess its 
effectiveness. The opinions of the school administrators were obtained 
using the Elementary and Middle School Administrator Conference 
Evaluation (3). The overwhelming consensus of the administrators was 
extremely encouraging and indicated that the conference was successful 
in meeting its stated objectives. 

Over 70% stated that: 

1 ) They profited greatly from this conference. 

2) They would make better curricular decisions as a result of this 
conference. 

3) Their teachers could teach these science programs. 

4) Experiences with science as identified in this conference should 
be a part of the education of every individual. 

The second part of the evaluation utilized the Bratt Attitude 
Toward Teaching and Teaching Science Test (4) which was adminis- 
tered on a pre-test and post-test basis to the 1972 participants. Each 
participant received a profile relating to the 12 positions (6 were posi- 
tive and 6 negative) evaluated. The group increase of +12.9 points re- 
sulted in an F- ratio of 15.53 which is significant at the 0.05 level for 
105 degrees of freedom utilizing the analysis of variance statistical pro- 
cedure outlined in Ferguson (5). Thus, a significant increase in positive 
attitude toward teaching and teaching science was indicated for the total 
group of 1972 conference participants as measured by the Bratt Test. 

In a follow-up study of the 1971 participants conducted one year 
after they had participated in the Purdue University conference it was 
found that 40% of the 53 participants had implemented one of the new 
science programs featured at the conference into their school corpora- 
tion. This is compared to a 0% implementation rate for a selected 
sample of 100 school administrators from throughout the nation who 
had applied for participation in an administrators conference, but were 
rejected because of funding and space limitations. 

Conclusions 

Conferences such as these at Purdue University assist school ad- 
ministrators in the implementation of the NSF supported projects in 
mathematics, science and social science education. Far greater impact 
is made, and will be felt in the future from groups such as this one, for 
change in our curricular programs than from simple dissemination in 
teacher workshops. We are hopeful and firmly believe that attitudes 
toward teaching and learning in general have been improved and will 



394 



Indiana Academy of Science 



influence these key personnel to be more effective leaders in their re- 
spective school systems. 



Literature Cited 



Rogers, Robert E., and Alan M. Voelker. 1970. Programs for improving science 
instruction in the elementary school Part I, ESS. Sci. and Children. 7:35-43. 

Smulevitz, Howard. 1971. Individual trend in schools is rough on text selectors. 
Indianapolis Star. 15 Jan.: 20. 

Krockover, Gerald H. 1972. Conference for elementary and middle school adminis- 
trators. Directors Report GW-7253. Nat. Sci. Found. Wash., D.C. 215 p. 

Bratt, H. Marvin. 1973. Test to measure attitude toward teaching and teaching 
science. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 180 p. 

Ferguson, George A. 1966. Statistical analysis in psychology and education. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y. 446 p. 



Attitudinal Changes in Selected 6th Grade Students 

Participating in the Indianapolis Public Schools 

Residential Outdoor Education Program, 

Spring, 1972 

Donald E. Van Meter 

Department of Natural Resources 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Abstract 

The problem for this investigation was to appraise selected attitudinal changes in 
6th grade students participating in a residential outdoor education program. Data were 
obtained for the investigation from a "semantic differential" type instrument designed 
for this study. A pre-test/post-test design was used and the differences between the scores 
for each class of students compared. The results of the study indicated that some sig- 
nificant student attitudinal change occurred. 

Introduction 

Residential outdoor education programs are conducted in several 
school systems in Indiana. The objectives of these programs may vary 
from school system to school system, but in addition to learning school 
subject matter (such as science, conservation, mathematics, English, 
art) some type of positive attitude change is anticipated. 

An attitude is a way of feeling about something or someone. For 
this investigation examples of positive attitudinal change include such 
feelings as a student liking school better after the residential experience 
than before it, and a student respecting the teacher more after the resi- 
dential camp than before attending the camp. 

Although attitudinal changes are anticipated and desired by school 
systems conducting residential outdoor education programs, few attempt 
to systematically evaluate the success of their program in this regard. 
There have been, however, several studies conducted in other states con- 
cerning student attitudinal change as a result of residential outdoor 
educational programs. 

Davidson (1) investigated the relationship between school camp 
curricula and measured changes in pupils' social relationships and self- 
concepts. He concluded that the programs produced positive change on 
both the self -concept scale and the social relationships scale. 

Johnson (2) appraised changes in achievement, interest, and social 
status of junior high school students who experienced 1 week of school 
camping. She found that there was little increase in the acceptance of 
an individual during the 1-week experience. Group cohesion, however, 
significantly increased during the stay in camp. 

Kleindiest (3) studied the potential of school-camp experiences as 
means of attaining objectives of the 6th grade curriculum. She found 
that these residential programs offered significant opportunities in 
meeting school objectives especially in the area of social living, 
appreciation, and communication. 

395 



396 Indiana Academy of Science 

Kranzer (4) found that social and democratic behavioral changes 
take place more rapidly during a camping program than during a regu- 
lar school classroom program. Boys seemed to profit more than girls. 
Low mental ability students showed a slight improvement in critical 
thinking. The number of isolates, however, tended to increase beyond 
what would normally be found in the classroom. Kranzer also reported 
that ratings by adults (teachers) generally favored camping as increas- 
ing group acceptance, better motivation, and stimulating classroom 
work. Adult ratings were generally higher than ratings from his test 
instruments; thus the instruments being used to evaluate school camp- 
ing may not be valid in measuring a change that takes place in such 
a period as short as 1 week. 

Stack (5) studied attitudes toward selected concepts of school, 
teachers, friends, and school camping possessed by 5th and 6th grade 
pupils before and after a school camping experience. Among her con- 
clusions were: 1) the school camp experience does provide unique op- 
portunities for effecting social change, particularly in regard to racial 
cleavage, and 2) teacher-pupil rapport was improved. 

These studies seem to indicate that school camping does influence 
student attitudes in a number of ways. Many of these changes would 
have a direct influence on the student's education and social life. 

Methodology 

This particular investigation measured selected attitudinal 
changes in 6th grade students participating in a residential outdoor edu- 
cation program at Bradford Woods during the spring, 1972. Students 
in the program attended schools from the inner-city and outer-city of 
Indianapolis, Indiana. The program was one school-week long (5 days). 
Classroom teachers and non-school resource people served as instructors 
for the camp. 

The residential outdoor education program involved 16 different 
groups during the 6 weeks it was conducted. Each group was assigned 
a number (1 through 16) and a table of random numbers used to select 
the four groups of students for this study. Each group had 20 par- 
ticipants equally divided between boys and girls. Pre-testing was con- 
ducted on Monday morning of the camp and post-testing on Friday 
afternoon of the camp. A teacher was present to assist students with 
reading difficulties. A "semantic differential" type instrument was used 
to collect data for the investigation. The "concepts" used in the instru- 
ment were selected because they represented what Indianapolis 6th 
grade teachers had indicated to the investigator were objectives of the 
residential program. The pairs of adjectives used to rate the concepts 
were selected from other "semantic differential" type instruments. 

The semantic differential is not an instrument in the same sense 
that the College Board Exams is an instrument. It is rather a tech- 
nique, just as multi-choice questions or essay-type questions are 
techniques. In its most common form, it consists of presenting the stu- 
dent with a concept consisting of a word or a phrase. The student rates 



Science Education 397 

the concept on a series of bipolar scales which are listed beneath the 
concept. Usually the bipolar scales have five to seven rating points. The 
ends of the bipolar scales are defined by a pair of adjectives. A single 
instrument usually consists of 10 to 20 concepts; each of which is rated 
on approximately 15 to 30 scales. 

A pre-test/post-test design was used and the differences between 
the pre-test and the post-test ratings for each group of students deter- 
mined. A t-test was computed between these ratings to determine the 
significance of the differences. The 0.05 level of confidence was prede- 
termined to be an acceptable level to indicate significance difference. 
Differences between pre-test and post-test ratings were recorded for 
the following 10 "concepts." 

1. Enjoying the Outdoors 5. Knowing about Manners 

2. Learning about Nature 6. Being Polite and Courteous 

3. Learning about Natural 7. Being a Good Citizen 
Resources 8. Getting Along with Class- 

4. Getting Along with mates 

Teachers 10. Learning about Science 

Students rated each "concept" on the same series of 15 bipolar 
scales, each scale having five rating points. The 15 pairs of adjectives 
that made up the bipolar scales are : 

1. Important — Unimportant 9. Relaxing — Tiring 

2. Valuable — Worthless 10. Clear — Mysterious 

3. Exciting — Boring 11. Refreshing — Unpleasant 

4. Interesting — Dull 12. Joyful — Gloomy 

5. Simple — Difficult 13. Comforting — Threatening 

6. Beneficial — Useless 14. Productive — Unproductive 

7. Stimulating — Monotonous 15. Safe — Risky 

8. Easy— Hard 

. In the directions to students rating the "concepts" they were asked 
to mark (X) in one of the boxes between the words. For example: 

Eating Your Supper 

Good [X] □ □ □ □ □ Bad 

If a student thought that eating his supper (the "concept") was 
a good thing to do he marked in one of the boxes close to the word 
"Good." If he felt that eating his supper was a bad thing to do he 
marked in a box close to the word "Bad." For purposes of determin- 
ing mean ratings, the box closest to the positive adjective was rated 
a 5 and the box closest to the negative adjective was given a rating. 
The other four boxes were rated 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. These 
numerical ratings were not printed on the rating instrument completed 
by students. 

Results and Discussion 

When mean ratings were computed for each student group on all 
the "concepts" it was found that two groups rated the post-test 
significantly higher than the pre-test. One other group rated the post- 



398 Indiana Academy of Science 

test higher than the pre-test, but not significantly higher. The fourth 
group rated the pre-test and the post-test the same. Table 1 presents 
the actual mean ratings (on a scale to 5). 





Table 1. 


Mean pre-test and post-test ratings. 








Mean Ratings 


Significant 


Students Group 


Pre-test Post-test 


at 0.05 level 



Group 1 3.3 3.6 Yes 

Group 2 3.6 3.7 No 

Group 3 3.6 3.6 No 

Group 4 3.9 4.1 Yes 



These data would seem to indicate that the residential outdoor edu- 
cation program had more positive effects on student attitudes about 
the 10 phrases selected for the study, than negative effects. Table 2 pre- 
sents data on the difference between the pre-test and post-test ratings 
by the student groups for each "concept" or phrase. 

Table 2 shows 27 incidences in which students increased their rating 
of a "concept" or phrase on the post-test over the pre-test. This indi- 
cates a more positive feeling toward those phrases. Fourteen of the 27 
increases were statistically significant. In seven cases students de- 
creased their rating of a "concept" or phrase on the post-test from the 
pre-test. This indicates a more negative feeling toward those phrases. 
Two of the seven decreases were statistically significant. In six inci- 
dences students rated concepts the same on both pre-test and post-test. 



Table 2. Differences between post-test ratings compared to pre-test ratings by student 

groups for each phrase. (A plus indicates an increase, a minus indicates a decrease, and a 

zero indicates no change.) 





Phrase 




Student Groups 






Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 


1. 


Enjoying the Outdoors 


+ 


+ * 


O 


+ 


2. 


Learning about Nature 


+ 


O 


+ 


+ * 


3. 


Learning about Natural Resources 


+ * 


+ 


O 


+ * 


4. 


Getting Along with Teachers 


+ * 


+ * 


— 


— 


5. 


Knowing about Manners 


+ * 


+ * 


* 


+ * 


6. 


Being Polite & Courteous 


+ 


+ 


o 


+ 


7. 


Being a Good Citizen 


+ * 


O 


+ 


+ 


8. 


Getting Along with Classmates 


+ * 


+ * 


— 


O 


9. 


Being Away from Home 


+ * 


* 


+ 


+ 


10. 


Learning About Science 


+ 


' — 




+ * 



"Indicates significant change at 0.05 level of confidence 

Student groups one and four had far more increases in ratings on 
the post-test than decreases. Phrases one, two, three, five, six, seven, 
and nine had more increases in ratings on the post-test than decreases 
and same ratings combined. 



Science Education 399 

From the data presented in Tables 1 and 2, it was concluded that 
student groups one and four benefited more from the residential out- 
door education program than groups two and three with regard to 
changing attitudes on the phrases used on the rating instrument. Pos- 
sible reasons why this occurred are as follows : 

1) Student groups came to residential outdoor education program 
with different academic backgrounds. 

2) Student groups came to residential outdoor education program 
with different home experiences. 

3) Some classroom teachers teaching in the program are better 
able to teach in a residential outdoor education program than 
others. 

4) Some outside resource people teaching in the program are 
more effective instructors in a residential outdoor education 
program than others. 

5) The phrases and values rated in this investigation were held 
in higher regard by some student groups and their teachers 
than other groups and teachers. 

Conclusions 

The major conclusion drawn from this study was that residential 
outdoor education programs do not always result in a positive atti- 
tudinal change for all students. A great deal depends on the organization 
and administration of the program, the backgrounds and interests of 
teachers and students, and the facilities of the camp to make it an ef- 
fective means for significantly changing student attitudes. 



Literature Cited 

1. Davidson, Morris. 1965. Changes in self-concepts and sociometric statue of fifth and 
sixth grade children as a result of two different school camp curricula. Unpublished 
Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Cal., Berkeley. 154 p. 

2. Johnson, Tessa Mae. 1957. An evaluation of a semi-objective method for apprais- 
ing selected educational outcomes of school camping. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, 
Univ. S. Cal, Los Angeles. 123 p. 

3. Kleindiest, Viola K. 1957. A study of the experiences of camping for the 
purpose of pointing out ways in which a school camping program may supplement 
the elementary school at the sixth grade level. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, 
New York Univ. 110 p. 

4. Kranzer, Herman C. 1958. Effects of school camping on selected aspects of pupil 
behavior — an experimental study. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Cal., Los 
Angeles. 138 p. 

5. Stack, Genevieve C. 1960. An evaluation of attitudinal outcomes of fifth and sixth 
grade students following a period of school camping. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, 
Univ. Okla. 149 p. 



The Laboratory Culture of Diatoms for Class Use 

G. C. Marks and W. W. Bloom 

Department of Biology 

Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

Abstract 

The study of living diatoms by beginning biology students has sometimes been diffi- 
cult because relatively pure cultures of this organism have not been readily available. We 
have succeeded in isolating and culturing diatoms on a simple agar medium. 

To the devoted general biologist an introductory course in biology 
cannot be considered complete without exposing the student to some 
meaningful experience with living diatoms. In many preparations the 
small size of the organism as well as their slow and erratic movements 
allow all but the most careful observer to overlook them. Until recently 
pure cultures were not available, and those obtained from supply houses 
tended to be little better than those that are collected from local stand- 
ing or running water. Since too many organisms (or debris) are 
included in most cultures, we searched for a practical culture method 
for use in providing reasonably pure cultures of diatoms for our 
introductory courses. 

A few earlier attempts to propagate a mixture of species in soil 
water ended in moderate success. Aware that some motile organisms 
are easily isolated and cultured on agar (i.e., Chlamydomonas, Amoeba, 
Nematodes) , we decided to try the following approach. 

Stream water, moderately rich in diatoms, was applied as a thick 
streak on the surface of Bold's Basic Medium Agar (1) (BBMA) in 
glass Petri dishes. These plates and all those that followed were placed 
in a B.O.D. Box and incubated at 15 °C under 16 watt cool white 
florescent tubes with 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness. In 
3-4 weeks comparatively pure masses of dividing diatoms could be found 
among other algal clones. These diatoms had migrated away from the 
streak. It was then relatively easy with a sterile microscalpel or inocu- 
lating loop to transfer some individuals to a fresh plate. Again in a few 
weeks nearly pure clones of diatoms could be seen with the unaided eye. 
Microscopic examination of the plate revealed these organisms radiating 
out from the sites of inoculation. 

Transfer of these organisms to a blank slide and subsequent 
microscopic examination were disappointing. They were difficult to 
remove, lacked the characteristic golden-brown color, and in many cases, 
the rigidity of the cell was lost. Those that retained their typical form 
did not exhibit motility. At this point a little reflection produced an 
awareness that although BBMA was fairly complete for mineral 
nutrient requirements for many algae, it is devoid of silicon essential 
for the formation of diatom cell walls. The previous luxuriant growth 
could presumably be explained by the probable inclusion of necessary 
silica in the original inoculum. Transfer to a second culture dish re- 
sulted in diminishing the silicon content of the culture below minimal 
requirements for sustained healthy formation and growth of cell walls. 

400 



Science Education 401 

It seems probable, that other nutritional requirements were met 
as the protoplasmic contents prospered. The silicon deficiency was easily 
overcome by adding 5 ml of 2% silical gel to 1 liter of BBM. This ad- 
justment of the medium seemed to promote a rise in the rate of cell divi- 
sion. Comparable populations in the silica gel medium were attained 
in less than 2 weeks whereas it had taken almost 3 weeks in the 
agar medium lacking the silica gel. 

The organisms were easily removed by flooding the plate with de- 
ionized water but once again we experienced disappointment because 
of the subsequent loss of motility. Close microscopic examination re- 
vealed the cell contents were disturbed in a manner similar to plas- 
molysis. Further experimentation quickly indicated that we had created 
an osmotic gradient too steep for the organism to overcome without 
trauma. A substitution of soil water for the deionized water in the re- 
moval of the organisms from the agar of the culture dish to the water 
of the observation slide quickly circumvented this final pitfall and even- 
tually, healthy motile organisms could be transferred from the culture 
medium to the observation slides in nearly pure culture. Most orga- 
nisms not eliminated by the above procedures and all less prominent than 
the diatoms, were minute flagellates and large bacteria. For teaching 
purposes we do not feel a single species culture is necessary. 

We have had occasion to use diatom plates about 12 weeks old. The 
organisms when washed off with soil water had lost none of their vigor 
and made excellent classroom material. We are currently trying to iso- 
late larger and less motile species by flooding plates with a thin film 
of pond water and transferring clones to fresh BBMA dishes. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bold, Harold C 1967. A laboratory manual for plant morphology. Harper and 
Row, New York, N.Y. 123 p. 



SOIL SCIENCE 

Chairman: Keith Huffman, Soil Conservation Service, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Noblesville, Indiana 46020 

William R. Gommel, Department of Earth Sciences, 

Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, Indiana 46227, 

was elected Chairman for 1973 

ABSTRACT 

The Degradation of Protenious Substances in Soils by Controlled 
Denitrification. Robert H. L. Howe, Eli Lilly and Company, Tippecanoe 
Laboratories, Lafayette, Indiana 47902. The theory of a rapid proc- 
ess for the degradation of proteinous substances in soils was explained. 
Biochemical reaction pathways of the controlled denitrification processes 
involving the inter-reaction of the nitrate radical (N0 3 ) with carbo- 
hydrates, sulfur, ammonia, hydrocarbons, sulfides, and hydrogen were 
suggested. Some experimental data were presented. The rapid release 
of nitrogen gas (N 2 ) from soils inoculated with the proper denitrifying 
microbes for the degradation of proteinous substances under controlled 
conditions was noted. 

OTHER PAPER READ 

Automatic Mapping of Earth Features Using Digitized Data from 
Multiband Satellite Photography. E. H. Horvath and Steven J. 

Kristof, Agronomy Department, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 
47907. 



403 



Relationship of Various Indices of Water 
Quality to Denitrification in Surface Waters 1 

L. B. Owens and D. W. Nelson 

Agronomy Department 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Water samples were collected monthly from three farm ponds and from three loca- 
tions on the Wabash River near Lafayette, Indiana, to determine the actual and potential 
rates of denitrification in such water systems. Denitrification may serve as an important 
mechanism for nitrate removal from surface waters. Water parameters which may affect 
denitrification were estimated at the time of sampling and then related to the denitrifica- 
tion rates observed. Actual and potential denitrification rates were normally small unless 
an energy source was added, indicating that the low amount of dissolved carbon as well 
as a high dissolved 2 content may be the factors limiting denitrification in 
surface waters. Water temperature, pH level, nitrate level, and numbers of denitrifying 
bacteria appeared suitable for denitrification during most of the year. Higher levels of 
denitrifying bacteria, nitrate, and phosphorus existed in the river than in the ponds, while 
the ponds had slightly higher dissolved carbon levels. The nitrate-N levels did not exceed 
the United States Public Health Service standard of 10 parts per million, and the river 
and pond surface water remained aerobic throughout the year. The levels of contaminants 
studied in the river were little affected by the municipal and industrial effluents that were 
added between the river locations. 

Introduction 

The pollution of rivers, lakes, and ponds is a problem of increasing 
concern. The commercial and recreational use of and the esthetic quality 
of bodies of surface water are being threatened by the addition of in- 
organic contaminants, such as nitrate. Nitrate, which has industrial, 
urban, and agricultural sources, encourages excessive growth of algae 
when present in surface waters at low concentrations (0.3 ppm 
nitrate-N) and poses a health problem to infants and ruminant live- 
stock when a contaminant of drinking water in concentrations greater 
than 10 ppm of N. In view of the possible consequences of increased 
nitrate loading of surface waters, it is imperative that more be known 
about nitrate transformations in natural waters and factors which 
influence these transformations. Denitrifications, i.e., the biological 
reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas, is being viewed as a possible 
mechanism for the removal of nitrate. Denitrification is known to pro- 
ceed in a variety of environments such as water-logged soil, sewage 
digestors, and manure pits resulting in the loss of nitrogen from the 
system. Anaerobic conditions are required for denitrification since 
bacteria carrying out dissimilatory nitrate reduction are facultative 
aerobes which use oxygen if available as the acceptor for electrons pro- 
duced in respiration, but which may use nitrate as the electron ac- 
ceptor if oxygen is absent. Denitrification may be a significant pathway 
for removal of excess nitrate from certain aquatic systems if conditions 
which promote denitrification develop during the year. 



1 Journal Paper No. 4950. Purdue University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Partially supported by the Indiana Water Resources Research Center (Project 
No. A-019-IND). 

404 



Soil Science 405 

The objectives of the study reported here were: 1) To estimate the 
actual and potential denitrification rates of surface waters sampled 
monthly from the Wabash River and three farm ponds; 2) To measure 
various indices of water quality which may affect denitrification; and 
3) To attempt to relate the parameters studied to the rates of deni- 
trification observed. 

Literature Review 

Although no studies concerned with the distribution of denitrify- 
ing organisms in surface waters have been conducted, several studies 
dealing with total bacterial populations in surface waters have been 
reported. In a 4-year study in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, Fred, Wilson, 
and Davenport (5) found that total bacterial numbers fluctuated widely. 
There was not always a satisfactory explanation for the extreme fluc- 
tuations. Graham and Young (8) reported bacterial numbers ranging 
up to 8,000 /ml in Flathead Lake, Montana, with the counts being lower 
in the surface water than in the water a few feet below the surface. 
Similar results were found by Hughes and Reuszer (10) in three south- 
ern Indiana farm ponds. The surface water usually contained fewer 
bacteria than the water 6 inches from the bottom. Although bacterial 
counts up to 120,000/ml were observed, large seasonal fluctations in 
the bacterial population was evident. From the investigation of 7 West 
Virginia farm ponds, Wilson, Miller, and Thomas (17) reported bac- 
terial numbers ranging from 7,000 to 45,000 /ml. 

Not only have seasonal variations been found, but as reported by 
Stark and McCoy (15), striking variations in bacterial numbers in dif- 
ferent areas of the same lake have been observed. The variations were 
correlated to the level of weed and algal growth. 

Certain chemical characteristics of surface water have been re- 
ported in conjunction with some bacterial population studies. Stark and 
McCoy (15) recorded total organic carbon values ranging from 5.5 to 
15.5 ppm for 7 Wisconsin lakes. Hughes and Reuszer (10) reported 
7-28 ppm of organic carbon and pH values ranging from 6.8-8.0 on a 
seasonal basis. A similar pH range, 6.87-8.34, was reported by Wilson 
etal. (17). 

Only a few studies have dealt with denitrification rates in aquatic 
systems. In the anoxic hypolimnion of an island bay in the equatorial 
Pacific Ocean, Goering and Dugdale (6) found denitrification rates from 
12 to 18 /jig of N 2 /l/day at depths of 125 or more. No denitrification was 
found at lesser depths. Goering and Dugdale (7) reported that during 
the winter anoxic period in a subarctic lake studies using 
N 15 3 revealed evolution of N 2 at a rate of 90 /xg N 2 /l/day in the first 
3 days from a water over sediment system. About 15 fxg of N 2 /l/day 
evolved from water collected 1 m below the surface and incubated at 
5° C. 

In a study of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, Brezonik and Lee (4) re- 
ported that the denitrification rates ranged from 26 ^g of N 2 /l/day 
at 22 and 23 m to 8.4 ^g of N 2 /l/day at 14 m. The lower depths were 



406 Indiana Academy of Science 

influenced by sediments. Although some denitrification occurred at 11 
to 13 m, there was not enough to change the denitrification estimate 
for the entire lake. Anaerobic conditions existed at this latter depth, 
but not for extended periods. The denitrification estimate reported ac- 
counts for only 11% of the total annual input of nitrate. 

Materials and Methods 

Water samples were collected from three sites along the Wabash 
River and from three farm ponds in the West Lafayette area. The river 
sites were located such that one site (R-N), near the State Street 
bridge, was north of most of the industrial and municipal outlets along 
the Wabash; the second site (R-SO) was a sewer outlet basin connected 
with the river just south of the first location; and the third sampling 
point (R-S) was south of Lafayette near the Fort Ouiatenon area. The 
first of the three ponds sampled was on the Purdue Horticulture Farm 
(P-HF) just north of Indiana Highway 26 about IVz miles west of 
West Lafayette. This pond has a sod cover on its surrounding banks. 
The second pond, designated as Pond A (P-A), was Miller's Pond and 
located in a small wooded area south of Indiana Highway 26 about 1 
mile west of West Lafayette. The final pond investigated was Blackbird 
Pond, labeled Pond B (P-B). Located northwest of the Purdue Univer- 
sity campus, Pond B also had sod banks except on the west side where 
a gravel roadway served as a dam. 

The water samples were collected from each site once a month for 
1 year. The sampling apparatus was similar to that described by Hughes 
(9), a modification of the Wilson (16) apparatus, except that sterilized, 
1-pint bottles were used. The samples were stored at 5° C until analyses 
could be performed. 

The temperature and the dissolved oxygen content of the water 
were measured in situ with a Yellow Springs Instrument Co. oxygen 
meter, model 51A. The pH was determined in the lab with a glass 
electrode. The population of denitrifying bacteria was estimated in each 
sample on the date of collection using the most probable number 
(MPN) method as described by Alexander (1). The culture medium used 
was that suggested by Alexander (2) for denitrifying bacteria. 

On the day following collection of the sample, 10-day incubation 
studies of denitrification rates in unamended, nitrate-amended, and 
nitrate plus glucose-amended samples were initiated. The unamended 
denitrification experiments were set up by adding 50 ml of the water 
sample to a 125 ml Ehrlenmeyer flask, bubbling N 2 through the sample 
for 10 min, and sealing the flask with a stopper secured with electrical 
tape. The flasks were then incubated at room temperature (approxi- 
mately 23° C) and analyzed at selected intervals for nitrogen 
components. The nitrate-amended denitrification experiments were set 
up by adding 5 ml of a 200 ppm KN0 3 -N solution to 45 ml of the water 
sample (20 ppm N0 3 -N in the 50 ml solution) and proceeding as 
described above. The nitrate plus glucose-amended system was 
composed of 45 ml of the water sample treated with 2 ml of a 500 ppm 



Soil Science 407 

KNO3-N solution, 2 ml of a 625 ppm glucose-C solution, and 1 ml of 
deionized water. The resultant solution contained 20 ppm NO3-N and 
25 ppm glucose-C and was incubated as described above. 

Ammonium-N and nitrate-N in samples were determined by steam 
distillation as described by Bremner and Keeney (3). Filtered 
(0.45 fi) samples were analyzed for soluble orthophosphate by the 
Murphy and Riley (13) procedure. The amount of dissolved carbon was 
determined by refluxing 15 ml of the filtered (0.45 p) water with 5 
ml of 0.025 N K 2 Cr 2 7 and 30 ml of concentrated H 2 S0 4 for 30 min. 
Upon cooling, the excess K 2 Cr 2 7 was back-titrated with approximately 
0.010 n Fe(NH 4 ) 2 (S0 4 ) 2 using ferrion as the indicator. 

Results and Discussion 

The levels of denitrifying organisms in water samples collected 
throughout the year are shown in Figure 1. The number of denitrifying 
bacteria at the two river sites did not greatly differ from each other. 
Both the northern river site (R-N) and the southern location (R-S) 
show decreased numbers in the fall but show peaks in denitrifying 
bacteria in December and again in March. The northern river sampling 
point, having slightly higher peak values, reached counts of 3.5 X 10 4 
denitrifying bacteria per ml. The low numbers for February can, at least 
in part, be related to low temperature, as shown by Figure 2. The 
bacterial populations in the sewer outlet (R-SO) were much greater 
than those found at any of the other sampling areas. Fluctuations in 
counts for the sewer outlet did not vary in the same manner as did the 
bacterial levels at the other locations since peaks in the number of 
denitrifying bacteria occurred in October and April. 

The pond samples had variations in bacterial levels similar to those 
of the river in which the values decrease in the fall but peaked in De- 
cember and again in the spring. The pond near the Purdue Horticulture 
Farm had its second peak nearly a month later than the rivers, while 
Pond A and Pond B were approximately 2 months later in reaching their 
second peaks. The bacterial levels in the ponds tended to parallel each 
other, with the Horticulture Farm Pond generally being the highest 
and Pond A being the lowest. A few of the points plotted in Figure 1 
for Pond A indicating less than 1 organism /ml are merely statistical 
points, resulting from the MPN method. The number of denitrifying 
bacteria were so low that a numerical value was essentially meaningless. 
In general, the ponds had lower numbers of denitrifying bacteria than 
did the river. Owens (14) found that even when the initial bacterial 
numbers were as low as 4.4 X 10" 2 organisms /ml, enough denitrifying 
bacteria were produced in 10 days to result in appreciable denitrifica- 
tion if an appropriate level of organic C was present as a source of 
energy for the organisms. Thus, the denitrifying population of most 
water samples appears adequate for significant denitrification to occur. 



408 



Indiana Academy of Science 



F 




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Figure 1. 



Levels of denitrifying organisms in river and pond surface water samples dur- 
ing a 1-year period. 



Figure 2. Temperature of river and pond surface waters during a 1-year period. 



The water temperatures of both the river sites and the farm ponds 
were very similar throughout the year, as is shown by Figure 2. The 
maximum temperatures, which were above 25° C, were reached in July 
and the minimum temperatures, 1° C and lower, were observed in Feb- 
ruary. The ponds were ice covered in January, and all the sites except 
the sewer outlet were ice covered in February. The sewer outlet 
tended to be slightly warmer than the other sampling points except 
during the summer months. A study of the effect of the temperature 
on the rate of denitrification in surface water (14) showed that 
denitrification occurred at 10° C, but not at 5° C, indicating that from 
December to March the water temperature was unfavorable for 
denitrification. 

Seasonal variations in the dissolved oxygen content of the surface 
waters are shown in Figure 3. The highest values were observed during 
the winter months as expected since the solubility of 2 in water 
increases with decreased temperature. The river at the northern location 
ranged from 7.6 up to 15 ppm (the upper limit measured by the 
YSI oxygen meter). The R-S site yielded similar values, ranging from 

7.7 to 15 ppm dissolved 2 . A high level of dissolved oxygen (15 ppm) 
was also observed at each river site in July. The oxygen level at the 
R-SO site, ranging from 3 to 15 ppm, never exceeded the levels in the 
river and, in fact, was much lower than values for the river during the 
fall. The ponds were somewhat more sporadic in the variation of oxygen 
levels. The Horticulture Farm Pond, Pond A, and Pond B ranged from 

7.8 to 15, 4.8 to 15, and 6.7 to 15 ppm, respectively. Pond A tended to 
have a lower dissolved oxygen content in the fall than the other two 



Soil Science 



409 



ponds and slightly higher content in the spring. All of the dissolved 
oxygen levels measured are above the level of 1 ppm which was found 
to be the upper limit for denitrification in surface waters (14). Thus 
the presence of high dissolved oxygen will likely limit denitrification in 
surface waters although some aquatic systems are known to develop 
anaerobic zones during stratification or when high BOD effluents are 
added. 




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Figure 3. Dissolved oxygen content of river and pond surface waters during a 1-year 

period. 

Figure 4. Dissolved organic carbon content of river and pond surface water samples during 

a 1-year period. 



There was very little variation in pH throughout the year at any 
of the six sampling sites. The individual pH values of all samples ranged 
from 7.4 to 8.4, and the mean annual pH was 7.8 for the sewer outlet 
and Pond B and 8.0 for the southern river location and Pond A. Since 
denitrification has been shown to proceed from pH 5.5 to 8.0 (14), the 
pH values of the surface water from the various sampling sites were 
in the range which had no inhibitory effects on denitrification. 

The characterization of the surface water for dissolved organic 
carbon is shown in Figure 4. The carbon levels in the river remained 
fairly constant throughout the year. The southern river location varied 
from 6.2 to 10.1 ppm throughout the year, while a mild fluctuation in 
later winter causes the levels of the northern site to range from 5.8 to 
13.5 ppm. The sewer outlet had a high level of dissolved carbon 
(29.7 ppm) in August and dropped off before a smaller peak 
(17.0 ppm) in February. The carbon levels in the ponds ran rather 
parallel to each other with Pond B having the highest level and Pond 
A having the lowest. The level of dissolved carbon in Pond B, the 



410 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Horticulture Farm Pond, and Pond A over 1 year ranged from 6.3 to 
15.6, 5.5 to 13.2, and 4.4 to 11.3 ppm, respectively. In light of a previous 
study (14) which showed that at least 30 ppm of dissolved organic C 
must be present for significant denitrification to occur, it is likely that 
the dissolved carbon levels observed would be a limiting factor for 
denitrification in the water systems studied. 

The ammonium-N levels in the sewer outlet were highly variable 
as shown by Figure 5. The individual values ranged from to 11.7 ppm 
and the mean annual ammonium-N content was 5.3 ppm. The river 
ranged from to 0.5 ppm NH4-N and averaged 0.2 ppm for both the 
R-N and R-S sites. For the Horticulture Farm Pond, Pond A, and Pond 
B, the ammonium-N content ranged from to 0.6 ppm (with the 
exception of 2.8 ppm value for July), to 0.3 ppm, and to 1.0 ppm, 
respectively. The mean annual values were 0.2, 0.1, and 0.4 ppm 
NH+-N, respectively. 









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Figure 5. Ammonium-N level of sewer outlet basin surface water samples during a 1-year 

period. 

Figure 6. Nitrate-N content of river and pond surface water samples during a 1-year 

period. 



The nitrate-N levels in the river samples were very similar. As 
shown by Figure 6, the nitrate levels were lower in the summer and 
fall (minimum of ppm in August) and higher in the winter and spring 
(maxima near 5.5 ppm in both January and April). The sewer outlet 
showed a similar trend, but had a much lower nitrate content in Febru- 
ary than was observed in the river samples. The mean annual 
nitrate-N level for the sewer was 2.1 ppm, while for the northern and 
southern river sites, it was 2.8 and 2.9 ppm, respectively. Like the river, 
the ponds had lower nitrate levels in the summer and fall with higher 
levels in the winter and spring. However, the winter and spring nitrate 
levels differed noticeably from pond to pond. The Horticulture Farm 
Pond ranged from to 4.9 ppm nitrate-N with a mean of 1.5 ppm, Pond 
B from to 2.4 with a mean of 0.6 ppm, and Pond A from to 0.25 with 



Soil Science 



411 



a mean of 0.04 ppm. Previous research (14) has shown that there is no 
apparent minimum nitrate concentration required for denitrification 
to be initiated. 











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Figure 7. Nitrate-N lost from glucose-amended, anaerobic river and pond surface water 
samples collected during a 9-month period. 

Figure 8. Orthophosphate-P content of river and pond water surface water samples dur- 
ing a 1-year period. 



In the nitrate-amended denitrification rate experiments, nitrate-N 
loss did not exceed 1.0 ppm in any of the samples. Likewise, no 
nitrate loss was observed in the unamended denitrification rate experi- 
ments. When this trend was noticed, the unamended denitrification rate 
experiments were discontinued and the nitrate plus glucose-amended 
system was initiated. Figure 7 shows the loss of nitrate from the 
nitrate plus glucose-amended samples collected during the period 
October to June. The nitrate-N lost from the river samples ranged from 
to 12.2, to 15.5, and to 19.7 ppm for the R-N, R-S, and 
R-SO sites, respectively. Months of greatest loss were November and 
March for all three locations. Explanation of these peaks is difficult 
since, with the exception of the sewer outlet, the denitrifying bacteria 
numbers were high only during the March period and dissolved carbon 
contents were not especially high at times of large nitrate loss. 
Denitrification was not limited by temperature or dissolved oxygen 
parameters since all samples were incubated at room temperature 
(23° C) under complete anaerobic conditions. In samples amended with 
glucose the numbers of denitrifying bacteria should not be a limiting 
factor due to their rapid proliferation in enriched media. However, at 
the level of carbon present, the rate of organism growth is uncertain. 



412 Indiana Academy of Science 

The constancy of the carbon levels in the river water indicates that there 
is a factor in addition to carbon which influences denitrification since 
great variability in denitrification was observed in samples having: 
similar organic C contents. Nitrate loss was not appreciable from the 
pond water samples even in the systems amended with carbon. 

Although most surface waters apparently have a low capacity to 
carry out denitrification, recent studies conducted in our laboratory and 
elsewhere (11) have indicated that denitrification readily occurs in lake 
sediments. In fact, denitrification rates reported for sediment are 
higher than those commonly reported for anaerobic soils due to the 
presence of large amounts of organic carbon (12) in most sediments. 
It may be that sediments serve as a sink for nitrate in aquatic systems 
resulting in an overall reduction in the nitrogen status of lake systems. 

Though not of particular significance to nitrogen transformations, 
phosphorus is an important factor in the eutrophication of surface 
waters. Figure 8 shows monthly fluctuations in the orthophosphate-P 
content of water samples from the six sampling points. The two river 
sites were fairly constant with a mean annual phosphorus content of 
0.11 and 0.13 ppm for the northern and southern sites, respectively. The 
sewer outlet, which may have a laundromat as one of its contributors, 
had much higher phosphorus levels, ranging from 0.10 to 5.07 ppm with 
a mean of 1.90 ppm. The phosphorus content in the ponds was not as 
constant as the river sites, but the ponds had lower annual mean levels 
of 0.10, 0.06, and 0.01 ppm for Pond B, the Horticulture Farm Pond, 
and Pond A, respectively. 

Conclusions 

Denitrification in surface waters was negligible unless samples 
were amended with organic carbon to serve as an energy source for 
denitrifying bacteria. When glucose was added to increase the dissolved 
carbon content by 25 ppm, denitrification was observed in river 
samples collected during certain periods of the year but not in pond 
water samples. The number of denitrifying bacteria, pH, and nitrate 
concentration did not limit denitrification. High dissolved oxygen content 
of water limited denitrification at all times and water temperature 
limited denitrification during winter periods. Some unmeasured 
parameter apparently controlled denitrification in some laboratory 
experiments. 

Characterization of the surface waters in the Wabash River showed 
that the site near the State Street bridge, north of most of the muni- 
cipal and industrial effluent outlets, was very similar in composition 
to the sampling point near Fort Ouiatenon, south of Lafayette indicat- 
ing that the levels of the contaminants studied were little affected by 
the effluents that were added between the two locations. 



Soil Science 413 



Literature Cited 

1. Alexander, Martin. 1965. Most-probable-number method for microbial populations, 
p. 1467-1472. In C. A. Black (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Monogr. No. 9. 
Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wise. 1572 p. 

2. 1965. Denitrifying bacteria, p. 1484-1486. In C. A. BLACK [ed.] Meth- 



ods of Soil Analysis. Monogr. No. 9. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wise. 1572 p. 

3. Bremner, J. M., and D. R. Keeney. 1965. Steam distillation methods for de- 
termination of ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite. Anal. Chem. Acta. 2:485-495. 

4. Brezonik, P. L., and G. F. Lee. 1968. Denitrification as a nitrogen sink in Lake 
Mendota, Wise. Environ. Sci. and Technol. 2:120-125. 

5. Fred, E. B., F. C. Wilson, and A. Davenport. 1924. The distribution and signifi- 
cance of bacteria in Lake Mendota. Ecology 5:322-339. 

6. Goering, J. J., and R. C. Dugdale. 1966. Denitrification rates in an island bay 
in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Science 154:505-506. 

7. , and V. A. Dugdale. 1966. Estimate of rates of denitrification in a 



subartic lake. Limnol. and Oceanogr. 11:112-117. 

8. Graham, V. E., and R. T. Young. 1934. A bacteriological study of Flathead Lake, 
Montana. Ecology 15:101-109. 

9. Hughes, L. B. 1970. A study of bacteriological populations in farm pond waters. Un- 
published M. S. Thesis, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 54 p. 

10. , and H. W. Reuszer. 1970. A two-year study of bacterial populations in 

Indiana farm pond waters. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79:423-431. 

11. Keeney, D. R., R. L. Chen, and D. A. Graetz. 1971. Importance of denitrification 
and nitrate reduction in sediments to the nitrogen budget of lakes. Nature 233:66-67. 

12. , J. G. Konrad, and G. Chesters. 1970. Nitrogen distribution in some 

Wisconsin lake sediments. J. Water Pollution Cont. Fed. 42:411-417. 

13. Murphy, J., and J. P. Riley. 1962. A modified single solution method for deter- 
mination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal. Chem. Acta 27:31-36. 

14. Owens, L. B. 1972. Nitrate transformations in surface waters: I. A study of the 
various factors affecting the rates of denitrification and immobilization in surface 
waters, and II. Characterization of the surface waters in the Wabash River and three 
farm ponds. Unpublished M. S. Thesis, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 65 p. 

15. Stark, W. H., and E. McCoy. 1938. Distribution of bacteria in certain lakes of 
northern Wisconsin. Zentrablatt fur Bakt. Abt. II. 98:201-209. 

16. Wilson, E. C. 1920. Description of an apparatus for obtaining samples of water at 
different depths for bacteriological analysis. J. Bacteriol. 5:103-108. 

17. Wilson, H. A., T. Miller, and R. Thomas. 1966. Some microbiological, chemical, and 
physical investigations of farm ponds. W. Va. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 522T. 17 p. 



Soil Temperatures in Indiana 1 

Lawrence A. Schaal and Walter L. Stirm 

National Weather Service and Agronomy Department 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

and 

James E. Newman 

Agronomy Department, Purdue University 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Soil temperatures were summarized from an Indiana network of 12 stations. Soil 
temperature observations were begun in 1960 by the Agronomy Department of Purdue 
University and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, formerly the 
Weather Bureau. Temperature relationships were shown for the day-month-year, at 
various locations, to depths of 40 inches. Comparisons were made between major soil 
textures in Indiana including the muck and sandy loam soils near Wanatah where like 
weather conditions prevail. The Palmer Model 35E, mercury-in-tube driven, maximum- 
minimum dial-type thermometers were read daily to obtain diurnal temperature extremes. 



Introduction 

In the application of science to agriculture it is important that 
temperature levels be understood in detail at the earth-atmosphere 
interface. The environmental temperatures a few inches below the soil 
surface, as well as a few inches above, are of paramount importance 
in the understanding of total biological activity. Soil temperatures are 
particularly important in determining plant growth, insect activities, 
and the development of diseases. To advance our knowledge in these 
areas a network of soil temperature stations was started in 1960. The 
Purdue University Department of Agronomy purchased and installed 
the instruments. The National Weather Service agreed to review the 
reports and publish them in Climatological Data — Indiana (3) along 
with other meteorological data originating at the same sites. A portion 
of the data was also published in the Indiana Weekly Weather and Crop 
Report (4) during the growing season. In the first state network the 
Palmer dial-type thermometers were exposed at a depth of 4 inches 
under grass. A later expansion of the network resulted in thermometers 
at depths of 1, 2, 4, 8, 20, and 40-inch depths under bare soil. These 
expanded soil temperature stations were and are located at Purdue 
Agricultural Research Centers. The selected depths conform to the 
choices of the World Meteorological Organization. Table 1 lists the sta- 
tions and data pertinent to them. 

Soil temperature data are used by various interests both in and 
outside of Agriculture. The most obvious application is in providing 
information on freeze depth and duration with respect to location and 
time of year. Another concerns the freeze-thaw cycle near the surface. 



1 Journal Paper No. 4998, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 

414 



Soil Science 



415 



Alternate freezing and thawing is very destructive to wintering crops, 
particularly alfalfa. The plant roots are often heaved out of the ground, 
particularly in unglaciated Southern Indiana. Trafficability over the 
soils in the winter can also be estimated from knowledge of duration 
and depth of soil freezing. The volatility of nitrogen fertilizers in soils 
above 50 °F (20° C) can be minimized by spreading only when soil 
temperatures are below this temperature. Soil temperatures in the 
spring control seed germination and are important considerations for 
determining planting times. 

Table 1. Soil temperature stations. 









Elevation 




Station 


Latitude 


Longitude 


in Feet 


Soil Type 


Columbia City 


41°08' 


85°29' 


854 


Blount Silt Loam 


Culver 


41°10' 


86°28' 


730 


Coloma Sandy Loam 


Dubios 


38°27' 


86°42' 


690 


Zanesville Silt Loam 


Farmland 


40°15' 


85°09' 


965 


Pewamo Silty Clay Loam 


Johnson 


38°16' 


87°45' 


440 


Oaktown Loamy Fine Sand 


New Augusta 


39°54' 


86°16' 


875 


Crosby Silt Loam 


Oolitic 


38°53' 


86°33' 


650 


Bedford Silt Loam 


Terre Haute 


39°21' 


87°25' 


555 


Vincennes Silty Clay Loam 


Wanatah (Sand) 


41°26' 


86°56' 


735 


Tracy Sandy Loam 


Wanatah (Muck) 


41°26' 


86°56' 


715 


Edwards Muck 


W. Lafayette 


40°28' 


87°00' 


706 


Russell Silt Loam 



Soil temperatures at depths greater than 20 inches are of interest 
to those wanting to utilize the soil as heat sinks for cooling and 
heating houses, piping heat or cooling fluids through pipes placed in 
the soil. Another example concerns the storage of fluids in tanks at 
depths where soil temperature must be taken into account. Many other 
applications of soil temperatures are assured as environmental control 
technology develops. 

This paper summarizes some relationships between soil temperature 
depth, station location and soil type as related to diurnal and seasonal 
temperature changes. As in air temperature there is more interest in 
the daily highs and lows than in the daily mean. A daily average limits 
much of the utility of soil temperature applications. 

The work of Carson and Moses (1, 2) at the Argonne National 
Laboratory has considerable application to soils in Indiana. Newman 
has shown how soil temperatures follow seasonal patterns and that 
weekly normals of temperature can be obtained from relative short 
length of records using Fourier analyses in an unpublished progress 
report entitled "Predicting Diurnal and Seasonal Temperatures at Vary- 
ing Depths Within Soil Profiles." 



Methods 

The Palmer soil thermometer, Model 35B, is used throughout the 
state. The dial-type thermometer has a pointer activated by a mercury 
filled sensor about a foot long. The rod-shaped sensor is buried hori- 



416 Indiana Academy of Science 

zontally in the ground at the proper depth. As the pointer moves to the 
left with falling temperature another pointer is moved and remains at 
the lowest value during the period. With rising temperature, a third 
pointer is pushed to the right and remains to show the maximum value 
during the period. The pointers for the lowest and highest are reset to 
the drive pointer at each daily reading. The thermometers are housed 
in a wooden box at a level convenient for opening and reading. 

In this paper, daily minimum temperatures were averaged for each 
month. The values for each month were then averaged for a length of 
record mean. The same was done with daily maximum temperatures. 
The period of record used in this summary ranged from 5 to 10 years 
with the record for 4-inch depths under grass being the longest. 

Discussion of Results 

The location and description of stations for which soil temperatures 
are reported are given in Table 1. The daily maximum and daily 
minimum temperatures, respectively, at a depth of 4 inches under grass 
at stations in northern and central Indiana are compared in Figure 1 
A and B. Wanatah in the NW area of the state was 1 to 4°F cooler than 
stations farther south. The warmest station was Columbia City despite 
its northerly location. The unexpected warmth may be due to green- 
houses a few yards on the west and south. The exposure is more 
sheltered than are other stations studied. The same comparison is made 
in Figure 2, A and B, for central and southern stations. As expected, 
southern stations are the warmest in the state. From north to south 
then, average daily maximum temperatures at the 4-inch depth under 
grasses ranged from 74 °F at Wanatah to 84 °F at Evansville in July, 
and from 30 to 36 °F in January. The range of average daily minimum 
temperatures was from 68 to 79 °F in the summer and from 29 to 35 °F 
in late winter. Note that Johnson is somewhat warmer than Dubois. 
At Johnson, thermometers are in Oaktown loamy fine sand, while at 
Dubois, thermometers are in Zanesville silt loam. Also, there is an eleva- 
tion difference of 250 feet. Dubois is higher with an elevation of 690 
feet above mean sea level. 

A comparison of temperatures at different depths at Johnson and 
Dubois is depicted in Figure 2, C and D. The most obvious observation 
is the warmth of the sandy soils at Johnson particularly in the shallow 
depths. The daily maximum temperature in summer at Dubois averaged 
88 °F at the 2-inch depth under bare soil while Johnson averaged 98 °F. 
At the 8-inch depth, temperatures were about 10° F lower and differ- 
ences between the two stations were of the same magnitude. There was 
a great spread of the maximum temperatures from the shallow 2-inch 
level to the deeper 8-inch level, compared with the minimum tempera- 
tures during the summer months. Minimum temperatures were more 
similar. Sandy soils warm much faster in the spring. At these southern 
stations neither the minimums nor the maximums averaged 32 °F or 
less during any one winter month except the minimum at the 2-inch 
depth at Dubois. 



Soil Science 



417 



80. 












70 . 




N^ 








60 j 




% 


- WANATAH SAND 
♦ COLUMBIA CITY 
o LAFAYETTE A 
A NEW AUGUSTA / 
i X FARMLAND /y 




50. 












40 












30. 












?0 


A 








B 



6 

MONTH 



MONTH 




45 55 65 

TEMPERATURE 



45 55 65 75 

TEMPERATURES 



Figure 1. Soil temperatures. A. Daily maximums, ^-inches deep under grass. B. Daily 
minimums, Jt-inch.es deep under grass. C. Dubois temperatures in bare soil. D. Johnson 
temperatures in bare soil. E. Lafayette temperatures in bare soil. F. Farmland temperatures 
in bare soil. G. Wanatah temperatures in bare muck soil. H. Wanatah temperatures in bare 

sandy loam. 



418 



Indiana Academy of Science 





+ M'JCK 4 INCH DEPTH 

x MUCK 2 INCH DEPTH 

a SAND 2 INCH DEPTH 

a SAND 4 INCH DEPTH 




MIN 8 MAX 1 INCH 

t MIN 8 MAX 2 INCH 

N 8 MAX 4 INCH 

+ MIN 8 MAX 8 INCH 




a 2 4 6 e 10 12 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 

MONTH MONTH 

Figure 2. Soil temperatures. A. Daily maximums, ^-inches under grass. B. Daily mini- 
mums, 4-inches under grass. C. Daily maximum in bare soil. D. Daily minimum in bare 
soil. E. Daily maximum in bare soil. F. Daily minimum in bare soil, 
sandy soil. H. Wanatah, bare muck soil. 



G. Wanatah, bare 



Soil Science 419 

Another type of temperature presentation is shown in Figure 1 
D for Johnson and Figure 1, C for Dubois. A dominant feature was the 
increase of the diurnal temperature range at the shallow depths from 
February to August. The increase was less in the soils at Dubois. At 
the depth of 40 inches the sands at Johnson were warmer by 6°F in 
August and cooler in February by about 5°F than the soils at Dubois. 
This reflects the fact that sands are better conductors of heat and their 
thermal capacity is less so they warm or cool deeper and faster. 

In Figure 1, E and F, the bare soil temperatures for the 
months of February, May and August for Lafayette and Farmland are 
shown. These months were selected because of their importance in ap- 
plications. Farmland has a higher and "tighter" soil known as Pewamo 
silty clay loam. At Lafayette the thermometers are in Russell silt loam. 
Bare soil temperatures at the 20 and 40-inch depths are a little lower 
at Farmland which is in keeping with climatic differences. The daily 
range at the 8-inch depth is greater at Lafayette than Farmland while 
the minimums are cooler at Lafayette. 

The importance of microclimates and drainage is demonstrated at 
the two soil temperature stations at Wanatah in the northwest area 
of Indiana near Lake Michigan. These stations are located at the 
Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center. They are only 360 yards apart but 
have quite different soils. The two soils are Edwards muck and Tracy 
sandy loam. The muck station is 20 feet lower in elevation. When com- 
paring soil temperature at these two stations it can be assumed the 
macro and meso scale weather was uniform at the two sites. This leaves 
the microclimatic effects, caused by terrain drainage and soil differ- 
ences, to explain the variations of soil temperature at the two locations. 

In Figure 1, G, the muck soils are seen to remain warm in the 
winter and cool in the summer compared to the sandy loam soils a short 
distance away, Figure 1, H. The maximum temperatures of the sands 
were also higher, giving greater daily ranges of temperature than in 
the muck soils, particularly in the summer. At 40 inches in August, the 
sand was 68 °F and the muck soil was 57°F; in February the muck was 
43 and the sands were 35°F ) primarily because the thermometers are 
in the water table at the muck station. 

Temperatures at the shallow depths at these two stations are shown 
in Figure 2, E and F. As to be expected the sands were warmed in mid- 
summer during the afternoon (maximum temperatures), but at night 
the minimums were slightly lower. The maximums at 2-inches in sand 
were 14 °F higher than the maximums at 4-inches in muck. Truly a re- 
markable difference in soil temperature environment a few yards away 
and in a different soil. In January or February they all converged in 
the range of 25 to 32 °F. 

The fluctuation of temperatures at all four shallow depths (1, 2, 
4, and 8 inches) is depicted in Figure 2, G and H. In summer the sands 
had tremendous daily temperature ranges while temperature ranges 
in the muck soils were much more conservative. The smaller daily range 
in the muck soil was evident for any given depth. The minimums were 



420 Indiana Academy of Science 

lower at shallow depths compared to those at greater depths, a fact long 
recognized by builders in planning depth of footings. 

Concluding Remarks 

In these charts the radiational heat flow into the soil in summer 
and from the soil in winter can be seen in the convergence of the 
temperatures in the late winter and temperature divergence in the 
spring and summer. Measuring soil temperatures allows one to quantify 
the development of spring as well as to determine how the growing 
season is progressing relative to normal. 

The mean duration of frozen soils at various depths in the winter 
can be estimated by noting the 32 °F level on many of the charts. Soil 
temperatures in Indiana at shallow depths remain in the low 30's much 
of the winter. Latent heat, as soil water changes from liquid to solid 
and back, accounts for persistence in temperatures near 32 °F. Indirectly 
some indications of trafficability of the soils can be obtained by noting 
the depth of freeze and duration, however, a much more complete 
analysis of these data is required to answer such questions. 

The general dates for any threshold temperature can be estimated 
from the seasonal temperature marches. For example, from Figure 2, 
E, at Wanatah the daily high of soil temperature at 2-inches averaged 
less than 50 °F beginning the second week of November when liquid 
fertilizer can be spread without great loss. Determination of threshold 
dates critical for farm operations will become more common as we learn 
more about environmental-biological response mechanisms. 

Acknowledgements 

This presentation would not be possible without the help of weather 
observers at these stations. They have had to break away ice incrusted 
covers to read soil thermometers. Of equal dedication are people like 
Ron Shaw, Vicky Anderson and Marlene Strasburger, who programmed, 
ran Complot for the charts, and typed this paper. 



Literature Cited 

1. Carson, James E. 1961. Soil temperature and weather conditions. ANL-6470. Argonne 
Nat. Lab., Argonne, 111. 244 p. 

2. Moses, Harry, and Mary A. Bogner. 1967. Fifteen-year Climatological Summary, 
January 1, 1950— December 31, 1964. ANL-7084. Argonne Nat. Lab., Argonne, 111. 
71 p. 

3. Environmental Data Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 
U.S.D.C. 1960-1972. Climatological Data— Indiana. National Climatic Center, Ashe- 
ville, North Carolina. 2360 p. 

4. Statistical Reporting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, et al. 1960-1972. 
Indiana Weekly Weather and Crop Report. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, 
Indiana. 720 p. 



The Influence of Temperature and Moisture Variation in 
Storage Upon Soil Test Values for Potassium 1 

Russell K. Stivers 

Agronomy Department 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Ten cycles of rewetting and drying two soils once each 72 hours significantly (1 per 
cent level) reduced soil test values for available potassium as compared with continuous 
air-dry storage at the same temperature (approximately 21° Centigrade) and for the same 
time. The reduction was 21.7 per cent for Ragsdale silty clay loam and 11.5 per cent 
Crosby silt loam. Storing rewetted Ragsdale soil at either 2° or at —23° Centigrade 
for 36 hours followed by storage at 21° Centigrade for 36 hours for 10 cycles of rewetting 
and drying further significantly reduced (1 per cent level) available potassium values. 

Introduction 

In studying soils in drying and rewetting cycles, Agarawal, Singh, 
and Kanehiro (1) showed that temperature of soil was important in 
nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) mineralization and therefore in microbial 
activity. Burns and Barber (3) s+ated that the higher the temperature 
in soils, the greater was the release of nonexchangeable potassium (K) 
to the exchangeable form. Khanna and Datta (6) found that wetting 
soil samples increased the amount of easily exchangeable K in most 
cases, and on drying these wet samples, this increase was further en- 
hanced. In growth experiments Walsh and Collman (7) found that K 
was temporarily fixed by alternate wetting and drying. However, in 
their pot experiments with mustard, they found that in the second crop 
this temporarily fixed K was liberated resulting in greater growth. In 
other greenhouse experiments, Barber et al. (2) found that drying soil 
before it was used to grow millet caused an increase in the availability 
of K. The millet growing in field-moist soil had a greater response to 
K fertilizer than that growing in air-dry soil. However, in selected soil 
samples from Indiana, Hanway et al. (4, 5) found that this difference 
between moist and air-dry soil in the surface horizon was small. 

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the influence of 
different cycles involving moisture and temperature variations upon 
the available K test of soil samples. It was thought that freezing would 
increase the available K test values. 

Methods and Procedure 

Previously mixed, air-dried, and screened 450 g samples of a Rags- 
dale silty clay loam (Typic Argiaquoll) and a Crosby silt loam (Aerie 
Ochraqualf ) were subjected to 10 consecutive cycles of 4 different treat- 
ments, the first part of which varied as follows: 1) storage for 36 hours 
in a greenhouse at approximately 21°C; 2) rewetting to saturation and 
storage for 36 hours in a greenhouse at approximately 21°C; 3) re- 



1 Journal Paper No. 4915. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 

421 



422 



Indiana Academy of Science 



wetting to saturation and storage for 36 hours in a walk-in refrigerator 
at 2°C; and 4) rewetting to saturation and storage for 36 hours in a 
walk-in freezer at — 23 °C. The rewetting of all cycles was done